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Greene County. 


Ets ^ast anlr present, 


A History of the County; Its Cities, Towns, Etc.; A Biographical 
Directory of its Citizens; War Record of its Volunteers in 
THE Late Rebellion ; Portraits of its Early Settlers and 
Prominent Men; General and Local Statistics; His- 
tory OF THE Northwest; History of Illinois; 
Constitution of the United States; Map 
of Greene County; Miscellaneous 
Matters, Etc., Etc. 


Donnelley, Cassette & Loyd, Publishers. 





Donnelley, Gassette & Lotd. The Lakeside Press. 


A single county in the great State of Illinois occupies but an insignificant 
place upon the map of the world, and its people and its story are comparatively 
unknown. Yet the grand river of national history is formed by the union of 
many rills of tradition and record flowing from a thousand counties and states 
all over the land. The tracing of one of these rills to its source, and the 
occasional gathering of a blossom from its banks, or a glittering pebble from its 
bed, is the province of the present volume. The dweller on the shores of a 
mighty Father of Waters knows more of the busy scenes of commerce than the 
hardy mountaineer, but the boy whose home is by the side of a rippling brook 
is familiar with every stone on its bank, with every fish in its bosom, and every 
tree that shades its tiny wavelets ; so the History of Greene County, though it 
deals not with the tumults of war or the intricacies of diplomacy, gives, the reader 
a much clearer view of the thoughts, the habits, and the trials of the people with 
o whom it is connected, than is possible in a more pretentious volume. It is with 
" this view that we issue the present work. It is not a record of the convulsions 
of nations, but of the lives of a few people who lived for a short time in a very 
vlimited territory. 

*^ The History of Greene County contained in this volume on pages 221 to 
^431, inclusive, were compiled by Clement L. Clapp, editor of the Carrollton 
Patriot, whose education and profession especially fit him for such a task. 

° Mr. Clapp desires us respectfully to apologize for the fact that 
—various events have not received the relative attention that their importance 
^demands. Owing to the haste in which the work was, of necessity, 
<vi prepared, materials which easily came to hand were freely used, and many 
jevents, persons, and institutions worthy of extended notice, are, by the exigen- 
-cies of circumstances, but briefly referred to. He requests us to acknowledge 
i'his obligation for valuable material to the writings of the late William A. 
,5TuNNELL, to the Centennial address of the late Hon. D. M. Woodson, and to 
othe Greene County Atlas. He has especial occasion for gratitude to Professor 
R. E. Wilder, of Greenfield, whose history of that town is complete and accu- 
rate; to the Rev. B. B. Hamilton, whose extended researches in local history 
are well known ; to Price & Sons for the free use of the files of the Carrollton 
Gazette; to County Clerk L. R. Lakin, and to Circuit Clerk J. H. Short, with 
his Deputy, Mr. F. M. Roberts, for assistance in examining the county records; 
to Mr. John W. Huitt, Judge Alfred Hinton, Mr. Anderson Headrick, 
and Mr. John V. Dee, patriarchs of the Past ; to David Pierson, Esq.; to Dr. 



C. Armstrong, Secretary of the Old Settlers' Association ; to N. J. Andrews, 
Secretary of the A. & M. Association ; to J. H. Vanarsdale, Esq.; to E. A. 
DooLiTTLE, Principal of the Ca,rrollton Public School; to H. H.Montgomery, 
Principal of the Greenfield Public School; to Dr. Fenity, Kane; to Mr. John 
Daniels, Palmer's Prairie; to Mr. T, J. Albert, Wilmington ; to J. L. Patter- 
son, Esq., Roodhouse ; and to many others, who have very considerably 
lightened his labors. 

The Publishers offer this book to the public, confident that it is by far the 
fullest and most accurate history of Greene County ever published. 

Very respectfully, 







History of Northwest Territory.. 19 

Geographical Position 19 

Early Explorations 20 

Discovery of the Ohio 33 

English Explorations and 

Settlements 35 

American Settlements 60 

Division of the Northwest 

Territory 66 

Tecumseh and the "War of 

1812 70 

Black Hawk and the Black 

Hawk War 74 

Other Indian Troubles 79 

Present Condition of the 

Northwest 87 

Illinois 99 

Indiana 101 

Iowa 102 

Michigan 103 

Wisconsin l04 

Minnesota 106 

Nebraska 107 

History of Illinois 109 

Coal 125 

Compact of 1787 117 

Chicago 132 

Early Discoveries 109 

Early Settlements 115 

Education 129 

French Occupation 112 

Genius of LaSalle 113 

Material Resources 124 

Massacre at Fort Dearborn ..141 

Physical Features 121 

Progress of Development 123 

Religion and Morals 128 

War Record of Illinois 130 

History of Greene County 221 

Geography of 221 

Topography and Geology 221 

Coal 231x 

Introductory History 2.3;j 

Earliest Settlements 235 

Organization of the County.. 248 

Two Episodes of 1821 259 

The Silver Mine Excitement. 267 
Events before the Deep Snow 277 


History of Greene County— 
The Deep Snow and Other 

Events 277 

The Mexican War 295 

Statistics 300 

County OfBcers from Date of 

Organization 302 

Various Institutions 306 

Organizations, etc 306 

Old Settlers' Association 312 

Constitution Old Settlers' As- 
sociation 313 

Early Settlers in Greene 

County 316 

List of Early Settlers in 

Greene County 316 

Agricultural and Mechanical 

Association 323 

County Officers 370 

Carrollton, City of 328 

The Haunted House 330 

Public Schools 339 

Carrollton Schools 340 

, Catalogue of School Cabinet 

J of Natural History ..346 

•^ Churches 351 

Secret Societies 366 

Masonic 366 

Odd Fellows 367 

Knights of Honor 367 

The Press 368 

Patriot Printing ofBce 368 

Library Association 369 

Fire Department 369 

Carrollton Guards 370 

Business Interests 371 

Carrollton Machine Shop and 

Foundry 371 

Banks 373 

Greenfield . . 374 

Churches 385- 

Banks 385 

Temperance 389 

Education ; 390 

Learned Professions 392 

Newspapers 394 

Societies 396 

Patriotic Record 395 


White Hall 396 

Churches 400 

Schools. 401 

Fire Department 401 

Library Association 401 

The Press 402 

Societies 403 

Masonic 403 

Odd Fellows 403 

Temperance 404 

Business Interests 404 

Banks 407 

Roodhouse 407 

Banks 412 

Education 412 

Schools 412 

The Press 412 

"^ Churches , 413 


Busi ness Interests 416~ 

Secret Societies 417 

Masonic 417 

Odd Fellows 417 

Knights of Honor 417 

Churches 417 

Rockbridge 418 

Secret Societies 419 

Masonic 419 

Knights of Honor 419 

Churches ..419 

Wilmington 420 

Churches 420 

Business Interests 421 

Literary and Polemic Soci- 
ety 423 

Bluffdale 425 

Fayette 426 

Wrightsville 427 

Athens ville 427 

Barrow 428 

New Providence 428 

Walkerville 429 

Woodville 429 

Berdan 430 

Columbiana 430 

Jalapa 430 


Mouth of the Mississippi 21 

Source of the Mississippi 21 

Wild Prairie 23 

LaSalle Landing on the Shore of 

Green Bay 25 

Buffalo Hunt 27 

Trapping 29 

Hunting 32 

Iroquois Chief 34 

Pontiac, the Ottawa Chieftain. . . 43 
Indians Attacking Frontiers- 
men 56 

A Prairie Storm 59 

A Pioneer Dwelling 61 

Breaking Prairie 63 

Tecumseh, Shawnee Chieftain... 69 

Indians Attacking a .Stockade... 72 

Black Hawk, the Sac Chieftain. . 75 

Big Eagle 80 


Capt. Jack, the Modoc Chieftain 83 

Kinzie House 85 

Village Residence 86 

A Representative Pioneer 87 

Lincoln Monument, Springfield. 88 

A Pioneer Scliool House 89 

Farm View in the Winter 90 

Spring Scene 91 

Pioneers' First Winter 92 

Apple Harvest 94 

Great Iron Bridge of the C, R. I. 
ife P. R.R., crossing the Missis- 
sippi at Davenport, Iowa 96 

A Western Dwelling 100 

Hunting Prairie Wolves at an 

Early Day. 108 

Starved Rock, on the Illinois 

River, LaSalle Co., Ill 110 

An Early Settlement 116 


Chicago In 1833 133 

Old Fort Dearborn, 1830 136 

Present Site Lake Street Bridge, 

Chicago, 1833 136 

Ruins of Chicago 142 

View of the City of Chicago 144 

Shabbona 149 

Carrollton School Building 341 

Carrollton Gazette Printing Of- 
fice 368 

Carrollton Patriot Printing Of- 
fice .-. 

Carrollton Machine Shop and 

Foundry 371 

Loomis &. Villinger's Jewelry 

Store, Carrollton 373 

White Hall Register Of&ce 402 


HustedE. M 147 

Jones Job n 201 

Patterson James L 183 



Price George B 219 

Robley Richard 165 


Roodhouse John Frontispiece 

Underwood Angelina 338 





7th 431 

9th (consolidated) 431 

12th 431 

14th 431 

Veteran Battalion, 14th and 

15th 433 

14th (reorganized) 434 

15th " 435 

16th 435 

18th (reorganized) 435 

19th 435 

22d 435 

27th 435 

28th (consolidated) 435 

29th 435 

30th 435 

32d 435 

33d 438 

34th 438 

38th 438 

49th 438 

50th 438 


5^d 439 

55th 439 

58th 439 

59th 439 

61st 441 

62d 450 

64th 450 

66th 450 

76th 450 

91st 450 

97th 457 

101st... 457 

106th 457 

113th 457 

114th 457 

119th 457 

122d 457 

124th 4.59 

126th 459 

127th 459 

138th 459 

129th 459 



133d 459 

144th 461 

145th 462 

146th 462 

149th 462 

152d 463 

154th 462 


3d (consolidated) 463 

fith 463 

7th 463 

9th 463 

10th 463 

11th 463 

12th 463 

12th (consolidated) 465 


1st 466 

2d 466 

29th U.S. Colored Infantry 466 

First Army Corps 467 



Carrrollton 469 

Greenfield 661 

Kane 726 

Kockhridge 661 

White Hall 524 

Wrightsville 661 

Town 9 North Range 10 West... 720 
'• 9 " " 11 " ...736 



Town 9 North Range 12 West. . .748 

Town 11 North Range 11 West 

t( 11** ** 1 o t( 


" 10 " 

" 10 

" ...661 

" 11 " 

" 13 " . 

M. 10 .. 

" 11 

" ...706 

" 12 " 

" 10 " 


" 10 " 

" 12 

" ...508 

" 12 •' 

" 11 " . 


" 10 " 

" 13 

" ...716 

" 12 " 

" 12 " . 


" 10 " 

" 14 

" ...719 

" 12 " 

" 13 " 


" 11 " 

" 10 

" ...620 



Adoption of Children 160 

Bills of Exchange and Promis- 
sory Notes 151 

County Courts 155 

Conveyances 164 

Churcii Organizations 189 

Descent 151 

Deeds and Mortgages 157 

Drainage 163 

Damages from Trespass 169 

Definition of Commercial Termsl73 
Exemptions from Forced Sale. . . 156 

Estravs 157 

Fences 168 

Forms : 

Articles of Agreement 175 

Bills of Purchase l74 

Bills of Sale 176 

Forms: Page 

Bonds 176 

Chattel Mortgages l77 

Codicil 189 

Lease of Farm and B'ldings.l79 

Lease of House 180 

Landlord's Agreement 180 

Notes 174 

Notice Tenant to Quit 181 

Orders 1 74 

Quit Claim Deed 185 

Receipt l74 

Real Estate Mortgage to se- 
cure Payment of Money 181 

Release 186 

Tenant's Agreement 1 80 

Tenant's Notice to Quit 181 

Warranty Deed 182 

Will 187 


Game 151 

Interest 158 

.Jurisdiction of Courts 154 

Limitation of Action 155 

Landlord and Tenant 169 

Liens 172 

Married Women 155 

Millers 1 59 

Marks and Brands 159 

Paupers 164 

Roads and Bridges 161 

Surveyors and Surveys 160 

Suggestions to Persons purchas- 
ing Books by Subscription 190 

Taxes 154 

Wills aiid Estates.'.'.'.'.'.'.'."! ! '.'.'.'.'.'.152 

Weights and Measures 158 

Wolf Scalps 164 


Map of Greene'County front. 

Constitution of the United Statesl92 
Electors of President and Vice- 
President. 1876 306 

Practical Rules for every day 

use 207 

U. S. Government Land Meas- 
ure 210 



Surveyors Measure 211 

How to keep Accounts 311 

Interest Table 312 

Miscellaneous Table 313 

Names of the States of the Union 

and their Significations 313 

Population of the U. S 214 

Population of Fifty Principal 

Cities of the U. S 214 

Population and Area of the U. S.315 
Population of the Principal 

Countries in the World 315 

Population of Illinois 216 

Agricultural Productions of Illi- 
nois by Counties 218 

Northwest Xerritory. 





The Northwest Territory. 


When the Northwestern Territory was ceded to the United States 
by Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying between the 
Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Micliigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
States itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River; but by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Northern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
domain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
" New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old " Northwestern 

In comparison with the old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of 13,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one third of 
the entire population of the United States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
flow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial valleys and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of which are arable and productive of the 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

For the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
west has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 




In the year 1541, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetrated no farther north than the 35th parallel 
of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his army, the remainder of whom found their way to Cuba, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded no 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of the red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of these discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims " moored their bark on the 
wild New England shore," Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iroquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run into Lake Huron ; and in 1634, two Jesuit missionaries founded the 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred years from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1541) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest at the Falls of St. Mary, 
below the outlet of Lake Superior. This visit led to no permanent 
result; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, who perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built the earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Northwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
years afterward, Nicholas Perrot, as agent for M. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a 
grand council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Ignatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 

During M. Talon's explorations and Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied 
— as all others did then — that upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's 
children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 



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request of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joliet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared for the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, the explorers, accompanied by five assist- 
ant French Canadians, set out from Mackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gathered to witness their departure, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from their purpose by representing the tribes on the Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their canoes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, 
which these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank him for the pity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving them an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
which Dablon and Allouez had extended their missionary labors the 
year previous. Here Marquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root which cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
Joliet, said : " My friend is an envoy of France, to discover new coun- 
tries, and I am an ambassador from God to enlighten them Avith the truths 
of the Gospel." Two Miami guides were here furnished to conduct 
them to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from the Indian village on 
the 10th of June, amidst a great crowd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that they were 
now upon the bosom of ths Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that delightful seventeenth of June must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 



Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold bluffs on either hand 
" reminded them of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
France." By-and-by, as they drifted along, great herds of buffalo appeared 
on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could see a 
country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of inhab- 
itants yet presenting the appearance of extensive manors, under the fas- 
tidious cultivation of lordly proprietors. 


On June 25, they went ashore and found some fresh traces of men upon 
the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in the 
boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered a 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, within a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few days they re-embarked and descended the river to 
about latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their course 


up the river, and ascending the stream to the mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source, and procured guides from that point 
to the lakes. " Nowhere on this journey," says Marquette, " did we see 
such grounds, meadows, wood's, stags, buffaloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even beavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The party, without loss or injury, reached Green Bay in September, and 
reported their discovery— one of the most important of the age, but of 
which no record was preserved save Marquette's, Joliet losing his by 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Quebec. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois' Indians by their request, and ministered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake Michigan — he asked 
to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefully passed away while at 
prayer. He was buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found the waters had retreated from the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace. The river has since been 
called Marquette. 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, differing Avidely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by him. These were Robert de La Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

After La Salle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages— a short way to China and the East, and was busily planning an 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from his and his companions' stories the idea that by fol- 
lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the object could easily be gained. He applied to 
Frontenac, Governor General of Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. ' Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great lakes by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestly hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made him a Chevalier. He also received 
from all the noblemen the warmest wishes for his success. The Ghev- 



alier returned to Canada, and busily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenac and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the 7th of August, 1679, having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Griffiii up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some time at Michillimackinac, where LaSalle founded a. fort, and passed 
on to Green Bay, the " Bale des Puans" of the French, where he found 
a large quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded the Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a, pilot and fourteen sailors, 


started her on her return voyage. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts until early in the Winter, when, hear- 
ing nothing from the Griffin, he collected all the men — thirty working 
men and three monks — and started again upon his great undertaking. 

By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, called by 
the Indians, "Theakeke," wolf, because of the tribes of Indians called 
by that name, commonly known as the Mahingans, dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it Kiahilci, which became corrupted to Kankakee. 
"Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December they reached a village of the Illi- 
nois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 


no inhabitants. The Seur de LaSalle being in want of some breadstuffs, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of which he found concealed in holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. The corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward evening, 
on the 4tli day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which must have 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called by the Indians Pim-i-te-wi, that 
is, a place where there are many fat beasts. Here the natives were met 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 
some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
place, for he had heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes were 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the travel. 
He called this fort " Crevecoeur^'' (broken-heart), a name expressive of the 
very natural sorrow and anxiety which the pretty certain loss of his ship. 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on the 
part of the Indians, and of mutiny among his own men, might well cause 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the Winter wore away, the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to explore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his jour- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfally made, though over an almost unknown route, and in a 
bad season of the year. He safely reached CanaJla, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Crevecoeur on the last of February, 
1680. When LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven days after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up the 
icy stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by the 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
band of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and " saw some charming prairies." 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May, when 
they reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Falls of St. Anthony 



in honor of his patron yaint. Here they took the land, and traveling- 
nearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to their villages. 
Here they were kept about three months, were treated kindly by their 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenchmen^ 


headed by one Seur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pene- 
trated thus far by the route of Lake Superior ; and with these fellow- 
countrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680, just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after went 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 


The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precious gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, he fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue and disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue them- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, called brigan- 
tines, in which they embarked, and descending the river, supposing it 
would load them to the sea, in July they came to the sea (Gulf of 
Mexico), and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi ; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the country, 
and hardly had an intelligent idea of what they had passed through. 

To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving the 
first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1682, he and his band of 
explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
the portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6th of February, 
reached the banks of the Mississippi. 

On the 13th they commenced their downward course, which' they 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the 6th of March they dis- 
covered the three great passages by which the river discharges its waters 
into the gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event : 

" We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de LaSalle 
went to reconnoiter the shores of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
meanwhile examined the great middle channel. Tliey found the main 
■outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the 8th we reascended the river, a 
little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond the 
reach of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole was here about 
twenty-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, and to 
the column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription : 

Louis Le Grand, Roi De France et de Navarre, regne ; Le neuvieme Avril, 1682. 

The whole party, under arms, chanted the Te Deum, and then, after 
:a salute and cries of " Vive le Roi,'' the column was expected by M. de 
La Salle, who, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the authority of 
the King of France. LaSalle returned and laid the foundations of the Misr 
sissippi settlements in Illinois, thence he proceeded to France, where 
.another expedition was fitted out, of which he was commander, and in two 
succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing along 
the shore of the gulf. On his third voyage he was killed, through the 



treachery of his followers, and tlie object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until 1699, when D'Iberville, under the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on the second of March, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was called by the natives 
^^ MalboucJua,^' and by the Spaniards, " ^a Palissade,^^ from the great 

.y- ^ .y> 





number of trees about its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade was now opened out which was fully improved. 
In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some European colo- 
nists. In 1762, the colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by 
France under the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased bv 


the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory 
of Louisiana and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the 
charge of the United States. Although LaSalle's labors ended in defeat 
and death, he had not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown 
open to France and the world an immense and most valuable country ; 
had established several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one 
settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monu- 
ments of LaSalle's labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them 
(unless Peoria, which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecoeur,) 
it was by those whom he led into the West that these places were 
peopled and civilized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of 
the Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and honored." 

The French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this was merely a missionary 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
lages, the other two being Cahokia and Peoria. What is known of 
these missions is learned from a letter written bv Father Gabriel Marest, 
dated " Aux Cascaskias, autrement dit de ITmmaculate Conception de 
la Sainte Vierge, le 9 Novembre, 1712." Soon after the founding of 
Kaskaskia, the missionary, Pinet, gathered a ilock at Cahokia, while 
Peoria arose near the ruins of Fort Crevecoeur. This must have been 
about the year 1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, 
(pronounced Wa-ba, meaning summer cloud moving swiftly^ was estab- 
lished in 1702, according to the best authorities.* It is altogether prob- 
able that on LaSalle's last trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia. In July, 1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartrain 
were laid by De la Motte Cadillac on the Detroit River. These sta- 
tions, with those established further north, were the earliest attempts to 
occupy the Northwest Territory. At the same time efforts were being 
made to occupy the Southwest, which finally culminated in the settle- 
ment and founding of the City of New Orleans by a colony from England 
in 1718. This was mainly accomplished through the efforts of the 
famous Mississippi Company, established by the notorious John Law, 
who so quickly arose into prominence in France, and who with his 
scheme so quickly and so ignominiously passed awa3^ 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed Avith the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the war with the Chicasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 

* There is considerable tUspute about this date, some asserting it was founded as late as 1742. Wlien 
the new court Iiovise at Vincennes was erected, all authorities on the subject were carefully examined, and 
*Y02 fixed upon as the correct date. It was accordingly eagraveil on the corner-stone of the court house. 


injuries, cut off the entire colony at Natchez. Although the company 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it was not until this time that the 
attention of the English was called to the occupation of this portion of the 
New World, which they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from " Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says: "We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
told. Most of the French till the soil; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed ; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans.'' This city was now the seaport town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the country found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says : " For fifteen leagues above the 
mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, the ground being too low 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and red, not more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 
and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty-five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, however, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 



work them as they deserve." Father Marest, writing from the post at 
Vincennes in 181 2, makes the same observation. Vivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this country, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams." 


At the close of the year 1750, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Maumee in the country of the Miamis, and one at Sandusky in what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River of Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of 
LaSalle were now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country, 


and hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, namely, the 

discovery' OF THE OHIO. 

This " Beautiful " river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet 
and Marquette. 

While LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, he found 
leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. 
He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed 
to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West. An incident 
soon occurred which decided him to fit out an exploring expedition. 

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a 
distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth. In this state- 
ment the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream. 
LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, that the great 
rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to 
embark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the continent to 
the commerce of China and Japan. 

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. His eloquent appeal prevailed. The Governor and the Intendant^' 
Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but .made no pro- 
vision to defray the expenses. At this juncture the seminary of St. Sul- 
pice decided to send out missionaries in connection with the expedition, 
and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money, 
the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred 
dollars were raised, with which LaSalle purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the outfit. 

On the 6th of Jul}^ 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, 
embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence ; two additional canoes 
carried the Indian guides. In three days they were gliding over the 
bosom of Lake Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present 
City of Rochester, New York. Here they expected to procure guides to 
conduct them to the Ohio, but in this they were disappointed. 

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise. LaSalle suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans. After 
waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian 



from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them 
that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence. 

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they 
heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. Arriving 


among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned 
from a Shawanee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. 
Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume 
their journey ; but just as they were about to sta,rt they heard of the 
arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village. One of them proved 
to be Louis Joliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. He 


had been sent by the Canadian Government to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lalce shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following June 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
mous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley upon another ground. When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : " We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of securing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, by that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to this unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants 
to the colonies extended " from sea to sea." This was not all her claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord H oward, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. These were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1741, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which the Indians received .£200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desire the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the Alleghenies. This was granted, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. AH this time the French 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in tlie 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling uj^on it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of tlie whole country. Upon the 10th of May, 1774, Vaud- 
reuil. Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
consequences that must arise from allowing the English to build trading 
posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which 
were inscribed the claims of France. These were heard of in 1752, and 
within the memory of residents now living along the "• Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called by the French. One of these plates was found 
with the inscription partly defaced. It bears date August 16, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was onl}^ a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
Company to examine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. He 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of the Eng- 
lish post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned. This 
fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
tory between the Ohio and the Wabash. The name is probably some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones 

♦ The following Is a traaslatioii of the inscription on the plate: "In the year 1749. reign of Louis XV., 
King of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment by Monsieur the Marquis of Gallisoniere, com- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate at the confluence of the Toradakoin, this twenty- ninth of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise 
Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken of the said river, and all its 
tributaries; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms and 
treaties; especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix La Chapelle." 


This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and 
occurred near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point about 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation became now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. The English deter- 
mined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to 
occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June, 
these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Lidians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their 
favor. This he did, and upon the loth of June they all united in signing 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the first 
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to out-manoeuvre 
each other, and were professing to be at peace. The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in many instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by faihng to provide them with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758 : " The Indians on the Ohio 
left you because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our affections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us." 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow. The Eng- 
lish made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. They had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete the chain of forts 
already begun, and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regard- 


ing tjie positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwicldie of 
Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from 
them, if possible, their intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughl}'- posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, who then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as his guide, the two, accompanied 
b}^ four servitors, set out on their perilous march. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. Fl'om there they went to 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the French, and 
also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Fort Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothing 
of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
he delivered Governor Dinwiddle's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet 
they reached home in safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwiddie, it was learned that the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French 
finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

The Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center of great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the neigfhborinsT 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were 


working away in hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest. 

" The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swift 
river rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand ; and all was so quiet, 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Monongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river ; and upon the morning 
of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores. * * * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoeur, 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the Monongahela." 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they had so easily captured, 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at WilFs Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the '' Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he surprised and captured a force of 
French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in his fort by a much superior force, and was obhged to yield on the 
morning of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns ; one 
against Fort DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755-6, 
and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions. 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat. This 
occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war continued with 
various vicissitudes through the years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secre- 
tary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the war. Three expeditions were planned for this year : one, 
under General Amherst, against Louisburg ; another, under Abercrombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the liands of the British. Abercrombie 
captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point without a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
The Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the war, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
in the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre- refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the 


French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 23d 
under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to %hom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the English in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. This answer conciliated the savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
month on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town" on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named 
Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnac. Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure safety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and the English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, 
were united in this feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 





upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Pontiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas,' Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares 
and Mingoes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unite 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 1768. 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian 
chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions ; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a sever© 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764, 
continued to harass and besiege the fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. At 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many years among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his country and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was, however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 

Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speech the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said : 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered us ! We are not your slaves ! These lakes, these woods, 
these mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for us upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
the English took possession of their country. These feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French arms might prevail. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half century, from the building of the Fort of Crevecoeur by 
LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set- 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract 
of rich alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. 

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England ; 
but they do not appear to have btan taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country with their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen. 
It was shortly after the occupancy of the West by the British that the 
war with Pontiac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain- By it many a Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settle- 


ment in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the year 
1764, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
eracy became disheartened^ and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom 
he afterward lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. This 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford 
and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
burgh to the mouth of the Kanawha ; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixty-five resident families, and at Cahokia only 
forty-five dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
at Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
flour found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769 : " In the 
course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 
extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 
themselves, and when all connection upheld .by commerce with the mother 
country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow." 

In accordance with this policy. Gov. Gage issued a proclamation 
in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
tlements and join some of the Eastern English colonies. To this they 


strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and were allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on June 2, 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies 
and the perseverance of individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling 
themselves the " Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying od 
the east side of the Mississippi River south of the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes 
as the agent of the association called the " Wabash Land Company." On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37,497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th of 
April, 1780, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the 
" United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." They afterward mada 


strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
signally failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unor- 
ganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at that time 
" Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were 
east of the Mississippi River, about the year 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

" Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve families in a small village at la 
Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until 
ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 
1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more 
than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated — the people being engaged 
in the Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1778, it comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house 
(near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by the Detroit River. It was surrounded by 
oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first three of these 


gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six- 
pounder. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a 
parallel direction with the block houses. There were four streets running 
east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufiBcient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 1778, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. They were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid appearance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British. There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
the other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty -four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock, Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the day, who per- 
formed strict duty. Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset; 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all tlie keys were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians were 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantly. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present "■ new " 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in the West. Kentucky was formed as a component part of 
Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


and recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in 
this part of the New World, held steadily to their purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth' of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway, 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived 
in August, was made the commander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented 
her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
unequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan. Ho 
saw it was through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and soutn, ana annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality ; and by spies sent for the purpose, 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on 
November 5th. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, 
Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
ao-itated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three 
months from their arrival in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. W. B. Smith to Hoi- 


ston for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. The settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the proposed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be found. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced to 
the men their real destination. Having completed his arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 
24th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen band, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to march directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the 
Spanish countr}'-. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States ; and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by the British that the " Long Knives" or Virginians, were the 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages. that ever scalped a foe. With 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the town reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or by killing any of the enemy. After sufficiently 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- 
fect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlooked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through their influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 


the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain possession 
of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians within its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the " Oubache " had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr, Rocheblave, who 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the Count}' of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Governor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Detroit and moved down 
the Wabash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky and drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, with an attend- 
ant named Henry, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
the entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of the 
fort. Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the British General, who could scarcely believe his eyes when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio, 


and to annoy the Americans in all wa3-s, and sat quietly down to' pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of Januar3% 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined by his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title "• Hair-buyer General," 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessary force. Governor Henr}^ being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

" But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, the 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial array, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier. Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian 
conflicts. These laws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges. After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, who 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United States 
to be rejected. The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this year that the first seminary of learning was established in the 
West in this young and enterprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look upon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to the Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appeared in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, yet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always referred to it as the 
"Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolting 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of the 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that they were 
compelled to abandon the contest. The}^ also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste. 

About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of that State in Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. This law was laid before Congress 
during the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those legislative 
measures Avhich resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important post, the only unconquered one in the 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and .Jefferson, and the act establishing the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the year in which occurred Arnold's treason to the 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
anything farther done until 1783. Daring all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother country, and in. 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the western settlements. 
Upon the 16th of April, 1781, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of Mary Heckewelder, daughter 
of the widely known Moravian missionary, whose band of Christian 
Indians suffered in after years a horrible massacre by the hands of the 
frontier settlers, who had been exasperated by the murder of several of 
their neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, 
a deed which forever afterwards cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the part of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

During the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravian Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the captives, 
manv of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 



frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with them were several engagements in Kentucky, 
in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts from cruel destruc- 



tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the American 
banner, and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
querable colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th of 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 


proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on tlie 3d of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows : On the north the line was to extend along the center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River; down its center to the 31st parallel of latitude, then on that line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Detroit, still in the hands of the enemy. Numerous engagements 
with the Indians throughout Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil. Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the set- 
tlement of the territory until this could be done. Before the close of the 
year another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. This was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where north of the 
Ohio wherever they chose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dilapidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the Cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana. 

While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being 
bought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 


delphia and Baltimore. Thej take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
money. There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beginning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
land office was opened at Louisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians who were yet, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries were recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. They 
held large tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
adopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided for the 
surveys of the lands gained thereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made 
with the Wabash Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made 
in 1784. That at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and through these much land 
was gained. The Wabash Indians, however, afterward refused to comply 
with the provisions of the treaty made with them, and in order to compel 
their adherence to its provisions, force was used. During the year 1786, 
the free navigation of the Mississippi came up in Congress, and caused 
various discussions, which resulted in no definite action, only serving to 
excite speculation in regard to the western lands. Congress had promised 
bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, but owing to the 
unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi respecting its naviga- 
tion, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, in 1783, declared 
its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded 
between the two Governments. Before the close of the year 1786, how- 
ever, it was able, through the treaties with the Indians, to allow some 
grants and the settlement thereon, and on the 14th of September Con- 
necticut ceded to the General Government the tract of land known as 
the " Connecticut Reserve," and before the close of the following year a 
large tract of land north of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once 
took measures to settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company 
were to pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction 
of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies. They received 
750,000 acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the 
seventh range of townships, on the west by the sixteenth range, and on 
the north by a line so drawn as to make the grant complete without 
the reservations. In addition to this. Congress afterward granted 100,000 
acres to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the 
resolutions of 1789 and 1790. 



While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressing- 
its claims before Congress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 1784, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition, the Territory was to have been divided into states 


by parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
potamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names, — the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in October, 1780, which fixed the boundaries, 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to* one hundred and fifty miles 


square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts, they desired a change, and in July, 1786, the 
subject was taken up in Congress, and changed to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. The subject of the Government was 
again taken up by Congress in 1786, and discussed throughout that year 
and until July, 1787, when the famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, 
and the foundation of the government of the Northwest laid. This com- 
pact is fully discussed and explained in the history of Illinois in this book, 
and to it the reader is referred. 

The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentleman had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 1786, and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to the 
New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following 
year. During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were preparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
23d of November made arrangements for a j)arty of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January the sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the 8d of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
■St. Clair Governor of the Territory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com~ 
plete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on the Yohiogany, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim that honor. 




Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the Northwest, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and published by- 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Washington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. I know 
many of its settlers personally, and there never were men better calcu- 
lated to promote the welfare of such a community.'" 


A PlONEEIl ])A\KI.1.IN(;. 

On the 2d of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held 
on the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new- 
born city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the 
"Muskingum," but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the block -houses stood 
was called '-'• (Jampus Martins ;'" square number 19, '■'■ Capitolium ;"" square 
number 61, '■'•Cecilia ;"' and the great road tlirough the covert way, " Sacra 
Via.'''' Two days after, an oration \vas delivered by James M. Varnum, 
who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been appointed to the 
judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of October, 1787. On July 9, 
Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colon}- began to assume form. The act 
of 1787 provided two district grades of government for the Northwest, 


under the first of which the whole power was invested in the hands of a 
governor and three district judges. This was immediately formed upon 
the Governor's arrival, and, the first laws of the colony passed on the 25th 
of July. These provided for the organization of the militia, and on the 
next day appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that country 
that had been ceded by the Indians east of the Scioto River into the 
County of Washington. From that time forward, notwithstanding the 
doubts yet existing as to the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the 
2d of September the first court of the territory was held with imposing 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. The com- 
mander at Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Muskingum, reported four 
thousand five hundred persons as having passed that post between Feb- 
ruary and June, 1788 — many of whom would have purchased of the 
"Associates," as the New England Company was called, had they been 
ready to receive them. 

On the 26th of November, 1787, Symmes issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his contract and the plan of sale he intended to adopt. In 
January, 1788, Matthias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest 
in Symmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one-third of this locality, he 
sold the other two-thirds to Robert Patterson and John Filson, and the 
three, about August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
was designated as being opposite Licking River, to the moulh of which 
they proposed to have a road cut from Lexington. The naming of ithe 
town is thus narrated in the "Western Annals " : — " Mr. Filson, who had 
been a schoolmaster, was appointed to name the town, and, in respect to 
its situation, and as if with a prophetic perception of the mixed race that 
were to inhabit it in after clays, he named it Losantiville, which, being 
interpreted, means : ville, the town ; anti, against or opposite to ; os, the 
mouth ; L. of Licking." 

Meanwhile, in July, Symmes got thirty persons and eight four-horse 
teams under way for the West. These reached Limestone (now Mays- 
ville) in September, where were several persons from Redstone. Here 
Mr. Symmes tried to found a settlement, but the great freshet of 1789 
caused the " Point," as it was and is yet called, to be fifteen feet under 
water, and the settlement to be abandoned. The little band of settlers 
removed to the mouth of the Miami. Before Symmes and his colony left 
the " Point," two settlements had been made on his purchase. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the original projector of the whole plan, who, with a 
colony of Redstone people, had located at the mouth of the Miami, 
whither Symmes went with his Maysville colony. Here a clearing had 



been made by the Indians owing to the great fertility of the soil. Mr. 
Stiltes with his colony came to this place on the 18th of November, 1788, 
with twenty-six persons, and, building a block-house, prepared to remain 
through the Winter. They named the settlement Columbia. Here they 
were kindly treated by the Indians, but suffered greatly from the flood 
of 1789. 

On the 4th of March, 1789, the Constitution of the United States 
went into operation, and on April 30, George Washington was inaug- 
urated President of the American people, and during the next Summer, 
an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north of the Ohio. The 
President at first used pacific means ; but these failing, he sent General 
Harmer against the hostile tribes. He destroyed several villages, but 


„ '^^^ 

was defeated in two battles, near the present City of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events were 
the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, General St. Clair 
was appointed in command, and marched against the Indians ; but while 
he was encamped on a stream, the St. Mary, a branch of the Maumee, 
he was attacked and defeated with the loss of six hundred men. 

General Wayne was now sent against the savages. In August, 1794, 
he met them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a complete 
victory. This success, followed by vigorous measures, compelled the 
Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, the following year, the 
treaty of Greenville was signed by the principal chiefs, by which a large 
tract of country was ceded to the United States. 

Before proceeding in our narrative, we will pause to notice Fort 
Washington, erected in the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. 
Nearly all of the great cities of the Northwest, and indeed of the 


whole country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourishing cities east and west 
of the Mississippi. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were a story and a half high, while those composing the officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it was erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present city (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, which was then a narrow alley, and the eastern boundary of 
of the town as it was originally laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contigubus buildings, occupied by workshops and quarters of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame house, 
familiarly called the " Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many years this was the best finished 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen City. Fort Washington was 
for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military governments 
of the Northwestern Territory. 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into by different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treat}'- of 1795 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour rapidly into the West. The great event of the year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. The United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
and other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
called to give them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne, who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, transferred his head- 



quarters to the neighborhood of the lakes, where a county named after 
him was formed, which included the northwest of Ohio, all of iMichigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
formed at the present City of ChilHcothe, along the Miami from Middle- 
town to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill" — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken place, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with, 
a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henry Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. On the 16th 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 24th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gen. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and approved by 
the Governor, were thirty-seven — eleven others were passed, but received 
his veto. The most important of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of December this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Bryd to the 
office of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Northwest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinary operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that : 

"In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
in such society. The extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * Xo 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territory into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division be made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July 4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory." 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides: 

" That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River ; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


was passed accepting this cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October that the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From the earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the "compact of 1787" provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they should be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Ohio» 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known,, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
with the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next year is 
memorable in the history of the West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
France by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the early 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were obtained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year, Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
grants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and the present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that i30st : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in the time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two hundred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by the town 
and Fort Lenault. The remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. * * * A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. The 
pickets, as well as the public houses, are in a state of gradual decay. The 
streets are narrow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. The houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During this year, Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in these 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of Michigan began to 
fill rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
a law was passed organizing the Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wm. Hull was appointed governor, with headquarters at Detroit, the 
change to take effect on June 30. On the 11th of that month, a fire 
occurred at Detroit, which destroyed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this was being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assembly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Thames, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and liis connection with this conflict. 




tecu:mseh, the shaw^vnoe chieftain. 



This famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present City of Piqua, Ohio. His father, Puckeshinwa, 
was a member of the Kisopok tribe of the Swanoese nation, and his 
mother, Methontaske, was a member of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. They removed from Florida about the middle of the last century 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to be 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 1795 he was 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when he 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River, Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos. From this date the chief 
comes into prominence. He was now about thirty-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutly built, and possessed of 
enormous powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
dential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
land made by the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the north, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, by watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced that a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseh's 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to the cunning 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the year 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year. Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averring 


as one principal reason that he did not want the Indians to give up any 
lands north and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited the General at Vincennes and 
held a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly 
angry at this conference he was dismissed from the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chiefs headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Fort Harrison. From this place he went to the 
prophet's town, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, provided they were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
up. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatl}^ exasperated at his 
brother, the prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly precipitating 
the war, and foiling his (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent Avord to Gen. Harrison that he was now returned 
from the South, and was ready to visit the President as had at one time 
previously been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not go 
as a chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 

In June of the foUowhig year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general remarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council house, and departed for Fort Mai- 
den, in Upper Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

He remained under this Government, doing effective work for the 
Crown while engaged in the war of 1812 which now opened. He was, 
however, always humane in his treatment of the prisoners, never allow- 
ing his warriors to ruthlessly mutilate the bodies of those slain, or wan- 
tonly murder the captive. 

In the Summer of 1813, Perry's victory on Lake Erie occurred, and 
shortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mai- 
den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the Valley of 
the Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen. 
McArthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 



On the 2d of October, the Americans began their pursuit of Proctor, 
whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of the Thames followed. 
Early in the engagement, Tecumseh who was at the head of the column 
of Indians was slain, and they, no longer hearing the voice of their chief- 
tain, fled. The victory was decisive, and practically closed the war in 
the Northwest. 



Just who killed the great chief has been a matter of much dispute ; 
but the Aveight of opinion awards the act to Col. Richard M. Johnson, 
who fired at him with a pistol, the shot proving fatal. 

In 1805 occurred Burr's Insurrection. He took possession of a 
beautiful island in the Ohio, after the killing of Hamilton, and is charged 
by many with attempting to set up an independent government. His 
plans were frustrated by the general government, his property confiscated 
and he was compelled to flee the country for safety. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Territory, made a 
treaty with the Indians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States. Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also during this year that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the compact of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Tenitory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory. 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of government being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then began the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the West went on with 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
" monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of January, 1812, it arrived at Natchez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake which occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stipulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 24th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout the West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty-three thousand inhabitants. The first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, and 
on December 11, the State was formally admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Corydon, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was laid out January 1, 1825. 


On the 28th of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish branches 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not bring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were subsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territory north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1826 that 
the trade was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships began to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War, 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which, especially the Michigan 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The people were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, the 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or Black Hawk, was born in the principal 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783, he 
Went on an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 





of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered the Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred lowas, he waged 
war against the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly to 
the Americans. When on a visit to St. Louis to see his " Spanish 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason, 
he did not want two fathers. 

The treaty at St, Louis was consummated in 1804. The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort was 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he Avas defeated. The difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and ammunition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans, In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
h?.:"^ a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
Urcvernment but httle is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not 
sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804, From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the breaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the lowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk Avas leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and was induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inhabited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them, 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
lowas. Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the military, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A large force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seaboard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, Avith 200 warriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock River toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band, 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action, Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the v/hole crossed the 


"Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the 
Mississippi. They were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
which followed the powerof the Indian chief was completely broken. He 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 1832, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
cluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
peaceable with the whites. For the faithful performance of the provi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
' Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
*' there to remain until the conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at liberty.'' They were retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. Everywhere they were observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next daj^ after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge. His wife was yet living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of his days. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholy had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times when he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received many tokens of esteem. 
In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in a fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried in 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 


body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side, the cane, given him 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's trophies were placed in the grave, and some 
Indian garments, together with his favorite weapons." 

No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was raj)idly coming into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Michigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, when the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

The main attraction to that portion of the Northwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, was its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found about Lake Superior. For some time this 
region was attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 183(5 was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, W^isconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it was a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstances 
compelled its present division. 


Before leaving this part of the narrative, we will narrate briefly the 
Indian troubles in Minnesota and elsewhere b}'- the Sioux Indians. 

In August, 1862, the Sioux Indians living on the western borders of 
Minnesota fell upon the unsuspecting settlers, and in a few hours mas- 
sacred ten or twelve hundred persons. A distressful panic was the 
immediate result, fully thirty thousand persons fleeing from their liomes 
to districts supposed to be better protected. The military authorities 
at once took active measures to punish the savages, and a large number 
were killed and captured. About a year after. Little Crow, the chief, 
was killed by a Mr. Lampson near Scattered Lake. Of those captured, 
thirty were hung at Mankato, and the remainder, through fears of mob 
violence, were removed to Camp McClellan, on the outskirts of the City 
of Davenport. It was here that Big Eagle came into prominence and 
secured his release by the following order : 





"Special Order, No. 430. "War Department, 

"• Adjutant General's Office, Washington, Dec. 3, 1864. 

" Big Eagle, an Indian now in confinement at Davenport, Iowa, 
will, upon the receipt of this order, be immediately released from confine- 
ment and set at liberty. 

" By order of the President of the United States. 
" Official : " E. D. TowNSEND, AssH Adft Gen. 

" Capt. James Vanderventer, Corny Sub. Vols. 
•' Through Com'g Gen'l, Washington, D. C." 

Another Indian who figures more prominently than Big Eagle, and 
who was more cowardly in his nature, with his band of Modoc Indians, 
is noted in the annals of the New Northwest : we refer to Captain Jack. 
This distinguished Indian, noted for his cowardly murder of Gen. Canby, 
was a chief of a Modoc tribe of Indians inhabiting the border lands 
between California and Oregon, This region of country comprises Avhat 
is known as the " Lava Beds," a tract of land described as utterly impene- 
trable, save by those savages who had made it their home. 

The Modocs are known as an exceedingly fierce and treacherous 
race. They had, according to their own traditions, resided here for many 
generations, and at one time were exceedingly numerous and powerful. 
A famine carried off nearly half their numbers, and disease, indolence 
and the vices of the white man have reduced them to a poor, weak and 
insignificant tribe. 

Soon after the settlement of California and Oregon, complaints began 
to be heard of massacres of emigrant trains passing through the Modoc 
country. In 1847, an emigrant train, comprising eighteen souls, was en- 
tirely destroyed at a place since known as " Bloody Point." These occur- 
rences caused the United States Government to appoint a peace commission, 
who, after repeated attempts, in 1864, made a treaty with the Modocs, 
Snakes and Klamaths, in Avhich it was agreed on their part to remove to 
a reservation set apart for them in the southern part of Oregon. 

With the exception of Captain Jack and a band of his followers, who 
remained at Clear Lake, about six miles from Klamath, all the Indians 
complied. The Modocs who went to the reservation were under chief 
Schonchin. . Captain Jack remained at the lake without disturbance 
until 1869, when he was also induced to remove to the reservation. The 
Modocs and the Klamaths soon became involved in a quarrel, and Captain 
Jack and his band returned to the Lava Beds. 

Several attempts were made by the Indian Commissioners to induce 
them to return to the reservation, and finally becoming involved in a 


difficulty with the commissioner and his military escort, a fight ensued, 
in which the chief and his band were routed. They were greatly enraged, 
and on their retreat, before the day closed, killed eleven inoffensive whites. 

The nation was aroused and immediate action demanded. A com- 
mission was at once appointed by the Government to see what could be 
done. It comprised the following persons : Gen. E. R. S. Canby, Rev. 
Dr. E. Thomas, a leading Methodist divine of California ; Mr. A. B. 
Meacham, Judge Rosborough, of California, and a Mr. Dyer, of Oregon. 
After several interviews, in which the savages Avere always aggressive, 
often appearing with scalps in their belts, Bogus Charley came to the 
commission on the evening of April 10, 1873, and informed them that 
Capt. Jack and his band would have a •' talk " to-morrow at a place near 
Clear Lake, about three miles distant. Here the Commissioners, accom- 
panied by Charle}^ Riddle, the interpreter, and Boston Charley repaired. 
After the usual greeting the council proceedings commenced. On behalf 
of the Indians there were present : Capt. Jack, Black Jim, Schnac Nasty 
Jim, Ellen's Man, and Hooker Jim. They had no guns, but carried pis- 
tols. After short speeches by Mr. Meacham, Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas, 
Chief Schonchin arose to speak. He had scarcely proceeded when, 
as if by a preconcerted arrangement, Capt. Jack drew his pistol and shot 
Gen. Canby dead. In less than a minute a dozen shots were fired by the 
savages, and the massacre completed. Mr. Meacham was shot by Schon- 
chin, and Dr. Thomas by Boston Charley. Mr. Dyer barely escaped, being 
fired at twice. Riddle, the interpreter, and his squaw escaped. The 
troops rushed to the spot where they found Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas 
dead, and Mr. Meacham badly wounded. The savages had escaped to 
their impenetrable fastnesses and could not be pursued. 

The whole country was aroused by this brutal massacre ; but it was 
not until the following May that the murderers were brought to justice. 
At that time Boston Charley gave himself up, and offered to guide the 
troops to Capt. Jack's stronghold. This led to the capture of his entire 
gang, a number of whom were murdered by Oregon volunteers while on 
their way to trial. The remaining Indians were held as prisoners until 
July when their trial occurred, which led 'to the conviction of Capt. 
Jack, Schonchin, Boston Charley, Hooker Jim, Broncho, alias One-Eyed 
Jim, and Slotuck, who were sentenced to be hanged. These sentences 
were approved by the President, save in the case of Slotuck and Broncho 
whose sentences were commuted to imprisonment for life. The others 
were executed at Fort Klamath, October 3, 1873. 

These closed the Indian troubles for a time in the Northwest, and for 
several years the borders of civilization remained in peace. They were 
again involved in a conflict with the savages about the country of the 

THE northwp:st territory. 





Black Hills, in which war the gallant Gen. Custer lost his life. Just 
now the borders of Oregon and California are again in fear of hostilities ; 
but as the Government has learned how to deal with the Indians, they 
will be of short duration. The red man is fast passing away before the 
march of the white man, and a few more generations will read of the 
Indians as one of the nations of the past. 

The Northwest abounds in memorable places. We have generally 
noticed them in the narrative, but our space forbids their description in 
detail, save of the most important places. Detroit, Cincinnati, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia and their kindred towns have all been described. But ere we 
leave the narrative we will present our readers with an account of the 
Kinzie house, the old landmark of Chicago, and the discovery of the 
source of the Mississippi River, each of which may well find a place in 
the annals of the Northwest. 

Mr. John Kinzie, of the Kinzie house, represented in the illustra- 
tion, established a trading house at Fort Dearborn in 1804:. The stockade 
had been erected the year previous, and named Fort Dearborn in honor 
of the Secretary of War. It had a block house at each of the two angles, 
on the southern side a sallyport, a covered way on the north side, that led 
down to the river, for the double purpose of providing means of escape, 
and of procuring water in the event of a siege. 

Fort Dearborn stood on the south bank of the Chicago River, about 
half a mile from its mouth. When Major Whistler built it, his soldiers 
hauled all the timber, for he had no oxen, and so economically did he 
work that the fort cost the Government only fifty dollars. For a while 
the garrison could get no grain, and Whistler and his men subsisted on 
acorns. Now Chicago is the greatest grain center in the world. 

Mr. Kinzie bought the hut of the first settler, Jean Baptiste Point au 
Sable, on the site of which he erected his mansion. Within an inclosure 
in front he planted some Lombardy poplars, seen in the engraving, and in 
the rear he soon had a fine garden and growing orchard. 

In 1812 the Kinzie house and its surroundings became the theater 
of stirring events. The garrison of Fort Dearborn consisted of fifty-four 
men, under the charge of Capt. Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant 
Lenai T. Helm (son-in-law to Mrs. Kinzie), and Ensign Ronan. The 
surgeon was Dr. Voorhees. The only residents at the post at that time 
were the wives of Capt. Heald and Lieutenant Helm and a few of the 
soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and a few Canadian vo3"agers with their 
wives and children. The soldiers and Mr. Kinzie were on the most 
friendly terms with the Pottawatomies and the Winnebagoes, the prin- 
cipal tribes around them, but they could not win them from their attach- 
ment to the British. 



After the battle of Tippecanoe it was observed that some of the lead- 
ing chiefs became sullen, for some of their people had perished in that 
conflict with American troops. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing his violin and his 
children Avere dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing into 
the house pale with terror, and exclaiming, " The Indians ! the Indians ! " 
*■'■ What? Where? " eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. " Up at Lee's, killing 
and scalping," answered the frightened mother, who, when the alarm was 
given, was attending Mrs. Burns, a Jiewly-made mother, living not ffir off. 


Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river in boats, and took refuge in 
the fort, to which place Mrs. Burns and her infant, not a day old, were 
conveyed in safety to the shelter of the guns of Fort Dearborn, and the 
rest of the white inhabitants fled. The Indians were a scalping party of 
Winnebagoes, who hovered around the fort some days, when they dis- 
appeared, and for several weeks the inhabitants were not disturbed by 

Chicago was then so deep in the wilderness, that the news of the 
declaration of war against Great Britain, made on the 19th of June, 1812, 
did not reach the commander of the garrison at Fort Dearborn till the 7th 
of August. Now the fast mail train will carry a man from New York to 
Chicago in twenty-seven hours, and such a declaration might be sent, 
every word, by the telegraph in less than the same number of minutes. 







Preceding chapters have brought us to the close of the Bhick Hawk 
war, and we now turn to the contemphition of the growth and prosperity 
of the Northwest under the smile of peace and the blessings of our civiiiv 
zation. The pioneers of this regioii date events back to the deep snow 



of 1831, no one arriving here since that date taking first honors. The 
inciting cause of the immigration which overflowed the praii-ies early in 
the '30s was the reports of the marvelous beauty and fertility of the 
region distributed through the East by those who had participated in the 
Black Hawk campaign with Gen. Scott. Chicago and Milwaukee then 
had a few hundred inhabitants, and Gurdon S. Hubbard's trail from the 
former city to Kaskaskia led almost through a wilderness. Vegetables 
and clothing were largely distributed through the regions adjoining the 



lakes by steamers from the Ohio towns. There are men now living in 
Illinois who came to the state when barely an acre was in cultivation, 
and a man now prominent in the business circles of Chicago looked over 
the swampy, cheerless site of that metropolis in 1818 and went south- 
ward into civilization. Emigrants from Pennsylvania in 1830 left behind 


them but one small railway in the coal regions, thirty miles in length, 
and made their way to the Northwest mostly with ox teams, finding in 
Northern Illinois petty settlements scores of miles apart, although the 
southern portion of the state was fairly dotted with farms. The 
water courses of the lakes and rivers furnished transportation to the 
second great army of immigrants, and about 1850 railroads were 
pushed to that extent that the crisis of 1837 was precipitated upon us» 



from the effects of which the Western country had not fully recovered 
at the outbreak of the war. Hostilities found the colonists of the prairies 
fully alive to the demands of the occasion, and the honor of recruiting 

1- i#^--^ 

'''■''il'''lj'il'i "'■■'■ 

-. 'll'ltHJl-'inli 






the vast armies of the Union fell largely to Gov. Yates, of Illinois, and 
Gov. Morton, of Indiana. To recount the share of the glories of the 
campaign won b/ V2y Western troops is a needless task, except to 
mention the fact that Illinois "^ave co the nation the President who save^i 



it, and sent out at the head of one of its regiments tne general who led 
^,ts armies to the final victory at Appomattox. The struggle, on the 

SV^.oxa,^.^.\f I 


whole, had a marked effect for the better on the new Northwest, gi dng 
it an impetus which twenty years of peace would not have produced. 
In a large degree this prosperity was an inflcited one, and with the rest 
of the Union we have since been compelled to atone therefor by four 










years of depression of values, of scarcity of employment, and loss of 
fortune. To a less degree, however, than tlie manufacturing or mining 
regions has the West suffered during the prolonged panic now so near its 
end. Agriculture, still the leading feature in our industries, has been 
quite prosperous through all these dark years, and the farmers liave 
cleared away many incumbrances resting over them from the period of 
fictitious values. The population has steadily increased, the arts and 
sciences are gaining a stronger foothold, the trade area of the region is 
becoming daily more extended, and we have been largely exempt from 
the financial calamities which have nearly wrecked communities on the 
seaboard dependent wholly on foreign commerce or domestic manufacture. 

At the present period there are no great schemes broached for the 
Northwest, no propositions for government subsidies or national works 
of improvement, but the capital of the world is attracted hither for the 
purchase of our products or the expansion of our capacity for serving the 
nation at large. Anew era is dawning as to transportation, and we bid 
fair to deal almost exclusively with the increasing and expanding lines 
of steel rail running through every few miles of territory on the prairies. 
The lake marine will no doubt continue to be useful in the warmer 
season, and to serve as a regulator of freight rates ; but experienced 
navigators forecast the decay of the system in moving to the seaboard 
the enormous crops of the West. Within fhe past five years it has 
become quite common to see direct shipments to Europe and the West 
Indies going through from the second-class towns along the Mississippi 
and Missouri. 

As to popular education, the standard has of late risen very greatly, 
and our schools would be creditable to any section of the Union. 

More and more as the events of the war pass into obscurity will the 
fate of the Northwest be linked with that of the Southwest, and the 
next Congressional apportionment will give the valley of the Mississippi 
absolute control of the legislation of the nation, and do much toward 
securing the removal of the Federal capitol to some more central location. 

Our public men continue to wield the full share of influence pertain- 
ing to their rank in the national autonomy, and seem not to forget that 
for the past sixteen years they and their constituents have dictated the 
principles which should govern the country. 

In a work like this, destined to lie on the shelves of the library for 
generations, and not doomed to daily destruction like a newspaper, one 
can not indulge in the same glowing predictions, the sanguine statements 
of actualities that fill the columns of ephemeral publications. Time may 
bring grief to the pet projects of a writer, and explode castles erected on 
a pedestal of facts. Yet there are unmistakable indications before us of 







t— < 


the same radical change in our great Northwest which characterizes its 
history for the past thirty years. Our domain has a sort of natural 
geographical border, save where it melts away to the southward in the 
cattle raising districts of the southwest. 

Our prime interest will for some years doubtless be the growth of 
the food of the world, in which brancli it has already outstripped all 
competitors, and our great rival in this duty will naturally be the fertile 
plains of Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, to say nothing of the new 
empire so rapidly growing up in Texas. Over these regions there is a 
continued progress in agriculture and in railway building, and we must 
look to our laurels. Intelligent observers of events are fully aware of 
the strides made in the way of shipments of fresh meats to Europe, 
many of these ocean cargoes being actually slaughtered in the West and 
transported on ice to the wharves of the seaboard cities. That this new 
enterprise will continue there is no reason to doubt. There are in 
Chicago several factories for the canning of prepared meats for European 
consumption, and the orders for this class of goods are already immense. 
English capital is becoming daily more and more dissatisfied with railway 
loans and investments, and is gradually seeking mammoth outlays in 
lands and live stock. The stock yards in Chicago, Indianapolis and East 
St. Louis are yearly increasing their facilities, and their plant steadily 
grows more valuable. Importations of blooded animals from the pro- 
gressive countries of Europe are destined to greatly improve the quality 
of our beef and mutton. Nowhere is there to be seen a more enticing 
display in this line than at our state and county fairs, and the interest 
in the matter is on the increase. 

To attempt to give statistics of our grain production for 1877 would 
be useless, so far have we surpassed ourselves in the quantity and 
quality of our product. We are too liable to forget that we are giving 
the world its first article of necessity — its food supply. An opportunity 
to learn this fact so it never can be forgotten was afforded at Chicago at 
the outbreak of the great panic of 1878, when Canadian purchasers, 
fearing the prostration of business mightbring about an anarchical condition 
of affairs, went to that city with coin in bulk and foreign drafts to secure 
their supplies in their own currency at first hands. It may be justly 
claimed by the agricultural community that their combined efforts gave 
the nation its first impetus toward a restoration of its crippled industries, 
and their labor brought the gold premium to a lower depth than the 
government was able to reach by its most intense efforts of legislation 
and compulsion. The hundreds of millions about to be disbursed for 
farm products have already, by the anticipation common to all commercial 



nations, set the wheels in motion, and will relieve us from the perils so 
long shadowing our efforts to return to a healthy tone. 

Manufacturing has attained in the chief cities a foothold which bids 
fair to render the Northwest independent of the outside world. Nearly 

our whole region has a distribution of coal measures which will in time 
support the manufactures necessary to our comfort and prosperity. As 
to transportation, the chief factor in the production of all articles excep *■ 
food, no section is so magnificently endowed, and our facilities are yearly 
increasing beyond those of any other region. 


The period from a central point of the war to the outbreak of the 
panic was marked by a tremendous growth in our railway lines, but the 
depression of the times caused almost a total suspension of operations. 
Now that prosperity is returning to our stricken country we witness its 
anticipation by the railroad interest in a series of projects, extensions, 
and leases which bid fair to largely increase our transportation facilities. 
The process of foreclosure and sale of incumbered lines is another matter 
to be considered. In the case of the Illinois Central road, which formerly 
transferred to other lines at Cairo the vast burden of freight destined for 
the Gulf region, we now see the incorporation of the tracks connecting 
through to New Orleans, every mile co-operating in turning toward the 
northwestern metropolis the weight of the inter-state commerce of a 
thousand miles or more of fertile plantations. Three competing routes 
to Texas have established in Chicago their general freight and passenger 
agencies. Four or five lines compete for all Pacific freights to a point as 
as far as the interior of Nebraska. Half a dozen or more splendid bridge 
structures have been thrown across the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers by 
the railways. The Chicago and Northwestern line has become an aggre- 
gation of over two thousand miles of rail, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul is its close rival in extent and importance. The three lines 
running to Cairo via Vincennes form a through route for all traffic with 
the states to the southward. The chief projects now under discussion 
are the Chicago and Atlantic, which is to unite with lines now built to 
Charleston, and the Chicago and Canada Southern, which line will con- 
nect with all the various branches of that Canadian enterprise. Our 
latest new road is the Chicago and Lake Huron, formed of three lines, 
and entering the city from Valparaiso on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
and Chicago track. The trunk lines being mainly in operation, the 
progress made in the way of shortening tracks, making air-line branches, 
and running extensions does not show to the advantage it deserves, as 
this process is constantly adding new facilities to the established order 
of things. The panic reduced the price of steel to a point where the 
railways could hardly afford to use iron rails, and all our northwestern 
lines report large relays of Bessemer track. The immense crops now 
being moved have given a great rise to the value of railway stocks, and 
their transportation must result in heavy pecuniary advantages. 

Few are aware of the importance of the wholesale and jobbing trade 
of Chicago. One leading firm has since the panic sold !B2-1:,000,000 of 
dry goods in one year, and they now expect most confidently to add 
seventy per cent, to the figures of their last year's business. In boots 
and shoes and in clothing, twenty or more great firms from the east have 
placed here their distributing agents or their factories ; and in groceries 



Chicago supplies the entire Northwest at rates presenting advantages 
over New York. 


Chicago has stepped in between New York and the rural banks as a 
financial center, and scarcely a banking institution in the grain or cattle 
regions but keeps its reserve funds in the vaults of our commercial insti- 
tutions. Accumulating here throughout the spring and summer months, 
they are summoned home at pleasure to move the products of the 
prairies. This process greatly strengthens the northwest in its financial 
operations, leaving home capital to supplement local operations on 
behalf of home interests. 

It is impossible to forecast the destiny of this grand and growing 
section of the Union. Figures and predictions made at this date might 
seem ten years hence so ludicrously small as to excite only derision. 


Length, 380 miles, mean width about 156 miles. Area, 55,410 square 
miles, or 35,462,400 acres. Illinois, as regards its surface, constitutes a 
table-land at a varying elevation ranging between 350 and 800 feet above 
the sea level ; comp'^sed of extensive and highly fertile prairies and plains. 
Much of the south d'^dsion of the State, especially the river-bottoms, are 
thickly wooded. The prairies, too, have oasis-like clumps of trees 
scattered here and there at intervals. The chief rivers irrigating the 
State are the Mississippi — dividing it from Iowa and Missouri — the Ohio 
(forming its south barrier), the Illinois, Wabash, Kaskaskia, and San- 
gamon, with their numerous aiSuents. The total extent of navigable 
streams is calculated at 4,000 miles. Small lakes are scattered over vari- 
ous parts of the State. Illinois is extremely prolific in minerals, chiefly 
coal, iron, copper, and zinc ores, sulphur and limestone. The coal-field 
alone is estimated to absorb a full third of the entire coal-deposit of North 
America. Climate tolerably equable and healthy ; the mean temperature 
standing at about 51" Fahrenheit As an agricultural region, Illinois takes 
a competitive rank with neighboring States, the cereals, fruits, and root- 
crops yielding plentiful returns ; in fact, as a grain-growing State, Illinois 
may be deemed, in proportion to her size, to possess a greater area of 
lands suitable for its production than any other State in the Union. Stock- 
raising is also largely carried on, while her manufacturing interests in 
regard of woolen fabrics, etc., are on a very extensive and yearly expand- 
ing scale. The lines of railroad in the State are among the most exten- 
sive of the Union. Inland water-carriage is facilitated by a canal 
connecting the Illinois River with Lake Michigan, and thence with the 
St. Lawrence and Atlantic. Illinois is divided into 102 counties ; the 
chief towns being Chicago, Springfield (capital), Alton, Quincy, Peoria, 
Galena, Bloomington, Rock Island, Vandalia, etc. By the new Consti- 
tution, established in 1870, the State Legislature consists of 51 Senators, 
elected for four y^ars, and 153 Representatives, for two years ; which 
numbers were to be decennially increased thereafter to the number of 
six per every additional half-million of inhabitants. Religious and 
educational institutions are largely diffused throughout, and are in a very 
flourishing condition. Illinois has a State Lunatic and a Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum at Jacksonville ; a State Penitentiary at Joliet ; and a Home for 

(91) ) 



Soldiers' Orphans at Normal. On November 30, 1870, the public debt of 
the State was returned at $4,870,937, with a balance of $1,808,833 
unprovided for. At the sanje period the value of assessed and equalized 
property presented the following totals : assessed, 1840,031,703 ; equal- 
ized $480,664,058. The name of Illinois, through nearly the whole of 
the eighteenth century, embraced most of the known regions north and 
west of Ohio. French colonists established themselves in 1673, at 
Cahokia and Kaskaskia, and the territory of which these settlements 
formed the nucleus was, in 1763, ceded to Great Britain in conjunction 
with Canada, and ultimately resigned to the United States in 1787. 
Illinois entered the Union as a State, December 3, 1818; and now sends 
19 Representatives to Congress. Population, 2,539,891, in 1870. 




The profile of Indiana forms a nearly exact parallelogram, occupy- 
ing one of the most fertile portions of tlie great Mississippi Valley. The 
greater extent of the surface embraced within its limits consists of gentle 
undulations rising into hilly tracts toward the Ohio bottom. The chief 
rivers of the State are the Ohio and Wabasli, with their numerous 
affluents. The soil is highly productive of the cereals and grasses — most 
particularly so in the valleys of the Ohio, Wabash, Whitewater, and 
White Rivers. The northeast and central portions are well timbered 
with virgin forests, and the west section is notably ricli in coal, constitut- 
ing an offshoot of the great Illinois carboniferous field. Iron, copper, 
marble, slate, gypsum, and various clays are also abundant. From an 
agricultural point of view, the staple products are maize and wheat, with 
the other cereals in lesser yields ; and besides these, flax, hemp, sorghum, 
hops, etc., are extensively raised. Indiana is divided into 92 counties, 
and counts among her principal cities and towns, those of Indianapolis 
(the capital). Fort Wayne, Evansville, Terre Haute, Madison, Jefferson- 
ville, Columbus, Vincennes, South Bend, etc. The public institutions of 
the State are many and various, and on a scale of magnitude and 
efficiency commensurate with her important political and industrial status. 
Upward of two thousand miles of railroads permeate the State in all 
directions, and greatly conduce to the development of her expanding 
manufacturing interests. Statistics for the fiscal year terminating 
October 31, 1870, exhibited a total of receipts, 13,896,541 as against dis- 
bursements, $3,532,406, leaving a balance, $364,135 in favor of the State 
Treasury. The entire public debt, January 5, 1871, $3,971,000. This 
State was first settled by Canadian voyageurs in 1702, who erected a fort 
at Vincennes ; in 1763 it passed into the hands of the English, and was 
by the latter ceded to the United States in 1783. From 1788 till 1791, 
an Indian ware fare prevailed. In 1800, all the region west and north of 
Ohio (then formed into a distinct territory) became merged in Indiana. 
In 1809, the present limits of the State were defined, Michigan and 
Illinois having previously been withdrawn. In 1811, Indiana was the 
theater of the Indian War of Tecumseh, ending with the decisive battle 
of Tippecanoe. In 1816 (December 11), Indiana became enrolled among 
the States of the American Union. In 1834, the State passed through a 
monetary crisis owing to its having become mixed up with railroad, 
canal, and other speculations on a gigantic scale, which ended, for the 
time being, in a general collapse of public credit, and consequent bank- 
ruptcy. Since that time, however, the greater number of the public 


works which had brought about that imbroglio — especially the great 
Wabash and Erie Canal — have been completed, to the great benefit of 
the State, whose subsequent progress has year by year been marked by 
rapid strides in the paths of wealth, commerce, and general social and 
political prosperity. The constitution now in force was adopted in 1851. 
Population, 1,680,637. 


In shape, Iowa presents an almost perfect parallelogram ; has a 
length, north to south, of about 300 miles, by a pretty even width of 208 
miles, and embraces an area of 55,045 square miles, or 35,228,800 acres. 
The surface of the State is generally undulating, rising toward the 
middle into an elevated plateau which forms the " divide " of the 
Missouri and Mississippi basins. Rolling prairies, especially in the south 
section, constitute a regnant feature, and the river bottoms, belted with 
woodlands, present a soil of the richest alluvion. Iowa is well watered ; 
the principal rivers being the Mississippi and Missouri, which form 
respectively its east and west limits, and the Cedar, Iowa, and Des 
Moines, affluents of the first named. Mineralogically, Iowa is important 
as occupying a section of the great Northwest coal field, to the extent of 
an area estimated at 25,000 square miles. Lead, copper, zinc, and iron, 
are also mined in considerable quantities. The soil is well adapted to 
the production of wheat, maize, and the other cereals ; fruits, vegetables, 
and esculent roots ; maize, wheat, and oats forming the chief staples. 
Wine, tobacco, hops, and wax, are other noticeable items of the agricul- 
tural yield. Cattle-raising, too, is a branch of rural industry largely 
engaged in. The climate is healthy, although liable to extremes of heat 
and cold. The annual gross product of the various manufactures carried 
on in this State approximate, in round numbers, a sum of $20,000,000. 
Iowa has an immense railroad system, besides over 500 miles of water- 
communication by means of its navigable rivers. The State is politically 
divided into 99 counties, with the following centers of population : Des 
Moines (capital), Iowa City (former capital), Dubuque, Davenport, Bur- 
lington, Council Bluffs, Keokuk, Muscatine, and Cedar Rapids. The 
State institutions of Iowa — religious, scholastic, and philanthropic — are 
on a par, as regards number and perfection of organization and operation, 
with those of her Northwest sister States, and education is especially 
well cared for, and largely diffused. Iowa formed a portion of the 
American territorial acquisitions from France, by the so-called Louisiana 
purchase in 1 803, and was politically identified with Louisiana till 1812, 


when it merged into the Missouri Territory; in 1884 it came under the 
Michigan organization, and, in 1836, under that of Wisconsin. Finally, 
after being constituted an independent Territory, it became a State of 
the Union, December 28, 1846. Population in 1860, 674,913 ; in 1870, 
1,191,792, and in 1875, 1,353,118. 


United area, 56,243 square miles, or 35,995,520 acres. Extent of the 
Upper and smaller Peninsula — length, 316 miles; breadth, fluctuating 
between 36 and 120 miles. The south division is 416 miles long, by from 
50 to 300 miles wide. Aggregate lake-shore line, 1,100 miles. The 
Upper, or North, Peninsula consists chiefly of an elevated plateau, 
expanding into the Porcupine mountain-system, attaining a maximum 
height of some 2,000 feet. Its shores along Lake Superior are eminently 
bold and picturesque, and its area is rich in minerals, its product of 
copper constituting an important source of industry. Both divisions are 
heavily wooded, and the South one, in addition, boasts of a deep, rich, 
loamy soil, throwing up excellent crops of cereals and other agricultural 
produce. The climate is generally mild and humid, though the Winter 
colds are severe. The chief staples of farm husbandry include the cereals, 
grasses, maple sugar, sorghum, tobacco, fruits, and dairy-stuffs. In 1870, 
the acres of land in farms were : improved, 5,096,939 ; unimproved 
woodland, 4,080,146 ; other unimproved land, 842,057. The cash value 
of land was $398,240,578 ; of farming implements and machinery, 
$13,711,979. In 1869, there were shipped from the Lake Superior ports, 
874,582 tons of iron ore, and 45,762 of smelted pig, along with 14,188 
tons of copper (ore and ingot). Coal is another article largely mined. 
Inland communication is provided for by an admirably organized railroad 
system, and by the St. Mary's Ship Canal, connecting Lakes Huron and 
Superior. Michigan is politically divided into 78 counties ; its chief 
urban centers are Detroit, Lansing (capital), Ann Arbor, Marquette, 
Bay City, Niles, Ypsilanti, Grand Haven, etc. The Governor of the 
State is elected biennially. On November 30, 1870, the aggregate bonded 
debt of Michigan amounted to 82,385,028, and the assessed valuation of 
land to $266,929,278, representing an estimated cash value df $800,000,000. 
Education is largely diffused and most excellently conducted and pro- 
vided for. The State University at Ann Arbor, the colleges of Detroit 
and Kalamazoo, the Albion Female College, the State Normal School at 
Ypsilanti, and the State Agricultural College at Lansing, are chief among 
the academic institutions. Michigan (a term of Chippeway origin, and 


signifying "Great Lake), was discovered and first settled by French 
Canadians, who, in 1670, founded Detroit, the pioneer of a series of trad- 
ing-posts on the Indian frontier. During the " Conspiracy of Pontiac," 
following the French loss of Canada, Michigan became the scene of a 
sanguinary struggle between the whites and aborigines. In 1796, it 
became annexed to the United States, which incorporated this region 
with the Northwest Territory, and then with Indiana Territory, till 1803, 
when it became territorially independent. Michigan was the theater of 
warlike operations during the war of 1812 with Great Britain, and in 
1819 was authorized to be represented by one delegate in Congress ; in 
1837 she was admitted into the Union as a State, and in 1869 ratified the 
15th Amendment to the Federal Constitution. Population, 1,181,059. 


It has a mean length of 260 miles, and a maximum breadth of 215. 
Land area, 53,921 square miles, or 31,511,360 acres. Wisconsin lies at a 
considerable altitude above sea-level, and consists for the most part of an 
upland plateau, the surface of which is undulating and very generally 
diversified. Numerous local eminences called mounds are interspersed 
over the State, and the Lake Michigan coast-line is in many parts char- 
acterized by lofty escarped cliffs, even as on the west side the banks of 
the Mississippi form a series of high and picturesque bluffs. A group of 
islands known as The Apostles lie off the extreme north point of the 
State in Lake Superior, and the great estuary of Green Ba}^ running far 
inland, gives formation to a long, narrow peninsula between its waters- 
and those of Lake Michigan. The river-system of Wisconsin has three 
outlets — those of Lake Superior, Green Bay, and the Mississippi, which 
latter stream forms the entire southwest frontier, widening at one point 
into the large watery expanse called Lake Pepin. Lake Superior receives- 
the St. Louis, Burnt Wood, and Montreal Rivers ; Green Bay, the 
Menomouee, Peshtigo, Oconto, and Fox; while into the Mississippi 
empty the St. Croix, Chippewa, Black, Wisconsin, and Rock Rivers. 
The chief interior lakes are those of Winnebago, Horicon, and Court 
Oreilles, and smaller sheets of water stud a great part of the surface. 
The climate is healthful, with cold Winters and brief but very warm 
Summers. Mean annual rainfall 31 inches. The geological system 
represented by the State, embraces those rocks included between the 
primary and the Devonian series, the former containing extensive 
deposits of copper and iron ore. Besides these minerals, lead and zinc 
are found in great quantities, together with kaolin, plumbago, gypsum^ 


and various clays. Mining, consequently, forms a prominent industry, 
and one of yearly increasing dimensions. The soil of Wisconsin is of 
varying quality, but fertile on the whole, and in the north parts of the 
State heavily timbered. The agricultural yield comprises tlie cereals, 
together with flax, hemp, tobacco, pulse, sorguni, and all kinds of vege- 
tables, and of the hardier fruits. In 1870, the State had a total number 
of 102,904 farms, occupying 11,715,321 acres, of which 5,899,o4o con- 
sisted of improved land, and 3,437,442 were timbered. Cash value of 
farms, (§300,414,064 ; of farm implements and machinery, $14,239,364. 
Total estimated value of all farm products, including betterments and 
additions to stock, $78,027,032 ; of orchard and dairy stuffs, $1,045,933 ; 
of lumber, 81,327,618 ; of home manufactures, $338,423 ; of all live-stock, 
$45,310,882. Number of manufacturing establishments, 7,136, employ- 
ing 39,055 hands, and turning out productions valued at $85,624,966. 
The political divisions of the State form 61 counties, and the chief places 
of wealth, trade, and population, are Madison (the capital), Milwaukee, 
Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, Prairie du Chien, Janesville, Portage City, 
Racine, Kenosha, and La Crosse. In 1870, the total assessed valuation 
reached §333,209,838, as against a true valuation of both real and personal 
estate aggregating 8602,207,329. Treasury receipts during 1870, $886,- 
696 ; disbursements, $906,329. Value of church property, $4,749,983. 
Education is amply provided for. Independently of the State University 
at Madison, and those of Galesville and of Lawrence at Appleton, and 
the colleges of Beloit, Racine, and Milton, there are Normal Schools at 
Platte ville and Whitewater. The State is divided into 4,802 common 
school districts, maintained at a cost, in 1870, of $2,094,160. The chari- 
table institutions of Wisconsin include a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, an 
Institute for the Education of the Blind, and a Soldiers' Orphans' School. 
In January, 1870, the railroad system ramified throughout the State 
totalized 2,779 miles of track, including several lines far advanced toward 
completion. Immigration is successfully encouraged by the State author- 
ities, the larger number of yearly new-comers being of Scandinavian and 
German origin. The territory now occupied within the limits of the 
State of Wisconsin was explored by French missionaries and traders in 
1639, and it remained under French jurisdiction until 1703, when it 
became annexed to the British North American possessions. In 1796, it 
reverted to the United States, the government of which latter admitted 
it within the limits of the Northwest Territory, and in 1809, attached it 
to that of Illinois, and to Michigan in 1818. Wisconsin became independ- 
ently territorially organized in 1836, and became a State of the Union, 
March 3, 1847. Population in 1870, 1,064,9^5, of which 2,113 were of 
the colored race, and 11,521 Indians, 1,206 of the latter being out of 
tribal relations. 



Its length, north to south, embraces an extent of 380 miles ; its 
breadth one of 250 miles at a maximum. Area, 84,000 square miles, or 
54,760,000 acres. The surface of Minnesota, generally speaking, con- 
sists of a succession of gently undulating plains and prairies, drained by 
an admirable water-system, and with here and there heavil}^- timbered 
bottoms and belts of virgin forest. The soil, corresponding with such a 
superfices, is exceptionally rich, consisting for the most part of a dark, 
calcareous sandy drift intermixed with loam. A distinguishing physical 
feature of this State is its riverine ramifications, expanding in nearly 
. every part of it into almost innumerable lakes — the whole presenting an 
aggregate of water-power having hardly a rival in the Union. Besides 
the Mississippi — which here has its rise, and drains a basin of 800 miles 
of country — the principal streams are the Minnesota (334 miles long), 
the Red River of the North, the St. Croix, St. Louis, and many others of 
lesser importance ; the chief lakes are those called Red, Cass, Leech, 
Mille Lacs, Vermillion, and Winibigosh. Quite a concatenation of sheets 
of water fringe the frontier line where Minnesota joins British America, 
culminating in the Lake of the Woods. It has been estimated, that of 
an area of 1,200,000 acres of surface between the St. Croix and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers, not less than 73,000 acres are of lacustrine formation. In 
point of minerals, the resources of Minnesota have as yet been very 
imperfectly developed; iron, copper, coal, lead — all these are known to 
exist in considerable deposits ; together with salt, limestone, and potter's 
clay. The agricultural outlook of the State is in a high degree satis- 
factory ; wheat constitutes the leading cereal in cultivation, with Indian 
corn and oats in next order. Fruits and vegetables are grown in great 
plenty and of excellent quality. The lumber resources of Minnesota are 
important ; the pine forests in the north region alone occupying an area 
of some 21,000 square miles, which in 1870 produced a return of scaled 
logs amounting to 313,116,416 feet. The natural industrial advantages 
possessed by Minnesota are largely improved upon by a railroad system. 
The political divisions of this State number 78 counties; of which the 
chief cities and towns are : St. Paul (the capital), Stillwater, Red Wing, 
St. Anthony, Fort Snelling, Minneapolis, and Mankato. Minnesota has 
already assumed an attitude of high importance as a manufacturing State ; 
this is mainly due to the wonderful command of water-power she pos- 
sesses, as before spoken of. Besides her timber-trade, the milling of 
flour, the distillation of whisky, and the tanning of leather, are prominent 
interests, which, in 1869, gave returns to the amount of $14,831,043. 



Education is notably provided for on a broad and catholic scale, the 
entire amount expended scholastically during the year 1870 being $857,- 
816 ; while on November 30 of the preceding year the permanent school 
fund stood at $2,476,222. Besides a University and Agricultural College, 
Normal and Reform Scliools flourish, and with these may be mentioned 
such various philanthropic and religious institutions as befit the needs of 
an intelligent and prosperous community. The finances of the State for 
the fiscal year terminating December 1, 1870, exhibited a balance on the 
right side to the amount of $136,164, being a gain of $44,000 over the 
previous year's figures. The earliest exploration of ^Minnesota by the 
whites was made in 1680 by a French Franciscan, Father Hennepin, who 
gave the name of St. Antony to the Great Falls on the Upper Missisippi. 
In 1763, the Treatv of Versailles ceded this region to England. 
Twenty years later, Minnesota formed part of the Northwest Territory 
transferred to the United States, and became herself territorialized inde- 
pendently in 1849. Indian cessions in 1851 enlarged her boundaries, and. 
May 11, 1857, Minnesota ])ecame a unit of the great American federation 
of States. Population, 439,706. 


Maximum length, 412 miles ; extreme breadth, 208 miles. Area, 
75,905 square miles, or 48,636,800 acres. The surface of this State is 
almost entirely undulating prairie, and forms part of the west slope of 
the great central basin of the North American Continent. In its west 
division, near the base of the Rocky Mountains, is a sandy belt of 
country, irregularly defined. In this part, too, are the " dunes," resem- 
bling a wavy sea of sandy billows, as well as the Mauvaises Terres. a tract 
of singular formation, produced by eccentric disintegrations and denuda- 
tions of the land. The chief rivers are the Missouri, constituting its en- 
tire east line of demarcation ; the Nebraska or Platte, the Niobrara, the 
Republican Fork of the Kansas, the Elkhorn, and the Loup Fork of the 
Platte. The soil is very various, but consisting chiefly of rich, bottomy 
loam, admirably adapted to the raising of heavy crops of cereals. All 
the vegetables and fruits of the temperate zone are produced in great 
size and plenty. For grazing purposes Nebraska is a State exceptionally 
well fitted, a region of not less than 23,000,000 acres being adaptable to 
this branch of husbandry. It is believed that the, as yet, comparatively 
infertile tracts of land found in various parts of the State are susceptible 
of productivity by means of a properly conducted system of irrigation. 
Few minerals of moment have so far been found within the limits of 



Nebraska, if we may except important saline deposits at the head of Salt 
Creek in its southeast section. The State is divided into 57 counties, 
independent of the Pawnee and Winnebago Indians, and of unorganized 
territory in the northwest part. The principal towns are Omaha, Lincoln 
(State capital), Nebraska City, Columbus, Grand Island, etc. In 1870, 
the total assessed value of property amounted to $53,000,000, being an 
increase of $11,000,000 over the previous year's returns. The total 
amount received from the school-fund during the year 1869-70 was 
$77,999. Education is making great onward strides, the State University 
and an Agricultural College being far advanced toward completion. In 
the matter of railroad communication, Nebraska bids fair to soon place 
herself on a par with her neighbors to the east. Besides being inter- 
sected by the Union Pacific line, with its off-shoot, the Fremont and Blair, 
other tracks are in course of rapid construction. Organized by Con- 
gressional Act into a Territory, May 30, 1854, Nebraska entered the 
Union as a full State, March 1, 1867. Population, 122,993. 


Early History of Illinois. 

The name of this beautiful Prairie State is derived from lUim, a 
Delaware word signifying Superior Men. It has a French termination, 
and is a symbol of how the two races — the French and the Indians — 
were intermixed during the early history of the country. 

