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1682 1900 











The puir man that has patience to mak' a biiik, has some claim 
to the patience o' him wha only reads it.— Eliot Waebukton. 






Two Copies Received 

APR 11 1904 

Copyright Entry 
CLASS <X, XXc. No. 

S'S ^ L / 


-^ .A- 
Entered according to an act of Congress in the year 1904 by 

In the otfice of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 

Gbeenfield, Mass. 
Press of T. Morey & Son. 



lO most people it is interesting when passing an old 
homestead, to be able to recall something of the history 
of the place, the names and something of the lives of 
the people who built and lived in the old houses, what became 
of them, and who have been the succeeding owners. Accord- 
ingly, as perfect a sketch of nearlv every old homestead as a 
hasty examination of the recoru3 would show, has been pre- 
pared of those places outside the village, trusting that the 
result will be of interest to the people. 

Jonathan Smead (son of Ebenezer of Deerfield), born in 
1 707, was one of the earliest settlers on the Green river lands. 
Undoubtedly he built the house on Irish Plain known as the 
William Smead place. The house is probably the oldest in 
town. He married Mehitable, the daughter of John Nims, 
and had twelve children. In 1770 when his sons, Lemuel 
and Daniel, became men, he divided his large farm between 
them, Daniel taking that part now known as the William 
Smead place and Lemuel what is known as the Frank H. Bal- 
lou farm, and I conclude the Ballou house was built about 
this time, for the road across the plain was laid running " to 
the house of Lemuel Smead" in 1773. What is known as 
the "Green river road" was not laid until long after, but a 
road from opposite the Lemuel Smead house ran east, crossing 
Green river near the present pumping station laid out in 1788, 
Colonel Asaph Smead, son of Lemuel, resided here until his 
son Charles took the Mansion House when he went with him, 



finally going to Brattleboro with his daughter, Mrs. Dickinson. 
In 1848 the farm was sold to Perley Ballou, the father of 
Frank H., who came from Marlboro, Vt. Frank H. Ballou 
now owns and occupies this fine old place. The William 
Smead place descended to Daniel, the son of Jonathan, then 
to Captain Seth, son of Daniel, and Seth's son William came 
into possession by purchasing the rights of the other children 
and heirs of his father. Here he resided until too infirm to 
care for it, and January i, 1900, conveyed the old farm to 
George O. Gunn. 

Jonathan Smead also had an eight acre home lot on the 
north side of the town street through which Chapman street 
must now run, but I doubt if he ever resided on it. 

Jonathan Smead's nearest neighbor was Samuel Stebbins, 
who owned a large tract of land at the little hamlet now called 
" Bassville." He died in 1783, leaving an only son — Samuel 

who took the ancestral acres. The son married Aseneth, 

daughter of Ezekiel Bascom ; he had six sisters : Martha, 

married Silvanus Allen; Hannah, James Corse; Mercy, 

Anderson ; Mary, Elijah Smith ; Abigail, Simeon Wells ; 
Dorothy, Quintus Allen ; Martha, daughter of Samuel and 
Aseneth, married Frederick R. Lyons, and lived on the farm. 
At one time a good deal of attention was given by these peo- 
ple to the raising of mules for the West India market. About 
1 840, portions of this estate came into the hands of Nathan- 
iel Bass, and other parts were sold to adjoining owners, the 
large farm being cut up into lots. Since that time the home 
lot has had many owners, the present one being Fred L. Sessler. 
He owns a large portion of the old farm, and Henry Maier 
owns what was known as the Daniel F. Coller place, formerly 
a part of the Stebbins land. The house was built by John P. 


On the opposite side of Green river, just east of this farm, 
may be found an old cellar hole, over which once stood a 
house, occupied at one time by Moses Chandler, the father of 


Reverend Dr. Chandler. Here Dr. Chandler told me he 
lived for a few years in his childhood. The buildings have 
long since disappeared. 

The property lying between the east Shelburne and Green 
river roads, now owned by Mary and Peter Cote, was in 1793 
owned by Clement Smith, who at one time kept a store near 
the Frank S. Kelley place. John Cook in 1809 conveyed it 
to the town, and until about 1840 it was the home of the 
town's poor. At one time it was owned by Asa Kellogg and 
his wife who, after living in wedlock sixty-eight years, both 
died on the same day. 

Captain Thomas Smead married Rebecca, a daughter of 
Ariel Hinsdale, and lived at the place lately owned by G. 
Solomon Sage. He was a tanner and shoemaker, and his 
tan vats can still be discerned in the rear of the Jeffbrd's place. 
His son Warren succeeded him and at his death his adminis- 
trator sold the place to Warren's son Thomas. George S. Sage 
purchased it in 1858, and it is yet occupied by his widow. 

The old Thayer tavern stand was owned by Samuel Hins- 
dale when he died in 1786. The Hinsdale family were great 
landowners. The home place was that now owned by George 
E. Spear where Darius Hinsdale lived. Ebenezer Hinsdale 
sold the old tavern stand to Ebenezer Thayer, in 1836 and 
Hollister B. Thayer owned it in 1842. It was kept for many 
years by Henry A. Ewers who had a blacksmith shop near 
by. Mr. Ewers built the house now the homestead of Henry 
Briggs. Elijah W. Smith purchased the old tavern stand of 
Wm. N. Nims in 1858 and some years since conveyed it to 
his daughter, the wife of representative Frank Gerrett, where 
Mr. Gerrett now resides. 

In 1842 Ebenezer Hinsdale conveyed the old Hinsdale 
place to Edwin and Julius Smead. Deacon Elias A. Par- 
menter purchased it in 1849, ^^^ after some years' occupation 
he pulled down the old Hinsdale house and built the one now 
owned by George E. Spear. George W. Frary owned the 


place for several years, and his heirs sold it to Elijah W. Smith 
and Mr. Smith conveyed it to Mr, Spear in 1887. 

The blacksmith shop lot of O. H. Bass, and the land on 
which his cottage stands originally belonged to the Hinsdales. 
Mr. Bass purchased the shop in 1864, and land for his house 
in 1865. The Ewers blacksmith shop stood where Henry 
Briggs's house now stands. 

The Charles R. Jeffords house was originally Elihu Good- 
man's blacksmith shop and was moved to its present situation. 
It was long the home of William Merriam, then of Henry A. 
Ewers, and since has had many different owners. It has been 
much improved of late years. 

On the east side of the road is the ancient Onissimus Nash 
place. He was the grandfather of Henry F. Nash, and after 
the death of his daughters. Miss Cynthia and Mrs. Cutler, it 
came into the hands of Horace McGee, who did a good work 
in its restoration. The heirs of Mr. McGee sold it and it has 
had several owners since, but in 1902 it belonged to J. P. 

Elihu Goodman came from South Hadley to Greenfield 
before 1789 and purchased the old Wells tavern stand of 
Reuben, Levi and Simeon Wells. Here he kept a tavern and 
did his neighbors' blacksmithing. His shop stood in the 
orchard just north of the present Corbin house. The old 
tavern sign is in the Pocumtuck Hall. Chester Arms married 
Rebecca, a daughter of Mr. Goodman, and succeeded to the 
old home, and their only son Elihu G. Arms inherited the 
place and continued to reside there until a few years since, 
when he sold to Gilbert and George C. Corbin, and came to 
the village to reside with his son-in-law, G. Harry Kaulback. 

Nearly opposite the Goodman place stood more than one 
hundred years ago a house long kept as a tavern stand. The 
cellar hole can still be discerned. At one time it was kept by 
E. Browning, the grandfather of Anson Browning, of Green- 
field. Joel Wells sold it to his son Ephraim in 1 809 ; Ephraim 


died in 1818, his estate being insolvent. Hull Nims owned 
the property, and Mrs. Wells continued to keep the tavern 
until it was burned, February 8, 1820. His widow " Aunt 
Sally " Wells lived many years, and was well known in 
Greenfield and Deerfield. The signs of both E. Browning 
and E. Wells hang in Pocumtuck Hall. 

The farm now owned by Frank Kingsley, and well known 
as the Frederick G. Smith place, was the homestead of Captain 
Ebenezer Wells, who died in 1787. The buildings here were 
palisaded during the last French war. Our records do not show 
how Elihu Lyman came by this property, but in 181 8 he con- 
veyed it to Elisha Root, Esquire, and there for twenty years he 
was the country justice. Albert H. Nims purchased the farm 
in 1838 but remained there but a year, when he sold to Dea- 
con Moses Smith and Asa Kendrick of Heath. Kendrick 
relinquished his title to Smith, and he and his good wife ended 
their days upon this place. Their son, Frederick G. Smith, 
succeeded to the premises, and resided here until within a few 
years of his death. 

Elijah Coleman of the Hadley Coleman family came to 
Greenfield before 1785 (his wife Tabitha having united with 
the church that year) and purchased the well known Coleman 
place in the micadows. Captain Thaddeus Coleman, son of 
Elijah, succeeded to the farm and the present house was built 
in 1 8 13. The old house stood until about 1850 when the 
heirs of Captain Coleman sold this portion of their patrimony 
to Frank Mather who built the cottage now occupied by 
Delevan Parmenter. Captain Coleman's son Elijah sold that 
part of the farm lying north of the Allen brook to Stephen 
Shepardson and Ellis T. Potter, Both lived and died upon 
the premises. Since their death the property has passed 
through several hands and is now owned by Joseph Menard. 

Amos Allen was a son of that Edward Allen of Deerfield, 
innholder, who came to Greenfield about 1738 and built the 
fortified house where the Hollister house now is. He took 


largely of land in the division of the public grants, and Amos, 
born in 1722, built in 1766 the house now owned by Frank S. 
Kelley. Amos's son Quintus took the farm and dying in 1826, 
left it to his son Quintus, formerly president of the Franklin 
County National Bank, and he lived there until his death. He 
gave the farm to Fred B. and Frank S. Kelley, sons of his wife, 
the share of Fred B., deceased, coming to Frank S., who now re- 
sides upon the premises. Near here, in the years i 800-1 807, 
were two stores, one kept by Clement Smith and one by 
Daniel Forbes. Also, Samuel Stebbins had a shoe shop here in 

The home place of Henry S. Smead has been in the family 
for so many years that the time it came to them does not 
show on our records, which began in 1785. It came to the 
present owner from his father, the late Sylvanus Smead, and 
he inherited it from his father Jesse Smead. Jesse and his 
brother. Colonel Asaph Smead, had it in joint ownership for 
many years. Seventy-four acres of it came from Hull Nims, 
and was the old Joel Wells place, on which stood the Ephraim 
Wells tavern. The cellar of a house built by Nathaniel Bass 
many years ago can be seen just north of Mr. Smead's resi- 
dence marked by two butternut trees. 

The house now owned by Delevan Parmenter was built by 
Frank Mather about fifty years ago, and the farm was a por- 
tion of the Captain Thaddeus Coleman place. Mather sold 
to Jonathan H. Willard in 1864, Willard to Sebra Matthew- 
son the same year, and Matthewson to H. O. Rockwood in 
1866, and Rockwood to Deacon Elias A. Parmenter, the father 
of Delavan, the present owner, in 1869. The house now 
owned by Elwin Potter was built by Henry Handforth about 

The old road leading to Colrain formerly ran out on the 
Plain road about forty rods north of the Charles T. Nims 
place, and then turned sharply to the left and ran directly to- 
wards the Kelley place. Near the corner may be found an old 


cellar hole, where once lived Solomon Dewey, the father of 
Joel N. Dewey, late of Bernardston. 

Elijah Smith was a blacksmith, and the house he occupied 
stood on the west side of the road, nearly opposite the place 
built and owned by his son. Colonel Oren Smith, and later the 
home of his son, Lathrop T. Smith, who sold to Frank Mar- 
tin, and which has now passed into the hands of Louis Clou- 
tier. The old blacksmith shop stood on the east side of the 
road where the recently burned buildings were. 

The place now owned by Charles T. Nims was built by his 
grandfather, Hull Nims, about 1824, for his son, Thomas Nims, 
the father of Charles T., and has been in the family ever since. 
The small house near by, recently the home of Ralph Wells, 
a brother of Mrs. Thomas Nims, was built about 1848. The 
place now owned by Jonathan E. Nash, and formerly by his 
brother, the late Edmund Q. Nash, was owned by their father, 
Ouartus Nash. In 1731 Pliny Martindale leased from him 
a small piece of ground on the north side of the road, near 
the watering trough, and built a distillery there. He raised 
wormwood and distilled the oil there. He was the father of 
Mrs. S. O. Lamb. Ouartus Nash's brother. Tubal Nash, 
was a blacksmith, and had a shop on the east side of the road, 
about fifteen rods south of where the road leading to the meet- 
inghouse commences. Nearly opposite his shop stood the 
original Daniel Nash house, which was probably one of the 
first built in the meadows. This old house was occupied for 
many years by Wyram Hitchcock, was demolished about 1856 
and a small cottage built in its place by the late E. Q. Nash. 
Directly west of the Hitchcock house toward the foot of the 
mountain, at the end of the lane leading to it, were the farm 
buildings of Aaron Field Wells, born in 1767, and who died 
in 1826. His son, Luther, once owned the farm near Charles 
W. Smeads, now owned by Rollin Bassett, Another son, 
William R., was for many years chorister at the North meet- 
inghouse. Still another son, Edward Hubbard Wells, was the 


father of William Willson Wells of Franklin street. Aaron 
Field Wells was son of Joseph Wells, born in 1731, and a 
brother of Captain "Grip." They were early settlers in town. 
Wm. R., who took the old homestead, sold out in 1849 ^^^ 
went to Wisconsin. Lucius Nims purchased the buildings 
and meadow land, and sold in 1862 to Lydia M. Clark. Mrs. 
Clark deeded to Edward Thayer in 1870, who owned it at his 
decease. Sarah Simonds purchased it in 1875 and the build- 
ings were pulled down, and an old home was blotted out. 
The house now owned by John W. Handforth, long the home 
of Albert H. Nims on the east side of the Colrain road, was 
built by Hull Nims about 1839 for his son Albert. William 
N. Nims, son of Albert, took the place after his father's 
death, but soon sold it and it has been owned by E. Q. Nash, 
Frank J. Pratt, Lucius Nims and Lucius Nims, Jr., who sold 
it to Mr. Handforth. 

John Nims, son of Godfrey, of Deerfield, took largely of 
the Green river lands when they were parcelled out among 
the "Proprietors." John married Elizabeth, the only daughter 
of Jeremiah Hull, to whom was assigned home lot No. 6, where 
the First Baptist church now stands. John never settled in 
Greenfield, but his son Thomas succeeded to the Hull place, 
and after the Indian wars built a house on his meadow farm 
about two miles north of the town street on the Colrain road. 
A large barn was moved from the Hull place to this farm, the 
frame of which is still standing. Hull, the only son of Thomas, 
inherited the farm. The original house was burned in 18 10, 
and the present one built by Hull Nims the same year upon 
the old foundations. Lucius Nims, son of Hull, succeeded to 
the premises and it was his home all his life. He died in i 879, 
and the farm passed out of the family to Deacon D. C. Rog- 
ers, who occupied it until his death. The Lowe Brothers 
owned it for several years, and it is now in the hands of Alfred 
W. Fowling. 

The little house just north was built about 1856 by friends 


of the Misses Catherine and Sophia Hitchcock, when the old 
Daniel Nash house, in which they had lived, was demolished. 

Ebenezer Arms, son of Daniel, of Deerfield, born January 
29, 1720-21, took up his residence in Greenfield, and built 
at the place of late known as the John Thayer farm. He 
owned a large tract of land coming out to the Colrain road. 
He had three sons, Moses, Ebenezer and Jesse. The latter 
went to Duxbury, Vermont. The house known now as the 
Simons place was built for Moses. Ebenezer, Jr., remained 
on the old homestead. That house was burned in 18 12, and 
the one now owned by Mrs. Day was erected. Moses had 
two sons, Ira, the benefactor of Shelburne Falls, and Moses, 
Jr. Ebenezer had three sons, Chester, Ebenezer W., who 
became a lawyer and settled in Aurora, N. Y., and Roger New- 
ton, who settled in Philadelphia. Moses, Jr., had two sons, 
George White, who went west, and Moses. Chester took the 
old place, and marrying the daughter of Elihu Goodman sold 
it about 1835 ^^ Ebenezer Thayer, and went to hve on the 
Goodman place. George White Arms had the other place and 
sold that also to Mr. Thayer. Ebenezer Thayer sold to his son, 
John Thayer, the Ebenezer Arms place, and it now belongs 
to his daughter, Mrs. Day. The place on the Colrain road 
has been owned by Madison Fairbanks, Newell Snow, and by 
the late David S. Simons, and is still owned by the family of 
Mr. Simons. 

The place now owned by Charles W. Smead was included 
in the purchase of the Arms properties by Ebenezer Thayer, 
and by his heirs quitclaimed to John Thayer, who sold it to 
his brother, William R. Thayer, in 1849. William R. to 
his brother, Lyman Thayer, in 1857, he building the new 
house and selling the place to Nathan Henry in 1869. Mr. 
Henry sold to Charles W. Smead in 1872. The place was 
occupied at one time by Captain Agrippa Wells, who had a 
blacksmith shop there ; by a Mr. Loveland, Franklin Nash, 
and perhaps others. 


The farm now the home of RolHn Bassett was owned nearly 
one hundred and twenty years ago, by Isaac Foster. He was 
born in 1761, and died of smallpox at Whitehall, N, Y., in 
1800. His son Isaac had the farm in 1808. He sold to Oliver 
Williams of Sunderland that year, who conveyed it to his son, 
Oliver, in 1809. The younger Williams sold it to Luther 
Wells in 181 8, and his son, the late B. Austin Wells, and the 
other heirs sold it to Guy C. Munsell, a jeweler. Since that 
time it has been owned by William Merriam, Deacon Wil- 
liam Stickney, Fanny Hunt and Judith Stickney, Henry M. 
Sanderson, John Sanderson, James Doyle, George Pond and 
Frederic E. Wells, who sold to Rollin Bassett. 

Ebenezer Smead, of Deerfield, born in 1675, '^^*^ ^ ^o^> 
Ebenezer, born in 1704, who was one of the first board of select- 
men of Greenfield, and a leading man in town affairs. He 
had but one son who lived to man's estate, David, born in 
1732. He was the first justice of the peace in town and 
known as " Squire David." He lived in a house which stood 
where Madison Woodard now lives, and owned much land in 
that vicinity. His sons were Solomon, the firstjudge of probate 
of Franklin county ; David, Jr., who kept a shoe store ; Julia, 
known as " Major Julia," and Benjamin, a printer, who went 
to Brattleboro. David, Sr., divided up his lands, and the 
place on the Colrain road became the home of Major Julia 
Smead, and afterward came to his son, Albert, who was the 
father of Wm. M. Smead. Solomon had the old homestead, 
and his daughter Sophia married Robert Wheeler, and it thus 
became the well known " Wheeler place," now owned by Mr. 
Woodard. " Squire David " lived on the Coates place which 
was sold to James Newton, and David, Jr., also lived there. 

Among the earliest settlers in Greenfield was John Allen, 
and he took lands in the first division. He had a son, Eben- 
ezer, who had a son, Selah, who with his brother Elihu owned the 
land now known as the George Moore and the J. Warren Potter 
places. Elihu sold out to Selah and moved to the "Swamp." 


Selah's sons, David, Ezra and Daniel S., remained on the Shel- 
burne road. Ezra sold his place to Jonas W. Moore in i 834, 
and Jonas W. deeded it to his son George, who still resides 
there. Daniel S. Allen purchased his brother David's interest, 
and David removed to Silver street. Daniel S. went into in- 
solvency in 1847, ^'"^^ ^^^^ farm was sold to Mortimer and J. 
Warren Potter. J. Warren Potter owned it at the time of his 
decease and it still remains in the family. 

On the opposite side of the Shelburne road lie lands a part 
of which were laid out to William Mitchell and a part to 
Benjamin Hastings. In 1793 it belonged to Elijah, son of 
William, and later to William, the son of Elijah, who was the 
father of the miller Anson Mitchell whose descendants are 
still in town. Anson Mitchell conveyed the same to his sister. 
Content, and she sold it to Daniel D. Kelleher in 1864. 
William Mitchell and Elijah Mitchell also owned the little 
place by the brook, which they sold to Wendell T. Davis in 
1 847 and he to Jesse Edson Thompson, the old printer, in 
1 849. Mr. Thompson continued to own the premises until 
his decease, January 27, 1898. 

On the east side of the brook and north side of the road, 
Solomon S. Wheeler built a small house about twenty-five 
years since. 

The old home of Solomon S. Wheeler was at the corner of 
Shelburne street and the south Shelburne road. The land 
was conveyed to him in 1840 by his father-in-law Robert 
Wheeler and he built the house now occupied by Luther C. 
Pratt, who married the daughter of S. S. Wheeler. 

In 1 81 5 Zebina Knight purchased from Alexander Morgan 
parts of the well known James Newton farm, and established, 
or succeeded to, a tanning business, the vats and bark houses 
being in the hollow directly west of the Rugg Manufacturing 
Co. works. He continued buying land until he owned quite 
a large tract extending to the seven mile line, and in 1835 
sold out to James Newton, His purchase included the Coates 


and the H. G. Woodard places. Mr. Newton lived at first 
on the Woodard place, and built the Newton house about 
1 840. The Coates place, formerly owned by David Smead, 
David Smead, Jr., Zebina Knight, James Newton, Thomas 
Nims, John B. Willard, Paul Willard, Edwin Hubbard, Wil- 
liam R. Thayer and Edwin J. Jones, was deeded by Jones to 
Charles S. Coates, in i860, and was owned by him when he 

Of the Harding G. Woodard place, fourteen acres was deeded 
by James Newton to Obed Hastings in 1853, and by Hastings 
to Mortimer Potter. Nine and one half acres was deeded by 
James Newton to William Wait in 1 840, William Wait to 
Thomas Wait, and by Thomas Wait to Obed Hastings, and 
Hastings to Mortimer Potter. Potter conveyed the whole 
to E. J. Jones, Jones to Samuel C. Kelley, the Kelley estate 
to Leonard Church, Church to Benjamin W. Houghton, and 
Houghton to Harding G. Woodard. 

Alpheus Newton purchased two acres from Justus Preston 
in 1826, on which now stands the house he built, and which 
is still owned by his son. 

Moses Eddy, born in 1762, a Revolutionary soldier, settled 
in North Wisdom, and Deacon Caleb Jones married his 
daughter Alvira, and became owner of the farm now owned 
by his son S. Washburn Jones. On this same farm near the 
Sheldon Brook stood an ancient house occupied for some 
years by Benjamin H. Jones. This house was taken down 
several years since. It was the home of one Blackler said to 
be one of Burgoyne's men, and from him came the name of 
" Blakeley Hollow." This section came to Greenfield by the 
annexation of Cheapside. 

The Joseph P. Felton place on Music Hill has been in 
his hands since 1865, he having purchased it from the executor 
of the will of the late Reverend Amariah Chandler, who ob- 
tained his title from Anson Mitchell in 1842, Mitchell from 
Lucius Nims in 1837, Nims from Uriah Martindale in 1834, 


Martindale from Daniel Nash in 1828 and Daniel Nash from 
Zebina Billings in 181 1. Zebina seems to have had it from 
Lemuel Billings in 1801, and Lemuel from George Hawkins 
in 1788. 

Samuel Wilder, a tanner and shoemaker, came down from 
Shelburne, in 1836, and purchased of Uriah Martindale about 
seven acres of land, on the east side of the road leading from 
Nash's mills to Leyden, just north of the mill pond. Mr. 
Wilder built there the house now owned by John E. Osgood, 
and in 1838 sold the premises, lately the home of Henry F. 
Nash, to Franklin Nash, Henry's father, and he built the 
house which he owned at the time of his decease. On the 
northwest corner of the Wilder land stood a little house oc- 
cupied in 1800 by Jabez Frazier, which Mr. Wilder sold in 
1838 to James L. Merrill, which he sold to Anson Mitchell, 
Mitchell to Emory C. and Lucinda Warner in 1846; the 
Warners bought on two acres on the north from the Martin- 
dales, and sold to Harris Bartholomew, he to Roswell W. 
Cook, and Cook to Sylvanus Simonds in 1857. Mr. Simonds 
conveyed it to his sister, Nancy Simonds, who built the 
present house, and at her death it came by will to the children 
of Sylvanus Simonds, the other legatees conveying their inter- 
est to Carrie W. Simonds, who owns the place at this time. 

In 1843 ^^- Wilder conveyed an acre to Thomas Nims, 
who held the title for Luceba, the wife of Dr. Samuel Stearns, 
who built there the house lately owned by Joseph P. Felton, 
opposite to his residence. Mr. Wilder also sold to the First 
Congregational Society of Greenfield, the lot on which they 
erected their parsonage. 

From the southwest corner of land on the east side of the 
Leyden road, Pliny Martindale conveyed land to Dwight 
Bullock, on which he built his home. 

What has been known for a hundred years or more as the 
Martindale farm belonged in early times to Richard Catlin, 
John Denio, John Denio, Jr., Jonathan Catlin and Matthew 


Severence. Lemuel Martindale settled in Greenfield in 1762. 
His son Uriah succeeded to the place, and his son Theodore 
succeeded him. Several of the sons of Uriah Martindale 
were interested in wool and woolen mills. They owned the 
mills on the east side of Green river, just below the Wiley 
& Russell Company dam, which were swept away in the flood of 
1836. Uriah Martindale manufactured brick quite exten- 
sively, on the land sold by him to Samuel Wilder, advertising 
150,000 for sale in 1830. Pliny D. Martindale, a soldier of 
the War of the Rebellion, inherited the farm from his father, 
Theodore, but since his death it has come into the hands of 
John W. Bragg, who runs it as a dairy farm. The old house 
stood just south of the present brick one which was built by 
Uriah and Theodore Martindale. 

The five acre place, on the west side of the road, just north 
of the Martindale house came from off the Jonathan Smead 
farm, and the first house was built on it by David Lanfair, in 
1843. -H^^ brother Elmer lived there several years. 

John Graves, son of Daniel, born in 1739, only escaped 
capture or death by his good running powers, when his father 
was killed by Indians at Country Farms in 1756. He prob- 
ably built the Seth S. Newton house recently demolished, and 
here were born his sons, Eli and Luther, to whom in 1 809 
he conveyed that farm and the one lying north of it, now 
owned by Charles B. Wells. The ell part of the old house 
which stood on the north farm was formerly a distillery. In 
1 81 7 Eli and Luther made a division of their interests, Eli 
taking the south and Luther the north farm. Luther went 
to Duxbury, Vermont, about 1834. Eli was the father of Dea- 
con John J. Graves, who will be remembered by the older 
people of the town. Eli sold his farm in 1833 to Reverend 
Amariah Chandler, who transferred an interest in it to his son, 
H. Satterlee Chandler, and in 1842 they sold it to John and 
Curtis Newton who kept it two years and sold it to their 
brother, Obed Newton, who had been living in Colrain. It 


came from Obed Newton to his son, Seth S., who has lately 
disposed of it to George Shearer. 

In 1826 Luther Graves sold his portion of the old farm to 
Jonathan Smead, his neighbor, who conveyed it to Jonathan 
• Smead, Jr., in 1843, ^^^^ ^^ resided there until his death. In 
1872 his heirs conveyed it to J. Henry Smead, one of the 
sons of Jonathan, Jr., and the family built the present house, 
and in 1874 sold the place to Charles B. Wells, the present 

The original Jonathan Smead, of Greenfield, born in 1707, 
son of Ebenezer of Deerfield, lived and died on Irish Plain. 
His son Jonathan, born in 1735, soldier in the French and 
Indian wars, lived on the place on the Leyden road now 
owned by Horace A. Smead. The second Jonathan willed 
this farm to his son Jonathan, the third of the name, who was 
born in 1773. He had a son Jonathan (the fourth of that 
name) to whom he gave the farm on the east side of the road, 
before described. The old homestead, Jonathan, 3d, con- 
veyed to his son, Deacon Charles L. Smead, in 1843. The 
present house was built in 1840. His son. Reverend George 
L. Smead, obtained the title in 1877, and in 1890 sold the 
place to the present owner, Horace A. Smead. 

Lyman A. Nash built the house lately owned by William 
S. Andrews, about 1 840, the place having been occupied by 
an old house owned by Benjamin Walker, who sold it to 
Jonathan Smead in i 821, and Smead conveyed it to Mr. Nash 
in 1839. The farm was made up from several tracts of land 
purchased from Ebenezer Allen in 1805 and Benjamin 
Walker in 18 14, by Eber Nash. The "Hinsdale farm" on 
the east side of the road was purchased in i 840 by Lyman A. 
Nash, who was the only son of Eber Nash. There was for- 
merly an old log house on the Hinsdale farm, lying upon the 
east side of the highway. Frank L. Nash inherited this flirm 
from his father, Lyman A., and in 1890 sold it to Mr. An- 
drews, who has recently sold it to Haven A. Mowry. 


About ten rods southerly from the Country Farms school- 
house, on the east side of the road, there stood a house a cen- 
tury ago known as the Bush place, and at one time William 
Grennell lived in it. J. P. Felton purchased the twelve acre 
lot it stood upon, in 1855, of Anson Hillman. Before that 
time it had been owned by Lucius T. Sage and Charles T, 
Sage. The land is now a portion of the Alonzo Graves 
farm. On the west side of the road, nearly opposite, in the 
pasture of Clarence M. Cobb, is an old cellar hole, but I have 
never been able to learn the name of any person known to 
have lived there. 

Among the large landed possessions of Mehuman Hins- 
dale, or drawn on his rights in the first division of land north 
of Cheapside and east of Green river, were lots Nos. 76 and 
88, containing 160 acres. These lots and thirty-six acres ad- 
joining were conveyed by his heirs Samuel and Ariel Hins- 
dale in 1 79 1 to Colonel Samuel Wells, and he owned the same 
at his decease. 

In 1840 his son and executor, Alfred Wells, conveyed the 
rights of Colonel Wells's heirs to Lyman A. Nash, and the 
same year Mr. Nash reconveyed the same to Alfred Wells in 
his individual capacity. Mr. Wells resided on the place until 
1855, when he sold it to Joseph P. Felton, who lived there 
until 1864, and then sold to John M. Forbes. The next 
year Mr. Forbes conveyed the farm to Alonzo Graves, who, 
with two of his sons, still own it and reside there, having built 
a new house and large and convenient barns. The original 
road laid in 1736, from the town plot to " ye north end of ye 
bounds," ran along the brow of the hill northeast of the present 
buildings, while the Country Farms schoolhouse formerly stood 
a few rods east of the present one, and the highway to Ley- 
den passed it on the east side and continued down the hill, 
just north of the present farm buildings of Mr. Graves. 

In 1787 Ebenezer Graves came into possession of several 
tracts of land in the Country Farm district. His sons. Job 


and Ebenezer, Jr., inherited from him and obtained other 
lands by purchase. Ebenezer, Jr., according to tradition, had 
a log house about where the home of Clarence M. Cobb now 
stands. In 1833 he conveyed that land to Ariel Hinsdale. 
Hinsdale commenced to build the house now the home of 
Mr. Cobb, but before finishing it sold the farm in 1835 to 
the writer's maternal grandfather, Captain Edward Adams, of 
Colrain. In 1845 ""^Y grandfather deeded his farm to my 
oldest brother, Edward A. Thompson, who was to him like 
an adopted son, and at his decease the estate came to my 
father, John Thompson. At his death the other heirs quit- 
claimed their interest to John W. Thompson, and in 1856 he 
conveyed the farm to Anson K. Warner. Eight years after, 
Mr. Warner sold the place to Sylvester W. Hall, and in 1865 
Mr. Hall conveyed to John Sanderson, who sold it to the 
present owner, Clarence M. Cobb, in 1889. 

A little north of this place on the east side of the road is a 
piece of land which was formerly swampy, on which was con- 
siderable timber, which Jonas Moore in 1844 conveyed to 
Justin Root; two years later Mr. Root sold it to Albert H. 
Nims ; Mr. Nims in 1847 to Edward A. Thompson; with 
the rest of his estate it passed to John W. Thompson, who 
purchased a small house and moved it to the north end of the 
land, and in this house Timothy Keefe raised his large family 
of children, and purchased the greater part of this lot in i860, 
of the late Anson K. Warner. Mr. Keefe sold the farm to 
Walter C. Smith, the present owner, in 1892. 

Job Graves and Moses Graves were sons of Ebenezer 
Graves, before mentioned, and inherited in part the Country 
Farms land. Moses never married and died in 1846, aged 
eighty-four years. Job died in 1845, aged eighty-nine years. 
He willed his real estate to his son Horace. This family of 
Graves were intermarried into the Sage and Pickett families, 
and through descent and sale in i860 the farm owned by both 
Job and Moses Graves became the property of Job G. 


Pickett, who now owns it. Fifty years ago there were two 
small houses near the Leyden road, on this land, Mr. Pickett's 
present house being built about 1840. 

Abner Arms, born in 1731, early settled on land drawn by 
his father Daniel, in the division of lands north of Cheapside 
and east of Green river, and built his home on what is known 
as the S. B. Slate farm. His sons Solomon and Guy seem 
to have taken a large share of his estate and Solomon suc- 
ceeded to the home place where he died about 1843. ^'^ 
only son died young, and his daughter Harriet married San- 
ford Billings, who lived on the place a few years, until his 
wife's decease, when the farm in 1 849 was sold to Dwight 
Bullock. It came into the hands of John W. Buddington in 
1 86 1, who sold it to Seorem B, Slate in 1866. Mr. Slate 
resided here until he sold the farm to the present owner, 
Frank E. Rice, in 1893. 

Guy Arms, the brother of Solomon, took for his portion 
the farm now owned by the town and occupied as a home for 
its poor. Guy Arms undoubtedly built the old part of the 
house now standing. He sold in 1823 to Jonas Moore, who 
came from Marlboro, Vt., and was the father of Jonas W. 
Moore who lately died in town, having reached a very great 
age. Justin Root married the daughter of Jonas Moore, and 
in 1 844 took a deed of the farm and in i 847 conveyed it to 
the town. The town built the newer part of the old poor- 
house, and moved the barn to its present location, from the 
west side of the old road. Recently a large and convenient 
almshouse has been built by the town. 

Asher Corse, son of James the old hunter and tavern keeper, 
born in 1737, settled on the well known Larrabee farm. He 
had two sons and three daughters. His oldest daughter, 
Clarissa, married Timothy Larabee. Their son John settled 
in Milwaukee, and at that place was born to him a child, by 
him named Milwaukee Harriet, who was the first white child 
born at Milwaukee. Asher, the other son and his wife, Lucy 


Grennell, died in 1814, and Asher, Sr,, made provision for 
their nine orphan children in his will. He gave the farm to 
his grandson, Hart Larrabee, who lived there until his death 
in 1853. Eber N., the youngest son of Captain Hart, suc- 
ceeded to most of the landed estate of his father, and still 
resides on the premises. 

Hart Larrabee, Jr., removed to Illinois, and sold the 'most 
of his share of his father's farm in 1854 to Samuel Lillie. He 
conveyed this land the same year to Patrick Dooley, who 
purchased some additional land of Eber N. Larrabee, and 
dying, his heirs in 1869 sold the place to Henry L. Pickett. 
Mr. Pickett made this his home until his death, and his ad- 
ministrator sold the place in 1892 to Frank N. Pickett. 
Arthur B. Cromack is the present owner. 

The Pratt farm, now owned by Levi L. Fiske, was owned 
by Stephen Pratt about one hundred years ago. At his 
decease in 18 13 it passed by will to his son, Jeremiah, who in 
1856 conveyed it to his son, Stephen L. Pratt. In 1876 it 
came into the hands of D. Orlando Fiske, who sold it to 
Everett W. Miner, and Miner conveyed to Levi L. Fiske in 

Elijah Dix, Oliver Atherton and Joseph Nash sold land to 
Amos Parsons between the years 1 790 and i 804, which made 
up the Nathaniel Black farm. 

The portion which came from Oliver Atherton, had been 
previously owned by John McMard, who built the first house 
about 1782, and froin him McMard brook took its name. 
His sons William and Joseph sold to Atherton, and Mr. 
Parsons in 1838 sold this farm to Reuben Kenney, who resided 
there until 1851, when he sold it to his son-in-law. Noble P. 
Phillips. Mr. Phillips lived on the place until 1884 and sold 
to Nathaniel Black, who is the present owner. 

Lot ^^ in the division of the common lands was drawn by 
Samuel Barnard. Samuel Barnard, Jr., conveyed this to 
Jeremiah Newton in 1791, and Newton sold to Thomas 


Johnson in 1803; Thomas Johnson to Amos Parsons in 
1809, ^'""d Amos Parsons to Isaac Barton in 1836. Mr. 
Barton started the tanning business, and his son, Lyman G. 
Barton, succeeded to the farm and business. He sold to 
Manley D. Carpenter, the present owner, in 1891. 

The John S. Allen place was deeded by John Strickland to 
David Strickland in 1797. David Strickland conveyed to 
Daniel, Seth and Asaph Smead in 18 14, and the Smeads to 
Isaac Barton in 1827, Isaac to his brother David in 1840, and 
it finally came into the hands of John S. Allen in 1858, and 
was owned by Mr. Allen at his decease and by his sons ever 

Before the " new road " from the John S. Allen place to 
Bernardson was cut through, there was a road leading from 
the Log Plain road, a few rods east of the railroad to what was 
known as the Joab Scott place. This was the ancient Ather- 
ton place, which Oliver Atherton in 1798 conveyed to his 
son Joseph. The other heirs released in 1809 and Joseph 
and Horace Atherton conveyed to Joab Scott in 1829. He 
resided here until 1856 when the executor of his will sold the 
farm to Israel P. Hale and his sons. While Joab Scott held 
the title, in 1838, he sold to Isaac Barton, Sr., a portion of 
the farm, which was purchased from his executor by Leonard 
Barton and sold in 1852 to Francis M. Scott; Scott sold this 
part in 1858 to John S. Allen, who sold it the same year to 
Lewis Fowler ; Fowler sold to Albert B. Clark and Ziba 
Leonard in 1865 ; the next year Clark sold out his interest to 
Horatio Leonard ; Ziba Leonard also sold to his son Horatio, 
who died in 1891 and willed said estate to his wife, Ellen S. 
Leonard. The Hales and Seorem B. Slate sold the other 
portion of the Scott farm in 1868 to John A. Adams, and in 
1874 it passed into the hands of Charles W. Leighton, who 
has greatly improved the estate by the erection of fine 

The " Barney Snow " place, the last house in Greenfield on 


the old stage road, was owned before 1800 by Obed Wells, 
tanner. He was drowned at Gardners Island in 1809. He 
had conveyed in 1808 his fiirm to his son Patrick who followed 
the trade of tanner, on this farm. After a few years the 
tannery was given up, the old building cut in two, one part 
moved to the Rufus Phillips place, and the other was sold 
with two acres of land on the corner opposite the old L,og 
Plain schoolhouse, to one Israel Smith in 181 1, but like its 
owner, it has passed away. Patrick Wells had financial trouble 
and in 1823 the farm was sold by the sheriff to Calvin Fris- 
bie. In 1832 he sold to Israel Phillips, and Phillips to 
David Carpenter in 1836, and Carpenter to Barnabas Snow in 
1852. Mr. Snow lived on the farm until his death by accident 
in 1899, since which time his son Israel B. Snow has pur- 
chased the interest of the other heirs. 

In 1844 David Carpenter sold the place on the west side of 
the road to his son Ira Carpenter, who conveyed it to Elihu 
Osgood in 1852, and at his death in 1885, Mr. Osgood willed 
it to his son, Elihu C. Osgood, who with his son now owns 
it. This farm was formerly the Captain Isaac Newton place ; 
he was the father of Isaac Newton, 2d, who built the Mansion 
House. A sketch of Captain Newton's public services will be 
found in another place. 

Adjoining the Snow farm on the south is the ancient 
Atherton place originally conveyed by Ebenezer Barnard to 
Jonathan Atherton in 1824, and described as having been 
drawn on the shares of Benjamin Munn and Samuel Barnard. 
Jonathan and Zora Atherton in 1837 conveyed to Francis N. 
Snow, and he to Justus Bassett in 1840. Justus Bassett sold 
to Stephen Gore in 1840 and in 1847 it was purchased from 
him by William B. Coburn, who in 1859 sold it to Warren 
Osgood. In 1867 Warren Osgood conveyed a half interest 
to his son, Warren S. Osgood, and dying in 1878, he willed 
his remaining portion to him. Mr. Osgood sold the place in 
1885 to Alfred W. Powling and he in 1892 sold it to the 


present owner, Dan C. Willard. An old cellar hole, a few 
rods south of the present house, was once covered with a 
portion of the old tannery building moved from the Snow 
farm . 

On the west side of the stage road, just north of its junction 
with the Log Plain road (called the proprietors road), stood 
for many years the old Log Plain schoolhouse. 1 he house 
now standing just west of the dry bridge over the Boston & 
Maine railroad was built about 1848 by Thomas Hillman. 
When fifteen years old the author hauled all the sawed material 
for this house from the old Glen sawmill. 

In 1793 Captain Oliver Sage obtained from Samuel Doane 
Cook,* thirty-seven acres of land, but the particular piece with 
the buildings thereon came to him in 1814, from Dr. Alpheus 
F. Stone, and the doctor had it from Noah Fox in 181 o. Cap- 
tain Sage also bought other lands, one piece of fifty acres from 
Ebenezer Ames in 18 12. He conveyed his farm to his son 
Lucius T. Sage in 1844, and at his decease it v/as sold by 
his executor to Samuel J. Lvons in 1874, and by him con- 
veyed to OHver W. Sage, son of Captain Sage, the same year. 
In 1883 Oliver W. Sage sold the home place to Minerva S. 
Bascom who has since owned it. 

The Charles C. Phillips place on the west side of the road 
was sold to Adaline B. Phillips, by Lucius T. Sage, in i860, 
the old house built by Allen Atherton standing thereon at 
that time, Charles C. Phillips built the present house, and 
it passed into the hands of Luther B. Frankhn in 1895, ^"^ 
he sold it to Henry H. Straw in 1899. 

Ephriam Hubbard owned land on the east side of the stage 
road as early as 1795. Joseph Severance, hatter, married 
one of his daughters, and in 1820 purchased the interest of 
the other heirs of the Hubbard estate. In 1855 Pliny Sev- 
erance conveyed to Ira Carpenter, and in 1887 his widow and 
heirs conveyed to John C. King, who now resides there. 

* Samuel Doane Cook came from Durham, Conn., about 1764. 


The little place lately owned by Williams Chambers was 
the hatter's shop of Joseph Severance, and passed through his 
hands and the hands of Pliny Severance, Wass Hilman, Ol- 
iver Warner and William P. Warner, to William Chambers, 
who took the title in 1870, 

The place late the home of Russell F. Pease is a portion 
of the large farm deeded to Lieutenant John Clark, the old 
Revolutionary soldier, by Seth Catlin, David Smead, Consider 
Arms, John Williams and Elijah Billings in 1782, and kept 
as a tavern by Lieutenant Clark for many years. He sold to 
Jonathan Bacon in i 804. Bacon was a prominent man in town 
affairs, and lived here until 1820 when he sold to Walter 
Brown,* Walter Brown sold to Chester Bascom in 1825, and 
until 1876 this was known as the Bascom place. Chester 
Bascom sold the blacksmith shop and the water privilege to 
Russell F. Strickland, and he made edge tools here for some 

He also sold to Barnard A. Newell in 1845 l^i'^d around the 
pond, near the house now owned by Joseph Meeks, which was 
formerly the home of Alexander Ryther. In 1868 Joseph P. 
Felton bought up all the rights of Chester Bascom's heirs, 
and sold the farm to Chester A. Bascom. He conveyed the 
place to Pliny D. Martindale in 1876, and Martindale sold 
it to John F. Carbee in 1883. Carbee lived here several 
years, and sold it to Josephine C. Mowry in 1890. The 
same year Mr. Meeks purchased a portion and added it to his 
summer home, and in 1891 Mrs. Mowry sold the place to 
Frederick A. Lamb, who built the new buildings. Mr. Lamb 
conveyed it in 1899 to Russell F. Pease. 

Mr. Meeks's brickhouse and two acres of land were sold by 
the administrator of the estate of Russell F. Strickland, in 
1 838, to Jared Newell and by him the same year to Barnard A. 

* Reverend David Bacon, s;on of this Jonathan, born in Greenfield and then a min- 
ister in Kentucky, was in Greenfield in September, 1868, visiting his old home which he 
left foity-eight years before. 


Newell, who in 1850 deeded it to Electa Ryther, Mrs. New- 
ell's mother, and at her decease it was willed by her to her 
three daughters, Mary R. Newell, Martha E. Burrows and 
Sarah M. Remington, who in 1883 conveyed it to Mr. Meeks. 

The well known Barnard A. Newell place was owned in 
I 805 by his father, David Newell. A part of it was owned 
in 1790 by William and Joseph McHard, who deeded it 
to Oliver Atherton, who conveyed it to Gideon Daggett in 
1795 and he sold it to Mr. Newell. In 1832 Mr. Barnard A. 
Newell, having returned from the south, where he had been 
successfully engaged in stage routes, purchased the home farm 
from his father, and built the beautiful residence which he 
occupied until his death in 1866. By his will this estate 
passed to his widow, Mary R. Newell, and from that time 
until her death in 1897, she continued to reside at the old 
farm. By her will she gave the farm to her friend who had 
been her companion for many years, Olive F. Knowlton, 
who has since married Horace Parmenter, and they continue 
on the premises. 

The little farm of Thomas Hillman once belonged to 
Thomas Wetmore, and in 1834 was sold by him to Wass 
Hillman, and by him in 1843 ^o ^^^ ^^^ Thomas, v/ho still 
owns it. He was born in 1815 and well remembers the old 

What is known as the Willard Bullard place was sold by 
Joseph Phillips in 1795 to Ephraim Hubbard. Ephraim 
Hubbard's heirs sold to Epentetus Reed in 1828, and the 
same year he conveyed it to John Lyons who owned it until 
1838, when he sold to Samuel Jennings. Mr. Jennings made 
this his home until 1850 when John M. Forbes purchased it, 
and sold it in 1854 to Willard Bullard. This was Mr. Bul- 
lard's home during the remainder of his life, and at his decease 
his heirs sold the farm to Josephine C. Mowry, who in 1899 
conveyed it to Nelson Kulya, who is the present owner. 

The Merriam place came from Samuel Pickett to Dorus 


Bascom in 1824, and from him to Rejoice Newton in 1826, 
Joel W. Merriam purchasing it of Mr. Newton in 1835. Mr. 
Merriam died in 1856 and Freedom Merriam succeeded to it 
and her heirs conveyed it to Ophelia M. Fairman in 1892. 

The Lemira Hicks place was purchased by her of Willard 
Bullard in 1863. Mr. Bullard bought it of Seth C. Smith in 
1853, he getting title from John Reddington the same year, 
Reddington getting his title from the heirs of George Adams, 
who purchased it of Edward Holt in 1 842. Holt got his title 
from Varney Spaulding in 1837. 

Asher Newton, a blacksmith, about one hundred years ago 
had a shop on the east side of the stage road on the corner 
south of Lover's Lane. His home was on the farm now 
occupied by Mark Bullard, which he purchased from Joshua 
Rugg in 1795. In 1 8 12 he leased to Samuel Pickett, Ben- 
jamin Hastings and Jerothrum Strickland a piece four rods 
square on the west side of the road, just above the little 
brook which comes from the old " Indian spring," on which 
they built a distillery. This was known as the " Pickett 
still " for many years. Asher Newton sold to Rufus Lyons 
in 1 8 19, and Lyons the same year to Samuel Pickett, Jr. 
While Pickett owned it he sold off the little pieces on the 
north, and the remainder became a part of the great Pickett 

Samuel Pickett, Sr., came here from Durham, Conn., 
and was one of the early settlers of the town, and owned much 
land. In 1829 he sold the old homestead, now known as the 
Luke Bullard place, to Benjamin F. Pickett and Aaron 
Spaulding. In 1831 Spaulding bought the interest of his part- 
ner, and in 1838 sold the farm to George Adams. In 1843 
Adams sold to Edward F. Henry, and in 1846 he sold to 
Smith S. Bellows. Bellows in 1847 to Samuel M.Wood and 
Wood to Francis Sessions in 1848. Mr. Sessions conveyed 
it to Silas Bullard in 1859. Mr. Bullard at his death in 1882 
willed the northerly part of the farm, which was formerly 


Asher Newton's, to his son Mark Bullard, and the home farm 
to his son Luke, and Laura H., the widow of Luke, now owns 
it and lives there. 

The ten acre place formerly the home of John Chapin was 
a portion of the above described farm, and was sold by Aaron 
Spaulding in 1837 to John W. Alexander; he sold it in 1852 
to Henry Severance, and Severance in 1855 to Moses S. 
Chapin ; and the same year he conveyed it to John Chapin, 
who owned the shop on the east side of the road, which he 
used for marble work. John Chapin's heirs sold it in 1892 
to Clifford Beurbeau. 

The Billings or Damon L. Fay farm was owned in 1784 by 
William Clark and he conveyed it that year to Joshua Rugg, 
who was called " Dr." Rugg. The doctor sold it in 1801 to 
Daniel Wells ; he in 1 807 to William Tryon ; Tryon in i 8 1 1 
to Ephraim Hubbard; Hubbard in 18 12 to Sylvanus Burn- 
ham ; Burnham in 1816 to Amos Davis; Davis in 1822 to 
Rufus Lyons; Lyons in 1823 to Zebina Billings. Mr. Bil- 
lings made this his home until his death. He and all his 
children were fine singers. The farm came to his son, Henry 
F. Billings, who in 1852 built the present house. Afterwards 
it became the property of Colonel Aretas Ferry ; in 1877 the 
Ferry estate conveyed it to Damon L. Fay who is the present 
owner. A portion of the farm came to Mr. Billings from 
Patrick Wells in 1812, and two and one half acres and an old 
house from Samuel Pierce in 1818. 

The Sawtell places came from different parties to Eliphalet 
Sawtell. Artemas Cushman conveyed a portion to Ezekiel 
Bascom in 1789, Bascom to Ephraim Hubbard in 18 10, 
Hubbard to John Sawtell in 181 1, John to Eliphalet in 1844. 
He also obtained fractional shares from Daniel Pickett, Amos 
Davis, and Stephen Gates. The road formerly ran on the 
east side of both the Sawtell houses. After the death of 
E.liphalet in 1872, the real estate was divided between Lyman 
H. and Dwight Sawtell, Dwight taking the ancient house. 


The L. H. Sawtell house is of later date. Dwight Savvtell's 
place came by the marriage of his daughter to Charles A. 

Some of the elder people in Greenfield would recognize the 
Maynard place as the old Hastings farm, but it is more than 
fifty years since Russell Hastings sold this farm out of the 
family name. There were four Benjamin Hastings, great- 
grandtather, grandfather, father and son. The second of the 
name was the settler in Greenfield, and was the first town clerk 
in 1753. He was born in Deerfield in 1699, ^^^ ^ deacon 
and lieutenant, and a soldier in Father Raisle's war. 

Russell Hastings, who owned this particular property, 
obtained it by the will of his father, the fourth Benjamin, in 
1 841, and sold it to John S. Potter in 1846 and moved to 
Ohio. Mr. Potter sold to Robert Wiley in 1855, and Wiley 
to George W. Frary in 1858. Mr. Frary lived on this place 
until 1866 when he sold to Colonel Josiah Hall. In 1870 
Colonel Hall conveyed the place to Amos Adams, who sold 
a wood lot to Manley McClure, and the remainder of the 
farm to Fred L. Burnham in 1866. Mr. Burnham in 1888 
sold to Walter P. Maynard and Arthur O. Wheeler, who still 
retain the title. They sold the right to take ice from the pond 
on the little brook which formerly supplied the village with 
water to George H. Wright and others in 1900. 

In November, 1761, Reverend Roger Newton was settled in 
Greenfield, and with (or before) him, from Durham, Connec- 
ticut, came his brother John and his three sons who became 
prominent men of Greenfield. The names of the young men 
were Isaac (afterward Captain Isaac), John and Samuel. They 
bought land in what was then a great hemlock swamp, at 
seven shillings and six pence per acre, and full of courage, 
with their axes began to hew out their fortunes. John retained 
the old home farm ; the log house they built stood on the 
easterly side of the original road near the south end of the line 
of maple trees, standing on the present Sprague place. Cap- 


tain Isaac Newton finally settled on the E. C. Osgood farm 
and Samuel Newton purchased the farm now known as the 
Harradon place. John Newton and his wife, parents of Isaac, 
John and Samuel, both died in September, 1802, and in 1823 
the second John Newton (who was a Revolutionary pensioner 
and died in 1 834) conveyed his farm of two hundred and 
eighteen acres to his sons John and Curtis Newton. Curtis 
Newton married and had several children. John Newton 
never married, and his maiden sister Aseneth lived with him. 
Deacon Curtis Newton's son, the late Hervey C. Newton, also 
lived with his uncle John, and by John's will, proved in 1871, 
he was given all his uncle's real estate. 

In 1845 John and Curtis Newton made a division of their 
joint real estate, each deeding the other parts of their undi- 
vided interest, and with rare good judgment they filed a plan 
in the Registry of Deeds. Hervey C. Newton built the house 
now the home of Asa W. Sprague, and resided there until 
1876, when the estate passed into the hands of Avery W. 
Sprague, a relative, and descended to Asa W. Sprague and his 

The place recently owned by Mrs. Leith was the home of 
Deacon Curtis Newton and his son, John S. Newton, who 
took the title by his father's will in 1871. The house was 
built near the time of Mr. John S. Newton's marriage, and 
the place was conveyed by him in 1892 to Alice Kilbourn, and 
came into the hands of Joseph Bourbeau in 1893, and he sold 
it to Mary E. Leith in 1897. 

In the division of lands between Curtis and John Newton, 
in 1845, Curtis deeded to John a certain lot of land lying on 
the west side of the stage road, just opposite the new brick 
schoolhouse, at the " four corners." This came to Hervey C. 
Newton by John Newton's will, and in 1871 he deeded this 
lot of twenty-one acres to Albert A. Alexander, who built the 
house now standing on it, and in 1875 sold it to Henry W. 
Warner. In 1895 ^*"- Warner sold a part of this land to 


Annette Benson, and in 1897 by foreclosure sale this portion 
passed into the hands of Edward R. Warner, who in 1897 
conveyed it to Edward W. Humes. The remainder of the lot 
was sold by the trustee of the Warner estate in 1898 to Wil- 
liam A. Davenport, who transferred it to Mr. Humes, who 
has sold the premises to Edward E. Todd. 

More than a hundred years ago the farm known as the Long 
place was owned by Benjamin Hastings, the first town clerk. 
He deeded it to his son Ephraim in 1 790. Ephraim, in i 805, 
deeded a little more than an acre where the present building 
stands, to Elijah Alvord ; and the next year Ephraim sold the 
remainder to Thomas Barber. At that time the farm build- 
ings stood about thirty rods easterly from the present build- 
ings. In 1 806 Mr. Barber sold the farm to Ahaz Thayer, and 
in 1808 Mr. Thayer purchased the corner from Mr. Alvord. 
At that time the road ran near the front door of the house, and 
directly through the grounds of the new brick schoolhouse, 
the row of maple trees marking the east side of the highway. 
Soon after this Mr. Thayer built the present Long house, and 
kept tavern there for many years. Russell Hastings, who 
owned the adjoining farm on the north, married Harriet, the 
daughter of Mr. Thayer, and at Mr. Thayer's decease in 
1 83 I they with the other heirs sold the place to Jonathan Flagg 
and Lemuel H. Long. Mr. Flagg, the father of Mrs. Long, 
conveyed his interest to Mr. Long in 1858, remaining with 
him until his death. Mr. Thayer is spoken of as a most 
kindly, honest man, and on cold winter days he always kept 
for the benefit of the people attending meeting in the old meet- 
inghouse, roaring fires in three rooms of the tavern. After a 
two hours' service in the barn-like meetinghouse, without a 
spark of fire, it is no wonder that his memory finds a warm 
spot in the hearts of the few who survive that knew him. At 
Mr. Long's death in 1882 the farm was sold to Mrs. Julia H. 
Long, who held it until 1897, when she conveyed it to the 
present owner, James R. Long. 


A portion of this farm lying south of the cross road was 
sold by Lemuel H. Long in 1867 to Wm. B. Washburn, and 
his heirs in 1889 conveyed it to Frederick E. Wells, the pres- 
ent owner. 

The corner at the end of the electric road, now owned by 
George W. and Mattie G. Shattuck, was conveyed in 1782 
by Daniel Wells to Reverend Roger Newton as a fifteen acre 
lot, bounded on the east by land now owned by Frederic E. 
Wells. In 1776 Mr. Newton bought of David Hoyt eight 
acres which lay west of this fifteen acre lot. He sold both 
pieces in 1799 to Wise Grennell, and in 1803 Wise Grennell 
sold this place and the Priestly Newton farm to Samuel New- 
ton, in all one hundred and fourteen acres. In 1820 Mr. 
Newton sold the corner (the road having been cut through 
from the village to the meetinghouse in 1888) to Reverend 
Sylvester Woodbridge, then the minister of the town. Mr. 
Woodbridge was dismissed in 1823, and in 1828 sold his place 
to John Ames. 

John sold in 1834 to Eli Ames, and Eli in 1841 to Maurice 
Millard. Millard sold in 1848 to Thomas L. Briggs, and the 
next year Briggs sold to Justin Root, who erected a slaughter 
house upon the place. In 1852 Justin Root sold to Charles 
H. Munn, and he immediately conveyed to Merrick H. Bil- 
lings. The next year Mr. Billings became insolvent, and his 
assignee sold the place to Hervey C. Newton and Edmund Q. 
Nash. These parties sold a half interest to Lot Dennis, and 
he his share in 1856 to Eliakim Root, who quitclaimed to 
Newton and Nash in 1 863, when the place was sold to William 
L. Day, who made it his home until he sold it to James L. 
Farr in 188 1. In 1894 George W. Shattuck and his sister 
purchased the place and are the present owners. 

A part of this lot containing about ten acres was cut off by 
the laying of the stage road in 1788, and was sold by Wise 
Grennell to Samuel Newton in 1803, and by Newton to Am- 
brose Ames in 1806 ; Ames transferred it in 18 19 to Eliphalet 


Sawtell, who held it until 1859, when he sold it to Dr. Daniel 
D. Fisk. In 1864 Dr. Fisk conveyed it to Sidney Smith, 
who built the barn now standing. Sidney Smith sold the place 
to Joel Stearns in 1868, and he bought the Whiting Griswold 
house in the village and moved it to this lot. In 1887 it be- 
came the property of Henry Sheldon, and in 1888 he con- 
veyed it to Mary R. Stearns, who sold the place to Mary J. 
Smith in 1891. She died in 1895 and ^^^^ the property to her 
husband, Oliver T. Smith, the recent owner. 

The large farm sold by Wise Grennell in 1 8 1 2 to Samuel 
Newton has dwindled down to the few acres recently owned by 
Sarah C. Harradon. Samuel Newton by his will, proved in 
1828, gave his home farm to his son Priestly, and the land 
south and west of the corner, now owned by G. W. and M. 
G. Shattuck, to his sons, Samuel and Burwell. Samuel New- 
ton also sold to his son Priestly, in 1823, one hundred and 
fifty acres on the Swamp road, a portion of which is now oc- 
cupied by the Golf Club. This and nearly all of the home 
farm was sold off at different times to several different parties, 
and the balance in 1863 Passed into the hands of Willard B. 
Powers, a son-in-law of Mr. Newton. In 1869, after Mr. 
Powers's death, the home place was sold to Albert Rice, and in 
1 874, through the Greenfield Savings Bank, to Sarah C. Harra- 
don. In 1894 Mrs. Harradon conveyed the homestead to 
Henry S. Worden and Louise M. Thayer, and they are the 
present owners. 

The forty acre lot, north of Silver street and west of the 
stage road, along the east side of which were built the horsesheds 
which were ornamental surroundings of the old meetinghouse, 
belonged to Hull Nims, and in 1794 he sold seven acres to 
Wise Grennell; in 1828 three acres to Peleg Adams, and in 
1838 the remainder to Eli Ames. In 1841 Mr. Ames sold 
this to David Long, Jr., and Asher Spencer. The next year 
they sold ten acres off the west side to Anson Warner, and in 
1842 Spencer and Long divided interests, Mr. Long taking 


the land lying along the stage road, and Mr. Spencer the part 
bounding on Mr. Warner. In 1844 Mr. Spencer sold to 
George Millard three fourths of an acre adjoining Warner, and 
the same year Mr. Warner sold Millard four and one quarter 
acres adjoining. The next year George Millard sold to Mau- 
rice Millard the five acres, which he conveyed in i 849 to David 
O. Allen. In 1850 David O. Allen sold to his brother, 
Roger N. Allen, and he in 1852 sold to Aaron Perkins, Jr., 
who in 1854 sold it to Oren Wiley. In 1844, after the death 
of David Long, Jr., the executors of his will reconveyed the 
four acres bounded east on the stage road to Asher Spencer, 
and he sold it in 1847 ^^ Samuel C. Conable, Mr. Conable in 
1 85 1 to George Adams, and Adams in 1854 to Oren Wiley, 
and thus Mr. Wiley became owner of both estates. 

Oren Wiley sold the whole in 1855 to his brother, Robert 
Wiley, and he at once conveyed it to Jonathan Johnson of 
Colrain. Mr. Johnson in 1858 sold it to Mary J. Fisk, and 
she in 1862 deeded it to Sidney Smith. In 1867 Mr. Smith 
sold it to Pliny Porter, who kept it ten years and conveyed it 
to Ellen J. Fay. The Fays in 1884 sold it to William H. 
Stetson, who sold it the next year to Charles A. Wheeler and 
Charles J. Osgood. Wheeler quitclaimed to Osgood in 1889. 
In 1890 Osgood sold a portion to A. F. S. Lyons, and other 
portions in 1891 and 1892 to Edward E. Benjamin, and in 
1893 a lot to Myron J. Farr. Mr. Lyons conveyed a lot to 
Edward W. Humes in 1893, ^^^^ more to James L. Farr in 

What is known as the Anson Warner, or Graves place, 
came to Oliver Hastings by deeds from Benjamin Hastings 
in 1786, Simeon Nash in 1794, Ebenezer Martindale in 1791 
and Amos Smith in 1786. Oliver was the son of old Ben- 
jamin Hastings, and father of the late Onisimus of Gill. 

Oliver Hastings sold this farm of fifty acres in 181 7 to 
John Merrill (grandfather of William M. Smead) and this 
remained the Merrill homestead until Mr. Merrill sold to his 


son-in-law, Priestly Newton, in 1886. He also sold to him 
fifty acres lying on the east side of the Gill road. Mr. New- 
ton sold the Merrill homestead in 1827 to Peleg Adams, and 
in 1 830 Mr. Adams sold it to Anson Warner who resided 
here until his death in 1851, when in the settlement of his es- 
tate it passed into the hands of his son, the late Anson K. 
Warner. He sold it in 1853 to Hezekiah Tuttle, and the 
next year Mr. Tuttle sold to Lucius Nims, who kept it one 
year and sold it to Hibbard Ripley. Mr. Ripley in 1857 
deeded it to Benjamin Sawyer, who in 1858 conveyed it 
through Almon Brainard to Martha E. Sawyer. The Saw- 
yers in 1 89 1 conveyed the property to Clark O. Graves, and 
m 1897 Mr. Graves sold the farm to Ozias Dauphinias. 

While Mr. Warner owned it he deeded a half acre to one 
James White, a black man. Old residents will remember the 
imposing appearance of Mr. White when dressed in his blue 
coat trimmed with brass buttons, and his white silk hat, as he 
paraded our streets. At his decease in 1875 ^^^ land was re- 
conveyed to Mrs. Sawyer. 

In 1795 Simeon Nash deeded a small piece of land with 
buildings on it to Joseph Stebbins, the same being a portion 
of the Miller place. Stebbins sold in 18 14 to Chester Jen- 
nings, and in 1829, Jennings to Lurancy and Mehitable Wells, 
and they in 1841 sold to James B. Maynard. Mr. May- 
nard in 1 843 conveyed the place to Roger N. Allen, who 
purchased it to make a home for his father, David Allen, and 
for his brothers and sisters. In 1854 John W. Miller pur- 
chased it, and at his death in 1870 willed it to his son, George 
H. Miller, who resides on the place. 

The place recently owned by Leon O. Hawks was forty 
years ago known as the " Grandpa Long " place. It was 
deeded by Simeon Nash in 1795 ^° Uriah Martindale, who 
sold it in 1808 to Sylvanus Burnham. Burnham in 1812 
sold it to Robert Nash, and his heirs conveyed it in 1831 to 
William Chapin. Mr. Chapin in 1835 sold the place to 


Thomas Whitmore, from whom it was taken on execution 
and sold in 1836 to Lemuel H. Long. In 1838 Lemuel H. 
Long sold the place to his brother, Alanson Long of Boston, 
and it was occupied by his father, David Long, until his de- 
cease. Alanson Long, in 1880 sold the place to Leon O. 
Hawks, and in 1901 it passed into the hands of George and 
Franklin A. Pond. 

Uriah Martindale in 1840 conveyed a small place of three 
acres lying on the north side of Silver street, on which stood 
a little old house and was known as the Stiles place, to Albert 
H. Nims, and he, in 1843 deeded it to Levi S. Stiles. In 1859 
it came into the hands of Mary F. Bolton who sold it to 
Elizabeth M. Adams in 1862. She conveyed to Addie L. 
Day in 1889 and the Days built the new house and still re- 
tain the ownership. 

In 1824 Eber Nash conveyed to John J. Graves, black- 
smith at Nash's mills, a half acre of land on which he built 
a house. In 1831 Jean Strong, the heir of Asa Strong, the 
old surveyor, sold Mr. Graves an acre adjoining on the west, 
on which was an old house which was occupied for several 
years by Lydia and Mary Rugg. Nothing remains but the 
cellar hole to show that buildings once stood there. This lot 
came from Daniel Nash, Jr., to Asa Strong in 1789. Mr. 
Graves sold his place in 1854 to Frederick Powers, he in 
1858 sold to William N. Nims and Mr. Nims in 1864 con- 
veyed it to Anson K. Warner, who made it his home until 
1880, when it became the home of Hervey C. Newton. In 
1 90 1 it was sold to Edwin R. Elmer, who still resides there. 

In 1823 Samuel Newton sold to Priestly Newton one hun- 
dred and fifty acres of land on the Swamp road. He sold a 
portion of this to Roswell W. Cook in 1847, and Mr. Cook 
sold twenty-five acres to Don A. Winslow who built a house 
upon it. In 1855 Winslow sold the same to Harvey C. New- 
ton, and the next year Mr. Newton deeded it to Truman B. 
Hicks, but it was reconveyed to Mr. Newton in 1859. He 


deeded it to Solomon Smead in 1862 and in 1868 Mr. Smead 
conveyed it to Dennis Kelliher who in 1873 sold it to Michael 
Kelliher of Boston. Recently the Kelliher heirs have con- 
veyed the title to William A. Davenport. 

The next farm north is the old Newell place, owned for 
many years by Barnard A. Newell and occupied by David 
Newell. Samuel Pickett owned a portion of it early in 1800, 
and conveyed to Wass Hillman and Hillman to Barnard A. 
Newell. In 1862 Mr. Newell sold it to Dennis and Owen 
Sullivan ; Dennis quitclaimed his share to Owen in 1864 and 
Owen sold to Nathaniel Black in 1867. Mr. Black sold to 
Michael B. Murray in 1884 who sold it in 1901 to Katharine 
A. Wood. 

The ancient Allen place, now owned by Jeremiah Murphy, 
was deeded by Ebenezer Allen and Samuel Pickett to Job 
Allen in 1800 and 1801, and Mr. Allen by his will, proved 
in 1812, gaveit to his son Ira Allen, who conveyed it in 1871 
to Samuel Riley. By mortgage of it to Owen Sullivan by 
Riley, it came to Sullivan in 1879, and he sold it the same 
year to Mr. Murphy. 

That farm known as the " Sam Hinsdale place " was owned 
in 1800 by Ebenezer Allen, and was conveyed by him to Joel 
Allen. Joel in 18 10 gave a deed to his sons Salah and Elihu. 
William Wells, " Swamp William " as he was called, married 
an Allen and lived with Elihu. In 1 840 Mr. Wells purchased 
of the estate of Samuel Wells, fifty acres which was added to 
the Allen farm, and in 1 849 the whole was purchased by 
Samuel Hinsdale. In 1866 he deeded it to his daughters, 
Fanny and Emily Hinsdale, and in 1869 they conveyed it to 
Melissa A. Dunbar, and she, in 1872, to D. Orlando Fisk. 
In 1879 it came into the hands of the Franklin Savings Insti- 
tution and was purchased in 1881 by Erwin S. Thatcher. 
Thatcher sold to Caroline Miller in 1889 and in 1895 ^^^ 
conveyed it to Washington H. Kilburn. 

A sawmill was recently built on the old site on which Heze- 


kiah GofF and William Starr built one before 1 800, which 
was owned by John Lyons in 1803, who sold it to Ephriam 
Hubbard and Asher Newton. In 1896 Mr. Kilburn sold 
the farm and mill to Edwin H. and Charles A. Eddy, who 
have recently gone into bankruptcy. 

In 1850 John Thornton of Gill purchased land of Isaac 
Barton and John Denio, and built a house on the west side of 
the Swamp road. He sold the same in 1868 to David and 
Owen Murphy. In 1873 David bought Owen's share, and 
in 1 89 1 sold the place to Charles S. Gunn. In 1894 Gunn 
sold to Clarence D. Pratt, and two years later Pratt conveyed 
the same to Rollin A. Lee, who kept it until 1899 and sold 
it to Edward E. Johnson. 

John Catlin of Deerfield deeded to his son Jonathan in 
1755 a portion of the land at the Mill brook falls. In 1765 
John Severance deeded to Jonathan Catlin sixteen acres of 
land, reserving the mill yard and the brook, which deed must 
have covered the land where the Nash or Cook house now 
stands. In 1774 Jonathan Catlin, then of Shelburne, deeded 
to Daniel Nash, Jr., fifty acres which included the sixteen 
acres and what was afterward known as the Cook pasture, re- 
serving the mill yard, the mills, and the land flowed by the 
pond. Daniel Nash, Jr., by his will allowed in 18 19 gave 
all his real estate to his son Eber Nash. He in 1862 con- 
veyed the homestead to his daughter, Harriet A. Cook. She 
by her will, allowed in 1892, gave it to her nephews. Hart P. 
Larrabee and George L. Nash. 

"The Maxwell farm" is well known. It was made up 
principally from two lots called the Dean lot and the Bell lot. 
The Dean lot contained one hundred acres and extended from 
the Ley den road to Federal street, and was owned before 1787 
by Ithael Dean, and quitclaimed by his children Purdy and 
Rebecca Dean to Abner Smead. Smead's heirs conveved it 
to Andrew, Oliver and Joshua Cocks of New York, and in 
1 802 they sold it to Thomas Chapman. John Bell purchased 


from Richard Carey, Sylvanus Nash, Jane Strong and Jona- 
than Severance about the same time parcels of land, making 
up fifty-five acres, which he sold to Mr. Chapman in 1809. 

In 1833 Henry Chapman, son of Thomas, sold one hun- 
dred and fifty-three acres to Gilbert Green. Mr. Green in 
1 841 sold to Horace and Seth W. Severance. Seth W. Sev- 
erance died, and in 1 847 the farm was sold to Sylvester Max- 
well who immediately conveyed it to Levi P. Stone. In 1861 
Mr. Stone deeded it to Elizabeth Maxwell, the wife of Syl- 
vester, and she willed it to her nieces, Mary E. and Caroline 
A. Stone, who sold it in 1881 to Joseph P. Felton, who now 
owns the larger part of it. 

Adjoining this farm on the east lay the Samuel Pierce farm, 
a large portion of which now belongs to George W. Shattuck, 
or his grantees. Samuel Pierce obtained his title to the greater 
part of the one hundred and thirty acres from heirs of Rever- 
end Roger Newton in iS'ai and 1823, and Dr. Newton owned 
it before 1787, the date of the establishment of our Registry 
of Deeds. This farm extended from the east line of the 
Maxwell farm to High street, and included a large portion of 
the territory now built upon in that vicinity. Samuel Pierce 
and his sister Phebe conveyed this land to Zebina L. Ray- 
mond in 1855. Thirty-seven acres lying on the west side of 
Federal street came from the Roger Newton heirs to Asa 
Goodenough, a former owner of the Mansion House, in 18 19; 
was sold by Goodenough to Eliphalet and Roderick Terry in 
1 821 and by them to Mr. Pierce in 1830. Mr. Raymond 
sold that part of the farm west of Federal street in 1859 to 
Abijah C. Bullard, and in 1864 Mr. Bullard sold the same 
and twenty-three acres of the lot on the east side of Federal 
street which he had of Daniel H. Newton to Joel Stearns. 
Mr. Raymond in 1859 also sold the fifty-seven acres on the 
east side of Federal street, bounding north on the present 
Wells lot and Spear lot, and south on the Riddell land, to 
Daniel H. Newton. Mr. Newton sold in 1862 the north 


part of the lot to Mr. Bullard as above mentioned. In 1864 
Mr. Bullard sold out his holdings to Joel Stearns, and in 
1869 Mr. Stearns conveyed the east end of the twenty-three 
acre lot, containing ten acres, to Charles Turner, and in 1871, 
all on the west side of the road and fourteen acres on the east 
side to Samuel O. Lamb. Mr. Lamb sold to Simon L. Shat- 
tuck the same year. George W, Shattuck taking this portion 
of his father's estate has cut it up into building lots, many of 
which are now occupied by pretty cottages, the comfortable 
homes of a happy people. In 1861 D. H. Newton sold 
fifteen acres adjoining the Riddell farm, then owned by Otis 
Hastings, to Charles L. Fisk ; this passed in 1864 '^^ P^^t, 
to Harriet R. and Alma E. Stone, and thus obtained the name 
of "the Stone lot." In 1880 it became the property of 
Stephen Smith, who also purchased some additional land from 
the Hastings property, making up his present home farm. 
The middle lot through which now runs Lincoln street was 
conveyed in 1863 by Mr. Newton to Charles A. Mirick and 
by his administrator in 1864 to Francis B. Russell, whose ex- 
ecutor in 1 871 sold it to Dr. A. C. Deane and Aaron H. 
Wright. In 1874 Mr. Wright released his interest to Dr. 
Deane, who laid the twenty-one acres out into building lots 
and the property now represents an important portion of the 

The greater part of the John J, Pierce farm was drawn in 
the division of lands by Daniel Belding, and came to Samuel 
Barnard who conveyed it to Beriah Willard in 1789. It was 
to satisfy draught No. 6 and contained sixty-nine acres. 
Beriah Willard's son David, so long town clerk of Greenfield, 
conveyed one hundred and twenty-two acres to John J. Pierce 
in 1836. It has been sold out since by Mr. Pierce and his 
heirs as the growth of the village in that direction made it ad- 
vantageous for them to part with their ancestral acres. The 
home lot and a beautiful grove are about the only parts of 
the old farm of much size remaining unsold. David Willard 


and Alexander Keith each formerly lived in the small Pierce 

The Riddell farm, once known as the Hastings place, was 
owned by Lemuel Hastings, son of Benjamin Hastings, first 
town clerk of Greenfield, and by said Lemuel conveyed to 
his son Otis, who died in 1859 and willed his farm to his 
son-in-law George P. Haywood. Mr. Haywood conveyed 
it to his wife, Mary E. Haywood, in 1868, and it was pur- 
chased in 1879 by John W. Riddell, who has largely cut it up 
into building lots. 

Many attractive homes are located on Hastings, Riddell 
and Heywood streets. 

Benjamin Hastings's house stood on the high ground nearly 
opposite old Fort Stocking, on land afterward owned by E. 
W. Kingsley and now known as the Sanderson farm. 

Wise Grennell owned the thirteen acre Spear lot in 1787, 
and there formerly stood upon it directly south of the High 
street graveyard, an old house occupied when I first knew it, 
by a painter called " Copal " Field. Mr. Grennell sold it in 
1802 to Wilmot Mayhew and in 1809 Mr. Mayhew conveyed 
it to Thomas Morley who passed it on to the Reverend Ga- 
maliel S. Olds who neglected to have his deed recorded. 
Thomas Morley, was a pioneer in the western reserve, 
and went all the way to Ohio by ox-team, Mr. Olds sold in 
1823 to Lemuel Spurr, who died and his executor conveyed 
it to Otis Spurr, a physician and son of Lemuel, who in 1835 
conveyed it to Benjamin Spear. In 1837 Benjamin Spear 
deeded the same to his son, the late Daniel W. Spear, and at 
his decease it came to his son Howard W. Spear. In 
1797 Mr. Wise Grennell sold a half acre from the southeast 
corner of this lot to Robert Cone, and also three acres on the 
east side of the road. Mr. Cone in 1808 conveyed this to 
James W. Hoxie, and two years later Mr. Hoxie sold to 
Oliver Potter, and here was born the late George W. Potter 
in 1 8 1 3 . Oliver Potter sold in i 8 2 1 to Dr. Alpheus F. Stone ; 


he in 1830 conveyed it to Tliaddeus Coleman and Mr. Cole- 
man two years later deeded it to George W. Potter, who kept 
the old place until 1837 and then conveyed it to Daniel W. 
Spear, so that it again became a portion of the original acreage. 
The old well at this place was in use long after the buildings 
had gone to decay. 

The Swartz place was known fifty years ago as the Stone 
farm. The greater part of it was conveyed in 1803 by Wise 
Grennell to Elihu and Rufus Severance, who in 18 19 deeded 
it to Horace Severance and he the same year to Theodore 
Martindale. Mr. Martindale in 1825 conveyed it to Aaron 
and Joel Spaulding and in 1826 they deeded it to Dr. Alpheus 
F. Stone. In 1845 Dr. Stone conveyed it to his son Alpheus 
H. Stone who within two years had passed it on to his brother 
John C. Stone. In 1852 the last owner conveyed it to Henry 
M. Parker, his brother-in-law, who sold it to Charles Devens, 
who subsequently became of national fame. Mr. Devens 
deeded it to Reverend Louis B. Swartz, in 1859, and he re- 
moved to it, from Boston, many antiquarian treasures and 
portions of celebrated buildings, a part of which were unfortu- 
nately destroyed by fire a few years since. 

Solomon Williams was formerly the owner of a large por- 
tion of the land now known as the Farren farm. His heirs 
conveyed it to Wells Childs, and Mr. Childs sold it to Noah 
Eager in 1797. He made it his home during life and willed 
it to his grandson, Philo Temple, the old drummer and danc- 
ing master. Mr. Temple deeded it in 1879 to his daughter, 
Frances Temple, and in 1881 it was purchased by B. N. 

Several members of the Bascom family, early settlers of the 
town, were clothiers. Joseph Bascom, born in 1 709 owned 
land about the west side of Franklin street running to Main. 
His son Joseph was a clothier and bought in 1796 of Joseph 
Stebbins land about the mouth of Fall river where he had a 
clothiers' shop. He sold a piece of land to Pierce Chase in 


i8i I, who had a house there and did a large manufacturing 
business, which ended in his financial ruin, as elsewhere de- 
scribed in this work. In his old age Mr. Bascom conveyed 
his farm to his son Chester, who in 1825 sold the farm and 
manufacturing establishments to Lyman Kendall and Nathan- 
iel E. Russell. Their works were destroyed by fire in 1829. 
The large stone mill was then built and a good business car- 
ried on at this place. In 1834 the Greenfield Manufactur- 
ing Company was organized, and under the able manage- 
ment of Theodore Leonard did a profitable business until 
Mr. Leonard's health failed ; business methods changed and 
the property quickly went to decay. The Greenfield Manu- 
facturing Co. conveyed the property in 1872 to Marville W. 
Cooper, who sold it to Humphrey Stevens as the agent of the 
Turners Falls Company, who desired the pure water of Fall 
river for their paper mills. 

In 1803 Andrew Adams, described to be from Warwick, 
R. I., bought twenty-five acres of land of Asher Newton and 
Caleb Lyon, lying on the west side of the old county road 
leading from Deerfield to Northfield. Within a few years he 
and his sons, George, Nahum and Peleg came to own nearly 
all of the land lying on that road between White Ash swamp 
and the top of Halfway hill, a large share of which still re- 
mains in the family name. Andrew at first built a log house just 
north of the Millard place, and afterwards a better one farther 
north. His sons were successful business men, the late Pe- 
leg Adams at the time of his death being the owner of the 
Mansion House, one of the most valuable pieces of real 
estate in the town. It is now the property of his son's wi- 
dow and her two daughters. 

James Day, father of the late Captain Edwin E. Day, at 
one time owned the place where stands the house built by 
J. P. Morgan, and his house stood at the junction of the 
roads. He purchased this estate from Erastus Merriam in 
1 85 1, he having bought it of the administrator of his father's 


estate in 1846. It came from the Adamses to the father (Joel 
Merriam) in 1736 and was sold to Andrew Adams by Pierce 
Chase in 18 13. Mr. Merriam made brick several years, and 
ran the sawmill upon the little stream by the schoolhouse, 
formerly called Fall brook. 

One John Boyington in 1790 obtained title to about ninety 
acres of land on Fall hill from John C. Stephens and Moses 
Ballard and by an execution against Captain Mack he took 
an interest in the mills at Fall river. He lived where what 
is known as the Millard place now stands. The estate went 
into the Adams family. Boyington was a Revolutionary 

In 1799 Joseph Mott sold to John E. Hall, a merchant of 
Greenfield, several tracts of land adjoining the Adams and 
Phillips lands, and he or some former owner built a sawmill 
on Fall river about a half mile above the present Gill road. 
The mill went to decay many years ago. 

There were several small lots of land with old houses on 
them in the vicinity of old Fort Stocking. The northerly one 
was owned by Stephen Gates in 1 802, and was formerly 
owned by Abner Wells who owned the fort and died there. 
Daniel Crosby, the long-time sexton of the town, married a 
daughter of Stephen Gates and at one time lived at the old 
fort. Heirs of Edward Billings, son of the first minister of 
the town, sold to Mr. Gates, he to Franklin Ripley, Mr. Ripley 
to Mr. Crosby, and he to Henry W. Clapp. In 1838 Albert 
Jones, jeweller, sold seventeen acres to Franklin Ripley on 
which were three houses and two barns. Daniel Crosby sold 
the old fort itself to Ansel Phelps in 1 842. Mr. Phelps's exec- 
utors conveyed it to Hugh C. F. Smith in 1875, ^^ ^° Daniel 
G. Shaw in 1877 and Shaws's estate to Walter A. Lee in 1887. 
Mr. Clapps's heirs sold about twenty-four acres of this land in 
1 88 1 to Henry H. Fletcher. The old buildings have all dis- 
appeared and modern homes now occupy their places. 

Going north from the Adams district, as you cross Half- 


way Hill, on the right in the lot is the Frank Hastings place 
and on the road the Wait place, the Waits being of the Hast- 
ings family. The Hastings of this district are all descendants 
of Seleh Hastings, son of the second Benjamin, the brave 
soldier, captain in the French and Indian wars, and a lieu- 
tenant in the Burgoyne campaign. They obtained their lands 
from their forefathers, and have occupied several small farms 
m this neighborhood. 

On the west side of the road, on the hill, is the Lander 
place, on which have been two or three small houses, one 
owned and occupied in 1796 by Abner Mack, who sold to 
Phineas Jones. Isaac Jones owned one place in 1800. Ben- 
jamin Hastings, Jr., sold to Peleg Adams in 1862 and Mr. 
Adams to Benjamin D. Lander in 1866. 

Micah Phillips purchased land in this vicinity as early as 
178 1 of Samuel Stanhope, David Smead and others. In 
1798 Israel Phillips purchased of Moses Bascom seventy-one 
acres to which he added later eighty acres deeded to him by 
Calvin Frisbee. The Phillips house was a log one and was 
located near the bank of Fall river, some distance from the 
main road, and here he raised a large family of children who 
became worthy and honorable citizens of the town. One of 
the sons, Rufus S. Phillips, lived at the corner of Lampblack 
street and the cross road, and another, Noble P. Phillips, for- 
merly owned the McHard place. The descendants of these 
men live in the northerly part of the town. 

Moses Bascom was an early settler of Greenfield, and owned 
large tracts of land in the northeast part of the town. About 
1820 Dorus Bascom purchased the interests of the other heirs 
in his father's estate. The place where Abner N. Bascom 
lately lived seems to have been conveyed by Timothy Childs 
to Moses Bascom in 1774 and was owned in 1802 by Con- 
sider Cushman who made it his home until 1825 when he 
sold to Reuben Kenney. Kenney sold this particular piece 
in 1829 to Loranson Kenney, who in 1 834 conveyed it to 


Aaron Buddington. In 1841 Mr. Buddington sold it to 
Dorus Bascom and he in 1844 conveyed it to Elijah S. Bas- 
com who in 1861 deeded it to Abner N., the late owner. 
Captain Enoch Briggs resided here from 1834 to 1841. 

The well known Griswold farm has been in that family 
since 1796, at which time Theophilus Griswold obtained a 
deed from Esther, the executor of the will of Dr. Thomas 
Williams of Deerfield. He added to his original purchase by 
obtaining lands from Elizabeth Rogers, Enoch Nickerson, 
Patrick Wells and Obed Wells, and by his will proved in 
1822 conveyed all to his son Lyman Griswold. In 1863 
Lyman deeded this farm to his son John Flavel Griswold, 
who in 1898 by his will conveyed the same to his nephew, 
Lyman W. Griswold. On this farm was a lampblack manu- 
facturing place which gave the name to the district. 

Dorus Bascom sold to Henry Bascom sixty acres in 1827 
and in 1834 Henry Bascom sold to Jared Newell. In 1839 
Newell sold to Jonah Sawyer, who by his will proved in 1861 
gave the same to Sylvester J. and Melitta Sawyer, and in i 864 
they conveyed the place, lying on Fall river, near the bridge, to 
Henry H. Turner. Mr. Turner in 1879 sold to EloisaA. 

In 1807 Robert Clark bought of Samuel Johnson and of" 
Moses Bascom land lying between the road and Fall river, 
and a little corner where the house stands, which came from 
the Griswold farm. In 1830 the house was conveyed to Ly- 
man Griswold, and in 1845 ^e conveyed it to Augustus B. 
Clark who, the next year, deeded it to Lyman G. Clark. 
In 1848 Lyman G. sold to William R. Clark, who in 1852 
deeded it to Israel Phillips. Mr. Phillips deeded it to 
Elijah S. Bascom in 1863 and Mr. Bascom to Ralph H. 
Chapin in 1876. John Chapin purchased of Ralph H. in 
1886, and in 1892 his heirs conveyed to Clifford Bourbeau, 
who sold it in 1896 to Arthur Mitzie. 

Joseph Stebbins and Jonathan Arms owned land in the old 


Country Farm strip and sold to Rufus Hosley in 1 807 on which 
he built his home. In 1834 he sold to Samuel Jennison, who 
kept it four years and conveyed it to Caleb Chapin who oc- 
cupied it during his life. At his decease he willed this place 
to his daughter Mary Chapin, who sold it in 1886 to Joseph 
Vanslet, who in 1889 conveyed it to Tuffield Lenois, and he 
in 1890 sold to Joseph Brow, and he in 1898 sold to Moses 
Tevier who immediately conveyed it to George C. Bourbeau. 

The Moses B. Phillips place on the cross road was for- 
merly owned by Phineas C. Page who conveyed to Survanus 
Britton and he in 1844 sold to Barnard A. Newell, who deeded 
it the same year to Jason Brown. Mr. Brown deeded to Is- 
rael Phillips in 1861 and in 1870 Mr. Phillips conveyed it to 
his daughter, Caroline E., wife of Moses B. Phillips. 

The late George W. Potter at one time owned quite a large 
tract of land at the southeast corner of Petty 's Plain. From this 
land a most delightful view is obtained of Deerfield and its 
meadows and the mountains' and hills beyond. This land 
was a portion of the first division of Inner Commons, and the 
first owner, as far as the Franklin County Registry shows, was 
Henry Sweet of Shelburne. He deeded it in 1802 to Moses 
Arms who held it two years and conveyed it to Daniel Wells, 
the father of the late Judge Daniel Wells. This purchase 
was a ninety acre tract. Mr. Wells purchased other lands 
between 1805 and 18 10 from Calvin Burt, Moses Miller 
Mitchell and Robert and John Carey. In 1880 he sold to 
David Ripley, the first keeper of a bookstore in Greenfield, 
seventy-five acres, and this land became known as the " Rip- 
ley Farm." Mr. Ripley purchased largely of adjoining lands 
and after his decease in 1837 his heirs conveyed this farm to 
George W. Potter, March 14,1848. Mr. Potter sold out 
this land as opportunity offered, in small tracts to persons 
who erected houses upon the premises. Meridian street was 
laid out upon this farm. That portion of the old farm re- 
maining unsold in 1877 passed by purchase to James H. 



and Charles H. Potter and has recently been purchased by 
C. C. Dyer. 

Jonathan Hoyt, or Hoit as he spelled it, moved from Deer- 
field to Cheapside about 1775 (before our record of deeds 
began) and built the large house overlooking the meadows, 
long known as the David R. Wait place. He was an inn- 
holder and his house was known as " the White Horse Tav- 
ern." He was born in 1728, became a lieutenant, was a Tory 
during the war, and died May 7, 18 13. He willed this farm 
of two hundred and ten acres of land and another house and 
store at Cheapside and one at Greenfield to his son Cephas. 
When Cephas died in 1829 his estate was found to be largely 
indebted and all his large holdings were sold. Elihu Hoyt 
and Horatio G. Newcomb, administrators of Cephas Hoyt's 
estate, sold the right of redemption upon two hundred acres 
of land, two houses and other buildings to Hatsell Purple 
and P. L. Cushman, for $4,100. The Clark Houghton 
house to Isaac Abercrombie, for $375. The Clark Houghton 
store, adjoining the east side of the abutment of the Deerfield 
river bridge, to Mr. Abercrombie for $400. The Oliver 
Wilkinson homestead (now Edward Benton's) was owned by 
Mr. Hoyt and was cut up in pieces and sold to C. K. Gren- 
nell, Spencer Root, Ansel Phelps and others. He also owned 
the lot now occupied by M. R. Pierce and Peck, on Federal 
street, which was sold to Allen & Root for I150. Major 
Julia and Albert Smead bought a fifty acre pasture adjoining 
the Sweet farm in Shelburne, for $760. 

Purple and Cushman sold the meadow farm August 29, 
1 83 1, to Reverend Henry Coleman, the celebrated agricul- 
turalist, for $12,000. He made this place his home until 
March 30, 1836, when he sold to Sylvester Allen, Cephas 
Root, Spencer Root and Franklin Ripley, for $14,300. 

The syndicate immediately commenced to sell parcels of 

the land, the buildings and some of the meadow going to 

- David R. Wait, who resided upon the premises until his death. 


Other purchasers were William Elliot, Rebekah and Hepzibah 
Wait, David Wait, Philo Temple and John Hibbard. 

In 1877, after David R. Wait's decease, the home farm was 
sold at auction, and purchased by Robert Abercrombie for 
1 1 0,1 00, and he still owns the greater part of his purchase. 

The premises lately the home of Henry Wait were a por- 
tion of his father's farm (David R.), the house being formerly 
occupied by Richard E, Field as a carriage shop, and was 
located near the Boston & Maine railroad bridge, being moved 
to its present location when the abutments were built. 

Forty acres of the Hoyt farm was sold to John Hibbard in 
1836, and four years later was purchased by Major Orra 
Sheldon, who resided upon his purchase until his decease in 
1878. He willed all his real estate to his son, George B. 
Sheldon, who has recently sold off a portion as building lots. 

A large portion of the land easterly of the point of rocks 
was drawn by the heirs of Reverend John Williams, and 
owned by John Williams about the beginning of the past 
century. John Williams never lived at Cheapside, retaining 
his residence in the old street. Still he exercised a large 
influence in Cheapside affairs during the height of his pros- 

The old house standing between the highway and Deerfield 
river, east of the old tavern stand, was for years the home of 
Isaac Abercrombie, Isaac Abercrombie, Jr., and Ira Aber- 
crombie.- Asiel, the father of Robert Abercrombie, kept the 
hotel. The Abercrombies were talented business men and 
were often called to assist in the administration of town 

David Wait, 2d, known as " Lurhber David " and " Round 
the Mountain David," was the occupant for many years of the 
farm just east of the point of rocks, more recently the home of 
Robert M. Snow. 

The five acre homestead known as the Frank Park place, 
near the west end of the Montague city bridge, was deeded to 


Isaac Abercrombie by Moses Bardwell in 1836, by Mr. 
Abercrombie to Benjamin F. Savage in 1848 and by Mr. 
Savage to trustee for Mrs. Park in 1864, and continues to be 
the home of its whole-souled and good-natured proprietors, 
the Parks. 

In recent years quite a little settlement has grown up in 
this vicinity, which has rapidly increased in importance since 
it became a part of Greenfield and especially since the advent 
of the trolley road. Quite a tract of the original Williams land 
has been plotted as Riverside Park, and many houses will 
without doubt be erected here within a short time. 



AT a town meeting held in Greenfield November 19, 
1753, Benjamin Hastings, Daniel Nash and Jonathan 
Smead were chosen a committee " to agree with Samuel 
Munn for a piece of ground for a burying yard." The com- 
mittee purchased the ground according to their instructions, 
and obtained a deed from Mr. Munn of about an acre of land 
directly west of the Court House, about ten rods south from 
Main street, where now Miles street leading to the railroad 
station is situated. The ground was beautifully located upon 
a high bluff overlooking the Green river valley, but in later 
years had been encroached upon by neighboring landowners, 
and at last in order to get an easy approach to the railroad 
station, the property was condemned to public use, and the 
remains of those buried there were removed by family friends 
and descendants, or by the town authorities to other places of 
burial. The stones erected here showed the names of many 
of the earliest settlers of the town, among others the Reverend 
Roger Newton, D.D,, who for fifty-six years was the minister 
of the town. Very many of the stones were placed in the 
Federal Street Cemetery. 

March 7, 1768, Aaron Denio, Samuel Hinsdale and Ben- 
jamin Hastings were appointed by the town " to look out a 
proper place for a burying yard " and they selected the acre 
lying upon the west side of the highway leading from Deerfield 
to Northfield, east of the old meetinghouse place. This lot 
is still used for the purpose to which it was dedicated, and 


contains the remains of very many of the early settlers of the 
town, for a century ago, when Gill was a portion of the town 
of Greenfield, the old meetinghouse was considered to be near 
the centre of the town, and was the place for large gatherings 
of the people. The people interested particularly in these 
grounds have recently become incorporated under the name 
of High Street Cemetery, and have done very much to improve 
and beautify the place, and its appearance reflects great credit 
upon their efforts. 

Without doubt the Lower Meadows Cemetery was the 
third place of burial selected by the people of the town. From 
an entry in the diary of a granddaughter of Thomas Nims, 
who died February 4, 1793, aged seventy-five, I learn that the 
body of Mr. Nims was the first to be buried there, with the ex- 
ception of the body of a small child, who died some little time 
before. In this hallowed soil rest the remains of the Smeads, 
Armses, Nimses, Mitchells and others of the old families who 
settled on these rich meadows when the land first yielded of 
its bounty to white owners. For many years this yard was 
sadly neglected, but happily it has now come under the care 
of a corporation founded for its preservation, and creditable 
work is being done for its improvement. It is legally known 
as The South Meadow Cemetery Corporation. 

In 1820 Asaph and Jesse Smead conveyed to Quintus 
Allen and others the small piece of ground now known as the 
North Meadows Cemetery, for the purpose of a general 
burying ground. The grounds were somewhat enlarged a 
few years since by a slight change in the highway, and have 
been put into excellent condition by those people who have 
especial interest in the place. A corporation has been formed 
which has the control of suflicient money derived from a fund 
provided for the purpose (which was largely the gift of the 
late Elijah Coleman, Esq., of Philadelphia, who was born in 
this vicinity), to enable them to keep the yard in its present 
beautiful condition. The managers take great pride in its neat 



appearance, and in the oft-repeated assurances that it is a model 
country burial ground. Many names known to honorable 
place in the town's history may be found chiseled upon the 
modest monuments standing in this yard. 

The highway once existing, leading from the almshouse 
southwesterly across Green river to the Green river road, at 
the house of F. H. Ballou, was discontinued many years ago. 
On the banks of Green river near where the pumping station 
of the Greenfield waterworks is now located, and entered 
from this old road, is a small burial yard, where sleep in un- 
broken solitude the remains of some of the representatives of 
the oldest families of the town. Corses, Graveses, Armses lie 
here, who once figured largely in the business affairs of the 
community. During the life of the late Noble P. Phillips 
he always took care that this yard was neatly kept. 

A small yard on the east side of the " old stage road," near 
the ancient Sage place, on land conveyed by Asa Chamber- 
lain, March 7, 1803, has been generally kept in quite good 
condition by the kindred of those people of that neighbor- 
hood who have been buried there. The soil is light and not 
conducive to that freshness and greenness which we love to 
see in the places where rest the remains of our loved ones. 

As time elapsed it became evident that the village was to 
be at the town street, and not where the meetinghouse was 
built, and the ground first laid out as a burial place having 
been filled, the prominent men of the town purchased from 
Abner Wells, December 27, 1803, a portion of the land now 
composing the Federal street cemetery. An additional tract 
was bought of Calvin Hale in 1804, and a small piece near 
the brook has since been added to the original purchase, be- 
side the little square from the Sanderson farm. The original 
grantees were Ambrose Ames, Elijah Alvord, Jr., Jonathan 
Bird, Edward Billings, Caleb Clapp, Thomas Chapman, Dan- 
iel Clay, John Denio, Thomas Dickinson, Eliel Gilbert, John 
E. Hall, Timothy Hall, Hart Leavitt, Jonathan Leavitt, Cal- 



vin Munn, Richard E. Newcomb, Thomas Norton, Proctor 
Pierce, Samuel Pierce, John Russell, Jerom Ripley, David 
Ripley, Benjamin Swan, John Stone, Rufus Severance, Daniel 
Wells, Abner Wells, Samuel Wells, William Wait and Oliver 
Wilkinson. This list will be found to have included most of 
the business men of the village at that period. The town 
erected a receiving tomb in this cemetery some thirty years 
since. It is incorporated, and the yard is still to a limited 
extent used for a burial place, by families who came here dur- 
ing the middle period of the town's existence. The grounds 
are well kept, and the interest in the care and management of 
its affairs are well sustained. 


In the year 1850 it was found that the old town burying 
grounds had become inadequate for the requirements of the 
growing village. A small lot of land was bought to enlarge 
the Federal street burying grounds, but that proved only a 
temporary relief. Early in 1851 steps were taken to form a 
cemetery corporation by association under the general laws, 
and seventy-seven persons, comprising the business men of 
the village, signed the agreement. The first meeting was 
called at the Town Hall on Federal street. May 26, i85i,at 
which Franklin Ripley was chairman. By-laws were adopted 
and officers elected as follows: Henry W. Clapp, president; 
Henry B. Clapp, clerk and treasurer; Rufus Howland, col- 
lector ; Wendell T. Davis, David S. Jones, Lewis Merriam 
and James S. Grinnell, executive committee. 

The executive committee, June 2, 1 851, bought twelve and 
one half acres of land on Petty's Plain of Franklin Ripley, 
George T. Davis and Daniel Wells. Work was begun at 
once and on the 7th day of October, 1851, consecration serv- 
ices were held on the grounds, Reverend Dr. Willard of Deer- 
field offered the prayer. Reverend Dr. Strong read appropri- 


ate selections from the Scriptures and an original hymn by 
Dr. Strong was sung. The first stanza was as follows : 

" With chastened hearts and solemn rite 
We conae to consecrate the place 
Where men of differing creeds unite, 
And rest alike in death's embrace." 

The procession was led by Merrill's Band, and consisted 
of the three fire companies, the clergymen, the orator, the offi- 
cers of the corporation, the Misses Stone's and Misses Wil- 
liams's schools, the children of the public schools and many 
citizens. Jt was a long and imposing procession. The ad- 
dress of the occasion was by the Reverend John Williams, 
then president of Trinity College, Hartford, afterwards Bishop 
of Connecticut. After the return of the procession to the 
village a collation was served at the Mansion House through 
the liberality of Henry W. Clapp, Esq. 

The eligible lots were soon taken and in June, 1852, eight 
acres were added by purchase from Albert Smead. This land 
is the westerly part of the cemetery and is now bounded by 
the road to the present Agricultural grounds. Other lands 
were bought and in 1855 the cemetery had twenty-four acres 
and ninety rods of land. In 1886 the purchase of eight acres 
and eighty rods of land from Mrs. Jane Goodnow, called the 
" Cephas Root " lot, and the more recent addition of other 
land deeded to it as a gift by heirs of the late James Newton 
and a small piece purchased from the estate of Manley Mc- 
Clure has increased the cemetery to its present extent of about 
forty acres. After the corporation was formed a foot bridge 
over Green river was planned and would have been built but 
the highway over Green river and across Petty's Plain, 
past the Agricultural grounds, was about this time located 
and made, and the necessity for a foot bridge obviated. Be- 
fore that bridge and the highway were built the only entrance 
to the^cemetery was by the bridges near the Wiley & Russell 



The cemetery received a legacy of $2,000 by the will of the 
late Isaac Miles, the income to be used for improvements, 
and also a small legacy from the late Rufus Rowland. Mrs. 
Maria Hovey Hosmer, daughter of the late Dr. Daniel Hovey, 
by her will sets apart the sum of $5,000, and makes provision 
for a share in her residuary estate, which will eventually come 
to the Green River Cemetery. It has what is called a " Per- 
petual Care " fund by which persons may pay into the treas- 
ury of the association $150 or |200, and have the income of 
that sum, or so much as is needed set apart to care for indi- 
vidual lots. This fund is kept separate and apart from other 
funds of the association and is fast increasing. When a suita- 
ble entrance to the grounds has been completed, a keeper's 
lodge and a chapel built, the cemetery will become one of the 
most beautiful burial places in western Massachusetts. 

The present officers of the association (1900) are: Presi- 
dent, Frank O. Wells ; Secretary and Treasurer, Charles F. 
Packard ; Assessors, Charles R. Lowell, F. R. Allen, A. F. 
S. Lyons and Frederick Clapp. 

October 5, 1857, Right Reverend John B. Fitzpatrick, 
Bishop of the Diocese of Boston, obtained from David R. 
Wait and Charles H. Munn a conveyance of three acres of 
land lying south of the Green River Cemetery lands, paying 
therefor the sum of $145, "said tract, being subject to a right 
of way of the Green River Cemetery Company, and is to be 
held by the said John B. in trust for the Catholic community 
for the purpose of a free burial ground." 

In this yard lie the remains of quite a number of the early 
Irish emigrants who sought homes in America soon after the 
famine in Ireland, in 1848, but the large majority of the lots 
are neglected and uncared for, and the condition of the plot 
is a lasting disgrace to the people whose friends are there 


The land now occupied by the Catholics for cemetery 



purposes was purchased by Bishop Patrick T. O'Reilly in 
May, 1877, from Mrs. Mary Nash, and contains ten acres. 
It has been properly fenced, and laid out into suitable lotS;. 
with convenient avenues, and has been brought into an attrac- 
tive condition by the cultivation of trees and shrubs. 

The land is naturally light and sandy, but admirably suited 
for the purposes for which it is used. The westerly portion of 
the cemetery was consecrated by Bishop Beaven, Labor Day, 
September 5, i 898. 

When an ample water supply can be afforded, with the 
continued careful management which it is apparent the grounds 
now receive, this cemetery with its many large and costly 
monuments will take rank with any other in this vicinity, for 
there are no people who excel the devoted members of the 
Catholic faith in their respect and honor to the memory of 
their deceased friends. 



Consecrated by Reverend Roger Newton between November, 
1 76 1 and November, 18 16. 

December 17th 1761. John Bolton & Martha Megee, 
both of Colrain. 

April loth 1762. Matthew Severence & Experience 
Nash ; Greenfield. 

May 1 2th. Joseph Hastings & Annis Mun. 

July ye ist. Philip Root of Montague & Abigail Smead. 

Lieutenant Catlin of Deerfield & Abigail Denio. 

January 1763. Joseph Stebbins & Miss Hinsdale of Deer- 

February. Eliphalet & Esther ; Indians. 

March 25. Caleb Wright & Sarah Mitchel. 

May. Thomas Judd of Hadley & Esther Graves. 

December. Samuel Hinsdale & Miss Eunice Mac- 

January 1764. John Senet of Bradford & Margeret Me- 
creles (McCrillis) of Colrain. 

February. John Wells & Tamar Rice. 

February. Elisha Hinsdale & Sarah Atherton. 

March. Abisha Hollen & Thankful Wells. 

September. Lemuel Smead & Sarah Nims. 

November. Sam'll Shattuck & Chloe Field, of Bernard- 

April 1765. Seth Denio & Rebekah Allen. 

17C5— 1771] 


July 1765. Mr. Bell & Jennet Stewart of Colrain. 

January 2d 1766. John Corfiran & Sarah Fulton, both of 

January 28. Abraham Bass of East Hoosac & Rhoda 

February 6. Hugh Riddle & Jean Morris, both of Col- 

December. James Perry & Abigail Hawks, both of 

January 7, 1767. Elijah Monrose and Sarah Henderson 
both of Halifax. 

February 12. John Howland & Naomi Bascome. 

February 17. Benjamin Henry & Martha Ayres, both of 

January 14 1768. James Wild & Catherine Mills both of 

January 21. Jonathan Smead & Rosanna Patterson of 

July 13. Ebenezer Wells and Mary Arms. 

December 15. John Fulton and Susanne Stewart of Col- 

July 1769. Timothy Bascom & Abigail Atherton. 

January 16 1770. Francis Mun & Rebekah Childs, both 
of Deerfield. 

March 22. Nathaniel Dodge & Betsey Pool, both of 

August. Thomas Taylor & Cynthia Corse. 

January 1771. Lemuel Hastings & Eunice Bascome. 

May 9. John Ransom & Susannah Pool. 

May 9. Ebenezer Searls & Lydia Graves. 

June 13. Daniel Smead & Tirzah Wells. 

June 13. (Ebenezer) Bardwell of Montague & Philomena 
Smead (bap. Irene). 

December 5. Samuel Stoughton of Greenfield & Sarah 
Mun of Northfield. 



March 19 1772. Benjamin Dodge of Colchester & Tabitha 
Dodge of Shelburn. 

May 31. EHjah Wells & Hannah Billings. 

June 8. Jonathan Hoit of Deerfield & Abigail Nash. 

October i. Reuben Wells & Experience Severance. 

October 15. Caleb Sheldon of Bernardston & Dorithy 

October 27. Benjamin Horsley and Ruth Risley. 

November 12. Silvanus Allen & Martha Stebbins. 

August 4 1773. George Grenolds (Grennell) & Lydia 

August 19. George Haskins & Rebekah Denio. 

September 15. Isaac Newton & Sebera Denio. 

September 23. Ithemar Allen & Eunice Risley. 

September 28. John Smead & Urania Arms. 

October 14. Seth Hawks & Esther Wells. 

October 14. Daniel Pickett & Submit Hastings. 

November 12. Abel Simons & Lucy Brown. 

November 25. Daniel Nash & Anne Atherton. 

November 25. Silvanus Nash & Tryphena Hudson. 

January 6 1774. Matthew Ellis & Anna Clark both of 
Colrain; also William McKee (McGee?) & Molly Clark 
both of Colrain. 

January 13. Ariel Hinsdale & Thankful Severance. 

January 19. Abner Smead & Hannah Albert (Alvord). 

March 10. Thomas Judd of South Hadley & Thankful 

March 14. Phinehas Jones & Mary Brooks. 

April 21. David Gains & Elizabeth Tubbs. 

April 28. Ebenezer Nims & Margaret Paterson. 

August 23. Bernard Davison & Betsey Allen. 

September 27. Elijah Dwight of Belcher (town) & Diana 

October 30. Enos Denio & Ruth Brooks. 

November. Medad Hastings & Sarah Hawkins. 

j„^_^„gj MARRIAGES 7()3 

December 29 1774. Elihu Field & Hephzibah Dickinson, 
both of Deerfield. 

January 18 1775. Uriah Fitch & Diadema Chapman who 
were published at Shelburne. 

August 10. Abner Wells and Elisabeth Allen. 

January 12 1776. David Caldwell & Sarah Denio. 

May 20 1777. Elijah Risley & Deborah Waters. 

June 10. Solomon Smead & Esther Smith. 

August 14. James Roberts & Esther Nims. 

December 18. Solomon Denio & Esther Pannell of Col- 

January 26 1778. John Ewers of Montague & Hannah 

January 29. Chilieb Hale of Bernardston & Mercy 

February 24. Gad Alvard of South Hadley & Thankful 

April 14. Artemas Rice of Charlemont& Katherine Taylor 
of Shelburne. 

April 14. Also Abner Nims & Sarah Taylor, both of 

April 16. Sam'l Deane and Eunice McDowell. 

April 29. Simeon Cary and Abigail Bacon. 

Sept'r 17. Tubal Nash & Mary Corse. 

Sept. 28. Joseph Severance & Mercy Allen. 

Octob'r 23. Ebenezer Graves & Anna Chapin, 

Octob'r 30. Ethan Billings & Submit Belding of Amherst. 

Novemb'r 5. John Newton & Elizabeth Arms. 

Decemb'r 31. Eben'r Roberts & Submit Brooks. 

January 6, 1779. Ebenezer Allen & Sarah Bush. 

March 21. Joseph Gains & Elisabeth Tubbs. 

April 2. John Morley & Miriam Brooks. 

June 3. Zebediah Slate of Bernardston & Mary Atherton. 

May 21. Lem'l Bascome & Abigail Allen. 

May 24. Obed Wells & Caroline Grennell. 



August 5 1779. Amasa Smead & Sarah Deane. 

Novemb'r 22. Enos Rice & Mercy Moffett, the latter 
from Northfield. 

January 24, 1780. Apollos Allen & Deborah Pardy. 

June. Roger Edgcom & Sarah Wells. 

Septemb'r 14. Asher Newton & Chloe Cors. 
" " Mr. Stanhope & Mrs. Tubb. 

Decemb'r 7. Thaddeus Merrill (of Rowe) & Chloe 

January 4, 1781. James Cors & Hannah Stebbins. 

March 12. Moses Field of Leverett and Mary Spelman 
of Greenfield. 

March 18. John Wells of Deerfield and Desire Elliot. 

April 26. William McKinsey & Mary Guillows. 

May 2. Zadock King & Thankful Michel both of Deer- 

May 17. Daniel Taylor & Eunice Wells. 

June 14. Levi Wells & Mehitable Wells. 

August 30. Oliver Hastings and Dorothy Cary. 

Octob'r 26. Benjamin Dean & Experience Allen. j 

" " Also Daniel Wells & Rhoda Newton. 

Decemb'r 6. Ithamar Burt & Prudence Dickinson both 
of Deerfield. 

Decemb'r 27. Gideon Dewey & Joanna Allen. 

January 31, 1782. Asa Wells of Bernardston & Susanna 
Crandal of Greenfield. 

Feb. 21. David Hoit & Elizabeth Ball both of Deerfield. 

Feb. 28. Isaac Newton & Hester Lord. 

March 5. William Sprague & Anna Stephens. 

March 21. John Sanderson & Hannah Johnson. 

April II. Elisha Wells & Tirzah Severance. 

May 16. John Bush & Lydia Arms. 

May 19. James Pickett & Katherine Rosseter. 

August 7. Sam'l Boies ye 3d. of Blanford & Anne Dick 
of Pelham. 





Nov. 28 1782. Thanksgiving; Solomon Sheldens & Pru- 
dence Thayer both of Bernardston. 

Nov. 28. Moses Scott & Eunice Woods. 
" " Ezra Mudge & Sarah Munn. 

January 23, 1783. Obediah Horsford of Thetford & 
Abigail Carrier. 

Feb. (in fact Jan. 29). David Dickinson & Betsey 
(Elizabeth) Ashley of Deerfield. 

Feb. 27. Joseph Simons & Elisabeth Wells. 

March 2. Job Graves & Abigail Wells. 

April (28). Hilkiah Hawks & (Joanna) Brooks. 

July 2. Amos Jepperson & Sarah Derby. 

July 31. Ebenezer Martindale & Lydia Carey. 

Sept'r 7. Sam'l Pickett and Mary Cors. 

Sept. 18. Elnath'n Sanderson & Sarah Strickling (Strick- 

Sept. 18. Beriah Willard & Katharine Wells. 

Oct. 12. Edward Billings & Rebecca Arms of Deerfield. 

Nov. 10. Amos Allen & Abigail Hoit. 

Dec. II. Joseph Nash & Rebecca Bascome. 

A portion of Mr. Newton's diary from 1783 to 1790 is 
missing. In 1783 the town clerk of Greenfield commenced 
to enter upon the records Intentions of Marriage. These 
entries from December i, 1783, to November 10, 1790, are 
found below. 

Dec. 28, 1783. Elijah Smith & Pollie Stebbins. 
" " " Joseph Stanhope & Bathijah Smalle. 

Feb. 3, 1784. Asa Smith & Abigail Brooks. 

March 24. Benjamin Carrier & Jerusha Ballard. 

May 22. John Severance Bernardston & Zerviah Nichols 
of Greenfield. 

Oct. 17. Selah Hastings & Susanna Smith. 

Mingo Proctor & "Tenor" (Rev. Dr. New- 
ton's servant). 

Nov. 18. Joseph Bascom & Esther Judd. 



[1784— 178G 

Nov. 1 8 1784. William Chadwick & Carolina Stanhope. 

" " " Silvanus Sistle & Lucy Horsley. 
Jan. 15, 1785. Elihu Atherton & Hepsy Leach. 
Feb. 13. Jonas Stanhope & Mary Allen, 
" 20. Ebenezer Wells & Mary Whipple. 
" 27. Reuben Ingram & Mary Hitchcock. 
March 12. Ebenezer Arms Jr. & Mary White. 