The appellation was no doubt well applied to the primitive inhabit- 
ants of the soil whose prowess in savage warfare long withstood the 
combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the one side, and the no less 
savage and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the other. The Illinois were 
once a powerful confederacy, occupying the most beautiful and fertile 
region in the great Valle}' of the Mississippi, which their enemies coveted 
and struggled long and hard to wrest from them. By the fortunes of 
war they were diminished in numbers, and finally destroyed. " Starved 
Rock," on the Illinois River, according to tradition, commemorates their 
last tragedy, where, it is said, the entii'e tribe starved rather than sur- 


The first European discoveries in Illinois date back over two hun- 
dred years. They are a part of that movement which, from the begin- 
ning to the middle of the seventeenth century, brought the French 
Canadian missionaries and fur traders into the Valley of the Mississippi^ 
and which, at a later period, established the civil and ecclesiastical 
authority of France from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and from the foot-hills of the Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains. 

The great river of the West had been discovered by DeSoto, the 
Spanish conqueror of Florida, three quarters of a century before the 
French founded Quebec in 1608, but the Spanish left the country a wil- 
derness, without further exploration or settlement within its borders, in 
which condition it remained until the Mississippi was discovered by the 
agents of the French Canadian government, Jolietand Marquette, in 1673. 
These renowned explorers were not the first white visitors to Illinois. 
In 1671 — two years in advance of them — came Nicholas Perrot to Chicago. 
He had been sent by Talon as an agent of the Canadian government to 





call a great peace convention of Western Indians at Green Bay, prepara- 
tory to the movement for the discovery of the Mississippi. It was 
deemed a good stroke of policy to secure, as far as possible, the friend- 
ship and co-operation of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon 
an enterprise which their hostility might render disastrous, and whicli 
their friendship and assistance would do so much to make successful ; 
and to this end Perrot was sent to call together in council the tribes 
throughout tiie Northwest, and to promise them the commerce and pro- 
tection of the Freiich government. He accordingly arrived at Green 
Bay in 1671, and procuring an escort of Pottawattamies, proceeded in a 
bark canoe upon a visit to the Miamis, at Chicago. Perrot was there- 
fore the first European to set foot upon the soil of Illinois. 

Still there were others before Marquette. In 1672, the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries, Fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, bore the standard 
of the Cross from their mission at Green Bay through western Wisconsin 
and northern Illinois, visiting the Foxes on Fox River, and the Masquo- 
tines and Kickapoos at the mouth of the Milwaukee. These missionaries 
penetrated on the route afterwards followed by Marquette as far as the 
Kickapoo village at the head of Lake Winnebago, where Marquette, in 
his journey, secured guides across the portage to the Wisconsin. 

The oft-repeated story of Marquette and Joliet is well known. 
They were the agents employed by the Canadian government to discover 
the Mississippi. Marquette was a native of France, born in 1637, a 
Jesuit priest by education, and a man of simple faith and of great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the Indians. 
Arriving in Canada in 1666, he was sent as a missionary to tHe far 
Northwest, and, in 1668, founded a mission at Sault Ste. Marie. The 
following year he moved to La Pointe, in Lake Superior, where he 
instructed a branch of the Hurons till 1670, when he removed south, and 
founded the mission at St. Ignace, on the Straits of Mackinaw. Here 
he remained, devoting a portion of his time to the study of the Illinois 
language under a native teacher who had accompanied him to the mission 
from La Pointe, till he was joined by Joliet in the Spring of 1673. By 
the way of Green Bay and the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, they entered 
the Mississippi, which they explored to the mouth of the Arkansas, and 
returned by the way of the Illinois and Chicago Rivers to Lake Michigan. 

On his way up the Illinois, Marquette visited the great village of 
the Kaskaskias, near what is now Utica, in the county of LaSalle. The 
following year he returned and established among them the mission of 
the Immaculate Virgin Mary, which was the first Jesuit mission founded 
in Illinois and in the Mississippi Valley. The intervening winter he 
had spent in a hut which his companions erected on the Chicago River, a 
few leagues from its mouth. The founding of this mission was the last 


act of Marquette's life. He died in Michigan, on his way back to Green 
Bay, May 18, 1675. 


The first French occupation of the territory now embraced in Illi- 
nois was effected by LaSalle in 1680, seven years after the time of Mar- 
quette and Joliet. LaSalle, having constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," 
above the falls of Niagara, which he sailed to Green Bay, and having 
passed thence in canoes to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, by which 
and the Kankakee he reached the Illinois, in January, 1680, erected Fort 
Crevecceur^ at the lower end of Peoria Lake, where the city of Peoria is 
now situated. The place where this ancient fort stood may still be seen 
just below the outlet of Peoria Lake. It was destined, however, to a 
temporary existence. From this point, LaSalle determined to descend 
the Mississippi to its mouth, but did not accomplish this purpose till two 
years later — in 1682. Returning to Fort Frontenac for the purpose of 
getting materials with which to rig his vessel, he left the fort in charge of 
Touti, his lieutenant, who during his absence was driven off by the Iro- 
quois Indians. These savages had made a raid upon the settlement of 
the Illinois, and had left nothing in their track but ruin and desolation. 
Mr. Davidson, in his History of Illinois, gives the following graphic 
account of the picture that met the eyes of LaSalle and his companions 
on their return : 

" At the great town of the Illinois they were appalled at the scene 
which opened to their view. No hunter appeared to break its death-like 
silence with a salutatory whoop ot welcome. The plain on which the 
town had stood was now strewn with charred fragments of lodges, which 
had so recently swarmed with savage life and hilarity. To render more 
hideous the picture of desolation, large numbers of skulls had been 
placed on the upper extremities of lodge-poles which had escaped the 
devouring flames. In the midst of these horrors was the rude fort of 
the spoilers, rendered frightful by the same ghastly relics. A near 
approach showed that the graves had been robbed of their bodies, and 
swarms of buzzards were discovered glutting: their loathsome stomachs 
on the reeking corruption. To complete the work of destruction, the 
growing corn of the village had been cut down and burned, while the 
pits containing the jDroducts of previous years, had been rifled and their 
contents scattered with wanton waste. It was evident the suspected 
blow of the Iroquois had fallen with relentless fury." 

Tonti had escaped LaSalle knew not whither. Passing down the 
lake in search of him and his men, LaSalle discovered that the fort had 
been destroyed, but the vessel which he had partly constructed was still 


on the stocks, and but slightly injured. After further fruitless search, 
failing to find Tonti, lie fastened to a tree a painting representing himself 
and party sitting in a canoe and bearing a pipe of peace, and to the paint- 
ing attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

Tonti had escaped, and, after untold privations, taken shelter among 
tlie Pottawattamies near Green Bay. These were friendly to the French. 
One of their old chiefs used to say, " There were but three great cap- 
tains in the world, himself, Tonti and LaSalle." 


We must now return to LaSalle, whose exploits stand out in such 
bold relief. He was born in Rouen, France, in 1643. His father was 
wealthy, but he renounced his patrimony on entering a college of the 
Jesuits, from which he separated and came to Canada a poor man in 1666. 
The priests of St. Sulpice, among whom he had a brother, were then the 
proprietors of Montreal, the nucleus of which was a seminary or con- 
vent founded by that order. The Superior granted to LaSalle a large 
tract of land at LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. 
He was a man of daring genius, and outstripped all his competitors in 
exploits of travel and commerce with the Indians. In 1669, he visited 
the headquarters of the great Iroquois Confederacy, at Onondaga, in the 
heart of New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio River to 
the falls at Louisville. 

In order to understand the genius of LaSalle, it must be remembered 
that for many years prior to his time the missionaries and traders were 
obliged to make their way to the Northwest by the Ottawa River (of 
Canada) on account of the fierce hostility of the Iroquois along the lower 
lakes and Niagara River, which entirely closed this latter route to the 
Upper Lakes. They carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, pad- 
dling them through the Ottawa to Lake Nipissing, carrying them across 
the portage to French River, and descending that to Lake Huron. This 
being the route by which they reached the Northwest, accounts for the 
fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established in the neio-hbor- 
hood of the Upper Lakes. LaSalle conceived the grand idea of opening 
the route by Niagara River and the Lower Lakes to Canadian commerce 
by sail vessels, connecting it with the navigation of the Mississippi, and 
thus opening a magnificent water communication from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. This truly grand and comprehensive 
purpose seems to have animated him in all his wonderful achievements 
and the matchless difficulties and hardships he surmounted. As the first 
step in the accomplishment of this object he established himself on Lake 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the present 


city of Kingston, Canada. Here be obtained a grant of land from the 
French crown and a body of troops by which he beat back the invading 
Iroquois and cleared the passage to Niagara Falls. Having by this mas- 
terly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto untried expedition, his 
next step, as we have seen, was to advance to the Falls with all his 
outfit for building a ship with which to sail the lakes. He was success- 
ful in this undertaking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a 
strange combination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently 
hated LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and co-operated with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his superior success in opening new channels of commerce. At LaChine . 
he had taken the trade of Lake Ontario, which but for his presence there 
would have gone to Quebec. While they were plodding with their barK 
canoes through the Ottawa he was constructing sailing vessels to com- 
mand the trade of the lakes and the Mississippi. These great plans 
excited the jealousy and envy of the small traders, introduced treason and 
revolt into the ranks of his own companions, and finally led to the foul 
assassination by which his great achievements were prematurely ended. 

In 1682, LaSalle, having completed his vessel at Peoria, descended 
the Mississippi to its confluence with the Gulf of Mexico. Erecting a 
standard on which he inscribed the arms of France, he took formal pos- 
session of the whole valley of the mighty river, in the name of Louis 
XIV., then reigning, in honor of whom he named the country Louisiana. 

LaSalle then went to France, was appointed Governor, and returned 
with a fleet and immigrants, for the purpose of planting a colony in Illi- 
nois. They arrived in due time in the Gulf of Mexico, but failing to 
find the mouth of the Mississippi, up which LaSalle intended to sail, his 
supply ship, with the immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on 
Matagorda Bay. With the fragments of the vessel he constructed a 
stockade and rude huts on the shore for the protection of the immigrants, 
calling the post Fort St. Louis. He then made a trip into New Mexico, 
in search of silver mines, but, meeting with disappointment, returned to 
find his little colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved to travel 
on foot to Illinois, and, starting with his companions, had' reached the 
valley of the Colorado, near the mouth of Trinity river, when he was 
shot by one of his men. This occurred on the 19th of March, 1687. 

Dr. J. W. Foster remarks of him : " Thus fell, not far from the banks 
of the Trinity, Robert Cavalier de la Salle, one of the grandest charac- 
ters that ever figured in American history — a man capable of originating 
the vastest schemes, and endowed with a will and a judgment capable of 
carrying them to successful results. Had ample facilities been placed by 
the King of France at his disposal, the result of the colonization of this 
continent might have been far different from what we now behold." 



A temporarv scttleraent was made at Fort St. Louis, or the old Kas- 
kaskia village, on the Illinois River, in what is now LaSalle County, in 
1682. In 1690, this was removed, with the mission connected with it, to 
Kaskaskia, on the river of that name, emptying into the lower Mississippi 
in St. Clair County. Cahokia was settled about the same time, or at 
least, both of these settlements began in the year 1690, though it is now 
pretty well settled that Cahokia is the older place, and ranks as the oldest 
permanent settlement in Illinois;, as well as in the Mississippi Valley. 
The reason for the removal of the old Kaskaskia settlement and mission, 
was probably because the dangerous and difficult route by Lake Michigan 
and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and travelers and 
traders passed down and up the Mississippi by the Fox and Wisconsin 
River route. They removed to the vicinity of the Mississippi in order 
to be in the line of travel from Canada to Louisiana, that is, the lower 
part of it, for it was all Louisiana then south of the lakes. 

During the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population prob- 
ably never exceeded ten thousand, including whites and blacks. Within 
that portion of it now included in Indiana, trading posts were established 
at the principal Miami villages which stood on the head waters of the 
Maumee, the Wea villages situated at Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and. 
the P-iankeshaw villages at Post Vincennes ; all of which were probably 
visited by French traders and missionaries before the close of the seven- 
teenth century. 

In the vast territory claimed by the French, many settlements of 
considerable importance had sprung up. Biloxi, on Mobile Bay, had 
been founded by D'Iberville, in 1699; Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac had 
founded Detroit in 1701 ; and New Orleans had been founded by Bien- 
ville, under the auspices of the Mississippi Company, in 1718. In Illi- 
nois also, considerable settlements had been made, so that in 1730 they 
embraced one hundred and forty French families, about six hundred " con- 
verted Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. In that portion of the 
country, on the east side of the Mississippi, there were five distinct set- 
tlements, with their respective villages, viz. : Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Cahokia Creek and about five miles below the present city of St. 
Louis ; St. Philip, about forty-five miles below Cahokia, and four miles 
above Fort Chartres ; Fort Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia ; 
Kaskaskia, situated on the Kaskaskia River, five miles above its conflu- 
ence with the Mississippi ; and Prairie du Rociier, near Fort Chartres. 
To these must be added St. Genevieve and St. Louis, on the west side 
of the Mississippi. These, with the exception of St. Louis, are among 





the oldest French towns in the Mississippi Valley. Kaskaskia, in its best 
days, was a town of some two or three thousand inhabitants. After it 
passed from the crown of France its population for many years did not 
exceed fifteen hundred. Under British rule, in 1773, the population had 
decreased to four hundred and fifty. As early as 1721, the Jesuits had 
established a college and a monastery in Kaskaskia. 

Fort Chartres was first built under the direction of the Mississippi 
Company, in 1718, by M. de Boisbraint, a military oificer, under command 
of Bienville. It stood on the east bank of the Mississippi, about eighteen 
miles below Kaskaskia, and was for some time the headquarters of the 
military commandants of the district of Illinois. 

In the Centennial Oration of Dr. Fowler, delivered at Philadelphia, 
by appointment of Gov. Beveridge, we find some interesting facts with 
regard to the State of Illinois, which we appropriate in this history: 

In 1682 Illinois became a possession of the French crown, a depend- 
ency of Canada, and a part of Louisiana. In 1765 the English flag was 
run up on old Fort Chartres, and Illinois was counted among the treas- 
ures of Great Britain. 

In 1779 it was taken from the English by Col. George Rogers Clark. 
This man was resolute in nature, wise in council, prudent in policy, bold 
in action, and heroic in danger. Few men who have figured in the his- 
tory of America are more deserving than this colonel. Nothing short of 
first-class ability could have rescued Vincens and all Illinois from the 
English. And it is not possible to over-estimate the influence of this 
achievement upon the republic. In 1779 Illinois became a part of Vir- 
ginia. It was soon known as Illinois County. In 1784 Virginia ceded 
all this territory to the general government, to be cut into States, to be 
republican in form, with " the same right of sovereignty, freedom, and 
independence as the other States." 

In 1787 it was the object of the wisest and ablest legislation found 
in any merely human records. No man can study the secret history of 


and not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye these unborn 
States. The ordinance that on July 13, 1787, finally became the incor- 
porating act, has a most marvelous history. Jefferson had vainly tried 
to secure a system of government for the northwestern territory. He 
was an emancipationist of that day, and favored the exclusion of slavery 
from the territory Virginia had ceded to the general government; but 
the South voted him down as often as it came up. In 1787, as late as 
July 10, an organizing act without the anti-slavery clause was pending. 
This concession to the South was expected to carry it. Congress was in 


session in New York City. On July 5, Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, of 
Massachusetts, came into New York to lobby on the northwestern terri- 
tory. Everything seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. 

The state of the public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, 
the basis of his mission, his personal character, all combined to complete 
one of those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 
once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the 
breath of the Almighty. Cutler was a graduate of Yale — received his 
A.M. from Harvard, and his D.D. from Yale. He had studied and taken 
degrees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. He 
had thus America's best indorsement. He had published a scientific 
examination of the plants of New England. His name stood second only 
to that of Franklin as a scientist in America. He was a courtly gentle- 
man of the old style, a man of commanding presence, and of inviting 
face. The Southern members said they had never seen such a gentleman 
in the North. He came representing a company that desired to purchase 
a tract of land now included in Ohio, for the purpose of planting a colony. 
It was a speculation. Government money was worth eighteen cents on 
the dollar. This Massachusetts company had collected enough to pur- 
chase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in New York made 
Dr. Cutler their agent (lobbyist). On the 12th he represented a demand 
for 5,500,000 acres. This would reduce the national debt. Jefferson 
and Virginia were regarded as authority concerning the land Virginia 
had just ceded. Jefferson's policy wanted to provide for the public credit, 
and this was a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the northwestern 
region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught the inspira- 
tion, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The English minister invited him to 
dine with some of the Southern gentlemen. He was the center of interest. 

The entire South rallied round him. Massachusetts could not vote 
against him, because many of the constituents of her members were 
interested personally in the western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends with the South, and, doubtless, using all the arts of the lobb}^ 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convictions, he 
dictated one of the most compact and finished documents of wise states- 
manship that has ever adorned any human law book. He borrowed from 
Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, preceding the federal 
constitution, rose into the most sacred character. He then followed very 
closely the constitution of Massachusetts, adopted three years before. 
Its most marked points were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a seminary, 


and every section numbered 16 in each township ; that is, one-thirty-sixth 
of all the land, for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or the 
enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 

Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that *' Religion, 
morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall always 
be encouraged." 

Dr. Cutler planted Inmself on this platform and would not yield. 
Giving his unqualified declaration that it was that or nothing — that unless 
they could make the land desirable they did not want it — he took his 
horse and buijcjv, and started for the constitutional convention in Phila- 
delphia. On July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was 
unanimously adopted, every Southern member voting for it, and oidy one 
man, ]\Ir. Yates, of New York, voting against it. But as the States voted 
as States, Yates lost his vote, and the compact Avas put beyond repeal. 

Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wis- 
consin — a vast empire, the heart of the great valley — were consecrated 
to freedom, intelligence, and honesty. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared for a 3'ear and a day and an hour. In the light of these eighty- 
nine years I affirm that this act was the salvation of the repuljlic and the 
destruction of slavery. Soon the South saw their great blunder, and 
tried to repeal the compact. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee 
of which John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact, and opposed repeal. Thus it stood a rock, in the way 
of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

With all this timely aid it M^as, after all, a most desperate and pro- 
tracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. It was 
the natural battle-field for the irrepressible conflict. In the southern end 
of the State slavery preceded the compact. It existed among the old 
French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. The southein part of the 
State was settled from the slave States, and this population brought their 
laws, customs, and institutions with them. A stream of population from 
the North poured into the northern part of the State. These sections 
misunderstood and liated each other perfectly. The Southerners regarded 
the Yankees as a skinning, tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the 
country with tinware, brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The North- 
erner thought of the Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing 
in a hut, and rioting in whisky, dirt and ignorance. These causes aided 
in making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of the 
deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French settlers to 
retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States might bring their 


slaves, if they would give them a chance to choose freedom or j'^ears 
of service and bondage for their children till they should become 
thirty years of age. If they chose freedom they must leave tlie State 
in sixty days or be sold as fugitives. Servants were whipped for offenses 
for which white men are fined. Each lash paid forty cents of the fine. A 
negro ten miles from home without a pass was whipped. These famous 
laws were imported from the slave States just as they imported laws foi 
the inspection of flax and wool when there was neither in the State. 

These Black Laws are now wiped out. A vigorous effort was made 
to protect slavery in the State Constitution of 1817. It barely failed. 
It was renewed in 1825, when a convention was asked to make a new 
constitution. After a hard fight the convention was defeated. But 
slaves did not disappear from the census of the State until 1850. There 
were mobs and murders in the interest of slavery. Lovejoy was added 
to the list of martyrs — a sort of first-fruits of that long life of immortal 
heroes who saw freedom as the one supreme desire of their souls, and 
were so enamored of her that they preferred to die rather than survive her. 

The population of 12,282 that occupied the territory in A.D. 1800, 
increased to 45,000 in A.D. 1818, when the State Constitution was 
adopted, and Illinois took her place in the Union, with a star on the flag 
and two votes in tlie Senate. 

Shadrach Bond was the first Governor, and in his first message he 
recommended the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. 

The simple economy in those daj^s is seen in the fact that the entire 
bill for stationery for the first Legislature was only $1-3.50. Yet this 
simple body actually enacted a very superior code. 

There was no money in tlie territory before the war of 1812. . Deer 
skins and coon skins were the circulating medium. In 1821, the Legis- 
lature ordained a State Bank on the credit of the State. It issued notes 
in the likeness of bank bills. These notes were made a legal tender for 
every thing, and the bank was ordered to loan to the people $100 on per- 
sonal security, and more on mortgages. They actually passed a resolu- 
tion requesting the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States to 
receive these notes for land. The old French Lieutenant Governor, Col. 

Menard, put the resolution as follows: '' Gentlemen of the Senate : It is 
moved and seconded dat de notes of dis bank be made land-office money. 
All in favor of dat motion say aye ; all against it say no. It is decided 
in de affirmative. Now, gentlemen, I bet you one hundred dollar he 
never be land-office money ! " Hard sense, like hard money, is always 
above par. 

This old Frenchman presents a fine figure up against the dark back- 
ground of most of his nation. They made no progress. They clung to 
their earliest and simplest implements. They never wore hats or caps* 


They pulled their blankets over their heads in the winter like the Indians, 
with whom tliey freely intermingled. 

Demagogism had an early development. One John Grammiu- (onlv 
in name), elected to the Territorial and State Legislatures of 1816 and 
1836, invented the policy of opposing every new thing, saying, " If it 
succeeds, no one will ask who voted against it. If it proves a failure, he 
could quote its record." In sharp contrast with Grammar was the char- 
acter of D. P. Cook, after whom the county containing Chicago was 
named. Such was his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that 
his Avill was almost the law of the State. In CongEcss, a young man, 
and from a poor State, he was made Chairman of the Ways and Means 
Committee. He was pre-eminent for standing by his committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 
Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1824, Jackson, 
Clay, Crawford, and John Quincy Adams. There being no choice by the 
people, the election was thrown into the House. It was so balanced that 
it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, electing him ; then 
went home to face the wrath of the Jackson party in Illinois. It cost 
him all but character and greatness. It is a suggestive comment on the 
times, that there was no legal interest till 1830. It often reached 150 
per cent., usually 50 per cent. Then it was reduced to 12, and now to 
10 per cent. 



In area the State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It is about 
150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude from Maine to 
North Carolina. It embraces wide variety of climate. It is tempered 
on the north by the great inland, saltless, tideless sea, which keeps the 
thermometer from either extreme. Being a table land, from 600 to 1,600 
feet above the level of the sea, one is prepared to find on the health 
maps, prepared by the general government, an almost clean and perfect 
record. In freedom from fever and malarial diseases and consumptions, 
the three deadly enemies of the American Saxon, Illinois, as a State, 
stands without a superior. She furnishes one of the essential conditions 
of a great people — sound bodies. I suspect that this fact lies back of 
that old Delaware word, lUini, superior men. 

The great battles of history that have been determinative of dynas- 
ties and destinies have been strategical battles, chiefly the question of 
position. Thermopylae has been the war-cry of freemen for twenty-four 
centuries. It only tells liow much there may be in position. All this 
advantage belongs to Illinois. It is in the heart of the greatest valley in 
the world, the vast region between the mountains — a valley that could 


feed mankind for one thousand years. It is well on toward the center of 
the continent. It is in the great temperate belt, in Avhich have been 
found nearly all the aggressive civilizations of history. It has sixty-five 
miles of frontage on the head of the lake. With the Mississippi forming 
the western and southern boundarv, with the Ohio running alons the 
southeastern hue, with the Illinois River and Canal dividins: the State 
diagonally from the lake to the Lower Mississippi, and with the Rock and 
Wabash Rivers furnishing altogether 2,000 miles of water-front, con- 
necting with, and running through, in all about 12,000 miles of navi- 
gable water. 

But this is not all. These waters are made most available bv the 
fact that the lake and the State lie on the ridsfe runnincf into the sfreat 
valley from the east. Within cannon-shot of the lake the water runs 
away from the lake to the Gulf. The lake now empties at both ends, 
one into the Atlantic and one into the Gulf of Mexico. The lake thus 
seems to hang over the land. This makes the dockage most serviceable ; 
there are no steep banks to damage it. Both lake and river are made 
for use. 

The climate varies from Portland to Richmond ; it favors every pro- 
duct of the continent, including the tropics, with less than half a dozen 
exceptions. It produces every great nutriment of the world except ban- 
anas and rice. It is hardly too much to say that it is the most productive 
spot known to civilization. With the soil full of bread and the earth full 
of minerals ; with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel ; 
with perfect natural drainage, and abundant springs and streams and 
navigable rivers ; half way between the forests of the North and. the fruits 
of the South ; within a day's ride of the great deposits of iron, coal, cop- 
per, lead, and zinc ; containing and controlling the great grain, cattle, 
pork, and lumber markets of the world, it is not strange that Illinois has 
the advantage of position. 

This advantage has been supplemented by the character of the popu- 
lation. In the early days when Illinois was first admitted to the Union, 
her population were chiefly from Kentucky and Virginia. But, in the 
conflict of ideas concerning slavery, a strong tide of emigration came in 
from the East, and soon changed this composition. In 1870 her non- 
native population were from colder soils. New York furnished 133,290 ; 
Ohio gave 162,623; Penns3'lvania sent on 98,352; the entire South gave 
us only 206,734. In all her cities, and in all her German and Scandina- 
vian and other foreign colonies, Illinois has only about one-fifth of her 
people of foreign birth. 



One of the greatest elements in tlie early development of Illinois is 
the niinois and Michigan Canal, connecting the Illinois and Mississippi 
Rivers with the lakes. It was of the utmost importance to the State. 
It was recommended by Gov. Bond, the first governor, in his first message. 
In 1821, the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for surveying the route. 
Two bright young engineers surveyed it, and estimated the cost at 
$600,000 or 8700,000. It finally cost $8,000,000. In 1825, a law was 
passed to incorporate the Canal Company, but no stock was sold. In 
1826, upon the solicitation of Cook, Congress gave 800,000 acres of land 
on the line of the work. In 1828, another law — commissioners appointed, 
and work commenced with new survey and new estimates. In 1834-35, 
George Farquhar made an able report on the whole matter. This was, 
doubtless, the ablest report ever made to a western legislature, and it 
became the model for subsequent reports and action. From this the 
work went on till it was finished in 1848, It cost the State a large 
amount of money ; but it gave to the industries of the State an impetus 
that pushed it up into the first rank of greatness. It was not built as a 
speculation any more than a doctor is employed on a speculation. But 
it has paid into the Treasary of the State an average annual net sum of 
over $111,000. 

Pending the construction of the canal, the land and town-lot fever 
broke out in the State, in 1834-35. It took on the malignant type in 
Chicago, lifting the town up into a city. The disease spread over the 
entire State and adjoining States. It was epidemic. It cut up men's 
farms without regard to locality, aiid v3ut up the purses of the purchasers 
without regard to consequences. It is estimated that building lots enough 
were sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Towns and cities were exported to the Eastern market by the ship- 
load. There was no lack of buyers. Every up-ship came freighted with 
speculators and their money. 

This distemper seized upon the Legislature in 1836-37, and left not 
one to tell the tale. They enacted a systevxi of internal improvement 
without a parallel in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the 
construction of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all direc- 
tions. This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. 
There were a few counties not touched by either railroad or river or 
canal, and those were to be comforted and compensated by the free dis- 
tribution of $200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon beyond cre- 
dence it was ordered that work should be commenced on both ejids of 


each of these railroads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the 
same time. The appropriations for these vast improvements were over 
$12,000,000, and commissioners were appointed to borrow the money on 
the credit of the State. Remember that all this was in tlie early days of 
railroading, when railroads were Inxuries ; that the State had whole 
counties with scarcely a cabin ; and that the population of the State was 
less than 400,000, and you can form some idea of the vigor with which 
these brave men undertook the work of making a great State. In the 
light of history I . am compelled to say that this was only a premature 
throb of the power that actually slumbered in the soil of the State. It 
was Hercules in the cradle. 

At this juncture the State Bank loaned its funds largely to Godfrey 
Gilman & Co., and to other leading houses, for the purpose of drawing 
trade from St. Louis to Alton. Soon they failed, and took down the 
bank with them. 

In 1840, all hope seemed gone. A population of 480,000 were loaded 
with a debt of $14,000,000. It had only six small cities, really only 
towns, namely : Chicago, Alton, Springfield, Quincy, Galena, Nauvoo. 
This debt was to be cared for when there was not a dollar in the treas- 
ury, and when the State had borrowed itself out of all credit, and when 
there was not good money enough in the hands of all the people to pay 
the interest of the debt for a single year. Yet, in the presence of all 
these difficulties, the young State steadily refused to repudiate. Gov. 
Ford took hold of the problem and solved it, bringing the State through 
in triumph. 

Having touched lightly upon some of the more distinctive points in 
the history of the development of Illinois, let us next briefly consider the 


It is a garden four hundred miles long and one hundred and fifty 
miles wide. Its soil is chiefly a black sandy loam, from six inches to 
sixty feet thick. On the American bottoms it has been cultivated for 
one hundred and fifty years without renewal. About the old French 
towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half without rest or help. 
It produces nearly everything green in the temperate and tropical zones. 
She leads all other States in the number of acres actually under plow. 
Her products from 25,000,000 of acres are incalculable. Her mineral 
wealth is scarcely second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron» 
lead, copper, zinc, many varieties of building stone, fire clay, cuma clay, 
common brick clay, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint — every thing 
needed for a high civilization. Left to herself, she has the elements of 
all greatness. The single item of coal is too vast for an appreciative 



handling in figures. We can handle it iii general terms like algebraical 
signs, but long before we get up into the millions and billions the human 
mind drops down from comprehension to mere symbolic apprehension. 

When I tell you that nearly four-finhs of the entire State is under- 
laid with a deposit of coal more than forty feet thick on the average (now 
estimated, by recent surveys, at sevent)' feet thick), you can get some 
idea of its amount, as you do of the amount of the national debt. There 
it is ! 41,000 square miles — one vast mine into which you could put 
any of the States ; in which you could bury scores of European and 
ancient empires, and have room enough all round to work without know- 
ing that they had been sepulchered there. 

Put this vast coal-bed down by the other great coal deposits of the 
world, and its importance becomes manifest. Great Britain has 12,000 
square miles of coal; Spain, 3,000; France, 1,719; Belgium, 578; Illinois 
about twice as many square miles as all combined. Virginia has 20,000 
square miles ; Pennsylvania, 16,000 ; Ohio, 12,000. Illinois has 41,000 
square miles. One-seventh of all the known coal on this continent is in 

Could we sell the coal in this single State for one-seventh of one cent 
a ton it would pay the national debt. Converted into power, even with 
the wastage in our common engines, it would do more work than could 
be done by the entire race, beginning at Adam's wedding and working 
ten hours a day through all the centuries till the present time, and right 
on into the future at the same rate for the next 600,000 years. 

Great Britain uses enough mechanical power to-day to give to each 
man, woman, and child in the kingdom the help and service of nineteen 
untiring servants. No wonder she has leisure and luxuries. No wonder 
the home of the common artisan has in it more luxuries than could be 
found in the palace of good old King Arthur. Think, if you can conceive 
of it, of the vast army of servants that slumber in the soil of Illinois, 
Impatiently awaiting the call of Genius to come forth to minister to our 

At the present rate of consumption England's coal supply will be 
exhausted in 250 years. When this is gone she must transfer her dominion 
either to the Indies, or to British America, which I would not resist ; or 
to some other people, which I would regret as a loss to civilization. 


At the same rate of consumption (which far exceeds our own) the 
deposit of coal in Illinois will last 120,000 years. And her kingdom shall 
be an everlasting kingdom. 

Let us turn, now from this reserve power to the annual products of 


the State. We shall not be humiliated in this field. Here we strike the 
secret of our national credit. Nature provides a market in the constant 
appetite of the race. Men must eat, and if we can furnish the provisions 
we can command the treasure. All that a man hath will he give for his 

According to the last census Illinois produced 30,000,000 of bushels 
of wheat. That is more wheat than was raised by any other State in the 
Union. She raised In 1875, 130,000,000 of bushels of corn — twice as 
much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn raised in the United 
States. She harvested 2,747,000 tons of hay, nearly one-tenth of all the 
hay in the Republic. It is not generally appreciated, but it is true, that 
the hay crop of the country is worth more than the cotton crop. The 
hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana. Go to Charleston, S. C, 
and see them peddling handfuls of hay or grass, almost as a curiosity, 
as we regard Chinese gods or the cryolite of Greenland ; drink your 
coffee and condensed milk; and walk back from the coast for many a 
league through the sand and burs till you get up into the better atmos- 
phere of the mountains, without seeing a waving meadow or a grazing 
herd ; then you will begin to appreciate the meadows of the Prairie State, 
where the grass often grows sixteen feet high. 

The value of her farm implements is $211,000,000, and the value of 
her live stock is only second to the great State of New York. in 1875 
she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,845, about one-half of all that 
were packed in the United States. This is no insignificant item. Pork 
is a growing demand of the old world. Since the laborers of Europe 
have gotten a taste of our bacon, and we have learned how to pack it dry 
in boxes, like dry goods, the world has become the market. 

The hoCT is on the march into the future. His nose is ordained to 
uncover the secrets of dominion, and his feet shall be guided by the star 
of empire. 

Illinois marketed $57,000,000 worth of slaughtered animals — more 
than any other State, and a seventh of all the States. 

Be patient with me, and pardon my pride, and I will give you a list 
of some of the things in which Illinois excels all other States. 

Depth and richness of soil ; per cent, of good ground ; acres of 
improved land ; large farms — some farms contain from 40,000 to 60,000 
acres of cultivated land, 40,000 acres of corn on a single farm ; number of 
farmers ; amount of wheat, corn, oats and honey produced ; value of ani- 
mals for slaughter ; number of hogs ; amount of pork ; number of horses 
— three times as many as Kentucky, the horse State. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles of 
postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the amount of 
lumber sold in her markets. 


Illinois is only second in many important matters. This sample list 
comprises a few of the more important : Permanent school fund (good 
for a young state) ; total income for educational purposes ; number of pub- 
lishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value of farm products and imple- 
ments, and of live stock ; in tons of coal mined. 

The shipping of Illinois is only second to New York. Out of one 
port during the business hours of the season of navigation she sends forth 
a vessel every ten minutes. This does not include canal boats, which go 
one every five minutes. No wonder she is only second in number of 
bankers and brokers or in physicians and surgeons. 

She is third in colleges, teachers and schools ; cattle, lead, hay, 
flax, sorghum and beeswax. 

She is fourth in population, ?n children enrolled in public schools, in 
law schools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She is fifth in value of real and personal property, in theological 
seminaries and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, and in boots 
and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

She is only seventh in the production of wood, while she is the 
twelfth in area. Surely that is well done for the Prairie State. She now 
has much more wood and growing timber than she had thirty years ago. 

A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She manufactures 
$205,000,000 worth of goods, which places her well up toward New York 
and Pennsylvania. The number of her manufacturing establishments 
increased from 1860 to 1870, 300 per cent.; capital employed increased 350 
per cent., and the amount of product increased 400 per cent. She issued 
5,500,000 copies of commercial and financial newspapers — only second to 
New York. She has 6,759 miles of railroad, thus leading all other States, 
worth $636,458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train 
long enough to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Her 
stations are only five miles apart. She carried last year 15,795,000 passen- 
gers, an average of Z6^ miles, or equal to taking her entire population twice 
across the State. More than two-thirds of her land is within five miles of 
a railroad, and less than two per cent, is more than fifteen miles away. 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central railroad. 
The road was incorporated in 1850, and the State gave each alternate sec- 
tion for six miles on each side, and doubled the price of the remaining 
land, so keeping herself good. The road received 2,595,000 acres of land, 
and pays to the State one-seventh of the gross receipts. The State 
receives this year $350,000, and has received in all about $7,000,000. It 
is practically the people's road, and it has a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to this the annual receipts from the canal, $111,000, 
and a large per cent, of the State tax is provided for. 



of the State keep step with her productions and growth. She was born 
of the missionary spirit. It was a minister who secured for her the ordi- 
nance of 1787, by Avhich she has been saved from slavery, ignorance, and 
dishonesty. Rev. Mr. Wiley, pastor of a Scotch congregation in Randolph 
County, petitioned the Constitutional Convention of 1818 to recognize 
Jesus Christ as king, and the Scriptures as the only necessary guide and 
book of law. The convention did not act in the case, and the old Cove- 
nanters refused to accept citizenship. They never voted until 1824, when 
the slavery question was submitted to the people ; then they all voted 
against it and cast the determining votes. Conscience has predominated 
whenever a great moral question has been submitted to the people. 

But little mob violence has ever been felt in the State. In 1817 
regulators disposed of a band of horse-thieves that infested the territory. 
The Mormon indignities finally awoke the same spirit. Alton was also 
the scene of a pro-slavery mob, in which Lovejoy was added to the list of 
martyrs. The moral sense of the people makes the law supreme, and gives 
to the State unruffled peace. 

With $22,300,000 in church property, and 4,298 church organizations, 
the State has that divine police, the sleepless patrol of moral ideas, that 
alone is able to secure perfect safety. Conscience takes the knife from 
the assassin's hand and the bludgeon from the grasp of the highwayman. 
We sleep in safety, not because we are behind bolts and bars — these only 
fence against the innocent ; not because a lone officer drowses on a distant 
corner of a street; not because a sheriff may call his posse from a remote 
part of the county ; but because conscience guards the very portals of the 
air and stirs in the deepest recesses of the public mind. This spirit issues 
within the State 9,500,000 copies of religious papers annually, and receives 
&till more from without. Thus the crime of the State is only one-fourth 
that of New York and one-half that of Pennsylvania. 

Illinois never had but one duel between her own citizens. In Belle- 
ville, in 1820, Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett arranged to vindi- 
cate injured honor. The seconds agreed to make it a sham, and make 
them shoot blanks. Stewart was in the secret. Bennett mistrusted some- 
thing, and, unobserved, slipped a bullet into his gun and killed Stewart. 
He then fled the State. After two years he was caught, tried, convicted, 
and, in spite of friends and political aid, was hung. This fixed the code 
of honor on a Christian basis, and terminated its use in Illinois. 

The early preachers were ignorant men, who were accounted eloquent 
according to the strength of their voices. But they set the style for all 
public speakers. Lawyers and political speakers followed this rule. Gov. 


Ford says: "Nevertheless, these first preachers were of incalculable 
benefit to the countr3^ They inculcated justice and morality. To them 
are we indebted for the first Christian character of the Protestant portion 
of the people." 

In education Illinois surpasses her material resources. Tlie ordinance 
of 1787 consecrated one thirty -sixth of her soil to common schools, and 
the law of 1818, the first law that went upon her statutes, gave three per 
cent, of all the rest to 


The old compact secures this interest forever, and by its yoking 
moralit}' and intelligence it precludes the legal interference with the Bible 
in the public schools. With such a start it is natural that we should have 
11,050 schools, and that our ilUteracy should be less than New York or 
Pennsylvania, and only about one-half of Massachusetts. We are not to 
blame for not having more than one-half as many idiots as the great 
States. These public schools soon made colleges inevitable. The first 
college, still flourishing, was started in Lebanon in 1828, by the M. E. 
church, and named after Bishop McKendree. Illinois College, at Jackson- 
ville, supported by the Presbyterians, followed in 1830. In 1832 the Bap- 
tists built Shurtleff College, at Alton. Then the Presbyterians built Knox 
College, at Galesbui-g, in 1838, and the Episcopalians built Jubilee College, 
at Peoria, in 1847. After these early years colleges have rained down. 
A settler could hardly encamp on the prairie but a college would spring 
up by his wagon. The State now has one very well endowed and equipped 
university, namely, the Northwestern University, at Evanston, with six 
colleges, ninety instructors, over 1,000 students, and $1,500,000 endow- 

Rev. J. M. Peck was the first educated Protestant minister in tne 
State. He settled at Rock Spring, in St. Clair County, 1820, and left his 
impress on the State. Before 1837 only party papers were published, but 
Mr. Peck published a Gazetteer of Illinois. Soon after John Russell, of 
Bluffdale, published essays and tales showing genius. Judge James Hall 
published The Illinois Monthly Magazine with great ability, and an annual 
called The Western Souvenir^ which gave him an enviable fame all over the 
United States. From these beginnings Illinois has gone on till she has 
more volumes in public libaaries even than Massachusetts, and of the 
44,500,000 volumes in all the public libraries of the United States, she 
has one-thirteenth. In newspapers she stands fourth. Her increase is 
marvelous. In 1850 she issued 5,000,000 copies; in 1860, 27,590,000 ; in 
1870, 113,140,000. In 1860 she had eighteen colleges and seminaries; in 
1870 she had eighty. That is a grand advance for the war decade. 

This brings us to a record unsurpassed in the history of any age, 



I hardly know where to begin, or how to advance, or what to say. I 
can at best give you only a broken synopsis of her deeds, and you must 
put them in the order of glory for yourself. Her sons have always been 
foremost on fields of danger. In 1832-33, at the call of Gov. Reynolds^ 
her sons drove Blackhawk over the Mississippi. 

When the Mexican war came, in May, 1846, 8,370 men offered them- 
selves when only 3,720 could be accepted. The fields of Buena Vista and 
Vera Cruz, and the storming of Cerro Gordo, will carry the glory of Illinois 
soldiers along after the infamy of the cause they served has been forgotten. 
But it was reserved till our day for her sons to find a field and cause and 
foemen that could fitly illustrate their spirit and heroism. Illinois put 
into her own regiments for the United States government 256,000 men» 
and into the army through other States enough to swell the number to 
290,000. This far exceeds all the soldiers of the federal government in 
all the war of the revolution. Her total years of service were over 600,000. 
She enrolled men from eighteen to forty-five years of age when the law 
of Congress in 1864 — the test time — only asked for those from twenty to 
forty -five. Her enrollment was otherwise excessive. Her people wanted 
to go, and did not take the pains to correct the enrollment. Thus the 
basis of fixing the quota was too great, and then the quota itself, at least, 
in the trying time, was far above any other State. 

Thus the demand on some counties, as Monroe, for example, took every 
able-bodied man in the county, and then did not have enough to fill the 
quota. Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 men for ninety or one hundred days, 
for whom no credit was asked. When Mr. Lincoln's attention was called 
to the inequality of the quota compared with other States, he replied, 
" The country needs the sacrifice. We must put the whip on the free 
horse." In spite of all these disadvantages Illinois gave to the country 
73,000 years of service above all calls. With one-thirteenth of the popu- 
lation of the loyal States, she sent regularly one-tenth of all the soldiers,, 
and in the peril of the closing calls, when patriots were few and weary, 
she then sent one-eighth of all that were called for by her loved and hon- 
ored son in the white house. Her mothers and daughters went into the 
fields to raise the grain and keep the children together, while the fathers 
and older sons went to the harvest fields of the world. I knew a father 
and four sons who agreed that one of them must stay at home ; and they 
pulled straws from a stack to see who might go. The father was left. 
The next day he came into the camp, saying : " Mother says she can get 
the crops in, and I am going, too." I know large Methodist churches 
from which every male member went to the army. Do you want to know 


what these heroes from Illinois did in the field ? Ask any soldier with a 
good record of his own, who is thus able to judge, and he will tell you 
that the Illinois men went in to win. It is common history that the greater 
victories were won in the West. When everything else looked dark lUi- 
nois was gaining victories all down the river, and dividing the confederacy. 
Sherman took with him on his great march forty-five regiments of Illinois 
infantry, three companies of artillery, and one company of cavalry. He 
could not avoid 


If he had been killed, I doubt not the men would have gone right on. 
Lincoln answered all rumors of Sherman's defeat with, " It is impossible ; 
there is a mighty sight of fight in 100,000 Western men." Illinois soldiers 
brought home 300 battle-flags. The first United States flag that floated 
over Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and nurses to 
every field and hospital, to care for her sick and wounded sons. She said» 
" These suffering ones are my sons, and I will care for them." 

When individuals had given all, then cities and towns came forward 
with their credit to the extent of many millions, to aid these men and 
their families. 

Illinois gave the country the great general of the war — Ulysses S. 
Grant — since honored with two terms of the Presidency of the United 

One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, embalmed in all 
hearts, that must have the supreme place in this story of our glory and 
of our nation's honor ; that name is Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. 

The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difficult on account of its 

In this age we look with admiration at his uncompromising honesty. 
And well we may, for this saved us. Thousands throughout the length 
and breadth of our country who knew him only as " Honest Old Abe," 
voted for him on that account ; and wisely did they choose, for no other 
man could have carried us through the fearful night of the war. When 
his plans were too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause 
too sublime for our participation ; when it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us ; when not one ray 
shone upon our cause ; when traitors were haughty and exultant at the 
South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North ; when the loyal men here 
seemed almost in the minority ; when the stoutest heart quailed, the bravest 
cheek paled ; when generals were defeating each other for place, and 
contractors were leeching out the very heart's blood of the prostrate 
republic : when every thing else had failed us, we looked at this calm, 
patient man standing like a rock in the storm, and said : " Mr. Lincoln 


is honest, and we can trust him still." Holding to this single point with 
the energy of faith and despair we held together, and, under God, he 
brought US through to victory. 

His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With such 
certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate effects, that his 
foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 

He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory shall shed a 
glory upon this age that shall fill the eyes of men as they look into his- 
tory. Other men have excelled him in some point, but, taken at all 
points, all in all, he stands head and shoulders above every other man of 
6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the perils of 
unparalleled civil war. A statesman, he justified his measures by their 
success. A philanthropist, he gave liberty to one race and salvation to 
another. A moralist, he bowed from the summit of human power to the 
foot of the Cross, and became a Christian. A mediator, he exercised mercy 
under the most absolute abeyance to law. A leader, he was no partisan. 
A commander, he was untainted with blood. A ruler in desperate times, 
he was unsullied with crime. A man, he has left no word of passion, no 
thought of malice, no trick of craft, no act of jealousy, no purpose of 
selfish ambition. Thus perfected, without a model, and without a peer, 
he was dropped into these troubled years to adorn and embellish all that 
is good and all that is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming 
time the representative of the divine idea of free government. 

It is not too much to say that away down in the future, when the 
republic has fallen from its niche in the wall of time ; when the great 
war itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the horizon ; 
when the Anglo-Saxon language shall be spoken only by the tongue of 
the stranger ; then the generations looking this way shall see the great 
president as the supreme figure in this vortex of history 


It is impossible in our brief space to give more than a meager sketch 
of such a city as Chicago, which is in itself the greatest marvel of the 
Prairie State. This mysterious, majestic, mighty city, born first of water, 
and next of fire; sown in weakness, and raised in power; planted among 
the willows of the marsh, and crowned with the glory of the mountains ; 
sleeping on the bosom of the prairie, and rocked on the bosom of the sea , 
the youngest city of the world, and still the eye of the prairie, as Damas- 
cus, the oldest city of the world, is the eye of the desert. With a com- 
merce far exceeding that of Corinth on her isthmus, in the highway to 
the East ; with the defenses of a continent piled around her by the thou- 
sand miles, making her far safer than Rome on the banks of the Tiber ; 



II w ,.. I ()/■;'■ I 






with schools eclipsing Alexandria and Athens ; with liberties more con- 
spicuous than those of the old republics ; with a heroism equal to the first 
Carthage, and with a sanctity scarcely second to that of Jerusalem — set 
your thoughts on all this, lifted into the eyes of all men by the miracle of 
its growth, illuminated by the flame of its fall, and transfigured by the 
divinity of its resurrection, and you will feel, as I do, the utter impossi- 
bility of compassing this subject as it deserves. Some impression of her 
importance is received from the shock her burning gave to the civilized 

When the doubt of her calamity was removed, and the horrid fact 
was accepted, there went a shudder over all cities, and a quiver over all 
lands. There was scarcely a town in the civilized world that did not 
shake on the brink of this opening chasm. The flames of our homes red- 
dened all skies. The city was set upon a hill, and could not be hid. All 
eyes were turned upon it. To have struggled and suffered amid the 
scenes of its fall is as distinguishing as to have fought at Thermopylae, or 
Salamis, or Hastings, or Waterloo, or Bunker Hill. 

Its calamity amazed the world, because it was felt to be the common 
property of mankind. 

The early history of the city is full of interest, just as the early his- 
tory of such a man as Washington or Lincoln becomes public property, 
and is cherished by every patriot. 

Starting with 560 acres in 1833, it embraced and occupied 23,000 
acres in 1869, and, having now a population of more than 500,000, it com- 
mands general attention. 

The first settler — Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from the 
West Indies — came and began trade with the Indians in 1796. John 
Kinzie became his successor in 1801:, in which year Fort Dearborn was 

A mere trading-post was kept here from that time till about the time 
of the Blackhawk war, in 1832. It was not the city. It was merely a 
cock crowing at midnight. The morning was not yet. In 1833 the set- 
tlement about the fort was incorporated as a town. The voters were 
divided on the propriety of such corporation, twelve voting for it and one 
against it. Four years later it was incorporated as a city, and embraced 
660 acres. 

The produce handled in this city is an indication of its power. Grain 
and flour were imported from the East till as late as 1837. The first 
exportation by way of experimgnt was in 1839. Exports exceeded imports 
first in 1812. The Board of Trade was organized in 1848, but it was so 
weak that it needed nursing till 1855. Grain was purchased by the 
wagon-load in the street. 

I remember sitting with my father on a load of wheat, in the long 


line of wai^ons along Lake street, while the binders came and untied the 
bags, and examined the grain, and made their bids. That manner of 
business had to cease with the day of small things. Now our elevators 
will hold 15,000,000 bushels of grain. The cash value of the produce 
handled in a year is 1215,000,000, and the produce weighs 7,000,000 
tons or 700,000 car loads. This handles thirteen and a half ton each 
minute, all the year round. One tenth of all the wheat in the United 
States is handled in Chicago. Even as long ago as 1853 the receipts of 
grain in Chicago exceeded those of the goodly city of St. Louis, and in 
1854 the exports of grain from Chicago exceeded those of New York and 
doubled those of St. Petersburg, Archangel, or Odessa, the largest grain 
markets in Europe. 

The manufacturing interests of the city are not contemptible. In 
1873 manufactories employed 45,000 operatives ; in 1876, 60,000. The 
manufactured product in 1875 was worth $177,000,000. 

No estimate of the size and power of Chicago would be adequate 
that did not put large emphasis on the railroads. Before they came 
thundering along our streets canals were the hope of our country. But 
who ever thinks now of traveling by canal packets ? In June, 1852, 
there were only forty miles of railroad connected with the city. The 
old Galena division of the Northwestern ran out to Elgin. But now, 
who can count the trains and measure the roads that seek a terminus or 
connection in this city ? The lake stretches away to the north, gathering 
in to this center all the harvests that might otherwise pass to the north 
of us. If you will take a map and look at the adjustment of railroads, 
you will see, first, that Chicago is the great railroad center of the world, 
as New York is the commercial city of this continent ; and, second, that 
the railroad lines form the iron spokes of a great wheel whose hub is 
this city. The lake furnishes the only break in the spokes, and this 
seems simply to have pushed a few spokes together on each shore. See 
the eighteen trunk lines, exclusive of eastern connections. 

Pass round the circle, and view their numbers and extent. There 
is the great Northwestern, with all its branches, one branch creeping 
along the lake shore, and so reaching to the north, into the Lake Superior 
regions, away to the right, and on to the Northern Pacific on the left, 
swinging around Green Bay for iron and copper and silver, twelve months 
in the year, and reaching out for the wealth of the great agricultural 
belt and isothermal line traversed by the Northern Pacific. Another 
branch, not so far north, feeling for the heart of the Badger State. 
Another pushing lower down the Mississippi — all these make many con- 
nections, and tapping all the vast wheat regions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and all the regions this side of sunset. There is that elegant road, 
the Chicago, Bm-lington & Quincy, running out a goodly number of 






branches, and reaping the great fields this side of the Missouri River. 
I can only mention the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis, our Illinois Central, 
described elsewhere, and the Chicago & Rock Island. Further around 
we come to the lines connecting us with all the eastern cities. The 
Chicago, Indianapolis & St. Louis, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Michigan Cen- 
tral and Great "Western, give us many highways to the seaboard. Thus we 
reach the Mississippi at five points, from St. Paul to Cairo and the Gulf 
itself by two routes. We also reach Cincinnati and Baltimore, and Pitts- 
l)urgh and Philadelphia, and New York. North and south run the water 
courses of the lakes and the rivers, broken just enough at this point to 
make a pass. Through this, from east to west, run the long lines that 
stretch from ocean to ocean. 

This is the neck of the glass, and the golden sands of commerce 
must pass into our hands. Altogether we have more than 10,000 miles 
of railroad, directly tributary to this city, seeking to unload their wealth 
in our coffers. All these roads have come themselves by the infallible 
instinct of capital. Not a dollar was ever given by the city to secure 
one of them, and only a small per cent, of stock taken originally by her 
citizens, and that taken simply as an investment. Coming in the natural 
order of events, they will not be easily diverted. 

There is still another showing to all this. The connection between 
New York and San Francisco is by the middle route. This passes inevit- 
ablv throusrh Chicago. St. Louis wants the Southern Pacific or Kansas 
Pacific, and pushes it out through Denver, and so on up to Cheyenne. 
But before the road is fairly under way, the Chicago roads shove out to 
Kansas City, making even the Kansas Pacific a feeder, and actually leav- 
ing St. Louis out in the cold. It is not too much to expect that Dakota, 
Montana, and Washington Territory will find their great market in Chi- 


But these are not all. Perhaps I had better notice here the ten or 
fifteen new roads that have just entered, or are just entering, our city. 
Their names are all that is necessary to give. Chicago & St. Paul, look- 
ing up the Red River country to the British possessions ; the Chicago, 
Atlantic & Pacific ; the Chicago, Decatur & State Line ; the Baltimore & 
Ohio ; the Chicago, Danville & Vincennes ; the Chicago & LaSalle Rail- 
road ; the Chicago, Pittsburgh & Cincinnati ; the Chicago and Canada 
Southern ; the Chicago and Illinois River Railroad. These, with their 
connections, and with the new connections of the old roads, already in 
process of erection, give to Chicago not less than 10,000 miles of new 
tributaries from the richest land on the continent. Thus there will be 
added to the reserve power, to the capital within reach of this city, not 
less than 81,000,000,000. 


Add to all this transporting power the ships that sail one every nine 
minutes of the business hours of the season of navigation ; add, also, the 
canal boats that leave one every five minutes during the same time — and 
you will see something of the business of the city. 


has been leaping along to keep pace with the growth of the country 
around us. In 1852, our commerce reached the hopeful sum of 
$20,000,000. In 1870 it reached 1400,000,000. In 1871 it was pushed 
up above $450,000,000. And in 1875 it touched nearly double that. 

One-half of our imported goods come directly to Chicago. Grain 
enough is exported directly from our docks to the old world to employ a 
semi-weekly line of steamers of 3,000 tons capacity. This branch is 
not likely to be greatly developed. Even after the great Welland Canal 
is completed we shall have only fourteen feet of water. The great ocean 
/ vessels will continue to control the trade. 

The banking capital of Chicago is $24,431,000. Total exchange in 
1875, 1659,000,000. Her wholesale business in 1875 was $294,000,000. 
The rate of taxes is less than in any other great city. 

The schools of Chicago are unsurpassed in America. Out of a popu- 
lation of 300,000 there were only 186 persons between the ages of six 
and twenty-one unable to read. This is the best known record. 

In 1831 the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who went 
on foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back what papers 
and news he could find. As late as 1846 there was often only one mail 
a week. A post-office was established in Chicago in 1833, and the post- 
master nailed up old boot-legs on one side of his shop to serve as boxes 
for the nabobs and literary men. 

It is an interesting fact in the growth of the young city that in the 
active life of the business men of that day the mail matter has grown to 
a daily average of over 6,500 pounds. It speaks equally well for the 
intelligence of the people and the commercial importance of the place, 
that the mail matter distributed to the territory immediately tributary to 
Chicago is seven times greater than that distributed to the territory 
immediately tributary to St. Louis. 

The improvements that have characterized the city are as startling 
as the city itself. In 1831, Mark Beaubien established a ferry over the 
river, and put himself under bonds to carry all the citizens free for the 
privilege of charging strangers. Now there are twenty-four large bridges 
and two tunnels. 

In 1833 the government expended $30,000 on the harbor. Then 
commenced that series of manoeuvers with the river that has made it one 


of the world's curiosities. It used to wind around in the lower end of 
the town, and make its way rippling over the sand into the lake at the 
foot of Madison street. Tliey took it up and put it down where it now 
is. It was a narrow stream, so narrow that even moderately small crafts 
had to go up through the willows and cat's tails to the point near Lake 
street bridge, and back up one of the branches to get room enough in 
which to turn around. 

In 1844 the quagmires in the streets were first pontooned by plank 
roads, which acted in wet weather as public squirt-guns. Keeping you 
out of the mud, they compromised by squirting the mud over you. The 
wooden-block pavements came to Chicago in 1857. In 1840 water was 
delivered by peddlers in carts or by hand. Then a twenty-five horse- 
power engine pushed it through liollow or bored logs along the streets 
till 1854, when it was introduced into the houses by new works. The 
first fire-engine was used in 1835, and the first steam fire-engine in 1859. 
Gas was utilized for lighting the city in 1850. The Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association was organized in 1858, and horse railroads carried them 
to their work in 1859. The museum was opened in 1863. The alarm 
telegraph adopted in 1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The city 
grew from 560 acres in 1833 to 23,000 in 1869. In 1834, the taxes 
amounted to $48.90, and the trustees of the town borrowed $60 more for 
opening and improving streets. In 1835, the legislature authorized a loan 
of $2,000, and the treasurer and street commissioners resigned rather than 
plunge the town into such a gulf. 

Now the city embraces 36 square miles of territory, and has 30 miles 
of water front, besides the outside harbor of refuge, of 400 acres, inclosed 
by a crib sea-wall. One-third of the city has been raised up an average 
of eight feet, giving good pitch to the 263 miles of sewerage. The water 
of the city is above all competition. It is received through two tunnels 
extending to a crib in the lake two miles from shore. The closest analy- 
sis fails to detect any impurities, and, received 35 feet below the surface, 
it is always clear and cold. The first tunnel is five feet two inches in 
diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 50,000,000 of gallons per 
day. Tlie second tunnel is seven feet in diameter and six miles long, 
running four miles under the city, and can deliver 100,000,000 of gal- 
lons per day. This water is distributed through 410 miles of water- 

The three grand engineering exploits of the city are : First, lifting 
the city up on jack-screws, whole squares at a time, without interrupting 
the business, thus giving us good drainage ; second, running the tunnels 
under the lake, giving us the best water in the world ; and third, the 
turning the current of the river in its own channel, delivering us from the 
old abominations, and making decency possible. 'JL'hey redound about 


equally to the credit of the engineering, to the energy of the people, and 
to the health of the city. 

That which really constitutes the city, its indescribable spirit, its soul, 
the way it lights up in every feature in the hour of action, has not been 
touched. In meeting strangers, one is often surprised how some homely 
women marry so well. Their forms are bad, their gait uneven and awk- 
ward, their complexion is dull, their features are misshapen and mismatch- 
ed, and when we see them there is no beauty that we should desire them. 
But when once they are aroused on some subject, they put on new pro- 
portions. They light up into great power. The real person comes out 
from its unseemly ambush, and captures us at will. They have power. 
They have ability to cause things to come to pass. We no longer wonder 
why they are in such high demand. So it is with our city. 

There is no grand scenery except the two seas, one of water, the 
other of prairie. Nevertheless, there is a spirit about it, a push, a breadth, 
a power, that soon makes it a place never to be forsaken. One soon 
ceases to believe in impossibilities. Balaams are the only prophets that are 
disappointed. The bottom that has been on the point of falling out has 
been there so long that it has grown fast. It can not fall out. It has all 
the capital of the world itching to get inside the corporation. 

The two great laws that govern the growth and size of cities are, 
first, the amount of territory for which they are the distributing and 
receiving points ; second, the number of medium or moderate dealers that 
do this distributing. Monopolists build up themselves, not the cities. 
They neither eat, wear, nor live in proportion to their business. Both 
these laws help Chicago. 

The tide of trade is eastward — not up or down the map, but across 
the map. The lake runs up a wingdam for 500 miles to gather in the 
business. Commerce can not ferry up there for seven months in the year, 
and the facilities for seven months can do the work for twelve. Then the 
great region west of us is nearly all good, productive land. Dropping 
south into the trail of St. Louis, you fall into vast deserts and rocky dis- 
tricts, useful in holding the world together. St. Louis and Cincinnati, 
instead of rivaling and hurting Chicago, are her greatest sureties of 
dominion. They are far enough away to give sea-room, — farther off than 
Paris is from London, — and yet they are near enough to prevent the 
springing up of any other great city between them. 

St. Louis will be helped by the opening of the Mississippi, but also 
hurt. That will put New Orleans on her feet, and with a railroad running 
over into Texas and so West, she will tap the streams that now crawl up 
the Texas and Missouri road. The current is East, not North, and a sea- 
port at New Orleans can not permanently help St. Louis. 

Chicago is in the field almost alone, to handle the wealth of one- 


fourth of the territory of this great republic. This strip of seacoast 
divides its margins between Portland, Boston, NeNV York, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Savannah, or some other great port to be created for the 
South in the next decade. But Chicago has a dozen empires casting their 
treasures into her lap. On a bed of coal that can run all the machinery 
of the world for 500 centuries ; in a garden that can feed the race by the 
thousand years; at the head of the lakes that give her a temperature as a 
summer resort equaled by no great city in the land ; with a climate that 
insures the health of her citizens ; surrounded by all the great deposits 
of natural wealth in mines aud forests and herds, Chicago is the wonder 
of to-day, and will be the city of the future. 


During the war of 1812, Fort Dearborn became the theater of stirring 
events. The garrison consisted of fifty-four men under command of 
Captain Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant Helm (son-in-law of Mrs. 
Kinzie) and Ensign Ronan. Dr. Voorhees was surgeon. The only resi- 
dents at the post at that time were the wives of Captain Heald and Lieu- 
tenant Helm, and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadian voyageurs, with their wives and children. The soldiers 
and Mr. Kinzie were on most friendly terms with the Pottawattamies 
and Winnebagos, the principal tribes around them, but they could not 
win them from their attachment to the British. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing on his violin and 
his children were dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing 
into the house, pale with terror, and exclaiming: "The Indians! the 
Indians!" "What? Where?" eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. "Up 
at Lee's, killing and scalping," answered the frightened mother, who, 
when the alarm was given, was attending Mrs. Barnes (just confined) 
living not far off. Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river and took 
refuge in the fort, to which place Mrs. Barnes and her infant not a day 
old were safely conveyed. The rest of the inhabitants took shelter in the 
fort. This alarm was caused by a scalping party of Winnebagos, who 
hovered about the fort several days, when they disappeared, and for several 
weeks the inha1)itants were undisturbed. 

On the 7th of August, 1812, General Hull, at Detroit, sent orders to 
Captain Heald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, aud to distribute all the United 
States property to the Indians in the neighborhood — a most insane order. 
The Pottawattamie chief, who brought the dispatch, had more wisdom 
than the commanding general. He advised Captain Heald not to make 
the distribution. Said he : " Leave the fort and stores as they are, and 
let the Indians make distribution for themselves ; and while they are 
engaged in the business, the white people may escape to Fort Wayne." 


Captain Heald held a council with the Indians on the afternoon ot 
the 12th, in which his officers refused to join, for they had been informed 
that treachery was designed — that the Indians intended to murder tlie 
white people in the council, and then destroy those in the fort. Captain 
Heald, however, took the precaution to open a port-hole displaying a 
cannon pointing directly upon the council, and by that means saved 
his life. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Captain Heald not 
to confide in their promises, nor distribute the arms and munitions among 
them, for it would only put power into their hands to destroy the whites. 
Acting upon this advice, Heald resolved to withhold the munitions of 
war ; and on the night of the 13th, after the distribution of the other 
property had been made, the powder, ball and liquors were thrown into 
the river, the muskets broken up and destroyed. 

Black Partridge, a friendly chief, came to Captain Heald, and said : 
" Linden birds have been singing in my ears to-day : be careful on the 
march you are going to take." On that dark night vigilant Indians had 
crept near the fort and discovered the destruction of their promised booty 
going on within. The next morning the powder was seen floating on the 
surface of the river. The savages were exasperated and made loud com- 
plaints and threats. 

On the following day when preparations were making to leave the 
fort, and all the inmates were deeply impressed with a sense of impend- 
ing danger, Capt. Wells, an uncle of Mrs. Heald, was discovered upon 
the Indian trail among the sand-hills on the borders of the lake, not far 
distant, with a band of mounted Miamis, of whose tribe he was chief, 
having been adopted by the famous Miami warrior. Little Turtle. When 
news of Hull's surrender reached Fort Wayne, he had started with this 
force to assist Heald in defending Fort Dearborn. He was too late. 
Every means for its defense had been destroyed the night before, and 
arrangements were made for leaving the fort on the morning of the 15th. 

It was a warm bright morning in the middle of August. Indications 
were positive that the savages intended to murder the white people ; and 
when they moved out of the southern gate of the fort, the marcli was 
like a funeral procession. The band, feeling the solemnity of the occa- 
sion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. 

Capt. Wells, who had blackened his face with gun-powder in token 
of his fate, took the lead with his band of Miamis, followed by Capt. 
Heald, with his wife by his side on horseback. Mr. Kinzie hoped by his 
personal influence to avert the impending blow, and therefore accompanied 
them, leaving his family in a boat in charge of a friendly Indian, to be 
taken to his trading station at the site of Niles, Michigan, in the event ot 
his death. 




The procession moved slowly along the lake shore till they reached 
the sand-hills between the prairie and the beach, when the Pottawattamie 
escort, under the leadership of Blackbird, fded to the right, placing those 
hills between them and the white people. Wells, with his Miamis, had 
kept in the advance. They suddenly came rushing back. Wells exclaim- 
ing, " They are about to attack us ; form instantly." These words were 
quickly followed by a storm of bullets, which came whistling over the 
little hills which the treacherous savages had made the covert for their 
murderous attack. The white troops charged upon the Indians, drove 
them back to the prairie, and then the battle was waged between fifty- 
four soldiers, twelve civilians and three or four women (the cowardly 
Miamis having fled at the outset) against five hundred Indian warriors. 
The white people, hopeless, resolved to sell their lives as dearly as possible. 
Ensign Ronan wielded his weapon vigorously, even after falling upon his 
knees weak from the loss of blood. Capt. Wells, who was by the side of 
his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the conflict began, behaved with the greatest 
coolness and courage. He said to her, " We have not the slightest chance 
for life. We must part to meet no more in this world. God bless you." 
And then he dashed forward. Seeing a young warrior, painted like a 
demon, climb into a wagon in which were twelve children, and tomahawk 
them all, he cried out, unmindful of his personal danger, " If that is your 
game, butchering women and children, I will kill too." He spurred his 
horse towards the Indian camp, where they had left their squaws and 
papooses, hotly pursued by swift-footed young warriors, who sent bullets 
whistling after him. One of these killed his horse and wounded him 
severely in the leg. With a yell the young braves rushed to make him 
their prisoner and reserve him for torture. He resolved not to be made 
a captive, and by the use of the most provoking epithets tried to induce 
them to kill him instantly. He called a fiery young chief a squaw, when 
the enraged warrior killed Wells instantly with his tomahawk, jumped 
upon his body, cut out his heart, and ate a portion of the warm morsel 
with savage delight ! 

In this fearful combat women bore a conspicuous part. Mrs. Heald 
was an excellent equestrian and an expert in the use of the rifle. She 
fought the savages bravely, receiving several severe wounds. Though 
faint from the loss of blood, she managed to keep her saddle. A savage 
raised his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked him full in the face, 
and with a sweet smile and in a gentle voice said, in his own language, 
*' Surely you will not kill a squaw ! " The arm of the savage fell, and 
the life of the heroic woman was saved. 

Mrs. Helm, the step-daughter of Mr, Kinzie, had an encounter with 
a stout Indian, who attempted to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, 
she received the glancing blow on her shoulder, and at the same instant 


seized the savage round the neck with her arms and endeavored to get 
hold of his scalping knife, which hung in a sheath at his breast. While 
she was thus struggling she was dragged from her antagonist by another 
powerful Indian, who bore her, in spite of her struggles, to the margin 
of the lake and plunged her in. To her astonishment she was held by 
him so that she would not drown, aiid she soon perceived that she was 
in the hands of the friendly Black Partridge, who had saved her life. 

The wife of Sergeant Holt, a large and powerful woman, behaved as 
bravely as an Amazon. She rode a fine, high-spirited horse, which the 
Indians coveted, and several of them attacked her with the butts of their 
guns, for the purpose of dismounting her ; but she used the sword which 
she had snatched from her disabled husband so skillfully that she foiled 
them ; and, suddenly wheeling her horse, she dashed over the prairie, 
followed by the savages shouting, " The brave woman ! the brave woman t 
Don't hurt her ! " They finally overtook her, and while she was fighting 
them in front, a powerful savage came up behind her, seized her by the 
neck and dragged her to the ground. Horse and woman were made 
captives. Mrs. Holt was a long time a captive among the Indians, but 
was afterwards ransomed. 

In this sharp conflict two-thirds of the white people were slain and 
wounded, and all their horses, baggage and provision were lost. Only 
twenty-eight straggling men now remained to fight five hundred Indians 
rendered furious by the sight of blood. They succeeded in breaking 
through the ranks of the murderers and gaining a slight eminence on the 
prairie near the Oak Woods. The Indians did not pursue, but gathered 
on their flanks, while the chiefs held a consultation on the sand-hills, and 
showed signs of willingness to parley. It would have been madness on 
the part of the whites to renew the fight ; and so Capt. Heald went for- 
ward and met Blackbird on the open prairie, where terms of surrender 
were soon agreed upon. It was arranged that the white people should 
give up their arms to Blackbird, and that the survivors should become 
prisoners of war, to be exchanged for ransoms as soon as practicable. 
With this understanding captives and captors started for the Indian 
camp near the fort, to which Mrs. Helm had been taken bleeding and 
suffering bj^ Black Partridge, and had met her step-father and learned 
that her husband was safe. 

A new scene of horror was now opened at the Indian camp. The 
wounded, not being included in the terms of surrender, as it was inter- 
preted by the Indians, and the British general. Proctor, having offered a 
liberal bounty for American scalps, delivered at Maiden, nearly all the 
wounded men were killed and scalped, and the price of the trophies was 
afterwards paid by the British government. 

- • ^ -' ;. 










This celebrated Indian chief, whose portrait appears in this work, 
deserves more than a passing notice. Although Shabbona was not so con- 
spicuous as Tecumseh or Black Hawk, yet in point of merit he was 
superior to either of them. 

Shabbona was born at an Indian village on the Kankakee River, now 
in Will County, about the year 1775. While young he was made chief of 
the band, and went to Shabbona Grove, now DeKalb County, where they 
were found in the early settlement of the county. 

In tli3 war of 1812 Shabbona with his warriors icined Tecumseh. w?,s 


aid to that great chief, and stood by liis side when he fell at the battle of 
the Thames. At the time of the Winnebago war, in 1827, he visited almost 
every village among the Pottawatomies, and by his persuasive arguments 
prevented them from taking part in the war. B}- request of the citizens 
of Chicago, Shabbona, accompanied by Billy Caldwell (Sauganash), visited 
Big Foot's village at Geneva Lake, in order to j)acify the warriors, as fears 
were entertained that they were about to raise the tomahawk against the 
whites. Here Shabbona was taken prisoner by Big Foot, and his life 
threatened, l)ut on the following day was set at libert}'. From that time 
the Indians (through reproach) styled him " the white man's friend," 
and many times his life was endangered. 

Before the Black Hawk war, Shabbona met in council at two differ- 
ent times, and by his influence prevented his people from taking j)art with 
the Sacs and Foxes. After the death of Black Partridge and Senachwine, 
no chief among the Pottawatomies exerted so much influence as Shabbona. 
Black Hawk, aware of this influence, visited him at two different times, in 
order to enlist him in his cause, but was unsuccessful. While Black Hawk 
was a prisoner at Jefferson Barracks, he said, had it not been for Shabbona 
the whole Pottawatomie nation would have joined his standard, and he 
could have continued the war for years. 

To Shabbona many of the early settlers of Illinois owe the pres- 
ervation of their lives, for it is a well-known fact, had he not notified the 
people of their danger, a large portion of them would have fallen victims 
to the tomahawk of savages. By saving the lives of whites he endangered 
his own, for the Sacs and Foxes threatened to kill him, and made two 
attempts to execute their threats. The}' killed Pypeogee, his son, and 
Pyps, his nephew, and hunted him down as though he was a wild beast. 

Shabbona had a reservation of two sections of land at his Grove, but 
by leaving it and going west for a short time, the Government declared 
the reservation forfeited, and sold it the same as other vacant land. On 
Shabbona's return, and finding his possessions gone, he was very sad and 
broken down in spirit, and left the Grove for ever. The citizens of Ottawa 
raised money and bought him a tract of land on the Illinois River, above 
Seneca, in Grundy County, on which they built a house, and supplied 
him with means to live on. He lived here until his death, which occurred 
on the 17th of July, 1859, in tlie eighty-fourth year of his age, and was 
buried with great pomp in the cemetery at Morris. His squaw, Pokanoka, 
was drowned in Mazen Creek, Grundy County, on the 30th of November, 
1864, and was buried by his side. 

In 1861 subscriptions were taken up in many of the river towns, to 
erect a monument over the remains of Shabbona, but the war breaking 
out, the enterprise was abandoned. Only a plain marble slab marks the 
resting-place of this friend of the white man. 

Abstract of Illinois State Laws. 


No promissory note, check, draft, bill of exchange, order, or note, negO' 
liable instrument payable at sight, or on demand, or on presentment, shall 
be entitled to days of grace. All other bills of exchange, drafts or notes are 
entitled to three days of grace. All the above mentioned paper falling 
due on Sunday, Neiv Years' Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any- 
day appointed or recommended by the President of the United States or 
the Governor of the State as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed 
as due on the day previous, and should two or more of these days come 
together, then such instrument shall be treated as due on the day previous 
to the first of said days. No defense can be made against a negotiable 
instrument (^assigned before due') in the hands of the assignee without 
notice, except fraud ivas used in obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, 
due diligence must be used by suit, in collecting of the maker, unless suit 
would have been unavailing. Notes payable to person named or to order, 
in order to absolutely transfer title, must be indorsed by the payee. Notes 
payable to bearer may be transferred by delivery, and when so payable 
every indorser thereon is held as a guarantor of payment unless otherwise 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month 
shall be considered a calendar month or ttvelfth of a year, and for less 
than a month, a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes 
only bear interest when so expressed, but after due they draw the legal 
interest, even if not stated. 


The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree in ivrit- 
ing on a rate not exceeding ten per cent. If a rate of interest greater 
than ten per cent, is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of the whole of 
said interest, and only the principal can be recovered. 


When no will is made, the property of a deceased person is distrib- 
uted as follows : 


First. To his or her children and their descendants in equal parts ; 
the descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of 
their deceased parents in equal parts among them. 

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and 
no widow or surviving husband, then to the parents, brothers and sisters 
of the deceased, and their descendants, in equal parts, the surviving 
parent, if either be dead, taking a double portion ; and if there is no 
parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their 

Third. When there is a widow or surviving husband^ and no child or 
children^ or descendants of the same, then one-half of the real estate and 
the whole of the personal estate shall descend to such widow or surviving 
husband, absolutely, and the other half of the real estate shall descend as 
in other cases where there is no child or children or descendants of the 

Fourth. When there is a ividow or surviving husband and also a child 
or children, or descendants of the latter, then one third of all the personal 
estate to the widow or surviving husband absolutely. 

Fifth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of 
either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, then in equal parts 
to the next of kin to th-e intestate in equal degree. Collaterals shall not 
be represented except with the descendants of brothers and sisters of the 
intestate, and there shall be no distinction betiveen kindred of the whole 
and the half blood. 

Sixth. If any intestate leaves a ividow or surviving husband and no 
kindred, then to such ividoiv or surviving husband ; and if there is no such 
widow or surviving husband, it shall escheat to and vest in the county 
where the same, or the greater portion thereof, is situated. 


No exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will good at 
law. Every male person of the age of tiventy-one years, and qyqvj female 
of the age of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid 
will ; it must be in writing, signed by the testator or by some one in his 
or her presence and by his or her direction, and attested by two or more 
credible witnesses. Care should be taken that the witnesses are not inter- 
ested in the will. Persons knowing themselves to have been named in the 
will or appointed executor, must within thirty days of the death of 
deceased cause the will to be proved and recorded in the proper county^ 
or present it, and refuse to accept ; on failure to do so are liable to forfeit 
the sum of tiventy dollars per month. Inventory to be made by executor 
or administrator within three months from date of letters testamentary or 


of administration. Executors' and administrators' compensation not to 
exceed six per cent, on amount of personal estate, and three per cent, 
on money realized from real estate, with such additional allowance as 
shall be reasonable for extra services. Appraisers' compensation $2 pei 

Notice requiring all claims to be presented against the estate shall b^ 
given by the executor or administrator within six months of being quali- 
fied. Any person having a claim and not presenting it at the time fixed 
by said notice is required to have summons issued notifying the executor 
or administrator of his having filed his claim in court ; in such cases the 
costs liave to be paid by the claimant. Claims should be filed within two 
years from the time administration is granted on an estate, as after that 
time they are forever barred, unless other estate is found that was not in- 
ventoried. Married women, infants, persons insayie, imprisoned or without 
the United States, in the employment of the United States, or of this 
State, have two years after their disabilities are removed to file claims. 

Claims are classified and paid out of the estate in the following manner : 

First. Funeral expenses. 

Second. The tvidow's award, if there is a widow ; or children if there 
are children, and no widoiv. 

Third. Expenses attending the last illness, not including physician's 

Fourth. Debts due the common school or township fund. 

Fifth. All expenses of proving the will and taking out letters testa- 
mentary or administration, and settlement of the estate, and the physi- 
cian s bill in the last illness of deceased. 

Sixth. Where the deceased has received money in trust for any pur- 
pose, his executor or administrator shall pay out of his estate the amount 
received and not accounted for. 

Seventh. All other debts and demands of whatsoever kind, without 
regard to quality or dignity, which shall be exhibited to the court within 
two years from the granting of letters. 

Award to Widow and Children, exclusive of debts and legacies or be- 
quests, except funeral expenses : 

First. The family pictures and loearing apparel, jewels and ornaments 
of herself and minor children. 

Second. School books and the family library of the value of $100. 

Third. One sewing machine. 

Fourth. Necessary beds, bedsteads and bedding for herself and family. 

Fifth. The stoves and pipe used in the family, with the necessary 
cooking utensils, or in case they have none, $50 in money. 

Sixth. Household and kitchen furniture to the value of $100. 

Seventh. One milch cow and calf for every four members of her family. 


Eighth. Two sheep for each member of her family, and the fleeces 
taken from the same, and one horse., saddle and bridle. 

Ninth. Provisions for herself and family for one year. 

Tenth. Food for the stock above specified for six months. 

Eleventh. Fuel for herself and family for three months. 

Twelfth. One hundred dollars worth of other property suited to her 
condition in life, to be selected by the tvidoiv. 

The ividow if she elects may have in lieu of the said award, the same 
personal property or money in place thereof as is or may be exempt from 
execution or attachment against the head of a family. 


The owners of real and personal property, on the first day of May in 
each year, are liable for the taxes thereon. 

Assessments should be completed before the fourth Monday in June, 
at which time the town board of review meets to examine assessments, 
hear objections^ and make such changes as ought to be made. The county 
board have also power to correct or change assessments. 

The tax books are placed in the hands of the town collector on or 
before the tenth day of December, who retains them until the tenth day 
of March following, when he is required to return them to the county 
treasurer, who then collects all delinquent taxes. 

No costs accrue on real estate taxes till advertised^ which takes place 
the first day of April, when three weeks' notice is required before judg- 
ment. Cost of advertising, twenty cents each tract of land, and ten cents 
each lot. 

Judgment is usually obtained at 3Iay term of County Court. Costs 
six cents each tract of land, and five cents each lot. Sale takes place in 
June. Costs in addition to those before mentioned, twenty-eight cents 
each tract of land, and twenty-seven cents each town lot. 

Real estate sold for taxes may be redeemed any time before the expi- 
ration of two years from the date of sale, by payment to the County Clerk 
of the amount for which it was sold and twenty-five per cent, thereon if 
redeemed within six months, fifty per cent, if between six and twelve 
months, if between twelve and eighteen months seventy-five per cent., 
and if between eighteen months and two 3-ears one hundred per cent., 
and in addition, all subsequent taxes paid by the purchaser, with ten per 
cent, interest thereon, also one dollar each tract if notice is given by the 
purchaser of the sale, and a fee of twenty-five cents to the clerk for his 


Justices have jurisdiction in all civil cases on contracts for the recovery 
of moneys for damages for injury to real property, or taking, detaining, or 


injuring personal property; for rent; for all cases to recover damages done 
real or personal property by railroad companies, in actions of replevin, and 
in actions for damages for fraud in the sale, purchase, or exchange of per- 
sonal property, when the amount claimed as due is not over $200. They 
have also jurisdiction in all cases for violation of the ordinances of cities, 
towns or villages. A justice of the peace may orally order an officer or a 
private person to arrest any one committing or attempting to commit a 
criminal offense. He aim upon comi)laint can issue his warrant for the 
arrest of any person accused of having committed a crime, and have him 
brought before him for examination. 

Have jurisdiction in all matters of probate (except in counties having a 
population of one hundred thousand or over), settlement of estates of 
deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conservators, and settle- 
ment of their accounts ; all matters relating to apprentices ; proceedings 
for the collection of taxes and assessments, and in proceedings of executors, 
administrators, guardians and conservators for the sale of real estate. In 
law cases they have concurrent jurisdiction with Circuit Courts in all 
cases where justices of the peace now have, or hereafter may have, 
jurisdiction when the amount claimed shall not exceed $1,000, and in all 
criminal offenses where the punishment is not imprisonment in the peni- 
tentiary, or death, and in all cases of appeals from justices of the peace 
and police magistrates; excepting when the county judge is sitting as a 
justice of the peace. Circuit Courts have unlimited jurisdiction. 


Accounts five years. Notes and written contracts ten years. Judg- 
ments twenty years. Partial payments or new promise in Avriting, within 
or after said period, will revive the debt. Absence from the State deducted, 
and when the cause of action is barred by the law of another State, it has 
the same effect here. Slander and libel, one year. Personal injuries, two 
years. To recover land or make entry thereon, tioenty years. Action to 
foreclose mortgage or trust deed, or make a sale, within ten years. 

All persons in possession of land, and paying taxes for seven consecu- 
tive years, with color of title, and all persons paying taxes for seven con- 
secutive years, with color of title, on vacant land, shall be held to be the 
legal oivners to the extent of their paper title. 


May sue and be sued. Husband and toife not liable for each other's debts, 
either before or after marriage, but both are liable for expenses and edu- 
cation of the family. 


She may contract the same as if unmarried, except that in a partner- 
ship business she can not, without consent of her husband, unless he has 
abandoned or deserted her, or is idiotic or insane, or confined in peniten- 
tiary ; she is entitled and can recover her own earnings, but neither hus- 
band nor wife is entitled to compensation for any services rendered for the 
other. At the death of the husband, in addition to widow's award, a 
married woman has a dower interest (one-third) in all real estate owned 
by her husband after their marriage, and which has not been released by 
her, and the liusband has the same interest in the real estate of the wife 
at her death. 