" " Abner Darling & Chloe Derby. 

April 6. Jesse Fairchild & Mary Stevens. 

" 16. Frederick Loveland & Rhoda Combs. 
May 7. George Darling & Jane Severance. 
May 25. John Sawtell & Anna Denio. 
July 3. Joshua Combs & Anna Loveland. 
Aug. 19. Josiah Parmenter of Northfield & Hannah 
Childs of Greenfield. 

Sept. 24. Eleizer Wells & Anna Wells. 

Jesse Johnson & Hannah Cohoon. 
Hull Nims & Hannah Newton, (m. Dec. i. 




1 1. 








Amos Cornwell & Abigail Severance. 
Joel Allen & Mary Smead. 
Solomon Severance & Hannah Hoit. 
Jan 7. 1786. Giles Webster & Huldah Thornton. 
March 4. George Morley & Joanna Whitten. 

" 12. John Kemp of Shelburne & Hannah Wells of 

Joseph Wrisley & Naoma Stricklin (Strickland). 
Joseph Phillips & Martha Bascom. 
Joel Smith of Greenfield & Elisabeth Dickinson 

Abner Arms & Mary Denio. 
Elias Bardwell & Irena Allen. 
Andrew Wilkens & Ruth Allen. 

Micah Phillips & Lois Temple. 

Jonathan Hawks of Deerfield & Mercy French 


9. J 





of Whately. 




" ] 






^9- . 

of Greenfield, 



Oct. 29 1786. Matthew Severance & Mary Wells. 

Nov. 2. Robert Cone & Sarah Cook. 
" 26. John Alvard of Brookfield & Abigail Smead of 

Jan. 12, 1787. Joseph Nutting & Huldah Convers. 

Feb. 4. John French & Elisabeth Bascom. 

April 6. Ephraim Hastings & Margaret Hitchcock. 
" 21. A. Field Wells & Abigail Burnham. 
" 30. Oliver Atherton & Mary Bascom. 

May 7. John Crossett of Wardsborough & Olive Car- 
penter of Greenfield. 

Aug. 4. William McHard & Temperance Whipel. 

" " Nathan Jacobs of Brattleborough & Sarah Clerk. 

Sept. 29. Adverdis (Edwardus) Allen of Greenfield & 
Hannah Brown of Leyden. 

Sept. 29. Eli Hamilton of Greenfield & Avis Southard 
of Pelham. 

Sept. 29. Eber Hamilton & Catherine Seeton. 

Oct. 2. Jonathan Wolles of Gilford & Jemima Webster 
of Greenfield. 

Oct. 26. Elijah Allen & Eunice Smead. 
" " Oliver Cone & Esther Wellman. 

Nov. I. William Smalley Esq. Guilford & Susannah 

Nov. I. Salmon Howland & Welthy Wise. 

Dec. 5. Reuben Ingram of Leyden & Tabitha Arms of 

Jan. 20, 1788. John Allen & Lucretia Wrisley. 

Feb. I. Jonathan Hall & Mary French. 
" " Mulford Phillips & Thankful Smalley. 

March 22. John Foster of Bernardston & Mendal Ather- 
ton of Greenfield. 

May 12. Joel Wells of Greenfield & Abigail Hawks of 

May 18. Ouintus Allen & Doratha Stebbins. 

708 MARRIAGES [1788-1790 

Sept. 9 1788. Samuel Newton & Sibella Weld. 
" 16. John Wells of Brattleborough & Anna Arms of 

Dec. I. Selah Allen & Thankful Allen. 
Jan. 24, 1789. Benjamin Hastings Jr. & Rachel Strick- 

Feb. 12. Job Allen & Pheba Pickett. 
March 21. Jonathan Allen & Cloe Bascom. 
July 14. Abel Torry & Lydia Anderson. 
July 18. John Alvord of Greenfield & Rhoda Mather of 
of Shelburne. 

July 19. Daniel Brooks of Greenfield & Levyna Morgan 
of Northfield. 

Sept. 29. Isaac Foster Jr. of Greenfield & Rebekah 
Hunt of Belchertown. 

Sept. 29. Jonathan Washburn & Elizabeth Joice. 
Nov. 6. Julius Chapin & Tabitha Strong. 
Jan. I. 1790. Elihu Goodman & Sarah Smead. . 
" 6. Simeon Munn & Pheba Clerk. 
" " Eli Smead & Submit Corss. 
" 30. Jeremiah Andrews & Lucy Loveland. 
Feb. 20. William Wait of Greenfield & Hepzibah Reed 
of Lexington. 

March 19. Eliphaz Allen & Unice Putnam. 

" Elijah Lamb & Hannah Wells. 
April 8, Simeon Wells of Shelburne & Abigail Stebbins 
of Greenfield. 

May 6. Oliver Sage & Polly Denio. 
" 21. Nathaniel Bass & Martha Anderson. 
" 22. Moses Miller Mitchell & Bathsheba Smith. 
Oct. 28. Jonathan Juett Horsley & Abigail Gibbs. 
Nov. 4. Ebenezer Corss & Grate Wells. 
" II. Capt. William Moore of Greenfield & Patte 

Nov. II, Ambrose Ames & Hannah Allen. 

1790-1793] MARRIAGES 709 

Then follows from Mr. Newton's diary. 

Nov. II, 1790. Zerah Alvard & Hannah Nims both of 

Novb'r 28. Joseph Severance & Lydia Nims both of 

Thursday, Decemb'r 9. Ambrose Ames & Hannah 

January 13, 1791. Elijah Alvard & Anne Bascome. 

April 12. Jesse Hutchinson & Charlotte Griswold. 

Novemb'r 3. Jonathan Field of Winchester & Abigail 

Novemb'r 7. Melchial Strohn and Fanny Usher. 

Decemb'r 12. Ephraim Wheeler & Mary Demonlett. 

January i, 1792. Abiel Stevens & Margaret McHard. 
" 19. Joel Graves & Elizabeth Billings. 

March I. Elihu Graves and Eleanor Smith. 

" " Ebenezer Wilkinson & Prudence Graves. 

April 12. Jonathan Atherton & Huldah Chamberlain. 

Joseph Mott of Goshen & Naomi Lyons. 

The above carried to the Town clerk, viz., Mr. D. Wells, 
April 17, 1792. 

April 26, 1792. Peter Brooks of Glossenbury & Mary 

August 27. Rev'd. Mr. Jonathan Leavitt of Heath & 
Mrs. Terzah Ashley of Deerfield. 

Sept. 3, 1792. Sam'l. Wells, Jr. & Electa Bascom. 

Octob'r 16. Dr. Israel Farrell & Miss Peggy Clark. 
18. Mr. EUis & Widow Stanhope. 

Nov. 19. Wm. Smally & Ruth Martindale. 

Nov'b'r 29. Zimri Howland & Katherine Cooke. 

Feb'y 19, 1793. Sam'l Newton & Peggy Wallace. 

March 26. Jehiel Gains & Derinda Allen. 

April 24. Levi Stiles & Diana Martindale. 

The above carried to the Town clerk the last day of Ap'l, 


710 MAKKIAGES [1793-1797 

May 15, 1793. Abel Guillow & Betsey Wheeler. 

June 6. Seth Arms & Dolly Denio. 

Aug. 22. David Risley Jr & Olive Starks. 

August 29. Rufus Chamberlain & Lydia Atherton. Also 
" " James Severance & Elisabeth Severance. 

Decemb'r 1. Sam'l Stebbins & Aseneth Bascom. 

Jan. I, 1794. Consider Shattuck & Anna Atherton. 
" 23 Francis Wood & Eunice Hastings. 

March 15. Moses Richards & Sally Stoughton. 
" Abner Wells & Ruth Strickland. 

April 23. Anan Bass of Charlemont & Dorothy Martin- 

May 22. Joel Willman & Betsy Baker both of Gill. 

Octob'r 30. Eleazer Derby & Lucy Webster both of 
Gill. Also 

Octob'r 30. Jabez Frazier & Sabra Denio. 

Nov. 6. Israel Phillips & Mary Bascom both of Gill. 

Nov'r 20. Warham Hitchcock & Olive Wells. 

Decemb'r 25. David Newell & Achsah Clark. 

January 28, 1795. Samuel Phillips & Betsey Lyon. 

Feb'y 5. Dan Chapin & Dorothy Wright. 

Feb'y 11. David Munn of Deerfield & Philena Clark. 

Sept. 3. Jonathan Sprague & Anna Risley of Gill. 

Novemb'r 22. Dan'l Clay & Lucinda Smead. 

Decemb'r 31. John Corse & Sarah Atherton. 

Jan'y 14, 1796. Aaron Skinner Jr & Charity Nims both 
of Shelburne. 

Jan'y 21. Elias Bascom of Orwell in Vermont & Thank- 
ful Graves. 

June 8. Enoch Clark & Anna Hutchinson. 

Octob'r 9. Erastus Coleman & Cornelia Billings. 

Decemb'r 15. Noah Munn Jr. & Mercy Simons of Gill. 

Feb'y. 22, 1797. Ichabod Potter & Chloe Loveland both 
of Gill. 

Feb'y 28. Daniel Steel & Clarissa Darby. 

1797-1801] MARRIAGES Til 

June 15, 1887. Robert Murdock of Shelburne & Polly 


July 10. Timothy Hale of Bernardston & Tirzah Sprague 

of Gill. 

Sept'r, 6. Benjamin Smead of Brattleborough & Clarissa 


Feb'y. 23, 1798. Sayvvard Phelps of Northampton & 
Elizabeth Amsden of Deerfieid. 

May 22. Timothy Venalarus & Rosanna Henneman ; 

July 5. Silas Brooks & Elizabeth Jones. 

Aug. 5. Zenas Bardwell & Susy Fellows both of Shel- 

Aug. 26. Ozias H. Newton & Hannah Smead. 

Sept'r 9th. (in the Meeting House) Rev. Dr. Nathaniel 
Lambert of Newbury in Vermont & Miss Abigail Newton. 

"A New form of Marriage used upon this occasion — You 
do each of you declare before God & this assembly that you 
do take & wed one another as husband & wife, promising to 
cleve to each other, & dwell together in all chastity, to render 
mutually due benevolence & perform the various duties of 
the married state with Fidelity & perseverance until death 
shall you part (severally & singularly) declare & promise." 

Novemb'r. 18. Charles Hitchcock & Mercy Thornton. 

Decemb'r 20. Joseph Battis & Diana Hinsdale. 

Feb'y 11, 1799. Ezekiel Rice of Putney & Hannah Bil- 

January 15, 1800. Solomon Henderson of Bennington & 

Betsey Wells. 

May 29. Caleb Stratton of Northfield & Betsey Strong. 

Sept'r. II. Aaron White & Christina Severance. 

Octob'r 14. Joseph Wise Jr. of Deerfieid & Welthy Fox 
of Bernardston, Mr. Cook being absent. 

Jan'y 10. 1801. Aaron Green & Clarissa Cushman. 

Feb'y. 5. Ruel Allen and Lucy Johnson. 



Feb'y 21, 1801. Edward H. Wells & Sarah Wells. 

Nov. 19. Ebenezer Ames & Huldah Newton. 

Nov. 26. Elihu Severance & Polly Hitchcock. 
" " Benjamin Averill & Lovina Holland. 

January 7, 1802. Jonath'n Pierce & Mary Woodard. 
" " Rufus Severance & Sarah Newton. 

Feb'y 11. Nathaniel Bement of Suffield, Con't. & Sarah 

June 6. Lords Day ; Evening ; Proctor Pierce & Sukey 

Nov. 6. Jonath'n Bird & Betsey Grennell. 

Nov. II. George Wilson & Mercy Nutting. 

Jan'y. 15, 1803. Oliver Wilkinson & Betsey Munn. 

Jan'y 29. John Taggart of Jeffrey, N. H., & Polly Rog- 
ers of this town. 

April 6. Benjamin Smith of Hadley & Widow Dolly 

Nov. 15, 1804. Joseph Severance Jr. & Elizabeth Hub- 

Ap'l. 17, 1805. John Denio & Harriot Stiles. 

Apr'l II. Roswell Lombard of Springfield & Cornelia 
Hall of this town. 

May 29. Spencer Root & Lydia Bordwell both of Mon- 

July 28. Joseph J. Buckingham of Boston and MeHnda 
Alvord of Montague. • 

Nov. 12. Elijah Alvord Esq., of Greenwich & Sabra 

Nov. 19. Asaph Smead & Mary Newton. 

Decemb'r. 18. Joseph Otis of Colrain & Violetta Hinsdale. 

Decemb'r. 31. John Hastings & Paris Bacon. 

Jan'y. 2d. 1806. James Wm. Hoxe and Mary Hitch- 
cock. The same day Mr. Hoxe began to occupy my store. 

Ap'l. 13. Enos H. Burt & Mary Atherton. 

Nov. 27. Oliver Potter & Sarah Alexander. 

iso,;_i8i2] MARRIAGES 713 

Dec. 13, 1806. Ira Arms & Sophia Allen. 

Feb'y. 25, 1807. Mr. Avery Williams of Leverett & 
Miss Clarissa Grinnell of this town. 

May 20. Anson Hitchcock of Bernardston & Betsy 

July 12. John Eson Jr. of Leydon & Olive Atherton. 
" 6. Alpheus F. Stone & Rachel Willard. 
" 14. Loring S. Field of Gill & Mary Hubbard. 

Octob'r 4, James Taylor & Mary Perry. 

Jan'y 7, 1808. Richard B. Callender of Chester, Ver't & 
Caroline Smead. 

April 28. Thursday, Lemuel Warner of Hadley & 
Martha Allen of Greenfield. 

May 21. Solomon Wells & Chloe Atherton. 

May 30. Curtis Newton & Salome Sawtell. 

Nov. 27. John Redfield of Gilford, Connet'tt & Pamelia 

Dec. 31. Hooker Leavitt & Nancy Munn. 

Feb'y I J 1809. Solomon Smead Esq. & Mrs. Larinda 
Burke of Bernardston. 

May 17. Holmes Mayhew & Lunetta Woodard. 

July 6. Reuben Graves of Montague & Ruby Bissel of 

July 23. Calvin L. Munn & Mary Swan. 

Feb. 17, 1 8 10. John Corss of Leyden & Lucy Lee of 
this place. 

Feb. 20, 181 1. Ebenezer Goodell of Westminister, Vt. 
& Rosanna Smead of this town. 

Oct. 22. Jonathan Root of Montague & Caroline Wells. 

Nov. 5. Ferdinan Hunt Wright of Northampton & Olive 

Feb. 5. Charles Dexter of Dover, Vt. & Lucinda Bas- 
com of Greenfield. 

Feb. 8, 1812. Horace Adams of West Haven, Ver. & 
Orra Billings of Greenfield. 




Nov. 5, 1 8 12. Ezra Purple, Bernardstone & Clarissa 

Nov. 10. Charles Stearns, Shelburne & Sally Risley. 

Dec'r 2. William Pynchon of Springfield & Esther Bil- 
lings of Greenfield. 

July 26, 1 8 13. Ansel Phelps & Hannah Ames. 

March 24, 18 14. Peter Bray (?) of Colrain & (illegible). 

May 8. Melvin Mayhew & Lucy Webster. 

May 18. Peter Newcomb of Bernardston & Tirzah 

Nov. 25, 1 8 1 6. Capt. Moses Arms & Widow Mary Swan. 

Chapter 84, Acts of 1857, required the town clerks of each 
town to make a certified copy of any record of a marriage 
recorded in the books of said town, or in any records of any 
magistrate or minister of said town, before the year i 800, and 
transmit the same to any other town in the commonwealth in 
which either of the persons married resided. 

Under this act the following returns were made to Green- 
field : 


Date of Marriage. 
Dec. 25, 1777 

June 16, 1791. 

Feb. 13, 1794. 

March 24, 1785. 
August 24, 1786 

Nov. 25, 1790. 

July 7, 1768. 

Name of Parties. 
Elisha Wells. 
Rhoda Graves. 
Rufus Graves. 
Esther Wells. 






WilUam Moore. Greenfield. 

Patty Buckminster. Barre. 

Ebenezer Arms, Jr. Greenfield. 
Mary W'hite. Whately. 

Joel Smith. Greenfield. 

Elizabeth Dickinson. Whately. 

Jon'a. Jewett. Greenfield. 

Abigail Gibes. Greenwich. 


Jon'a. Sprague. Greenfield. 

Mariam Brooks. Greenfield. 

By Whom Married. 
Rev. Jos. Lyman. 

Rev. Jos. Lyman. 

Rev. Josiah Dana. 

Rev. Rufus Wells, 
personal record 
Rev. Rufus Wells, 
personal record. 

Rev. Joseph Blodgett. 
Parish record. 

Seth Field, J. P. 




Date of Marriage. 
Nov'r. 24, 1768. 

Feb. 3, 1785. 

Aug. 27, 1789. 

Dec. 8, 1791. 

Aug. 29, 1793. 

Dec. 10, 1787. 
March 13, 1797. 

March 31, 1768. 
Sept. 3, 1794. 
Novemb'r, 1798. 

Nov. 30, 1784. 

March 9, 1797. 

Jan. 8, 1795. 

May 30, 1790. 

Jan. 3, 1765. 


Name of Parties. Residence. 

Seth Gary. Greenfield. 

Abigail Holton. Northfield. 

Sylvanus Sartwell. Barre. 

Lucy Hosley. Greenfield. 

Dan'l Brooks, Jr. Greenfield. 

Lavina Morgan. Northfield. 

Berwin Foot. Greenfield. 
Melinda Field. 

Charles Williams. Northfield. 

Clarissa Slade. Greenfield. 

Eli Hamilton. Greenfield. 

Avis Southwood. Pelham. 

Asa Kemp. Greenfield. 

Catherine Gardner. Whately. 


Battis Denio. Greenfield. 

Mary Miller. Springfield. 

Thomas Dickman. Greenfield. 

Nancy Church. Springfield. 

Enos Denio. Greenfield. 

Phoebe Brewster. Springfield. 

South Hadley 
Joseph Bascom. Greenfield. 

Esther Judd. South Hadley. 

Seth Wells. Greenfield. 

Polly Smith. Williamsburg. 

John Russell. Greenfield. 

Electa Edwards. Northampton. 

William Wait. Greenfield. 

Hepzibah Reed. Lexington. 

Matthew Clark. Greenfield. 

Anne Farrand. Hadley. 

By Whom Married. 
Seth Field, J. P. 

Seth Field, J. P. 

Seth Field, J. P. 

Rev. John Hubbard. 

Rev. John Hubbard. 

Rev. David Parsons. 

Rev. Joseph Lathrop. 
Rev. Bezaleel Howard. 

Rev. Joel Hayes. 

Rev. Joseph Strong. 

Rev. Solomon Williams. 

Rev. Jonas Clark. 




West Springfield 
Date of Marriage. Name of Parties. Residence. 

By Whom Married. 

March 2, 1769. 

March 6, 1788. 
May 29, 1793. 
March 26, 1795. 


Dec. 24, 1791. 

Oct. 13, 1790. 

June 4, 1792. 
June 21, 1792. 
Dec. 23, 1792. 
Dec. 23, 1792. 
Dec. 23, 1792. 
May 6, 1794. 
Dec. 23, 1798. 

Isaac Newton. 
Esther Hopkins. 


West Springfield. 

Nathan Nichols. Bernardston. 

Polly Newton. Greenfield. 

Moses Miller Mitchell. Greenfield. 

Lydia Hale. 
Jared George. 
Roxanna Allen. 
Samuel Rogers. 
Polly Dickinson. 
Consider Cushman. 
Rhoda Gaines. 









Josiah D. Childs. Greenfield. 

Hannah Wilbur. Leyden. 


Daniel Forbes. Greenfield. 

Clarissa Dickinson. Deerfield. 

Eliel Gilbert. Greenfield. 

Hannah Ashley. Deerfield. 

Joshua Clapp. Greenfield. 

Nabby Barnard. Deerfield. 

Hart Leavitt. Greenfield. 

Rachel Barnard. Deerfield. 

John Stone, M. D. Greenfield. 

Sally Barnard. Deerfield. 

John Rowley. Deerfield. 

Dinah Freedom. Greenfield. 

William Mitchell. Greenfield. 

Mercy Wise. Deerfield. 

Rev. Amasa Cook. 
Rev. Levi Hodge. 
Rev. Amasa Cook. 
Rev. Joshua Cook. 

John Williams, J. P. 
Rev. John Taylor. 
Rev. John Taylor. 
Rev. John Taylor. 
Rev. John Taylor. 
Rev. John Taylor. 
David Sexton, J. P. 

Recorded in Vol. 3, page 405, town records. 

John Phelps and Almeda, daughter of Asher Newton, all of Greenfield, were mar- 
ried P'eb'y 20, 1814, by Elijah Alvord, J. P. 

Ezra Chase, of Bristol, Vt. and Tirzah Wells of Greenfield, by Elihu Root, J. P., 
Sept. 29, 181S. 

Joseph Cobb and Rebekah Alexander, both of Deerfield, by Elihu Root, J. P., 
May 20, 1 819. 

April 25, 1814, Isaac Newton, Jr., and Margaret WilJard by Rev. Roger Newton. 



CHURCH meeting April y® 6th, 1762. Voted that the 
Collection for Chh. Charges should be brought in at 
every Conference in March. 

Benj. Hasting was chose Deacon. 

It being proposed whether Relations were improper persons 
to judge in cases of Offence, six out of ten were upon the 

Feb'y 13, 1763. I married Eliphalet and Esther, Indians. 

July y* 1 2th, 1763. Voted that a Table cloth, a Napkin 
& Bason be obtained for sanctuary services — the Collection 
for the Charges of the Lord's table to be 18 per Member. 

Oct. 16, 1767. Died, Umphry, Negro Servt. to Ensign 

April 6, 1770. Elisabeth y® wife of Aaron Scott & Re- 
becca, y* wife of Reuben Smead were called to answer to a 
charge made against them to the Chh. of living in an 
unchristian Quarrel and Contention, they were found guilty 
and accordingly had the Censure of the Chh. passed upon 

May 12, 1772. The Chh. choose Jonathan Severance and 
Eleaz"" Wells to Tune y* Psalm when Amos Allen shall be 

June 1 8, 1 772. Jonathan Catlin being complained of for ab- 
senting himself unnecessarily from the public worship of God 
& the ordinance of the Lord's Supper & for accusing the Chh. 
of opposition, appeared before the Chh. to answer for his con- 



duct. S'' Catlin acknowledged the Truth of the Complaint, 
but professing himself willing to be rectified in his sentiments 
if they were mistaken, the Brethren thought it best to defer 
passing sentence upon him for the present, acordingly y® 
meeting was adjourned to June 29, 1772, when s*^ Catlin ap- 
peared sensible of his error & restor^ to good standing. 

July 23, 1772. The Chh. convened to consider whether 
Elisabeth, y® wife of Aaron Scott, should have the Privilege 
of a Council, as she had requested. Y*^ Chh. were unanimous 
in the Opinion that she ought not to have her request granted. 

July I, 1773. The Chh. made Choice of Agrippa Wells, 
Ezekiel Bascome, Uriel Hinsdale & Reuben Wells to tune 
y® Psalm. 

July 28, 1773. The Chh. made Choice of David Smead to 
the office of Deacon. 

June 8, 1777. Rebecca Smead made Confession Publicly 
of the sin for which she had been Censured by y® Chh. & was 
restored to Charity. 

M'ch, 1778. Edward Billings, John Newton, John Wells 
& Simeon Nash were made Choice of to tune y'^ Psalm. 

April 4, 1780. The Chh. being convened at my house 
pass*^ the following votes viz : i that it is our Duty to Subject 
ourselves to the Authority of the United States of America so 
long as Providence continue us under it. 

2 that we will attend upon the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper as soon as Provisions can be made therefor, all being 
willing to overlook the offences that had taken place respect- 
ing public and civil affairs. 

3 that Timothy Childs and Moses Bascom be desired to 
deal with Noah Allen who had long absented from publick 

4 that Deacon Smead & Agrippa Wells deal with Mr. 
Billings, who is reported to be guilty of Intemperance. 

5 that Deacons Graves & Smead Deal with the widow Anna 
Atherton for absenting from Public Worship. 


6 that we will sing half y*' tune with reading. 

August 23 (died) Phillis, a negro Child born in my house. 

Oct. 23, 1782. At the Chh. Meeting Noah Allen ap- 
peared to answer to the offence the Chh. had taken at his 
withdrawing from Public Worship for a Number of years — 
the Reasons he gave for his conduct were these two — 

ist the want of brotherly love in y® Chh. 

2 the Chh* not Permitting a Brother when he had Light to 
communicate that Light, which reason was a little extraordi- 
nary as no Trial of that kind had ever come before y*' Chh. 
S'^ Allen acknowledged that he had withdrawn irregularly in 
that he (illegible) Deacon Graves of his uneasiness, But 
desired the Chh. to defer bringing on judgment upon his con- 
duct for the present, (and making some special Reasons) with 
which the Chh. complied. 

The Chh. also had some conversation with Amos Allen 
upon his absenting himself from Public Worship, but not as 
a judicial Body, upon the Merits of his conduct at that Time. 
S'^ Allen profess'* it as his Opinion that it is the Duty of the 
People of God constantly to attend upon his Public Wor- 
ship, but said for some Reasons in his own Mind, which at a 
proper Time he was willing to communicate to y® Chh he 
thought he could pass y® Sabbath in a manner more accepta- 
ble to God & more profitable to himself by tarrying at 
Home than by joining in the public Worship — here y® matter 
for y*' present was left, it being late in y® Evening & y® Chh. 
Meeting was dissolved 

April, 1783. Noah Allen informed me that it was his 
purpose to attend with y" Chh. upon the public Worship and 
Ordinances as soon as his Health would allow, being willing 
to acknowledge that he had withdrawn in an irregular manner. 

May 6, 1783. Noah Allen attended upon the Public 
Worship & after the Assembly was dismissed the Chh. was 
informed as above expressed, but he not being present no 
vote was taken as to his being restored to Charity. 


May 22, 1796. The Question being Propos^ to the Chh. 
whether it was agreeable to their minds that those Members 
residing in Gill, (Noah Allen excepted) should with others 
form into a Chh. by themselves in that place, it was voted in 
the affirmative. 

May 2, 1 799. At a regular Chh. meeting warned for the pur- 
pose of Choosing a Deacon & attending to the situation & 
conduct of Dr. Billings, Jonathan Leavitt, Esq., was chosen 
Deacon. Dr. Billings by vote of the Chh. was permitted to 
return to their Christian fellowship in Compliance with his 
Desire, notwithstanding he differed from them in some of his 
religious Sentiments, particularly in his Opinion that all Man- 
kind will receive a final and everlasting salvation by Jesus 

Memoranda of Common, Daily & Domestick Occur- 
rences, Etc. 

July 20, 1790. Received a visit from Messrs. Lyman, 
(Hatfield), and Taylor, (Deerfield), and their ladies. Mr. 
Lyman expressed a firm Purpose to break with the Chh. & 
town of Hatfield if they persisted in having Mr. Canon into 
the school. 

21. Went with Mrs. Newton to Deerfield & spent the 
day chiefly in company with Mr. Lyman and Lady at Mr. 
Taylor's — the Day fair and pleasant after a great supply of rain 
a few days before & the Company & entertainment agree- 
able, but something wanted to make one happy as there always 
has been & I fear always will be in this world. . . . 

Monday, July 26, 1790. Went out to seethe Damage 
done by my Hogs in Mr. Sweet's grain and agreed to allow 
him ten shillings — kill*^^ a Sheep — weighed 106 lbs. . . . 

Wednesday, July 27. Capt. Moore moved his store into 
Federal street. 

Thursday 29. Began to write a sermon from Prov. 4:7: 
Wisdom is the principal thing, etc, 


31. Made a sermon upon Prov. i6:i8: Pride goeth before 
Destruction and a haughty spirit before a fall. N. B. Several 
Deerfield people at Meeting, Mr. Taylor being absent. A 
pleasant Day but rendered unpleasant to me by an appearance 
of a voluntary absence among the young people especially, 
from Public worship & more so still by the want of a proper 
spirit & Frame in myself Others don't do right but 1 am 
constrained to think I do worse than they Considering my Pro- 
fession & Situation. My Feelings are not at my own com- 
mand and yet it is my fault that they are no better & is 
doubtless owing in great part to my neglect. 

August 8. . . . This day recei*^ an anonymous Letter 
wrote with a good legible Hand & in better Language than 
common men generally use, expressing a Desire that I should 
show in some Public Discourse whether it is right & consist- 
ant with the word of God, that men should Consult Conjurors 
& upon information received from them presume to accuse 
particular persons of Theft or any other crime, who cannot be 
found guilty in any ordinary way — this Motion I conclude 
was made because heretofore Mr. Cooke consulted a Conjuror 
& of late Mr. Sam' Hastings, both members of ye Chh. 
& the author of ye letter says it is a growing practice & 
represents a number of the Brethren as feeling concern*^ to 
have this matter discussed In a Serious Scriptural Manner : 
accordingly It appear*^ to be my Duty to preach a sermon rel- 
ative to it so soon as Providence may give a proper oppor- 

Tuesday, lo, 1790. It being this morning about 10 of the 
clock a year since Roger died, that sorrowful event was particu- 
larly recollected and talk^ of In the family & with the memory 
of this Dear Son who offered such pleasing Hopes & Prospects 
I find myself daily affected wherever I am, I admire that a 
year pass*^ In such Trouble should seem so short as this, there 
is Danger I feel that my time in the world will be run out 
ere I am aware of It even the I should live to the age of a man 


of which I have had no probable prospect for a great number 
of years. 

Tuesday, August 17, 1790. The field officers convened 
with their band of musick. Had this Day some Discourse 
with Mr. David Allen concerning his not bringing his young- 
est child to Baptism which is now more than eleven years 

Monday 23, read the Monthly Magazine for June & sev- 
eral Papers from the Printer at N. York — I found little in 
them either profitable or entertaining, in this however may be 
owing to my restless age rather than to any Defect in them, 
but I think there might be a great saving to the People without 
any Injury, by Diminishing the Number of Printers. 

Sept. 6, 1790. Rode out to my farm on the Mountain & 
from y® seeming Gloom on the face of Nature & my Distaste 
for farming return*^ with a Determination to lease my Land for 
the future. 

Thursday, 16 Sept. The Regiment met — Mr, Fisher & 
wife of N. Salem & Mr. Hodge lodg'^ at my house. 

Friday, 17 Sept., 1790. Kellogg began to cover my store. 

Tuesday, Oct. 16, 1790. General Shepherd began to Num- 
ber the People in this place, who call'^ at my House in Com- 
pany with Mr. Taylor. 

Oct. 26, 1790. Went to Heath with Mr. Asa Strong 

Oct. 28. Came home by the way of Colrain — din^ at Parson 
Sam' Taggart's — call*^ to see " Finner " who was probably 
more glad to see me than any Person I had met with in the 
journey — may Heaven take care of that poor african superior 
in her moral Disposition to many of other Nations. 

Friday, Nov. 13. Theodore Hitchcock had his leg cut off 
by Dr. Prentice. 

Nov. 26. The day spent among us as usual in visiting & 
Recreation — In the afternoon were visited by Mrs. Ripley, 
& her sister Rachel, a young Lady of a serious Turn of Mind, 



who refus*^ going to a Dance seemingly upon Principle, but in 
my own mind of dancing I consider it being an innocent 
diversion in itself, tho usually carried to excess and attended 
with unbecoming Behaviour. 

Dec. 27. Gave this day 29s 3d to Hart Leavitt to be laid 
out for Books in Boston for the Town Library. 

Jan. I, 1 79 1. The Weather Cold & stormy like ye world 
in which we dwell, & 'tis melancholly to think what little 
occasion I have to expect happiness as is wish'' from the N. 

Feb. II. Mr. Ashley, Mrs. Williams, Mr. Bernard of 
Sheffield and Mr. Dwight of Barrington Came on a visit. 
Also Miss Fanny Foxcroft. 

Feb. 1 7. Was visited in the afternoon by Col. Cutter 
of Brookfield & Mr. Forbbis of Northfield & Miss Nancy 

Feb. 18, Had opportunity to pursue my studies without 
interruption — In the ev'n^ the Youth had a Ball, & was again 
calF upon by Col. Cutter. 

Feb. 19. Capt. Moore arriv'^ with his Lady from Barre to 
whom he was Married last Sunday morning. 

Feb. 21. Capt. Moore invited a Number of his friends 
to his House to rejoice with him in his Prosperity, but on 
account of Mrs. Newtons indisposition, we did not attend. 
Mr. Hall took tea with us in the afternoon, 

February 23. Made a visit to Capt. Moore. 

Feb. 24. Received a visit from Capt. Moore & Lady & 
Mr. Buckaster & Mr. Coldwell. 

Mch. 6. Read the "Man of the World" an interesting 

Lords Day, May 29. My Horse started in my Carriage, 
ran & over set it and stripp"' himself of ye Harness, in Con- 
sequence of which Rode to Meeting in saddle in the after- 

June 7. Light Horse paraded. Mr. Dowe and Williston 

724 REV. ROGER Newton's diary 

Dined with me. Anna Childs stays with us being in a lan- 
guishing hectical state. 

July II. Artillery company met. 

Aug. lo. This day reminds us of one of the most sorrow- 
ful events ever suffer*^ by man, the Death of Roger, my eldest 
& dearly beloved Son, who died August lo, 1789. . . . 
No Father seemingly ever stood in greater need of such a son 
& it is, I conceive a rare thing amongst Parents to have such 
a son — but this Opinion perhaps is owing to the Partiality of 
a Father. I desire to remember that the same all perfect God 
who gave this son hath taken him away, & that infinite 
wisdom as well as Righteness always attends his Providence. 

April 18, 1792. The referees, viz.: Col. McClallen, 
Messr'. Smith and Megee Sat upon a case of contention 
between Amos Allen & Elijah Coleman. 

April 24. Invited by Capt. Clap in the afternoon to see 
his store moved. 

May 4. Sowed a bed of Salary. 

May 1 2. This being my Birth day on which I am 55 years 
old reminds me that my life must be drawing to a close. 

May 26. Visited by Judge Niles, a member of Congress. 

Lords Day, 27 May. Judge Niles preach*^ in the After- 

June 25. Attended upon catachising the children at Mill 


July 24. Nabbe begun to keep school at los per week. 
Abner Smead & George Grennell engaging to see her paid. 

Aug. 10, 1792. A melancholly Day as it calls to mind 
the Death of my Son, which took place on the morning of the 
loth of August A. D. 1789. 

November 12, 1792. Engaged to Mr. Coleman to give 
ten Dollars towards a Water Engine & to assist, if able, & 
there should be occasion in digging a will to supply it. 

Decemb'r 19, 1792. About 5 o'clock this morning, Mr. 
Eliel Gilbert's House was consumed by fire, Suppos^^ to Catch 


the preceding evening in the Mantle tree of the front lower 
room. A subscription in his behalf was set forward which in 
a few Hours appear*^ to amount to Nearly One hundred 

June I, 1793. Mr. Ballard of Charlemont agreed to do 
my Chimneys at 4 s 4 d pr. Thousand Brick — the 4/d to be 
paid in goods. 

Feb. 28, 1793. Agreed with Wm. Starr to do thirty 
window frames & Sashes by first July next at ye Price of ten 
pounds in cash. Also agreed with him for two thousand & 
half Clapboards at 40/s to be paid in Town orders or at ye stores 
— Also with John Stevens for one thousand Clapboards to be 
paid in the same way. 

March 2, 1793. Agreed with Mr. Bissel that six weeks 
hence he should receive a Cow Provided he deliver*^ to me 
priviously One thousand & half Clapboards & one thousand 

May 30, 1793. This Day my new house was raised. 
(Now standing in rear of Washington Hall.) 

Aug. 10, 1793. It being this Day four years since Roger 
died — The sorrows of that event are sensibly revived. 

The following is a true copy of a Complaint lodg'd with me 
by Deacon Ebenezer Graves against Tabitha, the wife of 
Elijah Coleman, November 13 A. D. 1792. 

Whereas Tabitha, the wife of Elijah Coleman, a professor 
of Christianity and a member of Christ's Ch^'. in this place, 
hath walked disorderly and violated the rules of the Gospel in 
a capital offensive manner, particularly in two things, viz : 
I. In showing by words & actions a bitter, revengeful & 
quarrelsome mind toward the family of Lieut. Amos Allen, 
in the course of the last year, altogether contrarv to that 
Charity, Meekness & forbearance which are expressly enjoined 
in the Gospel. 

II. In absenting needlessly on many Sabbaths from the 
Public Worship of God in this place — & whereas she hath 


been privately treated with & admonished of her faults by 
some of the Brethren of the Ch''. but remains insensible of 
them and impenitent, I therefore as one dissatisfied with her 
conduct desire that she may be called before the CW\ that 
they may judge upon & treat her as the nature of her case 
& Behavior may require. 

Sign'^ Ebenezer Graves. 

This complaint was read to the Chh. December 23, 1792, 
& a church meeting appointed to attend to it on 8th Day of 
January Next at 2 o'clock in the afternoon (at my house). 
The same day a citation to Mrs. Coleman to appear before 
the Chh. was delivered to Deacon Graves together with a 
copy of the Complaint. 

Jan. 8, 1793. The Chh. convened but did not proceed 
to hear & judge upon the Complaint made against Mrs. Cole- 
man by Reason of her absence which was occasioned as she 
signified by a Letter directed to me, by bodily indisposition, 
it was thought advisable to wait till she recovered her Health 
before another Chh. meeting should be appointed. 

April 21,1793. A Chh. meeting was appointed to be holden 
in the House of Public Worship on Thursday the Second 
day of May 1793, at 4 o'clock P. M. for the purpose of at- 
tending to the Complaint exhibited by D. Graves against Mrs. 
Coleman — A letter of citation was sent to Mrs. Coleman by 
Capt. Elihu Lyman. Thursday 4 o'clock P. M. the Chh. 
convened at the Meeting house, but Mrs. Coleman not ap- 
pearing in Person when prevented not by necessity. But (as 
her Husband informed the Chh.), but thro' a desire that he 
should appear & act for her, the Chh. were of opinion that 
it was advisable another Chh. meeting should be appointed 
for the purpose of attending to the Complaint exhibited 
against Mrs. Coleman that she might Personally appear if able 
& answer for herself — Accordingly a Chh. meeting was ap- 
pointed to be on Thursday ye 4th of July next to be holden 


at the Meeting House — It was also proposed that at s*^ 
Meeting certain persons should be chosen by the Chh. to 
deal with offending members from time to time & when oc- 
casion may require make Information against offenders to the 

June 9. Gave a letter of citation to Mrs. Coleman to 
Dea. Graves to be by him conveyed to her, requiring her 
appearance before the Chh. on the 4 July, 5 o'clock P. M. 

July 4, 1793. The Chh. convened according to appoint- 
ment & was opened by Prayer — upon which the Complaint 
against Mrs. Coleman being read, she observ"^ to the Chh. 
that she should not make answer to it by Reason of its being 
too general a nature & adduced a Letter from Rev*^ Mr. 
Lyman of Hatfield to show that it was his Opinion the Arti- 
cles in the complaint were not sufficiently explicit, & that it 
was advisable to have a Mutual Council to hear Complaints, 
which Mrs. Coleman might make against particular members 
of the Chh. as well as theirs against her. to this the Chh. at- 
tended. But Mrs. Coleman not being willing then to choose a 
Council, nor at any other time unless this could be made a 
Preliminary Article to be agreed upon by the Chh. viz. that 
if the Council should find she had been wronged, a Dismis- 
sion should be given her from this Chh. with a Recommenda- 
tion to some other Chh. with which she might wish to join — 
To this preliminary article the Chh. would not consent, because 
the End to be aimed at by a Council, was not only to judge 
who had done amiss, but to bring those who had to repentence 
& restore Peace & christian fellowship between Mrs. Cole- 
man & others of the Chh. wherein it had been interrupted 
— it was therefore concluded by the Chh. to be their Duty to 
proceed to hear the Complaint exhibited against Mrs. Cole- 
man by Deacon Graves, which in their opinion as things, 
were circumstanced was sufficiently clear & express for Mrs. 
Coleman to have a fair opportunity of making answer & the 
Chh. to form a righteous judgment upon. 



Mr. Joseph Wells gave in his evidence in support of the 
first Article in the Complaint — the written depositions also, of 
Rosanna the wife of Jonath" Smead & Cielia Denio were 
adduced, but the Chh. thinking it incumbent that they & other 
witnesses should be personally present, which could not be at 
this time, they moved for an adjournment & accordingly this 
Chh. Meeting was adjourned to the 29th of August next, then 
to be held at the Meeting House, at 4 of the clock in the 

N. B. After the Chh. voted in y® proceeding Meeting that 
the complaint above mentioned ought in their opinion to be 
received and acted upon Mrs. Coleman Manifested her dis- 
sent, not only by words but in withdrawing from the Chh. 

August 29, 1793. The Chh. convened according to ap- 
pointment after opening the Meeting by prayer it was proposed 
to the Chh. whether Mrs. Coleman had refused to answer to 
the complaint exhibited against her on account of the General 
Nature. Deacon Graves should have leave to withdraw it, in 
order to make a more particular statement of her offence, & 
bring forward a complaint if there should be occasion for it 
more clear & explicit — Voted in the Affirmative. Then the 
meeting was adjourned to Oct. 31,4 o'clock P. M. 

N. B. at the above meeting a new form of statement of 
Mrs. Coleman's offence proper to be made by Deacon Graves 
to Mrs. Coleman & grounds his complaint (was) upon, was 
read and commanded to him. 

Octob'" 9, 1793. A complaint newly stated was brought 
by Deacon Graves who said he had not found access to Mrs. 
Coleman, her Husband forbidding it. A Copy of this Com- 
plaint with a citation to Mrs. Coleman to appear before the 
Chh. on 31st. inst. at 4 o'clock P. M. at the Meeting House 
was delivered to Deacon Graves. A copy of Deacon Graves 
complaint against Mrs. Coleman as stated in the second in- 
stance Oct. 9, 1793. 

Whereas Tabitha the wife of Elijah Coleman a professor of 


Christianity & a member of Christs Chh. in this place hath 
walked disorderly & violated the Rules of the Gospel. 

I St in allowing malicious & menacing expressions in the 
course of the year 1791 & about that time, especially against 
Lieut. Amos Allen and his family, saying that she would wil- 
lingly kill any one of them & that War being begun Mischief 
& Death would soon be heard of & the sooner the better, or 
to this purpose, also in Actions of Violence & ill will in s*^ 
year & about that time, particularly in taking a loaded Gun & 
attempting to fire it for the Purpose of Killing or wounding 
those whom she supposed to belong to s'^ Allen's family, & 
in Keeping a Gun loaded with an intention to use upon per- 
sons Whenever they should approach Mr. Coleman's Build- 
ings or come upon his Improvements in such a manner as 
they had done. 

2^ In abstaining frequently & in a needless manner from 
the public worship of God in this place through the Course of 
several years last past, and whereas she has been privately treated 
with & admonished of her faults by some of the Brethren of 
the Chh. but remains impenitent, I therefore as one dissatisfied 
with her conduct desire that she may be called before the Chh. 
that they may judge upon & treat her as the Nature of her 
case and Behaviour may require 

(Signed) Ebenezer Graves. 

Oct 31, 1793 The Chh. meeting was open^ by vote of 
the Chh. because of their being together at an earlier Hour 
than it was adjourned to, the Chh. being informed that Tabi- 
tha Coleman could not be spoken with by Deacon Graves & 
that Mr, Coleman immediately threw ye Papers that he de- 
livered to him out of the House, & when Mr. Giles Cooke 
afterwards carried a Copy of the Complaint from the Pastor 
with a citation to Mrs Coleman to answer to it. He threw it 
into the fire & declared that he would keep his wife out of the 
way of a process from the Chh. in this place the members of 


which had become her enemies, the Chh. again thought fit to 
adjourn to the Thursday preceding the first Lord's day in 
January at 3 o'clock P. M. & accordingly was adjourned to 
that time — at the Meeting House. 

Thursday Jan 2. 1794 3 o'clock the Chh. met according to 
adjournment & was opened by prayer — after deliberating upon 
the Measures that had been taken with Tabitha the wife of 
Elijah Coleman to which She hath refused attention, as has 
been made manifest by her not being seen, from time to time 
when members of the Chh. have sought access to her, by not 
appearing before the Chh. in compliance with a citation deliv- 
ered to her Husband in the House where they dwell & by 
not attending in any Instance, for several months last past 
with this Chh. upon the public Worship of God — the Chh. 
voted the following viz : 

Whereas, Tabitha, the wife of Elijah Coleman, has refused 
to make answer to a complaint exhibited against her by Dea- 
con Ebenezer Graves, & in order to evade the discipline of 
the Chh, hath united as we have reason to believe with her 
Husband in denying to the Members of the Chh. an oppor- 
tunity of conversation with her for the purpose of stating her 
moral crimes to her, & for a number of months last past hath 
wholly absented herself from the public administrations of 
God's House ; hence the s** Tabitha merits in our opinion the 
censure of God's People & is an improper subject of their 
Christian fellowship in special divine ordinances. When Mrs. 
Coleman shall show a willingness to submit to Gospel order 
we hold ourselves in readiness to attend candidly, to the merits 
of her conduct & acquit her of Guilt if Truth & Justice require 
it or restore her to our Communion upon her manifesting a 
Repentance of such offences as she may appear to have com- 
mitted against the Gospel. But at present we judge it to be 
our Duty & accordingly it is our purpose to withdraw from 
her as a disorderly person who is not under Law to Christ the 
holy King & Saviour whom she hath professed. 


Jan 7 1794 A copy of this Result was put into a Letter 
Directed to Mrs Coleman which letter ended in the following 
manner: This Result so far as I am acquainted with the 
principle from which it proceeded is the Effect of a concern 
for the Honour of Religion & your best interest. I wish you 
to attend to it, however unworthy we are as men, yet acting 
as the Chh. & servants of Christ our doings ought not to be 
disregarded & Dispised by you : he that despiseth you (said 
Christ to his Disciples) despiseth me. 

from your friend & Pastor 

R. N. 

Jan. 28 1794 the above Letter was given to Deacon Graves 
to be given by him to Mrs. Coleman. 

March 24 1794 Deacon Graves inform*^ that he had been 
to Mr. Coleman's with the Letter & not finding his Wife, de- 
sired him to deliver it to her, which he refused to do, accord- 
ingly the Letter was brought away. ^ 

Not having an opportunity to communicate to Mrs Cole- 
man a copy of the Chh'^ Result, in a private way, it was pub- 
licly read on a Lord's Day Sept. 1794. 


Joseph Wells testified & said, that at one time (in the 
course of the year 1791) He heard Mrs Coleman Charge the 
Allen's with stealing wheat & Corn out of Mr. Coleman's 
barn & at another time heard her threaten their Lives & said 
she would Kill them as quick as she would Kill a snake — 

Rosanna the wife of Jonathan Smead testified & s*^ that be- 
ing at Mr. Colemans soon after Mischief had been done to 
their Dye House, Mrs. Coleman told her that she called up 
her Husband when she heard the noise & told him all was 
a going, that Mr. Coleman with her took his gun & went out 
of the Door, that the first gun missed fire for which she was 
sorry because it would certainly have killed some of them — that 
she had got her gun charged with a Brace of Balls & they 


should have what was in it — that the war was begun and the 
hotter the better, the sooner it would be over — that the gun 
then stood loaded with Balls behind the Door — that I should 
certainly hear of murder done, or Buildings burnt — Houses or 
Barns — I observed to her, that if she killed any Body she 
would be hanged — she replied that she would die in a just 
cause & should not have Greenfield for her judge — these 
witnesses were Chh. Members. 

The following disposition was given by Lucretia Denio. — 
She testified & said that being at Mr. Coleman's sometime 
after his shop chimney was torn down, She heard Mrs. Cole- 
man say that hearing People at their Dye House in the night, 
to prevent such mischief her husband took a loaded gun & 
fired it & that she took a gun which if she could have fired 
it would have levelled one to the ground, I asked if she had 
Balls in her Gun she said she had that which would do execu- 
tion. I told her if she shed Man's Blood her own Blood 
must be shed, her Reply was that she ought not to loose her 
Life for an Allen, for there was one Plague gone from off the 
earth if an Allen was gone : I observed I did not believe it 
was any of the Allen's that injured them. She asked me 
whether I would believe it if I saw one of them dead on the 
Ground — the Battle she added was begun & there was no way 
to end it but by Gun & Bayonet Powder & Ball, they had 
tried all other -ways for peace — there was only this left. 

December 17, 1793. This being the Day on which the 
Act of Incorporation was read to the town of Gill. I attended 
& preach*^ from Ps. 144, ult. 

May 13, 1794. Drew in from the street in making my 
fence west from the store three or four feet in order to have 
it range with Mr. Pierce's fence which stands still further 

June 4, 1794. heard Ruel Willard affirm in Conversation 
with Dan' Forbes that the North Line of the Street as run by 
Mr. Root of Montague strikes the North side of the chimney 


of Mr. Jerom Ripley's store & about four feet from the front 
of his dvveHing House north — 

August lo, 1794. Five years ago the meloncholly event 
of Roger's Death took place. 

August 14, 1794. removed my Old Habitation where I 
had resided about 32 years into my new house. 

July 27, 1797. Memorandum. The Bend in the street 
against Jerom Ripley Esq. & which by the running of the 
fence has been straitening from time to time for several years 
past is now made still straiter by the building of his Door 
yard & Consequently the street is made narrower & deviates 
from its lines as they were originally laid — my fence against 
s** Ripley's is drawn in several feet from where my old stone 
wall stood as may now be made Manifest by the remainder in 
the ground of some of the foundation. 

April 13, 1 798. Men agreed that the west Line of Timothy 
Hall's land should strike the street, four feet west of his shop 
& the rear should be of the same Length with the front. . 

April 5, 1806. I know not but that I make myself daily 
uneasy because my Troubles are not greater than they be, 
but small as they are they will disturb & vex me, especially 
the Inattention which the people pay to what I suffer by the 
Depreciation of money. — Not one man from 1774 has shown, 
as I recollect, any Disposition to make any consideration, but 
all have & continue to pay the meer nominal sum, in the 
most advantageous way they can, & appear glad, they have an 
opportunity to pay it so easily & unless I am too jealous they 
are not so kind to me, as those among them who are friends 
generally one to another. Mrs. Leavitt excepted, none of 
them upon any particular occasion, as Sickness, Deaths, fun- 
erals, associations, have complimented me with a piece of fresh 
meat, for nearly perhaps forty years — this is very singular & 
once unlooked for, but soon expected after my settlement in 
the Ministry. I have sometimes suffered great inconvenience 
in consequence of this Neglect have lived below what I wish** 


& what I thought reasonable, & could not entertain friends, 
without too much Trouble to Mrs. Newton, a woman given 
to Hospitality & whose feelings were hurt through Life, that 
she was noticed by those she loved & who were in affluent 
circumstances, with so little Generosity & with so much less 
than is Common for minister's wives of her Goodness & ac- 
complishments to experince. This oppression & cold Neglect 
which in my View has been used towards me has made my 
work of the Ministry hard & irksome as might Naturally be 
expected in one who loves the world and friendships as well 
as I do — But what more especially disquiets me is, an appre- 
hension that this conduct in my people, is owing in a Measure 
to something wrong in myself, which they know & feel, but 
do not inform me of — for I hear nothing as an apology but 
my Wealth — which it seems they have a faculty of estimating 
high, so that a few acres of Ground, here, in a peculiar ex- 
pensive situation is much better to live upon than double the 
acres in Leyden or Colrain — it will be I presume the little 
time I have to live as it has been, except worse, & as I can 
see more faults in myself than in any other, my Complaint 
might be properly turned against myself & my Business be to 
amend my own life & go on in the Ministry Cheerfully & 
faithfully according to my remaining Powers or pass into Re- 
tirement, & show a penetential. Humble Christian Life there. 
My time I would recollect is short for memorizing either in a 
public or private station, being now nearly the close of the 
sixty ninth year of my life. 

The diary ends with — 

May 23, 1 81 2. This day I am seventy five years old I 
shall not and I would not live alway. 



1 76 1. August — Thankful, the daughter of Sam'^ Mun — ■ 
Nov. John Allen — Decembr, — Asa Wells — 

1762. April y® 22d, Patience, y® daughter of Lucy Bill- 
ing — Jan, Thomas the son of Thomas Nims — Sept. 2, Wm. 
Brooks — Sept. 23d, Zenas Nash — Sept. 28, Joseph Nash — 
Oct. 2, Quartus Nash — Dec. 13, the widow of Isaac Fos- 
ter — 

1763. Augt. I St, Elihu, the son of Widw Sarah Atherton 
— Oct, Joel, the son of Thomas Nims — 

1764. January, Noah, the son of Noah Allen — Sept, 
Eliphaz, the son of Noah Allen — Sept, Joseph Bascom — Oc- 
tobr, Reuben, the son of Sam^ Mun — Octbr, Martha, the 
daughter of Dan^ Nash — 

1765. Consider, the son of Ebenezer Wells — March, Abi- 
gail, the Daughter of David Smead — May y" 4th, Isaac, my 
son — 

1767. May 12, Abigail, the wife of Jonathan Sprague — 
August, 14, Rachel, the Daughter of David Allen — Octo, 16, 
Umphry, Negro Serv*, to Ens, Childs — 

1768. Apl, 13, Darius Hinsdale. — Apl, 21, Joshua Wells 
— Novembr 25, Nathan, y^ son of Benjn. Hastings, jr — Dec, 
2d, Isaac, my 3d son — 

1769. Ephraim, y^ son of Joel Wells — a child of Noah 

1770. Decembr, 18, Widow Abigail Allen — 

1 77 1. April, Dianthe, the Daughter of Ebenezer Wells 


736 MR. newton's death record 

jr — May, Martha, y*' daughter of Matthew Severance — Octo- 
ber 5, Annis, the daughter of Joseph Hastings — Octobr, 20, 
Mary, y® Daughter of Joseph Hastings — Nov. 12, Sarah, y® 
Daughter of Joseph Hastings — Decembr, 8, Lydia, y^ 
Daughter of Sam^^ Shattuck — July, 25, (Mercy) y** wife of 
Jonathan Catlin — 

1772. October, 15, Mrs. Adams, a woman that belonged 
to Halifax — 

1773. July 4, Elizabeth, y* wife of James Corse — Octo- 
ber, 19, Adonijah, an infant, y** son of Oliver Atherton — 
Novr 5, Lucy Billings — 

1774. Mrs. Denio — (probably Anna Coombs Denio) — 
April, 5 — Robert Mitchell — (probably May, i) Widow Eliza- 
beth Wells (widow of Joshua) — Mary Martindale (perhaps 
Molly, dau, of Lemuel, born Apl. 20, 1755) — August 16, 
Lieut. Benjn Hastings — Septr, 29, Widow Prudence Hast- 
ings, (widow of Benj. jr.) — Nov, 30, Sarah Hinsdale (dau. of 
Elisha — Deer. 27, Sarah Corse (dau. of Dan.) 

1775. March 11, Lydia Mitchell, an infant — March, 16, 
Elizabeth, the wife of Ebenezer Arms — March, 20, Ethiel 
Dean — July 25, Widow Mary Severance (widow of Joseph) — 
Octobr, William Mitchell — Deer 26, Seberah, y® wife of 
Isaac Newton — 

1776. January 6. Onesimus Nash, by slipping down with a 
stick of wood upon his shoulder — 20th, Joseph Corse (son of 
Dan) — Daniel Graves (died) in y*' army — March I, Mindwell 
Atherton — aged 92 years wanting a few days, (widow of Jo- 
seph) — April II, Aaron Denio jr — May 27, Leucy Taylor — 
June 30, y^ wife of Elisha Wells — (Mehitable) — July 15, 
Mary, y'' wife of Sam^ Mun — Novembr 15, Mercey, y® wife 
of George Howlandjr — 

1777. March 22, Submit, ye*' wife of Asher Corse — May 
28, Caleb Wright — June 30, Rodah Allen (dau, of John) — 
August I, EHzabeth, y*" dau, of Sam* Derby — August 7, 
Ebenezer, y'' son of Ebenezer Wells jr. — August 11, another 

MR. Newton's death eecokd 737 

son of Ebenezer Wells — & Zimri, the son of Capt. Agrippa 
Wells — August 15, a son of John Mcherd — August, 19, a 
daughter of Deacon (Ebenezer) Graves — by name Electa — 
also Lydia, the D. of Abel Simons — & Chester, the son of 
George Grennells — August 20, George, y*' son of George 
Grennells — August 22, a son of Mcherds — August 24, Abner, 
y* son of Abner Arms — & a young son of Sam' Shattucks — 
August 26, Abigail, D. of Lem^ Bascom — August 29, a child 
of Dan' Smead — August 30, John, y® son of Abner Arms — 
& Agrippa, y® son of Capt, Agrippa Wells — August 31, a 
child of Jonathan Sprague — September i, Elijah, y** son of 
Abner Smead — Sept, 3 Erastus, y*' son of Eleazer Wells — 
Sept, 10, a daughter of Lemuel Smead — Sept. 1 1, the wife of 
Charles Phelps Esquire of New Malborough — Sept. 12, a 
child of Medad Hastings — & Susanna, a Daughter of mine — 
Sept. 14, a child of Dan' Smeads — one of Joseph Wells — 
one of Medad Hastings — & one of Seth Howlands — Sept. 
15, one of Joseph Hastings — Sept. 17, a child of Lemuel 
Hastings — & one of Phineas Jones — Sept. 18, Warren, y^ 
son of Isaac Foster — Sept, 20, Elizabeth, y*^ daughter of Dan 
Corse — & John, son of Lemuel Hastings — about this time 
died also a son of Deacon Graves (Solomon, Sept. 23) — Nov. 
8, Sam' Munn — Decembr 16, Ruth, the wife of Enos De- 
nio — 

1778, Jan. 3, Pollie, the daughter of Agrippa Wells — 
June 20, Thomas, a child of Thomas Loveman — June 23, 
David, a child of Dan Corse — July, Mrs. Rice, y*' wife of 
Benj" Rice at Grass Hill (Gill) August 3, an infant of G. 
Grennell — Octobr 25, a child of John Graves — October 29, 
a child of John Graves — Octobr 30, the wife of Timothy 
Bascom — Novembr 30, a child of Mr. Cushing — 

1779, May 29, Eunice, y^ wife of Samuel Hinsdale — 
June 19, Mary, y*' wife of Capt, Timothy Childs — 

1780, March 3, a Daughter of Lemuel Smead — April 
27, another Daughter of Lemuel Smead — ^April 29, Aaron 


738 MR. Newton's death kecokd 

Denio — May i, Sebera, a child of Isaac Newton — July i8, 
Mr. Howskins, a man 90 years old — 

1 78 1. January 23, Esther, the wife of Isaac Newton — 
about this time died two infant children of Phineas Jones — 
Feb, 18, Joanna Corse, D. of James Corse. She was born 
March 25, O. S. AD. 1751. Age 30 years ten months & 
eleven Days — Feb. 19, Mary Childs, Dau. of Capt, Timothy 
Childs, aged 35 — April 10, Cloe, the wife of Sam' Shattuck — 
Febry, Dorothy, the wife of Allen Nichols — Novembr, a 
child of Mr. Clark's — Novembr, 20, Mercy, the D of Capt. 
Childs — Decembr, 12, Capt, Timothy Childs — 

1782. Feb, a child of Sam^ Dean — April 23, the wife of 
Adam Wellman — April 29, Ebenezer Smead, the son of Dea" 
David Smead — June 1 7, Clarissa, y*^ infant Daught of George 
Grennell — September 7, Abigail, y*" D, of George Howland, 
aged 10 weeks — Octobr, 14, Dollie, y*' D, of Moses Arms — 
Novemb"" 5, Mehetabel, the wife of Jonathan Smead, aged 
about 70 — Decemb"", 26, John, y*" child of John Clark — 

1783. March 14, Amaziah, y*' child of Jeremiah Ballard — 
15th, Gideon, the son of Gideon Sage — 17th, Sarah, y® 
daughter of John Newton — 30th, Elizabeth, wife of Elihu 
Bascom — April 29, Violet, a negro child — April 30, Jonathan 
Smead, aged 76 — June 15, a child of Philip Ballard — August 
13, Lemuel Martindale, about 50 years of age, by a Blow at 
or against the Midriff from a stick of wood which he suddenly 
broke — August 18, Lydia, an infant child D of Jonath" 
Smead — Sept, 27, James Cors, in y*' 90th, year of his age — 
Octob'' 31st, Ebenezer Smead in y® 78th, year of his age — 
Novemb*" 23, Sam^ Stebbins — 

1784. January 3, Tabitha, the wife of Abner Arms — Feb, 
2, Sam\ Munn. — May (17) Elizabeth Wells, the wife of Capt, 
Ebenezer Wells — June 21, Abigail Smead, the widow of 
Eben"" Smead — June 22 Esther, a Babe of Jonathan Smead's — 
Octob*", 5, Abigail, the infant child of Seth Howland — Oc- 
tob"", 14, Katherine, the wife of James Pickett — i6th, an in- 

MR. NEWTOn's death RECORD 789 

fant of Capt. Isaac Newton — Nov. 13, Hannah, y® D, of 
Asa Strong — 

Records from 1784 to 1790 are missing. 

1790. Octob'', 13, died in Travel with her infant the Wife 
of Miller Mitchell — Octob"", 30, Dr. Zecheriah Convers 
suddenly by an appoplectic Fit — a man who had been capable 
of doing good & peculiar for his contentment with small 
Things & for his refraining from resentful reviling Language 
& conduct toward mankind — Decembr, 16, the Twin children 
of Joseph Bascom in a few Hours after they were born — 

1 79 1. May 6. a Male child of Enos Rice, iEtat, 9 
Months — May 21, a Daughter of Benjamin Ricejr — July 
20, Eunice, y® Wife of Lem' Hastings in y*' 40 y' of her 
Age — August 18, Sam\ an Infant Child of Asa Munn — Au- 
gust 23, Anna, the Wife of Elijah Alvord — August 24, David 
Allen — Octob'" 31, Caroline, the child of Lem' Hastings — 
Decemb'', 27, Synthia, the Daughtr of Lem^ Hastings. 

1792. Feb^ 29, the Wife of George Loveland jr — March 
1 8, Asa Munn — April 12, the oldest Daughter of John Mow- 
ley & an Infant Child of Enos Rice — April 29, a Child of 
Jonas Stanhope — May 22, a Child of Elijah Smith, by a fish 
bone — July 10, a Child of Isaac Foster jr — August 5, the 
Widow" Ruth Foot, iEtat 86 — Sept"", an infant child of Ben- 
jamin Horsely — 

1793. January 7, a child of William Walker — Jan^, 16, 
Abner Arms, ^Etat 6^ — Feb^, 4, Thomas Nims, ^Etat 75 — 
Feb^, II, a young Child of Mr. Webster — Feb^', 25, an In- 
fant of W™ Smalley — 26, a young child of John Ewers — 
April II, an Infant child of Jonathan Washburn, born with 
an imperfect head — May, Polly Logan, a child about four 
years old — July 19, Asael Stanhope, drowned — August 3, an 
Infant Child of Elijah Allen — Octob"", the Widow Smally — 
Novb"", 17, Rachel, y*' D of Capt. J. Phillips — Decemb"", 7, 
the wife of Enos Rice — 

1794. a child of Joseph Nash, supposed to be smothered 

740 MR. Newton's death record 

in bed — Ap\ lo, Seth Rowland, in the 59th year of his age — 
June 16, Joel, the son of Hull Nims — Aug. 11, a Child of 
Asher Newton, also a Child of Selah Allen — Aug. 24, a Child 
of Joel Allen — Octob'', 7, Polly, the D of Levi Wells — 
Octobr 9 a Child of Joel Wells — Nov"" a Child of John Bush 
— Nov'', 22, a child of Medad Hastings — 

1795. Jan^, 28, a Child of Mr. Logan — Feb^, 18, Abi- 
gail, the wife of George Howland in the 90th year of her 
age (of Gill) — March 1 1, a Child of Elijah Alvord's — March 
24, a Child of Eleazer Wells jr — March 26, the Wife of 
Walter Avery, on a journey to this place — May, Mary, y*^ 
wife of John Battis — June 16, a child of Amos Allen jr — 
Sept'', 10, Joel, the son of Jonathn Smead, being nearly six- 
teen years old — Sept'", 30, Tirzah, D, of Elisha Wells being 
about ten months old — Octob'', 5, Eliza, the D, of Cap*, Ca- 
leb Clap — Octob'', 12, Hart, son of Ebenezer Allen jr, 2 
years old — Octob'', 13, Harriet, D, of Cap*, Caleb Clap 
about ten years old — Octob'", 20, a Child of Ebenezr Allen — 
Octob"", 30, a Child of James Cobb — Dccemb'", a Child of 
David Stricklen — 

1796. May 19, a child of Theophilus Griswould, scalded 
by hot water in a Dish Kettle — Aug. 26, Lucinda, y^ D., of 
Abner Wells — Aug. 28, Isabella, the D, of Capt. Caleb 
Clap — Septr. 11, Richard, y*" son of the wife of Dr. Edward 
Billings — Decemb'' 4, Sam'l Howe, a young man from Dor- 
chester in Vermont, by an abcess upon the Lungs — Decemb'' 
27, a male Child of Job Graves, of the throat Distemper — 
Decemb*" 31, Tartallus, the son of Joseph Hastings — 

1797. Feby. 2, Abner Smead — March 4, Phebe Billings 
— March 6, a Child of Sam'l Pickett's — March 25, a Child 
of Joseph Hastings — March 27, Amos Allen, in y" 75 year 
of his age — Aug* 20, a Child ofjabez Fraizer's — Sept"" 9, 
James Moore, a native of Ireland — Dec'' 26, a son of Ebenezer 
Graves, Jr — 

1798. Feby. 7, Asa Strong, i^^tat 69: — Feby 19, Widow 

MR. Newton's death record 741 

Anna Atherton, iEtat, 84 — Aug. 7, Widow Martha Nash 
(widow of Daniel) i^t, 73 — Sep' ^7, a Child of Jabez Frai- 
zer — Octr. John Lyon — Novr. 28, Hannah Alvord in the 
79*^^ year of age — 

1799. Jany. 25, Widow Sarah Hinsdale in the 83d year 
of her age (widow of Samuel) March 2d, Seth Arms, killed by 
a Sled, T^^tat 39 — March 15, an infant Child of Joseph 
Atherton — March 28, a Child of Elijah Lamb — March 30, 
Richard Carey in y® 83d year of his age — Ap\ 16, John 
Adams, son of Richard E. Newcomb, nearly eight months 
old. May 30, a Child of Elijah Alvord about eight months 
old — July 23, Romus, a Negro man, T^itat, 6^ — 

1800. Feby, 7, David Wells, iEtat, 74 — March i, Sol- 
omon, the son of Solomon Smead, Esq'" — March, Mr. Ellis 
— July 8, Eben^"", the son of Eben'" Graves, jr. — Aug. 7, 
Sally, the wife of Dr. John Stone, iEtat, 26 — Octobr, 16, an 
infant Child of Amos Allen — Decemb'", 21, an Infant Child 
of Walter Brown — 

1 801. Jany, 27, Dinah, a Negro woman — March 31, 
Ebenezer Allen, of a cancer, in the 76th year of his age — 
March — an Infant Child of Anna Mitchel — April 30th, 
Samuel Pickett by the Pleurisy, in the eighty second year of 
his age — May 24, Saml. Wells, in the seventy-second year of 
his age — June 3, Widow — Cary, in the 65th year of her 
age — June 16, The wife of Selah Allen — July 8, Patience, the 
wife of John Bell — Aug, 3d, Mercy, the Wife of Joseph 
Severance — July — an Infant Child of Mr. White — Aug, 31, 
Beriah, the son of Beriah Willard — also a young Child of Mr. 
Stiles; the former by a wound from a Rakes tail ; the latter 
by falling into scalding water — Sept"", 6, an infant male Child 
of Thomas Dickman — Octobr, i, a Child of Joel Wells, with 
the Dysentery — Nov. 6, a Child of Elijah Smith i^tat, 2 — 
Octobr, 18, a Child of Elijah Smith, ^Etat, 6 — Nov. 20, John 
Battis, T^tat, 77 — Nov'', 25, a young Child of Mr. Brooks — 
Decembr. i, Mehetabel, the wife of Capt. Agrippa Wells 
JEta.t, 60 — 

742 MR. kewton's death record 

1802. a Male Infant & Twin of Asher Newton — Apl, 30, 
Enos Denio, very suddenly, with some secret inward Disorder. 
He came home with his team, unwell on Thursday 28th, 
towards night & expired the next morning about sunrise, his 
Disorder did appear in no measure to deprive him of his 
Reason — July 11, John Strickland jr ^Etat, ^^, his Disorder 
began with a pain in his right arm which soon removd to the 
left & from thence to his head, upon which he soon expired — 
July 18, Abigail, D, of Jeremiah Newton, lEut, 8 — July 30, 
Thomas J. son of Capt. Ambrose Ames, aged 14 Months — 
Aug. I, John, the son of Calvin Munn, 3 years old — Aug. 4, 
Dan\ a young Child of Dan\ Clay — August 6th, Jonath", 
son of Jonath", Leavitt, Esq"". -9 Months old — Aug, 7, Wm. 
Grennell, son of Wise Grennell, two years old — Aug, 7, died 
Maria, the Daugh'", of Richard E. Newcomb, aged 8 years — 
Aug, 7, Guy, the son of D' Clay aged 4 years — Aug, 7, a 
Child of Saml Pierce, aged 18 Months — Aug, 10, the Wife 
of Richard E. Newcomb, aged 31 years — Aug, 12, Silvanus 
Taylor, aged 14 years he was taken sick in this place but died 
in Montague where his Parents live — Aug, 1 2, died a daughter 
of Wm. Wait, aged twenty months Aug, 14, Stephen, the 
only remaining Child of Dan\ Clay — Aug, 13, a young Child 
of Sally Pith — Aug, 15, Anna, the D. of Saml Pierce aged 
three years — Aug, 19, Nabby, the D, of Saml Pierce, aged 10 
years — Aug, 19, a negro Child, belonging to Caesor, aged 2 
years — Aug, 20, George, the son of Jerom Ripley Esqr, aged 
two years — Aug, 21, a Child of Obed Wells, aged 3 years — 
Aug, 22, a male Child of Danl Forbes aged i year — Aug, 22, 
a male Child of Wm. Starr aged i year — Aug, 23, a Child of 
Ouintus Allen, Aug, 25, a D, of Quintus Allen aged 10 
years — Aug, 25, a D, of Obed Wells, aged 12 years — August 
26, a son of Hull Nims, aged 3 years — Aug, 28, Cela, D, of 
Lem' Hastings aged 17 years — Aug, 29, the widow Margaret 
Wells, aged 72 years (widow of Lt. Samuel) — Aug 29, a son 
of Quintus Allen, aged 6 years — Aug, 29, Saml Lyman, on a 

MR. Newton's death record 743 

visit to Northampton, aged about ^S years — Aug, 29, a son 
of Ebenezer Arms, aged 2 years — Aug, 30, Sarah, D, of 
Sam^ Newton, aged 8 years. Sept'', i, a son of Ouintus Allen, 
4 years old — Sept, 2, a Child of Joseph Nutting, 2 years old 
— Sept*", 3, a son of Obed Wells, aged ten years — Sept'", 3, a 
Daughter of Asher Newton, aged 7 years — Sept*" 4, a son & 
only Child of Silvanus Burnham, aged 3 years — Sept", 6, one 
of the twin Children of Obed Wells, aged 3 months — Sept'", 
6, a Child of Saml Newton, aged one year — Sept'', 8, a Child 
of Miller Mitchel, aged 18 Months — Sept^, 9, Obed, the son 
of Obed Wells, aged 16 years — Sept'', 9, a Daughter of Levi 
Wells, aged 5 years — Sept"", 10, a child of Anna Mitchell, 
aged 6 years — Sept*", 1 1 , a Daugh'' of Beriah Willard, aged 5 
years — Septr, 12, Mrs. Post, the wife of Cornelius Post, aged 
73 years not by the Dysentery — Sept"", 13, a Child of Charles 
Hitchcock, aged 2 years — Sept"", 13, the wife of John Newton, 
aged 60 years — Sept'", 19, the wife of Elijah Mitchell, aged 69 
years — Sept'', 23, a son of Richard E. Newcomb, aged 3 years 
— The whole number which have died of the Dysentery since 
the 1 8th of July is 47 — Sept'', 25, a son of Joel Allen, aged 4 
years — Sept'', 28, Joseph Newton, aged 67 — Sept'', 30, a Child 
of Mr. Lewis, aged 7 years — not by the Dysentery — Octob'", 
I St, a Child of Field Wells, aged 4 years — Octob'', i, a 
Daughter of Wm. Grennell, aged 1 7 years — Octob"". 5. a Child 
of Mr. Lewis, aged i year — Octob"", 1 1, a son of Field Wells, 
aged 9 years — Octob'', 12, Mehitabel, Daughter of Jonathan 
Smead, aged 21 years — Octob', 21, a son of Joel Smith, died 
by a fall from a cart in a few Hours after the accident hap- 
pened — aged 7 years — Octobr, 21, a Child of Thomas Smead 
of the Dysentery, aged 8 years — Octobr, 21, the wife of Joel 
Smith by the Dysentery in connection with other Complaints, 
particularly a Passage which extended from her Stomach to & 
through her back, out of which issued a great part of her food 
for several years — Octob'', 31, the Wife of Jonathan Smead, 
by the Pleurisy, aged 58 — also a Daughter of Obed Wells 

744 MR. Newton's death RECORb 

aged 7 years — Nov"", 3d, a Daughter of Theopholus Griswold 
aged 14 years — Decemb*", a Child of Marsh Bissel, by a sin- 
gular Complaint in its back with which it was born — Decemb'", 
30, Mira, the D, of Capt. Agrippa Wells, suddenly by the 
effects of a Boil or swelling — the whole Number from the Be- 
ginning of this year is 68 — 57 of which died of the Dysentery — 

1803. Ap\ 14, a male Child of Consider Cushman, aged 
8 years — May i, Widow Rebecca Pickett, aged 82 — June 2, 
William Wells aged 22, of a lingering consumptive Disorder — 
June 19, Widow Martha Stebbins, of the Palsy aged 75 
widow of Samuel) — July i, a Daughter of Samuel Stebbins, 
aged 7, in consequence of a fall from the Bed — July 3, a 
Daughter of Mr, Newell aged 5 years of the Canker Rash — 
July 5th, a Daughter of Selah Allen aged 2 years, of the 
Dysentery — July 6th, Alexander Hamilton, by the amputation 
of his leg, aged 28 years — July i 8, Amelia the Daught"" of Rose 
a Negro woman living in the Bounds of Deerfield, aged 12 
years (by the Dysentery) — Aug, 3, Porter the son of Wm, 
Mitchell, aged 2 years — Aug, 7, Joel the son of Julia Smead, 
aged 3 years, both by the Dysentery — Aug, 7, the Wife of 
Thomas Billings, of the Pleurisy — Aug, 26, Fanny Daviss, 
in the 17th, year of her age— of the Dysentery — Aug, 22, a 
Child of Mr. Mayhew, with the Dysentery — Aug, 26, Corne- 
lius Post of lingering ails, i^tat, 84 — Sept'', 15, Hannah B, 
the Daughter of David Ripley, of the Dysentery, aged 14 
Months — Sept*", 17, Chester the son of Ebenezer Graves jr. 
of the Dysentery, aetat, 20 — Sept*" 25, Cornelia, the Daughter 
of Benjamin Smead, of the Dysentery, age 19 Months — 
Sept"", 24, a son of Ebenezer Graves jr. of the Dysentery 
i^tat 12 — Nov. 4. a female Child living with Marsh Bissel, 
after having the Dysentery & hooping Cough, aged 3 years — 
Nov, 22, a Child of Mr. Adams aged 7 Months — (whole 
Number 22) 

1 804. Jany, 3, Sam\ the son of Dr, Stone, Canker Rash — 
JEtcLt, 5 — Feb^', 4, Asher, the son of Asher Newton, aged 4 


years — Jan, 7, Anna, the wife of Dan' Nash — Jan, 17, Azor, 
the son of Solomon Smead Esq" T^Lt 27 — June 29, Widow 
Christina Martindale JEt, 68 (Widow of Lemuel) July, 23, 
Elizabeth, the wife of Silas Brooks, (of Consumption) ^^tat 
perhaps 28-before this, on the same Month a Child of Dan' 
Brooks, aged a few months — Octobr, 18, Charles Hitchcock 
^tat, 32 — 19, a Child of Mrs, Watkins, ^Et, — year — Octob"" 
20, the wife of Deacon Eb"" Graves i^it, 73 — Octobr, 24, 
Agrippa, the son of Levi Wells, ^t, 3 — Novr. 10, son of 
Elijah Smith, ii-lt, 3. — Nov"", 26, Orne, the son of John Wells, 
iEtat, 14 — Decemb'r, 30, the wife of John Strickland, ^^^t, 
84 — Dec, 22, Joseph Wells, ^^t, 74 — 

1805. Jan 7, Hannah, the wife of Eleazer Wells, ^Et, 73 — 
April, a Child of John Bell — June 15, Eleazer Wells, T^tat, 
-78 — Oct,i 6, a Child ^Et 4, of Job Graves — Octobr, 18, a 
son of Darius Kingsly, JEt 2 & the twin Children of Jonathan 
Wells immediately after they were born — Octobr, 21, Mrs, 
Abigail Newton, aged sixty six years, 2nd, April last — 

1806. Jan (21) Lieut, Benj" Hastings, not far from seventy 
seven years of age — March 29, a son of Silvanus Nash lEt, 
22 (Jonathan) — Apl, 21, Mr, Wilson, a foreigner, ^t, ^S — 
May 6, the wife of Rufus Graves, of the Consumption — 
May 8, i Clock in the morning Dr. (Edward) Billings died 
of the jaundice & scurvy — May 21, a little Boy JEty 9, the 
son of Levi Stiles, by Bleeding at the stomach in consequence 
as was supposed of a fit — June 2, Joseph Hastings, more 
than sixty years of age, of the gravel ; not being able to at- 
tend his funeral, his friends procured procured Mr Hibberd, 
who preached upon the occasion — Sept'', Sarah, the wife of 
Rufus Severance — Octob"", i a son of Oliver Wilkinson iEt, 
T — Octob"", 5, Joseph Mott, ^t, 44 — Oct, 25, Phineas Jones — 
Nov, 15, William, a son of Mr. John Wells, of the Canker, 
JEt, 16 Months — Decemb', 9, the wife of Jonathan Severance 
JEt, 76 — Dec, 10, David Smead, Esq"", ^tat, 75 — Dec, 30, 
Joanna Dewy, JEt, 46 — 


1807. Feby 24, E, Nims JEt, 84 — March 8, an Infant 
Child of Mr, Smead Aprl. 10, a Dwight (son) of EH Graves 
i^it, 7, of the Rattles — June 8, Sterling Bird, of the Con- 
sumption iEt, 29 — June 22, Mrs, Cowl, the mother in law of 
Field Wells ^^^t, 72 — Dec"", 2, a Daughter of Calvin Hale, 
suddenly, not known whether by worms or a putrid fever, ^^t, 
3 — Dec, 28, a Daughter of Mr, Newell, ^t, 12 — Dec, 30, 
Polly, the D, of Dea, Solomon Smead, suddenly of a putrid 
fever, within sixteen Hours after she was known to be ill, -^t, 


1808. Jan^ 2, Esther, the wife of Solomon Smead Esq', 
within fourteen hours after she became sensibly sick, of a 
peculiarly putrid fever — Jan'' 4, Nabby, the Daughter of S, 
Smead Esq', expired of'this terrible fever the same day she 
was taken sick — Jan^ 13, of the same Malady, Esther, the 
Daughr of S, Smead Esqr, died, JEt, 10, within a few hours 
after she was taken ill — Jan^, 28, of the same Malady, Eben- 
ezer, the son of Sol Smead Esq' who had been sick about a 
week — Aug* i, Infant of Thomas Smead, very suddenly, in a 
few minutes after it began to complain-6 weeks old — April 5, 
a Child & son of Mr. Cushman, in about sixteen hours after 
it was taken ill, between three & four years old — May 18, 
Otis, JEt, 5 years, son of Job Graves — June 25, Epaphroditus 
Loveland, JEt 56, of a mortification in his arm by being 
blooded — July i, James Logan, ^^^.t, 70, suddenly by a kind 
of Pleurisy in his side attended with ulcers — July 3, a Child 
of Jonathan Wells JEtzt, 5 Months — Aug, Widow Mary 
Train, JEt, 81 — Sept' 9 a Negro woman, JEt, 30 — Sept' 9, a 
Daughter of Elijah Smith JEt, 5 — Oct, 30, Lords Day early 
in the morning, suddenly of an appoplectic fit as is supposed, 
Rachel, the wife of Dr. Alpheus Stone — Dec, 9, Robert Cone 
jr, JEt, 21, of the consumption — Dec, 26, Benjn, Horn i^t, 
2 — 

1809. Jany 20, Solomon, son of Job Graves-i^t, 25, by 
a disorder in his head, after having been in a languishing estate 


two years — Feb^, 17, Solomon, son of Solomon Smead Esqr, 
ii^t, 8, of the spotted fever — March 24, Capt, Agrippa Wells, 
i^t, 70 — April 3, Mary the wife of Richard Johnson i5it, 74 — 
Sept"" I, Daniel Smead jr, of a fever, a candidate for a Degree 
next week at Williamstown College ; a youth of Piety & 
modest virtue & good collegiate acquirements, aged 11 — 
Sept*" 10 John Henry, a Dutchman & foreigner, aged 56 — 
Dec, 18. a male Infant, the son of Philip Alexander — Obed 
Wells drowned in the Sound, off Gardner's island abont 5 
weeks ago (Nov, 10) 

1 8 10. Jan^, I, died of the Rattles a Daughter of Mr. 
Bates, iEt, 12 — Jan^, 26, a Daughter of Selah Allen iEt, 3, 
of the Rattles — Janr'^ 6 Robert Field Wells, son of widow 
Lina Wells, by bleeding at the nose, Nx. 8 — Feb, 4, a son of 
Amos Giles by a Typhus fever, Mx^ 22 — Feb^, 3, an infant 
Child of Philip Alexander — March 13, an infant Child of 
Danl Nash jr. — a child of Eben Arms — March 20, a son of 
Porter Johnson ^t, 4 — May, 9, a Daughter of widow 
Margaret Jennings ^^^t, 12, Typhus fever — July 22, William, 
son of Jerom Ripley, Esq"", i^tat, 4 — Sept"", 2, Widow Love- 
land, by suicide committed by mental derangement — Oct. 12, 
Susanna, the D, of Daniel Nash of Consumption, iEt, 26 — 
Dec, 17, Martha, the D, of Col. Eliel Gilbert Nx, 3 — 
Dec, 19 the wife of Daniel Picket, ^Et, 50 — Dec, 23, Capt, 
Samuel Stebbins, i^t, 40 of complicated Diseases — Dec, 31, 
Hannah Nims, Nx^ 17 of Consumption — 

181 1. March i, a child of Eber Nash, 7 months — March 
13, Harry Lyman, ^Et, 23 — March 19, a son of Oliver Sage 
was drowned, Nx^ 3 — June 8, Lucy, D, of Jont^ Smead jr, of 

the Rattles, Nx^ 5 — Aug, 4, Hannah, the wife of Ebenzr 

H — wife, suddenly in Child birth — August 19, David, son of 
David Ripley ^t, 3 — Sept*" 2, a child of Oren Munn iEt, 2 — 
Sept, 4, Mrs, Thayer's T^t, 72 — Sept. 23, Wid Hannah Smead, 
by Appoplexy, Nx^ 57 — (widow of Abner) — Nov, 23 Richard 
Johnson, ^t, 77 — Dec, i, Willis Childs, iEt, perhaps 57 — 

748 MR. newton's death record 

1 8 12. Jan'', 29, Samuel Smead, of the Palsy, JEt, 73 — 
Feb, 12, a Child of Francis Lester, of the throat Distemper — 
aged 16 Months — Feb, 16, Silas, son of Simeon Munn, of St, 
Antonis Dance — March — a Child of Hawks Wells lEt, 2 — 
March, 28, a son of Julia Smead, ^^it, 5 — April 4, Job Allen, 
JEty 60 — April 19, Mrs, Pratt, JEt, 61 — April 14, Widow 
Sarah Smead, lEt^ 66 (widow of Lemuel) — June 12, Capt, 
Caleb Clap, by suicide, JEt, 60 — Capt, William Tyron, i^^t, 
75, by cancer. July 6, Ebenezr, Arms Esqr, JEt, 52 — Oct, 
26, John, a son of Nathan Draper, iEt, 18 Months — Nov, 7, 
Grate(ful) Smead, i^t, 32 — Nov, 9, Elijah Mitchel, iEt, 86 — 

1813. Feb, 24,Julia the wife of Reuben Bryant, iEt, 27 — 
Jonathan Bird, i^t, 27 — Mosely Clark, ^Et, 30 — March 25^ 
Caroline Newton, spotted fever, JEt, 10 — March 30, Wm, 
Joyce iEt, 80 — April 22, Abigail (prob. Jerusha) the widow 
of Ebenezer Allen, lEt, 85 — Clement Smith ^t, 48, — May 
23, Sarah, the wife of Maj, Elihu Lyman, JEt, 6^ — Tirzah, 
the wife of Daniel Smead, JEt, 61 — June — Stephen Pratt — 
Aug, 9 Silvanus Nash, JEt, 67 — Oct, Hannah Root, JEt, 73 — 

Oct — Benjamen Swan Oct, 14, Sophronia Mot, a Child — 

Oct, 6, Jonat^' Atherton, JEt, 71 — Dec, 31, Thankful Miller, 
^t, 24 — 

1 8 14. April 26, Deacon (Ebenezer) Graves, ^t, 88 — 
May, (8) Asher Cors, jr. JEt, 39 — May (14) the widow of 
Asher Cors, jr (Lucy Grinnell) ^t 39 — Jun, 3, the wife of 
Capt, (Alexander) Morgan — Jun, 6, the wife of (Joseph) Nut- 




THE inhabitants of this town on the 22d of February, 
1800, paid the tribute of grateful respect to the memory 
of the late illustrious friend and Guardian of America 
— General George Washington. 

The stores and shops were closed and all business suspended 
during the day. Precisely at 12 o'clock a numerous and re- 
spectable procession from this and the adjacent towns formed 
the parade and marched to the meetinghouse in the following 
order under the direction of Col. Gilbert, Chief Marshal. 
I Cap't. Ames Company of Cavalry mounted. 
II Band of music with muffled drums, Flutes and Haut- 
boys dressed in mourning and playing a dead march. 

III Cap't. Wells Company of Infantry with reversed arms. 

IV The Orator of the day. Proctor Peirce, and clergy. 

V The Regimental colors half staff high and bordered 
with black, borne in the centre by six (6) officers in uniforms 
with hilts of their swords ornamented with black crape. 
VI Officers of the late Revolutionary Army. 
VII Military Officers. 
VIII The Republican Lodge, F. & A. M. with emblems of 
their order suitably dressed in mourning with a Cassia sprig. 
IX Civil Magistrates. 
X Gentlemen of Public Vocation. 

XI Selectmen of Greenfield and Overseers of the Poor. 
XII Committee of Arrangements. 
XIII Citizens in general. 

XIV Schoolmasters of Greenfield and their scholars. 



The military escort having arrived at the meetinghouse 
halted, opened to the right and left, the cavalry with swords 
reversed and the infantry leaving their reversed arms the 
Orator [Proctor Peirce) and clergy then passed through the 
avenue and entered the church, being followed by thirty-two 
female singers who here joined the procession, they were 
dressed in write robes and capes with black bows. 

The procession being seated the exercises commenced by 
the Elegy strikingly adopted to the occasion and under the 
direction of Mr. Wells in a manner which did honor to him- 
self and the whole musical choir. 

" Know ye not that a great man has fallen in Israel." 

After the President's Proclamation was read the throne of 
grace was addressed by Rev. Roger Newton in a prayer con- 
ceived in his most appropriate, affecting and dignified style. 

Then followed an Eulogy by Mr. Proctor Peirce in which 
the triumph, talents and exalted virtues of the great deceased 
were happily delineated, and pathetically enforced. 

Then sounded a Masonic Hymn, after which the solemn 
Masonic funeral service was read by Rev. Smith, a member 
of the Republican Lodge. 

" Farewell, a long a sad farewell." 

The procession then returned, the music playing the Presi- 
dent's March. The distant sound of minute guns by Cap't. 
Smead's Artillery Company, the slowly moving procession 
and the badges of mourning which were generally worn by all 
sexes and ages added solemnity to the expression of an affected 

The pulpit, window, canopy, communion table and breast 
work of the galleries were shrouded with black. 

The decency, regularity and order observed by all classes 
of citizens did honor to the day. 

Proctor Peirce, who delivered the oration, was born in New 
Salem, Mass., March 20, 1768, the son of Abraham & 


Ruth (Page) Peirce and a -direct descendant of John Proctor, 
of Salem. His grand parents were Abraham & Mary (Proctor) 
Peirce married in Salem, Jan. 22, 1744. His grand mother, 
Mary, was a grand daughter of John Proctor, who was so 
intimately associated with the witchcraft delusion in Salem 
that he was hung in 1692, and it was from this family that 
Proctor Peirce of Greenfield received his name. 

He graduated at Dartmouth in 1796 at the age of twenty- 
eight. He was selected to teach the Academy at New Salem 
where he remained until 1800, when he removed to Green- 
field where he kept the District School several years. At this 
school all branches were there studied and the scholars fitted 
for College. Scholars resorted to this school from diflferent 
parts of the State, and during the winter of 1 802 the names 
of Cyrus Chapin, Geo. Grennell, Abner, Ezekiel, Calvin, 
Daniel, Samuel & Stephen Wells, sons of Samuel Wells, 
Thomas & Franklin Ripley, John Stone, Preserved Smith 
& John Peirce are found upon the roll of members. Proctor 
Peirce engaged in trade in Greenfield and afterward taught 
school in Lynn, Cambridge and Boston. He married June 
6, 1802, Susanna Newton of Greenfield, daughter of Rev. 
Roger Newton. His children born in Greenfield were 
Susanna, William and Mary Burwell, and a son Roger New- 
ton Peirce, born in Lynn, 181 1. 

May 2d, 1805, Proctor Peirce was elected a Deacon of the 
First Church in Greenfield. He was selected by the citizens 
to deliver the oration on the observance of the death of George 
Washington by the town, Feb. 22, 1800. 

Proctor Peirce died in Boston April 27, 1821, aged ^2 
years, and his widow Susanna died in Cambridge, Mass., 
July 15, 1855, ^g^^ 7^ years. 



" The days are short, the weather cold, 
By tavern fires tales are told ; 
Some ask for dram when first come in, 
Others with flip or bounce begin." 

BEFORE the days of railroads and the appearance of the 
daily paper with its columns filled with telegraphic news 
from every part of the civilized world, the stage coach 
was the conveyor of the daily gossip, and the village tavern 
the place where people gathered to hear and discuss the hap- 
penings which had been recited to listening ears by people 
travelling by the coach. Now a person picks up his paper 
and hastily glances over its crowded pages, gathers in its 
headings, and throwing it aside, goes on with his regular duties, 
oftentimes without remark or discussion of any kind. In the 
olden times, if perchance a paper had been received by any 
person, its contents were read aloud, while the eager listeners 
sipped their mug of toddy or hot flip, and the subject-matter 
was fully discussed by the village sages. Sitting around the 
great open fireplaces, the town meeting orators discussed the 
great problems of the government which they had done so 
much to establish, and the milder gossip of the day, with 
judgment and candor. Often the strenuous politics of the 
time caused the use of more than conversational tones of 

The happy landlord gliding in and out busied himself by 
replenishing the fading fire, stuck the loggerhead among the 


glowing coals, and without seeming so to do, awaited orders 
for mugs of hot toddy or flip. 

To make flip, a large mug was filled about two thirds full 
of good cider or beer, into which was stirred sugar or molasses, 
nutmeg and ginger, and the vessel filled with New England or 
West India rum. When all was ready, the redhot logger- 
head was plunged into it, causing the liquor to foam and 
bubble, giving it a burnt, bitter taste, filling not only the 
brain of the drinker, but the whole room with its fumes. 

Rum was the principal ingredient of toddy, sling and grog, 
and many other drinks of various names. A quart mug filled 
with these drinks if made with West India rum was lo d., and 
if New England rum was used, 9 d. 

In the old times when there was no artificial heat in the 
meetinghouses, it was felt to be a necessity that a tavern should 
be located near. Before the building of the meetinghouse in 
this town the services were held at the Corse tavern, and 
Denio's tavern was across the street. When the meetinghouse 
was built, Ahaz Thayer opened his house situate a quarter of 
a mile east, as a tavern, and soon after built the present Long 
place right near the meetinghouse. The warmth of the 
morning dram would hardly last through the long morning 
services, and the good Mr. Thayer would have three good 
fires ready for the Intermission, while the women and chil- 
dren warmed themselves in the schoolhouse which stood near 

Jonas W. Moore, who died a few years since at the age of 
ninety-seven, said that at the noon intermission the boys used 
to club together and buy a mug of flip and pass it from hand 
to hand (or mouth to mouth) until it was gone. 

The men, the preacher included, would fortify themselves 
against the rigors of the weather during the afternoon service 
and the long ride home after service, while the women with 
newly heated bricks and hot pieces of plank or with their little 
tin stoves freshly filled with coals from the schoolhouse fire, 


would resume their places in the square pews, to await the 
closing benediction. 

Lowell realized the good cheer found in the noon intermis- 
sion when he wrote : 

" When dozed a fire of beechen logs that bred 
Strange fancies in its embers golden red, 
And nursed the loggerhead, whose hissing dip, 

Timed by wise instinct, creamed the bowl of flip." 

The Sunday service was the great event of the week, and 
seldom did anything prevent attendance at the meeting. Fre- 
quently the minister, interested in his subject, if none others 
were, would announce at the close of the morning sermon, 
" With divine leave the subject will have further consideration 
in the afternoon." Then, if the weather was warm, the men 
who lived at a distance would repair to the horsesheds, and 
talk over the events of the day, the state- of the crops and the 
forwardness of the farm work, while disposing meantime of 
the dainty little lunch prepared by the goodwife. The wom- 
en and children assembled at some neighboring house or the 
adjoining schoolhouse and gossiped in mild form while they 
nibbled at their gingerbread and caraway cookies. 

The horse block stood under an old elm (still standing) on 
the east side of the road, and the young men watched with 
longing eyes his favorite maid as she vaulted to the pillion be- 
hind her father or elder brother. 

James Corse, the celebrated hunter and scout, was probably 
the landlord of the first tavern kept in Greenfield. He was 
born in Deerfield in 1694 and died in Greenfield Septem- 
ber 20, 1783. He obtained his title to that lot on which now 
stands the Mansion House (together with other lands) by a 
deed from Ebenezer Severance dated April 18, 1720, in 
which it is described as follows : " all that allotment on Green 
river which I bought of Benoni Moore — 30 acre allotment & 
an 8 acre home lot, . . . No. 11, bounded east by home 
lot of Thomas French 2nd; west by home lot of Nathaniel 


Brooks ; north by undivided lands, and south by the street." 
The lot was eighty rods in length and sixteen rods in width. 

The date of his building his house is not known, but it was 
undoubtedly soon after, as he was married August 21, 1 721, to 
Thankful, daughter of Benjamin Munn. His house became 
the general meeting place for the people, for the preaching 
services on Sundays, and other gatherings. He was allowed 
compensation therefor and for beating the drum to call the 
people together. During the French and Indian wars his 
house was fortified and was the place of refuge in times of 
sudden danger, being often garrisoned by government sol- 
diers. But few deeds given before 1785 are to be found re- 
corded in the northern registry, so our records do not show 
when the Corses parted with the old tavern stand ; but in 
1785, two years after James Corse's decease, Lemuel Bas- 
com conveyed the tavern stand to Caleb Alvord, who kept 
the place until 1792 and then sold it to Calvin Munn (a Rev- 
olutionary soldier) who then resided in Whitingham, Vt. 
He was the owner and landlord the most of the time until 
18 1 5, when he sold his interests to Asa Goodenough of Brat- 
tleboro, Vt. Elijah Lamb kept the house in 1797 and 1798. 
Mr. Goodenough was a man of action and soon purchased 
the old Willard tavern stand located just west of him. Federal 
street having been cut through between them in 1788. He 
also purchased thirty-seven acres of land on Federal street. 
His speculations brought him to grief, and he was ousted of 
his property in 1822, and it came into the hands of Asaph P. 
Preston of South Hadley and Homer Preston of Westfield. 
They kept the house for two years and in April, 1825, sold 
it to Isaac Newton, Jr., son of Captain Isaac Newton. Mr. 
Newton built the three-story brick building sixty-four by forty- 
nine feet now known as the Mansion House, and also a two 
story ell sixty-eight feet long on Federal street, the main 
building extending as far east as the Packard National Bank. 
The main part of the old building was moved down Main 

756 THE MANSION HOUSE [1830-1903 

Street and converted into the dwelling long owned and occu- 
pied by George W. Mark. Elijah S. Alvord kept the house 
in 1830. In July, 1833, Mr. Newton sold the Mansion 
House to Charles, son of Colonel Asaph Smead, who contin- 
ued as landlord until January i, 1842, when he disposed of 
it to Asher Spencer and Barnard A. Newell. James Taggart 
became the landlord for a short time and was succeeded by a 
Mr. Brewster from Northampton. In 1843 Paul Chase of 
Brattleboro purchased the hotel and after four years' residence 
sold it out to George Field and Elijah Coleman, two young 
Greenfield men who were ambitious to become hotel keepers. 
Coleman soon retired with more knowledge and less money, 
selling his interest to Wendell T. Davis in 1847. Field kept 
the house until June, 1855, and sold his interest to Henry W. 
Clapp. Mr. Clapp purchased Mr. Davis's interest the same 
year. In 1857 the Mansion House was leased to Colonel 
J. M. Decker, after remaining closed for two years. In 1858 
H. B. Stevens became the landlord and under the manage- 
ment of the family, which continued several years, the house 
gained a very high reputation among the travelling community. 
In August, 1869, George Doolittle became the proprietor 
of the property and he added to the extension easterly where 
the old Ripley house had formerly stood, the intermediate 
section having been built by W. T. Davis about 1849. Un- 
fortunately Mr. Doolittle invested far beyond his means, and 
after a brave struggle against adverse circumstances, the prop- 
erty was closed out under foreclosure by the Franklin Sav- 
ings Institution in 1877, and bid in by Peleg Adams who had 
a subsequent claim, for $48,500, and about $1,700 unpaid 
taxes. By Mr. Adams's will the property passed to the widow 
and two daughters of his son, the late John A. Adams. 
George T. C. Holden was the lessee for several years, also 
Schoff& Thompson, and later WilHam E. Wood, the present 
popular landlord. The house has sustained the good 
reputation gained for it many years since, and the citizens of 



the town are justly proud to hear it well spoken of by the 
travelling public. 

Aaron Denio as early as 1737 was in possession of thirty- 
four acres of land, the easterly portion of which extended south 
from Main street eighty rods, and the westerly line southerly 
on the Deerfield road from Allen's corner, sixty-one rods. 
On this land, where the Masonic block now is, stood his 
house, which he kept as a hotel. He was partly of French 
origin and had many peculiarities and in another chapter of 
this work will be found several anecdotes of him. His house 
was also used for public meetings and in 1756 the town voted 
him ^4 " for beating the drum for meetings on Sabbath and 
other occasions." The General Court also granted him 
200 acres of land for his valuable military services during the 
Indian wars. He died April 29, 1780. He was granted an 
innholder's license from 1740 to 1778, after which his son 
Battis was licensed until 1783, and probably continued busi- 
ness at the old stand. 

In March, 1 791, Jerome Ripley, merchant, who owned the 
old Hovey property, sold to Eliel Gilbert, saddler, the west- 
ern portion of his home lot, about three fourths of an acre, 
and he built thereon a house which became the nucleus of 
the old American House, although it was not called by that 
name until 1846. He kept a saddler's shop and in 18 16 was 
licensed as an innholder and kept a public house until his 
death in 1830, when the property passed into the hands of 
Timothy Lathrop who married Colonel Gilbert's daughter 
Catharine. Timothy Lathrop was licensed as an innholder 
from 1830 to 1835, when Colonel David Wright succeeded 
him as the landlord. Colonel Wright was the old-time crier 
of the courts, and it is said that he would sometimes get just 
a little drowsy during the long sessions of the court, and more- 
over that at one time when suddenly awakened he greatly 
shocked judge, jury, lawyers and spectators by adding to the 
words used in closing the session for the day, " God save the 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts," a terrible oath which it 
would be very improper to record. April 20, 1839 this prop- 
erty passed into the hands of William Keith who did much 
to improve it, and kept it until its sale January 11, 1867, to 
Sarah Simons. During the latter part of Major Keith's own- 
ership the hostelry was run by his brother, the late Charles 
Keith. David S. Simons in the spring of 1876 pulled down 
the old wooden structure which had stood for eighty years and 
erected the fine block now familiar to us as the American 
House. The hotel has been kept of late years by Eells 
Brothers, Henry Campbell, G. H. Chatfield, Oscar C. Allen, 
and F. A. Eells. The property is now owned by a syndi- 
cate and has recently been put into fine shape by the propri- 
etors, and Mr. Eells has an established reputation as landlord. 

Besides the James Corse and Aaron Denio taverns which 
were located on the village street, there were several inns at 
different times in the meadows, and in other parts of the 
town. Officers of the Revolutionary War, returned to their 
homes, poor in purse, but rich in stories and interesting 
sketches of army life, which might entertain willing guests, 
seemed naturally to fall into tavern keeping as an occupation. 

Captain Ebenezer Wells, born in Deerfield, in 1723, select- 
man of Greenfield for sixteen years, town clerk and treasurer, 
kept a tavern for many years at the Frederick G. Smith place, 
now owned by Frank Kingsley. He was licensed as an inn- 
keeper as early as 1746. He died in 1787, and his son Reu- 
ben was licensed in 1784, and kept a tavern at the Elihu 
Goodman place, now owned by Gilbert Corbin. Here, in 
1787, the Shays men were compelled to come in and sur- 
render their arms to Captain Seth Catlin and take the oath 
of allegiance. Another son, Ebenezer, Jr., was also licensed 
as an innkeeper in 1781. So also was Asa Wells, a relative. 
The old Wells property fell into the hands of Joseph Sev- 
erance, who was one among others to be licensed as an inn- 
keeper in 1798. Reuben Wells and Elisha Wells, sons of 

174S-1857] ^^^ TAVERNS IN THE MEADOWS 759 

Captain Ebenezer, married sisters of Joseph Severance, and 
were both hcensed as innholders between 1795 and 1804, 
presumably continuing business at the old stand, and at the 
Goodman place. 

Samuel Hinsdale in 1746 was living at the place now owned 
by representative Frank Gerrett, and was licensed as a tavern 
keeper. He was born in 1708 and died in 1786. His son 
Ariel seems to have succeeded him as landlord in 1777, and he 
also married a sister of Joseph Severance. The Hinsdales 
owned a distillery, so could furnish pure liquors in unstinted 
supply. The stand passed into the hands Ebenezer Thayer 
and subsequently to Hollister B. Thayer and from him to 
Henry A. Ewers. It was closed as a public house when 
purchased by William N. Nims in 1857. 

In 1805-6-7 Captain John Wells had license as an inn- 
keeper. He came up from Deerfield and took the Willard 
tavern. He was the grandson of Ebenezer the early settler of 
Greenfield. There were " three Johns " of the family name in 
this vicinity at that time. Captain John, " Bottle John," who 
lived just east of the " Bear's den," and John, son of Joshua. 

Amos Allen appears as a licensed innholder in 1768. He 
had a few years before moved from the fortified house which 
stood where the Hollister house now stands, to the upper mea- 
dows, and built the Quintus Allen house ( 1 766). He received 
a license for several years, but as his daughter Mercy married 
Joseph Severance and kept the Wells tavern, it is probable 
that he retired from the business in their favor, as they were 
nigh neighbors. 

George Howland, who lived just west of where the River- 
side schoolhousein Gill is located, had three sons, Seth, George 
and John. The Howlands were very early settlers in that 
part of Greenfield, now Gill. From 1764 to 1803 either one 
or the other of these Howlands had a license as an innholder. 
The place was undoubtedly a resort for the river men, and 
the opening of the canal upon the other side of the river might 



have rendered the location unfavorable for business at the 
Howland homestead. 

From 1777 to 1792 Wise Grennell, who during a portion 
of this time, at least, owned what is known as the Spear lot, 
bounded east by High street and north by Silver, was licensed 
as an innkeeper. His house stood just across the road from 
the cemetery, but was torn down years ago. 

In 1806 Ahaz Thayer purchased what is now known as the 
Long farm, and kept a country tavern. In 181 1 he built the 
present house (the James R. Long place) and removed to it, 
where he continued his business of innholder, and warmed 
both the insides and the outsides of the attendants of the old 
meetinghouse on Sundays and town-meeting days. 

In 1777 Lieutenant John Clark was licensed to keep an 
inn at what was known for many years as the Chester Bascom 
place, on the old stage road, where Fred A. Lamb built a new 
house a few years since. Lieutenant Clark sold to Jonathan 
Bacon in 1804. 

Agrippa Wells (" Capt. Grip," of the Revolutionary army) 
took out a license as innkeeper in 1778-79-81. He was 
fined 40 s. for keeping a tavern without a license, in the year 
1780. In 1 801 he was living in the old Willard tavern, and 
had a blacksmith shop in connection with his tavern keeping. 
It was called the Wells tavern at that time. 

Ruel and Beriah Williard came to Greenfield about 1770. 
How soon the " Old Willard Tavern " was built I am unable 
to determine, but Beriah Willard was first licensed in 1777, 
and Ruel Willard in 1 781, as tavern keepers. This old hos- 
telry stood where the Franklin County National Bank now 
stands, and was kept by Beriah Willard for many years. He 
died in 18 19 and willed his entire estate to his son, David 
Willard. The old tavern had many landlords : Beriah Wil- 
lard kept it many years and later, Amos Mansfield, Nathan 
Fish, I 8 13-14-1 5, Reverend Ebenezer Tucker ; he preached 
at the old church Sundays and sold rum the rest of the week, 


according to a paper read by Deacon Charles L. Smead at a 
North Parish gathering a few years ago. Ruel Willard owned 
the Allen corner and the old Aaron Denio tavern stand. 

From the Gazette & Courier, September 3, 1855 : 

" The old Willard house, situated between Miles & Lyons 
shop and the Unitarian church is being taken down. It has 
long been a disgrace to Main street, occupied as it has been 
by the lowest class of foreigners and others." 

This describes the passing of the old Denio tavern, its lo- 
cation being where the Masonic block now stands. It was 
owned for years by Ruel Willard. 

Elisha Wells, before spoken of, had a license as innkeeper 
from 1795 to 1 80 1. He lived in a small house which stood 
where Dr. Walker now lives, and I suspect was lessee of the 
Willard tavern. Jerome Ripley kept public house in 179 1—2. 
He sold to Eliel Gilbert who built where the American House 

Ephraim Wells kept a country tavern in the meadows, just 
across the road from the old Goodman — now Corbin — place ; 
from 1 812 to 18 1 8, when Ephraim Browning succeeded him, 
Mr. Wells having died in October of that year. His ancient 
sign is preserved at the Memorial Hall in Deerfi.eld, as well 
as that of Mr. Browning, his successor. Mr. Browning died 
in the spring of 18 19, and Rebecca, his widow, was licensed as 
an innkeeper. This old tavern was burned February 8, 1820, 
and nothing but the celler hole remains to mark the place 
where it stood. The place was owned by Hull Nims. 

In 1827 Colonel Spencer Root purchased from John E. 
Hall the place now known as the Hollister house, and threw 
it open to the public as a hotel which he called the Franklin 
House. It was only kept as a hotel for one year and was then 
purchased by a number of gentlemen, who organized the High 
School for Young Ladies. 

Ebenezer Field and James Gould held licenses as inn- 
keepers in 1803 ; Joel Clark in 18 16, and Elijah S. Alvord 

762 THE "white horse" axd other "inns" 

in 1830, but at what place or places (excepting Mr. Alvord) 
they carried on business I have not ascertained. 

When the new county buildings were completed, the resi- 
dence of the jailor (now the Union House) became a licensed 
inn, and was kept in 18 19 by John Mason, jailor; 1829-30 
by Isaac Abercrombie ; 1831 by David S. Jones; and after- 
ward by Seth C. Smith and by Charles H. Munn. 

In 1865 Lyman Thayer, having had experience in keeping 
hotel in Wilmington, Vt., retired from his meadow farm, and 
purchased the place now known as the Elm House, and 
adding to the capacity of the buildings, opened it as a public 
house. It has had many occupants and owners since Mr. 
Thayer's death, but its reputation never was better than now 
as kept by Mr. C. P. Aldrich. The Franklin House estab- 
lished about 1850 by the late Amos E. Reed, has been much 
enlarged and improved by Henry Barnard and for the past 
few years has been under the excellent management of John 
Mead. The Germania House, kept at the old John Russell 
homestead, of fifty years ago, is a popular German house. 
The Albert, the Warner House and the Central are much 
later candidates for the public favor, and as yet hardly have a 

The old David R. Wait place at Cheapside was built about 
1775 by Lieutenant Jonathan Hoyt, a stalwart Tory, and he 
was for the remainder of his life landlord of the " White Horse 
Inn." He died in 1813, and his son Cephas succeeded to 
the great house and the broad meadows, but died insolvent in 

The Abercrombie tavern at Cheapside did a rushing busi- 
ness while the flush times lasted at that thriving port of entry. 
It was kept several years by the late Nathan F. Henry, be- 
fore the Abercrombies purchased it, about 1830, but when the 
railroad took the transportation of freight and passengers from 
the river, the hotel business, like all others at Cheapside, faded 



DR. Zecheriah Converse came to Greenfield from Kill- 
ingly, Conn., soon after the town was organized. In 
1774 he was living upon the lot on the north side of 
West Main street where the brick house formerly owned by 
Major William Keith now stands. He was stricken with apo- 
plexy and died October 30, 1790. Rev. Roger Newton in 
his diary says of him : " A man who had been capable of doing 
good and peculiar for his contentment with small things — and 
refraining from resentful, reviling language and conduct towards 

Dr. Edward Billings, son of the Rev. Edward Billings, the 
first minister of Greenfield, was born in Belchertown in 1750 
and came to Greenfield with his father in 1754. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1775, and the next year was licensed 
to preach by the Hampshire Association. He left the min- 
istry after a short time and studied medicine, and practised his 
profession in Greenfield and the surrounding towns until his 
death, which occurred May 8, 1806. He probably established 
the first drug store in Greenfield, which he sold to Caleb Clap 
and Dr. John Stone in 1792. 

Dr. John Caldwell was in Greenfield before 1774, and at 
that date owned the farm of one hundred and five acres, since 
known as the Grinnell place, at the east end of Main street. 
He sold this place to Col. William Moore in 1787, and in the 
deed he is described as of Barre. 

Willard in his history mentions a " Dr. White," but 1 
have not been able to learn anything of him. Moses H. 



White who married Isabella, daughter of Dr. John Frink 
of Rutland, who lived here in 1809, may have been a physician. 

Dr. Joshua Rugg settled in Greenfield before 1784. That 
year he purchased of William Clark the farm now owned by Da- 
mon L. Fay on the west side of the Bernardston road, about 
a mile north of the four corners. He made this his home 
until 1801. 

Dr. Samuel Flagg, Jr., was born in East Hartford, Conn., 
April 2, 1766, and was the son of Samuel Flagg of that place. 
He married Mary, daughter of Jonah or David Wyles of Bol- 
ton, Conn., November 23, 1790. He resided a few years in 
East Hartford, removing thence to Greenfield, and about the 
year 1798 to Bernardston, settling in the north part of that 
town, and practising as a physician until his death, July 30, 
1804. In I 80 1 it was noted that he kept a hotel. He was 
buried with Masonic ceremonies, and judging from the pub- 
lished obituaries must have been a man much respected. His 
widow married second Simeon Allen in 1 806. She was born in 
Colchester, Conn., March 25, 1767, and died August i, 1845. 

Dr. John Stone, son of Capt. John Stone, of Rutland, 
Mass., was born in that town in 1763. He studied medicine 
with Dr. John Frink of Rutland, and commenced practice 
here in 1 787. He had a large practice here and in the neighbor- 
ing towns. I have before me his account book containing 
charges from January i, 1790 to October i, 1791 — one year 
and nine months — covering one hundred and seventy-one 
closely written pages, averaging twenty-five entries to a page. 
His charges for a visit in the village or within a mile of his 
residence was one shilling. A visit to the north part of the 
town was two shillings, to Leyden five shillings, and to Col- 
rain six shillings. For extracting a tooth or " blooding " he 
charged eight pence, and for dressing a wound, one shilling 
six pence, including the visit. He allowed six pence per 
dozen for eggs, two pence per pound for mutton, six pence 
per pound for butter, the same for lard, four shillings a bushel 


for wheat, nine pence a pound for sugar, six shillings a cord 
for wood, and one shilling five pence per quart for rum. He 
credits one person for fifty shad at three pence each and 
nineteen pounds of salmon at four pence per pound. He con- 
tinued his practice here until 1 8 19, when he removed to Provi- 
dence, R. I., where he remained but a short time, making his 
final settlement in Springfield, Mass., where he died Septem- 
ber 12, 1838. He established a high reputation as a skilful 
physician, and was greatly loved and respected as a man. 

Dr. Alphesus Fletcher Stone *' was born in Rutland, Wor- 
cester county, Mass., May 7, 1778. In his younger days he 
taught school in Connecticut, and probably had a good com- 
mon education for those days. 

About 1798 or 1799 he came to Greenfield, where he en- 
tered the office of his elder brother. Dr. John Stone. He 
continued his medical studies for about two years, and com- 
menced practice at Greenfield, on Christmas day, i 801. Here 
he continued in active business for fifty years, and became one 
of the most noted and successful practitioners in this region. 
He was famous as an obstetrician, and probably had a larger 
practice in that line than almost any other physician in the Con- 
necticut valley. He had a great reputation in the treatment of 
women and children, and was a man of most urbane and gen- 
tlemanly deportment, and was very popular among all classes. 
He was exceedingly systematic, and always punctual to ap- 
pointments. During the last twenty-five years of his life his 
consulting practice was very extensive. 

He became a fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Associa- 
tion in 1 8 14, and was one of its counselors for twenty-five 
years. He took an active part in the formation of the Frank- 
lin District Medical Society, founded in 1851, was one of its 
counselors, and served for some time as librarian. In 1813 
he was elected an honorary member of the American Escula- 
pian Societv of New York. In 1825 he received the hon- 

* Centennial Gazette. 


orary degree of doctor of medicine, from Williams College; 
in 1849 ^^'^s appointed by the Massachusetts Medical Asso- 
ciation a delegate to the American Medical Association ; and 
in January, 1851, was elected first president of the Franklin 
District Medical Society. Dr. Stone died September 5, 1851, 
aged seventy-three years and four months. 

He was three times married. His first wife was a daughter 
of Beriah Willard, Esq., of Greenfield ; his second was Harriet 
Russell of Rutland, Mass. ; and his third, Mrs. Fanny Gush- 
ing Arms, widow of George Arms, Esq., of Deerfield, whom 
he married about 1820. 

His son, Charles P. Stone, was a graduate of West Point, 
and served during the Mexican war with distinction, rising to 
the rank of captain in the regular army. Subsequently he 
visited Europe to perfect his military studies. At the opening 
of the great Rebellion, in 1861, he took an active and promi- 
nent part, and received the commission of brigadier-general 
of volunteers. He commanded at the disastrous battle of 
Ball's Bluff, which reverse to the Union arms was more the 
result of errors on the part of the war department than of any 
fault of the commander. He soon after retired from the serv- 
ice, and subsequently visited Europe and Egypt, where he 
entered the army of the khedive, and, by his thorough mili- 
tary knowledge and soldierly qualities, won the high distinction 
of virtual commander-in-chief of the Egyptian army. He was 
born September 30, 1814, and died January 24, 1887. 

Dr. James Deane.* " This eminent physician was de- 
scended from James Deane, one of the earliest settlers of Ston- 
ington, Ct. Christopher and Prudence Deane, his father and 
mother, removed early in their married life to Colrain, Mass., 
where the subject of this notice was born, February 24, 1801, 
being the eighth child of the family. From his early years he 
was a close student of Nature. His education was such as 
the common schools then afforded. 

* Centennial Gazette, 


" When James was nineteen years of age, his father gave up 
the idea of making a farmer of him, as he adapted himself but 
indifferently to the duties of a farm life. For four years after 
attaining his majority he was in the employ of Elijah Alvord, 
Esq., of Greenfield, then clerk of the courts and register of 
probate. It was at this time that he occupied his leisure hours 
in the study of medicine, being a pupil of Dr. Brigham. In 
1829-30, he attended his first course of medical lectures, given 
by celebrated professors in New York. In 1 831, he received 
the degree of M. D., and immediately commenced practice 
in Greenfield, where he established an excellent reputation as 
a physician and surgeon. In 1849, feeling the need of addi- 
tional knowledge, he spent several weeks in New York study- 
ing the latest and most approved works. This was subse- 
quently of great advantage to him. 

" His experience as a contributor to the press began in 1837, 
with a communication to the Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal, and continued until January, i 855. His correspond- 
ence with this publication was extensive and highly appreciated. 
He was a member of the Franklin District Medical Society 
and the Massachusetts Medical Society, serving two years as 
vice-president of the latter. 

"Great as were his attainments in his chosen profession, he 
added new laurels by investigations in the fields of geology 
and ichnology, for which study the Connecticut valley offered 
excellent opportunities. He was interested in the " bird 
tracks " in the Old Red Sandstone. In 1842, specimens were 
forwarded to London, Eng., and placed before the Geological 
Society, and subsequently Dr. Deane was acknowledged as 
the ' first observer ' of the tracks, and the thanks of the so- 
ciety tendered him. During all these years he was busy pre- 
paring descriptions and drawings of new fossil specimens. A 
large amount of this work was presented to the Smithsonian 
Institute a short time before his death." 

Assisted with means by the Smithsonian Institution he drew 


with his own hand facsimiles of the fossil bird and animal 
tracks of this region and published an illustrated work upon 
this interesting subject. The cuts are almost perfect for their 
naturalness and accuracy. A copy of the work will be found 
in the Greenfield Library Association rooms. 

Dr. Deane married, in 1836, Miss Mary Clapp Russell, of 
Greenfield, by whom he had three children, — daughters, — all 
of whom survived him. His death occurred June 8, 1858, 
at the age of 57 years. 

On the 5th of August succeeding his death a public service 
was held in Washington hall in recognition of his life and 
services. Prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. Chandler, and an 
address was given by Dr. H. I. Bowditch of Boston. The 
Boston Natural History Society also passed resolutions of re- 
spect to his memory, and Dr. T. T. Bouve prepared a sketch 
of his life. 

Dr. Amariah Brigham came to Greenfield from Enfield, 
Hampshire county, in 1821, He married Susan C, daughter 
of Col. Spencer Root. He remained in practice here for ten 
years and then removed to Hartford, Conn. He was the au- 
thor of several valuable medical works and stood well in his 
profession. He purchased of Dr. Seth Wasburn the place 
on the east side of Federal street now occupied for a high 
school lot, and in that deed he is named as a resident of En- 
field, Mass. He died in Utica, N. Y., about 1850. 

Dr. Amasa Barrett was in practice here about 1828. 

Dr. Seth Washburn, a young man of great promise, was a 
native of Leicester, Mass. He studied with Dr. Flint of 
Northampton, and purchased of Dr. John Stone the place 
above described as sold to Dr. Brigham, September 16, 18 17, 
and was then a resident of Greenfield. He died January 17, 
1825. Willard says of him, " he was much respected as a 
man, and for his skill as a physician." 

Dr. Helez Alvord of South Hadley and Montague, came to 
Greenfield in 1827. He died in 1829, aged thirty-eight years. 


Dr. Stephen Bates, son of Dr. Stephen Bates of Charlemont, 
was graduated at WilHams College in 1826. He studied medi- 
cine with Drs. Hunt and Barrett of Northampton, and at Jef- 
ferson College, Philadelphia, where he obtained his degree of 
M. D. He commenced his practice here in 1831. He was 
a grandson of Rev. Roger Newton, and succeeded to the 
practice of his father in Charlemont where he died in 1868. 

Dr. Francis Dana of Cambridge, a graduate of Harvard, es- 
tablished himself in practice here in 1831. April i, 1833, he 
advertised the opening of a medical school in Greenfield. The 
price of tuition was to be ^50.00 per annum. He removed 
to Boston in 1834. 

Dr. Samuel Stearns, a native of Leyden, studied medicine 
with Dr. Samuel Ross of Colrain, and practised his profes- 
sion in Colrain and in northern Vermont until in 1835 ^^ 
removed to Greenfield. His residence was at Nash's mills 
and he enjoyed a considerable practice in the outlying districts 
until the failure of his health about ten years before his death 
which occurred June 16, 1867, aged 77 years. 

Dr. Edward H. R. Revere, from Boston or its vicinity, 
began practice in Greenfield about 1850. He purchased from 
Hon. George T. Davis the property now owned by Dr. Fyfe, 
adjoining the St. James parsonage lot, and continued here 
about eight years. In 1859 he was located at Canton, Mass. 

Dr. Daniel Hovey of Lyme, N. H., came to Greenfield in 
1842 and rented the property known as the "Ripley place." 
He soon after purchased it and made extensive repairs and al- 
terations, and it has since been known as the " Hovey Block." 
He kept a drug store aided by his two sons, George H. and 
Luther S. Hovey, George H. finally opening a store upon his 
own account while Luther S. succeeded to his father's busi- 
ness. Dr. Hovey had an extensive practice, but relinquished 
it as he became advanced in years. He died May 6, 1874, 
aged 82 years. 

Dr. Daniel Denison Fisk was a native of Mansfield, Conn. 


He and his brother Charles L. went to Pittsburg, Pa., before 
Daniel was twenty-one years of age where both taught school 
and studied medicine. The subject of this notice practised 
medicine in Pittsburg, in Vermont and in Connecticut, com- 
ing to Greenfield in 1848. He enjoyed an eminently success- 
ful practice so long as his health permitted his application to 
business. He died in Greenfield, February 28, 1864, aged 50 
years and 8 months. 

Dr. Charles L. Fisk was born in Mansfield, Conn., Decem- 
ber 25, 1804. His father, Ezra Fisk, was a farmer, and in his 
youth the son helped upon the farm, went to school, and as 
soon as he was thought of sufficient age he became a teacher. 
He was a great reader, took readily to study and became an 
efficient Latin scholar. He and his younger brother (Dr. 
Daniel) went to Pittsburg into the family of their uncle Alba 
Fisk, then and for many years after, superintendent of the 
United States armory at that place. Here they taught school 
and studied medicine. Dr. Charles returned to Connecticut in 
1829 and soon built up a large practice in eastern Connecticut 
towns. At the solicitation of his brother Daniel, he came to 
Greenfield in 1853 and took charge of a portion of his business. 
For more than a generation Dr. Fisk had a very extensive 
practice in this and the surrounding towns. Originally a Jef- 
fersonian Democrat he soon became an active and efficient re- 
cruit to the cause of human freedom as outlined by Garrison 
and Phillips and their associates, and his home was often the 
refuge of the fugitive slave in his search for freedom. The 
doctor took great interest in the Greenfield lyceum in its palmy 
days, and often presided at its meetings and joined heartily in 
the debates. For many years he wrote for the local paper a 
birthday poem which even to the last showed evidence of an 
active mind and the yielding of a facile pen. He was a Mason 
of the 3 2d degree and was often called upon to address his 
fellows at their social meetings. He died December 19, 1896, 
aged 92 years. He left a son, Dr. Charles L. Fisk, Jr., to 


follow him in his profession, and a daughter, the wife of Cal- 
vin L. Butler of this town. 

Dr. J. W. D. Osgood was the son of Rev. Jonathan Os- 
good of Gardner, a noted preacher and physician. He grad- 
uated at Dartmouth in 1823 and studied his profession at the 
Dartmouth Medical College and the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. His M. D. was conferred by Dartmouth in 1826. 
He began his practice at Templeton in 1827. He was a pro- 
gressive man and student and made frequent visits to the hos- 
pitals of Philadelphia and New York. He was the leading 
physician of northern Worcester county, and had a very ex- 
tensive practice. Being an intimate friend of the late William 
B. Washburn, and feeling the need of a relief from so broad 
a field of practice, he removed to Greenfield in 1858. He 
soon obtained all the practice which he desired, and from his 
acknowledged skill as a practitioner, his good judgment and 
long experience, he became a valuable adviser in the critical 
cases coming under the charge of his associates in medical 
work. He died May 15, 1885, of ossification of the coronary 
arteries of the heart. 

Dr. Adams Calhoun Deane was a native of Colrain. He 
was the son of Dr. Christopher Deane and the grandson of Dr. 
Samuel Ross, both celebrated physicians of their day. In 
fact Dr. Ross — in the days when physicians were educated 
by actual practice with some skilled practitioner — had many 
young men under his tuition. The subject of this notice fin- 
ished his ordinary school education at Old Deerfield Academy 
and graduated from the medical department of the University 
of New York in 1849, ^^^ immediately entered into practice 
with his father in Colrain. While in this practice he was 
elected by his native town a member of the General Court, 
which gave him a short rest from the arduous duties of his 
profession. In 1858 his uncle, the eminent Dr. James Deane 
of Greenfield, died and Dr. Deane at once took up his exten- 
sive practice. He soon became noted as a particularly skil- 


ful surgeon and his practice as such extended all over the 
county. For nearly forty years, day and night, he answered 
every call, often over the roughest roads and exposed to all 
the inclemencies of our New England climate. None but 
the most robust could have held out to perform every duty 
as this man did. He was a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society during his entire profession of life, and helped 
organize the Franklin County Medical Society, and often 
served as one of its officers. As his name indicates he was 
bred a Democrat and he remained loyal to his convictions un- 
til the last, though declining to follow the party in some of 
its latter day vagaries. He was greatly interested in every 
measure likely to effect the good of the town and always took 
an active part in discussing propositions at town meetings. 
He was a strong advocate for a pure and sufficient water sup- 
ply, for securing good sewerage, and for the work of the Rural 
Club. He might be considered the father of the Franklin 
County Hospital, for it was his dream before it became a real- 
ity. He was a member of the Chicago Convention of 1892 ; 
and was a member of the board of trustees of the Northampton 
Insane Hospital for twenty-five years. He was also a director 
in the Packard National Bank, and trustee and vice president 
of the Franklin Savings Institution. He died November 7, 
1899, aged 76. His wife, Maria Louise, daughter of the late 
Joseph Griswold of Colrain, and two sons and a daughter 
(the wife of Dr. F. H. Zabriskie), survive him. 

In its notice of his death, the Gazette says : " In reviewing 
the life of Dr. Deane, one recalls Ian M'Claren's ' Doctor of 
the Old School.' 

" Surely no funeral is like unto that of a doctor for pathos, 
and a peculiar sadness fell on that company as his body was 
carried out who for nearly half a century had been their help 
in sickness, and had beaten back death time after time from 
their door. Death after all was the victor, for the man that 
saved them had not been able to save himself." . . . 


" Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his 
life for his friends." 

Dr. Noah S. Wells, a son of Capt. William Wells of Shel- 
burne, entered Williams College where he remained three years, 
but did not graduate, having serious trouble with his eyes. 
Later he studied medicine at Bowdoin and at Pittsfield Med- 
ical School and upon graduation settled at Attica, New York. 
Here he soon built up quite a successful practice, and kept a 
drug store for several years. In 1848 he came to Greenfield, 
but did not resume his practice excepting upon the call of per- 
sonal friends and relatives. He was for many years clerk in 
the probate office and in the office of the clerk of the courts, 
and was for twenty years town clerk, and eighteen years town 
treasurer. He was faithful and methodical and his work was 
satisfactory to the public. He was an entertaining story teller 
and deeply versed in matters pertaining to local history, a 
great lover of nature and extremely fond of flowers. He had 
a host of friends who will long remember his virtues and worth. 
He died January 6, 1888, aged 76 years. 

Dr. Joshua Stone, homeopathic physician, settled in Green- 
field and married Eliza L., the daughter of C. J. J. Ingersoll. 
He soon established a good practice for the new school of medi- 
cine, but died September i, 1859, at the early age of 35 years. 

Dr. Frederick A. Sawyer, graduate of Harvard, came here 
from Sterling, Mass., and became a partner of Dr. A. C. Deane 
in 1862. He was appointed surgeon of the ^26. regiment, 
and after his return from the war took up his residence in 
the eastern part of the state. 

Dr. Charles T. Ingersoll, son of C. J. J. Ingersoll, became 
a homeopathic physician and practised here and in South Deer- 
field in 1863, but soon after removed to Iowa. 

Dr. Wilbur F. Harding, homeopathic, practised in town 
for several years about the time of the Civil War and later. He 
removed to Westfield in 1872, where he built up a large and 
successful practice which he still enjoys. 


Dr. Frederick L. Broons, homeopathic physician, es- 
tablished himself in Greenfield in 1865. He was a graduate 
of a college at Lutze, Germany, and was in successful practice 
here for several years. 

Dr. Emma L. Kendrick, a graduate of the Medical college 
of Philadelphia, came to Greenfield about 1872, and was 
gaining a good practice when she was attacked by diphtheria 
and died December 11, 1874, aged 31 years. She was buried 
at Lebanon, N, H. 

Dr. Thomas Womersley was born in Yorkshire, England, 
in I 8 17. He was the son of John and Hannah Womersley, 
and came to America in 1852. He was a graduate of Dart- 
mouth and studied at the University of New York. He 
practised medicine for a short time in Lowell, and was a 
graduate of the Theological Seminary at Newton in 1855. 
He preached at Beverly and Wenham seven years, also for a 
time at Three Rivers, and for six years at the Baptist church 
at West Deerfield. He had strong peculiarities butwas withal 
a successful practitioner. He practised his profession in this 
town and vicinity for twenty-two years, and died at Water- 
town, Mass., March 6, 1897. 

Dr. Charles H. Small, a native of Gardiner, Maine, came 
to Greenfield from Leominster in 1882. He established a 
very good business in this and the adjoining towns and was 
well liked as a man. While in apparent good health he joined 
a Masonic excursion to Maine, was taken sick upon the 
journey and died July 10, 1887, aged 39 years. He left a 
wife but no children. 

Dr. Levi Dwight Seymour was born in Hadley, April 26, 
1 8 19. He received his education in the public schools and 
Hopkins Academy of Hadley, and studied medicine with Dr. 
Benjamin Barrett of Northampton and was a graduate of the 
Berkshire Medical Institute. After a short practice in western 
New York he came to Greenfield about 1848 and continued 
his practice here until he received an appointment as surgeon 


in General McClellan's army, which he accompanied upon its 
first march on Richmond. He was afterwards located at 
Hampton as surgeon and physician among the hospitals and 
freedmen. At the close of the war he continued the practice 
of his profession at Hampton until his death which occurred 
November 17, 1 873. He held the office of clerk of the courts 
at Elizabeth City, Va. The doctor and his wife were philan- 
thropic people and they found ample scope for the full exercise 
of their gifts among the poor freedmen of Hampton. They 
furnished not only medical advice and remedies, but relying , 
upon their friends at the north for supplies, they gave relief 
to hundreds of the suffering poor. Dr. Seymour's oldest 
son, James D. Seymour, is a practising physician located at 
Whately, Mass. At his decease his wife, two sons and a 
daughter survived him. 

Dr. Ferdinand Ulrich was born in Beerenthal, Wurtemberg, 
August 27, 181 5. His father. Christian Emanuel Ulrich was 
comptroller of iron works in Beerenthal, Saxony, and later at 
Freudenstadt-Wirtemburg. Dr. Ulrich was educated at the 
University of Tubengen. While stationed in Ulm — Wirtem- 
burg — as surgeon in a cavalry regiment, he was married to 
Julie Scheuffele, the daughter of a ship builder. The cer- 
emonies of military life became irksome to him, and in April, 
1854, he with his wife and four children came to America, 
settling first in Connecticut. In 1858 he came to Greenfield 
where he practised his profession till his health, which was 
never robust, failed a few years before his death. He died in 
Greenfield, May 8, 1880, leaving a widow and five children. 

Physicians and surgeons in Greenfield in 1902 : 

Best, Enoch G. Newton, Leroy A. 

Croft, B. P. (and oculist). O'Brien, J. C. 

Canedy, Charles F. Pierce, W. H. 

Dole, Mary P. Severance, Wm. L. 

Fisk, Charles L. Severance, Wm. S. 

Fyfe, Thomas T. Stetson, Halbert G. 

Greenough, Clara, Twitchell, George P. 

Gardner, Clarence R. (oculist). Walker, A. C. 

Zabriskie, Fiank H. 




Charles Sumner died March lo, 1874 and William B. 
Washburn was elected his successor April 17, 1874. 


William B. Washburn, elected in November, 1871, and 
resigned to become United States senator April, 1874. 


George Grennell Jr., was elected in 1827 and continued in 
office until 1838 when he declined further service. 

James C. Alvord was in 1838 elected his successor, but 
never took his seat. He died in 1839. 

George T. Davis was elected in November, 1 850, and served 
one term. 

William B. Washburn was elected in 1862 and served ten 


1788, David Smead ; 1818, Jonathan Leavitt ; 1825-26, 
George Grennell, Jr. ; 1833-34, Daniel Wells ; 1837, James 
Church Alvord; 1840-41, George Thomas Davis ; 1848-49, 
Charles Devens, Jr.; 1 851-2-3-62-69, Whiting Griswold ; 
1854, Daniel Wells Alvord ; 1856, Almon Brainard ; 1864, 
William H.Sanborn; 1874, David Aiken ; 1877, John F. 
Moors; 1882, James S. Grinnell ; 1885-86, Levi J. Gunn ; 
1895-96, Dana Malone ; 1899, Herbert C. Parsons. 



1823-24, Solomon Smead ; 1830, Samuel C.Allen ; 1857, 
Ansel Phelps; 1883-84, Eben A. Hall; 1888-89, Levi J. 


The constitution of Massachusetts (adopted 1780) provided 
for town representation in the legislature. The representa- 
tives were elected annually in May and assembled on the last 
Wednesday of that month. Greenfield elected the following : 

David Smead, 1780-81-82-83-84-86-87-88-91-92-93 ; 
Isaac Newton, 1790-94-1808; William Coleman, 1795-96; 
Solomon Smead, 1 797-1 800-1 7-1 8-1 9-20-2 1-22 ; Moses 
Bascom, 1798; Caleb Clap, 1799 ; Moses Bascom, Jr., 1 801- 
07; Jonathan Leavitt, 1 802-03 ; Gilbert Stacy, 1804; Rich- 
ard E. Newcomb, 1805 ; Jerome Ripley, 1806 ; Eliel Gilbert, 
1809-10-11-13-14-15 ; Elijah Alvord, 1812; Eli Graves, 
1816; Thaddeus Coleman, 1824; Daniel Wells, 1826; 
Thomas Gilbert, 1827; Ambrose Ames, 1828-29-30; 
Luther Wells, 1829; Isaac Newton, 2d, 1830-31; Thomas 
Nims, 1 83 I. 

The tenth amendment to the constitution (May, 1831) 
caused the political year to begin with the first Wednesday of 
January instead of the last Wednesday of May, as formerly. 
Greenfield elected the following representatives (the date 
given is that of election and the service was the following 
year) : 

Thomas Nims, 1831; Alanson Clark, 1831-32; Major 
Julia Smead, 1832-33; Henry Chapman, 1833-34-36-37; 
Russell Hastings, 1834-40; Thaddeus Coleman, 1835-37; 
Ambrose Ames, 1835-38-39; James C. Alvord, 1836; 
Isaac Barton, Jr., 1838 ; Eber Nash, 1839 ; Thomas Nims, 
1 841 ; Lucius Nims, 1842-45-46-50 ; Alvin Haslcins, 1843 5 
Whiting Griswold, 1847-48-49; Wendell T. Davis, 1851- 
52-56; Horatio G. Parker, 1853 ; Samuel O. Lamb, 1855. 


The twenty-first amendment (May, 1857) provided for 
representative districts instead of town representation. The 
districts of which Greenfield was at various times a part elected 
the following: 

George D. Wells, 1857-58 (resigned); Pliny Fisk, 1857; 
Alfred R. Field, 1858-61 ; Hugh B. Miller, 1858-65 ; Jona- 
than Buddington, 1859; Timothy M. Stoughton, 1859; 
George T. Davis, i860; D. Orlando Fisk, i860; Ephriam 
H. Thompson, 1861 ; Henry L, Pratt, 1862; Chenery Puf- 
fer, 1862; Otis J. Davenport, 1863; Almon Newcomb, 
1863; George W. Bartlett, 1864; William F. Wilder, 1864; 
Josiah D. Canning, 1865 » ^^^^^ ^- Brooks, 1866 ; Anson K. 
Warner, 1866 ; Thomas J. Field, 1867; George W. Potter, 
1867; Daniel H. Newton, 1868; Avery J. Denison, 1868; 
Noah Rankin, 1869; Ansel C. Smith, 1866; Samuel S. 
Eastman, 1870 ; Leonard Barton, 1870-80 ; Asa A. Holton, 
1871 ; William Keith, 1871-74; Edward E. Belding, 1872; 
William Stewart, 1872; John F. Moors, 1873 ; Samuel O. 
Lamb, 1873 ; Charles H. Green, 1874; Lysander N. Brown- 
eM, 1875 ' Calvin W. Shattuck, 1875 5 Newell Snow, 1876 ; 
Alanson K. Hawks, 1877; Eben A. Hall, 1878 ; Samuel D. 
Bardwell, 1879 ; George P. Carpenter, 1881 ; John A. Aiken, 
1882; William A. Forbes, 1883 ; Edwin Baker, 1884-85 ; 
Darwin F. Hamilton, 1886; Freeman C. Griswold, 1887; 
Nahum S. Cutler, 1888-89; Myron L. Corbett, 1890; 
George W. Jenks, 1891 ; Dana Malone, 1892-93 ; Herbert 
Newell, 1894; Herbert C. Parsons, 1895-96-97; William 
A. Davenport, 1898-99 ; Frank Gerrett, 1900-01-02. 

Failed to elect, or voted not to send a representative in 
1785, 1789, 1823, 1825, 1844 and 1854. 




1 8 II, Solomon Smead, Greenfield; 1814, Jonathan 
Leavitt, Greenfield; 1821, Richard E, Newcomb, Green- 
field ; 1 849, George Grennell, Greenfield, resigned February 
24, 1853; 1853, Horatio G. Parker, Greenfield, resigned ; 
1854, Franklin Ripley, Greenfield; 1858, Charles Mat- 
toon, Greenfield, died August 12, 1870; 1870, Chester C. 
Conant, Greenfield, resigned; 1899, Francis M. Thompson. 

181 1, Isaac B. Barber, Colrain ; 18 12, Elijah Alvord, 2d, 
Greenfield, died September 8, 1840; 1841, George Grennell, 
Jr., t Greenfield ; 1849, Wendell T. Davis, Greenfield ; i^5i) 
Samuel O. Lamb, Greenfield; 1853, Charles Mattoon,t 
Greenfield; 1858, Chas. J. J. I ngersoll, Greenfield ; 1863, 
Chester C. Conant,t Greenfield; 1870, Francis M. Thomp- 
son,! Greenfield; 1899, Francis Nims Thompson, Green- 
field, who had been Assistant Register since 1893. 


Daniel Nash was a member of the Provincial Congress of 
1774, and was on the Committee of Safety. 

Moses Bascom was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1778. 

Amariah Chandler was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention for Greenfield in 1853; Daniel W. Alvord of this 

* The judges and registers were, after July i, 1858, judges and registers " of 
probate and insolvency." Register Alvord and Judge Newcomb served nearly 28 
years each, serving together about 19 : and Judge Conant and Register Thompson 
served together for over 28 years. It is interesting to notice that the consecutive 
terms of Alvord as register, and of Grennell, Mattoon and the present judge as regis- 
ters and judges, cover nearly the entire existence of the court. 

t Appointed judge of probate. 


town was the member for Montague and Whiting Griswold 
for Erving. 

Jonathan Leavitt was the first Notary PubHc of Green- 
field, 1799. He was also Chief Justice of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas (Hampshire county), 1809. 

Ezekiel Bascom was the first deputy sheriff (Hampshire 
county), 1793. 

Caleb Clap and Eliel Gilbert were the first coroners, 1805. 

Solomon Smead was Chief Justice of the Court of Sessions 
(Hampshire county), 1809. He was also the first commis- 
sioner to qualify civil officers, 18 12. 

Ebenezer Ames and Jerome Ripley were associate justices 
of the Court of Sessions (Franklin county), 1812. 


181 1, Elihu Lyman, Jr., Greenfield, County Attorney; 
181 1, John Nevers, Northfield ; 18 12, Samuel C. Allen, 
New Salem ; 1821, George Grennell, Jr., Greenfield; 1829, 
Richard E. Newcomb, Greenfield ; 1837, Daniel Wells, Green- 
field, Attorney for Western District ; 1 844, William Porter, 
Jr., Lee, vice Wells appointed Chief Justice Court of Common 
Pleas; 1851, Increase Sumner, Great Barrington ; 1853, 
William G, Bates, Westfield ; 18545 Henry L. Dawes, 
Adams; 1855, Ithamar F. Conkey, Amherst, N. W. Dis- 
trict; 1856, elected, Daniel W. Alvord, Greenfield; 1862, 
Samuel T. Spaulding, Northampton; 1871, William S. B. 
Hopkins, Greenfield; 1874, Samuel T. Field, Shelburne ; 
1877, Daniel W, Bond, Northampton ; 1889, John A. Aiken, 
Greenfield; 1895, John C. Hammond, Northampton ; ^9^^> 
Dana Malone, Greenfield. 


181 1, John Nevers, Northfield; 181 1, Elihu Lyman, Jr., 
Greenfield; 1814, Epaphras Hoyt, Deerfield ; 1831, John 
Nevers, Northfield; 1847, Samuel H. Reed, Rowe ; 1851, 


Jas. S. Whitney, Conway; 1853, Samuel H. Reed, Green- 
field; 1855, Charles Pomeroy, Northfield ; 1856, elected 
Samuel H. Reed, Greenfield; 1868, Solomon C, Wells, 
Montague; 1877, George A. Kimball, Greenfield; 1892, 
Isaac Chenery, Montague. 

Epaphras Hoyt held the office from 18 14 to 1831, seven- 
teen years; John Nevers held it from 1831 to 1847, sixteen 
years; Samuel H. Reed held it from 1847 ^o 1 851, from 
1853 to 1855, and from 1856 to 1868, in all nearly nineteen 
years; Solomon C. Wells held it from 1868 to 1877, nine 
years; Geo. A. Kimball from 1877 to 1892, fifteen years. 

The District Court of Franklin was organized in 

Judge : Edward E. Lyman, Greenfield. 

Special Justices : Wm. S. Dana, Turners Falls ; Elisha S. 
Hall, Orange. 

Clerk : William S. Allen, Greenfield, 

Samuel D. Conant succeeded E. S. Hall and Henry J. 
Field succeeded Wm. S. Dana as special justices. 

The District Court of Eastern Franklin was organized in 

Judge : Elisha S. Hall. 

Special Justices : Willard Putnam, New Salem ; Henry S. 
Ames, Orange. 

Clerk : Israel Newton, Orange. 

Thaddeus Coleman and Isaac Newton, 2d, each held the 
office of Road Commissioner, for Franklin county, before the 
passage of the act abolishing the old Court of Sessions, and 
establishing the office of County Commissioner. Since that 
act the following named persons residing in Greenfield have 
been County Commissioners : 

Thomas Nims, 1840 to 1849 — ^^^^ ^^ office. 

Lucius Nims, 1849 ^o 1858. 

Alfred R. Field, 1858 to 1861. 


Lyman G. Barton, 1876 to 1885. 

Frederick G. Smith, 1885 to 1894. 

Eugene B. Blake, 1902 

In 1828 Colonel Eliel Gilbert was elected presidential 
elector, and cast his vote for John Quincy Adams ; George 
Grennell voted for William Henry Harrison in 1840; Frank- 
lin Ripley for John C. Fremont in 1856; Charles Mattoon 
for Abraham Lincoln in i860; Whiting Griswold for Abra- 
ham Lincoln, 1864, and Chester C. Conant for Benjamin 
Harrison in 1888. 


1811, Rodolphus Dickinson, Deerfield ; 1820, Elijah Al- 
vord, Greenfield; 1840, Henry Chapman, Greenfield; 1852, 
George Grennell, Greenfield; 1866, Edward E. Lyman, 
Greenfield; 1896, Clifton L. Field, Colrain. 


1 8 II , Elijah Alvord, 2d, Greenfield ; 1 8 1 2, Epaphras Hoyt, 
Deerfield; 18 15, Hooker Leavitt, Greenfield ; 1842, Almon 
Brainard, Greenfield; 1856, Lewis Merriam, Greenfield; 
1862, Daniel H. Newton, Greenfield; 1865, Bela Kellogg, 
Greenfield; 1876, C. Mason Moody, Greenfield; 1891, 
Eugene A. Newcomb, Greenfield. 


1811, Epaphras Hoyt, Deerfield; 1815, Hooker Leavitt, 
Greenfield; 1842, Almon Brainard, Greenfield; 1856, Hum- 
phrey Stevens, Greenfield; 1872, Edward Benton, Green- 
field ; 1880, Edwin Stratton, Greenfield; 1897, John D. 
Bouker, Greenfield. 


Thomas Gilbert, Greenfield; David Wright, Deerfield; \ 
Lucius Dickinson, Greenfield; John Pinks, Greenfield; | 


Thomas Rockwood, Greenfield ; Dexter Marsh, Greenfield ; 
Jonathan M. Mann, Greenfield ; George S. Eddy, Green- 
field ; Rufus A. Lilly, Greenfield ; Frank S. Perry, Green- 


The fiDllowing is a list of residents of Greenfield who have 
been members of the Franklin County Bar since its incor- 
poration in 1811, with the dates of their admission to the bar, 
so far as known : 

William Coleman, 
Jonathan Leavitt, 
Richard E. Newcomb, 
Elijah Alvord, 
Elihu Lyman, 
George Grennell, 
Hooker Leavitt 
Franklin Ripley, 
David Willard, 
David Brigham, 
Daniel Wells, 
Horatio G. Newcomb, 
Samuel Wells, 
Henry Chapman, 
Almon Brainard, 
James C. Alvord, 
George T. Davis, 
David Aiken, 
Charles Mattoon, 
Daniel W. Alvord, 
Wendell T. Davis, 
Charles Devens, Jr., 
Whiting Griswold, 
Franklin Ripley, Jr., 
James S. Grinnell, 


d to the 

























































































































Horatio G. Parker, 
George D, Wells, 
Charles Allen, 
Samuel O. Lamb, 
Edward F. Raymond, 
W. S. B. Hopkins, 
George W. Bartlett, 
Chester C. Conant, 
James C. Davis, 
Edward E. Lyman, 
Austin DeWolf, 
Gorham D. Williams, 
William A. Gile, 
George L. Barton, 
Bowdoin S. Parker, 
John A. Aiken, 
Francis M. Thompson, 
Henry L. Nelson, 
Samuel D. Conant, 
Frederick L. Greene, 
Henry W. Jones, 
Dana Malone, 
Charles F. A. Eddy, 
Freeman C. Griswoldj 
Clifton L. Field, 
Frank J. Pratt, Jr., 
William S. Allen, 
Frank J. Lawler, 
William A. Davenport, 
George W. Davenport, 
Lyman W. Griswold, 
Burt H. Winn, 
Bonner M. Lamb, 
Hugh E. Adams, 
Archibald D. Flower, 


Admitted to the Bar in 



cc cc 



cc cc 

cc cc 

cc cc 

(c cc 


Henry W. Lyman, Admitted to the Bar in 1903 

Charles N. Stoddard, " " " " 1903 


Selectmen and Assessors. Town Clerk. Treasurer. 

Ebenezer Smead. Samuel Hinsdale. Benjamin Hastings. Ebenezer Arms, 

Daniel Nash. 

Samuel Hinsdale. Ebenezer Wells. 

Aaron Denio. " « " « 

Benjamin Hastings. Timothy Childs. 

Ebenezer Wells. « u w « 

Ebenezer Wells. Jonathan Smead. 

Ebenezer Arms. " " " " 

Ebenezer Arms. David Wells. 

Thomas Nims. " ♦' '• " 

Ebenezer Wells. Ebenezer Arms. 

Amos Allin. " « « " 

Jonathan Severance. Daniel Nash. 

Samuel Wells. " " « « 

Ebenezer Arms. Ebenezer Wells. 
Amos Allin. 

Timothy Childs. Ebenezer Wells. 
Ebenezer Graves. 


Jonathan Severance. Daniel Nash. 
David Smead. 

Ebenezer Wells. Jonathan Severance. 
Timothy Childs. 

Jonathan Severance. Ebenezer Wells. 
Samuel Wells. 

Jonathan Severance. Ebenezer Wells. 
Samuel Wells. 

Jonathan Severance. Daniel Nash. 
Ebenezer Arms. 




Sel^tmen and Assessors. 

Ebenezer Wells. David Smead. 
Jonathan Severance. 

Ebenezer Wells. Jonathan Severance. 
'J'homas Nims. 

Jonathan Severance. Daniel Nash. 
Moses Bascom. 

Ebenezer Wells. Daniel Nash. 
Benjamin Hastings, Jr. 

Samuel Hinsdale. Ebenezer Wells. 
Jonathan Severance. 

Samuel Hinsdale. Ebenezer Arms. 
Daniel Nash. David Smead. 
Benjamin Hastings, Jr. 

Town Clerk. 




Samuel Field. Ebenezer Wells. 
David Ripley. 

Samuel Field. Ebenezer Arms. 
Samuel Wells. Samuel Stoughton. 

Ebenezer Wells. Samuel Wells. 
Ebenezer Graves. 

David Smead. Joseph Wells. 
Isaac Foster. 

Ebenezer Arms. Thomas Nims. 
Agrippa Wells. Samuel Stoughton. 
Lemuel Smead. 

Ebenezer Arms. David Smead. 
Ebenezer Graves. Samuel Stoughton. 
Isaac Newton. 

Ebenezer Arms. David Smead. 
Ebenezer Graves. 

Ebenezer Graves. Isaac Newton. 

Samuel Stoughton. (Selectmen.) 
Lemuel Smead. Andrew Putnam. 

Moses Arms. (Assessors.) 








Benjamin Hastings. Ebenezer Arms. 

Ebenezer Wells. 

Ebenezer Wells. 

Jonathan Severance. Jonathan Seve- 

Samuel Wells. 

Samuel Hinsdale. 

Samuel Wells. 



Selectmen and Assessors. 


Town Clerk. 


Lemuel Smead. Isaac Newton. 

Andrew Putnam. 


Ebenezer Wells. 

Ebenezer Wells. 

Lemuel Smead. Moses Bascom. 

Moses Amis. 


i( (( 

Ebenezer Graves. 

Lemuel Smead. Moses Arms. 

Samuel Stoughton. 


Ebenezer Graves. 

(( <( 

Isaac Newton. Ebenezer Graves. 

John Wells. 


Edward Billings. 

Moses Bascom. 

Isaac Newton. Lemuel Smead 

" " 

« u 

Moses Arms. 


Moses Bascom. 

Lemuel Smead. Samuel Stoughton. 

Ezekiel Bascom. 


" " 

(C u 

Isaac Newton. Lemuel Smead. 

Philip Ballard. 


Solomon Smead. 

u u 

Isaac Newton. Moses Arms. 

Philip Ballard. 


U (( 

Solomon Smead. 

Isaac Newton. Moses Bascom. 

Darnel Smead. 

u « 

«' (< 

Moses Arms. Isaac Newton. 
Philip Ballard. 

Moses Arms. Moses Bascom. 
Abner Wells. 

Moses Bascom. Isaac Newton. 
William Moore. 

Solomon Smead. W^illiam Smalley. 
Hull Nims. 

Solomon Smead. Isaac Newton. 
Jerom Ripley. 

Solomon Smead. Isaac Newton. 
Jerom Ripley. 

Solomon Smead. Isaac Newton. 
Jerom Ripley. 








Daniel Wells. 

u u 

<( (( 

Daniel Wells. 



Selectmen and Assessors. 

Solomon Smead. Isaac Newton. 
Caleb Alvord. 

Solomon Smead. Caleb Clap. 
Isaac Newton. 

Isaac Newton. Caleb Clap. 
Hull Nims. 

Solomon Smead. Caleb Clap. 
Isaac Newton. 

Isaac Newton. Quintus Allen. 
John Russell. 

Isaac Newton. John Russell. 
Quintus Allen. 

Isaac Newton. Quintus Allen. 
John Russell. 

Moses Arms. Eliel Gilbert. 
Samuel New'ton. 

Moses Arms. Eliel Gilbert. 
Samuel Newton. 

Samuel Newton. Hull Nims. 
Eliel Gilbert. 

Samuel Newton. Hull Nims. 
William Wait. 

Isaac Newton. Hull Nims. 
William Wait. 

Isaac Newton. William Wait. 

Thomas Smead. 

William Wait. Thomas Smead. 

Eli Graves. (Selectmen.) 
William Wait. Thomas Smead. 

Eli Graves. Julia Smead. 

Consider Cushman. (Assessors.) 

Thomas Smead. Eh Graves. 
David Ripley. 



Town Clerk. 

Daniel Wells. 

John Russell. 


Daniel Wells. 

u u 

u u 

« (( 

u « 

(( <( 

John Russell. i] 


Hooker Leavitt. 

Hooker Leavitt. 


Selectmen and Assessors. 

Thomas Smead. Eli Graves. 
David Ripley. 

Thomas Smead. Eli Graves. 
David Ripley. 

Thomas Smead. Oliver Wilkinson. 
Uriah Martindale. 

Thomas Smead. Samuel Pickett. 
Samuel Wells. 

Thomas Smead. Samuel Pickett. 
Samuel Wells. 

Thomas Smead. Samuel Pickett. 
Nathan Draper. 

Thomas Smead. Samuel Pickett. 
Nathan Draper. 

Thomas Smead. Nathan Draper. 
Thaddeus Coleman. 







Town Clerk. 

Hooker Leavitt. 

David Willard. 



Thaddeus Coleman. Isaac Newton, Jr. 
John Mason. 

Isaac Newton. Hart Leavitt. 
Julia Smead. 

Hart Leavitt. Julia Smead. 
Samuel Pickett. 

Hart Leavitt. Juha Smead. 
Eber Nash. 

Hart Leavitt. Julia Smead. 
Eber Nash. 

Samuel Pickett. Charles Williams. 
Luther Wells. 

Eber Nash. Charles Williams. 
Luther Wells. 

Eber Nash. Charles Williams. 
Luther Wells. 



Hooker Leavitt. 

U ki 

(( a 

David Willard. 

« <( 

« {< 

u u 



Selectmen and Assessors. 

Town Clerk. 



Eber Nash. Luther Wells. 

Franklin Ripley. 


David Willard. 

David Willard 

Franklin Ripley. Asaph Smead. 

Isaac Newton, 2d. 


Hooker Leavitt. 

11 11 

Asaph Smead. Isaac 

Newton, 2d. 

John Russell. 


II tt 

John Russell. David Allen. 

Russell Hastings. 


K it 

David Allen. Thomas 0. Sparhawk. 

John J. Graves. 


11 <1 

(1 It 

Eber Nash. Isaac Newton, 2d. 

Ambrose Ames. 


a 11 

11 (( 

Eber Nash. Isaac Newton, 2d. 

Ambrose Ames. 


(1 <i 

Eber Nash. Franklin 


George Adams. 


11 « 

K 11 



Eber Nash. 

Lemuel H. 

Franklin Ripley. 

John J.Pierce. 

George Adams. 

Priestly New- 


11 11 


Thaddeus Coleman. 

Lemuel H. 

George Adams. 

John J. Pierce. 

Franklin Ripley. 

Lucius Nims. 


11 (C 

11 It 

Thaddeus Coleman. 

Thaddeus Coleman 

George Adams. 

George Adams. 

David Long, Jr. 

David Long, Jr. 


11 <c 

George Adams. 

John J. Pierce. 

David Long, Jr. 

Russell Hast- 

Quintus Allen. 

Albert H. 


U >l 

George Adams. 

John J. Pierce. 




David Long, Jr. 

Quintus Allen. 

Horatio G. Newcomb. 
Thomas Nims. 

Lemuel H. Long. 

Assessors. Town Clerk. 

1 840 — Contiitued. 
Albert H. 

Peleg Adams. Hooker Leavitt. 

John J. Pierce. 
Albert H. 

Peleg Adams. " " 


David Willard. 

« u 

Horatio G. Newcomb. 
Thomas Nims. 

Lemuel H. Long. 
Lemuel H. Long. 

John J. Pierce. 
Orrin Smith. 

John J. Pierce. 
Albert H. 

Peleg Adams. 


Lemuel H. 

John J. Pierce. 
Orrin Smith. 

Lewis C. Munn. 

u « 

Lewis C. Munn. 

David Aiken. 

Thomas Nims. 
Hervey C. Newton. 

Hervey C. Newton. 
John J. Pierce. 
Justin Root. 

Hervey C. Newton. 

John J. Pierce. 
Justin Root. 

Priestly Newton. 

Thomas Wait. 
Albert H. Nims. 

Priestly Newton. 
Thomas Wait. 

John J. Pierce. 

David Long, 

Isaac Barton. 
Edmund Q. 


William Keith. 
Peleg Adams. 
Lemuel H. 

Thomas O. 
John J. Graves. 
George Adams. 

Lyman A. 

Peleg Adams. 
William Keith. 

William Keith. 
Lyman A. 

Lemuel H. 


David Willard. 

Lewis Merriam. 

Charles K. Gren- 

Lewis Merriam. 


William Keith. 
Hervey C. Newton. 
David S. Jones. 

George Grennell. 

Barnard A. Newell. 
Peleg Adams. 

Wendell T. Davis. 
Peleg Adams. 
George W. Potter. 

Wendell T. Davis, 
George W. Potter. 
Isaac Barton. 

A. G. Hammond (re- 
signed). David Aiken, 
Alfred Wells. 
Ebenezer Thayer. 

Horatio G. Parker. 
Lucius Nims. 

Peleg Adams. 

Horatio G. Parker (re- 
P. P. Severance. 
Lucius Nims. 
Hervey C. Newton. 

Samuel H. Reed, 
Albert Smead. 
Roswell W. Cook. 



Lemuel H. 

Charles A. Mi- 
Albert H. 

George W. 

Isaac Barton. 
George Adams. 

Robert Wiley. 
George Adams. 
Roswell W. 

Alfred Wells. 
Robert Wiley. 
Rufus S. Phil- 

Rufus S. Phil- 
Edward Dewey. 
Dwight Bul- 


George Adams. 

Dwight Bul- 

John J. Pierce. 


George W. 

David N. Car- 

Frederick G. 


Lyman G. Bar- 

Sylvester Max- 
well, Jr. 

Major H.Ty- 

Town Clerk. 

David Willard. 

David Willard. 


Lewis Merriam. 

Rufus Howland. 

(C (( 

u u 

Rufus Howland. 

Edwin Maynard. 

Noah S. Wells. 

Rufus Howland. 

Samuel H. Reed. 
Roswell W. Cook. 
Albert Smead. 



Ptolemy P. 

Charles J. J. 

Frederick G. 



Town Clerk. 

Noah S. Wells. 


Rufus Howland. 

Wendell T. Davis. 
Lucius Nims. 
George W. Potter. 

Wendell T. Davis. 
George W. Potter. 

Lucius Nims. 

Wendell T. Davis. 
George W. Potter. 

Lucius Nims. 

Alfred R. Field. 
Hervey C. Newton. 

Anson K. Warner. 

Alfred R. Field. 
Hervey C. Newton. 

Anson K. Warner. 

Humphrey Stevens. 
Hervey C. Newton. 

Anson K. Warner. 

Humphrey Stevens. 
Henry L. Pratt. 

Frederick G. Smith. 

William Keith. 
Peleg Adams. 
Ptolemy P. 


William Keith. 
Alfred R. 

Peleg Adams. 


William Keith. 
Alfred R. 

Peleg Adams. 


Peleg Adams. 
William A. 

Sylvanus A. 


Peleg Adams. 
Sylvanus A. 

Major H. 




Peleg Adams. 
Daniel D. 

Whitney L. 


Peleg Adams. 
Major H. 

Sylvanus A. 



Bela Kellogg. 




Humphrey Stevens. 

Hervey C. Newton. 
Anson K. Warner. 

Humphrey Stevens. 
Hervey C. Newton. 
Anson K. Warner. 

Humphrey Stevens. 
Anson K. Warner. 
Frederick G. Smith. 

Charles Mattoon 
Frederick G. Smith. 

Chauncey Bryant. 

Charles Mattoon. 
Frederick G. Smith. 
Joel S. Sanderson. 

William Keith. 
George W. Potter. 
Lyman G. Barton. 

William Keith. 
George W. Potter. 
Lyman G. Barton. 


Major H. 

Peleg Adams. 
Sylvanus A. 


Major H. 

Sylvanus A. 

Whitney L. 


Major H. 

Lyman G. 



Levi J. Gunn. 
Anson K. 

Noah S. 


Francis M. 

Sylvanus A. 

Jeremiah P. 


Francis M. 

Charles R. 

Elias A. Par- 


Charles R. 

Francis M. 

Elias A. Par- 


Town Clerk. 



Noah S. Wells. 






Noah S. Wells. 

K U 

<( <( 

<( <( 




William Keith. 
George W. Potter. 
Lyman G. Barton. 

William Keith. 
Lyman G. Barton. 
Edwin J. Jones. 

William Keith. 
Lyman G. Barton. 
Charles R. Field. 

William Keith. 
Lyman G. Barton. 
Charles R. Field. 

William Keith. 
Charles R. Field. 
George A. Kimball. 
William Keith. 
Seorem B. Slate. 
Levi J.Gunn. 

Seorem B. Slate. 
Levi J. Gunn. 

Manley McClure. 


Charles R. 

Francis M. 

Elias A. Par- 


Francis M. 

Henry G. 


Pierce, Jr. 

Francis M. 

Simon L. 

Henry G. 


Francis M. 

Simon L. 

Henry G. 


Town Clerk. 



Noah S. Wells. 

Noah S. Wells. 





Francis M. 

Henry G. 

Charles Keith. 


Henry G. 

Charles Keith. 

Bowdoin S. 


Charles Keith. 
Henry G. 

William M. 


Franklin A. Pond. Franklin A. Pond. 

Francis M. Thomp- Francis ^L Thomp- 
son, son. 


Seorem B. Slate. 
Charles Keith. 
Manley McClure. 

Seorem B. Slate. 
Charles Keith. 
Manley McClure. 

Seorem B. Slate. 
Charles Keith. 
Henry G. Nims. 
Newell Snow. 
Seorem B. Slate. 
Charles R. Field. 

Newell Snow. 
Seorem B. Slate. 
Charles R. Field. 

Anson K. Warner. 
Charles Keith. 
Seorem B. Slate. 

Anson K. Warner. 
Charles Keith. 
Seorem B. Slate. 



Henry G. 

William M. 

Franklin A. 


Henry G. 

Wilham M. 

Franklin A. 

Bowdoin S. 

Job G. Pick- 
George Pierce. 
Austin De- 
WiUiam M. 

Job G. Pick- 

Henry G. 

Job G. Pick- 

George Pierce. 

Charles J. 

Charles W. 

Henry Shel- 


Charles J. 

Charles W. 

Henry Shel- 

Town Clerk. 





Francis M. Thomp- Francis M. Thomp- 
son, son. 

Frank W. Foster. Frank W, Foster. 


Anson K. Warner. 
Seorem B. Slate. 
Charles J. Day. 

Charles R. Field. 

Seorem B. Slate. 

David Hunter. 

Charles R. Field. 

Francis M. Thomp- 
Elihu C. Osgood. 

Charles R. Field. 

Francis M. Thomp- 
Elihu C. Osgood. 

David S. Simons. 

Baxter B. Noyes. 
Elihu C. Osgood. 

Nahum S. Cutler. 

Elihu C. Osgood. 
Charles Keith. 

Nahum S. Cutler. 
Charles Keith. 

Elihu C. Osgood. 

Nahum S. Cutler. 
Charles Keith. 
Job G. Pickett. 


Frederick L. 

Franklin E. 

Charles W. 



Frederick L. 

Henry W. War- 

Elihu C. Osgood. 


Frederick L. 

Henry W.War- 

Elihu C. Osgood. 


Frederick L. 

Henry W.War- 

John F. Gris- 


Frederick L. 

George Pierce. 

Francis H. Bal- 


Frederick L. 

George Pierce. 

Francis H. Bal- 


George Pierce. 

Frederick G. 

Seorem B. Slate. 

Town Clerk. 



Frank W. Foster. Frank W. Foster. 

Frederick L. Greene. Albert M. Gleason. 

G. Harry Kaulbach. 

William B. Allen. 


George Pierce. 
Seorem B. Slate 
Francis H. Bal- 




Francis M. Thomp- 
Eugene B. Blake. 
Job G. Pickett. 

Francis M. Thomp- 
Eugene B. Blake. 
Job G. Pickett. 

Eugene B. Blake. 
Francis M. Thomp- 
Job G. Pickett. 

Eugene B. Blake. 
George A. Kimball. 
Job G. Pickett. 

Eugene B. Blake. 
George A. Kimball. 
Nahum S. Cutler. 

Nahum S. Cutler. 
Eugene B. Blake. 
Martin J. Sauter. 

Nahum S. Cutler. 
Martin J. Sauter. 
William A. Ames. 


George Pierce. 

Seorem B. Slate. 
Francis H. Bal- 

Town Clerk. 



George Pierce. 

Seorem B. Slate. 
Francis H. Bal- 


George Pierce. 
Seorem B. Slate. 

Francis H. Bal- 

George Pierce. 
Seorem B. Slate. 
Francis H. Ballou. 

George Pierce. 
Seorem B. Slate. 
Frank Gerrett. 

George Pierce. 
Frank Gerrett. 
Anson Wit hey. 

Frank Gerrett. 
Anson Wit hey. 
George F. Lamb. 

Frederick L. Greene. William B. Allen. 

George Pierce. 

At a meeting held December i, 1823, Elisha Root, Esq., 
Eli Graves, George Grennell, Jr., Esq., Elijah Alvord, Esq., 
Isaac Newton, Jr., " together with the clergymen preaching 
in the several parishes in the town were chosen a Committee 
to superintend & visit the schools." 

This is the first recorded action of the town in regard to a 
general school committee. 

March 7, 1825. "Voted the clergymen officiating in the 
several parishes in town together with Hon. George Grenneil 


Jr, Isaac Newton, Jr and Thomas Nims be a committee to 
visit the schools." 

In 1826 the legislature passed an act requiring every town 
to choose by ballot a committee of three, five or seven persons 
" who shall have the general charge and superintendence of all 
the public schools in such town." 

At a town meeting held April 3, 1826, Rev. Winthrop 
Bailey, Rev. Wm, C. Fowler, Deacon Eli Graves, Curtis 
Newton, Daniel Wells, Esq., and Luther Wells, " were chosen 
School Committee under the New act." 

At the March meeting, 1827, " Voted not to choose any 
superintending committee of schools." 

1828. " Voted to choose a School, Committee under the new 
Law for visiting the Schools &c &c &c &c &c." Rev. Win- 
throp Bailey, Geo. Grennell, Jr., H. G. Newcomb, Thomas 
Nims, and Levi P. Stone " were chosen committee under the 
last vote." 

1829. Rev. Titus Strong, Rev. Winthrop Bailey, Rev. 
Caleb S. Henry, Curtis Newton and Thomas Nims, "were 
chosen school committee." 

1830. Rev. Titus Strong, Rev. Winthrop Bailey, Rev. C. S. 
Henry, Dea. Curtis Newton, Elisha Root, Esq., " were chosen 
General School Committee." 

1 83 1. Rev. Winthrop Bailey, Rev. C. S. Henry, Curtis 
Newton, James H. Coffin, Almon Brainard, Eli Graves and 
Levi P. Stone, " were chosen General School Committee." 

1833. Amariah Chandler, Thomas Bellows, Harvey C. 
Newton, Thomas Nims, " were chosen by ballot General 
School Committee." 

1834. Thomas Bellows, Lyman A. Nash, James H. Coffin 
and Harvey C. Newton " were chosen by ballot General 
School Committee." 

1835. Rev. Titus Strong, Rev. Amariah Chandler and 
Rev. Paul Townsend " were chosen General School Commit- 
tee by ballot." 



Geo. T. Davis 
Lyman A. Nash 
James C. Alvord 
David Aiken 
Lucius Nims 

Geo. T. Davis 
Almon Brainard 
Lyman A. Nash 
David Aiken 
Curtis Newton 

Titus Strong 
Amariah Chandler 
Reuben Rawson 
Samuel Washburn 
John I'arkman 

Titus Strong 
Amariah Chandler 
John Parkman 

Titus Strong 
Amariah Chandler 
Samuel Washburn 

T. Strong 
A. Chandler 
S. Washburn 

T. Strong 
A. Chandler 
Homer Merriatn 

T. Strong 
A. Chandler 
L Marcy 
L. L. Langstroth 
Whiting Griswold 

T. Strong 
A. Chandler 
L. L. Langstroth 
W. Griswold 
Albert H, Nims 


T. Strong 
A. Chandler 
A. H. Nims 
David Aiken 
I. B. Mudge 

David Aiken 
A. H. Nims 
Obed Newton 

T. Strong 
A. Chandler 
L. L. Langstroth 


T. Strong 

A. Chandler 

Harvey C. Newton 

Thomas Marcy 

Daniel W. Alvord 

A. Chandler 
Samuel O. Lamb 
George C. Partridge 

A. Chandler 
T. Strong 
G. C. Partridge 

T. Strong 
G. C. Partridge 
S. O. Lamb 

Horatio G. Parker 
T. M. Dewey 
John F. Griswold 


A. Chandler 
T. Strong 
Wm. F. Nelson 

Richard E. Field 
J. F. Griswold 
Charles L. Fisk 

William Flint 
Daniel H. Newton 
J. F. Griswold 

William Flint 
Willard W. Ames' 
J .¥. Griswold 

William Flint 
P. C. Headly 
Z. L. Raymond 

Charles Mattoon 
P. C. Headly 
S. O. Lamb 

Charles Mattoon 
S. O. Lamb 
S. Russell Jones 

S. R. Jones 
S. O. Lamb 
John F. Moors 

S. R. Jones 
J. F. Moors 
Joseph P. Felton 

J. F. Moors 
Artemas Dean 
J. P. Felton 

J. P. Felton 
J. F. Moors 
J. F. Griswold 

J. F. Griswold 
J. F. Moors 
P. Voorhies Finch 

J. F. Moors 
J. P. Felton 
Chester C. Conant 

J. F. Moors 
J. P. Felton 
C. C. Conant 



J. F. Moors 
J. P. Felton 
C. C. Coiiant 

J. F. Moors 
J. P. Felton 
C. C. Conant 

C. C. Conant 
J. P. Felton 
J. F. Moors 

C. C. Conant 
J. P. Felton 
J. F. Moors 

J. F. Moors 
A. li. Ball 
Aretas G. Loomis 

A. G. Loomis 
J. F. Moors 
W. S. Kimball 

W. S. Kimball 
J. F. Moors 
Edward E. Lyman 

J. F. Moors 
A. G. Loomis 
E. E. Lyman 

A. G. Loomis 
E. E. Lyman 
J. P. Felton 

E. E. Lyman 
J. P. Felton 
A. G. Loomis 

J. P. Felton 
A. G. Loomis 
E. E. Lyman 



A. G. Loomis 
James R. Long 
E. E. Lyman 

E. E. Lyman 
J. R. Long 
P. V. Finch 

E. E. Lyman 
P. V. Finch 
Mary J. Fessenden 

P. V. Finch 
M. J. Fessenden 
E. E. Lyman 

Mary J. Fessenden 
E. E. Lyman 
P. V. Finch 


E. E. Lyman 
P. V. Finch 
J. P. Felton 

P. V. Finch 
J. P. Felton 
Freeman C. Griswold 

J. P. Felton 
P. V. Finch 

F. C. Griswold 


F. C. Griswold 
P. V. Finch 
J. P. Felton 
P. V. Finch 
J. P. Felton 
Samuel D. Conant 

J. P. Felton 
P. V. Finch 
S. U. Conant 

S. D. Conant 
P. V. Finch 
Arthur A. Brooks 

P. V. Finch 
E. E. Lyman 
S. D. Conant 

P. V. Finch 
S. D. Conant 
Carey H. Watson 

C. H. ^^'atson 
S. D. Conant 
P. V. Finch 

P. V. Finch 
C. n. Watson 
Delia Nims 

P. V. Finch 
C. H. Watson 
Deha Nims 

Delia Nims 
C. H. Watson 
P. V. Finch 

E. E. Lyman 
C. H. Watson 
G. Glenn Atkins 
Dana Malone 
Joseph W. Stevens 
Mary P. Dole 
Herbert C. Parsons 
William B. Keith 
Joseph G. Stoddard 

J. W. Stevens 
C. H. Watson 
Dana Malone 
Mary P. Dole 
Herbert C. Parsons 
Henry J. Field 
Lyman W^. Griswold 

* Miss Mary P. Wells was elected but resigned her office before the close of the year. 




Lucy J. Kellogg Lucy J. Kellogg Lucy J. Kellogg 

G. Glenn Atkins Mary P. Dole C. L. Field 

1899. Clifton L. Field G. W. Forbes 

J. W. Stevens George W. Forbes C. H. Watson 

G. G. Atkins 1900. L. W. Griswold 

Dana Malone J. W. Stevens Wm. C. Townsend 

H. J. Field H. J. Field Mary P. Dole 
L. \V. Griswold 



JONATHAN LEAVITT, son of Reverend Jon^ Leav- 
itt, of Heath, was born in that town February 27, 1764. 
He graduated at Yale in 1786, and studied law in New 
Haven, coming to Greenfield about 1790. He was state 
senator, judge of probate from 18 14 to 1821, when he re- 
signed his office. He was also judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. He married Emelia, daughter of President Stiles 
of Yale College. In 1797 he built the elegant mansion next 
east of the Mansion House, where their daughter Mary H. 
Leavitt was born July 27, 1798, and where she lived and died. 
" He was a close student, a good lawyer, and before his ap- 
pointment to the bench had a very large and lucrative prac- 
tice. His home was long the centre of the culture, taste and 
social refinement of the place, where judges, lawyers and the 
elite of the town were often and most sumptuously enter- 
tained." Judge Leavitt died May i, 1830. 


Hooker Leavitt, brother of Jonathan, was born in Heath 
January 3, 1785. He was for a season a member of Dart- 
mouth College, studied law with Judge Leavitt and for many 
years was register of deeds and county treasurer. He was 
also town clerk and treasurer. He died October 28, 1842. 

But few men have the opportunity to read their own obit- 
uary notices, but in 1831, while Mr. Leavitt was still alive 
and in good health, the Boston Journal pubHshed his death, 



accompanied with a highly eulogistic notice of his life and 


Hart Leavitt, brother of Jonathan and Hooker, was born 
at the old parsonage in Heath, July 20, 1765, and came to 
Greenfield about 1790. He was the owner of much real 
estate, but died insolvent. He was selectman of the town 
several years, and a man of considerable prominence. He 
died in 1836. He was not a member of the bar. 


Samuel C. Allen was a member of this bar, and established 
himself in Greenfield about 1822. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1 794, and was settled at Northfield as minister in 
1795. There he studied law with John Barrett, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar about 1800. He did not remain here a 
great while, but purchased a farm in West Northfield which is 
still owned by one of his descendants. 

Three of his sons became celebrated lawyers, and two of 
them were representatives in Congress from Maine. One 
of them, Elisha H. Allen, was at one time chief justice of the 
Sandwich Islands. Another son, Samuel C. Allen, Jr., long 
represented Northfield in the legislature, and was for some 
time postmaster at East Boston. 


David Aiken was born of Scotch-Irish stock in Bedford, 
N. H., in 1804. He took his preparatory course at Phillips 
Academy, Andover, and graduated with honor at Dartmouth 
in 1830. Like most young men in those days he taught 
school to aid him through college, and one term at least was 
in the old brick schoolhouse on School street. He came to 
Greenfield after his graduation and studied law with James C. 
Alvord. Soon after his admission to the bar in 1833, he 
formed a partnership with George Grennell, and took high 
rank in the profession. At a later day the firm of Aiken, 


Davis & Allen — David Aiken, George T. Davis and Charles 
Allen — was a combination of great strength in legal learning, 
ability and tact. Mr. Aiken was for a season connected with 
Judge Forbes in Northampton. In 1856 he was appointed 
associate justice of the Court of Common Pleas, which place 
he held until the court was legislated out of existence in 1859, 
" He acquitted himself with distinguished ability in this posi- 
tion, and was soon recognized throughout the commonwealth 
as one of the most learned and able judges on the bench." 
After leaving the bench he was at times in partnership with 
Chester C. Conant, W. S. B, Hopkins and his son John A. 
Aiken. He was a member of the State Senate in 1874. He 
served as selectman in 1844 and a portion of 1853. For a 
time he was also a director of the Greenfield Bank, and served 
as a trustee of the Franklin Savings Institution. Whiting 
Griswold, in his address at the opening of the rebuilt court- 
house in 1873, ^^^^ of him : " After the promotion of Judge 
Wells in 1 844, to the present day, with the exception of the 
period he was on the bench, he has been the acknowledged 
leader of our bar. He practises law, as he says, more from 
the necessity than the love of it ; goes at once to the nub of 
his case ; wastes no time or strength on immaterial issues ; 
prefers a good horse to a law library ; sifts witnesses, sways 
judges and jurors without remorse or any mercy for his 
timid and prostrate brothers of the profession." He died 
April 13, 1895. 


James C. Alvord has always been accounted as one of the 
most brilliant men ever raised in Franklin county. He was a 
son of Elijah Alvord, graduated at Dartmouth in 1827 and 
studied law with his uncle, Daniel Wells, and completed his 
course at the New Haven law school. He became a mem- 
ber of the bar in 1 830 ; was a member of the legislature ; sena- 
tor ; and one of the commissioners to codify the laws of the 
commonwealth. He was elected to Congress in 1838, but 


never took his seat, in consequence of his death in 1839. 
" As a lawyer and an advocate, at the time of his death, 
though but thirty-one years of age, he had few equals, and no 
superior at this or any other bar." (Griswold.) 


Benjamin R. Curtis, the great lawyer and judge of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, was a member of the 
Franklin County bar. He studied eighteen months with 
Wells & Alvord, and practised for a year at Northfield. 


Charles Devens, Jr., was born in Charlestown in 1820, and 
came to Greenfield with Wendell T. Davis, his classmate, in 
1841. He was graduated at Harvard in 1838 and took a 
course at the Harvard law school. Davis and Devens be- 
came partners, Mr. Devens having an office at Northfield and 
Mr. Davis at Greenfield. When Daniel Wells became judge, 
the old firm of Daniel Wells and George T. Davis was dis- 
solved, and that of Davis, Devens and Davis was formed, and 
in 1845 Mr. Devens came to Greenfield. Mr. Devens had 
become prominent in politics, having been elected senator in 
I 848 and 1 849, and during the latter year he was appointed 
United States marshal by President Taylor. His subsequent 
career as justice of the Supreme Court, his services during the 
War of the Rebellion, entering the army as a major and leav- 
ing it a major-general, his re-appointment to the Supreme 
Court after his services as attorney-general of the United 
States in the cabinet of President Hayes, and his death at 
Worcester, January 7, 1891, are all matters of general history, 
and his statue within the State House grounds at Boston, all 
testify to the high esteem in which he was held by the people 
of his native State. 


Whiting Griswold, son of Major Joseph Griswold of Buck- 


land, was born November 12, 18 14, being the tenth in num- 
ber of a family of fourteen children. He graduated at Am- 
herst in 1B38, carrying off high honors. He taught in Green- 
field and other places to procure the means of education, being 
very successful as a teacher. He studied law with Wells, 
Aivord and Davis, and was for a time in the office of Grennell 
& Aiken. Being admitted to the bar, he opened an office in 
this town, and practised here until his decease, October 28, 
1874. Mr, Griswold was an ardent politician, was very am- 
bitious and took intense interest in all public questions, which 
detracted from the success which he might easily have won 
had he given his whole effort to his profession. He was a 
member of the legislatures of 1848-49 and 1850 and 
senator in 1851-52 and 1853, elected by Democratic votes. 
He was also elected a member of the Senate of 1862 by a 
coalition vote, and again in 1869 by the Republicans. He 
was nominated for important offices by the Democratic party, 
and in 1856 was a delegate to the convention which nominated 
James Buchanan for the presidency. He supported Stephen 
A. Douglass for the presidency, and followed him in declaring 
for the support of Lincoln. With Edward Everett he was 
elector at large in 1864, and supported Abraham Lincoln. 


Richard English Newcomb was the son of Hezekiah New- 
comb, Esq., of Bernardston, He was born at Lebanon, Conn,, 
October 30, 1770, Soon after his birth his father settled in 
Bernardston, Young Newcomb graduated at Dartmouth in 
1793, ^'"^"^ studied law with William Coleman, the first lawyer 
of Greenfield. In 1805 Mr. Newcomb was a representative 
at the General Court, and when Judge Leavitt resigned in 
1 821, Mr. Newcomb succeeded him as judge of probate, 
which office he filled until his decease, which occurred May 14, 
1849. H^ was a ready debater and eloquent speaker, and 
was frequently called upon to deliver addresses on public oc- 


casions throughout the county. Several such addresses were 
pubHshed and copies may be seen at the library of the Pocum- 
tuck Valley Memorial Association. 


Horatio G. Newcomb, a brother of Judge Newcomb, studied 
law with John Barrett of Northfield, and his brother Judge 
Newcomb, and was admitted to the bar in 1813. Williams 
College conferred upon him the honorary degree of A. M. 
He was for a short time judge of the Court of Insolvency 
until that office was added to the office of the judge of pro- 
bate. He was often engaged in the settlement of estates and 
was a just and good man. He died September 19, 1857, aged 
seventy-one years. 


Elijah Alvord, born November 18, 1777, studied law with 
Judge Newcomb and was admitted to the bar in i 802. He re- 
ceived the honorary degree of A. M. from both Dartmouth and 
Williams Colleges. He was influential in getting Hampshire 
county divided, and in locating the county seat at Greenfield. 
He was a member of the legislature in 1812, and upon the 
organization of Franklin county was appointed register of 
probate, and in 1820 was also made clerk of the judicial 
courts. These offices he held until the date of his death, 
September 8, 1840. The Gazette & Mercury, commenting 
on his death, says : " Few men have passed through the active 
part of life, constantly employed in public and private trusts, 
with a reputation so pure and with ability so well and usefully 
directed. He lived without a known enemy and died lamented 
by all who knew him." 


George Grennell, son of George Grennell, an old time 
merchant who came here from Saybrook, Conn., graduated at 


Dartmouth in 1808 with high honor. He studied law with 
Judge Newcomb, and was afterward his partner, and at other 
times was connected with Almon Brainard, David Aiken, and 
James S. Grinnell. He was county attorney for eight years 
from 1820, a member of Congress from 1828 to 1838, regis- 
ter of probate from 1841 to 1849, judge of probate from 
1849 to 1853, when he resigned; and clerk of courts from 
1852 to 1861. He was presidential elector in 1840. His 
life " was filled with duty and crowned with honor." He 
died November 19, 1877. 


Franklin Ripley, son of Jerome Ripley who was for almost 
fifty years a merchant in Greenfield, was born May 7, 1789. 
He graduated at Dartmouth in 1809, and studied law at 
Cooperstown, N. Y., and with John Barrett at Northfield. 
He was admitted to the bar in 18 12, and practised for a time 
in Northfield. He was brigade major on the staff of General 
Isaac Maltby of Hatfield of the state militia, and in 18 14 the 
regiment was called out for coast defense for a short period. 
He was elected cashier of the Greenfield Bank in 1824, and 
was cashier, president or director until his decease. He be- 
came treasurer of the Franklin Savings Institution at the time 
of its organization in 1834 and continued in that capacity un- 
til his death June 9, i860. 

He was judge of the Probate Court from January 25, 1854, 
to May 13, 1858. In 1856 he was chosen presidential elector 
and was a trustee of the Northampton Insane Hospital at the 
time of his death. Mr. Ripley was a positive man in all of 
his convictions, strong in his friendships, liberal in his contri- 
butions when he had decided the cause was good, and had the 
fullest confidence of the community in his honesty, sound 
judgment and ability. 


Daniel Wells, son of Colonel Daniel Wells, was born Janu- 


ary i8, 1791, in the house now owned by Dr. W. S. 
Severance, which then stood where Wells street now is. 
He graduated at Dartmouth in 18 10, studied law with his 
brother-in-law, Elijah Alvord, and was at the head of the 
Franklin Bar for thirty years. His practice extended all 
through western Massachusetts. He was district attorney for 
the four western counties from 1837 to 1844, when he was 
appointed chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 
which position he filled until his decease, June 23, 1854. 
After his appointment to the bench he removed to Cambridge, 
but he always had a strong interest in his native town. Among 
the distinguished lawyers who were connected with Judge Wells, 
either as students or partners, were Benjamin R. Curtis, James C. 
Alvord, George T. Curtis, Henry L. Dawes, George T. Davis, 
Charles Devens, David Aiken, Daniel W. Alvord, Ansel 
Phelps, Jr., and Henry Vose. 

Addressing the Suffolk court upon resolutions concerning 
his death, Hon. George S. Hillard said: "When at the bar, 
Judge Wells was distinguished by industry, attention to the 
interests of his clients, unwearied patience in the investigation 
of legal questions, and a fairness and candor of mind which 
gave him the ear of the court and jury. His elevation to the 
bench met the hearty approval of all who had observed his 
professional course. As a magistrate, he was faithful, cautious, 
patient and courteous, with sufficient learning and conspicuous 
industry ; more anxious that justice should be done than that 
business should be hastily dispatched ; listening long and pon- 
dering carefully ; making no distinction of persons ; encourag- 
ing the young by a paternal kindness of manner ; ever 
thoughtful of the rights of all, and invariably loyal to duty." 

Probably the most important case ever tried by Judge Wells 
was when engaged with Mr. Huntington, district attorney of 
Middlesex for the commonwealth, against William Wyman, 
president of the Phoenix Bank of Charlestown, who was indicted 
for embezzlement. Mr. Wyman was defended by Daniel 


Webster and Franklin Dexter, but the commonwealth won a 


Chester C. Conant was a descendant in the eighth genera- 
tion of Roger Conant, the Pilgrim. He was born in Lyme, 
N. H., September 4, 1831. He graduated with honor from 
Dartmouth in 1857. He earned the money for his education 
by the labor of his hands and by teaching during his college 

After his graduation he took a course at the Albany law 
school and was admitted to the New York bar in 1859 and 
to the Franklin bar the same year. His first law partner was 
David Aiken, with whom he continued some years, and then 
formed an alliance with Edward E. Lyman which was severed 
when Mr. Lyman became clerk of the courts. In 1878 he 
took into partnership his nephew, Samuel D. Conant, who 
had studied law with him. 

He was elected register of probate in 1863 and was pro- 
moted to be judge of that court in 1870. Judge Conant was 
an active and influential citizen, taking great interest in all 
matters affecting the public ; was for years a working member 
of the school board, a generous contributor to all public en- 
terprises and charitable objects, and active in matters relating 
to church work, especially so in connection with the Episcopal 
Church, of which he was a communicant, and the superintend- 
ent of its Sunday school for many years. He was a delegate 
to the Republican National Convention in Chicago in 1888 ; 
was the active agent in the organization of the Greenfield Sav- 
ings Bank, and a member of its board of directors until his 
decease ; was secretary and trustee of the Greenfield Library 
Association for many years. His health having failed, he re- 
signed his ofiice asjudge in 1899, and died November 6, 1899. 
The Franklin County bar passed resolutions of respect which 
were ordered to be placed upon the records of the Superior 

812 geeeKfield lawyers 


Franklin G. Fessenden came to the Franklin County bar 
from Fitchburg in 1874. His family were originally from 
Lexington, but he was born in Fitchburg in 1849. He grad- 
uated at the Harvard law school in 1873 ^^^'^ was for a time 
instructor in French at the university. He served as clerk 
of the police court in Fitchburg, and it was owing to the close 
friendship of Alvah Crocker and Wendell T. Davis that 
through Mr. Crocker's influence with Mr. Fessenden he was 
induced to come to Greenfield and become Mr. Davis's partner. 
Upon Mr. Davis's appointment as register in bankruptcy, 
Mr. Fessenden continued business without a partner, and soon 
had a large practice. During the season of 1882 Mr. Fessen- 
den lectured at the Harvard law school on criminal law. 
Governor William E. Russell appointed him judge of the 
Superior Court in 1891. 


John A. Aiken was born in Greenfield, fitted for college 
at the high school, entered Amherst, but graduated at Dart- 
mouth, studied law at the Boston University, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1870. He inherited largely his intellect- 
ual keenness from his father, Judge David Aiken, and from 
his mother that suavity of manner which marks him as a man. 
He immediately entered into a large practice with his father, 
and after a few years was the acknowledged leader of the 
Franklin County bar. 

Unsolicited and without previous knowledge by him, he 
was appointed by Governor Walcott judge of the Superior 
Court, September 7, 1898, and still continues in ofiice. 


Charles Mattoon studied law with William G. Woodard at 
Northfield, and became a member of the bar in 1839. He 
practised for some time at Muscatine, Iowa, returned to North- 


field, and came to Greenfield in 1853. He was an active 
politi'cian, a man of good abilities, and was register of probate 
from 1853 to 1858, when he succeeded Franklin Ripley as 
judge of the Probate Court, which position he held until his 
death, August 12, 1870. He served as selectman for two 
years, was manager of the Franklin Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany for many years, and was an active and influential mem- 
ber of the Unitarian Society. 


George T. Davis was born m Sandwich in 18 10, son of 
Wendell Davis, Esq., a leading citizen of that place. He 
graduated in 1829 from Harvard in a class of which Chief Jus- 
tice George T. Bigelow, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes and 
Reverend James Freeman Clarke were members. He came 
to Greenfield and entered the office of Wells & Alvord, find- 
ing as fellow students, Benjamin R. Curtis and David Aiken. 
He graduated at the Cambridge law school and practised for 
a time at Taunton, but returned to Greenfield in 1833. He 
soon after established the Franklin Mercury, which was con- 
ducted with great skill, but his professional duties taking all 
his attention, he sold the paper to the Gazette in 1837. He 
was in the Massachusetts Senate and also a member of the 
House. He represented the old Connecticut river district in 
the National Congress, where he made a marked impression. 
"He was a keen, discriminating, able lawyer ; a most charm- 
ing conversationlist and speaker ; the brightest of men, brist- 
ling with wit, fun and raillery ; most skilful in the examination 
of witnesses, and extracting amusement from the dryest cases. 
He did more than all the others at law and nisi prius terms to 
incorporate into the cold and rigid logic and routine of courts 
and trials something of the cheerful, jolly, softer, and better 
side of human nature ; and if he did not win verdicts from the 
hands, he drove dyspepsia from the bodies of the judges, jurors 
and lawyers, by the frequent convulsions of laughter which 


followed his inimitable wit and repartee." (Griswold.) The 
first Mrs. Davis died in 1862, and in 1865 Mr. Davis removed 
to Portland, Maine, where he married a Mrs. Little. He died 
in Portland, June 17, 1877, aged 67. 


Wendell Thornton Davis, brother of George T., graduated 
at Harvard in 1838, studied at the Cambridge law school and 
was admitted to the bar in 1841. For seven years he was the 
junior of the celebrated law firm of Davis, Devens & Davis. 
He was not enamoured with the law, and became largely in- 
terested in real estate operations, to the care of which he gave 
the most of his time. He became in 1844 the clerk and 
treasurer of the upper locks and canal at Montague, which 
became the Turners Falls Company, and to him, more than 
any other, belongs the credit of the building up of that busy 
place. Mr. Davis held many public offices, the duties of 
which he fulfilled faithfully and well, and to the satisfaction of 
the public. He was twice a member of the legislature, many 
years selectman, a trial justice for a long time, and register in 
bankruptcy under the United States government for several 
years. He was passionately fond of music and for a long time 
director of the choir in the Unitarian church. During his 
active practice in the courts, he had as partner, at one time, 
Austin DeWolf, and afterward Franklin G. Fessenden. Mr. 
Davis died, greatly lamented, December 3, 1876. 


James S. Grinnell was born in the ancient part of the Elm 
House, on Main street, July 24, 1821. He was the oldest 
of the seven children of the late Honorable George Grennell 
of this town. He graduated at Amherst in 1 842, studied law 
with Grennell and Aiken, and at Cambridge law school, and 
was admitted to practice in 1846. He commenced practice 
in Orange and afterward became the partner of his father at 


Greenfield. The practice of law was not to his taste, and he 
gave much of his time to the study of agriculture. In 1862 
he was appointed chief clerk in the department of agriculture 
at Washington, where he remained three years and resigned 
to take the office of chief clerk in the patent office. In 1876 
he returned to Greenfield and served upon the board of judges 
for agricultural implements at the Centennial Exhibition at 
Philadelphia. He was trustee and vice president of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College, and for many years, by 
appointment of the governor, a member of the state board of 
agriculture, and vice president of the board. He was generally 
the presiding officer at its meetings, the governor not often 
being present to perform the duty. He was always a Demo- 
crat, but his popularity among the farmers of the county en- 
abled him to be elected to the Senate in 1882, where he gave 
his attention to matters relating to farming interests. He was 
a strong advocate for the raising and keeping of sheep, and 
sought to legislate against the keeping of dogs, so that his 
favorite industry might better thrive. He was the Democratic 
candidate for lieutenant governor on the ticket with General 
Butler for two years, and also was nominated for Congress. 
Mr. Cleveland also honored him with the appointment of 
visitor to the naval school at Annapolis. In his elegant 
house at the head of Main street, he has collected one of the 
most complete and well selected private libraries to be found 
in the Commonwealth. Mr. Grinnell was twice married, his 
first wife, a Miss Stannard, of Fredericksburg, Va., died in 
1857. In 1879 he married Kate (Russell) Denison, daughter 
of the late John Russell, who survives him, and with his sister, 
Mrs. Ella (Grennell) Ripley, reside at the old homestead. 


Charles Allen, son of Sylvester and Harriet (Ripley) Allen, 
was born in Greenfield, April 17, 1827. He is a grandson 
of the sterling old-time Greenfield merchant, Jerome Ripley, 


and inherited good blood. He attended school at Greenfield 
and at Deerfield Academy, and graduated at Harvard in 1847. 
After reading law in the office of George T. Davis he attended 
Cambridge law school and was admitted to the bar in 1850. 
Mr. Davis took him as a partner and the firm of Davis & 
Allen was formed, and January i, 1852, David Aiken joined the 
firm, and it became Aiken, Davis & Allen. Mr. Aiken retired 
in 1855, and in 1 860 James C. Davis, son of the senior partner, 
was admitted, and the firm became Davis, Allen & Davis. 

The next year Mr. Allen was appointed by the Supreme 
Judicial Court the reporter of its decisions. This caused the 
removal of himself and James C. Davis to Boston where they 
renewed their practice. In 1867 Mr. Allen was chosen at- 
torney general of the Commonwealth and was annually re- 
elected until 1872. In 1880 he was appointed chairman of 
the board of commissioners to revise the laws of the Common- 
wealth. January 23, 1882, he was appointed justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of the Commonwealth, which position 
he resigned August 13, 1898. 

During his residence in Greenfield, Mr. Allen was an ac- 
tive participant in every effort made for the advancement of 
the interests of Greenfield, and has by his frequent gifts to its 
institutions shown that he still keeps up his attachment to his 
old home. He organized the celebrated course of lectures 
which continued for four years and gave the people of this 
vicinity the opportunity to hear all the popular platform 
speakers of that period, the remembrance of which is so much 
cherished among the elderly people of the county at the 
present day. He was largely instrumental in the organization 
of both the Greenfield Library Association, and the Green 
River Cemetery Company. He was ever the benificent and 
earnest supporter of the Unitarian society of Greenfield, pre- 
senting it with its parsonage and January i, 1898, he gave the 
Franklin County Hospital |5 10,000, Greenfield is proud of 
her distinguished son. 



Almon Brainard was a native of Randolph, Vermont. He 
graduated at Hamilton College, N. Y., and studying law with 
George Grennell, was admitted to the Franklin County bar in 
1829. He met with that success which worth and work al- 
ways award, and at one time had accumulated a large estate. 
But his kindness of heart and obliging ways led him to finan- 
cial ruin, and he died a poor man. He was elected county 
treasurer in 1 842 and also register ot deeds. After fourteen 
years' service he was persuaded to resign those ofiices and ac- 
cept an election to the state senate, with prospective advance 
to a seat in Congress, which honor he never realized. He 
was a trial justice for sixteen years. He married Margaret 
E., sister of Rev. L. L. Langsworth, in 1848, and at his 
death, which occurred January 21, 1878, two sons survived 


Horatio G. Parker was born at Keene, N. H., April 26, 
1824. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1844, studied law with 
his father in Keene, with William C. Noyes of New York and 
Henry M. Parker of Boston. He was admitted to the bar in 
New York in 1847 ^^^ to the Franklin County bar the next 
year. He settled in Greenfield, where he met with deserved 
success, until called to a larger field in association with his 
relative, Henry M. Parker of Boston. While here he repre- 
sented the town in the legislature, served as selectman, and 
was judge of probate and insolvency from March 12, 1853, to 
December of the same year. He married first Harriet, daugh- 
ter of Curtis Newton, and after her decease, Lucy, a daughter 
of the late Harvey C. Newton. He died in Cambridge, 
April 30, 1899. 


George Duncan Wells, son of Judge Daniel Wells, was 
born in Greenfield, August 21, 1826. When a youth he was 
a member of the community under the care of George Ripley 



at Brook Farm, his principal tutor being Charles A. Dana. | 
Here he imbibed much of his love for poetry and art and his | 
interest in the social problems of the day. He graduated at | 
Williams College in 1846, and took up the study of law with ■> 
his cousin, Daniel W. Alvord. He took the law course at v 
Harvard and after his admission to the bar in 1 849 he prac- I 
tised for a year or more in Boston in company with John G. .| 
King. In 1851 he returned to Greenfield and became the I 
partner of Mr. Alvord. He was an eloquent speaker and I 
soon obtained the reputation of being a good lawyer. He I 
represented the town in the legislature in 1858 and 1859, 
and the latter year was the chairman of the judiciary committee. 
He was a good debater, strongly sympathizing with the free 
soil movement. In his tilt with Caleb Cushing, "the demo- 
cratic giant," he won lasting honors. In 1859 he was ap- 
pointed judge of the police court in Boston. He considered 
this a chance to put into practice some of the principles which 
were instilled into his mind when at Brook Farm, and gave 
his soul to the work in hand. But in the spring of 186 1 he 
heard the call of his country, which was to him a call for open 
conflict with the forces he had been fighting against for years, ri 
May 22 he was commissioned lieutenant colonel of the ist .; 
Massachusetts regiment. He distinguished himself at the | 
first battle of Bull Run, and at the siege of Yorktown upon j 
the personal request of General Hooker to General Grover ] 
commanding his brigade. Colonel Wells led the assault on the j 
redoubt in front of Yorktown, and was the first man to enter j 
the fortification. He saw hard service in the Peninsular cam- 
paign. For a time he was provost marshal of Williamsburg. 
At one time he was in command of a demoralized Pennsyl- 
vania regiment, which he succeeded in bringing into good 
efficiency. In 1862 he was appointed colonel of the 34th 
Massachusetts regiment, and spent a short time at home in 
drilling and organizing his men. His command was taken to 
Washington in August, 1862, and for a time garrisoned Fort 


Lyon, chief among the defences of that city. In July, 1863, 
he was in command of Harper's Ferry at the head of a bri- 
gade under General Nagle. In October he drove back an in- 
vading force under the rebel General Imboden, pursuing them 
ten miles and making a remarkable march. In December he 
was in co-operation with Averill in his celebrated raid to cut 
the Virginia and Tennessee railroad. When near Harrison- 
burg his little army of 1,400 men was attacked by Early with 
a much larger force, but Wells held the enemy in check and 
effected a masterly retreat, reaching Harper's Ferry with his 
army in good condition and bringing a hundred prisoners. 
He was afterwards in command at Martinsburg, and in April, 
1864, his regiment was joined to Seigel's command. He was 
in the most of the Valley fights during the autumn of 1864. 
October 13, 1864, ^^ '^^s in command of a brigade at South 
Cedar Creek, and was hard pressed by the enemy. While 
engaged in directing its movements he was pierced with a 
bullet and slid off his horse. He was soon surrounded by 
his officers, and just then came the order to retreat. He would 
not be moved, saying, " It's of no use. I cannot live. Gen- 
tlemen, save my regiment." The officers were obliged to 
retire to save themselves from capture. Lieutenant Cobb 
refused to go and was captured with his dving commander. 
Soon General Jubal Early came up and inquired who the 
wounded man was. Upon being told that it was Colonel 
Wells, he said, "What! The officer who commanded the 
force against us last winter? Send my ambulance for him." 
The next day our army recovered the lost ground, and Colonel 
Wells's body was found in the church in preparation by the 
people for a soldier's funeral. His body was brought to 
Greenfield and laid in the Green River cemetery which he 
had aided so much in making beautiful. 


George W. Bartlett was a native of Bath, N. H., where he 


was born in 1836. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1856, and 
the next year was principal of the Deerfield Academy. He 
graduated at the Albany law school and entered the office of 
Alvord & Wells. When George D. Wells removed to Bos- 
ton, Mr. Bartlett became a partner with Mr. Alvord until his 
appointment as lieutenant in the 27th Massachusetts regiment, 
September 23, 1861. He was made captain May 2, 1863, 
and was provost marshal of Beaufort for a season. He was 
in the engagements at Roanoke Island, Newburn, Kingston, 
Whitehall, Goldsbury and the siege of Petersburg. He was 
a brave, active and efficient officer. After his discharge from 
the army he formed a partnership with Edward E. Lyman, 
which continued until Mr. Lyman became clerk of courts. 
He was a member of the legislature in 1865. ^^ ^'^^ ^ 
popular young man and his future seemed full of promise, 
but his health, undermined by his military service, gave way 
and he died February 4, 1873. 


David Willard, son of Beriah Willard, was born in Green- 
field in 1790 and graduated at Dartmouth in 1809. He 
studied law with Judge Newcomb and was admitted to the bar 
in I 8 12. He had no affinity for the practice of law, and that 
profession was not his free choice, for in his " History of 
Greenfield," he says of himself, that no person could " ex- 
pect a man to succeed in a profession every way uncongenial 
to his feelings, especially of one of unconquerable diffidence 
and inclined to despondency and depression of mind. Par- 
ents should not choose professions for their children ; they 
should choose for themselves." He was a man of peace, and 
hated contentions of any kind. He was of benevolent dispo- 
sition, kindly sympathetic, and had no known enemy. He 
was town clerk and treasurer from 1817 to 1829, when he 
gave way to Hooker Leavitt. In 1845 he was again elected 
town clerk and held the office until his death, July 16, 1855. 


For fifteen years he was clerk in the office of the clerk of the 

He occasionally wrote articles for the village papers, which 
had much merit. His handwriting, almost like copper plate 
eno-raving, adorns the record books of the town and the 
county. His enduring monument will be his valuable "His- 
tory of Greenfield," published in 1838, the value of which 
increases as the years go by. The writer wishes here to ac- 
knowledge his indebtedness to its author for much material 
gathered from its pages. 


David Brigham of Shrewsbury was graduated at Harvard 
College, was admitted to the bar, married Elizabeth F., daughter 
of Jerome Ripley, and removed to Fitchburg. 


Franklin Ripley, Jr., born in Greenfield, January 10, 1824, 
graduated at Amherst and was admitted to the bar in 1845. 
He removed to Milwaukee (?) and became a successful law- 


Elihu Lyman, son of Major Elihu Lyman, graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1803, studied with Judge Newcomb 
and was admitted to the bar in 1806. He appears to have 
been the first county attorney, and was sheriff from Novem- 
ber II, 181 1 to June 20, I 8 14. He removed to Hampshire 
county, and practised law in Greenwich. He was senator 
from that county. 


Samuel Wells, son of Colonel Samuel Wells, born in Green- 
field, December 21, 1792, graduated at Dartmouth in 1813 ; 
studied law with Elijah Alvord, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1816. He settled in Northampton and was clerk of the 


Hampshire county courts for over thirty years. He died 
October 4, 1864. 


Henry Chapman, son of Thomas Chapman, studied law 
with Judge Newcomb, and was admitted to the bar in 1826. 
He was representative in 1833, 1834, 1836 and 1837, and 
clerk of the courts from 1 840 to 1852. Wilhams College con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of A. M. He was a 
man of brilliant attainments, but the latter part of his life was 
passed in hopeless insanity. He died in the insane hospital 
March 23, 1875. 


Daniel W. Alvord, son of Elijah Alvord, graduated at 
Union College in 1838, and studied law with Wells, Alvord 
& Davis, his father, his uncle Daniel Wells, and his brother 
James C. Alvord. He was district attorney of the North- 
western district from 1856 to 1862. Mr. Griswold said of 
him, " He had a fine legal mind, and had he devoted himself 
exclusively to his profession, he would have made one of the 
ablest lawyers in the state." He was state senator in 1854 
and member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention 
in 1853, and was also collector of internal revenue in this dis- 
trict. After the close of the war he removed to Lewinsville, 
Virginia, where he died in August, 1871. 


W. S. B. Hopkins, son of Reverend Erastus Hopkins of 
Northampton, was born in Charleston, S. C, May 2, 1836, 
his father then being pastor of a Presbyterian church in that 
city. The father afterward removed to Northampton and 
was for many years president of the Connecticut River Railroad 
Company and was for several terms a member of the hgisla- 
ture. W. S. B. Hopkins was educated by private teachers 


and at Williams College, where he graduated in 1855. He 
studied law with Judge William Allen in Northampton, and 
at Harvard law school, and was admitted to the bar in 1858. 
When the war opened he was practising at Ware, and enlisted 
in October, 1861, served as captain and lieutenant colonel of 
the 31st Mass., commanding the regiment from November i, 
1 86 1 to April 8, 1864. He was in the first New Orleans ex- 
pedition, being on the ship which landed General Butler at 
Ship island. Captain Hopkins and his company cleared the 
levee at New Orleans for the first landing of Butler's army. 
He was for six months in garrison at Fort Jackson, then in 
the Teche campaign and participated in the siege of Port 
Hudson. When stationed at Baton Rouge he received orders 
to transform his regiment into cavalry and as such took part 
in the Red River campaign. At its close he resigned and was 
honorably discharged. Soon after the close of his army serv- 
ice, he came to Greenfield and resumed the practice of law. 
Later he became a partner of David Aiken, and after two 
years, Mr. Aiken said, " Hopkins, we are on one side of 
most all the jury cases in the county. I guess we had better 
dissolve and be on both sides." He became the foremost 
jury lawyer in the county. His fair presentation of his side 
of a case, without any attempt at oratory, but in a quiet con- 
versational manner, his fair and courteous treatment of wit- 
nesses and of his opponent, was very sure to engage the con- 
fidence of the jury and win a verdict, if among the possibilities. 
He had marked ability as an actor, and during his residence 
in town, the " Greenfield Dramatic Club," under his manage- 
ment, achieved remarkable success, and contributed much 
money to charitable purposes and to the Greenfield Library 
Association. He was an active member of the Grand Army 
Post, and delivered the first memorial address in this town. 
In I 871 he was elected district attorney for the Northwestern 
district. He went to Worcester in 1873, ^"^ became the 
leading member of the Worcester bar. He was city solicitor, 


and was district attorney for the Middle district from 1884 
to 1887. Colonel Hopkins was a college mate of President 
Garfield and a delegate to the convention which nominated 
him, and though not publicly announced, was offered a place 
as attorney general in the Garfield cabinet. He died at Pine- 
hurst, N. C, January 14, 1900. 

Senator Hoar said of Colonel Hopkins, " I mourn the loss 
of a dear friend. The public mourns a noble citizen. I re- 
gard Colonel Hopkins as the foremost advocate in New 
England — peer of the foremost anywhere. He was a model of 
the professional character, of great sagacity in taking his 
position, a champion, powerful alike in attack and defense, a 
favorite with courts, juries, clients and his brethren of the bar. 
The loss to the city, county and commonwealth is irrepar- 


George L. Barton was born at the old Barton homestead in 
Gill, November 6, 1845, ^^ ^^^ ^ pupil at Powers Insti- 
tute and at Exeter, New Hampshire, and graciuated with 
honors at Harvard. He studied law at Madison, Wis., for 
two years, and was principal of the high school at Greenfield 
for two years, during which time his leisure hours were spent 
in the office of W. S. B. Hopkins. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1 871, and began his practice at Turners Falls. He 
was appointed trial justice in 1872, and was fast taking rank 
as a sound lawyer, when his promising career was cut short by 
his early death, February 19, 1879. 


Gorham D. Williams was admitted to this bar in 1868, and 
practised here for several years. He became interested in 
the manufacturing enterprises which were notwhollv successful, 
and went to Boston where he wrote several law books of great 



Charles G. Delano, son of Hon. Charles Delano of North- 
ampton, was admitted to the bar in 1870, and became a part- 
ner of Whiting Griswold. He was register in bankruptcy- 
after the death of Wendell T. Davis, but upon the death 
of his father he returned to Northampton. 


William A. Gile became a member of this bar in 1869, and 
was for a time with Whiting Griswold, but soon removed to 
Worcester where he became eminent in his profession. He 
was a member of the legislature for several terms and quite 
active and influential in political aflairs. 


Henry L. Nelson was admitted to the bar in 1876. He 
never practised here, however, but gave his attention to literary 
work in which he became celebrated. He is (1903) a pro- 
fessor in Williams College at the present time. 


Henry Ware Jones, admitted in 1881, took up his residence 
in New York soon after his admission. 


Charles F. A. Eddy was admitted in 1883, and the firm of 
Eddy & Martin was in practice for some years. Mr. Eddy, 
however, of late years has given more time to mechanical in- 
ventions than to the pursuit of his profession, and has re- 
moved to Connecticut. 


Frank J. Pratt, Jr., studied law with John A. Aiken and 
was admitted to the bar in 1890. He soon after removed 
from town. 



Freeman C, Griswold, son of Whiting Griswold, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1884, and for some years practised Jaw in 
town ; was a member of the House of Representatives in 1888, 
and removed to New York city. 


CHfton L. Field, of Shelburne, son of Samuel T. Field, 
was admitted to the bar in 1885 and was elected clerk of the 
courts for Franklin county to succeed Edward E. Lyman, 
when he became judge ot the District Court, so he is a citizen 
of Greenfield by adoption. 


Francis M. Thompson was admitted to the bar in 1876. 


Justice Willard, son ot Ruel Willard, was born in Greenfield 
in 1790, graduated at Dartmouth College, studied law with 
Elijah Alvord and Judge Newcomb, and was admitted to the 
Hampden bar in 1814. In 1815-16 he was deputy collector 
of internal revenue, and then editor of the Hampden Patriot, 
for some years. He was representative from Springfield in 
1822, and two years later was in the Senate. In 1829 he be- 
came register of the probate court, and served in that capacity 
to the acceptance of all for twenty years. He died April 11, 


Austin DeWolf, son of Almon and Elvira (Newton ) DeWolf, 
was born in Deerfield, April 29, 1838. He attended the district 
school and academies at Deerfield, Shelburne Falls and West- 
minster, Vt. He taught school in his native county and in 
Ohio, and while teaching school studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1863. He formed a partnership with Wendell T. 
Davis which continued some years. He was secretary of the 


Franklin County Agricultural Society for three years, chairman 
of the assessors of Greenfield one year, declining a re-election. 
He was often called to preside at town meetings, having given 
much study to municipal law, his book upon " The Town 
Meeting " being standard authority in such matters. He was 
for several years treasurer of the Turners Falls Company. In 
1 88 1 Trinity College conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Master of Arts. 

October 17, 1866, he married Frances O. Oviatt of Litch- 
field, Conn., and had four sons. He removed to Marion, 
Indiana, in 1890, where he now resides. 


Edward F. Raymond, son of Zebina L. Raymond of 
Greenfield, was admitted to the bar in 1854. He was secre- 
tary of the Franklin County Agricultural Society in 1855, but 
died in October of that year. 


Rejoice Newton, son of Captain Isaac Newton, was born in 
Greenfield, was a member of the Worcester bar, and became 
one of the leading citizens of Worcester. 


Henry K. Newcomb, son of Judge Richard E. Newcomb, 
was also a prominent member of the Worcester bar, having 
studied law with Honorable Rejoice Newton. 


Joseph Warren Newcomb, also a son of Judge Newcomb, 
was a member of the Worcester bar, and practised in Temple- 
ton and afterward in Arlington. He afterward became con- 
nected with the press. 


Bowdoin Strong Parker, son of Alonzo and Caroline Gunn 


Parker, was born in Conway, August lo, 1841. When ten 
years old he came to Greenfield with his parents, and this was 
his home till his removal to Boston in 1881. 

He graduated from the Greenfield High School in 1859, 
and later studied under private tutors. 

He served in the Civil War and returning home was for 
some years engaged in manufacturing. He studied law with 
the late Honorable Wendell T. Davis, and with Colonel 
Thomas Clarke of Boston, and graduated with the degree of 
L.L. B, from the Boston University law school in 1876; 
he was admitted to the Boston bar in December, 1875, ^^'^ 
subsequently to the bar of the United States Circuit Court, 
and has since practised in Greenfield and in Boston, prin- 
cipally in the branches of trade-mark, patent and equity 
law. In Greenfield he was a director of the public library, 
an engineer of the fire department, chairman of the board 
of assessors, etc. In Boston he served for three years as a 
member of the common council, was two years representative 
in the legislature; in 1893 being the chairman of the Com- 
mittee on the Judiciary for the House, and also a member 
of the Special Joint Committee for the investigation and re- 
vising the system of inferior courts of the Commonwealth. 

He edited the Massachusetts Special Laws for the years 
1889 to 1893, inclusive, and has contributed considerable to 
the press. He has served as an officer of the Mass. 
Vol. Militia continuously for over eighteen years, during 
which time he was promoted from the office of captain, to 
assistant adjutant general of the ist brigade, and is now on 
the retired list with rank of colonel. He is a member of the 
Edward W. Kinsley Post No. 1 13, G. A. R., of Boston ; The 
Massachusetts Union of Knights Templars Commanders, etc. 

Colonel Parker married Katharine Helen Eagen of New 
York on June 25, 1867. She died September 22, 1899. 
They have one daughter, Helen Caroline Parker, who resides 
in Boston. 



The time has not yet arrived for the publication of sketches 
of the Hves of present active members of the FrankHn bar re- 
siding in Greenfield, but in the case of Samuel O. Lamb, who 
has for fifty-two years been in active practice of his profession 
in this town, an exception may well be made. 

Mr. Lamb was the son of Reverend Amherst Lamb, a 
Baptist minister who in the early years of the last century held 
pastorates in Whitingham, Vermont, and in Charlemont and 
Buckland in this county. As characteristic of the good sense 
and independence of the blood, it may be stated that upon 
one occasion Elder Lamb at the close of a morning service 
said, " As I came along to church I noticed that you have 
large quantities of hay out, and as the weather is threatening I 
shall have no service this afternoon, and I advise you to get in 
your hay, and if any of you need any assistance call upon me." 
Mr. Lamb had the usual school privileges of farmers' boys 
until he was of suitable age to help about the farm work in 
the summer months, when he was hired out to a neighbor. 
He was a great reader, an apt student, and easily learned by 
observation, and was qualified when he became of proper age 
to teach in the district schools. This he did for four winters, 
and without doubt learned as much during those seasons as he 
would had he spent the same time in attending school. Whit- 
ing Griswold of Buckland was admitted to the bar in 1 842 
and settled in Greenfield. Mr. Lamb coming to Greenfield 
the following year entered his office as a student at law. He 
was then twenty-two years of age, having been born in Guil- 
ford, Vermont, October 23, 1821. Later Mr. Griswold mar- 
ried Miss Jane Martindale and Mr. Lamb her sister, Miss 
Lucy Martindale, both of Greenfield. In July, 1845, while 
yet a student at law, he took the editorial and financial man- 
agement of the Franklin Democrat. In his first editorial he 
announced the principles which would guide him in his polit- 
ical career, and if ever a man stood by his early political belief, 


that man is Samuel O. Lamb. In the issue of the Democrat 
of June 13, 1848, Mr. Lamb announces himself the editor 
and proprietor of the paper, which condition continued until 
the concern was sold to Joseph H. Sprague-in January, 1852. 
Mr. Lamb's preparation for admittance to the bar was de- 
layed by his editorial duties, but at the November term of the 
Court of Common Pleas in 1850 he became a member of the 
Franklin County bar, and entered into partnership with 
Whiting Griswold. The firm of Griswold & Lamb continued 
for four years ; Mr. Lamb at the end of that time opened an 
office by himself. The firm of Davis and Lamb was formed 
in 1862 and continued until the removal of George T. Davis 
to Maine in 1866. Mr. Lamb continued his practice alone 
until 1895 when he admitted Frank J. Lawler as a partner 
and the firm of Lamb & Lawler is still in good standing at 
the Franklin County bar. During the term of James Bu- 
chanan as President, General James S. Whitney was collector 
of the port of Boston and Mr. Lamb served as his private 
secretary. He has twice served as representative to the Gen- 
eral Court, held the offices of register of probate court, and 
clerk of the courts. He also served with credit as savings 
bank commissioner, resigning the office because of weakness 
of his eyesight. He has been honored by the party of his 
choice by nomination upon the state ticket at difi'erent times. 
He has always taken a deep interest in municipal affiiirs, and 
has often served on important committees and for several 
years as a member of the school board of the town. Mr. 
Lamb has been president of the Franklin Savings Institution 
and was for many years its attorney. His advanced age does 
not prevent his daily attendance at his office, and his quick and 
elastic step, his wonderful memory, his cheerful conversation, 
his remarkable fund of interesting stories, and his kindly dis- 
position, all tend to mark him as a man who has learned one 
of the most difficult lessons of life, the way to grow old grace- 


In recognition of the honor and esteem in which his brethren 
of the bar hold Mr. Lamb, upon his eighty-second birthday 
they tendered to him a compHmentary banquet and pre- 
sented to him a valuable gold-headed cane. To the congrat- 
ulatory remarks of his fellows, Mr. Lamb replied in a reminis- 
cient speech characteristic of the man, and of intense interest. 


Mr. Smith was born at Warwick, in 1825, and was the son 
of Reverend Preserved and Tryphena (Goldsmith) Smith, 
who then resided in that town. Rev. Preserved Smith was 
a well known Unitarian preacher who had held pastorates in 
Rowe, Deerfield and Warwick, and was for some years a resi- 
dent in Greenfield. He was a descendant of Rev. Henry 
Smith who was pastor of the church in Weathersfield, Conn., 
as early as 1635. 

Fayette Smith prepared for college at the old Deerfield 
Academy, then under the charge of Luther B. Lincoln, and 
was graduated from Harvard in the class of i 844. He studied 
law with his cousin John Wells of Chicopee, who became a 
justice of the Supreme Court. He came to the Hampden bar 
in 1 847 and practised in Chicopee and Holyoke until 1851, 
when he located in Cincinnati, Ohio. Here he practised with 
increasing success and reputation until in 1878 he was elected 
a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, which position he re- 
tained for the usual term of five years. From his retirement 
from the bench in 1883 until 1895, when ^^ gave up the prac- 
tice of law and removed to this town, he was the head of the 
law firm of Smith & Martin who commanded a large and lu- 
crative practice. 

It happened that while Judge Smith was upon the bench 
that he was the presiding judge of the District Court, com- 
posed of three judges of the Court of Common Pleas, before 
whom came the celebrated case of Archbishop Purcell, — one 
of the most important cases ever tried by the Ohio courts. 


Judge Smith wrote the opinion which held that the church 
property was held for religious and charitable uses, in trust, 
and could not pass to the assignee of the bishop. The opin- 
ion was confirmed by the Supreme Court of Ohio, and the 
writer of the opinion was complimented by the declaration of 
the court that it was " a very able and exhaustive presentation 
of the reasons which prompted the judgment." 

Mr. Smith's first wife was a Cincinnati lady, and in 1875 
he married Miss Mary P. Wells of this town, who has achieved 
renown as the author of juvenile books. Upon the death of 
Eunice, the widow of Rev. Dr. John F. Moors and sister of 
Mr. Smith, he came from Cincinnati and until his decease, 
which occurred January 4, 1893, he and his wife occupied the 
Moors' mansion which came to him by his sister's will. 

On October 5, 1903, eleven ex-judges of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of Ohio, appointed a committee by that court, re- 
ported resolutions highly eulogistic of the life and services of 
Judge Smith, which were ordered by the court to be spread 
upon the records. He was held in high esteem by the citi- 
zens of Greenfield. 


Charles Field, judge of the first northern District Court 
of Worcester county, that grand old man of Athol, deserves 
a notice in this work as his parents were residents of Green- 
field, and he was educated to the law in this town, but his 
modesty is so great that the editor has been unable to obtain 
memoranda suf^cient for a worthy sketch of his career. 



EDWARD BILLINGS, JR., son of Edward Billing, 
the first minister of Greenfield, was licensed by the 
Hampshire Association as a preacher but was never or- 
dained. He was born in Belchertown in 1750, and when 
only four years of age came with his father to Greenfield, 
where he resided until his death in 1806. He preached but 
a short time and then studied medicine. (See Physicians of 


Mr. Corse, son of Asher Corse, Jr., was born in Green- 
field, May 23, 1803. He graduated at Amherst in 1830 and 
took a course in theology at Princeton, beginning to preach 
at Kingston, Pa., in 1834. 

He preached in Wyoming valley until 1837 and was set- 
tled as pastor at Athens, Pa., February 27, 1838, where he 
remained about ten years. From that time until his decease, 
he resided at East Smithfield, Pa., where he preached as stated 
supply. He obtained his license from the Hampshire Asso- 
ciation February 5, 1834, and was ordained at Susquehanna, 
Pa., August 27, 1836. In 1884 Mr. Corse was present at 
the dedication of the monument erected to the memory of Mrs. 
Eunice Williams, which is located upon the ancient Corse farm, 
and was one of the speakers upon that occasion. He was for 
several terms principal of the old Deerfield Academy. Mr. 
Corse died May 20, 1893. 

53 ^33 



Mr. Griswold, the son of Reverend Theophilus Griswold, 
was born in Greenfield, April 14, 1795, ^'"^"^ ^^^ graduated at 
Yale College in 1821. He studied theology at Andover and 
was ordained an evangelist by the Franklin (Congregational) 
Association November 8, 1825, the sermon being by Reverend 
Josiah Canning, of Gill. He was pastor at South Hadley 
Falls from December 3, 1828, to 1832; Newfane, Vt., from 
1834 to 1839, and at Hartland, Vt., from 1839 to 1844. He 
was afterward a preacher at Washington, N, H. 


Mr. Russell was a son of Major John Russell, and was 
born in Greenfield April 3, 1801. He took a collegiate 
course at Amherst College, but did not graduate. His license 
came from the Franklin Association, bearing date August 11, 
1830. He studied theology at Andover, and his first pastor- 
ate was at Candia, N. H., where he settled December 25, 
1833. In 1 841 his health having failed he gave up his pro- 
fession and lived in Greenfield, Boston, and Washington, D. 
C. He was for some years connected with the post-office de- 
partment in Washington. 

His son, Charles P. Russell, who is at the head of the 
Wiley & Russell Manufacturing Company, lives in this town. 


Mr. Chapman was born in Devonshire, Eng., in 1786; 
was at school at Harrow; came to this country in 1795, and 
came to Greenfield with his father, Thomas Chapman, about 
1799. He was a graduate of Dartmouth, and wrote a history 
of that college which was extensively used. He was rector 
of churches in Portland, Me., Bennington, Vt., and Lexing- 
ton, Ky. While at Lexington he was also professor in Tran- 
sylvania University. Henry Clay was his parishioner and 


intimate friend. After leaving Kentucky he was rector of 
churches in Newark, N. J., Worcester, Pittsfield and Lee in 
Massachusetts. He died in Newburyport, Mass., in October, 
1872. He was a man of strong character much beloved by 
his family and friends. 


Perhaps the most learned and accomplished scholar who 
ever originated in Greenfield was George Ripley. He was 
the son of Jerome and Sarah (Franklin) Ripley, and was born 
in this town at the "old Dr. Hovey place," October 3, 1802. 
His father came from Hingham in 1790, and was an old-time 
merchant, and his mother was a cousin to Dr. Benjamin Frank- 

George Ripley graduated at Harvard in 1823 with high 
honors. He remained at Harvard a year as tutor, and in 
1826 graduated at Cambridge Divinity School. The next 
year he became the settled minister of the Purchase Street 
church in Boston where he remained until 1831, when he went 
to Europe where he remained for several years, engaged in the 
study of French and German literature. Upon his return to 
this country, he gave his attention wholly to literary pursuits, 
his first work being the editing of fourteen volumes of " Speci- 
mens of Standard Foreign Literature." During his European 
trip he had become very much interested in the solution of the 
social problems of the day. In the summer of 1840 he and 
Mrs. Ripley boarded on a milk farm at West Roxbury, and 
there they "found a spot on which to carry out what had be- 
come their dearest wish," which was to found an institution 
" to insure a more natural union between intellectvial and 
manual labor than now exists ; to combine the thinker and the 
worker, as far as possible, in the same individual ; to guarantee 
the highest mental freedom by providing all with labor adapted 
to their tastes and talents, and securing to them the fruits of 
their industry ; to do away with the necessity of menial serv- 


ices by opening the benefits of education and the profits of 
labor to all, and thus prepare a society of liberal, intelligent 
and cultivated persons, whose relations with each other would 
permit a more wholesome and simple life than can be led 
amidst the pressure of our competitive institutions." " To 
accomplish these objects," Ripley wrote to Emerson, "we 
propose to take a small tract of land which under skilful hus- 
bandry, uniting the garden with the farm, will be adequate to 
the subsistence of the families, and to connect with this a 
school or college, in which the most complete instruction shall 
be given, from the first rudiments to the highest culture." 
So, during that winter he purchased the " Brook Farm," and 
September 29, 1841, "The Brook Farm Institute of Agricul- 
ture and Education" was organized. The farm contained 
about 192 acres, and at the height of its prosperity about 120 
persons were connected with it. Associated with Ripley were a 
most remarkable group of gifted men and women, and this prac- 
tical experiment in the principles of transcendentalism was given 
fair trial under the guidance of Ripley, Hawthorne, Emerson, 
Alcott, Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and many others who be- 
lieved in the doctrines of Schelling. 

Financially the scheme was a failure, and Ripley withdrew 
and removed to New York where he became associated with 
Greeley in the editorial management of The Tribune, continu- 
ing its literary editor until his decease, July 4, 1880. He did 
much other literary work during this period with Charles A. 
Dana, editing the New American Encyclopedia. He was one 
of the founders of Harper's Magazine and its literary editor 
for many years. The University of Michigan conferred upon 
him the degree L.L. D. in i 874. He was always interested in 
Greenfield affairs and contributed $100 toward the erection of 
the Greenfield Library Association building. 