Some worth $1,000, and the following Personal Property : Lot of ground 
and buildings thereon, occupied as a residence by the debtor, being a house- 
holder and having a family, to the value of $1,000. Exemption continues 
after the death of the householder for the benefit of widow and family, some 
one of them occupying the homestead until youngest child shall become 
twenty-one years of age, and until death of widow. There is no exemptioyi 
from sale for taxes, assessments, debt or liability incurred for the p>urchase 
or improvement of said homestead. No release or waiver of exemption is 
valid, unless in writing, and, subscribed by such householder and wife (if 
he have one), and acknowledged as conveyances of real estate are required 
to be acknowledged. The following articles of personal property owned 
by the debtor, are exempt from execution, writ of attachment, and distress 
for rent : The necessary wearing apparel. Bibles, school books and family 
pictures of every person ; and, 2d, one hundred dollars worth of other 
property to be selected by the debtor, and, in addition, when the debtor 
is the head of a family and resides with the same, three hundred dollars 
worth of other property to be selected by the debtor ; provided that such 
selection and exemption shall not be made by the debtor or allowed to 
him or her from any money, salary or wages due him or her from any 
person or persons or corporations whatever. 

When the head of a famil}'' shall die, desert or not reside with the 
same, the family shall be entitled to and receive all the benefit and priv- 
ileges which are by this act conferred upon the head of a family residing 
with the same. No personal property is exempt from execution when 
judgment is obtained for the wages of laborers or servants. "Wages of a 
laborer who is the head of a family can not be garnisheed, except the sum 
due him be in excess of $25. 



To he valid there must be a valid consideration. Special care should 
be taken to have them signed, sealed, delivered, and properly acknowl- 
edged, with the proper seal attached. Witnesses are not required. The 
acknoivledgement must be made in this state, before Master in Chancery^ 
Notary Public, United States Commissioner, Circuit or County Clerk, Justice 
of Peace, or any Court of Record having a seal, or any Judge, Justice, or 
Clerk of any such Court. AVhen taken before a Notary Public, or United 
States Commissioner, the same shall be attested by his official seal, when 
taken before a Court or the Clerk thereof the same shall be attested by 
the seal of such Court, and when taken before a Justice of the Peace resid- 
ing out of the county where the real estate to be conveyed lies, there shall 
be added a certificate of the County Clerk under his seal of office, that he 
was a Justice of the Peace in the county at the time of taking the same. 
A deed is eood without such certificate attached, but can not be used in 
evidence unless such a certificate is produced or other competent evidence 
introduced. Acknowledgements made out of the state must either be 
executed according to the laws of this state, or there should be attached 
a certificate that it is in conformity with the laws of the state or country 
where executed. Where this is not done the same may be proved by any 
other legal way. Acknowledgments where the Homestead rights are to 
be waived must state as follows : " Including the release and waiver of 
the right of homestead." 

Notaries Public can take acknowledgements any where in the state. 

Sheriffs, if authorized by the mortgagor of real or personal property 
in his mortgage, may sell the property mortgaged. 

In the case of the death of grantor or holder of the equity of redemp- 
tion of real estate mortgaged, or conveyed by deed of trust where equity 
of redemption is waived, and it contains power of sale, must be foreclosed 
in the same manner as a common mortgage in court. 


Horses, mules, asses, neat cattle, swine, sheep, or goats found straying 
at any time during the year, in counties where such animals are not allowed 
to run at large, or between the last day of October and the 15th day of 
April in other counties, the owner thereof being unknown, may be taken up 
as estrays. 

No person not a householder in the county where estray is found can 
lawfully take up an estray, and then only upon or about his farm or place 
of residence. Estrays should not be used before advertised, except animals 
giving milk, which may be milked for their benefit. 


Notices must be posted uj) within five (5) days in three (3) of the 
most pubHc places in the town or precinct in which estray was found, giv- 
ing the residence of the taker up, and a particular description of the 
estray, its age, color, and marks natural and artificial, and stating before 
what justice of the peace in such town or precinct, and at what time, not 
less than ten (10) nor more than fifteen (15) days from the time of post- 
ing such notices, he will apply to have the estray appraised. 

A copy of such notice should be filed by the taker up with the town 
clerks whose duty it is to enter the same at large, in a look kept by him 
for that purpose. 

If the owner of estray shall not have appeared and proved ownership^ 
and taken the same away, first paying the taker up his reasonable charges 
for taking up, keeping, and advertising the same, the taker up shall appear 
before the justice of the peace mentioned in above mentioned notice, and 
make an affidavit as required by law. 

As the affidavit has to he made before the justice, and all other steps as 
to appraisement, etc., are before him, who is familiar therewith, they are 
therefore omitted here. 

Any person taking up an estray at any other place than about or 
upon his farm or residence, or without complying with the law, shall forfeit 
and pay a fine of ten dollars with costs. 

Ordiyiary diligence is required in taking care of estrays, but in case 
they die or get away the taker is not liable for the same. 


It is unlawful for any person to kill, or attempt to kill or destroy, in 
any manner, any prairie hen or chicken or woodcock between the loth day 
of January and the 1st day of September ; or any deer, fawn, ivild-turkey, 
partridge or pheasant between the 1st day of February and the 1st day 
of October ; or any quail between the 1st day of February and 1st day of 
November ; or any wild goose, duck, snipe, brant or other water fowl 
between the 1st day of May and 15th day of August in each year. 
Penalty : Fine not less tlian $5 nor more than $25, for each bird or 
animal, and costs of suit, and stand committed to county jail until fine is 
paid, but not exceeding ten days. It is unlawful to hunt with gun, dog 
or net within the inclosed grounds or lands of another without permission. 
Penalty: Fine not less than $3 nor more than $100, to be paid into 
school fund. 


Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, or 
sold or delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to 
the contrary, the weight per bushel shall be as follows, to-wit : 




Stone Coal, 

- 80 

Buckwheat, - 

- 52 

Unslacked Lime, 

- 80 

Coarse Salt, 

- 50 

Corn in the ear. 

- 70 

Barley, - - - 

- 48 


- 60 

Corn Meal, 

- 48 

Irish Potatoes, 

- 60 

Castor Beans, 

- 46 

White Beans, 

- 60 

Timothy Seed, - 

- 45 

Clover Seed, - 

- 60 

Hemp Seed, - 

- 44 

Onions, _ - - 

- 57 

Malt, - - - - 

- 38 

Shelled Corn, 

- 56 

Dried Peaches, 

- 33 

Rye, - - - - 

- 56 

Oats, - - - - 

- 32 

Flax Seed, 

- 56 

Dried Apples, 

- 24 

Sweet Potatoes, - 


Bran, - - - - 

- 20 


- 55 

Blue Grass Seed, - 

- 14 

Fine Salt, - 

- 55 

Hair (plastering). 


Penalty for giving less than tlie aljove standard is double the amount 
of property wrongfully not given, and ten dollars addition thereto. 


The owner or occupant of every public grist mill in this state shall 
grind all crain brought to his mill in its turn. The toll for both steam 
and water mills, is, for grinding and bolting wheat, rye, or other grain, one 
eighth part; for grinding Indian corn, oats, barley and huckivheat not 
required to be bolted, one seventh part; for grinding malt, and chopping aW 
kinds of grain, one eighth jjart. It is the duty of every miller Avhen his 
mill is in repair, to aitf and assist in loading a,nd unloading all grain brought 
to him to be ground, and he is also required to keep an accurate half 
bushel measure, and an accurate set of toll dishes or scales for weighing 
the grain. The penalty for neglect or refusal to comply with the law is 
$0, to the use of any person to sue for the same, to be recovered before 
any justice of the peace of the county where penalty is incurred. Millers 
are accountable for the safe keeping of all grain left in his mill for the 
purpose of being ground, with bags or casks containing same (except it 
results from unavoidable accidents), provided that such bags or casks are 
distinctly marked with the initial letters of the owner's name. 


Owners of cattle, horses, hogs, sheep or goats may have one ear mark 
and one brand, but which shall be different from his neighbor's, and may 
be recorded by the county clerk of the county in which such property is 
kept. The fee for such record is fifteen cents. The record of such shall 
be open to examination free of charge. In cases of disputes as to marks 
or brands, such record is vrima facie evidence. Owners of cattle, horses, 
hogs, sheep or goats that may have been branded by the former owner^ 


may be re-branded in presence of one or more of his neighbors, who shall 
certify to the facts of the marking or branding being done, when done, 
and in what brand or mark they were re-branded or re-marked, which 
certificate may also be recorded as before stated. 


Children may be adopted by any resident of this state, by filing a 
petition in the Circuit or County Court of the county in which he resides, 
asking leave to do so, and if desired may ask that the name of the child 
be changed. Such petition, if made by a person having a husband or 
wife, will not be granted, unless the husband or wife joins therein, as the 
adoption must be by them jointly. 

The petition shall state name, sex, and age of the child, and the new 
name, if it is desired to change the name. Also the name and residence 
of the parents of the child, if known, and of the guardian, if any, and 
whether the parents or guardians consent to the adoption. 

The court must find, before granting decree, that the parents of the 
child, or the survivors of them, have deserted his or her family or such 
child for one year next preceding the application, or if neither are living, 
the guardian ; if no guardian, the next of kin in this state capable of giving 
consent, has had notice of the presentation of the petition and consents 
to such adoption. If the child is of the age of fourteen years or upwards, 
the adoption can not be made without its consent. 


There is in every county elected a surveyor known as county sur- 
veyor, who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is 
responsible. It is the duty of the county surveyor, either by himself or 
his deputy, to make all surveys that he may be called upon to make within 
his county as soon as may be after application is made. The necessary 
chainmen and other assistance must be employed by the person requiring 
the same to be done, and to be by him paid, unless otherwise agreed ; but 
the chainmen must be disinterested persons and approved by the surveyor 
and sworn by him to measure justly and impartially. 

The County Board in each county is required by law to provide a copy 
of the United States field notes and plats of their surveys of the lands 
in the county to be kept in the recorder's office subject to examination 
by the public, and the county surveyor is required to make his surveys 
in conformity to said notes, plats and the laws of the United States gov- 
erning such matters. The surveyor is also required to keep a record 
of all surveys made by him, which shall be subject to inspection by any 
one interested, and shall be delivered up to his successor in office, A 


certified copy of the said surveyor's record shall be prima facie evidence 
of its contents. 

The fees of county surveyors are six dollars per day. The county 
surveyor is also ex officio inspector of mines, and as such, assisted by some 
practical miner selected by him, shall once each year inspect all the 
mines in the county, for which they shall each receive such compensa- 
tion as may be fixed by the County Board, not exceeding $5 a day, to 
be paid out of the county treasury. 


Where practicable from the nature of tlie ground, persons traveling 
in any kind of vehicle, mu8t turn to the right of the center of the road, so 
as to permit each carriage to pass without interfering with each other. 
The penalty for a violation of this provision is $5 for every offense, to 
be recovered by the party injured; but to recover, there must have 
occurred some injury to person or property resultin'g from the violation. 
The oivners of any carriage traveling upon any road in this State for the 
conveyance of passengers who shall employ or continue in his employment 
as driver any person who is addicted to drunkenness, or the excessive use of 
spiritous liquors, after he has had notice of the same, shall forfeit, at the 
rate of -^5 per day, and if any driver while actually engaged in driving 
any such carriage, shall be guilty of intoxication to such a degree as to 
endanger the safety of passengers, it shall be the duty of the owner, on 
receiving ivritten notice of the fact, signed by one of the passengers, and 
certified by him on oath, forthwith to discharge such driver. If such owner 
shall have such driver in his employ within three months after such notice, 
he is liable for $5 per day for the time he shall keep said driver in his 
employment after receiving such notice. 

Persons driving any carriage on any public highway are prohibited 
from running their horses upon any occasion under a penalty of a fine not 
exceeding $10, or imprisonment not exceeding sixty days, at the discre- 
tion of the court. Horses attached to any carriage used to convey passen- 
gers for hire must be properly hitched or the lines placed in the hands of 
some other person before the driver leaves them for any purpose. For 
violation of this provision each driver shall forfeit txoenty dollars, to be 
recovered by action, to be commenced within six months. It is under- 
stood by the term carriage herein to mean any carriage or vehicle used 
for the transportation of passengers or goods or either of them. 

The commissioners of highways in the different tov/ns have the care 
and superintendence of highways and bridges therein. They have all 
the powers necessary to lay out, vacate, regulate and repair all roads> 
build and repair bridges. In addition to the above, it is their duty to 
erect and keep in repair at the forks or crossing-place of the most 


important roads post and guide boards with plain inscriptions, giving 
directions and distances to the most noted places to which such road may 
lead; also to make provisions to prevent thistles, burdock, and cockle 
burrs, mustard, yellow dock, Indian mallow and jimson weed from 
seeding, and to extirpate the same as far as practicable, and to prevent 
all rank growth of vegetation on the public highways so far as the same 
may obstruct public travel, and it is in their discretion to erect watering 
places for public use for watering teams at such points as may be deemed 

The Commissioners, on or before the 1st day of May of each year, 
shall make out and deliver to their treasurer a list of all able-bodied men 
in their town, excepting paupers, idiots, lunatics, and such others as are 
exempt by law, and assess against each the sum of two dollars as a poll 
tax for highway purposes. Within thirty days after such list is delivered 
they shall cause a written or printed notice to be given to each person so 
assessed, notifying him of the time when and place where such tax must 
be paid, or its equivalent in labor performed ; they may contract with 
persons owing such poll tax to perform a certain amount of labor on any 
road or bridge in payment of the same, and if such tax is not paid nor 
labor performed by the first Monday of July of such year, or within ten 
days after notice is given after that time, they shall bring suit therefor 
against such person before a justice of the peace, who shall hear and 
determine the case according to law for the offense complained of, and 
shall forthwith issue an execution, directed to any constable of the county 
where the delinquent shall reside, who shall forthwith collect the moneys 
therein mentioned. 

The Commissioners of Highways of each town shall annually ascer- 
tain, as- near as practicable, how much money must be raised by tax on real 
and personal property for the making and repairing of roads, only, to any 
amount they may deem necessary, not exceeding forty cents on each one 
hundred dollars' worth, as valued on the assessment roll of the previous 
year. The tax so levied on property lying within an incorporated village, 
town or city, shall be paid over to the corporate authorities of such town, 
village or city. Commissioners shall receive $1.50 for each day neces- 
sarily employed in the discharge of their duty. 

Overseers. At the first meeting the Commissioners shall choose one 
of their number to act General Overseer of Highways in their township, 
whose duty it shall be to take charge of and safely keep all tools, imple- 
ments and machinery belonging to said town, and shall, by the direction 
of the Board, have general supervision of all roads and bridges in their 



As all township and county officers are familiar with their duties, it 
is only intended to give the points of the law that the pu])lic should be 
familiar with. The manner of laying out, altering or vacating roads, etc., 
will not be here stated, as it would require more space than is contem- 
plated in a work of this kind. It is sufficient to state that, the first step 
is b}' petition, addressed to the Commissioners, setting out what is prayed 
for, giving the names of the owners of lands if known, if not known so 
state, over which the road is to pass, giving the general course, its place 
of beginning, and where it terminates. It requires not less than twelve 
freeholders residing within three miles of the road who shall sign the 
petition. Public roads must not be less than fifty feet wide, nor more 
than sixty feet wide. Roads not exceeding two miles in length, if peti- 
tioned J'or, may be laid out, not less than forty feet. Private roads 
for private and public use, may be laid out of the width of three rods, on 
petition of the person directly interested ; the damage occasioned thereby 
shall be paid by the premises benefited thereby, and before the road is 
opened. If not opened in two years, the order shall be considered 
rescinded. Commissioners in their discretion may permit persons who 
live on or have private roads, to work out their road tax thereon. Public 
roads must be opened in five days from date of filing order of location, 
or be deemed vacated. 


Whenever one or more owners or occupants of land desire to construct 
I drain or ditch across the land of others for agricultural^ sanitary or 
mining purposes^ the proceedings are as follows: 

File a petition in the Circuit or County Court of the county in which 
the proposed ditch or drain is to be constructed, setting forth the neces- 
sity for the same, with a description of its proposed starting point, route 
and terminus, and if it shall be necessary for the drainage of the land or 
coal mines or for sanitary purposes, that a drain, ditch, levee or similar 
work be constructed, a description of the same. It shall also set forth 
the names of all persons owning the land over which such drain or ditch 
shall be constructed, or if unknown stating that fact. 

No private property shall be taken or damaged for the purpose of 
constructing a ditch, drain or levee, without compensation, if claimed by 
the owner, the same to be ascertained by a jury; but if the construction 
of such ditch, drain or levee shall be a benefit to the owner, the same 
shall be a set off against such compensation. 

If the proceedings seek to affect the property of a minor, lunatic or 
iTiarried woman, the guardian, conservator or husband of the same shall 
be made party defendant. The petition may be amended and parties 
made defendants at any time when it is necessary to a fair trial. 


When the petition is presented to the judge, he shall note therein 
when he will hear the same, and order the issuance of summonses and 
the publication of notice to each non-resident or unknown defendant. 

The petition may be heard by such judge in vacation as well as in 
term time. Upon the trial, the jury shall ascertain the just compensation 
to each owner of the property sought to be damaged by the construction 
of such ditch, drain or levee, and truly report the same. 

As it is only contemplated in a work of this kind to give an abstract 
of the laws, and as the parties who have in chatge the execution of the 
further proceedings are likely to be familiar with the requirements of the 
statute, the necessary details are not here inserted. 


The County Board of any county in this State may hereafter alluw 
such bounty on tvolf scalps as the board may deem reasonable. 

Any person claiming a bounty shall produce the scalp or scalps with 
the ears thereon, within sixty days after the wolf or wolves shall have 
been caught, to the Clerk of the County Board, who shall administer to 
said person the following oath or aflBrmation, to-wit: "You do solemnly 
swear (or affirm, as the case may be), that the scalp or scalps here pro- 
duced by you was taken from a wolf or wolves killed and first captured 
by yourself within the limits of this county, and within the sixty days- 
last past." 


When the reversion expectant on a lease of any tenements or here- 
ditaments of any tenure shall be surrendered or merged, the estate which 
shall for the time being confer as against the tenant under the same lease 
the next vested right to the same tenements or hereditaments, shall, ta 
the extent and for the purpose of preserving such incidents to and obli- 
gations on the same reversion, as but for the surrender or merger thereof, 
would have subsisted, be deemed the reversion expectant on the same 


Every poor person who shall be unable to earn a livelihood in conse- 
quence ot any bodily infirmity, idiocy^ lunacy or unavoidable cause, shall 
be supported by the father, grand-father, mother, grand-mother, children, 
grand-children, brothers or sisters of such poor person, if they or either 
of them be of sufficient ability ; but if any of such dependent class shall 
have become so from intemperance or other had conduct, they shall not b& 
entitled to support from any relation except parent or child. 




The children sliall first be called on to support their parents, if they 
are able ; but if not, tlie parents of such poor person shall then be called 
on, if of sufficient ability ; and if there be no parents or children able, 
then the brothers and sisters of such dependent person shall be called 
upon ; and if there be no brothers or sisters of sufficient ability, the 
grand-children of such person shall next be called on ; and if they are 
not able, then the grand-parents. Married females, while their husbands 
live, shall not be liable to contribute for the support of their poor relations 
except out of their separate property. It is the duty of the state's 
(county) attorney, to make complaint to the County Court of his county 
against all the relatives of such paupers in this state liable to his support 
and prosecute the same. In case the state's attorney neglects, or refuses, to 
complain in such cases, then it is the duty of the overseer of the poor to 
do so. The person called upon to contribute shall have at least ten days' 
notice of sucli application by summons. The court has the power to 
determine the kind of support, depending upon the circumstances of the 
parties, and may also order two or more of the different degrees to main- 
tain such poor person, and prescribe the proportion of each, according to 
their ability. The court may specify the time for which the relative shall 
contribute — in fact has control over the entire subject matter, with power 
to enforce its orders. Every county (except those in which the poor are 
supported by the towns, and in such cases the towns are liable) is required 
to relieve and support all poor and indigent persons laivfuUy resident 
therein. Residence means the actual residence of the party, or the place 
where he was employed ; or in case he was in no employment, then it 
shall be the place where he made his home. When any person becomes 
chargeable as a pauper in any county or town who did not reside at the 
commencement of six months immediately preceding his becoming so, 
but did at that time reside in some other county or town in this state, 
then the county or town, as the case may be, becomes liable for the expense 
of taking care of such person until removed, and it is the duty of the 
overseer to notify the proper authorities of the fact. If any person shall 
bring and leave any pauper in any county in this state where such pauper 
had no legal residence, knowing him to be such, he is liable to a fine of 
$100. In counties under township organization, the supervisors in each 
town are ex-officio overseers of the poor. The overseers of the poor act 
under the directions of the County Board in taking care of the poor and 
granting of temporary relief; also, providing for non-resident persons not 
paupers who may be taken sick and not able to pay their way, and in case 
of death cause such person to be decently buried. 

The residence of the inmates of poorhouses and other charitable 
institutions for voting purposes is their former place of abode. 



In counties under township organization, the town assessor and com- 
missioner of highways are the fence-viewers in their respective towns. 
In other counties the County Board appoints three in each precinct annu- 
ally. A lawful fence is four and one-half feet high, in good repair, con- 
sisting of rails, timber, boards, stone, hedges, or whatever the fence- 
viewers of the town or precinct where the same shall lie, shall consider 
equivalent thereto, but in counties under township organization the annual 
town meeting may establish any other kind of fence as such, or the County 
Board in other counties may do the same. Division fences shall be made 
and maintained in just proportion by the adjoining owners, except when 
the owner shall choose to let his land lie open, but after a division fence is 
built by agreement or otherwise, neither party can remove his part of such 
fence so long as he may crop or use such land for farm purposes, or without 
giving the other party one year's notice in writing of his intention to remove 
his portion. When any person shall enclose his land upon the enclosure 
of another, he shall refund the owner of the adjoining lands a just pro- 
portion of the value at that time of such fence. The value of fence and 
the just proportion to be paid or built and maintained by each is to be 
ascertained by two fence-viewers in the town or precinct. Such fence- 
viewers have power to settle all disputes between different owners as to 
fences built or to be built, as well as to repairs to be made. Each party 
chooses one of the viewers, but if the other party neglects, after eight 
days' notice in writing, to make his choice, then the other party may 
select both. It is sufficient to notify the tenant or party in possession, 
when the owner is not a resident of the town or precinct. The two 
fence-viewers chosen, after viewing the premises, shall hear the state- 
ments of the parties , in case they can't agree, they shall select another 
fence-viewer to act with them, and the decision of any two of them is 
final. The decision must be reduced to writing, and should plainly set 
out description of fence and all matters settled by them, and must be 
filed in the office of the town clerk in counties under township organiza- 
tion, and in other counties with the county clerk. 

Where any person is liable to contribute to the erection or the 
repairing of a division fence, neglects or refuses so to do, the party 
injured, after giving sixty days notice in writing when a fence is to be 
erected, or ten days when it is only repairs, may proceed to have the 
work done at the expense of the party whose duty it is to do it, to be 
recovered from him with costs of suit, and the party so neglecting shall 
also be liable to the party injured for all damages accruing from such 
neglect or refusal, to be determined by any two fence-viewers selected 
as before provided, the appraisement to be reduced to writing and signed. 


Where a person shall conclude to remove his part of a division fence, 
and )et his land lie open, and having given the year's notice required, the 
adjoining owner may cause the value of said fence to be ascertained by 
fence-viawers as before provided, and on payment or tender of the 
amount of such valuation to the owner, it shall prevent the removal. A 
party removing a division fence without notice is liable for the damages 
accruing thereby. 

Where a fence has been built on the land of another through mis- 
take, the owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and 
material within oix months after the division line has been ascertained. 
Where the material to build such a fence has been taken from the land 
on which it was built, then before it can be removed, the person claiming 
must first pay for such material to the owner of the land from which it 
was taken, nor shall tiuch a fence be removed at a time when the removal 
will throw open or expose the crops of the other party ; a reasonable 
time must be given beyond the .six months to remove crops. 

The compensation of fence-viewers is one dollar and fifty cents a 
day each, to be paid in the first instance by the party calling them, but 
in the end all expenses, including amount charged by the fence-viewers, 
must be paid equall}^ b}'' the parties, except in cases where a party neglects 
or refuses to make or maintain a just proportion of a division fence, when 
the party in default shall pay them. 


Where stock of any kind breaks into any person's enclosure, the 
fence being good and sufficient^ the owner is liable for the damage done ; 
but where the damage is done by stock running at large^ contrary to law, 
the owner is liable where th-jre is not such a fence. Where stock is 
found trespassing on the enclosure of another as aforesaid, the owner oi 
occupier of the premises may take possession of such stock and keep the 
same until damages, with reasonable charges for keeping and feeding and 
all costs of suit, are paid. Any person taking or rescuing such stock so 
held without his consent, shall be liable to a fine of not less than three 
nor more than five dollars for each animal rescued, to be recovered by 
suit before a justice of the peace for the use of the school fund. Within 
twenty-four hours after taking such animal into his possession, the per- 
son taking it up must give notice of the fact to the owner, if known, or 
if unknown, notices must be posted in some public place near the premises. 


The owner of lands, or his legal representatives, can sue for and 
recover rent therefor, in any of the following cases : 

First. When rent is due and in arrears on a lease for life or lives. 


Second. When lands are held and occupied by any person without 
any special agreement for rent. 

Third. When posse^^sion is obtained under an agreement, written 
or verbal, for the purchase of the premises and before deed given, the 
right to possession is terminated by forfeiture on con-compliance with the 
agreement, and possession is wrongfully refused or neglected to be giver, 
upon demand made in writing by the i^arty entitled thereto. Provided 
that all payments made by the vendee or his representatives or assigns, 
may be set off against the rent. 

Fourth. When land has been sold upon a judgment or a decree of 
court, when the party to such judgment or decree, or person holding under 
him, wrongfully refuses, or neglects, to surrender possession of the same, 
after demand in writing by the person entitled to the possession. 

Fifth. When the lands have been sold upon a mortgage or trust 
deed, and the mortgagor or grantor or person holding under him, wrong- 
fully refuses or neglects to surrender possession of the same, after demand 
in writing by the person entitled to the possession. 

If any tenant, or any person who shall come into possession from or 
under or by collusion with such tenant, shall willfully hold over any lands, 
etc., after the expiration the term of their lease, and after demand made 
in writing for the possession thereof, is liable to jjay double rent. A 
tenancy from year to year requires sixty days notice in writing, to termi- 
nate the same at the end of the year ; such notice can be given at any 
time within four months preceding the last sixty days of the year. 

A tenancy by the month, or less tlian a year, where the tenant holds 
over without any special agreement, the landlord may terminate the 
tenancy, by thirty days notice in writing. 

When rent is due, the landlord may serve a notice upon the tenant, 
stating that unless the rent is paid within not less than five days, his lease 
will be terminated ; if the rent is not paid, the landlord may consider the 
lease ended. When default is made in any of the terms of a lease, it 
shall not be necessary to give more than ten days notice to quit or of the 
termination of such tenancy ; and the same may be terminated on giving 
such notice to quit, at any time after such default in any of the terms of 
such lease ; which notice may be substantially in the following form, viz: 

To , You are hereby notified that, in consequence of your default 

in (here insert the character of the default), of the premises now occupied 
by you, being etc. (here describe the premises), I have elected to deter- 
mine your lease, and you are hereby notified to quit and deliver up pos- 
session of the same to me within ten days of this date (dated, etc.) 

The above to be signed by the lessor or his agent, and no other notice 
or demand of possession or termination of such tenancy is necessary. 

Demand may be made, or notice served, by delivering a written or 


printed, or partly either, copy thereof to the tenant, or leaving the same 
with some jjerson above the age of twelve years residing on or in posses- 
sion of the premises ; and in case no one is in the actual possession of the 
said premises, then by posting the same on the premises. When the 
tenancy is for a certain time, and the term expires by the terms of the 
lease, the tenant is then bound to surrender possession, and no notice 
to quit or demand of possession is necessary. 

Distress for rent. — In all cases of distress for rent, the landlord, by 
himself, his agent or attorney, may seize for rent any personal property of 
his tenant that may be found in the county where the tenant resides ; the 
property of any other j^erson, even if found on the premises, is not 

An inventory of the property levied upon, with a statement of the 
amount of rent claimed, should be at once filed with some justice of the 
peace, if not over $200 ; and if above that sum, with the clerk of a court 
of record of competent jurisdiction. Property may be released, by the 
party executing a satisfactory bond for double the amount. 

The landlord may distrain for rent, any time within six months after 
the expiration of the term of the lease, or when terminated. 

In all cases where the premises rented shall be sub-let, or the lease 
assigned, the landlord shall have the same right to enforce lien against 
such lessee or assignee, that he has against the tenant to whom the pre- 
mises were rented. 

When a tenant abandons or removes from the premises or any part 
thereof, the landlord, or his agent or attorney, may seize upon any grain 
or other crops grown or growing upon the premises, or part thereof so 
abandoned, whether the rent is due or not. If such grain, or other crops, 
or any part thereof, is not fully grown or matured, the landlord, or his 
agent or attorney, shall cause the same to be properly cultivated, harvested 
or gathered, and may sell the same, and from the proceeds pay all his 
labor, expenses and rent. The tenant may, before the sale of such pro- 
perty, redeem the same by tendering the rent and reasonable compensation 
for work done, or he may replevy the same. 

Exemption. — The same articles of personal property which are bylaw 
exempt from execution, except the crops as above stated, is also exempt 
from distress for rent. 

If any tenant is about to or shall permit or attempt to sell and 
remove from the premises, without the consent of his landlord, such 
portion of the crops raised thereon as will endanger the lien of the land- 
lord upon such crops, for tiie rent, it shall be lawful for the landlord to 
distress before rent is due. 



Any person who shall by contract^ express or implied, or partly both, 
with the owner of any lot or tract of land, furnish labor or material, or 
services as an architect or superintendent, in building, altering, repairing 
or ornamenting any house or other building or appurtenance thereto on 
such lot, or upon any street or alley, and connected with such improve- 
ments, shall have a lien upon the whole of such lot or tract of land, and 
upon such house or building and appurtenances, for the amount due to 
him for such labor, material or services. If the contract is expressed^ ixn(\ 
the time for the completion of the work is beyond three years from the com- 
mencement thereof; or, if the time of payment is beyond one year from 
the time stipulated for the completion of the work, then no lien exists. 
If the contract is implied, then no lien exists, unless the work be done or 
material is furnished within one year from the commencement of the work 
or delivery of the materials. As between different creditors having liens, 
no preference is given to the one whose contract was first made ; but each 
shares pro-rata. Incumbrances existing on the lot or tract of the land at 
the time the contract is made, do not operate on the improvements, and 
are only preferred to the extent of the value of the land at the time of 
making the contract. The above lien can not be enforced unless suit is 
commeyiced within six moyiths after the last payment for labor or materials 
shall have become due and payable. Sub-contractors, mechanics, workmen 
and other persons furnishing any material, or performing any labor for a 
contractor as before specified, have a lien to the extent of the amount due 
the contractor at the time the following notice is served upon the owner 
of the land who made the contract : 

To , You are hereby notified, that I have been employed by- 

(here state whether to labor or furnish material, and substantially the 
nature of the demand) upon your (here state in general terms description 
and situation of building), and that I shall hold the (building, or as the 
case may be), and your interest in the ground, liable for the amount that 

may (is or may become) due me on account thereof. Signature, 


If there is a contract in writing between contractor and sub-contractor, 
a copy of it should be served with above notice, and said notice must be 
served within forty days from the completion of such sub-contract, if there 
is one ; if not, then from the time payment should have been made to the 
person performing the labor or furnishing the material. If the owner is 
not a resident of the county, or can not be found therein^ then the above 
notice must be filed with the clerk of the Circuit Court, with his fee, fifty 
cents, and a copy of said notice must be published in a newspaper pub- 
lished in the county, for four successive weeks. 


When the owner or agent is notified as above, he can retain any 
money due the contractor sufficient to pay such chiini ; if more than one 
claim, and not enough to pay all, they are to be paid pro rata. 

The owner has the right to demand in writing, a statement of the 
contractor, of what he owes for labor, etc., from time to time as the work 
progresses, and on his failure to comply, forfeits to the owner $50 for 
every offense. 

The liens referred to cover any and all estates, whether in fee for 
life, for years, or any other interest which the owner may have. 

To enforce the lien of sub-contractors, suit must be commenced within 
three months from the time of the performance of the sub-contract, or 
durinsr the work or furnishing materials. 

Eotel, inn and boarding-house keepers, have a lien upon the baggage 
and other valuables of their guests or boarders, brought into such hotel, 
inn or boarding-house, by their guests or boarders, for the proper charges 
due from such sruests or boarders for their accommodation, board and 
lodgings, and such extras as are furnished at their request. 

Stable-keepers and other persons have a lien npon the horses, car- 
riages and harness kept by them, for the proper charges due for the keep- 
ing thereof and expenses bestowed thereon at the request of the owner 
or the person having the possession of the same. 

Agisters (persons who take care of cattle belonging to others), and 
persons keeping, yarding, feeding or pasturing domestic animals, shall 
have alien upon the animals agistered, kept, yarded or fed, for the proper 
charcjes due for such service. 

All persons who may furnish any railroad corporation in this state 
with fuel, ties, material, supplies or any other article or thing necessary 
for the construction, maintenance, operation or repair of its road by con- 
tract, or may perform work or labor on the same, is entitled to be paid as 
part of the current expenses of the road, and have a lien upon all its pro- 
perty. Sub-contractors or laborers have also a lien. The conditions and 
limitations both as to contractors and sub-contractors, are about the same 
as herein stated as to general liens. 


$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly 

placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, 
United States Currency. 

£ means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or to. ft for pound, and bbl. for barrel; '^ for per or 
hj the. Thus, Butter sells at 20@30c ^ ft, and Flour at $8@12 ^ bbl. 

^1? for per cent and J for number. 

May 1.— Wheat sells at $1.20^,1.25, "seller June." Seller June 


means that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering 
it at any time during the month of June. 

Selling shorty is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or 
stock, at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, Avhen the seller 
has not the stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling 
"short," to depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may- 
buy and fill his contract at a profit. Hence the " shorts " are termed 
" bears." 

Buying long^ is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or 
shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, 
expecting to make a profit by the rise of prices. The "longs" are 
termed "bulls," as it is for their interest to "operate" so as to "toss" 
the prices upward as much as possible. 


Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the 
amount and time of payment are mentioned. 

$100. _ Chicago, 111., Sept. 15, 1876. 

Sixty days from dute I promise to pay to E. F. Brown, 
or order, One Hundred dollars, for value received. 

L. D. LowEY. 
A note to be payable in any thing else than money needs only the 
facts substituted for money in the above form. 


Orders should be worded simply, thus : 

Mr. F. H. Coats: Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall, Twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. SiLVA. 


Receipts should always state when received and what for, thus : 

$100. Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Received of J. W. Davis, One Hundred dollars, for services 
rendered in grading his lot in Fort Madison, on account. 

Thomas Brady. 
If receipt is in full it should be so stated. 


W. N. Mason, Salem, Illinois, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Graham. 
4 Bushels of Seed Wheat^ at -SI. 50 - - - . |6.00 

2 Seamless Sacks " .30 - - .60 

Received payment, $6.60 

A. A. Graham. 




An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunder- 
standings and trouble. No particular form is necessary, but the facts must 
be clearly and explicitly stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a 
reasonable consideration. 


This Agreement, made the Second day of October, 1876, between 
John Jones, of Aurora, County of Kane, State of Illinois, of the first part, 
and Thomas Whiteside, of the same place, of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, that the said John Jones, in consideration of the agree- 
ment of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and 
agrees to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver, in 
good and marketable condition, at the Village of Batavia, 111., during the 
month of November, of this year, One Hundred Tons of Prairie Hay, in 
the following lots, and at the following specified times ; namely, twenty- 
five tons by the seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional b}^ the 
fourteenth of the month, twentj^-five tons more by the twenty-first, and 
the entire one hundred tons to be all delivered by the thirtieth of 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt 
fulfillment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, 
contracts to and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five 
dollars per ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is 
hereby stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pa}' to the 
other, One Hundred Dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day and 
year first above written. John Jones, 

Thomas Whiteside. 


This Agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-six, between Reuben Stone, of Chicago, County 
of Cook, State of Illinois, party of the first part, and George Barclay, of 
Englewood, County of Cook, State of Illinois, party of tlie second part — 

WITNESSETH, that said George Barclay agrees faithfully and dili- 
gently to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for 
and during the space of one year from the date hereof, should both 
live such length of time, without absenting himself from his occupation,- 


during which time he, the said Barclay, in the store of said Stone, of 
Chicago, will carefully and honestly attend, doing and performing all 
duties as clerk and salesman aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects 
as directed and desired by the said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said 
Barclay, the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of 
one thousand dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each 
upon the last day of each month ; provided that all dues for days of 
absence from business by said Barclay, shall be deducted from the sum 
otherwise by the agreement due and payable by the said Stone to the said 

Witness our hands. Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 


A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consider- 
ation to convey his right and interest in the personal property. The 
purchaser must take actual possession of the property. Juries have 
power to determine upon the fairness or unfairness of a bill of sale. 


Know all Men by this instrument, that I, Louis Clay, of Princeton, 
Illinois, of the first part, for and in consideration of Five Hundred 
and Ten dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, and 
by this instrument do convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second 
part, his executors, administrators, and assigns, my undivided half of 
ten acres of corn, now growing on the farm of Thomas Tyrrell, in the 
town above mentioned ; one pair of horses, sixteen sheep, and five cows, 
belonging to me, and in my possession at the farm aforesaid ; to have and 
to hold the same unto the party of the second part, his executors and 
assigns, forever. And I do, for myself and legal representatives, agree 
with the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, to 
warrant and defend the sale of the afore-mentioned property and chattels 
unto the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, 
against all and every person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this tenth day 
of October, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

Louis Clay. 


A bond is a written admission on the part of the maker in which he 
pledges a certain sum to another, at a certain time. 



Know all Men by this instrument, that I, George Edgerton, of 
Watseka, Ii-0(iuois County, State of Illinois, am firmly bound unto Peter 
Kirchoff, of the place aforesaid, in the sum of five hundred dollars, to be 
paid to the said Peter Kirchoff, or his legal representatives ; to which 
payment, to be made, I bind myself, or my legal representatives, by this 

Sealed with my seal, and dated this second day of November, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-four. 

The condition of this bond is such that if I, George Edgerton, my 
heirs, administrators, or executors, shall promptly pay the sum of two 
hundred and fifty dollars in three equal annual payments from the date 
hereof, with annual interest, then the above obligation to be of no effect ; 
otherwise to be in full force and valid. 
Sealed and delivered in 

presence of George Edgerton. [l.s.] 

William Turner. 


A chattel mortgage is a mortgage on personal property for payment 
of a certain sum of money, to hold the property against debts of other 
creditors. The mortgage must describe the property, and must be 
acknowledged before a justice of the peace in the township or precinct 
where the mortgagee resides, and entered upon his docket, and must be 
recorded in the recorder's office of the county. 


This Indenture, made and entered into this first day of January* 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, 
between Theodore Lottinville, of the town of Geneseo in the County 
of Henry, and State of Illinois, party of the first part, and Paul Heubhaw, 
of the same town, county, and State, party of the second part. 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consider- 
ation of the sum of one thousand dollars, in hand paid, the receipt whereof 
is hereby acknowledged, does hereby grant, sell, convey, and confirm unto 
the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns forever, all and 
singular the following described goods and chattels, to wit : 

Two three-year old roan-colored horses, one Burdett organ, No. 987, 
one Brussels carpet, 15x20 feet in size, one marble-top center table, one 
Home Comfort cooking stove. No. 8, one black walnut bureau with mirror 
attached, one set of parlor chairs (six in number), upholstered in green 
rep, with lounge corresponding with same in style and color of upholstery, 
now in possession of said Lottinville, at No. -4 Prairie Ave., Geneseo, 111. ; 


Together with all and singular, the appurtenances thereunto \)elong- 
ing, or in any wise appertaining ; to have and to hold the above described 
goods and chattels, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and 
assigns, forever. 

Provided, always, and these presents are upon this express condition, 
that if the said Theodore Lottinville, his heirs, executors, administrators, 
or assigns, shall, on or before the first day of January, A.D., one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six, pay, or cause to be paid, to the said Paul 
Ranslow, or his lawful attorney or attorneys, heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators, or assigns, the sum of One Thousand dollars, together with the 
interest that may accrue thereon, at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, 
from the first day of January, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-five, until paid, according to the tenor of one promissory note 
bearing even date herewith for the payment of said sum of money, that 
then and from thenceforth, these presents, and everything herein con- 
tained, shall cease, and be null and void, anything herein contained to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

Provided, also, that the said Theodore Lottinville may retain the 
possession of and have the use of said goods and chattels until the day 
of payment aforesaid ; and also, at his own expense, shall keep said goods 
and chattels; and also at the expiration of said time of payment, if said 
sum of money, together with the interest as aforesaid, shall not be paid, 
shall deliver up said goods and chattels, in good condition, to said Paul 
Ranslow, or his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns. 

And provided, also, that if default in payment as aforesaid, by said 
party of the first part, shall be made, or if said party of the second part 
shall at any time before said promissory note becomes due, feel himself 
unsafe or insecure, that then the said party of the second part, or his 
attorney, agent, assigns, or heirs, executors, or administrators, shall have 
the right to take possession of said goods and chattels, wherever they 
may or can be found, and sell the same at public or private sale, to the 
highest bidder for cash in hand, after giving ten days' notice of the time 
and place of said sale, together with a description of the goods and chat- 
tels to be sold, by at least four advertisements, posted up in public places 
in the vicinity where said sale is to take place, and proceed to make the 
sum of money and interest promised as aforesaid, together with all reason- 
able costs, charges, and expenses in so doing ; and if there shall be any 
overplus, shall pay the same without delay to the said party of the first 
part, or his legal representatives. 

In testimony whereof, the said party of the first part has hereunto 
set his hand and affixed his seal, the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in 

presence of Theodore Lottinville. [l.s.J 

Samuel J. Tilden. 



This Indenture, made this second day of June, 1875, between David 
Patton of the Town of Bisbee, State of Illinois, of the first part, and John 
Doyle of the same place, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said David Patton, for and in consideration of 
the covenants hereinafter mentioned and reserved, on the part of the said 
John Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, to be paid, kept, 
and performed, hath let, and by these presents doth grant, demise, and 
let, unto the said John Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, 
all that parcel of land situate in Bisbee aforesaid, bounded and described 
as follows, to wit : 

l^Here describe the land.^ 

Together with all the appurtenances appertaining thereto. To have 
and to hold the said premises, with appurtenances thereto belonging, unto 
the said Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, for the term of 
five years, from the first day of October next following, at a yearly rent 
of Six Hundred dollars, to be paid in equal payments, semi-annually, as 
long as said buildings are in good tenantable condition. 

And the said Doj'le, by these presents, covenants and agrees to pay 
all taxes and assessments, and keep in repair all hedges, ditches, rail, and 
other fences ; (the said David Patton, his heirs, assigns and administra- 
tors, to furnish all timber, brick, tile, and other materials necessary for 
such repairs.) 

Said Doyle further covenants and agrees to apply to said land, in a 
farmer-like manner, all manure and compost accumulating upon said 
farm, and cultivate all the arable land in a husbandlike manner, accord- 
ing to the usual custom among farmers in the neighborhood ; he also 
agrees to trim the hedges at a seasonable time, preventing injury from 
cattle to such hedges, and to all fruit and other trees on the said premises. 
That he will seed down with clover and timothy seed twenty acres yearly 
of arable land, ploughing the same number of acres each Spring of land 
now in grass, and hitherto unbroken. 

It is further agreed, that if the said Doyle shall fail to perform tha 
whole or any one of the above mentioned covenants, then and in that 
case the said David Patton may declare this lease terminated, by giving 
three months' notice of the same, prior to the first of October of any 
year, and may distrain any part of the stock, goods, or chattels, or other 
property in possession of said Doyle, for sufficient to compensate for the 
non-performance of the above written covenants, the same to be deter- 
mined, and amounts so to be paid to be determined, by three arbitrators, 
chosen as follows: Each of the parties to this instrument to choose one. 


and the two so chosen to select a third : the decision of said arbitrators 
to be final. 

In witness whereof, w6 have hereto set our hands and seals. 
Signed, sealed, and delivered 

in presence of David Patton. [l.s.] 

James Waldrox. John Doyle. [l.s.] 


This Instrument, made the first day of October, 1875, witnesseth 
that Amos Griest of Yorkville, County of Kendall, State of Illinois, hath 
rented from Aaron Young of Logansport aforesaid, the dwelling and lot 
No. 13 Ohio Street, situated in said City of Yorkville, for five years 
from the above date, at the yearly rental of Three Hundred dollars, pay- 
able monthly, on the first day of each month, in advance, at the residence 
of said Aaron Young. 

At the expiration of said above mentioned term, the said Griest 
agrees to give the said Young peaceable possession of the said dwelling, 
in as good condition as when taken, ordinary wear and casualties excepted. 

In witness whereof, we place our hands and seals the day and year 

Signed, sealed and delivered Amos Griest. [l.s.] 

in presence of 

Nickolas Schutz, Aaron Young, [l.s.] 

Notary Public. 


This certifies that I have let and rented, this first day of January, 
1876, unto Jacob Schmidt, my house and lot. No. 15 Erie Street, in the 
City of Chicago, State of Illinois, and its appurtenances ; he to have the 
free and uninterrupted occupation thereof for one year from this date, at 
the yearly rental of Two Hundred dollars, to be paid monthly in advance ; 
rent to cease if destroyed by fire, or otherwise made untenantable. 

Peter Funk. 

This certifies that I have hired and taken from Peter Funk, his 
house and lot. No. 15 Erie Street, in the City of Chicago, State of Illi- 
nois, with appurtenances thereto belonging, for one year, to commence 
this day, at a yearly rental of Two Hundred dollars, to be paid monthly 
in advance ; unless said house becomes untenantable from fire or other 
causes, in which case rent ceases; and I further ao-ree to oive and vield 
said premises one year from this first day of January 1876, in as good 
condition as now, ordinary wear and damage by the elements excepted. 

Given under my hand this day. Jacob Sch:midt. 



To F. W. Arlen, 

Sir : Please observe that the terra of one year, for which the house 

and land, situated at No. 6 Indiana Street, and now occupied by you, 

were rented to you, expired on the first day of October, 1875, and as I 

desire to repossess said premises, you are hereby requested and required 

to vacate the same. Respectfully Yours, 

P. T. Barnum. 

Lincoln, Neb., October 4, 1875. 


Dear Sir : 

The premises I now occupy as your tenant, at No. 6 Indiana Street, 
I shall vacate on the first day of November, 1875. You will please take 
notice accordingly. 

Dated this tenth day of October, 1875. F. W. Arlen. 

To P. T. Barnum, Esq. 


This Indenture, made this sixteenth day of May, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, between William 
Stocker, of Peoria, County of Peoria, and State of Illinois, and 011a, his 
wife, party of the first part, and Edward Singer, party of the second part. 

Wiiereas, the said party of the first part is justly indebted to the said 
party of the second part, in the sura of Two Thousand dollars, secured 
to be paid by two certain promissory notes (bearing even date herewith) 
the one due and payable at the Second National Bank in Peoria, Illinois, 
with interest, on the sixteenth day of May, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-three ; the other due and payable at the Second 
National Bank at Peoria, 111., with interest, on the sixteenth day of May, 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four. 

Now, therefore, this indenture witnesseth, that the said party of the 
first part, for the better securing the payment of the money aforesaid, 
with interest thereon, according to the tenor and effect of the said two 
promissory notes above mentioned ; and, also in consideration of the fur- 
ther sum of one dollar to them in hand paid by the said party of the sec- 
ond part, at the delivery of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby 
acknowledged, have granted, bargained, sold, and conveyed, and by these 
presents do grant, bargain, sell, and convey, unto the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, forever, all that certain parcel of land, 

situate, etc. 

\^Describing the premises.^ 

To have and to hold the same, togetlier with all and singular the 

Tenements, Hereditaments, Privileges and Appurtenances thereunto 


belonging or in any wise appertaining. And also, all the estate, interest, 
and claim whatsoever, in law as well as in equity which the party of 
the first part have in and to the premises hereby conveyed unto the said 
party of the second part, his heirs and assigns, and to their only proper 
use, benefit and behoof. And the said William Stocker, and 011a, his 
wife, party of the first part, hereby expressly waive, relinquish, release, 
and convey unto the said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, 
administrators, and assigns, all right, title, claim, interest, and benefit 
whatever, in and to the above described premises, and each and every 
part thereof, which is given b}'" or results from all laws of this state per- 
taining to the exemption of homesteads. 

Provided always, and these presents are upon this express condition, 
that if the said party of the first part, their heirs, executors, or adminis- 
trators, shall well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, to the said party of 
the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns, the afore- 
said sums of money, with such interest thereon, at the time and in the 
manner specified in the above mentioned promissory notes, according to 
the true intent and meaning thereof, then in that case, these presents and 
every thing herein expressed, shall be absolutely null and void. 

In witness whereof, the said party of the first part hereunto set their 
hands and seals the day and year first above written.' 
Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of 

James Whitehead, William Stocker. [l.s.] 

Fred. Samuels. Olla Stocker. [l.s.] 


This Indenture, made this sixth day of April, in the year of oui 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, between Henry Best 
of Lawrence, County of Lawrence, State of Illinois, and Belle, his wife, 
of the first part, and Charles Pearson of the same place, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consideration 
of the sum of Six Thousand dollars in hand paid by the said party of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have granted, 
bargained, and sold, and by these presents do grant, bargain, and sell, 
unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns, ail the fol- 
lowing described lot, piece, or parcel of land, situated in the City of Law- 
rence, in the County of Lawrence, and State of Illinois, to wit : 

[^Here describe the property.~\ 

Together with all and singular the hereditaments arid appurtenances 
thereunto belonging or in any wise appertaining, and the reversion and 
reversions, remainder and remainders, rents, issues, and profits thereof; 
and all the estate, rignt, title, interest, claim, and demand whatsoever, of 
the said party of the nrst part, either in law or equity, of, in, and to the 


S^c^icM f^our 




above bargained premises, with the hereditaments and appurtenances. 
To have and to hokl the said premises above bargained and described, 
with the appurtenances, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs 
and assigns, forever. And the said Henry Best, and Belle, his wife, par- 
ties of the first part, hereby expressly waive, release, and relinquish unto 
the said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators, and 
assigns, all right, title, claim, interest, and benefit whatever, in and to the 
above described premises, and each and every part thereof, which is given 
by or results from all laws of this state pertaining to the exemption of 

And the said Henry Best, and Belle, his wife, party of the first 
part, for themselves and their heirs, executors, and administrators, do 
covenant, grant, bargain, and agree, to and with the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, that at the time of the ensealing and 
delivery of these presents they were well seized of the premises above 
conveyed, as of a good, sure, perfect, absolute, and indefeasible estate of 
inheritance in law, and in fee simple, and have good right, full power, 
and lawful authority to grant, bargain, sell, and convey the same, in 
manner and form aforesaid, and that the same are free and clear from all 
former and other grants, bargains, sales, liens, taxes, assessments, and 
encumbrances of what kind or nature soever ; and the above bargained 
premises in the quiet and peaceable possession of the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, against all and every person or persons 
lawfully claiming or to claim the whole or any part thereof, the said party 
of the first part shall and will warrant and forever defend. 

In testimony whereof, the said parties of the first part have hereunto 
set their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered 

in presence of Henry Best, [l.s.] 

Jerry Linklater. Belle Best. [l.s.] 


This Indenture, made the eighth day of June, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, between David Tour, 
of Piano, County of Kendall, State of Illinois, party of the first part, 
and Larry O'Brien, of the same place, party of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in considera- 
tion of Nine Hundred dollars in hand paid by the said party of the sec- 
ond part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and the said party 
of the second part forever released and discharged therefrom, has remised, 
released, sold, conveyed, and quit-claimed, and by these presents does 
remise, release, sell, convey, and quit-claim, unto the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, forever, all the right, title, interest, 


claim, and demand, which the said party of the first part has in and to 
the following described lot, piece, or parcel of land, to wit : 

l^ITere describe the land.^ 

To have and to hold the same, together with all and singular the 
appurtenances and privileges thereunto belonging, or in any wise there- 
unto appertaining, and all the estate, right, title, interest, and claim 
whatever, of the said party of the first part, either in law or equity, to 
the only proper use, benefit, and behoof of the said party of the second 
part, his heirs and assigns forever. 

In witness whereof the said party of the first part hereunto set his 
hand and seal the day and year above written. 

Signed, sealed and delivered David Tour, [l.s.] 

in presence of 
Thomas Ashley. 

The above forms of Deeds and Mortgage are such as have heretofore 
been generally used, but the following are much shorter, and are made 
equally valid by the laws of this state. 


The grantor (here insert name or names and place of residence), for 
and in consideration of (here insert consideration) in hand paid, conveys 
and warrants to (here insert the grantee's name or names) the following 
described real estate (here insert description), situated in the County of 
in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


The grantor (here insert grantor's name or names and place of resi- 
dence), for the consideration of (here insert consideration) convey and 
quit-claim to (here insert grantee's name or names) all interest in the 
following described real estate (here insert description), situated in the 
County of in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


The mortgagor (here insert name or names) mortgages and warrants 
to (here insert name or names of mortgagee or mortgagees), to secure the 
payment of (here recite the nature and amount of indebtedness, showing 
when due and the rate of interest, and whether secured by note or other- 
wise), the following described real estate (here insert description thereof), 
situated in the County of in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


Know all Men by these presents, that I, Peter Ahlund, of Chicago, 
of the County of Cook, and State of Illinois, for and in consideration of 
One dollar, to me in hand paid, and for other good and valuable considera- 


tions, the receipt whereof is hereby confessed, do hereby grant, bargain, 
reraise, convey, release, and quit-claim unto Joseph Carlin of Chicago, 
of the County of Cook, and State of Illinois, all the right, title, interest, 
claim, or demand whatsoever, I may have acquired in, through, or by a 
certain Indenture or Mortgage Deed, bearing date the second day of Jan- 
uary, A. D. 1871, and recorded in the Recorder's office of said county, 
in book A of Deeds, page 46, to the premises therein described, and which 
said Deed was made to secure one certain promissory note, bearing even 
date with said deed, for the sum of Three Hundred dollars. 

Witness my hand and seal, this second day of November, A. D. 1874. 

Peter Ahlund. [l.s.] 

State of Illinois, ) 
Cook County. j I, George Saxton, a Notary Public in 

and for said county, in the state aforesaid, do hereby 

certify that Peter Ahlund, personally known to me 

as the same person whose name is subscribed to the 

foregoing Release, appeared before me this day in 

[ '^Jr/Z.'^^ ] person, and acknowledged that he signed, sealed, and 

delivered the said instrument of Avriting as his free voluntary act, for the uses and purposes therein 

• set forth. 

Giv.3n under my hand and seal, this second day of 

November, A. D. 1874. 

George Saxton, N. P. 


I, Charles Mansfield, of the lown of Salem, County of Jackson, 
State of Illinois, being aware of the i^ncertainty of life, and in failing 
health, but of sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be 
my last will and testament, in manner folio tving, to wit: 

First. I give, devise and bequeath unto my oldest son, Sidney H. 
Mansfield, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, cf bank stock, now in the 
Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself 
in the Town of Buskirk, consisting of one hundred jind sixty acres, with 
all the houses, tenements, and improvements thereunto belonging ; to 
have and to hold unto my said son, his heirs and assign*., forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my daughters, Anna 
Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand dollars in 
bank stock, in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and also each 
one quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in the Town of 
Lake, Illinois, and recorded in my name in the Recorder's officvi in the 
county where such land is located. The north one hundred and sixty 
acres of said half section is devised to ray eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 



Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mans- 
field, Five shares of Railroad stock in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
and my one hundred and sixty acres of land and saw mill thereon, situ- 
ated in Manistee, Michigan, with all the improvements and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, which said real estate is recorded in my name in the 
county where situated. 

Fourth. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, all my 
household furniture, goods, chattels, and personal property, about my 
home, not hitherto disposed of, including Eight Thousand dollars of bank 
stock in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, Fifteen shares in 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, pos- 
session, and benefit of the home farm, so long as she may live, in lieu of 
dower, to which she is entitled by law; said farm being my present place 
of residence. 

Fifth. I bequeath to my invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield, the 
income from rents of my store building at 145 Jackson Street, Chicago^ 
Illinois, during the term of his natural life. Said building and land there- 
with to revert to my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon 
the demise of my said father. 

Sixth. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my wife, 
Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, or at any time when she may arrange to 
relinquish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same 
may revert to my above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly. I nominate and appoint as executors of this my last will 
and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest son, 
Sidney H. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shad 
be paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Salem, the 
residue of such moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, 
for her use forever. 

In witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and 
testament, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of April, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-two. 

Signed, sealed, and declared by Charles 

Mansfield, as and for his last will and 

testament, in the presence of us, who, 

at his request, and in his presence, and 

in the presence of each other, have sub- )- 

scribed our names hereunto as witnesses 

Peter A. Schenck, Sycamore, Ills. 
Frank E. Dent, Salem, Ills. 

Charles Mansfield, [l.s.] 

Charles Mansfield, [l.s.] 



Whereas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth day of April, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will and testa- 
ment, I do now, by this writing, add this codicil to my said will, to be 
taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna 
Louise, has deceased November fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, 
and whereas, a son has been born to me, which son is now christened 
Richard Albert Mansfield, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, 
and all right, interest, and title in lands and bank stock and chattels 
bequeathed to my deceased daughter, Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth 
day of March, eighteen hundred and seventy -five. 

Signed, sealed, published, and declared to 

us by the testator, Charles Mansfield, as 

and for a codicil to be annexed to his 

last will and testament. And we, at 

his request, and in his presence, and in 

the presence of each other, have sub- | 

scribed our names as witnesses thereto, 

at the date hereof. 
Frank E. Dent, Salem, Ills. 
John C. Shay, Salem, Ills. 


May be legally made by electing or appointing^ according to the usages 
or customs of the body of which it is a part, at any meeting held for that 
purpose, two or more of its meynhers as trustees, wardens or vestrymen, and 
may adopt a corporate name. The chairman or secretary of such meeting 
shall, as soon as possible, make and file in the office of the recorder of 
deeds of the county, an affidavit substantially in the following form : 

State of Illinois, 

Countv ' 

I, '- , do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be), 

that at a meeting of tlie members of the (here insert the name of the 
church, society or congregation as known before organization), held at 

(here insert place of meeting), in the County of , and State of 

Illinois, on the day of , A.D. 18 — , for that purpose, the fol- 
lowing persons were elected (or appointed) [Jiere insert their names'] 
trustees, wardens, vestrymen, (or officers by whatever name they may 
choose to adopt, with powers similar to trustees) according to the rules 
and usages of such (church, society or congregation), and said 


adopted as its corporate name (here insert name), and at said meeting 
this affiant acted as (chairman or secretary, as the case ma}^ be). 

Subscribed and sworn 'to before me, this day of , A.D. 

18 — ■. Name of Affiant 

which affidavit must be recorded by the recorder, and shall be, or a certi- 
fied copy made by the recorder, received as evidence of such an incorpo- 

No certificate of election after the first need he filed for record. 

The term of office of the trustees and the general government of the 
society can be determined by the rules or by-laws adopted. Failure to 
elect trustees at the time provided does not work a dissolution, but the 
old trustees hold over. A trustee or trustees may be removed, in the 
same manner by the society as elections are held by a meeting called for 
that purpose. The property of the society vests in the corporation. The 
corporation may hold, or acquire by purchase or otherwise, land not 
exceeding ten acres, for the purpose of the society. The trustees have 
the care, custody and control of the property of the corporation, and can, 
ivhen directed by the society, erect houses or improvements, and repair 
and alter the same, and may also when so directed by the society, 
mortgage, encumber, sell and convey any real or personal estate belonging 
to the corporation, and make all proper contracts in the name of such 
corporation. But th.Qj are prohibited by law from encumbering or inter- 
fering with any property so as to destroy the effect of any gift, grant, 
devise or bequest to the corporation ; but such gifts, grants, devises of 
bequests, must in all cases be used so as to carry out the object intended 
by the persons making the same. Existing societies may organize in the 
manner herein set forth, and have all the advantages thereof. 



The business of publishing books by subscription having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declaratio is 
not authorized by the publisher ; in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the fol- 
lowing statement is made : 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described ; 
the consideration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the hook 
named, and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price 
named. The nature and character of the work is described in the prospectus 
and by the samjjle shoivn. These should be carefully examined before sub- 
scribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, 


and not the too often exaggerated statements of the agent, who is imrely 
employed to solicit subscriptions, for which he is usually paid a commission 
for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the conditions 
upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the publisher. 
Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription conditional or 
modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out by prospectus 
and sample, in order to hind the principal, the subscriber should see that 
such conditions or changes are stated over or in connection with his signa- 
ture, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or 
any other business, should remember that the law as to ivritten contracts is, 
that they can not be varied, altered or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, 
must be done in ivriting. It is therefore important that all persons contem- 
plating subscribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after 
the subscription is made, is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a 
prescribed mode, and have no authority to do it in any other way to the 
prejudice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
matter. They can not collect money, or agree that payment may be made 
in anything else but money. They can not extend the time of payment 
beyond the titne of delivery, nor bind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their buisness. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is ; if they can not read themselves, 
should call on some one disinterested who can. 





We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 

establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common 

defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 

'to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution 

for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. , 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, 
but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such 
enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylva- 
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten. North Carolina five, 
and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years ; 
and each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 


tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third chiss at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 
one-third may he chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen Ijy 
resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legishiture of any state, 
the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

1^0 person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President 'pro 
tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Sen- 
ators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the Legis- 
lature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter 
such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of" absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepthig such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house 
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained b}' law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason. 



felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time ; and no person holding any office 
under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
. the United States ; if he approve he shall sign it ; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by } eas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the 
United States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by 
him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and lim- 
itations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
Str.tes, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States; 

To establish post offices and post roads ; 


To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, 
for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to ilieir 
respective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and oifenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for n longer term than two years ; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
oificers, and the authority of training the militia according to the disci' 
pline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the 
consent of the Legislature of the state in M'hich the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings ; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
intc execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any depart- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as anj^ of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may 
require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration liereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of 
the receipts and expeditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 


No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of an}' present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confeder- 
ation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of 
credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in paj^ment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the Congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term 
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress ; 
but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[ * The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of 
the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the 
persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pres- 
ident of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like 
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote 
shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members 
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, 

•This clause between .brackets has been superseded and annulled by the Twelfth.amendment. 


the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors sliall be 
the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-Presi- 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and 
the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been 
fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-Pi^sident, and the Congress 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabil- 
ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall 
then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the dis- 
ability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States ; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective 
offices, and he shall have powei- to grant reprieves and pardon for offenses 
against the United States, exoept in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of 
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information 
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such mea- 
sures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may on extraordinary 


occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagree- 
ment between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may 
adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper ; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United 

Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con- 
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III. 

Section I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states ; 
between a state and citizens of another state ; between citizens of differ- 
ent states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants 
of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shali 
have been committed ; but when not committed within an}^ state, the 
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
ing war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the tes- 
timony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And 


tlie Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state witli treason, felony, or other crime, 
who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdicfon of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union ; 
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, 
or parts of states, without the consent of the Legislatures of the states 
concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful 
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other pro[)erty belonging 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Execu- 
tive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic vio- 

Aeticle V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the ap- 
plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call 
a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, when rati- 
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by con- 
ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the otlier mode of ratifi- 
cation may be proposed by the Congress. Provided that no amendment 
which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth 
section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall 
be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI. 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under 
this Constitution as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land ; and the Judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem- 




bers of the several state Legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- 
cers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound 
by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test 
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States. 

Article VII. 

The ratification of the Conventions of nine states shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the, states so ratifying 
the same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names. 


President and Deputy from Virginia. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Nathaniel Gorham, 
RuFUS King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 
Roger Sherman. 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

James M' Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer. 

New York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
WiL. Livingston, 
Wm. Paterson, 
David Brearley, 
JoNA. Dayton. 

John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

B. Franklin, 
Robt. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos, Mifflin, 
Geo. Clymer, 
Jared Ingersoll, 
Gouv. Morris. 

South Carolina. 
J. Rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Pierce Butler. 

William Few, 
Abr. Baldwin. 





Abticles in Addition to and Amendatory of the Constitution 
OF THE United States of Amekica. 

Proposed hy Congress and ratified by the Legislatures of the several states^ 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment cf religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Article II. 

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Article IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon prol)able cause, supported by 
oath or aflfirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

Article V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

Article VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and 
cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; 
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 


tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX. 

The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, 

or to the people. 

Article XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall name in their 
ballots the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the 
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the 
highest number not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to 
a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Presi- 
dent whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be the majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 


ity, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose 
the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds 
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible 
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Article XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Article XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to 
vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice- 
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the execu- 
tive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 
twenty-one years of age and citizens of tlie United States, or in any way 
abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the num- 
ber of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twentv-one vears of age in such state. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or 
military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previ- 
ously taken an oath as a Member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any state Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress mav 
by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be ques- 
tioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall pay any debt 
or obliiration incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion asrainst the 
United States, or any loss or emancipation of any slave, but such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 




Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this act. 

Article XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 


Novembek T, 1876. 






Boone , 

Brown ... 
















Douglas , 

DuPiige , 












Hancock ... 









Jo Daviess... 
Johnson ... . 


Kankakee ... 




La Salle , 



'" a- o 

(US ~ 

>■> P- 

s> aj 

S = — 




























c = 









« OJ 



^ ~" 


-r c 





































340 4 


























Montgomery . 






Perry , 


Pike , 

Pulaski , 

Putnam , 



Rock Island.. 


Sangamon ... 



Shelby , 


St. Clair , 


Tazewell , 






Wa vne 




Woodford ... 

"3 _• 
C3 S ^ 

m a.— 
OS. S 



3^ o 

J. o 









Total 275958 257099 16951130 157 
























































Practical Rules for Every Day Use. 

Hoiv to find the gain or loss per cent, when the cost and selling price 
are given. 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selHng price, which 
will be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost 
price ; the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

How to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — Multiply the given sum of gold by the price of gold. 

How to change currency into gold. 

Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

Hoiv to find each partners share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quo- 
tient will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will be 
each one's share of the gain or loss. 

Hoiv to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple method for finding the net weighty or price of hogs, 
when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note.— It is geiierally assumed that the gross weight of Hogs diiniiiiMlied by 1-5 or 20 per cent 
of itself gives the net weight, and the net weiglit increased l>y K or 25 per cent, of itself equals the 
i;ross weight. 

To find the net weight or gross price. 

Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or wago7i-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cubic feet by 
6308, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct 
answer in bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

Hoiv to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or 



by 4i ordinary method, and point off one decimal j)lace — the result wili 
be the answer in bushels. 

Note.— In estimating corn in the ear, the quality and the time it has been cribbed must be taken 
into consideration, since corn will shrink considerably during the Winter and Spring. Tills rule generally hold& 
good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided it is sound and clean. 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all 
in feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off ONE 
decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31^ gallons. 

JIow to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length 
(all in inches) in reversed order, so that its units will fall under the 
TENS ; multiply by short method, and this product again by 430 ; point 
off one decimal place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

How to measure boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and 
divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

ITow to measure scantlings., joists, planks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together 
(the width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide 
the product by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide the 
product by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a 
remainder) ; the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, 
add them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards in a floor or wall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and 
divide the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

How to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — -'Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22^. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height 
and thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick ; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, 
but it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

How to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if tho 
shingles are exposed 4i inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 


To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitcli, multiply the 
width of the building- by .56 (hundredths) ; at one-third pitch, by .6 
(tenths) ; at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths) ; at one-half 
pitch, by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from 
the apex to the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be 
taken into consideration. 

Note.— By )^ or M pitch Is meant that the apex or comb of the roof IstobeKorJi the width of the 
building higher than the walls or base of the rafters. 

How to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, 
and remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

How to measure grain. 

Rule. — Level the grain ; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic 
feet ; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to 
the left. 

Note.— Exactness requires the addition to every three hundred bushels of one extra bushel. 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to find 
the number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of eai 
corn to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square yards ; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, 
an ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on 
the average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to 
walk in a straight line ; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line 
straight ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote ; and, in walk- 
ing, keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others hy adopting the following simple and ingenious con- 
trivance^ may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct yard 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of 
the left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the 
left arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length will make an acre., the width being given. 
Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 


Hoiv to find the number of acres in any plot of land^ the number of rods 
being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5, 
and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

How to fiyid the diameter, when the circumference is given. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find how many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout will contaiii ivhen squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply 
by the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches b}' the breadth in inches, and 
then multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of timber in trees ivith the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in 
inches, by twice the length, in feet, and divide by !".44. Deduct 1-10 to 
1-15 according to the thickness of the bark. 

Howard's new rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest 
on any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal 
point two places to the left ; for ten times that time, remove the point 
one place to the left ; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three 
places to the left. 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note.— The reciprocal of the rate is found by inverting: the rate ; tlius 3 per cent, per month, in- 
verted, becomes )^ of a month, or 10 days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus : 3-1, 
three ones. 

Rule for co7iverting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, 
by 400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 


A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 
A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 
An eighth section, half a mile long, north and south, and a quarter 
of a mile wide — 80 acres. 

A sixteenth section, a quarter of a mile square — 40 acres. 


The sections are all numbered 1 to 36, commencing at the nortli-east 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the 
cardinal points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The de- 
scription of a forty acre lot would read: The south half of the west half of 
the south-west quarter of section 1 in township 24, north of range 7 west, 
or as the case might be ; and sometimes will fall short and sometimes 
overrun the number of acres it is supposed to contain. 

The nautical mile is 795 4-5 feet longer than the common mile. 



7 92-100 inches make 1 link. 

25 links " 1 rod. 

4rods " 1 chain. 

80 chains " 1 mile. 

Note. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or 66 feet. 

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barley- 
corn ; three of which made an inch. 

Horses are measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard of 
measure is four inches — called a hand. 

In Biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes 
used, which is a lergth of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 inches in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches in length. 

A pace is equal to a yard or 36 inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly 
speaking a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, equal 
to 3.45 statute miles, but when used on land, three statute miles are said 
to be a league. 

In cloth measure an aune is equal to li yards, or 45 inches. 

An Amsterdam ell is equal to 26.790 inches. 

A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches. 

A Brabant ell is equal to 27.116 inches. 


Every farmer and meclianic, whether he does much or little business, 
should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic man- 
ner. For the benefit of those who have not had the opportunit}' of ac- 
quiring a primary knowledge of the j^rinciples of book-keeping, we here 
present a simple form of keeping accounts which is easily comprehended, 
and well adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics 
and laborers. 














































7 bushels Wheat at $1.25 

shoeing span of Horses 

14 bushels Oats at $ .45 

5 lbs. Butter. at .25 

new Harrow 

sharpening 2 Plows. 

new Double-Tree _ 

Cow and Calf 

half ton of Hay 

Cash - 

repairing Corn-Planter 

one Sow with Pigs 

Cash, to balance account 


















































By 3 days' labor at $1.25 

To 2 Shoats at 3.00 

To 18 bushels Corn at .45 

By 1 month's Labor 

To Cash 

By 8 days' Mowing at $1.50 

To 50 lbs. Flour 

To 27 lbs. Meat at $ .10 

By 9 days' Harvesting at 2.00 

By 6 days' Labor at 1.50 

To Cash 

To Cash to balance account 

























A Simple Rule For 


ACCURATELY Computing Interest at Anv 
Length of Time. 

Given Per Cent, for Any 

Multiply the principoi (amount of money at interest) by the time reduced to d<iys; then divide this product 
by the quotient obtained l)y dividing360 'the numl)er of days in the interest yearj Ijy the per cent, of interest, 
andt/ie quotient thus obtained will be tlie reijuireJ interest. 

illustration. Solution. 

Require tli3 interest of $462.50 for one moutli and eighteen days at 6 per cent. An S463.50 

Interest niontli is 30 days; one month and eishreen davs equal 48 days. S4b2 50 multi- .48 

plied bv .48 «ives $222 0000; 360 divided by 6 (the per cent, of interest) gives 60, and — 

$222.0000 divided by 60 Will give von th-^ exact intere-it. wliii; v is *3.70. l( th^. rare of 370000 

interest in the above exampl" were 12 per cent., we would divide the $222.0000 by 30 6)360 \ 185000 

(because 360 divided by 12 gives 30); if 4 per cent., we would divide by 90; if 8 per 

cent., by 45: and in like maimer for any otber per cent. 60/$222.00O0($3.7O 





12 units, or things, 1 Dozen. 
12 dozen, 1 Gross. 
20 things, 1 Score. 

196 pounds, 1 Barrel of Flour. 

200 pounds, 1 Barrel of Porlf. 

56 pounds, 1 Firkin of Butter. 

24 slieets of paper. 1 Quire. 

20 quires paper 1 Ifleam. 

4 ft. wide, 4 ft. high, and 8 ft. 

long, 1 Cord Wood. 



Virginia. — The oldest of the States, was so called in honor of Queen 
Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made 
his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida. — Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of Florida on Easter 
Sunday, and called the country in commemoration of the day, which wa» 
the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or '^ Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time 
owned that section of the country. 

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies " Here we Rest."" 

Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long River." 

Arkansas, from Kansas, the Indian word for " smoky water." Its 
prefix Avas really are, the French word for " bow." 

The Carolinas were originally one tract, and were called "Carolana,'* 
after Charles the Ninth of France. 

Georgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e., the 
Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentucky is the Indian name for " at the head of the river." 

Ohio means '* beautiful ; " loiva, " drowsy ones ; " Minnesota, " cloudy 
water," and Wisconsin, " wild-rushing channel." 

Illinois is derived from the Indian word illini, men, and the French 
suffix ois, together signifying " tribe of men." 

Michigan was called by the name given the lake, jish-iveir, which was. 
so styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

Missouri is from the Indian word " muddy," which more properly 
applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its principal river. 

Cortes named California. 

Massachusetts is the Indian for " The country around the great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long- 

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of 


New York was named by the Duke of York. 

Pennsylvania means " Penn's woods," and was so called after William 
Penn, its orignal owner. 




Delaware after Lord De La Ware. 

New Jersey^ so called in, honor of Sir George Carteret, who was 
Governor of the Island of Jersey, in the British Channel. 

Maine was called after the province of Maine in France, in compli- 
ment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 

Vermont^ from the French word Vert Mont, signifying Green 

Neiv Ham'pshire, from Hampshire oounty in England. It was 
formerly called Laconia. 

The little State of Rhode Island owes its name to the Island of 
Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which all that 
section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States. 


States and Territories. 























New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina .. 




Rhode Island 

.South Carolina... 





West Virginia 



Total States., 




District of Columbia. 


Montana '. 

New Mexico 




Total Territories 

Total United States 38,555,983 

560, -247 






New York. N. Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

Chicago, 111 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

New Orleans, La. ... 
San Francisco, cal... 

Butfalo, N. Y 

Washington, D. C 

Newark. N. J 

Louisville, Ky 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Jersey City, N. J 

Detroit, Mich 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Albany, N. Y 

Providence, R. I 

Rochester, N. Y 

Alleglieuy, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

New Haven, Conn... 

Chirleston, S. C 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Troy, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass 

Lowell. Mass , 

Memphis, Tenn 

Cambridge, Mass 

Hartford, Conn 

Scranton, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Paterson. N. J 

Kansas City, Mo 

Mobile, Ala 

Toledo. Ohio 

Portland, Me 

Columbus, Ohio 

Wilmington, Del 

Dayton, Ohio 

Lawrence, Mass 

Utica. N. Y 

Charlestown, Mass. 

Savannah, Ga 

Lynn. Mass 

Fall River, Mass 
























































States and 
























New Haii)|)shire. 

New Jersey 

New York. 

North Carolina.. 



Atk-a in 
































1.184.059 1 
1.071.361 . 
2,665.260 . 
90.9231 . 


R. R. 


































• Last Census of Michigan taken in 1874. 

State." and 



Rhode Island 

South Carolina.. 





West Virginia.... 

Total States 

• Territories. 




Dist. of Columbia. 



New Mexico 




Total Territories 

Area tu 
























9.6.58 .... 
39.864 .... 
14.181 .... 
131.700 .... 
14.999 .... 
86.786 .... 
23.955 .... 
9.118 .... 

R. R. 

5.1 i:i 











Aggregate of U. S.. 2,915.203 38,555.983 60.85* 

• Included in the Railroad Mileage of Maryland. 






British Kmpire 


United States witli Alaska. . . . 


Austria and Hungary 


Great IJritain and Ireland..., 

German Kmpire 






Sweden and Norway 






>ew Grenada 





Argentine Republic 

Wurteniburg >... 










San Salvador 



U rugiiay 


San Domingo 

( 'osta Rica 


446.500 000 
5.921 500 
1.812 000 
165 000 

Date of 









Area in 


240 348 
3.253 029 
132 616 
7. .533 


to Sijuare 

















St. Petersburg 









Rio Janeiro 














Ifuenos Ay res 











Sal Salvador 

Port ^u Prince... 


.Monte V.<leo 


San Domingo 

San .lose 





,251. 800 


109. 19» 














169 500 

224. Ob3 




36 000 


25 000 

177 oOO 











15 000 



44 ,500 



2 000 





By Counties. 



Alexander. . 







Cass - 

Christian . . 







De Kalb... 
De Witt... 


Du Page 










Giundy . 

Hamilton .. 



Henderson . 







Jo Daviess. 


Kane. . 

Kankakee. . 
Kendall ... 



La Salle 



Livingston . 

































1 094 1 

















































































































Macoupin — 







Mc Henry 












Pike -- 






Rock Island 


Sangamon .. 





St. Clair 










Whitesides . 




1870. 1860. 1850. 1840. 1830. ' 1830 













165 iS 















































1 1492 
























































Land. Woodl'iid 


























Effingham . 













Iroquois. . 




Jersey . 

JoDaviess . 

Johnson. . 















Marshall ... 










Morgan ', 












Rock Island 







St. Clair 


















































70 393 
83 606 
27 294 



Other un- 





Bushels. Bushels. Bushels. Bushels. 
10.133.207 19 99.5.198 2.456.578 129.921.395 















































































2 025 







1 931 

































































' 266 

























































861, 39H 




















70.4 57 











iV562 62i 
































11 540 














































1,0 U 






30 534 





















1.367 965 














































4,221, 64( 
















1.753 141 

















1,149 878 

1.423 121 









870 521 









860, 80» 










119 359 

880 838 


GEORGE B. PRICE, Carrollton. 




The Illinois River, with its tributaries, drains nearly one-third of the 
State of Illinois. It is one of the most important aftiiients of the Missis- 
sippi and flows from the northeast to the southwest fully across the State, 
draining about an equal amount of territory on either side. Its valley 
consists^of long arms of beautiful, dry, rolling, fertile prairie, alternating 
with similar, though narrower, lines of wooded land so distributed as to 
be convenient to any part of the surrounding country. The latter is as 
rolling and healthful as the former, and, on every section of either, living 
water may be readily found. This mighty river is the central water line 
of the great upper valley of the Mississippi, and has cut into the crust of 
the earth a dee[ier groove than any other branch of the Father of Waters. 
For this reason the Illinois is the last river to freeze in the early winter 
and the first to thaw in the spring, among all the streams in the same 
latitude. The depth of its channel accounts for the total absence of 
extensive swamps and morasses along its borders. 

The southern portion of the Illinois valley, east of the river, was 

known by the Indians as the Sangamo' country — "a land where there is 

much plenty" — a term very appropriately applied to the region, by the 

Pottawatomies. In the midst of this charming, rich, and healthful vale, 

about twenty miles above the mouth of the river, lies Greene County. 

It is bounded on the north by Scott and Morgan Counties, on the east by 

Macoupin County, on the south by Jersey County, and on the west by 

the Illinois River, beyond which lie the Counties of Pike and Calhoun. 

It contains seven fractional and fourteen full townshii)S — equivalent to 

about sixteen full townships — or more accurately five hundred and 

seventy-six square miles, and comprises the following voting precincts : 

Carrollton, Greenfield, White Hall, Bluffdale, Northwestern, Wrights- 

ville, Roodhouse, Kane, Rockbridge, Walkerville, Woodville, Mt. Airy, 

and Fayette. It is well supplied with water and timber having, in 

addition to the river which forms its western boundiiry, Apple and 

Macoupin Creeks, which, with their tributaries traverse the county from 

east to west. Fine springs are abundant along the river blutts and 

throughout the limestone region generally, and good wells can usually be 

obtained on the uplands at depths varying from twenty to forty feet. 

Several mineral springs, in which sulphur chiefly predominates, are to be 

found in various parts of the county and have been resorted to by many 

for medicinal purposes, with the best of results. The precinct of Mineral 



Springs, in the northern part of the county, received its name from 
fountains of tliis sort which at one time attracted a great deal of atten- 
tion. They are situated on' the west half of the northwest quarter of 
section 22, township 12, range 11, and were discovered soon after the 
first settlement of the county, by a party who were following an Indian 
trail. Shortly after, in 1825. Governor Reynolds and a gentleman named 
Cook, of Springfield, entered the land, believing that the presence of the 
springs would make the property valuable. For many years people, 
suffering with various diseases, resorted tliither from all parts of the 
adjacent country to obtain the benefit of the waters and, in many cases, 
received immediate relief. Sometimes from two hundred to three hundred 
and fifty would be camped near the Springs at one time. In October, 1852, 
the property was purchased by B. G. Hopkins, having previously been 
owned by Samuel Hopkins, Abraham Easton and others, who built a 
large hotel the same year. The main building was forty feet long by 
about thirtv feet wide, with a commodious ell in the rear and a wins' 
forty feet long on either side of the main building, giving a total front 
of one hundred and twenty feet. From this time the Springs were very 
popular. Often more persons applied for board than could be accomo- 
dated at the hotel and the neighboring dwellings were frequently filled. 
Later the property came into the possession of B. McGlothlen, under 
whose management the Springs began to lose their popularit3^ In 1862, 
while the hotel was occupied by Mr. McGlothlen and owned by C. G. 
Simonds, it was burned to the ground. The waters of the Springs 
undoubtedly have a pronounced medicinal effect. They are described as 
being " strongly diuretic, rather more than slightly cathartic and 
diaphoretic, a good tonic and appetizer." Dropsy, rheumatism, kidney com- 
plaints, dyspepsia, and sore eyes are prominent among the ailments they 
have been known to cure. Just northeast of Greenfield are the Green- 
field Springs, which are impregnated with iron, magnesia, calcium, and 
other ingredients. For debilitated persons they act as a tonic, and assist 
nature in its work of rejuvenating the system. Many stories are told of 
the successful use of the waters, by persons who came a long distance, 
suffering with rheumatism, white swellings, fever sores, etc. Many who 
have visited Saratoga and the Sulphur Springs, of Virginia, consider the 
Greenfield Springs their equal in every regard. An effort Avas at one 
time made to establish a watering place here but without success. The 
town is a pleasant one, the scenery delightful, the railroad facilities 
excellent and the enterprize may yet be revived. Some three or four 
miles northeast of Carrollton, on land now owned by Malachi Carmody, 
there is another natural font of healing, and Mr. Parham Thaxton well 
remembers when as many as fifty people habitually congregated there on 
Sunday and spent the day in drinking the waters, and in quiet repose, in 
the immediate neighborhood. A similar spring, on the farm of Mr. Thos. 
Luneen, southeast of Carrollton, just beyond the limits of the city, was 
much resorted to in years past, and at other points they may be found. 