The subject of this sketch was the son of Reverend Sylves- 



ter Woodbridge, the fourth pastor of the first church in Green- 
field. He was born here April 5, 18 19, and removed to New 
York state in 1823, and was graduated at the New York Uni- 
versity in I 839. He studied theology at the Reformed Dutch 
Seminary, New Brunswick, N. J., and was licensed to preach 
in July, 1842. He was soon called to the South Dutch 
Church at Brooklyn, N. Y., where he remained until 1850, 
when he became the pastor of the Dutch Church at Coxsackie, 
N. Y. Two years after he was called to the Second Reformed 
Church in New Brunswick. Here he attracted a large con- 
gregation and in 1857 was elected by the General Synod of 
the Reformed Church in America as professor of church his- 
tory in its Theological Seminary in New Brunswick. Owing 
to his increasing years he resigned his chair in 1901, which 
was accepted, but the General Synod immediately elected 
him professor "emeritus," and until 1902 he continued to 
lecture as suited his convenience. 

From 1857 to 1864 he was, coincidently with his professor- 
ship in the Theological Seminary, professor of metaphysics 
and the philosophy of the human mind in Rutgers College. 
His successor in the pastorate of the Second Reformed Church 
of New Brunswick (where Rev. Dr. Woodbridge still resides). 
Reverend Mancius H. Hutton, writes: "In 1897 a public 
celebration of his fortieth year in his professorship at the 
Seminary was duly held. Delegates from Union Theo- 
logical Seminary in New York City, and from the Theologi- 
cal Seminary at Princeton, N. J., were present, together with 
many distinguished visitors and a host of the Alumni of 
New Brunswick Seminary who were drawn together to do 
him affectionate honor. During his long service he has been 
the signal ornament of the Seminary. No citizen of New 
Brunswick is more honored or revered. His presence among 
us is regarded as a benediction. If Greenfield had produced 
nothing else, it might well be proud of having produced 



Mr. Loomis was son of Reverend Aretas Loomis, long a 
minister of Colrain and Bennington, Vt. His mother 
was Sarah, daughter of EHhu Goodman an early settler in 
Greenfield. He was born in Huntonville, W. Va., in 1821 
and died in Greenfield, August i, 1893. He graduated 
at Williams College under the tuition of Reverend Mark 
Hopkins, whom he ever held in grateful remembrance. After 
studying at Windsor, Conn., he preached for a season at 
Charlemont and at Colebrook, Conn. He was pastor at 
Bethlehem, Conn., for twelve years where he married Eliza- 
beth M., a granddaughter of the celebrated Reverend Dr. 

Mr. Loomis came from Bethlehem to Greenfield and sup- 
plied at the First Congregational Church for a year, and 
afterward preached occasionally in the adjoining towns. For 
several years he received into his family five or six Chinese 
boys who were sent to this country by their government for 
education. Mr. Loomis served for several years as a member 
of the school board of this town. He was a studious man, of 
fine sensibilities, modest and unassuming in his manner and 
the exampler of a true Christian manhood. 


Mr. Smead was born in Greenfield and was the son of 
Deacon Charles L. and Lucy (Corse) Smead. He was edu- 
cated in the district schools, the select school at Science Hill, 
and prepared at Williston Seminary for entrance to Amherst 
College, where he graduated in 1857. He began soon after 
his graduation to teach school in Circleville, Ohio, from there 
he was called to a position in the Ohio Institution for the 
Blind, at Columbus. He was assistant superintendent under 
Dr. Lord for nine years, and at his death was chosen his suc- 
cessor. After twenty-five years' continuous service he was 
ousted by reason of a political overturn, and in 1886 became 


pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Savannah, Ohio. Here 
he remained until September, 1900, when he was again called 
to his old position at Columbus. 

His people at Savannah, while feeling justly proud of the 
honor which had come to their pastor, parted from him with 
deep regret, as evidenced by the resolutions of the church 
passed in his honor. 


Father Cummings, the son of Patrick Cummings, was born 
in Greenfield and educated in the public schools of this town. 
He also studied at St. Charles School at Ellicott Mills, Md., 
took a collegiate course at Nicolet College, Can., and 
studied theology at Grand Seminary, Montreal. He was or- 
dained by the late Bishop Reily at the Cathedral at Spring- 
field in 1883, priest in the diocese of Denver, Col. Arriving 
at Denver, he for a season did missionary work at Leadville, 
and afterward held a pastorate at Boulder, Col. Mr. Cum- 
mings health gradually failed him and he became attached to 
the Cathedral at Denver, where he did good work for several 
years. At last the insiduous disease which had long been his 
foe gained such mastery that he returned to his father's home 
to die. He lingered for four months after his return to 
Greenfield, and died January 15, 1898, aged 37 years. His 
funeral was largely attended at Holy Trinity Church, high 
mass being celebrated by Reverend John A. Fitzgerald of 
Pittsfield, his friend and companion. 


Father Fitzgerald was born in Greenfield and the founda- 
tions of his education were laid in the public schools of this 
town. He is curate of St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Pitts- 
field, Mass., where he has been located for several years. 


Reverend Allen C. Morgan, born in Greenfield became an 


Episcopalian minister, but I have been unable to obtain facts 
regarding his life. 


Reverend David Bacon, son of Jonathan Bacon, an early 
settler, was born in Greenfield and preached for many years 
in Kentucky, but I have no other information of him. 


Reverend Hiram P. Arms was a Congregational minister 
and spent some of his early days in this town. Reverend 
Jubilee Wellman, also a Congregational minister, was born in 
that part of Greenfield now Gill, Reverend Avery Williams, 
the father of the Misses- Williams who became celebrated 
teachers, was a resident of this town. 




But little information can now be gained of the lives of men 
who were prominent in business affairs of the town in the early 
part of the nineteenth century. 

1756, December 19, Edward Allen died. He built the 
fort where now stands the Hollister house, 

1787, January 11, Ebenezer Wells died. Mr. Wells owned 
the land lying at the east end of Main street and northerly 
along High street. 

1788, June 13, Captain Ebenezer Arms, an officer of the 
Revolutionary War, died, aged 68. 

1 801, May 25, Samuel Wells who built the large house at 
the west end of Main street which was removed when B. B. 
Noyes erected his residence. He was a man of prominence 
in his day. He was the father of Colonel Samuel Wells who 
died May 16, 1838, aged 68. 

1 8 13, March 6, died Jonathan Bird, Sr., aged 37. He 
married Betsey, sister of Hon. George Grennell, who survived 
him till December 27, 1873, being 94 years of age. Mr. 
Bird was a merchant. Their son Jonathan in 1845 built the 
present residence of Judge Fessenden. He died January 25, 
1872, aged 65. 

181 5, July 26, Colonel Daniel Wells died, aged ^^. He 
was the father of Hon. Daniel Wells, at one time chief justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas. His wife, Rhoda (Newton) 
survived him until July 22, 1833, dying at the age of 73 at 
Byron, N. Y. 



1819, May 25, died Thomas Chapman, aged 73. He was 
born in Barforth, England, and built the old Chapman house, 
owning the land where Chapman street is located. He was a 
fine courtly old English gentleman. 

1 82 1, November 10, Moses Munson, father of Morris 
Munson, late of this town, was drowned in Deerfield river. 
He was once an owner of an interest in the Green river mills. 
He was 54 years of age. 

1828, May 30, Nathan Draper died aged 66. He was a 
man who had done much for the building up of the town, and 
was a good citizen. 

1 83 1. On the 28th of May, at Buffalo, N. Y., Pliny Mar- 
tindale, of Greenfield, while on board a canal boat upon his 
passage home from a visit to the West, was struck by a bridge 
at the guard lock and falling into the water was drowned. He 
was the father of Mrs. S. O. Lamb. 

1834, February 21, John Pinks, one of Burgoyne's men, 

March 20, Moses Newton, a Revolutionary pensioner died, 
aged 78. 

September 22, John Newton, aged 84, a Revolutionary 
pensioner died. 

Jerome Ripley began business m Boston, but came to 
Greenfield in 1789 and began business as a merchant with 
small means but a strong determination to succeed. September 
6, 1790, he purchased from Samuel Wells one of the original 
eight-acre home lots, bounded south on the highway, north 
on land of Lemuel Bascom, east on Beriah Willard. His 
store was where the old Dr. Hovey block now stands. Eight 
acres there now would be worth quite a little sum of money. 
By industry, economy, and perseverance he accumulated a 
handsome estate. For almost fifty years he gave daily per- 
sonal attendance upon his affairs up almost to the close of his 
life. He was a member of the old Court of Sessions, and a 
magistrate for about forty years, a member of the General 


court, and was called to other municipal and civil offices, all 
of which he filled with the same conscientious sense of duty 
that he gave his own business affairs. He was a gentleman 
of the old school, and held an important place in the business 
and social concerns of the town. He died December 28, 1 838. 

1840, March 25, died Samuel Pierce, aged 73. Mr. 
Pierce built the Pierce (now Strecker) block, was a first-class 
business man, engaged largely in boating, and carried on a 
coppersmith and tinning business. He manufactured lead 
pipe, pewter ware, block tin teapots and was a skilled mechanic. 
He was the grandfather of Captain George and John D. Pierce. 

1 840, April 22. Elihu Goodman, formerly of South Hadley 
but long a resident of Greenfield, and a much respected citizen, 
died aged 88. He was a soldier of the Revolution. 

1844, March 8, died George Grennell, father of Judge 
George Grennell, aged ^^. 

1845, September 13, David Long, Jr., died, aged 43 years. 
He was a blacksmith having a shop near the fire department 
building on Federal street. His father, David Long, Sr., 
was born July 4, 1776, and died January 4, i860. They 
were men of worth. 

1847, February — , Lyman Kendall died in Cleveland, 
Ohio. He built the store at the corner of Main and Federal 
streets, and was a leading merchant for several years. 

1848. April 10, Sylvester Allen died aged 66 years. He 
was born in Providence, R. L, the son of a farmer, and had 
the usual educational advantages of farmers' sons. When he 
was fourteen years of age his leg was crushed while working in 
the woods, and amputation followed. He went into business 
in Brookfield, and in 18 12 removed to this place. He always 
declined public office, excepting in connection with the bank, 
but gave his life to mercantile affairs, being largely interested 
m boating upon the Connecticut. He was an honest man 
and his descendants have added honor to the family name. 

Francis Russell, the youngest son of Major John Russell, 


the silversmith, was born in Greenfield, August 9, 1806. He 
received his education at Westfield Academy, and entered the 
employment of Lyman Kendall in the " corner store." Ken- 
dall and Nathaniel Russell became partners both in general 
trade and in the manufacture of cashmeres at Factory Hollow. 

When his brother John began manufacturing he became 
the New York agent, and went to England (perhaps more 
than once) and brought over skilled workmen to carry on 
their business. He was in delicate health, and returned to 
Greenfield, in 1848, purchasing from Cephas Root the house 
now owned by William H. Allen at the corner of Main and 
Congress streets, where he died of apoplexy, March 5, 1850. 
He married Dorcas, a daughter of Colonel Spencer Root, but 
left no issue. He was a bright and attractive man of singular 
personal beauty and his early death was mourned by a large 
circle of relatives and friends. 

1849, Sept. 27, Thomas Nims died. The following no- 
tice is from the Franklin Democrat of October i, 1849: 
*' Mr. Nims was one of our most useful and esteemed citi- 
zens. In all the private relations of life he sustained an irre- 
proachable character, and he discharged the duties of the 
various public stations to which the suffrages of his fellow 
citizens from time to time assigned him, with ability and the 
strictest fidelity. He faithfully served his town in the most 
important offices, and as a representative in the state legis- 
lature, and his county for several years as a member of the 
Board of County Commissioners. 

He was a democrat of the Jeffersonian school, and was 
several times the candidate of his party for the state senate and 
for Congress. He was a man who did his own thinking; his 
investigations were philosophical and profound ; his informa- 
tion was extensive ; his views of private and public matters 
were characterized by sound common sense, which com- 
mended them to general approbation. His influence was ex- 
tensive, and his loss will be severely felt by our community." 


Mr. Nims, one son and three daughters all died the same 
year of typhoid fever. 

1854, June 14. Samuel A. Winslow, a carpenter, was 
drowned while bathing near the Newton bridge. 

1855, April 18. George P. Field, baker, was accidentally 
killed on the Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad track at 

1858, June 20. George Bird, a native of Greenfield, died 
of apoplexy in New York city, aged ^2- ^^- ^^'"^ ^^^ ^ 
successful merchant and " achieved an ample fortune and uni- 
versal respect and confidence." 

August 29, 1858. Ambrose Ames died, aged 94. Captain 
Ames came here about 1788 with Colonel William Moore, 
and was by trade a nail maker. He married December 9, 
1790, Hannah, granddaughter of that Edward Allyn who 
built the fort where the Hollister place now stands. She was 
the daughter of Amos Allen and was born on the old Quintus 
Allen place, in Greenfield meadows, that house having been 
built about 1757. Mr. Ames was a very prominent man, he 
having been postmaster from 1 805 until his removal by the 
Harrison administration, and was representative to the Gen- 
eral Court in the years 1829-30-31-36 and 1840. He 
purchased the lot where the house of his grandson, W. A. 
Ames, now stands, in 1791, and the house was built soon 

i860. Hon. Ansel Phelps, son of Colonel Ansel Phelps 
of Greenfield, ex-mayor of Springfield, died in that city June 2, 
aged 45. 

1863, October. Deacon C. J. J. Ingersoll died, aged 57. 
Deacon Ingersoll spent the most of his very active and useful 
life in Greenfield. Apprenticed when sixteen years old to Colo- 
nel Ansel Phelps, he thoroughly learned the printers' art on the 
Gazette. Soon after he became of age he became the partner 
of Colonel Phelps and after four years he purchased the 
Franklin Mercury. In about two years the two papers were 


consolidated, and he remained with Colonel Phelps until 1841, 
when he removed to Westfield, N. Y., where he published 
the Messenger. He was back in Greenfield in 1847 ^^^^ ^or 
a year was again with Colonel Phelps. Disliking the tenden- 
cies of the Whig party, he withdrew and established the Ameri- 
can Republic in i 848, becoming an active advocate of Free Soil 
principles. In 1857 he was appointed to the office of register 
of probate, and when the office became elective, he was con- 
tinued in that position until the time of his death. Deacon 
Ingersoll was a conscientious and active Christian, faithful in 
all his duties, and died lamented by the whole community. 

1864, April II. Justice Willard, son of Ruel Willard, a 
native of Greenfield, born in 1790, died in Springfield. He 
studied law with Elijah Alvord, was representative and sena- 
tor, and for twenty years register of probate for Hampden 

1865, July 27. Deacon David Smead, formerly of Green- 
field, and much beloved, was killed by a bull at Madison, 
Ohio. He once said, " There is a great deal of Christianity in 
a watering-trough." 

1 866, February 13. Charles Ripley, a native of Greenfield, 
and a successful lawyer at Louisville, Ky., died in that city. 
The Louisville bar passed very complimentary resolutions 
to his memory. 

1867, February 23. Elijah Mitchell, printer, one of the 
"oldest of his craft" in the state, died at Adams in the alms- 
house. He was a native of Greenfield. 

1867, November 5, Lucius Dickinson died. He was an 
old-time resident of Greenfield and well remembered by many 
of our older citizens. He lived for many years in the house 
which was moved back from Main street to Wells street when 
the Baptist church was built. He afterwards lived in the 
house at the corner of Franklin and Church streets, removed 
by W. N. Potter when his present residence was built. Mr. 
Dickinson was born in Amherst, July 13, 1788. He lived in 


Cambridgeport fourteen years, where he was the keeper of a 
tavern. He came to Greenfield in early life and devoted 
himself to farming. He was the village wood measurer many 
years, and probably did more in that line than any other man 
who has ever lived here. Mr. Dickinson was the first mes- 
senger of courts in this county, a Whig in politics, and was a 
man of quiet, unassuming manner, and respected by his fellow 
townsmen. He was made a member of Republican Lodge of 
Masons in 1817. He was the father of nine children, — two 
sons and seven daughters. Mrs. Joel Lyons and Mrs. W. N. 
Potter were his children. 

1868, January 31. William Wilson, formerly one of the 
leading business men of Greenfield, died of apoplexy. 

1868, February 4. Rejoice Newton, son of Captain Isaac 
Newton, a native of Greenfield, aged 85, died at Worcester. 
Mr. Newton was a graduate of Dartmouth, was ten years a 
member of the legislature, and seven years county attorney of 
Worcester county. 

1868, May 25. Eber Nash died aged g;^ years and 4 months. 
He lived with his wife, Margaret Hitchcock, sixty-eight years. 
He was a prominent man in town affairs for many years. 

1869, March 17, Henry W. Clapp died. Mr. Clapp 
was born in Springfield in 1798, and when sixteen years old 
began to learn the trade of goldsmith and jeweler at Newark, 
N. J. He entered into business in New York, and soon ac- 
cumulated what was considered a good fortune in those days. 
His mother was a daughter of Dr. Henry Wells of Montague, 
which fact probably accounts for his location in this town. 
He came here in 1835 ^^^ purchased the Gould place, where 
he resided until his death. He took great interest and pride 
in everything which promoted the interests of the town. He 
never would accept political office, but was president of the 
Greenfield Bank, the Franklin County Agricultural Society, 
the Green River Cemetery Company, the Greenfield Gas 
Light Company, the Franklin Savings Institution and of the 


Connecticut River Railroad Company. It was largely through 
the influence of Mr. Clapp that the "Greenfield Branch" of 
the Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad was made a part of the 
main line from Grouts to Greenfield, and from thence to Brat- 
tleboro, the branch. He was the leading spirit in the consoli- 
dation of the Springfield & Northampton and the North- 
ampton & Greenfield railroads to form the Connecticut River 
Railroad Company. In this matter he had the sharp opposi- 
tion of other leading men of Greenfield who were officers in 
the local road. As an example of his interest in the town, 
he and Jonathan Bird employed at their own expense a dis- 
tinguished engineer to come here and estimate the expense of 
bringing in an abundant water supply, either by erecting a res- 
ervoir upon the Rocky Mountain and forcing the supply from 
the Connecticut, or other means. He built the first town 
hall, as is related in the town records. He sold to the labor- 
ing men of the town little homes, giving easy terms of pay- 
ment and doing much for their prosperity and success. The 
great elms on Franklin and east Main streets are a living 
monument to his memory. He loaned his money to promote 
Greenfield industries, and at his death was mourned as the 
leading man and well beloved citizen of the town. 

I 869, April 7. Captain Daniel Crosby died, aged 67. For 
thirty-four years he was the sexton of the town and a respected 

1870, October 31. Captain Alanson B. Long found dead 
in his office in New Orleans. Mr. Long was commander 
of the Greenfield company in the 52d regiment and was 
greatly beloved by his men. Lie was a young man of great 
promise and United States district attorney at the time of his 

1 871, February 8. Deacon Curtis Newton died, aged 88 
years and 10 months. He was an officer of the first church 
many years, a son of one of the early settlers of the town and 
an honest man. 


February 9. Joseph Severance died, aged 92 years. He 
was a hatter in early days and had a shop where Arms block 
now stands. 

1 871, June 12. John Newton, brother of Deacon Curtis 
Newton, died, aged 91. 

1 871, October 3. Albert Smead died after a short sickness. 
Mr. Smead was a descendant of one of the oldest families of 
the town and well sustained the family name. He was 69 
years of age, had served the town as assessor and as selectman, 
was a good neighbor, a modest, kindly man and a Christian 

1872, May 7. Theodore Leonard died, aged 70. Mr. 
Leonard was born in Sandwich in i 802, and after clerking in 
a store at Boston became agent for a woolen mill located in 
Dudley. He came to Greenfield in 1843 ^o ^^^^ charge of 
the woolen factories which had been owned by N. E. Russell 
& Co. These had been purchased by J. K. Mills & Brother 
of Boston. 

This firm becoming embarrassed in 1857, the business 
passed into the hands of Mr. Leonard who successfully manu- 
factured the finest of doeskins for many years. Failing in 
health, and adverse business conditions existing, the business 
was discontinued, and the once busy hamlet became like 
Goldsmith's deserted village. Mr. Leonard was one of the 
most public spirited men who ever lived in Greenfield, and 
he gave unsparingly of his money and time to advance every 
interest which he thought would make the town one more 
desirable for a home. 

The New York Dry Goods Reporter of June 26, 1858, 
says : " Among the most beautiful blacks we notice those 
of the Greenfield Company. . . . The goods of this cele- 
brated make have always approached more nearly the best 
styles of French and German doeskins than any other Ameri- 
can manufacture and we are glad to see a full assortment in 
the market." 



1 872, September 23, Humphrey Stevens, register of deeds, 1 
having just come out of the courthouse for the purpose of ! 
attending a funeral, fell on the sidewalk opposite W. T. Da- j 
vis's house and immediately expired. He was a son of Hon. ; 
Joseph Stevens of Warwick and aged 50 years. Mr. Stevens i 
was station agent at Montague for the Fitchburg Railroad 
Company before he was elected register of deeds in 1855. j 
He held the latter position until his death. He was for \ 
many years chairman of the selectmen, a director in the First ! 
National Bank, and prominent in business affairs. \ 

Frederick G. Tuckerman, born in Boston, February 4, 1821, 1 
married Hannah L., the only child of General David S. Jones, i 
and settled in Greenfield in 1847. He was educated at the 
Boston Latin School, Harvard College and the Harvard Law 
School. He read law in the office of Edward D. Sohier of 
Boston and was a member of the Boston bar. Having abun- 
dant means he spent some time in Europe, and in 1855 was the 
guest of Alfred Tennyson at Farringford, Isle of Wight. 
At this time the poet laureate presented him with the original 
manuscript of Locksley Hall. Mr. Tuckerman was a man of 
scholarly tastes and habits, and being a deep lover of nature, 
abandoned his profession and gave himself largely to the pur- 
suit of his favorite studies. He was a skilful botanist and 
was acknowledged authority upon the flora of Franklin county. 
He was an occasional contributor to Littell's Living Age 
and the Atlantic Monthly. He wrote a hymn for the dedi- 
cation of Green River cemetery and an ode which was sung 
at the dedication of the soldiers' monument. His poems were 
first collected and printed in i860. They were published in 
London in 1863, and re-published in Boston in 1864, and 
again in 1869. ^^ ^^^'^ May 9, 1873, leaving a daughter 
Anna, and a son, Dr. Frederick Tuckerman, of Amherst, 
both still living. 

1873, September 6. Rinaldo R. Taylor, formerly editor 
and proprietor of the Franklin Democrat, and a leading demo- 


cratic politician of the county, died aged 50. He built the 
Union block and did much for the weltare of the town. 

1874, May 3. James White, born about 1802 in Colrain, 
died at the poorhouse. Thirty years ago "Jim," the col- 
ored barber of the village, was an amusing character. He 
"went west" early in life and led a rough life on the canal 
and learned many cute tricks which he never forgot. For a 
long time he was cook at the American House and was very 
skilful. He always attended the Greenfield boys when they 
went out of town to musters and on other occasions. He had 
at one time a little home on Silver street but lost all his estate 
by hard drinking and ended his days at the poorhouse. If 
any young man in town put on a little more style than " the 
boys " thought proper, within a few days Jim, through their 
assistance, would be sure to appear in imitation and cause much 
mirth by his perfect mimicry. 

1874, June 18. Alpheus Loveland, aged 78, a soldier of 
the War of 18 12, was killed on the railroad, near the Tool 
factory. He was in the battle of Plattsburg, and at Stone 
River and Otter Creek in 1814. 

1874, July 10. Charles K. Grennell, a much respected citi- 
zen, aged 70, died from injuries received from falling from a 

1874. July 14. Samuel H. Reed, died aged 79. Major 
Reed was born in Petersham, but went early to Rowe, where 
he was clerk for his brother Solomon, with whom he was 
afterward in partnership. He was appointed sheriff of Franklin 
county in 1847 and removed in 1 851, to make room for Gen- 
eral James S. Whitney. He was again appointed in 1853 and 
subsequently removed by Governor Gardner who appointed 
Charles Pomeroy in his place. In 1856, the law having been 
changed, he was elected, and re-elected four times, holding the 
office for nineteen years. During his last years Major Reed 
suffered from blindness. He was a much respected citizen, 
and particularly active in the cause of temperance. 



A John Russell came up to Deerfield in 1756 from Weth- 
ersfield and married a daughter of John Sheldon, thus getting 
into good company. This John had a son John born in 
1767 who learned the silversmith's trade and in May, 1792, 
formed a partnership with David Ripley in the jewelry busi- 
ness in Greenfield. He was commissioned major in the mi- 
litia in 1804. His son John was born March 30, 1797. He 
learned his trade in his father's shop and when nineteen years 
of age went to Augusta, Georgia, and engaged in business, 
which he continued until he was about thirty-three years old, 
when he returned to Greenfield. 

Late in 1833 Jo^'^'"' Russell & Company had in successful 
operation their chisel works, driven by a sixteen horse power 
steam-engine, probably the first engine ever used in Greenfield. 
Their shops were on the south side of Mill street, just west of 
the present Germania House. March 15, 1836, the large 
part of these works were destroyed by fire. Searching for a 
better location and cheaper and more abundant power, over- 
tures were made to the owners of the water power at Nash's 
mills, but without success. The " Bascom dam " (now Wiley 
& Russell Company) and the buildings on the east side of 
Green river having been swept away in a flood in 1835, John 
Russell and his brother Francis purchased the property and 
at that place founded a business which was destined to 
become of world-wide reputation. Though the works were 
located within the bounds of Deerfield, the concern was a 
Greenfield institution and so remained until its removal to 
Turners Falls. 

Francis Russell became the New York agent and only re- 
turned to Greenfield a short time before his sudden death in 
1850. Under the skilful management of John Russell, the 
company changed its business from the manufacture of chisels 
to that of cutlery in its various forms, and aided financially by 
Henry W. Clapp, the concern soon became the foremost 


work of its character in America. The trade-mark of "Green 
River Works" was adopted by the concern and their goods 
were boldly proclaimed to be "American Cutlery." The 
management was progressive, and the skilled workmen im- 
ported from Sheffield soon took up American methods, and 
gradually new and attractive patterns were introduced and 
hand work gave way to ingenious machinery which materially 
reduced the price of production. 

After the death of Francis Russell, Nathaniel Russell be- 
came the New York agent, and by his large business expe- 
rience, keen instincts, and correct business methods, aided 
largely in the success of the concern. The trying times of 
1837-40 were safely passed and large increase of capital was 
earned and used in the extension of the works until in 1870 
the completion of the facilities at Turners Falls gave oppor- 
tunity for the construction of a plant of sufficient capacity to 
do their prospective business. 

Mr. Russell retired from the active management of the 
concern when the re-organization took place, but it still re- 
mained the "J. Russell Cutlery Company." The Gazette 
says of him : "Through all the years of his business life, Mr. 
Russell was noted for sound judgment, untiring industry, and 
for his personal influence over his large number of sometimes 
turbulent workmen. He was a man of much natural dignity 
and presence. His word was a bond, and his signature was 
never in all the long years of his business dishonored by a 

Mr. John Russell died December 27, 1874, at the age of sev- 
enty-seven. He was married in 1830 to Juliana Witmer of Lan- 
caster, Pa., and his wife survived him several years. One son, 
Francis B. Russell, died in 1870, and one, Charles W. Rus- 
sell of New York, in 1903. Hon. John E. Russell of Lei- 
cester, and Kate, who was the wife of the late Hon. James S. 
Grinnell of Greenfield, are the surviving children. 

1875, February 4. Colonel David Wright, aged 82, died 


at South Deerfield. Colonel Wright kept the American 
House in this town many years, and was the " crier of the 
courts." Mr. Griswold, in his address delivered at the dedi- 
cation of the rebuilt courthouse, thus speaks of him : 

" Nor must I pass unnoticed Colonel David Wright, the 
old crier of the old courthouse of the old school. It is not 
disparagement to the present occupants of this office to say 
that Colonel Wright awake or asleep was the equal, if not the 
superior, of them all. Although there is the highest profane au- 
thority for saying that on one occasion, when suddenly aroused 
from a sound sleep, (which he was enjoying at the crier's desk,) 
to adjourn the court, he shocked the judge, the jurors, the 
witnesses, the spectators, and even the lawyers, so far as such 
language can shock their sensibilities, by adding, either by mis- 
take or intentionally to the words, ' God save the Common- 
wealth,' an oath which it would be improper for me to repeat 
in this presence. But the legislature, in one of its spasms 
of reform arose in its might and majesty and swept this little 
office of crier of the court from the face of the earth, and 
with it went Colonel David Wright, the crier of this court." 

1875, October 21. David R. Wait, a prominent citizen of 
Cheapside, died aged 76. It was no fault of Mr. Wait that 
he died in Deerfield instead of Greenfield, for he made a gal- 
lant fight for the annexation of Cheapside to Greenfield. 

1876, January 19. Thomas Wait aged 67 died. " Uncle 
Tom " carried on an express business between Greenfield and 
Boston for forty-five years. Before the days of railroads he 
drove fine four-horse teams, laden with country produce of 
every kind and brought back all varieties of goods carried in 
country stores. His fidelity was never questioned. 

1876, August 2. Alfred Wells died from injuries received 
in falling down stairs, aged 76. He was a son of Colonel 
Samuel Wells and descended from one of the first settlers of 
the town. He had been frequently assessor and selectman, 
and was for many years coroner. 


1876, February 22. Died in Boston, Harriet Ripley Allen, 
a daughter of Jerome Ripley, aged 80. Jerome Ripley came 
from Boston to Greenfield in 1787 and built the Hovey house 
now standing at the corner of Main and Davis street. 

1876, March 24. Samuel Sheldon Eastman died, aged 59. 
Mr. Eastman was born of Puritanic stock in Hadley in 18 16. 
One of his ancestors was in Deerfield on the notable night of 
February 29, 1704. He was apprenticed when a boy to learn 
the printer's art in the office of the Hampshire Gazette at 
Northampton, and when he became a journeyman he worked 
at book printing for awhile in Amherst ; later he found em- 
ployment in Lenox. In 1 83 8 J. C. Kneeland of Northampton 
and himself came to Greenfield and started the Greenfield Cou- 
rier. They had but little money and they did nearly all the 
work of getting out the paper with their own hands. Mr. 
Eastman soon became the sole owner, and within a short pe- 
riod united the Courier with the Gazette & Mercury owned 
by Colonel Ansel Phelps, and the Gazette & Courier made 
its first appearance in 1841, under the full control of Mr. 
Eastman. Colonel Phelps died in 1868, having been con- 
nected with the Greenfield press for fifty-eight years. The next 
year Mr. Eastman took as partner the late Eben A. Hall, 
and the paper constantly grew in popularity. 

Men who only occasionally met Mr. Eastman, thought him 
often abrupt and discourteous, but by those who knew his 
solid worth as a man, his inflexible determination to do what 
he believed to be just and right, these characteristics were for- 
gotten. He was a most generous, kindly man, and was always 
willing to do his full share in aiding every good work. He 
nearly always declined public office when tendered him but in 
1870 became a member of the General Court. 

1878, March 22. John J. Pierce died. He was born in 
Greenfield, May 26, 1793, and always lived in town. His 
father, Samuel Pierce, built what is known as the Strecker 
block, and for many years carried on the tinner's trade there, 


and this son was with him until he purchased the Pierce farm. 
He was for many years assessor of the town, and was a charter 
member of Frankhn Royal Arch Chapter of Masons. 

1878, April 13. Bela Kellogg died, aged 68. Mr. Kellogg 
came here from Montague about 1853 and was for several 
years in the shoe trade. He changed to the grocery busi- 
ness which his son continues. He was county treasurer for 
twelve years, an honest man and a good citizen. 

1878, October 24. General James S. Whitney, born in 
Deerfield, May 19, 18 17, died at Brookline. Governor Eve- 
rett appointed him brigadier-general when he was twenty-three 
years old. He was sheriff of Franklin county from 1851 to 
1853, and it is claimed that his vote caused the election of 
Charles Sumner to the United States senate in 185 1. In the 
soil of his birth place in South Deerfield sleep the "Flower 
of Essex" slain at Bloody Brook, September 18, 1675. 
Henry M. and William C. Whitney, of national reputation, are 
his sons. 

1879, January 13. Peter T. Sprague died, aged 86. Mr. 
Sprague was a native of Maiden and came to Greenfield in 
18 I 5. He was very peculiar in his manners but a very gen- 
erous hearted man, and it was his custom for years to leave 
with his grocer a sum of money to be given as he should see 
fit to the deserving poor. He erected a fountain on the com- 
mon at considerable expense as a gift to the town. He was 
for many years a shoe merchant, always honest and honorable 
in his dealings. 

1879, January 31. A. P. Cooley, died aged 69. Mr. Cooley 
was a free and independent thinker, strong in argument, 
intelligent, and knew no such word as fear. He took great 
interest in the lyceums, was active in the fire department and 
was an authority in horticultural affairs. 

1 879, April 21. Lucius Nims died, aged 72. Mr. Nims 
was born in Greenfield on the farm which was laid out to his 
ancestor at the settlement of the town. He was prominent in 


town affairs ever after his arrival to man's estate, serving as 
selectman and on the finance committee of the town, and was 
a member of the legislature in 1843, 1846, 1847 and 1851. 
At the last term he aided in the election of Charles Sumner to 
the United States Senate. He was for nine successive years 
commissioner of Franklin county. The Gazette in its notice 
of his death, says: "It is sufficient to say, as was said by his 
pastor over his coffin, that he honored every office in which 
he was placed. . . . But it was not in public office alone that 
Mr. Nims served his fellowmen and earned and received the 
approbation of the community in which he lived. It was as a 
neighbor, a friend, and a man of generous sympathy, good 
counsel and kindly acts, that he won the hearts of the people. 
He was truly the friend of the poor man. To the appeal of 
the needy his heart and his hand ever readily opened without re- 
gard to the security offered. There are many yet who remem- 
ber, and whose eyes soften as they remember, the kind words and 
the substantial aid which in their hour of need they received 
from Lucius Nims." 

1879. George W. Mark, known as the "Count" died 
July 29, aged 83. He came to Greenfield in 18 17 and was 
a skilful sign painter, but had aspirations for higher art, and 
gained much celebrity by the exhibition of his works in his 
"Art Gallery." 

1880, April 15. Rev. Dr. Roger Howard died, aged 73. 
He was the father of the first wife of the late Judge Conant, 
and was a native of Thetford, Vt., and had only resided 
in Greenfield about a year. He, however, was well known 
by the citizens of the town as he often officiated at St. James's 
Church when on visits to his daughter. Dr. Howard gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth and from that college received his doctrin- 
ate. He was for seventeen years a teacher at Newburyport 
and nine years at Bangor, Me. His reputation as a teacher 
was very high. He had been rector at St. Stephen's Church 
in Portland, Me., at Rutland and Woodstock, Vt., and 


recently at Webster, Mass. He was president of Norwich, 
Vt., University for several years but resigned on account of 
ill health. He had a fine presence, was a ripe scholar and 
a Christian gentleman. His remains rest in Green River 

1880. Samuel Wilder, for a half century a resident of 
Greenfield, died at Hinsdale, N. H., April 20. 

1 88 1, February 28, Lemuel H. Long died, aged 81. 
Mr. Long was assessor many years and selectman in 184I— 


1 88 1, April 5. Major W^illiam Keith died, aged 72. 

Mr. Keith was of Scotch descent, born in Enfield and came 
to Greenfield in 1820. He worked for some years as a 
painter in the old Birge chair factory on School street and then 
went to York state, but in 1839 returned to town and pur- 
chased the American House which he managed until 1861. 
He was for several years captain of the old Greenfield artil- 
lery company, and as a lieutenant had a handsome young law 
student, who afterward became of world-wide fame, — General 
Charles Devens. Major Keith received many honors at the 
hands of his townsmen, having been selectman seven years, 
member of the legislature two years, and was deputy sheriff 
under General James S. W^hitney. In 1870 he became the 
president of the Franklin County Bank which office he re- 
tained until his death. He was a man of sound business quali- 
fications, good solid common sense, and commanded uni- 
versal respect. 

1 88 1, April 15. Deacon John J. Graves, aged 82. Mr. 
Graves's ancestors were among the first settlers of Deerfield 
and Greenfield, he being the grandson of John, w-ho escaped, 
and the great-grandson of Daniel, who was killed by the 
Indians at Country Farms, August 23, 1756. He was for 
many years a blacksmith at Nash's mills and in connection 
kept a small store. He became the agent of the Union store 
in the village, and after several years successful management 


purchased the stock of the Union at an advance of fifty cents 
upon the dollar. He was a kindly, honest man, and beloved 
and respected by all. In his younger days he was the adju- 
tant of the famous cavalry corps which then existed, and de- 
lighted to relate interesting anecdotes of the doings of the old- 
time musters. 

1 88 1, May 12. "Aunt Nancy" Lester died at the town 
farm aged 105 years. 

1 88 1, June 26. Whiting Draper died, aged 87. He was a 
son of Nathan Draper, an early settler of Greenfield, and was 
a very ingenious workman. 

1881, July 30. Reverend Preserved Smith, died aged 92. 
Mr. Smith was born in Rowe, August i, 1789. He came of 
a race of ministers, his father, grandfather and great-grand- 
father having been preachers. He was the minister for War- 
wick for thirty years, and afterward in Pembroke and in Deer- 
field. He came to Greenfield in 1863, as he says in his diary, 
" that he might have more time to study and more opportunity 
for improvement." He was the father of our honored citizen, 
Judge Fayette Smith, and of the late Mrs. John F. Moors. 

1881, August 3. Reverend Walter A. Henneberry died 
aged 40 years. He was born in Luffaney, Ireland, and was 
educated at the theological school of his faith in Troy. He 
was assistant priest at Pittsfield, and came from there to this 
parish when it was nearly disrupted by differences between 
priest and people. He was one of nature's noblemen, and 
made all the people, whether of his faith or not, love and 
honor him, and he died mourned by the community in which 
he had lived. 

1 88 1, September 11. Captain Thomas Lyman, aged 94, 
died. He was father of Mrs. Dr. W. S. Severance, and the 
oldest person in the town. He was a soldier in the War of 

1882, March 17. William N. Nims died of heart disease, 
aged 54. He was son of Albert H. Nims. 


1882, May I. Josiah Day, aged ^^, died at Jacksonville, 
III., having removed from Greenfield in 1858. He was a 
jeweller in company with G. C. Munsell, and married Martha 
B., youngest daughter of Colonel Ansel Phelps. He was a 
fine singer. 

1882, June 12. John Osterhout died, aged ^^ years. 

1882, November 6. Ira Carpenter was thrown from his 
wagon and killed. 

1883, April 13. Hervey C. Newton, aged 74, died. Mr. 
Newton was the son of Curtis Newton and grandson of 
John Newton, who was brother of Captain Isaac Newton 
and Samuel Newton, who with their father came here from 
Durham, Conn., in 1772. Mr. Newton was selectman of 
Greenfield tor eight years, and during the War of the Rebellion 
gave much time to its duties. He was a man of capacity, of 
strong will, and faithful in every trust committed to him. 

1883, May 22. William Pierce, son of Proctor Pierce, and 
grandson of Rev. Dr. Roger Newton, born in Greenfield, 
died at Charlestown, aged 77. He was clerk in the state's 
prison for twenty-eight years and a faithtful man. 

1884, February 10, Nathaniel E. Russell, died, aged 84. 
Mr. Russell was born in Greenfield, a son of Major John 
Russell, who had a jewelry store in Pierces's (now Strecker's) 
block. There were four brothers, John, Nathaniel E., Francis 
and Charles, the last being a clergyman and father of Charles P. 
Russell. John, Nathaniel and Francis without doubt did 
more for the advancement of manufactures in Greenfield than 
has any other family. Nathaniel E. began his business life 
as clerk in a store in Colrain ; afterward was in partnership 
with Lyman Kendall in this town at the "corner store," which 
Kendall built in 18 14. The firm name was Kendall & Rus- 
sell, which afterward became N. E. Russell & Company. Wil- 
liam Elliot was his chief clerk. In the spring of 1825 Mr. 
Russell purchased the woolen mills at the "Hollow" and 
successfully carried on the manufacture of satinet until crippled 


by the financial crash of 1837. He made sale of his property 
and for twenty years after was engaged in settling his old in- 
debtedness which he accomplished, dollar for dollar. His 
brothers, John and Francis, had established the manufacture 
of chisels, which after a season was changed to cutlery, and he 
united his energies with them, and the business became so 
successful that in 1840 a house was established in New York 
and Nathaniel took it in charge. He severed his connection 
with the company in 1864 and returned to Greenfield to spend 
the remainder of his days in the enjoyment of his well earned 

1884, February 29. Major Henry G. Nims died, aged 42. 
The Gazette says of him : " Major Nims was the oldest son 
of the late Lucius Nims and has held many positions of public 
trust. He was one of Greenfield's volunteer soldiers enlisting 
in the 5 2d at the age of twenty-one and serving through 
the Louisiana campaign until his regiment was mustered out. 
He was soon after appointed paymaster by the government, 
his commission giving him the rank of major. He was en- 
trusted with large sums of money and by his faithful and effi- 
cient services gained the fullest confidence of the government 
officials, and was made a lieutenant-colonel by 'brevet.' At 
Fort Vancouver, in 1866, Major Nims received an accidental 
wound by which he lost a foot by amputation, which caused 
his resignation from the army. He was appointed deputy by 
Sheriff Kimball, and was ' crier ' at the sessions of the court. 
He served the town as assessor and selectman, and was always 
a popular and efficient official." 

1884, May 7. Levi Jones died at St. Louis, aged 71. 
Mr. Jones was a native of Winchester, N. H., but came to 
Greenfield and bought an interest in the old Green river foun- 
dry in 1839 and was engaged in manufacturing there for thirty 
years. In company with his brother-in-law, Hugh M. Thomp- 
son, he built the present gristmill in 1852. 

1884, November 6. Nathan F. Henry, president of the 


Packard National Bank, died. Mr. Henry was born in 
the old stage tavern in Halifax, Vt., and kept hotel all 
his business life. In the old boating days he kept the hotel 
at Cheapside, and in after years purchased the house at Mon- 
tague City, now the residence of B. N. Farren, where he ac- 
cumulated much money. He came to Greenfield and pur- 
chased a farm in the Meadows where he lived a few years, and 
then moved to Conway street in this village. ''■He was a care- 
ful, conservative man, possessing rare good judgment and sound 
common sense." 

1884, November 14. Richard E. Field died, aged 88. 
He was one of the old time-business men of Greenfield, build- 
ing stage coaches, at which business he kept employed a large 
number of men. He was an ardent Whig, a zealous Episco- 
palian, and for a time in old Whig days, a custom house officer. 

1884, November 17. Spencer B. Root died, aged 59. 
Mr. Root was the son of Colonel Spencer Root and was a 
former merchant here in company with his uncle, Cephas 
Root, under the name of C. & S. B. Root. About 1854, he, 
with John P. Rust, another Greenfield merchant, went to 
New York and made a fortune in the oil trade. Retiring, 
he took up his residence in Greenfield a few years before his 

1884, November 22. Ouintus Allen died, aged 79. He 
was of the fourth generation from Edward Allen of the old 
Allen fort and the owner of the old homestead in the Meadows. 
He inherited property and added to it, and became one of the 
wealthy men of the town. He became president of the 
Franklin County Bank at the death of William Keith, which 
office he resigned in 1884. He was selectman in 1839—40. 
He was a man of strong convictions, honest, and of great 
tenacity of purpose. He left no children. 

1884, April I. Died David Pratt in Bernardston. Mr. 
Pratt was born in Shutesbury, November 27, 1780, but for 
several years lived in Greenfield. He was in the battle of 


Plattsburg and witnessed the naval fight between McDonough 
and the British on Lake Champhiin, and was one hundred 
and three years, four months and one day old when he died. 
He had a pension of ninety-six dollars a year. 

1885, March 18. Lorenzo D. Joslyn died, aged 69. 
"Deacon" Joslyn served as deputy sheriff for many years 
and sustained a high reputation for courage and ability as an 

1885, April 24. Lucy P. Billings died, aged 96 years and 
5 months. She was the granddaughter of the first minister of 
Greenfield and with her died much knowledge of the early 
history of the town. 

1885, May 23. Solomon C. Wells died, aged 77. He 
was a native of Montague and served many years as deputy 
sheriff. He was elected in 1868 to succeed Major Reed as 
sheriff, which office he held for ten years. 

1885, June 22. Robert Wiley died, aged 77. Mr. Wiley 
built the Wiley block on Main street and was the owner of 
much real estate in the village. 

1885, July 25. J. Gilbert Wilson died in Springfield, 
aged 44. Mr. Wilson was a native of Greenfield and achieved 
success as an organist and musician. 

1885, October 19. John Keith, aged 59, one of the most 
skilled and successful paper makers in the United States, died. 
He built the Keith mill at Turners Falls. 

1886, February 21. Edmund Q. Nash died, aged 70. 
The Nash house is perhaps the oldest one in Greenfield. 
Mr. Nash a few years before his death moved it from its origi- 
nal location to the rear, and built a story underneath the old 
house which was found to be strong and sound. Mr. Nash 
inherited an interest in the mills known by the family name, 
and afterward was the owner for several years of the Green 
river mills. He was impulsive in his generosity as well as in 
business affairs, but thought his services were valued too 
highly when a judge of the Superior Court fined him fifty do]- 


lars for not putting in his appearance when summoned on a 

1886, December 23. Rufus Howland, aged 79, died. Mr. 
Howland was born in Barre, January 7, 1808. He came to 
Greenfield in 1835, having been for a few years in Wen- 
dell and Ashfield. He became a clerk in the store of 
Allen & Root, now S. Allen's Sons, and for several years was 
at Cheapside in charge of their storehouse which stood on the 
river bank opposite the old Abercrombie tavern. In 1846 
he purchased the drug store left vacant by the death of T. O. 
Sparhawk, and in 1868, took Charles R. Lowell into partner- 
ship. He was town treasurer for several years, and largely 
interested in many of the business corporations of the town. 
He was candid and outspoken, and the people trusted and 
honored him. 

1887, February 28. Thomas Wade, aged 75, died. Mr. 
Wade was a druggist and established a store in the Mansion 
House block in 1851. He was not successful in business 
and received an appointment in the Boston Custom House in 
1 86 1, which he held for 13 years. 

1887, April 10. James W. Lander died, aged 79. He 
was in the United States navy in the War of 1812, and in the 
Chesapeake and Shannon fight. 

1887, September 8. Peleg Adams died, aged 88. He was 
born in Northbridge, December 29, 1799, and came to Green- 
field with his father, Andrew Adams, when four years old. 
By his perseverance, close economy, and good business abil- 
ity, he accumulated, in his long life, a handsome fortune. At 
the time of his death he owned the Mansion House, but he 
resided on his fine farm near Fall river. 

1887, October i. George W. Potter died, aged 75. He 
was born in the old yellow one-story house which formerly 
stood on the Spear lot south of the cemetery on High street. 
He was in early days a raftsman on the river. He had the 
Yankee faculty of knowing how to do things, and his most 


notable work was the construction of the present Turners 
Falls dam. He was a selectman for seven years, and a mem- 
ber of the legislature for one year. He became a large owner 
of real estate, but lost his property by endorsing for others. 
His courage and coolness was much rehed upon during the 
troublous times and drafting riots of the Civil War. 

1887, October 5. William B. Washburn died. Mr. and 
Mrs. Washburn were in attendance at the meeting of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions at 
Springfield, and Mr. Washburn had just taken a seat upon 
the platform, and in answer to an inquiry about his health, 
had said that he was feeling very well. Soon after those near 
him noticed that his head fell forward as though he would fall 
from his chair, and he was helped into an ante-room and laid 
upon a sofa, but before a physician upon the platform could 
reach him he had expired. 

Mr. Washburn was born in Winchendon, January 31, 
1820. His father died when he was but a child, and his 
means were limited, but he had industry, ambition and a great 
desire for learning, and improved every opportunity to obtain 
an education. He fitted for college at Lawrence Academy in 
Groton, and there made the acquaintance of a clerk in the 
village store, in the person of George S. Boutwell, whom he 
was destined in after life to meet in the Congress of the United 
States. He was graduated with honor at Yale, in 1844, ^J'^d 
was for many years in after life a trustee of that college. 
When he left college he intended to make the law his profes- 
sion, but the business affairs of his uncle, William B. Whit- 
ney, of Orange, being in a condition requiring immediate at- 
tention, he felt called by ties of kindred and in return for the 
aid he had received in obtaining his education to enter busi- 
ness with him, and if possible avert the danger which threat- 
ened his affairs. This proved impossible, but it introduced 
Mr. Washburn to business conditions which led him to suc- 
ceed where his uncle had failed. He was elected state senator 


in 1 850, but declined re-election the succeeding year. In 1 854, 
at the urgent demand of those interested in the Hoosac Tun- 
nel scheme, he accepted an election to the House of Repre- 
sentatives from Orange, where he then resided. 

By the ability and efficiency displayed in these positions, 
he laid broad and deep the foundation of that political success 
which came to him in later years. He was a promoter and 
an original director of the Franklin County Bank, but resigned 
the position after several years' service. He came to Green- 
field in 1857 and soon after was elected president of the 
Greenfield Bank, (which afterward became the First National,) 
and held that position until the day of his death. He was 
also a trustee from 1856 of the Franklin Savings Institution, 
and nearly all the time a member of its investing com- 
mittee. When settled in Greenfield he immediately became 
interested in the Greenfield Library Association, and gave to 
it the building (except its foundations) which it now occupies, 
and an endowment fund for the purchase of books, which 
yields the sum of six hundred dollars per year. He con- 
tributed largely toward the erection of the Second Congrega- 
tional church, the various missionary societies received his 
generous aid, and for several years he was the president of the 
American Missionary Society, and a corporate member of the 
American Board. He was at times a member of the Board 
of Overseers of Amherst College, one of the trustees of Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College and also of Smith College. He 
gave largely to Smith's and built the Washburn house con- 
nected with that institution. 

He was active in procuring enlistments at the beginning of 
the Rebellion, and when in 1862 it became necessary to nomi- 
nate a member of Congress for the ninth district, the desire was 
expressed that only one candidate be put forth, and that Mr. 
Washburn be sent to represent the district at Washington. 
He received all but three votes at the election, and in 1864 
had 12,000 plurality. His work in Congress is known to the 


nation. In 1871 he was called upon to become the candidate 
of the Republican party against the self-seeking of a distin- 
guished citizen of the commonwealth, for the office of gov- 
ernor, and received the nomination, and subsequent election 
by large pluralities. He was three times governor of Massa- 
chusetts. In 1874, upon the death of Charles Sumner, a long 
contest took place in the legislature for the election of a suc- 
cessor, which finally resulted in the choice of Governor Wash- 
burn as a compromise. He ably sustained the high reputa- 
tion which he had gained in the House of Representatives, 
and retired with honor. President Hayes tendered him 
the position of collector of the port of Boston, but the 
place did not attract Governor Washburn from his 

1887, October 20. Manley McClure, for some years select- 
man, died aged 60. 

1887, December 5. George Field, a native of Greenfield, 
and formerly proprietor of the Mansion House, died in Chi- 
cago, aged 71. 

1888, April 29. William EUiot died aged 86. Mr. ElHot 
came from Boston to Cheapside about 18 19 as a clerk for 
Clark Houghton, who did an extensive wholesale trade at 
that busy place. In 1820 he came to Greenfield and entered 
the employ of Lyman Kendall at the " corner store." Mr. 
N. E. Russell was also connected with Mr. Kendall, and by 
their aid, Mr. Elliot went into trade on his own account. 
Richardson Hall was his partner for some years. They did 
business in the Bird block, now the Hovey drug store. Later 
Mr. Elliot went into the agricultural tool and seed trade in 
the store then standing where the Arms block now is. Mr. 
Elliot was an original Free Soiler, strong in his convictions of 
the sin of slavery. He was active in the warfare against the 
sin of intemperance ; it was with him a matter of conscience, 
he did not believe in licensing an evil, and never feared to ex- 
press his convictions. For many years he was the prudential 


committee in charge of the village schools, and performed the 
trying duties of that position to the satisfaction of the people. 
He was a consistent and devout member of the Second Congre- 
gational Church for sixty years. With him died much knowl- 
edge of the early history of the town in which he had so long 

1888, October 28. Sarah H. Kellogg died, aged 93. The 
same day, six hours later, her husband, Asa Kellogg, died, 
aged 93. They were married sixty-eight years. They came 
to this town in 1858 from Halifax, Vt. 

1889, January 8. Willis H. Beals, son of Dr. Joseph 
Beals, aged 30, died. He was an artist of much promise. 

1889, March 8. Oren Wiley died aged 84. Mr. Wiley 
was born at Rockingham, Vt., went west when a young man, 
and settled in Greenfield in 1845. -^^ ^^^ ^ tinner and 
celebrated for doing good honest work. He was an ingenious, 
well-informed man of the old school. 

1889, September 10. Seth Wood, for many years post- 
master at the Factory Hollow, died, aged 84. 

December 14, 1889. Reverend John Shepardson died at 
Taunton, aged 72. 

1889, August 19. Newell Snow died, aged 73. Mr. Snow 
was born in Savoy, and at a very early age found himself the 
main reliance of his widowed mother and a family of six. He 
worked in the cotton mills at North Adams and in Colrain, 
and became the superintendent of the Griswold mills. In 
1850, having accumulated a small capital, he removed to Shel- 
burne Falls and began a mercantile business, in which he was 
successful. From 1857 to 1864 he was in the grocery trade 
in Chicago. He became interested in gold mining in Nova 
Scotia, and took the management of property there which 
yielded him a competency, and came to Greenfield to enjoy 
his later years with more leisure. He was a person of good 
business qualifications, and his word was as good as his bond. 
He was greatly interested in Masonic affairs, and during his 


residence in the provinces was grand lecturer for New Bruns- 
wick and Nova Scotia. The town impressed with his in- 
tegrity called him to the office of selectman, and he was a 
member of the legislature in 1877. He was president of 
the Greenfield Savings Bank for several years, but resigned 
because of failing health, a year before his death. 

1890, April 9. John Thayer was injured by a bull, and 
died, aged 75. He was a son of Ebenezer Thayer, Sr., and 
studied at Franklin Academy, Shelburne Falls, and had as- 
pirations for a college education, but his father had recently 
removed from Charlemont to Greenfield and purchased the 
expensive farm known as the Arms place in the Meadows, and 
felt that he must have the aid of his son, so the current of his 
life was changed. He kept a hotel at Wilmington several 
years, then removed to Greenfield and conducted the Sever- 
ance farm, while P. P. Severance was living at the canal head- 
quarters in Montague. He afterward purchased of his father 
the western part of the Arms place, and accumulated a com- 
petence in the dairy business. He was a rough diamond, a 
kind-hearted generous man, always ready to aid those who 
needed help. 

1890, June 25. Hopkins Woods died, aged 77. Mr. 
Woods came to Greenfield with the Greenfield Tool Company. 
He was much interested in the fire department and was at 
one time chief engineer. He carried on the marble industry 
for many years. He was a keen observer of public events 
and a man of good information. 

1890, August 20. Roswell Wells Cook died, aged 83. 
He was a native of Hadley and came to Greenfield to learn 
the blacksmith's trade of his brother-in-law, the late John J. 
Graves. In 1837, while with his brother. Dr. Cook, in Canada, 
he was taken prisoner charged with aiding the insurgents in 
their disturbances, but was released when quiet was restored. 
He was selectman and assessor, and a good citizen. By rigid 
economy he accumulated a handsome estate. 


1890, August 28. Elijah Coleman, of Philadelphia, died 
at Cottage City, aged 77. Mr. Coleman was born at the old 
Coleman place in the Meadows, — son of Captain Thaddeus 
Coleman. Soon after he became of age he was drawn into a 
purchase of the Mansion House property, and lost a good 
share of his patrimony. He found employment in the Adams 
Express Company, and soon became the agent at Bridgeport, 
Conn. He was soon called to Philadelphia and was for many 
years superintendant of the company. He spent his business 
life in their service, and was a valued officer. He created a 
sufficient fund for the perpetual care of the North Meadows 
cemetery in which his forefathers are buried, and its well cared 
for grounds are a constant memorial of his generosity. 

1890, October 16. William Riddell died, aged 92. He was 
a native of Colrain, lived in Charlemont and came to Green- 
field in 1872. He was for many years deputy sheriff for this 
and Berkshire counties. His memory was good to the last 
and he had an interesting way of telling of events which hap- 
pened early in the nineteenth century. 

1890, October 17. George Kendall, a son of Lyman Ken- 
dall, the Greenfield merchant, died at Grand Rapids, Mich., 
aged 77. He was born in Greenfield and went west in 1840. 
His contemporaries say, " He was a man of great purity of 
thought and speech, and his heart went forth to the poor and 
suffering." He was a man of prominence and wealth. 

1890, December 14. Lyman A. Nash died, aged 86. 
Mr. Nash was one of the owners of Nash's mills, had been 
town assessor and school committee and was a respected man. 

■ 1 891, January 16. Edwin J. Jones died, aged 63. He 
was a native of Deerfield and by industry and good business 
habits acquired a competency. He was elected selectman of 
the town but resigned the office, the duties of which were not 
congenial to his taste. 

1 891, January 19. Elias A. Parmenter died, aged 81. 
Deacon Parmenter was a native of Bernardston and came to 


Greenfield in 1849. -^^ ^^^ assessor for several years, a 
forehanded farmer, a deacon In the Baptist Church for many- 
years, and one of its chief supporters, a man of influence and 

1891, February 21. Colonel Charles H. Munn died at 
Holyoke, aged 74. Colonel Munn was the son of Loring 
Munn, who kept a hotel where the Union House now stands, 
and his grandfather, Calvin Munn, kept the old Munn tavern, 
now the Mansion House, Colonel Munn when a boy was the 
leading athlete of the old Fellenberg Academy in its palmy 
days. General Whitney when sheriff^ of this county appointed 
him a deputy and jailor. He gained his military title in the 
militia. He was a power in the management of town affairs, 
and gained the name of the "watchdog of the treasury." 

1 89 1, May 24. James C. Converse died, aged 84. He 
was president of the National Tube Works at McKeesport, 
Pa., and came to Greenfield about 1875 ^'""^ purchased the 
residence of his brother-in-law, P. P. Severance (the present 
Franklin County Hospital), which he improved and made 
into an elegant country home. He was chairman of the first 
Massachusetts board of railroad commissioners, and had a 
high reputation as a business man. 

1 89 1, August 19. James Newton died aged 90 years. 
Mr. Newton came here from Hubbardston in 1835. The 
first five years he lived at the H. G. Woodard place, and in 
1840 built the house in which he died. In 1848 he built the 
sawmill which was the foundation of the Newton fortunes. 
The idea of building a sawmill on the little stream where it 
is located was scoffed at by his neighbors, but it proved that 
the Newtons knew best. He was a man of strong convictions, 
quiet, determined and prosperous. He took great pride in 
the success of his sons at Holyoke, 

1 89 1, December 19, George B, Grinnell died at Audu- 
bon Park on the Hudson, aged 68. He was a son of the late 
Judge Grennell, and was for a time in the mercantile business 


in New York with his cousin, George Bird. He afterward 
was in business with Levi P. Morton. When the War of the 
RebeUion came the repudiation of southern dues caused their 
faiku-e. The firm paid fifty cents on the dollar and were dis- 
charged from their debts. In seven years' time, Mr. Grinnell 
had paid, at an expense of $330,000, the balance of every one 
of those claims with interest. He retired from business in 
1875, and afterward spent much time upon his fine farm at 
Milford, Ct. 

1 89 1, December 21. George H. Hovey died, aged 71. 
Mr. Hovey came here with his father. Dr. Daniel Hovey, in 
1842. He was with him in the drug business until 1857, 
when he began business for himself, leaving the old stand to 
his brother Luther. He was a successful business man, and 
at the time of his decease owned some of the most valuable 
real estate in the village. 

1892, February 14. Joseph W. Miller died, aged 73. Mr. 
Miller was of Colrain bn-th and had lived here forty years, 
manufacturing in a small way fanning mills and baby carriage 
material. He was a peculiar man, kind hearted and a good citi- 

1892, March i. David S. Simons aged 70 died. He was 
a native of Oxford, New Hampshire. He commenced life 
as a day laborer, removed to Lawrence, and began to take 
small contracts, made some money, and went to North Adams 
and took contracts in tunnel work, which ended in his 
financial ruin. He became a drover, in which business he 
made money and bought the Berkshire House. In 1867 he 
came to Greenfield and bought of William Keith the old 
wooden American House. He built the large new block, 
and became a man of property. He was interested in town 
affairs, was selectman for one year, and the staunch friend of 
the Free Library. 

1892, March 12. Lewis Merriam, aged 81, died. He was 
born in West Brookfield in May, 1 8 11 . He was a member of 


the celebrated book-making Merriam family. He came to 
Greenfield when about thirty years of age as clerk in the store of 
his brothers, and in 1 843 commenced business as L. Merriam & 
Company. He was a good citizen, always attended the town 
meetings, and took great interest in the schools, and in fact in 
everything which he thought would make the town better 
and more desirable as a home. He was a good business man, 
an active and zealous member of the Second Congregational 
Church, and was largely instrumental in procuring the nomi- 
nation of William B. Washburn as governor. For twenty- 
one years he -was the village postmaster, the duties of which 
office he performed to the acceptance of all parties. 

1892, March 31. Noble P.Phillips died, aged 85. An 
honest and respected man. 

1892, May 16. Alonzo Parker died, aged 85. Mr. Parker 
was suffocated by entering the well containing a gas machine 
which supplied gas for his house. He came to Greenfield 
when the manufacture of planes was removed from Conway to 
this town, and was the agent and active manager of the Green- 
field Tool Company. He was a builder of great experience, 
having designed and built two churches in Conway, one in 
South Hadley and one in North Adams. He was a fine me- 
chanic, and was instrumental in bringing to town some of the 
best citizens the place ever had. When the Greenfield Tool 
Factory began work, with its hundred young men, mostly di- 
rect from the farms of Franklin county, the town received a 
direct benefit of countless value, far transcending any pecuniary 
loss suffered by the failure of the concern. 

1892, June 5. Henry A. Potter died, aged 73. He was 
brother of George W. Potter, an honest, exemplary man. 
He was extremely fond of fox hunting, and never became so 
old but that with elastic step he would travel the hills and 
valleys in successful pursuit of the cunning fox. 

1892, June 6. William L. Taintor died, aged 60. Mr. 
Taintor was constable of the town for many years, and never 


failed to perform any duty imposed upon him by his supe- 
rior officer. 

1892, October 19. Charles Henry died, aged 76. Mr. 
Henry was a native of Halifax, a descendant of Hugh 
Henry, one of the first settlers of Colrain. He lived in 
Greenfield about forty years. He was one of the stage 
drivers on the old line extending from Hartford to Hanover, 
N. H. For several years he was partner of John J. Graves 
in the grocery trade and afterward with L. L. Luey, and later 
with Wm. M. Smead. He was fond of a practical joke, was 
everybody's friend, a good citizen and kind neighbor. Every- 
body loved him, and when it was found that he was the bonds- 
man holden for a large sum to the town for money embez- 
zled by its treasurer, the town voted to instruct its officers 
not to enforce the penalty of the bond. 

1893, January 8. James Madison Ames died, aged 87. 
Son of Captain Ambrose Ames, always lived in Greenfield, 
was a farmer, upright, honest and a capable business man. 

1893, March 7. George E. Lyons died, aged 42. Mr. 
Lyons was a native of Gill. He was a well known granite 
contractor, and was connected with A. H. Wright. He 
had recently purchased extensive quarries at Dummerston, 
Vt., and was giving employment to a large number of hands. 
He was a respected citizen, doing much for the prosperity of 
the town. 

1893, August 3. Charles M. Stratton died, aged 70. 
Mr. Stratton and his brother Edwin A. came to Greenfield in 
1848, and were connected with the steammill (now B. B. 
Noyes). In 1869 they obtained a patent for a spirit level 
which they have manufactured with success ever since. They 
were both fine mechanics and citizens of solid worth. 

1893, September i. Charles P. Wright died, aged 62. 
Mr. Wright was an honored citizen of Montague for many 
years, where he was in trade with Isaac Chenery. While 
well known in Greenfield he had been a resident but a com- 


paratively short time, but he was known to be of sterling 

1893, December 3. John C. Spring died, aged 70. A 
native of Palmer; came to Greenfield in 1848. He was en- 
gaged in manufacturing sash doors and blinds for some years. 
He collected the taxes in town for many years, and was a 
faithful officer. 

1893, November 4. Salmon H. Long died at Danville, 
Cal., aged 60. He was son of Lemuel H. Long, born in 
Greenfield ; he was musical in his tastes and had a music store 
in San Francisco until about four years before his death he 
retired to a fruit farm on account of poor health. 

1893, December 8. Joel Lyons died, aged 80. Son of 
Dr. Joel Lyons of Gill he learned his trade of cabinet making 
of his kinsman, Lucius Lyons of Colrain. He formed a part- 
nership with the late Isaac Miles in 1837, which lasted for 
thirty-two years. He continued the business alone until his age 
and deafness rendered it desirable that he retire. He was 
upright and honorable and died much respected. 

1894, January 2. Frederick G. Smith died, aged 70. 
Mr. Smith came to Greenfield with his father, Deacon Moses 
Smith in 1839. He was the youngest of thirteen children. 
He resided on the old family homestead in the Meadows until 
about 1887, when he removed to the village. He was asses- 
sor for many years, and selectman in 1864-67-68-69, and 
just finished a service of nine years as county commissioner. 
" He was a man of few words, dignified and reserved, but kind 
of heart, a good neighbor and constant friend." 

1894, March 4. Samuel J. Lyons died, aged 82. He 
was a brother of the late Joel Lyons, and well known in 
Franklin county, where he had been the leading insurance 
agent for forty years. He was secretary of the Franklin 
County Agricultural Society for several years. He was trust- 
worthy and reliable in his business affairs and a companionable 


1894, December 26. Rufus A. Packard died, aged 60, 
Mr. Packard was a native of Monson. He came to Greenfield 
from Palmer in 1855, as a clerk in the Franklin County Bank, 
when Charles I. Fuller was made cashier. After five years 
Mr. Fuller died and Mr. Packard became cashier. The bank 
took possession of its present building in 1870, and when the 
Greenfield Savings Bank was organized, Mr. Packard became 
its treasurer, in addition to his other duties. In 1873 he re- 
signed and established a private banking house, but in 1875 
organized the Packard National Bank, of which he became 
cashier. In 1884 he becanie president of the Packard Na- 
tional Bank, and William G. Packard cashier. He was often 
called to positions of trust in the settlement of sizable estates, 
and was conservative and painstaking in the discharge of all 
such matters. He did much for the interest of the Library 
Association, and was a valued citizen. 

1895, January 2. Elisha Wells died, aged 74. Mr. Wells 
was born in Buckland. Nearly all his life was spent in the 
working of steel in some of its forms, and there was no man 
who better understood the capabilities of that metal. In early 
life he worked at the Russell cutlery, and during the war in 
the manufactory of firearms at Windsor, Vt., where he dis- 
covered the adaptability of the drop in forming interchang- 
able parts of fire locks. In 18 70 he and his sons Frederick E. 
and Frank O. Wells organized the firm of W.ells Brothers, 
which is now one of the most flourishing business industries 
of the town. He was a man of tireless activity and though 
modest and retiring, he took great interest in all public af- 

1895, January 8. Frank B. Whitney died, aged 57. Mr. 
Whitney was a native of Marlboro, Vt., and came herein i 866. 
He was an intelligent, honest and hard working mechanic, 
whose thorough work upon some of the best of our houses 
will serve to bring him to the kindly remembrance of our citi- 
zens for many years to come. 


1895, January 22. David Lyon died, aged 67. He was 
born in Ludlow, came here from Cabbotville (Chicopee), when 
he was twenty years old and began work for Richard E. Field, 
who in those days was a noted coach builder. For many 
years he was connected with the water department as chief 
engineer or water commissioner, and was always faithful in 
every position of trust. 

1895, February i. Eunice Wells Moors died aged 68. 
Mrs. Moors only survived her husband. Reverend Dr. Moors, 
three days. She was a daughter of Reverend Preserved Smith, 
a celebrated teacher, and a woman of solid worth. 

1895, February 6. Miss Frances Bardwell, for many years 
a member of the faculty at Mount Holyoke, died aged 67. 

1895, February 20. Charles Keith died, aged 66. Mr. 
Keith was a native of the town and a brother of William Keith, 
deceased. He was the clerk of the American House for his 
brother, and finally purchased the personal property and sold 
it to Mr. Simons. After leaving the hotel business he was in 
the grocery trade during the rest of his life. He was a sterling 
Democrat, and was postmaster during Cleveland's first term. 
Kind and obliging, he satisfied all whether of his political 
opinion, or of another faith. He was a director in the Franklin 
County National Bank, and served as selectman many years. 
" He was not only true and upright in all his dealings, but he 
had a heart full of charity for those who needed it." 

1895, ^^y ^^- Henry W. Warner died aged 71. Born 
at Weathersfield, Conn., in 1828, when quite young he 
learned the trade of an axe maker. He came early to the 
cutlery works of the J. Russell Company and was always ac- 
tively connected with the mechanical industries of the town. 
He made a snug fortune in the manufacture of baby carriage 
trimmings, and articles of that nature. He was very ingenious, 
and had the ability and courage necessary to make a success 
of his opportunities. 

1895, May 30- Joel DeWolf died, aged 71. Born in 


West Deerfield, he was always well known in Greenfield, and 
became a resident of this town about 1 890. He was a man of 
good judgment and the owner of much valuable real estate. 

1895, J^^^ 3- John Putnam, a well known colored man, 
died at the Insane Hospital at Northampton, aged 75. For 
years John was the village barber and the prompter at all the 
village dances. He was polite and gentlemanly to every one, 
and a kindly man. 

1895, October 23. James L. Farr, killed by fall from his 
hay mow, aged 64. 

•1896, January 8. Daniel W. Spear died, aged 79. He 
was a son of Benjamin Spear, and a native of Greenfield. 
He was a man of gOod judgment, and becoming possessed of 
land near the village by its rise in value, and his good manage- 
ment, he accumulated a good estate. He graded and gave the 
larger part of the land where Union street now is. When he 
built his house on High street, in 1856, there was no other 
house between that and the Clapp corner. 

1896, January 9. Henry C. Harris died, aged 76. Born 
in Brattleboro, Vt., he came here in 1852, and was for many 
years in the employ of the Russell Company. For many 
years he was always the first man to pay his town taxes. 

1896, July 27. Joseph H. Hollister died, aged 74 years 
and six months. He was born at Fairfield, N. Y., the 
son of an Episcopal minister, whose acquaintance with Rev- 
erend Dr. Strong made the way for Mr. Hollister's coming 
to Greenfield. He came to Greenfield in 1843, ^^'^^ worked 
for the resident jeweller, whom he soon bought out, and be- 
gan a business career which lasted for forty-three years, he being 
at his decease the only person doing business in the village 
who was in trade when he commenced. He was a person of 
great individuality, of strong common sense, industrious, of 
the most strict integrity, and fair in all his business relations. 
He took deep interest in everything which could in anv way 
promote the advancement of the town, always refused public 


office, but carefully watched public officers, and made his in- 
fluence felt for the public good. 

1896, September 2. Henry Sheldon died, aged 76. Born 
in Leyden he came to Greenfield about 1876. He was select- 
man and assessor of Leyden several years, and also served as 
assessor in Greenfield. He was quiet in manner, honest and 

1896, October 26. Ralph Wells died, aged 92. Mr. 
Wells was the last of the children of Captain William Wells 
of Shelburne, and had lived in Greenfield many years. His 
grandfather, Colonel David Wells, was a noted officer in the 
Revolutionary War, and the family were noted for strong good 
sense and ability. Mr. Wells was a very modest man, of keen 
intellect and great kindness of heart. 

1897, January 23. Obed U. Bass, died at Elba, Minn. 
He was a native of Greenfield, and was a self-made man. 
Having a great desire for an education, and having of necessity 
to make his own way in the world, he studied and recited to 
Reverend Dr. Chandler, who took great interest in him. He 
graduated at Union College, and was a successful teacher for 
many years. He established a young ladies' school at Smyrna, 
Del., which was successfully sustained for several years. 

1897, January 30. John Horr died, aged 86. He was a 
faithful employee of the Russell Cutlery Company for the 
greater part of his life. 

1897, February 9. Dr. Frank D. Beals died, aged 46. 
Born in Greenfield, and learning his profession from his father, 
the late Joseph Beals, he was one of the best known dentists 
in the valley. He was a fine singer, of very pleasant manners, 
and a favorite in the village society. He was located in 
Corning, N. Y., from 1876 to 1886, otherwise his life was 
spent in Greenfield. 

1897, February 12. Charles R. Field died, aged 67. Mr. 
Field was born in Greenfield, son of Richard E. Field, the old- 
time coach builder. When a young man he entered the gro- 


eery trade with the late Thomas Wait and Charles F. Fay. 
About 1856 he began the manufacture of children's carriages, 
which he continued until nearly the time of his death. He 
was much interested in every movement which tended to 
make Greenfield a handsomer and better town, and faithfully 
served in the offices of assessor and selectman for many 
years. He was a strong man in the Democratic party, and 
was honored in being its nominee as auditor for the com- 
monwealth. He faithfully fulfilled all the requirements of 
true citizenship, and died honored and respected. 

1897, May 15. George A. Arms died, aged 82. Mr. 
Arms was born in Deerfield, but when a child moved to Can- 
ada, into the wilderness. Afterward the family returned to 
Deerfield, where the young man received his schooling at the 
district school and the old academy. When nineteen he 
went to Boston to seek his fortune, having upon his arrival 
$1.27 in his pocket. He found employment and after three or 
four years went to Northfield as a clerk, and soon entered busi- 
ness for himself. He spent several years in the south and 
west, and accumulated some estate. In 1859 he purchased 
the stock in trade of Wells & Smead in Greenfield, and suc- 
cessfully carried on business here until he retired in 1887, 
with a good fortune. 

1897, November 5. Matthew Chapman died, aged 85. 
Mr. Chapman was a native of Scotland ; he learned his trade 
in Sheffield, and in 1841 came to America, and soon after 
came to Greenfield in the employ of the Russell Cutlery Com- 
pany. He was a man of great mechanical skill, and soon 
worked himself up to the charge of the forging department of 
that concern, and was in a few years the superintendent of the 
works. He was a man of sterling worth, greatly respected by 
all who knew him. 

1897, November 6. At Omaha, Neb., John Sawtelle New- 
ton, a brother of Harvey C. Newton. Mr. Newton was a 
descendant of that John Newton who came here from Con- 


necticut about the time of the Revolution, and settled about 
two miles north of the village. He was an honest, intelligent, 
hard working farmer, and a man of sterling worth. 

1897. Captain Henry T. Hall, a native of Greenfield, and 
a member of the 34th Massachusetts Infantry in the War of 
the Rebellion, died at Medford, November 15. He was a 
son of Richardson Hall, a former Greenfield merchant. 

1897, December 5. William H. Sanborn died, aged 75. 
Mr. Sanborn was born at Strafford, Vt. When a youth he 
went to Boston and became a clerk in the store of Jordan, 
Marsh & Co. In 1852 he came to Greenfield, and in com- 
pany with the late T. Dwight Root established a first-class dry- 
goods store under the name of " The Ladies' Exchange." 
Soon after he came into possession of the property now known 
as " Sanborn's Block " which consisted of three old wooden 
two-story buildings, which had been badly damaged by fire at 
different times. Mr. Sanborn achieved success, and in 1864 
retired from business and removed to New Haven. While 
there he was a member of the city government, but in 1881 
came back to Greenfield and resumed business with a nephew 
as his partner. He was captain in the military of the village, 
state senator in 1863, and for many years a member of the 
finance committee of the town. He was generous in matters 
which excited his interests, a good neighbor and an exemplary 

1898, February 13. Lathrop T. Smith died, aged 62. 
Born in Greenfield where he spent his life, he was much 
respected as a faithful, honest man, 

1898, April 14. Brooks M. Lincoln died at Hartford, 
aged 46. He was a native of Greenfield and was a well 
known architect, having been for two years engaged upon 
plans for Trinity College. He also drew the plans for Madi- 
son Square Theatre, New York, 

1898, May 5. Miss Catherine C. Kendricken died from 
the result of burns caused by the overturning of a kerosene 



lamp. She was about eighteen years of age, a member of the 
high school and greatly beloved. 

1898, September 14. John Flavel Griswold aged 73, died. 
Mr. Griswold was a grandson of Reverend Theophalas Gris- 
wold, an early settler of Greenfield, and was born and always 
lived on the old family homestead. He was a celebrated local 
teacher and nearly his whole active life was spent in teaching 
in Greenfield. 

1898, October 10. Station Agent Mark M. Howard, 
aged 58, died from the effect of an overdose of laudanum, 
purposely taken. He had been in the employ of the railroad 
company at this place many years and was a valuable man, 
but became discouraged by ill health. 

1898, November 17. Hart Phillips, aged 98 years, 7 
months and 4 days, died at Hoosac Falls, N. Y. Al- 
though a native of Gill, he was well known in Greenfield, 
and wa^ a carpenter by trade and largely employed by the 
Walter A. Wood Company. He was a grandson of Captain 
Elisha Mack, a Revolutionary soldier. 

1899, January 4. Ansel A. Rankin, for half a century a 
citizen of Greenfield, died in Springfield, aged 74. He came 
from Montague and entered into the manufacture of monu- 
mental work which he continued during his residence in town. 
He was chief of the fire department for many years and long 
a member of the water board. 

1899, March i. Levi W. Rice, for more than half a cen- 
tury a well known resident of Greenfield, died aged 77. Mr. 
Rice was a bookbinder and was a first-class workman. His 
good work shows in our libraries and county oflices. He be- 
came partially paralyzed a few years before his death and was 
compelled to give up his work, and died of a paralytic shock. 

1899, March 8. Edward N. Childs, aged 64, a citizen of 
Greenfield, was found dead in his sleigh in the road near Briar 
Hill, Ashfield. He was a member of the Edwin E. Day 
Army Post and served in the 15th New York Engineers dur- 


ing the War of the Rebellion. He was a mason by trade and 
died of heart disease. He had lived in Springfield for a short 
time before his death, 

1899, May 8. John F. Washburn, aged 84, died at the 
house of Marvin S. Fellows of heart complaint. Mr. Wash- 
burn was a native of Colrain, but the greater part of his life 
was spent in Barre, where he was one of its leading citizens. 

July 21, 1899. Sylvester W. Hall, over sixty years a 
resident of this town died, aged 83. He was born in Ashfield ; 
for many years he followed the business of moving buildings. 

August 19, 1899. Jonas W. Moore died, aged 97 years. 
He was born in Malboro, Vt., and came to Greenfield when 
twenty-one years of age. His father purchased the farm now 
known as the "town farm " where he resided until 1844. 
Mr, Moore, the subject of this sketch, retained his activity 
and memory to a remarkable degree, and his relations of the 
manners and customs of the early times were very interesting. 
He was an honest and intelligent citizen. 

August 24, 1899. Frederick Hawks died, aged 82. Mr. 
Hawks represented the ancient family of that name in Green- 
field, and was a descendant of the " hero of Fort Massachusetts," 
a fact in which he took much pride, as he ought. He was 
born in Deerfield and learned the trade of bridge building of 
Major Ora Sheldon of Cheapside, He had a most wonder- 
ful memory for dates and occurrences, and was a valued 
member of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association. 

September 14, 1899. Barnabas Snow, aged 81, died from 
heart trouble. He was returning from the village to his home, 
when driving up Federal street an electric car came up behind, 
frightening his horse, which ran, the carriage striking a tree 
and throwing Mr. Snow out. Mr, Snow was dead when Dr, 
O'Brien arrived, although no injuries appeared upon his 

November 11, 1899. David Wright aged 72, died. He 
had been employed in the railroad service for forty-two years. 


He was trackman, fireman, engineer, and for thirteen years 
master mechanic at the East Deerfield station. He retired in 
1892, because of faihng health. 

November 28, 1899. Timothy McDonald died, aged 103 
years, 7 months and 22 days. He was born "two days after 
the French entered Bantry bay," which was April 4, 1796. 
He came to America in 1848, and worked for Parley Starr in 
Jacksonville, Vt., fourteen years. He was a tanner and came 
to Greenfield and worked for Lyman G. Barton for many 

December 2, 1899. Henry C. Willard aged 63, died. 
Mr. Willard was a son of the late David Willard, the histo- 
rian of Greenfield, and had been for several years managing the 
Hovey pharmacy. Mr, Willard was a warm-hearted gentle- 
man, and had many friends. 

December 8, 1899. Henry W. Brackett died, aged 76. 
He was born at Green River, Vt., and came to Greenfield in 
1856, and worked for the J. Russell Cutlery Company many 
years. He was a soldier in the loth regiment. 

February i, 1900. Major H. Tyler aged 77, died. He 
was the pioneer newsman and telegraph operator of the town, 
and was for many years express agent. His bright sayings 
and cheerful ways made him a general favorite. 

February 25, 1900. Miss Emma E. Cottrell died from 
injuries caused by a fall on the ice. She was an untiring 
worker in the Second Congregational parish, and greatly aided 
in the charitable work of the town. 

February 27, 1900. Charles H. McClellen, aged ^^, of 
Troy, N. Y. died of heart disease at Windsor, Vt. He 
was a native of Colrain, but came to Greenfield when a 
youth and was for many years one of its leading merchants. 
He was very prominent in Masonic affairs, and had given 
much time and study to the early history of his native town, 
and had frequently delivered addresses upon historical occa- 


March 17, 1900. Eben Allen Hall, editor and publisher 
of the Gazette & Courier, died in New Orleans, aged 60. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hall were members of the New England party 
attending the meeting of the National Editorial Association 
at New Orleans. Mr. Hall had been in delicate health for 
several years, but he had taken long periods of rest and had 
lately seemed much improved. He was a native of Taunton, 
and learned the printer's trade in the office of the Bristol County 
Republican. His brother, James M. Hall, was a resident of 
Greenfield, and this in part induced him to come here as the 
foreman of the office of the Gazette & Courier, then owned 
by S. S. Eastman and Colonel Ansel Phelps. Mr. Hall had 
just returned from service in the war, being orderly sergeant 
of a company in the 39th Massachusetts Volunteers. Colonel 
Phelps died in 1868 and Mr. Eastman purchased the interest 
of his estate, and January i, 1869, sold one-third interest in 
the office to Mr. Hall. February i, 1876, Mr. Eastman sold 
out to Mr. Hall, his health requiring his relinquishment of 
business. His management of the Gazette was eminently 
successful. Mr. Hall was a member of the Massachusetts 
Legislature in 1879, and of the Council in 1883 and 1884. 
His life and character was summed up by a number of his 
contemporaries, in the Gazette of March 24, 1900. 

April 27, 1900. Mrs. Maria E. Conkey, aged 69, living 
alone in Cheapside, undertaking to burn some brush near her 
house, in some way set her clothes on fire, and was fatally 

1900, June I. Dr. Samuel Leonard aged 81, died. Dr. 
Leonard was a dentist and practised in this town for many 
years. He was a kindly hearted gentleman and very fond of 
a good horse. 

August 15, 1900. Jonathan Johnson aged 75, died. For 
years he was a subscription agent, and travelled this county 
and the neighboring counties of Vermont and New Hamp- 
shire over in pursuit of his calling. He was a valuable mem- 


ber of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, as he 
knew every spot of historical interest in this vicinity. 

1900, September 24. Frank J. Pratt aged 71, died. 
Mr. Pratt was a prominent citizen of the county for many 
years. He was the acknowledged leader of the Democratic 
party, and was the delegate to three national conventions, by 
reason of which he became intimate with the leaders of that 
party. He was a polished gentleman, of fine personal appear- 
ance, and had great persuasive powers. He did efficient 
service as collector of internal revenue during one of Cleve- 
land's administrations. In Masonic circles, Mr. Pratt stood 
very high, and was largely instrumental in organizing Moun- 
tain Lodge at Shelburne Falls. He was an invalid for the 
last five years of his life, but brave and patient to the end. 




THE military services of men who held commissions dur- 
ing the Indian and Revolutionary wars have been 
described in the general body of this work. I have at 
considerable trouble and expense gathered from the State 
Archives the names of the officers who have been commis- 
sioned in the military service of the commonwealth since the 
close of the Revolutionary War down to a recent date. In 
the following list the infantry service was, in nearly every 
case, the 2d Regiment, 2d Brigade, 4th Division. The artil- 
lery and cavalry service was sometimes organized as battalions 
or corps, but always attached to the 2d Brigade, 4th Division. 
Where no designation is given, the service was in the infantry. 





Adams, Nahum 

Lt. of Art. 







Allen, Elisha 

A. D. C. 


B. Q. M. 



Allen, Quintus 







Not given 

Allen, Quintus, Jr. 

P. M. Cavalry 



Alvord, Caleb 

Reg. Q. M. 


Not given 

Alvord, Elijah, Jr. 

Reg. Q. M. 





Ames, Ambrose 

Cornet, Cavalry 


2d Lt. 




Not given 

Arms, Ebenezer 

Q. M. Bat. Art. 



Arms, Moses 




Arms, Moses, Jr. 

Lt. Cavalry 









Bailey, Winthrop 




Bascom, Chester 








Bascom, George W. 




Bird, Jonathan 




Bissell, Jabez F. 








Bradley, David M. 




Brigham, Amariah 

Surgeon's mate 





Brainard, Almon 




Clark, Alanson 

A. D. C. 


Brig. Q. M. 



Brig. Maj. and Ins. 



Brig. General 


'833 1 

Clark, Erastus 

Cornet Cavalry 







Clay, Daniel 

Reg. Q. M. 



Coleman, Thaddeus 

Cornet Cavalry 







Dean, James 

Surgeon's mate 





Forbes, Daniel 

Adjutant Bat. Artillery 



Forbes, William 

Q. M. Bat. Cavalry 


Not given 

Fowler, William C. 



1828 1 

Gilbert, EUel 

Cornet Cavalry 



2d Lt. 


ist Lt. 







Lt. Col. commanding 


1803 ; 

Gilbert, Thomas 






Brig. Major 


Brig. General 



Graves, John J. 




Grennell, George, Jr. 



Brigade Major 



Griswold, Lyman 






Hale, Calvin 



Not given 

Hastings, Russell 













Office. Commissioned. 


Hastings, Russell 




Lt. Colonel 





Hinsdale, Samuel, Jr. 

Cornet Cavalry 





Holland, Samuel 




Howland, John 



Not given 

Jenkins, Charles 




Jones, David S. 

Brig. Qr. Master 



See additional list. 

Judd, Reuben 

Lt. of Artillery 


Not given 

Larrabee, Hart 

Cornet Cavalry 








Lyman, Elihu 

" Capt. Light Artillery " 




Major Bat. Artillery 



Lyman, Theo. D. 









Lt. Colonel 





Moore, William 

Captain Cavalry 


Lt. Col. Cavalry 


Not given 

Nash, Robert 




817 D. 

Nov. 3, 181 7 

Nash, Tubal 





Not given 

Newcomb, Richard E. 

Q. M. Batt. Cavalry 


Judge Advocate Brig. 


Lt. Col. Commandant 



Newton, Curtis 




Newton, Isaac 



Not given 

Newton, Isaac, Jr. 

Reg. Q. M. 





Newton, Priestly 






Nims, Hull 





Not given 

Nims, Thomas 

Lt. Cavalry 



Nims, Lucius 



Not given 

Parsons, Amos, Jr. 






Pierce, Proctor 

Q. M. Bat. Cavalry 


Not given 

Phelps, Ansel 

Captain i 




Lt. Col. I 









Pickett, Benj. E. 




Putnam, Andrew 



Not given ■ 

Ripley, David 

Regt. Qr 



Ripley, Franklin 

Qr. Mast 

er of Artillery 


Not given 

Roberts, Amariah 



Not given 

Russell, John 





Not given 

Severance, Rufus 

Lt. Bat. Artillery 


«( ii 

Severance, Solomon 

Lt. Artill 





K U 

Smead, Asaph 









Lt. Colonel 



Smead, Charles 





Smead, JuUa 

Lt. Battery Artillery 







Smead, Lemuel 



Not given 

Smead, Seth 






Smead, Thomas 






Smith, Martin 




Smith, Orrin 

Lt. of Artillery 









Spaulding, Aaron 





Lt. Colonel 



Stebbins, Samuel 

Lt. Batt. 

of Cavalry 




Not given 

Stone, Alpheus F. 


! mate 





Stone, John 

Surgeon's mate 



Stockbridge, Hiram F. 

Brig. Qr. 



Brig. Inspector 



Strickland, David, Jr. 



Not given ] 



Tyler, Joseph 


of Cavalry 



Wait, WilUam 

Lt. Batt. 

of Cavalry 


Not given | 

Wells, Daniel 










Lt. Col. Commandant 



Wells, Daniel, Jr. 

Div. Judge Advocate 



Wells, Henry E. 






Wells, Horatio 




Wells, John 



Not given 

Wells, John, Jr. 

Lt. Bat. of Artillery 


<( u 

Wells, Reuben 



U ti 

Wells, Samuel 

Lt. Bat. of Cavalry 




Lt. Colonel 



Wells, Silas 



Not given 

White, Luke A. 

Brig. A. D. C. 



Wilkinson, Oliver 





Not given 

Willard, Daniel W. 

Brig. A. D. C. 



About 1840 the militia of this portion of the common- 
wealth was reorganized and Company B of Greenfield became 
a part of the 3d Regiment, 6th Brigade, in the 3d Division. 
In the 40's the company belonged to the artillery branch of 
the militia. Afterward the Greenfield company as infantry 
at times belonged to the i ith Regiment and at other times to 
the 1 2th, At the beginning of the War of the Rebellion the 
new loth was formed and the company with others transferred 
to that. Whatever the number of the regiment the command 
was attached to the 6th Brigade and 3d Division. In the 
following hst the company and regiment is not given : 





Boylston, Francis 






Chase, Edwin H. 

Captain, A. D. C. 



Coleman, Elijah 



Not given 

Crosby, Daniel 

1st Lt. Artillery 





Clark, Levi I. 

3d Lt. 



Davis, Wendell T. 

1st Lt. Artillery 




Qr. Mr. loth Regt. 



Decker, Jefford M. 





Lt. Col. loth, Civil War 






Office. Commissioned. D 


Devens, Charles 

3d Lt. Artillery 




Brig. General 



(Major General in Civil War 


Day, Edwdn E. 


1859 Killed 


Elwell, Charles \V. 

Qr. Mr. loth. Civil War. 




Field, George 

3d Lt. Artillery 



2d Lt. 


Field, Charles 




Fisk, Charles L., Jr. 




Grinnell, James S. 

Brig. Quar. Master 






Paymaster loth 

1 86 1 


Holton, John R. 

Qr. Master (Light Infantry) 



Harding, Wm. F. 

Surgeon's mate 



Jones, S. Russell 




Jones, Leonard S. 

Brigade Inspector 


Div. Inspector 



Jones, David S. 

Lt. Colonel 


Brigadier General 


Major General 



Keller, Robert 




Keith, William 

1st Lt. Artillery 






Brig. Inspector 



Mirick, Henry D. 

2d Lt., Co. G 





Munn, Charles H. 





Lt. Colonel 



Nutting, Joseph H. 

4th Lt. Co. G, loth 


Lt. Col. 27th Infantry 



Pierce, George, Jr. 

1st Lt. 





Revere, E. H. R. 

Surgeon's Mate 



Remington, Lorenzo M. 

2d Lt. 



1st Lt. 



Ripley, Thomas W. 

Brig. A. D. C. 


Division A. D. C. 





ist Lt. Civil War 



Sanborn, Wm. H. 



I St Lt. 





Seymour, L. Dwight 

Surgeon's Mate 











Stone, John 

Qr. Master nth Regiment 



Tucker, John L. 

Qr. Master nth Regim 




Wait, Thomas 

2d Lt. Artillery 


Did not qualify 

Wells, George D. 

Brigade A. D. C. 
Colonel in Civil War 



Wells, John W. 




Walker, William A. 

Adjutant loth 


Major in Civil War. 



In 1798 the United States government levied a direct tax, 
and for its assessment Greenfield, Bernardston, Leyden and 
Gill constituted the 9th district of the 8th division. Caleb 
Clap was principal assessor and Daniel Wells, Lemuel Foster, 
Moses Bascom, Sr., Hezekiah Newcomb and Hart Leavitt 
were assistant assessors. 

Our interest in this assessment is that it gives the names of 
all owners of real estate in Greenfield in 1798 ; the names of 
occupants of houses or lands owned by others ; the compar- 
ative values of dwellings and their outhouses ; and of the 
owners of farming lands. In column i are given the names 
of the owners of houses or lands, and they are the occupants 
unless otherwise indicated by a name in ( ) ; column 2, the 
number of rods in the lot included in the assessed value of 
the buildings ; column 3, the assessed value of houses and 
outhouses; column 4, the value of remainder of the person's 
real estate and lands without buildings. 




AN $100 IN 





Arms, Ebenezer 




Arms, Mary 




Arms, Moses 




Arms, Seth 


Arms, Solomon 


Ames, Ambrose 




Atherton, Jonathan 




Atherton, Oliver 




Allen, Amos 


Allen, Ebenezer, Sr. 




Allen, Ebenezer, Jr. 








Allen, Elijah 

Allen, Job 

Allen, Joel 

Allen, Quintus 

Billings, Edward (Dr.) 

Bascom, Ezekiel 

Bascom, Ezekiel 

(Elijah Alvord, oc.) 

Bascom, Moses 

Bascom, Moses, Jr. 

Bell, John 

Bradley, Stephen R. (non-res.) 

(John E. Hall, oc.) 

Bilhngs, Edward 

Barnard, Samuel 

Chapman, Thomas 

Clark, John 

Cornwell, Amos 

Clay, Daniel 

Corse, Asher 

Coleman, Elijah 

Cushman, Consider 

Dickman, Thomas 

Edwards, William 

(William Starr, oc.) 

Edwards, William 

(Amos Walton, oc.) 

Foster, Isaac 

Foster, Isaac 

Foster, Isaac 

(Elijah Mitchell, oc.) 

Forbes, William 

(Daniel Forbes, oc.) 

Forbes, Daniel 

Francis, Benjamin 

Grennell, George 

Grennell, George 

(Caleb Alvord, oc. ) 

Grennell, George 

(Abiel Stevens, oc.) 

Grennell, Wise 

Graves, Ebenezer 

(Job Graves, oc.) 

Graves, Ebenezer, Jr. 

Graves, John 

Graves, Rufus 

Goodman, Elihu 

Goodenough, David 





$ 150 

^ 575 













































































( HolUster place.) 




Giiswold, Theophilus 

Hastings, Ephraim 

Hastings, Benjamin, Jr 

Hastings, Lemuel 

Hastings, Selah 

Hall, Timothy 

Hubbard, Ephraim 

Hail, Calvin 

Hinsdale, Ariel 

Hinsdale, Samuel 

Hall, John E. 

Jones, Phineas 

Leavitt, Jonathan 

Leavitt, Hart 

Lyman, Elihu 

Lyon, John, one-half a saw mill 

on Job Allen's land 
Martindale, Uriah 
Martindale, Christina 
Munn, Calvin 
Merriam, Isaac 
Nims, Hull 

Newcomb, Richard E, 
Nickerson, Enoch 
Newton & Green 
Nash, Daniel 
Nash, Tubal 
Newton, John, Jr. 
Newton, Isaac 
Newton, Samuel 
Newton, Asher 
Newton, Roger (Rev.) 
Nash, Silvanus 
Pierce, Samuel 
Pickett, Daniel 
Pickett, Samuel 
Pickett, Samuel, Jr. 
Pratt, Stephen 
Phillips, Samuel 
Phillips, Israel 
Ripley, Jerom 
Russell & Ripley 
Rugg, Joshua 
Stebbing, Asa (non-res.) 
(Wm. McHard, oc.) 
Stebbins, Asa (non-res.) 80 

(John Woodward, oc.) 
McHard, WiUiam 





$ i2S 

$ 850 

































370 (Hovey House.) 















770 (Mansion House.) 

































































Smith, Clement 


$ 175 

$ 740 

Strong, Betsey 




Smead, David 



Smead, Daniel 


Smead, Lemuel 




Smead, Jonathan 




Smead, Julia 




Smead, Solomon 




Smead, Thomas 




Stone, John 


Stone, John (occupied by 




Strickland, David 


Strickland, John 




Smith, Simeon (non-res.) 



250 (American House.) 

(Eliel Gilbert, oc.) 

Severance, Jonathan 




Severance, Rufus 


Stebbens, Samuel 




Severance, Joseph 



Sawtell, John 



Smith, Elijah 




Smith, Joel 


Strong, Jane 


Smead, Abner, Heirs 




Starr, William, one-half saw mill 

on Joel Allen's land 


Wells, Agrippa 




Wells, Abner 




Wells, Elisha 




Wells, Eleazer 




Wells, Ephraim 



Wells, Daniel 




Wells, Joseph 




Wells, Joel 


Wells, Obed 




Wells, Silas 




Wells, Samuel, Jr. 




Wait, William 




Wetmore, Thomas 




Willard, Beriah 



Willard, Beriah 


no (Occupied byWarham Hitchcock.) 

Willard, Beriah 



" Elijah Lamb — Tavern.) 

Willard, Ruel 



Willard, Ruel 



Samuel W. Lee.) 

Willard, Ruel 



" Wm. Grennell.) 

Willard, Ruel 




Wilkinson, Oliver 








Adams, Caleb 



$ 600 

(Oc. by Jolin Eason and Lemuel Foster.) 

Alsop, Mary (non-resident) 



Allen, Joel 


Anderson, John (8oa) 


Bascom, Joseph (65a) 



(Oc. by Jona. Parker.) 

Billings, Ebenezer 



Billings, Thomas 



Boyington, John 



Cone, Robert 



Daggett, Gideon 



Denio, Enos 



Dix, Elijah (land oc. by Caleb Clap) 


Edwards, William 



Fraizer, Jabez 



Grennell, George 


(Oc. by Daniel Whipple.) 

Hastings, Joseph 



Hawkins, Jordon 



Hitchcock, Merrick 



Hastings, Oliver 



Johnson, Richard 



Lyon, Caleb 



Mott, Joseph 



Mack, Abner 



Nicholson, David 



Newton, Asher 


Newton, Jeremiah 



Owen, Ephraim 



Pendell, Elisha 



Skinner, Benjamin 



Woodward, John 


Wells, William and Walter 




Strong, Sarah 


QO (Oc. by C. George.) 

Taylor, Stephen 


Number of houses over ^100 in value 


Number of outhouses 


Acres in house lots in this 


55a. 86 r. 



Number of houses less than 

$100 in value 


Acres ta.xed with houses 


Acres without buildings 


a. 116 

p. 176 feet 

Total value, including buildings, not over ^100 


Greenfield, August : 

;o, 1799. 




THE Commonwealth of Massachusetts has pubHshed ten 
volumes of the records of men serving to the credit of 
Massachusetts during the war for independence. The 
names are entered in alphabetical order, according to the spelling 
of the officers who made the returns. The same soldier may be 
entered under many different names. No index indicates the 
names of men serving to the credit of any particular town or 
city, making it necessary to examine the names of thousands 
in order to find the representative of any particular town. Be- 
side the ten volumes already issued, proof sheets of the eleventh 
volume are nearly completed. The unpublished list will fill 
some six or seven volumes, and the names are in manuscript in 
the Public Archives. No person who is not familiar with the 
names which would be most likely to be found on the official lists, 
can make any progress in the search for names of men be- 
longing to any particular locality. The compiler of this work 
has felt that for the present an incomplete list can only be 
furnished, and as the history is to be electroplated, the list may 
be completed in a future edition which may be issued after the 
publication of the remaining volumes by the state. 

In many instances the name of the town to which the sol- 
dier should have been credited does not appear. In such 
cases, when the soldier served in a Greenfield company, the 
family name being common to the town and not claimed by 
other neighboring towns, the name is entered as of Greenfield, 
with a suggestion that an error may have been made. 


Allen, Appollos. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; company return [probably Oct. 
1775]- Order for bounty coat or its equivalent in money, 
dated Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775; also Capt. Sam^ Tay- 
lor's Co., Col. Nicholas Dykes' regt. ; pay abstract for travel 
allowance dated Sept. 17, 1776. Also pay the same . . . 
dated Nov. 28, 1776, Dorchester Heights ; also Capt. Timothy 
Childs' Co., Col. David Field's regt.; enlisted Aug. 14, 1777, 
discharged Aug. 18, 1777 ; service 4 days on an alarm at Ben- 
nington ; also descriptive list of enlisted men detached from 3d 
and loth Co's., 5th Hampshire Co. regt., as returned by Maj. 
David Dickinson, dated July 24, 1 780, at Deerfield, age 23 yrs., 
stature 5 ft. 11 in., complexion light, hair light, eyes light, 
residence Greenfield ; joined Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., en- 
listment 3 months ; also private Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., 
Col. S. Murray's (Hampshire Co.) regt., enlisted July 13, 
1780, discharged Oct. 10, 1780, service 3 mos., 7 days, en- 
listment 3 mos ; Co. raised to re-inforce Continental Army. 

Allen, David. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Field's regt.; enlisted Aug. 14, 1777, discharged 
Aug. 18, 1777; service 4 days on an alarm at Bennington. 

Allen, Ebenezer. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Field's regt. ; enlisted Aug. 14, 1777; discharged 
Aug. 18, 1777 ; service 4 days on an alarm at Bennington. 

Allen, Ebenezer, Jr. Same as two preceding. 

Allen, Ithamar. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt.; enlisted Feb. 24, 1777, discharged 
April 10, 1777 ; service i mo., 17 days. Also Capt. Childs' 
Co., Col. David Field's regt.; enlisted Aug. 14, 1777, dis- 
charged Aug. 18, 1777; service 4 days on alarm at Benning- 

Allen, Jeremiah. Descriptive list of men raised to reinforce 
Continental Army for term of 6 mos. agreeable to resolve of 
June 5, 1780, age 49 years, stature 5 feet, 6 in., complexion 
light. Arrived at Springfield July 31, 1780; that day marched 


to camp under Capt. Greenleaf. Also list of men raised for 
the six months' service and returned by Brig. Gen. Paterson 
as having passed muster, in a return dated Camp Totoway 
Oct. 25, 1780 ; also pay roll for 6 mos. men raised by town of 
Greenfield for service in Continental Army during 1780. 
Marched July 30, discharged Nov. 16, 1780. 

Allen, Joel. Descriptive list of enlisted men returned by 
Maj. David Dickinson at Deerfield July 24, 1780, 3d or loth 
Co., 5th Hampshire Co. regt., age 20 years, stature 5 ft. 7 in., 
complexion dark, hair brown, eyes dark, joined Capt. Isaac 
Newton's Co., enlistment three months ; also Private Capt. 
Newton's Co., Col. S. Murray's (Hampshire Co.) regt., en- 
listed July 13, 1780, discharged Oct. 10, 1780. 

Allen, John. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt., enlisted Feb. 24, 1777, disc. Apr. 10, 
1777, also Capt. Childs' Co., Col. David Field's regt., enlisted 
Aug. 14, disc. Aug. 18, 1777, service 4 days on an alarm at 

Allen, John. Descriptive list of enlisted men belonging to 
Hampshire Co., age 21 years, stature 5 ft. 9 in., complexion 
light, hair light, occupation farmer. Enlisted May 21, 1781, 
enlistment three years. 

Allen, Moses. Private Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa 
Whitcomb's regt., company return (probably Oct. 1775); also 
order for bounty coat or its equivalent in money dated Pros- 
pect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775, also Capt. Timothy Child's Co., 
Col. David Field's regt., enhsted Aug. 14, 1777, disc. Aug. 18, 
1777, service 4 days on an alarm at Bennington. 

Arms, Ebenezer. Captain, loth Co., 5th Hampshire Co. 
regt.; list of officers of Mass. militia; commissioned May 3, 
1776 ; also, resignation, dated Greenfield, April 10, 1780 of his 
commission as captain of the loth Co., Lt. Col. David Wells' 
(5th Hampshire Co.) regt., accepted by council April 25, 1 780. 

Arms, Moses. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Sam- 
uel Williams' regt., which marched April 20, 1775, in response 


to the alarm of April 19, 1775, service 14 days, also Capt. 
Timothy Childs' Co., Col. David Field's regt., service 4 days 
in Aug. 1777, marched on an alarm at Bennington. 

Atherton, Asahel. Capt. Moses Harvey's Co., Col. John 
Brewer's regt, ; order for cartridges dated Cambridge, June 24, 
1775, also, private ; roll dated Aug. i, 1775, enlisted June 3, 

1775, service i mo., 3 weeks, 4 days; also company return 
[probably Oct. 1775] ; also order for bounty coat or its equiva- 
lent in money, dated Camp at Cambridge, Oct. 26, 1775. 

Atherton, Jonathan. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Samuel Williams' regt., which marched Apr. 20, 1775, in 
response to alarm of Apr. 19, 1775, service 15 days; also 
Capt. Wells' Co., Col. Sam^ Brewer's regt. pay abstract for 
mileage &c sworn to at Deerfield, Dec. 10, 1777. Company 
served at Ticonderoga for 3 mos. from Sept. i, 1776. 

Atherton, Joseph. Private, Capt. Samuel Taylor's Co., Col. 
Nicholas Dyke's regt., pay abstract for mileage dated Sep. 17, 

1776, also pay abstract for mileage dated Dorchester Heights, 
Nov. 28, 1776, also Capt. John Wells' Co., Col. Timothy 
Robinson's (Hampshire Co.) regt., enlisted Dec. 23, 1776, 
disc. April i, 1777, service 100 days, marched to Ticonderoga, 
enlistment to expire Mch. 25, 1777, also Capt. Wells' Co., 
Col. David Wells' (Hampshire Co.) regt., enlisted Sep. 22, 

1777, disc. Oct. 23, 1777, service i mo., 2 days, in northern 
department, roll dated Shelburne, also descriptive list of en- 
listed men detached from 3d or loth Co., 5th (Hampshire Co.) 
regt., as returned by Maj. David Dickinson dated Deerfield, 
July 24, 1780, age 22 yrs., stature 5 ft. 1 1 in., complexion 
light, hair light, eyes light, joined Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., 
enlistment 3 mos., also corporal, Capt. Newton's Co., Col. S. 
Murray's (Hampshire Co.) regt., enlisted July 13, 1780, disc. 
Oct. 10, 1780. Service 3 mos., 7 days. Enlistment 3 mos. 

Atherton, Oliver, Sergeant. Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Saml. Williams' regt., which marched Ap. 20, 1775, in re- 
sponse to alarm of Apr. 19, service 10 days ; reported enlisted 


into army May i, 1775, also Capt. Wells' Co., Col. Asa 
Whitcomb's regt., roll dated Aug. i, 1775, enlisted May i, 
1775, service 3 mos., 8 days, receipt for bounty coat or its 
equivalent in money dated Prospect Hill, Nov. 20, 1775, re- 
ceipt for wages for Sept. 1775, dated Prospect Hill, also 2d 
lieutenant, loth Co., Lt. Col. Wells' (5th Hampshire Co.) 
regt., list of officers of Mass. militia commissioned Aug. 14, 

Bascom, Ezekiel, Private. Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Childs' regt., pay roll for service from Aug. 14 to 
Aug. 18, 1777, 4 days on an alarm at Bennington. 

Bascom, Timothy, Private. Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Williams' regt., which marched Apr. 20, 1775, in re- 
sponse to alarm of Apr. 19, service 10 days ; reported enlisted 
May I, 1775, also Capt. Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's 
regt., roll dated Aug. i, 1775, enlisted May i, 1775, service 
3 mos., 8 days, receipt for wages Sept. 1775, dated Prospect 
Hill, order for bounty coat or its equivalent in money, dated 
Prospect Hill, Nov. 27, 1775. 

Battis, John. Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whit- 
comb's regt., order for wages for Sept. 1775, dated Prospect 
Hill, also private company return [prob. Oct. 1775] reported 
disc. Sept. 23, 1775 ; order for bounty coat or its equivalent 
in money, dated Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775. 

Brown, David. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Field's regt., service, 4 days on an alarm at Benning- 
ton, Aug. 14, 1777. 

Bush, John. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co. of minute 
men, Col. Saml. Williams' regt., which marched April 20, 1775, 
in response to the alarm of April 19, 1775, service 10 days, 
left place of rendezvous May i, 1775, also Capt. Wells' Co., 
Col. Porter's regt., enlisted July 10, 1777, disc. Aug. 12, 
1777, service 38 days, marched to reinforce Northern army 
after the evacuation of Ticonderoga. 

Butler, John. Descriptive list of men enlisted from Hamp- 


shire Co. agreeable to resolve of June 9, 1779, Capt. Arms' 
Co., Col. Wells' regt., age 17 years, stature 5 ft., complexion 
dark, hair black, enlistment 9 months, delivered to Lieut. R. 

Butler, Samuel. Descriptive list of enlisted men raised 
agreeable to resolve of June 9, 1779, Capt. Arms* Co., Col. 
Wells' regt., age 21 years, stature 5 ft. 8 in., complexion 
dark, hair black, enlistment nine months, delivered to Lt. R. 
Lilley, (also given Col. Wells,) also private, Major Joseph 
Thomson's Co., Col. Thomas Nixon's regt., pay abstracts for 
Aug. Sept. & Oct. 1779, enlisted Aug. 17 [year not given, 
probably 1779], reported sick at Bedford in Oct. 1779, also 
Major Peter Harvvood's Co., Col. Nixon's (6th) regt., pay ab- 
stract for Nov. 1779, reported deserted Nov. 5, 1779. 

Carey, Simeon. Descriptive list of men enlisted fr. Hamp- 
shire Co. for term of 9 mos. fr. time of their arrival in Fishkill 
July II, 1778; also descriptive list of enlisted men dated 
Feb. 20, 1782, age 27 yrs., stature 5 ft. 10 in., (also gives 4 ft. 
II in.,) complexion dark, hair dark, enlisted Ap. 12, 1 781, joined 
Jonathan Felt's (also given Capt. Furner's) Co., Lt. Col. John 
Brook's (7th) regt., enlistment 3 years ; also private, Capt. 
Asa Coburn's Co., Lt. Col. Brook's regt., muster roll for Aug. 
1781 ; also Capt. Jonathan Felt's Co., Lt. Col. Brook's regt.; 
muster roll for Jan. 1782, dated York Hutts. 

Carley, Jonathan. Palmer, also given Brimfield and Green- 
field. List of men mustered in Suffolk Co. by Nath^ Barber, 
muster master, dated Boston Apr. 27, 1777. Col. Crane's 
regt. ; also Matross, Capt. Thos. Seward's Co., Col. John 
Crane's (Artillery) regt.. Continental Army pay accts. for 
service fr. Mch. 20, 1777, to Dec. 31, 1779, res. Brimfield, 
credited to Brimfield, also muster roll for Sept. 1777, reported 
on command at Bethlehem, also muster roll for Nov. & Dec. 
1777, reported on command at Reading, also descriptive list 
of enlisted men dated Camp, New Windsor, Jan. 12, 1780, 
age 21 yrs., stature 5 ft. 8 in., complexion light, residence Palmer, 


enlisted Mch. 22, 1777, by Lt, Parsons, joined Capt, Thos. 
Seward's Co., 3d artillery regt., enlistment during war ; also 
Capt. Seward's Co., Col. Crane's regt., Continental Army pay 
accounts for services fr. Jan. i, 1780, to Dec. 31, 1780 ; also 
3d Artillery regt. list of men entitled to receive 200 acres 
of land or ^20.00, agreeable to resolve of Mch. 5, 1801, 
residence Greenfield. 

Carey, Jesse. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa 
Whitcomb's regt., roll dated Aug. i, 1775, enlisted July 15, 
1775, service 17 days; also company return (probably Oct. 
1775) ; also receipt for wages for Sept. 1775, dated Prospect 
Hill, also order for bounty coat or its equivalent in money 
dated Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775. 

Carey, Simeon. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt., Co. raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at 
Ticonderoga, service i mo., 1 7 days, descriptive list of men 
raised to reinforce Continental Army for term of 6 months 
agreeable to resolve of June 5, 1780, age 26 yrs., stature 6 ft., 
complexion dark, arrived at Springfield Aug. i 780, marched to 
camp Aug. 2, 1780, under command of Lt. Brig. Pike, list of 
men raised for six months' service and returned by Brig. Gen. 
Patterson as having passed muster in return dated. Camp 
Totoway, Oct. 25, 1780, pay roll 6 mos. men raised by town 
of G'nf'd for service in Continental Army during 1780, 
marched July 25, 1780, disc. Feb. 3, 1781, service 6 mos., 9 
days; descriptive list of men enlisted to serve in the Continental 
Army as returned by Noah Goodman, Supt. for Hampshire 
Co., age 27 yrs., stature 6 ft., complexion dark, hair dark, occu- 
pation farmer, enlisted Apr. 12, 1781, enlistment 3 yrs; also 
private, Capt. Asa Cobu'rn's Co., Lt. Col. John Brook's regt., 
roll for June, 1781, also Capt. Jonathan Felt's Co., Lt. Col. 
Brook's regt., roll for Feb. 1782, dated York Hutts, reported 
sick in Massachusetts. 

Childs, Timothy. Capt. 3d Co., Col. David Field's (5th 
Hampshire Co.) regt., list of officers, Mass. Militia dated 


Deerfield Apr. 22, 1776, ordered in council May 3, 1776, 
that a commission be issued, commissioned May 3, 1776; 
also same regt. return dated Boston, Apr. 8, 1777, of Hamp- 
shire Co. militia who volunteered under Col. David Leonard 
to reinforce the army at Ticonderoga, agreeable to order of 
council of Feb. 1777, also Col. David Wells' regt. rule for 
make up for service at Ticonderoga fr. May 10, 1777 to July 
8, 1777, also Col. David Field's regt., service fr. Aug. 14, 
1777, 4 days, marched towards Bennington in an alarm 
resignation dated Greenfield, Apr. 10, 1780, of commis- 
sion as Capt. of 3d Co., Lt. Col. David Wells' (5th Hamp- 
shire Co.) regt., on acc't of old age and infirmity, resignation 
accepted in council Ap. 25, 1780. 

Childs, Eliphaz. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co. of 
minute men. Col. Sam^ Williams' regt., which marched 
Apr. 20, 1775, in response to alarm of Apr. 19; service 10 
days ; reported enlisted into army May i, 1775, Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt.; roll dated Aug. i, 
1775, enlisted May i, 1775; service 3 mos., 8 days; receipt 
for wages for Sept. 1775, dated Prospect Hill, Capt. Timo- 
thy Childs' Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; served from Aug. 14, 
1774, four days ; marched towards Bennington on an alarm. 

Cile, John. Return of men enlisted into Continental 
Army fr. Lt. Sam^ Wells' Co., sworn to Apr. 7, 1779, res. 
Greenfield ; enlisted for town of G'nf'd, joined Capt. Co- 
burn's Co., Col. Alden's regt. ; enlistment 3 yrs. ; private, 
Capt. Coburn's Co., John Brooks' regt. (late Alden's), Conti- 
nental Army pay accts. for service fr. Mch. 19, 1 778, to Dec. 3 I, 
1779, Lt. Col. Wm. Stacey's Co., Col. Ichabod Alden's 
(6th) regt. ; roll for Mch. & Apr. 1779, dated Fort Alden, 
continental pay accts. for service from Jan. i to Dec. 31, 1780. 

Clark, Martin. Greenfield list of men (dates & particulars 
not given). 

Clark, Matthew. Descriptive list. Men raised to re-enforce 
Continental Army for 6 mos., agreeable to resolve of June 5, 


1780; returned as received of Justin Ely, commissioner, by- 
Brig. Gen. John Glover, at Springf'd, July 20, 1780, age 22 
yrs., stature 5 ft. 9 in., complexion ruddy ; marched to camp 
July 20, 1780, under Capt. Benj. Warren ; also list of men for 
6 mos. service, returned by Brig. Gen. Paterson as having 
passed muster in return dated Camp Totoway, Oct. 25, 1780; 
pay roll for 6 mos. ; men raised by Greenfield for service in 
Continental Army during 1780; marched July 17, 1780, dis- 
charged Jan. 17, 1 78 1 ; service 6 mos. 

Coombs, Caleb. Enlisted or hired to serve in Continental 
Army fr. Lt. Sam' Wells' Co., sworn to Apr. 7, 1779, en- 
gaged for town of Greenfield, joined Capt. Keith's Co., Col. 
Jackson's regt., term 3 yrs. ; also private Capt. James Keith's 
Co., Col. Michael Jackson's regt.. Continental Army pay 
accounts for service from Feb. 10, 1777, to May 15, 1778; 
reported died May 15, 1778. 

Coombs, Joshua. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Field's regt.; marched toward Bennington Aug. 14, 
1777, on an alarm; service 4 days; descriptive list of men 
enlisted to serve in Continental Army as returned by Noah 
Goodman, Supt. for Hampshire Co., age 16 yrs., stature 5 ft. 
5 in., complexion & hair light, occupation, farmer ; enlisted 
Mch. 30, 1781, for 3 yrs.; also receipt dated Apr. 17, 1781, 
for bounty paid s'^ Coombs by Lt. Sam' Wells in behalf of a 
class of the town of Greenfield to serve in Continental Army 
for three yrs. ; also list of men hired to serve in Continental 
Army for 3 yrs., agreeable to resolve of Dec. 2, 1780, ret. by 
selectmen of G'nf 'd, & sworn to in Hampshire Co., June 7, 
1781 ; also private. Col. Benj. Tupper's (loth) regt.; service 
from Mch. 18, 1781, 9 mos., 13 days; also same regt. serv- 
ice from June i, 1782, 12 mos.; also Capt. Matthew Cham- 
bers' Co., Lt. Col. Galvin Smith's (6th) regt. 

Convis (Converse), Zechariah. Private, Capt. Joshua L. 
Woodbridge's Co., Col, Nathan Tyler's regt. ; enlisted June 25, 
1779, service 5 mos., 6 days, at Rhode Island, roll sworn 


to at Newport ; also same Co. & regt. pay roll for Dec. 

1779, allowing i mo. 7 days' service at R. I., sworn to at 

Cornnell, Daniel. Descriptive list of men raised to re- 
enforce Continental Army for term of 6 mos., agreeable to 
resolve of June 5, 1780, returned as received of Justin Ely, 
commissioner, by Brig. Gen. John Glover at Spring'd, Aug. 9, 

1780, age 22 yrs., stature 5 ft. 8 in., complexion dark; 
arrived at Sp'g'f'd., July 20, 1780, marched to camp Aug. 9, 
1780, under command of Capt. Daniel Hunt (see Daniel 
Hollewell & Dan' HoUoway). 

Cors, Daniel. Serg., Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Sam' 
Williams' regt. of minute-men which marched Apr. 20, 1775, 
in response to the alarm of Apr. 19, 1775 ; service 10 days; 
reported enlisted into the army. May i, 1775. 

Cors, James. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa 
Whitcomb's regt. ; also Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt.; Co. raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service 
at Ticonderoga ; service i mo., 17 days; also Capt. Timothy 
Childs' Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; marched toward Ben- 
nington on alarm of Aug. 14, 1780; service 4 days. 

Covel, Peter. List of men enlisted from Hampshire Co. 
for its term of 9 months from their arrival at Fishkill, July 24, 
1778; reported not mustered. 

Cowell, Peter. List of men enlisted from Hampshire Co. 
for the term of 9 months from their arrival at Fishkill, July 24, 

1778. ^ 

Davidson, Barnabas. Private, Capt, Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt., muster roll dated Aug. i, 1775, 
enlisted July 1 5, 1 775, service, i 7 days ; also, receipt for wages 
for Sept. 1775, dated Prospect Hill; also, order for bounty 
coat or its equivalent in money, dated Camp at Prospect Hill, 
Nov. 27, 1775. 

Davis, David (also given Bern.). Private, Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co., Col. Sam. Williams' regt. of minute-men which 


marched Apr. 20, 1775, in response to the alarm of Apr. 19, 
1775 ; service, 10 days ; reported enlisted into the army May i, 
1775 ; also, Capt. A. Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt., 
muster roll dated Aug. i, 1775 ; service, 3 mos., 8 days ; order 
for bounty coat or its equivalent in money dated Prospect 
Hill, Dec. 22, 1775. 

Dean, Samuel. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Whitcomb's regt. of minute-men which marched 
Apr. 20, 1775, in response to the alarm of Apr. 19, 1775; 
service, 10 days ; reported enlisted into the army May i, 


Dean, Samuel. Descriptive list of men raised in Hampshire 

Co. to serve in Continental Army as ret. by Noah Goodman, 
Supt. for sd. Co., age, 25 yrs., stature, 5ft. 9 in., complexion and 
hair light, occupation, shoemaker ; engaged for town of Green- 
field, Jan. 18, 1 78 1, for 3 yrs. ; also, private, Capt. John Wil- 
liams' Co., Col. Joseph Vose's (ist) regt.; muster rolls for 
May, 1 78 1, and Jan., 1782 ; muster roll for Mch., 1782, dated 
York Hutts. 

Demont, John B. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; muster roll dated Aug. i, 1775 ; 
enlisted May i, 1775; service, 3 mos., 8 days. 

Denio, Aaron. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; Co. raised 
Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. John 
Wells' Co., Col. David Wells' regt.; enlisted Sept. 22, 1777; 
discharged Oct. 23, 1777; service, i mo., 2 days in Northern 
department ; Co. raised from Hampshire Co. militia. 

Denio, Eli. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; Co. raised 
Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co., Col. Porter's regt. ; marched from home July 9, 
1777; enlisted July to, 1777 ; disch. Aug. 12, 1777, service, 
38 days, travel included. Co. marched to reinforce Northern 
Army after evacuation of Ticonderoga. 


Denio, Frederick. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Williams' regt. of minute-men which marched Apr. 20, 
1775, in response to the alarm of Apr. 19, 1775 ; left place of 
rendezvous May i, 1775; service, 10 days; reported enlisted 
into the army ; also, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whit- 
comb's (23d) regt., muster roll dated Aug. i, 1775, enlisted 
May I, 1775; service, 3 mos., 8 days ; order for bounty coat or 
its equivalent in money, dated Prospect Hill, Nov. 27, 1775 ; 
also, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Porter's regt., marched 
for home July 9, 1777 ; enlisted July 10, 1777 ; disch. Aug. 12, 
1777, service, 38 days, travel included. Co. marched to rein- 
force Northern Army after the evacuation of Ticonderoga. 
Descriptive list dated Deerfield, July 24, 1780, of men mus- 
tered and ret. by Maj. David Dickinson as detached agreeable 
to resolve of June 22, 1780, by order of Lt. Col. David Wells, 
3d or loth Co., 5th Hampshire Co. regt., age 28 yrs., stature 
5 ft. 9 in., complexion, dark, hair, dark, eyes, dark, engaged 
for town of Greenfield for 3 mos. ; also, private, Capt. Isaac 
Newton's Co., Col. S. Murray's (Hampshire Co.) regt., en- 
listed July 13, 1780; discharged Oct. 10, 1780; service, 
3 mos., 7 days, travel included. Co. raised to reinforce Con- 
tinental Army for 3 mos. 

Denio, Israel. Descriptive list dated Dfd., July 24, 1 780, of 
men mustered and returned by Major David Dickinson as de- 
tached agreeable to a resolve of June 22, 1780, by order of Lt. 
Col. David Wells' 3d or loth Co., 5th Hampshire Co. regt. ; 
age 17 yrs., stature 5 ft. 4 in., complexion, dark, hair, brown, 
eyes, brown, engaged for town of Greenfield for 3 mos. ; also, 
private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., Col. S. Murray's (Hamp- 
shire Co.) regt.; enlisted July 13, 1780; discharged Oct. 10, 
1780; service, 3 mos., 7 days, travel included. Co. raised to 
reinforce Continental Army for 3 mos. 

Denio, Seth. Private, Capt. Samuel Taylor's Co., Col. 
Nicholas Dyke's regt., pay abstract for mileage, dated Rox- 
bury, Sept. 17, 1776; also same Co. and regt., pay abstract 


for mileage from place of disc, home, dated Dorchester Heights, 
Nov. 28, 1776, credited with 6 days allowance ; also, Capt. 
Hugh McClellan's Co., Col. David Wells' regt.; enlisted 
Sept. 22, 1777; disc. Oct. 18, 1777; service, i mo., 2 days, 
travel included, with Northern Army. 

Denio, Solomon. Corporal, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Wells' regt., engaged May 10, 1777; disch. July 8, 
1777; service, 2 mos., 8 days, travel included. Co. raised 
May 10, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. Timo- 
thy Childs' Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days at 
Bennington on the alarm of Aug. 14, 1777; also, Capt. 
Abel Dinsmore's Co., Col. Ruggles Woodbridge's regt., en- 
gaged Aug. 17, 1777 ; disch. Nov. 29, 1777 ; service, 3 mos., 
22 days, travel included, with the Northern Army; engage- 
ment to expire Nov. 30, 1777; receipt dated Apr. 17, 1781, 
for bounty paid said Denio by Ens. Jona. Severance, chair- 
man of a class of the town of Greenfield to serve in Continental 
Army for 3 yrs. Descriptive list ret. by Noah Goodman, 
Supt. for Hampshire Co. ; age, 27, stature, 5 ft. 8 in. ; com- 
plexion and hair, light ; farmer ; res., Greenfield, engaged 
Mch. 28 (also given 18), 1781, for 3 yrs. 

Dewey, John. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Saml. Williams' regt. of minute-men which marched Apr. 20, 
1775, in response to an alarm of Apr. 19, 1775; service, 10 
days, reported enlisted into army. May i, 1775. 

Dewey, Zenas (also given Deerfield). Same as above. 
Also corporal, Capt. Edward Blake's Co., Col. Jona. Brewer's 

Duey, John. Greenfield; list of men raised to serve in the 
Continental Army, as returned by Lieut. Samuel Wells ; 
sworn in Hampshire Co., April 7, 1779; residence, Green- 
field ; engaged for town of G. ; joined Capt. Brewer's Co., Col. 
Brewer's regt., term, during war; also list of men enlisted into 
Continental Army, from 5th Hampshire Co. regt. (year not 
given) endorsed " Col. David Field's return." 


Edson, Abijah. Greenfield (also given Springfield), list of 
men raised to serve in the Continental Army, as returned by 
Lieut. Samuel Wells ; sworn in Hampshire Co., April 7, 
1777; residence, Greenfield ; joined Capt. Maxwell's Co., 
Col. Bailey's regt., term, 3 years ; also, list of men raised to 
serve in the Continental Army from 5th Hampshire Co. 
regt., endorsed, " Col. David Field's return," also, private, ist 
Co., Col. John Bailey's regt., residence, Springfield ; reported, 
died April 15, 1778 ; also, Capt. Hugh Maxwell's (ist.) Co., 
Col. John Bailey's regt., company return dated Camp near 
Valley Forge, Jan. 24, 1778. 

Edwards, Daniel. Greenfield, private, Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co., Col. Samuel Williams' regt. of minute-men 
which marched April 20, 1775, in response to the alarm 
of April 19, 1775 ; returned home May 6, 1775 ; service, 
15 days; also Capt. John Wells' Co., Col. Timothy Robin- 
son's regt., detachment of militia, enlisted Dec. 23, 1776, dis- 
charged April I, 1777 ; service, 100 days ; company marched 
to Ticonderoga ; enlistment to expire March 15, 1777. 

Ellis, (?) Zebediah. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Samuel Brewer's regt. ; pay abstract for mileage and travel 
allowance from place of discharge home ; sworn to at Deer- 
field, Dec. 10, 1777 ; company served at Ticonderoga for 3 
mos. from Sept. i, 1777. 

Farnsworth, William. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Samuel Brewer's regt. ; pay abstract for travel allowance 
for travel from place of discharge home, etc. ; sworn to at Deer- 
field Dec. 10, 1777; company served at Ticonderoga for 3 
mos. from Sept. i, 1777. 

Folton, John. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Brewer's regt., pay abstract for mileage and travel al- 
lowance, sworn to at Deerfield, Dec. 10, 1777; company 
served at Ticonderoga 3 mos. from Sept. i, 1777. 

Foster, David. Ensign, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Asa Whitcomb's regt., list of officers, (Year not given.) 


Foster, Ezekiel. Greenfield (also given Bernardston), 
lieut., Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co. of minute-men, Col. Sam- 
uel Williams' regt., which marched April 20, 1775, ^^^ ^^~ 
sponse to the alarm of April 19, 1775 ; service, 10 days; re- 
ported enlisted into the army May i, 1775; also, ensign, 
Capt. Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt., list dated camp 
at Cambridge June 3, 1775, of lieutenants and ensigns be- 
longing to said regiment recommended for commissions in 
Committee of Safety at Cambridge June 9, 1775 ; ordered in 
Provincial Congress June 12, 1775, that said officers be com- 
missioned ; also, 2d lieut., Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Asa Whitcomb's regt., muster roll dated Aug. i, 1775; en- 
gaged May I, 1775 ; service, 3 mos., 8 days ; also, same co. 
and regt., company receipt for wages for Sept., 1775, dated at 
Prospect Hill ; also, ensign, same co. and regt., company 
return (probably Oct. 1775). 

Foster, Ezekiel. Sergeant, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt., service i mo., 17 days ; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Foster, Ezekiel. Private, Capt. Amasa Sheldon's Co., Col. 
Elisha Porter's regt., enlisted July 10, 1777; discharged 
Aug. 8, 1777 ; service, i mo., 4 days, travel included, on ex- 
pedition to Northern department. Roll sworn at Deerfield. 

Foster, Ezekiel. 2d Lieut., Capt. Daniel Pomroy's de- 
tachment from Gen. Danielson's (Hampshire Co.) brigade; 
entered service July i, 1778 ; service to Oct. 31, 1778, under 
Gen. Stark in Northern department. 

Foster, Ezekiel. Greenfield (also given Bernardston). 
Private, Capt Agrippa Wells' Co. of minute-men, Col. Sam- 
uel Williams' regt., which marched April 20, 1775, in re- 
sponse to the alarm of April 19, 1775 ; service, 10 days; re- 
ported enlisted into the army May i, 1775; ^^so, Capt. 
Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcom.b's regt., muster roll 
dated Aug. i, 1775 ; enlisted May, 1775 5 service, 13 mos., 8 
days ; also, company receipt for wages for Sept. 1775, dated 


Camp at Prospect Hill ; also, company return (probably Oct. 
1775); also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent in money 
dated Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775. 

Foster, Ezekiel, Jr. Corporal, Capt. Amasa Sheldon's Co., 
Col. Elisha Porter's regt., enlisted July 10, 1777, discharged 
Aug. 8, 1777; service, i mo., 4 days, travel included, on ex- 
pedition to Northern department. Roll sworn to at Deer- 

Foster, Isaac. Private, Capt. John Wells' Co., Col. Tim- 
othy Robinson's detachment of Hampshire Co. militia ; en- 
listed Dec. 23, 1776; discharged April i, 1777; service, 100 
days ; company marched to Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. Wells' 
Co., Lieut. Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of Hamp- 
shire Co. militia ; muster roll dated Garrison at Ticonderoga, 
Feb. 24, 1777; enlistment to expire March 25, 1777. 

Foster, Isaac. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co. (Green- 
field), Col. David Field's regt., service, 4 days, at Bennington 
on alarm of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Foster, Isaac, Jr. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co. 
(Greenfield), Col. David Field's regt., service, 4 days, at Ben- 
nington on alarm of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Fulton, Nathan. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Brewer's regt., pay abstract for mileage and travel al- 
lowance ; sworn to at Deerfield, Dec. 10, 1777; company 
served at Ticonderoga for 3 mos. from Sept. 10, 1777. 

Frary, David. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt., service i mo., 17 days ; company raised 
Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga.* 

Frizzle, Michael. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Williams' regt. of minute-men, which marched April 
20, 1775, '^^^ response to the alarm of April 19, 1775; left 
place of rendezvous May 3, 1775; service, 13 days; re- 
ported returned home. 

* May not have been of Greenfield. 


Graves, Ebenezer. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt., service, i mo., 17 days ; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. 
Timothy Childs' (Greenfield) Co., Col. David Field's regt., 
service, 4 days; company marched towards Bennington on 
the alarm of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Graves, Job. Private, Capt. John Wells' Co., Col. Tim- 
othy Robinson's detachment of Hampshire Co. militia ; en- 
listed Dec. 23, 1776, discharged April i, 1777; service, 100 
days ; company marched to Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. Wells' 
Co., Lieut. Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of Hamp- 
shire Co. militia; muster roll dated Garrison at Ticonderoga, 
Feb. 24, 1777; enlistment to expire March 23, 1777; also, 
Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Porter's regt. ; marched from 
home July 9, 1777; enlisted July 10, 1777; discharged 
Aug. 12, 1777; service, 38 days, travel included; company 
marched to reinforce Northern Army after the evacuation of 
Ticonderoga; roll sworn to at Deerfield ; also, Capt. James 
Walsworth's Co., Col. Elisha Porter's (Hampshire Co.) regt. ; 
enlisted July 22, 1779; discharged Aug. 27, 1779; service, 
I mo., 1 1 days, travel included, at New London, Conn. 

Graves, Simeon. * Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Wells' regt., service, 2 mos., 8 days ; com- 
pany raised May 10, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga, and 
was discharged July 8, 1777. 

Goodman, Elihu. South Hadley (long a resident of 
Greenfield). Private, Capt. Moses Montague's Co. of min- 
ute-men, Col. Ruggles Woodbridge's regt., which marched 
April 20, 1775, in response to the alarm of April 19, 1775 ; 
service, 8 days ; also, Capt. Noadiah Leonard's Co., Col. Ben- 
jamin Ruggles Woodbridge's regt. (20th), receipt for advance 
pay, signed by said Goodman and others, dated Cambridge, 
June 24, 1775 ; also, private, same co. and regt.; muster roll 

* May not have been of Greenfield. 


dated Aug. i, 1775 ; enlisted April 28, 1775 ; service, 3 mos., 
1 1 days ; also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent in 
money dated Cambridge, Dec. 25, 1775; also, private, Capt. 
Enoch Chapin's Co., Col. Elisha Porter's regt.; enlisted Sept. 
24, 1777, discharged Oct. 11, 1777; service, 23 days, travel 
included, in Northern department; also, Lieut. Martin Waite's 
Co., Col. Ruggles Woodbridge's legt. ; service, 4 days, in 
Northern department ; pay roll for travel allowance, etc., 
sworn to in Hampshire Co., Jan. 6, 1778. Company re- 
ported to have marched to New Providence on an alarm at 
Bennington, Aug. 17, 1777. 

Green, Benjamin. * Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., 
Col. S. Murray's (Hampshire Co.) regt., enlisted July 13, 
1780; discharged Oct. 10, 1780; service, 3 mos., 7 days, 
travel included ; company raised to reinforce Continental 
Army for 3 months. 

Green, Josiah.f Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt., service, i mo., 17 days; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. 
Amasa Sheldon's Co., Col. Elisha Porter's regt., enlisted July 
10, 1777; discharged Aug. 12, 1777; service, i mo., 8 days, 
travel included, on expedition to Northern department ; roll 
sworn to at Deerfield. 

Harbert, John. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt. ; service, i mo,, 17 days; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Hall, Reuben. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt ; service, i mo., 17 days; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Hall, Jonathan. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Hail, William. ^ Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 

* He may have lived in Bernardston. t Possibly not from Greenfield, 

t Probably from Greenfield. 


Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; company receipt for wages for Sept. 
1775; dated Camp at Prospect Hill; also, order for bounty- 
coat or its equivalent in money, dated Camp at Prospect Hill, 
Nov. 27, 1775. 

Harrington, William. Private, Capt. Keith's Co., Col. 
Michael Jackson's regt. ; Continental Army pay accounts for 
service from Feb. 20, 1777, to July 7, 1777; residence, 
Greenfield; reported deserted July 7, 1777. 

Hastens, Benjamin. Drummer, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
Co., Col. David Leonard's regt. ; service, i mo., 1 7 days ; 
company raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Hastens, Ephraim. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
(Greenfield) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days, on 
alarm at Bennington, Aug. 14, 1777. 

Hastens, Joseph. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' (Green- 
field) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days on the 
alarm at Bennington, Aug. 14, 1777. 

Hastens, Medad. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs'(Green- 
field) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days, on 
alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Hastings, Benjamin. Lieutenant, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
(3d) Co., Col. David Fields' (5th Hampshire Co.) regt. of 
Mass. militia ; list of officers chosen in said regiment, dated 
Deerfield, April 22, 1776; ordered in Council, May 3, 1776, 
that said officers be commissioned ; reported commissioned 
May 3, 1776; also, lieutenant, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Porter's regt.; marched from home July 9, 1777; en- 
gaged July 10, 1777; dischaiged Aug. 12, 1777; service, 38 
days, including travel home (80 miles) ; company marched to 
reinforce Northern Army after the evacuation of Ticonderoga ; 
roll sworn at Deerfield ; also, Capt. James Walsworth's Co., 
Col. Elisha Porter's (Hampshire Co.) regt. ; entered service 
July 20, 1779 ; discharged Aug. 27, 1779 ; service, i mo., 13 
days, at New London, Conn., including 6 days travel home 
(113 miles); roll sworn to at Deerfield. 


Hastings, Ephraim. Private, Capt. John Wells' Co., 
Lieut. Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of Hampshire 
Co. militia ; muster roll dated Garrison at Ticonderoga, Feb. 
24, 1777; enlisted Dec. 23, 1776; enlistment to expire 
March 23, 1777 ; also, Capt. Wells' Co., Col. Timothy Rob- 
inson's detachment of Hampshire Co. militia ; enlisted Dec. 

23, 1776; discharged April i, 1777; service, 100 days at 
Ticonderoga; mileage (175 miles) allowed. 

Hastings, Jonathan. Sergeant, Capt. John Wells' Co., 
Lieut. Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of Hampshire Co. 
militia ; muster roll dated Garrison at Ticonderoga, Feb. 24, 
1777; entered service Dec. 23, 1776; enlistment to expire 
March 23, 1777 ; also, ist sergeant, Capt. John Wells' Co., 
Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of Hampshire Co. 
militia; entered service Dec. 23, 1776; discharged April i, 
1777 ; service, 100 days, at Ticonderoga ; mileage (180 miles) 

Hastings, Joseph. Sergeant, Capt. John Wells' Co., 
Lieut. Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of Hampshire 
Co. militia ; muster roll dated Garrison at Ticonderoga, Feb. 

24, 1777 ; entered service Dec. 23, 1776 ; enhstment to ex- 
pire, March 23, 1777 ; reported sick at barracks ; also, Capt. 
John Wells' Co., Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of 
Hampshire Co. militia; entered service Dec. 23, 1776 ; dis- 
charged April I, 1777; service, 100 days, at Ticonderoga; 
mileage (175 miles) allowed. 

Hastings, Joseph. Descriptive list dated at Deerfield, 
July 24, 1780, of men detached from Hampshire Co. militia, 
agreeable to resolve of June 22, 1780, and returned by Maj. 
David Dickinson as mustered by him by order of Lieut. Col. 
David Wells ; 3d or loth Co., 5th Hampshire Co. regt. ; age, 
1 7 years; stature, 5 ft. 6 1-2 in.; complexion, dark; hair, 
brown ; engaged for town of Greenfield ; term, 3 months ; 
also, private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., Col. S. Murray's 
(Hampshire Co.) regt.; enlisted July 13, 1780; discharged 


Oct. lo, 1780; service, 3 mos., 7 days; including 9 days 
travel home (172 miles); company raised to reinforce Conti- 
nental Army for 3 months. 

Hastings, Samuel. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Samuel Williams' regt. of minute-men, which marched 
April 20, 1775, in response to the alarm of April 19, 1775 ; 
left place of rendezvous May 6, 1775; service, 15 days; re- 
ported returned home. 

Hastings, Benjamin. ist Lieut. 3d Co., petition addressed 
to the Council, dated Greenfield, June 12, 1780, signed 
by Hastings and others, of Greenfield, stating that they had 
been commissioned as officers in 5th Hampshire Co. regt. of 
Mass. Militia, May 3, 1776, but that owing to infirmities they 
were no longer able to perform their duties properlv, and ask- 
ing that their resignations be accepted ; certificate signed by 
Lieut. Col. David Wells states that the officers in question 
were no longer able to serve the public usefully ; ordered in 
Council, June 19, 1780, that the resignations be accepted. 

Hastins, Oliver, Greenfield. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt., company return [probably 
Oct. 1775]. 

Herinton, William, Greenfield. List of men raised to 
serve in the Continental Army, as returned by Lieut. Samuel 
Wells, sworn to in Hampshire Co., April 7, 1779; residence, 
Greenfield ; enlisted for the town of Greenfield ; joined Capt. 
Keeth's [Keith] Co., Col. Jackson's regt. ; enlistment, 3 

Herrington, William. List of men raised to serve in the 
Continental Army from 5th Hampshire Co. regt., endorsed, 
" Col. David Field's Return " [year not given] engaged for 
town of Greenfield ; joined Capt. Smith's Co., Col. Marshall's 
regt. ; term 3 years. 

Hermon, Elijah.* Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 

* Not certain that he belonged to Greenfield. 


Col. Samuel Brewer's regt., abstract for travel allowance, etc., 
sworn to at Deerfield ; lOO miles travel allowed said Hermon ; 
company served at Ticonderoga for 3 mos. from Sept. i, 
1776 ; also, corporal, Capt. Caleb Montague's Co., Col. Wil- 
liams' regt., engaged July 11, 1777; discharged Aug. 12, 
1777; service, i mo., 9 days, on expedition to Northern de- 
partment, including 6 days travel home (120 miles). 

Hinsdell, Ariel. Corporal, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co. of 
minute-men. Col. Samuel Williams' regt. ; which marched 
April 20, 1775, in response to the alarm of April 19, 1775; 
left place of rendezvous May 6, 1775, and returned home; 
service, 1 5 days. 

Hinsdale, Ariel. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; com- 
pany raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Hinsdale, Ariel. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Porter's regt. ; marched from home July 9, 1777 ; discharged 
Aug. 12, 1777; service, 38 days, including travel home (180 
miles) ; company marched to reinforce Northern Army after 
the evacuation of Ticonderoga ; sworn to at Deerfield. 

Hinsdale, Samuel. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' (Green- 
field) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days ; com- 
pany marched on the alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Holmes, Philip. Hardwick (also given Greenfield and 
Deerfield) ; return of men raised to serve in the Continental 
Army from Capt. Isaac Power's Co., 4th Hampshire Co. 
regt., as returned by Lieut. Col. R. Woodbridge, dated South 
Hadley ; engaged for the town of Greenwich ; joined Capt. 
Oliver's Co., Col. Greaton's regt. ; term during ihe war ; re- 
ported a transient ; also, list of men mustered by Thomas 
Newhall, muster master for Worcester Co. ; Capt. Oliver's 
Co., Col. Greaton's regt., mustered Feb. 27, 1777; also, pri- 
vate Capt. Oliver's Co., Col. John Greaton's regt. ; Continen- 
tal Army pay accounts for service from Feb. 26, 1777, to 
Dec. 31, 1779; also, Capt. Edward Cumston's Co., Col. 


John Greaton's regt. ; return of men who were in camp on or 
before Aug. 15, 1777, and who had not been absent subse- 
quently except on furlough ; also, Capt. Robert Oliver's Co., 
Col. Greaton's (2d) regt., return (year not given); enlisted 
for town of Worcester ; mustered by County Muster Master 
Newhall ; also, Capt. Thomas Prichard's Co., Col. Greaton's 
regt., Continental Army pay accounts for service from Jan. i, 

1780, to Dec. 31, 1780; residence, Hardwick ; also, descrip- 
tive list dated West Point, Jan. 25, 1781 ; Col. John Great- 
on's (3d) regt. ; age, 40 yrs. ; stature, 5 ft. 10 in. ; complexion, 
dark ; hair, dark ; eyes, dark ; residence, Greenfield (also 
given Deerfield); enlisted Feb. 1777, by Maj. Oliver ; en- 
listment, during war ; also, list taken from Lieut. James 
Davis' book (year not given) of men belonging to 4th Co., 
3d Mass. regt., who enlisted for the war. 

Hollewel, Daniel. Pay roll for 6 months men raised by 
the town of Greenfield for service in the Continental Army 
during 1780; marched July 17, 1780; discharged Jan. 18, 

1 78 1, 172 miles from home ; service, 6 mos., i day. (See 
Daniel Holloway and Daniel Cornwell.) 

Holloway, Daniel. Greenfield. List of men raised for 
the 6 months service and returned by Brig. Gen. Paterson as 
having passed muster in a return dated Camp Totoway, Oct. 
25, 1780. (See Daniel Cornwell and Daniel Hollowel.) 

Horsley, Benjamin. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
(Greenfield) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days ; 
company marched on the alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14,1777. 

Horsley, Jonathan Jewett. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
Co., Col. David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; 
company raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; 
also, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Porter's regt. ; marched 
from home July 9, 1777; enlisted July 10, 1777; discharged 
Aug. 12, 1777; service, 38 days, including travel home (80 
miles) ; company marched to reinforce Northern Army after 
the evacuation of Ticonderoga ; roll sworn to at Deerfield. 


Horsley, Samson. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt. ; service, i mo., 17 days; com- 
pany raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Hosley, Sampson. Private, James Walworth's Co., Col. Eli- 
sha Porter's (Hampshire Co.) regt., enlisted July 22, 1 779 ; dis- 
charged Aug. 27, 1779 ; service, i mo., 1 1 days, at New Lon- 
don, Conn., including 6 days travel home (113 miles); also, 
pay roll for same service sworn to at Deerfield ; also, Capt. 
Oliver Shattuck's Co., Hampshire Co. regt., commanded by 
Lieut. Col. Barnabas Sears; enlisted Aug. 12, 1781 ; dis- 
charged, Nov. 8, 1781 ; service, 3 mos., 2 days, including 5 
days travel home (100 miles); company raised for 3 months; 
roll dated Deerfield. 

Hosley, Thomas. Private, Capt. Oliver Shattuck's Co., 
Hampshire Co. regt. ; commanded by Lieut. Col. Barnabas 
Sears; enlisted Aug. 12, 1781 ; service, 3 mos., 2 days, in- 
cluding 5 days travel home (100 miles); company raised for 
3 months ; roll dated Deerfield. 

Houland, George. Capt. Timothy Childs' (Greenfield) 
Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days ; company 
marched on alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Houland, John. Same Co., same regt., and same service. 

House, Elisha. Corporal, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Wells' regt.; service, 2 mos., 8 days, including 
travel home ; company raised May 10, 1777, for service at 
Ticonderoga and was discharged July 8, 1777. 

House, Zacheriah. Same co., same regt., same service. 

Hunt, John. Corporal, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Hunt, Thomas. Bernardston (also given Greenfield). 
Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Samuel Williams' 
regt. of minute-men, which marched April 20, 1775, in re- 
sponse to the alarm of April 19, 1775 ; service, 10 days; re- 
ported enlisted into the army May i, 1775; ^^^°' Capt. 


Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; muster roll 
dated Aug, i, 1775; enlisted May i, 1775 '■> service, 3 mos., 
8 days ; also, company receipt for wages for Sept. 1775, dated 
Camp at Prospect Hill ; also, company return [probably Oct. 
1775] ; also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent in money 
dated Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775. 

Hunt, Thomas. Private, Capt. John Wells' Co., Lieut. 
Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of Hampshire Co. 
militia ; muster roll dated Garrison at Ticonderoga, Feb. 24, 
1777 ; enlistment to expire March 23, 1777 ; also, Capt. John 
Wells' Co., Col. Timothy Robinson's detachment of Hamp- 
shire Co. militia; enlisted Jan. 4, 1777; discharged April i, 
1777; service, 88 days, at Ticonderoga; mileage (175 miles) 

Jackson, Nathaniel. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Samuel Brewer's regt.; pay abstract for travel allowance, 
etc., from place of discharge home; sworn to at Deerfield, Dec. 
10, 1777; 167 miles travel allowed said Jackson; com- 
pany served at Ticonderoga for 3 mos., from Sept. i, 

Johnson, Jonathan. Descriptive list of men raised in 
Hampshire Co. for the term of 9 mos. from the time of their 
arrival at Fishkill, agreeable to resolve of April 20, 1778; 
Capt. Arms' Co., Col. Wells' regt.; age, 18 yrs.; stature, 5 ft. 
4 in; complexion, light; residence, Greenfield; arrived at 
Fishkill, July 7, 1778 ; also, list of men returned as received 
of Jonathan Warner, commissioner, by Brig. Gen. John 
Glover, at Fort Arnold, July 10, 1778. 

Johnson, Richard. From Old Haddam, Conn.; service 
not found. He held a commission as lieut. in the Revolu- 
tionary Army. Lived and died in Greenfield. 

Jones, Phineas. Greenfield. Private, Capt. Seth Murray's 
Co., Col. Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge's (25th) regt.; mus- 
ter roll dated Aug. i, 1775 ; enlisted May 17, 1775 ' service, 
2 mos., 20 days ; also, company return dated Prospect Hill, 


Sept. 30, 1775 ; also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent 
in money dated Cambridge, Oct. 25,1775. 

Jones, Phineas. Greenfield ; Capt. Ichabod Dexter's Co., 
Col. Benj. Ruggles Woodbridge's (25th) regt. ; receipt for 
advance pay, signed by said Jones and others, dated Cam- 
bridge, July 7, 1775; also, private, same co. and regt.; com- 
pany return [probably Oct. 1775]. 

Jonson, Jonathan. List of men raised to serve in the 
Continental Army for the term of 9 months, agreeable to re- 
solve of April 20, 1778, as returned by Capt. Timothy Childs' 
and Capt. Ebenezer Arms, dated Greenfield, Sept. 25, 1778 ; 
also, descriptive list of 9 months men raised in Hampshire 
Co., as returned by Noah Goodman, superintendent for said 
county; Capt. Arms' Co., Col. Wells' regt.; age, 18 yrs. ; 
stature, 5 ft. 4 in.; hair, light ; engaged for town of Greenfield. 

Kar, Benjamin. Corporal, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt. ; service, i mo., 1 7 days ; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Kile, John. Private, Lieut. Col.'s Co., Col. John Brooks' 
regt.; Continental Army pay accounts for service from Jan. i, 

1780, to Dec. 31, 1780; also, Capt. Eliphalet Thorpe's Co., 
Lieut. Col. Brooks' (7th) regt. ; muster rolls for Jan. -May, 

1 78 1, dated West Point; reported on command at the lines 
in Jan. 1781 ; also, muster roll for June, 1781 ; also, muster 
roll for July, 1 781, dated at Phillipsborough ; also, muster 
rolls for Aug. and Sept. 1 781, dated at Peekskill ; reported 
on command with Col. Scammell; also, muster roll for Dec. 
1 78 1, and Jan. 1782, dated York Hutts ; also, descriptive list 
dated Feb. 20, 1782, Capt. Eliphalet Thorpe's Co., Lieut. 
Col. J. Brooks' (7th) regt., age 17 yrs,, stature, 5 ft. 7 in., com- 
plexion, light; hair, dark [also given brown], occupation, la- 
borer, birthplace, Malagash, North Scotland ; residence, Green- 
field ; enlisted May, 1779, enlistment during the war; also, 
muster roll for Feb. 1782, dated Hutts and sworn to at 
West Point ; reported mustered by Lieut. Curtis ; also, pri- 


vate, 4th Co., Lieut. Col. John Brooks' (7th) regt., inspection 
return for the month of May, 1782, and an account of cloth- 
ing received between Nov. i, 1781, and May 31, 1782; re- 
ported with sappers and miners ; also, Capt. Thorpe's Co., 
Lieut. Col. J. Brooks' (7th) regt., list of men who died or 
were discharged subsequent to Jan. i, 1781 ; said Kile dis- 
charged June 7, 1783, by Gen. Washington, term of enlist- 
ment having expired; also, list of men belonging to Col. J. 
Brooks' (7th) regt., who were entitled to honorary badges for 
faithful service ; said Kile served from March, 1778, entitled 
to one stripe. 

King, Ezra. Descriptive list of men raised to reinforce the 
Continental Army for the term of six months, agreeable to re- 
solve of June 5, 1780, returned as received of Justin Ely, 
commissioner, by Maj. Peter Harwood of 6th Mass. regt., at 
Springfield, July i, 1780, age, 18 yrs., stature, 5 ft. 4 in.; 
complexion, light ; engaged for town of Greenfield ; marched 
to camp July i, 1780, under command of Ensign Joseph 
Miller ; also, list of men raised for the 6 months service and 
returned by Brig. Gen, Paterson as having passed muster in 
a return dated Camp Totaway, Oct. 25, 1780, residence, Brat- 
tleboro ; also, pay roll for 6 months men raised by the town 
of Greenfield for service in the Continental Army during 1780, 
marched June 30, 1780, discharged Jan. 3, 1781, 172 miles 
away from home ; service, 6 mos., 4 days. 

Kingsland, Jesse. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt. ; service, i mo., 1 7 days ; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Kingsley, Elijah, Greenfield (also given Bernardston). Ser- 
geant, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Samuel Williams' regt. 
of minute-men which marched Apr. 20, 1775, in response to 
the alarm of Apr. 19, 1775; service, 10 days, reported en- 
listed into the army May i, 1775 ; also, third sergeant, Capt. 
Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; muster roll 
dated Aug. i, 1775; enlisted May i, 1775; service, 3 mos., 


8 days ; also, company receipt for wages for Sept. 1775, dated 
camp at Prospect Hill ; also, company return [probably Oct. 
1 775] ? also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent in money 
dated Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775. 

Kimpland, William, Greenfield. Private Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co., Col. Samuel Williams' regt. of minute-men, which 
marched April 20, 1775, in response to the alarm of April 
19, 1775; left place of rendezvous May 6, 1775; service, 15 
days; reported returned home. 

Kelley, Seymour. List of men raised in Hampshire county 
for the term of nine months from the time of their arrival at 
Fishkill, agreeable to resolve of April 20, 1778; residence 
Greenfield ; engaged for the town of Greenfield ; arrived at 
Fishkill, July 20, 1778. 

Kelcy, Seymour. List of men raised to serve in the Con- 
tinental Army for the term of nine months, agreeable to the 
resolve of April 20, 1778; as returned by Capt. Timothy 
Childs and Capt. Ebenezer Arms, dated Greenfield, Sept. 25, 


Kelsy, Ahiel. Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., Col. S. 
Murray's regt. ; enlisted July 30, 1780; service, 2 mos., 20 
days, including nine days travel home (172 miles) ; regt. raised 
in Hampshire Co. to reinforce Continental Army for three 

Kane,. Asaph, Greenfield. Private, Capt. Nathan Rowle's 
Co., Col. John Jacob's regt.; enlisted Aug. i, 1778 ; service, 
5 mos., 4 days, at Rhode Island, enlistment to expire Jan. i, 
1779; also, Capt. Joshua L. Woodbridge's Co., Col. Nathan 
Tyler's regt., enlisted July 20, 1779, discharged Dec. 25, 
1779; service, 5 mos., 11 days, at Rhode Island; roll sworn 
to at Newport ; also, same co. and regt. pay roll for Dec. 

1779, sworn to at Newport, allowing i mo. 5 days service at 
Rhode Island, travel (91 miles) included ; also, Capt. Joseph 
Browning's Co., Col. Seth Murray's regt. ; enlisted July 30, 

1780, discharged Oct. 10, 1780; service, 2 mos., 18 days, in- 


eluding 7 days travel home (140 miles); regt. raised in Hamp- 
shire Co. to reinforce Continental Army for three months. 

Larkin, William, Greenfield. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt.; muster roll dated Aug. i, 
1775; enlisted May 10, 1775; service, 2 mos., 26 days; 
also, company receipt for wages for Sept. 1775, dated Camp 
at Prospect Hill ; also, company return [probably Oct. 1775]; 
also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent in money, dated 
Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775. 

Larkin, William. Private, Capt. Oliver Shattuck's Co., in 
a regiment commanded by Lieut. Col. Barnabas Sears ; en- 
listed Aug. 12, 1781 ; discharged Nov. 8, 1781; service, 3 
mos., 2 days, including 5 days travel home (100 miles); regi- 
ment raised from Hampshire Co. militia to serve for 3 months ; 
roll dated Deerfield. 

Leach, Ephraim. Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., Col. 
S. Murray's regt.; enlisted July 13, 1780; discharged 
Oct. 10, 1780; service, 3 mos., 7 days, including 9 days 
travel home (172 miles) ; regiment raised in Hampshire Co. 
to reinforce the Continental Army for 3 months. 

Leech, Ephraim. Descriptive list dated at Deerfield, 
July 24, 1780, of men detached from Hampshire Co. militia, 
agreeable to resolve of June 22, 1780, and returned by Maj. 
David Dickinson as mustered by him by order of Lieut. 
Col. David Wells; 3d or loth Hampshire Co. regt.; age, 
16 years; stature, 5 ft. 3 in.; complexion, light; hair, light; 
eyes, light ; engaged for town of Greenfield ; term, 3 

Leech, Jeremiah. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Brewer's regt. ; pay abstract for travel allowance and 
mileage from place of discharge home ; sworn to at Deerfield, 
Dec. 10,1777; 95 miles travel allowed said Leech ; company 
served at Ticonderoga for 3 months from Sept. t, i776.(?) 

Lindley, Eliphalet. Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Wells' regt. ; service, 2 mos., 8 days, including travel 


home; company raised May lo, 1777, for service at Ticon- 
deroga, and was discharged July 8, 1777. 

Lindsey, EHphalet. Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., 
Col. S. Murray's regt. ; enlisted July 29, 1780; discharged 
Oct. 10, 1780; service, 2 mos., 21 days, including 9 days 
travel home (172 miles) ; regiment raised in Hampshire Co. 
to reinforce Continental Army for three months. 

Lock, Ebenezer. Private, Capt, Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Brewer's regt. ; pay abstract for travel allowance, etc., 
from place of discharge home ; sworn to at Deerfield, Dec. 10, 
1777; 128 miles travel allowed said Lock; company served 
at Ticonderoga for 3 months from Sept. i, 1776. 

Loveland, Frederick. Receipt dated Greenfield, April 17, 
1 78 1, for bounty paid by Seth Rowland and Isaac Newton, 
on behalf of a class of the town of Greenfield, to serve in the 
Continental Army for 3 years ; also, descriptive list of men 
raised in Hampshire Co. to serve in the Continental Army, 
as returned by Noah Goodman, superintendent; age, 17 yrs. ; 
stature, 5 ft. 5 in. ; complexion, light ; hair, light ; occupa- 
tion, farmer; engaged for town of Greenfield April 17, 1781 ; 
term, 3 years ; also, private, Capt. Francis Green's Co., Col. 
Joseph Vose's (ist) regt. ; muster roll for May, 1781 ; dated. 
Garrison, West Point ; reported on command at Dobbs' 
Ferry ; also, muster roll for June, 1781, dated Camp Phillips- 
bourgh ; also, muster roll for July, 1781 ; reported on com- 
mand with Col. Scammell ; also, muster rolls for Aug. and 
Sept. 1 78 1, dated Camp Peekskill ; reported on command 
with Col. Swift in Sept. 1781 ; also, muster rolls for Oct. 
and Nov. 1781, Jan.— March, 1782; dated Quarters, York 
Hutts ; reported sick in Jan. 1782. 

Loveland, George. Descriptive list dated Deerfield, 
July 24, 1780, of men detached from Hampshire Co. mili- 
tia, agreeable to resolve of June 22, 1780, and returned by 
Maj. David Dickinson as mustered by him by order of 
Lieut. Col. David Wells ; 3d or lOth Co., 5th Hampshire 


Co. regt. ; age, 1 8 yrs ; stature, 5 ft. 4 in, ; complexion, 
dark ; hair, brown ; eyes, light ; engaged for town of Green- 
field ; term, 3 months ; also, private, Capt. Isaac Newton's 
Co., Col. S. Murray's regt.; enlisted July 22, 1780; dis- 
charged Oct. 10, 1780; service, 2 mos., 28 days, including 
9 days travel home (172 miles) ; regiment raised in Hamp- 
shire Co. to reinforce Continental Army for 3 months ; also, { 
receipt dated Greenfield, April 17, 1781, for bounty paid A 
said Loveland by Lieut. Ebenezer Wells and David Allen, on 
behalf of a class of the town of Greenfield, to serve in the 
Continental Army for the term of 3 years ; also, descriptive 
list of men raised in Hampshire Co. to serve in the Conti- 
nental Army, as returned by Noah Goodman, superintendent ; 
age, 19 yrs.; stature, 5 ft. 9 in. ; complexion, light; hair, 
light ; occupation, farmer ; engaged for town of Greenfield ; 
engaged April 17, 1781 ; term, 3 years ; also, private, Capt. 
Francis Green's Co., Col. Joseph Vose's (ist) regt.; muster 
roll for May, 1781, dated Garrison, West Point; reported 
on command at Dobbs' Ferry ; also, muster roll for June, 
1 78 I, dated Camp Phillipsborough ; reported on command 
at Dobbs' Ferry; also, muster roll for July, 1781, reported 
on command with Col. Scammell ; also, muster rolls of Aug. 
and Sept. 1781, dated Camp at Peekskill ; also, muster rolls 
for Oct. and Nov. 1771, Jan. -March, 1782, dated Quar- 
ters, York Hutts ; reported on fatigue duty in Oct. and Nov. 
1781 ; buried in Riverside Cemetery. 

Loveman, George. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co. 
(Greenfield). Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days ; com- 
pany marched on the alarm of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Lucas, Daniel. Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., Col. 
S. Murray's regt. ; enlisted July 13, 1780 ; discharged Oct. 10, 
1780; service, 3 mos., 7 days, including 9 days travel home 
(172 miles); regiment raised in Hampshire Co. to reinforce 
Continental Army for 3 months. 

Luckust, Edmund. Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 


David Wells' regt. ; service, 2 mos., 8 days, including travel 
home; company raised May lo, 1777, for service at Ticon- 
deroga and discharged July 8, 1777. 

Lyon, Jonathan. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; com- 
pany raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

McAllister, Daniel. Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., 
Col. S. Murray's regt.; enlisted July 13, 1780; discharged 
Oct. 10, 1780; service, 3 mos., 7 days, including 9 days 
travel home (172 miles); regiment raised in Hampshire Co., 
to reinforce Continental Army for 3 months. 

Macnter, Alexander. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt. ; service, i mo., 1 7 days ; com- 
pany raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Mallaray, William. Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., 
Col. S. Murray's regt.; enlisted July 30, 1780; discharged 
Oct. 10, 1780; service, 2 mos., 20 days, including 9 days 
travel home (172 miles) ; regiment raised in Hampshire Co. 
to reinforce Continental Army for 3 months. 

Man, (?) Elisha. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Brewer's regt. ; pay abstract for mileage and travel al- 
lowance from place of discharge home ; sworn to at Deerfield, 
Dec. 10, 1777 ; 108 miles travel allowed said Man ; company 
served at Ticonderoga for 3 months from Sept. i, 1776. 
[Probably Elisha Munn.] 

Marrett, Nathaniel. Framingham ; list of men raised to 
serve in the Continental Army from 5th Hampshire Co. regt., 
endorsed " Col. David Field's return ; " engaged for the town 
of Greenfield ; joined Capt. Smith's Co., Col. Marshall's regt. ; 
term, 3 years ; also, sergeant, 2d Co., Col. Thomas Mar- 
shall's (loth) regt. ; Continental Army pay accounts for serv- 
ice from Jan. i, 1777, to Dec. 24, 1779; also, Capt. Josiah 
Smith's (3d) Co., Col. Marshall's regt. ; muster rolls for Jan. 
and April, 1779, dated West Point; engaged Dec. 24, 1776. 

Manter, " Orial." Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., 


Col. S. Murray's regt. ; enlisted July 30, 1780; discharged 
Oct. 10, 1780; service, 2 mos., 20 days, including 9 days 
travel home (172 miles) ; regiment raised in Hampshire Co. 
to reinforce Continental Army for 3 months. 

Marrill, Nathaniel. Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa 
Whitcomb's regt. ; order for bounty coat or its equivalent in 
money dated Camp at Prospect Hill, Nov. 16, 1775. [Name 
crossed out on roll.] 

Martangale [Martindale], Ebenezer. Private, Capt. Tim- 
othy Childs' Co., Col. David Leonard's regt. ; service, i 
mo., 17 days; company raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at 
Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. David 
Wells' regt. ; service, 2 mos., 8 days, including travel home ; 
company raised May 10, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga and 
was discharged July 8, 1777; also, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
(Greenfield) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days on 
the alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Martangale [Martindale], Uriah. Private, Capt. Timothy 
Childs' (Greenfield) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 
days on the alarm at Bennington, Aug. 14, 1777. 

Martindil [Martindale], Uriah. Capt. John Wells' Co., 
Col. David Wells' regt. ; enhsted Sept. 22, 1777 ; discharged 
Oct. 23, 1777; service, i mo., 2 days; in Northern depart- 
ment; company detached from Hampshire Co. mihtia ; roll 
dated Shelburne. 

Mauley, John. List of men raised for the 6 months serv- 
ice and returned by Brig. Gen. Paterson as having passed 
muster, in a return dated Camp Totaway, Oct. 25, 1780. 

Meiggs, Phineas. List of men to serve in Continental 
Army for the term of 9 months, agreeable to resolve of April 
20, 1778, as returned by Capt. Timothy Childs and Capt. 
Ebenezer Arms, dated Greenfield, Sept. 25, 1778. 

Meen [perhaps Munn], Calvin. List of men entitled to 
|20 or 200 acres of land, agreeable to resolve of March 5, 
1 801 ; 4th Mass. regt.; residence, Greenfield. 


Merrett, Simeon. Private, Capt. Isaac Newton's Co., Col. 
S. Murray's regt. ; enlisted July 30, 1780; discharged Oct. 
10, 1780 ; service, 2 mos., 20 days ; including 9 days travel 
home (170 miles) ; regiment raised in Hampshire Co. to rein- 
force Continental Army for 3 months. 

Michel [Mitchell], Elijah. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Col. Samuel Williams' regt. of minute-men, which 
marched April 20, 1775, in response to the alarm of April 
19, 1775 ; left place of rendezvous May 30, 1775, and re- 
turned home ; service, 30 days ; also, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
(Greenfield) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days ; 
company marched on alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Mitchel, Elijah. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Brewer's regt. ; pay abstract for travel allowance, 
etc. ; from place of discharge home ; sworn to at Deerfield, 
Dec. 10, 1777; 92 miles travel allowed said Mitchel; com- 
pany served at Ticonderoga for 3 months from Sept. i, 

Miles, Daniel. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. 
Timothy Childs' Co., Col. David Wells' regt. ; service, 2 
mos., 8 days, including travel home ; company raised May 
10, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga and was discharged July 

8, 1777- 

Millings, Richard. List of men raised to serve in Conti- 
nental Army, as returned by Lieut. Samuel Wells, sworn to 
in Hampshire Co., April 7, 1779; residence, Greenfield; 
engaged for the town of Greenfield ; joined Capt. Smith's 
Co., Col. Marshall's regt. ; term, 3 years. 

Millen, Richard. Return of men raised to serve in the 
Continental Army from 5th Hampshire Co. regt., endorsed 
" Col'o David Field's Return ; " engaged for town of Green- 
field ; joined Capt. Smith's Co., Col. Marshall's regt. ; term 
3 years ; also, sergeant, 2d Co., Col. Thomas Marshall's 


regt. ; Continental Army pay accounts for service from Jan. i, 
1777, to Dec. 24 1779; residence, South Hadley ; reported 
discharged Dec. 24, 1779; also, Capt. Josiah Smith's (3d) 
Co., Col. Thomas Marshall's regt.; return of men who were 
in camp on or before Aug. 15, 1777, and who had not been 
absent subsequently except on furlough, etc. ; reported de- 
ceased ; also, same co. and regt. ; muster rolls for Jan. and 
April, 1779, dated West Point; appointed Dec. 24, 1776; 
also, ensign, Col. Marshall's regt. ; list of officers promoted 
in the Continental Army ; commissioned Nov. 26, 1779. 

Miller, Benjamin. Greenfield ; private, Capt. Agrippa 
Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; muster roll dated 
Aug. I, 1775; enlisted May i, 1775; service, 3 mos., 8 
days ; also, company receipt for wages for Sept. 1775 5 dated 
Camp at Prospect Hill ; also, company return [probably 
Oct. 1775] ' also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent in 
money, dated Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775. 

Moore, John. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Brewer's regt. ; pay abstract for mileage and travel al- 
lowance from place of discharge home, sworn to at Deerfield, 
Dec. 10, 1777 ; 140 miles travel allowed said Moore; com- 
pany served at Ticonderoga for 3 months from Sept. i, 1776. 

Monson, Moses. Private, Capt. Thomas French's Co., 
Col. David Wells' regt. ; service between Sept. 23, 1777, and 
Oct. 18, 1777, 18 days, in Northern department. 

More, William. Capt. Col. Wm. Shepard's (3d) regt. ; 
Continental Army pay accounts for service from Jan. i, 1777, 
to Dec. 31, 1779 ; reported as serving 30 mos. as lieutenant, 
6 mos. as captain ; also, letter from said Moore, lieut., and 
other officers of Col. Shepard's regt., dated Camp at Valley 
Forge May i, 1778, requesting that application be made to 
the Board of War, for clothing granted them by resolve of 
March 13, 1778 ; also, lieutenant, Capt. Thomas Fish's Co., 
Col. Shepard's regt. ; muster roll for July and August, 1778 ; 
^Iso, same co. and regt., muster roll for Oct. 1778, dated 


Providence; commissioned Jan. i, 1777; reported trans- 
ferred to (late) Capt. Bull's Co., Oct. 20, 1778 ; also, Capt. 
Libbens Ball's Co., Col. Shepard's regt. ; muster roll for Oct. 
1778 ; also Maj. Ball's Co., Col. Shepard's regt. ; muster roll 
for Nov. 1778, sworn to in camp at Providence; also cap- 
tain. Lieutenant Colonel's Co., Col. Shepard's regt. ; muster 
roll of field, staff, and commissioned officers for March and 
April, 1779, dated Providence; commissioned March 31, 
1779; also, captain, Col. Shepard's (4th) regt.; return of 
officers for clothing, dated Salem, Aug. 28, 1779; also cap- 
tain, 4th Mass. regt. ; list of settlements of rank of Continental 
officers, dated West Point, made by a board held for the pur- 
pose and confirmed by Congress Sept. 6, 1779, commissioned 
June 15, 1779. (Capt. Moore was a prominent man in 
Greenfield after the war.) 

Moreley, John. Descriptive list of men raised to reinforce 
the Continental Army for the term of six months, agreeable 
to resolve of June 5, 1780, returned as received of Justin Ely, 
Commissioner, by Brig. Gen. John Glover, at Springfield, 
Aug. 12, 1780; age, 27 yrs ; stature, 5 ft. 3 in. ; complexion, 
dark ; engaged for town of Greenfield, arrived at Springfield, 
Aug. 10, 1780, marched to camp Aug. 12, 1780, under com- 
mand of Ensign Boardman. 

Morgan, Caleb. Greenfield ; private, Capt. Samuel Taylor's 
Co., Col. Nicholas Dike's regt. ; pay abstract for mileage, 
dated Roxbury, Sept. 17, 1776; also, same co. and regt.; 
pay abstract for allowance, etc., from place of discharge home, 
dated Dorchester Heights, Nov. 28, 1776; said Morgan 
credited with allowance for 6 days travel (113 miles); also, 
Capt. John Morgan's Co., Col. Ruggles Woodbridge's regt. ; 
engaged Aug. 24 (also given Sept. 18) 1777; service In 
Northern department ; said Morgan, with others, reported 
as having deserted Oct. 27, 1777, and pay not allowed. 

Morley, George. Receipt dated April 17, 1781, for bounty 
paid said Morley by Benjamin Hosley, on behalf of a class 


of the town of Greenfield, to serve in the Continental Army 
for the term of 3 years ; also descriptive list of men raised in 
Hampshire Co. to serve in the Continental Army, as returned 
by Noah Goodman, superintendent ; age, 24 yrs. ; stature, 5 ft. 
10 in ; complexion, light; hair, light; occupation, farmer; 
engaged for town of Greenfield ; engaged March 30, 1781 ; 
term, 3 years. 

Morrison, John. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; enlisted July 10, 1777; service, 38 
days, including travel home (80 miles) ; company marched to 
reinforce Northern Army after the evacuation of Ticonderoga ; 
roll sworn to at Deerfield. (May not belong to Green- 

Mun,Asa. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. David 
Leonard's regt. ; service, 17 days ; reported as having lost his 
leg ; company raised Feb. 24, 1 777, for service at Ticonderoga. 
(He was a tailor in Greenfield.) 

Munn, Calvin, Monson. List of men raised to serve in 
the Continental Army from 9th Co., Col. John Bliss's (ist 
Hampshire Co.) regt. ; as returned by Capt. Caleb Keep ; 
residence, Monson ; engaged for town of Monson ; joined 
Capt. Keep's Co., Col. William Shepherd's regt. ; engaged in 
1777, term during the war ; also, private, Capt. Caleb Keep's 
Co., Col. William Shepherd's regt. ; Continental Army pay 
accounts for service from March 21, 1777, to Dec. 31, 1779 ; 
also same co. and regt. ; muster rolls for Oct. and Nov. 1778 ; 
dated Providence ; also, Lieut. Col. Ebenezer Sprout's Co. ; 
Col. Shepherd's regt. ; muster roll for March and April 1779, 
dated Providence ; enlisted April 22, 1777 ; enlistment 3 yrs. ; 
reported on fatigue duty ; also, private and corporal, Lieut. 
Colonel's Co., Col. Shepherd's regt. ; Continental Army pay 
accounts for service from Jan. i, 1780, to Dec, 31, 1780; 
reported as serving 7 mos. as private, 5 mos. as corporal ; also 
Lieut. Colonel's Co., 4th Mass. regt.; return made up for the 
year 1780, dated West Point ; reported promoted to corporal 



Aug. I, 1780; also, private, Lieut. Colonel's Co., Col, Shep- 
herd's (4th) regt. ; return for gratuity, dated Highlands, 
Feb. 24, 1780; gratuity paid Sergt. Munn, Jan. 29, 1780; 
also, corporal, Capt. Elnathan Huskell's Co., Col. Shephard's 
regt.; muster rolls for Dec. 1780-Feb, 1782, dated York 
Hutts ; reported on furlough in Dec. 1781, and Jan. 1782. 
(Tavern keeper in Greenfield after the war.) 

Mun, Elisha. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; return for equipments (year not given, 
probably 1775. See Noah Mun). 

Mun, Elisha. Private, Capt, Enoch Chapin's Co., Col. 
Jacob Gerrish's regt. of guards; enlisted July 27, 1778, 
discharged Dec. 4, 1778 ; service, 5 mos., 7 (?) days ; company 
detached from Hampshire Co. Militia to guard stores at 
Springfield and Brookfield for 6 months from July i, 1778 ; 
roll dated Springfield. 

Mun, Noah, Greenfield (also given Northfield). Private, 
Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; mus- 
ter roll dated Aug, i, 1775; enlisted July 15, 1775; serv- 
ice, 17 days ; also, company receipt for wages for Sept. 1775, 
dated Camp at Prospect Hill ; also, company return (prob- 
ably Oct. 1775) ; also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent 
in money, dated Prospect Hill, Nov, 27, 1775 ; also private, 
Capt, Timothy Child's (Greenfield) Co,, Col, David Field's 
regt, ; service, 4 days ; company marched on the alarm at 
Bennington of Aug, 14, 1777, 

Munn, Samuel, Greenfield, Private, Capt, Samuel Taylor's 
Co,, Col. Nicholas Dike's regt. ; pay abstract for mileage, dated 
Roxbury, Sept, 17, 1776; also, same co, and regt,; pay ab- 
stract for travel allowances, etc, from place of discharge home, 
dated Dorchester Heights, Nov, 28, 1776; said Munn 
credited with allowance for 6 days travel (113 miles). 

Nash, Daniel, Greenfield, ist Lieutenant, Capt. Ebenezer 
Arms' (loth ) Co., Col, David Field's (5th Hampshire 
Co,) regt, of Mass. Militia ; list of officers chosen in 


said regiment, dated Deerfield, April 22, 1776; ordered in 
Council May 3, 1776, that said officers be commissioned; 
reported commissioned May 3, 1776; also petition addressed 
to the Council, dated Greenfield, April 13, 1780, signed by 
said Nash of Greenfield, stating that he had been commis- 
sioned lieutenant of the loth Co., 5th regt,. May 3, 1776, 
and that by reason of old age and infirmity he was no longer 
able to serve in that capacity, and asked permission to resign 
his commission ; certificate attached, signed by Lieut. Col. 
David Wells, certifies that said Nash was both old and infirm 
and unable to serve either at home or abroad ; ordered in 
Council April 25, 1780, that the resignation be accepted. 

Nash, Simeon. Greenfield; private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Samuel Williams' regt. of minute-men, which marched 
April 20, 1775, ^^ response to the alarm of April 19, 1775 ; 
left place of rendezvous May i, 1775; service, 10 days; 
reported engaged in service ; also, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt. ; service, i mo., 17 days, company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; also, cor- 
poral, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Porter's regt. ; marched 
from home July 9, 1777 ; engaged July 10, 1777 ; discharged, 
Aug. 12, 1777; service, 38 days, including travel home (80 
miles) ; company marched to reinforce Northern Army after 
the evacuation of Ticonderoga ; roll sworn to at Deerfield ; 
also, Capt. John Wells' Co. of Hampshire Co. Militia ; en- 
gaged Sept. 22, 1777; discharged Oct. 23, 1777; service, i 
mo., 2 days, under Col. David Wells in Northern department ; 
roll dated Shelburne. 

Nash, Tubal. Greenfield ; private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Col. Samuel Williams' regt. of minute-men, which 
marched April 20, 1775, in response to the alarm of April 19, 
1775 ; left place of rendezvous May 6, 1775 ; service, 15 days; 
reported returned home ; also, private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; muster roll dated Aug. i, 
1775 ; service, 3 mos., 8 days ; also, company receipt for wages 


for Sept. 1775, dated Camp at Prospect Hill; also, company 
returns (probably Oct. 1775); also, order for bounty coat, or 
its equivalent in money, dated Prospect Hill, Dec. 22, 1775 ; 
also corporal, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Porter's regt. ; 
marched from home July 9, 1777; enlisted July 10, 1777; 
discharged Aug. 12, 1777; service, 38 days, including travel 
home (80 miles) ; company marched to reinforce Northern 
Army after the evacuation of Ticonderoga ; roll sworn to at 

Nash, Joseph. Private, James Walworth's Co., Col. Eli- 
sha Porter's (Hampshire Co.) regt. ; engaged July 22, 1779 ; 
discharged Aug. 27, 1779; service, i mo., 11 days, at New 
London, Conn., including 6 days travel home (113 miles); 
roll sworn to at Deerfield. 

Nicolds, Nathan. Greenfield, list of men raised to serve 
in the Continental Army from Lieut. Samuel Wells' Co., 
sworn to April 7, 1779; residence, Greenfield; engaged for 
the town of Greenfield ; joined Captain Keith's Co., Col. 
Jackson's regt. ; term, 3 years. 

Newton, Asher. Greenfield ; private, Capt. Samuel Tay- 
lor's Co., Col. Nicholas Dike's regt. ; pay abstract for mileage, 
dated Roxbury, Sept. 17, 1776; also, same co. and regt.; 
pay abstract for travel allowance from place of discharge home, 
dated Dorchester Heights, Nov. 28, 1776; said Newton 
credited with allowance for six days travel (113 miles); also, 
Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. David Leonard's regt. ; serv- 
ice, I mo., 17 days; company raised Feb. 24, 1777, for 
service at Ticonderoga ; also, Capt. Timothy Childs' (Green- 
field) Co., Col. David Field's regt. ; service, 4 days, on alarm 
at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777; also, Capt. John Wells' 
Co. of Hampshire Militia; engaged Sept. 22, 1777; dis- 
charged Oct. 23, 1777; service, i mo., 2 days, under Col. 
David Wells in Northern department; roll dated Shelburne. 

Newton, Isaac. Sergeant, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., 
Col. David Leonard's regt.; service, i mo., 17 days; com- 


pany raised Feb, 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga ; also, 
Captain James Walworth's Co., Col. Elisha Porter's (Hamp- 
shire Co.) regt. ; engaged July 22, 1779; discharged Aug. 27, 
1779; service, i mo., 11 days, at New London, Conn., 
including 6 days travel home (113 miles) ; roll sworn at Deer- 
field ; also, captain, 3d Co., Lieut. Col. Wells' (5th Hamp- 
shire Co.,) regt. ; of Mass. Militia; list of officers commis- 
sioned June 19, 1780; also, descriptive list dated Deerfield, 
July 24, 1780, of men detached from Hampshire Co. Mili- 
tia, agreeable to resolve of June 22, 1780, and returned by 
Maj. David Dickinson as mustered by him by order of 
Lieut. Col. David Wells ; rank, captain, 3d or loth Co., 5th 
Hampshire Co. regt. ; engaged for town of Greenfield ; term, 3 
months ; reported ordered to command the company detached 
from 5th regt. ; also, capt.. Col. S. Murray's regt. ; engaged 
July 4, 1780; discharged Oct. 10, 1780, service, 3 mos., 16 
days, including 9 days travel home (172 miles); regiment 
raised in Hampshire Co. to reinforce Continental Army for 
3 months. 

Newton, John. Corporal, Capt. Timothy Childs' regt. ; 
service, i mo., 17 days; company raised Feb. 24, 1777, for 
service at Ticonderoga; also, Capt. Timothy Childs' (Green- 
field) Co., Col. David Fields' regt. ; service, 4 days, on alarm 
•at Bennington of Aug. 15, 1777. 

Newton, Jonathan. Capt. Timothy Childs' (Greenfield) 
Co., Col. David Fields' regt. ; service, 4 days, on the alarm 
at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Nichols, Allen. Greenfield ; private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; company return (probably 
Oct. 1775); also, private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Asa Whitcomb's regt. ; muster roll dated Aug. i, 1775, en- 
listed May 10, 1775; service, 2 mos,, 26 days; also, com- 
pany receipt for wages for Sept. 1775, dated Camp at Pros- 
pect Hill ; also, order for bounty coat or its equivalent in 
money dated Camp at Prospect Hill, Nov. 27, 1775 ; also. 


drum major, Capt. Moses Harvey's Co., Col. Woodbridge's 
regt. ; engaged, Aug. 22, 1777; discharged Nov. 29, 1777; 
service, 3 mos., 17 days, including 9 days' travel home 
(180 miles) ; regiment raised to reinforce the Northern Army 
until the last of Nov. 1777. 

Nichols, Allen. Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. David 
Wells' regt. ; service, 2 mos., 8 days, including travel home ; 
company raised May 10, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga 
and was discharged July 8, 1777 ; also, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
(Greenfield) Co., Col. David Fields' regt. ; service, 4 days on the 
alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1 777. (See Allen Nichols.) 

Nichols, Samuel. Greenfield ; private, Capt. Agrippa Wells* 
Co., Col. Samuel Williams' regt., which marched April 20, 
1775, in response to the alarm of April 19, 1775 ; service, 
10 days ; reported enlisted into the army May i, 1775 ; also, 
drummer, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's 
regt. ; muster roll dated Aug. i, 1775; enlisted May i, 1775; 
service, 3 mos., 8 days ; also company receipt for wages for 
Sept. 1775, dated Camp at Prospect Hill ; also, company re- 
turn (probably Oct. 1775) ' ^^so, order for bounty coat or its 
equivalent in money dated Camp at Prospect Hill, Nov. 27, 
1775 (see Nathaniel Nichols); also, drummer, Capt. Reuben 
Petty's Co., Lieut. Col. Samuel Williams' regt. ; engaged 
Dec. 16, 1776 ; discharged, March 19, 1777; service, 3 mos., 
15 days, including 12 days travel home (240 miles); also, 
Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Porter's regt. ; marched from 
home July 9, 1777; engaged July 10, 1777; discharged 
Aug. 12, 1777; service, 38 days, including travel home 
(80 miles) ; company marched to reinforce Northern Army 
after the evacuation of Ticonderoga; roll sworn to at Deerfield. 

Nichols, Samuel. Greenfield, descriptive list of men in ' 
Continental service ; Capt. King's Co., Lieut. Col. J. Brooks' 
(7th) regt.; age, 37 yrs. ; stature, 5 ft. 8 in. ; complexion, dark ; 
hair, dark ; occupation, farmer ; residence, Greenfield ; en- 
gaged for town of Greenfield ; engaged Sept. 8, 1782; term. 


3 years; also, private, 5th Co.; entries dated Nov. 11, 1783, 
and Feb. i, 1784, of order for wages for May— Dec. (year not 
given) appearing in a register of orders accepted on account of 
wages, etc. 

Nichols, Nathan. Greenfield ; list of men raised to serve 
in the Continental Army from 5th Hampshire Co. regt., 
endorsed " Col. David Fields' Return ; " residence, Green- 
field ; engaged for town of Greenfield ; joined Capt. Smith's 
Co., Col. Marshall's regt. ; term, 3 years ; also, private, 2d 
Co., Col. Thomas Marshall's regt. ; Continental Army pay 
accounts for service from Jan. i, 1777, to Dec. 24, 1779; 
reported discharged Dec. 24, 1779 ; also, Capt. Josiah 
Smith's (3d) Co., Col. Thomas Marshall's (loth) regt.; 
muster roll for Jan. 1779, dated West Point ; enlisted Dec. 24, 
1776, reported detached. 

Nichols, Nathaniel. Drummer, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., 
Col. Whitcomb's regt. ; equipment roll (year not given, 
probably 1775). (See Samuel Nichols.) 

Nichols, Nathaniel. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' 
(Greenfield) Co., Col. David Fields' regt. ; service, 4 days, 
on alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Nims, Hull. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt. ; service, i mo., 1 7 days ; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga; also, Capt. 
John Wells' Co. of Hampshire Co. militia ; enlisted Sept. 22, 
1777 ; discharged Oct. 23, 1777 ; service, i mo., 2 days, under 
Col. David Wells in Northern department, roll dated Shel- 

Nims, Thomas. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' (Green- 
field) Co., Col. David Fields' regt. ; service, 4 days ; com- 
pany marched on alarm at Bennington of Aug. 14, 1777. 

Page, David. Private, Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. 
David Leonard's regt.; service,: mo., 17 davs ; company 
raised Feb. 24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. (Perhaps 
not Greenfield.) 


Perry, Elnathan. Greenfield (also Springfield); private, 
Capt. Coburn's Co., Col. Brooks' regt. ; enlisted Jan. i, 1780, 
for the war; tried in Aug. 1781, by reg. court martial on 
charge of being absent without leave and sentenced to 50 
lashes; roll dated "York Hutts," Dec. 17, 1781; also, 
roll dated "York Hutts," Jan. 17, 1782; birthplace, 
Wrentham ; discharged June 8, 1783, by Gen. Washington, 
enlistment having expired. Having served 3 years, entitled 
to 200 acres of land or $20. Lived in Vermont. 

Perry, Jonathan. Private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. 
Samuel Brewer's regt. ; for mileage and travel allowance (109 
miles) from place of discharge home ; served at Ticonderoga 
for 3 mos. from Sept. i, 1776; sworn at Deerfield, Dec. 10, 


Phillis, Daniel. Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. David 

Leonard's regt., service i mo., 17 days; Co. raised Feb. 

24, 1777, for service at Ticonderoga. 

Picket, Daniel. Greenfield ; private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Col. Samuel Williams' regt., marched on April 20, 
1775, on the alarm of April 19, 1775 ; service, 15 days, left 
place of rendezvous May 6, 1775, and returned home. 

Pecket, Daniel. Capt. Timothy Childs' Co., Col. David 
Fields' regt., marched on alarm at Bennington, of Aug. 14, 
1777 ; service, 4 days, engaged for Greenfield. 

Picket, James. Greenfield ; private, Capt. Agrippa Wells' 
Co., Col. Porter's regt., enlisted July 10, 1777, discharged 
Aug. 12, 1777; service, 38 days, including travel home 
(80 miles). Marched from home July 9, 1777, to reinforce 
Northern Army after the evacuation of Ticonderoga, roll 
sworn at Deerfield ; also, corporal, Capt. James Walworth's 
Co., Col. Elisha Porter's regt., engaged July 22, 1779, dis- 
charged Aug. 27, 1779; service, I mo., 11 days, including 6 
days travel home (113 miles); service at New London, 
Conn., roll sworn to at Deerfield. 

Powers, Reuben. (Perhaps not Greenfield.) Private, Capt. 


Agrippa Wells' Co., Col. Samuel Brewer's regt., company 
served at Ticonderoga for 3 mos. from Sept. i, 1776; 117 
miles travel allowed ; also, private, Capt. Moses Harvey's 
Co., Col. Woodbridge's regt,, engaged Sept. 7, 1777, dis- 
charged Nov. 29, 1777; service, 3 months, i day, including 
9 days travel home (180 miles); regt. raised to reinforce the 
Northern Army until last of Nov. 1777 ; service at Saratoga. 



IN 1858 Judge David Aiken held a term of court in New- 
buryport, and somewhat astonished the people of Essex. 
TJie Newburyport Herald had this to say of him : " We 
think that we may safely say, that in so short a period no judge 
has acquired greater popularity with the public ; and we should 
not be surprised, if no judge was so unpopular with the bar, 
though we heard some of the best members speak of him m 
the highest terms. We infer, however, that he cannot be 
popular with the young lawyers, for he has a way of cutting 
short all their ' extras ' and bringing them to the law and the 
testimony, that they are not accustomed to. 

"Bred to the law, and giving it his whole attention till now 
he must have seen threescore years, he is yet not inclined to 
attach much importance to the technicalities, but more to the 
spirit of the law and the ends of justice. So, when a jury 
was retiring, and the counsel in the case asked him to instruct 
them in a certain way, his prompt answer was, — ' No, I shall 
do no such thing. I have stated the law to them as it is. 
Keep along, Mr. Sheriff; ' and when the jury returned a ver- 
dict, and he was requested to ask them to define what they 
meant, his refusal was absolute, — ' They know well enough 
what they mean, and I am satisfied with the verdict as it is.' 
Thus constantly he trained the bar, determined to keep them 
in place. It reminded us very much of the charge of Judge 
Dudley, which was somewhat after this style — ' You have 



heard, gentlemen of the jury, what has been said in this case 
by the lawyers, whose business it is to make a good case 
for their clients, for which they are paid; but you and I, 
gentlemen, have something else to consider. They talk of 
laws. Why, it is not law that we want, but justice.' 

" We noticed also, a very commendable dispatch of business 
under his administration. The delays of the law are proverbial, 
and the expenses arising from such delays are grievous to be 
borne ; but under such judges these grounds of complaint 
would be removed. He has no idea of mere eloquence, 
without reason ; and speech-making upon petty occasions, 
rhetorical flourishes for effect, he evidently considered out 
of place and in bad taste. His charges to the juries were short, 
simple, clear and in a conversational manner. But when one 
of our eloquent young advocates had talked abovit nothing 
for almost half a day, he replied to one who had said to him 
as he was going to dinner, ' I hope, judge, we shall have a 
short session.' ' Don't know ! don't know, all this forenoon 
has been wasted ! ' So, too, while the lawyers were instructed 
to waste no time in questions, the witnesses, who lagged in 
their equivocations, were occasionally hurried up with a hint 
that the time of the court was precious, — a suggestion not 
often thrown out in a court room. 

" Upon the whole, therefore, we go for Judge Aiken against 
a bench of judges, as one of those sound, strong-minded, 
common sense men, who would be better if he had never seen 
a lawbook than a whole courthouse full of common lawyers. 
Under him there would be less litigation, less expense, and 
quite as much justice as we ever had." 


Greenfield still has some things to remind her that she once 
had as a citizen one of the most remarkable men of the age 
in which he lived. William Coleman planted and watered 
many of the great elms which adorn our street, and he built 


the Hollister house, which architects declare to be one of 
the most perfect specimens of old colonial houses. He was 
a native of Boston, studied law with Judge Paine of Worcester, 
and was a member of the old Hampshire bar. He was 
promoter of the " Impartial Intelligencer," whose first num- 
ber bears date February i, 1792, and which has under dif- 
ferent names continued ever since. Mr. Coleman was an 
athlete, and Historian Willard says of him, " He was first 
and foremost in everything, and finished what he undertook, 
except the house he began to build." He was in the great 
Virginia land speculation, and was ruined financially, like 
hundreds of others, and was compelled to see the house un- 
finished. (See Hollister House.) 

He soon went to New York and became the law partner 
of Aaron Burr, and an intimate friend of Alexander Hamil- 
ton. He was then thirty-one years old and had been a 
soldier for the government in the Shays rebellion, and for two 
years a member of the Massachusetts legislature. 

On the i6th of November, 1801, he issued the first num- 
ber of the New York Evening Post, federal in its politics, 
which immediately took a character of its own far above its 
contemporaries, which it has always sustained. 

Mr. Coleman conducted his journal until his death in 1829, 
and was pronounced " one of the most able and celebrated 
conductors of a public journal in the United States." 

His announcement of the death of Alexander Hamilton 
was " followed by a noble lamentation for his loss and a 
touching tribute to the man." 


Reverend Henry Colman, of Salem in 1801 came up here 
and purchased, for $12,000, the " Hoyt farm " of two hundred 
acres at Cheapside. He continued to reside there until 1836, 
when he sold his property for $14,300 to Sylvester Allen, 
Cephas Root, Spencer Root and Franklin Ripley. 


Mr. Colman was at one time pastor of the Congregational 
Church in Higham and was a celebrated teacher in the vicin- 
ity of Boston, and an enthusiast in agricultural matters. He 
was appointed by Gov. Everett Agricultural Commissioner 
for Massachusetts. The local paper says : " Mr. Colman was 
a man of commanding personal appearance, extensive travel, 
of singular activity of temperament, of great industry and 
of uncommon rapidity and clearness of observation." He 
died in England, August 17, 1849, and Lady Byron gave 
his grave in Highgate cemetery. He was 6^ years of age. 


James Roberts born in 1747 was an early settler in Green- 
field and taught school here. He married August 14, 1777, 
Esther, daughter of Thomas Nims and before 1779 he had 
hewn out a home in the wilderness at Whitingham, Vermont. 
The historian of that town says : " He was a very prominent 
man in the early history of the town. Was one of the select- 
men for ten years, town clerk five years, represented the town 
in the General Assembly for ten years, besides filling many 
positions of trust in the town and county and state." He 
died March 12, 1825, iged 79. 


William Grennell, born in Saybrook, Conn., in 1752, was 
the father of the late Charles K. Grennell, and the grandfather 
of Edward Benton. He removed to Greenfield in 1792 and 
died here July 9, 1857. 

He volunteered in the company of Captain Bradford Steele, 
who was attached to Colonel Wooster's Connecticut regiment, 
and in May, 1775, ^^^ stationed as coast guard at Norwalk, 
Conn., and after at New Haven where the news of the battle 
of Bunker's Hill was received and the regiment went imme- 
diately to Boston. His term of enlistment having expired, 
he enlisted in Captain Sperry's company of Colonel Thomp- 


son's regiment and marched to New York in July, 1776, where 
he was orderly sergeant of his company. He was in the 
Long Island fight and the retreat to Harlem Heights, Colonel 
Thompson having been killed. In April, 1777, he was with 
those who attacked the British at Ridgefield, Conn., at which 
place General Wooster was mortally wounded, and the British 
driven to take refuge on their ships. He was busy during 
the summer of 1777 with others in arresting and bringing 
to trial a number of Tories about western Connecticut, 
a number of whom were sent to the old Simsbury mines for 
safe-keeping. On his way to the defense of New Haven, 
from the British attack July 5, 1779, he with some aid cap- 
tured six of the invaders and took them to headquarters. He 
was in the skirmish on the common, and followed the enemy 
to Fairfield and Norwalk where they had another skirmish. 
In 1779 he was ensign in Captain Gilbert's company of the 
2d Connecticut, commanded by Colonel Burrell, and was in 
garrison at New Haven until the following March. He 
was made a lieutenant in Captain Joel Hitchcock's com- 
pany in November, 1780, and his captain being detached and 
ordered to West Point, he commanded the company which 
remained in the vicinity of New Haven. 

During the night of March 14, 1782, a British spy, a com- 
missioned officer, with the aid of six active Tories, broke into 
the house of Captain Ebenezer Dayton, a Whig merchant, and 
stole $1,500, in gold, with which they fled. Lieutenant 
Grennell immediately organized a party and started in hot 
pursuit ; overtaking them on Long Island, recovered all the 
money but thirty dollars, and saw the British officer executed 
as a spy, and the Tories sent to Newgate prison. 


Ebenezer Billings was a son of Reverend Edward Billing, 
the first minister of Greenfield. He lived at old Fort Stock- 
ing and raised eleven children. Esther married Dr. Pynchon 


of Springfield and lived to be 97 years and five months old. 
Lucy P. always lived in Greenfield and died April 24, 1885, 
aged 93 years. Eunice B, also lived in Greenfield and died 
March 29, 1890, aged 95 years. 


Benjamin Munn was born in Springfield, and was one of 
the early settlers of Monson, Mass. Herein 1761, his son 
Calvin was born, and at the age of 16 years entered the 
patriot army and served in it for six years, until the close of the 
war. He was at Saratoga at the surrender of Burgoyne, was 
sick at the time of the battle, but was a witness of the ac- 
tion. He was present at Yorktown and took part in storm- 
ing one of the redoubts there and was one of the boat's crew 
which captured a gunboat at Shirley on the James river, in 
which action about thirty of the British were killed and eleven 
taken prisoners. He saw General Knox just after he was 
wounded during the seige of Yorktown. He was a lieuten- 
ant under the command of Lafayette, for a year while in the 
south. At one time Lafayette came on board a boat and con- 
versed with the crew of which he was a member. Mr. Munn 
was with General Sullivan when he evacuated Long Island, 
and was present at the execution of Andr^. He was also at 
the battle of Jamestown under the command of Mad Anthony 
Wayne. The musket which he carried during his six years' 
service, as well as his discharge papers bearing the signature 
of General Washington are preserved by his descendants. In 
1 824 he was present at the laying of the corner stone of Bunker 
Hill monument, and enjoyed a very pleasant interview with 
his old commander. General Lafayette. Mr. Munn was 
again called into service of the government during the Shays 
Rebellion, and was at Springfield at the time of the attack 
upon the United States Arsenal. In 1802 he had a black- 
smith shop about twenty rods north of the present Mansion 


House, which he sold to WiUiam Granger in 1804. He also 
owned the Corse tavern stand. 

While Calvin Munn was drill sergeant in the 4th Mass. 
regiment, there enlisted under the name of Robert Shurtliff 
a young girl about twenty years of age, whose real name was 
Deborah Sampson. She was under his command and he 
often related the story of her military life. The following ac- 
count of her is furnished to me by Hon. Eugene Tappan, of 
Sharon, Mass. : 

Deborah Sampson was a Continental soldier in the Ameri- 
can Revolution, born in Plympton, Massachusetts, Decem- 
ber 17, 1760, and losing her father at a tender age, she was 
bound out to service on a farm. It is an interesting proof of 
the patriotic ardor of the time that this young woman enlisted 
in the 4th Massachusetts regiment (Colonel Shepard's) in Cap- 
tain George Web's company. Her soldier name was Robert 
Shurtleff. She was in an engagement in White Plains, N. Y., 
and was discharged at West Point, October 25, 1783. The 
following spring Deborah was married to Benjamin Gannett, 
a farmer of Sharon, Massachusetts, where she lived until her 
death April 29, 1827. 

In recognition of her military service, the Massachusetts 
legislature in 1792 granted her thirty-four pounds. The 
preamble of the resolve recites " that the said Deborah ex- 
hibited an extraordinary instance of female heroism by dis- 
charging the duties of a faithful, gallant soldier, and at the 
same time preserving the virtue and chastity of her sex un- 
suspected and unblemished, and was discharged from the serv- 
ice with a fair and honorable character." Her name also 
was placed on the pension list of the United States in 1850. 
After the death of Deborah Sampson Gannett, her husband 
made his petition to Congress for a pension as the widower 
of a soldier. A favorable report was made by the committee 
on pensions in which they said, " He indeed was honored much 
by being the husband of such a wife." In 1838 (Mr, Gan- 


nett having in the meantime died) a special act was passed 
by Congress (Statutes at Large, vol, 6, page 735) directing 
the payment of ^466.66 to the heirs. 

Deborah Sampson Gannett was a public lecturer, appearing 
on the stage of the Federal Street Theatre in Boston, and in 
Providence, Worcester, Springfield, Albany and other large 
towns in 1802. Her address was printed the same year, and 
advertisements of her appearance can be found in the Co- 
lumbian Centinel of Boston and the Worcester Spy. The 
manviscript diary of her lecturing tour is preserved by a de- 
scendant. In her address she recounted her army experiences, 
and accompanied the narrative with an exhibition of her skill 
in the manual of arms. During this lecturing tour she visited 
her captain in Holden and General Paterson in Nev/ York. 
She paid her own way and sent money to her family. 

Deborah Sampson Gannett reared a family of three chil- 
dren, many of whose descendants now live in the vicinity, 
while a great-granddaughter, Mrs. Frank G. Moody, resides 
in the old homestead. Deborah's home and grave are often 
visited. A street in Sharon is named after her, " Deborah 
Sampson Street." 

In the spring of 1902 a notable dinner was served in the 
Sharon town hall, in commemoration of the centennial of De- 
borah Sampson's lecturing tour, at which addresses were de- 
livered by Mrs. Mary Livermore and others. 


Among the men persuaded to come to Greenfield by Colo- 
nel William Moore about 1790 was Samuel Pierce, copper- 
smith, tinner, manufacturer of lead pipe, pewter platters, 
and other articles of like character. He built the Strecker 
block and became a noted river man, doing a large freighting 
business upon the Connecticut. He was the father of John J., 
George and Samuel Pierce, energetic business men of their 


Captain George Pierce, Jr., now (1902) the popular town 
clerk of Greenfield, was ist lieutenant of Company G of the 
old loth regiment at the beginning of the War of the Rebel- 
lion. He was an officer in the Boston custom house, under 
General James S. Whitney, collector, and leaving the custom 
house one day was in the camp at Brightwood the next, enlisted 
for three years' service. After the death of Captain Day, Lieu- 
tenant Pierce was promoted to the captaincy of Company G and 
did good and valient service. He was transferred to the com- 
mand of a company in the 37th, and given charge of a detach- 
ment ordered to aid in the protection of Washington, at the 
darkest period of the war. Captain Pierce was wounded at 
the battle of Malvern Hills, Spotsylvania C. H. and Win- 
chester. His army record was creditable to himself and to 
his native town. 

Captain Henry H. Pierce, a younger brother of Captain 
George, was born in Northampton, August 15, 1834. He 
was in early life taken to the home of his uncle Samuel and 
aunt Phebe (bachelor and maid) residing on Federal street, 
and they gave him a thorough education. He graduated at 
Trinity college, Hartford, and was for six years professor of 
military tactics and mathematics at the University of West Vir- 
ginia, at Morgantown, and one year at the University of 
Michigan in the same capacity. He enlisted for service in the 
Civil War in the ist Connecticut Heavy Artillery, as orderly 
sergeant, being discharged as major. At the close of the 
war he was appointed a lieutenant in the regular army, and in 
1882 was adjutant of the 21st United States Infantry, then 
located at Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory. In Au- 
gust of that year, under orders of General Miles, he was placed 
in command of a scientific expedition to Lake Chelan and 
Skag river, near Puget Sound. In forwarding the report of 
Lieutenant Pierce, General Miles says, " Lieutenant Pierce is 
entitled to much credit for the efficient manner in which he 
performed this duty and in obtaining valuable information 


regarding sections of country but little known." For this 
service he was made captain by brevet. Captain Pierce was 
a most accomplished scholar, ranking high in mathematics and 
the ancient languages. He published " A Rythmic Prose 
Translation of Virgil's Eneid," and a version of " The Odes 
of Horace" complete in English rhyme and blank verse, both 
most highly spoken of by press critics and college professors. 
Captain Pierce died in the northwest wilderness, July 17, 

Captain Charles P. Pierce was a son of John J. Pierce 
and cousin of Captain George, Jr. He was born in Green- 
field, and enlisted in Co. G, of the old loth, as orderly sergeant 
for the Civil War. He was appointed upon the staff of Briga- 
dier General Henry M. Judah and given the rank of captain. 
He died at Keene, N. H., April 23, 1888, aged 49 years, and 
his remains were buried in the Federal street cemetery. 

Captain Frederick E. Pierce, now (1902) major of the 
Second Massachusetts Infantry, was son of William Pierce, a 
son of George, Sr., and was in command of Co. L, 2d In- 
fantry, at the breaking out of the Spanish War. He went into 
service with his men, and he and his command made a glori- 
ous record at the battle of El Caney in July, 1898. He 
came home at the close of the campaign seriously sick with 
the ground fever but fortunately recovered his normal health, 
and is the postmaster of Greenfield, standing high with the 
post-office department at Washington and deservedly popular 
at home. 

Connected with the Pierce family by his marriage to 
Anna F., daughter of John J. Pierce, was Theodore D. Judah, 
who was the scientific man among the early promoters of the 
Pacific railroad across the continent. C. P. Huntington said 
of Mr. Judah, " To him belongs the credit more than any 
other one person, of solving the problem of the practicability 
of constructing a road across the mountains to connect the 
Atlantic and Pacific States." He was the chief engineer of 


the Pacific division, and after directing the preliminary sur- 
veys, was sent east to enlist capital and influence in the con- 
struction of the road. But journeying from California, he 
died November 2, 1863, at New York city, before his arrival 
at his home in Greenfield. To him belonged much of the 
honor due to the projectors and builders of the Pacific rail- 
road, and he should have shared in the colossal fortunes 
reaped by his associates, but his death at the early age of 37 
years prevented this. His remains are buried in the Federal 
street cemetery. Mrs. Judah survived him until Septem- 
ber 2, 1895. 


The name of " Saunders Martingal " appears in Savage's 
Genealogical Dictionary, with this note, "Swore 9 May 1667 
as a freeman of Connecticut, from what town is not known." 
See Trumbull's Colonial Register, vol. II, 58. In 1669 the 
name does not appear among the list of freemen. He may have 
moved to Hadley, with other families which settled there 
from Connecticut about 1660. 

Edward Martindale, born about 1688, settled in Westfield, 
Mass., about 1732, when he joined the Westfield church by 
letter, from Hatfield. His wife, Ruth, and four children, 
born in Hatfield, accompanied him ; their names being 
Gershom, Zadoc, Sarah and Lemuel. The latter was born 
in Hatfield, October 20, 1730. Other children, born in 
Westfield, were Ebenezer, born March 12, 1732/3, Ruth, 
October 12, 1734, married Noah Allen, October 16, 1752 — 
of Deerfield — Elisha, born " Feb. the last " 1736/7, Edward, 
born February 7, 1739 40, Thankful, born February 22, 
1744/5. Sarah married January 31, 1 750/1, Thomas Dewey, 


Edward died at Westfield, March 20, 1762, aged 74. His 
widow Ruth died January, 1765, aged 63. 

Gershom Martindale married at Westfield, November 7, 


1745, Bathsheba Nash and had a son, William, born July 21, 


Zadoc Martindale, born about 1728, married Sybel Spell- 
man, who died May 20, 1797, aged 59. They had Edward, 
born December 4, 175B. 

Lemuel Martindale, born at Hatfield, October 20, 1730, 
married March 20, 1755, Christian Caldwell, daughter of Abel 
and Anna (Dwight) Caldwell of Westfield. (See Dwight 
family, Springfield Library). They had born to them in West- 
field, Molly, April 20, 1755; Ebenezer, November 25, 1756; 
Uriah, August 15, 1758 ; Justin, May 4, 1761. He removed 
to Greenfield in 1762. 

Edward Martindale married May 4, 1721, Ruth, daughter 
of Ebenezer Smead, born September 5, 1702. He then lived 
in Deerfield. John Nims (son of John, son of Godfrey) 
married Abigail Smead, a sister of Ruth. Thomas Nims, 
the son of John, married an Esther Martindale of West- 


Thomas Dickman, born in Boston December 18, 1768, came 
to Greenfield when twenty-four years of age to become the pub- 
lisher of the Impartial Intelligencer, about to be started by Wil- 
liam Coleman, who at that time was the leading man of the town. 
He had worked for the celebrated Isaiah Thomas, known as "the 
father of the press," and was aided by him in starting in busi- 
ness for himself, February i, 1792. The name of the new 
paper was soon changed to " Greenfield Gazette," and he re- 
mained with it for twelve years. 

After disposing of the paper he kept a bookstore, having 
in 1805 lost his position as postmaster. The next year he re- 
moved to Springfield where he published the Hampden Fed- 
eralist for fourteen years. While here he purchased the place 
now occupied by the Elm House, his house being the north 
half of the two upper stories of that building. 

He represented Springfield in the legislature, and kept a 


bookstore and circulating library for some time. Mr. Dick- 
man was a courteous and urbane gentleman of the old school, 
much respected in every relation of life. 

He died very suddenly at the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
David Willard, of this town, December 9, 1841, aged 73 


John Denio, grandson of old landlord Aaron, when fifteen was 
apprenticed to Thomas Dickman, in 1 793. In 1 800 he started 
a paper in Vermont, but eighteen months later he came back 
to Greenfield and bought out the Gazette and the book-selling 
business connected with the ofiice. Denio was the publisher 
of the Gazette until 181 1, when he sold out to Colonel Ansel 
Phelps, but bought back an interest the following year. In 
1 81 5 he sold to Phelps again, and two years later reformed 
the partnership, which was continued until a final dissolution, 
May 20, 1823. 

Denio remained in Greenfield in trade until 1827, then 
went to Albion, N. Y., where he printed the Morning 
Chronicle for two years; went to Rochester in 1832, and to 
Medina in 1838, and finally went back to Albion, where he 
died March 30, 1859, at the age of 80, the oldest editor in 
the state of New York. 


Ansel Phelps was born in Northampton in 1789, and when 
twenty-two years old came to Greenfield and purchased of 
John Denio the Greenfield Gazette. He had learned the 
trade of printing in the office of the Hampshire Gazette, and 
for the remainder of his life — fifty-eight years — he was con- 
nected with the Gazette, and it was claimed that at his death, 
November 25, 1868, he had been connected with the press 
longer than any other person in New England. During a 
large portion of this time he had kept a bookstore, and had 


published many books. He sold out his book business to 
George L. Ingersoll & Company, in 1855, and having ac- 
quired a competence, he gave but little time to the manage- 
ment of the newspaper. In 1856 he served a term as mem- 
ber of the Governor's Council. He was a strictly honest man, 
very peculiar in his way of doing business, and during his last 
years he almost daily mounted his horse and with peculiarly 
erect and military figure, rode through the streets and roads 
of the town, for his physical betterment. 

" Massassoit " in the Springfield Union, tells a good story 
about Colonel Phelps : " After a week's issue had been 
mailed to his subscribers and he had scissored copy sufficient 
to last the printers for several days, he started for Boston to 
take a little recreation. While in the city a steamer arrived 
from Europe and he concluded that it would be a ' stroke ' 
of enterprise to go on board and write it up for the benefit 
of his less fortunate readers. He went down to the dock, 
boarded the steamer and looked her over from stern to stern. 
When in the cabin the steamer began to back into the har- 
bor preparatory to make some change in her location. As 
the editor came on deck he noticed that the ship was moving 
away from the dock and thought she was starting tor Liver- 
pool. He rushed wildly about, and seizing hold of one of 
the sailors, exclaimed, ' I must go ashore ! Where's the 
captain ? ' That important officer was pointed out and then 
in a more excited manner he said, ' Captain, I tell you I 
must go ashore ! ' ' Can't stop,' said the captain, who had 
taken in the situation and the fears of the visitor. ' Perhaps 
you don't know who I am,' said the editor. ' I am the sole 
editor and proprietor of the G & C, and I tell you, captain, 
I must go ashore.' The captain then explained the situation, 
and as soon as the steamer came to the dock the gentleman 
in search of information started on a rapid stride down the 
bridge and did not stop until he had reached his hotel, thank- 
ful that he had been spared an unwiUing ocean voyage." 



John Clark was born in Andover, and his father, after living 
in several places, moved with his family to Colrain. In 1746 
a relative, Matthew Clark, was killed, and his wife and daugh- 
ter badly wounded by Indians, and Mr. Clark deemed it wise 
to remove his family to Hatfield. Young Clark enlisted at 
the commencement of the war of 1755, in the provincial 
regiment then being raised in old Hampshire county, under 
the command of Colonel Ephraim Williams, for an attack on 
Crown Point, under command of General Johnson. Being 
young and small of stature, his father went as his substitute, 
but in 1756 he went into the service and made the campaign 
under General Winslow, serving at Lake George and about 
the Hudson. In 1757 he again enlisted, and was in Colonel 
Frye's regiment, on the old grounds, under General Webb. 
Luckily for him he was on a detachment down the Hudson, 
when after a siege, Fort William Henry was captured, and he 
escaped the risk of losing his life in the horrible massacre of 
that garrison by Montcalm's Indians. In 1758 he was again 
in service in the regiment of Colonel William Williams, in 
the army of General Abercrombie, and took part in that fear- 
ful attack on the abattis before Fort Ticonderoga, when two 
thousand of the English were killed and wounded. 

He was employed in the Batteau service in connection 
with General Amherst's army, on its expedition up the Mo- 
hawk, until the war closed by the surrender at Quebec and 
Montreal. He immediately joined the army, at the com- 
mencement of the Revolution, and was commissioned a lieu- 
tenant in Colonel Brewer's regiment, and was in the Bunker 
Hill fight. The same year he was detached to serve under 
Arnold on his disastrous expedition against Quebec, by way of 
the Kennebec river, where the men suffered untold miseries 
from hunger and exposure. He was in the brave but unsuc- 
cessful attack on the fortress under General Montgomery. 
He led a party of 25 men, followed by Morgan's riflemen 


and Lamb's artillery, through deep snow, and stormed a bat- 
tery in the lower town, but fighting bravely, they were out- 
numbered, and nearly the whole party were taken prisoners. 

He remained in Quebec a prisoner, until 1776, when Sir 
Guy Carlton sent the captured men to New York, and they 
went to their homes. He returned to the army, and was in 
the retreat before Burgoyne, down the Hudson under Schuy- 
ler. He then returned for a few weeks to Hadley, but on 
the call for volunteers to defend against Burgoyne's army, he 
again became attached to a body of militia, with whom he 
remained until the surrender of Burgoyne. Retiring from the 
army, he established himself in Greenfield, at what was for- 
merly known as the Bascom place, on the stage road, where 
he kept a tavern for several years. He afterwards " rode 
post " between Boston and western Massachusetts towns. 
He was an ardent patriot and did good service for the govern- 
ment during Shays's rebellion as an express rider for General 
Shepard. Before the country made provision for the sus- 
tenance of retired officers, he became very poor and lived with 
relatives in New York and Vermont, but in after years he 
obtained a pension which gave him comfortable support. 
His last years were spent in Deerfield, where he often enter- 
tained his hearers with stories of his chequered career. Be- 
fore his dicease he had every article for his burial prepared, 
even to his coffin, grave clothes and tombstones. He died 
January 19, 1829, loved and respected by all, aged 91 years. 



* An old home is like an old violin, 
The music of the past is wrought into it." 

A LARGE proportion of the first settlers upon the Green 
river lands were sons or grandsons of the original planters 
at Deerfield. Soon after the close of Queen Anne's 
war, in 1713, the proprietors began apportioning among them- 
selves the rich meadows lying along the Green river. These 
lands were, during this interval of peace, farmed to some extent 
by their owners, while they still kept their residence on the old 
street, in Deerfield. Without doubt, these people built for 
their temporary occupation small log huts, which later became 
the nucleus of a new home. As the young men married and 
new homes became a necessity, these temporary cabins gave wav 
to more permanent and more convenient structures. When 
time and means permitted, a place was selected, generally near 
some spring of water, and always close beside the travelled 
way, for the location of the family home. 

During Queen Anne's reign a law had been enacted requir- 
ing a tax to be levied upon all two-story houses, and in order 
to evade this provision, that form of house known in Con- 
necticut as the " salt box " became the prevailing style of 
architecture. Two stories in front, while a long sloping roof 
covered what was known as a " lean-to " in the rear, the eaves 
of which were scarcely higher than a man's head. The loca- 
tion for the house having been determined, a cellar was ex- 



cavated at least six feet in depth, for the houses were but 
sHghtly elevated above the ground, so that they could be 
easily " banked up " in the fall. In the middle of the cellar 
was laid the foundation of the immense chimney, generally of 
solid stone and from ten to fourteen feet square. When the 
walls of this foundation were raised to within two feet of the 
lower floor of the intended house, huge beams of hewn oak 
were laid side by side upon the walls, with ends projecting 
sufficiently to sustain the hearth stones in the rooms above. 
On this solid foundation was erected the great brick chimney, 
around which the house seemed to be built as an after-thought. 
As the walls rose to the level of the floors above, the great 
fireplace and the brick oven with its ash hole below, the smaller 
fireplaces for the parlor and the spare room were planned 
out, and with great mechanical skill the flues for each, with 
proper space and guards against a back draft, were connected 
with the great central chimney. At a later period of time, 
separate flues were carried up in the main chimney for each 

Often times the carpenters in finishing the house, took ad- 
vantage of the vacant space about the chimney for cupboards 
and closets. Generally the oven and the sides and tops of 
the fireplaces were covered in with sand. The front door 
resting under the rising sun window, was in the center of the 
house front, and in the better houses the front hall extended 
through to the living room. In others it served only as an 
entrance to the rooms on either side, and from it ran a narrow 
flight of stairs, which by two turns reached the upper floor. 
Under these stairs there was frequently located a dark closet, 
which was the particular domain of the mistress of the house- 
hold. In the construction of the fireplace in the parlor, the 
mason displayed to the utmost his skill as an artist in brick 
and mortar, and the joiner, using the choicest selected stock, 
worked out in the wainscotting and panels his ideas of beauty 
and harmony in wood. 


All the headings and mouldings were worked patiently and 
slowly by hand, and all sashes and casings were constructed 
from rough lumber as it came from the saw. The paneled 
doors were mianufactured entirely by hand work, and the 
hinges and trimmings were made by the village blacksmith. 
It is no longer a wonder that an apprenticeship of seven years 
was required to qualify a young man to become a journeyman 
in the mechanical arts. The living room, or winter kitchen, 
was the most useful and important room in the house. On 
one side was the great fireplace with its neighbor, the oven, 
at its side. Built of brick, this great cavern was each Satur- 
day filled with fine oven-wood and heated for the family bak- 
ing. When its thick walls had become thoroughly filled with 
latent heat, it was carefully swept with a great birch broom, 
and upon the bare brick bottom were placed the loaves of 
rye and Indian bread and whatever else the careful housewife 
had prepared for the family consumption.. The brown 
earthern milkpan of pork and beans for the Sunday dinner 
was never forgotten. 

During the summer the unfinished room in the lean-to was 
used as the work room. In the long cold winter evenings 
the family gathered around the big fireplace in the living 
room. The opening of the fireplace was sometimes five feet 
in height and six feet in length. Immense andirons stood in 
front of the large backlog which lay bedded in the ashes at 
the back of the fireplace, and on the andirons lay the fore- 
stick, a sizable log. Between, in cold nights, was piled 
ordinary four-foot wood, without thought of extravagancy, the 
time when wood would command six, eight and ten dollars a 
cord. The big high-backed settle stood at one side the fire, the 
corners next the fire being carefully reserved for the older mem- 
bers of the family. The seat of the settle oft times held the 
smaller pots and kettles of the culinary department. Nails 
driven into the jambs of the fireplace contained numerous 
articles necessary and convenient in doing the work of the 


family. On the great crane which was so hung as to swing 
out over the hearth, suspended by a chain with a hook, was 
the great iron pot in which puffed and sizzled the hasty 
pudding, which was a staple article of food. On hooks over 
the mantel hung the long firelock musket, and the powder 
horn and the bullet pouch were near at hand. Ordinary 
baking and roasting was done in a tin oven placed before the 
fire. Bread and often potatoes and other vegetables were 
baked in a dutch oven, a heavy cast-iron kettle, quite shallow, 
and having a cover with a raised rim which would hold coals 
and hot ashes piled upon it as it set in the hot ashes on the 
hearth. Meats were roasted by hanging them in the throat 
of the great chimney, and machines were contrived so that the 
hot air would keep the meat turning as it cooked. Great care 
was taken that the fire was not lost, for if lost, coals must be 
brought from some neighbor's fire or a spark struck from a 
flint and steel, — the latter a troublesome undertaking. Open- 
ing into the living room was a large and generally unfinished 
summer kitchen, with its back pantry located in the lean-to 
or in the long woodshed, and into this room generally came 
the water supply, either furnished from a well with a long 
sweep, or from a neighboring spring through wooden logs 
bored for that purpose. The front rooms in the house were 
seldom used except upon state occasions. Sometimes a family 
would occupy one of the front rooms of their house as a sit- 
ting room, but such common use was looked upon as an ex- 
hibition of extravagance, and was disapproved of by the gen- 
eral community. The front rooms of the second story were 
spotlessly clean and neatly furnished. The high post bed- 
steads carried ticks of oat straw or husks surmounted by live 
geese feather beds selected by the housewife with the greatest 
care, from their numerous flock. 

The furnishings were often a portion of the dowry of the 
bride and usually the handiwork of the mistress of the house. 
The elegance and neatness of the room indicated the accom- 


plishment of the mistress in the arts and crafts of the day. The 
fine Hnen, the soft woolen and the beautifully woven spread 
were the work of her own hand, and her pride and satisfac- 
tion in the result was well and nobly earned. 

From the lean-to kitchen stretched the long woodshed, and 
the shop beyond. The open fireplaces demanded great 
quantities of wood. It was the winter's work to get up a 
supply for the ensuing year. Great log piles of eight-foot 
lengths were drawn to the yard, and during the spring days 
cut into convenient lengths for use. These lay in the pile 
all summer to dry, and in the fall were stowed in the wood- 
house. Forty cords was not an unusual supply. In the shop 
was fixed up a work bench, supplied with the few tools then 
within the means of the owner. These he used to repair the 
tools and utensils necessary to carry on the work of the farm. 
Overhead were stored choice bits of lumber, natural crooks 
for sleds and cradle fingers, walnut butts which he intended to 
work up into axe helves during the long winter evenings, be- 
fore the kitchen fire, a few pairs of ox-bows securely tied to 
keep them from spreading, a yoke for the steers, a few gam- 
brels, a cant hook, a sleigh pole, and the thousand and one 
things which will gather in such a place. The " old iron box " 
was a curiosity shop of itself. Rusty screws, crooked wrought- 
iron nails, broken hinges, old bolts with and without keys, 
little pieces of red and of white chalk, a broken chalk line, a 
worn-out file, and cast off horseshoes, and seemingly every 
other conceivable thing which is never wanted. 

The great barn was frequently located at an angle of forty- 
five degrees with the house and sheds, so, it was said, to give 
a warm place for the barnyard. It was built of heavy timbers 
and covered with wide pine boards, the edges of each cham- 
fered, so that the board would- lap over the one below it, and 
all were held in place by wrought-iron nails driven into the 
oak studding of the frame. On one side of the threshing 
floor of the barn were the stables for the horses and cattle and 


upon the other the great haymow. On the scaffold over the 
stables the " horse hay " was garnered, and upon the " little 
scaffold " over the far end of the barn floor were nicely piled 
the bound sheaves of wheat, rye or barley, the butts all placed 
outward so as to hinder the entrance of the mice. Over the 
great beams were scaffolds made of round poles and pieces of 
waste lumber, generally, in such condition as to make a first- 
class man trap. On this scaffold was heaped the crop of oats, 
all awaiting the thrashing by the hand flail, the use of which 
generally began about Thanksgiving time. Who, raised on 
a farm, does not remember the miseries of the boy who mowed 
away the hay, about the time the mow hole was filled and 
pitching over the great beams commenced. The hot hole of 
Calcutta was no comparison to it. 

Only one set of these old farm buildings still remain in 
Greenfield. What has recently been known as the William 
Smead place, on Irish Plain, in the north meadows, still re- 
tains its ancient appearance. The house was probably built 
by Jonathan Smead about 1740, and remained in the Smead 
family until January i, 1900, when William Smead sold the 
homestead of his great-great-grandfather to George A. Gunn. 

Several houses were built in the meadows about 1728 to 
1740. Among others, the Daniel Nash house which stood a 
few rods sovitherly of the present residence of Jonathan E. 
Nash. The lands still remain in the family name. This house 
was taken down some time in the fifties and I have a brick 
taken from its old chimney which is two inches thick, eight 
and a half inches long and seven inches wide. 

People have often expressed surprise that the settlers in the 
early days were able to build such costly residences. In those 
times no other investment for surplus funds than real estate ex^ 
isted, except to people along the coast, who might invest in ships; 
and the records show that it was quite common for settlers 
to mortgage their real estate to persons living in the places 
from whence they came, so that money for the improvement 


of the settler's holdings was easily obtained at reasonable rates 
of interest. 


On the 30th of May, 1793, the large square framed house, 
now standing on the north side of Newton place, was raised 
and was to be the residence of Rev. Roger Newton, minister 
of the town. Its original location was where the courthouse 
now stands and Mr. Newton owned the original lot granted 
to Edward Allen. He also owned the next three lots west, ex- 
tending as far as the Wells lot, about where the Elliott house 
now stands. Two of the lots he obtained February 16, 1764, 
by a deed from Samuel Munn. All the lots extended from 
Main to Mill streets. Dr. Newton's well was just inside his 
dooryard fence, about three feet east of the south end of 
the courthouse steps. He moved into his new house, Au- 
gust 24, 1794. His old house, which stood where the Hol- 
lister house now does, was the old Edward Allen fort. 

The situation of the old fort was one of great beauty. An 
elevated plateau, with an uninterrupted view of the Pocumtuck 
hills and the beautiful Green river valley, the steep descent 
to the south being covered with immense walnut trees. No 
more charming spot for the location of an ideal home could 
be found. In this age all was sweet and fresh and clean. 
The smoke and grim and clatter of modern times had not 
then reached Utopia. 

William Coleman, the first lawyer of Greenfield, realized 
all this beauty, and having as he thought cleared from his 
Virginia land speculation at least ^30,000, he determined to 
erect on this lovely spot a residence worthy of the location. 
He employed as his architect, Asher Benjamin, a resident of 
Greenfield, who published in this town in 1797, " The Country 
Builder's Assistant," of which the eminent architect, E. C. 
Gardner, says in an article in the New England Magazine of 
November, 1898, " To this, which is a thoroughly practical 


treatise, and to its author, who was a no less practical builder, 
is due by far the greater part of the good colonial architecture 
in western New England. How much further its influence 
extended, no man can say." On the ad of May, 1796, Mr. 
Coleman, for the sum of $1,500, obtained from Mr. New- 
ton one and a quarter acres, the southeast corner of Mr. »| 
Newton's home lot. Here he began the erection of the noble W 
mansion which still ornaments the premises after the lapse of { 
a hundred years. < 

Before the completion of the house, the Virginia land scheme 
bubble had burst, and Mr. Coleman was compelled to con- 
vey the property to a creditor, Stephen R. Bradley, of West- 
minister, Vt. Within six months the property was relin- 
quished to Colonel Eliel Gilbert, R. E. Newcomb and John E. 
Hall. Mr. Hall, who was a merchant, mill owner, and spec- | 
ulator, soon acquired the interest of his associates, and occupied 
the premises as his residence and in it kept his general store. 
Colonel Spencer Root purchased the property February 9, j 
1827, and threw it open to the public as a tavern, under | 
the name of " The Franklin House." A newspaper article J 
of the time describes it as peculiarly impressive " to see the 1 
great four house stages roll up before the door of this elegant i 
establishment." It did not long remain a public house, as in ! 
October, 1828, Colonel Root conveyed it to an association of ^ 
gentlemen who announced the following -May that " The ! 
Proprietors of the Greenfield Academy for Young Ladies," i 
would soon open a first class ** High School for Young La- 
dies." The notice was signed by Elijah Alvord, Franklin 
Ripley, Elijah A. Gould, and Horatio G. Newcomb, as com- 
mittee for the association. 