The county has an abundant supply of timber conveniently located. 
The following list of the indigenous trees and shrubs of the county is 
the result of years of observation and study by Dr. Daniel Bowman, an 
old settler of this county and one of the most skillful practical botanists 
in the State. With the exception of a single shrub growing along the 



bluffs, which Dr. Bowman has never seen in bloom, the list is believed to 
be complete : 


Clematis Virginiana Virgin s Bower. 

Uvaria Trilabia I'awpaw. 

Menispermuiu Canadensis. Moon Seed. 
Xanthoxylum Americanuml'rickly Ash. 

PteleaTrifoiea Wafer Ash. 

Rhus Glabra .-. Smoith Sumac. 

Rhus Toxicodendron.. Poison Ivy. 

Rhus .^romatica Sweet Sumac. 

Tilia Americana Linden Tree 

Vitis Cardifolia Winter Grape. 

Viiis F'tivalis ...Blue Grape. 

Vitis Riparia Frost Grape. 

Ampelopsis Quinquefolia.. Woodbine. 

AcerRubrum Red Maple. 

Acer Dasycarpum Silver Maple. 

Acer Saccharinum Sugar Tree. 

Negundium Americanum.Boxelder. 

/Escnlus Glabra Buckeye. 

Staphylea Trifolia Bladder Nut. 

Celastrus Scandens Staff Tree. 

Euonymus Atropurpureum, Spindle Tree. 

Euonymus Americanus Burning I'ush 

Ceanothus Americanus Red Root. 

Cercis Canadensis Judas Tree. 

Gymnocladus Canadensis. Cortee Tree. 

Gleditschia Triacanthus Honey Locust. 

Amorpha Canescens Indigo Busli. 

Cerasus Serotina Wild Cherry. 

Cerasus Virginiana Choke Cherry. 

Prunus Americanus Wild Plum. 

Spiroea Opulifolia Nine Bark. 

Crataegus Coccinas White Thorn. 

Crataegus Cru<sgalli Cock-spur Thorn. 

Crataegus Tomentosa. Black Thorn. 

Pyrus Coronaria Crab Apple. 

Amelanchier Canadensis. .Shadberry. 

Rosa Setigera Prairie Rose. 

Rosa Lucida Wild Rose. 

Rosa Carolina Swamp Rose. 

Rubus Vilosus Blackberry. 

Rubus Canadensis Low Blackberry. 

Rubus Strigosus Dewberry. 

Rubus Occidentalis Wild Raspberry. 

Ribes Rotundifolium Gooseberry. 

Hydrangea Arbirescens Wild Hydrangea. 

Cornus Stolonifera White Dogwood. 

CornusSericea ..Red Osier. 

Cornus Florida Flowering Dogwood 

Lonicera Flava YellowHoneysuokle 


Symplioricarpus Vulgaris. .Corn Bush. 

Sami)ucus Canadensis Common Elder. 

Viburnum Prunifolium Black Haw. 

Cephalanthus Occidentalis, Button Bush. 

Diospyros Virginiana Persimmon. 

Tecoma Radicans Trumpet Flower. 

Fraxinus .\mericana White .Ash. 

Fraxinus Undrangulata..Blue Ash. 

.'Vristolocia Si]>ho Dutchman's Pipe. 

Benzoin Odoriferum Spice Wood. 

Sassafras Officinale .Sassafras. 

Ulmus Americana White Elm. 

Ulmus Fulva Slippery Elm. 

Celtis Occidentalis Hackberry. 

Juglans Cinerea White Walnut. 

Juglans Nigra Black Walnut. 

Carya .\)ha -"^h^K '^^rk Hickory. 

Carya Sulcata .Shelli)ark Hickory. 

Carya Oliveaformis. Pecan nut. 

Carya Tomentosa Thick-shelled-nut. 

Carya Porcina Pig-nut. 

Carya Amara liitter-nut. 

Prinos Ambiguus Winterberry. 

Morus Rubra Mulberry. 

Plantanus Occidentalis Sycamore. 

Quercus .Alba White Oak. 

Quercus Macrocarpa Over Cup. 

Quercus Obtusiloba Post Oak. 

Quercus Bicolor Swamp Oak. 

Quercus Cas^anea Chestnut Oak. 

Quercus Imbricaria Shingle Oak. 

Quercus Nigra Black Jack. 

Quercus Tinctoria Black Oak. 

Quercus Rubra Red Oak. 

Quercus Palustris Pin Oak. 

Corylus Americanus Hazel. 

Carpinus Americanus Water Beech. 

Ostrya Virginica Iron Wood. 

.Salix Tristis ..Gray Willow. 

Salix Humilis Sage Willow. 

Salix Eriocephala Creek Willow. 

Salix Sericea Swamp Willow. 

Betula Nigra Red Birch. 

Populus Tremuloides Aspen. 

Populus .Angula'a Cotton Wood. 

Juneperus \'irginiana Red Cedar. 

Smilax Rotundifolia.. Bramble. 

Smilax Quadrucularis Greenbriar. 

Myrica Gale Sweet Gale. 

The surface of the country is generally rolling, and the western por- 
tion, in the vicinity of the river bluffs, is quite broken and hilly, theval- 
leys of the small streams being excavated to the depth of from one to two 
hundred feet below the general level of the uplands. In the central and 
eastern portions of the county, the depressions of the valleys are consid- 
erably less, seldom exceeding fifty or sixty feet below the general level. 
In the northern part of the county is what is known as tiie " Grand Pass." 
It is a narrow channel, connecting a chain of small lakes below the bluffs 
and near the river. It is said by some to derive its name from the fact 
that the water which usually flows south from one lake into the otheF, in 


times of high water, reverses its direction and runs backward into the 
lake from which it came. It was for many years an important feature of 
the landscape for the reason that here only could a passage be had beyond 
the lakes. For this purpose a rough stone causeway was built which was 
much used when Bridgeport, just west of the lakes, was one of the lead- 
ing commercial points in the region. The bluff lands are well adapted to 
the cultivation of fruits, as well as wheat and other cereals, and the timber 
soil when cleared is as fertile as that of the prairies. The latter are gener- 
ally small and are covered with the deep black loam so characteristic of 
the prairies of central and northern Illinois, and their productive qualities 
are not surpassed by those of any other portion of the State.' ^ As an 
agricultural region this county ranks among the best, and taking into the 
account its proximity to the great rivers, its railroad facilities and its 
varied and rich mineral resources, it must commend itself at once to those 
seeking a home in this State as one of the most attractive and promising 
locations to be found. The broken lands in the vicinity of the river bluffs 
are well adapted to grape culture, and, in the hands of skillful vine- 
growers, could be made to yield a more liberal return for the labor required 
to cultivate them than can be obtained from the richest prairie lands 
in the county, planted with the common cereals grown in this climate. 

There is much beneath these fertile prairies to enlist the thoughtful 
consideration of geologists. In various places in the county, at the depth 
of from thirty to forty feet, has been found a black earth, similar to the 
prairie soil, in which large trees have been imbedded. In sinking deeper 
the well, on the northeast corner of the square in the city of Carrollton, 
at the depth of forty feet, was found a large pine tree. The late William 
Costley, in digging a well at his place of residence, a mile or so south of 
Macoupin Creek, discovered, at the depth of thirty feet, a mass of rock 
which had evidently been a wall, against which was a collection of drift- 
wood. The stone taken from the well had been dressed, and bore plainly 
the marks of a mason's hammer. The late Mr. Samuel Thomas in deep- 
ening a well, from which, for fifty years he had been using water, struck 
a quantity of periwinkle shells, amongst which were found the jaw teeth 
of some extinct animal, larger than those of our domestic animals, a por- 
tion of which were petrified. These discoveries afford much food for 

The following geological sketch of the county is taken mainly from 
the report of the State survey by Prof. A. H. Worthen, assisted by Messrs. 
Henry Engieman, H. C. Freeman and H. M. Bannister : 


The geological features of this county are by no means so varied as 
those presented in the adjoining county of Jersey, for the reason that the 
disturbing influences that have elevated the Devonian and Silurian beds 
above the surface, in that county, did not extend into this, and conse- 
quently we find no beds exposed here below the lower carboniferous 
limestones. The following vertical section of the several formations in 
the county will illustrate their general thiokness and relative position : 

Quaternary deposits, Alluvium, Loess and Drift loo to 120 feet. 

Coal Measures- - - 150 to 160 '' 

St. Louis Limestone -- — -- 8 to 40 


Keokuk Limestone - - loo to 125 feet. 

Burlington Limestone - - 120 to 150 

Kinderhook Group (partial exposure) 5° to <Jo 

Alluvium. — The principal alluvial deposits in this county are those 
forming the bottom lands on the Illinois River, comprising a belt from 
three to five miles in width, and extending the whole length of the county 
from north to south. These lands are exceedingly fertile, and are amongst 
the most valuable and productive farming lands in the county. The 
greater portion of these bottom lands are prairie, sufficiently elevated to 
be susceptible of cultivation and exceedingly productive. Adjacent to 
the river bluffs they are elevated entirely above high-water mark, and 
are not subject to overflow from the annual river floods. Belts of heavy 
timber occupy some portions of these bottom lands, and skirt the small 
streams by which they are intersected. 

Loess. — This formation is usually confined to the vicinity of the river 
bluffs, which it caps to the depth of from forty to sixty feet, and gives 
origin to the bald, grassy knobs which, form so notable a feature in the 
top'ography of the bluffs^ both on the Illinois and the Mississippi. It is 
largely composed of beds of marly sand, which sustain a thick growth of 
wild grass, and occasionally a stunted growth of oak. It is unconform- 
able to the drift clavs below it, and presents its greatest thickness imme- 
diately at the river"'bluffs, growing thinner towards the highlands of the 
adjacent region. It has been formed in the quiet waters of the lakes 
which once occupied the present valleys of the Illinois and the Missis- 
sippi Rivers. These marly beds of Loess form an admirable sub-soil, 
being sufficiently porous to allow a thorough drainage; and, where they 
underlie a gently rolling or tolerably level surface, they form a quick, 
warm and very productive soil. 

Drift. — Some few sections of drift may be seen in the bluffs of Bear 
Creek, below Blanchard's coal bank, of forty to fifty-twQ feet in thick- 
ness. The lower part is composed of bluish-colored clays, with small 
pebbles, and the upper part of the common reddish-brown clay, so gen- 
erally characteristic of this formation. Large boulders of metamorphic 
rocks are not so abundant in the drift of this region as in many other 
portions of the State ; but a few are found of moderate size, composed of 
greenstone, porphyry, and granite, giving unmistakable evidence of their 
northern origin. Specimens of drifted copper and galena are, also, 
occasionallv found in the clay and gravel beds of this region, which cover 
the whole surface of the county, except the valleys of the streams. These 
have been transported also from the north— the copper from Lake Supe- 
rior, and the galena from the lead region of northern Illinois or Wiscon- 
sin, nnd were transi)orted at the same period and by the same agency 
that brought the boulders of metamorphic rock. 

Goal Measures. — The Coal Measures of this county comprise about 
a hundred and fifty feet in thickness of sandstones, shales and thin bands 
of limestone, including three seams of coal, and comprise all the strata 
from the horizon of coal No. 6 to the base of tiie measures, as they are 
developed in this portion of the State. The subjoined general section, 
compiled from many local sections in various parts of the county, will 
show their general thickness and relative position : 


Compact Brown Limestone 2 to 4 feet. 

Bituminous Shale i foot. 

Coal No. 6--.. b feet. 

Shaly Clay and Nodular Limestone - 3 to 4 

Shale- - 15 to 20 ' 

Bituminous Shale.. -- --- 2 to 3 

Coal No. 5.. - 2 to 3 '' 

Arenaceous Shale and Sandstone - - 25 to 30 

Bituminous Shale, passing to Coal No. 3? — 2 to 3 

Sandstone and Shale 40 to 50 " 

Coal — Tulison's and Nettle's Coal No. I 2 to 3 

Nodular Steel gray Limestone, sometimes replaced with fire- 
clay, as at Tulison's-- 4 to 6 

Shale and Sandstone, passing locally into Conglomerate 15 to 20 

153 feet. 

The only outcrop of the Belleville or No. 6 coal, that is found 
in this county, is on the northeast quarter of section 36, township 10, range 
10, just on the county-line between Greene and Macoupin, in the bluff of 
Hodges' Creek. This bank was owned and worked in 1864 by Thomas 
Rice, and the seam is here very varial)le in its thickness, ranging from four 
to seven feet. The upper part of the seam is considerably mixed with sul- 
phuret of iron, and is only fit for steam purposes ; but the middle and lower 
portions afford a good smith's coal. The seam at this locality dips to the 
eastward ; and this may probably be considered as its most westerly out- 
crop. There are only a few inches of shaly clay separating the seam from 
the nodular argillaceous limestone below, exhibiting here the phenom- 
enon of a heavy seam of coal directly enclosed between beds of marine 
limestone. The nodular limestone below the coal abounds in fossils at 
this locality, among which a massive coral, the Chaetetes milliporaceous, 
is most conspicuous. This coral is generally hemispherical in form, and 
often attains a diameter of six to twelve inches. The limestone also con- 
tains many univalve shells belonging to the genera Naticopsis, Pleuroto- 
maria, Loxonema, etc. 

The limestone which forms the roof of the coal is a compact bluish- 
gray rock, which weathers, on exposure, to a rusty-brown color, and con- 
tains Productus longispinus, Spirifer lineatus, Fusulina, and joints of 

Below this coal there is another seam that outcrops on the creek in 
this vicinity. It has not yet been worked to any extent ; and no good 
exposure of it is to be seen, but it is reported to be about two feet in 
thickness. It is, undoubtedly, the equivalent of coal No. 5, of the_ gen- 
eral section, and the Howlett coal near Springfield, but is much tliinner 
here than the seam above it. Bassett's coal, on the southwest quarter of 
section 27, township 10, range 11, is about eighteen inches in thickness; 
and the coal is overlaid, first by three or four feet of bituminous shale, 
and this by a septarian limestone, four feet or more in thickness. The 
coal is underlaid by a blue clay shale, from four to six feet thick, and 
this by a brown sandy shale, passing into sandstone, which outcrops down 
the creek for a distance of half a mile or more, and shows a thickness 
altogether of twenty-five or thirty feet. This seam probably overlies the 
coaf at Tulison's, on Wolf River, as well as that on Birch Creek ; biit 
that point could not be positively determined. It is probable that it 
represents Coal No. 2 of the general section. The coal in the seam 


appears to be of good quality ; but it is too thin to be profitably mined 
at the present time. At many points there is a heavy bed of sandstone 
intervening between this seam and the coal on Brush Creek ; and a 
similar bed, tliough perhaps a higher one in the series, is well exposed in 
the bluffs of Macoupin Creek, at Rockbridge. The exposure here is 
from thirty-five to forty feet in thickness, the lower part consisting of 
blue sandy shales, which are overlaid by a massive brown sandstone, pass- 
ing upward into a brown sandy shale. The sandstone is partly concre- 
tionary in structure, the concretions being ([uite hard and forming a dura- 
ble building sione. On Birch Creek a similar sandstone is well exposed, 
overlying Coal-seam No. 1 with a thickness of twenty-five to thirty feet. 

Nettle's coal-bank is on the northeast quarter of section 25, town- 
ship 12, range 11, about eight miles northeast of White Hall. The coal 
averages about three feet in thickness, and is overlaid by from three to 
five feet of bituminous shale, which forms a good roof to the coal. 
Above the shale there is a bed of massive sandstone, twenty feet or more 
in thickness, similar to that at Rockbridge. Under the coal, there is a 
bed of shaly clay, not more than a foot or two in thickness, which rests 
upon a hard steel-gray nodular limestone about four feet thick. These 
beds outcrop along the creek for a distance of about three miles above 
Nettle's place, the fall of the creek being just about equal to the dip of 
the coal, and in the same direction, which is to the southeast. On Wolf 
Run, al)out a mile and a half east of White Hall, a seam of coal outcrops 
along the creek for a distance of a mile or more, and has been opened at 
several points. It is from two feet to two and a half in thickness, and 
is a clear, bright coal, breaking in regularly shaped blocks, and quite free 
from sulphuret of iron. It is overlaid by about two feet of bituminous 
shale, which passes upward into a blue clay shale, which is overlaid by 
sandstone. Below the coal there is an excellent bed of fire-clay, from 
eight to ten feet thick. The upper openings on this creek are on the 
lands lately owned by David Rankin, and the lower one on the lands of 
Isaac Tulison. 

On the southeast quarter of section 36, township 11, range 12, about 
four miles northeast of Carrollton, a coal seam has been opened on the 
west fork of Whitaker's Creek, which, with the associated rocks, forms 
the following section : 

Brown Sandy Shale. lo to 12 feet. 

Bituminous Shale.. 2 " 

Coal Measures, -f Coal i/4" 

j Shaly Coal, passing downward into a sandy 

[ Conglomerate. 10 to 15 " 

Band of Iron Ore i/^" 

Hydraulic Limestone 4 to 6 " 

Keokuk Limestone 15 to 20 " 

The beds above the i)ands of iron ore in this section belong to the 
Coal Measures, and those below to the flower Carboniferous limestone. 
It will be observed, in this section, that the St. Louis limestone, u[)on 
which the Coal Measures usually rest in this county, is not represented, 
unless it be by the bed of hydraidic limestone. The Keokuk limestone 
is well marked, representing the usual characteristics that distinguish 
it at other localities. The iron ore above the hydraulic limestone is an 
earthy-brown hematite of good (Quality. This coal seam is only about 


eighteen inches in thickness. This coal has been opened on the east fork 
of Whitaker's Creek ; and also on Bear's Creek, on Mrs. Blanchard's 
place, about a mile and a half above the mouth of the creek. Blanch- 
ard's coal bank is on the northwest quarter of section 14, township 11, 
range 11. The coal varies in thickness from two to three feet, and is 
overlaid by bituminous shale, and massive sandstone. This seam 
appeared to be the same as Nettle's coal, on Birch Creek. A mile and 
a half beluw Blanchard's, the St. Louis limestone is to be seen on the 
bluffs of the creek; but the intervening beds between the coal and the 
limestone are not exposed. In sinking the well for the steam mill in 
Carrollton, a thin seam of coal, about six inches thick, was passed through 
at a depth of about seventy feet below the surface. Although the Coal 
Measures underlie nearly all of the eastern half of the county, they com- 
prise only the horizon of the lower coal seam, over a considerable portion 
of this area; and, along tlie extreme western borders of the coal field, 
even this is too thin at many localities to be worked to advantage, and 
the eastern range of townships must be mainly relied on for a supply of 
coal. The measures in this county comprise the whole range of the pro- 
ductive Coal Measures, as they are developed in this portion of the State ; 
but the two principal coals, Nos. 5 and 6, only extend a little over the 
eastern line of the county, and consequenth^ underlie but a very small 
area in this county, while the lower part of the measures, which underlie 
all the eastern portion of the county, only have two of the four lower 
seams developed, and these range in thickness from eighteen to thirty- 
six inches. The seam at Nettle's mine, on Brush Creek, and at Blanch- 
ard's, on Bear Creek, are probably the same as the Exeter coal, in Scott 
County, and Tulison's bank, two miles northeast of White Hall, may be 
referred to the same horizon. Burrow's coal probably holds a higher 
position, and perhaps represents either No. 2 or 3 of the general section 
of the Coal Measures in central and northern Illinois. 

St. Louis Limestone. — This formation is quite variable in this county, 
both as regards its thickness and its lithological characters. On Link's 
Branch, south of Carrollton, and about a half mile east of the State road 
from Carrollton to Jerseyville, a fine quarry has been opened in this lime- 
stone on the lands of Mr. Joseph Stohr, and leased by Mr. Michael Shal- 
lue. The thickness of the rock at these quarries is about fifteen feet; 
and the lower ten is a heavy-bedded magnesian limestone, some of the 
layers being from two to three feet thick. The prevailing colors are light 
yellowish-gray and brown ; and these colors often replace each other in 
the same stratum. The rock is even-textured, free from chert or other 
siliceous material, and dresses easily ; and these quarries afford most of 
the cut stone used at (carrollton. The lowest strata at these quarries 
appears to be h3^draulic limestone, and is about eighteen inches thick. 
At the crossing of the State road, a half mile further up the creek, the 
rock is not so even-textured, some of the strata being too hard to dress 
readily, and others too soft to stand exposure to the atmosphere. The 
whole thickness of the beds exposed, from the State road to Stohr's 
quarries, may be estimated from twent^'-five to thirty feet. In the upper 
part of this group, near the State road, there is also another stratum of 
what appeared to be a hydraulic limestone, about two feet thick. On 
the road from Carrollton to Turpin's mill, this limestone is found out- 


cropping in the beds of the small creeks that empty into the Macoupin. 
Turpin's mill is on section IG, township 9, range 11, and the St. Louis 
limestone is found well exposed on a small- branch about a quarter of a 
mile west of the mill. The lower part of the bed, as it appears at this 
locality, is a brown arenaceous limestone, while the upper is of a gray 
and mottled color, and sufficiently pure to be burned for lime, though 
not a very good material for that purpose. The entire thickness of 
the beds exposed here is only about fifteen feet. At Thompson's 
mill, on the northeast quarter of section 10, township 11, range 11, 
there is an exposure of about twelve feet of this formation. The up- 
per four feet is a brown magnesian limestone, and the lower eight feet, 
an earthy, grayish-brown liydraulic limestone, exactly resembling in 
appearance "the hydraulic layers of this formation at other localities. 
This is the thickest bed of this kind of rock found in the county ; and, if 
it should prove on trial to be as good a hydraulic rock as its appearance 
would indicate, it will become valuable for the manufacture of cement. 
It is no doubt the equivalent of the hydraulic limestone noticed at the 
coal mine on the west fork of Whitaker's Creek, and is here nearly twice 
as thick as at that locality. Fossils are quite scarce in this formation, at 
nearly every locality examined in this county. Some interesting forms of 
Bryozoa were obtained at the quarries on Link's Branch, and a fine spec- 
imen of Conularia, probably C. Verneuiliana, is in the possession of Dr. 
Farley, of Jersey ville, that was found at this locality. 

Keokuk Limest<me.—T\ns formation, with the overlying St. Louis 
limestone, occupies a belt immediately beyond the western borders of the 
Coal Measures, and intervening between them and the Burlington lime- 
stone inthe vicinity of the river bluffs. This belt is from three to four miles 
in width ; and the Keokuk limestone, which forms the greatest portion of 
it, outcrops on the tril)utaries of Macoupin and Apple Creeks, and on the 
last named creek itself, a half mile below the bridge, on the main road 
from Carrollton to AVhite Hall. On the small creek a half mile south of 
White Hall, the upper part of the Keokuk limestone is found outcropping 
for a distance of a mile and a half or more on either side of the creek. 
The rock is here a thin-bedded, cherty, gray limestone, with thin partings 
of calcareo - argillaceous shale. It '^seldom affords strata more than 
six inches thick, and is therefore not a desirable building stone, 
except for light walls. It affords some characteristic fossils at this 
locality, among which are Archimedes Owenana, Platyceras equi- 
latera, Agaricocrinus Americanus, Productus punctatus, Spirifer cus- 
pidatus, and S. Keokuk. The fossils of this formation are not so numer- 
ous or so well preserved at the localities examined in this county, as they 
are in the same beds in Jersey County. On the west fork of Whitaker's 
Creek, these same beds are exposed, between the coal bank and the mouth 
of the creek, and afford the same varieties of fossils obtained in the vicinity 
of White Hall. On Apple Creek, a short distance below the bridge on 
the Carrollton and White Hall road, the lower beds of this limestone are 
exposed, affording layers from twelve to eighteen inches thick. No point 
was found in the county where the whole of this formation could be seen 
in a single section; and, for a general description of its characteristic 
features, as well as the determination of its thickness, it is necessary to 
rely upon the results of local examinations of such portions of the forma- 


tion as could be found exposed in different parts of the county. Its 
thickness has been estimated approximately, at one hundred to one 
hundred and twenty-five feet ; but it may be somewhat greater even than 

Burlington Limestone. — The outcrop of this formation is confined to 
the western part of the county. It forms the main portion of the river 
bluffs throughout the whole extent of the county, from north to south, 
and extends eastw;ird from the bluffs, forming a belt from three to four 
miles in width. At the south line of the county, where Macoupin Creek 
intersects the river bluffs, the lower part of this limestone, about seventy 
feet in thickness, forms the upper part of the bluff, and is underlaid by 
fifty-four feet of the ash-colored shaly limestones of the Kinderhook 
group. From this point to the north line of the county, this limestone is 
seen in a continuous exposure, except where intersected by the valleys 
of the small streams ; and it often presents mural cliffs of limestone 
along the face of the bluff's, from seventy-five to a hundred feet in height. 

At James J. Eldred's place the limestone measures a hundred feet in 
thickness, above the road at the foot of the bluff, and is capped 
by a mound of Loess sixty feet high ; and the bluffs very generally cul- 
minate in this vicinity in "^bald knobs, covered only with grass, giving a 
very picturesque outline to the landscape. Tlie limestone at Eldred's 
place is a light-gray crinoidal rock, in quite regular beds, with compar- 
atively but little cherty material, and forms an excellent building stone, 
which is extensively used not only at this locality, but by wealthy 
farmers occupying the bottom lands at the foot of these bluffs throughout 
the county, for dwellings and barns, and also for fences. About half a 
mile below the county line, between Greene and Scott, the limestone 
bluffs are about one hundred feet high, and are capped with forty feet of 
Loess. At this point there is a bench of brown limestone, projecting a 
few feet beyond the face of the bluff, and only a few feet above the base, 
that is covered with rude figures, cut upon the surface of the limestone 
by some of the aboriginal inhabitants of this country. Among these 
figures are the outlines of a human foot, and also that of a bear, 
several that were evidently designed to represent the tracks of birds, 
and others that do not appear to represent any natural object, but seem 
rather designed to record, in hieroglyphics, some historic or mythological 
events. These figures were cut upon the surface of the stone with some 
hard instrument, to the depth of perhaps one sixteenth of an inch. The 
surface of the stone on which they were engraved, has been worn 
almost as smooth as glass, probably by the tread of liuman feet. The bluffs 
of the Illinois and the adjacent bottoms appear to have been favorite re- 
sorts of some of the primeval races ; and their rude antiquities, con- 
sisting of stone axes and knives, discs, flint arrow-heads, and an instru- 
ment resembling a mason's plummet, made apparently from the compact 
iron ore of the "iron Mountain in Missouri, are quite common to tlie 
counties of Greene, Jersey and Calhoun. Fossils are not very numerous 
in the Burlington limestone, at the localities examined in this county, 
but the following species were obtained : Spirifer Grimesi, S. Forbesii, 
Athyris incrassata, A. lamellosa, Productus punctatus, and Actino- 
crinus concinnus. 

Kinderhook Crroup. — The upper half of this formation, including a 


thickness of about fifty feet, may be seen at the point wlien the Macou- 
pin intersects the river bhiffs. So far as could be seen, it consisted of 
ash-colored shales and shaly limestone, and afforded no fossils at tiiis 
locality. Above this point, its outcrop along the bluff is hidden by the 
talus from the overlying beds. 


Coal. — About one-third of the entire surface of the county is under- 
laid by tlie Coal Measures ; and they include the horizon of three or four 
coal-seams, though but two of these appear to be mined at the present 
time to any considerable extent. The upper one is the No. 6, or Belle- 
ville seam, which is only found along the east line of the county on 
Hodges' Creek. It underlies a very limited area in this county ; and the 
exposures above named are probably nearly or <|uite on the western limit 
of its outcrop. Its line of outcrop indicates that it might be found on 
Apple Creek, in the vicinity of Athens. It is far the thickest and most 
valuable seam of coal that is developed in this part of the State, though 
at points further north the coal immediately below it (No. 5) is equally 
well developed, and attains an average thickness of about six feet. The 
lower two seams are comparativel}'^ thin, and nowhere exceed about three 
feet where they have been examined in this county. 

No. 6 varies in thickness in this county from four to seven feet ; while 
the lower seams, of which there are three, vary in thickness from one and 
a half to three feet. The two lower seams will probably be found to 
underlie nearly all the eastern portion of the county; and they will afford 
an abundant supply of coal for home consumption. The seam that out- 
croi^s on Birch Creek is prol)ably the same as that on Tulison's land near 
White Hall ; and it niay be mined at almost any point in the eastern j)art 
of the county, at a depth varying from fifty to one hundred and fifty feet 
below the surface. Where it is desirable to mine it at a point where it 
does not outcrop at the surface, a boring should be first made to ascertain 
the thickness of the coal and its depth below the surface ; and, when 
these points are determined, an exact calculation can be made of the ex- 
pense of opening the mine, and the amount of coal it will afford to a 
given area. The expense of boring ought not to exceed two dollars a 
foot for the first one hundred and fifty feet. On Wolf Run and Birch 
Creek, where the lower seam is exposed, it will average two feet and a 
half in thickness, and will yield two and a half million tons of coal to the 
square mile. It is the same as the Exeter coal, in Scott county ; and the 
coal it affords is better than the average (juality, being ([uite as free from 
sulphuret of iron, in this count3% as tiie No. 6, or Belleville coal. The 
seam at Bassett's, on the southwest (quarter of section 27, township 10, 
range 11, appears to be of a local character, and can not be relied on as a 
productive bed, over a large area of surface. 

Clays. — The best clay for the potter's use, and for fire-brick, is the 
bed under the coal seam on Wolf Run. At some points the clay is from 
eight to ten feet thick, and outcrops at the surface, at many localities, 
from one and a half to three miles fiom White Hall. The thickness of 
this bed, and its proximity to the railroad, make this one of the most 
valuable deposits of potter's clay known in the State ; and the near prox- 
imity of excellent coal, which may often be mined in the same drift wiiii 


the clay, makes tins one of the most desirable points for the manufacture 
of fire-brick or pottery, on a large scale, that can be found in the State. 
At Blanchard's mine no exposure of the clay under the coal is to be seen, 
and on Birch Creek the coal seam is underlaid by limestone, below which 
the beds were not seen ; but in the vicinity of Winchester, and at some 
other localities in Scott County, the limestone below this coal is under- 
laid by a thick bed of nearly white clay, almost exactly like that east of 
White Hall ; and it is quite probable a similar clay may be found under- 
lying the limestone on Birch Creek. 

Hydraulic Limestone. — The St. Louis limestone afPords some layers 
that seem to possess hydraulic properties, at several localities in this 
county, though they are generally rather too thin to be of much value at 
the present time. The thickest bed seen in the county is at Thompson's 
mill, on Apple Creek, where it is about eight feet in thickness. This 
locality would afford a sufficient amount of material to justify the erec- 
tion of a cement mill at this point, should the rock prove, on trial, to be 
as well adapted to this purpose as its appearance would indicate. 

Iron Ore. — On the west fork of Whitaker's Creek, there is a seam of 
iron ore, underlying the coal at that locality, about eighteen inches in 
thickness. The ore is a hematite of a dark, brick-red color, and appears 
to be of a good quality. Coal and limestone, for reducing it to metallic 
iron, are abundant in the vicinity of the ore. 

Limestone for Lime. — The best material for this purpose that has 
been met with in this county, is that afforded by the light-gra}^, semi- 
crystalline beds of the Burlington limestone, along the river bluffs. Some 
of these are a nearly pure carbonate of lime, and are not surpassed for 
this purpose by any limestone in the county. The lower part of the 
Keokuk limestone, as it appears below the bridge on Apple Creek, will 
afford a very good limestone for this purj^ose ; but the St. Louis group, 
which usually affords the purest limestone of all, affords no material 
adapted to this purpose at any of the localities examined in this county. 

Building Stone. — All the principal limestone formations in this 
county afford good building stone for ordinary purposes ; and some of 
them afford a superior article, suitable for cut-stone work and ornamental 
architecture. The most abundant supply, as well as the finest material 
of this kind, will be furnished by the Burlington limestone, which out- 
crops in the vicinity of the river bluffs. The rock is tolerably even-bed- 
ded, in strata varying from six inches to two feet in thickness, and can be 
very easily and cheaply quarried, so that it is now used, not only for all the 
ordinary purposes for which building stone is required, but also for fencing 
the farms along the foot of the bluffs. Several elegant farm-houses have 
already been built in this county from this material ; and, as the wealth 
of the country increases, something like a correct taste in architecture 
will obtain among the people, and a desire for more substantial and 
elegant buildings will be the result. This will give increased value to 
our supplies of fine building stone ; and quarries that are now reckoned 
of little value to the owners will eventually become sources of wealth to 
an extent that can not at present be realized. 

The St. Louis limestone will perhaps rank next in value for supply- 
ing the wants of the citizens of this county with good building stone. 
The quarries on Link's Branch, near Carrollton, are capable of supplying 


the wants of that town, and the surrounding country. The rock obtained 
at this locality, is a yellowish gray, or brown, magnesian limestone, soft 
enough to be cut with facility, when freshly quarried, and make a fine 
building stone, either for cut-work or for heavy walls. Some of tlie beds 
are thick enough to furnish dimension-stone of a large size. This bed 
will furnish a good material for heavy walls, at every locality where we 
saw it exposed in this county. The Keokuk limestone will also furnish 
a very good building stone, wherever the lower part of the bed is found 
exposed. This portion of the bed affords layers of light, bluish-gray, 
compact, limestone, from six inches to a foot in thickness, that may be 
used for all the ordinary purposes for which material of this kind is 
required. In the upper part of the bed the layers are thin and cherty. 

The sandstone overMng the coal-seam on Birch Creek, has all the 
characteristics of a reliable building stone. It is a massive micaceous 
sandstone, containing considerable ferruginous matter, withstands atmos- 
pheric influences well, and forms a bold mural wall along the bluffs of the 
creek, from fifteen to twenty feet in hight. It will furnish an abundant 
supply of building stone for this part of the county. On Bear Creek, the 
sandstone is more unevenly bedded, and somewhat unevenly textured, 
some portions of it showing a disposition to crumble on exposure to the 
atmosphere. If quarried for building stone, when it presents this appear- 
ance, it should be selected with care ; and the soft portions of the rock 
should be rejected. In a word, this county has an abundant supply of 
building stone, not only for the use of the inhabitants within its borders, 
but also a large surplus for the supply of other portions of the State. 


Probably not the least interesting portion of the history of Greene 
County would be that which pertains to the lives and fortunes, the civil- 
ization and the language of that wonderful race which peopled these 
prairies, and dwelt in the bluffs of the Illinois, so long ago that no trace 
is left, save the few time-worn relics, found in caves and scattered all 
over the great West. In their manner of living and the knowledge of 
mechanical arts, they were as much superior to the Indians as the period 
of their existence was more remote. Abundant evidence that a portion 
of this mysterious people once made Greene County their home is readily 
obtained, but their origin, their history, and their identity are wrapt in 
doubt seemingly impenetrable. 

So far as history knows, the original human inhabitants of the re- 
gion, now called Greene County, Illinois, were the American Indians. 
Over these fragrant prairies the Kickapoos and Pottawotamies hunted and 
fouglit, with no dream that Europeans would ever drive them from their 
heritage. The French were the first white people who made explorations 
here. Very soon after the beginning of the Seventeenth Century, before the 
colonization of Virginia, subjects of France had made ex[)lorations and a 
permanent settlement in Canada. Thence the zeal of the French Jesuits 
lead them to push westward and southward, until, about 1660, they reached 
the northern part of Illinois, by way of the lakes. One of the most noted 


of these religious enthusiasts was Jacques Marquette, who, with Louis 
Joliet and five other Frenchmen, made extensive explorations in this 
State. In 1G7>^, these men floated down the Wisconsin River to the 
Mississippi, and thence were borne by the Father of Waters, as far south 
as the latitude of Memphis. Here they turned the stem of their boat 
against the stream and began to row northward. Just above where 
Alton is now situated, they left the Mississippi and thrust their bark into 
the untried waters of the Illinois. Up this stream they slowly rowed, 
taking careful note of the country, its animals and productions. They 
made frequent landings, both for the purposes of exploration and to 
preach to the Indians, whose curiosit}" was aroused b}^ the appearance of 
the strangers. It is very likely that these were the first white men who 
ever beheld any portion of the territory now known as Greene County. 
So much were they struck with the beauty and richness of the country 
through which they passed, and so glowing was their report of their 
travels, that, for some j^ears, their description was regarded, in France, 
as a fable or a dream, rather than an account of realities. About six 
years later another Frenchman, Hennepin, floated down the river, and 
was followed, in 1682, by LaSalle. These explorers claimed the whole 
country for France, and, at this time, Greene County was a dependency 
of the Frencli Crown and a part of that vast undetermined region known 
as Louisiana. Frenchmen also came into the State by way of New 
Orleans and the Mississippi River, and thus reached it, from both the 
north and south, at nearly the same time. In the north, settlements were 
made at Peoria and in the south, on the American Bottom at Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia, Fort Cliartres, Prairie du Rocher and other points, of which 
the latter Avas nearest Greene Count}'. 

Meantime the English had made settlements in Virginia, Massachu- 
setts, and at various points between, and the King of England claimed, 
by virtue of these all the country west as far as the Pacific. Soon after 
the year 1700, the English began to penetrate into this wilderness, and 
it became evident that a conflict between their claims iind those of the 
French, to this Garden of the World, was inevitable. But it was not 
the richness of the soil that attracted these earliest pioneers. The 
conversion of the savages and the profits of barter with them, were the 
two motives which drew hither the advance guard of European civiliza- 
tion. Trading posts were established at various points, but no land 
was broken, no grain harvested. The French, in the character of 
missionaries, were most successful in winning the affections of^ the 
Indians, and hence profited by their assistance during the war which 
followed. The struggle was a long and bitter one, but the battle of 
Quebec, in 1759, finally decided that America should be controlled by 
English, not French, influences. 

And so, a few years after, the great West was ceded to England, 
and Greene County became a possession of George III. This region 
was at this time the scene of much bloodshed. Not only were there 
frequent turmoils between the Indians and the white settlers, but wars 
between the various tribes were of almost constant occurrence. The 
Kickapoos and the Pottawotamies could never live in peace together, 
and Greene County very probably was the field of many a battle 
between them. 


As a result of the war of the revolution, this whole land became 
independent of the English crown. During tliis struggle, Col. George 
Rogers Clark was sent by Patrick Heniy, Governor of Virginia, to 
secure this jiortion of the country for the Americans. He dropped 
down the Ohio and marched up through the State, in 1779, with 150 
men, and, with the utmost skill and bravery, gained possession of the 
region almost without bloodshed. Thus Greene County became part and 
parcel of the great State of Virginia. In 1782, Virginia ceded the 
territory, west of the Alleghanies and north of the Ohio, to the United 
States, and it was then known as Illinois County, Virginia. Five years 
later, by the famous " compact of 1787," the region, west of the Alle- 
ghanies and north of tlie Ohio, was erected into "The Noi-thwest 
Territory." From this, in 1800, the territory of Ohio was cut off, and, 
in 1805, the remaining portion, including the present State of Illinois, 
was named Indiana Territory. Four years later (1809), Congress 
declared that that })ortion of Indiana Territory lying west of the 
Wabash River, including what is now Wisconsin and a part of Minne- 
sota, should constitute a separate commonwealth to be called Illinois. 
In 1790 St. Clair Count}^ was organized and included all that portion 
of the present State south of the Little Mackinaw Creek, near Peoria. 
The county seat was at Cahokia. Five years later Randolph County 
was taken from St. Clair on the south, and, in 1812, Madison County 
was organized. At this time Madison County stretched to Chicago on 
the north, and its sheriff would have found it difficult to have visited 
every portion of his bailiwick, for the collection of taxes. Greene 
County was organized in 1821, and included the present counties of 
Jersey, Macoupin, (jreene, Morgan, and Scott. 

Thus the territory, now known as Greene County, Illinois, has, in 
in turn, been one of the haunts of the pre-historic races, the hunting 
ground of the red man, the possession of the French crown, a part of 
Louisiana, a dependency of England, a portion of Illinois County, Virginia, 
a part of the great Northwest Teriitory. Then it was included in 
St. Clair County, in the Territory of Indiana, then Madison County, 
Illinois, and finally Greene County. 


At the beginning of the war of 1812, the aspect of affairs was far 
from hopeful to the isolated dwellers in the Territory of Illinois. Immi- 
gration had expanded the settlements and scattered them over a wide 
territory, but they were very weak. Along the western border of the 
Wabash River a few improvements had been made and a number of set- 
tlements existed in southern Illinois, but the Wood River, near Alton, 
was the northern frontier. There was a little hamlet at Chicago and a 
few French villages in the northern part of the State, but altogether the 
whole Territory contained but twelve thousand people. Under the 
influence of the alarm occasioned by the prospect of an Indian war, the 
prices of guns, rifles, and powder jjad risen wonderfully, so that a good 
rifle sold for fifty dollars, a sum equal in value to four times that amount 



at the present time. The people were all poor and almost entirely with- 
out forts or other protection, and under the circumstances, a war with the 
Indians was dreaded as a terrible calamity. The English had stirred up 
the Indians to the most bitter hatred against the American settlers, and 
Tecumseh and the Prophet had sworn to drive every pale face beyond 
the Ohio River. An earthquake's shock was felt the December previous, 
and to add to all the direful portents, a comet, which was deemed a cer- 
tain precursor of disaster, appeared in the sky. The government was 
petitioned to send a body of soldiers for the defense of the colonists, but 
in the weak condition of the national resources, the request could not be 
granted. Compelled to defend themselves, the Rangers, a body of 
volunteer mounted soldiers, were organized in 1811 in Goshen settlement. 
General Howard was the commander of the organization and Colonel Judy, 
of Madison County, was at the head of one of the companies. One of 
their camps was at Fort Russell, one and a half miles from Edwardsville, 
Madison County. For several years these brave, determined men rode 
over the bare and silent prairies for hundreds of miles, now chasing a 
squad of fleeing savages, now hurrying to the defense of a threatened 
settlement. They Avere almost constantly in the saddle, rarely slept 
under a roof, were independent of civilization for food or comforts, and 
exercised almost superhuman vigilance in keeping the red men at bay. 
They were familiar with every feature of Indian warfare, and their deeds 
of daring and endurance have been made the theme of many a thrilling 
poem or romantic tale. Among the narratives of the daring and hardi- 
hood of these men, current among the old settlers of the county, is the 

In August, 1814, Tom Higgins, a native of Kentucky, was one of a 
party of twelve men under the command of Lieutenant Journey, who 
were posted near this region. Early one morning, as the party started 
out across the prairie, and were crossing a small ridge, which was 
covered with a hazel thicket, they fell into an ambuscade of the Indians, 
who rose suddenly around them, to the number of seventy or eighty, and 
fired. Four of the Rangers were killed, among whom was Lieutenant 
Journey. One other fell badly wounded, and the rest fled, except 
Higgins. It was an unusually sultry morning. The day was just 
dawning. A heavy dew had fallen the preceding night. The air was 
still and humid, and the smoke from the guns hung in a cloud over the 
spot. Under the cover of this veil, Higgins' surviving companions had 
escaped, supposing all who were left were dead, or that, at all events, it 
would be rashness to attempt to rescue them from so overwhelming a 
force. Higgins' horse having been shot, he dismounted, but finding the 
wound had not greatly disabled the animal, he continued to hold the 
bridle, feeling confident of being able to make his retreat. Seing a small 
elm tree near, he hurried toward this, intending to shoot from its cover. 
At this moment the cloud of smoke partially arose, disclosing to his 
view a number of Indians, one of whom he shot. Still concealed from 
view, Higgins reloaded his gun and turned to fly, when a low voice near 
hailed him with, " Tom, you won't leave me ? " 

On looking around, he discovered one of his companions named 
Burgess, who was lying wounded on the ground, and he replied in- 
stantly, " No, I'll not leave you. Come along, and I'll take care of you."' 


"I can't come," replied Burgess, "my leg is smashed all to pieces." 
Higgins sprang from his saddle, and, picking up his friend, whose 
ankle bone was broken, lifted him on the horse, telling him to fly. But 
the horse, taking fright, at this instant, darted oif, leaving Higgins with 
his wounded comrade, on foot. Still the cool bravery of the former was 
suflBcient for every emergency, and, placing Burgess down gently, he 
told him, "Now, my good fellow, you must hop off on three legs, while 
I stay between you and the Indians," instructing him at the same time 
to get into the highest grass, and crawl as close to the ground as possible. 
Instead of following himself in the same direction, the galhint Higgins 
took another direction, in order to withdraw the attention of the enemy 
from the wounded man. As he left the thicket, he observed a large 
Indian near him, and two others, on the other side, between him and the 
fort. Tom coolly surveyed his foes and saw it was necessary to act the 
general. Having an enemy on each flank, he determined to separate 
them and fight them singly. He bounded toward a ravine not far off, 
the largest Indian following him closely. Higgins turned several times 
to fire, but the red man danced about so wildly that it was impossible to 
get a sure aim. The other two were closing upon him and he found that 
unless he could dispose of the first he would be overpowered. He, 
therefore, halted, resolved to receive a fire. The Indian, a few paces 
distant, raised his rifle. Higgins watched his adversaria's eye and, just 
as he thought his finger pressed the trigger, he suddenly jumped to one 
side. He received the ball in his thigh and fell, but rose again and ran. 
The largest Indian, sure of his prey, loaded again, and with the two 
others pursued. Tiie}' soon cam^ upon Higgins and fired, three balls 
takin^r effect in his bodv. He now fell and rose several times, and the 
Indians, throwing away their guns, advanced upon him with spears and 
knives. He kept them at bay with his gun, and finally shot one of 
them dead. 

With four bullets in his body and an empty gun, two Indians before 
him, and a whole tribe but a few rods off, almost any other man would 
have despaired. Not so with Higgins. He readily saw that the two 
surviving Indians lacked courage and, facing them, began to load his 
rifle. They raised a whoop and rushed upon him. A fierce and bloody 
conflict ensued. The Indians stabbed Higgins in many places, but it 
happened, fortunately, that the shafts of their spears were thin poles, 
rigged hastily for the occasion, which bent whenever the point struck a 
rib or encountered one of Higgins' tough muscles. From this cause, and 
by reason of his great agility, he received no deep wounds, although his 
whole front was covered with Gnashes. At last one of them threw his 
tomahawk so that it sunk deep in Higgins' cheek, severed his ear, laid 
bare his skull to the back of his head, and stretched him on the ground. 
The Indians rushed on, but Tom kept them off with his feet and hands, 
until he managed to regain his feet. Then, clubbing his rifle, he rushed 
upon his nearest foe, dashed his brains out, and broke the stock of his 
gun. The other Indian now came manfully to the fight. Uttering a 
fearful yell, he rushed on, determined to stab his enemy. The Indian, 
unwounded, was by far the most powerful man, but the moral courage 
of our hero prevailed, and the savage, unable to bear the fierce glance 
of his untamed eye, began to retreat slowly toward the place where he 


had dropped his rifle. Tom knew that if the Indian recovered his gun, 
his own case was hopeless, and, throwing away his rifle barrel, he drew 
his hunting knife and rushed in upon him. A desperate strife ensued, 
and several deep gashes were inflicted, but the Indian succeeded in 
castino- Higgins from him and ran to the spot where he had thrown down 
his gun, while Tom searched for the rifle of the other savage. Thus the 
twof both bleeding and out of breath, were searching for arms with - 

which to renew the conflict. u-. 

By this time the smoke that lay between the combatants and the |' 

main body of the Indians had passed away, and a number of the latter, 
having passed the hazel thicket, were in full view. It seemed, therefore, 
as if nothing could save oiir heroic ranger. But relief was at hand. The 
little garrison at the station, six or seven in number, had witnessed the 
whole'of this unparalleled combat and, at last, jumping upon their horses, 
rushed at full gallop toward the scene of the conflict. The Indians in 
the thicket had just discovered Tom, and were rushing down toward 
him with savaee yells. His friends were spurring their horses to reach 
him first. Higgins exhausted from loss of blood liad fallen and fainted, 
while his adversary, too intent on his prey to observe anything else, was 
looking for a rifle. The rangers reached the battle-ground first. _ One 
of them tendered Tom a rifle, but he was past shooting. His friends 
lifted him up, threw him across a horse, before one of the party, and 
turned to retreat just as the Indians came up. They made good their 
escape, and the Indians retired. 

After being carried into the station he remained insensible for some 
days, and his life was preserved with difficulty by his friends. They 
extracted all the bullets but two, which remained in his thigh. One of 
these gave him a great deal of pain, although the flesh was healed. At 
length* he heard that a physician had settled within a day's ride of him, 
whom he went to see. The surgeon was willing to extract the ball but- 
asked the sum of fifty dollars for the operation. This Tom flatly refused 
to give, as it was more than half a year's pension. As he rode home, he 
turned the matter over in his mind, and determined upon a cheaper plan. 
The exercise of riding had so chafed the part that when he arrived home, 
the ball, which could not usually be felt, was plainly perceptible. With 
the assistance of his wife, he deliberately laid open his thigh with a razor, 
until the edge of the blade touched the bullet. Then, thrusting in his 
finger, " flirted it out," as he termed it, " without costing a cent." 

° Although rough, warlike men, these Rangers did not fight from the 
love of bloodshed, or from a distaste for the quiet of a settled life. _ As 
they rushed over the State, they kept their eyes open for eligible points 
for making new settlements. The attractions of Greene County, the 
beauty and richness of its prairies, the extent of its wooded lands, the 
clearness of its streams were first brought to the attention of those at a 
distance through the agency of these men. Among the members of the 
band who were so pleased with the soil and topographical features of this 
country as to make it their home in later years, were John W. Huitt, 
Samuel Thomas, Orman Beeman, Thomas McDow, Hiram Huitt, 
John Greene, William Greene, Thomas Carlin, Jacob Linder, John 
Jonnson, Martin Wood, Young Wood, Davis Carter and Wiley Greene. 
They reported to others the attractions of the region near the Ma- 


coiipin and Apple Creeks, and, soon after the close of the war, settlers be- 
gan to come in quite rapidh'. Of all the Illinois Rangers, only the ven- 
erable John W. Huitt, of this county, remains. Alexander Mills, of 
Morgan Countv, and Orman Beeman and Thomas McDow, of this 
county, were among the last to pass away. 

For many years this portion of the State of Illinois communicated 
with the outer world almost entirely by means of the older settlements 
in the south. Until after the close of the war of 1812, Wood River was 
the northern frontier, and no settlers had ventured to build cabins so lar 
north as the region whose history we are considering. On this account 
we naturally look to the southern part of the county for the earliest set- 
tlements. The first pioneers who left the Wood River neighborhood, 
with the daring purpose of making a home farther north, halted and built 
their cabins at the first point they found conveniently near to wood and 
water. In choosing the spot for a home the pioneer sought first water, 
second timber, and lastly deemed it desiraljle that he be situated on the 
edge of a prairie that he might be spared as much as possible the labor of 
clearing. The two first mentioned features were essential, the last desir- 
able. The magnificent prairie now embraced in Jersey County, and thickly 
dotted with palatial farm residences, tempted no immigrant, and even 
twenty 3'ears later it was the universal opinion that prairie land, not 
immediately in the shadow of a forest, could never be inhabited. Hence 
it was that the earliest settlements in this region were made south of the 
Macoupin, near the wooded lands which skirt that stream. 

The date of the first permanent settlement within the present con- 
fines of Greene County it is almost impossible to learn, nor is it less 
diflficult to ascertain who was the leader of the advance guard of 
civilization. The fact that as early as 1815 or 1816, a number of families 
had established themselves immediately south of the Macoupin, has been 
repeatedly stated but it has heretofore been supposed that they all 
returned to the older settlements south, at the request of Governor 
Edwards, just previous to the treaty of Edwardsville, in 1818. It has 
been supposed and stated that no permanent settlement was made in the 
county before the Autumn of 1818, but this the writer has reason to 
believe is incorrect. 

In the Autumn of 1815, Daniel Allen, with his three sons, Daniel, 
Jr., John and James, and James and Paul Harriford, brothers, all from 
Tennessee, came north of the Wood River settlement and built cabins on 
the south bank of the Macoupin Creek, opposite the mouth of Taylor's 
Creek. Their improvements were made within the original confines of 
Greene County, but just south of the present Greene County line. So 
far as can be discovered, they were the pioneers of this whole region. 
The nearest neighbors were more than twenty miles south of them, and 
north of their humble home the unoccupied prairie stretched for scores of 
miles away. The war with England had come to an end l)ut the year 
before, and the country which they had invaded was still in the possession 
of the Kickapoos. During 1816 these earliest settlers raised a crop of 
corn and were quite happy in their new home. During the latter part of 
this year Daniel Allen, Sr., with his sons Daniel and James, moved 
about six miles west and established themselves on the land in township 9, 
range 12, south of the residence of General Jacob Fry, now occupied by 


his grandson, E. W. Allen. His son, John Allen, at the same time, made 
the improvements in township 9, range 11, which he afterward sold to 
William L. Greene. The Aliens thus became, so far as we can learn, the 
first settlers within the present limits of Greene County. The Harrifords 
removed to ('hariton County, Mo., but the Aliens settled here per- 
manently. These facts have come to the knowledge of the writer from 
the lips of Hon. John W. Huitt, who, two years later, married Miss 
Rosanna Harriford, the daughter of James Harriford, above referred to. 
Mr. Huitt, although more than four score years of age, is a gentleman of 
exceptionally clear head and accurate, retentive memory, and his state- 
ment of the facts would seem to be indisputable. 

But the Aliens did not long remain alone. The same year that they 
removed to their second location, Thomas Daniels, of Georgia, built a 
cabin on t*lie farm now owned by Freeman Means. The next year, 1817, 
Mr. Daniels' son, Walker Daniels, also came into the county, and chose 
for his home the land now owned by Rowland Huitt, a short distance 
east of the Allen improvements. In the " Atlas Map of Greene County," 
it is recorded that, in June 1817, James H. Whiteside and David Stock- 
ton came into the county and established themselves south of the creek, 
but no confirmation of this statement has been found. The following 
conclusions can hence be safely arrived at : 

1. Permanent settlements were made south of the Macoupin Creek, 
within the original limits of Greene County, as early as 1815; the first 
settlers, of whom we have any knowledge, being Daniel Allen, Daniel 
Allen, Jr., John Allen, James Allen, James Harriford and Paul Harriford. 

2. Improvements were made within the present boundaries of 
Greene County as early as 1816, and the pioneers, so far as is now known, 
were Daniel Allen and his sons, above mentioned. 

3. The dates here given can be relied upon as accurate, but we 
have- no proof that the county did not contain white inhabitants at an 
earlier da3^ 

I have been thus careful to state these facts clearly and positively 
because they have been doubted in the past, and very little light has 
heretofore been shed on the question : Who first settled Greene County? 

All this region of country was, at that time, in the possession of the 
Indians, and the real tide of immigration did not commence to flow until 
after the treaty of Edwardsville, which was signed July 80, 1818 (author- 
ities differ as to the date). At this time, " Auguste Chouteau and Ben- 
jamin Stephenson, on the part of the United States, bought, of the 
Kickapoo Indians, ten million acres of land lying between the lUinois 
River, on the north-west, the Kaskaskia, on the south-east, the Kankakee, 
on the north-east, and the Mississippi River on the south-west. This 
purchase comprised the whole of Central Illinois, and threw that land 
open to settlement and survey." Almost immediately immigrants began 
to pour in, and the fertile acres were soon taken possession of by the 
representatives of civilization. Among those who came into the county, 
at this time, was John W. Huitt, who still lives at Carrollton, and is 
believed to be the last of the Rangers. Mr. Huitt was born in Georgia, 
Nov. 15, 1793. When he was eleven years old his parents removed to 
Illinois, and settled, in 1804, in the Goshen settlement. At the beginning 
of the war of 1812, Mr. Huitt enlisted in Captain Judy's company of 


Rangers, and proved himself one of the most skillful and daring Indian 
fio-ht^ers in the command. June 13, 1818, he was married to Miss Rosanna 
Harriford, of Chariton County, Mo., and in the August following, in 
company witli his brother, Hiram Huitt, Thomas Carlin and Samuel 
Thomas, made an exploring tour over the country north of the Wood 
River settlement, to choose a new home. All of the party were very 
much pleased with the country about the Macoupin. Messrs. Carlin and 
Thomas selected sites north of the creek, but the Huitts chose a location 
south of the stream, near the mouth of Phil's Creek, which was for a 
number of vears included in Greene County, although it is now a part 
of Jersey County. The consideration which led them to prefer land 
south of the Macoupin, was the fact that that stream was almost always 
very high, and it was impossible to cross, except by the aid of a canoe. 
This inconvenient barrier they were unwilling to place between them- 
selves and the '' Old settlement." Mr. Huitt returned for his bride, and, 
in October of that year, he established his liome on the land he had 
selected. Here he remained for five years, removing in 1823 to the farm 
east of Carrollton still owned by him. Mr. Huitt states, that when he 
arrived, Pliilemon Higgins, from whom Phil's Creek was named, resided 
on the bank of that stream. 

By the year 1819 the little settlement south of the Macoupin had 
become quite populous. Mrs. Matilda Greene, mother of Esquire William 
•L. Greene, came to the settlement during that year. Among those who 
preceded her, she mentions, beside those whose names have already been 
given, Benjamin Allen, Wm. Costley, and Robert Means, of Georgia; 
John Greene, Wiley Greene, Davis Carter and Joseph Piggott, of 
Kentucky. A settlement was made, considerably further south, on the 
Piasa in 1819, and, about the same time, John G. Lofton, John D. Gillham, 
Joseph White, Orman Beeman, Alfred Hinton, John R. Black, settled in 
the southern part of the county. Mrs. Matilda Greene was born in Ten- 
nessee, in 1800, and was married to William Greene, in 1817. Mr. Greene 
was a very prominent man in the early history of the county, both on 
account of his physical prowess and by reason of his natural abilities. 

Probably the first dwelling house north of the Macoupin Creek, was 
built by Samuel Thomas, in August, 1 818, on the farm south-west of 
Carrollton, now occupied by his sons. 

Mr. Thomas was born in South Carolina in 1794. His father was a 
sturdy, rugged farmer, and the young man was educated in all the arts of 
pioneer life. His parents removed to Kentucky in 1802, and in 1813, his 
father having in the meantime died, Mr. Thomas with two brothers-in- 
law came to Illinois, and settled in the forks of the Wood River, in 
Madison County. The trip was made on horseback, the company camp- 
ing at night with the sky for a roof over their heads. They crossed the 
Ohio River at Golconda, and found that nearly all the cabins between 
that place and Turkey Hill settlement had been vacated by their owners 
from fear of tlie Indians, who were then waging a war of extermination 
against the whites. The party from Kentucky were not to be frightened 
at trifles, but pushed vigorously forward toward tlieir destination. When 
he set out on the journey, Mr. Thomas had i)ut one dollar and six and a 
quarter cents in money ,^ l)ut, as soon as he arrived at the settlement, he 
purchased on credit from his brother-in-law a rifle, in order that lie might 


equip himself for joining- the Rangers. As a member of this body of 
vigihmt cavalry-men Mr. Thomas did efficient service. He was by nature 
a brave man, and delighted' in an adventurous life. He was very fond 
of a hunt, whether the, prey was a deer or a red man. In the early part 
of the year 1814, he joined Captain Judy's company, and afterward 
became a member of Captain Whitesides' famous band of Rangers. He 
served through the war and was present at the treaty at Portage^ du 
Sioux, when Governor Clark presented a flag to each of the Indian chiefs. 

''During his service as a Ranger, Mr. Thomas had frequent opportunities 
to observe the fertility of the soil and the beauty of the landscape near 
the Macoupin. Afterward, with a feAV others, he passed over this country 
again, going as a guard, with four hundred cattle, which were being taken 
to the regular troops stationed near the present site of Warsaw, not far 
from Quincy, in this State. On the return trip they met the first party of 
government surveyors, who were crossing the Mississippi River near the 
mouth of the Illinois. The Indians destroyed the stakes driven by the sur- 
veyors, and Mr. Thomas was one of a company of soldiers called upon by the 
Governor to drive the Indians away. During these trips Mr. Thomas 
passed repeatedly over the ground where Jacksonville is now situated. 
In July, 1814, occurred the Wood River massacre, when one of Mr. 
Thomas's sisters and six children were cruelly tomahawked by the 
savages. On his return to the Wood River settlement from the Indian 
warfare, Mr. Thomas jilanted a crop of corn, and soon after, in 1816, 
married Miss Elizabeth Isley. It was during this year that Mr. Thomas 
first visited Greene County, with a view to making it his home. He cut 
and stacked a quantity of hay on the land on which he subsequently 
settled, and made other preparations for residence there. He then 
returned to his family in the Wood River settlement, and, during his 
absence, the Indians destroyed all the results of his labor north of the 
Macoupin. For two years the young couple lived in the cabin which Mr. 
Thomas had built, and, at the end of that time, he had seventeen acres 
cleared and under cultivation. During these years Mr. Thomas turned 
his natural mechanical genius to a good account in making looms for the 
people of that region. The beauty and richness of the lands beyond the 
Macoupin were constantly in his mind, and his earnings, in this way, 
were carefully saved and devoted to purchasing the first eighty acres of 
land Mr. Thomas ever owned in this county. At last, his earnest desire 
to push still further forward in the vanguard of civilization, could be no 
longer restrained, and, in the Summer of 1818, he sold his cabin and 
improvements for one hundred dollars, and prepared to emigrate to the 
new lands, from which the Indians had just been driven. With him came 
Thomas Carlin and John W. Huitt, each in search of a suitable tract of 
land on which to settle. These three men all l)ecame prominent citizens 
of Greene County, and occupy an important ^Dlace in its history. They 
are spoken of elsewhere. 

"^ It was in the month of August, and the prairies were fragrant and 

beautiful. Just before they arrived at the Macoupin— or Maquapin 
(white potatoe) as the Indians named it, and it was for a long time 
called — near the present town of Kane, they found one or two cabins 
occupied by adventurous settlers, but did not stop here. Crossing the 
creek and the bottom lands, Mr. Thomas ascended the bluffs, passed on 


through the timber and selected a spot for a home about three miles from 
the stream, on section 33, township 10-12. A beautiful grove and a clear 
spring of water were among the attractions that fixed his choice. Here 
Mr. Thomas killed a deer, cut a bee-tree and engraved his name on the 
bark of a monarch of the forest, to indicate that tlie land was claimed. 
He also built a cabin, made some other preparations, and returned for his 
wife and household goods. With these loaded upon an ox cart he arrived 
at his new home on the ninth day of November, 1818, and thus became 
the first settler in Greene County north of Macoupin Creek. With him, 
to assist him in crossing the creek and in other ways, came Rowell 
Hunnicut, now a resident of Walkerville. 

Mr. Thomas's nearest neighbors were the dwellers south of the 
creek, but north, east and west of him in a circuit of from fifteen to fifty 
miles, the prairies were solitary and trackless. The only link that con- 
nected him with civilization was a " blind path " that " meandered among 
the trees and over the prairies back to ' the settlement ' on Indian Creek, 
or Wood River." Afterward a " three-notch road " appeared, and proved 
a surer guide. It was several years after Mr. Thomas arrived at his new 
home, before he became the owner of a wagon, the first which he 
possessed being made for him by the late Captain Richard Robley. 

Thomas Carlin pushed further north, inclining a little more to the 
east, and chose for his home a fine piece of land, including that on which 
the city of Carrollton was afterward built. His cabin he erected in the 
southern portion of the present corporation, and occupied it late in 1818, 
or the Spring of 1819. 

In Octol)er, 1818, Michael Headrick (father of Anderson Headrick, 
coroner of the county), Jacob Headrick, his brother, Abram Bush and 
Abram Sells, his son-in-law, and Jacob Redden arrived. They were 
originally from Kentucky but had been temporary residents of Indiana, 
and had spent some time at the Wood River settlement. They reached 
a spot about one-half mile west of the present residence of David 
Wright, Esq., near Carrollton, the tenth of the month. Here they 
raised two crops, when they discovered that they were on the six- 
teenth section, which was devoted to the school fund. Mr. Michael 
Headrick accordingly moved, in 1821, to the farm north of Carrollton, 
now owned by Absalom Bradley, Esq., which he entered at the land sale. 
Mr. Redden went north to Morgan County. 

At the first election ever held in the county the house of Abram 
Sells was used for the polls ; this was in November, 1820, when James 
Monroe was re-elected President of the United States. 

Soon, other daring pioneers were attracted by the fertile prairies 
between the two creeks. 

James Caldwell and Thomas Crane arrived, and built and occupied 
cabins before Winter, in township 10, range 11, east of Carrollton. Calvin 
Tunnell commenced an improvement at tlie same time, but was prevented 
by illness from occupying it until February of the next year. Luther 
Tunnell also came about this time, and it was probably in this year that 
H. P. Clendenen settled in the southwestern part of the county. 

In the year 1819, the population of the county was very much 
increased by immigration. F. M. Bell made a settlement in township 10, 
range 12 ; Michael Waltrip built a cabin on section 17, and Joel Johnson 


on section 21, of township 11, range 11. It was in 1819 that the earliest 
improvements were made north of Apple Creek. The first men attracted 
by the beauty and fertility of the location were Thomas Allen, Thomas 
Rattan, James Henderson, and Levi Reader, who, in the Spring of that 
year, formed a settlement, just north of Apple Creek and east of the 
road from Carrollton to White Hall, except a portion of Thomas Rattan's 
improvement, which lay west of the road, the ])lace being known at 
present as the Roodhonse farm. Of these, James Henderson is commonly 
believed to have been the pioneer. He plunged into the woods before 
the ax or the plow had ever entered them, marking his path by blazes on 
the trees. The stream, now called Seminary Creek, was originally 
named for him. In order to encourage labor, several, possibly all, of the 
settlers united and opened a large farm, all in one enclosure, of which 
each cultivated a part, with the understanding that the labor should be 
restored in improving their separate claims, by the person to whom this 
farm should fall, when the land was surveyed and brought into market. 
In the Autumn of the same year, the settlement was increased in number 
by Zachariah Allen, John Allen, Isaac Hill, and probably others. Soon 
a school was organized in the new settlement, and instructed by one 
Wm. Welch. Thus did the little neighborhood take time by the fore- 
lock, by giving the cause of education an early start in the wild woods. 
But those acquainted with the men mentioned above will not be sur- 
prised at the interest they manifested in reference to that subject, even 
at that early day. It is upon the efforts of such men that the cause 
principally rests for its support. It is a cause they were known to 
cherish as of the greatest importance to their posterity and their country. 
The first named (Thomas Allen) was a large man, very corpulent, 
weighing about two hundred and fifty pounds. He was good-humored 
and jolly, especially in the society of little romping girls and boys, of 
whose attentions he was very fond, as most men are who are too fleshy 
to keep pace with other men. He settled at the place well known as 
"Allen's Mill" (now Bell's), of which he was the proprietor. At that 
early day, the people very severely felt the need of a mill in their own 
neighborhood, as they frequently were compelled to go within four miles 
of St. Louis for their grinding, and wait a day or two for their turn 
before they could return; and when Mr. Allen proposed erecting his 
mill, they gladly left their work at home, and went to assist him, working 
faithfully until the mill was completed. But it had scarcely begun to 
supply meal and flour for the settlers, until a flood raised the stream and 
cut a channel round the abutment, leaving the mill dry. In this 
emergency, the settlers turned out with alacrity, bringing their teams 
and tools, and labored faithfully until the breach, being filled with logs, 
brush, straw, clay, sand, stone, and whatever could be had to answer the 
purpose, was so effectually repaired as to withstand the floods ever after- 
ward. But even here their labors did not cease, for another freshet in 
the stream made an excavation under the mill-house, to the depth of 
fifteen or twenty feet, which again rendered the mill useless. But once 
more the men, with their spades, mattocks, axes, wagons, and teams, 
assembled, and, with stone, straw, and timber, repaired the damages. It 
was then that they began to enjoy the fruits of their labors. Tiie mill 
did a splendid business for those days, and became one of the greatest 


conveniences the settlers had in the whole country, and the proprietor, 
grateful for the kind assistance his neighbors had given him in a time of 
need, ground their grain for many years free of all charge. He was 
growing somewhat old, and ex])erienced a great difficulty in breathing, 
attributed to obesity, that was supposed to have caused liis death, which 
occurred about the year 1833. 

It was in 1819 that Benjamin Drummond came from Madison County, 
to the northern part of this county, near wliere Roodhouse is now sit- 
uated. Dr. Thaxton, Jesse Allen, Jesse Morrow, William Waltrip, Wil- 
liam Thaxton, Larkin Thaxton, and others, are also set down as arriving 
during 1819. This was i-eally the first year during which immigration 
was at all brisk. The country was rapidly filling up and the red man was 
almost entirely banished, and rapid growth and improvement were the 
order of the day. 

The winter of 1819 and '20 proved to be an unusually severe one. 
The long grass of the prairies had been destroyed by fires lighted by the 
Indians "or hunters, and much of the undergrowth in the woods was 
killed by the same element. Before the close of the winter, the pro- 
visions gathered by them for their stock, from places where it had 
escaped the ravages of the fire, gave out and they were compelled to cut 
down trees, from the boughs of which the cattle and horses could procure 
a scanty supply of food. Many of these wandered away and were lost, 
while some of ^tliem died from the effects of cold and hunger. The sup- 
ply of food for themselves and families proved to be sufficient, yet their 
suffering from the cold was often intense. Mr. Seymour Kellogg, who 
lived in the Mauvaisterre settlement, in his search for some of his stock, 
one bitterly cold night, lost his way and saved his life only by walking 
vigorously'between two trees standing several rods apart. He did not 
dare to leave this track during the night for fear of being irrecoverably 
lost. He did not know how far he was from either his own or his brother's 
cabin. On the appearance of daylight, he found himself about two miles 
from the latter place, to which he immediately repaired. His feet were 
badly frozen during the night, making him a cripple for several months. 
Notwithstanding these hardships, the residents of the county were 
not discouraged, l)ut went to work in the Spring with renewed vigor. We 
hear of very large accessions to the population of the county, in 1820, and 
important strides were made forward. Immigrants poured in from nearly 
every direction, and almost every township in the county contained 
one or more families before the close of the year. Among those whom 
we find recorded as arrivinii' during this year are Jacob Bowman, Martin 
Bowman, Silas Eldred and Mrs. Ruth Eldred, soutli and west of Carroll- 
ton ; John Greene and James Whitlock, near Kane ; John Lorton, Robert 
Lorton, Thomas Lorton and Isaac Hill, in the northern part of the 
county: Ransom and Jesse Flatt, near the Illinois River; Zachariah 
Allen, James Allen, and David Battle, west of Wrightsville ; Isaac Nor- 
ton, south of White Hall ; Charles Kitchen, Lewis Roberts and Jolm 
Thompson, near Roodhouse ; David and James Pinkerton, on tlie pranie 
named after them ; William J. Brown, east of Carrollton ; Benjamin 
Taylor and Isaac Taylor, on tlie prairie near Rockbridge. ''Old 
Benny Taylor," as he was called, was the first settler on Tay- 
lor's prairie. Soon after liim came Isaac Taylor with his two sons 


John and Ambrose. Isaac Ta3'lor was born in 1760. At the age of 
sixteen he entered the service of his country in her struggles for 
liberty. He came from Kentucky to Illinois and made two crops in Mad- 
ison County before coming to Taylor's prairie. In this year John and 
James Beeman came to township 11, range 14, and built a rough sawmill 
near the present site of Seeley's mill, on Apple Creek. With this they 
sawed out lumber which they used the same year in the construction 
of a grist mill. Mr. Vines Hicks, it was said, was fearful the land 
sales would occur before he could obtain the money to purchase 
his land, and that some one else would become its owner and de- 
prive him of his improvements. He, therefore, selected for his home a 
poor, flinty point of the Macoupin bluff, where he felt perfectly secure in 
the possession of a place so very poor that no other man could be found 
to want it. But better things were in store for Mr. Hicks than he an- 
ticipated, for in spite of the sterility of the soil, and the discouragements 
incident to the settlement of a new country, he soon found himself too 
well off to live on so poor a place himself. He therefore deserted it and 
purchased a tract of valuable prairie and timber along the north side of 
Apple Creek prairie, where he soon accumulated property and money 
enough to supply all reasonable wants. Robert Whitaker made a home 
on the " Andy Johnson farm," during this year, and from him Whit- 
aker's Creek, the stream flowing from the prairie, a few miles west of 
Greenfield, into Apple Creek, just above Bell's mills, was named. 

The land sale of January, 1821, at Edwardsville, was one of the 
most important events of those days. Before the sale the purchasers had 
made an agreement between themselves that they would not bid for the 
land previously selected by another. By this means all collision was- 
usually avoided, and the settlers obtained the land at the lowest possible 
government price. The land was sold in lots of not less than eighty 
acres each, and no bid was received for a less sum than one hundred 
dollars for each eighty acres. By means of this understanding among 
themselves, nearly all the land was purchased at this price. It, however, 
happened that Mr. Eldred and Robert Hobson each claimed to have 
been the first to choose a very fine piece of land near the present resi- 
dence of C. H. Eldred, Esq. The Eldreds came here in 1820, from New 
York State. They had an abundance of money, so much that it is related 
that their saddle-l)ags of gold and silver were so heavy that it required 
two men to carry them into the land office at Edwardsville. 

Mr. Eldred and Mr. Hobson did not succeed in coming to an agree- 
ment before that piece was sold, and the result was a contest. One of 
them made the usual bid of one hundred dollars for the first eighty acres, 
whereupon the other promptly added five dollars to the bid. Neither of 
the contestants was restrained by the lack of money, and the bidding 
continued quite spiritedly until Mr. Eldred became the purchaser of the 
piece at ^150. As soon as the tract was sold to him, the latter remarked to 
Mr. Hobson, " I have plenty of money to continue this thing, and if you 
buy any land at this sale I will see that you pay one hundred and fifty 
dollars per eighty for it." Friends, however, interfered, and Mr. Eldred 
agreed to a compromise, provided that Mr. Hobson would pay to him the 
extra $50 he had given for the land already purchased. This was agreed 
to and all went 021 smoothly. The only other contest of which we have 


mention is that in reference to the site of Mount Pleasant, mentioned 
elsewhere. Judge Alfred Hinton, who came to this count}' in 1820, 
says tiie surveyors pronounced this section the finest in Illinois, (jreat 
excitement existed at tlie sale, on account of the attendance of parties 
to prevent bids on the settled lands. If there had been any one present 
to do so they would, very probably, have been mobbed. As an incident 
showing in what light a thief was viewed in those days, Judge Hinton 
told of a man who stole a pair of saddle bags at the sale. As soon as 
the theft was discovered, diligent search was made for the guilty party 
hy all who had horses, notwithstanding the saddle bags contained nothing 
but a dirt}' shirt and a few other articles of little value. A justice of the 
peace was applied to, Avho issued his warrant, in the name of the United 
States, commanding any constable, sheriff, or officer of the United States 
to make legal service and due return to him, or any other justice of the 
peace, in the United States, of the body of the within named, dead or 
alive. It was a lucky thing for the culprit that he rode a better horse 
than his pursuers, backed by such a document. 

During this 3'ear Jacob Fry l)ecame a permanent resident of the 
county. He was born in Fayette County, Kentucky, September 20, 
1799. While quite a young man he came to Edwardsville, and in the 
Autumn of 1819. made a trip into this county with the intention of 
meeting General Rector at the mouth of Apple Creek. In this he was 
disappointed, and after remaining in the vicinity a short time, he returned 
to Alton, where he went to work as a carpenter for Mr. West, and 
hewed the timber for the first mill built there. While temporarily sta}'- 
ing near Carrollton, in 1819, General Fry is said to have made from wood 
split from a walnut tree, the first coffin ever constructed in the county. 
About the beginning of the year 1*821, when Carrollton was about to be 
surveyed, he returned to section 16, township 10, range 12. Governor 
Carlin offered to give him a lot if he would build upon it, which lie 
accepted. He cut the timber, split the boards, and l)uilt a house, which 
stood for fifty-seven years. For a long time it formed a part of the ell 
of the St. James Hotel, and was burned when that block was consumed, 
in the Spring of 1878. Before General Fry had finished his building, he 
stopped to assist Thomas Rattan in the construction of a log house at 
the northeast corner of the Square, on the lot on which Marmon's 
Building now stands. This was the first building completed in Carroll- 
ton, and General Fry's was the second. After the organization of the 
county. General Fry at once became a prominent man. He was a member 
of the first grand jury ; then he was deputy slieriff in 1822. In 1828 he 
was chosen sheriff, and held the office for ten years. In May, 1826, he 
was married to Miss Emily Turney, daughter of General James Turney, 
Attorney General of the State. General Fry served during the Black 
Hawk war as colonel, and at its close was elected Major General of the 
militia. In 1837 he was appointed commissioner of the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal, and in 1856 collector of customs at Chicago. During 
the rebellion he commanded a regiment, which did valiajit service at 
Shiloh. The privations and haidships which he suffered during the war 
brought on disease, as a result of which he is almost totall}' blind. 
General Fry now lives with liis family on his farm, south of the Macoupin, 
and enjoys the affection, esteem, and honor of every one who knows him. 


David Pierson arrived at the new settlement in 1821, from the State 
of New York. He lived for several years upon his farm, north of 
Carrollton. Afterward he ens^aged in mercantile pursuits in Carrollton, 
finally establishing Pierson's Exchange Bank, which was for many years 
the only bank in the county. He has been prominently connected with 
the Carrollton Baptist Church, from its origin, and in his various 
capacities as farmer, merchant, millowner, or banker has been a valuable 
friend to hundreds, and in public or private life the influence of his abilities 
and means has always been felt for good. 

Richard Robley was another of the prominent men of the county, 
who arrived at this time. He was born in Swansey, New Hampshire, 
May 12, 1791. When he was 17 years of age, he became an orphan, 
dependent upon his own exertions for a livelihood. About this time he 
removed to Vermont, and here met, and was married to. Miss Desire 
Griswold, the ceremony taking place at Vergennes, August 11, 1814. 
The young couple remained in Vermont for six years. In 1820 Mr. 
Robley became infected with the Western fever, and, bidding farewell to 
family friends, started with his wife for the wilds of Missouri. Here 
they remained but a short time, and in 1821 Mr. Robley built a flat boat 
with his own liands, and on this he ascended the Illinois River, with his 
family and goods, landing in the western part of the county. He settled 
on the land now occupied by his sons, Messrs. Charles, Vilroy and George 
Robley. Nearly forty years ago Captain Robley was married to the 
lady who survives him. He died January 3, 1879, of heart disease. He 
was a man highly esteemed and respected in the community, a good 
citizen and a kind neighbor. 

It was also in 1821 that the first settlements were made in township 
11, range 13, in the northwestern part of the county, by John Powell 
and Davis Carter. 


This section of country was now so rapidly filling up, and the annoy- 
ance of going thirty miles to the county seat, at Edwardsville, for the 
transaction of business, was so seriously and increasingly felt, that during 
the year 1820, a project for the organization of a new county, with the 
seat of government somewhere between the two creeks, was much 
discussed at shooting matches, liorse races, hunting frolics, house raisings, 
husking bees, and wherever else two or more of the early landholders 
happened to meet. Every new resident who bought land here increased 
the feeling of the necessity for such an action of the Legislature, and, as 
the year wore toward its close, the formation of the county had become 
comparatively certain. The matter was brought to the attention of the 
Legislature, which convened at Vandalia in the Winter of 1820-21. At 
this time Shadrach Bond was Governor, having been chosen in 1818 for 
four years. Elias K. Kane was Secretary of State, John Thomas, State 
Treasurer, John McLean, for whom McLean County was named. Speaker 
of the House, James Lemen, Jr., Speaker of the Senate, and Thomas 
Reynolds, Clerk of the House. In January, 1821, the following bill was 


introduced in the House. It was enrolled Januar}- 18th and approved 
January 20, 1821 : 

An Act Establishing the County of Greene. 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois 
represented in the General Assembly, that all that tract of country witliin 
the followinq; boundaries, to-wit: Be^innincr at the southeast corner of 
township No. 7 north, in range No. 10, west of the third principal 
meridian ; thence north between ranges 9 and 10 to the northeast corner 
of township 12 north; thence west along the line between townships 12 
and 13 to the middle of the Illinois River; thence down said river to its 
junction with the Mississippi River : thence down the middle of the Mis- 
sissippi River to a point parallel with the southwest corner of township 
No. 6 north, in range 10 west; thence north with the range line between 
10 and 11 to the township line between 6 and 7 ; thence east with said 
township line to the place of beginning, shall constitute a separate county 
to be called Greene. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, that for the purpose of establishing 
the seat of justice for said county, the following persons shall be commis- 
sioners, to-wit: Thomas Rattan, John Allen, Esq., Thomas Carlin, John 
Green, and John Huitt, Sr.; and the said commissioners, or a majority of 
them, shall, at some convenient time, between the passage of this act 
and the first day of March next, meet at the house of Isaac Pruitt, in 
said county, and proceed to fix the permanent seat of justice of said county, 
and give the same some appropriate name ; provided the owner or owners 
of the land whereon said seat of justice is about to be fixed give to the 
county commissioners of the county a good deed of conveyance, in fee 
simple, for not less than twenty acres of land, for the use of the county. 
If the owner or owners of said land refuse or neglect to give the same, 
then to fix the seat of justice on the next suitable place where the said 
owner or owners will give the quantity of land aforesaid, and in all cases 
the said commissioners shall take into consideration the situation and 
geography of the country, and the future population of the county, to 
have the same as near the centre of the county as practicable. 

" Sec. 8. Be it further enacted, that the said commissioners, or a 
majority of them, shall make a report of their proceedings to the next 
county commissioner's court of the county, and have the same recorded 
on the records of said county. 

" Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, that all that tract of country within 
the following boundaries, to-wit: Beginning at the southwest corner of 
township 7, north of range 9, west of the third principal meridian ; thence 
east to the southeast corner of township 7, north in range 6 west; thence 
north to the northeast corner of township 12 north; thence west to the 
northwest corner of township 12 in range 7 west; thence along the 
prairie between the waters of Sangamon and Mauvaisterre to the head of 
Balance Creek; thence down said creek to the Illinois River; thence 
down the said river to the northwest corner of said county, shall be 
attached to said county, and shall constitute and be a part of said county 
for all purposes, until otherwise disposed of by the General Assembly of 
this State. 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted, that said county, and the attached 



part of the same, be and compose a part of the first judicial circuit of 
this State, and the inhabitants of the same shall be entitled to all the 
privileges of other counties of this State. 

"Sec. 6. Be it further enacted, that the commissioners appointed 
to perform the services required by this act shall be allowed, out of the 
county funds, dollars for each day's labor and attendance in perform- 

ing said services. " John McLean, 

"Approved by the '•'' Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

" Council of Revision " James Lemen, Jr., 

" 20th Jan'y, 1821. " Speaker of the Senate, 

"Shadrach Bond." 

It will be seen that the limits of Greene County were made to include 
the territory now known as Greene and Jersey Counties, while to this 
was temporarily attached what afterward became Macoupin, Scott, and 
Morgan Counties. The county was named in honor of General Nathaniel 
Greene, the Revolutionary hero. 

Meanwhile, as soon as the discussion concerning the organization of 
a county was initiated, quick-witted land owners began to lay plans for 
securing the county seat on or near their property. Prominent among 
the locations spoken of for the seat of government was Mount Pleasant, 
the first town laid out in the county. 