The premises were occupied for school purposes for about 
fifteen years, during which time a long three-story wing was 
erected for school purposes.* The mansion then passed into 
the hands of Almon Brainard, Esq., at that time county treasurer 

* Now standing on Newton Place. 

thp: leavitt house 967 

and register of deeds. On the yth of October, 1864, Mr. J. 
H. Hollister purchased the property of Mr. Brainard,and it has 
since remained in the Hollister family. 

The grounds have been somewhat encroached upon by the 
railroads and by business extensions, but the fine old colonial 
mansion remains in all its pristine beauty as one of the finest 
specimens of the artistic taste of a builder of a past genera- 


The Leavitt house, known of late years as the Hovey 
place, was built at the same time as the Hollister house, after 
plans by the same architect. Its builder was Honorable 
Jonathan Leavitt, judge of the Court of Common Pleas of old 
Hampshire county, and the second judge of the Probate Court 
of Franklin. To this elegant mansion he brought as his wife 
a daughter of President Stiles, of Yale College, and for years 
this home was the center of the social life of the vicinity. In 
the western wing, the judge had his law office. It occupied 
land once within the palisades of the Corse fort. While its 
interior is not planned and finished with the lavish manner 
exhibited in the Hollister house, it is a mansion which im- 
mediately attracts the eye of the stranger as one of beautiful 
proportions, and an ornament to the village. 



THE discovery of "bird tracks" in the new red sand- 
stone of the Connecticut Valley, in the early part of 

the nineteenth century, created great interest among 
scientists in this and foreign lands. Before these discoveries 
were made public, it was not believed that air breathing animals 
existed before the oolite period. While the greater part of 
the honor and glory of these interesting discoveries added ad- 
ditional lustre to the names of men like Professors Hitchcock 
and Silliman, men already illustrious in the fields of science, 
who were called in consultation by the uneducated men who 
first became interested in this subject, and who had instinctive 
comprehension of the importance of their discovery, and who 
possessed the zeal and energy necessary to bring the matter 
to the attention of these scientists, it is evident that these 
men ought of right to receive that meed of praise which is 
justly their due. 

Undoubtedly among the early observers of these impres- 
sions upon the sandstone of the valley, the name of Dexter 
Marsh of Greenfield stands pre-eminent as the man who 
brought to the attention of the world these interesting dis- 
coveries. In my investigations relating to these discoveries, 
I find that one Pliny Moody, as early as 1800, discovered 
what he called " bird tracks " in the river sandstone, but 
that he failed to excite any public interest in his discovery. 
The late William W. Draper in 1835 called public attention to 
the fact that " bird tracks " were to be found in the stones 



which came from the river bank. It is asserted that he called 
the attention of William Wilson and Dexter Marsh to this 
fact, but he gave the subject no further study or development. 
However Dexter Marsh may have come by his knowledge of 
the existence of these " tracks," the fact excited in his active 
mind the importance of the discovery, and during the remain- 
der of his active life, all his energy, spare time and money, 
were given to the study and collection of specimens of rock 
containing undisputable evidence of his theory, that these 
" tracks " were made by living animals. 

He immediately enlisted the attention of Dr. James Deane 
in his theory, and working together they fully established the 
fact of the existence of curious animals upon the earth, during 
the formative period of the new red sandstone. 

A few of the elder people of the town will remember a 
small cottage which stood in a yard upon the right-hand side 
of Clay Hill as you approached the village from the south. 
An addition to the original house had been built, extending 
almost to the sidewalk, and about its door and leaning against 
the building were large and small slabs of the new red sand- 
stone of the Connecticut valley. Inside, the room was filled 
with a motley collection of curiosities of various kinds, in 
great part received by the owner in exchange for specimens 
of his " bird tracks." 

This was the " Museum " of Dexter Marsh. His name is 
now held in honor among scientific men throughout the world. 
He is called the " Hugh Miller of the New Red Sandstone." 
Mr. Marsh was the son of Joshua Marsh of Montague, a man 
who was so poorly endowed with worldly goods that his son 
was deprived of even a good common school education. 
Dexter Marsh came to Greenfield in 1834, and with his own 
hands built the house in which he dwelt until his death. He 
remained a day laborer all his life, but from the avails of this 
labor, beyond the support of his family, he found means to 
gather the most complete and valuable collection of specimens 


of fossil footprints ever collected. His theories and his rea- 
sonings have been accepted by students of fossil geology the 
world over. 

It is said that in 1835, while laying some flagging stones 
upon the sidewalk on Clay Hill, he first noticed upon the 
stone what he took to be footprints of a bird. Although he 
had no knowledge of geology, he was an original thinker and 
possessed a scrutinizing mind. He was convinced that the 
impressions upon the stone which had been gathered from a 
quarry, then several feet below the surface, were made by a 
bird. How it came about he knew not. He found other 
footprints about the village walks, and through the aid of 
Dr. Deane, who took plaster casts of the impressions, and for- 
warded them for proof, they obtained the attention of Drs. 
Hitchcock and Silliman. Mr, Marsh employed all his spare 
time in the collection of additional specimens. He built 
himself a flat bottomed boat in which he travelled, carrying 
with him drills, wedges, powder and provisions, searching 
along the river banks from the northern line of the state to 
Weathersfield, Conn. He obtained one slab in Gill which 
was ten feet long by six in width and contained fifty perfect 
tracks. Four of the tracks were twelve inches in length. 
When this slab was split in two, it showed perfectly the relief 
and the intaglio sides. When his collection was sold, this 
slab was purchased Mr. Alger of Boston for I375. Prof 
Oliver Marcy, of Evanstown University, in an article in the 
National Magazine, says : "In 1851 his cabinet contained 
from four to five hundred slabs of stone upon which were 
one thousand tracks of birds and quadrupeds ; some of the 
slabs weighed less than an ounce, and others two tons, and 
contained from one to fifty tracks each, from one half inch to 
nineteen inches in length ; also two hundred fossil fishes, 
three thousand sea shells, twenty-six hundred rock crystals, 
two hundred specimens of Indian antiquities, besides num- 
erous specimens of zoology and botany, minerals and fossils 


from foreign countries. . . . Since the discoveries of 
Mr. Marsh, there have been discovered in the new red 
sandstone of the Connecticut river valley the tracks of fifty- 
species of animals, all described and named by Dr. Hitch- 
cock. Of these, four were lizards ; two tortoises ; six batra- 
chians ; twenty-two were birds, all waders. One of the bipeds, 
the Otozoun Moodii, was a huge monster, a sort of biped 
toad as large as an elephant. His tracks were near together, 
from which is inferred the shortness of his legs, and were 
twenty inches long and twelve inches broad. The tracks of 
the largest species of birds, the Brontozoum Giganteum, are 
from fourteen to twenty inches long, the stride from four to 
six feet. The large ones were probably twenty feet high, 
weighing nearly one thousand pounds. 

Many of these tracks are very distinct ; even the papillte 
on the sole of the foot are distinctly seen. 

If the reader will now strive to comprehend the labor 
necessary to accomplish such a survey as is referred to ; the 
collection, single handed and without money, of so extensive 
and valuable a cabinet, and at the same time remember that 
Mr. Marsh, as a day laborer supported his family in compe- 
tence, he cannot fail to recognize in him the soul of a true, 
and even a great man "of one who lays his hand on the mane 
of restive and hostile circumstances and compels them to bear 
him to usefulness and honor." 

The valuable contributions by Mr. Marsh to the scientific 
world were duly recognized, and in 1 846 he was elected a 
member of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science ; in 1852 he was elected a member of the Lyceum 
of Natural History in New York, and the same year a cor- 
responding member of the Academy of Natural Science in 

The late Rev. L. L. Langstroth in 1839 was the principal 
of the High School for Young Ladies, in Greenfield. He was 
on intimate terms with Mr. Marsh and very much interested 


in his discoveries. In 1864 he wrote out his recollections of 
Mr. Marsh, with a very interesting sketch of his early life. 
Mr. Langstroth says : " 1 was with him frequently in his last 
sickness which he bore with the resignation and fortitude of 
a martyr. It was his earnest desire that his cabinet should 
not be divided, but if possible be sold for a moderate sum 
to become a nucleus of a permanent cabinet in the town of 

" In speaking of a visit by a near relative who had been for 
years absent from his native home, he said, a remark which he 
made gave me more pain than any word ever spoken to me. 
After showing him my collection and speaking of them with 
my usual enthusiasm, he said to me, ' Dexter, I wouldn't 
give you a penny for all your old stones.' After his death 
his collection having been suitably advertised was sold at 
public sale and quite a large sum of money was realized. 
Speaking then to this same friend who could see only * old 
stones ' in his relative's cabinet, I took uncommon satisfaction 
in reminding him that Dexter Marsh in consequence of his 
devotion to those pursuits, had left his family better provided 
for than he could possibly have done if he had, to use his 
relative's words, ' stuck to his own calling and business ; ' 
while at the same time he had left to his family a name which 
would always be mentioned with profound admiration and re- 
spect by the scientific world, to be associated with that of 
Hugh Miller as the Hugh Miller of America." 

Mr. Marsh died in 1853, leaving an estate appraised at 

In this connection, the valuable cabinet of Dr. Roswell 
Field, late of Gill, willed bv him to the Moody school, and 
the extensive collection of Timothy M. Stoughton, of River- 
side, ought to be mentioned. 



THE late Reverend Preserved Smith, father of Judge 
Fayette Smith, was in 1 800 a student in Greenfield. 
While attending school he drew a plan of the village, 
putting down the residences and the business places of Main 
and Federal streets. 

At the east end of Main street stood the house of George 
Grennell, Sr., and on the elevation in the rear he locates 
the artillery house. Mr. Grennell's barn stood where Wil- 
liam H. Allen's house now is. The other lots were vacant 
as far down as about where Hope street now is, where stood 
the house of Ruel Willard. David Ripley's bookstore and 
Major John Russell's jewelry shop were located where the 
Strecker block now is. Samuel Pierce's tin shop stood near 
the S. Allen's Son's corner and on Bank Row stood the apoth- 
ecary's store of Caleb Clap. 

Commencing at the east end of the street on the north side, 
the house of Abner Wells stood where Arthur D. Potter now 
lives. The road leading north (now High street) then ran 
on the west side of the Wells house, which at one time was 
palisaded. The next two houses were owned by Captain Caleb 
Clap. Hart Leavitt owned the next house, and adjoining 
him on the west was the residence of his brother. Judge Jona- 
than Leavitt (now known as the Hovey house,) which was 
built in 1797. Then came Hart Leavitt's store over which 
was the printing office of the Gazette. On the corner was 
Calvin Munn's tavern, now the Mansion House. Turning 



up Federal street (laid in 1788) where the Columbus block 
now stands, Daniel Clay then had a cabinet shop and Samuel 
Pierce a dwelling house. On the opposite side of Federal 
street on the corner of Main, stood the old Willard tavern, 
called Wells tavern in 1801. Next north stood W. Forbes's 
store, and just beyond that Isaac Merriam had a barber's 
shop. The next north was the carpenter shop of Calvin Hale, 
and north of that a building erected by subscription of shares 
by citizens, for use as a schoolhouse, standing where M. R, 
Pierce & Peck now have their store. Captain Ambrose Ames 
had a blacksmith shop next, where the photographic saloon 
now is, and just north of that was his residence still standing. 
About where Dr. Walker now lives, Aaron Green, merchant, 
had his residence. On the west side of the common, John 
E. Hall owned the Hollister house and had a store on the 
premises. Reverend Roger Newton's house then stood 
where the courthouse now does, and the building erected in 
1 793 is still standing in Newton Place. On the Arms corner 
Roger Newton owned a store in which his son Ozias H. and 
Aaron Green did business as Newton & Green, and then 
next to it, on Main street, Beriah Willard's ciwelling house, 
Timothy Hall, hatter, and Silas Wells's house and tailor shop. 
Below on that side there was nothing until Colonel Samuel 
Wells's house was reached (where B. B. Noyes's house now 
stands), and beside it was his large garden. On the north 
side of Main street, beyond Captain John Wells's tavern came 
the Willard store, R. E. Newcomb's office, Jerome Ripley's 
house and store. Colonel Gilbert's house and saddler's shop, 
Daniel Forbes's store, Thomas Chapman's house, Thomas 
Dickman's house (where the Elm House now stands). Colonel 
Daniel Wells's house where Wells street now is, a small house — 
called the Bird house — Mr. Alvord's house, the Elihu Sever- 
ance house, a house occupied by Cornwell, the hatter, Col- 
onel Wells's carriage house and barn, and below the hill, at 
what is now the Caroline Miller place, a sawmill. Beyond 



the bridge on the Shelburne south road was Judge Solomon 
Smead's house, where J. M. Woodard now hves. 


In June, 1792, Levi Pease* announces that" he has at great 
expense estabhshed a Hne of stages from Springfield to Han- 
over, N. H. Stages will leave Springfield every Monday at 
I o'clock p. M. and Dartmouth College at the same time, and 
meet at Brattleborough on Tuesday evening of each week, 
where they will exchange passengers and return. Fare is 3d. 
per mile. Fourteen pounds of baggage is allowed each pas- 
senger. One hundred and fifty pounds is charged for the 
same as a passenger. Every attention will be given to secure 
the comfort of the patrons of this line." 

A post-office was established in Northampton in 1792. 
Previously Springfield had the only office in western Massa- 

In June, 18 19, stages leave Boston every Friday and Mon- 
day at 2 o'clock A. M. and arrive at Greenfield at 3 p. m. the 
same day. They leave Greenfield every Saturday and Tues- 
day at 3 o'clock A. M. for Albany and arrive there at 3 
o'clock A. M. the same day. They leave Greenfield for Bos- 
ton at 3 o'clock A. M. and arrive in Boston the same even- 

July, 1824, there are three stages each week between 
Albany and Boston and the fare either way from Greenfield 
is fixed at I3.00. In September a stage route was established 
between Greenfield and Wilmington, Vt., via Colrain, Heath 
and Whitingham, making two trips per week. October 12, 

* Captain Levi Pease had been engaged in the stage business for many years, and 
was well equipped for such an enterprise. He was a native of Enfield, Ct., born in 
1739. Throughout the Revolutionary War he served in the commissary department, 
and as a bearer of despatches. After its close he engaged in staging and established 
a line between Hartford and Boston. He was one of the first to organize a stock 
company and maintain turnpikes. In 1794 he was a resident of Shrewsbury. Temple's 
History of Palmer. 


the same year, it was found upon the arrival of the stage in 
Greenfield that one of the passengers had the smallpox. 
He was immediately placed in quarantine, but many persons 
had been exposed. 

In July, 1825, a new line of stages was put on between 
Boston and Albany by way of the Deerfield valley, the other 
line running through Conway, Ashfield and Savoy. The 
fare from Greenfield to Boston was I3.75 and to Albany $4.00. 
In September the two lines were running three stages each 
week, and business was brisk. In 1826 there was a daily 
line of stages from Hartford to Hanover, N. H. 

In 1828 Isaac Abercrombie, Jr., was the agent at Greenfield 
of one of the lines from Boston to Albany, and among his 
papers the following waybill was found : 

Post Coach Way Bill for Monday April 21st, 1828. 

Passengers Names. Seats. From Greenfield to Albany. $. cts. By whom rec'd. 

Mr. Stevens i Greenfield to Conway 62 C. Bartley 

Mr. Snow i Conway to Albany 3 00 " " 

Mr. I Plainfield to Cheshire Ct. 62 D. Smith 

Mr. Wilcocks i Lanesborough to Albany i 25 Wm H. Averill 

Mr. Valkenburgh 2 Alps to Troy i 25 " " " 

" The stage started from Greenfield this Morning at 2 
o'clock for Boston and is expected to continue in one day in 
Future and the Proprietors East Expect we will do the same 
from Greenfield to Albany you will be making up your minds 
on the subject, (to run for the proffet & not for Pleasure is 
my wish). 

Isaac Abercrombie, Jr." 

In March, 1831, there were two lines of stages passing 
through Greenfield to Albany, going through in two days in- 
stead of three. 

One of the lines running stages north and south was the 
celebrated " Telegraph Line," which had the mail contract, 
and was required to average seven miles per hour, including 
stops, running night and day. The very best horses were 


used on this line and special coaches were built for it in Albany, 
weighing about i ,800 pounds. These were painted red, and the 
old drivers always recalled them as " perfect beauties." They 
were not allowed to take over six passengers, and must make 
time or forfeit ^100. The regular coaches ran as usual, mak- 
ing ordinary time, and passengers on the " Telegraph " paid 
about twenty per cent higher than on the regular coach. 
Captain Ambrose Ames was the postmaster here, and all the 
mails were changed in his office, which was the little building 
now standing on Ames street and was used by Charles L. 
Smith for a paint shop. It was formerly attached to the 
southeast corner of the Ames homestead. A few years since 
Mr. Smith found several old letters in the walls of the little 
building. Whether any broken hearts resulted from their loss 
is not known. The old stage road from here to Boston was 
nearly twenty miles shorter than the present railroad line. 
The fare from here to Brattleboro by the ordinary coach was 
one dollar and by the mail line one dollar and a quarter. 
From here to Springfield, slow line, two dollars ; fast line, two 
and a half. Asher Spencer was the great stage man of this 
town. He had a big barn which stood about where Olive 
street now runs and another on Main street where the Cohn 
block now stands. He received about |2,ooo each year for 
mail contracts. David Long, Jr., and Barnard A. Newell 
were interested with him. The building of the railroad in 
1846 blotted out the staging and the boating business, and 
many little country towns, once progressive and of importance 
to the surrounding rural districts, date their decline from the 
abandonment of the old methods of travelling. Charles 
Henry, Medad Squires, Harvey Gill and other old stage- 
coach drivers, while they continued among us, told interesting 
tales of the old stagecoach days. 

Closely connected with the stage lines were the great four 
and six horse freight wagons owned or driven by Thomas 
Wait, David Wait, Henry S. Robbins, John J. Graves, and 


Others making trips to Boston, carrying down country produce 
and bringing back merchandise of all kinds. The round trip 
took about ten days, and many an old tavern now stands 
deserted and crumbling to ruin, around whose hearthstones, 
sixty years ago, the drivers of these coaches and freight 
wagons met, and while sipping the steaming mug of hot flip 
or toddy, swapped stories or traded horses, to the great de- 
light of the interested spectators and listeners. 

The author's great-grandfather, Edward Adams, Sr., a 
descendant of Henry Adams (Ouincy, 1634) " rode post " for 
fourteen years previous to and during the Revolution, carry- 
ing the mail on horseback between Boston and Hartford. 
The innumerable stories told by him, and repeated by my 
grandfather of the revelings at these old-time taverns, when a 
dozen or more travellers were storm bound or compelled to 
lie over upon the Sabbath, would hardly bear repeating in the 
more refined society of the days in which we live. Rough 
and ready wit and practical joking seemed to be highly ap- 
preciated by our forefathers. 

The jolly landlord met his guests at the door in the spirit 
of the verse which often adorned the great open fireplace. — 

" I'll toll you in if you have need 
And feed you well and bid you speed." 

Lone travellers often sought the companionship of the " post 
rider," feeling sure of good company, and a safe guidance in 
unmarked ways. Riding one dark night between Springfield 
and Hartford, with a jolly companion, the "postman" was 
much to his disgust called upon to wait, while his companion 
rode up to the door of a house beside the road, and with his 
whip pounded on the door, shouting " Hallo! the house !" 
Soon a night-capped head appeared at an upper window, and 
answered the call. The joker says, " Have you lost a knife? " 
" No, have you found one ? " " No, but I didn't know 
but I should." 



These anecdotes are somewhat abridged in form but it is 
hoped that the gist of the stories will not suffer thereby. 


The third of the name in direct descent from Thomas of 
Watertown was born in Greenfield in 1728, and was a lead- 
ing citizen of the town. He was a lieutenant in the French 
and Indian War in 1755, captain in 1759, and a lieutenant in 
the 5th Hampshire Regiment in 1776; was at Saratoga and 
New London, and resigned in June, 1780, "on account of 
his infirmities." He died January 21, 1786. He was a 
large landowner and his descendants held much real estate 
in the town. His house stood on the high ground some dis- 
tance west of the present residence of Seorem B. Slate on 
High street. 

At one time he lived at the old fort where the Hovey resi- 
dence now stands, and going across the street one day to 
Aaron Denio's tavern. Landlord Denio said to several persons 
sitting in his barroom, " Here you are, a parcel of lazy drones, 
lounging about doing nothing, but here is Hastings, who 
never puts on his leggins and comes across the street with- 
out earning a dollar." 

During the Revolutionary War the committees of safety as- 
sumed almost autocratic powers ; for instance : Now and 
then a smoke had been noticed coming from the deep woods 
near Fall river ; the committee of safety was notified and 
Daniel Nash, Timothy Childs, Ben, Hastings and Aaron 
Denio made search and found in a hut a man named Harring- 
ton with a lot of tools used by counterfeiters of the coin. 
They took him to Northampton, but Judge Hawley told 
them that the jail was full of Tories and they could send no 
more to prison. He suggested that they take him back a 
mile or so into the woods and give him as many lashes as 
they thought best, and let him go. They did as suggested, 


all but Nash giving light blows, but he put it on heavily, 
" drawing blood at every stroke." They then bathed his 
wounds with spirits, gave him some to drink and let him go. 
The victim thanked them for their lenity and struck out for 

BEN Hastings's trespass 

August 8, 1760, Judge Joseph Lord of the Inferior Court of 
Common Pleas summoned Benjamin Hastings, Jr., of Green- 
field to appear at Springfield to answer unto Samuel Barnard 
of Salem for " entering the Pit's close in Greenfield called 
* Capt. Barnards lot ' in ye East additional grant to ye upper 
Goddards Meadow lots in Greenfield, and sixteen Pine Trees 
of him the PP. then and there standing and growing (every 
one of which being i 8 inches over and of the value of four 
shilP.)cut down and carried away against our peace and against 
the form of the Statute of this Province in such case made and 
provided, whereby you have forfeited and are obliged to pay to 
the Pit. forty shilP. for each and every of s'VTrees cut down 
by you as aforesaid, and also three times the value of them." 

This Samuel Barnard was the son of Joseph Barnard who 
was killed at Indian Bridge, born in Deerfield, 1684, and was a 
captain in Father Rasle's war, afterward a merchant in Salem 
and died quite wealthy. The Goddard meadow tract lay 
near the mouth of Mill brook, and the trees grew nearly west 
of J. P. Felton's house. 


Previous to 1780 slavery in a mild form existed in Mass- 
achusetts. Parson Williams and Parson Ashley of Deerfield 
as well as parson Roger Newton of Greenfield owned slaves. 
Old Tenor was a slave of Mr. Newton's and upon her death 
he preached a sermon saying among other things that she 
"was no pilferer." Tenor had a daughter " Phillis, comely, 
fair, and well to look upon, free as air, so far as she felt or 


knew or cared, and gay as a lark." Phillis lived with her 
mother at Mr. Newton's, and was at the time of this story 
"sweet sixteen," and the object of the affection of Jack, aged 
forty, and slave of Colonel William Moore. Phillis had a 
girl friend of about the same age as herself, and the trio fre- 
quently met at the Newton mansion. At that time the hill- 
side now occupied by the railroad station and the tracts lead- 
ing to the arch under Main street, were smooth and covered 
with tall walnut trees. One day when Jack was there, the 
girls were amusing themselves by rolling down the hill a 
little way in a barrel, but they had a way of stopping before 
great headway had been obtained. They persuaded Jack to 
try it, and nothing loth to please his young friends, he entered 
the barrel and with a gentle push by fair hands he started on 
his pleasue trip. " On it went and on, mid the chuckling and 
laughter of these fair damsels, until it encountered one of the 
large walnut trees, when with a horrible crash, the hoops and 
staves of the barrel parted company and scattered themselves 
far and wide in all directions. Poor Jack was terribly bruised, 
but after some time recovered, not however again to try the 
experiment or renew the journey. But still it seems he did 
not take.'' His visits to the Newton residence became so 
frequent that Phillis resorted to an expedient to be rid of 
them. He came one evening when she was carding tow, and 
managing to get a lot about his feet, the candle accidentally fell 
among it, and the flame spread over the victim. 

" IJke flambeau flashing to the morning skies — " 

The workroom was sealed with wood and for a time the 
house seemed in danger, and but for the active aid of the fam- 
ily would have caught fire. " Phillis confessed. Jack was badly 
burned, but took the hint, and troubled her very seldom with 
his visits after this explosion." Phillis married Ceaser Fine- 
mur, son of Romus and Rose, and had thirteen children. 
Jack's history is not continued. 



Timothy Hall, a brother of the wife of Rev. Dr. Newton, 
came here about 1780, He was an inveterate fisherman. 
He was by trade a hatter, but found time to follow his favor- 
ite pastime, being one day above the Falls, another at the Lily 
pond or Deerfield river and perhaps another at Mill brook 
or some other trout stream. If business prevented he would 
slip down to Green river at dusk. Mr. Willard tells a story 
of Mr. Hall's apprentice, Sam. McDaniels, placing a bundle 
of hay under the window of his master one cold night after 
every one was asleep, and driving the old cow who wore a 
bell there to feed. Fun for Sam but not so amusing to his 

Admiral Potter, a native of New Bedford, was another of 
the ancient fishermen. His favorite spot was an eddy a few 
rods below the Deerfield bridge, and there he met his death 
by losing his balance while fishing from his canoe. He was 
seventy-five years old. 

Another of the craft was John Pinks, a native of England 
and one of Burgoyne's men, — the master tailor of his army. 
He died here February, 1835, aged seventy-nine. 


The "Hollow" or "Factory Village" was once called 
"Northeast" and there were many there who believed in 
witches. An old lady Thatcher was supposed to be one, and 
she told fortunes occasionally. One of her neighbors had a 
calf bewitched ; and a woman by the name of Dewey fre- 
quently screamed out in the night, and when her friends went 
to see what ailed her she was found in profuse perspiration 
and wet as if taken from the river. This continued, and she 
was taken to be bewitched.. 

Ezekiel Bascom, the owner of a gristmill and fulling mill 
there, a man of strong mind and much thought of, asserted 
that one night when he slept at the Falls a horseshoe came 


into his room and performed various evolutions, and although 
a strong, resolute and determined man, he so far yielded to 
superstitious feeling as never to lodge there again. A horse- 
shoe was nailed up at the mill to keep off witches. It was 
pretended that the mill wheels sometimes stopped and could 
not be induced to go ; Mr. Bascom's cattle and cart stopped 
in the road without his being able to make them go ; he said he 
heard female voices under the cart; a fox soon came out from 
under it, and the cattle went on again and all was well. In 
fine. Northeast was a sort of enchanted ground, the residence 
of witches and hobgoblins, and furnished many stories for the 


Before farms were fenced the cattle and other domestic ani- 
mals ran in the woods, and before turning them out in the 
spring all stock was marked, so that the owner might know 
his own when they were brought into the fold. Each man 
had a mark, which was registered by the town clerk. For ex- 
ample : 

" Benj. Hastings, two half pennys the upper side the near 
ear." This meant that all Benjamin Hastings stock had cut 
from the upper side of the near ear two notches the size of a 

" Daniel Nash, a swallow's tail on the near ear." 

" Ebenezer Allen's mark, a half penny cut the under side 
the near ear and a slit on the top of the same ear." 

" Samuel Deane Cooke's mark is a square hole through 
the left ear." 

" George Grinnell's earmark is a crop in the left ear and 
two half penny cuts in the upper side the right ear." 


Towns were given the privilege to warn such persons as 
came into their jurisdiction without leave to settle, '' to depart 

984 "notice to quit" 

the limits thereof, " and by complying with the statute, the 
towns cleared themselves from liability ; such persons could 
not obtain settlement and the town could not be held for their 
support in case of their becoming paupers. When an un- 
vouched for stranger came into town to reside the person or 
family harboring him or her were required to notify the se- 
lectmen, and it was their duty to give the legal notice required 
by law. 

The town records of Greenfield show several instances 
where the ancestors of well known families of the town were 
so notified. 

" Hampshire, ss. To the constable of the town of Green- 
field, county of Hampshire, Greeting : 

" You are, in the name of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, directed to warn and give notice to James Moore, a for- 
eigner from some part of the British Dominions — Laborer — 
who has lately come into this town for the purpose of abiding 
therein, not having obtained the towns consent therefor, that 
he depart the limits thereof within fifteen days. 

" And of this precept and your doings thereon you are to 
make return to the ofiice of the clerk of the town within 
twenty days next coming, that such further proceedings may 
be had in the premises as the law directs. 

"Given under our hands and seals at Greenfield aforesaid this 
eighth day of April, 1793. 

" Solomon Smead, ) Selectmen of 
" Hull Nims, ( Greenfield. 

" Hampshire, ss. I warned the within named James Moore 
To Depart the limits of this Town according to the Direction 
of this Warrant. 

" George Grennell, Constable. 

"Greenfield, April 10, 1793. 
" A true record, attest ; 

" Daniel Wells, 

" Town Clerk." 


The following Greenfield people were warned out of Ber- 
nardston in 1790 : Timothy Wilcox, Samuel Shattuck, Sam- 
uel Nichols, Ebenezer Severance, Levi Wells, Thomas Love- 
land, Joseph Utter and Joseph Wood. (Kellogg's History 
of Bernardston.) 

In close connection with the " warning out" was the law 
requiring people of giving notice of having received strangers 
into their families or as tenants. The following is copied 
from the Deerfield records : 

" Deerfield, May nth, 1764. 

" To the Selectmen of Deerfield : Gentlemen ; This is to 
give Notice to you that there came to my House April 29th, 
1764 Zebulen Tubbs his wife Esther Tubbs & two Children 
viz. Theuel & Esther where they now are. They came last 
from Hinsdale in the Province of New Hampshire their cir- 
cumstances being something low in worldly things having no 
other estate that I know of but one Horse & two Cows. 

" John Henry. 

" A true Copy of ye Notification 

" att^' Tho^ Williams T. Cler." 

The notice relieved John Henry from responsibility for 
their future support. 


In an address delivered upon a public occasion in Gill Feb- 
ruary 5, 1868, the late Josiah D. Canning told the following 

According to tradition, a man by the name of Brooks, in 
the time when Gill was a wilderness and a part of Deerfield, 
was sent up to the region later known as the Stacy place, to 
herd cattle. His wife accompanied him, and according to 
the tradition was a brave resolute woman. He built him a 
cabin where the Haywood barn used to stand, and while he 
put in the crops she tended the cattle and kept watch and ward. 


One day Brooks spied an Indian upon a large rock on " Stacy's 
mountain." The Indian gave some war whoops when he was 
discovered, and Brooks thinking to frighten him fired upon him. 
Though the distance was great his bullet took fatal effect, and 
Brooks and his wife frightened at the prospect of being the vic- 
tims of Indian revenge, abandoned their home and fled to Deer- 
field. When men went to look up the cattle they found the hut 
had been burned and his growing crops ruined. Canning as- 
serted that the bones of an Indian were found a few years ago 
upon the top of a natural mound near the mountain, and 
they were supposed to be those of the Indian killed by 
Brooks, thus substantiating the truth of the tradition. 


The vicinity in the neighborhood of the Union House was 
in the height of its prosperity between the years 1790— 1 8 lo. 
Colonel William Moore built a large store where the Union 
house now stands, and erected a fine residence where Mr. 
Cummings now lives. The store was moved down to Cheap- 
side when that became the " port of entry," and stood nearly 
opposite the Abercrombie tavern. Near " Charlestown " was 
a woolen mill, an oil mill, a beef-packing establishment, a 
tannery, a gristmill, a sawmill and several other industries. 


The hunting instinct was keen among the early settlers, 
and the salt pork and potatoes and mush and milk diet was 
frequently flavored with vension, fowl and fish. Pigeons were 
numberless, and the lads often scattered seed in front of some 
place of concealment, thus turning the unsuspecting birds on 
to the meshes of the net, while he nestled behind the hedge 
with string in hand to let go the spring pole at just the right 
moment to secure the flock. Every boy understood the 
mystery of making the figure four trap, and the velvet footed 
rabbit ere he knew it was dandling at the top of some black-ash 
staddle. Many a cock partridge found himself ensnared in 


the horsehair loop that some skilful Nimrod had placed on 
his favorite drumming log. The cunning of the Indian 
showed in the boy who waded for a half mile up the flowing 
brook with his trap and some old hen who had come to an 
untimely death, slung over his shoulder, keeping to the water 
so that the keen-scented Reynard should not smell his tracks, 
and at some convenient spot setting his trap in the stream 
while he hung the bait over it, so that master fox would set 
his foot in the trap as he leaped and snatched the hen. 


" For many years after the first settlement the inhabitants 
were very much annoyed by wolves. They killed sheep, goats, 
calves, swine and deer. The colony paid a bounty of twenty 
shillings for grown wolves and less for whelps. According to 
the treasurer's returns, the colony paid between 1700 and 1737, 
bounty on 2,852 old wolves and 191 whelps. Five wolves 
were killed in Greenfield as late as 1 765. Many were taken in 
traps; some in pits called wolf pits. A bounty was also paid 
for wildcats, and between 1728 and 1736, the colony paid 
bounty on 2,181 old wildcats and 88 young ones. 

" In 1742 a bounty was given on bears, ten shillings for old 
ones and five shillings for cubs. These were less numerous 
and less destructive than wolves and lynx, and did little dam- 
age, except during seasons when acorns and nuts were scarce. 
Bounties were also offered for catamounts or panthers (called 
painters in the olden time) but few were killed. They had 
a terrific scream but were shy of the human species. 

" Many of the towns paid bounties for the destruction of 
crows and blackbirds, and some towns included the woodchuck 
in their bounty list. 

" Moose were very scarce in old Hampshire, although two 
were killed in Brookfield and one in New Braintree, since 1765. 
Deer were very plenty indeed in the early days, and formed 
an important part of the diet of the people and the deerskins 


were used largely for clothing. They were protected by law 
as early as 1 700, deer reeves being appointed in every town. 
John Pynchon purchased much venison from the Indians, 
selling it to the people at about two or two and a half pence 
per pound. The dressing of deer, moose and beaver skins, 
was a regular trade as well as that of ' leather breeches maker 
and glover.' Wild turkeys were abundant and could be 
found in the fall near every beech, oak or chestnut forest. 
As late as 1820 they sold for from 10 to liyi cents per 

" Countless multitudes of pigeons filled the woods and fields. 
In 1634 Wood says 'we could see neither the beginning nor 
ending of these million of millions.' They were at times 
caught so abundantly that they could neither be sold nor eaten, 
and after being picked were given to the hogs. The feathers 
were used for beds and pillows. Partridges and ducks were 
much more abundant than now, but quail were always 
scarce." (Judd's Hadley.) 

In the diary of Christopher C. Baldwin, Librarian of the 
American Antiquarian Society of Worcester, between 1827 
and 1835, I find the following concerning pigeons: "Asa 
Hosmer, Jr. (Templeton, Worcester county, Mr. Baldwin's 
birthplace) is a hunter by profession. He does nothing but 
hunt, and has made it his whole business for about ten years, 
and what is remarkable, he gets a good living by it. He told 
me that last year (1831) he caught over eight hundred dozens 
of pigeons in Templeton, and that this was not one-half the 
number taken in the town. Mr. Joseph Robbins and a per- 
son by the name of Parks, in Winchendon, caught thirteen 
hundred dozens; and a Mr. Harris of that town about seven 
hundred dozens more. They have taken nearly the same 
number for several years past. They find a market for them 
in Boston, Worcester, Providence and their vicinity. They 
sell from one dollar and fifty cents to two shillings per dozen, 
and the feathers sell for more than enough to pay all ex- 


penses. Innumberable thousands of pigeons have been seen 
during the fore part of this month of this year (March, 1832) 
in various parts of New England ; an appearance which, with 
our ancestors, would have created the most alarming appre- 
hensions. It is said their flight portends bloody war. 1 can 
well remember that in the spring of 181 1 a flock passed over 
Templeton that was many hours in sight, and so large as to 
cover the whole horizon. They first appeared about half an 
hour before sunrise and continued until after ten o'clock. 
They were going northeast. 

"All the old people said it was a sign of war ; and whether 
the pigeons had anything to do with the affairs of men or not 
I cannot tell, but this is nevertheless true, that the United 
States did declare war against England within fourteen months 
from that time. And many old ladies gave accounts of the 
great flocks that appeared in 1774, the year before the Revolu- 
tion. And it is said in a manuscript account of Bacon's Re- 
belHon in Virginia, in 1665 and 1676 that the flight of pigeons 
there the year previous was reckoned an alarming omen." 


The Connecticut river and its tributary streams were from 
the first settlement of the whites celebrated for the great 
abundance of fish which filled these waters. Shad, salmon, 
bass, pickerel, eels and other fish in their proper seasons, 
abounded far beyond the wants of the settlers. The Pes- 
keomskut Falls was one of the most celebrated places for tak- 
ing them, and from time immemorial had been the gathering 
place of the savages for their annual harvest of fish, which 
constituted so large a part of their sustenance. In old times 
it was considered disgraceful to be without pork in the pork 
barrel, and to eat shad signified a want of pork, therefore it 
was discreditable to eat shad, and it is said that one family 
about to dine on shad, hearing a knock at the door, the good- 
wife slipped the plate of shad under the bed. Salmon were 


less plenty, and at times the shad were returned from the net 
to the river while the salmon were saved. Before 1733 the 
price of shad did not exceed a penny apiece, and salmon 
were only two or three pence per pound as late as 1787. The 
first dam was built at South Hadley Falls in 1795, and it 
nearly stopped the running of salmon in the river. There 
was a celebrated fishing place for shad a short distance above 
the bridge at Montague city opposite land owned by B. N. 
Farren, Esq. Shad- time brought large numbers of people to 
the fishing places, where there was much frolicking and old- 
fashioned horse-play which the early settlers so much de- 
lighted in. 

The disappearance of salmon from the Connecticut river 
was much more sudden than from the Merrimac. In 1797 
they were plenty, but in 1798 a dam sixteen feet high was 
built across the Connecticut just below the mouth of Millers 
river. Until 1808 salmon were caught below these falls, but 
by 1820 the extinction was complete. They continued much 
longer in the Merrimac, and the reason given by scientists is 
that the Merrimac was not so sluggish a stream as the Connecti- 
cut, and its waters below the dam were better aerated than 
were those of the Connecticut below this dam. The Connecti- 
cut is well calculated for shad but rougher waters are neces- 
sary for salmon. 

No mention is made of trout fishing by the early settlers 
although the smaller streams must have abounded in fine 
specimens in those days. 


Under the colony laws for many years bounties were paid 
for the destruction of bears, wolves and wildcats, which 
caused havoc among the domestic animals of the settlers. 
Great care was taken to prevent fraud by the claimants of 
these bounties, and the ears of the killed were to be cut off 
in the presence of a town officer, and a certificate given, on 


which the town treasurer recouped the bounty upon the 
colony treasury. 

We find in the accounts of Thomas French, treasurer of 
Deerfield from 1737 to 1747, the following memoranda con- 
cerning bounties : 

"March 1737/8; Received from y^ province Treasurer 
for wolves and wildcats ^47,0, o. Annoque Dominy, 1738, 
paid by order from y® Select men to Sundry persons, as may 
appear by their receipts for Wolves and Wildcats y" sum of 

^47. o, o. 

"June, 1738 ; Res'* from y^ province Treasurer y** sum of 

^22, O, O." 

"July, 1738 ; p*^ p"" order from y® select men to sundry 
persons for Wolves j[,22, o, o." 

The amount of bounties paid in 1 743 was ^ 1 4, i o, o ; 1 744, 
/12, 15,0; 1755 /15, 15,0. 

Memoranda as to who received the bounty are as follows : 

" 1742 I gave receipts to Aaron Deniour, i bear — J° Mitch- 
ell, I — Daniel Field, a cub — to Joseph Atherton, a woolf — to 
Jon* Smead, two cats — ditto to Corss. David Field, two 
cats — . August 10, 1743, David Field, bear — ditto a woolf 
and cat. 

" April 20, 1742, in y® blank then sent (to province treas- 
urer) j^^y old tenour, of which there is to be paid, to Eben"" 
Sheldon one wolfe £4, o, o ; Joseph Mitchell, ditto J^4, o, o ; 
J. Corss, 2 ditto & acat^i3,o, o; Thos. Wells 2nd, a 
cat, /4, o, o," 

" Oct. 25, 1743, in y^ blank y*^ sent ^13, o, o, 4 bear onto 
J. Corss, I Cat to Nath. Hawks — i woolf and two bears from 
David Field — one woolf from J"*' Hawks — two cats from 
Th°^ French." 

"Dec. I, 1743. Mr. Williams (selectman) gave Receip to 
J** Severance for a woolf." 

" May 7, 1746. Cut for Capt. Moses Rice, a woolf." 
(Cut gff his ears.) 


" March 4, 1746. David Field, a cat." 

" Corss, a woolf to be p*' to David Field." 

" March 21, 1747. Received Hugh Morrison's Receipt 
for one grown Wolf." 

" March 29, 1748, then J. Shelden (selectman) cut a cate- 
mount for Martin Ashley in presence of D. Field." 

" August. J. Shelden, cut 2 cubs for D. Field." 

" 1748, Jan. 3. T. Childs, constable cut a cat for D. 

" 5 wolvs & I cat bought & p*^ for as by Receipts ap- 

" April 26, 1749. E^ Barnard cut one wolfe for myself" 
(T. French.) 

" May 2, E^ Barnard cut 5 do. for my self" (Barnard 
being selectman.) 

In 1765 Reuben Wells of Greenfield got bounty on six 


In Colrain the wolves made great havoc among the sheep, 
which caused the young hunters and trappers to try their skill 
in taking those animals, and many were secured in different 
ways. But there was one old ofi'ender in the neighborhood 
of Catamount Hill, who had killed three dogs, and once was 
taken in a trap, from which he escaped, leaving a part of one 
foot. He undertook to contend with me. Near the trapping 
ground was a large wild meadow, and in approaching this 
meadow, on the 20th of May, 1785, I discovered the hero in 
the open field, but not within a gun shot ; he at the same mo- 
ment saw me. It appeared that he, like the savages of the 
forest, was unwilling to risk a field fight. He fled to the 
mountain on the east of the meadow, and there began his 
howl and savage yell (as I supposed to call a reinforcement) 
and continued his war whoop for nearly an hour, I in the 
mean time advancing in order for a shot at him, and he re- 


treating and advancing. At length 1 saw him on the side of 
a hill in a quarterly position, about twenty rods from me. 
My piece was loaded with two balls and my aim was quick ; 
I fired, and one ball hit the wolf on one hind leg above the 
gambrel joint, and broke all the bones off. The other ball 
went through a fore leg near the body (no more howling after 
this). He came tumbling heels over head down the hill, to 
within ten rods of me. By this time he found he had some 
legs left. I followed him a short distance by the blood and 
bones that fell from his legs, then I went home for my 
dog and help. Mr. John Call, a fine sportsman, went with 
me, and the dogs pursued the wolf a half a mile to a place 
partly under a ledge of rocks, and there the dogs guarded him 
safely until their masters came up, and then they fell upon 
him in the most violent manner, for the space of fifteen 
minutes, when the wolf laid still. He measured from the end 
of his nose to the end of his tail, six feet and six inches. 

Isaac Johnson. 
From the "Gazette & Herald," September 22, 1829. 



MONDAY, August 27th, set out with Mr. Davenport 
for Springfield, David waits on me, Trowbridge on 
him and Mr. Coolce ; Treated at N. Sparhawk's, 
Dine at Wilson's ; Mr. Justice Lynde came to us at Water- 
town Mill. Got to How's about 1/2 hour by Sun. 

August 28th. Din'd at Capt. Wings old House at Wor- 
cester ; Writt to Mr. Parris at Rice's, eat Roost Turkey near 
Strawberry-Hill, 1 eat mine at Sarah Stebbings's. Got to 
Brookfield a little after sunset. 

August 29th. To Springfield. Were met by the Sheriff 
Hitchcock within 10 miles of the Town. Got thither about 
5. p. M. 

August 30. Open'd the Court. Mr. Brewer pray'd. Mr. 
Taylor of Westfield din'd with us. 

August 31. Col. Partridge conducted me to Hatfield. 
Log'd at his House. 

September i. Col. Partridge brings me going to Sugar 
Loaf. Returns. My Pilot, Sam Childs, shews me where 
Capt. Lothrop and his Essex Soldiers were slain. Din'd with 
Mr. Williams. (Rev. John.) 

September 2. Very refreshing rain last night. Sat with 
Mrs. Williams in her pue. Mr. Williams's Text, " This 
their Way is their Folly." Sing well at Dearfield. 

September 3. Mr. Williams, Capt. Wells, Mehuman 



Hinsdal, went with me to the Falls, where Capt. Turner slew 
so many Indians. In return saw Green-River, where their 
Mills are, in which Capt. Turner was shot in his Retreat from 
the Falls ; Saw the Neck ; as had seen Cheapside going 
thither. Din'd at Mr. Williams, who with Capt. Wells 
brought us going to jMuddy-Brook. Got to Hatfield by 
Night. Lodg'd at Wait's. 


The following letter which was written by a young gentle- 
man born in 1762 and his lady love in 1772, is introduced to 
show the difference in formalities used upon such occasions a 
century ago, and now. Descendants of this couple are now 
living in this town, and names are therefore omitted. 

" It is with Delight and Satisfaction that I 

have this opportunity to write to you to introduce myself to the 
Friendship favour and affection of yourselves and family. It 
is by the mutual acquaintance and the endearing connection 
of social friendship that has taken place with me and your 
Daughter Lydia with a view of joining in the conjugal bands 
of Matrimony, — and we Doo now sincerely ask your advice 
and consent to our proceedings and request your Prayers for 
us that we may join that endearing relation with a just sense 
of the importance of its institution so that we may receive the 
Blessings which flow therefrom and Dwell together in peace 
and true Friendship & pass throu the troubled scenes of this 
world with a wise reference to Eternity that we may meet the 
cold messenger of Death with calm and undisturbed serenity 
and be prepared to enjoy the Blissful scenes of immortality in 
the world of Glory, — with childlike fear and fillial affection we 
request an answer to this according to your best wishes and 


There stood in the Federal street cemetery for many years 


a small red sandstone monument bearing the following singu- 
lar inscription : 

"John, 2d, apparently drowned, August, 1814, 
but rescued by Captain Anderson, of Newbury, 

The quaintness of the inscription excited the curiosity of 
many people, and writers in the Chicago Record and Public 
Opinion made it the subject of their remarks. 

The explanation is this : Calvin Munn, a soldier of the 
Revolution and the landlord of the old Munn tavern, erected 
this stone in memory of an event which came near costing 
him the life of a favorite child. 

The lad, John, 2d, when about nine years old fell from a 
canal boat into the basin at Montague City, and to all appear- 
ance was dead when taken out by Captain Anderson. After 
strenuous efforts the lad was resuscitated, and lived for sixty- 
eight additional years, dying in Northampton, December 27, 
1882, and his body now rests in the Green river cemetery. 

He became a resident of New York, and in grateful re- 
membrance of Captain Anderson, who died leaving a widow 
in needy circumstances, he assumed the responsibility of her 
maintenance during her life. 

The little red sandstone monument was removed and 
broken up for a foundation to the present Munn family 


In Greenfield meadows about 1848 lived one Edwin 
Smead, a farmer, who had a dog who was as constant as his 
master to attend the church at Nash's mills. At that time 
the meetinghouse contained a high pulpit, which was ap- 
proached by winding stairs in front of the gallery which con- 
tained the singers. When the congregation entered the 
church, the old dog, with the utmost gravity of manner, would 
climb the pulpit stairs and compose himself for a nap. Mr. 


Smead died and in 1850 the farm was sold to E. A. Par- 
menter, a good Baptist deacon, who attended church in the 
village. The dog stuck by the farm, but did not take to the 
new religion. Every Sunday morning when the family started 
for church, he was ready and trotted along beside the wagon 
until he came to the place where the road turned off toward 
the Congregational church, where he parted company with the 
family and stood by his own creed. About 1851 extensive 
alterations were made in the meetinghouse, the seats were 
turned around, a platform erected in the other end of the 
audience room and a modern desk placed thereon. When 
the day came for the reopening of the church, the old dog 
walked in with the rest of the congregation, and looked for 
the pulpit stairs, which, alas ! had disappeared forever. With 
an appearance of the deepest disgust, he walked up one aisle 
and down the other, looking disturbed and apparently aware 
that he w'as the object of ill-suppressed merriment, until at 
last, hearing the voice of good old Dr. Chandler in the open- 
ing services, he reluctantly and shame-facedly mounted the 
modern platform and composed himself to slumber. For 
many years longer, the old dog was the most constant at- 
tendant upon the service, never missing, let it rain or shine, 
until his dog days were over. 


In 1777, in the dark days of the Revolution, a scourge 
swept through this section with terrible results. In the town 
of Shelburne, with its scattered farms and homes on the hill- 
tops, there were eighty deaths that year, and in Greenfield 
fifty, or one tenth of its inhabitants. 

But 1 802 was long remembered as the saddest period in 
the town's history. So prevalent was the plague, which took 
the form of dysentery, that the stores and shops were closed 
and the streets deserted. There was no one to transact busi- 
ness unless compelled by necessity ; there was scarcely enough 

998 THE PLAGUE IN 1802 

well people to care for the sick. Alarming reports spread 
far and wide, and travelers avoided the town, but if obliged to 
pass through the streets, tied handkerchiefs over their faces as 
a precaution against the contagion. Many families moved 
away or sent off their children, as the disease was particularly 
destructive among the young. It is recorded that one hun- 
dred and one persons went to other places to await the abate- 
ment of the disease. At one period there was not an inhab- 
ited house in the place where there was not one or more 
persons sick or the family mourning for the dead. On one 
Sunday it was necessary to make five coffins, as there could 
be no delay in the interments. The first death occurred 
July 1 8. The disease spread very rapidly, some families los- 
ing five children, some three, and some all they had. The 
whole community was cast into the profoundest lamentation 
and sorrow. According to the record kept by the Rev. Dr. 
Newton, there were from July i 8 to September 20 — a period 
of two months — 47 deaths ; and in the whole year 68, 57 of 
which were from dysentery, and nearly all were young per- 
sons. In 1890, with a population exceeding 5,000, the num- 
ber of deaths in Greenfield was but 6^, — five less than in 
1802, when the population was not far from 500. 

The physicians who did patient and heroic service at that 
time of sore distress were Dr. John Stone of Greenfield, Dr. 
W. S. Williams of Deerfield, and Dr. Henry Wells of Mon- 
tague. According to a statement made by Drs. Wells and 
Stone in the Gazette of August 16, that year upwards of 
ninety persons had been afflicted with the disorder up to the 
T4th of that month, and at the time of the publication there 
were thirty sick. These physicians attributed the contagion 
to " a scarcity of fruit, so necessary in hot weather to correct 
the bile, and to a putrid atmosphere occasioned by a great 
flood in June which left stagnant water on the low land, which 
by the intense heat of the weather became putrid, and, being 
blown hither by the southerly winds, affected the air so sens- 

BELLS 999 

ibly as that its insalubrity might be plainly perceived by any 
one walking abroad in the evening. At this time — the i6th 
— the wind was blowing northwest, the heat was mitigated, 
considerable rain having fallen, and most of the sick convales- 
cent." * 


David Wells gave a bell to the town in 1800. It was hung 
on the schoolhouse in School street (now Geo. W. Avery's 
house), and for thirty-three years (with the exception of the 
courthouse bell after 18 12) was the only bell in town, and was 
rung for fires, on Sundays, for funerals, and on all public occa- 
sions. When the village district bought the old Fellenberg 
property, it was moved there and is now hanging in the belfry 
of the Chapman street schoolhouse. In 1833 the St. James 
and the Second Congregational societies each purchased bells, 
and when hung they tried them. A court being in session, 
the judge suspended business and inquired, "What is the 
matter?" One of the attorneys told him that two churches 
had got new bells, and they were trying to see which could 
make the most noise. 

Talking of bells, it may surprise some people to know that 
the -bell upon the Second Congregational Church was baptized 
before it was used by the society. On May 13, 1833, ^^^ 
late Deacon John J. Graves was returning from Boston with 
a five-horse team loaded with freight of all kinds. In the 
road in Montague, just below the mouth of the old canal, the 
way proving defective, the big wagon and its contents, includ- 
ing said bell, lurched over the bank into the river, but happily 
Mr. Graves and his horses made their escape ; but various 
kinds of dry goods, groceries, paints and dye stuffs mingled 
with the turbid waters of the Connecticut in a manner not 
pleasant to contemplate. The bell refused to float, but 
with the help of fresh-water boatmen, it was fished up and 

* From the Centenmal Gazette. 


taken in the boat to Cheapside and was soon after in its place 
in the steeple of the old brick church. 

The bell purchased by the old Court of Sessions and placed 
upon the courthouse (now the Gazette office) was bought by 
Mr. Theo. Leonard and placed upon the stone mill at Fac- 
tory Hollow where it remained until it was given by the 
Turners Falls Company to the German Methodist Church 
in this town upon whose edifice it now hangs. 


In volume II, page 274, of proceedings of the Potumtuck 
Valley Memorial Association, Mrs. Catharine B. Yale, in 
charming manner tells of a wedding in which Greenfield par- 
ties figured : 

" It is Sunday morning, December, 13, 1792. The oldest 
daughter of the Barnard family, Nabby, aged twenty-one, the 
second daughter, Rachel, twenty years old, and Sally, the 
third daughter, eighteen years old, all arrayed in sky blue silk 
gowns, are married here in the manse, doubtless in the parlor, be- 
fore the church service. Nabby married Joshua Clapp, Rachel, 
Hart Leavitt, and Sally, Dr. John Stone, all of Greenfield." 

The brides were daughters of " Lawyer Sam " Barnard, 
the richest man in Deerfield, and the ceremony took place in 
the old Willard house. 


Something of the difficulty of tracing old landmarks may 
be conceived when it is known that June 12, 1634, there was 
assigned to John Haskins " four acres of meadow in the neck 
where the dog was killed." April 16, 1635, there was granted 
to John Hayden " an acre and a half of swamp betwixt the ^1 
wolfe trap and the dead swamp ; " or a hundred years later, a 1 
parcel of land " at the brook where Mr. Doolittle's horse 
died ; " or as in a grant to John Nims which was to run " up 
ye hill as far as he pleaseth to go." Another angle was fixed ] 


" at ye place where ye runlet used to go near ye land claimed 
by a Suffield man." Perhaps no trouble would arise in finding 
the following piece: "Ye southe bounde to be a pece of flat 
land where sand brook runneth in wet times." Or that parcel 
the line of which ran "to ye stream where Numbo lost his 
hatchet, & following y* a considerable distance then turn left- 
ward and skirt the plow land by ye turkle pond." The great 
public road from Northampton through this place is said to 
have been described as bounded at one place on " — 's Oat 
trough," and at another place on " Aaron Denio's barn." 
Another piece was bounded upon " a great pile of rails," and 
still another included within its bounds, " so far round as the 
good land goeth." 


Capt. Daniel Wells, Treas'r. Sir : Please to pay to Mr. 
Ebenezer Nims three dollars, it being his due for expenses 
for rum &c. in turning the river in Goddard's meadow. 
Greenfield, Dec. 20, 1798. 

Solomon Smead ] Selectmen 
Caleb Clap > of 

Isaac Newton j Greenfield. 

Capt. Daniel Wells, Treas'r. Sir : Please to pay to Newton 
& Green Four dollars, it being for Rum for raising Fall 
.river bridge. 

Greenfield, March 9, 1800. 

Isaac Newton] Selectmen 
Caleb Clap > of 

Hull Nims J Greenfield. 

descended from general warren 
General Joseph Warren, killed at the battle of Bunker Hill, 
left at his decease four children, his wife having previously de- 
ceased. But one of the children lived to reach maturitv, and 
she became the wife of Richard E. Newcomb, judge of pro- 


bate in Greenfield. Their son, Joseph Warren Newcomb, 
was born in Greenfield, was a journahst, and died in 1874. 
He had a son and a daughter who survived him. The son 
married a hneal descendant of the old patriot. General Israel 
Putnam, and from this union came a son who was named 
Warren Putnam Newcomb, great-great-grandson of the two 
Revolutionary heroes whose names he bears. 

In this connection the author of this work is proud to an- 
nounce that his great-great-grandfather. Deacon John Adams 
of Milton, married for his second wife Widow Warren, the 
mother of the patriot general. 


Jonathan Catlin formerly of Greenfield and James Ryder 
of Deerfield were the first settlers of Shelburne, on the Sever- 
ance and Allis farms at Shelburne Falls, between 1752 and 
1756. Robert Wilson of Colrain was the third settler on the 
Isaac T. Fisk place, before 1761. The trail between Deer- 
field and these places was designated by marked trees, and 
when travellers were caught out at night, it was the custom 
for the rider to dismount and grasp the tail of the horse, 
whose natural instincts kept him on the trail. 


Reverend Robert Hubbard, the first minister of Shelburne, 
was once called upon to unite in marriage two negro slaves 
who lived in different families. As he used in his marriage 
service, the words, " you promise to live together," etc., he 
was a good deal troubled in his mind what to do, as he knew 
they could not " live together." So he consulted Reverend 
Doctor Newton in the matter. The Doctor suggested that 
he omit in the service the troublesome words. Mr. Hub- 
bard had serious doubts whether the marriage bond would 
be strong enough if the words were omitted. Doctor New- 


ton, knowing well Mr, Hubbard's practice of saluting the 
bride on such occasions, remarked that he " thought it would 
be strong enough if he kissed the bride." 


When Hugh Smith in 1874 took down the old buildings 
known as " Fort Stocking," inquiries were started as to when 
it was built and by whom. 

An old lady who had always lived in that vicinity asserted 
that it was the second house built in Greenfield, but this 
could hardly be correct, as the Misses Lucy P. and Eunice 
Billings, then bright and well informed women, asserted that 
it was built by their grandfather, Reverend Edward Billing 
(the first minister of Greenfield), soon after his settlemient in 
1754. The original part of the house, it being the north 
side, was built of pine logs nearly a foot square, and carefully 
matched. The south side of the house was built later by 
Merrick Hitchcock, who obtained title in 1792. As the 
Misses Billings owned twelve acres of the old home lot un- 
til 1823, their recollections must be entitled to much credit. 
The road ran much nearer the Rocky mountain in those days 
than it does at present, and the old fort stood on the westerly 
side of the road. The old house was surrounded by a stock- 
ade which disappeared before the Revolutionary War. It 
was customary to palisade minister's houses. 

Its name came about in this way : according to the state- 
ments of the Misses Fisk, who remember in their childhood 
that there was a woman lived there who had immense ankles, 
and they had seen her stockings hanging on the clothes-line, 
and believed they would measure a quarter of a yard in width. 
A wag of that period, one Reuben Hastings, in consequence 
of the enormous hose this woman was obliged to knit, called 
the place. Stocking Fort, and it was always after known by 
that name. 

In the old cellar was found the remains of a rude coffin 


made by splitting a log and hollowing out the two halves, so 
that when closed they might contain the remains. A few 
small bones were found in it, indicating that an infant had 
been buried in the cellar. 


As a practical illustration of the manner in which our fore- 
fathers executed their laws regulating the morals of the people, 
I insert a copy of the petition of a post rider of the olden 

" To his Excellency Sir Francis Bernard Esq. Baronet & 
Governor in Chief; the Hon^^"" the Council & House of 
Representatives, in General Court assembled. 

" The petition of David Hide of Boston, Post Rider, 
Humbly Sheweth : That he was in the month of September 
last imployed by the Selectmen of Boston to carry Expresses 
to the Selectmen of the other Towns in this Province, rela- 
tive to matters of public & important nature, which required 
the greatest dispatch ; he therefore thought himself obliged 
in faithfulness to his Imployers to ride from Belcher Town 
to Montague on the i8th of September, being Lord's Day, 
for which he was brought before the Hon^^® Court of Sessions 
for the County of Hampshire, convicted, & sentenced to 
pay a fine to the King, of ten shillings, and had costs taxed 
at eighteen shillings ; which With other Expenses, and loss of 
Time, has been a considerable damage as well as trouble to 
your Petitioner. Your Petitioner presumes not to make any 
Reflections upon the treatment he has received, but throws 
himself upon the favor of the Hon'''*' Court, praying that his 
case may be considered and such redress given as to your 
Excellency & Honors may seem meet; and as in duty bound 
shall ever pray, &c. David Hide." Boston, July i, 1769. 

" In the House of Representatives, July 13, 1769. Re- 
solved that the sum of one pound eight shillings be allowed 
& paid out of the public Treasury of the Province to the 


Pet'' David Hide, in full consideration of his extraordinary 
expenses in the foregoing Petition mentioned. 

" Sent up for Concurrence. T. Gushing, Speaker In 
Council, July 13, 1769 ; Read & Non Concurred: Jno. 
Cotton, D. Sec'y-" 

Old Deacon Samuel Childs,* long treasurer of the town 
of Deerfield, one Saturday went to Mill river for a load of 
lumber. He was belated and just as he arrived at the " Bars " 
the sun sank behind the western hills, and his conscience be- 
came troubled as to the propriety of driving home with his 
load, after sundown. So he consulted with his neighbors, 
Amsden and Allen, the only ones in that vicinity, and they 
all concluded that he was not justified in profaning the holy 
hours of the Sabbath by completing his journey ; so the con- 
scientious man unyoked his oxen and drove them home and 
returned for his load the succeeding Monday morning. 


At a meeting of the Franklin Association of ministers held 
in this town, at the evening conference of the first day, an en- 
thusiastic brother proposed that the association adjourn to 
meet at six o'clock in the morning, which proposition a large 
majority opposed. It was asked " What shall the brethren 
do who favor this motion?" Brother H. of G. promptly 
replied, " There is a passage of scripture which meets the 
case — ' commune with your own heart, upon your bed, and be 


Rev. L. B. Swartz, owning the Stone farm lying between 
the Rocky mountain and the Connecticut river, has collected 
and stored there many ancient and historic things, interesting 
to the antiquarian and relic hunter. He has two columns 
which supported the front door to the first city hall in Boston ; 

* Sheldon's Historj'. « 


two windows from the old Kings chapel ; two doors and 
panels made of yellow cedar from the old Hancock house, 
with the name " Hancock " burned in one ; a stained glass 
window from the old Mifflin house : and carved casings from 
the Torry house ; stairs from the pulpit of old St. Paul's 
Church ; the silver plated bar of the old city hall in Boston, 
and a post belonging to the same ; the bar formerly served 
for keeping the public railed off from the mayor. There is 
an Ionian column from the dining room of the old Tremont 
house ; and he also had many pictures which were unfortu- 
nately destroyed by a fire. Near the farmhouse are twelve rude 
fireplaces built by Indians, this spot being a favorite camp- 
ing place for them, as near by is a famous old spring, once 
covered by the abandoned sounding board of the old first 
meetinghouse of Greenfield. 


In 1867 Eber Nash, then 93 years old, stated that there 
formerly lived a man near the present grounds of the Country 
Club, who had a " borough " where he counterfeited silver 
dollars. He said that when he was a boy he used to go there 
and poke around and find silver money. When one of the 
early settlers on Silver street first built there, he found a 
human skeleton and several silver dollars. It was commonly 
supposed that the remains were those of one of the victims 
of the Turners Falls fight. At a later date a foreigner built 
a hut near Silver street and retired, living as a hermit. He 
brought several hundred silver dollars with him. He received 
more money at stated times from some foreign source. He 
seemed to be an educated man, spoke several different lan- 
guages and continued to live there to an advanced age. After 
his death there was found in his hut a silver dagger. 


Discharge of Lieutenant Zebulon Bryant (grandfather of 


Deputy Sheriff Chauncey Bryant, of Greenfield, Mass.,) from 
the Revolutionary Army at Ticonderoga, June 14, 1777; 
the colonel's request to the general and his reply : 

M* Independence June 14*^^, 1777. 
To the Honorable Gen" St Clare Sr. When as Capt 
Childs in my Regt had about Ninety men Drafted and has 
but a bout forty men come on the ground and three Commis- 
sioned officers. As Liut Bryant has a mind to go home, if 
your Honour will Discharge him and give him a pass to go 
home you will oblige your most obedient Sevnt 

David Wells Colo. 

In Consequence of the within request from Colonell Wells 
the Bearer Lieutenant Bryant is discharged and is to be al- 
lowed to return to his Place of abode. Given under my 
Hand at Tyconderoga June 14''^ I777- 

A. St. Clair, Maj. Gen' 


ancient accounts 
In an old account book of John Stebbins of Deerfield, tan- 
ner, currier and shoemaker, I find items relating to Greenfield 
settlers or their immediate ancestors. 

1743, Nathan' Brux (Brooks) 

to leather for a bullet pouch j[ 0-02-0 

to a pare of stichdowns ^-6 

to a pare of mogasons 8— 

to scaling & heal taping your wife shoas ^-6 

Nathaniel Brooks lived at Cheapside in 1734; went to 
Winchester, N. H., in 1735 ; settled in Greenfield in 1743 ; 
was captured by the Indians at Country Farms, August 23, 
1756; was seen in Canada in September, 1758, but nothing 
more is known of him. 


1744, Gad Caus (Corse), 

to a pare of topmogasons 0-14- 

a pare of pumps i-io- 

Gad Corse was a son of James, the old hunter and scout ; 
was a tanner and a soldier in the French wars and very useful 
in conveying stores, driving cattle and furnishing other sup- 
plies to the soldiers, being at that time 21 years of age. 

1744, Ebenezer Arms, 

to a pare of Jarmine (German ?) pumps i-io- 

to a pare of soals 3— 

March, to 10 pare of Jarmine pumps 15-00—0 

May, to a pare of red shoas 1 8- 

Arms was then 23 years old. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Edward Allen, who lived at the fort were the Hol- 
lister house stands. He became one of the leading men of 
Greenfield, owning the John Thayer and Simons farms in the 

1750, Ebenezer Wells, 

to saddle & bridle 20-10- 

Wells was then 27 years old. Became a captain of the mili- 
tia, and was leader in town affairs. He was a son of Joshua, 
who lived where Arthur D. Potter now does, and his house 
was palisaded. 

1745, Samuel Stebbins, 

to a pare of Indian shoas 9— 

to a Dear skin 16-5 

to soaling your mogasons 16 
to Liquor paid at the Vandew in selling 

skins I— 

April, to a Belle strap . 16- 

to a whip 4-6 

to Enoch reaping a day 3-00- 

June, to a shirts of cloth 4—4 



Stebbins early settled in Greenfield in the upper meadows, 
in that part now known as Bassville. 

1744, Shubal Atherton, 

to Capping your wifes shoes 2-9 

Atherton owned the fortified house standing on the ground 
now surrounded by Fort Square. He was killed by Indians 
at Country Farms, August 23, 1756. 

March ye 1747. An Accompt of the charge for building a 
Sean (seine) 
to cash paid Jonathan Severance and Selah 

Barnard and a point of rum 2-17-6 

to a mug of flip and four mugs of sider-sugar - 6- 
April, to Bants and Evins for knitting 6-10- 

to six pounds of flax I— 4— 

to seventeen pounds and half of flax 3— 10— i 

Ensign Jonathan Severance was then 23 years old. He 
became a prominent citizen of Greenfield — was town clerk in 
1^72 — and his house was near where Conway street enters 

Barnard was of the same age as Severance ; was a famous 
man both in civil and military life. He returned from the 
Revolutionary War bearing a major's commission. He built 
the south part of the Frary house (Deerfield) where he kept 
a tavern and store. He entertained Benedict Arnold when 
he stopped in Deerfield on his way to take Ticonderoga. 
Barnard's nearest neighbor was Jeremiah Nims. Sheldon 
tells the following romantic story : " When Barnard called 
at Nims's for a neighborly good-bye on going to the war, a 
little girl was lying in the cradle, and he said to the mother, 
' Keep her until the wars are over, and I will marry her.' 
When the war-worn soldier came back and settled down ' a 
bachelor and lived by himself,' this remark was called to mind 
and the prudent mother used to send the said maiden over 
in a neighborly way to look after the major's room and keep 



things tidy in these bachelor quarters ; in due time the major 
was reminded of his promise and he fulfilled it ; Elizabeth 
survived him a long time and died January 13, 1827, aged 82." 


At a muster held at Deerfield soon after the Revolutionary 
War, a wager was offered that Lieutenant John Thompson of 
Colrain and a man from Leyden, whose name is forgotten, 
could shoulder the Deerfield cannon and march around the 
common. Lieutenant Thompson being consulted, said he j 
would not make the trial with the Leyden man, as he did not 
know him, but if they would substitute Nathanial Smith of 
Colrain that he would make the effort. This being agreed 
to, Thompson and Smith took hold of the breech of the gun 
and raising it on its muzzle, Thompson took the big end 
upon his shoulder, and Smith raised the muzzle to his, and 
they marched around the common. It was said that the 
muzzle sank into the ground so much that the dirt had to be 
removed before Smith could get his hand into the mouth of 
the cannon to raise it. Those old Scotch-Irishmen were a 
powerful race of men. 

Speaking of strong men, there are men living who have 
seen the late Lucius Nims and the late Edmund O. Nash 
each take a barrel of cider by the chimes, and put it over the 
end board into a cart. Not only one, but to load a cart in 
that manner. 

Justin Root, father of Miss Mary J. Root of the Shelburne 
road, was a very strong man. His peculiar pleasure was to 
get a good hold upon the hand of some strong man, and 
squeeze it while the squirming victim begged to be released. 
There were other very strong men in town, among them 
Frank Park and the late George J. Day. 


We elderly people have all heard our forefather's tell about 


the dark day of 1780. One account says : "For several days 
before the 19th of May of that year a sulphurous vapor filled 
the air, and on that morning there was thunder and lightning 
and some rain. What little wind there was came from the 
southwest. By nine o'clock in the morning darkness came 
creeping on with a yellowish hue, which made clear silver ap- 
pear grass green. A dense vapor settled over all the land 
from Pennsylvania to the St. Lawrence. The atmosphere 
was lifeless and the darkness came thicker and thicker, and 
the sun in disappearing took a brassy hue. The lurid, brassy 
hue spread everywhere, above and below, and all outdoors 
wore a sickly, weird and melancholy aspect, and there was a 
stillness which was frightful. By eleven o'clock it was as dark 
as night, and remained so until three o'clock in the afternoon. 
The hours and minutes on a watch or clock could not be seen 
without artificial light, which was a necessity both out of doors 
and in, in order to transact ordinary business. Drivers of 
coaches put up their teams ; the birds ceased to fly and hid 
themselves in the trees. Pigeons on the wing took shelter in 
the forest as they do at night. The fowls went to their roosts, 
and bats came out of their hiding places and flew about. 
Sheep and cattle sought the shelter of the barnyard, and dogs 
behaved in a strange manner. The worker- in the shop was 
compelled to forego his labor, and the farmer quitted his fur- 
ough and made his homeward way, to receive the anxious in- 
quiry of the housewife: 'What is coming?' Schools were 
dismissed and the frightened children hastened home tremb- 
ling with fear." 

Almost the parallel of this was the dark day of September 
6, 1 88 1. A dark vapory mist settled down over all the val- 
leys of New York and New England, while the hill tops re- 
joiced in sunlight and brightness. There was a perceptible 
dampness which pervaded indoors and out. This condition 
continued from early morning to four o'clock, p . m., and 
stores, offices and dwellings had to be lighted in order to do 


business. The schools were dismissed, and to a large extent 
business was suspended. The superstitious believed that the 
end of the world was at hand, and went about with sad hearts 
and long faces. 

THE " blizzard" 

March 8, 1888, snow began to fall Sunday evening about 
nine o'clock, and continued without interruption until Tues- 
day noon when it partially cleared, and soon after clouded 
over and began again to fall faster than before. All the while 
there was a strong northeast wind, and the snow was piled in 
deep drifts and sifted in at every crack and cranny. 

Monday morning people wallowed through deep snow to 
their places of business, and the railroads ran their much be- 
lated trains. But by Monday evening many a train found 
itself stalled in drifts ten feet deep, and the passengers in many 
instances had to spend the night in the cars. A Raymond & 
Whitcomb excursion train left Boston Monday night and suc- 
ceeded in reaching Fitchburg that night, where they were side- 
tracked until Wednesday morning. That day they reached 
Athol, where they spent the rest of the day, and late in the 
evening were sent on their way rejoicing. Peter Rome, track 
walker between Greenfield and West Deerfield, was frozen, 
and his body thrown out by the snow plow passing Monday 
evening. People from the hill towns did not reach the vil- 
lage until Thursday and Friday. Many people abandoned 
their sleighs, and mounted their horses in order to reach their 
destinations. The first mail from Springfield reached here 
Wednesday morning, and the first one from Boston Wednes- 
day night. The young ladies working in the printing office 
at the old tool factory works were obliged to remain all night, 
as it was impossible to safely reach their homes. The work- 
man's train from Turner's Falls did not come in Monday eve- 
ning. A few men undertook to walk home, and succeeded 
after great exertion. 



June 14, 1892, about five o'clock p. m., Greenfield village 
was visited by the most destructive hailstorm ever recorded. 
The day had been very hot, and there had been a slight 
shower from seemingly a clear sky. About three o'clock the 
barometer took a sudden fall, and inky black clouds gathered 
in the southwest and came rolling down Shelburne hills, and 
in five minutes, time it was estimated that ^10,000 damage 
had been done in this village. One hailstone picked up on 
the sidewalk measured nine inches in circumference. The 
ground was strewn with them the size of brook pebbles. The 
largest newspaper hen's egg did not compare favorably with 
thousands of these hailstones. Nearly all windows upon the 
westerly sides of buildings situated between Wiley & Russell's 
and the northerly part of the village were broken. If protected 
by blinds, in many cases the blinds were broken. Four hundred 
and fifty lights were broken at Cutler, Lyons & Field's shops, 
400 at the old tool shops, and other buildings in the same propor- 
tion. Two cats and one old rooster are reported among the 
killed, but the wounded included several bipeds whose wounds 
required medical attendance. The street was the scene of 
several runaways, but luckily no human lives were lost. 


The political campaign of i860 was especially remarkable 
in Greenfield because of the candidacy of one of the well 
known men of the town for the office of vice president. 
" Col." Harvey Gill, a descendant of Ethan Allen, and one 
of the best known men of the village, long an employee of 
Joslyn & Eldridge in their livery stable, was induced by a few 
of the young and ardent men of the village to accept a nom- 
ination as vice president, on a ticket headed by Sam Houston, 
of Texas. If the Houston & Gill party was not large, it was 
at least select. Had its success being equal to its merits, 
much blood and treasure might have been saved. 


On the last day of July a fine flag was floated over Main 
street bearing the names of Lincoln & Hamlin, and the cam- 
paign was opened in an appropriate manner. The next even- 
ing, without previous notice, an equally large and expensive flag 
was given to the breeze bearing the names of Sam Houston, 
of Texas, for president, and Harvey Gill, of Massachusetts, 
for vice president. The succeeding evening the Houston & 
Gill Club, under the escort of the Greenfield band, courteously 
waited on Colonel Gill, and escorted him to the banner. It 
was serenaded by the band, and the candidate in a patriotic 
speech defined his position upon the political questions of 
the day. At the close of his eloquent remarks he was 
loudly cheered and the club and candidate adjourned to the 
Mansion House. 

The nomination of Colonel Gill attracted much attention, 
and within a few days his mail matter became quite large, and 
he was kindly assisted in his correspondence by members of 
the club. Among others he received the following cordial 
letter : 

"St. Louis, Aug. 4, i860. 

"CoL. Harvey Gill. 

" Dear Sir : I learn with great pleasure that you have be- 
come associated on the Democratic ticket with my old and 
tried friend, Houston, and although I am opposed to him on 
political grounds, as a man and a friend — socially — he is 
worthy of the high trust about to be committed to his charge. 
While * Honest Abe ' has my sympathies and will receive 
my support at the ballot box, I entertain a feeling for you and 
your associate such as should ever exist between leading polit- 
ical men in every clime. I will embrace this opportunity to 
extend to you an invitation to visit our city during the 
approaching State fair, which commences on the 25th, ul- 
timo. I shall take pleasure in pointing out to you such 
leading features of our country as may most interest you, and 
as all the candidates for the high offices to which you and 


my friend Houston aspire, will be present, have no doubt 
the time will be agreeably passed. 

"I remain your obedient servant: 

" O. D. FiLLEY, Mayor." 

During the progress of the campaign, Colonel Gill received 
a letter from Honorable John A. Dicks, announcing with re- 
gret, the withdrawal from the contest, of his principal, Hon- 
orable Sam Houston. This announcement made necessary 
a meeting of the club ; the time at the meeting was spent in 
denunciation of the trading propensities that had developed 
within the party to the great disgust of the local candidate. 
He strongly denounced the politicians of New York and New 
Jersey, especially Commodore Stockton. 

About this time he received a letter from Worcester hold- 
ing out great inducements to him if he would turn over his 
influence to the Belleverett party. This so enraged the 
doughty descendant of Ethan Allen that he announced in 
disgust that he would himself decline as a candidate, and 
forego politics forever. Nothing could swerve him from his 
purpose when his mind had become fixed, and he was justly 
indignant that an attempt had been made to bribe him. 

So on the 15th of September, the members of the Houston 
& Gill party in Greenfield, six in number, mounted on horse- 
back, led by the Greenfield band, and escorted by a dozen 
boys with torches ablaze, drew up before the Joslyn & El- 
dridge stable, and taking up Colonel Gill, dressed in his long 
frock, with a tall feather in his white hat, they marched to the 
foot of the flag stafi^ on the common, where Colonel Gill de- 
livered " in his elegant and chaste style " an address, announcing 
his declination as a candidate for the vice presidency. He 
particularly dwelt upon the corruption in the political parties of 
the day, said when the country called for aid in putting down 
any sectional strife and controversy, that they would find a 
descendant of Ethan Allen on hand, and that his position re- 


minded him of an historic personage, (whom he named,) whom 
the devil took into a high mountain, and after showing him 
all the nations of the earth, offered him the whole if he would 
fall down and worship him, closing with the assertion, "and 

the didn't own a foot of it." 

His address was received with uproarious applause by the 
gathered multitude, the Houston & Gill banner was lowered, 
and Colonel Gill retired to private life. 




GREENFIELD has always claimed a considerable in- 
terest in the old Deerfield cannon. While for the 
last few years this interest has not been expressed with 
that force and vigor formerly shown by its citizens, still a deep 
feeling of attachment to the traditions of the forefathers re- 
mains latent in their less belligerent successors. 

Authentic history does not tell us how the great cast-iron 
guns (the one now in Memorial Hall and its mate) came to 
be in this part of the Connecticut valley, but it is surmised 
that they were a part of the " setting out " of Governor Jona- 
than Belcher when he held his great council at Deerfield in 
August, 1735, with the Housatonic, Caghnawaga and Mo- 
hawk Indians. This conference was held at great cost to the 
Colony (pTyoio, 17s. 2od.) and nothing was spared to impress 
upon the minds of the Indians the power and grandeur of the 
English government. Two years later the governor called 
another conference with these Indians at Fort Dummer, and 
immediately after we find that the fort has a " Great Gun," 
which was used for the purpose of giving alarms, and without 
doubt our " Deerfield " cannon's mate was taken to the fort 
at the time of this conference. Colonel Israel Williams, the 
commander of the frontier, lived in Hatfield, and soon after the 
close of the Indian wars and the consequent dismantlement of 
Fort Dummer, we find a " great gun " in Hatfield. Deer- 
field claimed it as her own ; Hatfield resisted ; Hadley boys 



Stole it, and about 1 840 it was loaded to its muzzle and 
placed on the bank of the river pointing toward Hatfield, and 
upon its discharge it was blown into a thousand pieces. Deer- 
field men who saw it declared it to be the counterpart of- the 
Deerfieldgun. In 1777 Jonathan Hobby, who was fitting out 
a privateer, purchased of Colonel William Williams of Pitts- 
field (who, with headquarters at Deerfield had been commis- 
sary during the French war), the old gun now at Deerfield. 
When his agent came to Deerfield to take away the gun (as 
appears in his petition to the Council and Representatives of 
Massachusetts Bay, for redress), he was " interrupted by the 
Committee of said town of Deerfield and the Cannon Con- 
veyed back, to the loss and damage of your petitioner." Af- 
terward other " Committees " of Deerfield acquired quite a rep- 
utation for " interrupting " parties who were conveying the 
cannon away. 

For years the old gun stood upon the Deerfield common, 
mounted on carriage and wheels provided by vote of the town, 
but it was generally safely secured as the national holiday 
approached. But few knew its hiding place until upon the 
" glorious fourth " it spoke for itself. Sometimes it remained 
exposed too long, and disappearing, its location was unknown, 
until it woke the echoes in the early morn from the heights of 
Greenfield village. 

Sheldon tells the story of its being spirited away to Conway 
about 1808, and the organization of a battalion of young and 
old from Deerfield on horseback, under the lead of Colonel 
Joseph Stebbins and Rufus Saxton to retake it. The Con- 
way boys had given the stolen gun the privilege of sanctuary, 
but Colonel Stebbins with uplifted axe stood before the church 
door and gave five minutes for the delivery of the gun. The 
gun was surrendered under the promise that it should not be 
fired until they got it back to Deerfield. As soon as the 
town line was crossed the old gun roared defiance to its ene- 
mies or joy at its return. 


Possession of this old gun served for years as a vent for the 
surplus energies of the strong men of Greenfield and Deer- 
field. Quite often struggles occurred between the contending 
forces in which bloody noses and bruised heads marked for 
many days the victims of the frays. A few years before the 
railroad came to town, a party was returning from a successful 
raid on Deerfield, following the old gun in triumphal proces- 
sion up Clay hill about where the railroad arch now stands. 
Levi Jones, George W. Potter and probably A. P. Cooley 
were members of the victorious squad. Suddenly they were 
attacked by a pursuing party from Deerfield, and if reports are 
true, but few on either side escaped severe treatment. The 
cannon remained with the Greenfield party, but one man hap- 
pening to get both legs through a rail fence, astride the rail, 
nearly had his legs pulled from their sockets, and was lamed 
for weeks. 

The hiding places for this old gun were numerous. Levi 
Jones and David R. Wait, had it in the pond near the electric 
light station for a year. Broughton's pond seems to have been 
a favorite resting place. Many of the cellars of old Deerfield 
have had it for a guest. When the Phillips's Pocumtuck 
Hotel cellar was dug it was resurrected there. One dark 
night a party of Deerfield men with the aid of Deacon Hitch- 
cock's oxen and cart wheels conveyed the old gun down the 
Albany road to where a lot of rails lay piled beside the way. 
Removing the rails they dug a shallow grave and buried 
therein the cannon and replaced the rails. Scarcely had they 
finished their work when a pair of sharp eyes discovered a 
looker-on, and a chase began which resulted in the capture of 
a spy from Greenfield. But, Sheldon says, " the cannon did 
not go to Greenfield that year." 

About 1854 Tom Whittemore had the cannon in his cellar. 
One of " Bill " Wait's boys worked for Whittemore and told 
Henry Wait where the cannon was. Henry Wait came im- 
mediately to Greenfield and a party was organized to get the 


gun. At midnight a " committee," among whom were 
Charles H. Munn, John R. Holton, A. P. Cooley, Charles 
Keith, and Henry Wait, gathered at " Bill " Briggs's stable at 
the Union House and in a coach and four, followed by 
" Bunk " Thayer and his truck wagon, proceeded towards 
Deerfield. Arriving at the common, Holton and Wait were 
detached to examine Whittemore's barn cellar where Wait 
supposed the cannon lay. They soon returned with the state- 
ment that the barn had no cellar. In low whispers a council 
of war was held and the scouts ordered to examine the house 
cellar. Holton climbed through a cellar window, unfastened 
the bulkhead door an groping in the dark found the big 

Gathering their forces they captured all the chains and ropes 
which the premises afforded, and by lifting and pulling dragged 
the cannon to the top of the bulkhead steps and loading it 
into an old wagon started for the common. Just then the 
Wait boy heard the noise and shouted, " Tom ! Tom ! they've 
stole the cannon ! " By the time Whittemore arrived at the 
common they had transferred it to Thayer's wagon, and 
Whittemore started toward the horses, Charles Keith, thinking 
he intended to cut the harness, grabbed a wagon stake and 
told him to stand off, which order he complied with. Thay- 
er's horses were started into a run, and the marauders piling 
into the coach went cheering through the " old street " toward 
Greenfield. That night the old cannon rested in the new- 
made cellar of the house now owned by Wm. G. Packard. 
But it was thought too many people were in the secret, and 
the next day (being Sunday), it was decided by a few to re- 
move it the next night to a more secure hiding place. A 
rescue or at least spying was feared, and guards were kept on 
all the near-by streets. Neither did the leaders fully trust 
Henry Wait, he being a Deerfield man, so they placed him 
some distance away on guard while they removed the gun. 
Amos Pond helped load the gun, and Wait while away on 


guard heard Charles Munn say " Nash's mills," and thinking 
he ought to know where that cannon was put, struck out for 
Nash's mills across the lots in the dark. Arriving there he 
waited a long time, but at last was rewarded by hearing the 
" chuck," " chuck," of Thayer's wagon coming down the hill 
near the schoolhouse, Thayer having driven up Federal 
street to Long's corner, in order to put spies off their guard. 
Wait remained hiding and Thayer drove over the bridge and 
north on the Leyden road. Wait followed as far as the Pic- 
kett place and lost the sound of the wagon. Soon he heard it 
again as it crossed the bridge over Glen brook by the town 
farm. He struck across the meadow and not finding a suit- 
able fording place in the dark got into Green river up to his 

Reaching Irish Plain, he had got ahead of the van and 
hid by the way until it passed, then followed on. Coming 
to the place at the foot of the hill where the Plain road 
turns off to the east, Thayer stopped, and just east of the 
Green river road and north of the Plain road, in a 
harvested buckwheat field owned by Henry A. Ewers, 
they buried the cannon. When the coast was clear, Wait 
took the lay of the land as closely as possible, and 
walked to the village. Dressed in his best clothes, wet to 
his arms and bedraggled and tired as he was, instead of keep- 
ing out of sight, he went to the Mansion House. The wise 
ones at once became suspicious of Wait, but kept their peace. 
Wait went home and told his father (the late David R. Wait, 
who had been in many a cannon scrimmage) the whole 
story. He loaned his son an ox team and hired man, and 
the next evening Henry fully equipped with shovels, chains 
and ropes drove to the lonely place of burial, but lo, and be- 
hold ! the buckwheat field had been plowed. He took his 
bearings, measured, prodded and dug, but no cannon could 
be found, and he returned home disgruntled. 

Now comes into my story a communication of Henry Briggs 


to George Sheldon and by Mr. Sheldon published in the 
Gazette of April i8, 1903. 

" On learning the young man from Deerfield had been 
there and fearing he might find it, the Greenfield boys came 
up and removed it from the field, Mr. Ewers telling them 
they might place it under the ell of the hotel for safety. 
They did so and there it rested three or four years, till Mr. 
Ewers sold the farm to a Mr. Nims* and removed West. 

" Some of the young men in the Meadows, on learning the 
cannon was there, decided to take it out and celebrate. Mr. 
Nims fearing there might be an accident, asked me if I would 
help him get it out and conceal it on my premises. On re- 
moving some of the boards in one of the back rooms we 
found it underneath the floor. That was the first time I 
ever saw the cannon. One night we took away enough of 
the underpinning to admit a man, then I crept in and placed 
chains about the cannon, while Mr. Nims waited outside with 
two pairs of cattle. 

" When all was ready the signal was given, the cattle started, 
but not the cannon, as the chains were broken. The second 
time was more successful, the cannon left its hiding-place and 
I came out behind it. 

"Thinking the noise of the cattle drawing the gun might 
disturb the neighbors, we got it onto the forward axle of a 
two-horse wagon and drew it by hand into my yard, burying 
it near the sill of my barn. 

" Mr. Nims and myself were the only two men who knew 
where the cannon was all that summer. 

" On going to my barn one morning I found the yard had 
been entered during the night and an unsuccessful attempt 
made to find the gun, the yard having been thoroughly 
punched with iron bars in trying to find it. Two or three 
times they had just missed it. 

* Wm. Newton Nims deceased, 


" On another occasion in coming in from the field at noon 
I found a Mr. Stebbins (I do not know his given name) from 
Deerfield in the barn. I well knew his errand though the 
cannon was not mentioned. He smiled, made some casual 
remark about the weather, and left. The cannon rested in 
my yard till about January or February of the next winter. 
About that time two men drove up from the street, saying 
the Deerfield and Greenfield boys had settled the dispute and 
agreed to give it up. The next day, when down street, I 
met Rufus Rowland, the druggist, and Major Keith, both of 
whom told me to give it up, as all disputes had been' settled. 
That night Major Keith sent his team, with his man and 
three volunteers, Levi Clark, the Davis street blacksmith, 
Edward Thayer, familiarly known as " Bunk " Thayer, and 
the third I did not know. 

" On going to the spot we found the ground frozen solid and 
could only be removed with the aid of picks and bars. When 
the task was completed the evening was far spent but the 
men started for Deerfield. That was the last of my connec- 
tion with the gun. 

" It was so late when they reached Deerfield the boys thought 
the cannon was not coming. About ten o'clock they saw 
the team turning the corner at the north end of the street, 
and the news quickly spread. The four men were given a 
good supper and $io, a man by the name of Abercrombie 
giving the money. I have Mr. Thayer's authority for 
the supper and money, as he was one of the four men who 
helped dig the cannon up from my yard, and he told me a 
few days after of the kindness shown them at Deerfield. 
All this happened 40 years ago or more but as my memory 
of those times is good I think I have the above facts correct. 

" The young man from Deerfield, who followed the Green- 
field boys up through Country Farms, told me himself of his 
doing so." 

At the annual meeting of the Pocurntuck Valley Memorial 


Association in February, 1903, a few of the younger members 
related their experiences in relation to the old gun. Spencer 
Fuller, in his inimitable manner, told the story of the boys 
getting the gun from the cellar of the late Charles Jones, by 
his leave, in 1876, and then taking it up to Fort Hill and 
amusing themselves nearly all night ; that near morning they 
got word that a company from South Deerfield were coming 
to take the cannon. They immediately gathered reinforce- 
ments by calling in Mr. Jones, who took the lead and with a 
stout club soon scattered the southern invaders. County 
Treasurer Newcomb remembered how, when Richmond fell, 
they fired the gun all night and then filled it up with earth ; 
the South Deerfield boys stole it soon after, but had a hard 
time to get it in working condition. At one time the Deer- 
field boys stole the cannon from South Deerfield, put it on a 
handcar and ran it up to Deerfield, but could not get it off 
the track. After much excitement the track was cleared in 
time to escape wrecking a train. John Sheldon remembered 
that one time the cannon was taken up near the cemetery and 
preparations made to salute a passing train. A lively discus- 
sion arose as to whether to fire before or behind the train. It 
was decided to fire just before the cars passed, but the charge 
held fire and the cannon was discharged just in time to nearly 
blow off the end of the rear car. The boys scattered in all 
directions, two jumping into a newly-made grave, others hid- 
ing behind tombstones, and one running away to Shutesbury, 
where he remained eight months. 

I remember once seeing a cut of a large brass horn that 
had been taken upon one of the expeditions in search of the 
North Pole, and upon its return deposited in a museum as a 
curiosity. From the mouth of the big horn were issuing 
musical notes, which had become frozen into the instrument; 
these had been thawed out by the warmer atmosphere. If 
this old gun should some day thaw out, in its place among 
the treasures of the Pocumtuck Memorial Association, what 


interesting stories of exciting events in the history of this 
vicinity would then be revealed. 

Here is hoping that the old gun may at some future time 
"speak for itself." 

WAR OF I 8 12 

The following page, copied from a diary of Capt. Thaddeus 
Coleman, relates to the War of 1 8 1 2 : 

"Greenfield, May 7, 18 14. 
"Hon. Secretary of War : 

" I acknowledge the receipt of an appointment by the Pres- 
ident of the United States as captain in the 48th Regiment of 
infantry, commanded by Colonel Isaac Clark. I accept the 
appointment and will report myself in person to Colonel 
Clark, agreeably to orders. 

" I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, 
" Your obedient servant, 

" Thaddeus Coleman 

" Hon. John Armstrong, Esq., 

" Secretary of War, Washington." 

"June 28, 1 8 14. This day opened my rendezvous at Green- 
field. Captain 26th Regiment Riflemen. 

"July 5. First return — none.* 

"September 7, 18 14. This day removed my rendezvous 
from Greenfield to Bernardston. 

"September 13. Returned none (and the same weekly to 

October 25.) 

"Greenfield, June 22, 1814. 

" United States to Thaddeus Coleman, Dr. 

" To transportation of baggage from Burlington, 

Vt., to Greenfield, Mass. |i3-6o 

"September 22. To expenses in pursuing Fran- 
cis Henery, deserted 7-5^ 

* The war was unpopular in New England, and recruits were scarce. The same 
report was made weekly until September 6. 



" October 7. To expenses for pursuing John 

Barbour, a deserter 8.33 

"August 31, 1 8 14. This day Dennis Eddy began to do 
duty for me as a waiter. 

" BurHngton, February 14, 1 8 1 5. This day began to board 
with Mr. Barnard." 

Captain Coleman was grandfather of Mrs. Mary P. Wells 


Samuel Leonard years ago when Gill was a part of Green- 
field lived on the S. P. Stratton place. He was a very large 
strongly built man and had double teeth all around in both 
upper and lower jaw. It was said of him that when eighty- 
three years of age he could hold a tenpenny nail so firmly in 
his teeth that by bending it he was able to break it off. He 
was an expert hunter, and every year took a trip to St. Law- 
rence county. New York, for the purpose of hunting and 
trapping. He finally took up his permanent abode there and 
died at the age of 104 years. 

He had a grandson, Moses Leonard, who inherited his 
tastes. He was born about 1805, and had when 74 years old, 
as he claimed, killed 300 wolves, 150 bears, and numberless 
deer, — sometimes 100 in a season. 

The St. Lawrence Herald in telling the story, says, " There 
is enough of interest in the history of the man to fill a large 


The portion of the town known as " Log Plain " was in 
early times covered with an immense growth of white pines. 
John McHard had built his log cabin on the brow of the 
steep hill just west of the Nathaniel Black house, a little 
nearer the highway than the present house. His son William 
used to tell of a hurricane which happened about the time of 


the Revolutionary War which swept through these tall pines to 
the south of their house, twisting them off as though they were 
mere saplings. For years after the vicinity was frequented 
by most of the families of the town for the purpose of gather- 
ing the resinous knots of the fallen pines for kindling and 
torch wood. A half century later the uprooted stumps formed 
fences on both sides of the swamp road for a long distance. 


Prominent among the business enterprises named, as car- 
ried on a hundred years ago, that of hat making is often men- 
tioned. The little house on the stage road in which John 
Chambers lived and died was built by Pliny Severance for a 
hat shop. Here for many years he made fur hats. After a 
time silk hats made their appearance. One day his neighbor, 
a Mr. Smith, who lived on the corner opposite the old Log 
Plain schoolhouse, was importuned by a peddler to buy a 
silk hat. Smith looked at the hat and said, " Why these silk 
hats are good for nothing ! My neighbor Severance down 
here makes a good hat ; a fur hat. Let me show you one." 
So into the house he goes and brings out his Sunday-go-to- 
meeting-hat, and says, " There is a hat which is worth looking 
at ! " The peddler closely examined the hat and returning it 
said, " Yes ! a pretty good hat ! Yes ! a good hat ! " and 
turning up the sweat lining and pointing to a brand, " There's 
my mark ! " 


The several expeditions undertaken by the colonies against 
the French between 1690 and 1750 called for large expendi- 
tures of money, and the country suffered terribly from the 
issues of an irredeemable currency. " Old tenor " was that 
form issued in Massachusetts before 1737. "Middle tenor" 
was a form issued from 1737 to 1741 when anew act was 
passed, and the issue under the new act became known as 


" new tenor." Each had a different value, and each de- 
preciated in different ratios. After the colonies had taken 
Louisbourg (June 1 7, 1 745), the home government in acknowl- 
edgment of the services of Massachusetts in this affair, sent 
over 180,000 pounds sterling, which the colony used to pur- 
chase 1,980,000 pounds of their paper promises, greatly to 
the relief of the suffering people. 

Again in 1775 the Continental Congress, in its great straits 
for money began to issue paper money. Before the close of 
the year 1779, it had put forth ^242,000,000. In March, 
1780, it was worth but forty dollars to one in silver. Con- 
gress then called it in and issued in its place at market value, 
" new tenor " notes bearing five per cent interest, at twenty 
" old tenor " to one of " new tenor." The old notes sank 
to one thousand to one. 

The General Court of Massachusetts by act passed Septem- 
ber 29, 1780, fixed the following rates for the depreciation 
of the currency, for the liquidation of all debts and contracts. 
One dollar in gold or silver was worth, in paper currency — 










February 27, 1781, the rate had become $75.00 in paper 
for $1.00 in silver. An act was passed by the government 









1. 12 


1. 15 























1 1.04 











May 5, 1780, for the consolidation of all the currency, and 
the issue of new bills of credit therefor. This was known 
as the " new emission " and by the act of June 5, 1781, |i.oo 
in silver was worth I1.87 in " new emission" bills. The 
value of this issue rapidly declined, and October i, 1 781, it 
took $4.00 of" new emission" to purchase |i.oo in silver. 

" During the summer of 1780 ' Continental ' currency fell 
into contempt. As Washington said, ' it took a wagon load 
of money to buy a wagon load of provisions.' At the end 
of the year 1778 the paper dollar was worth sixteen cents in 
the northern states and twelve cents in the south. Early in 
1780 its value had fallen to two cents, and before the end of 
the year it took ten paper dollars to make a cent. 

" In October, Indian corn sold at wholesale in Boston for 
$150 per bushel, butter was $12 a pound, tea $90, sugar |io, 
beef |8, coffee ^12, and a barrel of flour cost $1,575. Samuel 
Adams paid |2,ooo, for a hat and suit of clothes. The money 
soon ceased to circulate ; debts could not be collected, and 
there was a general prostration of credit. To say that a 
thing was * not worth a Continental ' became the strongest 
possible expression of contempt. A barber in Philadelphia 
papered his shop with bills ; and a dog was smeared with tar 
and led up and down the streets with this unhappy money 
sticking all over him — a sorry substitute for the golden- 
fleeced sheep of the Norse legend." * 

We often find an entry on old account books of so much 
money in " Continental Bills ". — " Hard money," so much. 

March 4, 1634, the General Court enacted: "It is 
ordered that musket bullets of a full boar shall pass currently 
for a farthing apiece, provided that noe man be compelled to 
take above 12 pence at a tyme in them," 

The Deerfield town treasurer charges himself May 9, 1781, 
" By cash the committee Received for the Rent of Town 

* John Fiske's Am. Rev. Vol. II, p. 198. 


Land last April, Continental Bills, ;^3493-i6." The Massa- 
chusetts pound was $3'33'i-/3 which would make the sum of 
111,649.22 for the rent of the town land one year. 

As a practical illustration of the difficulties of the situation, 
the following is introduced : 

"Weymouth, Sept. 13, 1734. 
" Put to vote whether Mr. Smith's salary should be stated 
according to the following articles and prices hereafter men- 
tioned, viz : — Wheat at 10 shillings per bushell, Rey att seven 
shillings per bushell, Pork att seven pence per pound, Beaf 
at five pence per Pound, and that ye prices of ye abovesaid 
articles are to be as they are bought and sold in this Precinct ; 
To wit : Grain in ye month of May ; Pork and Beaf about 
ye middle of November, annually ; and ye abovesaid salary 
shall rise and fall ye time above mentioned annually ; and 
said vote passed in ye affirmative." 

Mr. Smith's salary was j[^^^o per year. By this sliding 
scale at one time he received, ^134-4—2, and at another 

(1779) £9735- 

Passages from the journal of Christopher Columbus Bald- 
win, born in Templeton (Baldwinsville) August i, 1800, 
Mr. Baldwin was a member of the Worcester bar, and the 
very intimate friend of people who originated in Greenfield. 
He was, at the period mentioned in the quotations from his 
diary, librarian of the American Antiquarian Society of Wor- 

"SEPTEMBER I 5, I 833 

" Henry Knox Newcomb arrived in town a few days ago from 
Key West, by way of New Orleans, and asked me to bear him 
company on a visit to his father, the Hon. Judge [Richard E.] 
Newcomb, at Greenfield. He accompanied the invitation in 

* Diary of Christopher Columbus Baldwin, American Antiquarian Society, Worces- 
ter, Mass., 1901. 


the very civillst way possible by assuring me that he would 
defray all the expenses of the expedition. I thought best not 
to omit such an opportunity of seeing the Connecticut river; 
so I closed with his obliging proposal. We left town on Sat- 
urday morning. Our carriage was what Is called a carryall ; 
a vehicle very similar to a hack or private coach, only the 
fore end is open, and, like a hack, large enough for four per- 
sons. Our load consisted of myself, my friend Newcomb, 
his brother's wife and baby, and Miss Lucy Lincoln, the 
adopted daughter of the late Lieut. Gov. Lincoln, of Worces- 
ter, making five souls in all, with plenty of baskets, band- 
boxes, budgets and such trumpery as ladies are wont to bother 
the gentlemen with. 

"Our carriage was drawn by two horses, and as our appear- 
ance was somewhat imposing from our having much silver 
upon our tackling and carriage, and making us look like some 
well estated gentleman. I could not but remark to my friend 
that if the people who stared at us so particularly could look 
into our purses, we should be laughed at as two poor devils. 
He insisted, however, that if we looked serious nobody would 
ask us how much money we had got. The appearance of 
wealth always makes people look genteel, and exacts respect 
from strangers. 

" At Templeton, my native place, we stopped our equipage 
and ordered dinner. I was asked many questions here by 
people whom I knew, and when they looked at my superfine 
broadcloth cloak and our carriage, God knows I felt cheap 
enough ; for I was well satisfied that they knew that I was 
not worth two coppers. I had to relate to them two amusing 
stories to keep them from asking questions as to the owner- 
ship of our carriage and horses. The keeper of the tavern 
was Calvin Townsley, a native of Jamaica in the state of Ver- 
mont, and reputed to be the best tavern keeper between Bos- 
ton and Albany. He gave us good cheer, and to make ap- 
pearances correspond, I was going to order a bottle of wine, 


but as my companions declined drinking, I concluded to post- 
pone that entertainment to another time. 

" I must say a word concerning our baby, . . . Our baby 
cried upon an average of four miles out of five during the whole 
journey. Nothing would quiet the little nuisance. Notwith- 
standing its mother administered all sorts of soporifics, the 
little rascal raised his shrill pipes to a pitch of perfect agony. 
It was not old enough to have a name, and for that reason I 
cannot put it upon record. 

" After dinner we pushed on our journey and about eight 
o'clock in the evening reached a tavern * just on the south bank 
of Miller's river, in Montague, seven or eight miles this side 
of Greenfield, kept by a person by the name of Brooks, a na- 
tive of Petersham, and cousin to Aaron Brooks, an attorney 
of that place. Before making arrangements for the night, we 
alighted and examined the premises to see that our quality 
should not suffer by having slept in a vulgar house. New- 
comb was spokesman, and he catechised the landlady as to 
her beds, whether the sheets had been changed, what she 
could give us for supper ; and from the resolute manner of 
his examination, one would have supposed him an officer of 
the police in pursuit of stolen property. To do him justice, 
however, he did his errand like one who was accustomed to 
good entertainment. The only part I performed in this com- 
edy was to ask the landlady to let me see her cook our beef- 
steak which we had bespoken. This she compHed with, not, 
however, without letting me understand that she thought me 
an indifferent cook. 

"After we had taken our supper, I went to the bar for a 
glass of wine, and there saw a very imposing new book. How 
could such a book get there ? I immediately opened it and 
found it a New Version of the New Testament with notes, 
illustrations, &c., &c. by ' Rodolphus Dickenson, a Presby- 

* Old River tavern; no longer in existence. 


ter of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States 
and late Rector of St. Paul's Church, Middleton, South Car- 
olina.' Royal 8vo. Boston, 1833. It was a fine specimen 
of American printing, and the notes and comments made a 
parade of great learning. I found that the author had orna- 
mented the book with his portrait, and had dedicated it to 
Dr. Alpheus Stone, ' Member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society,' and the dedication, which was stuffed with the most 
outrageous flattery, was dated at ' Montague, Mass.,' one of 
the obscurest towns on the Connecticut river. I passed the 
whole evening in looking through this curious performance. 
It undoubtedly cost its author great labor, and never was the 
labor of any man more unprofitably directed. Pie had at- 
tempted to translate it into the proper language of the day. 
Some of the alterations from the common versions were truly 
comic. If my memory serves me, this expression, ' too 
much learning hath made thee mad,' was rendered nearly 
thus, ' the multiplicity of thy engagements hath demented 
thee.' A new testament with a portrait of the translator, and 
a dedication to an unknown physician. I never had so strong 
a disposition to steal a book as I had this ; and I verily be- 
lieve that had there been another book in the house which 
could have served as a nest-egg of the family devotion or 
reading I should have certainly carried it off. The presump- 
tuous author of this version, I was told, was residing in Mon- 
tague and was in the rectorship of a small church situated 
about two miles from our tavern. 

"Sunday, Sept. 16, 1833. We had an agreeable ride in 
the morning across the Connecticut into Greenfield. I must 
not forget to mention in this place an instance of my pride. 
How disinclined we are to recognize our poor connections 
when fortune has elevated us a peg or two above them, and 
we encounter them among strangers. The wife of the toll- 
gatherer at the bridge was my own cousin. She did not know 
me, although no examiner of faces could have seen us together 


without pronouncing us to be brother and sister. Her hus- 
band's name is Comfort Hunter, and one of the honestest 
fellows in the world. And I know not but what his wife is 
as worthy as he is. I should not have treated them with such 
neglect had I been alone. And I intend still to humble my- 
self for this act of haughtiness. Her maiden name was Abi- 
gail Bruce, born in Templeton, daughter of Josiah Bruce, and 
the elder sister of that famous Eli Bruce, who was so conspic- 
uous in the abduction of Captain William Morgan, in Sep- 
tember, 1826, and high sheriff for the county of Niagara, in 
the state of New York. . . . We reached Greenfield, 
about nine o'clock in the morning. We found the Hon. 
Judge Newcomb sick of a fever. This was a sad disappoint- 
ment to us all, but I took it at heart most, because, he being 
Judge of Probate, could, if well, entertain me with family his- 
tories. He was so unwell that I was not permitted to ask 
after his own history. But I had the good luck to catechise 
him now and then as his wife went out of the room. His 
own name is Richard English Newcomb and was born at 
Lebanon, in Connecticut, in 1771, making him at this time 
sixty-two. His father, Hezekiah Newcomb, was born at Ips- 
wich, Mass., and settling first in Lebanon, afterwards, between 
1785 and '90, removed to Bernardston, Mass., where he died. 
He was a Justice of the Peace there, and the most important 
judicial act of his life was to hear a complaint as Magistrate 
against a fanatic sect called Dorrellites,* for a breach of the 
Sabbath in raising a barn on the Lord's day. . . . Hez- 
ekiah Newcomb, Jr., son of our Justice, was one of the Dor- 
rellites, yet this did not prevent the worthy magistrate from 
imposing a heavy fine upon the Sabbath breakers. Horatio 
G. Newcomb, Esq., is another son of Mr. Justice Hezekiah, 
and is now an attorney in Greenfield. About 18 19 or '20, 

* See paper by F. M. Thompson, "The Dorrellites," Vol. ii, page 82, Proceed- 
ings Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association. 


he practiced law in Winchendon, Mass. He was there not 
above three years, and has since been at Greenfield. 

"Although Sunday, yet it was a busy day with me. My 
friend Newcomb was compelled to be with his father all day. 
I had to shift for myself. I sought out the oldest burying- 
ground and soon discovered that I had found work enough. 
I went to transcribing epitaphs with all expedition. 

" The graveyard was just back of the church in the village 
and one of the first monuments I came to was as follows : 

REV. ROGER NEWTON, D. D. In Memoiy of MRS. 

was ordained ABIGAIL, the wife of 

To the Gospel Ministry in Rev. Roger Newton, 

This Town i8 Nov. 1761 & who died Oct. 21, 

died loth Dec. 1816, 1805, aged 67 years. 
In the 80th year of his age, 

& 56th of his Ministry." A virtuous woman is a crown to her 

His life was adorned with private and husband and doth him good and not 

domestick virtues, and distinguished by evil all the days of her life, 
publick and professional usefulness. 

" He came from Durham, Connecticut (which was his na- 
tive place) to Greenfield when it was almost a wilderness. 1 
think he was the first settled minister of the town.* One of 
his sons, a bachelor, now lives in Greenfield.! 

" In the same yard I found the following inscription : 

Sacred to the 
Memory of MRS. 
PHEBE, wife of 
Richard E. New- 
comb, Esq., obt. 
Aug. 9, 1802 aet. 
31 years. 

This monument is erected 
As a Testimonial of 
Affection for an agree- 
able Companion, 
A Sincere Friend, 
A Tender Mother, 

A faithful wife 
& a good woman. 

* He was the second minister of Greenfield, 
t Isaac Newton, called " Sir Isaac." 


" She was the mother of my friend Henry K. Newcomb. 

"And here follows the epitaph of her successor, and the 
grandmother of the baby that cried so in our journey from 
Worcester : 


wife of 

R. E. Newcomb, Esq. 

and last 

surviving cliild of 


Joseph Warren, 

who fell 

on Bunker Hill, June 

17, 1775; 

Died Feb. 9, 1826. 

^t. 54. 

" I must not omit to mention what I saw in Judge New- 
comb's parlor. It was a full length likeness of General War- 
ren by Copley, in the most perfect preservation, and also that 
of his lady by the same artist. I cannot describe the pleasure 
I had in looking at them. As a painting the likeness of the 
General was much the best. I could not get them for the 
library of the Antiquarian Society, though I projected several 
schemes to that end.* 

" After dinner I was called upon by Isaac Newton, Esq., 
brother of the Hon. Rejoice Newton of Worcester, who car- 
ried me up to Montague Falls, an interesting and romantick 
place on the Connecticut river, about three miles northeast of 
Greenfield. On the way there we passed another graveyard 
which we went into. There was built in it a sort of safety 
tomb, which was to receive the bodies of the dead previous to 
their interment, to prevent them falling into the hands of doctors 
and the resurrectionists for dissection ; a very good precaution. 

" Among the monuments, I found the following inscrip- 

* Judge Newcomb in his will refers to the portraits " now in my front parlor " as the 
property of his son, Joseph Warren Newcomb. These portraits were afterwards in 
the possession of Dr. Buckminster Brown of Boston. 


tions, which as they are the progenitors of Rejoice Newton I 
copied them. The following was his grandfather: 


died Sept. 28, 


xt. 76. 

" This was his grandmother, whose maiden name was Mary 
Pickett : 

In memory of MRS. MARY MRS. HULDAH 
NEWTON, wife of Mr. John 2ond wife of Mr 

Newton, who died Nov. John Newton 

18, 1786 in the 63rd year died Sept. 14, 1802 
of her age. .<Et. LX. 

" The following are the father and mother of Rejoice : 


died wife of 

Sept. 23, 1826 Capt. Isaac Newton 

JEt. 78. died 

Dec. 23, 1824 

^t. 75- 

" His uncle 




13th Nov. 1827 

^t. 75- 

" The grandfather, father and uncle were all born in Dur- 
ham, Conn. The oldest of them, Capt. Isaac, came to Green- 
field about 1769 or '70, and in a few years his father and 
mother followed. The Rev, Roger Newton was a cousin * of 
Capt. Isaac. The family has always been respectable from the 

" I intended to have gone to the Episcopal Church today, 
never having been to one but once in my life. Rev. Mr, 
Strong lay sick with a fever, and I spent the day as religiously 

* Uncle. 


as I could by transcribing and contemplating over the monu- 
ments of the dead. 

" Spent the evening at the hotel where I stopped with 
H. G. Newcomb, Esq., and Mr. George T. Davis, a native 
of Sandwich, Mass., and son of Wendell Davis, of that place, ', 
and formerly sheriff" of that county. He is a brother of Sam. ; 

Davis, Esq., the learned editor of ' Morton's N. E. Memo- ! 

. i 

rial ' and the most famous Antiquary of Plymouth Colony. ; 

This Mr. G. T. Davis is a young man who has just entered | 

upon the practice of law and has just established a weekly news- j 

paper in this place called the ' Mercury.' The first number j 

was issued last week. He came to this town from Taunton, ' 

where he had been engaged as an editor. 

"Sept. 17 (Mon.) 1833. In the morning I ordered our 
carriage and invited several young ladies to ride up to the 
falls, where I went yesterday. We made a ride of 8 or 10 
miles, which was quite pleasant. 

" I was introduced to the Hon. Daniel Wells, now member 
of our State Senate, to James C. Alvord, Esq., his partner 
(attorneys), son of the Clerk of the Courts for Franklin 
County. Mr. Alvord officiated for a few months as the 
successor of John Hooker Ashmun in the Law School at 
Cambridge. He is a young man of good promise in his pro- 
fession. His sister married Joseph Warren Newcomb, father 
of the baby that worried me so much. This Mr. Newcomb 
is the youngest son of the Hon. Judge Newcomb, and studied 
his profession with Rejoice Newcomb, Esq., at Worcester, 
where he was admitted to practice, and first opened an office at 
Templeton in 1829. He remained there about two years when 
he removed to Amesbury, Mass., where he now resides as an 
attorney. He is a half brother of my friend H. K. Newton. 