Mr. W. A. Tunnell, in an article in the Carrollton Press, published 
in 1860, says of the natural beauties of the place: "It was located on a 
beautiful mound in the midst of as fine a country as ever occupied a 
place on the map of the globe, in the prairie, just where a cool, shady 
grove or point of timber had found its way up the east side, nearly to its 
summit. From this elevated spot the eve delio-hted to range over the 
surrounding prairie to the north, the west, and the south, where the sides 
of the mound sloped gracefully down to the horizon, or to the dark groves 
of tall trees waving in the soft breeze, and enlivened by the twittering 
notes of the countless merry little birds. The deep, cool shade afforded 
a delicious retreat to the wearied huntsman as he reposed on the moss- 
covered logs beneath their dark green foliage. These gentle slopes shone 
in the bright sunshine, beneath a clear, blue sky, like some enchanted 
spot, clothed in all the gaudy colors of the rainbow. It is probable that 
the sun in all his wanderings has seldom shone on a lovelier spot of earth 
since the day on which the flaming sword was placed at the gates of Eden. 
This mound, at present deprived of every vestige of its primitive beauty 
except its elevation, is situated perhaps a mile and a half west, and a mile 
south from Carrollton. The public lands of this district, if my informa- 
tion is correct, were offered for sale in the month of January, 1820.* This 
desirable spot, of which we have been speaking, had attracted the atten- 
tion of more than one person who had an eye for the beautiful in nature, 
and when the settlers all met at Edwardsville to purchase their lands 
moi-e than one felt a sensation of uneasiness growing out of apprehen- 
sions that some more fortunate person than himself would become the 
purchaser of the mound. The principal contestants, however, were John 
Evans and Robert Hobson, the former an immigrant from Ireland, and the 
latter from England, both reported to be men of wealth. A compro- 
mise was, however, effected between the two, by which Mr, Hobson paid 

* 18a 1 Is the correct date. 


Mr. Evans fifty dollars, and became the purchaser of the property with- 
out an opposing bid. He immediately marked out a town on the spot, 
and called it • Mount Pleasant,' erected a dwelling and store house, 
opened a stock of goods suitable to the demands of the country, offered 
inducements to others to make their homes in the new town, and in gen- 
eral, manifested a commendable degree of energy, enterprise, and busi- 
ness talent. The first persons who accepted the invitation to settle in 
the place were Ansel Hubl)ard, a blacksmith; Elijah Woodman, also a 
blacksmith ; and Oliver Bangs, whose occupation I have forgotten. 
When Gree\ie County was about being organized, the people and friends 
of Mount Pleasant made a strong effort to procure the county seat at that 
place, which, however, failed, as I have previously stated. Mr. Hobson 
died about that time, and the little place that had shown such fair prom- 
ise of becoming a respectable inland town, fell into a decline from which 
it never recovered." 

Another point which was deemed by some an eligible site for the 
seat of justice was a wooded mound on Avhat is now called the " Boston 
Farm," a mile or more southeast of the Court House. It was urged in 
its favor that it was nearer the centre of county than its competitors, 
but the fact that it was covered with timber was deemed an insuperable 

But the man who held in his hands the key to the situation was 
Thomas Carl in. 

Thomas Carlin was born near Shelby ville, Ky., in 1T8G. His 
parents were genuine Kentuckians, and their son was brought up to love 
adventure and inured to all the hardships of a backwoodsman's life. In 
1^0o the family removed to Missouri, and the next year the young man's 
father died. Mr. Carlin served as a Ranger durimx the war, and was 
among the first to settle in Greene County, north of the Macoupin Creek, 
his improvements being made just south of the present site of Carrollton. 
His mother, a verv worthy woman, his stepfather, Mr. Savage, and his 
two brothers, James and William Carlin, came with him. The latter 
was the father of General William Passamore Carlin, of the United States 
Array, and of Thomas J. Carlin, ex-Circuit Clerk of Greene County. 
All these gentlemen have held important official positions in the county. 
In 1814 Thos. Carlin owned a ferry across the Mississippi River, near 
where Edwardsville Junction is now situated, and while living there he 
married Miss Rebecca Huitt, sister of John W. Huitt, spoken of else- 
where. Mr. Carlin was a man of medium height, not heavily built, but 
possessed of a pair of powerful shoulders. His hair and full beard were 
sandy and his cheery iace was always florid and full of blood. He was 
a man of iron nerve, much natural shrewdness and skill in dealing with 
his fellow men, admired and regarded as a friend by every one. He was 
from the first, and for many years, perhaps the most jjopular man in the 
region, and was universall}- regarded as a natural leader. His honesty is 
spoken of as beyond re[)roach, and when he was Register of Lands, at 
Quincy, his square dealing with the government was repeatedly remarked. 
While he held this office he frequently drove a team of two heavy horses 
before a wagon-load of gold and silver (the proceeds of the land sales) 
through the lonely regions between Quincy and Carrollton, often in the 
night, entirely alone and unattended. He did not know what fear meant. 


He was elected first Sheriff of the county, held various other local offices, 
was chosen State Senator, and finally, in 1838, was called to the Guber- 
natorial chair. He died February Itl:, 1852, at his home in CarroUton, 
on the land which he had entered more than thirty years before. In a 
struggle with such a man for the location of the county seat, Robert 
Hobson suffered from every disadvantage. He had money, but in every 
other regard his cause was very weak. He was an immigrant fresh from 
England, and that was sufficient to win for him the dislike of all native 
Americans. The war with England had ended but a few years before, 
and hatred for Britain and the British still rankled in the hearts of all 
the sons of Revolutionary fathers. The situation of Mount Pleasant 
was a beautiful one, but had its site been doubly enchanting, and had it 
possessed every advantage over the rival location, Thomas Carlin's per- 
sonal popularity would have carried eveiything before it. Few natives 
would liave courted a struggle with him, but a foreigner, and particularly 
an Englishman, could hope for nothing but defeat. But besides this it 
was urged against Mount Pleasant that, although its site was beautiful, the 
mound on which it was proposed to build the town was far too small to 
furnish eligible building lots for the capital of a great county. More- 
over, Mount Pleasant was some distance west of a direct road from Alton 
to Jacksonville, and from the centi-e of the county. Few tlien, except 
the circle of personal friends with which Mr. Hobson was surrounded, 
had any doubt what would be the decision of the Commissioners, ap- 
pointed by the Legislature to locate the seat of justice. 

The first movement that was made toward perfecting the organiza- 
tion of the county was the meeting of the Commissioners appointed by 
the General Assembly to select a place for the county seat. These gentle- 
men assembled at the residence of Isaac Pruitt, one of the most substan- 
tial members of the settlement. He had entered land a few miles west 
of Carrollton, and built a cabin very near the present position of the 
David Black residence. Thence, after some preliminaries, they rode 
to the land of Thomas Carlin. 

The commission was a representative body. Thomas Rattan had 
been a pioneer all his life, and was an excellent business man and money 
maker. He was reared on Rattan's prairie, in Madison Count}^, whither 
his parents had came among the earliest settlers. Here he entered land, 
but soon left it, and for some time owned and managed a ferry at Carlisle, 
where he Avas very successful in a financial point of view. Subsequently 
he sold his land in Madison County, and made a settlement in Greene 
County, north of Apple Creek, as has been previously mentioned. Here 
Cyrus Tolman and Chas. Gregory, afterwarct opulent farmers, were in his 
employ. Mr. Rattan, soon after the organization of the county, moved 
to Carrollton and kept the first hotel there. He was short and heavy, but 
a thorough man of business. John Allen was from Kentucky, and was a 
cousin of Zachariah Allen, mentioned elsewhere. John Greene was a 
brother of William Greene, and father of Singleton F. Greene, afterward 
sheriff of the county, and the oldest native of Greene County now 
living. He was tall and spare. John Huitt, Sr., was the father of John 
W. Huitt, and had followed his son to this county. He was a Georgian, 
and an upright man of good mind. Thomas Carlin was also one of the 
commissioners, but as he was interested in the result he refused to act in 


the matter. After some consultation, it became evident that the com- 
missioners were unanimous in their opinion that the Court House should 
be built on the land of Mr. Carlin, They were standinj^ near the east 
side of the present square when they reached that decision. Whereupon 
John Allen paced fifty 3'ards to the west, drove a stake, and said, "Here 
let the Court House be built." And so it was decided. The town was 
immediately laid out, and named in honor of Charles Carroll, of Carroll- 
ton, Maryland. 

Up to the time that the decision of the Commissioners was made 
known not a house was built at Carrollton. Thomas Carlin's residence was 
about half a mile south of the Square, Michael Headrick lived a mile 
or more west, and others lived at similar distances. Immediately after 
their conclusion was made known houses began to l)e put up. Thomas 
Rattan appears to be entitled to the honor of completing the first build- 
ing in the new town. It was a log structure and stood at the northwest 
corner of the Square on the lot now occupied byW. P. Marmon's block. 
The second building was Jacob Fry's residence. John W. Skidmore very 
soon erected a building east of the Square. The first brick building 
put up in the new town stood on the east side of the Square just north of 
the alley. The first frame house in Carrollton is said to have been a 
dwelling house, erected on the east side of the Square by Cyrus Tolman 
and Charles Gregory. The town was surveyed in the Autumn of 1821 
by Gershom Flagg, of Madison County, father of Hon. W. C. Flagg, the 
eminent agriculturist. 

February 6, 1821, an act of the legislature was approved, providing: 
" That on the first Monday of April next an election shall be opened and 
held at the places designated for holding the courts of the several coun- 
ties formed during the present session of the General Assembly, at which 
time there shall be elected in each of the new counties, one Sheriff, one 
Coroner, and three County Commissioners." 

The next evidence of the practical organization of the county was a 
session of the Circuit Court. The county was attached to the First 
Judicial circuit, and on the 26th day of April, 1821, the first term of the 
court was held by John Reynolds, one of the judges of the Supreme Court 
of the State, and who afterward became Governor. No suits were on the 
docket, and nothing was transacted except to organize a grand jury, who 
retired and afterwards brought in two indictments for misdemeanors. 
The officers of the court were Samuel Lee, the clerk, and Thomas Carlin, 
sheriff. The following named persons were sworn as grand jurors, viz.: 
John Finley (foreman), Martin Wood, Thomas Gilleland, Nathaniel Wass, 
Cyrus Tolman, Isaac Pruitt, James McFadden, John Morfoot, Walter 
McFarland, Hugh Jackson, Jacob Fry, Charles Gregory, Willis Webb, 
William Costly, Christian Link, John Costley, William Webb and Phillip 
Fry. Of that number Colonel Fry alone survives. The descendants of 
many of them are names to be found among tlie most respectable citizens 
of the county. The court met in a small building on the west side of the 
Square. As there was no jury-room the grand jury met on the prairie 
for consultation and discussion. Gen. Jacob Fry acted as constal)le. 

For the first ten years afterward, the court was presided over in the 
order here stated, by John Reynolds, Joseph Phillips, Thomas Reynolds, 
(afterward Governor of the State of Missouri,) John York Sawyer, and 


Samuel D. Lockwood. Stephen T. Logan succeeded Judge Lockwood, 
in 1835 ; William Brown succeeded Judge Logan in 1836'; Jesse B. 
Thomas succeeded Judge Brown in 1837, and William Thomas succeeded 
Judge Jesse B. Thomas in 1838. Afterward by a reorganization of the 
judiciary of the State by the Legislature of 1841, Judge Thomas and the 
other circuit judges were legislated out of office, and circuit court duties 
were assigned to the Judges of the Supreme Court. Judge Lockwood 
returned to the circuit, and continued to hold courts until the first elec- 
tion for circuit judges, under the constitution of 1848, when David M. 
Woodson was elected to the office, in September of that year. Judge 
Woodson's services in this capacity were so eminently satisfactory that he 
was re-elected twice, serving for eighteen consecutive years and declin- 
ing a re-election in 1865.. Charles D. Hodges was chosen his successor, 
and six years later Cyrus Epler was elected to the position, which he 
still holds. The General Assembly of 1877 passed a law providing for 
reducing the number of circuits in the State one half and electing a new 
judge in each circuit. At the election in the Seventh Judicial circuit, 
August 6th, for the choice of the additional judge, Albert G. Burr was 
selected. The terms of all the circuit judges expire June, 1879. 

Accordingly an election was held at the time designated, the polls 
being in Thomas Rattan's building, on the northeast corner of the Square. 
Thomas Carlin was chosen Sheriff, Jacob Wagoner, Coroner, and Sey- 
mour Kellogg, John Allen and Jehu Brown, County Commissioners. 

On the first day of May the County Commissioners held their first 
meeting in the building of Thomas Rattan. The full board was pres- 
ent, Seymour Kellogg, from the Mauvaisterre settlement, Jehu Brown, 
from the southern part of the county, and John Allen, from the center. 

Seymour Kellogg was an Eastern man and had been a Colonel in 
the war of 1812. In the Summer of 1818, with his brother Elisha Kel- 
logg and Ambrose Collins, he had started for the famous Sangamo 
country. They came by wagons to the Ohio River. Here they embarked 
on flatljoats and floated down the noble stream as far as Shawneetown, 
where they disembarked and puslied on to Carmi. As it was late in the 
season, they remained here during the Winter, and the next Summer pro- 
ceeded to Ed wards ville, then a prominent western town. Mr. Collins 
was taken sick and was unable to go farther. His son Charles, however, 
proceeded with the Kelloggs. They passed the Wood River settlements, 
crossed the Macoupin, forded Apple Creek, and continued their northern 
course beyond the frontier until they finally reached the head of the 
Mauvaisterre Creek. Here they settled in the Fall of 1819, and thus be- 
came the pioneers of Morgan County, although the}^ belonged for several 
years to Greene County, and hence it was that Seymour Kellogg was 
one of the first Commissioners of Greene County. They built rail-pen 
cabins, which were afterward burned down by a prairie fire. Seymour 
Kellogg was a well-educated man and was universally respected by those 
who knew him. 

Jehu Brown was a Tennessean. He was a spare man of medium 
height, and and seems to have been looked up to by every one as a man 
of distinguished probity and ability. His descendants still live west of 
Jerseyville, in what was formerl}^ a part of Greene Count3^ 

John Allen was generally known as " 'Squire Allen ; " he was a son 


of Thomas Allen, proprietor of one of the first mills ever built in the 
county, and was conceded by every one to be an upright and honorable 
man, just in all his dealings and perfectly reliable in every sense of the 
word. He was conservative in politics, and few men have ever passed 
through the fier}' ordeal of a heated canvass more smoothly, and with as 
little "offense to opponents as 'Squire Allen. He filled many important 
ofiflces ; was a member of each of the Houses of the General Assembly 
of the State, where he served for many years receiving the general 
approbation of his constituents. He died about the year 1842. 

The following is a copy of the record of the first meeting of the 
Commissioners' Court of Greene County : 

" Be it remembered that the County of Greene having been estab- 
lished l)y an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, and 
John Allen, Jehu Brown and Seymour Kellogg, having been duly elected 
County Commissioners for said county, and having taken the several 
oaths required by law before Samuel Lee, Jr., Clerk of the Circuit Court 
of said county. Wherefore, a special term of the County Commissioners' 
Court for 'the County of Greene is begun, and held at Carrollton, the seat 
of justice for said county, on the first day of May, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight "hundred and twenty-one. 

Present, John Allex, ^ 

Jehu Brown, > Commissioners. 

Seymouh Kellogg, J 

" Samuel Lee, Jr., being appointed Clerk of the Court, took, in open 
court, an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, and of 
the State of Illinois, and the following oath of office to-wit : ' I, Samuel 
Lee, Jr., being apppointed Clerk of the County Commissioners' Court of 
the County of Greene, do solemnly swear that I will truly and faithfully 
enter and record all the orders, judgments, and proceedings of the said 
Court, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform 
all the duties of my said office according to the best of my ability and 
understanding, according to law;' and also took the oath required by 
an act entitled ' An act to suppress dueling.' 

" And thereupon the said Lee delivered to the Court his bond, with 
Jacob Linder and Thomas Rattan his securities for the faithful perform- 
ance of the duties of his office, which bond is approved of by the Court. 

" On application of John Wilkins, it is ordered that license be 
granted him to keep a tavern at his place of residence, on the Piasa 
Creek, in said county, upon his entering into bond with Samuel White, 
his security, in the sum of one hundred dollars, conditioned as the law 
directs, and paying a tax of five dollars for the use of the county and the 
Clerk's fees. (Bond entered into and tax paid the Clerk in Court.) 

" On application of Thomas Rattan, ordered that license be granted 
him to keep a tavern in the town of Carrollton, upon entering into bond, 
as the law directs, with Alfred S. Harbin, his security, in the sum of one 
hundred dollars, and paying a tax of seven dollars for the use of county 
and Clerk's fees. 

" It is ordered by the Court that the following rates for tavern 
keepers of the county be and the same are hereby allowed and estab- 
lished, to wit : 



For each meal of victuals - $ .25 

For lodging in a bed per night — -- .12^ 

For keeping a horse with cqrn or oats and hay or fodder per night, or 

twelve hours. . -31% 

For keeping a horse without hay or fodder per night, or twelve hours -l^^ 

For each feed for a horse -12^ 

For French brandy or wine per half pint .50 

For gin or rum per half pint .- .25 

For apple brandy, peach brandy, cherry bounce or cordial per jA pint. 18 3^ 

For whisky per j^ pint -12 j^ 

" The Commissioners who were appointed by an act of the General 
Assembly of the State of Illinois to fix the permanent seat of justice for 
Greene County, returned into Court their report together with the deed 
in said report mentioned, which were received and approved of by the 
Court, whereupon it is ordered that the said deed be filed and that the 
said report be spread upon the records of this Court, and which is in the 
words and figures following to wit : Be it known that we, Thomas Car- 
lin, Thomas Rattan, John Allen, John Green, and John Huitt, sr.. Com- 
missioners appointed to fix the permanent seat of justice for Greene 
County, by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, en- 
titled ' An act establishing the County of Greene,' have met at the 
house of Isaac Pruitt, as required in said act, and after examining the 
most eligible situation in said county, giving due weight and atten- 
tion to the considerations set forth and required in said act as to 
the present and future population, situation, geography, etc., of the 
count}^ are of the opinion that a point eighty-eight poles south 
from the northeast corner of section No. twenty-two, in township No. ten 
north in range No. twelve, west of the third principal meridian, 
is the most suitable place for the said seat of justice, and accor- 
dingly and in pursuance of said act, have fixed the permanent seat of jus- 
tice for the said County of Greene, at the point or place above described, 
the same being on the line between section No. twentj-two and section 
No. twenty-three. Thomas Carlin, the owner of the said land whereon the 
said seat of justice is fixed, having executed a deed to the County Com- 
missioners of the County, as required in said act, for twenty-two acres 
and three-fourths of an acre of land, which is bounded as follows, to-wit : 
Beginning eighty-eight poles south of the north-east corner of section 
No. twenty-two above described, thence running east ten poles, thence 
north ten poles, thence west ninet}^ poles, thence south forty-three 
poles, thence east eighty poles, to the line between sections twenty-two 
and twenty-three, thence north twenty-three poles, thence east ten poles, 
thence north to the first corner mentioned after the place of begin- 
ning, and have given to the said seat of justice the name of Carrollton. 
All of which is respectfully submitted to the County Commissioners of 
said county at their next term. Given our hands this 20th day of Feb- 
ruary, in the year 1821. John Allen, 

Thomas Rattan, 
Thomas Carlin, 
John Green, 
John Huitt. 
" Ordered that the Clerk be authorized to procure two official seals, 
one for the Circuit Court and one for the County Commissioners' Court 
of Greene County. 


" Ordered that the twenty lots owned by the county in the town of 
Carrollton be offered for sale on the 12th day of June next, at a credit of 
six and twelve months. And it is further ordered that a notice of 
such sale be inserted in the Edwardsville Spectator for four weeks suc- 

" Ordered that the Clerk be authorized to procure one quire of 
blanks for the use of the Court. 

" Ordered that Seymour Kellogg be recommended to the Governor 
of this State as a suitable person to fill the office of Justice of the Peace. 
" Ordered that the Court be adjourned until Court in course." 

John Allen, 
Jehu Brown, 
Seymour Kellogg. 
John Wilkins. who was licensed to keep a tavern on tlie Piasa was 
very well known in Jersey County, even at a recent date. His house 
was situated about one mile south of Delhi. He was the father-in-law of 
Perley Silloway, one of the early Sheriffs of Jersey County. 

The regular June term of the Commissioners' Court was held June 
4th, all theCommissioners being present. The county was, at this time, 
divided into nine military, or as they were called, company districts, and 
elections were ordered in each district for military officers. 

The following were appointed to superintend the election : 
In District 1 — John D. Gillham, John Waddle, Samuel Kinkaid. 
District 2 — Gorham Patterson, William Adair, Nathaniel Rowden. 
District 3 — John Greene, Walker Daniels, Harrison Higgins. 
District 4 — Joel Meacham, James Caldwell, Absalom Clark. 
District 5 — .John Dunn, Young Wood, Philip Fry. 
District 6 — James McNeary, Alvin Coe, William Potts. 
District 7 — Samuel Scott, Benjamin Buchanan, Peter Shepard. 
District 8 — Moses Nash, Thomas Arnet, Elisha Kellogg. 
District 9 — Jedediah Webster, Samuel Atchison, Joseph Smith. 
Those familiar with the names will readily see that the numbering of 
the districts began in the southern portion of the county. District 
1, was near the Madison County line ; district 3, near Kane ; district 
5, about Carrollton ; districts 8 and 9 in Morgan County, and so on. 

The Court during the remainder of the year was mainly occupied in 
appointing constables, appointing road viewers, and acting on their 
reports, etc. During this year action was taken with reference to main 
roads from Carrollton north, south, west, and southwest, besides other 
less important highways. The road most traveled then was that which 
led from Carrollton to Alton. Starting from the southwest part of town, 
it led west to the site of ]\Iount Pleasant, thence south by east past 
the improvement of Samuel Thomas to the ford of the Macoupin, about 
one hundred yards west of the present bridge, and so on southward. 
North of Mount Pleasant, or the Mound, as it is now known, the road 
led to the Mauvaisterre settlement, by way of the present farms of L. S. 
Eldred, Esq., David Wright, Absalom Bradley, and so on. The reason 
for this route was threefold: it followed a ridge of the prairie ; it avoided 
timber considerably, and, most important of all, it led by a number of 
fine springs, which were an essential of good camping places. 

Durino: this Summer the first court house was built. It was a frame 


structure, situated on the west side of the Square, next north of the 
present location of J. T. Cameron's harness shop. It was erected at a 
total cost of about $700. It stood with its side to the street, and could 
not have presented a very handsome appearance. In later years, it was 
turned around, cut in two, and used for store rooms. The jail was built 
early the next year, John Dee and Henry T. Garden being the con- 
tractors. It stood on the lot now owned by J. E. Fnrgeson, Esq., west 
of the old court house. It was built of heavy logs. The door was very 
heavy and thickly studded Avith large nails. The proposals for bids which 
were made December 20, 1821, provided that the size should be twenty- 
two feet by twelve feet. That it should be one story high, have two 
floors, and a partition in the middle. The logs were required to be of 
white oak, ten inches thick, the roof was to be shingled, and the windows 
protected by iron bars. Its cost was 1240. A stray pen of posts 
and rails was erected about the same time for $19, by Baynard White. 

At this time there was no taxable real estate in the county. It had 
just been sold by the Government, and the conditions under which it was 
purchased expressly provided that it should be free from taxation for 
five years. The revenue required for county purposes was therefore 
derived exclusively from personal property, the tax for years never 
exceeding one-half of one per cent, on the valuation, from fines, and 
from licenses to tavern-keepers, ferrymen, and peddlers. 

In December, 1821, we find recorded the following action of the 
Commissioners concerning ferries. At that time licenses were granted 
to John Evans to operate "the ferry commonly known as Simons' ferry." 
This was across the Illinois River, near the mouth of the Macoupin. It 
landed its passengers on the other side at a point near where Hardin is 
now situated. John Evans was also licensed to manage Jacoway's ferry 
across the Illinois River. This Avas near the present location of Grafton. 
Permission was granted to Lewis Williams and his brother, David Will- 
iams, to carry passengers, etc., across Macoupin Creek, where the bridge 
south of Carrollton is now situated, and Isaac N. Piggott received 
license to run a ferry across the Mississippi (Maasippi they called it 
then), at a point between Grafton and Alton. 

The Commissioners fixed the rates to be charged at these ferries as 
follows : 

Carriage drawn by more than four oxen or horses, including team $i 25 

Carriage drawn by four oxen or horses — I 00 

Carriage drawn by less than four and more than one ox or horse 75 

Carriage drawn by one horse -- 50 

Man and horse 25 

Fontman . I2/^ 

Led horse.- 06^/ 

Cattle, each 06 X 

Sheep, each - 02 

Hogs, each -- — 02 

In 1821 occurred the first marriage in the county. The contracting 
parties were David Hodge and Miss Louisa Wentsworth, the ceremony 
being performed by John Allen, J. P., May 6, 1821. Mr. Hodge was 
very well known in the county ; for a long time he kept a store on Apple 
Creek prairie. 

In October of the same year we find recorded the marriage of Miss 
Mourning Finley to David Miller, the famous Aaron Smith being the 


officiating clergyman. Miss Finley was the adopted child of John 
Finley, spoken of elsewhere. He found her, an infant, on his doorstep 
one morning, and as the child looked sorrowful and sad, he named the 
foundling "Mourning" Finley. 

The first deed recorded in the books of the county is a mortgage, 
dated May 12, 1821, in which Richard Wilhelm conveys to Elizabeth 
Leamon the east half of the northwest quarter of section 24, T. 7. R. 7, 
to secure the payment of $100. The land is now included in Jersey 
County. The first deed to land in the present limits of Greene County 
is that whereby, in 1822, Robert Hobson sells to Elijah Woodman tlie 
land on which Mount Pleasant was to have been built. 


During the early Summer of 1821, the whole county was stirred 
with feeling by a protracted search for a lost child. Tlie following very 
graphic and very accurate account of the thrilling incident is from the 
pen of W. A. Tunnell, Esq., of whom mention has elsewhere been made. 
It will serve two valuable purposes, in giving a very complete, vivid, and 
accurate account of the whole affair and at the same time in painting a 
striking and correct picture of life and the condition of the county about 
the time of its organization. 

The late Mrs. Alfred Hinton was visiting her cousins, the children 
of James Pruitt. She and one of the elder girls started out to the woods 
in search of "greens" for dinner, when little Matilda, without their 
knowledge, followed, and unable to keep near them, became bewildered 
and lost. She was found very near the spot where English's mill is now 
located. The lost child is still living in the person of Mrs. Hiram Parr, 
who resides al)Out three miles west of White Hall, in this county. Mr. 
Anderson Headrick well remembers that a religious meetino: athis father's 
house was broken up by the announcement that the child was lost. 
Judge Alfred Hinton was one of the company who started from Madison 
Countv to aid in the search. But read the affecting tale as it fell from 
the facile pen of Mr. Tunnell : 

" Early in the Spring of 1820, one Major Pruitt erected his log 
cabin in the edge of Apple Creek prairie, three miles northwest of where 
Bell's mill now stands. He was one of a numerous family of that name, 
who had previously settled in Madison, and a portion of Avhom had come 
to Greene when it had been explored and its fertile lands, its beautiful 
prairies, and its shady groves began to attract attention. The cohntry 
was at that time but sparsely settled, a few hardy pioneers had scattered 
themselves over a large extent of territory, isolated from the more pop- 
ulous districts, and with brave hearts and strong arms, engaged like a 
band of brothers, in a common cause against the dangers and distresses 
incident to their exposed condition. The savage still lingered on the 
hunting ground of his fathers; his wigwam sent up its blue smoke 
among the tall trees on the banks of the Illinois ; his footprints had 
scarcely faded from about the doors of the wliite man's cabin. The 
forests teemed with venomous serpents and ferocious beasts. It was only 


during the previous year that the sound of the white man's rifle first 
broke the silence of the primeval forest. The hillsides and little valleys 
reaching from the prairie down toward the southwest where the ravines 
fell into Apple C4-eek were clothed with a luxurious growth of vegeta- 
tion, so rich and dense that with its accumulated weight it sank down 
into a tangled and confused mass of briers, thorns, nettles, grape vines, 
pea vines, and every imaginable kind of vine or shrub bearing fruits, 
flowers, or thorns. But there were few evils which our fathers were 
unable to turn to some good account, and they found something for 
which to be thankful, even in those dark brambles, from which they 
obtained many valuable substitutes for those vegetables usually grown in 
our kitchen gardens, and feasted on their simple dish of salads, plucked 
from the dark, cool shades of the forest, with as sweet a relish as ever an 
epicurean partook of his dainties from beyond the sea, pouring out their 
souls in thanks to God for so bountifully supplying them with a provision 
so nicely adapted to their wants. 

" Major Pruitt was the father of several children, of whom Matilda 
was the youngest. She was a bright-eyed little girl of scarce three sum- 
mers ; the very center around which clustered the fondest afi^ections and 
the liveliest sympathies of the familr circle. When with blooming 
cheek and laughing eye she played and prattled around the hearthstone 
of the humble cabin, "all eyes were turned to catch the fascinating smile 
that dimpled on the cheek of childish innocence. But when the hand 
of sickness seized her delicate frame, a heavy gloom hung over the anx- 
ious household and a deep stillness pervaded the lonely cabin. ^ Oft in 
the late hours of the night, her aching head reclined on the patient arm 
of the kind father, as with slow and silent steps he paced the dimly-lighted 
cabin, while the weary mother 'caught her short half-hour of rest.' Oft 
had the anxious parents sat for weary hours beside her bed, watching her 
fitful slumbers, and administering the cooling draughts of water, or the 
remedy that was expected to return their darling child to health and 
cheerfulness. These alternations of sickness and health touched every 
sympathetic chord vibrating in the hearts of the fond parents and their 
dutiful children, and to them there was no object in the world so dear 
and so essential to their happiness as their dear little daughter and sister. 
It was on a Monday, about the middle of May, while Mrs. Pruitt was 
prostrated on a bed of sickness, and the duties of the household 
devolved on her daughters, that one of them, accompanied by a cousin 
near the same age, left their carding and spinning and went into the 
woods, to procure from the rich vegetation, materials for the coming din- 
ner. The sun shone brightly from the clear blue sky, the earth was 
richly arrayed in her dark robes of green, fairly bespangled with bright 
and beautiful flowers. The sparkling dew, the balmy air, the waving 
groves, the babbling brooks that danced with joy along their way, the 
gentle slopes — moss-grown or carpeted with new grown grass— all con- 
tributed to make up a picture, at once so lovely and so enchanting that 
our young friends unconsciously lingered in the cool shade, enjoying the 
grateful breeze that played beneath the outspreading branches and listen- 
ing to the melodies of the happy birds, until the morning was far advanced 
and the sun now approaching the meridian, admonished them that their 
presence was needed at the house. When dinner was announced the 


family drew around the tal)le, but the place of Matilda was vacant. 
* Where is Matilda?" was asked and repeated several times, but no one 
could answer. Mrs. Pruitt called to her husband and said : ' When the 
girls went into the woods this morning, ^latilda cried to go with them, 
and I told her to go out to where you were shearing sheep and stay with 
you till they came back.' ' Then I fear she is lost,' replied the father, 
*for I have not seen her.' ' Matilda is lost,' cried the children, and in a 
moment all was excitement. The family were soon running hither and 
thither, as if scarcely knowing what they did. The name of Matilda 
soon resounded through the forest, but no voice responded. The dark 
woods were to them silent as the shades of death. The playful breeze 
brought upon its soft bosom no tiny voice to gladden the troubled heart, 
or relieve tlie bitter anguish of tlie bereaved parents. When death 
has done its work and torn the tender infant from its mother's arms, she 
calmly gives herself to grief and seeks relief in tears; many comforts 
press their suits, and consolation finds its way into her heart. But from 
the agony of the parents, produced by this awful shock, there was no 
escape ; their suspense was more terrible than death itself. Visions of 
poisonous serpents, prowling wolves and screaming j^iinthers stole across 
their minds, and in imagination they beheld the great black bear already 
winding his leisure way across the hill in the direction of the wander- 
ing child. No time must be lost — every moment the child was wandering 
farther from home, and the difficulty of finding her increased. Runners 
were at once dispatched to differents parts of the neighborhood for assist- 
ance, and soon the whole settlement was on the qui vive. Before night, 
many men, armed with guns, and carrying trumpets or horns, came gal- 
loping into the woods and engaged in the search. They pressed on vig- 
orously to recover the child, if possible, before the close of da}'. Appre- 
hensions that she must suffer the horrors of the night, unrescued, in that 
dark wilderness of danger, pressed heavily on their minds, and grated on 
their nerves, stimulating them to increased exertion. There were no 
privations they would not suffer, no obstacles they would not oppose, 
and no efforts they would not make to restore her to her parents before 
the coming darkness placed it out of their jjower. But the evening sun 
still glided down the eastern sky ; his last rays lingered for a moment on 
the distant hills, then vanished and left the world in night. With blaz- 
ing faggots to dispel the darkness, they urged their toilsome way through 
the dense foliage, as if determined to take no rest, and spare no effort 
until the object of their search should be accomplished. Hunger and 
fatigue pressed their calls in vain, those strong limbs, inured to toil, and 
those stout hearts, accustomed to self-support, flagged not, but gathered 
new strength from each opposing obstacle. During that long night those 
torches lighted every hill ; the savage beasts, amazed, forsook their revels 
and crept to some securer spot ; the timid bird, affrighted, twittered from 
its i^erch to some more distant place, and the voice of man, before un- 
heard among these rugged hills, now echoed down the narrow vales, 
inspiring strength and courage to pursue the search. Down the deep 
valleys, and up the steej) hillsides, through the entangled brush-wood — 
with anxious hearts and unabated strengtii, they urged their way until 
the morning's glimmering light arose and ushered in the day. Tlien, at 
the sound of a trumpet, came men from all the woods around, in tat- 


tered garments drenched Avith dew, to take the first refreshment since 
the searcli began. They spent an hour rehearsing what was past, and 
planning for the future, then mounting their faithful steeds, urged them 
once more into the thorny brushwood, or, on foot, pressed through the 
thickest brambles. 

" During the night men had been dispatched to Madison County for 
further aid, and instructed to rouse the settlers on their way. No sooner 
was the intelligence received that their aid was wanted than these men 
leaped from their beds, snatched their rifles, mounted their horses and 
galloped off to assist in the search. As they arrived and mingled with 
those already on the ground, the growing numbers swelled the long 
extending line, which, taking in a wide range, increased the chances of 
success. The sad news spread as if by magic, and men came pouring in 
from many miles away. The woods were closely scanned in every direc- 
tion, no spot of ground was left unsearched, and when the day had gone, 
and left no tidings of the lost child, it was a matter of the gravest sur- 
prise that she had not been found. But the search did not close with the 
day ; after taking refreshments, the labors of the previous night were 
repeated, its cares, its anxieties and its disappointments again experienced, 
and men toiled long and patiently till the morning came. With the 
morning came a host of friends from Madison County. They were 
greeted with a wild shout of jo3^ It was the first time since the sun 
shone on this fair land that the voices of so many white men had echoed 
through the wild woods of Greene County. And never did men enter 
more fully into all the feelings or sympatliize more heartily with their 
bereaved friends. Thev banished all care of home, of their business and 
of their families, and entered upon the search with all the zeal and deter- 
mination that could have been expected of men whose lives depended on 
their efforts. 

" The day soon became dark and dreary. The north wind moaned 
through the swaying trees. A murky darkness hung over the forest and 
deadened its echoes. No sound was heard save the voices of men, the 
sighing of the wind, or the rustling of the branches. Distant objects 
were unseen, or fell upon the eye in undistinguishable confusion, and the 
line defining the horizon was shut out from view. A cold, gloomy vapor 
shrouded the groves, and men drew their thick coats around them and 
quickened their step, the better to resist the chilling blast. It may be 
imagined, then, with what anxiety they sought the tender child, then 
roaming in some unknown part of the forest, clad only in a thin " slip " 
of check cotton, worn as a protection against the heat that prevailed 
when she was lost, when now the piercing winds caused the teeth to 
chatter, though wrapped in jeans or blankets. They labored most assid- 
uously during the day ; many became weary and discouraged with the 
length and fruitlessness of the search, and almost despaired of its suc- 
cessful termination. But the report of a rifle came feebly up through the 
dark vapors from a ravine below, bringing the welcome news that some 
traces of the missing child were discovered. Her footprints appeared 
neatly pressed in the loose sand, where she had Avalked along the dry bed 
of the stream. Men gathered round and examined them with the most 
interest, and, with shouts of joy, rushed through the woods in every direc- 
tion, elated with the hope of finding her before night. The same little 


tracks were soon afterward found in various places, wliere fallen trees had 
been consumed by fire, leaving a soft bed of ashes, in which she had 
delighted to walk, as there were no briers or thorns to wound her feet. 
These discoveries so animated those in search of her that the}- forgot the 
fatigues they had undergone, and leaped for joy ; everywhere they were 
seen moving on with life and spirit, galloping over the hills, or groping 
through masses of grape vines, until with painful forebodings they discov- 
ered that in several places the little footprints were accompanied by those 
of a bear. Apprehensions were now felt that she had been destroyed, but 
the search was continued with unabated vigor until near night, when some 
one in the company had the good fortune to kill the bear. A j^ost mortem 
examination relieved all apprehensions and quieted all fears entertained 
on his account. 

" During the night the dark clouds moved away, and the morning 
came bright and beautiful as ever dawned on those green hills. A flood 
of mellow light came down among the branches, and dispelled the vapors 
of the previous day. Sweet strains of music floated on the passing breeze 
that played among the trembling leaves. The face of nature glowed in 
smiles of radiance and serenity unusual for the season, and even on 
those grave countenances, marked by the lines of care and anxiety, in- 
duced by the labors of a three days' search, there shone a brighter ray of 
hope and a smile of satisfaction at the prospect of success. Whilst all 
were assembled on that morning. Major Pruitt stood among them, bearing 
on his countenance traces of the deepest sorrow. He had spoken but sel- 
dom, and those few words bore evident marks of mental suffering. His 
friends gathered around him to offer consolation, and learn his wishes in 
regard to the plans of the day. He stepped upon a fallen tree, and in a 
sad but firm voice, addressed them sul)stantially as follows : ' My neigh- 
bors and friends : No event in my humble life ever placed me under so 
great and lasting obligations to others as the present. The deep and 
abiding interest you have manifested in my present unhappy condition, 
and the tender sympathy shown towards my lost child, impress them- 
selves upon my heart too deeply to be ever effaced by the hand of time. 
I return you my heartfelt thanks for the kind assistance, and the gener- 
ous sympathy you have so freely extended to me during the last few days 
of sorrow and bereavement. The alacrity with wiiich you flew to my 
aid, and the untiring energy and perseverance with which you have pros- 
ecuted this prolonged and laborious search have cheered me through the 
darkest hours of bitterness, and enabled me to endure the most painful 
suspense and the deej^est sorrow. Hap[)y would I be if I could dispense 
with your aid now. This day will probaljly crown our efforts with suc- 
cess ; then with what joy will your wives and children, who in their 
lonely cabins have so long and anxiously wished your return, greet you 
when 3'ou meet them at the door and tell them the poor little wanderer 
is found at last. Your wives will shed tears of joy, and your children 
will clap their little hands and shout " Tm glad, (), I'm glad I " ' As lie 
brought his brawny hands together, tears gushed from tlie eyes of those 
standing around, and for a few moments all were silent. The search 
was renewed with all the spirit and eagerness manifested on tlie day of 
its commencement. Tiiere were many nolde men engaged in that search 
— old settlers of prominence and respectability, whose influence was pow- 


erfully felt by the younger and less considerate, wlio sometimes ventured 
to express their opinion that all chances of finding the child were hope- 
less, and the search must of necessity be abandoned. Nor is it wonderful 
they should entertain such sentiments, as their impatience increased un- 
der the labors and hardships that accumulated from day to day. Prom- 
inent among the friends of Major Pruitt was one Walter McFarland. He 
had taken a deep interest in everything relating to the search from its 
commencement, and from what we can learn of him, he was a man of 
energy and determination not easily discouraged by adverse circum- 
stances, nor diverted from any object he had set his heart upon. He 
was always consulted when any plan of operation was being discussed, 
and his advice was received with much respect. He manifested a con- 
siderable amount of shrewdness in all that related to frontier life, and 
frequently pushed his researches far in advance of his comrades, roaming 
the wild woods alone. Thus it was on Thursday morning, the morning 
of the fourth day of the search. Mr. McFarland found himself alone in a 
beautiful grove of giant oaks overshadowing the bluffs of Apple Creek, in 
the neighborhood of Beeman's old mill. The deep shade of the thick 
grove had kept the earth destitute of vegetation ; it was carpeted only 
with a light covering of short grass. He looked around him, admiring 
the beaut}^ and seclusion of the place. It was indeed a lovely spot, cool 
and shady, fanned by a grateful breeze, and enlivened with the notes of 
countless little birds. ' Just such a spot,' thought he, ' as I would like to 
find Matilda in, and why may I not find her here ? She has wandered 
through briers and thorns, her feet are lacerated and give her pain at 
every step. She is exhausted, and would love such a place as this, in 
which to lie down and go to sleep. We have searched the woods thus 
far and have not found her, she must be somewhere in this shady grove.' 
And as he thus mused, a presentiment came over him that she was near. 
His step quickened, he went peering about in every direction as if in a 
state of excitement, occasionally listening attentively to catch any sounds 
that might come from the woods around ; suddenly his pulse became 
quick, perspiration ran from his brow, his heart beat audibly, a trepida- 
tion came over him, and he sat down and buried his face in his hands for 
a few moments. ' Well, this is singular,' said he. ' It is strange. What 
can cause it ? It certainly means something.' After becoming some- 
what calm he proceeded to the foot of the bluff, and upon examining a 
small pond in the creek bottom, discovered where, in the soft earth, a 
little child had lain down to drink from the pond. There were the prints 
of her toes in the mud, and her fins^er marks in the edo-e of the water 
which was yet turbid, showing that she could not be far away. He stood 
as. if confined to the spot, and closely gazed in every direction, but was 
unable to discover the child. ' Well, I felt a presentiment she was in 
that lovely grove.' said he, ' and now it is certain that she is somewhere 
near, I have a proof that I was right in thinking she was near. Why 
should it be so ? I can not tell, but if that presentiment means anything, 
she is in that grove, and I need go no where else to look.* Thus reason- 
ing, he turned back, and passing a little to the right of where he came 
down, proceeded nearly to the summit of the bluff, when his attention 
was arrested by the rustling in the leaves, and a little squirrel ran chat- 
tering high up the stem of a magnificent oak, and disappeared among its 


thick foliage. He walked 'round the tree, peering through its thick 
branches, to catch a glimpse of the squirrel which still evaded his sight. 
It occurred to him that he had seldom seen so grand a tree. Its great 
size, its immense height, the great spread of its branches, and the beauti- 
ful symmetry of its shape, at once marked it as the ' King of the forest.' 
His eyes ran along down the large and tapering trunk to the ground. 
He started with silent wonder ; his rifle dropped from his hand ; there, 
wrapped in sleep, and motionless as if in death, lay the lost child. 

"No language can describe the joy he felt at finding her still alive. 
He raised her softly in his arms and called her name. She started, 
stared wildly and strangely around, and drew to him as if for protection. 
Presently she looked imploringly in his face, while large tear-drops 
gathered in her eyes, and said: 'I want to go to my mother.' The touch- 
ing appeal melted the strong man to tears, and when he had fully dis- 
covered the extent of her wretched condition, his heart overflowed with 
sympathy. Her scanty clothing was torn in tatters, her neck and 
shoulders blistered Avitli the heat of the sun, her feet and ankles lacerated 
and swollen, and her flesh everywhere pierced with briers and thorns that 
still remained sticking in the wounds. She had subsisted alone on green 
leaves of the wild sorrel. Mr. McFarland gave her part of a biscuit, 
which she instantly devoured, and pleaded for more. He soon recollected 
that there were others in the wood, to whom the child was dear, and who 
would greatly rejoice to see her. He therefore discharged his gun twice 
in quick succession. As the last report rang through the forest, and, 
reverberating among the hills, died away in the distance, there came 
back the wild shouts of a hundred voices, and a response of a hundred 
guns, and soon a hundred horsemen came dashing over the hills, leaping 
logs and ditches, waving their hats, and shouting in a frenzy of enthusi- 
asm. Such a scene as followed utterly baffles all powers of description ; 
it was a scene of the most tumultuous joy. Men sent up shout after 
shout, threw up their hats, clapped their hands, leaped, laughed, and 
cried at the same time. Those who had dismounted soon sprang again to 
their saddles, and, with Major Pruitt at their head, carrying the child in 
his arms, galloped off to the house of the sick mother, still filling the 
woods with their J03-ful shouts. She was in transports of joy, and, while 
the family were gathered around the little girl in the cabin, the men 
outside rode round the house, firing guns, shouting, laughing, and talking. 
Those who were present declare that they had never heard so many guns 
fired, or so much shouting, on any other occasion. After the tumult of 
joy had partially abated, provisions were brought out, and the friends of 
the good old Major partook of a comfortable dinner, and departed for 
their homes. How many anxious mothers came from the doors of their 
lonely ca])ins, to inquire of the passers-by if the lost child had been 
found, and thanked God for the good news, we can not now tell, but we 
are sure that they were not few. By this time it was known in St. Clair 
County that the child was lost, and Gen. Samuel Whitesides hastily col- 
lected a company of men, and hurried on to assist them in finding her. 
They met their Madison County friends, from whom they learned that 
she was recovered, and they all returned to their homes, spreading the 
glad tidings to all the settlers on their way, by shouting and firing their 
guns. Mrs. Pruitt was a woman of a frail constitution and feeble liealth, 


and such was the shock upon her tender frame, that during the time her 
child was lost, she never closed her eyes in sleep, or took a morsel of 
food. She lingered for a short period, but her days were soon numbered, 
and she sank into her grave. Her husband, though possessing a powerful 
constitution and uninterrupted health, quailed for a time beneath the 
weight of this severe stroke of affliction, refusing consolation, refresh- 
ment, or sleep, till he saw his little daughter placed safely under his own 
roof. He lived esteemed and respected for many years, and died at a 
good old age." 

During the early history of the county, the pioneers had the utmost 
confidence in one another. Nearly every one had more or less money 
with him, to be used in purchasing lands, and many were possessed of 
several thousands of dollars. This was all in gold and silver, and although 
very heavy and inconvenient to handle, the absence of banks made it 
necessary to keep it at hand. Children played with the silver pieces on 
the cabin floors. The money was kept in saddle bags, boxes, sacks, and 
in any other convenient receptacle. Very little effort was made to con- 
ceal it, and it was secured by no heavy iron bars or wakeful guards. For 
several years this mutual confidence was not abused, but in 1821, a little 
later than the incident above related, a violent robbery took place in the 
southern part of the county. In the southwest corner of Lofton's 
prairie there lived a family named Dixon, considerably advanced in years. 
They were English people, and were believed to have a large sum of 
money in their possession. One night a number of men came to the 
lonely house of the worthy old couple and with threats and manifesta- 
tions of violence commanded Mr. Dixon to deliver his money. The old 
man had no alternative but obedience, and the robbers escaped with 
$1,200. An alarm was at once raised and a company, headed by Judge 
John G. Lofton, started in pursuit. Mr. Dixon recognized two of the 
party as Robert Sinclair and Wm. B. Whitesides. The latter was a very 
prominent man in Madison County, having served as its sheriff, and the 
former was also a citizen of that region. They were overtaken near 
Alton, and Whitesides and Sinclair were brought to Carrollton for trial. 
Sinclair was found guilty and sentenced to State prison. Either while 
out on bail, or when in charge of the sheriff (individuals differ on this 
point), he managed to slip away and reach a very fast race horse which 
was in readiness for him near the present David Black farm. Mounting 
this, he sped away to the southwest, with the sheriff in hot pursuit. 
But the superior blood of his steed gave him the advantage, and he 
made good his escape. He was afterward heard of in Arkansas, where 
he rose to some distinction and became a member of the Territorial 
legislature. The celebrated Thos. H. Benton, then a rising young lawyer, 
appeared for the people in this case. The people's witnesses were, 
Wm. Dixon, John G. Lofton, James Barnes, Thomas G. Lofton, Wm. 
Davidson, Ezekiel Gillham, John Finley, Wm. Prickard, Henry 
Hopkinson, Charles Gear and Joab White. W^hitesides also escaped 
the just punishment of his crime. On the jury which tried him was a 
strong friend of his, Charles Kitchen, who, it is said, hung the jury. 
This caused delay, which Whitesides contrived to prolong by the depar- 
ture and death of witnesses, until finally the decease of Mr. Dixon left 
the State without testimony, and the case was dropped. This robbery 


created a profound sensation througliout this part of the State, and it 
was still a matter of common talk ten years later. 


At a very early period in the liistory of the eastern part of Greene 
County, there was one James Kawlings, who settled in the edge of the 
timber, on the south side of Taylor's Prairie, and about a half mile north 
of the present postoffice, known as Rockbridge. About the year 1826 it 
was whispered around the neighborhood, among a circle of confidential 
friends, that a few miles farther up the Macoupin Creek there was a place 
that bore the appearance of an ancient silver mine of very respectable 
richness. A number of pits from which mineral had been dug, and large 
mounds of earth formed of the clay from the pits, were said to be visible. 
Moreover it was understood that some person liad actually discovered a 
furnace at which the silver had l)een separated from the ore ; while others 
pretended to have seen specimens of considerable richness, picked up on 
the hillsides near the old mine, and it was represented that the hills and 
points throughout the neighl)orhood bore unmistakable evidences of rich 
deposits of silver. No man was perhaps more deeply interested with the 
recitals of these stories than Mr. James Rawlings, and visions of wealth 
occupied his midnight dreams, and haunted his waking hours. Whether 
reposing quietly b}' his own fireside, or driving the plow, or chasing the 
wild deer over the plain, it was all the same to him, his active imagina- 
tion constantly held up to liis view untold mines of wealth, lying just 
beneath the surface, inviting the diligent, the energetic, and the enter- 
prising, who are ever awake to their own interest, to dig them out and 
fill their coffers. He was one of those who believe there is a crisis in the 
affairs of men which, when taken in its ebb, leads on to inevitable suc- 
cess, and a silent monitor within his breast seemed to say, " Seize, then, 
the golden moment ere it flies." It is very natural that any good, kind- 
hearted man, about to become the possessor of a fortune so ample as to 
insure him an independence for a life-time, and afford not only all the 
luxuries his wishes might require, but untold sums besides, should desire 
to make his nearest relatives and favorite friends happy participants of 
his good fortune. This desire, so characteristic of a good heart, induced 
Mr. Rawlings to communicate, in a letter to his father, the venerable 
Mr. Roderick Rawlings, a pious minister of the gospel, residing some five 
miles north of the present town of White Hall, the particulars of the 
important discovery which was about to be made, in which he expressed 
his sanguine belief that a little labor and expense of exploration, and 
purchase of the land on which mineral deposits might be found, would be 
rewarded by a fortune sufficient to make life easy ever afterwards. He 
closed by affectionately inviting his beloved father to co-operate with 
him in securing the prize, and participate in its enjoyments. Upon 
receiving the letter, the good old man very sagely took the subject under 
consideration. He meditated upon it during the night, consulted ''the 
old lady " in the morning, and at last arrived at the conclusion that it was 
best to proceed in the matter with great circumspection ; it should be 


kept as a profound secret, at least for the present. But after further 
reflection, he was convinced of the wisdom of confiding tlie whole sub- 
ject to two or three confidential friends, whose services would be valua- 
ble in assisting himself and his son to make the discovery of the precise 
spot where the mineral was situated, the proper numbers of the land to 
which it belonged, and to test any mineral that might be found, in order to 
ascertain whether it was valuable or base metal. There was no man 
within the entire circle of his acquaintance in whom he could more 
implicitly confide, and who was better qualified to distinguish between 
real silver ore and other combinations of mineral substances, than John 
Allen, Esq. He had pored over many volumes of geology, mineralogy, 
metallurgy, etc. He also possessed a retentive memory, a quick discern- 
ment, and a great amount of patience and perseverance in his investiga- 
tions of scientific subjects, and withal was a man of good sound sense, 
unerring judgment, and great prudence in all his undertakings. 

The elder Mr. Rawlings determined to lay the matter before him, 
without reserve, for his consideration and approval, and endeavor to 
secure his services in maturing his plans and testing the minerals that 
might be found on arriving at the premises. Mr. Allen did not enter 
into the enterprise with as much assurance of success as his elderly 
friend, but expressed his willingness to be one of the company and lend 
the expedition any service in his power. 

He rationally concluded that if the enterprise proved a failure, the 
loss attending the exploration would be but trifling, and in case of its 
ultimate success it might prove profitable to all parties. John Allen 
was, as I have stated in a previous article, a son of Thos. Allen, of Allen's 
Mill, and Thomas was a brother of Zachariah Allen. Now, the family of 
Zachariah Allen was so numerous (consisting, besides his wife and four 
daughters, of seventeen sons and himself), and had been so instructed in 
their training, that among them might be found a man fitted for almost 
any purpose desired. Mr. Rawlings was on good terms with the family, 
and they were esteemed relatives of his friend and present adviser ; 
therefore it was determined to direct their attention toward that family 
for further assistance. But upon visiting them they found them busily 
engaged in their young corn, running near a dozen plows and an equal 
number of hoes. This was deemed a discouraging circumstance, for it 
seemed very rational to conclude that men so busily engaged, and so 
pleasantly and profitably employed, would not very readily forsake their 
work to engage in an enterprise which was at best only an experiment. 
But soon it was discovered that one of the younger sons, named 
George, was not just then engaged in the crop. 

In fact, he was the very one of the large family best suited for their 
purposes. From childhood he had manifested a fondness for study ; he 
had read many scientific works on vai-ious subjects, and for the last year 
or two, whilst engaged in teaching school in the neigborhood, had fre- 
quently improved his leisure hours in the practice of surveying. With 
his compass, and some of the larger pupils to carry the chain, he had 
marked out on a small scale whole States and Territories, establishing 
base lines and meridians, and finishing with the subdivisions of townships, 
sections, etc., making the proper entries in his books with as much care 
and precision as if he were a Surveyor General in the employ of the 


General Government. Being then a young man, of active imagination, 
easily inflamed witli a love of whatever was new and romantic, and view- 
ing the proposed expedition in the light of a very pleasant recreation, in 
wliich he would be afforded an opportunity of exercising his skill at 
surveying, of which he was at that time very fond, he was easily pre- 
vailed upon to unite with his reverend friend, Mr. Rawlings, and his 
esteemed cousin, 'Squire Allen, in their search for the hidden treasure. 
The com))any was now complete, notwithstanding the fact that the 
services of some person skilled in searching for ores were as indispensable 
as those of a surveyor or metallurgist, the company was already in the 
possession of such an individual in the person of the venerable Mr. 
Rawlings. He had already acquired an enviable reputation as one par- 
ticularly skilled in the art of pointing out the [)recise spot where water 
might be obtained by digging, and he unhesitatingl}^ declared his readi- 
ness to detect the presence of mineral deposits with equ;d facility. For 
this purpose he supplied himself with a brass "rod," being a piece of 
brass wiie three feet in length, which, being wound once round a stick 
in the middle, formed an eye or loop the size of the stick ; the ends 
crossed each other at the loop, and extended out an angle of forty or 
forty-five degrees. A small buckskin sack was tied by a string to the 
loop, after the stick had been removed, and was filled with some mys- 
terious substance supposed to possess the power over silver ores that the 
mas:net does over steel. The manner of using this instrument will be 
described hereafter. 

It has perhaps but seldom occurred that so much has been accom- 
plished in a single day towards organizing a company for an object of so> 
much moment to those concerned. The comprehensive ability displa3'ed 
by the Rev. Mr. Rawlings in his selection of men so eminently fitted 
for their respective duties, reflects much credit on his discrimina- 
tion. But the primitive simplicity of his method of detecting- 
the presence of valuable ores outstrips even' science itself, in bring- 
ing to view the treasure sought, before she could get her boots on for the 
expedition. The little company felt such a lively interest in the result, 
of this novel expedition, which was to be undertaken very early on the- 
succeeding morning, that they reluctantly separated for the night, with 
mutual injunctions and promises to keep their designs a profound secret.. 
Scarcely had the faint glow of the morning twilight arisen beyond the- 
Eastern hills, when our eager little company of adventurers have shakeni 
off the unconscious slumbers of the night, and sallied forth to breathe the,- 
morning air, and complete their pre[)arations for the coming adventure-. 
The household were also busy with their ample preparations for an early 
breakfast. No time was to be lost, for at the hour of sunrise, the parties 
were to be on the ground, ready for a start. We deem it unnecessary to 
dwell on the minutia of the morning's preparation. Those who have 
witnessed such scenes can readily apprehend the hurry and confusion 
with which those hasty preparations were performed, where all man- 
ifested a deep interest in the enterprise, and the parties were so eager to 
be promptly on the ground at the apijointed time. Along the lowlands, 
the rich mass of vegetation was still dripping with the morning dew, 
and the li'jlit floatiu'j: vapors forming themselves in sinuous clouds, hov- 
ering over the winding little streams, shutting out the light that shot 


across them from the opposite hills, when our g;fillant little company, now 
increased in number to some six or seven persons, drew up their reins on 
the north bank of Apple Creek, reconnoitered the ford for a moment, and 
plunged boldly in, and emerged on the opposite hank. '' It is very well," 
observed 'Squire Allen, '■'■ that our young surveyor had filled his portman- 
teau so liberally, for if its ends had not stood out pretty nearly in a horizon- 
tal line, he'd a got his instruments wet." "And lost his books, also," 
suggested Mr. Roderick Rawlings. " But, worse than all, he'd a spoiled 
his dinner," said a third. " No doubt, gentlemen, you think I'm poorly 
mounted," retorted George, " but soon we will be among the thick brush 
and grape-vines, when you will discover that I can easily pass through, 
while you will be compelled to walk and lead your horses." " Wc do 
not think you are very badly mounted," replied Mr. Rawlings, "but we 
do think the surveyor and chief engineer of so respectable a company as 
ours, ought to ride a large horse to support the dignity of his office." 
" As to that," replied the surveyor, " many great men have been content 
to go on foot, and some have rode donkeys, Avhile others very finely 
mounted have never become famous in any respect. I have observed 
that men of very refined taste in regard to riding fine horses seldom rise 
above the dignity of a country parson in these backwoods." A loud 
burst of laughter followed this sally, in Avhieh the whole party joined 
most heartily, but it was observed that tlie Rev. Mr. Rawlings was not 
so far carried away by this cacliination as to lose the power of speech, and 
sagely remarked, after the mirth had partially subsided, that it was " a 
happy circumstance that a man might be sharp enough to make an ex- 
cellent surveyor, even though he should never rise to the dignity of a 

Thus did our happy company make the wild woods glad with their 
merry laugh, as they passed along near the borders of the bottom land 
that "^stretched away to the eastward, until crossing Whittaker Creek, 
where they ascended to the hilltops, to contend with the " thick brush 
and grape-vines," to which the young surveyor had alluded, AVJien, to 
their increased merriment, they saw his prediction verified by the simul- 
taneous dismounting of about one-half the company. Sometimes on 
horseback and sometimes on foot, they groped along for three or four 
miles, which brought a handsome little prairie to view. "Do you know 
what prairie this is, 'Squire?" asked John Allen. "The Waltrips, 
Thaxtons and Starkies live just along there," he continued, pointing out 
the direction with his hand. " I think some of the Waltrips lived on our 
side of Apple Creek one winter," said George. "Yes," replied the 
'Squire, "old Billy Waltrip, and old Billy Tliaxton and his son Larkin, 
spent the winter of '19 and '20 in a camp quite near my house, and 
moved over here in the Spring." " I should have been pleased," said 
George, "to have passed nearer their houses, to see what kind of improve- 
ments they have." " We thought it best to keep at a distance, lest our 
appearance should alarm the women and children," replied the 'Squiie. 
" Seeing such a company, armed and equipped, they might conclude 
there were Indians in the neighborhood." 

The truth is that the leaders of our little company were so circum- 
spect in planning their movements that they had purposely avoided the 
settlement, lest the imposing appearance they made should induce a 


belief on the part of the settlers that they were out on some improper 
business. They seemed fearful their (hisigns would ho understood by 
some one who might throw obstacles in the way of tlieir success; tliey 
chose, therefore, to follow the skirt of timber alonj;- the south side of 
Bear Creek, toward the east, rather than strike boldly across the 
prairie, through the settlement, toward the point of their destination. 
However, they gradually directed their course more to the south, as they 
proceeded, until at length they found tliemselves on the summit of the 
highlands dividing the waters of Apple Creek from those of Macoupin. 
Thev involuntarily reined up their liorscs, as the far-reaching prairie — 
running back to the horizon — fell on their vision from tlie southwest, 
and in silent wonder gazed upon the beauty and grandeur of the scene. 
To the north the narrow strip of timber along Bear Creek, appeared 
like a mere hedge-row, dividing String Prairie from another jjrairie, 
which reached back far enough, apparently, to support Ap[)le Creek tim- 
ber, which, like a long line of blue clouds lying along the horizon, put an 
end to the view in that direction. To the east there was no limit to the 
range of vision but the horizon, though in that direction a herd of lialf 
a dozen nimble deer went leaping across the praiiie, Avith that freedom 
which they derived from the consciousness of ])erfect security wliilst 
taking their daily exercise. A long line of beautiful green timber, gently 
waving in the western breeze, stretched from a point two miles south of 
them away to the eastward as far as the eye could reacli. Tliere was a 
peculiar richness in the appearance of the dark green foliage, probably 
produced by the rellection of the sun's rays from the upper branches of 
the timber, contrasting finely with the dark shaded recesses below. 

Our company proceeded, leaning to the southeast, as if to enter the 
timber one or two miles above the point to the south. "I think I see a 
cabin in that timber," observed one of the com])any; "'Squire Allen, do 
you know whether that timber has any settlers in it?" " I take that to 
be Kinkaid's Point," said Mr. Allen; "I have been told that some of 
the Kinkaids settled somewhere in this jiart of the county about five 
years ago this Spring. I know 'Squire Kinkaid and Captain Kinkaid very 
well, but I have never been at their house. The point where they live 
is called Kinkaid's Point, and I think that is the place." "It appears 
strange to me," observed one, as they came near the timber, "that there 
is not a string of settlements all along the edge of this timber. If this 
is Kinkaid's Point, old Fighting Jack's horsemill is somewhere near, and 
people coming to the mill and seeing such a beautiful country unoccupied 
would make it known to others if they did not want a place themselves." 
"That is all very true, l)ut men are too scarce yet to settle all the pretty 
places," remarked the 'Squire, "but there is prol)ably already a consid- 
erable settlement in this timber. Somewhere to the east, I think, you 
would find another settlement not more than three or four miles fioni 
this. The space between will soon be filled up, and there will be a line 
of settlements all along the edge of the timber." "The man that bought 
old Jimmy Purnell, I believe, lives in Kinkaid's Point," remarked one. 
"I heard them saying in town the other day that old Jimmy had run off, 
and after a day or two returned, and told the man he lived with that lie 
had been three miles tip the point to the east, laying out a town, that it 
was the prettiest place for a town in the whole country. He said tiiero 


was a nice little stream running along the east side of it, and when he 
brought his lots into market the people would desert Carrollton and 
Mount Pleasant to buy lots and settle in his town. He told Sam, I 
believe that's what he called his master's name" — "Samms," suggested 
'Squire Allen. ''Perhaps that is the name," rejoined the other, "any- 
way lie told him if he wouldn't be angry at him forgoing off, he would 
give him a corner lot for a grocery. "-Poor Jimmy," exclaimed Mr. 
John Allen, " the last time I saw him he had a great gash cut in his head 
where somebody had struck him with the handle of an old iron shovel, 
for merel}^ coming into his house one cold night just before bed time. 
Every winter I think of Jimmy Purnell, and expect ever}' time a cold 
spell comes to hear of his being frozen to death." " You arouse my 
sympathies," said Mr. Rawlings. "Pray, how did it come that he was 
sold? I had not heard of that." " Don't you know him ?" said 'Squire 
Allen. " No, I never saw him, but I think I have heard of him ; isn't he 
a crazy man?" asked the other. "Yes, he labors under an aberration of 
mind, at times, and is perhaps never entirely sane, yet he is a man who 
seems to have been well educated, and is very shrewd and ready in 
answering questions, and sometimes appears very rational in conversa- 
tion. He has lived about from house to house, for tliree or four years, 
upon the bounty of the settlers, and, though not generally troublesome, 
some have abused him, and not long since the county took him in charge, 
and hired him out to Mr. Samms. The people frequently gave him 
clothes and sometimes money, but he never kept any clothing only what 
he had on, and the money he would give to the first boy he found. I 
hope he will find a good home with Mr. Samms, and be well taken 
care of." 

The foregoing conversation closed as the party drew up their reins 
on the bank of the deep and narrow ravine, which served to convey the 
water that accumulated on the prairie during the rainy season, through 
Kinkaid's Point down to Taylor's Creek, some five miles farther to the 
south. Along the steep banks of the ravine might occasionally be found 
a little spring, issuing from the black mould that covered the surface of 
the narrow bottom to the depth of four or five feet. Our party Avas not 
long in searching out one of these springs in the midst of a grove of wide- 
spreading walnuts, Avhere they spread their saddle blankets on the 
stunted growth of vegetation beneath the thick shade, and taking from 
their portmanteaus a small supply of shelled corn and oats, fed their 
horses, using the blankets for a manger. Then seating themselves on 
the ground, they took their dinner in the simple and primeval style of the 
genuine backwoodsman. During dinner conversation flowed freely 
around the little circle, each relating in his turn the incidents of his past 
experience in hunting excursions and camp life. It was a subject the old 
settlers loved to dwell upon, to the recital of whicli they listened with 
undivided attention. When dinner was over and an hour had been spent 
in resting their horses, they again mounted and proceeded in a lively 
mood to make their way over hills and ravines, through brush and bram- 
bles, frequently interwoven with grape vines. The sun had already 
passed the meridian, and would soon be declining in the Avest ; the whole 
party seemed to feel some apprehension that night would be upon them 
before they had reached the point of their destination. However, keep- 


ing their spirits up, they pressed forward throuy;h all o[)posing obstacles, 
aslf determined to make the best of tiie time allotted them. So wild 
was the appearance of the woods around them, so like an uninhabited 
wilderness, that our party despaired of seeins: any indication of the hab- 
itation of man. For them there was nothing inviting in those sharp ridges, 
steep hill-sides, and the numerous narrow and deeply-cut ravines that so 
frequently interrupted them in their march. They were, therefore, ex- 
ceedingly anxious to escape from these annoyances by getting out on 
the prairie again. 

But at the very time when least expecting it, the sharp bark of a dog 
fell on their ears. At the same time, Mr. Rawlings was observed to turn 
his horse's head to the right about, with the exclamation, " There's a 
house ! halt a minute, gentlemen," he continued, '' we must scatter out a 
little in passing this house; let only two go together, and afterwards two 
more, until we shall meet over at the point beyond the cabin. If we all 
go in company the people will think some very important movement is 
on foot, and they will arouse the whole neighborhood ; whereas by passing 
only two at a time we will get through without exciting suspicion." This 
mode of passing the house of Thomas Finley required a greater length of 
time than was desirable, for after passing the house a small prairie — per- 
haps a mile in width — must be crossed, and when two of the company 
had started across it, so fearful were the others of showing themselves in 
all their force, that the starting of the next couple was delayed until the 
first had passed out of sight. But at length they had again assembled 
on the south side of the prairie, only to plunge again into the forest, 
where after slowly working their way for two or three hours over every 
variety of uneven ground, crossing Taylor's Creek and a great number 
of smaller streams,' they found themselves at length entering the north 
side of another prairic^at the south side of which appeared a long string 
of timber reaching far to the east, and a short distance to the west seem- 
ing to unite with that from which they had emerged. 

As the beautiful little prairie, almost as even as a floor, and adorned 
with millions of small opening flowers just bursting into life from among 
the rich growing herbage witli all the richness and freshness of Spring, 
opened out before them, exclamations of surprise and admiration were 
heard from each member of the party as they continued to gaze around 
them. It was indeed a lovely sight, very unlike any they had witnessed 
on the more undulating prairies farther to the north. 

The sun was descending low in the west, shedding a flood of glow- 
ing light along the groves to the south and east, the tall tree-tops waving 
in the evening breeze, and the deep dark shadows below, presented a 
most beautifufvariety of light and shade ; and an impressive silence like 
the stillness of midnight prevailed, except as the merry lark, perched on 
the waving top of some tall flower-stalk, poured forth lun- song tor a 
moment, aiid flitted awav to another perch more remote from the intruder. 

As they proceeded,' Mr. Rawliugs recognized the spot they had been 
admiring as Taylor's Prairie, and rising in his stirrups and passing his 
hand along in the direction of the long line of timber in the foreground, 
he said : '' Gentlemen, I think we are drawing near the end of our day's 
journey. That thick timber running along there is the Macoupin tim- 
ber, and this is Taylor's Prairie. Just over there in that point is where 


Jimmy lives. We will reach there by sunset. I think we will stay with 
him to-ni^lit, and make all necessary preparations for an early start in 
tlie mornin.f^, I am anxious lo see what will come of this singular adven- 
ture." "Yes," replied 'Squire Allen, "It would be pleasant to know 
that we were on the road to a splendid fortune ; but if onr explorations 
sliould prove a signal failure, and thus expose us to the ridicule of our 
friends, I am not in a hurry to find it out; notwithstanding it might be 
pleasant enough for one who has the faculty of enjoying it, to engage in 
a hearty laugh now and then, even if it be at his own expense. But as 
we are fully equipped with every thing necessary for camping out, I shall 
prefer spending the night in the camp. It is entirely unnecessary to 
trouble our friends with keeping us when we are so well prepared to 
keep ourselves." "That is very true," rejoined the other; " we will 
camn then, somewhere near, and Jimmy can come to our camp and spend 
two or three hours after night ; we will get what information we can 
from liim, and mahe ariangements for to-morrow. I hope we will get 
an early start in the morning, for I want to make as satisfactory a survey 
of the mineral region to-morrow as possible, and if we get a late start 
we may have to spend a day longer on the ground in consequence of it." 

As Mr. Rawlings finished speaking, a dull, low sound fell upon their 
ears, much resembling the low tones of distant thunder. At this time 
our two friends between whom the above conversation was passing, 
were riding beside each other, and Mr. Rawlings perceiving — as he 
thought — that Mr. Allen was deceived in reference to the sound, said, 
"• 'Squire, I supposed you were more familiar with that kind of thunder 
than you seem to be. You may depend upon it there is no rain there." 
"But the reign of industry," replied jNIr. Allen, "the kind of reign that 
produces both food and clothing, and what is better than all, it is a reign 
of our own making." " It is surprising what a train of reflections may 
be produced in the head of philosophic men by the hum of a spinning 
wheel," replied the surveyor, "but great minds often perceive great 
effects proceeding from very small causes." " If George will show us 
the silver mine to-morrow," replied Mr. Allen, " we will be prepared to 
admit the justness of his remarks." 

The laughter that followed these sallies had scarcely subsided Avlien 
the party halted in front of the rickety fence that enclosed the cabin of 
Mr. James Rawlings, and Mrs. James Rawlings answered the summons 
of her father-in-law by appearing at the door. After mutual inquhies 
concerning the health of the respective families, the Rev. Mr. Rawlings 
learned from his industrious daughter-in-law that his son was not at 
hand, but wottld return some time during the evening. Upon receiving 
this intelligence, it was decided to proceed half a mile further and camp 
near the Macoupin Creek. " Tell James to come down to our camp 
when he comes home," said Mr. Rawlings to Mrs. James Rawlings, as he 
raised his rein to ride off, while she resumed her spinning. 

Proceeding to the creek, the party erected their tent, and, after 
taking their supper, lay down on their blankets to await the arrival of 
Mr. James Rawlings, but as tlie time passed away and he did not appear, 
the elder Mr. Rawlings, accompanied by 'Squire Allen, set out to visit the 
house, and finding him then at home, they proceeded immediately to 
discuss their plan of operations for the morrow, and receiving assurances 


from tlie youngest J\lr. Ruwlings, that lie would he ])ronipt at llieir camp 
at siimise in the moniing, to accoinpany tliem on the expedition, they 
returned to their camp, and soon the wiiole party were buried in sleep. 
But wliether it was that calm, quiet, and j^entle sJeei) that wra[)s the soul 
in deep unconsciousness ot" all events transpiring in the outer woild. or 
that wakeful, restless, dreamy, ritt'nl slnmher fraught with trouble, 
dreads aiul doubts, dangers and perplexities, that lifts the sleeper up the 
wiiuling way that leads to some high, cragged peak, or from some giddy 
height impels him down the unfathomed dejjth ot" some profound abyss, 
let those decide who have roamed abroad in search of treasiu'e. 

Very early on the next moniing the inmates of the camp were astir, 
feeding their horses, pre[)aring breakfast, and packing up their equipage, 
ready to be off as soon as Mr. James Rawlings should make his aj)pear- 
ance. As the first rays of the sun peei-ed through the thick forest that 
lined the baidcs of the stream, they stood in front of the camp fire, bridle 
in hand, ready to mount and pursue their journey at a moment's notice. 
And as he crept higher up in the eastern sky, and sent down his glowing 
ra3-s to wipe away the hcav}' dew-drops fiom the grass and the wild 
flowers, many anxious glances were cast along the narrow path that led 
to the house of Mr. Rawlings, but he came not. The morning was 
wasting away, the sun rising higher up in his course, and the air growing 
warmer around them ; the dew had fled from the rich foliage, aiul the 
lark commenced her song for the day, but still Mr. Ra\vlings did not 

By this time the impatience of the party had reached its culminating 
point, and several voices at once exclaimed, " Let us be off: it's useless 
to stay here and await the motions of Jim Rawlings," and, reining 
up their horses, the}' pre[)ared to ride off. '' Gentlemen," cried Rev. 
Mr. Rawlings, " if you can have patience to wait oidy a few minutes 
longer, I will ride out that way a short distance and see if he is coming ;" 
and, putting his horse into a gallop, he was soon out of sight. On and 
on he went, unwilling to turn back. He constantly applied his heels to 
his horse's sides, endeavoring to increase his s])eed, until he reached the 
house of his son, and to his surprise and even astonishment, found him 
quietly sitting astride of a shaving-horse, putting a piece of hickory into 
the sha])e of a yoke for one of his horses. 

" Why, James, what are j'ou doing there ? " cried he, " we have been 
waiting these three hours for you at the creek, looking for 3-ou every 
moment. The bo3's were just going to leave you, and 1 begged them to 
wait till I could come and see what you are al)out. Come now, don't 
spend another moment; be on 3-our horse in an instant or they will be 
gone." " I can't go just yet," replied the other, rather sheepishly ; "a 
gentleman is to be here in a few minutes with whom I have some busi- 
ness that must be attended to without delay ; it will, however, detain me 
but a short time. Tell the boys that I will meet them at Coo[>'s Creek 
by noon, and if they can't wait they can go on up there." 

After receiving instructions from his son as to how they should find 
the way to Coop's Creek, the reverend gentleman hurried back to com- 
municate the result of his hasty visit to his son's house. The party was 
in motion immediately', with Mr. Rawlings and 'Stpure Allen at its head. 
Their route lay along the Macoupin bluffs. A string of lakes and 


marshes stretched along their way on the left, and beyond them arose 
the heavy timber bordering on the Macoupin Creek. Coop's Creek is a 
small stream rising fifteen or 'twenty miles back in the country, and flow- 
ing in a northwesterly direction, empties its waters into the Macoupin on 
the south side, just before that stream crosses the line now separating the 
counties of Greene and Macoupin. Just at the point where it issues 
through the Macoupin bluffs, stands a wall of perpendicular rock, quite 
conspicuous to persons within the range of vision from that place. It 
was at this cliff where Mr. James Rawlings proposed to meet the parties 
at noon. 

Tlie distance being found less than was anticipated, they arrived at 
the spot before 11 o'clock, dismounted, fed their horses, and, while some 
prepared dinner, others explored the country in the immediate vicinity 
to ascertain whether anything indicative of the existence of silver could 
be found. 

Along the banks of the stream were found gneissoid stones, mica, 
slate, etc., in considerable abundance, together with other stones not 
common in the country. These our party took for favorable indications 
of something richer, and after dinner made a more thorough examination 
of the premises. Mr. Rawlings drew the mystic rod from his capacious 
saddle-bags, and, climbing to the top of the cliff, proceeded to satisfy him- 
self in regard to the existence of silver ore at that point, which he con- 
sidered the most favorable for making observations. The manner of 
using the rod was something like the following: Taking the ends 
between the thumb and linger, and turning the bow down horizontally 
forward, he walked slowly and carefully forward, observing the leathern 
sack at tlie bow or loop as an angler would watch the cork on his fishing 
tackle to see when it was drawn down by the fish on his hook. Mr. 
Rawlings knew, or at least thought, that whenever he passed over a spot 
where silver was deposited, its attraction for the contents of his buckskin 
sack would bring it suddenly down towards the earth, and show as 
clearly as anything could just where the precious metal was to be found. 
After having perambulated that elevated position for some time with only 
partial success, he descended to the plain, and examined in like manner 
the debris along the foot of the bluffs, as also some other points putting 
into the Macoupin bottom, but received no very satisfactorj^ assurances 
that anything like silver existed in the neighborhood. Not yet discour- 
aged, our little company again mounted their horses and struck boldly 
across the Macoupin bottom. Mr. James Rawlings had not yet joined 
them, nor did they expect or desire him to do so. In truth, his character 
for veracity seemed to have suffered with some members of the company, 
and they did not desire to see him during the expedition. 

After crossing to the north side of the Macoupin they directed their 
course down its northern bank, soon arriving at the furnace and all the 
evidences of mining operations mentioned by the young Mr. Rawlings 
in his letter to his father. There were several mounds of earth over- 
grown with briers, young cottonwood and sycamore, and at their base 
were the pits from which they had been taken. Immediately on the 
banks of the creek stood the dilapidated furnace, with coals, ashes, and 
lumps of mineral lying around. They were not only surprised, but 
greatly pleased to find the representations of the younger Rawlings, in 


his letter to his father, correct. His inexplicable conduct in the morning 
had thrown a sliadow of doubt over their minds, and they had viewed his 
assertions in reference to the silver mine with distrust ; but now the 
evidence was before tliem that he had adhered to the truth witliout 
exaggeration. But still his conduct was as much a mystery as ever. 
After having written to his father and induced him to take so much 
trouble to come from home to examine the spot, why did he not accom- 
pany the party? This was a mystery which none could solve. No doubts 
were now entertained of the existence of some kind of minerals al)Out 
these ancient mines. Many specimens were to be found of good size and 
apparent richness lying around on the surface, and the truthful brass rod 
of the Rev. Mr. Rawlings, clearly indicated that below the surface large 
quantities might be found by digging. For some reasons, unknown to 
the writer at this day, no analysis was made to test the value of the 
mineral found ; nor were the services of the surveyor called into requisi- 
tion at that time. The party were probably satisfied with their discovery 
without pushing their investigations further. The day was fast hasten- 
ing away, and they manifested a wish to return home, and were soon on 
their way. On their return, they seemed quite as desirous of passing the 
settlements unobserved as on their journey out. They arrived in the 
vicinity of their respective residences late in the afternoon of the follow- 
ing day, and scattering out in different directions, rode slily along the 
by-ways, behind the farms, and entered their cabins under the shade of 

The men composing this company were blessed with good conversa- 
tional powers ; they were remarkal)le for sociability and the easy manner 
in which they entertained their friends, and possessed a freedom of speech 
that at all times made them pleasant and communicative companions, but 
it is a remarkable fact that tliey always showed a disinclination to dwell 
upon the subject of their visit to the silver mine ; when that subject was 
introduced in their presence, they instantly became taciturn, and seemed 
to know less about it than any one else. They showed a desire to the 
last to keep the matter a secret, in which they partially succeeded, for, 
notwithstanding tiie fact that thirty-four years have passed away since 
that day, this expedition has been known to but a very few ]iersons. It 
has afforded us material for a long story, which we hope will repay the 
reader for perusing it. It is no high-wrought work of the imagination, 
no fancy sketch, and if it possesses not the interest of a highly-finislied 
romance, it yet has the merit of being true in every important particular. 


During 1821, the first settlement was made at Kinkaid's Point, which 
was for a long time a landmark in the county. The [)oint was an angle 
of timbered land, projecting into the prairie, which was so situated that it 
could readily be seen many miles away. Before roads were laid out or 
fences built the pioneers, in going fi-om the Macoui)in to the Mauvais- 
terre, would steer first for Kinkaid's Point, then lor a similar landmark 
farther on, and so on. The first settler at this point was Andrew Kinkaid. 


He was followed very shortly by his son, William Kinkaicl, who was well 
known in the county as Esquire Kinkaid. Martin Burt also erected a 
cabin at about the same time.' Two or three years later James Kinkaid, 
another son of the original settler, arrived. Every one knew him "with 
his blue hunting shirt fringed with red and encircled by a belt, to which 
a sword was suspended, and Avearing a tall hat witli a feather." As he 
commanded a company he was a prominent figure at the musters at 
Carroll ton. 

Very soon after Kinkaid's Point was settled, John Finley, better 
known, liowever, as " Fighting Jack," erected a horse mill south of the pres- 
ent site of Greenfield. Although very loosely constructed, it was a great 
convenience for the dwellers for many miles around. Men and boys 
visited this mill from beyond Carrollton, riding on their sacks of corn and 
leading horses enough to turn the mill. Strange as it may seem, this 
mill was supplied with neither wheel nor cog. At an elevation of six 
feet from the ground, a number of arms were passed horizontally through 
the driving shaft. They were of equal length, and their outer ends were 
deeply notched for the reception of a rawhide band twisted like a rope. 
This was passed around the end of the arms or spokes, resting in the 
notches, and tlience to the "trundle," being crossed, however, between 
the latter and the driving wheel, to prevent slipping. To the same shaft 
that carried the arms was attached a long lever, to which the horse or 
horses Avere fastened. This was all the gearing belonging to the mill, 
and from its great simplicity it was easily repaired when out of order. 
A few hickory withes usually secured any part that needed attention. 
John Finley and his son Thomas afterward entered the site of the Rock- 
bridge Mills. The old gentleman settled on the bluff south of the creek, 
and his son made a home in Taylor's Prairie, just north of Rockbridge. 

June 10, 1822, the following persons, then living in Cumberland, 
in the north of England, left their homes for the far off West: James 
Hobson, Elizabeth Hobson, Peter Hobson, John Hobson, Thomas Hobson, 
Mary Hobson, Robert Hobson, Jane Hobson, sister of the former, John 
Hobson, Margaret Black, John Black, David Black, Wm. Black, Thomas 
Black, Elizabeth Black (mother of Dr. Hobson, of this city), John 
Armstrong, Isaac Richardson, Chas. F. Hobson, Ruth Richardson, 
Jeremiah Richardson, Elizabeth Richardson, and Geo. Baty. In about 
two weeks they took shipping at Liverpool, and aftei- a perilous voyage 
of forty-seven days, landed ui New York City. From there they pro- 
ceeded in wagons to this county, where they safely arrived, after the 
lapse of about" four months, making the entire period, from the time of 
leaving home, six months. These all settled near Carrollton. Of this 
pioneer band the following are still living: Peter, Thomas, Robert, and 
John Hobson, Mrs. Elizabeth Hobson (formerly Elizabeth Black), and 
William and Thomas Black, making the entire number of this company, 
now living, seven. Thomas Black, one of the survivors, who is quite 
extensively known throughout the county, has lived in the house he now 
occupies, fifty-two years, "and it is still a good, commodious, and comfort- 
able dwelling. Tliose who remain of this company of old settlers all live 
in and near Carrollton, except John Hobson, who now resides in New 
Orleans. For several years the survivors have been in the habit of meet- 
ing at the residence of one of their number, having a dinner in keeping 


with the occasion, and spend inj^- the day in talkini^ over tlie past, and 
reconntini^ tlie events and memories of former years. The hist meeting 
was hehl at tlie residence of Dr. E. B. Hobson, in this city. 