"In the afternoon I was invited to take a ride to Deer- 
field with a young attorney by the name of Woodward.* He 

* William G. Woodard. 


is a native of Hanover, N. H., and is a partner of Mr. Chap- 
man. On our way we met Rev. Henry Colman,* formerly 
minister at Salem, but now residing at Deerfield. His resi- 
dence is on the north bank of Deerfield river and about 
two-thirds of a mile from the Greenfield Court House. His 
estate is beautiful. He showed me a field of corn which he 
had planted this year containing twenty acres. He paid ten 
thousand dollars for his farm. 

" How delightful the ride from Greenfield to Deerfield ! 
It has become a sort of classical ground, not because learned 
writers have lived here, but because it has been the place of 
some "interesting fighting between the early settlers and the 
Indians. The natural scenery is beautiful, and this is greatly 
heightened by the recollection of the sufferings of the first 
Planters. I went to the house that was the residence of the 
Rev. John Williams, who was taken captive by the Indians 
in 1704. The house is very venerable, and is correctly rep- 
resented in ' Hoyt's Researches.' The same knocker is on 
the door that was on then. It consists of wrought iron, 
being nothing more than a staple and ring. The ring is about 
five inches across and of the bigness of one's middle finger ; 
it falls upon the head of a spike. The marks of the hatchets 
of the Indians are yet to be seen on the front door. A hole 
large enough to run the hand through was hacked, and to 
keep the wind out a board has been nailed upon the inside. 
I did not go into the inside of the house except into the en- 
try. I did not wish to disturb the family, especially at this 
time, as the late occupant, Col. Hoyt, brother of the author 
of the ' Researches,' had deceased only two weeks before. I 
had a great curiosity to examine the family papers and some 
interesting antiquities, that are collected and preserved in the 
Academy. But it was so late in the day that I could not 
search for papers nor catechise the inhabitants proposing to 

* See article on Rev. Henry Colman, this work. 


do this at a future day, when I should have more leisure and 
more precise information as to what would be desirable. 

" I will mention here that Rev, Rodolphus Dickinson, 
author of the ' New Version of the New Testament,' was 
born in this town, as was also the Rev. Edward Hitchcock, 
Professor in Amherst College, who has distinguished himself 
by his ' Report on the Geology of Massachusetts.' 

" I took tea in the evening at Mr. Alvord's, where I re- 
mained until 9 o'clock, spending the time in a very agreeable 

"Tuesday, Sept. i8, 1833. We prepared for our journey 
home, leaving Mrs. Newcomb & the baby. Miss Lincoln 
returned with us, and we went back the same way we came. 
We reached Worcester at 8 in the evening, safe & sound. 
The weather during our absence was very favorable. 
Sept, 23, 1833, Mr, Baldwin started with his friend Newcomb 
for New York, They went by stage to Hartford, where they 
spent the first night. He says : * I passed the evening at 
Dr, Amariah Brigham's, who was formerly a physician in 
Greenfield, Mass, ; his wife was a Chapman from that place, 
and her father was an Englishman,* who died there. The 
doctor is a man of some fame, having written a treatise on 
the cholera and one on education, the last of which has been 
favorably received by the public. Our conversation was 
chiefly upon phrenology, in which he was a firm believer. 
He stands very well in his profession and is rapidly rising in 
public estimation," 

In 1835 ^^- Baldwin made a journey to Ohio, and Au- 
gust 20th of that year he was instantly killed in a stagecoach 
accident at Norwich, Ohio, 

* Thomas Chapman, 



THE late Dr. A. C. Deane for many years advocated 
the establishment in Greenfield of a public hospital. 

Considerable interest was awakened in regard to the 
matter in the fall of 1894, and February 16, 1895, an "Agree- 
ment of Association " was signed by thirty-six people with 
the intention to constitute a corporation to be known as the 
" Franklin County Public Hospital." The signers of the 
agreement met at Grand Army Hall, March 2, 1895 "for 
the purpose of organizing said corporation by the adoption 
of by-laws, and election of officers, and the transaction of 
such other business as may properly come before the meet- 
ing." At this meeting officers were elected and measures 
taken to procure suitable quarters for use as a hospital. 
July 20, the board of managers voted to lease the house of Rev. 
Dr. Francis L. Robbins, for one year with the privilege of 
renewing the lease for the two succeeding years. September 9, 
the hospital was opened with Miss Nellie Daniels as superin- 
tendent, and Miss Anna Moritz as the first pupil nurse in 
the training school. It so happened that Dr. Robbins was 
the first patient. October 24, Miss Daniels was succeeded 
temporarily by Miss Hunt who acted as superintendent until 
the coming of Miss A. C. Nedwell about February i, 1897. 
October 14 of that year the " Greenfield House " was rented 
of Henry Couillard with an option of purchase within two 
years, at such valuation as might be fixed by three disinter- 
ested men, Mr. Couillard agreeing to subscribe $2,000 of 
the purchase money. 

66 1041 


The hospital took possession of what proved to be its per- 
manent home January i, 1898. At a meeting held at its new 
quarters, January 7, Hon. L. J. Gunn, president, announced 
that Judge Charles Allen of Boston had presented the asso- 
ciation with the sum of ten thousand dollars, and after prop- 
erly acknowledging Mr. Allen's generosity, it was voted to 
apply the gift to the purchase of the property of Mr. 
Couillard. Miss Nedwell resigned March i, 1899, and was 
succeeded by Mrs. M. H. Laurence as superintendent, which 
office she held until July 13, 1901. At that time Miss 
Anna Sweeney began her duties as superintendent. The hos- 
pital has rapidly advanced in the estimation of the public of 
late years, and the people are united in its support to a 
greater degree than ever before. Unlike many small hos- 
pitals, it has been able to pay its running expenses, and is 
doing a blessed work for suffering humanity. 

By the terms of the will of the late Mrs. Maria L. Hosmer, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., a daughter of the late Dr. Daniel Hovey, 
of Greenfield, the hospital at the decease of Mrs. George H. 
Hovey will receive a legacy of ten thousand dollars, and a 
share of the rest and residue of the estate. Mrs. Hosmer 
upon the same conditions, also gave the Greenfield Library 
Association and the Green River Cemetery five thousand 
dollars each. 

By this generous gift the managers of the hospital feel that 
the opportunities for the future usefulness of the institution 
will be much increased. 

The principal officers of the hospital for 1903 are Levi J. 
Gunn, Pres. ; Franklin R. Allen, Vice Pres. ; Frank J. 
Lawler, Treas. ; Eliza B. Leonard, Sec. ; Anna Sweeney, 


" The first water works in Greenfield were established by 
an act of the General Court, passed June 17, 1796. There 
were thirty shares of the par value of ^100 each. By that 


act ' Daniel Wells, Eliel Gilbert, Jonathan Leavitt, Abner 
Smead and William Coleman, all of Greenfield, in the county 
of Hampshire, such other persons as may be associated with 
them,' and their successors were ' constituted a corporation 
by the name of The Proprietors of the Aqueduct in Greenfield 
for the purpose of conveying water by subterraneous pipes 
into the town street in Greenfield.' This corporation con- 
trolled and brought water to the street from several springs, 
the principal of which were on the Hastings farm, now owned, 
we believe, by W. P. Maynard, east of the Bernardston road, 
and on the Clapp farm (now Highland Park). It supplied 
for many years a large number of houses, and its business 
was so profitable that its shares sold for double their par 
value and were sought for as a first-class investment at that 
price. The water was at first brought in wooden logs of three 
inch bore. As these decayed, cement pipes were to some 
extent substituted. The terms were ten dollars per annum 
for a leak not exceeding three gills per minute. The village 
depended mainly on this aqueduct for water till 1869. A 
fire district was formed December, 1849, consisting of the 
territory included in School District No. i, and $1,500 was 
raised by assessment for the support of the Fire Department. 
Whiting Griswold, Franklin Ripley, Henry B. Clapp, D. W. 
Alvord and Isaac Miles were the committee of organization. 
In the drouth of that year it failed to meet adequately the 
demand, and the attention of the people of the village was 
directed to other sources and means of supply. The first 
suggestion was to form a private corporation and steps were 
taken for that purpose. Surveys were made by Alfred R. 
Field and different sources were considered. It was finally de- 
cided that the ' Glen brook,' so-called, would furnish the 
best supply. It was also concluded to give the enterprise 
a public character by placing the same in the hands of the 
fire district if it would assume the work. A meeting was 
held on the 27th day of August, 1869, ^o see what action the 


district would take. W. S. B. Hopkins was moderator of the 
meeting. On motion of Charles H. Munn it was, after 
statements by Hon. Wm. B. Washburn and others, voted 
* that the fire district assume the work of bringing water from 
the Glen brook, so-called, into the village.' It was then 
moved and voted ' that a committee of five be appointed by 
the chair to nominate a committee of seven members to be 
called the " Construction committee," whose duty it shall be 
to take the whole charge of the work of bringing water into 
the district, to make all contracts for pipe and for laying the 
same, to settle all claims for damages and to attend to all busi- 
ness connected with the construction and completion of the 
work ; that said committee be instructed to commence work 
at once and press it to completion as soon as practicable.' 
The committee appointed under the foregoing vote consisted 
of Wm. B. Washburn, Robert Wiley, William Keith, Alfred 
R. Field and Charles H. Munn. On motion of Mr. Wash- 
burn, the said committee was instructed to apply to the Leg- 
islature at the next session for an act authorizing the district 
to borrow money, issue bonds, etc., for the purpose of de- 
fraying the expenses attending the construction of the works. 
In pursuance of the application of the committee a bill pre- 
pared by S. O. Lamb and Alfred R. Field, having passed 
the Legislature, was approved by the governor. May 6, 
1870. The act was accepted by the unanimous vote of the 
district. May 17, 1870, and by the town of Greenfield by a 
vote of 71 yeas to 31 nays, May 28, 1870. Alfred R. Field, 
who made all the surveys and plans for the work, died in 
June, 1870, and the vacancy in the construction committee 
caused thereby was filled August 10, 1870, by the election of 
S. O. Lamb. The dam at the head of the Glen, a solid 
structure of stone laid in cement, thirty-five feet high and 
about 130 feet in length, was built by George Merrill of 
Shelburne Falls, the ditch for the pipe was dug by P. P. 
Severance of Greenfield and the pipe was laid by S. L. Wiley. 

fireman's muster 1045 

C. H. Munn superintended the digging and filling of the 
ditch. The work was pushed rapidly and the water intro- 
duced into the village in the early fall. It was first used 
at a fire, and with good effect, on the i6th of October, 1870, 
at a small house that stood on the eastly side of Hope street, 
on land then owned by Mrs. Pratt, next north of the jail 
property now owned by Emil Weissbrod. 

" The completion of the works was celebrated on the 20th 
of October, 1870, by a fireman's muster. After the regular 
proceedings of the day, to show our guests the efficiency of 
our new water works, hose were attached to a hydrant and a 
clear, compact stream without a break was thrown perpendic- 
ularly far up into the air, then upon and over the neighboring 
block and horizontally along the street. The latter distance 
was paced off by a stranger, who made it over one hundred 
and thirty-five feet. 

" The distance from the Glen to the street is four and three- 
quarters miles. The pipe originally laid was eight inches in 
diameter for about two miles from the dam and six inches the 
rest of the way. The cost of the works, including land dam- 
ages, was about ^70,000. They supplied the village with 
water till 1885, when, to meet the increased demand, an ad- 
ditional fourteen inch pipe was laid from the Glen to Main 
street, and a twelve inch pipe through Main street at a cost 
of about ^60,000. Soon after the completion of this addi- 
tion the efficiency of the works v/as tested as follows : six one 
and one-eighth inche streams, two one inch streams, one one 
and three-eighths inche stream and one seven-eighths inch 
stream, ten streams in all, throwing horizontallv distances 
varying from 102 to 137 feet, all at one and the same time. 
The whole length of pipe in use in 1892 was twenty-seven 
and three-fourths miles. The income that year (at the lowest 
rates in the United States) was about fourteen thousand dol- 
lars a year. 

"In addition to the Glen brook, the district, by virtue of an 


act of the Legislature of 1883, has taken Fisk Brook in Shel- 
burne with the right to convey the water from the same to 
the street, but has had no occasion as yet to use it." * 

In 1892 the Hmits of the fire district were extended so as 
to include Silver street, and in 1894 the district voted to lay 
a main on Conway and Silver streets, which brought the 
water to Nash's mills. A committee was also appointed 
to report upon the expediency of a larger storage of water. 
This committee reported that four plans had been con- 

1. Pumping from Green river, estimated cost, ^7,880 

2. Pumping from the Allen brook, " " 14,100 

3. Green river by gravity, " " 50,000 

4. Raising Glen dam 14 feet, " " 14,550 

Another committee was appointed with directions to report 
to the district before March 15, 1895. ^^^ report recom- 
mended establishing a pumping station upon the town farm 
at Green river. Five thousand five hundred dollars was 
raised for carrying out the recommendations of the commit- 
tee. The Gamewell fire alarm system was also adopted by 
the Fire District, and $2,500 raised for that purpose. 

In 1896 the water system was extended to Music Hill in 
the Nash's mills district. 

In 1902 the water rates were materially reduced, and In 
1903 the income from the water rentals was sufficient to pay 
all the expenses of the water and fire departments, so that no 
fire district tax was necessary. 


The Greenfield Gas Light Company was incorporated by 
an act of the General Court, approved March 31, 1854, by 

* From the Centennial Gazette. 


Emory Washburn, governor. Franklin Ripley, Wendell T. 
Davis and Rufus Rowland were the corporators. They 
held their first meeting on the 17th day of November, 1856, 
and organized by electing themselves directors. The directors 
appointed Franklin Ripley, president, and Rufus Rowland, 
clerk and treasurer. This organization was maintained till 
the 27th day of February, i860, when, at a special meeting 
duly called and notified, Renry W. Clapp, George T. Davis, 
Charles Allen and twenty-one others were admitted as as- 
sociates. At the same meeting the capital stock was fixed at 
1 20,000, in shares of fifty dollars each, and the number of 
directors was increased to five, Renry W. Clapp and George 
W. Potter being added to the board. At a meeting of the 
directors, March 3, Rufus Rowland resigned the ofiices of 
clerk and treasurer and Charles Allen was appointed in his 
place. At the same meeting the president was authorized to 
sign the contract with Messrs. Dimmock, Dwight & Co. for 
the erection of the gas works. Under this contract the works 
were constructed during the summer and fall of i860, at a 
cost of |20,ooo. The contractors took 1 18,000 of the stock 
of the company and |2,ooo in money in payment. The 
|2,ooo represented the stock taken by citizens of Greenfield 
village, in blocks varying from one to four shares. In No- 
vember, 1 860, at a meeting of the stockholders, Mr. Clapp de- 
clined to serve longer as a director and James Wilson of 
Bridgeport, Conn., George Dwight of Springfield and W. T. 
Davis, George W. Potter and Rufus Rowland of Greenfield 
were chosen directors. At a meeting of directors, Novem- 
ber 18, i860, Rufus Rowland was chosen president and was 
continued in that office by annual elections till his death, De- 
cember 23, 1886. Re was succeeded by Franklin R. Allen. 
Charles Allen held the offices of clerk and treasurer till Jan- 
uary 18, i86i,when he resigned and James C. Davis was 
chosen in his place. Mr. Davis resigned, December 27, 1861, 
and was succeeded by E. W. Sparhawk. In August, 1862, 


Mr. Sparhawk, having enlisted in the Greenfield Company 
in the 52d regiment, resigned. S. O. Lamb was chosen in 
his place and continued to hold the offices, by annual election, 
till July, 1887, when he declined a re-election and was suc- 
ceeded by William R. Rowland, who resigned in December, 
1887, and was succeeded by Dana Malone. 

In 1873 th^ capital stock of the company was made ^50,000 
and the capacity of the works largely increased by the erection 
of a new gas holder and other important improvements under 
the supervision of James Porter, then, and for many years 
superintendent of the works. The company has the reputa- 
tion of a well-managed and successful concern, but like other 
gas companies has suffered from the introduction of electric 

In later years under the management of A. R. Willard, 
superintendent, the business of the company has largely in- 
creased, and the use of gas for heating and culinary purposes 
has become much more general and of profit to the com- 

The present officers are James D. Safford, Springfield, 
president; William S. Allen, clerk; A. R. Willard, super- 
intendent ; Dana Malone, William N. Washburn, W. A. 
James Forbes, D. Safford, and William S. Allen, directors. 


Was incorporated December 7, 1886, with a capital of 
$10,000. The capital was increased to 115,000, June 8, 
1887, and to $30,000, August 6, 1889. The capital stock 
has been increased from time to time until in 1903 it is 
$100,000. The company has fifty miles of wire, 8,000 incan- 
descent lights, seventy street arc lights, forty-four commer- 
cial arc lights, forty-five motors installed, and maintains a 
total of 136 horse power at their works. The company has 
recently purchased a large water right on the Deerfield river. 


and expect soon to move their plant to that place. The offi- 
cers for 1903 are : 

President, F. E. Wells ; treasurer, A. J. Doolittle ; clerk, 
C. H. Keith; superintendent, A. J. Doolittle; directors, F. 
E. Wells, J. W. Stevens, F. O. Wells, N. S. Cutler, W. N. 


Was organized in the Centennial year (1876) for the ac- 
complishment of this worthy purpose : " To improve and 
ornament the streets and public grounds of Greenfield by 
planting and cultivating trees, cleaning and repairing the side- 
walks and such acts as shall tend to beautify and improve 
said streets and grounds and promote the comfort, health and 
happiness of the inhabitants of said town." Any person 
could become a member of the club by the annual payment 
of one dollar. The first president of the club was H. K. 
Simons ; Newell Snow and Rev. J. F. Moors, vice presi- 
dents ; C. M. Moody, treasurer ; E. A. Hall, secretary. The 
club has continued its existence since and accomplished much 
for the good of Greenfield. It was by its means and influ- 
ence that a public drinking fountain was erected near the com- 
mon, the road opened to and tower built on Poet's Seat, and 
that shade trees have been planted along the streets and beside 
the roads leading out of the town. Hundreds of these beautiful 
shade trees are growing to-day, and will be enduring evidences 
of what has been done by Greenfield's Rural Club. The 
club has been liberally sustained by the action of the town in 
the matter of appropriations. It was incorporated in 1884 
under the laws of the state, to enable it to hold real estate, 
the hope being entertained that it might acquire property to 
be converted into a public park. This organization has by 
reason of a change in the laws providing for a tree warden 
been largely superseded in its duties. The present officers are: 
president, W. A. Ames ; secretary and treasurer, W. S. Allen. 



Was incorporated February ii, 1828. The corporators 
were Eliel Gilbert, Elijah Alvord, Sylvester Allen, Horatio 
G. Newcomb, Lyman Kendall, Alanson Clark and Franklin 
Ripley. The first policy was issued September 12, 1829. 
Among the first directors were Elijah Alvord, Horatio G. 
Newcomb, Polycarpus L. Cushman, Ebenezer Fisk, Sr., 
Thaddeus Coleman, John Drury, Sylvester Allen, Stephen 
Whitney, Colonel John Wilson, General Asa Howland, and 
Ephraim Hastings. Elijah Alvord was the first president and 
Horatio G. Newcomb, secretary, and Alanson Clark, treas- 
urer. The object of the company was to procure insurance 
at cost. All of the profits were divided among the policy 
holders except a small reserve for their protection in case of 
unusual losses. The company at one time did a business of 
over a million dollars a year. The company has not done 
business until recently since 1895. The present officers are : 
Frank A. Colley, president and treasurer ; John D. Bouker, 
secretary. The office is now in Boston. 


The first meeting of Repubhcan Lodge of Masons was 
held in the hall of the old Munn Tavern January 28, 1795. 
The charter was signed by Paul Revere, then grand mas- 
ter of the Grand Lodge. The first master of Republican 
Lodge was John Long, Jr. On the day the lodge was insti- 
tuted the brethren marched in procession to the old meeting- 
house (at the Long Corners) attended by a large concourse of 
people and were there addressed by Reverend Mr. Parsons of 
Amherst, and then repairing to Munn's Hall, where the con- 
cluding ceremonies were performed. Among the early masters 
of the lodge were John Stone, William Wait, Lemuel Foster, 
Elijah Alvord, Sr., Elijah Alvord, Jr., John Wells, Hooker 


Leavitt, James Gould, Titus Strong, Franklin Ripley, Geo. 
Grennell and Ansel Phelps. In those days the meetings were 
opened at 6 o'clock and closed at 9 o'clock, the by-laws not 
permitting the brethren to tarry longer. In 1805 the first 
funeral obsequies were performed at the burial of Dr. John 
Long at Shelburne. In 1807 the question of moving the 
lodge to Colrain was discussed, but the project was finally 
abandoned. The place of meeting was moved from the tavern 
to a building (built by subscription for a schoolhouse) on Fed- 
eral street which stood on the site of the shop now owned by 
M. R. Pierce & Company. In 1817 the brick school build- 
ing on School street, now known as the Avery house, was erected 
and a hall fitted up for the occupation of the lodge. In 1822 
there had become a lack of interest in the order and the lodge 
was moved to Gill, where the first meeting was held in the 
house of A. Alvord. Shortly after, as there was no improve- 
ment, the brethren became discouraged and surrendered the 
charter. On the loth of December, i85i,itwas restored and 
the lodge commenced its work again in Greenfield. At first 
meetings were held in the Odd Fellows' Hall, in what is now 
known as Hollister's building (on Newton's place), and after- 
ward in a hall fitted up in W. T. Davis's block. In 1856 a 
hall was finished off for the lodge in the Mansion House 
building, and in the reconstruction of the hotel in 1873 a new 
hall with better accommodations was provided and was occupied 
until the present Masonic building was completed. Franklin 
Royal Arch Chapter was instituted January 17, 1818. Titus 
Strong Council was formed in 1856, and May 22, 1868, Con- 
necticut Valley Commandery was added to the bodies of the 

Fully 500 Masons gathered on the 28th of January, 1895, 
to celebrate the one hundreth birthday of Republican Lodge. 
The officers of the Grand Lodge were present and many other 
members of that body, and session was held. The Reverend 
P. Voorhees Finch delivered in the Second Congregational 


Church, a most admirable historic address after the audience 
had been welcomed by Charles H. McClellan. A banquet 
followed at Washington Hall, at which Master Charles E. 
Wheeler presided. Mr. Finch was toast master and Frank- 
lin E. Snow was chairman of the committee of arrangements. 
Caterer W. E. Wood served 600 guests and " all went merry 
as a marriage bell." 

December 14, 1897, the first social test occurred in the new 
Masonic Hall building, which had been erected at a cost of 
^50,000. The building is sixty by one hundred and thirteen 
feet, and beside the elegant quarters needed by the Masons, 
contains Grinnell Hall and many fine offices on the second 
and third floors. The main floor is occupied by a store, the 
post-office and the first Franklin District Court. W. J. 
Howes of Holyoke was the architect, Robert E. Pray the con- 
tractor, and Nahum S. Cutler, Franklin E. Snow, Anson 
Withey, Dr. W. S. Severance and Hiram O, Smith were the 
building committee. 


Pocumtuck Lodge of Odd Fellows was originally instituted 
May 6, 1845. ^^^ first officers were Wendell T. Davis, 
noble grand ; Stephen Gates, vice grand ; R. R. Taylor, sec- 
retary ; John P. Rust, treasurer. The meetings were held in 
a wooden building which stood on the site of J. H. Hollis- 
ter's Main street building. The first death that occurred in 
the lodge was that of the chaplain. Rev. James Mudge, who 
was at that time pastor of the Methodist Church in this town. 
After a period of about ten years interest in the lodge began 
to wane and the charter was finally surrendered. The reor- 
ganization was brought about in 1870. Meetings were 
held for a time in a room in Sanborn's block, but desir- 
ing more room a hall was finished ofi^ for the use of the lodge 
in the courthouse. This was dedicated June 10, 1873, 
an address being delivered on the occasion by Past Grand 


Joseph Beals. The lodge has since prospered and gaining a 
large membership, decided to secure a permanent home. In 
furtherance of this plan the large brick building on Main 
street, long occupied by J. L. Lyons as a furniture warehouse, 
was purchased and reconstructed to adapt it to the use of the 
lodge. On the second and third floors are the main hall, the 
ante-rooms and banqueting room, supplied with every conven- 
ience, while a store is rented, occupying ground floor and 
basement. The new hall was dedicated June 5, 1890, Dr. 
Joseph Beals again delivering an address. 

There has been a steady growth in membership and influence 
since Pocumtuck. Lodge of Odd Fellows located in its block 
in 1890. In 1895 ^^^ lodge expended about |i,90oin mak- 
ing changes and improvements. Extensive improvements, 
the erection of a new building to replace the wooden building 
in the rear of its block, and other changes are contemplated. 
In May, 1903, the lodge had assets of substantially ^8,000 
and a membership of 219. Officers in May, 1903 : noble 
grand, Charles Voetsch ; vice grand, Frederick C. Witt ; re- 
cording secretary, Sumner Chapman ; financial secretary, 
Charles M. Blanchard ; treasurer, Robert E. Pray ; trustees, 
George A. Shearer, Frank S. Perry, and Franklin H. Clapp. 


Edwin E. Day Post, G. A. R., was organized in March, 
1870. Captain George Pierce was the first commander and 
there were twelve charter members. During the existence of 
the Post there have been one hundred and fifty names on its 
rolls, representing sixty-two different organizations in the serv- 
ice. In 1877 there was a decline of interest in the order 
and the meetings of the Post suspended. A veteran associa- 
tion was then formed to carry on the work of relieving the 
necessities of needy comrades and of observing the beautiful 
ceremonies of Memorial day. In 1884 the charter was re- 
stored and the Post has increased in numbers and influence 


each year. The town has been generous in its treatment of 
the members, and purchased for the use of the veterans the 
Fessenden estate on Main street, the rooms of which were 
changed to adapt them to the uses of the society. 

The survivors of the Grand Army fully appreciate the 
favors shown them by the people, and are happy in their new 
and cosy quarters. 

Edwin E. Day Relief Corps was instituted November 13, 
1885, and has been a most efficient auxiliary to the Grand 
Army Post, lending its aid in every worthy cause. 



AS early as 1682 Samuel Davis and Joshua Pumry had 
land granted to them north of Deerfield river and east 
of Green river. Pumry built on his land soon after, for 
in 1686 he had an additional grant of seven acres "lying on 
the backside of his now dwelling house bounded by the Green 
river West by the Brow of the hill East," etc. In 1686 
Quinton Stockwell and many others had grants of land on 
Green river. January 5, 1686, the following vote was passed : 
" That whereas there was a certain tract of Land upon the 
Green River which was appointed & designed to be for Home 
Lots for those Persons that had Grants of Land upon s*^ River 
L*. Thomas Wells & others appointed by s'^ Inhabitants 
for that work, ordered the form & Quantity of the Lots, that 
is to say the Length & breadth of them." 

" William Brooks proposed to the Inhabitants, he having 
a Grant of two home Lots, that if the Inhabitants would give 
him liberty to take his two Lots together & that they should 
be laid out to him in what place he should chuse in s'^ tract 
that he the s*^ Brooks would give to the Inhabitants afores*^ 
in recompence for that benefit or privilege, his dwelling house 
that stands in the Town street in Deerfield." 

" The proposition was considered & it was agreed & Voted 
that the s'^ Will™ Brooks should have the liberty to chuse his 
two Lots upon the consideration above**^. Accordingly he 
the s'^ Brooks went out when Lt. Tho* Wells & the Meas- 
urers went to lay out the home Lots & made choice of his 




two Lots which He fronting upon the highway North or 
NorthEast upon the home Lot of David Hoit on the one 
side & Edward Alien on the other side." These were lot 
No. 3 and lot No. 4. 

The plan of the Green River Street was not completed and 
placed on record until 1749. 



" The above Plan of Green River Street laid out Feby 22d, 1749 • Six rods in width 
beginning at angle A, which angle commences fifteen links of a Chain West from a 
crotched Apple Tree, which Tree stands in the Front of John Allen's House Lot, 
running East 19 D., 30 M. ; South from sd Tree to Joshua Wells's Corner, & from the 
afores'd angle A, West i D., South to Samuel Dickinson's S. East Corner; from the 
Corner of Edward Allen's Stone Wall at B to Aaron Denio's Corner at C is fourteen 
Rods, & from C to D is Seven Rods & 3 Links. The above Roads were laid out by us. 

David Field, 


" Matthew C lesson, > of 
" Benjn Hastings. ? Deerfield. 

The foregoing plan of Greenfield street as it was in 1774 
was found among the papers of the late Colonel Samuel 
Wells, and although not drawn to a scale is valuable as it 
gives the names of the occupants of the original lots at the 
commencement of the Revolutionary War. 

In the early records of Deerfield is the following entry, no 
date being given : " Here follows a Record of divers things 
that were formerly omitted. ... A Record of the 
Home lots up Green River the South side of the Street to 
begin at the West End— Eben*" Wells Jr. ist lot. David 
Hoit 2nd. Wm. Brooks 3d & 4th. Ew*^ Allyn 5th. 



" On the North Side to begin at the west End. Sam^ Smead 
ye I St— the Mill Lot 2"^^— Jo^ & Rob* Goddard 3'" & 4"'— 
John Severance 5"'— Jeremiah Hull 6'^— John AUyn 7*''— 
there were twenty laid out in all." 

J^.^ y',*; ^.^4^ ■/€tu^^Z^jL/ «. '//^ 

Sergeant John Plympton had a grant of the meadow land 
at what has been known as " the old river bed " south of 
Main street on which the Ebenezer Wells, Jr., lot No. i, 



bounded on the west. This lot remained in the Wells fam- 
ily's possession until Joseph Warren Wells of the fifth gen- 
eration sold to Jesse Mclntire in 1840. 

The first American ancestor of this Wells family was without 
doubt Hugh Wells, who arrived in Boston on the " Susan and 
Ellen " in 1630. His brother Thomas accompanied him to 
this country. After spending a short time in Weathersfield 
and Hartford, Hugh is found a settler at Hadley, in 1759. 
In the early records the name was commonly spelled "Welles." 

Ebenezer Wells returned to Hadley, his native town, but his 
sons John and Joshua made permanent settlements in Green- 
field and became prominent men in Green river affairs. Both 
were in the Indian skirmish August 25, 1725, when Deacon 
Samuel Field was so badly wounded, near where the railroad 
station now stands. John Wells occupied lot No. i as his 
homestead and became a colonel in the militia. His son 
Samuel, one of fourteen children, was an officer in the Rev- 
olutionary War, and probably built the house which stood 
where the Baxter B. Noyes place now is. 

Mrs. Sarah Wells Conant is perhaps the only representative 
of her generation of this once numerous family who continues 
to reside in Greenfield. 

Twenty home lots of four acres each were laid out, but the 
dimensions of the lots were increased to eight acres each on 
March 3, 1700 — The home lots as finally agreed upon were 
each to be sixteen rods in width and eighty rods in length. 
It was voted in 1687 "that all persons that have or shall have 
grants of Land upon Green River shall pay their proportion 
of the Indian Purchase." Before the matter was finally set- 
tled, the road from the country road to the gristmill, now 
Mill street, was opened, and the lots on the south side of the 
street were thus cut off, other land being granted to make up 
the deficiency in the allotment. 

Lot No. 2 was granted to David Hoyt, and descended to 
his grandson, Lieutenant Jonathan Hoyt, who lived at Cheap- 

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KEV. Dii. Newton's possessions 1059 

side and kept the " White Horse Tavern," which became in 
time the David R. Wait place. In 1776 this lot was con- 
veyed to Reverend Roger Newton, who became the owner of 
all the land lying between Main and Mill streets and the 
Ebenezer Wells lot and Clay Hill street. 

Lots Nos. 3 and 4 were granted to William Brooks ; one 
on his own right and one on the right of Ouinten Stockwell, 
whose interest he had purchased. Through Ebenezer and 
Nathaniel Brooks, sons of William, these lots came to Ben- 
jamin Munn, who in 1741 conveyed them to his son Samuel. 
Samuel Munn conveyed an acre to the town for a burial 
ground, and in 1764 for ^128-10-8 he deeded the remainder 
of the two lots to Reverend Dr. Newton. 

Lot No. 5 was granted to Edward Allen. In 1738 he 
deeded it to his son Edward. Here, in 1 744, stood his pali- 
saded house, on the ground now occupied by the Hollister 
house. In 1763 Amos Allen, son of Edward Allen, Jr., sold 
to Roger Newton " a certain tract of land lying in Greenfield 
District containing eight acres and bounded west by land of 
Samuel Munn ; north, east and south upon the highway, with 
all the edifices, fences &c,, standing upon the said home lot." 

On this lot in January, i 793, Reverend Mr. Newton be- 
gan the erection of his new house upon the spot now occupied 
by the courthouse. That house is still in existence, standing 
upon the north side of Newton Place, in the rear of the town 
hall. Under date of " Thursday, August 24, 1794," Mr. 
Newton makes the following entry in his diary : " removed 
from my old Habitation where I had resided about 32 years 
into my new house." On the corner now occupied by Arms's 
block, Mr. Newton built a small store which was occupied in 
1774 by one Samuel Bliss, who, being a tory, fled to Canada, 
and became a captain in the British army. It was afterward 
occupied by George Grennell, and later by Ozias H. Newton 
(son of Dr. Newton), and Aaron Green, under the firm name 
of Newton & Green. 


Luckily for the people of the town, the road entering the 
town street from the south was laid out fourteen rods in 
width at its north end, and our little common was thus saved 
to the public. 

A few houses were built on the street before the breaking 
out of Father Rasle's war in 1722, but at that time all the 
settlers were forced to retire to the fortified places at Deer- 
field. No more lots were laid out on the south side of Main 
street until the first division of " lands lying north of Cheap- 
side and east of Green river," in 1736. The first and second 
divisions of land laid out were drawn by " pitch " as elsewhere 
described, and all the land lying about the east end of Main 
street as far west as the line between William H. Allen and 
Franklin R. Allen was drawn as farm land. In fact the lot 
lying between that line and the line between the places now 
owned by Dana Malone and Dr. E. G. Best turned to the 
east in the rear of the Allen places and was drawn by Ebe- 
nezer Williams in " pitch " No. 11, and contained twenty- 
four acres. 

The lot next west of the line between Mr. Malone and Dr. 
Best was laid out to Thomas Wells, in November, 1736, and 
was six rods and ten links in width on the street, running 
southerly on said Williams lot eighty-one rods to Samuel 
Field's forty-acre grant, and extended westerly in the rear of 
the home lots to the country road, now called Deerfield 

At a meeting held March 16, 1737-8, "The Proprietors 
maturely considering the Petition of Benjamin Hastings, 
William Mitchell & Jonah Holmes voted that they have con- 
firmed to each of them their House lots at Green river form- 
erly Laid out to them two of which are under them now in 
possession of Aaron Denio & one in the possession of Thos. 
Wells 2nd, as also so much more to Each of them Lying 
south west of Land belonging to Ezekiel Bascom at y** Lower 
end of Green River Meadows as shall by a Comtt*'* appointed 


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for that end be thoat propper which Comtt*'® to make return 
of their doings to the proprietors in their next Meeting Upon 
adjournment with plans of Each lot In order to have them 
recorded to the Petitioners if the Proprietors judge propper ; 
Provided they do there Each of them by a Good Deed of 
Conveyance relinquish convey and confirm to y® Proprietors 
the whole of their interest In the Common & undivided 
Lands in Deerfield to Decend to them according to their re- 
spective Interest, provided also said Hastings do convey and 
confirm to the Proprietors a cart road through his Lot in old 
fort unto the west mountain." 

The record continues as follows : " Two plats of land laid 
out to Jonah Holms as his part or proportion of y® Common 
& undivided Lands in y^ Township of Deerfield viz : Plat 
No I contains Eight acres it Lyeth in that Part of y*^ Town 
Known by y*' name of Green River Townplot and is bounded 
North on y*' Street or road East & South on proprietors 
Land west on Land in possession of Aaron Deniur." Forty- 
five acres were also laid to Holmes at the west end of the 
Green river lots, on the west side of Green river. 

" Plats of land laid out to Benj" Hastings & William 
Mitchell as their part or proportions of y® Common & un- 
divided land in y® township of Deerfield viz : — the Lot No 
four Containing Eight acres which Lot Lyeth in y® Green 
River Town Plot so called on y*' So Side of y^ Street joyning 
to y^ street North and west on y'' Country road that goeth 
to Green river South on Common Land & East on y® 
Lot No 5 which land was laid out to William Mitchell." 
Mitchell also had laid out to him two other lots, one of 
fifteen acres and one of thirty acres on the west side of Green 

" The house lot No. 5 in this plan was laid out to Benj" 
Hastings & contains eight acres and joyns to y® afore^'* Lot 
Num^" four as described in the plan." Sixty acres more were 
laid to Hastings, partly bounded east by Green river. 


The northwest corner of lot No. 4 was the present " Allen's 
corner." It ran easterly along the street, apparently sixteen 
rods, thence south 14 west, sixty-one rods, thence westerly 
(points not given) to a corner, thence northwesterly (neither 
points nor distance given) to the highway, thence bounded 
west on the highway (Clay Hill) to the place of beginning. 

The southerly end of this lot was much wider than the 
north end, the lot lacking nineteen rods in its length, as com- 
pared with the other home lots, thus making up the comple- 
ment of eight acres. 

Lot No. 5 joined this on the east, and was eighty rods in 
length and sixteen rods in width. 

Lot No. I, laid out to Jonah Holmes, joined this on the 
east and was the same size as lot No. 5. 

All these five lots of land, amounting in all to thirty-four 
acres passed into the hands of Aaron Denio between 1738 and 
1743. The Benjamin Hastings lot extended from Allen's 
corner to the middle of the Masonic building ; the William 
Mitchell lot from there to about forty feet beyond the Grand 
Army hall ; the Jonah Holmes lot to about twenty feet be- 
yond the east line of the Governor Washburn lot ; the Thomas 
Wells lot to the line between Dana Malone and Dr. Best ; 
and the E. Williams lot to the line between William H. and 
Franklin R. Allen, this being the east line of Aaron Denio's 
possessions. On the Holmes lot there stood a " mansion 
house " in 1747. 

In 1777 Aaron deeded to his son, Battis Denio, the 
Hastings and Mitchell lots and the old tavern house, 
and gave him the remainder of the thirty-four acres by his will. 

In 1782 Battis sold the whole to Ruel and Beriah Willard. 

The Willard brothers divided their joint estates Septem- 
ber 7, 1783, Ruel taking that on the south side of Main 
street. He died in Bernardston, in 1806. The estate was 
partitioned among his heirs by the Probate Court of Hamp- 
shire county, and a plan is inserted in this work. 


On the north side of the street the numbering of lots 
began at the west end of the street, and lot No. i was assigned 
to Samuel Smead by the following vote : " At a meeting of 
the Inhabitants of Deerfield Dec'''' 13, 1687. . , . There 
was also Granted to Sam^ Smead twenty acres of Land upon 
Green River and a Home Lot provided he pay Rates for it this 
year & so forward & continue an Inhabitant here three years 
after he comes to be twenty one Years of age." He was then 
eighteen years old. This grant was confirmed March 26, 
1 71 8-1 9. In 1720 this lot was standing in the name of 
Samuel Dickinson. That year the proprietors granted to 
Joseph Atherton lot No. 2, which in 1686 had been reserved 
as the " Mill Lot." In 1751 Joseph divided this lot be- 
tween his sons Shubal and Eber, Eber taking the four acres 
bounded west on land of Samuel Dickinson, and Shubal the 
east four acres, " where the house is, and edifices." The 
" house " and " edifices " became the Atherton fort during the 
Indian wars and gave the name to " Fort square." Timothy 
Bascom, who married a daughter of Joseph Atherton, came 
into possession of the Dickinson lot, and in 1778 by deed 
from the other Atherton heirs became the owner of the whole 
of lots Nos. I and 2, and in 1783 conveyed to Samuel Wells, 
(who lived where B. B. Noyes now does,) " two home lots 
formerly belonging to Samuel Dickinson and Joseph Ather- 
ton, with the buildings standing on the same, being the place 
where the said Timothy Bascom now lives." The Wells 
barns stood on lot No. i. In 1802, when the fourteenth 
Massachusetts turnpike was laid out, that road was bounded 
on the " south side of Samuel Wells's barn." 

Lot No. 3, in the grants of 1686, was laid out to Joseph 
Goddard, and lot No. 4 to Robert Goddard. Samuel Bar- 
nard obtained Joseph Goddard's interest in 1719 and in 1759 
sold it to Jonathan Severance. It remained in the Severance 
family for more than one hundred and twenty years. 

Lot No. 4 was owned by Benjamin Munn in 1750 and 


sold by him to John Cochran. In 1751 John conveyed the 
lot to Thomas Cochran. The next year Thomas sold it to 
Jonathan Ashley, and in 1754 Ashley conveyed it to Jona- 
than Severance for ^60. 

Lot No. 5 was granted in 1687 to John Severance, but was 
owned in 1750 by Joseph Severance, who was John's son, 
born in 1682. Joseph deeded it to his grandson, Matthew 
Severance, in 1756. March i, 1790, he sold this lot to 
Amos Cornwell, hatter. Cornwell the next year sold the 
north three quarters of the lot to Samuel Wells who owned 
on the north and the south two acres with the buildings to 
Eliel Gilbert. In 1792 Colonel Gilbert sold to Jonathan 
Leavitt. Judge Leavitt concluded to build the Leavitt man- 
sion and October 4, 1794, sold this lot to George Grennell. 
June I, 1 8 10, Mr. Grennell sold the place to his son-in-law, 
Jonathan Bird, and many citizens still remember " the old 
Bird place " where William Elliot had his nursery, Conway 
street was laid through the west side of this lot. 

Lot No. 6 was granted to Jeremiah Hull, December 20, 
1687, by the following vote: "There was also granted to 
Jeremiah Hull twenty acres of Land upon the Green River 
& a Home Lot to be laid out by a Com"'^*' provided he con- 
tinue an Inhabitant here three years & pay the purchase 
money, & pay Rates for it this year & so forward." The 
following year Jeremiah Hull married Mehitable, daughter of 
William Smead, and died in 1691, leaving a widow, a daughter, 
Elizabeth, and a son, Jeremiah. Godfrey Nims married the 
widow in 1692 and took them all to his Deerfield home. 
Jeremiah was burned in the Nims house at Deerfield, Jan- 
uary 4, 1694. Mrs. Nims and her daughter were taken 
prisoners at the Deerfield massacre, and the mother was killed 
on the march to Canada. These incidents left the Green 
River property to Elizabeth. Godfrey's son John was already 
a prisoner in Canada when his stepsister Elizabeth arrived 
there. He made his escape and when she was redeemed in 


1707 they were married. They had twelve children, but the 
Green river lands went mostly to their son Thomas. He 
lived on lot No. 6 in 1744. His house stood where the First 
Baptist Church now is and was fortified during the French and 
Indian wars. When the wars were over he removed his great 
barn and his family to his farm in the meadows, and this lot 
passed out of the family name by conveyance to Samuel 
Wells, March 12, 1793. Samuel Wells deeded the greater 
part of this lot and farming lands adjoining on the north to 
his son (Colonel) Daniel Wells. In 18 19 Rhoda, widow of 
(Colonel) Daniel Wells, and her children sold the Wells farm 
to Justice Preston. Mr. Preston in 1826 sold to Zechariah 
Field, who mortgaged it to the Massachusetts Hospital Life 
Insurance Company, who sold it out to Phineas Foster and 
Mark Healy, Boston merchants, and in 1832 they sold it to 
the Fellenberg Academy. In May, 1836, the Fellenburg 
School having been given up the estate was purchased by 
(Judge) Daniel Wells, and in July of that year Mr. Wells 
conveyed the lot where now stands the First Baptist Church 
and certain other lands to Lucius Dickinson, He sold to the 
Baptist Society in 1853. The Dickinson house was moved 
to the north on Wells street, which was then just opened, 
where it now stands. 

Lot No. 7 was granted to John Allen. He was a brother 
to Edward, to whom was granted the lot where the courthouse 
stands. He, John, never resided here, and was killed by In- 
dians at the Bars in Deerfield, May 11, 1704. His son 
John came to Greenfield. Benjamin Munn owned the lot in 
1740 and conveyed it that year to Benjamin Munn, Jr. In 
1773 Samuel Munn conveyed to Thomas Taylor and he in 
1776 sold to Samuel Wells. Asa Munn had a house on the 
southeast corner of the lot, in 1774. He was a tailor and lost 
a leg in the Revolutionary War. Thomas Dickman, the 
printer, also had a house on a part of this lot in 1792, 

Lot No. 8. To whom first granted is not apparent. 


April 26, 1726, this lot was conveyed by Ebenezer Williams to 
Ebenezer Smead. Jonathan Smead, son of Ebenezer, became 
the owner of the property, and in 1770 conveyed it to his sons, 
Lemuel and Daniel Smead. Abner Smead, a younger brother 
of Lemuel and Daniel, purchased the lot of them in 1785, and 
here he resided for many years. He appears to have been quite 
a speculator and came to grief, his homestead of seven acres 
being set off by the sheriff to Andrew, Oliver and Joshua 
Cocks, September 15, 1800, anci was by them sold to Thomas 
Chapman in 1802. In 1792 Abner Smead had sold to Daniel 
Forbes, an old-time merchant, a parcel of land six by twenty- 
seven rods, from the southeast corner of his lot, on which 
Forbes built a house and store. He sold this to Benjamin 
Swan, and in 1798 Swan sold the same to Thomas Chapman, 
" late from Elizabethtown, N. J." Benjamin Swan also in 
1798 sold the southwest corner of lot No. 8 to Thomas Chap- 
man ; thus Mr. Chapman became owner of the whole of the 
original lot. April 16, 1799, Mr. Chapman's house was burned 
and he built the Chapman mansion which after two removals is 
yet standing, — the large square house some little distance north- 
west of the Chapman street schoolhouse. The lay out of the 
Connecticut River Railroad cut off the southwest corner of 
lot No. 8. At the decease of Henry Chapman, son of 
Thomas, this lot was divided among his heirs and a plan 
thereof may be found in the registry of deeds. Chapman 
street was laid out near the centre of the lot. 

Lot No. 9. This lot was granted in 1687 to John Allen. 
December 28, 171 8, Ebenezer Severance and John Allen con- 
veyed this lot No. 7 to John Richards. Richards was a teacher 
in Deerfield and enjoyed the title " Mr." No conveyance from 
Richards of either lot is found. Noah and David, sons of 
John Allen, conveyed the lot March 15, 1769, to Thomas 
Taylor, and Mr. Taylor in 1776 passed the title to Samuel 
Wells. September 6, 1790, Jerome Ripley purchased this 
lot, the east side of which included the land now occupied by 


the west end of the Pond block. Ripley's store was a small 
building standing about where Payne's drug store now is. 
Mr. Ripley in 1791 sold the westerly portion of this lot to 
Eliel Gilbert, saddler, and he built the most ancient part of 
the old American House. Here he lived, kept a saddler shop 
and a tavern. Timothy Lathrop married a daughter of Colo- 
nel Gilbert and after the Colonel's decease kept the tavern 
for a season, having purchased the shares of the Gilbert heirs 
other than those of his wife. Colonel Wright, the old sheriff 
and court crier, kept the tavern many years. The property 
came into the-. hands of William Keith and took the name of 
the American House. On the John Allen lot stood " the 
crotched apple tree " which marked the angle in the street 
and the location of which has been studied by many local en- 

In 1842 Dr. Daniel Hovey purchased the Ripley prop- 
erty, since which time it has been in the Hovey family. Davis 
street runs through lot No. 9. 

Lot No. 10. This lot stood in the name of Nathaniel 
Brooks in 1720. Thomas Bardwell deeded it to Ebenezer 
Wells, Jr., July 29, 1748. In 1761 Daniel Nash deeded this 
lot to Agrippa Wells, who was afterward captain of a local 
company in the Revolutionary War. Here he carried on his 
business of blacksmithing and kept a tavern when not in the 
service during the Revolutionary War. In May, 1782, he 
sold this estate to Ruel and Beriah Willard and the inn be- 
came known as the Willard tavern. The next year Ruel 
Willard assigned his interest to Beriah and at Beriah's death it 
came to his son David Willard, the historian. Asa Good- 
enough, the proprietor of the inn now the Mansion House, 
purchased the Willard tavern stand which joined him on the 
west. In 1788 "the new road," now Federal street, was laid out 
on the east side of the Willard lot, and both sides of this new 
street were coon taken for business purposes and for residences. 
Lyman Kendall obtained the " corner" and built in 18 14 the 


building in which is located Cook's store. The Franklin 
County National Bank, Sanborn's block, the Bird building 
(now Hovey drugstore) and Hollister block, all stand on orig- 
inal lot No. lo. School street, at first a mere passageway to the 
rear of the store buildings, was extended, when the village 
schoolhouse (now George W. Avery's residence) was built 
to that place, and after a fight and appeal to the county com- 
missioners it was further extended by that board through 
to Pleasant street. 

Lot No. II. This lot seems to have been granted to Be- 
noni Moore, who sold it to Ebenezer Severance, April 17, 
1720. Severance deeded it to James Corse, the old hunter, 
and he opened the house to the public as an inn. During 
the Indian wars the house was palisaded, and it became the 
general meeting place for the settlers. Here the preaching 
services were held, and after 1753 the town meetings, James 
Corse being paid for drumming to call the people together. 
May 26, 1774, when he was eighty years old, he conveyed 
this lot to his son Dan Corse. The next year Dan sold it to 
Lemuel Bascom who owned much land in this portion of the 
village. In 1785 Mr. Bascom sold the tavern and about 
four and a half rods of land on Main street to Caleb Alvord 
who in 1798 purchased of him about six rods more where 
the central portion of the Mansion House block now 

In 1792 Calvin Munn, merchant in Greenfield and Whit- 
ingham, Vt., purchased the tavern of Caleb Alvord. He sold 
to Hart Leavitt in 1794 forty-five feet from off the east end 
of his lot, and on this Leavitt built what was known as the 
Leavitt store. Munn also sold to Dr. John Stone a lot six 
rods wide adjoining Leavitt, which passed through the hands 
of William Coleman, Benjamin Swan, Jonathan Leavitt and 
Hart Leavitt to David Ripley, on which he built his house, 
which was removed and now stands on Union street and is 
known as the John Keith place. Mr. Ripley also owned the 


Leavitt store. Subsequent owners of the tavern stand may 
be found in the chapter on Greenfield taverns. 

Lot No. 12. In 1698 Michael Mitchell was granted 
thirty acres of land and a home lot at Green River. This 
grant was confirmed March 3, 1 700-1. In March, 171 8-19 
he conveyed to Thomas French " A house lot as may be seen 
upon Deerfield Town Records." May 29, 1727, Thomas 
French sold this lot to Ezekiel Bascom. In 1774 Joseph 
Bascom appears to be the owner or occupant. The proba- 
bility is that Ezekiel Bascom, Sr., and Joseph Bascom, Sr., 
brothers, owned the lot together, as Lemuel Bascom purchased 
of the other heirs of Joseph, Sr,, one half of this lot, April 1 7, 
1780, and was described in the deed as owning the east half of 
said lot, thus making him the owner of both the Corse lot and 
the French lot. July 9, 1794, he sold to Jonathan Leavitt 
five acres running round the tavern property to Federal street, 
and on Main street Mr. Leavitt built the Leavitt (Hovey) 
mansion. This portion came to his daughter, Mary H. 
Leavitt, who sold to the late George H. Hovey. The Lem- 
uel Bascom house stood east of the Leavitt house and was 
sold by Judge Leavitt's heirs in 1836 to Richardson Hall. 
Mr. Hall became insolvent and this property was sold by 
General David S. Jones, assignee to the heirs of Mrs. Samuel 
Wells (of Northampton), who was a daughter of Judge Leavitt. 
When Dr. A. C. Deane built his house the Hall house was 
moved to the lot on which the Masonic block now stands, 
and when that was built it continued its journeying to the 
Rocky Mountain road and now stands a few rods north of 
S. Allen's Son's powder house. 

Lot No. 13. A grant was made March 3, 1700— i of a 
home lot to Zebadiah Williams. April 26, 1727, Ebenezer 
Williams, son of Zebadiah, conveyed this lot and lot No. 8 to 
Ebenezer Smead. By some unknown process the lot seems 
to have become the property of Ezekiel Bascom, Jr., as his 
daughter Aseneth and her husband,- Jonathan Russell, con- 


veyed September 22, 1818, the west nine rods to her sister 
Electa and Samuel Wells, Jr., her husband, and Electa and 
her husband deeded the east seven rods to Aseneth and Jona- 
than Russell. In 1843 Alfred Wells, executor of the will of 
his father, Samuel Wells, Jr., sold the west lot to Sylvester 
Allen, and he built the house now owned by William E. 
Wood. The old house which stood on the Allen lot was 
moved into Davis street and was the home of Stoddard W. 
Temple until his death, and is now owned by John G. 
Yetter. May 2, 1844, Henry W. Clapp added the Jonathan 
Russell lot to his possessions and in the fall of 1845 opened 
Franklin street. Dr. A. C. Deane purchased his lot in i860 
of John Russell who became owner of the Sylvester Allen 
place January i, 1849. The Allen place is now the home 
of William E. Wood. 

Lot No. 14. The home lot of Joshua Wells was granted 
before the division of the lands " north of Cheapside and east 
of Green River" in 1736, for he laid out his "pitch No. 90" 
between his home lot and the country road leading to North- 
field, High street now taking the place of said road. The 
Joshua Wells house stood on the east side of the country 
road, and was fortified in 1744 and called the Wells fort, 
Joshua deeded this land to his sons, Abner and Joel, in 
1767 and Joel conveyed his interest to Abner in 1785. Abner 
was ninety-three years old at the time of his death, Octo- 
ber 31, 1835. ^^^ ^7^9 Abner Wells sold to Dr. John Stone 
a quarter acre at the southwest corner of lot 14 and in 1800 
Ezekiel Bascom sold from lot 13 additions to the lot then 
owned by Captain Caleb Clap who had purchased of Dr. Stone. 
This is probably the Edward Upham house shown on the 
plan of 1774. Joshua and Abner Wells sold to Upham one 
quarter acre just east of where the Library Association build- 
ing stands, on which stood a small gambrel-roofed house which 
was moved to a lot opposite the Union House. When the 
railroad came it was again moved to the east side of Deerfield 


Street just above C. C. Dyer's brickyard barn, where it yet 
stands. It was called the Logan house. Abner Wells sold 
his holdings to Oliver Cooley in 1819 and Cooley to Elijah A. 
Gould in 1827. Mr. Gould was from Templeton and was a 
merchant, and at one time had a store at Cheapside. He is 
said to have drawn ^25,000 in a lottery, with which he built 
in 1822 the Henry W. Clapp house, now the home of Ar- 
thur D. Potter. He at one time owned the middle store in 
the S. Allen's Son's block. Henry W. Clapp purchased 
the Gould place November 25, 1834, and resided on the 
premises until his death. Franklin and Park streets were laid 
through the Clapp property. 

Sixteen acres lying east of Joshua Wells's home lot and 
running as far south as the northerly side of Main street, was 
granted to him as his " pitch," No. 90, in the first division. 
It was surveyed in 1736. On the east side of this lot ran 
the " country road " leading to Northfield, separating Mr. 
Wells's land from the eighty-acre "pitch," No. 52 of Ebe- 
nezer Williams, drawn upon the right of his father, Zebadiah, 
which lot extended north to where Grave brook crossed the 
country road and twenty- five rods south of the north line of 
Main street. July i, 1774, Ebenezer Smead conveyed one 
hundred and five acres to John Caldwell. In 1787 Caldwell 
sold to William Moore, who conveyed it to George Grennell, 
Sr., in 1792, since which time a large portion of it has re- 
mained in the Grennell family. 

That part of the Grennell farm lying south of Main street 
was bounded on the west by the line between the William H. 
Allen and the Franklin R. Allen places extending to the little 
brook south of the Solon L, Wiley place ; from that corner 
the south line of the farm ran almost east to the top of Rocky 
mountain. The west line north of Main street extended upon 
the east side of the old country road certainly as far as the 
lane running along the south side of the A. W. Grout place 
and perhaps as far north as where the road at that time crossed 


Grave brook, and then ran east to the mountain. All the 
streets and avenues located within these bounds were at one 
time parts of the Grennell farm. 

The ancient dwelling house which stood where the James 
S. Grinnell mansion now does, was moved to High street and 
was the home of the Misses Williams, m which for many 
years they kept their boarding school. 

A few acres adjoining the east side of High street was sold 
to Albert Jones, jeweller, afterward purchased by Mr. Clapp, 
who sold it out as building lots. In 1843 he sold the Bird 
lot, now owned by Judge Fessenden and by Charles C. Hoyt. 



" To sit about old hearths, among old friends, 
Beneath old gambrel roof, — and so renew 
Our days with the elixirs of the past." 

UPON the invitation of the selectmen of the town, on 
the 29th of April, 1902, a meeting of representative 

citizens of Greenfield was held and after discussion, a 
" Home Week " association was organized. It was voted to 
celebrate the last week in July, by inviting all former residents 
of the town and the general public to participate in the exer- 
cises. Committees were appointed ; the general committee 
consisting of Joseph W. Stevens, president ; Francis M. 
Thompson and Charles J. Day, vice presidents ; Walter S. 
Carson, secretary ; Wm. G. Packard, treasurer; George H, 
Wilkins, Frank P. Forbes and Frederick E. Pierce, executive 

A circular letter was addressed to the town's peopfe solicit- 
ing names and addresses of former residents, which was 
responded to in such measure that large numbers of invita- 
tions were issued, the names and addresses furnished being 
recorded for future use. The festivities opened Wednesday 
evening July 30th, with a loan exhibition in Grinnell Hall. 
Visitors were required to record their names, and the result 
showed that several hundred former residents or their repre- 
sentatives had accepted the invitation of the town. The loan 

68 1073 


collection was an unqualified success, and the committee were 
embarrassed with the riches offered them. Many offerings of 
most interesting articles were reluctantly declined by the com- 
mittee in charge, because of insufficiency of space in the hall, 
and lack of sufficient time to arrange the same, in an artistic 
manner, in season for the exhibition as planned. On Thurs- 
day, the 31st, the literary exercises of the week took place 
nearly upon the grounds formerly occupied by the first meet- 
ing house built in Greenfield, at Long's corner. Music was 
furnished by a large chorus of the school children of the town 
under charge of Prof. A. J. Mealand. Martial music was 
rendered by the Sunderland band. The presiding officer, J. 
W. Stevens, made a short address in which he gave hearty 
welcome to returning former residents of the town. Prayer 
was offered by Rev. John D. Reid, of All Souls Church. 
The principal address was made by Major Henry E. Alvord, 
of Washington, a former Greenfield boy. His theme was 
boyhood recollections, and was entertaining and amusing, and 
withal rich in historic value. A reminiscent letter from Hon. 
John E. Russell was read, giving in his characteristic style, 
sketches of Greenfield happenings at a little earlier period 
than that covered by Major Alvord's address. The letter was 
received with much applause. Both of these papers are pub- 
lished in this history. George G. Rockwood, of New York, 
a former Greenfield boy, gave some pungent reminiscences. 
Letters were also read from Admiral Charles E. Clark, Marshall 
Field, and Rev. Charles C. Carpenter, all formerly interested 
in Greenfield affairs. Interesting letters were also received 
from many former residents of the town, which could not be 
publicly read for want of time. All the writers expressed 
their love for the old town and regretted that circumstances 
prevented their attendance during the week of Its festivities. 
The exercises were brought to a close by singing " America," 
the benediction being pronounced by Rev. Sidney H. Treat, 
of St. James Church. 




A soldier in the company of which I was First Sergeant 
was wont to complain that he was detailed oftener than 
anyone else and for all sorts of duty, because his name 
was Abbott and " so handy " at the top of the roll. All my 
life I have been accustomed to answering to my name among 
the first, — where the roll was alphabetically arranged, — and I 
presume it was by this accident that the " Old Home Week 
Committee " happened to detail me for this occasion. Al- 
though a most unexpected call, and one for which any fair 
doctor would give me a certificate of disability, I have enough 
of the soldierly sense of duty left to present myself at the ap- 
pointed hour. My chief purpose is to thus set a good exam- 
ple to other sons of the old town, so that better results may 
be hoped for, when future committees, in preparing for simi- 
lar occasions, make more discriminating details from farther 
down the roll of Greenfield boys. 

The time is ripe for sentiment and philosophy, bvit remarks 
in that vein must be left to those more competent. The pre- 
dominating suggestions of this celebration, — the first thoughts 
of those coming back to the old home, — must be of the days 
of childhood and youth, each in his own generation. So it is 
with me a day of reminiscence, and I must be allowed to 
speak of recollections of village life in Greenfield. I must be 
excused, also, if largely personal. One is safest in speaking 


1076 MAJOR alyord's address 

of that which he knows best — that which he saw and in which 
he participated. 

My earHest recollection of Greenfield is of spending one of 
the coldest nights which the town ever knew, at a north win- 
dow in the snug little cottage of the good Mrs. Prentiss, 
which used to stand at the corner of Federal and Pleasant 
streets, and, in the care of my equally good nurse (Mary Ann 
McCarty Severance, a most useful person and " a character " 
in the village for full half a century) watching the slow burn- 
ing of the old-fashioned, heavy framed house in which I was 
born. Fires in Greenfield, especially of village residences, 
were rare in those days. The only fire apparatus then owned 
by the town (55 years ago) was on wheels, and carefully 
stowed away for the winter behind a large collection of vehi- 
cles and other impedimenta, so that it was not got out for 
service till some time the next day. Nothing checked the 
conflagration, or interrupted my admiration of it, except a 
characteristic act by one who has long been a respected citizen 
of the town. Captain George Pierce, as useful and brave then 
as he has been ever since, came wading through the deep 
snow, bearing aloft tenderly and in triumph, one of my most 
cherished possessions — a big black rag baby, which he had 
heroically rescued from the flames. 

Although my own birthplace was thus destroyed, I could, 
until recently, identify, on the west side of Federal street, in 
a much changed condition, what I formerly knew as the old 
Ripley house,* in which my father was born. (Daniel Wells 
Alvord, 1816.) The house is still standing, I believe, but 
removed to another part of the town. And it has been but a 
few years since there stood at the west end of Main street, 
under a great elm, on the brow of the hill, the substantial 
homestead in which my father's mother was born (in 1785). 
The house was built by her grandfather, Colonel Samuel Wells 
in 1752, the year before the town was incorporated. 

* Dr. Walker's place. 


My paternal grandfather was born in Wilmington, Ver- 
mont, but passed nearly all his life in this town, where he 
died. His father and his grandfather both lived and died 
here. My grandfather's grandfather moved to Greenfield 
from Northampton with a large family in 1762, and my an- 
cestors in three lines (Alvords, Clapps and Wells) were 
among the early members of the old church which stood but 
a few rods from this spot.* 

It will be remembered that before being set off from the 
town of Deerfield, this was " the Green River district." To 
the lovely stream in our western meadows we may apply the 
lines written by William Cullen Bryant of another Green 
River not very far away : 

" When breezes are soft and skies are fair, 
I steal an hour from study and care, 
And hie me away to the woodland scene, 
When wanders the stream with waters of green ; 
As if the bright fringe of herbs on its brink, 
Had given tlieir stain to the wave they drink ; 
And they, whose meadows it murmurs through, 
Have named the stream for its own fair hue. 

" Though forced to drudge for the dregs of men. 
And scrawl strange words with the barbarous pen. 
And mingle among the jostling crowd. 
Where the sons of strife are subtle and loud, 
I often come to this quite place, 
To breathe the airs that ruffle thy face. 
And gaze upon thee in silent dream, 
For in the lonely and lovely stream, 
An image of that calm life appears. 
That won my heart in my greener years." 

One of the first public works of the town which I remem- 
ber, was the extension of the railroad northward, and the 
building of that much admired wonder of the time, "The 
Arch " on Main street. How the little boys who clambered 
down the deep sandy banks and up again, to get to school, 

* Four Corners. 

1078 MAJOR alvord's address 

envied the bigger ones, who dared make the perilous passage 
on the partly finished masonry! "The old brick school 
house " * was then the goal, set well back from Main street, 
with its broad, barren expanse of gravel in front. Another 
matter of special envy was the frequency with which Henry 
Keith won the honor of wearing home, at the end of the week, 
a bright quarter-dollar hung upon a string around his neck, 
in token of being at the head of the spelling class ; the struggles 
of several of us to " down him," and the occasional but tran- 
sitory triumphs, will never be forgotton. 

The small boys of the town in my day stood in special 
awe of three men, — entirely different from one another, but 
all known as " Bill," with equal disrespect. The first was 
" Bill " (Wm. F.) Grinnell, son of an honored sire and repre- 
sentative of a family of special prominence in the town for 
more than a century. He was rather a belligerent leader of 
the young men of the village and seemed to delight in mak- 
ing all small boys think him far more dangerous than he was. 
But he got all over that and only two years ago, cordially 
welcomed and entertained me at Manchester, England, where 
he has represented the commercial interests of this country 
for many years. The next, " Bill " Wilson, was keeper of 
the peace, — the only special officer at " the centre ; " to us he 
represented the majesty of the law, and none of us were so 
rash as to incur his displeasure. The third was " Bill " Elliot, 
long the chairman of the " Prudential committee " for the 
public schools ; he was unquestionably a modest, faithful 
and useful public servant and I can now see no reason why 
we so dreaded his visits and his decisions as to examina- 
tions and vacations and new teachers : 

" His knowledge, hid from public gaze. 
He did not bring to view; 
Nor nia'de a noise town-meeting days, 
As many people do." 

* Old Fellenberg. 


For several years, an annual event of- great interest to the 
younger school children of the village, was a picnic held by 
invitation of Mr. and Mrs. Wendell T. Davis, in the orchard 
east of their Main street residence, — where the Matthew 
Chapman house has since stood. A platform was erected 
against the Davis house and from it budding orators de- 
claimed, — " You'd scarce expect one of my age," — " The 
boy stood on the burning deck," and other choice selections 
from " The Little Speaker." Under the apple trees long 
tables were loaded with the things children like to eat, and we 
had a good time generally. One row of those old apple trees 
is still standing. 

About this time I was old enough to be trusted to do er- 
rands. I was sent periodically to buy snuff for my grand- 
mother from Dr. Hovey or Dr. Rowland and allowed to 
carry her tin " foot stove," with its glowing coals, to " the 
Brick Church " of the Second Congregational Society. Par- 
son Langstroth preached there with great regularity, except 
late in the Spring ; he took his vacation then, because it was 
the swarming season, and " A swarm of bees in May is worth 
a load of hay." There were other provisions for warming 
the church and of a highly decorative character. I remember 
long lines of black stove pipe which extended for several rods 
over the side aisles, with bright tin pans hanging under every 
joint to protect Sunday clothes from the results of a green- 
wood-air-tight combination. At " the Stone Church " serv- 
ices were then conducted by the saintly Dr. Strong, its rec- 
tor for more than forty years, and his Sunday school, which I 
attended, was directed by one whom we reverentially called 
" Bishop " (Richard E.) Field. Occasionally an elder cousin 
permitted me to accompany him on a Sunday tramp to the 
First Church, near Nash's mills, where good Dr. Chandler 
held forth. Sometimes we went out Pleasant street and then 
across the country through " Wells' woods," and sometimes, 
when particularly courageous, we started from lower Main 

1080 MAJOR alyokd's address 

street and following the mysterious paths through laurel and 
hemlock, braved the traditional dangers of the dismal " Dark 
Woods." (That was before Wells street and Conway street 
had been opened and before " the tool shops " had come from 

One of the annual events of the year, clear in my memory, 
was cutting the grass on the Clapp lot (Main, Church, High 
and Franklin streets). My grandfather's house was the only 
one on the square, leaving about seven acres of beautiful 
meadow, and as my home was then on Franklin street, facing 
the field, I had the full benefit of the haying operations. 
Such crops of grass I have never seen since upon an equal 
area. When the right day came, the neighborhood was awak- 
ened by the music of stone and steel, and it was truly inspir- 
ing to see the line of ten or a dozen skilful mowers move 
across the field, swinging their scythes in even cadence, and 
stopping at intervals to whet the blades, all together. During 
these brief halts, it was my ambition to help distribute from 
big pails, iced molasses and water, spiced well with ginger. 
The veteran Colonel Nutting was the foreman of the force. 
Banishment from the lot would have been instant had I ven- 
tured to molest the nests of meadow larks and bobolinks, 
around each of which if discovered in season, was left standing 
a large tuft of grass. The nests of bumblebees were treated 
with equal consideration. Mr. Clapp was a good farmer and 
this mowing lot was his pride. It used to be said that the 
sound of the scythe in that field was the signal for haying to 
begin all over Franklin County. In the proceedings of the 
old United States Agricultural Society is the record of a crop 
of almost 50 tons of well cured hay, cut from that field in a 
single season (three cuttings), or nearly seven tons to the acre. 
This was authenticated, and in recent years I have looked in 
vain for a heavier crop, anywhere in this country, upon land 
not irrigated. 

The boys of the Fifties joined in the public spirit and the 


political movements of the village. We organized the Niag- 
ara Fire Engine Company, and by various entertainments, in- 
cluding amateur circuses and minstrel troups, aided by direct 
subscriptions, had a remarkable hand pump machine built ex- 
pressly for us, and bought at least lOO feet of one inch gar- 
den hose. I wonder where that little tub is ! We did not 
rival "Eagle, No. i" and "Franklin, No. 2," in all respects, 
but our shirts were just as red and we could " run with the 
machine " almost as fast. 

The " Young America Fremont Club " had a brief but 
flourishing existence, and its members were able to present a 
striking appearance by falling heirs to the regalia of the 
Greenfield Know-Nothing lodge, which had just gone out of 
business. A few youthful enthusiasts, inspired by paternal 
teachings, peddled Kibbe and Crane roll lozenges, assorted 
flavors, at Cattle Show time, the net proceeds being for the 
benefit of the local fund in aid of" Bleeding Kansas." 

There was always considerable militia interest in Greenfield. 
We maintained a company which attended General Bank's 
"great Concord fight," and in i860, the loth Regt. M. V. 
M. was encamped on Petty's Plain (Camp Richmond). The 
colonel of the regiment (Decker) and the adjutant (H. D. 
Mirick) were both Greenfield men. 

Who were the boys of Greenfield forty-five or fifty years 
ago ? Let us try to call them from their homes, canvassing 
the village from east to west : Henry Hall, Ed. Dewey, Joe 
Beals, Ed. Mirick, Andrew Wait, Ed. Everett, Charley 
Lyons, Henry Alvord, Russell and George Davis, Sam Pierce, 
George Potter's youngest sons, Dwight Kellogg, Charles and 
George Forbes, Charley Conant, Scott and Henry Keith, 
Will Chapman, Wilbur Fisk, Gilbert Wilson, Henry Miles, 
Henry Elliott, Bowdoin Parker, Frank Pond, the Rowleys, 
and the Mitchell twins — peppery and pugnacious. From 
Cheapside came the Duncans and John Thompson, and 
Dan Kelliher. And our ranks were swelled from the North 

1082 MAJOPJ alvord's address 

Parish and the Meadows by Newtons, and Nims and 

Of course, " Jim " Long is not forgotten, but he was " be- 
twixt and between " as it were ; he didn't Hve in the village, 
although attending school at the Centre, and he really be- 
longed to a set of fellows a little older, although often asso- 
ciating with us. Especial honor is due to those who have 
stuck by the ancestral hearthstones, or who have come back 
to them to " stay put." 

A temporary list may be added of those not natives and 
with us but a few years : Sam. Talcott, Will Russell, Sam. 
Decker and Delue Stevens, Charles and Will Raymond, and 
Henry and Lew Haupt. 

Probably some have been unintentionally omitted. A few 
have been named who were rather older than my own set, 
proper, but more or less with us. By bringing in others 
older, the list could be much extended. But alas ! how few 
there are of all these to respond to the Old Home summons. 

And the Greenfield girls ! It will hardly do to call that 
roll. Charming children and playmates — stimulating rivals 
in school — cherished companions in youth ! Tender memo- 
ries are awakened which may only be suggested ! Some sleep 
now in the cemeteries, so creditably cared for by surviving 
friends ; some are mothers, — yes, and grandmothers ; and 
some are reserved for duty as the maiden aunt, — a relation 
often involving a service of self-sacrifice, devotion and inesti- 
mable value, to which I can personally bear appreciative testi- 

Schoolmates remind us of schools and teachers. How 
proud we were of that square, stiff, two-room wooden struc- 
ture on Chapman street, which was our first High School. 
And we were fortunate in the early male principals of the vil- 
lage schools. I recall particularly, Miner, the mathematician ; 
Griswold, the grammarian ; Sprague, the scientist ; and Par- 
sons, philosopher and preacher. 


What did the young folks of Greenfield do for amusement 
and recreation in those days when not occupied in school ? 
The boys skated on " The Bend," and coasted on " Clay 
Hill " and " The Academy Lot," and went swimming under 
the willows along Green river, or down at the " Red Rocks " 
in Deerfield meadows, and nutting in Maxwell woods, when 
that could be safely done without the knowledge of the Dea- 
con, * who set great store by his mast. Occasionally there 
would be a lonely but well rewarded day working up " Cherry 
Rum Brook :" 

" How in summer have I traced that stream 

There thro' mead and woodland sweetly gliding, 

Luring the simple trout with many a scheme, 

From the nooks where I have found them hiding : 
All a dream ! 

How in summer have I traced that stream." 

Then there were what would now be called " coeducational " 
walks and talks, to Poets' Seat and Bears Den and the pretty 
cascade beyond the brickyard, at the west end of the vil- 
lage. There were also drives up the Green river road and 
the Gorge road, boating parties at Stillwater and picnics at 
Leyden Glen. That was before the days of aqueducts and 
bridges and railed paths at the Glen : the boys always ex- 
pected to get wet at least to the waist,wading the several cross- 
ings, and the girls had to be carried over, — but not always 
dry. After the lapse of more than forty years the statute of 
limitations probably makes it safe to confess to certain con- 
spiracies. Two fellows who formed a " basket chair " would 
decide which girls to carry, and to which carrier the required 
" toll " should be paid by each girl ; and sometimes an excep- 
tionally pretty or popular girl would be gently lowered in 
mid-stream and given a suggestion of " water cure," until toll 
to both carriers had been exacted or a promise extorted by 
this method of torture. What patient victims they were. It 

* Sylvester Maxwell. 

1084 MAJOR alvord's address 

should be added, however, that kissing games generally were 
not approved in my day, and this may be said to our credit, 
because the germ theory of contagion was then unknown. 

For more distant excursions, we climbed Pocumtuck, and 
enjoyed the hospitality of Old Deerfield street en route. 
And Mt. Toby was searched for Mayflowers and rattlesnakes. 
And we caught perch and pickerel at Locke's Pond or 
" Shutesbury Pool " and filled our wagon with delicate lupines 
when crossing the Montague plains on our return. In winter 
a sleigh ride to Northfield was popular, and the girls of that 
village, always numerous and attractive, could be relied upon 
to turn out on very short notice for a dance in the old town 
hall, or a supper at Pickett's tavern. Speaking of suppers, 
the kind that it has been so hard to find equalled in later 
years, were those given at the turning point of a long sleigh- 
ride at Rice's tavern, on the bank of the Deerfield river, near 
the present east portal of the Hoosac tunnel. 

That great project was close to the heart of Greenfield in 
the 50's and 6o's. The headquarters of the Troy and Green- 
field railroad were located here, and this village was the resi- 
dence of Edwards and Field, and Serrell and Haupt, who 
successively directed that great feat of engineering, and carried 
it through its hardest struggles. 

I must not forget to mention that if one wanted to spend a 
particularly quiet day in the semi-wilderness, without going too 
far from Greenfield, forty or fifty years ago, Turners Falls 
was an ideal spot. We would drive up by way of " Factory 
Hollow " and the woolen mill, have the exciting experience 
of crossing the old ferry above the falls — in case we were so 
fortunate as to rouse a ferryman before it was time to come 
home — and then for further entertainment, get the Liverboos 
to give us a plain country dinner, or search for " bird tracks " 
in the sandstone, (on the wrong side of the river,) or bowl in 
the old alley at the still older tavern, with cracked balls and a 
misfit lot of pins, which we had to set up for ourselves. 


This reminds me, that two orthodox entertainments for 
friends visiting Greenfield in those times were visits to the 
celebrated JMain street gallery of our local artist, " Count " 
Mark, and the truly remarkable museum of Dexter Marsh, 
just below the old courthouse, on Clay Hill, with its collec- 
tion of fossil footprints and other geological curiosities, which 
was actually of international reputation. 

Town meetings, lyceum lectures, (for the number and high 
character of which Greenfield was for some years quite noted,) 
dancing parties and public assemblies in general, were held in 
the old stone and brick town hall on Federal street, until the 
new town hall was built. " Washington Hall " was quite a 
pretentious edifice in its day and regarded as the best audience 
room of its kind in Western Massachusetts at the time of its 
erection. It was dedicated by a Military and Firemen's ball 
on the 2 2d of February, 1854, which was really quite a grand 
occasion. Not long after the new hall was the scene of a 
large and successful fair, in which everyone took an interest ; 
this was in aid of the foundation of the Greenfield Library 
Association. Washington Hall was not fitted for scenery or 
called an opera house for a long time afterwards. Theatrical 
troupes did not visit this town in those times, but we had for 
several seasons, located up in Mirick's Hall, in Newton 
Place, a series of amateur theatricals which developed uncom- 
mon local talent of that kind. Some of the best known ladies 
and gentlemen of Greenfield and Deerfield took part, under 
the leadership of George D. Wells. Few of those actors re- 
main in this vicinity ; the ladies have been widely scattered 
and the men have since filled honorable positions on the 
bench, at the bar and in business. At least three became offi- 
cers of volunteers, and gave their lives for their country. 

The old town hall continued to be used for some years for 
dancing schools, conducted by the local teacher, Mr. Law- 
rence, and the more celebrated Mons. Paulette, from Balti- 
more, who taught three successive generations in this town to 

1086 MAJOR alvord's address 

" trip the light fantastic." The very select " Almack Assem- 
blies " were held in the old town hall two or three seasons, as 
also the " Shamrock Ball," which was, by the way, one of the 
prettiest and most attractive annual parties of the town for 
several years. On such occasions " Rache " Rockwood was 
an important aid, although the prompting and playing of our 
good friend, John Putnam, was equally acceptable. 

Speaking of music, the two Greenfield contributions to the 
famous organists of the country, were then living in town. 
Henry Wilson was making his reputation at the " Stone 
Church " (Episcopal) and Clarence Eddy was being exercised 
on Wells street and lower Main in one of the Boylston or 
Field baby carriages, which once figured so prominently in 
the industries of the village. 

Then came more stirring and troublous times. The ex- 
citing campaign of i860, with the election of Lincoln, was 
followed by a winter of doubt and increasing anxiety, until 
Fort Sumter was fired upon, and there came the call to arms. 
I well remember a Greenfield lad who was at a military school 
in Vermont. He donned a uniform resplendent in brass but- 
tons, put on a knapsack from a camping outfit and started 
home, full of patriotic ardor and military zeal. Haifa dozen 
little railroads had to be used, but every conductor touched 
his hat and, asking for no ticket, passed the youngster along. 
Great commotion was found here in Greenfield. The ladies 
of the village were meeting nightly at the Mansion House 
and elsewhere to make underclothing and " havelocks " and 
soldiers' comforts, and scrape lint and make bandages, signifi- 
cant of the scenes which were to follow. The local company 
of the old Tenth Massachusetts Regiment of volunteers was 
being hastily prepared to go South in active service. In order 
to expedite the work, a young man, prominent in the business 
affairs of the place, advanced private funds necessary for the 
outfit until the town could make regular, legal provision for 
this purpose. A few weeks after, this same young man, in 

MAJOR alvord's addkess 1087 

the same spirit of public duty, and joined by one still younger, 
volunteered to prevent a great catastrophe at the burning of 
the steam planing mill on South Hope street. Henry B. 
Clapp and Nelson Horr then met their death in the public 
service, as heroically as their townsmen who later fell on the 
field of battle. 

The civil war period followed and Greenfield had her full 
share of sacrifice and contributed to the history which need 
not now be recalled. The soldiers' monument on " the com- 
mon " tells -a part of the story, — but only a part. 

" The neighing troop, the flashing blade, 

The bugle's stirring blast, 
The charge, the dreadful cannonade, 

The din and shout, — are past ; 
Nor war's wild note, nor glory's peal 

Shall thrill with fierce delight. 
Those breasts that never more may feel 

The ardor of the fight." 

A few brief personal notes in closing. They were more 
particular as to the age of enlistment in 1861 than later; so I 
was rejected as a recruit in Captain Day's company of the 
Tenth Infantry, as being under eighteen, and sent back to 
college, with a little paternal advice as to patience, and special 
injunctions from my grandfather (Clapp) to pay double fares 
on my return and take receipts, in evidence of honest deal- 
ings with the railroads. Thus it was not until the summer 
of 1862 that I was permitted to volunteer. It is not a few 
days more than forty years since I enlisted, and from that 
time served as a cavalryman on the quota of Greenfield, until 
the end of the war. Indeed, I continued a soldier for almost 
ten years, but have since tried to learn the lesson taught by 
Bryant : 

" The glory earned in deadly fray. 

Shall fade, decay and perish. 

Honor waits, o'er all the Earth, 

Through endless generations, 

1088 MAJOR alvokd's address 

The art that calls her harvests forth, 
And feeds the expectant nations." 

Therefore it is forty years since Greenfield ceased to be my 
home. During this period I have been only a visitor to my 
native town. Coming only once a year, or so, of late, the 
great changes noticed in the town are very marked. Changes 
in buildings, the extension or addition of streets and building 
limits, the disappearance of old landmarks, and above all, the 
changes in names and faces. The names upon the business 
signs in the principal streets, familiar to me as a boy, can be 
counted on the fingers of one hand. Changes in the homes, 
as I walk through the residence streets, are equally great. 
Whole families have disappeared. My own case is a fair ex- 
ample : The families of Alvord, Clapp and Wells, were for 
many years numerous and active in the affairs of the town ; 
yet although these names survive, and I have numerous 
relatives of other names still resident here, but one single near 
kinsman among the representatives of those three families, 
remains on the voting list of Greenfield. 

But these reminiscences cannot be prolonged. I have en- 
deavored to recall, in a fragmentary way, scenes, incidents and 
people, connected with the town and especially the village, 
during the years with which I was most familiar and prior to 
the civil war period. Now let me pass over to other and 
better hands, the task of presenting views of the old home 
town, in earlier and in later years. I close with this senti- 
ment : 

" Live the Commonwealth, 

And the men that guide it ! 
Live ottr town in strength and health, 

Founders, patrons, by whose wealth, 
Much has been provided 1 " 




HE who can remember the events of 60 years has 
marked greater changes in modes of hving than were 

made in the previous 2000 years. The world has been 
rapidly shrinking in size so that the daily paper contains 
yesterday's news from every part of it, and a man in Green- 
field can now send a message to the shores of the Pacific and 
get an answer three hours by the San Francisco clock before 
the message left Greenfield. He can hear and recognize the 
voice of a man he knows talking in New York. 

The life of the Franklin county democrat, who in the midst 
of hard times stood for sound money, or the whig who drank 
hard cider and bawled himself hoarse for " Tippecanoe and 
Tyler, too," differed little in outward and visible signs from 
the life of the men of the preceding century; their lives did 
not much vary from the slow existence of previous centuries. 
We may jump over the middle ages and the " Decline and 
Fall " and say that they lived much as the rural Romans did 
in the time of Virgil. They ate, drank and cared for their 
families ; told old stories and lauded past times ; they made 
journeys drawn by horses in vehicles made on the same princi- 
ples, except some improvement in the springs, as the chariot 
that Pharoah lost in the Red Sea ; their garments, like those 
of Julius Caesar, were painfully sewed by human fingers; 

69 1089 

1090 JOHN E. Russell's letter 

they wrote letters by the Hght of oil lamps with quills, sanded 
the ink, folded them without an envelope, sealed them with 
a wafer and dropped them into mail-boxes without a stamp 
and looked for a reply after many days. 

That was the way in which Walpole, Gray, Mason, Lady 
Mary Montague and Byron wrote the letters that are immortal 
literature and helps to history. We have not improved our- 
selves nor our letters ; we have the benefit and the disad- 
vantages of many inventions, but in mental power, cultivation, 
observation, heart and character we have not advanced be- 
yond Ben Franklin and his contemporaries. The man who 
remembers the slope of Greenfield 60 years ago, looking 
down the stage road to all the southern world, by the county 
buildings and sweet fields, with great elms and groves of wal- 
nuts, can contrast the past and present by looking now at the 
sordid scene of stations and railway crossings, the long trains 
of freight cars, the endless switching and the clouds of choking, 
blackening smoke. Instead of rural sounds he will hear the 
shrieking of whistles, the puffing and hissing and other nerve- 
torturing noises. He can lie awake at night in any part of the 
town and hear the hills, once clothed with rock maple, beech, 
chestnut and oak, now bare of forest, echoing the same hideous 
clamor. " Other times, other customs." The quiet Greenfield 
of former days, though smaller, was as well to do and comfort- 
able as any town in those times. It was relatively more im- 
portant as the chief town of the region ; the head of river 
navigation and the market of the farmers of all Franklin. It 
was notable for the manufacture of cutlery; it carried on chair 
and wagon-making ; fine cloths were woven at the " Hollow 
factory." Clothing, shoes and hats were made by village 
workmen, and in many thrifty farmhouses domestic indus- 
tries still had place ; they sheared sheep, carded the fleece, 
spun yarn and wove cloth ; there are men living whose tired 
childhood was lulled to sleep by the hum of the great spin- 
ning wheel in the evening kitchen. Every farm raised grain ; 

JOHN E. Russell's letter 1091 

the meadow farms fattened droves of steers that were driven 
to Brighton, and the local markets were well supplied. There 
was a self-reliant character to the town, a continuous, steady 
prosperity of industrious people and a cultivated society. 
Boats from Hartford came to Cheapside bringing sugar, mo- 
lasses, rum and salt, enigmatically known as " W. I. goods ; " 
also iron, steel, grindstones, Genesee flour, etc. The return 
cargoes of this commerce were lumber in various forms, farm 
produce and the manufactures of the region. 

Great wagons covered with canvas made regular trips to 
Boston with produce, bringing goods to the merchants. 
Greenfield was on the main line of travel to the North, and 
the point of distribution for most of the county. There was 
a daily line of coaches to the South, and a line for Boston, 
leaving at midnight. In summer there was a coach to Wor- 
cester by Barre, where it stopped for dinner ; it connected 
with the railroad to Norwich and steamboat for New York. 
I well remember this journey in 1842, and that I was allowed 
to ride on the box with Lynde, the driver, who wore a blue 
tailed coat with bright buttons, a white plug-hat, and yellow 
gloves. At Worcester there was " tea," with cold meat and 
huckleberries at the American house, on the corner of Main 
and Foster streets, and the cars which left in the evening were 
low and small, upholstered with black haircloth. We met 
the steamboat at Norwich, arriving at New York in good time 
next morning. The Greenfield stage tavern was the present 
Mansion House. It had a wide piazza the full length of the 
front ; on the east side was the stable-yard, with room to turn 
a coach and four, backed by roomy stables. The local interest 
in the stage lines was represented by Ashur Spencer, Barnard 
Newell and perhaps Capt. Ames and David Long, who owned 
the great red brick blacksmith-shop on Federal street ; next 
to it was Field's carriage and wheelwright shop ; next to that 
was Allen & Root's storehouse. The stage horses were shod 
under the eye, or by the skilful hands of " Jack " Houghton. 

1092 JOHN E. kussell's letter 

It seemed to my boyhood that the awful fires of this region 
were never quenched. Amid the smoke and sparks, Hke 
Vulcan in his " stithy," I recall the stalwart form of " Sam " 
Stebbins, in leather armor, with naked, blackened arms, in the 
glory of his strength. He could shape a coach step at a 
single heat and when, with two strikers, he forged axle-trees, 
the clangor of metal might have roused the seven sleepers. 

These workers kept long hours. "Jack" Houghton 
used to rest himself in the evening by forging horsenails. 
The post-office was under the charge of an ancient Democrat 
and solid citizen. Captain Ambrose Ames ; it was in a small, 
neat attachment to his house on Federal street. The work 
was briskly done by " Aunt " Morgan and " Aunt " Jane. 
When the country was redeemed from " locofocoism " for 
about four weeks in i 840 by the election of " the farmer of 
North Bend," Richardson Hall succeeded Jefferson's post- 
master and the office was moved to the new Davis block. 
Captain Ames was a reticent man, who wore a brown wig. 
He lived to a great age, probably because he ate fried sausages 
for breakfast all his vigorous life ; these were made in winter 
and put down in jars, as Morginia preserved the 37 thieves, 
in hot fat ; the sausages came out fresh and redolent of sage 
in midsummer. 

The taverns were noted for good living. There was a 
saying on the road, " Book me for Greenfield," from the re- 
mark of a notable man who missed his accustomed comforts 
at a more pretentious town. The stage-house was known as 
Captain Taggart's, and afterward as Colonel Chase's. It is 
my dim recollection that the American House was called 
Gilbert's tavern and was kept by Colonel Wright before it 
became Keith's tavern, a name it held with credit for many 

There was an eating-house (the words restaurant and saloon 
had not come into use) kept by Wells & Ford ; they sold 
Albany ale, small beer, mead, and served meals ; in the rear 

JOHN E. Russell's letter 1093 

they had a candy factory, where one Tileston presided. Here 
was a bewildering odor of wintergreen, sassafras, peppermint, 
bergamont, etc. Greenfield was never noted as a dry town ; 
indeed, the open bars did a roaring trade. As the late Judge 
Charles Thompson said, it was the heroic age of New Eng- 
land when rum was six cents a glass. It never was six cents, 
it was " fo' pence," a thin, smooth bit of Spanish silver, 
which was legal tender for many small comforts in those days 
and was worth six and a quarter cents. Whisky had not 
arrived and German beers were unknown. The common 
drinking was gin and Medford rum, though the more fastid- 
ious took " West Ingy." There was a cheap French brandy 
marked " Seignette." A fruity odor of crushed limes and 
lemons pervaded the taverns and lump sugar crunched under 
the stout toddy stick. The farmers from the hills used the 
great yard and barns of Keith's, standing in their blue woollen 
frocks, unmindful of weather or western competition, talk- 
ing crops and long-forgotten politics. 

Political meetings were held in the town hall in Federal 
street. The great whig convention in the hard cider and 
doughnut orgy of 1 840 was on Colonel Spencer Root's land 
back of the present church and courthouse. A log cabin 
was built ; there were coons, owls and other whig symbols. 
The chief speaker was General Wilson of New Hampshire. 
In 1844 the democrats were in the lead, and they had a con- 
vention in Pine Grove ; their speakers were Judge Levi 
Woodbury, Ben Hallett and Mr. McArthur. At another 
time Caleb Cushing and Ben Hallett spoke on the common. 
The whigs had John C. Park in the town hall. Park was 
a pungent campaigner. My father, a Webster whig, greatly 
rejoiced in Park, and wondered how Captain Ames, " Tom " 
Nims and D. N. Carpenter could have the face to sit there 
and hear him, forgetful that they were the very sinners vainly 
called to repentance. 

There were other amusements than politics; parties, picnics. 

1094 JOHN E. Russell's letter 

sleighrides to " Bloody Brook " and many dances in the 
large room of either tavern to the fiddles of Philo Temple, 
Charles Lyons and John Putnam. There were good lectures 
and occasional concerts. Boston actors came in the summer 
for their vacation, and we had " The Lady of Lyons" and 
the almost forgotten tragedy of " Douglas." Miss Louisa 
Gan played "Norval." In the company were Mr. and Mrs. 
W. H. Smith, Mr. Spear, "Jack" Dunn, Andrews and 

The Fourth of July was a dull day, connected in my 
mind with Cold Water army picnics in Pierce's Grove. 
The sreat event was the occasional "muster." There was a 
militia company in nearly every town. Colrain had a famous 
troop of cavalry, well mounted and uniformed. They wore 
high, black-leather helmets, flaring at the top, with a bright 
red pompon ; these were made by Magrath, the Greenfeld 
harness-maker, who must have been a skilful man in leather ; 
the pattern was taken from a colored print of the capture of 

When leagued oppression poured to northern wars 
Her whiskered pandours and her fierce hussars. 

They rode their own horses, and when, well loaded, they 
charged through " the street " towards the west the earth 
trembled. Deerfield had a large company of " cadets " with 
a sort of hunting shirt uniform that was very fetching. The 
earliest organization I remember in Greenfield was " the ar- 
tillery." It was the shabbiest company of the regiment; the 
armament was two brass guns, kept in a small house north of 
" Jack " Pierce's farm. I doubt if any one of social import- 
ance belonged to the artillery ; the gunners were stalwart 
"river men," who wore white cotton frocks with cabalistic 
figures on the backs. Their music was a drum and fife, 
with a limited number of tunes apt to run into each other. 
Their training day was a noisy festival, prolonged into the 

JOHN E. Russell's letter 1095 

night. There was a change in the mihtary spirit about that 

David S. Jones was elected general. He formed a brilliant 
staff, of which Charles Devens, all unconscious of his future 
military experience, was a member. The colonel of the reg- 
iment was Nettleton, and William Keith was major. A smart 
infantry company took the place of the lumbering artillery- 
men. Under these auspices there was a muster which re- 
vived the memory of the Revolution. The troops marched 
in from all quarters the day previous; a sham battle was 
fought on ground towards Nash's mills ; one side employed a 
body of stealthy Indians in blankets, paint and feathers, 
armed with tomahawks, led by that perhaps forgotten savage, 
George Newport. The verisimilitude was kept up by the 
fact that some of the Indians were left on the field, overcome 
by the enemy to which their race so readily yields. 

The great holiday after these visions of mihtary glory was 
when a circus came. The circus of 60 years ago was not a 
great moral show, indorsed by the crowned heads of Europe, 
in whiclk the meretricious features of the ring are condoned 
by the instruction afforded in natural history by ill-smelling 
carnivora, a herd of shambling elephants and a wilderness of 
monkeys, holding the mirror up to mankind. It was the 
honest, single-ring circus ; modern humbugging had not 
reached it. The circus had changed with the country. It 
was introduced from France in the time of Washington. 
French performers were taught to ride and tumble as soldiers 
learn drill ; but it was an art adapted to the recklessness of 
American genius and was soon carried by our horsemen and 
athletes far beyond the capacity of the French. In grace 
and daring the American performers far exceeded all others, 
and the single-ring circus rivaled the Olympian games in 
beauty of forms, grouping and sustained action. When 
Barnum came upon the scene th€ Attic flavor was lost in the 
odor of caged beasts ; there was wide space to accommodate 

1096 jonx E. Russell's letter 

the crowds of people, and three rings confused the senses and 
despoiled criticism. The circus became a "great showj" it 
was modernized and vulgarized. 

In my childhood it was "summer's brightest gaud," 
watched and waited for. It came in early morning procession 
with band chariot and a long line of variegated and cream- 
colored horses, some of which had a flesh color and mottled 
spots quite different from the modest black of the family 
horse, a peculiarity which was considered an undoubted mark 
of Arabian blood. There was activity at the taverns, the 
stable yards filled with "teams," and there was sharp note of 
preparation on the selected ground, where quick moving men 
were driving stakes, raising the centre pole and pitching the 
tent. Then the exciting rush for tickets while the huge 
canvas bellied in the breeze and the strains of the band floated 
on the air. 

The circus owners of those days were Turner, Howe, and 
later Rockwell & Stone and Sands & Lent. The really great 
man of the performance, to my boyish judgment, was the ring- 
master. What dignity was in his careful dress and J^earing, 
with what calm, commanding power he directed the gorgeous 
scene as if his whiplash was the wand of Prospero ; with what 
perfect temper he bore the personal remarks, answered the 
impertinent questions or moderated the exuberance of the 
clown, whom, in a rich, fine voice, he addressed as " Mr. 
Merryman." With what lofty restraint he abstained from 
the weakness of a smile when the audience was shaken loose 
with inextinguishable laughter. When I saw the ringmaster 
of Howe's circus I knew what manner of man George Wash- 
ington was. Then the clown, the conventional jester of a 
thousand years, who joked, tumbled and took liberties with 
the ringmaster, as his mediaeval predecessors did with kings ; 
venturing to ask him if he happened to have a custard pie in 
the pocket of his elegant dress coat, insisting that the young 
lady who called for the " hoops " asked for soup, and like the 


immortals fools of Shakespeare, under the guise of his motley, 
gave us grand truths and wise philosophy. Short sayings to 
a speaker are like short robes to him who runs a race, and the 
effect of the jester's wit was in its laconic character ; it evoked 
the happy laugh of surprise and did not strain the memory. 
The influence of the circus was felt long after the revels were 
ended and the pageant faded. 

The metallic currency of those days was nearly all Spanish 
silver. There were Mexican dollars and the Spanish " pillar " 
dollar, which bore the design of the pillars of Hercules ; these 
were not often seen. I think they bore a premium over gold. 
The Spanish half real, which we called " fo' pence," the real 
which was called " nine-pence," and the two-real piece which 
was our quarter, worn quite smooth, were the common coins. 
Sometimes one saw a peseta, a Spanish coin of the i8th cen- 
tury, worth 20 cents ; this was called a " pistareen." Copper 
coin was the large cent, and a handful of them in a boy's 
pocket made him feel the embarrassment of riches. 

The religious life of the town was somewhat variegated ; as 
farm advertisements read it was " suitably divided " between 
several Protestant sects. If there were Catholics, they had no 
place of worship. The first " orthodox " meetinghouse was 
at Nash's mills, under the life-long guidance of the venerable 
and impressive Dr. Chandler, who, being asked at a confer- 
ence if there was much vital piety in his parish, replied, " Noth- 
ing to boast of." The Second Congregational Church was 
" the brick meetinghouse," on the ground of the present stone 
structure, but there were ancient elm trees about it which are 

It was the largest congregation, gathered from a wide circle, 
but like Paul's Athenians, inclined to seek new things and 
frequently changing ministers. The Episcopal Church under 
the permanent pastorate of Dr. Titus Strong, a sound divine 
and good citizen, was a wooden structure on ground now oc- 
cupied by the stone church built in 1847. 

1098 JOHN E. Russell's letter 

This later building was from a plan by the distinguished 
New York architect, Upjohn, and the beautiful timber work 
of the roof was done by " Phil " Holden, a local carpenter. 

The Methodists had a church on Main, opposite what is 
now the south end of Franklin street. It was a prosperous 
society. I think it had a Baptist attachment, for immersions 
half way between the gristmill and the Green river works were 
not uncommon and crowds gathered at the river. Most of 
the serious citizens employed at " the cutlery " were Metho- 
dists. Of all the Yorkshiremen who came early to Greenfield 
I do not remember any who were not dissenters, most of them 
going with the Methodists. 

In those days there was a feeling that the world, through 
wickedness and wear and tear was near its end, and there was 
much excitement over the prediction of William Miller, of 
Pittsfield, that the judgment day would come in 1843. ^^ 
was preached all over Western Massachusetts that repentant 
believers would be caught up in the air and the unrepentant, 
with the sin-sick earth, would be destroyed by fire. This 
comfortable doctrine had belief among a credulous fringe of 
the community. There was a deep sensation over the report 
that a prophetic hen in one of the hill towns had laid an egg 
bearing the legend : — 

In eighteen hundred and forty-three 
The end of the world will surely be. 

One Hines, a traveling preacher, proved from the prophecies 
of Ezekiel that Miller was right and the end was at hand. 
The uneventful character of 1 843 was a deep disappointment 
to people who had neglected business, spent their substance, 
repented of their sins and made ascension robes. They were 
the subject of jeers and scoffing. Of one family it was told 
that the wife, awakened by the winter winds, roused her hus- 
band, declaring she heard the noise of Gabriel's chariot wheels. 
The drowsy man bade her to go to sleep, for Gabriel would 

JOHN E. Russell's letter 1099 

not come on wheels when there was good sleighing. The 
Unitarians were increasing in numbers, and built a church in 
a good situation. The " foreign element " was strong in the 
attraction that the Green river works had for Sheffield cut- 
lers of a superior class. They were sturdy, skilful Yorkshire 
men : most of them became valuable citizens, though the 
Bradshaw brothers returned to England, and one family be- 
came Mormons and went to Nauvoo. There v/ere several 
German cutlers, but they did not come with families until 
after 1846. There were few Irish until after the potato rot 
and famine. Hugh Rafferty, a jolly fat man, was night watch- 
man at the cutlery ; his brother-in-law, James Hickey, was 
day watchman and porter in the yard. My father said he 
could always tell what part of the works Hickey was in by 
the smell of raw onions. 

In these recollections of a past glowing with the obscuring 
haze of happy childhood, there are some dark shadows. The 
old life had its problems and its troubles. In many respects 
there are great improvements in the detail of daily life. Green- 
field had a small minority of heathenish native stock, that 
sawed wood, chopped in winter and " ran river " in summer. 
The river was alive with shad and " lamper " eels in the spring, 
when no man of this class could work ; they had many chil- 
dren, none of whom missed their heredity. The men were of 
the sort described in one of Arthur Gilman's stories who was 
partly paid for his work in rum. On Saturday night he 
wanted a quart, but was given a pint, with the admonition that 
it was enough to keep Sunday. " Yes," he replied, " but 
how will it be kept ? " These families intermarried and inten- 
sified their characteristics ; a woman from one of them, who 
sometimes visited our kitchen for its mistaken hospitality, was 
asked by my mother about one of her sisters. " Oh, Melissy; 
well, she is keepin' about as bad a house as you could find in 
any seaport town." Another, whose partner was uncommonly 
worthless even in their circle, informed my mother that " hus- 

1100 JOHN E. Russell's letter 

bands is only lent marcies." This class, for it was a class of 
degenerate people, were not from the so-called " scum of 
Europe," but from the original New England stock, with 
good family names. I do not think any effort was put forth 
to improve them. They seem to have disappeared from the 
active towns of the state, though specimens of them can be 
found not far off by those curious in sociology. 

I think they faded away before the immigration of the ener- 
getic and hopeful Irish, who, though poorer, had the training 
and care of a vigilant church and the ardent desire to improve 
and raise the condition of their children to a better than their 
own. I feel quite sure that boys are better looked after and do 
less mischief than formerly. All young people, I may say all 
people, are better nourished and more sensibly dressed and 
shod than in old times, owing in great part to facility of trans- 
portation, use of ice, improvement in food preparations and 
the vast increase of fruit and cheapness of sugar, and in the 
greater cheapness of all kinds of clothing. 

Women had a hard lot in providing, cooking and in sewing 
and knitting by hand. Domestic " help " — the word servant 
was not in use except in the scriptures — was difficult to obtain. 
After the young women my mother brought to Greenfield 
were well married, and that was not long, she had a proces- 
sion of bright daughters of farmers from the hills ; they came, 
I fancy, rather to see the world. They were intelligent, read 
" Mr. Buckinam's paper," the Tribune, and Graham's and 
Godey's magazines, like the rest of the family, and married 
so fast that our house was a sort of matrimonial agency. 
My father had a man, Jonas Leroy, who was skilful in hunting 
these mountain maidens. He frequently made long excur- 
sions on the usual quest, once going as far as Savoy, returning 
with a black-eyed girl of the Susan Nipper variety from 
" Cuttin Holler." But it was not long before the Irish girls 
came to relieve the household strain and make life more 

JOHN E. Russell's letter 1101 

I am often told that schools are much better than formerly. 
Perhaps they are. I wish they gave more attention to in- 
struction in the English language and literature. My recol- 
lections include one teacher, happily still living, whose gentle 
manners, sweet face and devotion to her duty, persuaded one 
idle, dreaming boy to a measure of industry. 1 think a larger 
proportion of boys and girls were sent to private schools and 
away from home to academies. In 1846 I was one of seven 
Greenfield boys at Williston seminary. The next year my 
father took me to Bridgeport, to the private school kept by 
Henry Jones. The only public conveyance from New Haven 
to Bridgeport was a coach which ran three times a week. 
To save time we took a pair of horses and a driver. Surely 
times have changed on that line ! Among the teachers at 
Greenfield in my day were Mr. Mitchell from Cunnington, 
Pliny Fisk, Mr. Atkinson, who had an excellent school in 
the wing, long ago removed, of Mr. Hollister's house. 
Mr. Upton, at a later day, taught at the " Fellenberg " 
school building. He gave me lessons. I think he was ac- 
complished and I know he was patient. 

The sanitary condition of American towns 60 years ago, and 
much later, may be recalled by the traveler in some parts of 
the Turkish dominions. No place could be better calculated 
for drainage than Greenfield, but in former times every autumn 
there was typhoid fever. It was a scourge that carried off 
whole families. It was not so bad in the village as on thrifty 
meadow farms, because, as I now see it, a large part of the 
village was supplied with water from a pine log aqueduct man- 
aged by that sententious philosopher, Peter Sprague, who 
usually prefaced his conversation with the saying, " There's a 
thousand things to every thing." Our family never had a 
case of typhoid. We had an aqueduct from a safe spring. 

The fever was supposed by many to be a visitation of 
God's wrath, and by others to result from decaying vegetation 
in the late rains. No one thought of tracing it to lack 


of drainage and the inevitable pollution of the moss-covered 
bucket which dripping with the coldness of death arose from 
the well. Cities were no better off. Boston had neither 
water nor sewers. New York had water but was not half- 
sewered, and I have seen pigs wandering in the streets eating 
garbage thrown out by housekeepers. Bringing the Glen 
water to Greenfield, long before some of the large cities were 
supplied, was a manifestation of public spirit greatly to the 
credit of the citizens. It was a return to antique ways ; mod- 
ern civilization has too long overlooked the object lessons 
left by the ancients. Now we can be clean, healthy and godly 
if we will. 

Our fathers, who never went out in the morning without 
shaving smooth and putting on a clawhammer coat, were not 
strenuous about daily bathing. When the Glen water was in- 
troduced, it is told of a man whose house was being altered to 
allow of its use, that he refused to have hot water in the bath- 
room, for " in summer you don't want it and in winter you 
don't bathe." A member of a distinguished Boston family 
told me that in his boyhood he had an aunt for whose health 
sea-bathing was recommended ; mornings she was taken to 
the shore, water was dipped in a basin and she washed her 
face and hands sitting in the chaise. There must be an end 
to the recollections even of the most garrulous, though no 
doubt I have made many mistakes for which 1 may plead a 
" forgetful memory." 




" Take noble courage, and make perfect what 
Is happily begun." 

— Fletcher. 

AT the annual town meeting held April 7, 1902, acting 
under an article in the warrant " to see if the town 
will vote to take any action in reference to the 150th 
anniversary of its incorporation, appoint a committee, and 
raise and appropriate a sum of money for the same or pass 
any vote or votes relative thereto," the town voted that the 
moderator of the meeting (the Honorable Dana Malone) ap- 
point a committee of five citizens who should have full charge 
of such celebration. 

Franklin G, Fessenden, Francis M. Thompson, Eugene B. 
Blake, Charles R. Lowell and Wilham G. Packard were named 
as such committee. Considerable interest was manifested in 
the approaching celebration, and at the annual meeting in 
1903 the sum of one thousand dollars was raised and placed 
in the hands of the committee to use at their discretion in 
putting into execution the wishes of the people. 

The committee had hardly entered upon their deliberations 
before it became manifest that the public were determined 
upon a much more impressive and popular demonstration 
than the general committee had planned. 

Feeling themselves but the servants of the people, the 

1 103 


committee yielded to the public demand, insisting however 
that a sum sufficiently large to erect a lasting memorial of the 
day should be reserved from the additional sum of two thou- 
sand dollars, which at a special meeting the town directed to 
be placed at the disposal of the committee. 

The wisdom of incorporating in this work so extended and 
minute an account of this epoch in the history of the town, 
may be questioned by many ; but the event was such a de- 
cided success, and this work being largely intended by its 
author as a medium to preserve interesting events happening 
in the history of the town, this narrative is given with the hope 
that the future historian of Greenfield will find in it convenient 
material for his work. With the consent of the Gazette and 
Courier, I have to a large extent adopted their report of the 
celebration, their work having received many compliments. 


Greenfield's anniversary day was begun with the booming 
of cannon. A salute of 21 guns was fired from Poet's Seat 
at about 5 o'clock. The noise woke every one up. Some 
people who love to sleep even on anniversary mornings 
thought in their half-awakened state by the length of time the 
firing continued that 1 50 guns were being sent off. 

The crowd rapidly thickened on the streets during the 
morning hours. The most common estimate of the size of 
the crowd is 20,000. It would not be strange if there were 
that number of visitors, when one considers that the enor- 
mous crowd at the fireworks in the evening must have included 
many who were not here for the day. For about two hours 
it was very difficult to force a passage through the central 
part of Main street, and there were people scattered in small 
groups all along the line of march. The parade covered so 
great a distance that it tended to scatter the crowd. 

The parade was considered by almost everyone to be much 
superior to any ever gotten up in Greenfield. It covered 


from a mile to a mile and a quarter of space. The view of 
the procession gained from an elevated position along Main 
street and looking over the whole line was one of great beauty, 
the features resolving themselves into a line of white. 

Had the weather not been so threatening in the morning 
it is probable that the crowd would have been swelled by sev- 
eral thousands. Altogether, however, theweather was asgood 
for the purposes of the parade as could have been expected. 
The dust was laid, and no rain fell. The dubious prospect 
the day before, and even on the morning of the parade, made 
some of the pretty girls who took part look askance at their 
white gowns. 

A noticeable feature of the day, as of other like occasions 
in Greenfield, was the silence of the crowd. At a number of 
places there was a disposition to applaud, but this was unusual. 
The Yankee temperament is rather impassive, and does not easily 
show much enthusiasm. This was marked at the reception of 
distinguished guests, there being but little applause to greet 
them along the line of march. Had the crowd realized who 
Admiral Clark was, they would probably have made more 
demonstration. At the station there was some hand-clapping 
for Governor Bates and his party, but as a whole there was 
not much show of enthusiasm. The applause at the Opera 
House must be counted an exception, however, for both Sena- 
tor Lodge and Governor Bates were warmly greeted. 

The municipal features of the parade made a dignified and 
imposing introduction to the floats and private carriages. The 
chief marshal was Maj. Frederick E. Pierce, and his aids were 
T. L. Comstock, Frederick H. Payne, Albert T. Hall, C. W. 
Nims, A. L. Smith, J. S. Coates, J. W. Smead, Dr. R. W. 
Hunter, Ralph Wood, H. H. Hackley, J. M. Hackley, 
W. C. Bacon, John Sauter, Dr. C. F. Canedy, Walter Pond, 
Frank Yetter and Clarence Judkins. Five boys dressed in 
very taking Indian costumes made a very distinct addition. 
These were Harold Partenheimer, Raymond Barber, Frank 


Passut, Harold Lilly and Elwin Streeter. In their war paint 
and feathers the lads " made up " a good representation of 
the genuine article. 

Misses Georgia Bruce and Ethel Williams were the two 
equestriennes, and rode prettily decorated horses. Miss Bruce 
had red and white poppies, and Miss Williams pink and white 
roses. The Fitchburg band followed a detail of policemen, 
and the musicians had their hands full. They had a very 
strenuous day's work, and must have felt decidedly weary 
when their toil was over. The Grand Army, Co. L., and the 
fire department made an important addition to the parade. 
The old hand fire engine was decorated with laurel and bunt- 
ing. Edward Bates and Louis Ballou, both members of hose 
company No. i, dressed in the veteran fireman's costume with 
red shirts, rode in the old machine. 

Col. Geo. D. Wells Camp, No. 107, S. of V., turned out 
with a piece of field artillery, under command of Capt. D. E. 
Wonsey. The riders were Capt. Wonsey, ist Lieut. C. E. 
Bascom, 2d Lieut. F. D. Tilden. The drivers of the gun 
were Samuel Gilbert, Color Sergt. E. J. Newton, Corp. Geo. 
Gilbert, C. B. Jenkins and D. W. Newton. The drivers on 
the caisson were Sergt. H. S. Porter and G. H. Dunton ; on 
the caisson were Ransom Kenney, L. L Ballou, J. B. Treat, 
Frank Chilson, A. Jackson, F. A. Jackman, Luther Tilden, 
Bugler H. H. Barnes. The regulation cap and blouse of the 
order, white pants and black leggins were worn. The gun and 
caisson were draped with red, white and blue. 

The parade was so beautiful and so artistic that it is difii- 
cult to single out any special features and give special praise 
to them. It can fairly be said that there was not an inade- 
quate or poorly planned feature in the parade. All had merit 
and showed diligent preparation, and some of them almost in- 
finite pains. 

The float of the Sportman's club was possibly the one that 
excited the most interest. The two live racoons secured from 


a Gill man, and perfectly tame, were the subject of great 
amount of speculation as to whether they were dead or not. 
They soon demonstrated that they were in the land of the 
living. One weighed over 30 pounds. When they passed 
the reviewing stand where the Governor was, one of them ran 
down the side of the roof as if to give a salute to His Ex- 
cellency. The log cabin was built in a very solid fashion by 
the committee, and it will be saved and used at the range as 
a lounging place for the members, and a memento of this oc- 
casion. The trees came from the club's grounds. 

The Arts and Crafts float was distinctive and one of the 
most original conceptions of the procession. The float was 
carried out in the thorough way that suggests the good crafts- 
manship which is one of the leading principles of the society. 
The occupants were busy all the time and fully occupied the 
time by menacing the crowd upon the sidewalks with their 
various Indian implements. 

The two Indian floats put in by the Red Men and the 
Degree of Pocahontas were features that attracted a great deal 
of attention. The Indians on the Red Men's float were 
seemingly of a very warlike disposition, as they threatened 
the crowd by their fiendish war-whoops at which the small 
boys trembled, and which they have been secretly imitating 
ever since. 