Concerninfr the settlements east of Carrollton soon after tlie orcrani- 
zation of the county, ^Ir. Tunnell says, in an article in the Carrollton 
Press, 1800: "The first improvement east of Carrollton was made in 
1818 or 1819 by Martin Wood, who is now living near Athens, in this 
county. It is now the residence of 'Mv. Curtius, a faim well known by 
every man in the country about Carrollon. Young Wood was a brother 
of Martin. By an unfortunate accident, while young, he was severely 
burned, disfirjurinof his face and disabling his hands to sucli a degree as 
to render them useless but for the skill acquired by long practice in using 
them, and which enabled him to write quite legibly and, indeed, to attend 
to most kinds of business with a readiness and dis[)atch really surprising. 
He was for a long time sheriff of Greene County, and occupied at an 
early day rather a prominent position in politics. He died many years 
ago. His cabin was on the place known as the Turpin Faim, and stood 
just where ^Ir. Turpin's house now stands. Passing from thence east- 
ward and northward over a piece of very muddy land to the place now 
occupied by Mr. Hinton, you would find the cabins of John Dunn and 
Davidson James. To reach the next cabin you Avould travel eastward as 
far as the next sixteenth section, perhaps four or five miles, to where 
John Cooper had settled, a!)Out the spot where Father Boyd resided a few 
years ago. The John W. Huitt place was settled by Tholnas Finle}', who 
was well known by the early settlers. He afterward resided many years 
near Greenfield, and removed from there to Texas. IMessrs. Heacld and 
Bi'oghton improved the land now occupied by Mr. Ballinger, near Dover. 
One Mr. Blaney soon became its occupant, however, but befoie he had 
moved into the cabin, after Headd and Broghton had left it, one Levi 
Re\-nolds took shelter under its roof, and remaining there alone for a 
time, took provisions and water, and probably whisky, to the corps of 
surve3'oi-s engaged in the neighborhood." 

In 182'2 occurred the most remarkable election of which we have 
an}' record in this region. It was the first election for senator and repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly since the organization of the county. 
This senatorial district then consisted of Greene and Pike Counties, the 
latter then including "all the military district lying between the Illinois 
River and the Mississippi, from the mouth of the former to the north line 
of the State. Thomas Carlin and Rev. Isaac N. PigQ:ott were the 
opposing candidates. The late Judge D. M. Woodson, in his Centennial 
address, said of them: "Carlin was a num of great nerve and energy and 
undaunted couiage. His personal popularity was great, for lie had been 
reared amongst tlie pioneers of Illinois, had served as a Ranger and shared 
with them their hardshi[)s and perils. Piggott was at that time a Meth- 
odist jireaclier. He possessed strong native talent, was a forcible speaker, 
also personally ijopular and a formidaljle opponent." Mr. Piggott's 
house was south of the Macou[)in, a short distance west of Kane. The 
canvass was prosecuted with the utmost vigor, for each candidate was 
aware that he was contesting with a foeman worthy of his steel. Each 
Avas aspiring and ambitious, and neither was at all oblivious of the honor 
of being elected the first legislator from the district. The candidates and 


their friends labored diligently with all the arts then known to politics. 
Mr. Piggott made frequent speeches to the citizens of the district 
and both traveled all over the region, shook hands with every one and 
made as much use as possible of the influence of their friends. The 
result of the election was so much in doubt that each claimed to be the 
successful candidate, and in some way each of them secured a certificate. 
With these they presented themselves at the senate and claimed seats. 
That body promptly decided that there had been no election, and sent 
the contestants back to fight their battle over again. Excitement was 
now at a fever heat, and probably a more heated, earnest canvass in so 
thinly populated a district was never before known. The result was a 
clear victory for Mr. Carlin, and from the Legislature he stepped, some 
years later, into the governor's mansion. Mr. Piggott died in 1874, 
€ighty-two years of age. 

From that time Greene County has been represented in the senate 
by John Allen, Thomas Rattan, James Turney, Franklin Witt, Manoah 
Bostick, Alfred W. Cavarly, Linus E. Worcester, and Charles D. Hodges, 
all residents of Greene, besides by others who resided in adjacent coun- 
ties. The several representatives from the county have ])een Thomas 
Rattan, John Allen, Franklin Witt, Samuel C. Pierce, William Goode, 
Charles Gregorv, Lewis W. Link, Dr. Cvrus A. Davis, William Lane, 
ulias William Mitchell, Calvin Tunnell, Revelle W. English, David M. 
Woodson, Alfred W; Cavarlv, Joshua C. Winters, Alfred Hinton, Josiah 
Caswell, WiUiam P. Witt, Charles D. Hodges, Alexander Witt, Alex- 
ander King, Benjamin Baldwin, Giles H. Turner, James H. Pursley, 
Nathaniel M. Perry, Henry C. Withers, Thomas H. Boyd, Jerome B. 
Nulton, Lucien King, and Frank M. Bridges. 

The earliest settlers found on the 'banks of the Macoupin a large 
tribe of Lidians, who remained for some time, taking advantage of the 
immense quantity of game which abounded in this region. They were 
friendly to the whites, and were frequently to be seen at their cabins to 
the terror of the feminine portion of the families. Indians in greater or 
less numbers were frequent visitors of the county for several years, but 
were never in any way hostile to the settlers. Many of the pioneers, 
however, retained theirfeeling of hate for the savages, aroused during the 
war, and the determination to kill the first one of them who was met 
alone, was often expressed. 

The Indians were not, however, on the best terms with each other, 
but they usually refrained from any outbreak of personal violence. If a 
white man passed near one of them in the woods, the Indian often 
seemed desirous of avoiding a meeting, but if the parties happened to 
be proceeding in buch directions as to render such a meeting inevitable, 
the red man would walk briskly up to the white man and, taking his 
hand in both of his owij, shake it cordially, calling him " Good man, good 
man ; " " Me Pottawatomie Indian " (or Kickapoo, as the case might be), 
*' Me good Indian; Kickapoo no good Indian, Kickapoo steal white man's 
hogs." In fact both the tribes annoyed the settlers by killing their hogs. 

About this time a band of Indians camped on the Macoupin, in the 
east part of the county. They had with them their squaws, and came 
for the purpose of securing some of the game with which that region 
abounded. They had not been long in camp before some of their 


enemies near Carrollton determined tliat the}' sliould be driven away. 
The dwellers in the country had no objection to the presence of the red 
men, but as others were determined to eject them, they concluded to 
accompan}' the expedition. Gen. P^ry led the company, and amonu" those 
from the country wei-e John W. Huitt, the two Taylors, and Messrs. 
Alexander and Foster. 

Arrived at the Indian camp they found it entirely deserted by the 
braves, who were all absent in pursuit of deer or turkey or other game. 
The wigwams, the fire, and the squaws, with their i)appooses, were alone 
to be found. In order to call in the busy hunters, and, at the same time, 
to occupy the time the party set up a mark and began firing at it with 
their rifles. The quick, repeated reports produced the desired effect, for 
the terrified savages soon came rushing in, panting and covered with pers- 
piration and expecting to find their wives and children brutally massacred. 
They were much delighted to discover that they were unduly frightened, 
and, awaiting the arrival of the chief, entered into a friendly contest in 
markmanship Avith the pale-faces. The keen eye and steady nerve of the 
Indians gave them the victory and they did not hesitate to manifest 
their satisfaction at such result by loud and boisterous rejoicing. At last 
the chief arrived and to him the white men kindly but firmly communi- 
cated their desire that he and his people should quit the county. They 
asked the privilege of remaining until the sun should pass over their 
heads three times which being granted, they promised to go, and in the 
course of two or three days had disappeared. This was about the last 
appearance of Indians in this county, though an occasional wanderer was 
seen even down to a quite recent period. On the way home from this, 
expedition the party came upon a dressed deer and a number of skins 
belonging to tlie savages, and a few proposed that they appropriate them ; 
but the sense of honor of the majority ruled and the flesh and pelts were 
left undisturbed. Soon night overtook the party ; those from town were 
anxious to push on, but Mr. Huitt and his friends concluded to camp till 
morning. They passed a ver}' comfortable night and reached home 
during the next morning, feeling fresh and well, while those who had 
pushed on walked until nearly daybreak before reaching their own roofs. 

Possibly some reader may be surprised to know that negro slaves 
were owned in tliis county during the first years after its oi'ganization, 
yet such is the fact. Early in the history of the county a man named 
Pullam came to Illinois from Kentucky. He settled on the Barr place, 
a short distance west of the property now owned by David Wright ; he 
brought with him about twenty negroes. After remaining here some time 
and learning that the laws of the State did not permit the owning of 
slaves, he sold out. Baynam White bought his improvements and he 
sold to one Pepperdine. Mr. Pullam took all his negroes south with him 
except one, " Old Strap," and he remained l^ere for several 3'ears. 
During the latter part of his life he was an expense to the county, and 
this explains the following entry in the records of the Commissioners' 
Court which has been a puzzle to many : " Ordered, that Robert B. Scott 
be allowed four dollars for keeping 'Old Strap.'" Thomas Rattan also 
biougiit negroes to this county with him. On arriving upon free soil he 
set them at liberty, but he was so kind a master that they preferred to 
remain with him. Mr. Rattan was emphatically a man of business and 


alwa3's carried on a c^reat deal of work. He hence liad a large nnmher 
of negroes in his family nearly all the time. They ate at the same table 
with himself, his family, and his gnests, the colored part of the honse 
being placed on one side of the table and the white folks on the other 
side.' Tlie last evidence that we have of the possession of slaves is found 
in the records of the deeds in the office of the recorder. In them we 
find mention of the following deeds : one dated December 7, 1835, by 
which James H. Cravens and wife deed to James G. Berry, John H. 
Marmon, and John C. Berry, in consideration of the sum of $500, the 
following property : " A negro boy slave called and kno\un by tlie name 
of Jonatiian, about fifteen years of age, of a light complexion, about 
five feet four inches high ; also a negro woman, Tener, about eighteen 
years of age, of a dark complexion ; also Tener's child, named Margaret, 
about two years old, of a light complexion, and all other increase which 
said negro woman Tener may have from and after this date ; said negroes 
are at this time in the State of Kentucky in the possession of Lewis 
Grimes." On Septeml)er 18, 1848, we find recorded a bill of sale, where- 
by, for the sum of 1:1,100, Larkin Rattan conveys to Thomas Rattan 
" one equal and undivided half of all my right, title, and interest in the 
following slaves, to-wit : Charlotte, aged forty-three years ; Bill, aged 
fourteen years ; Mary, aged twelve years ; George, aged about eleven 
3^ears ; Louisiana, aged about eight years ; Gunn Iowa, aged about five 
years, and another slave boy, name unknown, aged about two years." 

In this connection it may be interesting to notice how the name 
"Nigger Lick " happened to be applied to a stream in the eastern part of 
the county. It is said that a company of negro slaves fieeing from their 
masters camped on the bank of this stream. They were followed and 
tracked to their hiding place. At their camp the pursuers found a negro 
woman lying by the fire whose smoke had guided them to her. By 
means of threats they prevailed upon her to point out the location where 
the rest of the runaways could be found. Proceeding in the direction 
she indicated they soon came upon the negroes near a bold, gushing 
spring that came up through a fissure in a solid sandstone just large 
enough to admit a man's hand. A basin holding some ten gallons had 
been excavated from the top of the rock either by the water or by arti- 
ficial means. The water rises in the center of this basin, and running 
over the sides, flows off in a brisk cui-rent. Close by the stream was a 
salt deposit, where the deer often resorted, drawn by the saline taste. 
This fact, with the incident above related, gave to the stream the name 
of " Nigger Lick," which it has since borne. 

During the early history of the county there stood in the Court 
House park three whippingposts, and we hear of these being used as an 
instrument of punishment several times. Two of these posts were sit- 
uated near tlie nortlieast corner of the yard and one in the southwest 
corner. Among the culprits Avho received coi-poral punishment while 
closely embracing one of these posts was Thomas Anderson, who had 
been convicted of stealing a horse. As he was brought out upon the 
square a crowd of men and boys gathered around, and a large company 
of ladies assembled on the second story piazza of a house situated very 
near where ALs. Keach's residence now stands. Sheriff Young Wood 
had charge of the prisoner, assisted by his deputy, Jacob Fry. The con- 


vict was commanded to remove his shirt, and then his hands were drawn 
up as liigh as possible and fastened to the top of the post and liis feet to 
the bottom. Then as he buried his face between his upstretched arms the 
Sheriff coolly grasped a heavy rawhide with his distorted hand and com- 
menced slowlv to lay the heavy blows upon the bare shoulders of the 
sufferer. The deputy mentioned stood by and called out as each blow 
was given, " one," " two," '' three," etc., until fifty long heavy welts 
were traced upon the culprit's back, horizontally and vertically, checking 
his flesh into squares like those of a chess board. After the punishment 
was over the victim declared to the bystanders that his keenest suffering 
arose from his knowledge of the fact that ladies' eyes Avitnessed his dis- 

In January, 1823, Morgan County was organized, thus cutting off the 
northern portion of the territory attached to Greene County. At the 
time of its organization, Morgan County included Scott and Cass Coun- 
ties, but these were soon cut off. 

In 1829 the territory now constituting Macoupin County was sep- 
arated from Greene County, and by act of General Assembly erected into 
a separate organization. 

The attention of the Commissioners' Court was mainly taken up in 
those days in the care of the poor, the laying out of roads and in other 
county improvements. The first court house was not finished until 1824, 
and March 27, 1830, the contract for the erection of the present edifice 
was let. The proceedings of the commissioners give in full the bond 
entered into by Thomas Rattan for the erection of the building for the 
sum of $7,000, to be paid in yearly installments of $1,000 each. The 
edifice was to be forty-four feet wide by forty-six feet long, and to be 
built of durable materials. The contract did not provide for dressing the 
stone used in the foundation and the citizens of Carrollton raised the neces- 
sary amount by voluntary contributions. It was furnished with five outside 
doors, three on the east and one each on the north and south sides. These 
doors Avere double and the windows were all supplied with blinds. The 
interior arrangement of the edifice was far different from that which now 
prevails. The first floor contained one large court room and two small 
offices. The court room was entered by the middle east door, or by 
either the north or the south door. The floor was of brick except that 
of the bar, which was of wood and considerably elevated. This impor- 
tant part of the court room was situated in the western part of the room 
and towering above it was the judge's bench. Opening out of the court 
room and also communicating with the outside by doors on the east, in 
the northeast and southeast corners of the building, were the offices of 
the circuit and the county clerk. Although small, these rooms were ample 
for the jiurpose and were sometimes found large enough to contain the 
bed of the clerk, who made the department at once his office and bed 
chamber. Up stairs there was one long room used by the grand jury and 
as a j)ublic hall for all kinds of traveling shows, lectures, '' the-ay-ters," 
" wax figgers," etc. There were also two rooms above for the accommo- 
ilation of the petit juries. The arrangement of the building was at once 
convenient and economical. The edifice, when finished in 1832, was 
the pride of the county audit was universall}' admitted at the time, to be 
the finest court house in the State. But of late it has become a disgrace 


to the county, and is still suffered to remain, although it may at any time 
fall in upon the heads of those who inhabit it. 

Thomas Rattan, the builder of the court house, was one of the most 
active, energetic men of business ever in the county. He was constantly 
active and ijushing forward some enterprise. He is believed to have con- 
tributed more to the material improvement of the county than any of his 
cotemporaries. He first lived north of Apple Creek. When the county 
was established he removed to Carrollton and kept the first hotel in the 
town. He was soon found on his farm again, north of Apple Creek, 
where he erected an ox mill, which was a great convenience to many. 
During this time he was elected a member of the legislature. He re- 
turned to Carrollton and was repeatedly sent to the General Assembly 
of the State. Beside the court house he built the bridge across the 
Macoupin Creek, erected the mill afterwards known as Turpin's mill, 
constructed a line brick dwelling on the premises, and talked of spending 
the remainder of his days there, but he had soon sold the mill and was 
again in Carrollton, keeping the brick tavern on the southeast corner of 
the Square. He afterward built the mill now known as Erisman's mill, 
and finall}'' removed to Texas. He died in the Lone Star State, Novem- 
ber 11, 1854. 

From the following order, passed June 9, 1824, an idea may be formed 
of the amount of taxes compared Avith the revenue of the present day : 
" Ordered that Jacob Linder, treasurer of this county, be allowed sixty- 
eight dollars for sessing the tax for the present year." 

The first statement of the financial condition of the county was made 
in December, 1825, by Young Wood, sheriff. It deals with figures ridic- 
ulously small, when compared with those of the present day. The fol- 
lowing is the report, in full, as it stands upon the records : 


Amount of County tax for 1824. $561 43 J 

Amount of delinquent tax for 1S24 — 16 50 

Tax collected for the year - $544 93/^ 

Tax for 1825.- -. - 555 25 

Fines assessed by the Circuit Court during the year 1825 290 00 

Fmes assessed and paid in by Justices of the Peace for 1825 9 00 

Amount of SherifTs debits $i,399 i8>^ 

Orders paid $787 59 

Sheriffs commissions on the tax of 1824 and 1825, at tYz 

percent 82 51X 

Total credit 870 loX 

Due the county ..- $529 0%% 

Amount of orders on treasury U|1 to the first day of this term, estimat- 
ing specie claims at double their amount in State paper 619 39X 

The entire revenue of the county (including the tax on real estate 
which had been entered five 3'ears) for the year 18H0, was $1,846.47 ; in 
1840, it was $8,641.58; in 1850, $15,034.78; in 1860, $48,299.62; in 
1870, $98,410.94. 

During the early history of the county the Illinois River was of im- 
mense value as a means of communication with the outside worlds 


Farmers built flat boats and floated their produce and stock to St. Louis, 
or sometimes to a more southerly market. Canoes and keel boats coming 
up the river brought many of the conveniences and luxuries which could 
not be procured in other ways. In 18:i(), tlie first steamboat passed up 
the river, and then the stream became still more valuable to the county. 
The population had, in the mean time, been increasing, and large quanti- 
ties of merchandise from the markets were demanded. These nearly all 
were brought up by river and distributed by wagons over the county. 
At one time the construction of a plank or stone road from the river to 
Carrollton, was much talked of, and later, a railroad from Greenfield to 
the Illinois was proposed, but neither plan has yet been carried out. 

In 1826, the first settlements were made in the region in the eastern 
part of the county, known as String Prairie, or the vicinity of the Rubi- 
con. The Rubicon is quite a small stream, rising near the Macoupin 
County line, flowing to the southwest and emptying into Taylor's Creek. 
It is so small a stream that until quite recently it had been nameless, 
when during a very wet season its volume was so much increased, that 
some enthusiastic dweller on its banks gave it the classic name it bears. 

String Prairie is separated from the Rubicon b}^ a narrow strip of wood- 
ed land, and stretches thence for miles away to the north and west. The 
first recorded settlers in this region, were Isaac Wood, Alfred Wood, 
David Miller, Wm. Finley, and Thomas Finley. Their nearest neighbors 
were then at Kinkaid's Point. The next year Jeremiah Hand came 
among them, but for some time afterward few accessions to tJieir number 
arrived. The timber along the stream- was not heavy, and on this account 
many thought that tiie region could never support more than a very 
sparse population. In 1829, however, several new inhabitants arrived, 
among whom may be mentioned Jacob Young, Ichabod Valentine, How- 
ard Finley, and James Cannedy. The last mentioned made his home north- 
east of where Greenfield now stands, the others settled southeast of the 
Rubicon. On the opposite side of the streanr, near its mouth, during the 
same year, James 11. Weisner, Wiley Wylder, Joel Grizzle and Herod 
Grizzle made improvements. In 1880, the settlement was still further 
increased in number by the arrival of William Askins at the head of the 
Rubicon, and between that stream and Taylor's Creek, William Handliu 
and Elisha Shelton. At the same time John Cannedy, Stephen Coon rod, 
Thomas Coonrod, Lewis Shearman and two Starlins, came on to String 
Prairie. Eri, David, and Joel Edwards settled in the same neighborhood 
about the same time. The descendants of these men still live in this 
vicinity, and are among the most substantial citizens of the county. 
From this time the settlement of that portion of tlie county was very 
rapid. Two or three years later Greenfield was laid out by George W. 
Allen, Esq., and, surrounded as it was by some of tlie finest farming lands 
in the State, it had a healthy and rapid growtli. 

Further west on the prairie, in 1828, Wm. Grimes and Alexander and 
Benoni Banning erected their cabins. The next year Ellis and John 
Davidson, Henry Norris, and George Wright, made improvements. Henry 
Norris settled on the place now known as the '•'- Brushy Tavern," some 
three or four miles north of Greenfield's present location, and Mr. Wright 
at White Oak Spring. 

The first settler at " Nigger Lick Spring" was Tiiomas Sharp, who 


came there about 1827. The property on which he settled has changed 
hands very frequently, and was at one time owned by John Waller. Dr. 
Throcmorton made improvements about the same time on property after- 
ward owned by John Parks. During the first year of the county's 
liistory the polls for that precinct were established at the house of John 
Parks. Hiram Drake, William Smith, Thomas Vandaveer, B. T. Scott, 
Absalom Fair, Moses Chenny, Howard Finley, and Fayette Brown, settled 
between Nigger Lick and Bear Creek near this time. Edward Prather 
also came about this time, buying out a man named Carroll, who had been 
living in the region for many years. Davidson James, who settled on the 
Hinton farm east of Carrollton some years before, and afterward at Kin- 
kaid's Point, now became one of the early settlers in th^s region as were, 
also, Silas Drum and Eli Butcher. 


In the latter part of November, 1830, snow commenced to fall and 
continued with short intervals until January, 1831. As one snow fell 
upon another, and was driven before the cold wind, it soon accumulated in 
many places to a depth of from seven to twelve feet, and whole fields 
were covered with a white mantle five or six feet thick. Fences and 
small buildings were entirely hidden, windows were darkened, and great 
distress was caused to the inhabitants, as well as to stock and game. In 
the heavy timber where there were no drifts the snow was said to average 
three feet in depth. The sun would occasionally melt the top of the 
snow, and then a cold night would freeze it into an almost impenetrable 
crust. For years before, the weather had been very mild until after 
Christmas, sometimes continuing all winter so warm that the cattle would 
browse and feed with but very little care from man. Many farmers had 
not gathered their corn, and were compelled, to go to the field and dig- 
down beneath four or five feet of snow to secure the grain to preserve 
the lives of their families or cattle. Being unable to go to mill, a great 
deal of corn was broken in a wooden mortar, so that it could be eaten. 
Many suffered from lack of clothing, and from the airy construction of 
their cabins, as this was to the most their first intimation that they were 
living in a region where extreme cold weather was possible. The deer 
and other game suffered very severely. Prairie chickens and rabbits were 
very easily caught, and the deer in running over the snow would often 
cut through the crust and be unable to extricate themselves. They were 
then an easy prey to mankind, or the wolves. This "deep snow" is one 
of the events most vividly impressed upon the memor}^ of the "old set- 
tler," and it is used as a base line from which to calculate time in both 
directions. Only those who came to the county "before the deep snow" 
are deemed genuine "old settlers," although this rule is not very rigidly 
enforced. Many interesting incidents of this year are related. Mr. 
Tunnell states that in October, 1830, Elisha Cheney and his wife lay sick 
at a house near Mr. George Wright's residence at " White Oak Springs," 
east of Carrollton. Mr. Wright and Mr. Norris sat up with them in 
turns every night until February, when Mrs. Cheney died. The snow 


had already lain on the ground for over two months, and as the winter 
was excessively cold, the task of wading two or tliree miles frequently at 
night, and sitting up all night with the sick, could not liave l)een a pleas- 
ant one. About the time of the lady's death, a rain fell which filled the 
ravines and rendered the snow soft and yielding. It was then tliat Mr. 
Wright set out very early to obtain lumber with which to build a coffin 
for the deceased. But to travel a few miles required a great deal of 
time, and after a laborious day's tramp lie returned home without having 
accomplished his errand. He and Mr. Norris then cut two boards from a 
log with a whip saw, when night compelled tliem to retire. Hearing 
that Dr. Throcmorton had commenced building a house at a place called 
Mt. Airy, two or three miles distant, Mr. Wright set out early the next 
m(U-ning with the hope of getting some lumber from him. Although the 
soft snow was deep and heavy, and the low grounds covered with water 
in many places to the depth of three feet, he made the best of present 
troubles and pushed boldly on. He succeeded in obtaining only a 
portion of the lumber necessary, and completed the coffin with a 
l)oard ripped from the bottom of a wagon bed. The next day Mr. 
Wright conveyed the coi'pse to the burying ground in a wagon drawn by 
oxen wading " up to their bellies in snow," and, though the distance was 
not great, the day was consumed in going and coming. He and his friend 
Norris continued to wait on the sick man until "plow time,'' wlien he 
had so far convalesced as to dispense with their services. 

Similar tales are told in every neighborhood, and the memory of the 
"deep snow" is very faithfully preserved. Until the latter part of 
February, when the snow^ went off with a great freshet, the ground was 
not seen. 

The Summer which followed was a very wet one and at its close, on the 
12th of September, came a hard frost biting the corn in the field, and 
rendering it valueless for bread or seed. The succeeding Winter was a 
very severe one, and in the Spring following seed corn was a scarce 
article. It was at this time that southern Illinois received the name 
of "Egypt," because the people of the northern counties had to go into 
the south part of the State for corn. 

Greene County had been in existence ten years before a murder oc- 
curred within her borders. In September, 1831, the first human life 
was violently taken since the organization of the county. There was in 
those days, on the Macoupin, a distillery, where those who loved the fruit 
of the still were in the habit of gathering and indulging their appetites. 
Among these frequenters of the place was John Lofton, who was the 
father of a very bright little boy, named Samuel. One Saturday the dis- 
tiller sent this boy on horseback to Mill's store on the Mississippi River, 
to collect about fifteen dollars due him. The boy started off with per- 
mission to stay over night with some friends at Gillham's Mound if he 
wished. He was successful in prosecuting his business, and started home 
with the money. As he was passing Carroll's tanyard he was accosted 
by an old acquaintance, an Irishman, known as James Sullivan, though 
Patrick Cavanauirh was afterwards leaiiied to be his true name. Cava- 


naugli was a man about forty years of age, who had been working for 
various persons in the southern part of the county. He asked the boy to 
allow him to ride with him on the horse. To this the lad consented, and 


lifting himself out of the saddle, took the place behind in order that he 
might give Cavanaugh the easier seat. As they rode along, Samuel re- 
lated the day's experiences 'and displayed the money which he had col- 
lected. After a time Cavanaugh turned the horse off the road into a 
wood. The boy objected to this, and became somewhat frightened, but 
Cavanaugh proceeded nntil he reached a secluded spo't, whereupon, dis- 
mounting and picking up a club, he knocked the little fellow senseless. 
After Cavanaugh had possessed himself of the money the boy showed 
signs of returning consciousness, upon which his brutal assailant com- 
pleted his work and luurdered him. He then turned the horse loose, and 
fled the country. Young Lofton's parents were not uneasy about his 
failure to return until Wednesday or Thursday of the next week. Search 
was then instituted, and on the "latter day the vultures guided them to 
the spot where his body lay. On Friday a coroner's inquest was held 
by Coronor P. N. Rampey. " The horrible brutality of the outrage cast a 
gloom over the whole county, and a large reward was offered for the ap- 
prehension of the murderer." The next Spring a citizen of the county 
took some produce to New Orleans in a flat boat. In that city he saw 
Cavanaugh, and recognized him. He enticed him into a saloon, and when 
thev were about to drink, proposed as a health, '' Here's hoping we shall 
meet in Greene County, Illinois." These words almost paralyzed the 
murderer, and he dropped the glass from his hands. He was promptly 
arrested, secured and taken to Greene County. The case against him 
was so clear, and he was so completely without money and friends, that 
he was promptly convicted and sentenced to be hung. He subsequently 
made a full and circumstantial confession. The gallows for his execution 
consisted merely of a frame supporting the beam from which the noose 
was suspended. It was erected about a mile northwest of Carrollton, on 
an elevation of land now belonging to David Wright, Esq. On the day 
appointed for the execution, an immense concourse of people gathered at 
the county seat. Every one within a range of twenty or thirty miles 
who could possibly leave home was present, and the roads were thronged. 
Cavanaugh was placed in a wagon seated upon his coffin, and surrounded 
by a guard appointed for the occasion, of whom Judge Alfred Hinton, 
still living, was one. Before they had proceeded far the prisoner signified 
a desire to walk, which was granted. At the gallows the ceremonies 
were brief. Jacob Fry, Sheriff, had charge of the execution, and a 
Catholic priest offered the condemned man the consolations of religion. 
He was placed in a wagon immediately under the beam, the noose ad- 
justed, and the wagon driven from under him. The body was afterwards 
cut down and buried under an oak tree in the corner of the field, where 
the bones lie to-day. Just about the time the execution was consurii- 
mated a remarkably heavy rain storm set in, and there were, doubtless, in 
Carrollton that day more wet people than at any one time before or since. 
The ladies of the aristocracy of those days wore immense paper bonnets 
of various hues and plentifully adorned with ribbons. The effect of the 
rain upon these was magical and they were soon ruined. _ The worthy 
dames were obliged to cast them aside, and the roads leading to Carroll- 
ton were thickly strewn with the wrecks of paper bonnets, which did not 
disappear for many days. The call for troops for the Black Hawk VVar 
had been issued but a short time previously, and the regiment of which 


Sheriff (now General) Fry was Colonel, liad marched toward the seat of 
war several days before the execution. As soon as tliat cerenion}^ was 
over the colonel liur'ried to Carrollton, buckled on his sword, and mount- 
ing: his steed hastened forward to overtake his command. It is related 
tluit some years after these events a traveling expounder of the science 
of phrenology stopped at Carrollton to give lectures and delineations of 
character. George Wright, Esq., anxious to test the professor's skill, dug 
into the grave of Cavanaugh, and taking up his skull, presented it to the 
phrenologist. He examined it carefully, and proceeded to describe the 
man of whose frame it once formed a part, as a person of intellectual 
habits, gentle temper, very kind hearted, very just, etc., etc. When told 
that the skull was taken from the grave of a confessed murderer the de- 
lineator collapsed, and lectured no more at Carrollton. 

Concerning Greene County's part in the Black Hawk War, I can not 
do better than to take the following from the Centennial Address of the 
late Hon. D. M. Woodson, as published in the Carrollton Patriot: 

" Whenever the government has demanded of its citizens military 
service, the people of Greene have always responded with alacrity. In 
1831, when volunteers were called for to repel the invasion of Black 
Hawk and to protect the northwest portion of the State, Greene was 
amongst the first to answer. Three companies were raised, commanded 
by Capt. Jacob Fry, Capt. Thomas Carlin, and Capt. Samuel C. Pearce. 
They marched and rendezvoused at Beardstown, and Captain Fry having 
been promoted to the office of Major, John Lorton was elected to fill his 
place. The forces were marched to Rock Island, but the Indians having 
escaped across the Mississippi, and their services being no longer needed, 
they were discharged. The following year the services of the people 
were again required to repel a second invasion of Black Hawk, and a 
companv was raised commanded b}' Capt. Samuel Smith, Enoch Baecus, 
First Lieutenant, and Samuel Bowman, Second Lieutenant. Col. Jacob 
Fry commanded a regiment of which the company formed a part. Col. 
Fr}' bore a conspicuous part in that enterprise, and is honorably mentioned 
in the written historv of the Black Hawk War, as it is called. At the 
battle of 'Bad Axe,' when Black Hawk was captured. Lieutenant Bow- 
man lost his life, having been shot by an Indian, who in turn was shot by 
John Link, another Greene County volunteer." 

A census taken in 1830 showed that the county contained 7,674 
inhabitants, and during the ten succeeding years, although Jersey County 
was in the meantime cut off, the population of Greene County increased 
to 11,951, and Jersey County contained 4,515 people. 

The Macoupin Creek bridge was built in 1831-2, the Apple Creek 
bridge having been constructed some time previously. During the 
same year a new jail was built by William Meldrum, who took the con- 
tract for .$3,560. Among the orders of this year we find one directing 
that the school fund be loaned for ''25 per cent, annual interest and no 

In or about 1828 one Mr. Courtney and his son, Robinson Courtney, 
settled places just north of where Fayette now stands, and one Ezekiel 
Good improved a place one or two miles to the west, about the borders of 
Taylor's Creek timber. It is tlie place since occupied by William Ed- 
monson. And in different parts of the neighborhood the following 


named persons located and commenced improving their farms during- the 
same year : John Lewis, Obadiah Lee, Joseph Van Meter and his father, 
Richard J. Keel and Richard R. Keel. Amasa Van Meter was once well 
known about Carrollton ; he owned a mill on the Macoupin south of 
Carrollton for several years, and struggled severely with adverse circum- 
stances. He was a poor man and unable to put and keep his mill in good 
repair, so that it became a burden rather than a benefit to him. He was 
highly esteemed for his uprightness and unflinching honesty. After 
struggling through a few years of hardship at the mill, he accidentally 
slipped off a wagon load of hay or grain ; his pitchfork had fallen down 
before him, and stood with the handle on the ground, and the tines point- 
ing upward as it leaned against the hay. As Mr. Van Meter was sliding 
down, a tine of the fork entered his leg, and, passing along up the bone, 
made a wound that rendered him a cripple for life. He kept his bed for 
several months, and upon recovering sufficiently to attend to business, he 
disposed of the mill, and in the year 1828 settled in Taylor's Prairie. 
A little farther down the prairie, toward the Taylor Settlement, Henry 
Etter and Peter Etter, Reuben Odle, Samuel Judy, and William Swinney 
located their farms, and settled in the neighborhood the year above 
named. William Swinney was a blacksmith, and erected a shop just at 
the edge of Taylor's Creek timber. He came from the State of Tennessee, 
and was a reckless, unprincipled fellow. He and Peter Etter had 
exchanged horses, and soon after they met at the Macoupin, where Rock- 
bridge is now situated, and while engaged in a conversation about their 
horses, Etter said to him that the horse he (Etter) had got of him was 
older than Swinnej^ had represented him to be ; whereupon Swinnev flew 
into a passion, and when Etter was riding past his blacksmith shop soon 
afterward Swinney shot him and made his escape. Etter was killed and 
the other ^vas never apprehended. 

About the year 1834 Mr. James Rives moved into the neighborhood 
where Rivesdale was soon after located, and Manoah Bostick, William 
Blair, James Metcalf, and others settled in. about where Fayette is sit- 
uated. They all purchased large tracts of land and immediately took 
steps for improvement. Mr. Bostick enclosed an immense field and em- 
ployed William Handlin to break two hundred acres, at the rate of one 
dollar per acre. Handlin went to work with two plows that opened each a 
furrow of eighteen inches in width, and to which were attached four 
yoke of oxen, and during the season he broke one hundred and forty 
acres, for which Mr. Bostick paid him one hundred and forty dollars, with 
which Mr. Handlin purchased a tract of land in the neighborhood, and 
became a settler for a short time. He improved as many places probably, 
in Greene and Macoupin Counties, as any other man. He settled at an 
early day near Carrollton, and moved nearly every year from place to 
place, still working eastward, until he got over into the county of Ma- 
coupin, and died on a farm he had improved a short distance from Sum- 

About 1833 a man named Leonard settled on what is now known as 
the Jerseyville Prairie. He was regarded as very daring to under- 
take to make a home so far away from the timber, and almost every one 
predicted that that portion of the county would never be occupied, 
except as grazing ground for cattle. The most valuable land in Jersey 
County is now situated on that prairie. 


In 1833 the county suffered from Asiatic cholera so severely that in 
the space of a few weeks there were about fifty deaths from this disease. 
Of these thirty-two died in CarroUton, two or three along the Illinois 
River, a few at White Hall, and others in other parts of the county. 
Business was almost entirel/ suspended in various towns, and grass 
grew in the busiest streets in tiie county. Many of the inhabitants of 
the county were panic-stricken, and would not leave their houses for 
fear of suffering from the infection. Fifty deaths may seem a small 
number to produce so much commotion, but it should be remembered 
that there were, at that time, less than eight thousand people in the whole 
county, from Alton to Roodhouse. 

The Fall of 1836, is made memorable by the event known as the 
" sudden freeze." This was occasioned by a remarkable current of cold 
air passing from the northwest to the southeast, directly over Greene 
County. Its width extended over the entire central portion of the State. 
Its velocity was, as near as can now be determined, about thirty miles 
per hour. It was felt in Jacksonville about noon, and was in Lebanon, 
Ohio, just above Cincinnati, at nine o'clock that evening. Mr. Wash- 
ington Crowder, a resident of Sangamon County, was married on the 
21st of December, 1836, and distinctly remembers going for his license 
the day before. This event fixes the date beyond a doubt. He was on 
his way to Springfield on the afternoon of the 20th, and when a few 
miles below the city had a fair view of the landscape for several miles in 
every direction. He saw in the northwest a heavy, black cloud rapidly 
approaching him, accompanied by a terrific, deep, bellowing sound. 
Closing the umbrella he was carrying over him to protect himself from 
the failing rain, he was in the act of drawing his reins taut, when the 
wave came over him. At that instant tlie snow and slush under his 
horse's feet turned to ice, while his coat, wet with the rain, became in- 
stantly as stiff as a board. He went on to Springfield, where he found 
his clothing frozen to the saddle, and being unable to dismount was com- 
pelled to call an assistant, who carried man and saddle to the fire to thaw 
them apart. He obtained his license, returned the same day, and was 
married the next. The wave passed over Greene County between one 
and two o'clock, and came so suddenly that chickens and small animals 
were frozen in their tracks. Several inches of snow had fallen a short 
time before and on that day it was quite warm, with light, spring-like 
showers, and the whole earth was covered with slush and water. The 
change was so sudden and the wind so strong that the water in the ponds 
in the road froze in waves, sharp-edged and pointed, as the gale had 
blown it. 

One old settler remembers the day as warm and showery during the 
forenoon. Near two o'clock in the afternoon it grew dark, as if a rain 
storm was coming, and, in an instant, the strong wind, with the icy blast, 
came and all was frozen. Hurrying around to save some stock that he 
was fattening, he was able to get a part of it under shelter, but most of 
the animals suffered severely. The creek was about bank full of water, 
and, as his horses, wagons, etc., were on the north side, and his house on 
the south side, he was anxious to get all near the house, that he might 
take better care of them. The next morning early, with his brother and 
some other help, he went to the creek to get the animals across, l)ut, the 


horses not being shod, and the ice smooth, they cut the ice in pieces to 
get a track wide enough for the wagon, and with poles pushed 
it to one side and then drove through the water. The ice had 
frozen in the short time between two o'clock, p. m., and nine o'clock 
the next morning, fully six inches thick. He also found raccoons, 
opossums, and other animals frozen to death. Walking across the logs 
they were suddenly chilled and, falling off, they were unable to move 

Travel was almost entirely suspended, and the whole county bore 
the appearance of a vast field of ice. When it was absolutely essential 
to venture out, the unshod horses were unable to make any progress and 
very little use was made of them. This remarkable event fixes the date of 
many occurrences in the history of the county. It is yet vividly remem- 
bered by the residents of that date who relate many interesting reminis- 
cences concerning it. 

The original townships, as given in the county records, are Otter 
Creek, Maquapin, Centre, Apple Creek, Diamond Grove, and Mauvais- 
terre. Of these two are now in Jersey County, two in Greene, and two 
in Morgan. In 1832 the precincts were quite differently named. _Ma- 
quapin, Otter Creek, and Apple Creek remain, but we have in addition 
Eastern, Carrollton, Piasa, and Mount Airy. The following table of 
election returns, taken from the records, will show the vote of the county 
and its precincts in 1838. It seems that in the Fall of 1838, by a clerical 
error in the return of votes to the Secretary of State, the number of 
votes cast for Stephen A. Douglas, for representative in Congress, was 
incorrectly stated, whereupon the "Little Giant" appeared before the 
County Commissioners and asked that a correct return be made. The 
court therefore ordered the clerk to make return to the Secretary of 
State, as follows : 

Stephen A. John T. John 

PRECINCTS. Douglas. Stevens. Stevens. 

Mt. Aiiy -- 85 36 -- 

Jerseyville So 85 

Richwoods — 74 47 - 

Camden - 25 74 -- 

Wilmington... 7° 13 -- 

Piasa - 36 59 -- 

Eastern 84 45 

Apple Creek 95 48 

Lorton's Prairie 1S6 135 - 

Kane 40 46 -- 

Otter Creek 4 42 

Bluffdale 12 63 .. 

Carrollton 5^8 254 67 

Total -I359 902 112 

It will be seen that at this time Carrollton contained more than one- 
third of the population of the county. 

About this time a wave of financial excitement seemed to flow over 
the whole west. A desire for enlargement, improvement, rapid growth, 
sudden money making took possession of the people and showed itself 
in various ways, most of which resulted disastrously. The first indica- 
tion that this affliction had reached Greene County was the rage for lay- 
ino- out towns, which manifested itself about the year 1836. Every- 



where, along the river and highways, and even in remote, out-of-the-way 
phaces, towns were hiid out and beautifully executed plats were drawn 
and printed, and adorned the walls of public buildings, while posters and 
handbills were freely circulated announcing frequent sales of corner lots, 
and settinir forth the frreat inducements offered l)y the location foi- the in- 
vestment of money. Each of these paper towns aspired at no distant 
day to become a cit}' or place of commercial importance. In each lot 
was hidden a wealth to tlie purchaser, which was sure to develop itself 
in time. There are to be found on the records of the county forty-two 
town plats. Among the projected towns which have not yet reached the 
height of their projectors' ambition may be mentioned Randolph, Hart- 
ford, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Teneriffe, Salisbury, Delaware, Concord, 
Norwalk, Columbiana, Rivesville, Centerville, Bloomfield, Homer, Ship- 
ping Point, Albany. 

The State banks issued floods of paper, prices rose enormously and 
specubition was rife. Men of foresight kept out of debt, but soon, when 
the collapse came, those who had invested heavily in corner lots were 
ruined and in their fall carried down many a Avorthy man's earthly all. 

In 1888 the county received a great accession to its treasury. The 
legislature of the State, in 1837, passed an act to inaugurate the most 
gigantic system of internal improvement that the most visionary enthu- 
siast could conceive of. By that act, entitled " An act to estal)lish and 
maintain a general system of internal improvement," in force February 
27, 1837, before the population of the State amounted to one million in- 
habitants, there was appropriated $10,300,000 to improve rivers and build 
railroads. $100,000 was to improve the Great Wabash River; $100,000 
the Illinois River; $100,000 the Rock River; $50,000 the Kaskaskia 
River, and $50,000 the Little Wabash River. There was appropriated to 
improve the great mail route between St. Louis and Vincennes, $250,000. 
To build a railroad from Cairo to the terminus of the Michigan Canal, 
$3,800,000. For a railroad from Alton to Mt. Carmel and to Equality, 
in GaUatin County, $1,600,000. To the Northern Cross Railroad from 
Quincv to the Indiana State line, $1,800,000. For a railroad from Peoria 
to Warsaw, $700,000. For a branch of the Central Railroad, $600,000. 
For a railroad from Alton to the Central Railroad, $600,000. For a rail- 
road from Belleville to Mt. Carmel, $150,000, and for a railroad from 
Bloomington, McLean County, to Mackinaw, $350,000. All that large 
amount was borrowed on the credit of the State. It was doubtless sup- 
posed that the representatives in the legislature from those sections of the 
State in which the vastamount of money wasto be appropriated, would, of 
course, not oppose the measure ; but from those counties lying outside 
of the line of the contemplated railroads it was feared that there might 
be sufficient opposition to defeat the scheme. Hence it was proposed, no 
doubt with a view of quieting opposition, to donate a certain amount of 
money in cash to those counties. In other words, to bribe the members 
to support it. Accordingly the act in one of its sections made this pro- 
vision : " There shall be appropriated the sum of $200,000 of the first 
money that shall be obtained under the provisions of this act to be drawn 
by the several counties in a ratable proportion as to the last census made, 
through which there is no railroad or canal to be made at the expense or 
cost of the State of Illinois, which said money shall be expended in the 


improvement of roads, constructing bridges and other works." The rep- 
resentatives from Greene County were Franklin Witt, Cyrus A. Davis 
and Revelle W. English. The bribe could not seduce them from the path 
of duty. They voted against the bill, as did the senators, Gen. James 
Turney and John Allen. The sum of $30,250 was Greene County's por- 
tion of the ^200, 000. The Commissjoners' Court, through agents ap- 
pointed for that purpose, loaned the money out in violation of the law. 
With a portion of it, however, the bridges spanning Apple and Macoupin 
Creeks were built. Another portion was appropriated towards improv- 
ing the roads from Carrollton and White Hall to the mouth of Apple 
Creek, by throwing up embankments through the river bottom and bridg- 
ing lakes, scarcely a vestige of which work is now to be seen. A portion 
in less amounts was appropriated to build small bridges, another portion 
went in the shape of agents' commissions, and still another portion was 
never collected. The Macoupin and Apple Creek bridges, which are 
still in use, were about the only permanent benefit the county received 
from the fund. 

It was another manifestation of the same spirit that originated the 
movement which brought about the division of the county. Jerseyville 
was a new town, and those interested in her prosperity thought that 
nothing would do more to give an upward impulse to the price of lots 
than the location of a court house in that village. If a new county were 
formed from the southern half of Greene County, Jerseyville would be- 
come the county seat, and hence rapidly grow. It is also said that some 
points north of Carrollton favored the movement in the hope that the 
county seat of Greene County might thereby be moved. To these argu- 
ments was added the more substantial and cogent reason that the county 
was too large for convenience or effective organization. An effort was 
made to divide the county in 1836, but although the bill passed the Gen- 
eral Assembly, it was rejected by the people. In 1838 it was again 
brought up, and an act dividing the county was passed by the legislature 
and submitted to the people. The northern and southern portions of the 
county voted for the division, but the central district was opposed to the 
measure. The vote taken August 5, 1839, stood as follows : 

For erection of Jersey County - 1239 

Against erection of Jersey County 7^4 

Majority for . 525 

During the year 1837, Nathaniel Graves, a prominent citizen of Pike 
County, committed a deliberate murder. He was arrested and brought 
before the Circuit Court in that county. The case was brought by 
change of venue from- that county to Greene County, where the trial took 
place" before Judge Jesse B. Thomas, in June, 1838. The case was one 
of the most important that had engaged the attention of the court for 
many years, and Stephen A. Douglas, Thomas H. Benton, and other dis- 
tinguished advocates Avere employed upon it. Every device known to 
law was employed to clear the prisoner, but without avail, and he was 
sentenced to be hanged on Wednesday, October 3, 1838. The prisoner 
was remanded to jail, and to all appearances devoted himself to making 
preparations for death. The jail then in use by tlie county was the plain 


structure now used by the city of Carrollton for a city prison, and it was 
cont^idered quite secure. The time wore on until the Sunday before the 
dav appointed for the execution. Graves was visited by his brother and 
other friends, and appeared resigned to death. At night he divided what 
money he had among the guards, saying he would have no more use for 
it. The next morning Graves and a young man named Thurston, who 
had been serving out a jail sentence, were gone; a small hole had been 
dug through the floor under the wall and so out. But it was very small, 
and many\vho saw it felt confident that no man ever crawled through it. 
It was quite generally suspected that money was used with some one to 
assist him to escape. Graves was never recaptured, and so effected a 
most remarkable escape from the gallows. Thurston afterward returned, 
and related the adventures of himself and Graves in making their escape 
from the county ; but he would never tell by wliat means they made their 
exit from the jail. Graves was afterward heard of in Mississippi, where 
he is believed to have died but a few years ago. 

In 1837, or 1838, Amos H. Squires was appointed treasurer of the 
county. He had occupied positions of trust before, and was regarded by 
every one as one of the most upright and substantial men of the county. 
Two or three years after his appointment, having about $3,000 in his 
hands, he absconded, and for a year or more could not be found. At last 
he was apprehended for trial, and in the April term, 1844, the county 
brought an action for debt against him and his bondsmen. Alfred Hin- 
ton, John W. Scott, Wyiie Wilder, William Rainey, and Young \yood. 
The suit was successful, and the county obtained a verdict of .$3,038.48. 
A new trial was granted, and the case was taken to Jersey County. The 
final result was that by means of some technicality, Squiies escaped pun- 
ishment, and the county pocketed the loss. 


When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, Greene County promptly 
answered the call for volunteers. Monday, June 22, the Carrollton 
Guards, composed of eighty-one men, set out for Alton, in wagons fur- 
nished by the citizens of the county. They bore with them a handsome 
flag presented by the ladies of Carrollton, William Sharon making the 
presentation speech and S. S. Chester responding in behalf of the com- 
pany. Tlie men went into camp at Alton, where they were joined 
by a company from Morgan County, under Gen. John J. Hardin, and by 
other companies from other directions. While at Alton both of these 
commands became part of the 1st Illinois Regiment. Gen. John^J. 
Hardin was chosen Colonel. Of the Carrollton Guards, Col. Jacob Fry 
was elected Captain, iNIaj. W. C. Rainey, First Lieutenant, Col. J. C. 
Winters, Second Lieutenant, and S. S. Chester, Third Lieutenant. On 
Sunday, the 19th of July, the regiment embarked for Mempliis, and 
thence went on to Montezuma. Tlie company went through the war in 
Mexico and rendered valiant service in the battle of Buena Vista, in 
which the gallant General Hardin was killed. His death was very 
deeply regretted wherever he was known. 


At the April term of the Circuit Court of Greene County, resolutions 
were passed expressing the regret of the bar at the loss of Col, Hardin, 
and their appreciation of his abilities and admirable qualities. The 
attorneys present at this term of court were D. M. Woodson, D. A. 
Smith, C. H, Goodrich, Wm. P. Chesnut, Richard Yates, H. Dusenbury, 
A. W. Cavarly, Wm. Sharon, W. K. Titcomb, T. Barlow, Wm. Thomas, 
J. A. Chesnut, C. D. Hodges, R. L. Doyle, Wm. Bosbyshill, Giles H. 
Turner, John H. Burruss and J. M. Tillett. When it became knovvn 
that more troops were needed, Greene County promptly resjDonded, and in 
July, 1847, a second company, commanded by Capt. John Bristow, uncle 
of an ex-Secretary of the Treasury' of the United States of the same 
family name, started for the seat of war. The members of this company 
came mostly from the northern part of the county. Capt. Bristow was 
soon obliged to return on account of ill health, but both the Greene 
County companies did good service during the war. For a number of 
years the survivors of these commands have been in the habit of meeting 
annually for the purpose of reviving old memories and perpetuating old 
fellowships. The last meeting of the Mexican Veterans' Association was 
held at White Hall, September 25, 1878. Col. J. C. Winters acted as 
president and E. A. Giller as secretary. There were present sixteen 
survivors of the Mexican war and also three survivors of the Black Hawk 
war. Speeches were made bv Messrs. W. B. Ferguson, Jesse Sims, J. 
L. Stoddard, C. C. Eaton, W". B. Harper, Col. J. C. Winters and E. A. 
Giller, of the Mexican veterans, and by R. D. Gill and C. J. Whitesides, 
veterans of the Black Hawk war. The death of Arcliibald Overby, a 
Mexican veteran who had passed away during the year, was mentioned, 
and appropriate resolutions Avere passed in view of that event. The 
meeting then adjourned for a year. 

As illustrating the unyielding patriotism of the great mass of the 
citizens of the county at that time, the following, which appeared in 
the first number of the Carrollton Gazette^ June 26, 1846, is reprinted : 

" Whereas^ David Hartwell did, a few days since, make certain re- 
marks relative to the Mexican war, the purport of which was that he de- 
sired the success of the Mexicans over the Americans ; Now these are to 
certify that the citizens of Carrollton will not permit the said David Hart- 
well to live among them unless he will, publicly, retract all offensive 
language used in the premises, ask the pardon of the community, and 
promise hereafter to demean himself in a more orderly and gentlemanly 
manner. " Many Citizens. 

" Carrollton, June 22, 1846. 

" Gentlemen : I will humbly comply with the above requirements of 
yours, stated in the article above, to which your names are attached, and 
will freely and gladly retract all the wrong that has proceeded from me. 
I ask the pardon of each and every person or citizen, whose feelings 
have been hurt by me, and I will promise, in future, to live in a manner 
as orderly and gentlemanly as my humble knowledge of good breeding 
will enable me to do. David Hartwell." 

The first newspaper established in Greene County was The Back- 
woodsman. Its publication was begun in 1837, at Grafton, and Paris 


Mason was its publisher and John Russell, of Blufftlale, its editor. In 
this paper appeared many of the verses and essaj^s which have given Mr. 
Russell such a reputation as a writer. After the organization of Jerse}' 
County The Backwoodsman was removed to Jerseyville, where it was pub- 
lished by A. S. Tilden, afterward by Fletcher & Parenteau. During 
the management of the latter gentlemen the office burned down, and Ed- 
ward F. Fletcher removed to Carrollton, where he commenced the publi- 
cation of the first paper in the present limits of Greene County. This 
was the People s Advocate. It was printed in a brick building on the 
south side of the Square, now the property of George Wright, Esq. Tlie 
Carrollton Gazette, the next venture of the sort, was established in 
June, 1846, by G. B. Price, by which gentleman and his sons its publica- 
tion has ever since been continued. 

In 1847 occurred the Constitutional Convention which gave to the State 
the '' constitution of '47." To this convention Greene County sent as 
delegates, D. M. Woodson, Franklin Witt and L. E. Worcester. Messrs. 
Witt and Worcester are still living. Judge Woodson was gathered to 
his fathers in 1877. While attending the convention at Springfield Judge 
Woodson kept the people of the county informed as to the important 
transactions of the body b}-- frequent letters, whicli were published in the 
Carrollton Gazette. 

About this time the county was very much excited by the rapid rise 
and growth of the " Sons of Temperance," and " Cadets of Tem- 
perance," 'secret societies composed largely of young persons. This is 
the first temperance revival of which we have any record in the county, 
and although it promised much and did accomplish some good, it was 
short lived. 

The first fair ever held in Greene County occurred in the Fall of 
1839. The place selected was the pasture now owned by George 
Wright, Esq., just north of his residence in Carrollton. Here a small 
collection of huge vegetables, some specimens of grain and fruits, and a 
very respectable show of stock was gathered and enclosed in a ring of 
rope. There was no entrance fee and one day was sufficient for award- 
ing all the premiums. Those who were present who felt able to do so 
were expected to contribute one dollar each toward the expenses of the 
occasion. At the same time a ladies' department was arranged in the 
grand jury room of the court house. Here bedquilts and the niceties of 
cookery and needle craft were displayed, admired and criticised. The 
only facts we have been able to learn as to the premium list are that 
Mrs. Brace (mother of J. E. Brace, Esq.,) was awarded the first premium 
for best specimen of home made flannel, and that George L., 
Esq. took the first and J. B. Eldred, Esq., the second premium for boar 
pigs. Steplien Spencer was one of the committee on fine wool sheep and 
John W. Huitt one of the judges on horses. The next year a similar 
display was made and a large attendance secured, but after that no fairs 
were held in the county until the organization of the Association in 1854. 

The charter of the Jacksonville & Carrollton Railroad was granted 
in 1851, but the first effort to raise money for its construction was during 
the next year. At a meeting~of the commissioners of the road, held in 
Jacksonville Monday, September 13, 1852, Hon. D. M. Woodson in 
the chair, it was " resolved that books for the subscription of the capital 


stock be opened from and after the fifteenth da}^ of September, 1852, at 
Carrollton, under the control and direction of A. W. Cavarly, C. D. 
Hodges, and F. P. Vedder, at such time as they may deem proper. At 
White Hall under the control and direction of L. E. Worcester, Asbury 
Davis, and Emanuel Metcalf, at such time as they may deem proper. At 
Kane under the control and direction of Z. H. Adams and N. M. Perry, 
at such time as they may deem proper. At Jerseyville under the control 
and direction of A. B. Morean, C. H. Knapp, and J. Ploughman, at such 
time as they may deem proper. At Alton under the control and direc- 
tion of George T. Brown, Edward Keating, and Levi Davis, at such time 
as they may deem proper. At Manchester under the control and direc- 
tion of Jas. Clinton, W. S. Andrews, and A. Hicks, at such time as they may 
deem proper. At Jacksonville under the control and direction of D. A. 
Smith, J. J. Cassell, and W. B. Warren, at such time as they may deem 

The corporators of the road were D. M. Woodson, Philip Coffman, 
D. A. Smith, A. W. Cavarly, Alex. B. Morean, Wm. B. Warren, A. C. 
Dixon, S. M. Prosser, Murray McConnell, W. S. Hurst, Joe Dunlap, and 
Edward Keating. In December, 1853, they announced that, as the pro- 
vision of the charter, requiring the subscription of $100,000, had been 
complied with, a meeting of the stockholders would be held at Carrollton 
on the 2Tth of that montli, for the purpose of organization. At this 
time the following directors were chosen: James Berdan, Simeon Ross, 
D. M. Woodson, A. B. Morean, George T. Brown. Hon. D. M. Woodson 
was elected President. At this time there was a great deal of enthusiasm 
for the road, and one paper announced its belief that cars would be run- 
ning from Carrollton to Alton in eighteen months. It was nearer eighteen 
years before the prediction was realized. Meetings were held in the 
various towns, and a surveyor, Josiah T. Hunt, was at once set at work 
on the route, and finished his survey by June, 1854. Some difficulty soon 
ensued as to the terminus of the road. Alton City subscribed |100,000, 
on condition that the terminus should be in that city. Afterward the 
company saw the value of an outlet to St. Louis, and decided to extend 
the line to that city. The rivalry between St. Louis and Alton was then 
■very bitter, and the latter city at once withdrew its subscription. For 
several years the struggle to raise money enough to warrant the directors 
in contracting the road continued. Appeals through the press, personal 
solicitations, public meetings, and every means was tried, but still the 
work dragged. Year after year passed by, until the patience of the peo- 
ple was nearly exhaused. When the collection of the amounts subscribed 
was begun there was more delay and difficulty. Work was finally com- 
menced at Jacksonville, in 1858, and in 1860 cars were running as far south 
as Manchester. Two years more were occupied in building it to White 
Hall, and by this time the war so engrossed the attention and energy of 
the county that the connection with the main line, at Godfrey, was not 
made until 1865. Meantime the name of the road had been changed to 
the St. Louis, Jacksonville & Chicago Railroad, and it was shortly leased 
by the Chicago & Alton road, which thereby obtained its much coveted 
direct communication with St. Louis. 

The movement which resulted in building the railroad running from 
Rock Island to St. Louis, now known as the St. Louis branch of the 


Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, began as early as 1858. The 
eastern part of the county was thoroughly aroused on the subject, and 
money was freely subscribed. The iniluence of the points interested 
was sufficiently great to secure the voting of $50,000 to tiie road by the 
countv, and this with amounts otherwise raised secured the road. 
White Hall contributed $10,000 and obtained the crpssing; Greenfield 
paid $15,000, and other parts of the county lesser sums. A portion of 
the road was at once built, but soon the lack of funds caused a halt. In 
18G8 a new charter was obtained, and from this time the work of con- 
struction was pushed vigorously forward, until in 1871 it was completed. 
This road has contributed very considerably to the prosperity of White 
Hall, has greatly aided Greenfield, and may be said to have created 
Wrightsville and Rockbridge. A cross road from Greenfield to Carroll- 
ton and thence to the Illinois River is now greatly needed. Such a line 
could be very cheaply constructed and its completion only a question of 

In March, 1855, it is recorded that the county was out of debt, but 
it did not remain in this condition for any great length of time. Within 
a very few years Greene County had voluntarily placed upon its shoulders 
a debt of $200,000. The first quarter of this was a subscription of 
$50,000 in aid of the Jacksonville, Alton & St. Louis Railroad ; the 
second $50,000 was voted to the Rockford, Rock Island & St. Louis road, 
and during the rebellion $100,000 was expended in hiring substitutes for 
such of the citizens of the county as might be drafted for service in the 
army. The first was paid in March, 1875, the third in four installments, 
of which the last was paid in 1870, and the second is still due, and pay- 
able in 1880. 

From 1850 to 1855 or 1856 Abraham Lincoln, Richard Yates, and 
Stephen A. Douglas, as well as many other men who afterward occupied 
very prominent positions in the nation's history, were frequent visitors to 
this county. They often appeared, in their pi'ofessional capacit}^ during 
the sessions of the Circuit Court, and in time of political excitement 
made many open air speeches, at various points in the county. Many of 
our old citizens were intimately acquainted with these statesmen. 

In May, 1855, some skillful burglars entered the office of the county 
clerk, and, by the use of powder, succeeded in forcing open the safe. 
They escaped with $11,300 and were never apprehended. During this 
year the county became heir to a singular propertv. Dr. Titus Cornwell, 
at one time a resident of the county, had remoyed to New York, and 
there died. When his will was opened it was found that the doctor had 
devised four fifths of all his property in Illinois — estimated at from seven 
to ten thousand dollars — to Greene County, Illinois, to be used in this 
way : The property was to form a fund to be invested, the interest of 
which the testator directed should be used in the purchase of physiolog- 
ical and hygienic books, to be freely distributed among the public schools 
of the county. The other fifth of his Illinois property he divided between 
two medical institutions. I can not find that the Greene County schools 
ever received any benefit from this fund, although Dr. Cornwell especially 
directed that the income of the fund should l)e devoted to the specified 
use "for one hundred years at least." The population of the county 
during this year is given as about 14,000. 


In 1862, when President Lincoln called for additional troops to aid 
in suppressing the rebellion in the South, Greene County answered with 
her usual promptness. Col. Jacob Fry's experiences and skill as a leader 
was again called into use and he was commissioned a Colonel, and author- 
ized to raise a regiment to rendezvous at Carrollton. Three companies 
offered themselves and were accepted ; the first, Company A, was com- 
manded by Captain Annon P. Ohr, who had been editing the Carrollton 
Press; the second, Company B, was headed by Captain Martin Mann, 
and the third, Company G, was led by Captain (afterwards Colonel) 
Jerome B. Milton. The remainder of the regiment came from other 
counties. The regiment was mustered into service in 1862, and for some 
months remained in camp at the Fair Grounds, just east of Carrollton. 
Soon, however, the orders came to march to the front, where the Greene 
County boys did noble service for the old flag. Conpany A, out of 
respect for the Hon. D. M. Woodson, called themselves the " Woodson 
Guards," in recognition of which honor Judge Woodson presented them 
with a handsome flag, which they bore through the war. The whole 
number of soldiers in the Sixty-First Regiment Illinois Volunteers, from 
Greene County, at its organization, was three hundred and sixty-six, of 
whom eighty died while in service or were slain in 'battle. The whole 
number of men who served in the Union Army, from Greene County, 
was 1,371. Of these 87 were in the 12th Illinois Cavalry, 84 in the 14th 
Illinois Infantry, 99 in the 32d, 352 in the 91st, 72 in the 122d, 74 in the 
133d, 47 in the 144th, 108 in the 59th, and 84 in the 1st Missouri Cav- 
alry. Of these 17 per cent., or 195, died from disease or were killed during 
the war. For farther particulars see war record, farther on. 


The census reports indicate that the number of inhabitants in the 
county increased more rapidly between the years 1830 and 1840 than 
between either of the other periods. When the census of 1830 was 
taken, which amounted to 7,674, Jersey County was still attached to 
Greene; but in 1840, with Jersey detached, the population of the county 
amounted to 11,951, Jersey at the same time having 4,515 inhabitants. 
The population of Greene, between the years 1830 and 1840, must have 
increased at least 115 per cent. In 1850 the population of the county 
was 12,429, being an increase from 1840 of 20 per cent. In 1860 it 
amounted to 16,093, being an increase from 1850 of 30 per cent., and in 
1870 it was 20,270, an increase from 1860 of 26 per cent. 

In 1876 the county contained 3,850 taxpayers. The comparative 
slowness of the increase of late years is attributable, perhaps, to two 
causes. In the first place, when, the county was first settled, Illinois 
was on the western frontier, and very few emigrants pushed farther on 
toward the setting sun. Now, not only emigrants from the East pass by 
the comparatively old regions of Illinois, for the new lands beyond, but 
many of the residents of Greene County every year follow the_ tide of 
emigration and the star of empire westward. Still farther, it is to be 
considered that Greene County was very largely settled by persons of 


wealth, who purchased large tracts of land, These still remain in the 
family of the original purchaser, and tiie county contains comparatively 
few small farms. But this state of affairs is rapidly changing. Death 
and other fortuitous circumstances are causing tiie division of many large 
estates, and there will then be room for many more small farmers. There 
are very few counties in the State of more wealth in proportion to the 
number of inhabitants it contains. According to the census report of 
1870, the value of all farm productions in the county amounted to 
S2.")07,o50, of course a very low estimate. Tiie value of the farms in 
in the county was then stated to be 811,007,884. The same report gives the 
following figures: Acres of improved land, 175,408, woodland, 93,242, 
other unTm proved land, 26,653. Of winter wheat there were raised 577,400 
bushels, of rye, 415 bushels, of Indian corn, 1,051,318 bushels, oats, 

The following figures taken from the Assessor's books for 1878, show 
approximately the present worth of the county, although such estimates 
are alwavs very largelv below the truth : 

Horses, 7,362, valued at 8238,405 ; cattle, 19,289, valued at 8244,- 
710 ; mules and asses, 1,487, valued at 854,485 ; sheep, 8,543, valued at 
$11,340; hogs, 27,928, valued at $37,645; steam engines, including 
boilers, 29, valued at $850 ; fire and burglar safes, 11, valued at 82,310 ; 
billiard, pigeon-hole, etc. tables, 6, valued" at 8185 ; carriages and wagons, 
2,410, valued at 856,430; watches and clocks, 887, value, $3,815 ; sewing 
and knitting machines, 993, value, $11,460 ; pianos, 137, value, 89,890 ; 
melodeons and organs, 142, value, 83,955 ; total value enumerated 
property, 8684,480. Merchandise, 8130,580 ; material and man- 
ufactured articles, $5,325 ; manufactured tools, implements and 
machinery, 88,420 ; gold and silver plate and plated ware, $6,500 ; dia- 
monds and jewelry, $^4,000; money of banks, bankers, brokers, etc. $40,435; 
credits of the same, $15,335 ; moneys of other than bankers, etc., $210,545; 
credits of same, $152,195; bonds and stocks, 85,700 ; agricultural imple- 
ments, 83,941 ; property of corporations not enumerated, 83,00U ; prop- 
erty of saloons and eating houses, $3,500 ; household and office property, 
$77,730 ; investments in real estate and improvements thereon, $6,905 ; 
all other property, $2,680 ; total value of unenumerated property, 8696,- 
900 ; total value of personal property, 81,381,380. Improved lands, 
265,776 acres, value, $4,306,525 ; average value per acre, $16.20 ; unim- 
proved lands, 77,421 acres, value $266,020 ; average value per acre, $3.44; 
total lands, 343,197, value, 84,572,545, average value per acre, $13.32; 
No. of improved lots, 2,094, value, $644,730 ; average value per lot, 
$307,89 ; unimproved lots, 1,315, value, $28,230 ; average value per lot, 
$21.47; town and city lots, 3,409, value, $672,960; average value per 
lot, 8197.41 ; total value of personal property, lands and lots,_$6,626,885. 
Acres in cultivation, etc., in 1877 : wheat, 52,957 ; corn, 75,789 ; oats, 
4,754; meadows, 19,514 ; other field products, 2,056; acres inclosed pas- 
ture, 69,097 ; acres in orchard, 3,571 ; acres in woodland, 113,927. Total 
value of all railroad property assessed in Greene County, $6,628,185 ; 
assessed value of railroad proi)erty in Greene County tor 1878 : Chicago 
& Alton, No. of miles, 38 ; St. Louis, R. L & Chicago, 23. Assessed 
value, excluding buildings, C. & A., $240,795 ; St. L., R. I. & C, $o3,- 
625 ; value of buildings on right of way, C. & A., $1,804 ; St. L., R. I. «fc 



C, 11,107; rolling stock, C. & A., 853,584; St. L., $14,674 ; total assess- 
ment by State Board of Equalization, C. & A., $306,087 ; St. L.$72.- 
847. Equalized value of all railroad property in the county, C. & C, 
307,847 ; St. L., $73,322. 

The report of the State Auditor gives the following table of local 
indebtedness in Greene County : 



>'~ ^ 

«; — t- D rt 

5.3 aui-S 


$ 7.067,358 







a> 00 

$ 50,000 

City, village, 
and incorp'd 
town indebt- 
edness, July 
I, 1878. 

School district 
ness, July i, 

Total indebt- 
edness out- 
July I, 1878. 

Greene County. 

Town 9 & lo, N. 

" II ' 

R.! low""! 

lO w 

10 w 

11 vv 

' IIW 

' II w 

' IIW 

12 W 

12 W 

12 W 

12 W 

13 & 14 w 
' 13 & 14 W 
' 13 & 14 w 

' !■? & 14 W 

S 3.55S 

$ 3.500 

$ 50,000 
1 7.058 


9 ' 
lO ' 




" II ' 




9 • 

lO ' 



12 ' 

8 & 9 




lO ' 

II ' 

12 ' 




$ 50,000 

$ 13,808 

$ 42,775 


From the Date of its Organization in 1821, to 1879, 

Furnished by Geo. H. Harlow, Secretary of State. 


John G. Lofton. 
Thomas Carlin. 
Jacob Waggoner. 
Robert Avery. 
John G. Lofton. 
A. Bowman. 
Abraham Bowman. 
Young Wood. 
Christian Link. 
Samuel Lee, Jr. 
Alfred M. Cavarly. 
Robert Avery. 
Christian Link. 
Young Wood. 


February 12, 1821, 


. County Judge, 

April 14, 1821, . 

Sheriff, . . 

a u il 

. Coroner, 

July 2, 


August 11, " 

. Recorder, . 

June 27, 1822, 

County Judge, 

August 22, " 

. County Judge, 

September 5, 1822, 


u (( a 

. Coroner, 

January 13, 1823, . 


February 17, " 

County Judge, 

May 7, " . 


September 2, 1824, 


December 30, " 

. Sheriff, . . 




January 6, 1825, 
- 18, 

ki (( 

September 25, 1826, 
December 5, "" 
March 29, 1827, . 
October 13, '' 
December 14, 1827, 
September 11, 1828, 

January 23, 1829, 

(( (( ki 

February 17, 1830, 
August 30, 

September 28, " 
January " 1831, 
February 10, 1831, 
September 5, 1832, 

August 16, 1834, 


ki a 

January 24, 1835, 
February 12, 
August 13, 



18, 1836, 

k( (( 

September 11, 183 
October 17, " 
August 24, 1838, 

k( u 


August 17, 1839, 

H ii ii. 

H (( (( 

" " 1840, 

(( (( n 


n n, n 

" 25, 1843, 

7, 1841, 

8, 1842, 

'' 26, 1844, 
27, " 
September 3, " 
May 21, 1845, 
August 27, 1846, 

(k II 



Public Administrator 

County Judge, . 



County Judge, 


Public Administrator 

Sheriff, .... 

Coroner, ... 

Survey 01, . . . 

Public Administrator 






Public Administrator 

Sheriff, .... 


Coroner, . . 

Sheriff, . . 


County Judge, 


Surveyor, . 



County Judge, 

Sheriff, . . 


Sheriff, . 

Coroner, . 

County Judge, 






Sheriff, . 

Coroner, . 

County Judge, 



Coroner, . 



Public Administrator, 

Sheriff, .... 

Coroner, . . . . 


William Scott. 
John Allen. 
Alfred M. Cavarly. 
Christian Link. 
Young Wood. 
John Brown. 
Robert Avery. 
Samuel C. Pierce. 
Jacob Fr3\ 
Peter Fronk. 
Samuel Smith. 
Samuel C. Pierce. 
William B. Whittaker. 
Philip N. Rampy. 
Jacob Fry. 
John W. Skidmore, 
John Evans. 
William Carlin. 
Jacob Fry. 
John X. Whitlock. 
John Whitlock. 
Jacob Fry. 
Job Collins. 
Lewis W Link. 
David Pierson. 
Job Collins. 
Jacob Fry. 
James G. Berry. 
David Meade Woodson. 
Young Woodv 
J. M. Hurd. 
John D. Fry. 
John N. Whitlock. 
Calvin Tunnell. 
Charles Lancaster. 
C. C. Dodge. 
Hugh Jackson. 
John N. Whitlock. 
John D. Fry. 
Hugh Jackson. 
James Hopkins. 
Mathias S. Link. 
John D. Fry. 
Christopher C. Dodge. 
John N. Whitlock. 
John N. Whitlock. 
Hugh Jackson. 
Jolm S. Fry. 
Hugh Jackson. 
Richard Ellis. 






August 27 

, 1846, . 

Recorder, . . 

Abram Spencer. 

January 4 

,1847, . 

Public Administrator, 

John S. Fry. 

August 9, 



Abraham Spencer. 

(( a 


Surveyor, .... 

William H. Ellis. 

" 18, 


County Judge, . . 

Mathias S. Link. 

" 17, 

1848, . 


Zachariah A. Morrow. 

" 23, 


Coroner, .... 

James Medford. 


13, 1849, 

Count}^ Judge, 

Mathias S. Link. 



Clerk County Court, 

Francis P. Vedder. 



Surveyor, . . . 

William H. Ellis. 


i( a 

Coroner, .... 

R. R. Nickels. 

Elected Sept. 4, 1848, 

Clerk Circuit Court, 

William Carlin. 


20, 1850, 

Sheriff, .... 

William Halbut. 



Coroner, .... 

Marshall Dulaney. 


10, 1851, 


Samuel Heaton. 


23, 1852, 


Zachariah A. Morrow. 



Coroner, .... 

Marshall Dulaney. 



Clerk Circuit Court, 

Abram Spencer. 


16, 1853, 

Count}^ Judge, . . 

Charles D. Hodges. 


a u 


County Justice, . . 

L. E. Worcester. - 



County Justice, 

Thos. I. Short. 


(; ii 

County Clerk, 

F. P. Vedder. 


(4 (( 


County Surveyor, . 

S. Heaton. 

School Commissioner, 

Jos. Pierson. 


13, 1874, . 


Hugh Jackson. 


a 4; 


Coroner, .... 

Marshall Dulany. 


14, 1855, . 

Surveyor, .... 

Samuel Heaton. 


17, 1856, 

Circuit Clerk, . . 

Abraham Spencer. 


(( (( 


Lemuel J. Potterson. 



Coroner, .... 

Marshall Dulany. 


" 1857, . 

County Judge, . . 

Charles D. Hodges. 



" Justice, . . 

Linus E. Worcester. 



• • 

Thomas J. Short. 



" Clerk, . . 

Francis P. Vedder. 



Surveyor, .... 

Henry Bonfoy. 

County Treasurer, . 

William L. Green. 

School Commissioner, 

Joseph Pierson. 



t " " 

James B. Samuel. 


30, 1858, . 


Jordan Larkin. 



Coroner, .... 

Anderson Headrick. 

March 2, 

1859, . . 

County Judge, . . 

Thomas H. Boyd. 

November 18, 1859, . 

" Justice, . . 

Levi T. Whiteside. 


(4 a 


Surveyor, .... 

Henry Bonfoy. 


County Treasurer, . 

William L. Green. 


School Commissioner, 

Stephen F. Corrington. 


15, 1860, . 

Circuit Clerk, . . . 

James S. Vedder. 


44 44 


Sheriff, .... 

Jacob Bowman. 


44 44 


Coroner, .... 

Anderson Headrick. 


14, 1861, 


Jehosaphat E. Bridges. 


44 44 


County Judge, . . 

Thomas H. Boyd. 






November 14, 1861, 
December 6, " 

(( Ck ii 

November 13, 1862, 

20, 1863, 

December 8, 1864, 
November IT, 1865, 

12, 1866, 

20, 1867, 
17, 1868, 

December 2, 1869, 


3, 1870, 

(( U kl 

November 16, 1871, 

a a It, 

20, 1872, 


March 21, 1873, . 
November 17, 1873, 

(( (.i 

it (,i 

January " 1874, 


ii il, 

November 21, 1874, 

August 21, 
November 26, 1875, 

a n 


'' Clerk, 
Survej'or, . . 
County Justice, 

Coroner, . . 

School Commissioner 
County Treasurer, . 
Circuit Clerk, 

County Judge, 
County Clerk, 
" Judge, 
Circuit Clerk, 
Sheriff, . 
Coroner, . 
County Judge, 
Associate Justice, 

County Clerk, 

" Treasurer, . 
Surveyor, . . 
Supt. of Schools, . 
Sheriff, .... 
Coroner, .... 
County Treasurer, 
Surveyor, .... 
Circuit Clerk, . 
Sheriff, .... 
State's Attorney, . 
Supt. of Schools, . 
County Judge, 

" Clerk, . . 

" Treasurer, 
Supt. of Schools, . 
County Commissioner, 





Coroner, .... 
State's Attorney, 
County Treasurer, . 
County Commissioner, 


William A. Davis. 
Henry Bonfoy. 
John Rugle. 
Rol)ert Green. 
William L. Green. 
John D. Jack. 
Paiham Thraxton. 
L. M. Dyer. 
Stephen F. Corrington. 
Nathaniel J. Andrews. 
Thomas J. Carlin. 
George W. Coonrod. 
Thomas H. Boyd. 
Samuel Heaton. 
George W. Davis. 
Alfred Hinton. 
Thomas Wright. 
S. Foster Green. 
Jay C. White. 
Thomas J. Carlin. 
James S. Vedder. 
Henry Nash. 
John Rugle. 
F. M. Fishback. 
J. H. Rives. 
Geo. W. Davis. 
N. J. Andrews. 
J. C. AVhite. 
C. A. Worley. 
Francis M. Bell. 
Henry P. Nash. 
A. M. Browning. 
J. C. White. 
Thomas J. Carlin. 
N. J. Andrews. 
John J. Fitzsimmons. 
John Johns. 
Linus E. Worcester. 
Leander R. Lakin. 
Joseph Rickart. 
Mrs. Catherine Hopkins. 
Curtis W. Brace. 
Josei)h F. Ballinger. 
Wm. H. Barrow. 
John H. Green. 
Frank M. Bridges. 
Henry P. Nash. 
Henry C. Withers. 
Richard H. Short. 
William B. Robinson. 



November 26, 1875, County Commissioner, George H. Amos. 

Surveyor, .... Jay C. White. 

November 27, 1876, . State's Attorney, . James K. Ward. 

" 29, " . Sheriff, ..... John Jones. 

« « " . Coroner Anderson Headrick. 

December 1, " . County Commissioner. William M. Morrow. 

" 12, '• . Circuit Clerk, . . James H. Short. 

" 1, 1877, County Judge. . . Linus E. Worcester. 

«* *' " . " " Clerk, . . Leander R. Lakin. 

" " " . " Treasurer, . William D. GuUett. 

Supt. of Schools, . David F. King. 

December 1, 1877. . Countv Commissioner, Singleton F. Green. 

November 25. 1878, '' " " William M. Mayberry 

December 2, 1878, . Sheriff, John Jones. 

» " " . Coroner, .... Anderson Headrick. 

The Baptists in Greent: County. 

The following very clear historical sketch of the Baptists of Greene 
Countv. was written especially for this work by Rev. B. B. Hamilton, of 
White'^ Hall, whose studies and abilities eminently fit him for such a task : 

The Baptists of Greene County have always stood in the front rank 
of religious organizations. They were among the earliest settlers, and 
were g'enerallyfollowed by ministers of their own body, who gathered 
the scattered members, and organized churches as interest or convenience 
seemed to require. 

The first church was organized in Carrollton, by Elder William 
Jones, of Madison Countv, very soon after the location of the county 
seat at that place (in 1821). Of this body the late Governor Carlin was 
at one time a member ; and their first meeting house was a log cabin 
which stood not very far from the residence of Dr. J. F. Simpson. In the 
round of vears this body migrated eastward, and is now known as the 
Providence Church. It'^was originally one of the hyper-Calvinistic anti- 
Mission Churches. With this church Sears Crane united when he came 
to Illinois in 1822, and by it he was at a later period ordained as a gospel 

The first ordained Baptist minister to settle in Greene County, so 
far as I can learn, was Aaron Smith, who made his home a little north- 
west of the present site of White Hall, and gathered a church known as 
the Apple Creek Church. The date of that organization is not known, 
but it must have been in 1822, or very early 1823. For as early as April, 
1823, Aaron Smith appeared as a messenger from the Apple Creek Church 
at the organization of the Diamond Grove Church, in Morgan County. 
A meeting house was built not far from where William Carr's shop now 
stands, in'White Hall. This was a frame building, and Judge Hinton 
tells that when it was raised, and Col. Gregory, Benjamin Smith, Judge 



Cyrus Tolman and himself had mounted the coiners, the bottle was passed 
around, and Judge Tolman christened the new house " Aaron's Delight." 
Whether the name was ominous of evil or not, the church, through the 
misconduct of Charles Kitchens, one of its ministers, and the removal of 
Aaron Smith to Texas, was divided and destroyed. The meeting house 
became the property of Dr. Hudson, and is now the residence of William 
A. Porter. 

Before the breaking up of this church an " Arm," as it was called, 
had been gathered west of Roodhouse, and this " Arm " ultimately be- 
came {I church, connected at first with the Apple Creek Association, 
afterward with the Concord, and by a recent removal of its meeting 
house, is now located at Barrow Station, near the northern line of 
Greene County. John Record and Allen Murray have been for the last 
thirty years the principal ministers. Record died near Winchester several 
years since. 

The next church in the order of time was constituted at the house 
of Jehu Brown, in what is now Jersey County. It was composed of 
seven members, among whom were Mrs. Brown, Major and Amy Dod- 
son. This body was known as the Macoupin Church, and belonged to 
the Friends to Huynanity. Elder John Clark was, for nearly ten years, 
its principal minister. Major Dodson, and his sons Elijah, Fletcher and 
Ezekiel, were at various times connected with this church and officiated 
as ministers. In 1834, Elder Moses Lemen came from Monroe County 
and settled near Kane, and held the pastorship of this church for more 
than ten years. In 1838 a meeting house was begun at Homer (old 
Kane) and completed in the following year. In 1843 Joel Terry removed 
from St. Clair County to Kane, and was the minister of this church, with 
occasional intervals of rest, for nearly twenty years, or up to the time of 
his death. During this time there had been ordained Thomas A. Morton, 
Ezekiel Dodson, a7id Henry W. Manning. At a later period a new house 
was built at the station, which is now occupied by the Kane Church. 
This is the oldest missionary church in the bounds of Greene County, 
having been organized in November, 1823. It has not as large a mem- 
bership as it had forty years ago. 

For some two or three years I can not find that any addition was 
made to the numl)er of churches. But in October, 1826, David R. 
Chance gathered the Henderson's Creek Church with seven members, and 
Aaron Hicks and Chauncey Lee were the first baptized into its member- 
ship. This is now known as the While Hall Church. Its present meet- 
ing house was erected in 1838, and is now the oldest meeting house in 
use as such in the county. Its ministers have been Elijah Dodson, Alvin 
Bailey, Calvin Greenleaf, William Kinner, Joel Sweet, W. H. Briggs, 
H. T. Chilton and B. B. Hamilton, beside others who have officiated as 
occasional and stated supplies. It was on this ground that the North 
District, afterward Carrollton Association, was organized in 1827, the 
change of name occurring in 1854. 

Here, too, in 1834, the Illinois Baptist Convention, since changed to 
the General Association, was organizecl. Before the constitution of the 
present Carrollton Baptist Church, Sears Crane and his wife, Anna, were 
members of this church. Although it lias occupied a very prominent 
place among the churches of the county, it has never had a very large 


or permanent prosperity. Its membership has been small and has never 
at any time been in proportion to the population by which it was siir- 

On the 25th of February, 1827, at the house of Judge John G. Lof- 
ton, was constituted the Salem Baptist Church, with sixteen members. 
But as this was wholly in what is now Jersey County, I shall not trace 
its history or its fortunes. 

In April, 1827, was constituted the Carrollton Church, by Elijah 
Dodson, John Clark and the Lemen Brothers. The particulars ol this 
meeting are given by Dr. J. M. Peck, in his life of Father Clark, as he 
w^as familiarly called,' by the pioneers in this part of Illinois. The min- 
isters of this"^ church have Ijeen Sears Crane, who was one of its first 
members, Elijah Dodson, Alvin Bailey, J. N. Tolman, W. F. Boyakin, 
J. Buckley, D. D.. Xiles Kinne, W. D. Clark, R. F. Parshall, J. C. Bon- 
ham and John E. Roberts, besides occasional and stated supplies. It has 
always occupied a very prominent position among the Baptist churches 
of Greene county, and has been on the whole a prosperous body, reaching at 
one time a membership of over three hundred, and securing the services 
of some of the ablest ministers in this section of the State. 

Next to Carrollton stands the Hickory Grove, having the largest 
membership of any church in the county ; but the date of its organiza- 
tion is not now at hand. It has made fewer changes in its pastorate, in 
the last thirty years than any church in this county. Two ministers have 
broken the bread of life in that time — Harrison Witt, who died twenty- 
five years ago, and Samuel B. Culp, who has been its pastor ever since. 
Of course other ministers have preached here, but those named were the 
pastors during all that time, and their success has been without a parallel 
among the surrounding churches. 

In 1832 Jacob Bower gathered a church near where Woodville now 
is. Of this church Mashek Browning was clerk, and afterward became a 
preacher and was ordained ; but in consequence of some misunderstanding 
in regard to this matter, and also in regard to membership in the Blue 
River Association, the Mt. Gilead Church was divided, the party working 
with Browning going to the Apple Creek Association, and the party adher- 
ing to Jacob Bower remaining in the Blue River Association. These 
churches still remain in the same neighborhood, and both retain the same 
name. At some periods they have both been nearly extinct and at other 
times have flourished exceedingly. Several attempts have been made to 
bring them together, and although the original parties have nearly^ all 
died or moved away, the survivors can not be reconciled. At this time 
the two churches do not number one hundred members. 

It was with the Woodville body that the meeting of the Apple Creek 
Association occurred in which Harrison Witt, M. Browning, and J. V. 
Rhoads took the side of missionary effort, and John Record and Stephen 
Coonrod took the Antinomian side of the controversy, and this led to the 
formation of the Concord Association ; while the Apple Creek body 
began to approximate more nearly to the Missionary, a point not reached 
however for several years. 

The Sangamon "Association was formed in 1823 — the Apple Creek 
was formed in 1830 from the Sangamon, and both bodies were Anti- 
Mission. The latter covered the territory embraced in the Coimties of 


Greene, Macoupin, Madison. Bond and St. Clair. The Concord Associa- 
tion had three churches in Greene County, Hopewell on the west side of 
Apple Creek, now extinct; Union, now located at Barrow, and one near 
Greenfield, over which Stephen Coonrod presided for many years. At 
"Wilrainrrton was a church connected with the Apple Creek Association, 
and to this came Jordan Whitesides, and became its pastor. Under his 
preaching the church grew strong, but in later years the pastor become a 
Universalist, the church was somewhat weakened, other ministers were 
brought in, and ultimately a division ensued. The stronger party fol- 
lowed the lead of Henry L. Johnson into the Sandy Creek Association, 
while the minority adhered to the Api)le Creek Association, but ultimately 
disbanded and reorganized at Barrow Station, leaving the other party in 
possession of the meeting house and territory. 

The date of the organization of the church at Bluffdale is not remem- 
bered, probably about 1832. To this church belonged John Russell, 
LL.D., celebrated in literature as the author of the " Worm of the Still," 
and several enjoy aljle volumes, David Woolley, and J. C. Harvey — the 
latter an ordained minister. This church was always small, and in prog- 
ress of time by deaths and removals, became extinct. Mrs. John Russell 
is at this time the only survivor of the original body. 

The Martins Prairie Church was organized in the Summer of 1842 
by Joel Sweet, Thomas Tajdor, Jacob Bower. Its meeting house was 
built in 1859, is situated five miles east of Roodhouse. Here Elijah 

Dodson, Joel Terry, H. T. Chilton, J. :\I. Wells, Wilson, T. N. 

Marsh and others have preached. With possibh-- a single exception, they 
have never had the services of a resident minister. Rev. J. B. Van preached 
in that church and resided in that neighborhood for a few months. This 
church numbers about eight}-, and is under the pastoral care of Rev. George 
Robertson, who was ordained b}" that church in the Summer of 1878. 

The Richwoods Church is situated directly east of the last — is a 
strong body — as it was when I first met its people, was then belonging to 
the Macoupin Association, but of late years has been the largest church 
in the Western Association. Here resides Elder F. W. Hicks, who has 
been for many years a member of this body — a prosperous preacher, and 
a thoroughly good man. The year in which this church was organized 
is not known to the writer hereof. 

And the same remark is true of the church at Athensville, where C. 
A. Worley preached acceptably for so many years, and where the "ban- 
ner " is now held up by John Johnson. This church numbers about sixty. 
Like the two preceding, it is in the midst of a farming community, depends 
very largeh' on the " once-a-raonth " method of supply. The same remark 
might be made of nearly all the Baptist Churches away from the towns 
and business centers in this county. Their zeal has a good deal of the 
spasmodic element in it, and is followed by seasons of coldness and 
spiritual death until the next revival season is enjoyed. 

South of this is a church on Bean Creek which has been in existence 
twenty years, organized by the Johnson Brothers, and has always been 
connected with the Sandy Creek Association. This too, is a country 
church, and keeps up its visibility by " once-a-month '' preaching, by 
which it has been al)le to exercise a wholesome influence on the minds 
and morals of the community. 


It may be desirable to remark that no o:ie thing has done so much to 
improve the graces and working power of these churches as the Sunday 
school. Of course, with many of them, the Sunday school is only a Sum- 
mer institution, but as the years go by it is found to be a necessity to 
continue these schools through the entire year, thus making, without 
speciall}^ designing it, a necessity for holding weekly meeetings. To tlieir 
credit be it said, that nearly all the churches sustain a Sunday school, 
excepting of course the small churches of the Concord Association, and 
they will most likely disappear in a few years, owing to the progress of 
events, and the increasing light of the times. 

South of this comes Greenfield with a meeting house belonging to a 
small church of the Concord Association now almost extinct. Since 
the death of Stephen Conrood this body has had very irregular meet- 
ings, and their house has been occupied for the last few 3'ears by a 
church organized here, connected with the Sandy Creek Association, by 
Wm. M. Rhoads and John Bush. This latter body, though recently 
organized, has attained a fair degree of prosperity. 

There was another church here, organized in 1851 by H. T. Chilton 
and others, connected with the Carrollton Association. This church 
united with the Cumberland Presbyterians in building a meeting house, 
which for some time was occupied jointly, but gradually both bodies failed, 
and the building was sold to the Town and occupied as a Town Hall. 
Here the Carrollton Association met in 1853. The membership of this 
church was always small, and death and removals scattered the few who 

East of this, at Fayette, is a small church connected with the Macou- 
pin Association, with a very comfortable frame meeting house, built very 
largely through the aid given by C. A. Worle}', who was for several years 
pastor of this body. The church is not in a very flourishing condition. 
We do not know who is the present pastor. Situated in a decaying town, 
where the business life has been drawn toward the railroad stations, it could 
not be expected to prosper or enjoy a large share of attention, drav.-n 
from the surrounding world. 

Southwest of Fayette is a small church in the Cannedy settlement 
belonging to the Sandy Creek Association. This is a recent organization, 
comparatively, and being situated nearly midway between Greenfield and 
Rockbridge, can not, in the nature of things, ever become a large church. 

At Rockbridge, under the leadership of Wm. M. Rhoads and John 
Bush, has been gathered a liighly prosperous church. A good meeting 
house has been built, and every effort is well sustained, and the spiritual 
interest is constantly increasing. 

West of this w\is a church known in early days as Taylor's Creek — 
afterward as New Hope — having sometimes nearly a hundred members, 
and then disappearing for a season. It is to be found in the minutes of 
the Apple Creek Association in 1874, and is not to be found in 1878 — 
probably its surviving members have gone into the Rockbridge and 
Providence Churches of the Sandy Creek Association. 

West of Providence and south of Carrollton is the New Bethel 
Church with eighty-nine members. This church was; originally gathered 
by Elder Elliott, but during the late war it died, and was revived again 
in 1873 in a series of meetings held bv John Costley, who reorganized the 
church and has been its pastor ever since. 



Southwest of this across the Macoupin is the New Douglas Church, 
numbering probably more than twenty members. Elder Crawford is the 
ordained minister. South and west of Woodville is the Rough Edge 
Church, belonging to the Western Association, and north of this last 
a church called Nebo, while north of Woodville is the Pacific Union — a 
church belonging to Macoupin Association, and this completes the circle 
of Baptist Churches in Greene County. 

The minutes of four Associations are before me, and with such cor- 
rections as I know to be proper, present the following summary : 

Carrollton Association, 6 Churches, 479 Members. 

Apple Creek " 6 " 426 

Sandv Creek " 10 " 753 

Macoupin " 4 " 198 

Total, - - - - 26 churches, 1,856 members. 

If to these churches we add three churches of the Western and 
two of the Concord Associations, we shall have an aggregate of thirty- 
one churches, and a membership exceeding two thousand. 

These churches have nineteen houses of worship, with sittings for 
four thousand people, one sixth of the population of Greene County, 
allowincr that to be at this time 24,000, and this is doubtless a very low 

Nearly all the meeting houses are plain frame buildings, made for 
use rather than ornament, situated in the midst of farming communities, 
many of them supplied by farmer preachers — men of sterling worth — 
who'not only preach, but practice what they preach, making themselves 
"examples to the flock." Among these ministers are quite a number 
who have received but little culture from the schools, yet are strong in 
their common sense grasp of the doctrines of the gospel, and who are 
quite as apt in their application of those truths to the consciences of men 
as they are at wringing from the soil the support they fail to receive from 
the churches. Still, with all these drawbacks, there has been an advance 
all "along the line" in the last ten years. 

This should be apparent when it is considered that in proportion to 
the population, no county in the State will present so strong a showing 
of Baptists, while on the"^ other hand, no two thousand Baptists can be 
found in the State who do so little for home and foreign missions, or 
indeed for any other benevolent work, and yet are so thoroughly active 
in working in their own localities. Time will work some radical changes 
among the Baptists of Greene County, compelling them to unite their 
scattered forces, by consolidating churches now occupying the same terri- 
tory. Take for example Barrow, with three churches in a village of 
perhaps not more than one hundred souls. If these three churches were 
united it would be possible to support a pastor all the time, and secure a 
degree of spiritual growth absolutely impossible in the present condition 
of things. There are four churches in the vicinity of Woodville that 
would be much more efficient if they were all happily blended in one 
church. And this would secure greater economy and efficiency at the 
same time. What is true in regard to these points is equally tvue in 
regard to others which we have not time to bring before the readers of 
this sketch. 


Imperfect as this sketch is, it is submitted to our friends in the liope 
that it may lead to a more careful preservation of such material as may 
be required by those who shall write the history of the denomination in 
the future. 

The Old SettleRwS Association. 

In the issue of the CarroUton G-azette, for September 30, 1871, the 
following invitation was published : 

"Old Settlers' Meeting. — As the matter has been so often 
spoken of in the papers, and by a large number of the old settlers of 
Greene County, and it would seem appropriate that such a meeting should 
be held on my farm, a cordial invitation is hereby extended to all citizens 
who were residents of the county before the 'deep snow,' to assemble in 
the grove one quarter of a mile south of my residence (it being on the 
south end of the first eighty acres of land settled in this county), on 
Saturday, October 21, 1871,^ at ten o'clock A. M. The object of the 
meeting will be to organize an • Old Settlers' Association ' for Greene 
County, and to listen to addresses appropriate for the occasion.. Should 
the weather prove unfavorable for an out-door meeting at the time, I am 
requested to say that the meeting will be held at the court house, in 
Carrollton, instead of the grove on my premises. As this matter has 
now been so generally agreed upon by our old citizens, it is expected that 
a large and interesting meeting will be held, and that all will give special 
heed to this first meeting of the old settlers. Respectfully, 

" Samuel Thomas." 

The 21st of October was a bright, pleasant day, and about one 
hundred and fifty old settlers, together with a large concourse of younger 
persons, assembled in the beautiful Thomas Grove, southwest of Carroll- 
ton. This wood is located on the south end of the first eighty acres of 
land entered by Mr. Thomas in 1818, and selected as a squatter's claim 
some time previous. At about eleven o'clock the Carrollton Cornet Band 
played an old time selection, and the company was called to order by 
David Pierson, Esq. Col. Jacob Bowman was chosen chairman, and on 
taking the chair, invited Rev. C. J. Gardiner to offer prayer. " This 
venerable and reverend gentleman kneeled upon the grass and leaves in 
front of the speaker's stand, and, while the many aged heads were bowed, 
a solemnity was manifested befitting the occasion, and words appropriately 
impressive were uttered, invoking the blessing of God upon those whose 
lives had been so long spared in his mercy, and beseeching a continuance 
of divine favor. The chair then suggested that the appointment of a 
committee on permanent organization would be in order. Whereupon 
Messrs. David 'Pierson, Thomas Black, C. J. Gardiner, Jordan Howard, 
and T. J. Short were chosen. On motion, Hon. D. M. Woodson, Judge 
A. Hinton, Peter Hobson, Isham Linder, and Martin Bowman were 
selected as a committee on resolutions. At this point, the chairman, 
than whom there is none more skilled in the management of a dinner 
party, remarked that the committees would need some little time in 
which to prepare their reports — that the good wives and daughters were 
present with bountifully ladened baskets — that the hour had arrived and 
the tables would be spread upon the green, and, while the band struck 
up another good old tune, the meeting adjourned for dinner.'' The 


dinner was bonntiful in quantity, dainty in preparation, and the best in 
quality, and was thoroughly enjoyed by all. After an intermission of an 
hour, the band rendered another selection, whereupon Col. Bowman 
called the meeting to order, and asked for the report of the committee 
on permanent organization. David Pierson, Esq., chairman, presented 
the following: 

Your committee would respectfully recommend — 

1. That a society be formed to be denominated "Old Settlers' Society of Greene 

County. " 

2. That the officers consist of a President, ten Vice Presidents, a Secretary, and a 


3. That the following persons be chosen as such officers : President, Capt. Richard 
Robley, of Hiuffdale ; Vice Presidents, Samuel Thomas, Judge Alfred Hinton, Gen. Jacob Fry, 
Maj. J. C. C. Parks. Anthony Potts, Peter Hobson, Martin Bowman, Rev. C. J. Gardiner, 
judge Thomas J. Short, David Pierson; Secretary, II. L. Clay; Treasurer, Col. Jacob 

Remarks, consisting, in the main, of interesting personal reminiscences, 
by Samuel Thomas, Judge Alfred Hinton, ]\Iaj. J. C. C. Parks, Gen. 
Jacob Fry, Hon. D. M. Woodson, and others, followed, and occupied the 
time until quite late. In the course of some general remarks, by Judge 
Isham Linder, Judge Hinton. Thomas Black, Jonas Ward, David Pierson, 
and others, it was ascertained that Mr. Marvel Morris and Judge Linder 
had been residents of the State longer than any one else present, the 
former for sixty-two and the latter for sixty-one years. Capt Richard 
Robley was the oldest man present, he having been born in 1790. 

On the eleventh of November, at a meeting held in the court house 
at Carrollton, as per the resolution passed at the first meeting, Messrs. D. 
M. Woodson, Isham Linder, Dr. J. B. Samuel, Alfred Hinton, and T. W. 
Vigus were appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws 
for the organization. The meeting then adjourned to meet to hear the 
report of this committee January 8, 1872, at which time the following 
constitution was adopted : 


"The subscribers, pioneers and early residents of Illinois, acknowl- 
edging their obligations to Almighty God for his long-continued good in 
the preservation of their lives, and for the numberless blessings bestowed 
upon this county and its inhabitants, and being desirous for the promotion 
of social intercourse, by meeting together at convenient periods, to com- 
pare notes and preserve and perpetuate the remembrance of interesting 
facts in the early history and settlement of our State, and of Greene 
County particularly, have formed themselves into a society, to be known 
and designated as the ' Greene County Old Settlers' Association,' and for 
the purpose of furthering the object's of such association, do adopt and 
subscribe the following : 

"Article I.— This society shall l)e called the 'Greene County Old 
Settlers' Association,' and shall consist, 

"'First — Of all persons, who, at any time prior to the year 1830, were 
residents of Illinois, and such persons, upon signing the constitution, 
shall be designated as Senior members. 

" Second — All persons, residents of Illinois, who shall have resided in 
the County of Greene since 1815. Such persons, upon signing the consti- 


tiition, shall be designated as Junior members. The rights, privileges, 
and immunities of the Senior and Junior classes shall be held in common, 
without distinction or preference. 

" Third — Honorary members, who may be received by vote at any 
regular meeting of the association. 

"Art. it. — The ofBcers of the association shall be a President, 
Vice-President, Secretary, Assistant Secretary, and Treasurer, to be 
chosen annually, and whose duties are indicated by their titles. Also 
one Vice-President in each precinct in the county, whose duty it shall be 
to aid the other officers of the association in obtaining historical incidents, 
biographical sketches, and statistical information of our pioneer history, 
and also to ascertain, and report to the Secretary from time to time,_ all 
the deaths or removals from the county of members of the association, 
that may occur in their several precincts during the year. 

" Art. III. — This association shall hold its annual meeting at some 
convenient place in the county, to be selected by the President of the 
association, on the last Wednesday of August in each year. The Presi- 
dent ard Secretary shall have power to call special meetings of the 

"Art. IV. — Every member of the association, on signing the con- 
stitution, shall furnish the Secretary, either orally or in writing, a state- 
ment, giving the time and place of his birth, the year in which he 
became a resident of Illinois and of Greene County, and shall pay to the 
Treasurer the sum of fifty cents, and annually thereafter the sum of fifty 
cents, which shall constitute membership for himself and wife. The 
money thus paid shall be used to defray the contingent expenses of the 
association, and for no other purpose. 

"Art. V. — The Treasurer shall report, at each annual meeting, a 
statement of all receipts and expenditures, and no moneys shall be paid 
out by him, except bv vote of the association, or by the unanimous con- 
sent of the President, Vice-President, and Secretary, who are hereby 
constituted the executive committee of the association. 

" Art. VI. — The association, by a vote of a majority present at a 
regular meeting, may expel any member for habitual intoxication or 
grossly immoral conduct. 

"Art. VII. — It shall be the duty of each member of the association, 
as far as may be, to furnish, in a form suitable for preservation, such 
facts and incidents of his early life, and in relation to the first settlement 
of the county, as he may deem of sufficient interest to be preserved ; and 
the Secretary shall preserve them in such form as he may deem proper. 

" Art. VIII.— The Secretary shall keep a book, to be called the 
' Old Settlers' Record,' in which he shall enter this constitution, and the 
proceedings of each meeting of the association ; he shall also keep a 
register of the names of the'different members, the place of their birth, 
the year they became residents of Illinois, as far as he can ascertain the 
same, and at each annual meeting he shall read the names of those who 
have died, or who have removed from the county during the year. 

"Art. IX. — This constitution may be amended at any regular 
meeting of the association. A vote of two thirds of the members present 
at such meeting shall be required in favor of the amendment." 

The election which followed resulted in the choice of the following 


officers: President, Samuel Thomas; Vice-President, Alfred Hinton; 
Secretary, H. L. (>lay ; Assistant Secretary, Dr. C. Armstrong; Treasurer, 
Jordan Howard ; Precinct Vice-Presidents, John W. Hiiitt, Carrollton ; 
James W. Gregory, White Hall; Isham Linder, Greenfield; N. M. Perry, 
Kane; John Koodhouse, Roodhouse ; Martin Thorpe, Fayette; Richard 
Robley, Blufl'dale; George L. Burruss, Eastern; Jesse C. Parks, Mt. Airy; L. 
J. Patterson, Northwestern ; Perry McConathy, Mineral Springs ; Perry 
Clendennen, Woodville ; Michael Kinser, Walkerville ; Michael Waltrip, 
New Providence. 

The second regular meeting of the association was held on the 
Fair Grounds, and was addressed by Hon. D. M. Woodson, Mr. Dennis 
Davis, of Missouri, Judge Cyrus Tolman, and others. In 1873 addresses 
were made by Rev. H. A. Guild, Col. J. C. Winters, Everett Griswold, and 

The meeting in 1874 was one of the most interesting in the history 
of the association. The gathering was the largest of the kind ever held 
in the county. Dr. S. H. Culver, of White Hall, Dr. B. C. Wood, of 
Carrollton, Hon. Newton Cloud, of Morgan County, and Hon. D. M. 
Woodson, of Carrollton, made addresses. Music was furnished by a 
volunteer choir. The death of Samuel Thomas, Heman Goodrich, Titus 
Vigus. Jesse C. C. Parks, and Everett Griswold was spoken of and 
appropriate resolutions passed. In 1875 about 3,500 persons attended 
the annual meeting at the Fair Grounds. Hon. W. C. Flagg, of Madison 
County, Rev. B. B. Hamilton, of White Hall, and Hon. Joseph Morton, 
of Morgan County, were the speakers of the day. The death of Dr. J. 

B. Samuel was reported. We make the following extract from the 
minutes of the Secretary: "The special committee appointed for the 
purpose reported the names of the following persons present who Avere 
seventy years of age and over: 

''Ninety and over. — Edward Flatt, 96; Squire Kinkaid, 90; Mrs. 
Medusa Piper, 90. 

" Eighty and over. — Capt. Richard Robley, 84 ; Benj. Drummond, 83 ; 
John W. Huitt, 84; John Painter, 82; Cyrus Tolman, 81; Mrs. Dr. B. 

C. Wood, 80 ; Daniel Kirby, 80. 

"■Seventy and over. — Capt. Wm. B. Pegram, 79; Amos McPheron, 
79; John Wagoner, 79; Dr. B. C. Wood, 78; Mrs. Capt. W. B. Pegram, 
77 ; Anthony P. Potts, 76 ; Mrs. Julia Brace, 76 ; Andrew Kelly, 76 ; 
Jonas Ward, 75; Capt. E. L. Cooper, 75; Joseph Morton, 75 ; Alfred 
Hinton, 75; Gen. Jacob Fry, 75; Nathaniel Miner, 74; Wm. Kennedy, 
74; R. R. Nichols, 74; Christopher Dodgson, 73; Isham Linder, 73; 
Abraham Bowman, 73; J. H. Weisner, 72; ^lartin Bowman, 71; 
William Thomason, 71; John V. Dee, 71; Philip Gore, 70; Newton 
Cloud, 70; David Pierson, 70; Mrs. Matilda Robley, L. D. Morris, Mrs. 
Gen. Fry, Daniel Nail, J. E. Cooper, Enos Grandy, Wm. Parker, Wm. 
B. Pankey, Archibald Lee, Dr. G. B. Mason, John Benear, Rev. G. W. 
Reynolds, George Liles, Edward Prather, Maria Prather, Andrew Pinker- 
ton, Eliza Nutting, Naomi Edwards, Benj. Smith, and Mrs. E. M. Smith. 
* * * Edward Flatt, 96, was the oldest man present and is probably 
the oldest man in Greene County. Mrs. Scates, of Carrollton, is reported 
at 114 years of age, and is likely the oldest person in the State." 

In 1876 the annual address was delivered by Rev. B. B. Hamilton, 



of White Hall. On this occasion a handsome bouquet was presented to 
the venerable John W. Huitt, on behalf of a lady present, in honor of 
the fact that he was the first man to settle in Greene County now living. 
Rev. Mr. Hamilton also favored the association with an address on the 
occasion of its sixth annual reunion, in 1877. On this occasion the death 
of the following old settlers was noticed: Anthony Potts, aged 78 years ; 
Edward Flatt, 89; David M. Woodson, 71 ; Wm. C. Rainey, 79; William 
Webb, 85; Mrs. David W^ooley, 81; Mrs. Mary Ann Waltrip, 52; Mrs. 
Elizabeth Pinckard, 80, and James Hall. 

Major N. M. Knapp, of Winchester, addressed the society in 1878. 
The obituary record for the year included the names of Mrs. Eliza 
Vosseller, aged 69; Mrs. Sarah Gregory, 45; J. W. Gregory, 49; Joseph 
Cox, 77; Mrs. Sarah Crist, 56 ; Sarah Waltrip, 72; Wm. Griffin, 73. 

Since the death of Samuel Thomas, Judge Alfred Hinton has held 
the office of President of the association. Dr. C. Armstrong, H. L. Clay, 
and Ed. Miner have been the only Secretaries. The Old Settlers' meet- 
ings are, to a large portion of the better class of citizens of the county, 
one of the most interesting occasions of the year. Next to the fair, 
nothing draws together a larger number of the substantial people of the 
county, and the exercises do much to remind the rising generation of 
the hardships their parents suffered and of the gratitude and honor due 
the aged. 

The following list of those who came to this county very early is 
not offered as being complete or nearly so. Neither do the dates profess 
absolute accuracy. They are simply some of the names I have come 
across with the dates I have found attached to them. 

List of Early Settlers in Greene County. 


Aultrim, Joseph _. 1833 

Allen, William 1819 

Allen, John _.. 181 9 

Allen, Thomas .. 1823 

Armstrong, John.. 1832 

Allen, Zachariah 1819 

Allen, Elizabeth 1819 

Allen, Benny 1818 

Was bora in South Carolina in 1792. 

Allen, Geo. W 1832 

Askins, Mrs. Margaret 1834 

Allen, W. S. G .-- 1837 

Andrew, Jacob 1835 

Andrews, Wm. W 1835 

Allen, James — 1835 

Andrews, N. J... 1836 

Armstrong, C, M.D 1849 

Ashlock, W. M... 1828 

Admire, Thos. S 1839 

Allen, Alonzo 1837 

Anderson, Thos. K 1839 

Amos, Mary T. 1830 

Amos, J.H 1839 


Allen, Jesse 1819 

Allen, E. W 1832 

Banning, Alexander 1828 

Banning, Benoni 1828 

Blaney, 1821 

Brown, W.J. 1820 

Brown, John 1828 

Brown, J. C .- 1823 

Brown, P. M 1830 

Brown, Fayette 1828 

Barr, Rev. Hugh 1835 

Butcher, Elihu 1829 

Bostic, Manoah — 1834 

Blair, Wm 1834 

Burgess, Mr 1835 

Booker, R. M 1835 

Brush, Lucretia 1823 

Bedel, Lavinia -.. 1823 

Boring, H 1829 

Bell, Francis 1819 

Booth, John 1835 

Brace, J. E 1828 




Brazzleton, 1821 

Burt, Martin 1821 

Bell, F. iM 1S19 

Benear, J. L.. 1835 

Boggess, Madison i8.?5 

Bains, Sol 1819 

Bowman, Jacob 1S20 

Bosnian, Jos - - 1820 

Back, \Vm 1822 

Black, D 1S22 

Black, T 1822 

Bowman, A 1820 

Bowman, Martin 1820 

Brace, T. W 1828 

Brace, C. W 1828 

Bangs, Oliver 1820 

Broad mark le, J. B — 1839 

Bowman, Daniel 1831 

Burroughs, Wm. P 1 83 1 

Batty, Wm. i 83.6 

Broadmarkle, Henry 1839 

Benear, Wm. H 1834 

Brad-shaw, John 1 830 

Bradshaw, Perry 1830 

Berry, Wm. T 1835 

Bushnell, L. S _ 1838 

Black, Caroline 1821 

Black, Henry 1835 

Black, John W 1831 

Black, Mahala 1834 

Black, Martha E 1835 

Black, Wm. A 1835 

Brace, Mrs. Mary 1833 

Bridges, F. M 1834 

Bradley, Absalom 1837 

Bowman, Mrs. Harriet 1S22 

Bowman, Mary 1833 

Bowman, Emily 1837 

Bowman, Samuel 1842 

Ballinger, J. F 1839 

Buiruss, Geo. L '835 

Burruss, J.C 1847 

Brown, Basil 1839 

Beebe, A 1836 

Bechdoldt, Henry 1838 

Barnett, Geo 1837 

Bradshaw, Wm. M 1 830 

Brannan, Thos 1831 

Bridges, J.E 1832 

Barrow, Alfred 1834 

Beebe, Milo 1836 

Bishop, James 1830 

Brown, P. A. 1839 

Burroughs, D. W 1837 



Boring, N. A '839 

Brown, R. W 1838 

Brown, Mrs. Louisa 1836 

Castleberry, John 1825 

('ourtney, Mr 1S28 

Courtney, Robinson 1828 

Cul|), Samuel 1835 

Cannedy, James 1829 

Chambers, Mr 1831 

Cooper, Dr. M. A 1834 

Caldwell, W. J 1834 

Coonrood, G. W. 1829 

Coo])er, Eli 1835 

Ciendenen, H. P. 18 19 

Coonrood, Stephen 1 829 

Culter, Wm 1827 

Crane, Wm 1822 

Cannedy, John 1830 

Cushina, Sam'l D 1833 

Caldwell, Jas 181 8 

Crane, Thos 1818 

Cheek, Willis 1821 

Cooper, John 1821 

Chenney, Elisha 1830 

Carroll, Mr 1822 

Chenney, Moses.... 1828 

Coonrood, Thos 1830 

Costly, Mrs. Elizabeth 1825 

Coates, L 1 834 

Collister, G. W 1836 

Chinn, Wm. D 1825 

Coates, John S... 1837 

Carter, L. E _ 1820 

Carter, Mrs. Sarah 1827 

Clark, J.C 1833 

Coonrood, Jeffeison 1829 

Corrington, N. W 1833 

Cory, O. P 1833 

Carr, Joseph L 1 834 

Christy, Geo 1839 

Cannedy, W. H 1829 

Culver, B. G 1831 

Cato,W. M 1835 

Carrice, Silas 1828 

Crabtree, B. 183J 

Crist, David ^833 

Cameron, S. P 1836 

Cannedy, Houston 1836 

Cannedy, Geo. W 1829 

Cannedy, Asa J 1829 

Canned v. A. J 1838 

Collins.'W. M 1831 

Cooper, W. 1" 1836 




Colin, Thos., Gov 

Carlin, Gen. Wm. P., U.S.A. 

Corrington, S. F 

Carlin, Thos. J 

Clough, John ._ 

Cameron, Jos. T . 

Cunningham, A. M 

Curtis, Luman 

Drummond, B 

Drake, Ben 

Drake, H 

Doyle, T 

Davis, Thos. 

Dulaney, M 

Dodgson, Christopher 

Dennis, Mr 

Dee, John V 

Davis, Dr. C. A 

Drydn, W. S. M 

Doyle, John, Sen 

Drum, John 

Davidson, Elis 

Davidson, Jno — 

Davidson Mrs 

Drum, Silas 

Doyle, Robt. L 

Doyle, John, Jr 

Doyle, Thos 

Davis, Geo. W 

Davis, W. R 

Dodgson, Mrs. Jane 

Dovvdall, H. E 

Davis, Arthur -- 

Dayton, Harvey 

Davidson, A. J 

Davis, Asbury 

Dovel,J. M 

Driver, Greene.. 

Drum, Wm . 

Drum, Miles 

Dovvdall, James.- 

Dixon, H. J 

Dixon, Hiram 

Evans, John 

Evans, John, Jr 

Edwards, Eri 

Edwards, David 

Edwards, Joel 

Eldred, Silas 

Eldred, Mrs. Ruth.. 

Eldred, Elon A... 

Eldred, L. E 



























Eldred, Chas. H 

Eldred, Elon. 

Eldred, Ward.. 

Eldred, J. B 

Eldred, Wm 

Etter, Henry.- 

Etter, Peter 

English, W. C 

Eldred, J J 

Evans, Geo. L. . . ^ — 

Edwards, E. L - 

Ellis, Wm. H 

Edwards, O L 

Enslow, J. B.- - 

Edwards, B. F - 

Enslow, T. J 

Eldred, Jehoshaphat, 








Flatt, Ed 

Floyd, John 

Fry, Gen. Jacob. 

Finley, Thomas 

Finley, John 

Fair, Absalom . 

Finley, Howard 

Finley, William 

Felter, Peter 

Was born in New York State, Oct 19, 1819 

Furgeson,J. E .- 

Fry, Julia 

P'uller, Gilbert --. 

Flatt, Jesse. 

Flatt, Ranson 

Flatt, J 

Finley, Alson . 

Field, A.J. R 

Fry, James - 

Flatt, Clarissa Clark 

Floyd, Mrs. Mary 

Friend, C 

Felter, Wm. W 

Fry, James B. (U. S. Army) 

Gard, Rev 

Grimes, Wm 

Gerish, Joseph 

Griffin, Wm 

Goodrich, Heman . 

Griswold, A 

Gardiner, C. J., Sr. 

Goode, Ezekiel 

Grizzle, Joel 

Grizzle, Herod 

Griswold, Edwin. 























Goode, Wm. B 

Griffith, Silas D 

Gamble, John 

Guthrie, Milton 

Guthrie, Catharine H.. 

(Juthrie, Julia'E 

Guthrie, James N 

Guthrie, John W 

Gullett, Wm. D 

Griffin, Thorrit 

Geery, Abram 

Gropp, S... 

Gregory, J. W 

Gregory, A. B. 

Griswold, H. A .. 

Griswold, L. P. 

Greene, S. F 

Gardiner, J. B 

Gardiner, S. G 

Grandy, Enos 

Greene, J. R .. ... 

Gardiner, C. J.,Jr 

Herrick, Rev. Henry.. 

Hinton, J. H 

Hardcastle, W. C 

Heater, Sol ■ 

Hardcastle, John 

Higbee, Samuel 

Hank Thomas 

Hill, R. B 

Headrick, Anderson.. 

Headrick, Michael 

Howard, Jordan 

Hutchins, Gideon 

Hicks, Vine 

Henderson, James 

Hand, Jeremiah .. 

Hopping, Abigail T... 

Hodges, Chas. D . 

Hinton, Abner 

Huitt, John W 

Hobson, Robert 

Hobson, Thomas 

Hobson, Richard--.-. 

Huljbard, Ansell . 

Hill, Isaac 

Headd, Mr 

Handlin, Wm. 

Hobson, Peter . 

Hodges, Edmund 

Was born in Texas in 1820. 

Hartsook, Joseph 

Hardtner, Dr. John.. 












































Hobson, p. J 

Hobson, Mrs. Mary.. 

Huitt, W. T.-. 

Huitt, J. J 

Hinton, J. M 

Hinton, A. C 

Halbirt, W. L. -..-.. 

H albert, A. F 

Halbert, H. C 

Hudson, W. H 

Hudson, David B 

Hart, Aaron 

Husted, E. M 

Hardwick, Geo. W. -. 

Herring, Abram 

Husted, E. A 

Hahn, David . . . 

Hicks, Mrs. Lorena.. 

Hicks, C 

Henderson, S. M 

Hopper, John S. C.-. 

Hinton, Alfred 

Hodges, E. M 

Hutchins, Elkanah... 
Huitt, R. B 

Irwin, James 

Jackson, Mr 

Jayen, Henry 

Johnson, Joel 

Jackson, Shade 

Jackson, Robert 

Judy, Samuel 

Johnson, Ewin 

Jereney, Rev. Elisha. 

Jackson, Amos J 

Jackson, L. J 

Johnson, David 

Jackson, Amos 

Johnson, A. J ... 

Johnson, T. M 

Jones, John 

Johnesee, S. W 

King, J. H. 

King, Lucien 

Keller, John G 

King, John 

King, Ben 

Kendall, Nat 

Kinkaid, Wm 

Kelly, Andrew 

Kinkaid, James 

































= 837 









King, Alexander _ 1821 

Kinkaid, Andrew --' 1821 

Keel, Richard T 1828 

Keel, Richard R -- 1828 

Kinkaid, W. L 1834 

Keach, John R 1833 

Kergher, C 1846 

Kaser, John -- 1845 

Kaser, Lucy 1839 

Kelly, ;.• C 1829 

King, Jas. G... - -- 1821 

Kinser, Wm 1827 

Kinser, Michael 1835 

Kelly, M. F... 1839 

King, Chas.. 1842 

Lakin, Alex 1827 

Lewis, Wm 1831 

Logan, Alex 1835 

Lee, Adam 1835 

Lakin, Jordan .' 1827 

Linder, Isham, Sr 1821 

Lee, Obadiah 1828 

Lee, Morris 1831 

Lynn, A. W 1835 

Linder, J... 1821 

Lee, Samuel 1820 

Lewis, John 1828 

Link, Christian... 1823 

Leonard, Cornelia H 1 83 1 

Lippincott, Rev. Thos 1832 

Lorton, Robt 18 18 

Lee, Eli 1829 

Lorton, Robt 1822 

Lorton, H. U... 1826 

Long, John 1829 

Lakin, L. R 1847 

Lemen, Elizabeth 1835 

Linder, John M. 1835 

Linder, isham, Jr 1837 

Lf^ndiss, Wm. H 1827 

Lisles, A. H 1837 

Linder, Johnson 1827 

McCracken, W. A 1840 

Martin Josiah.. 1828 

Mayberrv, Wm. M 1837 

Meek, J. 'M.... 1823 

McrTail. Jno. A 1827 

McBride,S. T 1823 

Mitchell, J. G :. T838 

Morrow, M 1838 

Morton, Mr... 1832 

Metcalf, Jas 1834 


Morfoot, D 1821 

Morfoot, J. F 1821 

McPheron, Amos 1830 

Morrow, T. A - 182S 

Marmon, J. H 1835 

Morris, M 1826 

Marmon, Wm. 1832 

Miller, David - 1826 

Morrow, Wm .- 1823 

Morrow, Jesse 1819 

Mitchell, N. L 1835 

Mitchell, A. K 1835 

Miller, Francis 1822 

McAdams, L. 1836 

Mason, Josiah — 1831 

Miller, James.- 1826 

McConathy, Perry 1839. 

Martin, Saml 1828 

McCracken, Mrs. M 1837 

Melvin, T. E 1830 

McCauts,C. H 1823 

Mclntyre, Thos. A 1834 

Morris, Maroel 1829 

Martin, James 182& 

Norton, E. A..- - 1825 

Norris, Henry 1829 

Norton, Lucius S 1843 

Nulton, Col. J. B.... 1841 

Nettle.s, Wm... 1840 

Nash, H. P 1838 

Overby, L 1829 

Osborn, B. F i83c> 

Odel, Reuben. 1828 

Odel, Wm... 1825 

Ogle, Josiah — 1831 

Odom, Wm. W 1835, 

Ozbun, B. F - 1834 

Parker, Jesse 1826 

Pankey, W. B 1820 

Pinkerton, Andrew — 1820 

Pere, Hiram 1829 

Potls,Wm 1822 

Pinkerton, David — 1820 

Pinkerton, Jas — 182a 

Purneli, Jimmy. 1820 

Piper, Thos — 182S 

Pegram, W. B 1835 

I'egram, G... 1S35 

Painter, Fannie — 1823 

Portwood, Page — 1828 

Potts, Anthony 1821 

Pierson, David 1821 




Pigott, Rev. Joseph 

Pigott, Rev. Isaac N 

Peck, Rev. J. M... 

Prather, Edward 

Prentiss, Amos 

Page, Elizabeth 

Page, Reuben, 

Piper, J. W 

Powell, J. G. F 

Pegram, Alvan 

Pegram, W. H... 

Pruitt, Wm 

Pinkerton, Jas. H 

Pinkerton, W. R 

Pinkerton, J. G 

Prather, Wm 

Parks, Major J. C. C 

Parker, H. L 

Pope, J.L 

Parker, Wm. P 

Perry, Col. N. M 

Perry, A. T 

Perry, J. M 

Parker, Thos. L 

Pope, Saml 

Quigley Chas 

Rives, Rev. J 

Rainey, Major 

Reno, Aaron.. 

Roberts, Joseph 

Rattan, Thos 

Reader, Levi 

Robinson, Alexander 

Robley, R 

Rives, J. H 

Roodhouse, John 

Roodhouse, Benj 

Roodhouse, Peter 

Reynolds, Levi 

Rawlings, Jas -.. 

Rawlings, Rev. Rhoderic. 

Ruyle, John 


Rafferty John C 

Rafferty, Wm. M 

Robinson, R. G 

Russell, S.G 

Russell, John 

Russell, Laura Ann 

Robinson, Wm. B - 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W... 
Rhobards, Jesse 






























Robley, Vilroy 

Robley, M rs. C 

Robley, Charles 

Robley, George B - 

Roodhouse, J . D 

Rawlings, John T 

Ridings, Jesse 

Reeve, J.B — 

Reynolds, Joseph C.-^ 

Reynolds, W. C- ..- 

Rountree, V. K 

Scoggins, J. H 

Stout, Martin 

Scoggings, C. J 

Stringer, Wm 

Stone, James - 

Short, Cyntha A 

Short, J. H.... 

Scroggs, Mr _ 

Shepherd, Orphy 

Stephens, Moses 

Swinney, Wm 

Sample, Mr. - 

Spruance, Saml 

ShuU, Alfred L 

Shelton, Elisha 

Stubblefield, H. L 

Stoddard, J. L... 

Seeley, A. S 

Smith, Ben. — 

Samuels, Dr 

Stubblefield, F. L 

Smitherman, L. T — 

Stevens, Ruleff 

Smitii, Rev. Aaron 

Skidmore, John 

Samms, Davidson 

Sharp, 'i'hos 

Smith, Wm. 

Scott, B. T 

Stringer, W.W 

Was born in Kentucky, April 6, 1807. 

Stevens, Clark 

Sheffield, G. W. T. 

Scandarett, Chas. L. Jr 

Stubblefield, G. A 

Stubblefield, Jas. H 

Stout, John 

Strang, Wm. H 

Simpson, J. F - 

Scandarett, W. T. 

Sanders, C. H 

Spencer, J ohn 














































Sweetin, Wm. L 1839 

Spencer, Henry R •- 1833 

Short, Wm... 1831 

Seeley, R. G.. 1836 

Seeley, Anthony S 1823 

Smith, Benj 1821 

Short, Wm. S.. 1832 

Short, R. A I S35 

Short, F. L 1837 

Strickland, J. N... 1829 

Scott, Benj 1832 

Short, T. J 1829 

Smith, J. P. - - 1834 

Stephens, C - 1829 

Thompson, D. A -- 1833 

Tunison, Hy. Sr 1835 

Tunison, Jacob 1835 

Thomas, J. I 18 18 

Teaney, Dan 1835 

Thomas, Sam — 1818 

Tunison, H 1835 

Tunnell, Luther. 1S18 

Tunnell, Colin - 1819 

Tunnell, Calvin 1818 

Thaxton, Billy 1820 

Throcmorton, Dr 1829 

Taylor, Isaac 1820 

Taylor, John.. 1820 

Taylor, Ambrose 1 820 

Teagarden, Henry 1821 

Tucker, John A 1843 

Was born in Claiborne Co., East 
Tennessee, July 22, 1820. 

Turner, ]\Iiriam 

Thaxton, Doctor... 1819 

Thomas, Mary A 1819 

Thomas, Nancy... - 1821 

Thomas Eliza J 1823 

Thomas, Elizabeth A 1825 

Thomas, Lewis H 1827 

Thomas, S. R .-- 1829 

Thomas, Gilla .\nn.-. 1831 

Thomas. Matilda A 1833 

Thomas, Catharine jSI 1838 

Thomas, Wm. D .. 1835 

Thomas, Mrs. Elizabeth 1818 

Thomas, Mrs. Ann 182 1 

Taylor, Hubbard 1835 

Taylor, Geo... 1837 

Tunison, Isaac C. 1838 

Taylor, John A 1822 

Thompson, James 1825 

Twitchell, J. S - 1837 


Tolman, W. O 

Trimble, Harvey 

Thomasson, Wm... 

Undervvood, Wm... 

Vigus, T. W 

Van de veer, T 

Vanmeter, Jas 

Vanmeter, Amasa.. 
Valentine, Ichabod 
Vanarsdale, Peter.. 
A'alentine, James.. 
Vangiezen, James . . 

Vinyard, G. W 

Varble, C. H 

Varble, Nancy J... 

Varble James 

Vandeveer, Wm — 
Vensel, Joseph 

Wooley, N. C 

Weisner, J. H 

Wood, Dr. B. C... 
Walthrop, Wm. G. 

'Whiteside, L. F 

Whitlock, J. C 

Whitlock. R. C... 
Waller, John H.... 

Wright David . 

Woodson, D. M... 

Walthrop, M 

Whitlock, J. M 

Worcester, L. E 

Ward, Jonas 

Wright, George — 

Wooley E 

Woodman, Elijah.. 


Whittaker, Robt 

Wright, John 

Weaver, Greene 

Wood, Isaac 

Wood, Alfred 

Wiggins, Sandy 

Wvlder, Wiley 

Willard, Julius A... 
Williams, David J.. 

Wright, A. J 

Wright, Thos 

Williams, G. L 

Williams, John G.. 

Winn, Geo. W 

Ward, John P 
































Ward. Mrs. Hester 1827 

Wood, A. n... 1S31 


Waller, John H 1833 

Waggoner, John 1 839 

Witt, Dicy - 1831 ' Washburn, J. M. P 1836 

Waltrip, James 1828 Williams, John T.. 1836 

Wyatt, J. W 1824 Whitlock, Tarlton 1829 

Walker, Jas. F 1838 

Wood, Sarah 1 830 

Whiteman, Maria J 1827 

Wood, James .\ 1 835 

Wells, Wm. D 1834 

Wells, Mrs. Sarah 1S30 

Wylder, Samuel - 1830 

Witt, Randolph 1829 

Wiiite, IJalaam 1833 

White, Ira 1837 

Ware, James.. 1829 

Young, Jacob 1829 

Yates, Wm 1842 

The Agricultural and Mechanical Association. 

The Greene County Agricultural and Mechanical Association was 
instituted April 15, 18o4. Its first officers were Luman Curtius, President ; 
J. C. Winters, Vice-President; A. W. Bridges, Treasurer, and F. P. 
Vedder, Secretary. 

The following were chosen members of the General Committee: 
From Carrollton Precinct, Samuel Thomas and Jacob Bowman ; White 
Hall Precinct, L. E. Worcester, B. Baldwin ; Northwestern Precinct, L. 
J. Patterson, A. J. Whiteside; Walkerville Precinct, A. Sweeten, Michael 
Kinser ; Bluffdale Precinct, William Halbert, J. W. Calvin ; Woodville, 
T. W. Vigus, W. L. Greene ; Kane Precinct, Samuel Longstreet, David 
Thompson ; Eastern Precinct, J. H. Van Arsdale, Geo. L. Burruss ; 
Greenfield Precinct, W. H. Ellis, I, R. Ostrom ; Fayette Precinct, John 
Rives, ^Martin Thorpe; Athensville Precinct, Thomas J. Short, Benjamin 
King ; Mineral Spring Precinct, Perry McConathy, James D. Martin. 
For the County, Elon Eldred and Wm. Black. 

The first fair was held October 12, 18")4, on the farm of J. E. Brace, 
Esq., just northwest of the town of Carrollton. This fair seems to have 
been in every way a brilliant success, and some said, as has been remarked 
more recently of other displays, that the show of fast and fine horses 
was superior to that at the State fair. The following complete list of 
premiums will prove very interesting, as nearly all the names of the suc- 
cessful competitors will be recognized as belonging to prominent citizens 
of the present day : 

Class I. — Cattle. 

To Jeremiah Turpin, best bull, Filmore, 3 years old, 1st premium, silver cup. 

and diploma. 
Anthony Potts, 2d best bull, 4 years old, 2d premium, silver cup. 
Eri Edwards, best l)ull, 2 3^ears old, 1st premium, silver cup and diploma. 
James J. Eldred, 2d l)est bull, 2 years old, 2d [jremium, silver cup. 
Silas Eldred, best bull, 1 year old, 1st premium, $4 and diploma. 
Henry Tunison, 2d best bull, 1 year old, 2d premium, $4. 
Jonas Ward, best cow, 6 years old, 1st premium, silver cup and diploma. 
Jeremiah Turpin, 2d best cow, 4 years old, 2d premium, silver cup. 
James W. Gregory, best heifer, 2 years old, 1st premium, silver cup and 



Elon Eldred, 2d best heifer, 2 years old, 2d premium, silver cup. 

Elijah Dee, best heifer, 1 year old, 1st premium, $4 and diploma. 

Eri Edwards, 2d best heifer, 1 year old, 2d premium, $L 

Elon Eldred, best bull calf, 1st premium, |o. 

R. N. Neece, 2d best bull calf, 2d premium, $2. 

J. Turpin, best heifer calf, premium $3. 

Elon Eldred, 2d best heifer calf, $2. 

James J. Eldred, best working oxen, diploma. 

Elijah Dee, best fat heifer, diploma. 

Class II. — Horses and Mules. 

E. H. Chorn, best stallion, 8 years old, 1st premium, silver cup and 

Wm. Crane, 2d best stallion, 7 years old, 2d premium, silver cup. 
J. H. Waller, best brood mare, 9 years old, diploma. 
Michael Kinser, best staUion, 3 years old, 1st premium, silver cup and 

Anthony Potts, best stallion, 2 years old, 1st premium, silver cup and 

Wm. O. Greaves, 2d best stallion, 2 years old, 2d premium, $3. 
Anthony Potts, best stallion, 1 year old, 1st premium, |4. 
A. Minsterman, 2d best stallion, 1 year old, 2d premium, $2. 
J. P. Henderson, best filly, 3 years old, 1st premium, silver cup and 

Jeremiah Turpin, 2d best filly, 3 years old, 2d premium, $4. 
Daniel Morfoot, best filly, 2 years old, 1st premium, silver cup. 
Peter M. Brown, 2d best filly, 2 years old, 2d premium, $3. 
Milton Williams, best filly, 1 year old, 1st premium, |4. 
Lemuel Jackson, 2d best filly, 1 year old, 2d premium, $2. 
Benj. Roodhouse, best draught horse, 5 years old, premium $4. 
Same, best gelding, 7 years old, premium $4. 
J. E. Brace, best single mare, 4 years old, premium $4. 
A. S. Seely, best matched horses, 6 years old, premium $4. 
Felix Morris, best saddle horse, gaited, 5 years old, premium $4. 
Peter Roodhouse, best single horse in harness, 4 years old, premium $4. 
Henry Spencer, best sucking colt, 1st premium, silver cup. 
William Black, 2d best sucking colt, 2d premium, $4. 
E. B. Eldred, 3d best sucking colt, 3d premium, $3. 
L. H. Thomas, best jack, 3 years old, premium silver cup and diploma. 
Geo. L. Burruss, best jack, 2 years old, premium $4. 
Same, best jack, 1 year old, diploma. 
Hiram Keach, best jennett, 3 years old, diploma. 
Same, best jennett, 2 years old, diploma. 
L. H. Thomas, best jennett, 1 year old, diploma. 
Wm. Cannedy, best pair mules, 2 years old, $4. 
E. W. Johnson, best single mule, 12. 

Class III. — JSfo. 1. Sheep. 

Jas. W. Gregory, best fine buck, premium $2 and diploma. 
Same, best fine ewe, premium $2. 

Jeremiah Turpin, best coarse buck, premium $2 and diploma. 
Same, best coarse ewe, premium $2. 



Wo. 2. Swine. 

French N. Hazle, best boar 1^ year old, 1st premium, $2 and diploma. 

Wm. Black, 2d best boar, 1 year old, 'Id premium, >^-2. 

Elon Eldred, best breeding sow, 1 year old, premium $2 and diploma. 

Same, 2d best breeding sow, 2 years old, 2d premium, $2. 

Same, best lot pigs, 6 months old, l<t premium, iji^. 

J. E. Brace, 2d best lot pigs, 6 months old, premium $2. 

Samuel Longstreet, best pair pigs, (5 months old, premium diploma. 

Class IV.— No. 1. Poultry. 
J. E. Brace, best pair chickens, premium ^1 and diploma. 

No. 2. Cheese and Butter. 

Jas. J. Eldred, best cheese, premium $3 and diploma. 
David Black, best lot butter, made in June, premium $2 and diploma. 
Alfred Hubbard, best lot butter, made any time, premium $2 and diploma. 
Jas. B. Samuel, 2d best lot butter, made any time, 2d premium, f2. 
David Black, 3d best lot butter, made any time, 3d premium, -$1. 

Class V. — G-rain, Vegetables, and Fruits. No. 1. 

Samuel Longstreet, best sample pure white corn, diploma. 
Jesse Ridings, best lot yellow corn, premium $1. 
Samuel Longstreet, best haif-barrel yellow corn, diploma. 
David Black, best bushel Timothy seed, premium $\ 
Samuel Thomas, best bushel clover seed, premium $1. 
David Black, best sample white wheat, diploma. 
Same, best sample red wheat, $1. 
Price Lovelace, best sample flour corn, $1. 

No. 2. Fruit. 

Samuel Longstreet, best winter apples, 1st premium, $1.25. 
Jas. D. Martin, 2d best winter apples, 2d premium, 75 cents. 
Jacob Bowman, best fall apples, premium diploma. 

No. 3. Vegetables. 

Drury Overbey, best lot white turnips, diploma. 
Samuel Longstreet, best lot sweet potatoes, 50 cents. 

Class VI. — Household Manufactures, Boots and Shoes. 

No. 1 

Mrs. John J. Thomas, best ten yards woolen flannel, premium 50 cents. 
Mrs. William Potts, best double carpet coverlet, 1st premium, $1 and 

Mrs. Benj. Baldwin, 2d best double carpet coverlet, 2d premium, -fil. 
Mrs. J. Thomas, best single carpet coverlet, premium 50 cents. 
Mrs. E. Morfoot, best pair woolen knit stockings, 1st premium, $1 and 

Mrs. John T. Williams, 2d best pair woolen knit stockings, 2d premium, 

50 cents. 


No. 2. 
Frederick Cook, best pair boots, diploma. 

Class VII. 

Benj. Roodhoiise, best carriage, diploma. 
John Long, best bedstead, diploma. 

Class VIII. — Articles not Eyiumerated. 

Dr. John Hardtner, best set teeth, diploma. 

Mrs. Luman Curtius, best jar preserved peaches, diploma. 

Joseph Coats, best barrel flour, diploma. 

Misses Pierson, best embroidery, diploma. 

Same, best crab apple jelly, diploma. 

Mrs. J. B. Eldred, best single coverlet, premium 11. 

Mrs. David Dodgson, best quilt, $1. 

Samuel Longstreet, best cherry wine, diploma. 

Our Agricultural Society now numbers over two hundred and thirty 
members, and is rapidly increasing in numbers and interest. We shall 
largely extend our list of premiums for the next year, especially for the 

N. B. All the above premiums will be paid in silverware, or agri- 
cultural books, on the first Monday- of December next, at the annual 
meeting of the Society, to be holden at the Court House in Carrollton, at 
which time officers are to be elected for the ensuing year, and transact 
such other business as shall be considered necessary. A general attendance 
is most earnestly solicited. Luman Curtius, Presiderit^ 

P. P. Vedder, Secretary. 

Since the organization of the Association the various Presidents have 
been David M. Woodson, George L. Burruss, Joseph Ballinger, who held 
the position from 1858 to 1865 inclusive, Jacob Bowman, who presided 
for five years, B. F. Baldwin, E. M. Husted, L. S. Eldred. Benjamin 
Roodhouse, who was president for two years, and George W. Davis, 
who is now (1879) serving his second term. The Secretaries have been 
F. P. Vedder, L. S. Norton, Dr. C. Armstrong, L. F. Wheeler, Henry 
Bonfoy, George W. Davis, Isaac Powell, W. W. Beaty, N. J. Andrews. 
George W. Davis held the offices ten years, W. W. Beaty three years, 
and Dr. Armstrong, Henry Bonfoy and N. J. Andrews, each two years. A. 
W. Bridges, Jordan Howard, J. E. Brace, W. L. Greene, Robert Pierson, 
N. J. Andrews, D. D. Pierson, each have held the office of Treasurer^ 
J. E. Brace for ten years, and several of the others for more than one 

The second fair was held on the grounds which the one hundred and 
sixty stockholders had purchased, south of the village of Carrollton, near 
the present site of the public school building. This was securely fenced 
and supplied with stalls and other conveniences, and served the purposes 
for which it was designed, until becoming too small, in 1860, the present 
large and beautiful park owned by the Association was bought, and the 
improvements moved thither. The first financial statement of the con- 
dition of the Association on the records is found in the year 1856. It is 



as follows: Receipts from fair, 8050.15; paid for jjremiums, $500.00 ; 
expenses, $45.95; total, $545. 95 ; balance on hand, $404.20. 

During the early fairs the premiums consisted almost entirely of 
silverware, and we frequently find in the Treasurer's report a list of 
silverware left on hand after the premiums had all been paid, and in one 
instance a valued officer is voted a five dollar cup as a mark of appreciation 
of his faithfulness. During successive years tlie receipts were as follows: 
1857, $1,338.15; 1858, $1,615.34; 18.59, $1,882.85; I860, $2,025.82; 
and so on, the expenses increasing in the same or a greater ratio. In 
1866, the present commodious amphitheater was built. In 1872, the 
name of the Association was changed to " Greene County Agricultural 
Board." During the war, and for some time after, the fairs did not pay 
expenses, and the result was that in 1874, tlie Board found itself saddled 
with a debt of over $6,000. In order that this might be paid off and the 
prosperity of the fairs insured, in the Autumn of that year a resolution 
was passed to form a new corporation, and D. M. Woodson, J. W. Gregory, 
G. L. Burruss, J. H. Rives, S. F. Greene, L. F. Wheeler, and John Kaser, 
were appointed incorporators. License was issued February 27, 1875» 
authorizing G. W. Davis, J. F. Ballinger. L. S. Eldred, G. L. Burruss, N. 
J. Andrews, J. H. Rives, and George W. Witt, as commissioners to open 
books of subscription to the capital stock of the Greene County Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical Association. The following persons at once 
subscribed for the number of shares set opposite their names, at fifty 
dollars per share, and a charter was issued by the Secretary of State, 
bearing date March 26, 1875 : 


J. K. Ferguson - i 

S. F. Greene 2 

Sharon Bros 2 

Benjamin Roodhouse i 

WiUiam M. Maberry .- 2 

McFarland & Robinson i 

J. E. Brace .-- i 

L. F. Wheeler - i 

T. W. Brace --. i 

J. r. Cameron - - i 

Jno. I. Thomas 2 

B. B. Bartholomew 2 

J. B. Eldred 2 

J. S. Hunt .- I 

E. A. Eldred i 

J. K. Farrelly i 

John Kaser 2 

Wright & leaning.. i 

Peter Hobson i 

Geo. W. Davis i 

J. Eldred 2 

N. J. Andrews - 2 

Vilroy Robley — i 

Daniel Morfoot i 

R. C. Bradley 2 

F. M. Fishback 2 


William Black 2 

H. C. Withers-. i 

Thos. Black i 

Jas. Cullimore.. i 

\y. D. Thomas 2 

David Wright -- i 

C. H. Eldred... 2 

Pierson's Bank 3. 

L. S. Eldred. 2 

W. W. Beaty . . " i 

Thomas E. Evans 2 

Samuel Bowman — i 

A. J. Tunnell 
J. H. Rives.. 



b. M. Woodson . .'. 2 

Geo. L. Burruss 2 

Thos. J. Carlin — 

Geo. Meister 

John C. Burruss - 

Harry Burruss 

Luman Curtius 

J. F. Ballenger. 2 

B. F. lialdwin. .. -- 2 

L. S. Puishnell... 1 

W.B.Robinson 2 

W. W. Ashlock 2 




Geo. Ashlock i 

J. W. Gregory . : — 2 

A. B. Gregory 2 

Peter Roodhouse -...- 2 

Henry Tunison i 

E. V. Baldwin 2 

J.H.Baldwin. : 2 

John North i 

Jos. Rickart ... 2 

Jesse Riding — i 

C. J. McCollister& M. North i 

Edgar Griswold i 

James Morrow . i 

J. H. Stubblefield 2 

E. A. Giller 2 

C. W. Brace 2 


John Rhodes.- 2 

J. D. Tunison i 

Geo. Tunison i 

L. P. Griswold i 

Geo. W. Witt 2 

A. J. Rives I 

Willis Brooks i 

Martin Thorpe i 

Keeley & Davis.. i 

E. M. Hasted i 

Jesse Robards i 

Winn & Bros i 

Jacob Bowman i 

Wm. Eglehoff. i 

A. M. Cunningham i 

These subscriptions readily raised the six thousand dollars required, 
and the old indebtedness was paid off. The capital stock was afterward 
increased 82,000, bringing it to $8,000, the greater part of which was soon 
subscribed. The new society took possession of the property of the old, 
and a more prosperous era began. The recent fairs of the Association 
have been in an eminent degree successful, and a very bright future seems 
to be before the Association. 


Carrollton, the county seat of Greene County, is one of the wealth- 
iest and most flourishing towns in Central Illinois. The circumstances 
attending its origin have been already stated. Probably the first settler 
within what are now the corporation limits was Governor Thomas Carlin, 
who camped under a large tree near the present residence of Mrs. Wil- 
liam Carlin, and chose the prairie on which he then stood as his home. 
This was in 1818, and during the latter part of that year, or early the 
next, Mr. Carlin, with his mother and step-father, came north of the 
Macoupin and built a cabin in the southern part of the present town. 
There were then but a very few cabins north of the creek, probably not 
over half a dozen or a dozen. Samuel Thomas had made an improvement 
in a beautiful grove near the site of the present Thomas homestead. 
Michael Heaclriclj, Abram Sells, and one or two others, had built cabins 
near the present residence of David Wright, Esq., and there were a few 
log huts a short distance east. Very early in 1821, occurred the land sale 
at Edwardsville, when this territory came into the possession of the 
settlers. Immediately thereafter the county was organized, the seat of 
justice established on the land of Mr. Carlin, and the name of Carrollton 
given to it. Settlers at once came in very rapidly. General Jacob Fry 
built a cabin near. the former site of the St. James Hotel. Thomas Rat- 
tan erected a log structure on the lot now occupied by Marmon's building, 
on the northeast corner of the Square, where for a long time he kept a 
tavern. A more modern building succeeded this, also used as an inn, and 
for a long time known as the " Jack Traveler." Samuel Lee, the first 




County Clerk, built a temporary clerk's office on the west side of the 
Square, and this was soon followed by the first Court House. The early 
county buildino^s have been described in the history of the county. The 
first frame building^ in the town was probably a dwellin'j: house on the 
east side of the Square, built by Cyrus Tolman aiul (Uiarles Gre.u'ory, 
both afterward very prominent men in the county. The first brick edifice 
in the town was also said to have been erected on the east side, near the 
present location of Charles Weimer's tobacco store. For a year or two 
the little town grew steadily. Tiie county was then a large one, and the 
transaction of county business made quite a number of buildings and 
peo[)le a necessity at the county seat. William A. Tunnell writes as fol- 
lows of the town when it was only a year or two old : ''The land upon 
which Carrollton is situated belonged to the lion. Thomas Cailin. 
Concerning the beauty of the spot before the hand of man had changed 
its appearance I am not prepared to speak, but freely express the opinion 
that it would have suffered in a comparison with Mount Pleasant. When 
I first saw the place it contained a few small houses, the first of which 
was probably built by the Hon. Thomas Rattan for a tavern. It stood 
north of the east side of tiie Square, and was erected not far from the 
year 1821. How long this building occupied that spot, or whether it was 
the same that was afterward called the 'Old Jack Traveler,' or 'Jack 
Tavern,' I am not prepared to decide, but since the days of the 'Old Jack 
Traveler' another building has occupied the spot and passed away, to 
make room f(u- one wiiich will probably continue there for many years. 
A little farther west, perhaps half way along the north side of the 
Square, stood a neat little frame with a porch or portico in front, which 
was, at an early day, the residence and office of Samuel Lee, Esq., Clerk 
of the Circuit and County Courts, County Recorder, Justice of the Peace, 
etc., etc., a man very much esteemed. He died some thirty-five years ago 
(in 1825), and was*^ the first, or about the first, person interred in the 
Carrollton burying ground. On the west side of the Square, very near 
the residence of D)-. Harcltner, stood the Court House, a long two-story 
building, with one end to the Square. There was nothing very attractive 
about its appearance. It was simply a ])lain wooden building, rather 
dingy in appearance. West of the Court House, occupying the giound 
now used for the same jnupose, stood the little hewed log jail, in which 
prisoner^ were ke[>t by the aid of a guard or suffered to escape, as seemed 
most conducive to the general welfare. On the south side of the Square 
Avas the residence and store of John Evans, Jr. Further east, across the 
next street, stood a small fiame, which was used for some kind of traffic, 
the exact natine of which I have forgotten; and just east of it was the 
residence of Jacob Fry, Esq., well and favorably known in the annals of 
Greene County, as an cllicicnt, intelligent and faithful offtcer and good 
ciii/en. On the east sitle of the Square, i;t the north end, was the store 
of John Skidiuoie, an active, restless little man, who was everywheie, 
knew everybody, and kept himself not oidy busy, but always in a hurry. 
His storehouse was a small frame building, that occu[)iedthe spot for sev- 
eral years. Skidmoic, or ' Skid,' as he was familiarly calleil, ke[)t a small 
stock of inferior goods, such as all merchants kept at that day, and such 
as the necessities of the i)co})lc com])elled them to buy, including an as- 
sortment of pure liquors, lo render the stock complete. 


"I think it was at 'Skid's' store where the inimitable Willis Cheek 
was said to have treated his friends and himself through the long hours 
of one whole night, paying for the liquor with a raccoon skin, which, as 
often as 'Skid' threw it behind the door and went to draw the whisky 
from a barrel, would mysteriously resume its place in Willis' pouch, where 
it remained snugly until another drink was wanted. Just across the 
street from Skidmore's, about where the public well is situated, was the 
whipping-post, where those covetous individuals who took clandestine 
possession of other people's property, received from the hands of the 
Sheriff the panacea applied in those days for the healing of such moral 
distempers. The patient's hands were confined to the top and his feet to 
the bottom of the post with ropes, the shoulders denuded and a ' deter- 
mination to the surface ' — as the doctors express it — induced by an appli- 
cation of rawhide or hickory. To witness such an operation is revolting 
to the finer feelings of humanity. Imagine a man thus pinioned hand 
and foot, striving to bury his face betAveen his extended arms, his shoul- 
ders laid bare to the lash. The Sheriff coolly takes up a long ' cowhide,' 
as hard as a ribbed and twisted iron Avire, raises it above his head and 
brings it down upon the poor fellow's bare shoulders, as an assistant 
standing by, deliberately calls out ' one ! ' The operation is repeated in 
the coolest, most formal manner, at intervals of about one second — the 
assistant continuing to call at each blow, ' two,' ' three,' etc., up to fifteen 
or twenty, according to the sentence of the court. All this time a circle 
of eager men and boys are crowding as near as possible, pulling each 
other back, to see him writhe and endeavor to free himself from the 

It is also related of the Willis Cheek spoken of in this extract that 
he once went to Mr. Skidmore and asked to be trusted for a small quan- 
tity of powder and shot which he wished to purchase. This accommo- 
dation the merchant refused, and Willis went away quite angry. As he 
passed out, however, he managed to purloin a coon skin lying behind the 
door. After several hours he returned and asked Mr. Skidmore if he 
woidd buy a coon skin. An affirmative answer was quickly given, and 
the impecunious hunter received his ammunition. As he made his exit 
he turned and tauntingly shouted at the merchant, " Refuse to trust me 
again, will you? I just got that skin from behind your door." 

The residence of Samuel Lee spoken of by Mr. Tunnell, became in 
after years a very famous> house. It was used for dwelling, drug store, 
harness shop, and for other purposes, and was altered and repaired times 
without number. In 1877, it was torn down to make room for the Rus- 
sell building, on which occasion the Carroll ton Patriot contained the 
following in relation to it : 

" The old building, which this week has been demolished to make 
room for the erection of the Sol. Russell block, was one of the most 
ancient in the city, and was in many respects historical. It, or portions 
of it, have been standing considerably over half a century. John Dee, 
Esq., came to this country in 1821. He spent the first winter under the 
bluffs, and in 1822 came to this place. Isham Linder, Sr., and John 
Huitt were also here at that time. When Mr. Dee arrived here, to the 
best of his recollection, part of the old building was np, and occupied by 
John W. Skidmore. Skidmore was the first merchant who ever sold goods 


in CarroUton. His store was a little buildiiiy; on Sharon's eorner. ^^'ith 
Skidmore was boarding Samuel Lee, who afterward married Skidmore's 
sister-in-law, and occupied the same house. Mr. Lee built an addition to 
the house, which is probably the main part of that destroyed tliis week ; 
this was built in 182;"), or 1^26. 'Squire Jvce, as he was called, was a very 
important personage. He was the first Recorder, Circuit Clerk, and 
County Clerk the county ever had. He filled these offices, and perhaps 
others, at one and the same time. He began the building of the struct- 
ure which is now Judge Hodges' elegant mansion. He died in 1829. 
Soon after the house was occupied by Climpson (or possibly Clements). 
He had the contract for carrying the mail from St. Louis to this place, and 
ran a stage coach. His wife died in 1832, of cholera. She was the first 
victim, in tliis region, of that scourge, which ravaged with dreadful 
effect the next Summer. Some time after this, the house was occupied 
by Wm. E. Ryan, who kept a boarding house. The building for a long 
time had a very sinister reputation, and was known as the haunted house. 
Mysterious voices, unearthly quakings and portentous appearances, 
seemed to the citizens of that day to make it certain bcA'ond a doubt that 
unhappy spirits reigned supreme within its walls. Family after family 
moved bravely into the house, only to depart very suddenly, and not at 
all bravely, soon after. At one time Hiram Keach, Ike Warmoth (father 
of the ex-Governor of Louisiana), and Josephus Huitt, three of the 
pluckiest young men in the settlement, undertook to defy the ghostly 
visitants. Tliey entered the building, and boldly called upon the spirits 
to show themselves, but were soon ignominously put to fliglit by the 
supernatural ruml)lings and quakings which followed. The fact that a 
large tree whose branches rested on the roof, grew beside the house, is 
believed to explain the phenomena." The following relation from Dr. 
John Headrick, of Winfield, Kansas, will be read with a great deal of 
interest. Dr. Headrick is very familiar with the earl}" history of this city : 

The Haunted House. 

"Cities, once proud and populous, have now disappeared, and with 
them the haunted house, which was, in many respects, historical. J. W. 
Skidmore was the first merchant who ever sold goods in CarroUton. His 
store was a little building on Sharon's corner. Witli Skidmore was 
boarding Samuel Lee, who afterward married Miss Faust, Skidmore's 
sister-in-law. She, after Lee's death, married General Edward Baker, 
who was killed at the battle of Ball's Bluff during the rebellion. Skid- 
more built the haunted house on tlie north side of the Square. Lee 
afterward lived in it, and built an addition to it. The original building 
contained two rooms — one occupied by the family, and the other used as 
a kitchen. Lee's addition was built in 1825, or 1826. It was placed in 
front of the old ])art, and contained a parlor and bedroom, witii a door 
leading from the bedroom through the middle room into the kitchen. 

" Lee was an important personage. He was the first Recorder, Cir- 
cuit Clerk, County Clerk, and Justice of the Peace the county ever had. 
He began the building of the structure wliich is now the residence of 
Judcre Hodg-es ; Moses Stevens was the architect who finished it in 1830 
or 18?i2. Mr. Clements was the first occupant of the haunted house, 
after Mrs. Lee removed to her new home. His wife died of cliolera in 


the Fall of 1832, and was the first victim of the scourge that ravaged 
the count}^ the next Summer. The house was never occupied by Ryan 
for a boarding-house. General James Turney lived in the house for some 
time, and he and his brave family withstood the mysterious voices and 
unearthly qualdngs without finding out whence they came. Mrs. Clorinda 
Rattan, the daughter of Thomas Rattan, was one of the watcliers 
for the night at the death of the General's child. The corpse was laid in 
the bedroom. During the night the watchers heard a noise. Fearing a 
cat, they hastened to the corpse, and were astonished to see the appari- 
tion of a child flit across the room and apparently escape through a pane 
of glass. Standing in the door of the bedroom, the supernatural rum- 
blings could be heard, first in the distance, but always settling down and 
terminating in the northeast corner of the bedroom. It is very difficult 
to describe" a noise with pen or pencil. The following will, however, 
give some idea of these mysterious sounds : sit yourself on a chair^ upon 
a carpeted floor; take off your boot; raise your foot and let it fall 
lightly, your heel striking the floor. Repeat, making a little more noise, 
and again, with still more violence. Wait five or ten seconds, and 
repeat again. Three knocks, or thumps (using the plirase of Dr. 
Cowden), constituted the noise universally heaid when standing in the 
door of the bedroom. The first appearance ever witnessed was a small 
child, which was seen to make its exit through an auger hole in the 
kitchen door. Dr. Cowden was a horse trader. He was a brave man; 
he feared neither ghosts, man, nor that which passed into the swine 
which ran down the mountain. While he occupied the house, his wife 
one night awakened him and said she could not sleep for the noise. He 
cried out, ' Let the d — d thing thump ! ' Instantly a light as bright as 
the noonday sun shone out over them, and illumined a square of the 
ceiling as large as the bed. The room beyond wiis black as night. He 
never cursed it again. The fact tliat many and large trees, whose 
branches rested on the house, stood near, does notex[)lain the phenomena. 
General James Turney, Captain Noah Fry, Lindsay H. English, with 
others, cut away all the branches near the house, removed the hog pen, 
and nailed fast all the loose boards ; but without effect on the noises. 
Hiram Keach, Ike Warmoth, Joseph Iluitt and many others, wlio were 
noted men in their day, watched for years to find a cause. There are 
but few men who now live that know the cause to which these strange 
phenomena were attributed. Perhaps none except myself. If so, it will 
never be known. That unhappy spirits reigned within the walls of the 
haunted house is beyond a doubt. J- HEADRICK. 

" We give the above from .the pen of a gentleman well known in this- 
County, on the authority of its writer. It is an interesting narrative." 

In 182G Judge Wm. Thomas came through this region on his way 
from Kentucky to Jacksonville. He afterward published in the Jackson- 
ville Journal the following account of that part of his trip which lay 
through this County: 

'^From Alton I came to CarroUton, taking breakfast at John 
Williams'. From CarroUton I came to Jacksonville, taking dinner 
at Judge Mark's, now Manchester, then called ' l>nrnt Haystacks.' I 
leached Jacksonville on the 12th of October, about eight o'clock at night. 







I put up at David Tefft's, who occupied a double frame one story building 
as a tavern on the east side of the Square, where I remained about a 
week, when, through the influence of Dr. Ero Chandler, I obtained 
boarding with Mr. Henry Robley, a farmer and blacksmith, over a mile 
east of the court house, and entirely out of town. From Carrollton to 
Edwardsville via Belleville, the country was beautiful, the land apparently 
rich, but thinly settled, with but few good houses or improved farms. 
From Edwardsville to Alton the road passed over a wooded and broken 
country, thin land, and but few. farms. From Alton to Carrollton after 
passing Piasa Creek, and getting on the prairie, the country was level, 
though sufficiently undulating for agricultural purposes. To Macoupin 
Creek and from there to Carrollton the road passes over a timbered and 
poor country, with but two or three small farms and one small brick 
house. Between Carrollton and Apple Creek the timber, undergrowth, 
and vegetation indicated deep, rich soil, equal to any that I had ever 
seen. At Carrollton I put up at a tavern kept by Mr. Harrison, south of 
the Square, in a small story and a half building. I went to a grocery store 
to purchase some cigars, when I found twenty or thirty men, (whom, I 
was told, were called Macoupinites,) drinking, carousing, cursing, swear- 
ing, singing obscene songs, and telling stories on each other. They were 
enjoying themselves to the fullest. One of them, who appeared to be 
sober and quiet, after asking me Avhere I was from and where I was 
going, said, 'you are too smart-looking to be in this crowd, and I advise 
you to leave before the boys notice you ; they are a wild set.' I thanked 
him for his advice and returned to the tavern. 

" This sober man I met some twenty years afterward at Springfield 
as a member of the Legislature, suffering under a violent attack of con 
gestive fever, of which he died. I sent after and procured a doctor fo 
him and wrote his will. 

"A few days before I reached Carrollton, there had been a general 
or regimental muster, at which all the militia of the county were required 
to attend for purposes of drill or training, and this had brought together 
the Macoupinites and others of like character. Many of them remained 
in Carrollton during the night after the muster, and not being able or 
willing to procure quarters in houses, spent the night in drinking, carous- 
ing, singing, fighting, and in mischief. They caught one man (Mike 
Dodd,) cut off a part of one of his ears, and nailed it on the door of the 
blacksmith shop, where it still remained. They shaved the mane and 
tail of Mr. Carroll's fine saddle horse, one of the best and finest-looking 
horses that I ever saw ; they changed signs from house to house, removed 
gates, pulled down fences, and removed buckets from wells." 

Three years later, Pres. J. M. Sturtevant, of Illinois College, passed 
through the town, and says of it that it was a cluster of log houses. 

The first church erected in Carrollton was used by the Baptist 
denomination. It stood a little out of town at that day, to the south- 
east. The pastor of this church for several years was one Aaron Smith, 
mentioned elsewhere, a Revolutionary pensioner. He was shot at Eutaw 
Springs, crawled into a clump of bushes, lay three days in a helpless 
condition, and was found by means of tiie flies that hovered around him. 
He resided a mile and a half southwest from Carrollton for a few years, 
and afterward moved north of Apple Creek. After some time, 


with his aged wife who had been blind for several years, he went to 
Arkansas, where they both died at a good old age. 

While the materials for the building of the Court House in Carroll- 
ton were lying scattered around, and just before the building was erected, 
the celebrated Lorenzo Dow visited the place, and preached to the people 
two or three nights. Soon it became noised abroad that he was preaching 
in town, and on one dark, drizzling day the people came pouring in from 
the country, on foot, on horseback, and in wagons to hear him, as it was 
understood he had an appointment for that day, which, however, proved 
to be incorrect. But, unwilling to be disappointed in their expectation 
of hearing him, they besieged him with such pressing importunities that 
he consented to preach if they would procure a house for the occasion. 
The brick house on the north side of the public square, at the west cor- 
ner, was then erected and roofed, the carpenters were engaged in finish- 
ing the inside work, when a committee waited upon them, and prevailed 
on them to move their work-benches and tools, clear up the shavings, 
and put the house in order for the occasion. It was, however, insufficient 
to afford room for as many as wished to hear the preacher. 

One who was present thus describes the scene : " Dow, who had 
stopped at a tavern some distance south of the east side of the Square, 
started to walk to the place designated, accompanied by some thirty or 
forty persons, men, women, boys and girls. His form was bent, and he 
walked with a staff, his long hair, parted at the top of the head, hung 
down his back to the waist, his long beard hung down his bosom ; his 
step was slow and somewhat feeble, and his countenance grave and mys- 
terious. On arriving at the south side of the Square a slight sprinkle of 
rain began to fall, and fears were probably entertained that seats would 
be difficult to obtain at the house where the sermon was to be delivered, 
and the men and boys of the little company ran to the house to obtain 
seats, in advance of the crowd, leaving the good old man almost deserted, 
to find his way the best he could. He moved slowly along, as if uncon- 
scious of the rain, and the movements of those whose cariosity had in- 
duced them to accompany him, but to desert him, until arriving at the 
point near the middle of the Square, where the materials for the Court 
House were collected. Then mounting ' a shingle block,' with the re- 
mark, ' It is written, the first shall be last, and the last first,' he com- 
menced preaching. Those who had reached the house were not able, at 
first, to account for the strange turn matters had taken, and when, at 
length, they began to understand that Dow was actually engaged in his 
sermon, they ran out of the house, and made such a rush for the Court 
House yard as could be equaled only by a drove of wild cattle ; some 
were swearing, but the majority laughing, and making demonstrations of 
merriment. The discourse continued about an hour. It was exceedingly 
concise and pointed; in grammatical construction it was singularly pure, 
and admitted of no misconstruction. Utterly devoid of any attempt at 
ornament, it was jet strong and forcible, and seemed to flow as smoothly 
and easily as the ideas passed through the brain, without the least effort 
of the organs of speech. It was simply thinking aloud, and in a manner 
so simple, and chaste, and beautiful, as to reach the understanding of the 
meanest capacity. What the subject was I have entirely forgotten. I 
was captivated by the artless beauty of his language, which, if my judg- 


ment was then correct, contrasted ver}^ favorably with his written produc- 
tions which I have since read. But, being at that day very young, it is 
probable that I appreciated those things too higlily. But first impressions 
effect much in biasing the judgment in after years, and it is difficult for 
me, after a lapse of more than thirty years, to think of Lorenzo Dow's 
discourse on that day at CarroUton as being anything less than the most 
beautiful I ever heard." 

The histor)'- of CarroUton is for several years almost identical with 
that of the county, and will be found in the county history proper. 

In 1832, the new town was very seriously afflicted with cholera. A 
stage line was running to St. Louis at that time, and there was also 
frequent communication with the city by means of the boats on the 
Illinois River. By these means the germs of the disease were imported 
into the town, and although it contained but 300 inhabitants, more than 
30 died from the scourge. Nearly ever}'^ adult in the village was either 
ill or fully occupied in the care of the sick. Business was neglected. 
Those who lived in the country were in constant fear lest the}' might be 
stricken down with the plague, and hardly dared venture outside of ther 
doors. Grass grew in the streets of CarroUton, and the town wore a 
funereal aspect. It was in this year that Hon. D. M. Woodson arrived in 
the town. He says that there were then residing in the place four lawyers, 
General James Turney, afterward Attorney General of the State, the 
father of Mrs. Col. Fry, Judge Alfred W. Cavarly, Edward D. Baker, who 
subsequently became General Baker, the hero of Ball's Bluff, and Ciiarles 
D. Hodges, afterward Circuit Judge, State Senator, etc., and still living 
and practicing his profession in the town. Judge Cavarly then ranked 
with General Tiirney as one of the ablest lawyers in the State. He was 
for some time a member of the State Legislature, and was one of the 
leading men of that bod3^ Of physicians there were Dr. James B. 
Samuel, who lived a spotless life, respected by all, and died only a few 
years ago. Dr. O. B. Heaton, a man of considerable worth, and Dr. B. C. 
Wood, who many yeavs ago retired from practice to enter the sacred desk, 
and who still remains waiting for the summons to enter into his rest. 
Rev. Thos. Lippincott was one of the early Presbyterian ministers. He 
was a very able man, and the father of General Charles Lippincott, ex- 
Auditor of the State. In 1842 the town contained sufficient business to 
warrant the publication of a paper, which was begun that year. A copy 
of one of the earliest issues of this sheet, the People's Advocate, is still 
preserved, and from it we can learn something as to the business of the 
town. The paper contains almost nothing in the way of news, gossip or 
comment of a local application, but in its advertising columns is found 
the following names: S, R. Perry and William Perry were blacksmiths, 
John Headrick kept a general store and advertised quite freely, Dr. J. 
French Simpson kept a drug store, A. W. Cavarly and D. M. Woodson 
were attorneys, Hiram Reach was a hainess maker, R. Pecare~ owned a 
drug and grocery store, and John Evans.advertised his steam mill. 