Many considered the temple of Vesta float the most beau- 
tiful in the parade. It was a conception in harmony with its 
classical subject and did credit to its originator. Mason H. 
Morse, also to his success in picking out some pretty girls, 
who by face and costume graced the historic scene they rep- 

The four school floats showed much work, and were very 
strong features. The Greenfield industry float was another 
one of classic type whose occupants graced the subject and 
who added to the charm of the representation. The float 
representing the grammar grades was attractive to all who 


like to see a group of children together, and the public was 
glad for the glimpse of the upper class of the high school in 
all the reverend dignity of the senior. The 1753 school 
float was one of the most amusing, and the teacher was kept 
busy in the exercises ot his birch rod, his pupils proving very 

The Columbian orchestra float was a welcome addition to 
the line. One band is hardly enough music for so long a 
parade, and the work of the orchestra helped fill the gap. 
Herbert Streeter as captain of the craft was very much alive, 
and used his spy glass constantly to discern possible breakers 
and rival craft, bestowing gracious bows upon the crowd. 
The Foresters' float was a pretty woodland scene, and the 
goat attracted much attention. The floats of Sedan Lodge, 
the United Workmen, the auxiliary to the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers, and Rosina Lodge are fully described 
elsewhere, and all showed pains and appreciation of good 
color effects. 

The Knights of Columbus had a float that meant a very 
considerable expenditure of time and money, and for which 
some elegant costumes were secured. 

Riding upon these floats looked to the spectators about as 
precarious as passage upon the deck of an Atlantic liner in a 
storm. The young man who took the part of John Smith 
in the Pocahontas float appeared to be suffering a good deal 
more from the rising and falling of the float than from fear 
of the executioners, who so patiently threatened his life for 
an hour and a half 

The coaches and larger outfits deserve the warmest praise. 
The Daughters of the Revolution was a gem, the Gladys 
Wood party was an equally beautiful conception, the Richt- 
myre party was charming. The two teams that represented 
Franklin E. Snow and his family were as pretty features as 
any in the parade. It would be impossible to speak in detail 
of the private carriages other than in the detailed description. 


Every one was beautifully decorated. Some thought Dr. 
Pfersick had as attractive an outfit as any, but there was very 
little difference. The pony carriages were as interesting as 
any features in the parade. The aggressive note in Green & 
Vosburg's championship of Greenfield and of Americanism 
was particularly liked by the crowd. 

The Country Club's turn-out was one of the prettiest of 
the line and was decorated with perfect taste. 

The Knights of Columbus had a representation of the great 
discoverer landing in the New World that afforded scope for 
some excellent painting and scenic effect. N. T. Ryan was 
Columbus, and the boatman was John Murphy, while the 
axemen guarding the landing of the little craft were Edward 
Donovan and John J. Woodlock. Timothy Toomey and 
James Casey were dusky red men, watching with curious eyes 
the arrival of the party under the flag of Spain. The float 
was designed by a committee whose members were N. T. 
Ryan, chairman, Wm. Donavan, John Murphy, Thomas 
Kane and Wm. Pickett. 

Mrs. Edw. B. Finch drove her handsome pair of blooded 
bays in heavily mounted harnesses. The runabout was dec- 
orated with laurel and light green ribbons. Mrs. Finch was 
accompanied by Miss Susan Comstock. 

C. J. Weissbrod put a single carriage into the parade. Mrs. 
Weissbrod and Mrs. E. W. Wood, of Boston, rode. The 
decorations were yellow chrysanthemums. 

John Wilson was represented by a two-seated surrey 
trimmed with yellow chrysanthemums and laurel leaves. Mrs. 
John Wilson, C. A. Foth and Miss Alice Wilson were the 

Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Bates had a two-wheel chaise deco- 
rated with pink chrysanthemums. 

Miss Ethel Rogers and the Misses Robbins had a particu- 
larly effective carriage decorated with red poppies and red 
and black ribbon. 


In the evening a brilliant display of fireworks took place 
upon the farm of J. Wesley Riddell, closing the festivities of 
the day with 3. facsimile of the town seal in fire. 


The public schools contributed four floats, the first of 
which represented the founding year, 1753, and had a log 
schoolhouse in a clearing, yard and group of pupils of those 
bygone days. The boys and girls participating were Merritt 
Perkins, James Harrington, Adolph Stark, Katherine Burke, 
Julia Taft, Eleanor Fisk, Edith Thomas, Ellie Dunnigan, 
Mollie Purcell, Ruth Carson, Edith Bonneville, Bertha Jones, 
Perry Stearns, Henry Allen, Clarence Wright and Charles 
Allen. All were in the costume of 150 years ago. The 
contrasting float, to represent the school and pupils of the 
present day, was a pyramidal carriage, occupied by representa- 
tives of the public schools, grades one to nine inclusive, each 
grade with its individual banner and colors. A series of plat- 
forms, trimmed in yellow and white, contained the pupils. 
From grade one came Herbert S. Davenport, Henry O'Brien, 
Clarence Hutchins and Marion P. Ballou ; two, Arthur Dwyer, 
Thomas Grogan, Lilia Parker and Elsie Ballou ; three, Joseph 
Cain, William Woodlock, Victorine Corsiglia and Grace 
Koonz ; four, Richard Allen, Ruth Hodges, Louise Johnson 
and Olive Snow ; five, Catherine Bulman, Adelaide Chevalier, 
Robert Powers and Charlotte Spaulding ; six, Lora Boucher, 
Jean Parker, Delina Boucher and Harold Apphauser ; seven, 
Edith Marsh, Harold Forbes, Harriet Irvin and James Burke ; 
eight, Nina Day, Clarence Shackley, Ethel Handforth and 
George Davis ; nine, Dorothy Wells, Richard Lee, Mildred 
Fuller and Phillip Merriam. The float of 1753 was drawn 
by four horses wearing white and green blankets, bear- 
ing the initials " R. R. R." The four horses of the 1903 
float wore yellow and white blankets, with the words " Massa- 
chusetts public schools." 


The high school float had canvases upon which were 
painted the four elevations of the new high school building; 
so grouped as to give a reasonably good idea of how the new 
building will appear when completed, and about this the seniors 
were gathered in their caps and gowns. The party consisted 
of Harry Hosford, Roger Hull, Raymond Jones, Bessie 
Kemp, Pauline LaMontagne, Joseph Mahoney, David Mowry, 
Chas. N. Newhall, Ethel Plumb, Eva Plumb, Laura Parker, 
Robert N. Aldrich, Daniel R. Alvord, Grace E. Ball, Clara 
M. Barber, Louis Bonneville, Bertha Canon, Lillian Chapleau, 
Harry W. Davis, Margaret Dunnigan, Wendell P. Fisk, 
Minette Hanson, Julian Harris, Mattie Hildreth and John 
Truesdell, Purple and white, the dominating colors of the 
float, appeared upon the blankets of the horses, four in num- 
ber, that drew the float. 

The Colonial coach presented by Dorothy Quincy Han- 
cock Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution 
was drawn by four gray horses with blue and white sashes and 
blue and white wisteria. The white coach was decorated with 
the insignia of the society of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution on either side, also on each of the wheels. Fes- 
toons of white wisteria were tied with bows. The insignia 
was represented in blue, gold and white. The outriders, Miss 
May Clark and Master George Bacon, were dressed in Colo- 
nial costume, and rode ponies. The occupants were as fol- 
lows : Mrs. R. O. Stetson, chaperon. Misses Lena M. Strat- 
ton, Lucy Robbins, Mary Ward, Harriet Young, Elizabeth 
Bangs, Ruth Bangs, Mildred Hoyt, Allys Browne and Nellie 
Pond. They wore white gowns with blue trimmings and 
white poke bonnets. Charles Hall was bugler and James 
Towle footman. 

The fourth of the school floats was a Greek carriage, de- 
signed to represent the tutelary divinity of the town and the 
mistress of the valley, seated on a throne overlooking the 
Garden of the Hesperides. At the feet of Greenfield four 


figures were seated, representing the patronesses of the in- 
dustries and professions productive of prosperity. The colors 
were yellow, white and green. Greenfield, the mistress of the 
valley, was impersonated by Miss Fanny I. Billings, manu- 
factures by Miss Retia Aldrich, agriculture by Miss Hazel 
Benjamin, handicrafts by Miss Edith Frary, and learning by 
Miss Mabel Turner. On two sides of the monument was 
the town seal, done in white and gold and surrounded by gar- 
lands of green, with lotus flower centres for the chief decora- 
tion. The horses wore blankets of yellow and white, with the 
word " Greenfield." 

Sedan Lodge, No. 255, Harugari, had a float to represent 
a group of German farmers in the costumes of 200 years ago. 
In the group were Gustav Kossbiel, George Koonz, Jacob 
Glasle, Karl Krug, Charles Zeiner, Charles Schweiger, Chris- 
tian Irion and John G. Schweiger. The four horses were 
decorated with the German and American colors, the former 
being red, w^hite and black. The lower part of the float was 
red, white and black, and these colors festooned the wheels. 
The body was trimmed with bunting of the American colors 
and pink roses, the latter also being employed to form the 
name of the lodge. Some laurel was used. A feature was 
the presence on the float of two pair of twins, Marie and 
Margueritta Haigis, and Ruth and Lottie Koonz, two of 
whom were dressed in the American and two in the German 
colors. The float was arranged by a committee of ten, the 
principal part of the designing and decorating being done by 
Gustav Kossbiel and Carl Merz. 

The float of the Red Men was unique. It was twenty by 
fifteen feet in dimensions, drawn by six horses, on each of 
which rode a warrior in full costume ; in fact, everybody con- 
nected with the float had a costume. Four scouts on horse- 
back rode ahead of the float, those selected for escort duty be- 
ing John Walsh, F. E. Russell, George Derry and Ernest 
Tetreault. The float had a typical Indian camp-scene, with 


two wigwams and a chieftain's council gathered about a blazing 
fire, where the kettle swung from three sticks in the good old 
style. About the fire was a group of fifteen braves and three 
Indian boys, the triplets of George Purrington. Pine woods 
formed the background. The horses drawing the float were 
decked with the colors of the order, blue, green and red, 
symbolizing the degrees of adoption, warrior and chief. 

The float of Glen lodge. Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, and Miseth Lodge, Degree of Honor, represented a floral 
arch. It was trimmed with black and red bunting and red 
peonies. The sides of the float were trimmed with black, 
festooned with red and black bunting and wreaths of red 
peonies and laurel. In the centre of the float was an altar 
with open Bible, and two members of the United Workmen 
seated with hands clasped across the Bible. The men were 
M. F. Aff'hauser, William C. Kennon of the United Work- 
men. Mrs. Ella Mogle, chief of honor ; Mrs. Ella Sawtelle, 
lady of honor ; Mrs. Gladys Kennon, chief of ceremonies ; 
Mrs. Helen Turner, past chief of honor, dressed in white, 
were stationed at the corners of the float carrying banners 
pertaining to the position in the order. The float was drawn 
by four black horses with blankets with A. O. U. W. on them. 
F. G. Davis was chairman of the committee for the A. O. U W., 
and Mrs. Ella Sawtelle chairman for the Degree of Honor. 

The float of the Columbian orchestra showed the promenade 
deck of the ocean liner " Columbia," on which the orchestra 
of 12 pieces was playing. Four dark bay horses drew it, all 
carrying caparisons of red and white poppies. The lower 
part of the " Columbia " was trimmed with nile green, the 
railing and general rigging with white, with red and white 
flowers. In the middle of the deck a pedestal was trimmed 
with green an white. Mrs. W. L. Severance was " Colum- 
bia," and was stationed on the pedestal, bearing a shield and 
the general equipment of the part. Capt. H. S.. Streeter was 
at the wheel. The sailor girls were Emma Nichols and Eliza- 


beth Wilde. The orchestra consisted of Winfred G. Farr, 
leader, Martin Fritz, C. E. Ripley, Charles Brown, Julian 
Farr, Henry Lowe, Louis Gruelling, F. Home and Emil 

The old Coaching club coach was filled by a merry party 
of young girls. Misses Gladys Wood, Elsie Weissbrod, Lou 
Webster, Caroline Simonds, Marie Day, Lois Kellogg, Beth 
Richmond, Frances Graves, Eleanor Davis, and Mabel 
Noves. They wore white costumes and white hats. The 
coach was drawn by four horses, two black and two white, 
wearing blankets. The coach was decorated in lavender wis- 
teria, with green foliage, imitating vines. There were large 
bows of lavender paper. 

Miss Janet Hunter of North Adams, guest of Miss Snow, 
Mrs. W. B. Keith, Mrs. F. H. Payne and Misses Lyons 
and Snow had a wagonette drawn by four handsome jet black 
horses, trimmed with red ribbons and red plumes. The dec- 
orations were of red peonies and hardy ferns, with huge 
clusters of peonies with ribbons and festooning between. The 
wheels had large rings covered with peonies and peony leaves. 
The occupants wore white gowns, with large white picture 
hats trimmed with white peonies. 

The Arts and Crafts society float represented the oldest 
American crafts, basketry, pottery and weaving. There were 
four horses decorated with Indian blankets, and the decora- 
tions and costumes were Indian throughout. The occupants 
were Mrs. W. S. Severance, Mrs. Thomas D. Bascom and 
James R. Lowell. 

The Grand International Auxiliary to the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers presented a float drawn by four black 
horses, decorated in black and yellow. They had a large 
moving van decorated in black and yellow crepon paper, also 
trimmed with yellow poppies and arch that extended from 
four pillars covered with yellow poppies. A star and crescent 
extended from the centre of the arch, the emblem of the order. 


with lettering on it " G. I. A. to the B. of L. E." Engineer 
G. W. Adams drove. The occupants were as follows : Mrs. 
G. W. Adams, Mrs. W. E. Starkey, Mrs. F. G. Rich, Mrs. 
F. E. Ball, Mrs. F. A. Atwood, Mrs. W. S. Hutchins, Mrs. 
A. N. Davis, Mrs. C. F. Strong, Mrs. E. E. Reynolds, 
Mrs. W. E. Hartmann, Mrs. Ed. Warren, Mrs. F. E. Carey, 
Mrs. W. B. Hodges, Mrs. F. E. Walsh, Mrs. S. Ainsworth, 
Mrs. M. Burke, Mrs. B. L. Newell, Mrs. H. F. Gibbs. 
They wore black gowns, with yellow trimmings, and carried 
yellow parasols. The float was designed by Engineer G. W. 
Adams, and arranged by the committee, consisting of Mrs. G. 
W. Adams, Mrs. A. N. Davis, Mrs. W. S. Hutchins, Mrs. 
W. B. Hodges, Mrs. F. E. Ball, Mrs. F. A. Atwood, with 
the assistance of several of the engineers. 

The Brattleboro brake planned by A. L. Richtmyre, as- 
sisted by Miss Mary Davenport, contained the following: 
A. L. Richtmyre, O. S. Butterfield, H. S. Fisher, Edward 
Rice of South Deerfield, John Strecker, Fred Storer of 
Fitchburg, Frank Yeaw, Misses Mary Davenport, Anna Kane 
of Albany, Beth Guilford of Pittsburg, Ethel Bardwell, Jo- 
sephine Strecker, Miss Chapin of Maine, Miss Adelaide M. 
Richtmyre of Gloversville, N. Y. The decorations were green, 
gold and white to correspond with the arch. Leroy Gaines and 
Ralph Richtmyre were out-riders on black horses. The float 
was drawn by four black horses. The girls wore shirt waist 
suits, carried white parasols, and had gold and white hats with 
green bands on their white waists. The men wore white shirt 
waists and white duck trousers. The body of the brake was 
trimmed with white and yellow drapings. The running gear 
was green. There were yellow streamers from each of the 
seats, each wheel w'as a green rosette, and the back showed 
a rosette effect. On each seat was lotus, and a border of 
lotus about the body of the carriage. The horses had 
rosettes, and there were lotus trimmings on the hubs. The 
party had lunch at Mr. Richtmyre's on Garfield street after 


the parade, and went to South Deerfield for dinner at Hotel 

The representation of the old Roman temple of Vesta was 
one of unique interest. At the rear of the float was the cir- 
cular roof of the temple supported by columns. Palms were 
placed at the corners of the float, and the goddess and her 
attendants were robed in white with yellow trimmings. The 
entire float was in white, with decorations of pink and dark 
red roses and the green palms. The part of the goddess was 
taken by Miss Helen Barnard, and that of the attendants by 
Misses Florence Shea, Helen Davis, Florence Hosford and 
Josie Alexander. " Templum Vestae " was inscribed on the 
side of the temple. Four white horses drew the float. M. H. 
Morse was the designer. 

The float entered by Rosina lodge represented " Germania." 
It was drawn by four horses, decorated with red, white and 
black plumes, and garlands of evergreen. The lower part of 
the float was trimmed with white bunting, covered with gar- 
lands and wreaths of evergreen. Near the front of the plat- 
form was an arch, in which the name " Rosina lodge," which was 
made of red roses, extended from one side to the other of the 
platform. On each side were the letters D. O. H. made of 
red roses, also hemlock boughs. In the back was an oak tree 
which was behind the Germania chair, and the whole back was 
banked with the hemlock boughs and laurel leaves, also a 
large wreath of evergreen. Inside was the word Germania. 
The part of Germania was represented by Mrs. Amanda M. 
Kossbiel, who wore a white Grecian costume, trimmed with 
yellow satin ribbon, and a scarf of German colors, black, 
white and red. She was crowned with a laurel wreath and 
held the German shield and sword. Flag bearers were 
Mrs. George Shotz, dressed in white, with black, white and 
red sash, holding a German flag, and Miss Bertha Heusle, 
dressed in white, with red, white and blue sash, and carrying 
the American flag. Mrs. Martin Hohner and Mrs. John 


Pierman were dressed in Tyrol peasant style, and Mrs. Jacob 
Glasle and Miss Ida Waltzer dressed in Swiss style. The 
float was designed and arranged by the committee, consisting 
of Mrs. Charles Krug, Miss Ida Waltzer, Mrs. George Shotz 
and Mrs. Amanda Kossbiel. 

The Degree of Pocahontas had a float designed by M. H. 
Morse and it carried a romantic scene from Old Virginia in a 
representation of the threatened execution of John Smith 
and his sudden salvation through the mediation of Poca- 
hontas. Mrs. Henry E. Flanagan was Pocahontas and 
Lewis Koch was John Smith, Frank Wagner being Pow- 
hatan. The color scheme was purple and yellow, carried out 
to advantage by nearly looo blossoms of wisteria. Four 
white horses drew the float, which was covered by a canopy 
and was 15x11 feet in size. Misses Matilda Rist, Margaret 
Woodlock, Mary Grant, CeHa Powers, Mrs. EUery Hall, 
Mrs. James Burke, Mrs. Ernest Wagner and Miss Annie 
Walsh were Indian maidens. 

The Foresters' float represented a forest scene and was drawn 
by four horses decorated with blankets. The general subject 
was " Benevolence to a fallen foe," representing the time of 
Robin Hood, and with natural trees and accessories. The 
lower part was covered with red, white and blue bunting, 
with the seal of the Foresters of America. The driver was 
Mr. Chamberlain. The occupants were as follows : Indians, 
J. O'Brien, J. Orde, B. Simpson and A. Desautel ; guards, 
G. W. Simpson, captain, M. Murphy, M. Cooley, R. 
Crosby, J. Forten ; officer of the court, Wm. Burke, and F. 
W. Ball, priest, all in costume. Thomas R. Field was chair- 
man of the committee. 

The Coaching club's brake carried a party representing the 
Country club, consisting of Miss Harriet Allen, Miss Sarah 
Davis, Mrs. B. W. Porter, Mrs. Henry D. Packard, Mrs. 
W. G. Humes, Mrs. Raymond Hunter, Henry D. Packard 
and W. G. Humes. The women wore white gowns with red 


jackets and white and red hats. Four horses decorated with 
plumes drew the carriage, which was decorated with festoons 
of white chrysanthemums contrasting with the red color of 
the coach. 

The Sportsman's club float, representing a camping scene, 
showed a log camp for hunters and fishermen. The float 
was drawn by five buckskin horses with ribbon bows on their 
harnesses. The float was about 30 feet long, 14 feet wide, 
and there was a log cabin on it large enough to accommodate 
six men. The cabin was decorated with skins of animals 
and stufi^ed animals and one or two coons alive in the cabin. 
Moss and pine needles were used about the cabin and there 
were trees and laurel. The horses were driven by John 
Saxton. The occupants were Hollis E. Connable, Frederick 
E. Smith, Daniel W. Collins, A. Patnode, Charles T. Bangs 
and George Zeiner. They wore regular hunting costumes. 
The float was designed by D. W. Collins, A. Patnode, Hollis 
Connable, Dr. Newton, E. A. Bates, William Leipple, 
George Zeiner, F. E. Smith, Charles T. Bangs. 

Green & Vosburg were in line with two floats and one 
decorated coupe, all designed by A. W. Green. All were 
drawn by black horses. One float was green and white, the 
other red, white and blue. The first was a " Greenfield " 
float, and had six streamers bearing the words, " Best water, 
best roads, best people, best schools, best homes — we are 
it ! " All these streamers ran from an emerald in the centre. 
Other mottoes were, " Greenfield, the gem of the state " and 
"Greenfield, 150 years young." The other was a national 
or "American Flag" float, the stars and stripes floating above 
a white tablet, with an American shield on either side and the 
words " These colors never run." On the first float rode 
Mr. Green and D. A. Reynolds ; on the second, John 
Chapin and Arthur Traver, all in red, white and blue. The 
coupe was occupied by Mr. Green and Stephen Vosburgh, 
the colors being white and gold. 


Edwin E. Day Post, G. A. R., had secured a carriage, and 
one of the big guns was mounted and drawn in the parade by 
a pair of horses. At daybreak a salute of 21 guns was fired 
on Poet's Seat. The gun squad consisted of D. D. Holden, 
gunner ; A, A. Moulton, Charles L. Smith, Charles Stay, 
gunner's mates ; John Plumbly, powder boy. T. C. Forbes 
took pictures of gun and squad. 

The turnout of George White Davenport was a barouche 
trimmed with more than 700 California poppies in five shades, 
running from light yellow to deep orange, the effect being 
shaded yellow and black. Two black horses were decorated 
with shaded plumes and the harness trimmings were yellow, a 
wreath of shaded poppies encircling the collars. The side 
effect was a gradual shading from deep orange at either end 
to a light, creamy yellow in the centre. Mr. Davenport had 
for his companions his niece, Miss Sarah Bertha Davenport, 
and two of her classmates from Smith, Miss Grace Porter 
Reynolds of Stamford, Ct., and Miss Helen Childs of Deer- 
field, the young women wearing white shirt waist suits and 
white picture hats trimmed with shaded yellow poppies. The 
decorations were designed by Miss Mary L. Davenport. 

J. H. Nichols had a surrey drawn by two black horses, 
who wore as emblems a scimeter and crescent in gilt, and were 
decorated with white poppies and ribbon. The carriage was 
decorated with white poppies and white ribbon, each panel 
bearing an emblem composed of crescent and scimeter in gilt. 
The occupants were Margaret Haywood, Alice Forbes and 
Marjorie Nichols, all in white. J. H. Nichols handled the 

Owing to the recent fire in Conway at the Allis pony farm, 
at which one of the Shetland ponies was burned, W. C. Bacon 
was not able to present the double team which he had hoped 
to enter. Instead a single team took its place. The Shet- 
land pony. Stub, was ridden by Master Geo. H. Bacon in 
Continental uniform as an outrider for the Daughters of the 


American Revolution, the pony being trimmed with blue wis- 
teria. One bay Shetland pony, I'rotty, was hitched to a 
cart with decorations of red poppies and black ribbon, with 
suspended canopy, driven by Miss Mattie Bacon, accompanied 
by Miss Marion Coates, both dressed in white. One black 
Shetland pony with white tail, named King, was hitched to a 
cart trimmed like the other and driven by Miss Helen Belyea, 
accompanied by Miss Alice Coates, both dressed in white. 
These teams were outridden by W. C. Bacon, mounted on a 
dapple gray trimmed with red and black, and by John S. 
Coates on a black horse trimmed with red and white. The 
teams are designed by Mason Morse. 

R. F. Churchill entered a one-seated trap trimmed with red 
and white peonies. There was one black horse with red and 
white ribbon and flowers. The wheels had four six-pointed 
stars made of white crepe paper and silver tinsel, with red 
and white peonies, each shaft with a six-foot green brake, 
and the body of the carriage with red and white peonies. 
The occupants were R. F. Churchill of Greenfield and Miss 
Blanche E. Baker of Amherst. 

Miss Gertrude E. Woodard and Miss Amy S. Hamer of 
North Adams had an open carriage drawn by one white 
horse decorated with flowers. The decorations consisted of 
pink and white chrysanthemums, with spokes wound round 
alternately with pink and white. The hubs were of chrysanthe- 
mums, with flowers on the spokes. The body, dashboard 
and back of the seat were of chrysanthemums. The occu- 
pants of the carriage wore pink and white costumes, and 
carried parasols. The carriage was designed by Mrs. J. M. 
Woodard and Miss Gertrude Woodard. 

F. O. Wells' double buckboard was occupied by a party 
consisting of Misses Bertha Weissbrod, Clara Louise Strecker, 
Nina Stimpson and Amy W. Strecker. The carriage was 
drawn by two sorrel horses, with black harnesses and blue 
garters. The buckboard was very simply trimmed, with white 


lilies and a touch of blue on the horses and in the women's 
hats. Over the centre of the carriage was a high scroll effect, 
from which was draped a series of streamers terminating at the 
four extremities of the carriage, where they were fastened with 
white plumes. The hubs were encircled with lilies. The oc- 
cupants wore white shirt waist suits and Florodora hats. 

Frank P. Forbes had a surrey decorated with red and white 
chrysanthemums and ribbons. It was drawn by two horses 
decorated with ribbons and flowers. The occupants were 
Frank P. Forbes, Talbot Forbes, Leonard Forbes, William A. 
Forbes, 2d, and Malcolm Forbes, all dressed in white. 

Georgia A. Moore, May Donovan, Mabel Richmond and 
Mary Caldwell had a trap representing a basket, drawn by one 
horse decorated with pink and white bows. The carriage was 
decorated with bows of pink and white, and with flowers — 
lotus, pink and white. The body of the trap was covered 
with basket-work of pink and white, the trimmings of bows 
and flowers. The occupants were all dressed in similar cos- 
tumes of white. 

Dr. J. G. Pfersick had a stanhope drawn by two sorrel 
horses that attracted the horsemen's eyes. The horses were 
trimmed with red roses and green leaves, and the carriage was 
also trimmed with red and green. 

Annah Frances Potter and Arthur Devens Potter, Jr., had 
a little wagon drawn by one pony trimmed with pink pop- 
pies. The wagon was trimmed with poppies and laurel in 
clusters. The occupants were dressed in pink and white. 
The outfit was designed by Annah Frances Potter. 

Herbert Nichols and Marian Shaw drove a donkey cart 
decorated with asparagus and daisies. The boy wore a white 
costume and the girl a yellow. 

F. A. Rugg's trap was decorated with pond lilies for the 
most part, was driven by Frank Rugg, and the other occu- 
pants were Miss Cornelia Burnham, Miss Eleanor Jones and 
Earl Varney. 



Misses Helen and Julia Sears drove a carriage belonging to j 
Miss Warren of Deerfield, which was decorated with pink j 
laurel. \ 

Miss Lillian O'Hara, daughter of James O'Hara, rode in a j 
Japanese cart painted and decorated to represent a Japanese ' 
house, which was drawn by Mr. O'Hara's little horse, Floss. j 
The decorations were of pink laurel. 

Mrs. F. E. Snow and Mrs. F. K. White had a stanhope 
drawn by a dark bay horse, with shaded blue plumes and 
ribbons. The decorations were of bachelors' buttons in three 
shades of blue, festooned with ground pine and tied with large 
bows of blue ribbon. The occupants wore costumes to cor- 
respond. 9 

The open barouche that represented the Father Matthew 
T. A. society and Ladies' Aid was drawn by two horses with 
floral decorations, and was occupied by Michael E. Dunnigan, 
Miss Mary E. Finn, Michael J. Bulman and Mrs. James 
Pigott. The Ladies' Aid designed the decorations, consisting 
principally of chrysanthemums and oak leaf foliage. 

The operators of the telephone exchange had a trap trimmed 
with blue, which is the color of the telephone sign of the blue 
bell. Blue carnations were used in decorating the horse and .■ 
carriage. The names of the occupants were Misses A. M. 
Woodlock, N. E. O'Keefe, May Harrington and Lydia E. 

Misses Grace and Nina Kingsley of the Meadows entered 
a stanhope with pair of black horses, trimmed with pink 


Gov. Bates and party arrived by special train from Boston 
at II o'clock, following closely upon the heels of the accom- 
modation. The crowd gathered at the station to welcome the 
distinguished visitors was not a large one ; still it covered the 
platform sufficiently so Station Agent Stoddard found plenty 


to do to keep the people off the tracks, as the regular accom- 
modation train pulled into the station at a slow rate of speed. 
The committee of arrangements, with District Attorney Ma- 
lone, were waiting upon the platform. They are good-look- 
ing men in their everyday clothes, but dressed up in their 
Sunday best, with silk hats and all the rest of the outfit, one 
must pronounce them a very impressive representation of 

Gov. Bates and party, with the militiamen in all the glory 
of gold lace, were welcomed with some hand-clapping and es- 
corted to the reviewing stand, where seats were reserved for 
them, and where they liberally applauded the interesting 
features. The Governor and his party had dinner at the 
Mansion House. Most of the other invited guests had lunch- 
eon at the Greenfield club. 

The party with Gov. Bates consisted of the following : 
Gen. Dalton, Gen. Brigham, Col. White, Lieut. Col. Carpen- 
ter, Lieut. Col. Hawkins, President Tuttle of the Boston & 
Maine, President Jones of the Senate and Speaker Myers of 
the House. 

The party of guests and county and town officials that rode 
in the carriages in the parade consisted of the following : Rear 
Admiral Clark, and Lieut. Gov. Curtis Guild ; Councillor 
Richard W. Irwin, Arthur Lowe of Fitchburg, William B. 
Plunkett of Adams, James Reynolds of the Republican state 
committee ; County Commissioners O. L. Leach and Jas. D. 
Avery, Sheriff Chenery, John D. Bouker ; Selectmen R. E. 
Pray, M. J. Sauter and W. A. Ames, with Capt. George 
Pierce and Wm. Blake Allen ; George Sheldon of Deerfield, 
Major Davis, sergeant-of-arms of the Massachusetts House, 
ex-Mayor Field of Northampton and Clerk of Courts Clifton 
Field ; the assessors, Capt. Anson Withey, Representative 
Frank Gerrett and Harry Richardson, Special Commissioner 
Amos Stewart of Colrain. 



The exercises at Washington hall lasted about two hours 
and a quarter. The hall was crowded, and many of course 
were unable to find entrance. Judge Fessenden presided with 
the peculiar dignity and impressiveness that the occasion de- 
manded. His introductions of the speakers were graceful rec- 
ognitions of the eminence of the distinguished guests, and 
his own brief utterance a thoughtful interpretation of the sig- 
nificance of Greenfield's life worthy of the scholarly tempera- 
ment of the speaker. 

The two leading orators, Senator Lodge and Gov. Bates, 
suggested some contrasts. Gov. Bates never quite gets away 
from the manner of a stump speaker. His voice, always clear 
and resonant, just failing of a musical quality, always has a 
certain note of fervency, of effort to convince, that is charac- 
teristic of the hustings. His language is plain, straight, hon- 
est English, lacking the " decorative phrase," but effective by 
its simplicity and straightforward quality. There is a reserve 
in the Governor's manner that never allows a weakening of 
dignity. There is no sawing of the air, nor superabundance 
of gesture, but one hand gives all needed emphasis, and this 
hand is at rest behind his back much of the time. The Gov- 
ernor's rather prominent lower jaw and firm lines of his mouth 
with a little droop of the lips suggest decision, and altogether 
one can't help feeling that this man rises to the dignity of the 
high position he fills. 

Senator Lodge, too, is not a whit lacking in dignity, but his 
attitude Tuesday seemed that of one who was not striving to 
convince, and was not trying to win over those of opposing 
view ; rather of one who sets forth in orderly and symmetri- 
cal expression certain principles drawn from a body of fact 
that lies incoherent in most minds, and sets forth these prin- 
ciples with so sure and firm a touch that dissent seems impos- 
sible. How far Senator Lodge's appearance was affected by 
the fact that he had not been well during the morning could 


not be told, but it was hardly the ardent orator of the Senate 
and the stump, striving to win over the unwilling and stirring 
the pulses of the sluggish, that spoke Tuesday. Rather it 
was the Lodge of literature, the scholar, and with his semi- 
conversational manner and with little gesture one might have 
thought him a college professor. The beauty of the address 
lay in the exquisite finish and the richness of the English, in 
the wide range of historical allusion and comparison. His 
finely moulded sentences, massed with the skill of the rhet- 
orician, revealed a rare command of English and an intimate 
knowledge of words, the tools of thought. The apparent lack 
of effort to convince, with the keen face and kindly smile, sug- 
gested the repose of high attainment. From time to time an 
accession of emphasis would indicate the reserve power be- 
hind the speaker, but the general tone of his manner sug- 
gested the literary and historical investigator much more than 
the political advocate. 

The front seats on the platform were occupied by Judge 
Fessenden, Senator Lodge, Lieut. Gov. Guild, President Tut- 
tle, Rev. Francis Denio, of Bangor, Me., Rear Admiral Clark, 
Gov. Bates, Speaker Myers, President Jones, and Arthur 
Lowe, of Fitchburg. Others on the platform were E. B. 
Blake, George E. Rogers, Charles R. Lov/ell, Franklin E. 
Snow, Dana Malone, Rev. M. J. Carroll, James Reynolds, 
of Boston, Judge F. M, Thompson, Major F. E. Pierce, 
George H. Danforth, J. W. Stevens, Sheriff Chenery, Lieut. 

Governor Bates looked pretty solemn when Judge Fessen- 
den was making him compliments, as if he were wondering 
how he was ever to live up to his reputation. The Governor 
looks as if he were too sober to make a joke, but the pleas- 
antry about the baby carriage hit the audience about right. 
The exercises closed by the singing of " America." 

After the exercises Judge Fessenden drove to the Main 
street school lot with Senator Lodge and Governor Bates and 


General Brigham. It had been expected that the two dis- 
tinguished guests would speak briefly to the crowd who had 
been listening to the band concert, and an immense throng 
gathered about the carriage. Then Judge Fessenden rose 
and said that it was necessary that Senator Lodge and Gov- 
ernor Bates take the train at once for Boston. They regretted 
that they could not speak to the crowd, but owing to the late- 
ness of the hour they could not take time to do it. The 
carriage was then driven rapidly to the station, where the 
party took a special car, which was attached to the 4.45 train. 


The part with which I am honored to-day is especially 
agreeable. To welcome guests is always grateful. To say 
welcome to you who have returned to us, although for the 
day, to you who visit the homes and institutions of your an- 
cestors, and to you distinguished by your achievements in 
arts, sciences, professional pursuits, letters and statesmanship, 
is indeed a great privilege. 

While extending our hearty greetings to you all I recog- 
nize your right to inquire whether we, who count ourselves 
happy because we dwell here, have preserved intact, since the 
1 00th anniversary of its birth, the institutions and traditions 
of beautiful and fortunate Greenfield. I shall not undertake 
to answer as to all matters. There is not time. I shall take 
a few only of the most important. If in speaking of them I 
may seem to exaggerate I ask you to examine here and care- 
fully. You will find that I do not. 

Our conditions are improved. Our parks, public works 
and institutions you may see about you. While grateful for 
the past, we are mindful of the future. Our population has 
had a steady growth ; and our territory as well as our popula- 
tion has been increased by a generous gift from our mother — 
Deerfield. We are reasonably, but not dangerously, harmo- 
nious and prosperous. And, like all well-conducted munici- 


palities, we seek to better our conditions. We still have and 
intend to keep, so long as we can, the town form of govern- 
ment. We meet together and all take part in carrying on our 
prudential affairs. So each of us has a personal responsibility. 
Although some minor changes have been made, we have not 
been able to improve upon the general scheme, and so long 
as our citizens continue to be as intelligent as now, it is 
doubtful whether it can be made more efficient. 

In material ways we have progressed. Our facilities for 
communication and transportation, always the subject of deep 
solicitude, would astonish our predecessors. Our industries 
are somewhat more extensive than formerly. Our lands have 
increased in value, personal property is greater in amount. 
But above all we can say, with immense satisfaction, that they 
are well distributed, that wealth has not accumulated in the 
hands of a few, and that destitution is unknown. 

And our men and women ? They have not deteriorated. 
They are the same enterprising, industrious, steady, sturdy 
toilers in their occupations and professions. This is enough 
to say. But perhaps you will permit me to add — it may not 
be necessary — that some of them whose names are known to 
you have achieved renown at home and abroad, on land and 
on sea. We regret that characteristic modesty deters our 
distinguished fellowtownsman from saying in his gifted way 
what I so inadequately express. Our people have been always 
true to the spirit bequeathed to them. Whenever the welfare 
of the nation, commonwealth or town has been threatened, 
their action has been immediate. As in the war which estab- 
lished our nation, so in the struggle for its preservation, the 
response was quick and the sacrifice great. And greatest of 
all when the end came our returned soldiers laid aside their 
arms and resumed their quiet life amongst us, honoring us in 
peace as in war. Happily some of these veterans are left with 
us to-day. Their lives furnish us with examples of the in- 
estimable value of the influences created by the institutions 

1128 JUDGE fessenden's address 

and traditions over which we linger this day. And when the 
war with Spain came, our young men were prompt. The roll 
of those who fell in action, died from wounds and disease, and 
of those who still suffer from wounds and exposure contains 
names very dear to us. The loss, far greater than our share, 
fell heavily. Yet it is a matter of just pride. For they 
showed that they too were true to the patriotic spirit trans- 
mitted by our ancestors. And like the veterans of the war 
of 1 86 1, the survivors are faithfully discharging their duties 
in time of peace. 

You inquire what we are doing for education. A glance 
at the shelves of our two libraries shows the provision made 
for our people to be unusually large. The records of the 
large numbers of books taken from these shelves and the read- 
ing rooms nearly always filled with young and old demonstrate 
the wisdom of the establishment of the libraries and make it 
certain that the future will see them constantly increasing in 
usefulness. The schools are still cherished as our most price- 
less possession. We realize that in the public school if any- 
where the lessons of useful patriotic life are to be taught. We 
wilHngly accept the responsibility of keeping up the high 
standard set by those from whom we have inherited this treas- 
ure. We are confident that our schools will bear your close 
examination. In the years past their fame has extended be- 
yond the borders of this commonwealth. May we not feel 
a certain degree of satisfaction when our educational system is 
taken as a model by other municipalities ? 

That we have many shortcomings is doubtless true. I do 
not need to say this in giving a brief account of our steward- 
ship. But I do not think we can find among them any want 
of regard for or reverence of our traditions, or any lack of a 
spirit of determination for future progress. 

These men and women, these institutions, these traditions 
welcome you. My voice feebly expresses the greeting so 
cordially yours. 


But before proceeding further let us through one of their 
descendants, and following their custom, seek the unfailing 
guidance of the God of our fathers. 

Invocation was offered by Reverend Francis B. Denio, of 
the Bangor Theological Seminary — a descendant of Aaron 
Denio, one of the early settlers of Greenfield — in the following 
words : 

O Lord, Thou hast been our dwelling place in all genera- 
tions. In Thee we live and move and have our being. From 
thee come all our benefits, by Thee we have power to win the 
good things of life and to use them aright : to Thee we render 
praise and adoration for all the blessings which we enjoy this 

We praise Thee that this town was founded in equity and 
righteousness, that the institutions of the Gospel of our Lord 
and Saviour were planted at the very beginning, that the 
founders also sought the graces and culture of civilization. 
We thank Thee for the many who in the history of this town 
have labored faithfully to carry on the work of the founders 
and for the success which has crowned their efforts. 

We pray that the thought of what has been accomplished 
may give courage for new efforts, that the goals already 
reached may be starting points for new developments so that 
the period before us shall witness as great advances as during 
the past one hundred and fifty years. 

We ask Thee that the present day may become epoch- 
making in the history of this town so that new life and energies 
shall be set free and abound and that all noble ideas may 
be sought in yet greater measure and attained ; that thy 
blessings in the past, and the good institutions already 
founded may kindle aspirations, and may be an inspiration 
so that the children of this town in this place and in other 
places shall ever seek that which always exalts a people and 
which is the only safeguard against decay, righteousness and 


These petitions we ask and offer in the name of Him who 
taught us to say : 

Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name ; Thy 
kingdom come ; Thy will be done on earth as in heaven ; 
Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our debts as 
we forgive our debtors, and lead us not into temptation, but 
deliver us from evil ; for Thine is the kingdom and the power, 
and the glory, forever ; Amen. 

Judge Fessenden's introduction of Gov. Bates was as fol- 
lows : 

Our chief magistrate is given a great trust which exacts of 
him fidelity to our traditions, a quick conscience and discern- 
ing judgment. We watch closely and remember his acts in 
public and private life. We feel at liberty when making an 
examination of our institutions and conditions to ask for his 
presence. And when, added to these qualities, there is a pure 
and sweet nature and a resolute and fearless mind we deem 
ourselves fortunate in bidding welcome our present and well- 
beloved governor. 


Mr. Chairman, and fellow citizens : I wish to thank your 
presiding officer for the kind encomiums which he has pro- 
nounced in regard to me, and to assure him that I am the 
one who is fortunate in being permitted to be present upon 
this very interesting occasion. I have been deeply impressed 
with the beauty and symmetry of this celebration. I greatly 
enjoyed the parade of the morning, wherein I discovered no 
feature that was not in most excellent taste. The pictures of 
sturdy manhood and gracious womanhood is one that I shall 
long remember. I have enjoyed looking at the decorations 
upon your streets; they indicate not only the pride of your 
citizens in the municipality, but the larger pride that they 
have in the nation ; they show the patriotism of this com- 
munity. And I have also enjoyed coming in here and look- 


ing in the faces of these thoughtful, typical American men 
and women, gathered here to draw inspiration from hearing 
from the eloquent speaker who is to follow me the story of 
their loved town. 

I came 90 miles from the capital of the old commonwealth, 
to extend her greeting, and I would have come many times 
that for the privilege which I have enjoyed. Not to extend 
her greeting, as has sometimes been said, as a mother to a 
daughter, — because I recognize that you are older, the date 
of the incorporation of your town antedating that of the in- 
dependent political existence of the commonwealth by nearly 
a quarter of a century. Not the greeting of a friend to a 
friend ; not the greeting of a neighbor to a neighbor, — but the 
greeting of the whole to a part — a most intimate relationship. 
For the commonwealth is but a union of ^^2 towns and cities. 
What interests them interests her. When they suffer distress, 
she suffers ; when they achieve success, she is benefited ; 
when they make a commendable record, then indeed does it 
add to her prestige. 

Greenfield was the 170th town historically recognized or 
incorporated in this commonwealth. One hundred and sixty- 
nine are older. You have here 1.354th part of the popula- 
tion of Massachusetts. You have 1.465th part of the valua- 
tion of the state. According to your valuation you would 
rank as No. ^6, and according to your population you would 
rank as No. 58 among our municipalities. 

But Massachusetts does not reckon the value of a town 
that way. It is not in the number of the inhabitants nor in 
the wealth that they have amassed, but in the manner in which 
they have exhibited the characteristics which Massachusetts 
makes her pride and her glory. (Applause.) And in the 
development and the illustration of those characteristics you 
have been foremost, both in peace and in war. In peace, 
when your forefathers, the founders of this town, devoted 
themselves first with jealous care equally to the worship of 


God and to laying the foundations for the education of youth. 
And thus having made certain that the community would 
prosper as a God-fearing and enlightened community, they 
devoted themselves to all the arts of peace ; and to-day we 
see the results as we talk with your citizens and go about 
your town. 

We find that your manufactures and the products of your 
arts are sent to all the markets ; that you have developed 
here hardware exports ; that you are making boots and shoes, 
machinery, iron and steel goods, and those evidences, Mr. 
Chairman, of great prosperity — pocketbooks ; and that solace 
also for the fear entertained by our president, that illustration 
of a flourishing community of the future — baby carriages. 
Your character has been illustrated in war and in struggle, 
when the first settlers here surrounded their homes with the 
palisade in order that their families might be protected against 
the wild child of the forest, and later again exemplified when 
these men left their crops ripening in the field — left them to 
rot while they went to Cambridge to drill under Washing- 
ton ; exemplified again when descendants of those men, at a 
time when the nation seemed to be torn apart, gave them- 
selves freely, and offered their lives on Southern battlefields, 
and exemplified again (it seems only yesterday) when your 
noble sons took the nation's call for Americans and humanity, 
and endured the supreme test on the shores of that island in 
the Southern seas. 

You do well, citizens of Greenfield, to celebrate this anni- 
versary. One hundred and fifty noble years are behind you. 
The commonwealth salutes you, and congratulates you 
on the course already run, and bids you Godspeed for the 

Following the address of the chief magistrate was the sing- 
ing of a selected choir of fifty voices from the public schools, 
under the direction of Prof A. J. Mealand. The singers 


were grouped upon raised seats at the back of the stage, and 
their singing was one of the most successful and pleasing parts 
of the exercises of the day. 

Judge Fessenden then introduced Senator Lodge saying : 
Massachusetts has always been fortunate in having able rep- 
resentatives, whether before the sovereign power abroad or in 
the deliberations of this nation. Their names are historic. 
It had been better for the king and his government had they 
heeded the voices of these men. Leaders in the councils of 
the republic, learned, eloquent and wise, they have influenced 
and directed its policies, domestic and foreign. Their words 
have been and still are spoken in our schools and colleges. 
And when we have one who has studied them and their times 
profoundly, who is their peer in purity of character, talent and 
unselfish patriotism, who is to-day a powerful influence in 
shaping the destinies of our nation and in keeping true its 
place among the nations of the earth, one by birth, education 
and training a New Englander, to whom can we better turn 
for the lesson to be drawn this day ? 



Hon. henry CABOT LODGE 

" Seventeen hundred and fifty-five, 
Georgius Secundus was then alive, — 
SnufFy old drone from the German hive. 
That was the year when Lisbon town 
Saw the earth open and gulp her down, 
And Braddock's army was done so brown, 
Left without a scalp to its crown. 
It was on the terrible earth-quake day 
That the Deacon finished his one-hoss shay." 

IT was a busy time just then at the very middle of the 
Eighteenth Century. And two years before this Annus 
Mirabilis described by Dr. Holmes, two years before the 
Deacon finished his master-piece, or Lisbon was ruined, or a 
British Army was destroyed by French and Indians because 
it would not heed the advice of George Washington, in 1753, 
on the eve of a war which was to convulse Europe, decide the 
fate of India and give North America finally to the English 
speaking people, certain loyal subjects of George II on this 
spot established a new town government. The homes and the 
people had been here from a much earlier time. But now the 
moment had come when the village of the Green River felt 
that it should be independent. The consent of Deerfield had 
been obtained, the State had assented and thereupon Green- 
field became a town and entered on her separate life. It was 
neither an unusual nor an extraordinary occurrence — this birth 


of a new town achieved in the orderly, quiet way characteristic 
of New England. Among the great events then crowding and 
crushing together to settle the destiny of nations and make up 
the world's history, it passed quite unnoticed except by those 
engaged in the undertaking. Yet we meet here to-day to cele- 
brate the foundation of that town and it is just and right to do 
so for it was a deed wholly worthy of commemoration. I do not 
mean by this the mere act of organizing a town government, 
for that was simple enough. That which is and ought to be 
memorable to us is that men and women at this place had so 
far conquered the wilderness that they were able to form a 
town and that ever since they have been able to carry on their 
town government in peace, order, prosperity and honor. It is 
neither the place nor the time that we would celebrate, but the 
men and their work of which the place and time are but the 
symbol and expression. 

" oy; ovSev 6vt€ Trvpyo<; ovTt vavs, 

" tprjfxo'i avSpwv firj gvvoiKOvvTwv cctm. " 

" Neither citadel nor ship is of any worth without the men 
dwelling in them." 

What we commemorate are these men and their deeds and 
their founding a town was a good piece of honest work which 
represented much. It has abundant meaning if rightly under- 
stood and we may well pause to consider it. The work was 
begun by breaking into the wilderness and in solitude and hard- 
ship subduing the untouched earth to the uses of man. It 
was continued for half a century under the stress of savage 
and desolating war. Then it was crowned with success and 

It is not for me to trace in detail that story of adventure 
and persistent toil, of courage and of hope. That has been 
done already and will be done again still more amply by those 
who live here and who have given to the annals of this region 
the study they deserve. Tempting as all this is, it lies beyond 
the narrow scope of an address. All I can hope for is to bring 


before you quite imperfectly, rather disconnectedly, I fear, 
two or three facts which have risen up to me charged with a 
somewhat deep significance as I have reflected upon the his- 
tory of this Connecticut Valley and of this town of Greenfield. 
It is not the hundred and fifty years which has struck me as 
at all important. Periods of time are all comparative. A 
century and a half constitutes a remarkable age in America. 
It is youth in England and in Western Europe. But the 
oldest town of England is modern compared to Rome ; Rome 
is of yesterday when put by the side of Egypt, and the Roman 
law which runs far beyond our Christian era is a new inven- 
tion when placed beside the six thousand year old code of the 
Babylonian King Humarabbi. On the other hand, time can- 
not be computed for us by the calendar alone. The Aruwhimi 
dwarfs of the African forests were noted by Herodotus and 
then again by Stanley after a little interval of some three 
thousand years. If it had been three hundred or thirty thou- 
sand it would have been just as important, for nothing had 
happened. As they were when Herodotus mentioned them 
so they still were when Stanley stumbled upon them in the 
tropical forest. 

" Better fifty years of Europe 
Than a cycle of Cathay." 

It is the rate at which men live which must be counted as 
well as the calendar when we reckon time. The years of the 
French Revolution covered a wider space in life and experience 
and meaning than the entire century which preceded them. 
The American people lived more and lived longer between 
1 86 1 and 1865 than in all the years which had passed since 
Yorktown. So our century and a half of town existence looks 
very short when we put it side by side with the long proces- 
sion of the recorded years fading away into a remote distance 
in the valleys of the Tiber and the Nile. Yet for all that it 
is not brief. Properly regarded it is a very long time for it is 
with nations even as with men : 


" One crowded hour of glorious life 
Is worth an age without a name." 

The last one hundred and fifty years have witnessed politi- 
cal and economic changes more rapid and more profound than 
five previous centuries could show. The same period has seen 
a revolution in the affairs of the world and in the relations of 
men, due to the annihilation of time and the reduction of space 
by electricity and steam, which separates us further in certain 
ways of life from the men who fought at Waterloo than from 
those who died at Thermopylae and in all the history of this 
wonderful time there is no chapter more wonderful than that 
which we ourselves have written. 

Let us look at it once more as it comes out here in the his- 
tory of this town. Where we stand was once a frontier, not a 
mere boundary line between one state or one country and an- 
other, but a true frontier, the far-flung line of advance against 
the savage and the wilderness. I have often thought that a 
book which told the story of the American frontier would be 
of intense interest. As one thinks of it in what seems to me 
the true fashion, one comes to personify it, to feel as if it were 
a sentient being, struggling forward through darkness and 
light, through peace and war, planting itself in a new spot, 
clinging there desperately until its hold is firm and then plung- 
ing forward again into the dim unknown to live over the old 
conflict. Frontiers such as ours have been do not go slowly 
forward building one house next another in the manner of a 
growing city. The Puritan Englishmen of Massachusetts 
Bay had scarcely fastened their grip upon the rugged shore 
where they had landed before Pyncheon had pushed out from 
the coast and established his outpost on the Connecticut, 
From Springfield the little settlements spread slowly up and 
down the river and thus the new frontier was formed. The 
older plantations along the coast were then no longer outposts 
and the space between them and the western line lay ready to 
be filled in. Gradually the villages planted themselves and 


crept northward up the river subduing the wilderness and reap- 
ing the harvest ot the rich valley. They were just beginning 
here when the red man came to the aid of the yielding forest 
and the savage war known by the name of Philip broke upon 
them and went raging and burning, hither and thither along the 
river, thrusting itself down between the towns to the eastv/ard 
and into the very heart of the coast settlements. Many were 
the fights close by here, most conspicuous the bloody defeat 
at the Brook and the shining victory at the Falls, which still 
bear the victor's name. For weary months and years the war 
blazed red and wild, then it began to flicker, flaring up only 
to sink down again into smoldering embers until it finally died 
away leaving ashes and desolation as its monuments. 

Again the pioneers worked their way up the river, again 
the houses rose and the meadows smiled and the forest was 
cleared. This time the settlers took a firmer grip. Grants 
of land were made here, mills built and Deerfield sent her 
representative to Boston to sustain the cause of William 
against James. But William of Orange had more serious 
enemies than his poor, confused father-in-law. Louis XIV 
made war upon him and again the storm of savage invasion 
broke on the New England frontier, guided now by the in- 
telligence of France. Much fighting and burning ensued, but 
the settlers held on or came back after the Peace of Ryswick 
in 1697. Then a brief lull, then a disputed Spanish throne, 
once more France and England fought and again the French 
and Indians poured down upon the valleys and hillsides of 
New England. Here the worst blow fell. Deerfield was al- 
most swept from the map already so deeply scarred. It was 
such a long war too. It went on for some ten years after the 
sack of Deerfield. Men's hearts began to fail. They were 
ready almost to think that this was an accursed spot, dogged 
by misfortune and haunted by slaughter and pillage. But the 
stout hearts did not fail entirely. The men made their way 
back again after all. They held on to this beautiful valley 


and over the ruined homesteads they finally planted them- 
selves more conclusively than ever. War was not over by 
, any means. There was peace in Europe, but the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries had not made peace and Father Rasle's War, as it 
was called, led to sharp and bloody fighting in New England, 
chiefly to the eastward, but with enough of ambush and mur- 
der and sudden death in these valleys to make the people 
realize the hard tenure by which they held their lands. When 
the war of the Austrian succession came, Deerfield was still 
on the edge, but the fighting frontier had moved forward and 
the little hill towns, each with its fort, formed a line of out- 
works. Before the " old French war " as we have been wont 
to call it, broke out ten years later, Greenfield had been born 
and the line of frontier swung to the north and ceased to be a 
frontier when Canada passed into English hands. Now, too, 
it stretched away westward until it joined that other advance 
guard of settlements which had crept up the Hudson and 
then turned to the west along the Mohawk. The frontier 
days of the Connecticut valley were over and it had taken 
half a century to do it. Children had been born and had 
grown to be elderly men and women who had known nothing 
but more or less constant war. They had passed their lives 
in fighting to hold their own here among their peaceful hills 
facing the wilderness, listening nightly for the war whoop and 
watching daily for signs of a lurking foe. What a splendid 
story it is and have we not the right to be proud of the men 
who made it possible ? 

But the unresting frontier sprang forward, much lengthened 
now and running north and south along the Alleghanies when 
the Revolution began. Then George Rogers Clarke carried 
the country's boundary to the Mississippi and after peace came, 
the frontier moved slowly and painfully after it across the 
" Dark and Bloody Ground," along the Great Lakes at the 
north and the Gulf at the south. Then there was a pause 
while all that vast region was taken into possession and then 


the frontier leaped onwards again in the southwest and pushed 
the boundary before it far down to the Rio Grande. Another 
pause while the settlements slowly shot out beyond the Mis- 
sissippi and then came the war with Mexico, the Pacific coast 
was ours and a second frontier began to move eastward toward 
that which had been travelling westward for more than two 
hundred years. In our time we have seen them meet. It is 
only a few years ago and the meeting was hardly noticed. 
Men scarcely realized that there had ceased to be a frontier in 
the United States, that there was no longer a line where the 
hardy pioneers stood face to face with an untamed wilderness, 
ever pressing forward against it. Indian wars had ended, the 
red man was finally submerged by the all-embracing tide of 
the white civilization. Those wars had lasted for more than 
two hundred and fifty years, they sank into a final peace and 
silence and the hurrying American world did not stop to note 
it. But history will note it well and ponder upon it, for it 
marked the ending of a long struggle and the beginning of a 
new epoch. The American frontier had ceased to be, the con- 
quest of the continent was complete, the work which the men 
of Greenfield and Deerfield had carried on for fifty hard fight- 
ing years was finished at last far out upon the western plains. 
If you would know what that fact meant ask yourself how it 
is that American enterprise in the last six years, leaping over 
our own borders, has forced its way into every market of 
the globe and why the flag floats now from Porto Rico to 
Manila ? 

This making and moving of a frontier has been a mighty 
work and that part of it w"hich was done here during fifty years 
of conflict, remote, unheard of in the great world of the eight- 
eenth century, seems to me both fine and heroic. There was 
no dazzling glory to be won, no vast wealth to be suddenly 
gained from mines or wrested from the hands of feeble natives. 
The only tangible reward was at the utmost a modest farm. 
But there was a grim determination not to yield, a quite set- 


tied intention to conquer fate, visible still to us among those 
men, silent for the most part, but well worth serious contem- 
plation in these days when success is chiefly reckoned in 
money value. 

Consider, too, how this work of these old pioneers wrought 
out here in this distant corner as it then was of the British 
Empire, formed, as all labor worth the doing must form, part 
of the work of the race and of the world. See how it touched 
and responded to the events of the world as the pulse beats 
with the heart and how these men, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, it matters not, lived the life of their time which to all 
men who are real must be the supreme test. Just before Par- 
sons built his mill here England was deciding whether James 
Stuart or William of Orange should rule over her ; whether 
she would continue free or sink back to an autocratic mon- 
archy, and Deerfield, not knowing how the issue might turn, 
sent her man across the forests to Boston and cast in her lot 
with the Dutch Prince. Louis XIV and William of Orange 
grappled on the plains of Flanders and at once the war whoop 
of the savage and the crack of the English musket broke the 
stillness of these valleys. Such free, representative govern- 
ment as then existed rested solely in the keeping of the Eng- 
lish speaking people. France represented despotism and the 
power of France was its bulwark. The struggle broke out 
again under Anne, nominally over the Spanish succession, 
really to determine whether France should dominate Europe 
and America. For this cause of English freedom Malbor- 
ough won Blenheim, Deerfield went up in flames and Massa- 
chusetts farmers fell dead by their plows or hunted their French 
and Indian foes through the forests of New England. 

The struggle between France and England did not end, 
however, with the Peace of Utrecht. France was checked 
and beaten but not crushed and the century was little more 
than forty years old when the long standing conflict was re- 
newed. Again the frontiersmen fought and this time New 


England took Louisburg, the one serious triumph of an ill- 
conducted war. And during all this time, in peace and war 
alike, the people of New York and New England slowly 
pushing forward, slowly gathering strength, were determining 
who should be the masters of America. The final decision 
could not be long postponed and it came to the last arbitra- 
ment in 1756. It was a great war, that " war of seven years " 
as it was called. It settled many questions of mighty import ; 
that Frederick the Great of Prussia should not be crushed but 
should rise in victory over Bourbon and Hapsburg and 
Romanoff; that India should become a possession of Great 
Britain and India's millions her subjects, as well as sundry 
other matters of less meaning to us to-day. But it also deter- 
mined finally that North America should belong to the English- 
speaking people and not to France, something more momen- 
tous to the world's future, politically and economically, than 
any other event of that time. 

Pitt said that he " conquered America on the plains of Ger- 
many." It is true enough that the death struggle then in 
progress between the English and North German people on 
the one side and the Bourbon and Hapsburg monarchies on 
the other had to be sustained in every quarter of the globe. 
But the effort to gain sole dominion in North America for 
the English-speaking people would have been utterly vain if 
it had not been for the labors of that same people in America 
itself. The English colonies in America founded and built 
up slowly and painfully by men whose existence England at 
times almost forgot, were the efficient cause of the overthrow 
of France in the New World. 

" The Lilies withered where the Lion trod ; " 
but the Lion would never have reached the Lilies if his path 
had not been cleared for him by the stubborn fighters of the 
American colonies clinging grimly to the soil they had won 
and ever pressing forward the restless frontier behind which 
towns gathered to mark the progress of the march. 


So the half centuty of conflict ended. Another George was 
on the throne, the northern danger had passed away and men 
began to consider their relations with the mother country. 
We know well what followed. Ignorance and arrogance in 
London bred resistance in America until at last revolution was 
afoot and the American people determined to make a new 
nation in the new world. The movement now was toward 
independence and democratic government. In the latter di- 
rection all the western world was soon to take part, but the 
first step was ours. As in the earlier days when the question 
was whether English freedom should prevail over Bourbon 
monarchies, so now Greenfield lived the life of the time. She 
sent her men to Boston to join Washington's army. She re- 
sponded vigorously to the call that came later over the moun- 
tains to go forth and help to compass the destruction of 
Burgoyne. And from the days of revolution onwards, so it 
has always been. You have always lived the life of your time. 
You have stood the supreme test. You helped to make the 
State. You sustained the Constitution upon which the nation 
was founded. From these valleys in generation after genera- 
tion men and women have gone forth to carry forward the 
frontier and subdue the continent even as your ancestors did 
over two hundred years ago. When the hour of stress and 
peril came you have not failed. When the life of the nation 
was at stake your sons went forth and fought for four years 
to save the Union. In the war of five years ago soldiers from 
this town were at the front in Cuba and the last sacrifice of 
young life was offered up at El Caney for flag and country. 
You have a right to be proud of your record, for you have 
done your share to the full and no one can do more. You 
have never sunk back in ignoble ease and held aloof from 
your fellows. In the advance columns of the nation you have 
always marched. The stern cry of " Forward " has never 
fallen here upon deaf ears or been disobeyed by faint hearts. 

Yet there are some persons, native alas, and to the manner 


born, who can see nothing of interest, nothing picturesque, 
nothing romantic in this history of the United States, one 
Httle fragment of which I have tried faintly to outhne. Such 
beings, steadily declining in numbers in these later years, al- 
ways remind me of the tendrils which a vine sometimes thrusts 
through the crevices of a house wall into some cellar or un- 
used chamber. They grow there in the twilight very fast, 
quite perfect too in form for they are in shelter there where 
the winds do not beat upon them nor the sun scorch nor in- 
sects gnaw them. But they are pale things, white of leaf and 
shoot, when they should be dark and green. And then winter 
comes and the vine sleeps and when it awakes in the spring 
the hard brown trunk and branches which have been twisted 
and whipped in the storms and faced cold and heat and sun- 
shine and cloud, fill with sap and burgeon with leaves and 
rich young life, but the tendrils which have crept into the 
sheltered dimness of the cellar are withered and dead and 
bloom no more. 

So the pallid souls who can see nothing, read no meaning 
in all this history of the United States have dwelt so long in 
the twilight of the past, in the shelter of foreign lands far from 
the rude, vigorous, exuberant life of this new world of ours 
that they have grown feeble of sight and extinct of feeling. 
They must have ruins and castles and walled towns and all 
the heaped up riches of the centuries about them before they 
can believe that there is any history worth the telling. He 
would indeed be dull of soul who could walk unmoved of 
spirit among the tombs of Westminster or gaze indifferently 
upon the cathederal of Amiens or look out unstirred over the 
Roman Forum or behold from the Sicilian shore without a 
quickening of the pulse, the crags which Polyphemus hurled 
after Ulysses. Man's work on earth is of profoundest in- 
terest to man and where his monuments are gathered thick- 
est memories cluster most and we seem nearest to those who 
have gone before. But those who think that this is all mis- 


take the vesture for reality. They are still believers in the 
doctrine of clothes explained once by Thomas Carlyle in a 
manner which it would profit them to read. Like Lear they 
would do well to tear off " these lendings," come to the naked 
facts and find the soul which inhabits them. 

There is something older than walled towns and castles 
and ruins and that is the history of the race who built them. 
It is well to give the plays of Shakespeare all the splendors of 
mounting and costume and scenery which the resources of 
the modern theatre can bestow, but these things are not 
Shakespeare. The immortal poetry, the greatest genius 
among men were all there on the bare platform of the "Globe" 
playhouse when a sign alone told the audience what the scene 
of action was. The background is important, very pleasur- 
able too, but the drama of humanity is what gives it value 
and the scenery is secondary to the actors and the play. The 
trappings and the clothes of history count for much no doubt 
in Europe or Asia or Egypt chiefly for what they tell us of 
those who made them, but man himself and of our own race 
is and has been here too for some three hundred years just 
as in those older lands. Come out of the twihght then into 
the noonday and look at him and his deeds. Here we have 
seen in our history men engaged in that which was the very 
first battle of humanity against the primeval forces of nature 
before there was any history except what can be read in a few 
chipped flints. Here in this America of ours in the last three 
centuries we have had waged the bitter struggle of the race 
against the earth gods and the demons of air and forest, but 
it has been carried on by civilized men, not skin-clad savages, 
upon a scale never known before and which, in our little globe 
now all mapped and navigated, will never be seen again. Our 
three centuries have watched the living tide roll on, pushing 
the savage who had wasted his inheritance before it, and 
sweeping off to one side or the other rival races which strove 
with it for mastery. Here has been effected the conquest of 


a continent, its submission to the uses of man and there is no 
greater achievement possible than this with all its manifold 
meanings. Here the years have seen a new nation founded, 
built up and then welded together in the greatest war of the 
last century at a vast sacrifice dictated only by faith in country 
and by the grand refusal to dissolve into jarring atoms. To 
me I declare there is here an epic of human life and a drama 
of human action larger in its proportions than any which have 
gone before. To those who can discern only crude civiliza- 
tion, unkempt, unfinished cities, little towns on the border, 
unbeautiful in hasty and perishable houses, rawness and rough- 
ness and a lack of the refinements of more ancient seats of 
the race, I say, you are still under the dominion of the relig- 
ion of clothes. You hear only the noise of the streets and 
you are deaf to the mighty harmonies which sound across the 

There is a majestic sweep to the events which have befallen 
in this Western Hemisphere since the founding of Jamestown 
and Plymouth which it is hard to rival in any movement of 
mankind. And it is all compact of those personal incidents 
which stir the heart and touch the imagination more than the 
march of the race because we are each one of us nearer to the 
man than to the multitude. These are the events which in 
the mass make up human history and wherever human history 
has been made we find them, whether on the windy plains of 
Troy or in an American forest. No need to go beyond this 
valley to show my meaning. The little group in Queen 
Anne's War holding the Stebbins house in smoke and flame 
against overwhelming odds, the women and children in Mr. 
Williams's home murdered shrieking in the darkness are as 
tragic in their way as Ugolino in the Tower of Famine but 
they have had no Dante to tell their tale. The farmer slain 
at his plow, the stealthy scouting through the dusky woods, 
the captives dragged over ice and snow to Canada are as full 
of deep human interest as the English adventurer or the Ital- 


ian Condottiere or the German Lanzknecht who sold their 
swords to the highest bidder in Italy four hundred years ago. 
They deserve interest far more too and were doing work in 
world conquest which counted in the final reckoning and was 
not merely a noisy brawl, dying into eternal silence when the 
tavern closed. Travel two thousand miles from here to the far 
Southwest and look at the last fight of David Crockett. Is 
there anything finer in the history of brave men than that 
death grip at the Alamo ? The great scout wore a buckskin 
shirt ; it was all less than seventy years ago, but strip the 
clothes and man for man how does he differ from Leonidas ? 
Remember too, as has been said, that Thermopylae had her 
messengers of death and the Alamo had none. The spot 
where human valor has reached to the highest point attainable 
is as sacred in Texas as in Greece. It is full and brimming 
over that history of ours with the labors and toils, the sor- 
rows and victories of human beings like ourselves ; with 
comedy and tragedy, with pathos and humor and poetry. 
All that is needed is the seeing eye instead of a vision grown 
dim in a region of half-lights. Byron looked at it and the 
drama of the frontier and the men it bred rose clear before 
him. In noble verse he has embodied that march of the 
race against untamed Nature in the figure of Daniel Boone 
fighting the savages, fighting the forest, hunting the wild ani- 
mals in their lair until the reserves of the army had crossed 
the Alleghanies and come up to his support. And then the 
old man feels choked and smothered by the civilization and 
the settlements for which he has cleared the way and fought 
the battles and he passes on, a grim grey figure, and crosses 
the great river and goes again into the wilderness where he 
can be alone under the sky and watch the stars and hear the 
wind upon the heath untroubled by the sound of human 

It is a far cry from the English peer to the American car- 
penter but both could see the realities below the surface and 


Whitman, poet and prophet, felt in his soul the poetry of the 
p-reat democracy. He saw it in the crowds of New York, in 
the common affairs of life, in the great movement over the 
continent, in the pioneers who led the advance and in strange 
forms he gave it to the world first to wonder at and then 
dimly to understand. Emerson, a greater man than either of 
these, read the meaning of this great new world and gave it 
forth in a message which dwells forever in the hearts of all 
who have paused to listen to his teachings. Hawthorne and 
Holmes, Whittier and Lowell and Longfellow all in their de- 
gree heard the voices of the land and of its people and touched 
their highest notes when inspired by them. 

They are all there, the epic and the drama and the lyric. 
They are all there in the great movement with its wide sweep 
passing on relentless like the forces of nature. You will find 
every one of them if you come nearer, in the small commu- 
nity, in the family, in the individual man instinct with all the 
passions, all the aspirations, all the fears of the human heart, 
new with the freshness of eternal youth and ancient as the 
first coming of man upon earth. And if the scenery and the 
trappings, the clothes, the titles, and the contrasts of condition 
are lacking, there is this compensation that this story is all 
alive. It leads us to the very portals of the present and the 
imagination looking thence can dispense with an outv/orn past 
when it can range over the future which belongs in ever in- 
creasing measure to the new world. 

To this hour, then, we have come. We have travelled far 
in thought and we have been gazing backward over the road 
by which we have passed. Let us turn our eyes for a mo- 
ment upon the present which is our own, which lies all about 
us and peer thence into the future which stretches before us 
limitless and unknown. We have toiled hard in our three 
hundred years. What have the generations accomplished ? 
Very great results no one can doubt. By such work as has 
been done here in this valley we have made a great nation, no 


greater now extant as it seems to me, and yet we are only be- 
ginning to run our course. We are still young and un- 
breathed, with mighty strength and muscles trained and 
unexhausted. We have amassed riches beyond the dreams 
of avarice and our resources are neither wasted nor decayed. 
We have shared in the revolution of steam and electricity and 
harnessed them to our purposes as no other people have 
done. We have also in these and other ways quickened life 
and living to an enormous degree. Our vast industrial and 
economic machinery is pushing forward with an accelerating 
speed at a rate which should inspire us with caution as it al- 
ready inspires other nations with alarm. All the instrumen- 
talities of learning, of art, of pleasure are growing with an un- 
exampled rapidity. We have contributed to literature, we 
have done great work in science, we have excelled in inven- 
tion, we have bettered vastly the condition of life to all men. 
There is to-day no more portentous fact in this world of ours 
than the United States. A great country, a great people ; 
courage, energy, ability, force, all abundant, inexhaustible ; 
power, riches, success ; glory to spare both in war and 
peace ; patriotism at home ; respect abroad. Such is the pres- 
ent. Such are the results of the century and a half we com- 
memorate here to-day. 

But this is not all. We should be undeserving of our past, 
reckless of our future if we did not fully realize that we are 
human, that we have our perils and our trials, and that success 
can be kept only as it has been earned by courage, wisdom 
and a truthful mind, which looks facts in the face and scorns 
all shams and delusions. We have met and solved great 
problems. We have other problems ever rising with the re- 
current years, which like those that have gone before will not 
settle themselves but must in their turn be met and brought 
to a solution. Our problems are our own. They grow out 
of the conditions of the time as those of our fathers did in the 
earlier days. From without there is nothing we need tear. 


" Come the three corners of the world in arms and we shall 
shock them." Nor does cause for serious anxiety arise from 
the ordinary questions of domestic management. Tariffs and 
currencies, the development of the country, the opening of 
waterways, the organization of defense and of administration 
can all be dealt with successfully. The government of our 
great cities, the problem of the negro, the question of regulat- 
ing and assimilating our enormous immigration are in the high- 
est degree grave issues of great pith and moment which have 
a large bearing upon our future weal or woe. But I think 
they can all be met, that they all will be met with patient ef- 
fort and with a due measure of success. None of them touches 
the foundations of society or the sources of national life unless 
they should be neglected or mishandled to a degree inconceiv- 
able with a people so intelligent and so energetic as our own. 
But there are certain questions looming up, the outgrowth 
of conditions common to the whole world of western civiliza- 
tion and arising from the vast expansion and phenomenal ac- 
celeration of the industrial and economic forces of the age. 
They touch us particularly because we are expanding and 
quickening our economic movement more largely and more 
rapidly than any other people. We have, in other words, a 
higher energy of organization and production than any other 
nation. For this reason we are driving less highly organized 
and less energetic peoples to the wall. Whether the opposition 
thus aroused can be stilled or whether it will become desperate 
and manifest itself in a political or military manner no one can 
say. It behooves us, however, to watch carefully and be al- 
ways on our guard both in our conduct and in our readiness. 
Yet there are other conditions which modern forces produce 
even graver than this. The dangers threaten from sources 
widely different, even absolutely opposed and yet reacting 
upon each other. The new conditions, while they have raised 
greatly the well-being of the community and of the average 
man, have also caused an accumulation of fortunes and a con- 


centration of capital the like of which has never been seen be- 
fore. Here lies one peril — that of irresponsible wealth. 
Wealth which recognizes its duties and obligations is in its 
wise and generous uses a source of great good to the com- 
munity. But wealth, which, if inactive, neglects the duty it 
owes to the community, is deaf to the cry of suffering, seeks not 
to remedy ignorance and turns its back upon charity or which, 
if actively employed, aims to disregard the law, to prevent its 
enforcement or by purchase to control legislation, is irre- 
sponsible and therefore dangerous to itself and to others. The 
tyranny of mere money in society, in politics, in business or 
in any of the manifold forms of human activity is the coarsest 
and most vulgar tyranny, as worship of mere money is the 
most degraded worship that mankind has ever known. Over 
against this danger lies the peril of the demagogue, of the men 
who would seek to create classes and then set one class against 
another, the deadliest enemies to our liberty and our de- 
mocracy that the wit of man could imagine. Under the guise 
of helping to better the common lot they preach a gospel of 
envy and hatred. They ask men to embark on changes which 
may possibly relieve them from the pain of seeing anyone 
more fortunate and successful than themselves but which will 
not improve but will probably lower and injure their own con- 
dition. They proclaim panaceas, social and political, which 
are as old as man's oldest attempts at government and which 
have an ancient record of dismal failure. They ask us to 
come to a beautiful country of hills and woods and meadows, 
rich and fertile, with river and brook sparkling in the sun- 
light. They point to the promised land lying far away and 
dimly discerned upon the horizon. If you follow them the 
vision fades. It was but a mirage and you find yourself in- 
deed upon a level plain but the plain is a desert, arid and 
desolate, where hope and ambition lie dead and (he bones of 
those who have gone before bleach upon the sands. 

I am no pessimist. I am an optimist and I have a bound- 


less faith in my country and her people. But he would be a 
poor sailor who did not watch out for the reef on one side 
and the shoal upon the other because his ship was leaping 
forward with every sail straining before the favoring breeze. 
So it is our duty that we all, each in his due proportion, seek 
to carry this great nation forward upon the voyage of life. We 
have weathered many storms and we fear them not. But let 
us not forget that however conditions change, the great under- 
lying qualities which make and save men and nations do not 

I look back upon the event which we commemorate to- 
day. In the great book of the world's history it is but a 
line. Yet I find there the principles which alone I believe 
will enable us to strive and conquer as in the olden times. 
First I see a great solidarity of interest. Those men were 
foes to anarchy, most hateful of all things in human history. 
They fought shoulder to shoulder, united in purpose and de- 
termined that where they dwelt order should reign and not 
chaos. They met here one hundred and fifty years ago and did 
three very memorable things. They organized a town ; they 
established a church ; they opened a school. The simple, 
everyday, instinctive acts of an American community, you 
say. Yes truly, but it is because these have been hitherto the 
simple everyday acts of the American people that America 
is what she is to-day. These men of Greenfield a century and 
a half ago recognized three great facts, religion, education, 
ordered government. They recognized that they stood here 
upon the " bank and shoal of time " for one brief moment 
between two eternities. They declared in their simple fash- 
ion that the man or nation who did not recognize that there 
was something spiritual in them higher than all earthly and 
material things would surely pass down into ruin and darkness 
and that here pretenses were worse than nothing and could 
never serve. They recognized ignorance as an enemy and us- 
ing to the utmost such modest means as they had they pro- 


posed that so far as in them lay it should not be endured among 
them. Lastly they recognized the vital need of order and gov- 
ernment and they set up the town meeting, the purest democ- 
racy this modern world has seen or can yet see in actual opera- 
tion among men. In that town government they embodied as 
the great central principle, the largest individual liberty compat- 
ible with the rights of all. They built their town on the doc- 
trine that all men must work and bear each one his share of the 
common burden, that the fullest scope must then be given to 
each man and that each man thus endowed with opportunity 
must make his own fight and win his own way and that no 
one else could or ought to do it for him. It was the stern 
doctrine of a strong race, but on that doctrine the United 
States have risen to be what they are to-day. The rights and 
the good order of the community are in the charge of the 
government and the government must guard and protect them. 
But beyond that each man's fortune rests in his own hands 
and he must make it good. It will be a sorry day for this 
republic when the vital principle of the town meeting which 
has been thus far the vital principle of the American people 
is disregarded or set aside. 

As we look back into the past it is well to bear these lessons 
in mind, for otherwise we are false to its teachings. In the 
problems and difficulties which gather around us, in the future 
which stretches before us — a great and splendid future as I 
believe — we cannot go far wrong if we cling to the faith of the 
men who founded this town a century and a half ago. They 
built it on religion, on free government and on the largest 
liberty possible to the individual man. They sought no ready- 
made schemes to solve in a moment all difficulties and cure 
all evils. Slowly and painfully they had fastened themselves 
and their homes in this valley and they knew that only slowly, 
by much hard work and never by idleness and short cuts could 
they make the condition of the community and of all its 
members steadily and permanently better. They sought 



always to level up, never to level down. They looked facts 
in the face and did the duty nearest to their hands with all 
their strength. They were diligent in business and prospered 
as they deserved. But they did not forget that intelligence 
and character were of more value than wealth in the long 
process of the years. They felt, dimly perhaps, but none the 
less earnestly, that what they were, not what they had would 
count most when the final reckoning came. On the founda- 
tions they laid, the great structure of the United States has 
been reared. In the splendor of accomplishment let us not 
forget the beliefs and the principles of those who placed the 
corner stone. 

At the close of Mr. Lodge's address the children chanted 
the Lord's Prayer, and the following letters from Ex-Justice 
Charles Allen and Hon. John E. Russell were read by Judge 




E "EVERYBODY agrees that in most respects Greenfield is 
' now nearly an ideal New England town. This comes not 
merely from the beauty of its situation and the enterprise 
and taste of its present inhabitants, but also as I think in some 
degree from its history, and the character of its people in the past. 
A good reputation is a valuable asset for a town, as well as 
for an individual. Is it not natural to seek to equal and to 
surpass the good works of those who have gone before ? 
Looking back to the period from 1847 to 1862, I recall sev- 
eral noteworthy features of the life and society of Greenfield. 
In the first place, take three clergymen, Titus Strong, Ama- 
riah Chandler and John F. Moors. Each one of these fur- 
nished an example of true Christian service, faithful indeed to 
his own doctrinal beliefs, but not bound by the narrow lines 
of his own parish or denomination, and taking for his neighbor 
every one whom he could serve, and leaving a lasting influ- 
ence in favor of a broad human sympathy, and a general fel- 
lowship in good works. That is the kind of minister that 
the times demand to-day. 

Take also the leading physicians, Alpheus F. Stone and 
James Deane, the latter of whom was noted not only in his 


1156 JUDGE Allen's letter 

profession, but also for his studies and labors in connection 
with the sandstone footprints of the Connecticut River. He 
was succeeded by his nephew Adams C. Deane, now lately- 
deceased. Do not the present members of the noble medical 
profession, whose services for humanity we all so much honor, 
whose services to ourselves we all so much rely upon, who 
come closer to us in times of sickness than a brother, still 
derive an appreciable benefit from the zeal and the fine tone 
which all of these leaders exhibited in their practice ? 

Take the bar : My memory goes back to the time when 
Daniel Wells was its leader, and George Grinnell and David 
Aiken were partners. Soon afterwards leading practitioners 
were George T. Davis, Charles Devens and Wendell T. 
Davis, who were partners, and Whiting Griswold and Daniel 
W. Alvord, with whom was associated for a few years his bril- 
liant and accomplished cousin, George D. Wells, who fell at 
Cedar Creek. If I may speak of the law office in which I 
myself was student and afterwards junior partner, that of 
which George T. Davis was the admired and much loved 
head, I can say without reservation that its ethical tone was of 
the highest, and that both by precept and example we young- 
sters who were in it were taught, while showing all due fidel- 
ity and zeal in behalf of clients, not to indulge our feelings 
so far as to disregard the just rights of those upon the other 
side. I have always fondly believed, perhaps with excusable 
partiality, that in those times a better tone prevailed in the 
practice of law in Franklin County than in some of the other 
counties of the state; and I rejoice to think that this tradi- 
tional tone is still cherished and maintained by my friends, the 
older practitioners of to-day. Not of course that everything 
was rosy and perfect then, any more than it is now, but the 
bar, like other professions and occupations, asks to be judged 
according to the standards set and acted on by its best mem- 

Gladly would I dwell awhile upon the characters of some 

JUDGE Allen's letter 1157 

of the business men of that period, now deceased ; of FrankHn 
Ripley, of John Russell, of Theodore Leonard, of Henry B. 
Clapp, in whose unfortunate and untimely death Greenfield 
met with a rare loss ; and, a little later, of William B. Wash- 
burn. Nor in any recollections of Greenfield would I omit 
Henry W. Clapp, Alfred R. Field, Lucius Nims, kindest of 
neighbors, and James S. Grinnell, afterwards noted for his 
general hospitality. And amongst those women who formerly 
lent distinction to Greenfield society, it will not, I hope, after 
this lapse of time, be deemed invidious to mention the names 
of Mrs. George T. Davis, of her sister Mrs. Wendell T. 
Davis, and of Mrs. Henry Chapman. 

But time would fail me fitly to tell of these and of many 
others who crowd into my memory as I lovingly recall the 
period of my living in Greenfield. 

If, as I believe, some good influence from them still sur- 
vives, my hope is that all which was well done by them may 
be but an example and stimulus of what shall be even better 
in the future, so that Greenfield may indeed stand now and 
always in the very front rank of the towns of Massachusetts. 


Boston, May 25, 1903. 




IT is difficult to write a letter for this anniversary without 
some reference to the history of the region, though I will try 
not to entrench upon ground thatbelongstotheoratorof the 
day. My grandfather Russell was born in Deerfield and his 
Sheldon forebears had been participants in all the life of the 
old town in whose records are the stirring and romantic events 
of local history. 

Greenfield makes little show on historic pages, though its 
territory forms part of the shadowy frontier for which so much 
blood was shed in King Philip's war, and in the wars between 
the English and French. 

Turner, Holyoke, Moseley and other leaders were half for- 
gotten names, " the black and fatal day " when the blood of 
" the flower of Essex " incarnadined the brook, was a dim 
memory, and the generation that survived the awful winter 
night of 1 704 was in the grave, whe'n Greenfield was " set 
oflF" ; an event much easier of accomplishment, I imagine, 
than the separation of Cheapside from the mother town nearly 
a century and a half later. 

There is little of romance in what is near, authentic and 
practical. Happy is the man, the family and the town, that 


has had an uneventful history. There is no scope for imagi- 
nation and tradition in prosperous annals. 

When Greenfield began the Indian had appealed his claim 
to a higher court, the heavy work of settlement had been ac- 
complished and the people of the colonies, under the salutary 
neglect of a distant government, were enjoying freedom from 
feudal forms and restraints with the unbounded resources of 
a continent unwasted by hungry generations. 

It was an auspicious hour, and from then until now, with 
but little check, except during the years of the Revolution, 
Greenfield has been a thriving community, the center of an 
agricultural population, its steady source of business, never 
highly elated nor unduly depressed. 

Climate and soil have much to do with the character of 
every community, and while our meadows and hills had no 
profusion of crops, and no mines of valuable minerals, they 
sustained a frugal and industrious people in comfort. 

The town had its share of the advantages that drew the ear- 
liest settlers of the valley from the seacoast to the permanent 
meadows made by " the great river," in its annual overflow, 
when it " set back " in the spring floods. 

There was no primeval forest to be removed from those 
fertile banks, they were ready for the plough and rewarded 
the husbandmen with joyful harvests. The river, and its af- 
fluents, were alive with salmon and shad in their season ; they 
came like the birds, companions of the spring ; the fertile soil 
of the hills was covered with a strong growth of oak, sugar 
maple, beech and chestnut. It was a bountiful and beautiful 
region. He who has stood on rocky mountain, looking to 
the East and beheld the " June rise " come down from the 
melting snows of the North with 

" Sweet fields beyond the swelling flood 
All dressed in living green," 

will confess, not only the loveliness, but the majesty of the 


Travelling in distant parts of the world, in " storied realms 
of morning land," or on rivers famous in history, my thoughts 
have fondly returned to the scenes of early life and I have 
felt that those renowned shores had not the beauty of my na- 
tive valley and that, as her enthusiastic poet sang, 

" No watery glades through richer valleys shine, 
Nor drinks the sea a lovelier wave than thine." 

The great river had a value to our ancestors that we cannot 
estimate, in the fact that it was a waterway to the sea, the 
path by which the world was open to their enterprise. I 
have seen vessels moored at Cheapside of greater tonnage than 
those in which the star-gazing Genoese sailed from Spain to 
the discovery of the New World. I have watched the slow 
unloading of clanging bars of iron, of bundles of cutler's steel, 
water-borne from Liverpool to the head of navigation on the 
Deerfield, — vast piles of salt and odorous puncheons of rum, 
molasses and sugar, telling of tropical islands, waving fronded 
palms in Southern seas. 

In the incorporation of Greenfield the new town was en- 
titled to the North bank of the Deerfield river, but the old 
town jealously kept possession of both banks, a source of con- 
tention and heart burning for many years. In my boyhood 
the port was under the grim wardenship of Ira Abercrombie : 
he was Surveyor and Lord High Admiral of the fleet. His 
yellow warehouse was the receptacle for the riches of the seas. 
This allusion to river navigation may seem facetious to those 
accustomed all their lives to the convenience an4 domination 
of railways. It would seem impossible to do business on 
streams that, as John Randolph said of the Ohio, are frozen 
half the year and dry the other half; but for the greater part 
of a century our fathers found water enough, and the valley 
towns were supplied with goods, and marketed much of their 
produce by the river. After the Montague canal was con- 
structed, with capital borrowed in Amsterdam, boats ascended 


as far as Bellows Falls, when there was what was called " a 
good pitch of water." 

With inexpensive engineering at difficult parts of the river, 
between Hartford and the mouth of the Deerfield, and stern- 
wheel steamboats to tow the barges on the " reaches," quite 
rapid work was done. The boats used wind as much as pos- 
sible, — having a large main and top sail, very effective when 
the wind was in the South on the upward trip, or in the North 
on the way down ; but when the winds were adverse the nu- 
merous crew worked up stream with " set poles ; " this was 
called " a white ash breeze," and was severe and exhausting 

Allen, Root & Co. in later years, controlled the freighting 
of all this part of the river. They had a steamboat that ran 
from the head of the South Hadley canal to Montague, tow- 
ing the loaded boats ; the boat for Greenfield left the tow line 
at Deerfield river and made Cheapside with the white ash 

Those who hear this story of the past will readily believe 
that our rivers had a deeper and more equal flow of water in 
those days. When the Green River Works were built, nearly 
seventy years ago, the stream was larger than it is now, with 
a steady water power all summer. The rainfall has not less- 
ened, but the heavy forests have been destroyed ; these held 
the precipitation, and long delayed the melting snows, which 
now run from the denuded hillsides, washing the soil into the 
valley and making sudden freshets ; the unshaded springs 
dry early, and the river beds show narrow channels and reaches 
of sand. 

It is to be deplored that our grandfathers did not borrow 
more Dutch money, or tax themselves and bond posterity, to 
deepen the channel of the Connecticut and make canals about 
its falls, at a time when there was no powerful influence to 
prevent such improvements. 

Whoever sees the enormous traffic on the rivers of Ger- 


many, like the Elbe, becomes aware of the great economy in 
the use of natural waterways, when their channels are deepened 
and the flow regulated by jetties. 

When Greenfield patiently looked for the arrival of boats 
for its supply of heavy goods the world was not in a hurry. 
Except on a few main lines of travel the country was work- 
ing and dreaming, much as it had always done. The last 
century was well advanced when railways began to change the 
relations of communities, but the movement was rapid and soon 
the isolated town with its varied industries was but a memory. 
Steam has made us citizens of every state and participants in 
the general bounty of nature. 

Greenfield has had a fair share in the prosaic and noisy 
" prosperity " of recent years, but it was a sweet and restful 
place in its youth. A former inhabitant, if called to life, would 
think the present town a realm of enchantment, with roads 
cut through the bowels of the earth, and miraculous means of 
locomotion; he would start with surprise to see light and water 
springing into sight at turning a handle or touching a button. 
Perhaps, when his wonder subsided, he would miss something 
of peace and quietness. The changes are material, physical 
and mechanical ; what seemed impossible has become common- 
place ; men and women are unchanged. 

While Greenfield has kept pace with the country it has 
happily never had the intoxication, and consequent reaction 
of a ''boom." Hard times have always touched it lightly. 
Its important industries have had no experience of failure and 
reorganization. It has been fortunate in its citizens and in 
its families. Its remoteness from larger towns has been to 
its advantage and tended to the development of self-depend- 
ence. I regret that circumstances prevent me from ending 
my days where they so fortunately began. 

In my long absences from the valley of the Connecticut I 
have ever had the feeling of an exile. The scenes of child- 
hood have our first and last afi-'ection : 


" Dearer thy hills, though clad in autumn brown 
Than fairest summits which the cedars crown, 
Sweeter the fragrance of thy summer breeze 
Than all Arabia breathes along the seas ! 
O happiest they whose early love unchanged, 
Hopes undissolved, and friendships unestranged. 
Tired of their wanderings, still can ever see 
Love, hopes, and friendships, centering all in thee." 


The great celebration of the 1 50th anniversary of the in- 
corporation of Greenfield has come and gone, and with the 
gradual disappearance of the decorations Greenfield once more 
takes up its wonted life, and the June 9 observance becomes 
a memory. But it is a memory that will be a life-long endur- 
ance to every citizen of Greenfield who was present Tuesday. 
Without doubt it was the most brilliant day in Greenfield's 
history. A coaching parade, which many good judges call 
the best they ever saw here or elsewhere, historical exercises 
that commanded the presence and the utterance of two such 
distinguished speakers, the general accessories of music and 
fireworks and an enormous crowd constitute the climax of 
Greenfield's experience of public observances. 

The affair is remarkable for the unity of feeling which it 
has developed. All the help that was needed was forthcom- 
ing, and the number of workers was very large indeed and 
represented all interests and social circles of Greenfield. It 
is characteristic of such affairs in Greenfield that all the com- 
mittees and workers seem to pull together, and to this much 
of the success of this affair is due. 

The general committee, consisting of Judge Fessenden, 
W. G. Packard, E. B. Blake, Judge F. M. Thompson and 
C. R. Lowell, has had the brunt of the battle, and deserves 
the very greatest credit for hard and efficient work. A heavy 
responsibility also fell upon the Coaching club, which assumed 


charge of the parade. Had things gone wrong, the Coachnig 
club would have come in for blame ; with things right, it is 
natural that the officers of the organization feel pleased that 
their work has been so successful. They do not, however, 
claim more than their fair share of credit, recognizing that the 
success of the celebration is due in the last analysis to the 
loyal support of the citizens of the town. The Coaching 
club desires particularly to thank those who worked upon 
the flowers and who decorated private residences. 

The whole proceeding went off with the smoothness of 
clock-work. It was evident that every detail had been 
carefully thought out in advance, and difficulties had been 
met. As a result there were no hitches and no delays. 

The arch that spanned Main street has been generally pro- 
nounced a harmonious and satisfactory structure. It was simple 
in design, and did not err by the over ornateness so often 
characteristic. There was a reserve about the use of decora- 
tions that made it striking and effective. When lighted the 
effect was particularly beautiful. 

It consisted of a horizontal top supported by two columns, 
the whole covered with white and decorated with gilt scrolls 
and brackets and trimmed with festoons and wreaths of laurel 
and with flags. Above was a representation of the town seal. 
The figures 1 753-1 903 were spelled out by the electric light 
bulbs. The base of each column was eight by nine feet, the 
height of columns 29 feet, the opening of the arch 29 feet high 
and 26 wide. The total height was 41 feet. There was also 
an arch at the railroad station bearing the inscription 1753 — 
Welcome — 1903, and decorated with bunting. The colors 
most used in the street were red, white and blue, and with 
white and yellow. 

The good work of the decorators is worthy of special com- 
ment. The bunting was put up by the American Decorating 
company of South Framingham. About five tons of bunting 
was used, and $7^000 worth of stock was put upon the build- 


ings. A force of 15 men was employed. The decorators 
who undertake such jobs have a rather laborious time, and get 
little opportunity to share in the jubilation for which they help 
prepare. They worked day and night, shifts of men being 
so arranged as to give everyone his sleep except the head dec- 
orator. The work was continued through Sunday. When 
all is in place the decorators are always so tired that they lie 
down to sleep, while the crowd is enjoying their work and 
celebrating the occasion. The work of pulling down the 
bunting began Wednesday, and all would have been down 
Thursday night had it not been for the rain. The town has 
never looked better at the hands of any decorator. The 
flags thrown across Main street heightened the gay effect. 
Almost everyone along the line of march displayed flags and 
some undertook more elaborate displays. 

The early morning excursion of the Grand Army veterans 
to Poet's Seat was an outing that the former soldiers greatly 
enjoyed. The affair seemed to bring back their war expe- 
riences ; they exchanged jokes, called each other " powder- 
monkey," and other terms of endearment, and went through 
the regular military motions as if they were in service once 
more. The old gun kicked mightily on one discharge, re- 
coiling into the bushes about eight feet. 

A good-sized delegation of the newspaper men of Massa- 
chusetts responded to the invitation extended through the 
publicity committee. Landlord Eels generously provided 
them headquarters at The Devens, and refused to make any 
charge. At noon the party was entertained at the Mansion 
House. The guests included the following : W. L. Hill, 
Athol Transcript ; Col. Edgar J. Bliss, Boston Correspondent ; 
John M. Grainey, Boston Post ; Fred W. Main, Springfield 
Republican ; W. F. Leitch, Jr., Easthampton Enterprise ; 
L. N. Clark, Westfield Times and Newsletter; R. W. Water- 
man, Athol Chronicle; G. L. Munn, Easthampton News ; 
J. H. Whiting, Gardner Journal ; F. E. Howe, Bennington 


Banner ; J. S. Whitman, Orange Enterprize & Journal ; F. 
W. Ward, Winchendon Courier ; J. F. Temple, Shelburne 
Falls Echo. 

Many Greenfield people kept open house on anniversary 
day, serving luncheon all the afternoon to the friends that 
happened in. Mrs. William G. Packard entertained about 
50 in that way, and Mrs. Henry D. Packard and Mrs. A. 
C. Deane were two of a number of others that assisted in like 

Nathan D. Allen, deputy warden at the state prison, wit- 
nessed the celebration. 

Mrs. C. A. Deal made 58 hats for women participating in 
the parade. 

The children gathered upon the common for the parade 
made a pretty sight. The settees they used were appropriated 
by visitors after the parade, and offered a welcome rest to the 

The presence of some of the honored men of the older gen- 
eration was noticeable. George Sheldon, George W. Horr 
of Athol, Samuel O. Lamb of Greenfield, and Rev. Dr. 
Lyman Whiting of East Charlemont, made an interesting 

Although many of the visitors had excursion tickets. Ticket 
Agent C. J. Fisk and Assistant Zeiner were kept on the jump 
for over an hour supplying the crowd with tickets for the even- 
ing train out of Greenfield. 

Judge Thompson has been a busy man these days. The 
newspaper men and others looking for historical information 
have been constantly running to him. The Judge has met all 
inquirers cordially, and it is impossible to stick him on a point 
of Greenfield history. 

Judge Fessenden has done very valuable work for the cele- 
bration, as his influence has counted heavily in securing the 
distinguished speakers who graced the day. William G. 
Packard has been secretary of the committee, and has been 


overwhelmed with work for the past few weeks. His grasp 
of details has helped greatly. 

Greenfield luck on rainy parade days has turned at last. 
It has been a rainy week, and the exception of Tuesday from 
the showers that have fallen every other day since Sunday is a 
piece of good fortune that could not have been expected. 
We ought to be happy, for we have the needed rain and a 
good parade day too. 

Chances to sit down were greatly in demand. The curb- 
stones along the courthouse and in front of the Washburn 
house are always favorite resting-places on such occasions. 
Every step along Main street was utihzed, and some tired 
visitors were seen trying to find rest in the projections of the 
big trees on Main street, just above the roots. 

The two electric roads took in about 25,000 fares Tues- 
day. Only an approximate estimate can be made of the 
number of people that came to town by trolley, but the street 
railway people believe that they brought from 6,000 to 8,000 
people to Greenfield. The greatest crowd came from Turners 
Falls. One single-truck car carried 151 people. The cars 
on the Northampton line were crowded as far as Whately. 

The guests of Greenfield express themselves in the warmest 
way as to the success of the affair. Senator Lodge and Gov- 
ernor Bates were very much pleased with the proceedings, 
which they praised in highest terms. They liked the people, 
and gave warm expression to their pleasure before leaving 
town. Their opinion is the universal one. The newspaper 
men spoke very warmly and are now engaged in booming 
Greenfield through their respective sheets. James H. New- 
ton wrote from Holyoke to a member of the general commit- 
tee saying that the parade was the best he ever saw. 



PERSONS who have been feeling habitually young for 
the last fifty years or so experience a slight shock on 
being asked to furnish reminiscences for the town's 
150th anniversary, they having observed that such tasks are 
usually assigned to " our oldest inhabitant." But the behest 
of our venerable friend, the Gazette and Courier, must be 
obeyed. Fragments that chance to remain in memory of 
mother's talk carry me back well towards the first quarter of 
the century. When Boston had its first steam railroad grand- 
father Coleman, as the highest sarcasm on what the farmers 
felt the growing pretensions of " the Street," remarked ironi- 
cally, " I suppose now Greenfield will think it must have a 
railroad ! " The great event of the winter on grandfather's 
farm was the hired man's annual trip to Boston, driving dov/n 
a big sleigh laden with fresh pork, beef, butter, and other prod- 
uce, to be exchanged not only for groceries and dry goods, 
but for such rarities as fresh fish and oysters, otherwise unob- 
tainable. The children never failed to be up in the winter 
darkness at 4 A. M. to see the sleigh set off on this eventful 
journey, which consumed a week, going and returning. 

The farmers confidently predicted bankruptcy for my father 
on account of his extravagance in sending his daughters to 
boarding school, to the famous female seminary kept by the 
Misses Fiske at Keene, where the pupil who had not left any 
food on her plate to which she had helped herself received a 
silver salt spoon at the end of the year. But my mother had 


to long in vain for a piano, a luxury not to be thought of, 
even by her indulgent father. The first piano in town, and 
the only one for some time, was bought by Col. Gilbert of the 
American House for his daughter Martha. 

Miss Filley, the village's sole milliner for many years, was 
a noted character. I well recollect her, and her peculiarity of 
calling everyone " my dear," she having been heard so to ad- 
dress a ribbon-peddlar, " No, my dear, not any to-day," 
Lucius NimSj as a tiny boy, having had the misfortune to en- 
ter Miss Filley's with his mother, the canny old lady said, 
" What a beauty you are, my dear ; " and thenceforth 
" Lutie's " life was made miserable by the other boys, who 
dubbed him " Miss Filley's beauty." 

My earliest recollections of the village carry me back to one 
cattle show, when Uncle Lucius Nims brought a two horse 
wagon load of children down, and drove us around town to 
see the new streets. One was Franklin street, which then had 
but two or three houses, none on the east side. The young 
elms, recently set out by Henry Clapp, I think, were still 
slender saplings, and Park street was not. We drove to the 
end of Pleasant street, fenced off at the brow of the hill where 
it now meets Chapman street, and looked off across the fields 
to the new tool factory, an object of much interest then. 
Conway and the adjacent streets were just beginning, stimu- 
lated by the advent of the new business. 

As a child I gazed with awe and admiration on the Clapp 
place with its great green lot, where stood a real statue against 
a pretty clump of trees, and a fancy summer house, feeling 
that it undoubtedly rivalled the Oriental magnificence de- 
scribed in my favorite Arabian Nights. And the village girls 
wore white pantalets every day. No wonder if they felt as 
superior as we country girls fancied. 

For years my father's house on Davis street, three doors 
above Pleasant, stood at the end of the street, with nothing 
north but the Pierce farm. From my apple tree seat in the 


garden I gazed over the peaceful green fields and groves to 
the blue Leyden hills beyond, or watched old Mr. Pierce, 
John and Charles, getting in big loads of hay from land now 
covered by streets and houses. The section where now run 
Highland avenue, James street, etc., was then a hillside pas- 
ture, across which we strolled to Bears' Den. 

The Greenfield of my youth was not only a much smaller 
but a much simpler place than now. We girls of i6 or so, 
attending the Congregational church in Mr. Headley's day, 
felt in winter well dressed in our figured delaine dresses and 
plaid woolen shawls folded cornerwise, with dark blue ribbons 
and capes replacing the lighter summer trimmings of our 
white straw bonnets. Custom demanded no more, and so we 
were satisfied. Dressmaking was easy. Any woman could 
make the skirt of her own dress, which was full and plain, 
merely hemmed or faced at the bottom, gathered at the top, 
and innocent of gore, flounce or ruffle. All the trimming re- 
quired was some fancy galloon, ribbon, or " taste " around the 
sleeves or their caps, and buttons down the waist fronts. At 
a tea party, if the hostess, in addition to the inevitable hot 
biscuits, tea, preserves, and three or four kinds of cake, added 
cold tongue or even perchance escalloped oysters, why, that 
was a tea party indeed. But ah, the good times at those by- 
gone tea parties at Mrs. Aiken's, Mrs. Lamb's, the Davis's, 
the Osgood's, the Leonard's, and many another hospitable 
home ; the bright talk of bright people, the wit, the kindness, 
the flow of good spirits, 

" The eyes that shone, now dimmed and gone ! " 

Usually at Judge Aiken's we closed the evening, at his re- 
quest, by gathering around the piano and all singing to- 
gether " Auld Lang Syne." 

The grandest occasions in town were the occasional court 
parties, held during court sessions, in honor of judges and 
lawyers from abroad. I recollect some delightful " Court 


parties " at Judge Grinnell's, the Davis's, the Stevens', Judge 
Mattoon's, and other houses, and how overcoming was the 
honor to the young girl, a bank clerk, in being taken out to 
" refreshments " once by General Devens. Great men in 
those days were demi-gods. One had not yet learned that 
the great are only human beings, after all, like the rest of us, 
and the more truly great, the more simple and unpretentious. 

The first public labor I recollect is waiting on a table at a 
dinner party held in Davis block one cattle show by Mrs. 
W. T. Davis in aid of the Kansas sufferers. Three bright- 
eyed, wide-awake children had a candy table in aid of the 
cause on the sidewalk by the entrance. As I recall them 
running upstairs, all eager excitement, to report progress to 
their mother, it is hard to realize that they are now Mrs. John 
Conness, Mrs. Admiral Clarke, and Captain George Davis. 

In the war times of the sixties, when the 5 2d regiment was 
encamped on Petty's plains (on the present fair grounds), the 
whole town was devoted to the soldiers. Puddings, pies, all 
imaginable delicacies were showered upon the camp. When 
October came, and it was rumored that "the boys" were 
cold, stoves enough were sent over to warm every tent. No 
wonder Prof. James K. Hosmer said to me, with characteristic 
enthusiasm, " Our life is a perpetual picnic." Then came 
the bleak, cloudy November day, when the venerable Dr. 
Chandler stood in the end of a wagon, and raising his hands 
to heaven, commended the departing regiment to God's care, 
and " the boys " marched off to war, some never to return, 
many to suffer for life the effects of hardships and exposure. 
Little of picnics or pampering did " the boys " know after 
leaving Greenfield. How we all worked in the sanitary com- 
mission ! Throughout the war the Greenfield branch worked 
faithfully, doing much sewing, sending many barrels of food 
and clothing to the front, and much money too. Over $800 
was raised during the last year alone. 

Perhaps it is only the fond antediluvian partiality of an 


oldest inhabitant which makes the Greenfield of other days, 
small and simple though it was, seem of a finer intellectual 
atmosphere than that characterizing our lively town of to-day. 
The tone of the town, or the times, perhaps, somehow tended 
to make ambitious young people feel that the thing to do 
was to know, to read the best books, keep up, so far as pos- 
sible, with the highest thought of the time. Uncle Lucius' 
big sleigh, almost as big as his kind heart, often brought loads 
of young folks down from the Meadows on sparkling cold 
winter nights to attend lectures by Emerson, Starr King, 
George W. Curtis, Wendell Phillips, Beecher, and other 
noted speakers. Thackeray gave one of his lectures on the 
Four Georges in Washington hall, and was entertained by 
Geo. T. Davis, whom he pronounced the best conversational- 
ist he met in America. Dr. and Mrs. John F. Moors often 
entertained parties of young folks at their ever-hospitable 
home, showing pictures brought from Europe in those days 
when a European trip was the rare privilege of the favored 
few, having Shakespeare readings, and in many ways exerting 
a strong influence for culture. 

The young society people of those days, Mary Hall, Colo- 
nel Geo. D. Wells, Judge Charles Allen, and the rest, bent 
their energies to building up the Greenfield library, by means 
of a big library fair, for which Mrs. Whiting Griswold edited 
a paper, " Library Leaves." I recollect, as a high school 
girl, looking out of the window (the school was then kept in 
Davis block, over Kellogg's grocery) and seeing a certain dig- 
nified young lawyer, now an ex-judge, running up the middle 
of Main street with a tea-kettle in his hand, some emergency 
having arisen at the library fair. Probably many others feel 
as I do, that the best part of their education was derived from 
the Greenfield library, opening as it did to our youthful 
eagerness the best in standard literature. Miss Harriet Stone 
was for many years its librarian, succeeded by Miss Fanny 


The boarding schools kept by the Misses Stone and Rus- 
sell were for many years centres of refinement and culture 
here. But, after all is said, the best thing about old Green- 
field was the people themselves. As I recall many of them 
the heart glows with admiration, and gratitude, too. It was, 
indeed, a " liberal education " only to have known them. 
Name after name rises to memory. But the oldest inhabit- 
ant is proverbially garrulous, once started on the dangerous 
topic of the good old days, and it is quite time to desist from 
these random recollections. 

Mary P. Wells Smith, 

In the Gazette and Courier. 

yesterdays in GREENFIELD 

The following is Judge Charles Allen's letter to the Gazette, 
giving some political reminiscences and describing an enter- 
tainment at the home of Geo. T. Davis when Thackeray 
sung : 

The receipt of two requests for letters in connection with 
the celebration is slightly embarrassing, but I will try to meet 
them both. My regard for the Gazette and Courier is of 
long standing. When it was under Mr. Eastman's manage- 
ment, he brought it to a high standard. He was sometimes 
thought to be rather gruff in manner, but I found him to be 
not only a kindly but a liberal man, and very ready to grant 
reasonable favors. I always respected him. The character 
of the paper was maintained and improved by his associate 
and successor, Eben A. Hall, who made it one of the best jour- 
nals of its class, if not the very best in New England. From 
his sound judgment and wise direction he is well entitled to 
be called the "judicious " Hall, even as in Elizabethan times 
the same epitaph was bestowed upon Richard Hooker. 

What shall I say of the Greenfield of to-day ? Everybody 
takes pride in its schools, its cemetery, its streets lined with 
fine trees and flanked with well-kept private grounds. The 

1174 JUDGE Allen's reminiscences 

chief single treasure amongst its trees is the elm on the Hovey 
place. No old resident can ever look upon it without a 
thrill of admiration. Fifty years ago it had a rival — possibly 
a superior — in the elm, now perished, in the meadow of 
Cheapside, which was once measured by Alfred R. Field, 
with myself as engineer's helper. The dimensions, behold, 
are they not written in the chronicles of the " Autocrat of the 
Breakfast Table ? " This noble tree I knew well, for, during 
one summer, I used to pass and repass it every day in walk- 
ing to and from the Deerfield academy. The schools in 
Greenfield I suppose were not as good then as they are now, 
and during a part of my three years at the Deerfield academy 
other Greenfield boys were there ; amongst them, Charles P. 
Stone, John Stone, George D. Wells and Henry B. Clapp, 
while from Colrain came Adams C. Deane, afterwards of 
Greenfield. George Fuller the famous artist was also there. 
Of the existing institutions of Greenfield, I will now only 
speak of the Library association. I was in at its birth, and 
am therefore enabled to say that at the outset it was designed 
to make the library as nearly free as possible. We had not 
then got so far as to plan for a strictly public library, to be 
maintained by the town. In later years Governor Washburn 
gave to the Library association about $18,000 in all, and he 
was intending to give |2 5,000 more, to be invested as a per- 
manent fund and the income used only for buying books. 
He thought the running expenses should be paid by those 
who used the library. He had this intended gift much upon 
his mind, and but for his sudden death no doubt he would 
soon have settled upon certain matters of detail connected 
with it, and have carried out his purpose. He was looking 
forward to the time when the library should be made free to 
all the inhabitants of the town, under suitable regulations, and 
when the town should assume the payment of its current ex- 
penses. I am not sorry to see occasional mention of a move- 
ment to unite the two libraries. 

JUDGE Allen's reminiscences 1175 

I wonder how many Greenfield men there are who now re- 
member General Charles Devens' speech on the Fourth of July, 
1 854, delivered from the balcony of Barnard A. Newell's house 
in the Log Plain district, with the audience scattered about on 
the grass in front. I have never heard a more brilliant im- 
promptu address of rollicking fun from anybody on any oc- 
casion. The gathering was partly of a picnic character, the 
house and grounds were thrown open and the festivities were 
graced by the presence of Mr. and Mrs. Newell, then at their 
best in personal appearance, and surely no fairer couple entered 
a Greenfield church on a summer's Sunday. The address was 
delivered with occasional rests, and was renewed from time to 
time as the listeners clamored for more. The substance of it 
was that the people were tired of ordinary partisan methods 
and machinations, and there had been a great popular uprising, 
and our fellow-citizen, Barnard A. Newell, a plain man, a 
practical farmer, who had been seen actually at work in the 
field hoeing corn by a credible witness who himself had caught 
the hoe from his fainting hand, had received the nomination 
for president of the United States ; and there was a detailed 
enumeration, largely founded on the occupations of those who 
were present, of the various important business interests which 
would rally to his support. After a rest, this was followed 
by the reading of imaginary letters from different prominent 
statesmen of opposite political views, all hailing the people's 
nomination with enthusiasm and promising to support it. 
Amongst these was one from Lewis Cass, and one from 
Charles Sumner with comical scraps of Latin introduced. 
There was in fact a certain verisimilitude in the style of them 
all. Before the speech ended the fame of the candidate had 
spread to foreign lands, as shown by a very Frenchy letter 
of congratulation from Alphonse Lamartine. Finally the 
speaker wound up with the sentiment, 

"The Farmer of Log Tlain, my boys; the Farmer of Log Plain 1 
We've drank his heaUh full twenty times, and we'll drink it once again." 

1176 JUDGE Allen's reminiscences 

This last statement need not be taken too literally. It was 
poetical, and the number twenty was obviously hit upon from 
rhythmical necessity. 

There are few, also, who now remember an entertainment 
at the house of George T. Davis on Christmas eve, 1855, 
when Mr. Thackeray was present. Toward the close of the 
evening Mr. Thackeray sang in rather a monotonous chant 
his song of" Little Billee," and also his song called "A Credo," 
beginning : 

"For the sole edification 
Of this decent congregation, 
Goodly people by your grant, 
I will sing a holy chant, 
I wall sing a holy chant. 
If the ditty sound but oddly, 
'Twas a father, wise and Godly, 
Sang it so long ago. 
Then sing as Martin Luther sang, 
As Doctor Martin Luther sang : 
' Who loves not wine, woman and song, 
He is a fool his whole life long.' " 

I rather think this had not then been published, and at any 
rate it seems to me that it was quite new to all who heard it. 

Mr. Davis was a generous entertainer, and made Green- 
field pleasant to many notable persons. At his table have 
sat Emerson, Holmes, Lowell, Theodore Parker, Thomas 
Starr King, James Freeman Clarke, President C. C. Felton, 
E. P. Whipple, George W. Curtis, Samuel Bowles, Bayard 
Taylor, Dr. J. G. Holland, Rufus Choate, George Ashmun, 
Wendell Phillips and John A. Andrew. So many I think I 
can recall and just now forget many others. It was a good 
thing for Greenfield to have Mr. Davis live in it. But it is 
time to stop. When I get upon those days there is danger 
of running on indefinitely. " Claudite jam rivos^ pueri^ sat 
prata biberunt^' which may be freely rendered, " Stop now 
the flow of talk, my boys ; Greenfield has soaked enough." 

Charles Allen. 
Boston, May 26, 1903. 

JOHN E. Russell's reminiscences 1177 

Greenfield's public demonstrations 

Every child of Greenfield can heartily join in the com- 
memoration of the 150th anniversary of incorporation. 

It celebrates a century and a half of quiet advance from 
the usual small beginnings, with the prospect of still wider 
influence and greater population. It will probably not be 
long before Greenfield will join the group of Massachusetts 
cities. I greatly regret that my health will not permit me to 
make one in the happy scenes of the day. 

The town has not been notable in the past for celebrations. 
It has not been forthputting ; it has been modest and retiring ; 
let it now speak up and tell its origin and history. 

As the shire town of Franklin and the centre of a wide 
farming region we had many important gatherings in early 
days, but they were political conventions of both parties, with 
speeches out-of-doors, or regimental " musters "for the coun- 
try towns before the middle of th