Mr. Evans' mill was situated south of the village near the site of the 
old wooden mill. Immediately south of it was one otlier grist mill, l)ut 
both have since been destro^^ed, as has also the woolen factory, which 
afterward took their places. Ten years later, and there is evidence of a 
very marked improvement. During 1852, Dr. John Headrick built a 


capacious brick hotel on the west side of the Square, the building now 
owned by J. T, Cameron. George Wright, Esq., erected a substantial two- 
story brick building on the north side of the Square. Carrollton contained 
four hotels. C. D. Hodges (afterward Judge) had become partner of D. 
M. Woodson, R. L. Doyle was a practicing attorney, C. M. Smith sold 
dry goods ; Reno, Dodge & Simpson were druggists, Mrs. A. J. James, 
milliner : George W. Williams, blacksmith ; David Hartwell, contractor 
and builder, and John Wriglit, tailor. James Reno, who during this year 
was a partner of Dr. J. F. ^Simpson was the father of Lieutenant Marcus 
Reno, who was so prominently before the public in connection with the 
engagement with the Indians in which General Custer lost his life. 

The next year, John Fitch, of Vermont, began the publication of a 
paper. The Crreene County Banner, in the town. It was Democratic in 
politics, and quite successful for a few years, but it eventually died. 
During this year Carrollton first received the benefits of the telegraph. 
A wire was put up about this time between Alton and Jacksonville. Mr. 
Fitch was an operator, and the citizens of the town subscribed the money 
necessary to purchase instruments, etc., to make a connection with the 
line. A few years after, Mr. Fitch went away and took with him the 
instruments. Subsequently the wire was broken or taken down, and the 
town was not magnetically connected with the world until after the 
opening of the C. & A. Railroad. 

In the issue of the Carrollton Gazette for October 18, 1851, we find 
the following statement of the condition of the town at that time: 

" Carrollton has not over eight hundred inhabitants, and there are 
four churches, and besides these, there are five ministers living in the 
town, and men of no ordinary abilities. Each of these denominations 
has regular meetings every Sabbath. So much for the moral character 
of Carrollton. In regard to her literary character, we can boast of three 
excellent schools, all in successful operation, and a large academy now in 
progress of building, soon to be completed. We have also two printing 
offices, both doing a smashing business ; also, a telegraph office, doing a, 
fine business. We have eight dry goods stores, two drug and fancy 
stores, one family grocery, one bakery, three taverns, and one private 
boarding house ; one tin and stove store, three boot and shoe makers, six 
blacksmith and wagon shops, two gunsmiths, two jewelers, two house and 
sign painters, two" saddle and harness makers, two lumber yards, and 
twelve carpenters ; one hat store ; two carding machines, one propelled 
by steam, with saw attached; one cooper shop, four tailor shops, and 
one clothing store ; a large number of stone and brick masons, brick 
makers and plasterers, four lawyers and the district judge ; two cabinet 
shops, eight doctors, one dentist (and a good one at that) ; a Masonic 
lodge building owned by the fraternity ; a Sons of Temperance hall, a 
fine^ brick building, owned by the Order, and one hundred and fifty^ons 
of Temperance, and the Grand Scribe, a section of the Cadets of Tem- 
perance, numbering between forty and fifty, and no groggeries ; a first- 
class brass band, and a regular set of amateurs." 

Before a grist mill was built within the limits of the town, the 
inhabitants went to Beman's mill, on Apple Creek, or to what is now 
Erisman's mill, near the Macoupin, for their flour. Probably the first 
mill built in Carrollton was Smith's mill, which stood south of the 


location of the woolen mills. Soon after, John Evans built another steam 
mill very near. Both were burned. Mr. Evans' mill was destroyed in 
1847, when the loss was estimated at $20,000, with an insurance of $10,000. 
In 1853, Germaine & Wright erected the capacious mill now owned by 
David Pierson, Esq. 

In 1854, an open market house stood in the Court House Park, just 
south of the Court House, and was a great convenience to the town. 

A census taken in 1855 showed that the town contained 549 males, 
540 females — total, 1,089. The value of manufactured articles is given 
at $60,000. The city now contains about 3,000 inhabitants, and its size 
is constantly increasing. 

In 1830, P. N. Rampey was post master, and the office was kept in the 
Court House. He was followed by Charles Lancaster, who afterward 
was sent to the penitentiary. The next incumbent was James Reno, 
who, as druggist, landlord, post master, etc., occupied a very prominent 
position in the town for many years. Next came Alfred Hinton, who 
served for several years, and after him Robert F. Clark received the ap- 
pointment. Mr. Clark did not care to fill the position and resigned with- 
in a week. This was in April, 1852. Richard B. Hill was appointed, 
and fulfilled the duties of the office until July, 1853, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Ralph W. Kay. In December, 1854, Marshall Dulaney received 
the appointment, and held the office for seven years. His successors have 
been T. D. Price, S. P. Ohr, James Cox, F. B. Roberts, George W. Wil- 
liams, who was post master for 13 years, until February, 1879, when he 
was succeeded by Charles Lynn, the present incumbent. 

Carroll ton was incorporated as a town at an early date, Avhich I have 
not succeeded in ascertaining. Early in 1847, this charter was repealed 
and the town re-incorporated in 1849. In 1848, the officers of the Board 
were, Chester Ga3dord, President, and Giles H. Turner, Clerk. July 6, 
1849, an election was held, which resulted in the choice of the following 
officers : President, C. A. Davis ; Trustees, Jordan Howard, A. W. 
Lynn, C. P. Heaton. Alfred Hinton, and J. E. Walker, each received 
29 votes, and therefore neither was chosen. A new election was ordered, 
at which Alfred Hinton received a clear majority, and was declared the 
fifth Trustee, F. P. Vedder was made Clerk, Z. A. Morrow, Constable, 
Chester Gaylord, David Pierson and V. F. Williams, Assessors, and John 
Hardtner, Supervisor. The officers for succeeding years were as fol- 

1850 — President^ C, A. Davis. Trustees^ Jordan Howard, A. W. 
Lynn, Alfred Hinton, J. E. Walker. Clerk, F. P. Vedder. Constable^ 
Z. A. Morrow. 

1851 — President, Chester Gaylord. Trustees, Wm. P. Marmon, 
Clark M. Smith, Richard B. Hill, John C. Miller. Clerk, F. P. Vedder. 
Constable, Z. A. Morrow, 

1852 — President, J. K. Sharon. Trustees, Z. A. Morrow, William 
Winn, Lyman F. Wheeler, R. F. Clark. Clerk, F. P. Vedder. Constable, 
J. N. Tunstall. 

In August L. F. Wheeler resigned, and his place was filled by V. F. 
Williams. In January, 1853, Z. A. Morrow resigned, and Paul Wright 
was chosen in his stead. 

1853 — President, Wm. P. Barr. Trustees, David Pierson, Clinton 


♦ Armstrong, Jacob Headlie, and Jordan Howard. Cierk^ F. P. Vedder. 
Constable^ Zachariah A. Morrow. 

1854 — President, Wm. P. Barr. Trustees, David Pierson, Clinton 

♦ Armstrong, Jacob Headlie, and Jordan Howard. Clerk F. P. Vedder. 
Constable, Z. A. Morrow. 

1855 — President, Martin Bowman. Trustees, Charles B. Hubbell, 
John Long, James F. Simpson, and Wm. Winn. Clerk, F. P. Vedder. 
Town Constable, Z. A. Morrow. 

1856 — President, Martin Bowman. Trustees, John Long, Wm. 
Winn, Jordan Howard, and Lyman F. Wheeler. Clerk, F. P. Vedder. 
Town Constable, Augustus C. Pegram, in October Samuel Smith, in April 
Wm. M. Neece. 

1857 — President, Wm. P. Barr. Trustees, Joel G. Reed, Paul Wright, 
John Kaser, and John Cullimore. Clerk, F. P. Vedder. Constable, Ly- 
man F. Wheeler. 

1858 — Presideyit, Titus W. Vigus. Trustees, Robert F. Clark, David 
Pierson, Lyman F. Wheeler, and John M. Woodson. J Clerk, John M. 
Woodson. Co7istable, John C. Carlin. 

1859 — President, Hiram Keach. Trustees, Alexander W. Lynn, 
George B. Price, Martin Bowman, and Francis P. Vedder. Clerk, F. P. 
Vedder. Constable, Joseph S. Hackney. 

1860 — President, Z. A. Morrow. Trustees, C. P. Clemmons, Alex- 
ander Bowman, Conrad Kergher, and Wm. A. Davis. Clerk, Wm. A. 
Davis. Constable, F. B. Roberts. 

1861 — President, Woodson Cocke. Trustees, William Withers, J. 
^ C. Kelly, John Rainey, and Wm. R. Davis. Clerk, Henry C. Withers. 
Constable, J. C. Hackney. 

1862 — President, Woodson Cocke. Trustees, Thomas H. Boyd, 
James Legg, Valentine Villinger, and William Withers. Clerk, Henry 
C. Withers^. 

From this date until 1867, when Carrollton was incorporated as a 
city, the records can not be found. Since the city organization the fol- 
ing have been the officers : 

1867 — iJfa7/or, William L.Greene. Clerk, A&&, Potter. Aldermen: 
1st ward, James P. Morrow ; 2d ward, Joseph K. Sharon ; 3d ward, John 
R. Crandall ; 4th ward, Richard C. Robinson. 

1868 — Mayor, William L. Greene. Clerk, George W. Davis. Alder- 
men: 1st ward, Joseph T. Cameron; 2d ward, Henry L. Johnson; 3d 
ward, Frederick Schaffer ; 4th ward, Thomas Scott, Jr. 

1869 — Mayor, William L. Greene. Clerk, George W. Davis. Alder- 
men : 1st ward, Joseph T. Cameron (held over) ; 2d ward, Adam Gimmy ; 
3d ward, Joel G. Reed ; 4th ward, Thomas Scott, Jr. 

1870 — Mayor, An(\.vQ\Y M. Cunningham. Clerk, Stephen F. Cor- 
rington. Aldei-men: 1st ward, Thomas S. Moore; 2d ward, John 
Rainey ; 3d ward, Frederick Schaifer ; 4th ward, George L. Williams. 

1871 — Mayor, Andrew M. Cunningham. Clerk, Stephen F. Cor- 
rington. Aldermen : 1st ward, Henry C. Sieverling (resigned Aug. 14, 
\ 1871); 2d ward, John Rainey ; 3d ward, Frederick Schaffer (held over), 
resigned Aug. 14, 1871; 4th ward, George L. Williams; 1st ward (to 
fill vacancy), John G. Williams, elected Sept. 13, 1871 ; 3d ward (to fill 
vacancy), William Scruby, elected Sept. 13, 1871. 


1872 — Mayor, Roliert H. Davis. Clerk, Stephen F. Corrington. 
Aldermen: 1st ward, Robert Pierson ; 2d ward, Albert G. Burr; 3d 
ward. Jay C. White ; 4th ward, George L. Williams. 

1873 — Mayor, Jolin Clough. Clerk, Stephen F. ("orrington. 
Aldermen : 1st ward, David Pierson : 2d ward, James M. Davis, M. D. ; 
3d ward. George Baltz ; 4th ward, Jolm Long. 

1874 — Mcryor, William R. Davis. Clerk^ Stephen F. Corrington. 
Aldermen: 1st ward, James E. Furgeson ; 2d ward, Thomas Hussey ; 
3d ward, Thomas Scruby ; 4th ward. Clinton Armstrong, M. D. • 

1875 — Mayor, Thomas Scott, Jr. Clerk, Stephen F. Corrington. 
Aldermen: 1st ward, Robert S.Evans; 2d ward, Jacob S. Hunt; 3d 
ward, Joseph Ober ; 4th ward. Dr. Edward B. Hobson. 

1876 — Mayor, John Clough. Clerk, Stephen F. Corrington. 
Aldermen: 1st ward, J. E. Eldred ; 2d ward. Dr. James M. Davis; 
3d ward, Fred Schaffer ; 4th ward, N. J. Andrews. 

1877 — Mayor, R. H. Davis. Clerk, Stephen F. Corrington. Alder- 
men : 1st ward, J. E. Furgeson ; 2d ward, Wm. M. Fry ; 3d ward, Geo. 
Baltz; 4th Avard, Dr. E. B. Hobson. 

1878 — Mayor, L. F. Wheeler. Clerk, Stephen F. Corrington. 
Aldermen: 1st ward, James I. Johnson; 2d ward, W. W. Samuel; 3d 
ward, George Baltz ; 4th ward, Isham Linder, Jr. 

In 1862 a fine brick building was erected in the southern part of the 
city and fitted with steam power and ample machinery for the purpose of 
manufacturing woolen goods. For several years it was successfully oper- 
ated, and the reputation of the goods from the Carrollton woolen mills 
was wide spread and excellent. But in 1871 the building mysteriously 
caught fire and was destroyed, occasioning a very heavy loss to the com- 
pany and an almost irreparable loss to the city. 

" The Carrollton cemetery is one of the most beautiful to be found in 
this part of the State. It is ornamented with trees and shrubs and is 
well taken care of. A number of elegant and costly monuments add to 
its beauty and preserve the memory of the departed. The following is 
a list of the deceased soldiers whose bodies lie buried in its consecrated 
soil : 

Of the War of 1812: — Samuel Thomas, Joel Johnson, Rev. 
Isaac Land is. 

Of the Black Haivk War : — James Williams, William Ray, Christo- 
pher Dodgson, Wm. Carlin, M. J. Lyman. 

Of the Mexican War: — Capt. Noah Fry, 1st Lieut. Wm. C. Rainey, 
A. McDaniels, 2d Lieut. S. S. Chester, Larkin Gilleland. 

Of the liehellion ;— Melford Ray, Capt. Clifford, Mark Sandford, 
Sergt. F. B. Roberts, Michael Scott, George W. Scott, F. P. Vedder, 
Munroe Perry. 

Carrollton Public Schools. 

It is impossible to determine who was the first school master in Car- 
rollton or where his school was located. 

" Past is all liis fame. The very spot 
Wliere once he triumphed, is forgot." 

The old brick building now standing at the south-west corner of the 
Public Square was used for a long time for school purposes. The first 
public school in Carrollton was opened in the Fall of 1850 in what now 


forms the north wing of the old school house. The teacher was a Mr. 
Bartle, now a Presbyterian minister. Mr. Bartle's strong anti-slavery 
views got him into trouble, and led to his discharge. In the Fall of 1851 
the school opened in charge of Prof. John Russell, assisted by Mr. Henry 
Bonfoy, with Miss E. J. Gunning in charge of the female department. 
That the notion of a free school at that time was by no means that of a 
school for primary instruction appears from the following standing adver- 
tisement in the Carrollton Gazette during that Fall and Winter : 

" John Russell, A.M., Principal. Henry Bonfoy, Assistant. 

The directors of this institution are happy to announce to the citizens 
of school district No. 2, and to the public generally, that they have so far 
completed their arrangements as to be able to accommodate at least 200 
pupils, and that the school will be open for their reception in January 

" They would also state that they are just finishing a very extensive 
building, which for commodious and comfortable arrangements will vie 
with any of a similar character in the western country. 

" They have secured the services of Prof. John Russell as principal, 
and of Henry Bonfoy as assistant teacher. Of the former it is unnecessary 
to speak, as the reputation of Prof. Russell, both as an accomplished 
scholar and successful teacher is known and acknowledged, not only in 
this community, but throughout the South and West. And to the citizens 
of the immediate vicinity the superior qualifications of Mr. Bonfoy as an 
instructor of youth are equally well known and appreciated. 

" From a knowledge of the principles upon which these gentlemen 
will conduct the school, ^he directors think they may assure the public 
that the instruction imparted will be thorough and practical in its nature. 

"•The following constitutes a list of the branches which will be taught 
and the amount of tuition charged therefor per quarter : 

" Orthography, Reading, Writing, .... -SI. 00 

" Arithmetic, English Grammar, Geography, 

History of the U. S., 2.00 

" Natural Philosophy, Political Economy, Chem- 
istry, Geology, Algebra, Rhetoric, Physiology, 

etc., 3.00 

" Latin, Greek, French, Geometry, Surveying, 4.00 

" To secure admission, tuition must invariably be paid in advance. 
Patrons residinsr in the district will receive the benefit of the school fund. 

" A competent female teacher will be engaged for the ensuing year. 

" Applications to be made to the undersigned. 

" Z. A. Morrow, J 

"C. A. Davis, > Directors.'^ 

" Carrollton, Dec. 13, 1851. " L. W. Link, ) 

The new school building referred to in the above was completed and 
dedicated on the third of January 1852. The old school room formed an 
ell on the south side of the new front, which consisted of two rooms on 
the ground floor and one above. 












I— i 



■■'T^ I .ij,iT| 


The CarroUton Gazette of Jan. 10, 1852, contains the following 
account of the " Dedication " : 

" On Saturday night last, our splendid public school edifice was 
dedicated. A very large audience was in attendance and listened to the 
performance with evident gratification. 

" The CarroUton Brass Band performed, and it is needless to say, in 
good style. The band have spared no pains to render themselves first-rate 
performers, and richly merit the high reputation they sustain both at home 
and abroad. Besides this, a gentleman and lady who came to town for 
the purpose of giving concerts, sang and performed on this occasion. 

" An address was delivered by Judge Woodson, which held the atten- 
tion of the audience enchained. If sound . principles and enlightened 
views, combined with elegant language and impressive style of speaking, 
entitle any one to the claims of eloquence, the address on that occasion 
may be termed eloquent. 

" We hesitate not to say that every citizen present looked around him 
with profound gratification that our town can boast of such a structure, 
devoted to the cause of education." 

The school continued in charge of Prof. Russell during the remain- 
der of that year, when he was succeeded by Henry Bonfoy. It does not 
appear that at this time there existed what we now call a graded school. 
The plan seemed to be modeled after the old academy system, with a 
female department, but those who lived within the district received the 
benefit of the school fund. The tax books show that it was not until the 
year 1855 that the school tax was regularly levied. In that year, Mr. 
David G. Peabody was employed as principal with a salary of six hun- 
dred dollars. He organized the school upon the graded basis, and the 
enrollment for this year was two hundred and twenty. He was assisted 
by his sister. Miss H. G. Peabody. Was re-employed, and served six 
months of the following year. In 1855, assistant teachers were paid 
$300 a year ; in 1856, $350 a year; and in 1857 they received $400 per 
annum. In the Fall of 1857, Charles K. Gilchrist was employed and 
served two years. He is now Judge Gilchrist, of Utah. 

From this time on there was a change of principals nearly every 
year, no one serving longer than two years. Dr. Bulkle}^, now of Shurt- 
leff College, taught a very large and well advanced high school for two 
winters. He had three assistants, and received a salary of $650. 

The names of Alfred Harvey, for the past eight j'ears Superintendent 
of Schools at Paris, Edgar Co., 111., and President for the ensuing year 
of the Illinois State Teachers' Association ; of Francis W. Parker, now 
Superintendent of Schools at Quincy, Mass., and of many others, dear to 
the memor}^ of those who profited by their instruction, proves that the 
schools were, some of the time at least, in earnest and capable hands. 
But it was impossible to have a systematic organization Avhen the prin- 
cipal and most of the assistant teachers were changed every year. 

At last the school building became inadequate to the wants of the 
people, and, after a vast amount of discussion, it was voted to build a 
new school house. The Board of Directors, George W. Davis, Thomas 
Boyd, and Rev. E. L. Craig, pushed the matter forward with vigor, and 
during the Summer and Fall of 1870 the elegant and commodious school 
building was erected, which now forms the most striking object in the 


town to the eye of the passing traveler'. The buildino; is of brick, faced 
with stone, three stories in heiglit with a basement. The upper story is a 
Mansard, and the whole is set off by a square tower which rises from the 
center of the building in front, eighty feet from the ground. It is finished 
inside with alternate walnut and ash panels, oak floors, hard-finish walls, 
is well provided with blackboards, and is seated with Andrews" latest style 
of school desks. The original cost of the building, including the furnace, 
was $44,000. Here then was a new departure. Now, for the first time 
in the history of the Carrollton schools, was it possible to organize a 
thoroughly graded school. The crowded condition of the old schools, 
with only three rooms, made any scientific classification impossible. The 
Directors were ably seconded by the Principal, Mr. Joseph Dobbin, then 
serving his second year. In the first week of January, 1871, Mr. Dobbin 
transferred the pupils to the new building and proceeded to organize and 
grade the school. To do this with a school of several hundred children 
is a very difficult task. That Mr. Dobbin succeeded in bringing order out 
of chaos there is no question. He was ably assisted in the high school by 
Miss S. Alice Judd, now teacher of German in the Decatur, 111., High 
School, and in the lower grades by Miss Mary Pike, now principal of the 
Fourth Ward School in the city of Bloomington ; by Miss Anna Pike ; 
Miss Delia Schenck, now Mrs. Charles Smith, of Kansas; Miss H. G. 
Peabody, and Miss Nannie Price. 

The school was under rigid discipline, and by the end of the year 
was in fine working order. What had before been done in a disconnected 
and aimless kind of a way, particularly in high school studies, he system- 
atized. A course of study was marked out, and a strict record was kept 
of each jtupil's advancement. Mr. Dobbin resigned at the close of the 
year, and Mr. W. H. Wilson was elected to succeed him. He was a gen- 
tleman of fine attainments, but his stay was so short that he did little 
more than make a beginning. When, in the Fall of 1872, the High 
School was organized, under charge of Mr. E. A. Doolittle, very few of 
the old pupils entered school, so that it was necessary to begin at the 
foundation again. Mr. Doolittle was assisted in the High School by 
Miss Hattie E. Dunn, for the past five years Principal of the High 
School in the city of Bloomington, 111. Miss Dunn was a graduate 
of the State Normal, and had tiiught with distinguished success in the 
high schools of Bloomington and Springfield, 111., before coming to Car- 

Finding that the High School was composed of young men and 
women whose intelligence demanded instruction of a higher grade than 
arithmetic and geography, a couise of study was gradually developed, 
covering four years, although at first only two years of the course were 
represented by classes. This course of study has been adhered to ever 
since, and with the close of the year 1879, five classes, including thirty- 
four voung ladies and gentlemen, will have completed it. 

Eiyh School Course of Study— First Year — First Term: Reading, 
Arithmetic, Grammar, United States History, Latin or German. Second 
Term : Reading, Arithmetic, Grammar, United States History, Latin or 
German. Third Term: Reading, Arithmetic, Grammar, Constitution, 
Latin or German. 
|_ Second Year — First Term : Algebra, Analysis, Physical Geography, 


History, Latin or German. Second Term : Algebra, Composition, Phys- 
ical Geography and Physiology, History, Latin or German. Third Term: 
Algebra, Composition, Physiology, History, Latin or German. 

Third Year — First Term : Algebra, Geometry, Natural Philosophy, 
Latin or German. Second Term : Algebra, Geometry, Natural Philoso- 
phy and Botany, Latin or German. Third Term : Arithmetic, Rhetoric, 
Botany, Latin or German. 

Fourth Fgar— First Term : English Literature, Zoology, Chemistry, 
Latin or German. Second Term : English Literature, Zoology, Chem- 
istry and Astronomy, Latin or German. Third Term : Elocution, Civil 
Government, Astronomy, Latin or German. 

In this course of study the Latin and German are optional, and those 
who take the languages omit equivalent English studies. 

Graduates of High School — Class of 1875: Lizzie J. Andrews, Ger- 
man and Latin ; Maria F. Hazle, German and Latin; Laura Hazle, Ger-- 
man and Latin ; Mollie G. Jackson, English. Class of 1876 : Hattie B. 
Bonfoy, Latin ; Henry B. Bull, English ; Rosa M. Corrington, German 
and English ; Mary H. Clark, English ; Annie Marie Davis, Latin ; Jen- 
nie May Simpson, English. Class of 1877 : Nellie E. Bonfoy, German 
and English; Addie M. Black, English ; Fannie J. Eldred, English, Hat- 
tie H. Jackson, German and English; James F. Lavery, English; Sarah F. 
Stanley, German and English. Class of 1878: Clara Belle Abrams, Ger- 
man and English ; Ada Halbert, English ; Harry R. Heaton, German and 
Latin ; Flora Belle Kennedy, English ; Laura Belle McPheron, English ; 
- Henry T. Rainey, English ; Bertha Vivell, German and Latin ; Calvin 
White, Enghsh ; Mollie J. Williams, German and Latin. Class of 
1879: Mattie Andrews, German and Latin; Julia Brace, English ; Ella 
Davis, German and Latin ; Cornelia Davis, German and Latin ; Ethel 
Fales, German and Latin ; Lou Robinson, English ; Mamie Smith, 
Latin ; Delia Sutton, English ; Nannie Wright, English. Total number of 
graduates, 34. 

At the present writing, Mr. Doolittle is in charge of the school, hav- 
ing, with the expiration of the present term, served seven years. Daring 
this time he has been very ably assisted both in the High School and in 
the lower departments, while the Board of Education have done every- 
thino- in their power to raise the standard of the school. 

During the year ending in June, 1873, Miss Hattie E. Dunn assisted 
in the High School, a graduate of the Illinois State Normal School. 
Since that time the position has been filled by the following gentlemen 
and ladies : 

1873-74— Thomas Worthington, A. B., Cornell University, New 


1874-75— Herbert T. Root, A. B., Princeton College, New Jersey. 

1875-76— John Worthington, A. B., Cornell University, New York. 

1876-78 — Miss Lillian E. DeGarmo, State Normal University. 

1878-79 — Miss Flora Fuller, State Normal University. 

In 1876 a board of education, consisting of six members, was elected 
instead of the old board of three directors. The following is a list of 
the members since its organization : 
6 Ex-memlers: — C. Armstrong, M.D., term expired 1877 ; C. Kergher, 

term expired 1877 ; J. C. White^, term expired 1878 ; Geo. L. Williams, 
term expired 1878. 



Present members : — A. G. Burr, term expires 1879 ; S. A. Vedder, 
term expires 1879 ; J. P. Morrow, term expires 1880 ; E. B. Hobson, 
term expires 1880 ; Luman Ciirtius, term expires 1881 ; A. M. Cunning- 
ham, term expires 1881. 

Officers of the Board: — Hon. A. G. Burr, president; S. F. Corring- 
ton, M.A., secretary. 

Standing Committees, 1878-9 :— J. P. Morrow, A. M. Cunningham, 
School House, etc. ; E. B. Hobson, S. A. Vedder, Visitation, etc. ; A. G. 
Burr, Luman Curtius, Finance. 

The following is a list of the teachers employed at the present time : 


Mr. E. A. Doolittle $1200 

Miss Flora Fuller 
Miss H.G. Peabody.. 

Miss R. E. Harris 

Miss Emma Tunnell .. 
Mrs. Emily Doolittle. 
Miss Mollie E. Payne 
Miss A. M. Fenner .. 



III. State Normal -. 7 years. 

" " I year. 

Vermont 14 years. 

St. Louis Normal i year. 

Monticello i year. 

Almira College i year. 

South. Til. Normal School 3 years. 

New York 7 years. 

The statistical report for the year beginning September 3, 1877, and 
closing June 6, 1878, was as follows : 

Statistics. — No census has been taken since October, 1875. Popula- 
tion of school district, estimated 2,500 ; number of males under twenty- 
one, 549 ; number of females under twenty-one, 528 ; total number of 
children, 1,087; number of males betAveen six and twenty-one, 325; 
number of females between six and twenty-one, 343 ; total number 
between six and twenty-one, 668 ; total number of different pupils 
enrolled, 503 ; greatest enrollment in any month, 410 ; least enrollment 
in any month, 350 ; average monthly enrollment, 374 ; average daily 
attendance, 331 ; percentage of attendance upon average enrollment, 88^. 

Summary of the entire School. — High School Department: males, 
35 ; females, 46 — total, 81. Grammar Department : males, 81 ; females, 
46 — total, 127. Intermediate Department: males, 71; females, 62 — 
total, 133. Primary Department: males, 75: females, 86 — total, 162. 
Total number enroUed : males, 263 ; females, 240— total, 503. 






Table showing the cost of tuition per pupil for the current^year, 
ending June 6, 1878: Salaries of teachers from September, 1877, to 
June,''l878, $4,265.00 ; cost per pupil on the whole number enrolled, 
$8.47 ; cost per pupil on the average enrollment, $11.40; cost per pupil 
on the daily attendance, $12.88. 

Whole number of pupils enrolled 

Greatest enrollment in any month. 

Least enrollment in any month 

Average monthly enrollment 

Average daily attendance. 

Percentage of attendance 

Number of tardinesses — 

Average number enrolled for each grade. 
Average daily attendance for each grade. 




















































Cost of Tuition in High School. — Deducting one third of the Prin- 
cipal's salary for other duties, and $260 received for tuition, the total 
cost for instruction in this grade for the year is |1,080. Total number 
enrolled, 81 ; average number enrolled, 70 ; average daily attendance, 
65. Cost per pupil on whole number enrolled, $13.33 ; cost per pupil on 
average enrollment, $15.43 ; cost per pupil on average daily attendance, 

printing, $28. Total running expenses, $5,378.53. Besides this was 
paid on April 1, 1878, the second payment, upon the bonded debt, 
$5,000 ; interest upon bonded debt, $3,730.70 ; treasurer's commissions, 
$213.62— total paid upon indebtedness, $8,943.62. Total expenditures, 

On the 1st of April, 1879, will be made the third payment upon the 
bonded debt, leaving the debt of the district $25,000. This is to be 
extinguished in five annual payments. 

Terms of Tuition. — Non-resident pupils are required to present to the 
Principal, upon entering school, a receipt for the tuition of that term, 
signed by the Secretary of the Board. The rates of tuition are as 
follows: For the Fall term, 15 weeks— High School, $10 ; lower grades, 
$8. For the Winter term, 12 weeks : High School, $7.50 ; lower grades, 
$6. For the Spring term, 12 weeks : High School, $7.50; lower grades, $6. 
Total for the year : High School, $25 ; lower grades, $20. 

School Cabinet of Natural History. — During the past two or three 
years, Mr. Doolittle has been engaged in collecting and arranging a 
museum of natural history. Mr. Forbes, Curator of the State Museum, 
contributed some valuable alcoholic specimens, and also a number of bird 
skins and a fine assortment of insects. A large number of Indian relics 
and of minerals have been contributed by various parties. On Thanks- 
o-iving Night, 1878, the young people of the town, with the teachers and 
pupils, gave an entertainment, with the proceeds of which were pur- 
chased a fine collection of mounted birds and animals, over one hundred 
in number, prepared by Mr. Merrill, of Winchester, 111. To this Mr. 
Doolittle has added a number of birds and bird-skins for class use. The 
whole collection is arranged in handsome cases, in an unoccupied room 
on the first floor of the building. The birds and insects are all natives 
of Greene County, and represent nearly every family. 

Catalogue of the School Cabinet of Natural History : 



Turdus Migratorius, Robin 

Harporhynchus Rufus, Brown Thrush 

Sialia Sialis, Blue Bird 

Parus Montanus, -Mountain Chickadee 

Parus Atricapillus, Black-capped 


Sitta Carolinensis, White-bellied 



Eremophila Alpestris,.. Horned 

Lark, 5 ?* 
Protonotaria Citrea,-.Prothonotary 


Deudroeca Coronata, Yellow- 

rumped Warbler 
Pyranga Rubra,. -Scarlet Tanager, 6 ? 

Vireo Olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo 

CoUurio Ludovicianus, .White- 

rumped Shrike 

*Male and female. 


J 347 

Latin Name. English Name. 

Coturniculus Passerimus,-- -Yellow- 
winged Sparrow 

Spizella Monticola, 'I'rue Sparrow 

Spizella Pusilla, Field Sparrow 

Spizella Socialis, Chippy Sparrow 

Zonotrichia Albicollis, White- 
throated Sparrow 
Euspiza Americana, -.Black-throated 

Goniaphea Ludoviciana, Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak 

Cardinalis Virginianus, Cardinal 


Junco Hyemalis, Snow Bird 

Pipilo Erythropthalmus, Marsh Robin ? 

Galeoscoptes Carolinensis, Cat 

Bird, 3 ? 

Chrysomitris Tristis, Goldfinch 

Quiscalus Purpureus,. .Crow-Black- 
bird, 3 ? 
Agelaeus Phoeniceus, . . Red-winged 

Blackbird, 3 ? 
Icterus Baltimore, ...Baltimore Oriole 

Sturnella Magna, Meadow Lark 

Cyanospiza Cyanea, Indigo Bird 

Molothrus Ater,._- Cow Bird 

Cyanurus Cristatus, Blue Jay 

Corvus Americanus, Crow 

Tyrannus 'Carolinensis, King Bird 

Myiarchus Crinitus,.. Great-crested 

LophophanesBicolor. Tufted Titmouse 


Chordeiles Virginianus,.. Night Hawk 

Chaetura Pelagica, Chimney Swift 

Trochilus Colubris,. ..Humming Bird 

Colaptes Auratus, Yellow Hammer 

Melanerpes Erythrocephalus,. .Red- 
headed Woodpecker 
Picus Pubescens, . . Downy Woodpecker 

Picus Villosus, Hairy Woodpecker 

Hylotomus Pileatus,.Pileated Wood- 

Ceryle Alcyon, Belted Kingfisher 

Coccygus Americanus .- Yellow-billed 



Nyctea Scandiaca,..; Snowy Owl 

Otus Vulgaris. Var. Wilsonianus,. . 

Long-eared Owl 

Scops Asio, Screech Owl 

Aquila Chrysaetus, Grey Eagle 

Pandion Haliaetus, Osprey 

Latin Name. English Name. 

Nauclerus Furcatus, . . Swallow-tailed 


Accipiter Cooperi, Cooper's Hawk 

Buteo Borealis, Red-tailed Hawk 

Archibuteo Lagopus, Black Hawk 

FalcoColumbarius, Pigeon Hawk 

Falco Sparverius, Sparrow Hawk 


Tringa Maculata,. .Pectoral Sandpiper 

Gallinago Wilsoni, Wilson's Snipe 

Philolula Minor,. American Woodcock 

Totanus Solitarius, Solitary Tatler 

Limosa Hudsonica, Godwit 

Aegialitis Vociferus, Kildeer Plover 

Tringa Maculata Jack Snipe 


Pavo Cristatus, Peacock 

CupidoniaCupido, Prairie Chicken, 3 ? 

Bonasa Umbellus, Pheasant, 6 ? 

Ortyx Virginianus, Quail 


Cygnus Americanus,.. American Swan 

Anas Boschas, Mallard Duck, 3 $ 

Dafila Acuta, Sprig-tail Duck, 6 

Ouerquedula Discors,.. Blue-winged 

Teal,«3 ? 
Nettion Carolinensis, .Green-winged 

Teak 6 ? 
Spatula Clypeata, Spoon-billed 

Duck, $ ? 

Aix Sponza, ..W^ood Duck, 3 $ 

Bucephala Clangula, . . Golden-eyed 

Duck, $ 

Lophodytes CucuUatus, Hooded 

Merganser, $ 

Mergus Merganser, Fish Duck, S 

Bucephala Albeola, Butter-ball 

Duck, $ ? 
Cinnamon Duck, $ 


Botaurus Mugitans, Bittern 

Herodias Egretta, White Heron 

Nyctherodius Violaceus,.. .Yellow- 
crowned Night Heron 
Nyctiardea Grisea, ..Black-crowned 

Night Heron 
Butorides Virescens, Green Heron 


Rallus Virginianus, Virginia Rail 

Porzana Carolina,.. Carolina Rail, ? $ 
Rallus Longirostris, Clapper Rail 



Latin Name. English Name. 
Porphyris Martinica, Gallinule 


Larus Delawarensis,.. Ring-billed Gull 


Colymbus Torquatus, Great Northern 

Podilymbus Podiceps, Diedapper, or 


Lynx Rufus, jAmerican Wild Cat 

Putorus Ermineus, --Common Weasel 
Putorius Lutreolus, .-.Common Mink 
Cariacus Virginianus,. -Antlers of 

Virginia Deer 
Vespertilio Subulatus,. Little Brown 


Scalops Aquaticus, Common Mole 

Sciuropterus Volans, ..Flying Squirrel 

Sciurus Cinereus, Fox Squirrel 

Lepus Sylvaticus, Gray Rabbit 

Bos Americanus, - Buffalo Calf 


Tropidonotus Grahami, - . Graham 's 

Eutaenia Sirtalis,.. Common Garter 


Liopeltis Vernalis, Green Snake 

Eumeces Fasciatus, ..Blue-tailed 


Sceloporus Undulatus, . Swift 

Ophibolus Doliatus, Milk Snake 

Bascanium Constrictor, ..Black Snake 
Heterodon Platyrhinus, - - Spreading 



Bufo Lentiginosus, American Toad 

Hyla Versicolor, Tree Toad 

Chorophilus Triseriatus, Tree Frog 

Amblistoma Tigrinum, -.Tiger Sala- 
Sperlerpes Longicaudus,-Cave Sala- 


Esox Salmoneus, Little Pickerel 

Luxilus Cornutus, Silverside 

Catostomus Commersonii, Sucker 

Dorysoma Cepedianum, . Hickory Shad 
Semotilus Corporalis, .-Common Chub 

Amiurus Catus, Cat Fish 

Pomotis Auritus, Sun Fish 



Latin Name. English Name. 
Bombus Pennsylvanicus,/?!?^. [ Bumble 
B. .^irginicus, Fab j Bees 

Polistes ) ^ ,,j 

T) r .. T7 • 1 i- - --Common Wasps 
Polistes Variabilis \ ^ 

Vespa Maculata, L. Paper Wasp 


Cimbex. Saw-Fly 


Danais Archippus, Cram. Archippus 

Colias Caesonia, StolL. YtWow Butterfly 

Colias Philodice, Godart Yellow 

Catocala Paleogama, Grote. 
Macrosila Carolina, . Tobacco-worm 

Deilephila Lineata, 7^^z<^.. .Morning 

Agrotis Telifera, Z^arr. ..Cut-Worm 

Limochores Cernes, B. ^ L. 
Papilio Turnus, Z/;/«.-Turnus Butterfly 
Homoptera Edusa, Dr. 
Homoptera Lunata, Dr. 
Drasteria Erectha, Giien. 
Leucania Extrania, Giien... Kxmy 

Worm Moth 
Hsematopsis Grataria, Fab. 
Mamistra Trifolii, ^j;;^. 
Eustrolia Carneola, Gtien. 
Limenitis Ursula, Fab. 
Platysamia Cecropia, Z. - . American 

Silkworm Moth 
Argynnis Aphrodite, Zi?^r.. .Aphro- 
dite Butterfly 
Grapta Interrogationis, Doubl. 

Vanessa Antiopa, Linn Vanessa 

Dryocampa Imperialis, Harr. . - Im- 
perial Moth 


Trupanea Vertebrata, Say. 

Musca Vomitoria, Lmn. Meat Fly 

Musca Domestica, Z/««.- Common 

House Fly 

Tabanus Lineola, Fa/ir Lined 

Horse Fly 
Crane Fly. 

Cincindelidae, or Tiger-Beetle Family. 

Cincindela 12-Guttata, Deg. 



Latin Name. English Name. 

Carabidae, or Predaceotts Ground Beetle Family. 

Harpalus Pennsylvanicus, Deg. 
H. Caliginosus, Fab. 
Scarites Subterraneus, Fab. 
Evarthrus Colussus, Lee. 

Dytiscidae, or Water Beetle Family. 
Coptotomus Interrogatus, Fab. 
Acilius Ornaticollis, Aube. 

Gyrinidae, or IVhirligig Beetle Family. 
Gyrinus Picipes, Aube. 
Dineutus Assimilus, Aube. 

Hydrophilidae or Water Beetles. 

Hydrophilus Triangularis, Say. 

\Silphidae or Carrion Beetle Family. 
Silpha Lapponica, Hbst. 
S. Truncata, Say. 
Necrophorus Marginatus, Fab. 

Dermestidae ot Skin Beetle Family. 
Dermestes Lardarius, Z.. Bacon Beetle 


Megalodacne Fasciata, Fab. 
Cyrtotriplax Unicolor, Say. 

Lucanidae or Horn-Bug Family. 

Passalus Cornutus, Fab. 

Lucanus Elaplius. 

Lucanus Dama Stag Beetle 

Scarabaeidae or Scarabaeian Family. 

Canthon Laevis, Dr Tumble Bug 

Plianffius Carnifex, L. 

Bolbocerus Farctus, ^a;;^. 

Ligyrus Relictus, Say. 

Euryomia Sepulchralis, Fab. 

Pelidnota Punctata, Z. * 

Testegoptera Lanceolata, Say. 

Anomala Binotata, Gyll. 

Cotalpa Lanigera, Z. Goldsmith Beetle 


Geotrupes, Earth-Boring Beetle 

Buptestida or Bttfrestian Family. 
Chrysobothris Femorata, Lee. 
Acmaedera Puchella, Hbsl. 

Elate) idee or Spring Beetle Family. 

Melanotus Communis, Gyll. 
Alaus Oculatus, Z. 
Melanactes Piceus, Deg. 

Lampyrida or Fire Fly Family. 
Photuris Pennsylvanica, Deg. 

Chauliognathus Pennsylvanicus, Deg. 

Cerambycidce or Capricorn Beetle Family. 

Clytus Robinise, Forst Locust 

Tree Borer 

Latin Name. English Name. 

Orthosoma Brunneum, F'orst. 
Tetraopes Tetraophthalmus, Forst. 
Typocerus Velutinus, Oliv. 

Chrysomelido: or Chrysomela Family. 

Chrysomela Multipunctata, Say. 

C. Exclamationis, Fab. 
Chrysochus Auratus, Fab. 
Lachnosterna Fusca, Froch. 
Diabrotica Vittatta, Fab. . . Striped 

Squash Bug 

D. Longicornis, Say. 
Doryphora lo-Lineata, Say Colo- 
rado Potato Beetle 

Cassida Aurichalcea, Fab. . . Helmet 


TenebricnidcB or Meal WormFamily. 

Nyctobates Pennsylvanica, Z><?^. 
Eleodes Obsoleta, Say. 

MeloidcB or Blistering Beetle Family. 

Macrobasis Segmentata, Say. 
M. Immaculata, Say. 
Epicauta Pennsylvanica, Z><?^.. Black 

Potato Bug 

Ciirculionidae or Weevil Family. 

Ithycerus Noveboracensis, Forst. 
Sphenophorus Cariosus, Oliv. 
Ohryastes Vittatus, Say. 

Coccinellidae or Lady Bug Family. 

C. Novemnotata, Harr. 


Zaitha Fuminea, Say Scorpion Bug 

Euschistus Serva, Say. ... Doctor Bug 

Anasa Tristis, Deg. Squash Bug 

Notonecta Undulata, Say.. Water 

Ceresa Bubalus, Fab. .Buffalo Tree- 
Phymata Erosa, Fab. 

Calocorus Rapidus, Say Plant Bug 

Stictocephala Inermis, Fab. 

Brachytropis Calcarata, Fab. 

Ischnodemus Falicus, Say. 

Enchenopa Binotata, Say. 

Lygus Lineolaiis, Beauv Plant Bug 

Cicada Caniculari3,Zrdrrr. Male ) «t« 

" Female f°.>.^ 
" Chrysalis jls-^ 

Cosmopepla Carnifex. Fab. 


CEcanthus Niveus, Serv. White Cricket 
Phaneroptera Curvicauda, Jfurm. 




Latin Name. English Name. 

Cyrtophyllus Concavus, Sciidd. 

Oedipoda Carolina,' ^^rzA. Quaker 


O. yEqualis, Uhler. 

O. Phaenicoptera, Germ. 

Tomonotus Xantoptherus. 

Caloptenus Femur-Rubrum, Burm. 



Libellula Semifasciata, Dragon Fly 

L. Trimaculata, De G. 

Aeschna, Dragon Fly 

Corydalis Cornuta, Linn. 


Sub- Order Btachyura. 

Gelasimus Pugnax, Sm. .Fiddler Crab 

Cancer Irrorratus, Say Rock Crab 

Carcinus Granulatus, Say. Grum Crab.? 

Sub-Order Anomoura. 

Hippa Talpoida, Say Sand Bug 

Eupagurus Longicarpus, Say. Hermit 

E. Pubescens, A>i9>'.Hairy Hermit Crab 

Sub-Order Macroura. 

Cambarus Immunis, Hag River 

Crawfish, 3 

Cambarus Immunis, ZTo:^ River 

Crawfish, ? 

C. Acutus, Gir. -. $ 

C. Gr^ciVis, £um/y S ? 

Hippolyte Spina, So7ei. 
Palaemonetes Vulgaris, Say.. Com- 
mon Prawn 

Palaemon Ohionis, Sm. ..Fresh 

Water Shrimp 
Crangon Boreas, Phipps. 

Sub-Order A>nphipoda. 

Gamraarus Ornatus, Edw. 
Caprella Robusta, St. 

Sub-Order Cirripedia. 

Lepas Fascicularis, El. &= Sol. 

Goose Barnacle 
Balanus, Sp. Acorn Barnacle 


Sub-Order Trilobiia. 



Latin Name. English Name. 

Buccinum Undatum, L Whelk 

Dentalium Striolatum, .S"/. .Tooth Shell 
Acmaea Testudinalis, M^^ell...\J\m^^tX 


Astarte Undata. 


Terebratula Septentrionalis, Couth. 

Lamp Shells 


Ascidea Callosa, St. Sea Squirt 

Cynthia Pyriformis, Eath...^&3. Peach 
Boltenia Rubra, St. 



PentactaFrondosa,y"<2<f^. Sea Cucumber 


Strongylocentrotos Droebachiensis, 

Muell Green Sea Urchin 

Ditto, without the animal. 
Ditto, without the spines. 
Echinarachnius Parma, 6^raji/.. Cake- 


Asterias Vulgarias, St., Purple Star-Fish 


Ophiopholis Aculeata, Z... Brittle Star 
Astrophyton Agassizii, 6"/. . Basket Fish 


Parypha Crocea, Aq. ..Hydroid Polyp 
Pocillopora Caespitosa, Dafia,.Kc2i- 

lephian Coral 


Metridium Marginatum, Edw. ..Sea. 



Madrepora Prolifera,. Madrepore Coral 
Dendrophyllia, Red Coral 


The Churches. 

The Presbyterian Church — From a sermon preached July, 1876, l)y 
Rev. S. H. Hyde. At the beginning of the nineteenth century the pLace 
we now occupy was uninhabited by man. It was the hunting ground of 
the aborigines of the country. A few years hater there might have been 
found, at wide intervals in the edges of the timber, the log cabins of the 
hardy pioneers of civilization. Then followed a few others, who located 
at wide distances on the prairie. 

In 1818, when the State was admitted to the Union, the settlers in 
this region were few and widely scattered. When the land sales took 
place in 1820 and '21 a great tide of immigration poured in, and the cabins 
of the settlers began to dot tlie prairie in every direction. In 1821 Mr. 
Carlin, afterward first Governor of the State, offered this plat of ground 
as the county seat of Greene Count}-, and his offer was accepted and the 
new town named Carrollton. To meet the necessities of the county busi- 
ness a court house was soon erected, which is described as being a mere 
shell of a thing. But the demands of the newly settled country called 
as loudly for the church as for the state, and here in this newly built 
Court House was organized the First Presbyterian Church of Greene 
County, as it was called. 

It appears that on the last day of April, 1823, the Rev. Oren Catlin 
and the Rev, Daniel G. Sprague met at the house of Mr. Zechariah Allen 
several persons who desired to be organized as a Presbyterian church. 
After two such meetings of conference upon this subject all those inter- 
ested met with these ministers at the Court House in Carrollton, May 
4, 1823. There, after religious solemnities, they presented the following 
modest and dignified avowal of their purpose saying, " In order to enjoy 
the benefits of the ordinances of religion and means of grace, to main- 
tain divine and public worship, live more to the glory of God and to pro- 
mote each other's growth in grace and spiritual comfort, we the under- 
signed mutually unite together in church relation and covenant, known 
by the name of the First Presbyterian Church in Greene County." A 
solemn covenant was added and signed by Zechariah Allen, Elizabeth 
Allen, Ruleff Stevens, Elizabeth Stevens, Anthony Potts, John Allen, 
Polly Allen, Thos. Allen, Marger^^ Allen, William Morrow, Jean Morrow, 
John Dee, Frances Bell, Elizabeth Bell, William Allen, Sally Allen, 
Christian Link, Fanny Painter, Lucretia Brush, Lavinia Bedel, and Lucy 

To serve as ruling elders in this church Messrs. Zechariah Allen, 
Ruleff Stevens, Anthony Potts and John Allen were chosen and duly set 
apart to the duties of this office. 

Thus organized this church became an active center of religious 
light and life among the people. By its elevating and holy purpose, by its 
living faith, Ijy its fellowsliip in Christian work and worship, by its 
ordinances of divine service, it entered into the forces that were giving 
form, feature and spirit to the growing community. It was the leaven 
cast into the gathering mass of humanity, and of humanity struggling 
with the hard problems of a new and wild country. As a matter of 
course its own being and prosperity were involved in those struggles. 
The church took share with all other things in the privations of the situ- 


ation. It went long without a shelter that could be called its own. Min- 
isters were few and itinerating. Regular Sabbath services were not 
practicable, yet the church held on its way, having services as frequently 
as circumstances would permit, sometimes here in the Court House or in 
the old blacksmith shop near the north-west corner of the village, some- 
times north of Apple Creek, where a large part of the members resided, 
and where in 1827 a sacramental meeting was held at which there were 
additions to the membership. Thus the church went on undisturbed by 
any remarkable event for a period of eight years. In addition to the 
ministers instrumental in its organization it was served occasionally dur- 
ing this time by Rev. John Brich, Rev. John M. Ellis, Rev. Mr. Hawley, 
Rev. Henry Herrick and Rev. Solomon Hardy. In the year 1831 a change 
took place. Population had increased, Carrollton had become more im- 
portant as a social and business center, while it would seem that owing 
to the preponderance of members north of Apple Creek that region was- 
made rather the center of the operations of the church. In these cir- 
cumstances the desire arose among those residing in Carrollton for a 
separate organization here that would more intimately care for the wants 
of this field. Accordingly at a meeting of the Presbytery of Illinois held 
in this place in July 23, 1831, a petition for such organization was pre- 
sented to that body signed by Anthony Potts, Joseph Gerrish, Elizabeth 
Gerrish, Cornelia H. Leonard, Elizabeth Page, Abigail T. Hopping, 
Miriam Turner, Sarah Lee, Reuben Page, Morris Lee, Julius A. Willard 
and Almyra C. Willard, which upon full and fair consideration was 
granted, and these persons were duly organized under the name of the 
Carrollton Presbyterian Church. At the same time a form of admission, 
consisting of an address, confession of faith and covenant, was adopted 
of a very thorough going character. Those uniting to form this church 
were evidently firm believers in full and clearly defined statements of 
doctrine in harmony with the Westminster confession and of positive cov- 
enant obligations according to the Form of Government and Book of 
Discipline as adopted by the Presbyterian Church in the United States. 
In one particular they went beyond most church covenants, that I have 
seen, for they incorporated in theirs a pledge of total abstinence from 
all intoxicating liquors as beverages, showing themselves to have been 
quite in advance of their times on this subject. 

As Ruhng Elders they chose Messrs. Julius A. Willard, Joseph 
Gerrish and Anthony Potts. This organization was effected under the 
ministry of Rev. Henry Herrick. The records immediately subsequent 
show that the work of the church was carried forward with order and 
energy. Notable among the things resolved on was the commemoration 
of the Lord's Supper monthly, to be preceded always by two evening 
meetings, a regular monthly meeting of the session, and the propound- 
ing of candidates for membership from the pulpit two weeks previous to 

In May, 1832, Rev. Elisha Jenney took Rev. Mr. Herrick's place 
as stated supply of the pulpit, preaching and doing the work of a 
pastor until July. In that month as the record states " a protracted 
meeting was appointed to commence on the 18th, which continued by 
the assistance of Rev. Thomas Lippincott, through Sabbath the 29th, a 
term of eleven days, and the Lord was pleased to bless this special means 


of grace to the salvation of some souls, it is hoped about fifty." At the 
close of this meeting Rev. Thos. Lippincott, upon invitation, became the 
stated supply of the church, and there seems to have been reason for 
great encouragement. The church was greatly revived ; very consider- •' 
able accessions were made to tlieir membershii) so that they were in a 
fine condition to extend their influence. Under this impulse tlie}' had 
procured a lot and were hoping to build a house of worship on it the 
following Spring. But their prosperity was the signal for stirring up 
evil influences against them. Let me give you their own statement of 
the facts in a letter addressed to the Rev. Absalom Peters, secretary of 
the American Home Missionary Society. They say " we engaged Mr. 
Lippincott to supply us, hoping we should be able to furnish much of his 
support, but party influence crept in and, aided by strong prejudice 
against Eastern emigrants (of whom the church was then largely com- 
posed), and against Presb3-terianism, drew awa}- many to the Bajitist and 
Campbellite churches, and some who had pledged their word to assist 
liberally in supporting Mr. Lippincott." This earnest and hopeful church 
found it difficult to make the desired progress in the midst of these 
adverse influences. The purpose to build a house of worship could not 
get itself fulfilled at the time hoped, and was postponed several years. 
The church went on, however, doing their best, worshiping in what is 
called the old blacksmith shop, near the northwest corner of the Square, 
sustainiTig their Sabbath schools and their meetings, and receiving at 
successive seasons of communion valuable accessions to their number ; 
the whole number so received from the organization in 1831 to the close 
of Mr. Lippincott's labors in the Spring of 1835, was sixty-eight, of 
whom thirty-one were received upon certificate and thirty-seven upon 
the profession of their faith. Early in 1834 ten persons were dismissed 
from the church in order that they might organize a Presbyterian Church 
in South Greene, now Jersey County. One Elder, Mr. Gerrish, went 
with them ; another Elder, Mr. Willard, removed to Alton. These re- 
movals weakened the church no little, especially in view of tlie severe 
losses suffered the previous year from the ravages of the cholera, and 
they were followed by the removal of the two remaining Elders. Happily 
the organization was preserved and the elderships filled b\' the election 
and ordination of Samuel D. Gushing, Alfred L. Shull, and John Evans. 
After the departure of Rev. Thos. Lippincott in the Spring of 1835, 
Rev. Hugh Barr accepted an invitation to become the stated supply of 
the church. His labors extended over a period of ten years, and like 
those of his predecessors, they were made arduous by the oppositions of 
prejudice and i)arty spirit ; by the heterogeneous and unmalleable cliarac- 
ter of the population, by the spread of deism in certain quarters of the 
community, and by that supreme devotion to temporal intei'ests too com- 
mon in a country to which the people have come to better their earthly 

He preached not only here at stated times but in all the region round 
about as opportunity was affoided, with free will rendering service to 
many a destitute flock out on the prairies. 

In 1837, assisted by Dr. Gideon Blackburn in conjunction with the 
Baptist Church, a protracted meeting was held in the Baptist Meeting 
House, which resulted in the accession of eleven souls to the church. 



But, sad to say, the harmony of the co-operating denominations was 
broken, and we find this church going by itself to worship in a small 
brick building on the southwest corner of the Square. About this time 
Elders Shull and Gushing having removed, Mr. J. H. Hinton and Mr. 
Peter Vanarsdale were chosen and inducted into the eldership. And 
not long after the purpose to erect a house of worship was revived and 
the work having been determined upon Mr. J. H. Hinton Mr. Peter 
Vanarsdale and Mr. George Wright were appointed a building com- 
mittee. They took the work in hand. Though times were hard, and 
money scarce, and subscriptions were paid in work and wood and farm 
produce and dive stock, they found in Messrs. Lynn and Wright con- 
tractors, who would receive such pay and so the work was carried 
through successfully at a cost of about $2,500 and they were thus en- 
abled to dedicate to God, free of debt, a very commodious house of wor- 


Early in 1842, Rev. Mr. Barr, assisted b} Rev. Dr. James Gallaher, 
conducted a protracted meeting, at which time the Holy Spirit was 
poured out in a remarkable manner. The whole community is said to 
have been deeply moved ; as one result there was an accession of some 
fifty persons to the church on the profession of their faith. At this 
time Mr. Wm. Yates, Lucius Norton and Robert L. Doyle were chosen 
to the eldership of the church. Some three years after this in 1845, Rev. 
Mr. Barr concluded his labors with the church, leaving them with a very 
comfortable house of worship and increased in number by the addition 
of 103 communicants, 39 by certificate from the other churches and 64 
on the profession of their faith. Strange to say the following six years 
mark a period of apathy and partial disorganization. But ten persons 
were received into the membership, much of the time they were without 
the regular preaching of the word, having been supplied only about two 
years by Rev. JamesDunn. By reason of death and removals the elder- 
ship became vacant, an attempt appears to have been made to change the 
polity of the chui'ch and make it Congregational ; much disorder and lack 
of discipline and dissatisfaction ensued, wasting the vital forces of the 
church and dishonoring the Lord. At last it was deemed necessary to 
invoke the aid of the Presbytery and accordingly the Presbytery of 
Illinois convened in this place "^Feb. 25, 1850, and re-organized the church 
throughout, enrolling those only who chose freely to subscribe the cove- 
nant anew and act in harmony with the Presbyterian faith and order. 
Thus the church was started again with thirty-one enrolled communi- 
cants. Messrs. Alexander W. "Lynn, Robert F. Clark. C. Armstrong, 
M. D. and J. H. Wilson, were chosen and ordained Elders, Rev. E. 
Jenney supplied the pulpit for one year, during which time nine persons 
were added to the church. He was succeeded by Rev. J. G. Rankin, 
who ministered unto the church in faithfulness and acceptability for the 
following ten years. These were years of quiet, well ordered and 
patient work, blessed in 1854 and 1857 with gracious revivals and 
awakenings, in which the church was built up in spirit and in numbers, 
receiving 61 additional members, rising to the position of self support 
and independence not hitherto fully realized. They even undertook 
something additional to their ordinary church work. 

Feelino; the need of better educational facilities than were then 


afforded in this place, and realizing, according to all the traditions of this 
church, that sound learning is the handmaid of religion, under the lead- 
ership of Rev. Mr. Rankin, their minister, they projected, and with the 
aid of a number of benevolent persons not members of this church, they 
erected the adjacent academy building, at an expense of over $2,800, 
making it the property of the church, and placing it under the control 
and management of a board of directors, consisting of the trustees of the 
church and three jiersons, chosen by the subscribers to the building, of 
which board the minister in charge is understood to be ex-officio chair- 

It was during the ministry of Mr.' Rankin, also, that a parsonage was 
purchased, valued at '"§1,000. Altogether those ten years were fruitful of 
increased strength and courage. They testify richly of the presence and 
blessing of God. A little before Mr. Rankin departed, Mr. A. C. Hin- 
ton was chosen and ordained an elder in the church, and not long there- 
after Rev. Morgan L. Wood became the stated supply, and minis- 
tered unto them in all holy things until the Summer of 1864. The times 
were peculiarly trying. The whole country was stTruggling in the throes 
of a mighty civil war. Rebellion had risen with portentous power, 
and threatened the destruction of the Union and the overthrow of free 
government. All the people were agitated and excited, and spirit of strife 
was higii and bitter. In the midst of these scenes there were conversions 
and additions to the church to the number of nineteen. 

Rev. Mr. Wood having been compelled to desist from preaching by 
the failure of his voice, 3'ou extended a call to your present pastor, S. H. 
Hyde, and he entered upon the work of his ministry among you Novem- 
ber 13, 1864. At the very beginning of our work together, the need of a 
new house of worshij) was confessed, but war prices ruled in lal)or and 
material, and the undertaking was postponed. In 1866 it was felt tliat 
we could delay no longer, and the initial steps were entered upon. The 
chief labor in soliciting subscriptions devolved by common consent on 
Elder Rol)ert Clark, of blessed memor}', and many of you know with 
what signal success he prosecuted it. George Wright, C. Armstrong, 
M.D., and Lyman Wheeler were appointed building committee, and 
the contract was let; to Engleman Gatchell. As a happy result this 
pleasant and beautiful house in whicli we are now gathered, Avas erected 
and furnished at a cost of $11,000, and, unincumbered by debt, joyfully 
dedicated on the 18th of March, 1868, to the worship of the Triune Je- 
hovah. Nor is this all. They have added improvements to the parson- 
age to the value of $1,500, during this ])astorate, thus evincing their care 
for the Lord's servants, and further proving their devotion to his cause. 
This gives us the sum total of the propert}^ set apart and held sacred to 
the work and Avorship of God by the cliurch not less than $16,000. 

In 1869 we were signally blest. The spirit was poured out abund- 
antly. All the churches shared in the baptism. The whole community 
was soiemnized and moved. So great was the work that we called Rev. 
Dr. G. S. King and Rev. W. L. Tarbet to our aid, for whose timely and. 
efficient labors we can never cease to be grateful. As the immediate 
fruit of the awakening, forty-three persons made profession of faith, and 
united with the church, at one communion. On subsequent occasions 
others were added. During the entire eleven years there have been re- 


ceived to the communion of the church one hundred and twenty-six per- 
sons, of whom forty -six were received upon certificate and eighty upon 
the profession of their faith.. But time forbids me to enlarge. Yet suffer 
a single remark to explain the fact that the church, while receiving con- 
tinual accessions, has 3'et remained comparatively small in numbers. The 
church has been from the first continually depleted by the migratory hab- 
its of the people. Four hundred and eight persons have been received 
into this church since 1831. Forty of these have died here, while two 
hundred and eighty-one have sought other places of residence, leaving 
but eighty-seven communicants on the ground. 

In 1870, A. H. Smith, M.D., and G. W. Davis were added to the 
eldership, Mr. A. L3'nn having resigned. A most important department 
of our church work has not passed in review for want of suitable knowl- 
edge of the facts of its history — the Sabbath school. But I am able to 
state that this grand agency for good has from the very first been main- 
tained in connection with the church as an indispensable auxiliarj^ as 
indeed an essential part of its being and well being, and among those who 
have had charge of the work as superintendents are known to have been 
Mr. Geo. Wright, Mr. A. H. Hinton, Rev. J. G. Rankin, Rev. M. L. 
Wood, Mr. A. C. Hinton, Mr. G. W. Davis, and the present pastor. A 
church holding»as this does that the children of believers in a very true 
sense belong to her can not fail to provide for their religious instruction 
without the violation of solemn coventmt obligations. It were well if we 
were more thoroughly alive to this work. 

The Baptist Church. — From a sermon preached April 29, 1877, by 
Rev. Dr. J. Bulkley. Fifty years ago, in the village of CarroUton, 111., 
then a little insignificant village, six persons looking out ui:)on the future 
of this great valley, believed that loyalty to Christ demanded that they 
organize a church founded alone upon the Word of God — their rule of 
faith and discipline, the scriptures of the Old and New Testament. Hence 
we liave this record: "At a meeting held at the house of Justus Rider, 
in the town of Carrollton, preparatory to the constitution of a church 
on the 28th day day of April, 1827, we, whose names are hereunto 
subscribed, agree to be constituted into a church, founded on the scrip- 
tures of the Old and New Testaments, believing these to contain sufficient 
rules of church faith and practice, and to be known b}' the name of the 
Baptist Church of Christ in Carrollton." This document has subscribed 
to it the following names : Sears Crane (then a Baptist minister), Anna 
Crane, his wife, Abraham Bowman, Mary Bowman, his wife, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Rider and Miss Phebe Harris — six — two men and four women. Some 
of these had been previously excluded from an Anti-mission Baptist 
Church near Carrollton for holding and advocating missionary views. 
Let me pause a moment and look at our surroundings. The population 
of the United States was about 12,000,000. Illinois at the last census in 
1820 had 5,520, and in 1830, 157,445 inhabitants. All north of this point 
was a desolate wilderness. Only nine years before had settlements been 
made north of the Macoupin. The capital of the State was at Vandalia, and 
remained there till 1839, twelve years later. The Indians were numerous 
and troublesome farther north, and these hostilities to the settlers culmin- 
ated in the Black Hawk War in 1832, five years after the church was 
organized. Peoria was unsettled by Americans, till two years later, 1823 


(See Reynolds' Life and Times, page 235). Greene County was formed 
in 1821, six years before. Sangamon, in 1823, four years before. Adams, 
Calhoun, Fulton, Hancock, Henry, Knox, McDonough, Mercer, Peoria, 
Schuyler, and Warren in 1824 and 1825, north and west of tlie Illinois 
River, but the population was very sparse. In fact, Henry, Mercer, and 
Peoria were established by law, but not organized until the inhabitants 
reached a certain number. Chicago and St. Louis were insignificant 
villages. In fact Chicago only existed as Fort Dearborn. The town 
itself was not organized till August, 1833, six years after, when the 
number of voters was twenty-eight, and St. Louis contained 6,000 or 7,000 
inhabitants. Two years before, in 1825, the first passenger railroad in the 
world was opened. 

The Baptists of Illinois, were the first protestants of any denomina- 
tion to enter the field, beginning their labors with the Rev. James Smith, 
a Baptist minister from Kentucky, who in 1787 visited the sparse settle- 
ments in what is now Monroe County. The first Baptist Church was 
constituted at New Design, Monroe County, by Rev. David Badgley, 
May 28, 1796, of 28 members. The first association was formed in 
1807, the Illinois Union of 5 churches, 4 ministers, 62 members. In 
1809, the controversy on the slavery question produced a division. The 
Lemens and their associates withdrew and formed a separate organization. 
They took the name of " Baptized Churches of Christ, Friends to 
Humanity." With this body the Carrollton Church subsequently united, 
I have a copy of their minutes for 1827. They then had three associa- 
tions, two in Illinois the South District, and the North District, and one 
in Missouri. In 1829, they report 488 members in Illinois, and 104 in 
Missouri, and 23 preachers in Illinois. 

They were the only body of real Missionary Baptists in the State of 
Illinois, although the Illinois Association in 1818 introduced and approved 
of foreign and domestic missions, and an organization for missions and edu- 
cational purposes was recommended for spreading the gospel and pro- 
moting common schools in the western parts of America both among the 
Whites and Indians. But I must not stop longer here. In 1829, the 
North District Association, held its session at Henderson's Creek, now 
White Hall. Elijah Dodson preached the opening sermon, John G. 
Lofton, was chosen Moderator and Aaron Hicks, Clerk. This church 
reported 8 members. 

I now return to my narrative. The minutes of the second meeting 
of this church to which is attached the name of Gorham Holmes, as 
Clerk, pro-tem, are a sample of brevity, and are almost in the exact words 
of the minutes of more subsequent meetings " Fourth Saturday in May, 
1827, Church met and after worship proceeded to business: 1st, Chose 
Bro. Crane, Moderator ; 2nd, The brethren all in peace ; 3rd, Bro. Bow- 
man, chosen Clerk. Dismissed by prayer " The next record is the 
Fourth Saturday in March, 1828 — " Church met — all in peace, Bro. Elijah 
Dodson presented his letter, also letter of Sister Dodson and were re- 
ceived into full fellowship, church dismissed by prayer." 

Fourth Saturday in June, 1830, "Church met — all in peace, Bro. 
Elijah Dodson requested letters of dismission for himself and Sister 
Dodson, which were granted accordingl}' — Dismissed by prayer." The 
next record is in August, 1831. The next record is in July, 1832. You 


can readily see from the extreme meagerness of the minutes how exceed- 
ing difficult, nay, how necessarily impossible it must be to obtain any- 
thing like a correct knowledge of the history of the church at this early 
day.'' Approximation is all that you ought to expect. _ Let us mention 
then the officers of the church with their term of service : 1st Pastors 
Eliiah Dodson, from March, 1828, if not from the very organization of- 
the church, till June, 1830. Different supplies till May, 1834. Alvm 
Bailey, from May, 1834, to March, 1840, nearly six years ; except from 
January, 1836, to July, 1836, when Amos Dodge seems to have supplied 
the church. Supplies till Sept. 25, 1840, Wm. H. Briggs supply from 
Sept. 25, 1840, to Jan. 1. 1841, one half the time, a little over three 
months ; Jacob Bower, one-fourth of the time, from March, 1841, to Nov., 
1841, eight months. Elijah Dodson, March, 1842 to March, 1843, one 
yea^,' on'e-fourth of the time. Wm. H. Briggs, June, 1843 to July, 1845, 
two years; Porter Clay, Aug., 1845 to 1846, one year ; J.N. Tolman, 
Jan., 1847 to March, 1851, four years ; W. F. Boyakin, Aug., 1850 to Aug., 
1852; E. J. Palmer, supply till March, 1853 ; A. Baily, March, 1853 to 
March, 1855, two years ; J. Bulkley, Sept.,-1855 to April, 1864, eight and 
one-half years ; N. Kinne, June, 1864 to Feb., 1866 ; James M. Stiffler 
and others supply till Jan., 1868, nearly two years ; W. D. Clark, Jan., 
1868 to Jan., 1870, two years ; R. F. Parshall, April, 1870 to Oct., 1871, 
one and a half years; H. A. Guild, called June, 1872, resigned, Feb., 1874; J. 
C. Bonham, Oct., 1875 to April, 1876; Elijah Dodson and Alvin Bailey 
have each been twice pastor. The shortest pastorate was that of J. C. 
Bonham, six months. The longest, J. Bulkley, eight and one-half years. 
Whole number of pastors, fifteen. Average length of pastorates, a frac- 
tion over two and one-half years. 

Clerks.— A. Bowman, Mav, 1827, to June, 1834, seven years ; Justus 
Rider, June, 1834, to Feb., 1840, six years ; J. O. Graves, March, 1840, 
to Feb., 1853, thirteen years; T. G. Siiannon, Feb., 1853, to _March, 
1856, three vears; Martin Bowman, March, 1856, to Aug., 1857, one 
year; J. F. ^Simpson, Aug., 1857, to April, 1868, eleven years; S. J. 
Piatt, Aug., 1858, to March, 1869, seven months; Henry Smith, Oct., 
1869, to March, 1871, re-elected for three years; Hannah G, Peabody, 
July, 1873, to Oct., 1875, two years and three months; David Pierson, 
Oct., 1875, present incumbent. 

Deacons. — A. Bowman and J. Rider, elected in June, 18o4 ; D. 
Pierson, elected July, 1846; R. Hobson, elected Nov., 1847 ; May, 1848, 
A. Bowman and J. O. Graves resigned ; June, 1848, A. Bowman and J. O. 
Graves re-elected and Warren Fales elected ; W. Fales and R. Hobson 
were ordained by Rev. J. N. Tolman, Saturday before fourth Sabbath of 
July, 1848; Thos. Hobson elected Feb., 1853, and in March following 
ordained by Rev. A. Baily ; Nov., 1853, R. B. Hill and Z. A. Morrow elected 
at church meeting and ordained Sunday following; Aug. 23, 1862, Thos. 
Black elected ; Jan., 1869, R. Hobson, having returned to Carrollton, 
requested to resume the duties of deacon. March 5, 1871, by vote of the 
church, all church offices were vacated. March 6, 1871, A. D. Bull was 
elected deacon for one year ; J. C. White for two years ; J. Tunstall for 
three years; J. S. Vedder for four years; Robert Pierson for five years; 
Thomas Hobson for six years ; Frederick Schaffer for seven years. April 
10, 1871, these deacons, except Robert Pierson, who declined to serve, 



were installed, R. F. Parshall, pastor, B. B. Hamilton, W. D. Clark, D. 
S. Starr and C. A. Worley officiating. Feb. 24, 1872, J. S. Vedder 
resigned; March, 1872, A. D. Bull's term of office expired by limitive- 
ness ; Aug. 24, 1872, A. D. Bull was re-elected for seven years, and R. 
G. Robinson elected to fill a vacancy, made, I presume, by the resignation 
of Frederick Schaffer ; March 7, 1874, a vacancy was disclosed, by the 
refusal of A. D. Bull to serve, other vacancies had occurred, and the 
following Avere elected : R. Hobson, Z. A. Morrow, W. B, Robinson, J. 
C. White; at this time, March 7, 18T4, the Board of Deacons consisted 
of Thomas Hobson, Robert Hobson, Thomas Black, Frederick Schaffer, 
J. C. White, Z. A. Morrow, and Wm. B. Robinson , Thomas Black's 
term expired and he was re-elected. 

Trustees. — The first trustees, as far as I can ascertain, were elected 
in Jan., 1837, to serve one year until their successors were elected. J. O. 
Graves, J. Rider, and David Pierson were chosen ; they served ten 
years. March, 1847, J. E. Walker, D. Pierson, and Robert Hobson were 
chosen; Nov., 1853, R. Hobson and J. E. Walker resigned; Thomas 
Hobson and Z. A. MorroAV were elected in their stead. It is eighteen 
years before another election is recorded. March 6, 1871, D. Pierson, 
Thomas Hobson, Z. A. Morrow, W. W. Beaty, and J. S. Vedder were 
elected for three years ; March 7, 1874, John Long, R. G. Robinson, Z. 
A. Morrow, Geo. W. Rumrill, and J. C. Tunnell for tluee years. May 
20, 1874, the trustees borrowed $1,000 at ten per cent for one year, and 
gave a mortgage or deed of trust on the church property. March 7, 
1877, Thomas Black, R. G. Robinson, Robert Pierson, Wm. G. Robinson, 
and Henry Smith were elected for three years. 

Treasurers — J. O. Graves, elected near 1839, three years; D. Pier- 
son, elected near 1842, twenty-nine years ; James Cullimore, elected near 
1871, six years. 

Salaries Paid to Pastors — It may not be uninteresting to note 
the progress in this direction. In 1838, A. Bailey was paid at the rate of 
$200 a year for one-half his time, with a pledge that the church would 
pay him $500 for his entire time in 1839. David Pierson and George Pe- 
gram were appointed to raise the money. For 1839, paid him $250 for 
one-half of his time. In July, 1844, William H. Briggs was offered $100 
for one-quarter of his time one year, provided he would live in CarroUton 
and take one-half of it in produce. I think he must have refused the 
offer, because two weeks later the church agreed to raise a '■'■reasonable 
portion for his support" — I quote from the record — and he accepted. 
In 1845, Porter Clay agreed to preach one-quarter of his time Saturday 
and Sunday, and an additional one-quarter Sunday, if the church would 
clothe him and defray his expenses. In December he announced his inten- 
tion to give his entire time to CarroUton ami vicinity. He was a brother 
of the statesman, Henry Clay. In 1847, J. N. Tolman was given $200 
and board. The money to be paid as fast as collected from subscriptions. 
In 1849, the finance committee reported that for the previous eighteen 
months they had paid Brother Tolman $219.14; voted to add $200 within 
six months. In December, 1849, the church agreed to pay him $250 sal- 
ary for his entire time, salary to be paid in quarterly installments, and 
foO more if possible. July, 1850, W. T. Boyakin, $400 ; October, 1852, 
Alvin Bailey, $500 ; April, 1855, J. Bulkley, $600, subsequent raised to 


$800; September, 1866, asjreed to pay Rev. Stifflev, for supply, $600; Sep- 
tember, 1867, offered O. B. Stone $1,800, offer declined ; January, 1868, 
W. D. Clark, $1,500; January, 1872, H. A. Guild, $1,500 and expenses 
of moving; June, 1875, J. C. Bonham, $2,000. Since that time they 
have been supplied by John E. Roberts, for which they pay at the rate of 
$520 per year. 

We pass now to review the several pastorates, and note results. In 
March, 1828, Rev. Elijah Dodson and wife joined by letter, the first re- 
corded addition to the church. There is no record from this date till 
June, 1830, when E. Dodson and wife were dismissed. Hence I conclude 
that this was a pastorate of two years. From this time till May, 1834, 
the beginning of Rev. A. Baily's pastorate, there is no record of pastoral 
service. A large amount of labor, however, must have been performed, 
because the church enjoyed a good degree of spiritual prosperity. Dur- 
ing this period the following persons were received into the church: 
August, 1831, Wm. H. Rider, by letter; August. 1832, Hannah Crane, 
by letter ; same date received for baptism, Wm. Vaughn, Mary Vaughn, 
Sarepta Crane, Maria Crane, Margaret Kinney and Rebecca Johnson — 6 ; 
Sept., 1832, Justus Rider, Peter M. Brown, Crissa Cornelius, Cynthia Cor- 
nelius, and Zoe Rowland were received for baptism — 5 ; Oct., 1832, David 
Pierson, Eliza J. Pierson and Clarinda Pierson (Collins), were received for 
baptism — 3; Dec, 1832, Jas. Bowman, Jacob Bowman, Aseneth Brown 
and Hannah Link were received. In 1833, Mary Bowman by experience, 
having been previously baptized, March, 1833, Michael Bowser, Mary 
Vinby, Ciuirles and Frances McFadden ; hence the six oldest members of 
the church now belonging to it are David Pierson, Eliza Pierson, Clarinda 
Pierson Collins, Jacob Bowman, Aseneth Brown and Frances McFadden. 
Brothers and sisters, honor them, they will not remain with you long. 
Alvin Baily's pastorate, May, 1831 to March, 1840, whole number bap- 
tized, 58 ; among these perhaps I may name Judge A. W. Caverly, 
Edmund D. Sweet, Gilbert Sweet, Alexander B. Marian, Geo. Pegram, A. 
Hubbard, Maria H. Hill, who gave her experience at the water and 
others ; whole number received by letter, 23, including Rev. A. Baily 
and wife, Heman Goodrich, Rev. Amos Dodge and wife, J. O. Graves 
and wife, Clias. Scandrett and wife, N. M. Perry, wife and daughter. Dr. 
Sage and wife, Mrs. Courtney Hill ; whole number received by experi- 
ence having been previously baptized, 7 ; dismissed by letters, 11, in- 
cluding Rev. Amos Dodge ajid wife, Wm. H. Rider ; whole number ex- 
cluded, 5, including one twice ; restored, 1. The whole number had 
there been no deaths during these years, ought to be at the close of Bro. 
Baily's administration, March, 1840, 106 ; instead of that the minutes of 
the Association, Sept. 6, 1839, show only 85. 

The period of greatest prosperity was during the year 1837 and 1838, 
immediately after Carrollton had been terribly scourged by cholera — 
when there were 39 received by baptism and a large number by letter. 
The year of greatest declension was 1839; a considerable portion of the 
year was given to discipline, and hence not a baptism is recorded. At the 
close of the year 1839 the minutes of the Association show the member- 
ship to be 85, including two ordained ministers, Alvin Bailey and Sears 
Crane, and two licentiates, Chas. Scandrett and James Osgood. 

In the Summer of 1837 the cholera raged fearfully in Carrollton. 


This Avas followed by the extensive revival of 1838, one of the most 
precious in the entire history of the ehurcli. The pastor was aided in 
the work by Rev. Joel Sweet and Rev. Moses Lemen. AV. H. Briggs and 
interregnum, from March, 1840, to March, 1841. Joined by letter, 3 ; 
restored, 1; dismissed, 4; excluded, 1. Jacob Bower, to November, 
1841; 3, dismissed. Elijah Dodson's pastorate one year, to March, 1843: 
Dismissed, 3; received by letter, 4; received by experience, ], Mr. 
Hubbard, from tlie Presbyterian ; restored, 1. Wm. H. Briggs' pastorate 
two years, from June, 1843, to June, 1845 : baptisms, 4 ; received by letter, 
2 ; excluded, 3 ; dismissed 3. July following two were received by letter, 
which brings us to the Association in 1845 — the statistics of the church as 
gathered from the minutes of the Association are as follows: Five received 
by letter and 4 dismissed ; whole number, 85 ; no increase in six years. 
Porter Clay, August, 1845 to 1846: received by letter, 2, including 
Porter Clay ; dismissed, 3; excluded for long absence, 22 ; whole number, 
62. J. N. Tolman, January, 1847 to March, 1851, four years : received by 
baptism, 7, including Albert Crane, Mary and Sarah Pierson ; by letter, 
7, including J. N. Tolman, the pastor; by experience and former baptism, 
2, including John Russell ; dismissed, 9, including N. M. Perry and family ; 
excluded, 6 ; restored, 5. Died on November, 1850, Bro. Tolman, the 
only death recorded or mentioned in the body of the minutes. Whole 
number reported to the Association in Septeml)er previous, 61. In March, 

1851, when Bro. Tolman left, the whole number was 59, three less than 
when he began his pastorate. W. F. Boyakin, August, 1851 to August, 

1852, one year, between the resignation of Bro. Tolman and the settlement 
of Bro. Boyakin in the Spring of 1851, a protracted meeting was held from 
March 6 to March 22, conducted by Justus Bulkley, resulting in the 
baptism of seven, including R. B. Hill, subsequently one of the deacons, 
and the restoration of one, Alex. Hoard. During the Summer 5 were 
dismissed, 3 baptized, and 3, including W. F. Boyakin, joined by letter, 
making the number at the beginning of his pastorate 67. 

In January, 1852, at a prayer meeting, after general discussion of the 
subject, it was decided to hold a protracted meeting. A committee was 
appointed to secure ministerial aid for the pastor. This committee con- 
sisted of R. B. Hill, J. O. Graves, and D. Pierson. Bros. Terry, Morton, 
Chilton, and J. Teasdale, labored with the pastor. Bro. Teasdale spent 
two weeks. About this time Bro. Teasdale left, J. Bulkley came to the 
aid of the pastor. The pastor was soon taken with something like 
inflammatory sore eyes, and for five weeks was confined to his room, 
leaving all responsibility of conducting the meeting entirely in the hands 
of J. Bulkley. The revival was most extensive and precious. As the 
result of it, forty-nine were added In^ baptism, including Z. A. Morrow, 
wife and children, Joseph Pierson, T. G. Shannon, Jane Simpson, T. Hob- 
son and wife. Nine were added b}' letter, two restored, nine added by 
experience and formal baptism, including J. F. Simpson, making the 
additions during the pastorate of Bro. Boyakin, seventy-two ; dismissed, 
three. Hence the church, from the Association in September, 1851, to 
the Association in 1852, increased from 64 to 129. E. J. Palmer 
supplied the church from August, 1852, to March, 1853. Baptized, 
one,; dismissed, eleven ; leaving the number at the commencement 
of A. Baily's pastorate, March, 1853, 119. Alvin Baily, March, 1853, 


to March, 1855. A very good degree of religious prosperity was 
enjoyed during his pastorate. A very interesting series of religious 
meetings resulted in a large ingathering. During his pastorate, nine 
were received by letter, twenty-eight by baptism, three by restoration, 
three by experience and formal baptism ; nineteen were dismissed, includ- 
ing R. Hobson and wife, Alex. Hoard and wife ; J. E. Walker and wife, 
who removed to Virden, 111.; and thirteen were excluded; three had 
died. Between this and the following September, fifteen were dismissed 
by letter and joined by letter, leaving the number, September, 1855, 121. 

Rev. Justus Bulidey, Sept., 1855, to Sept., 1864, eight and a half 
years. During his pastorate several revivals were enjoyed, which 
increased very considerably the strength of the church. Whole number 
of baptisms, 139 ; received by letter, thirty-three ; by experience and for- 
mer baptism, fourteen ; restored, four ; excluded, seventeen ; died, twelve ; 
dismissed by letter, forty ; whole number of members in the church at 
his resignation, 233, a gain of 112. During these seasons of revival the 
pastor was aided by D. W. French, B. B. Hamilton, Joel Terry, H. T. 
Chilton, Niles Kinne, L. C. Carr, and others. 

Niles Kinne, June, 1864, to February, 1866, one and two third years. 
Received by baptism, four ; by letter, thirteen ; dismissed by letter, 
twenty-one; excluded, twelve; died, twelve; to Association, three 
more dismissed, leaving the number at the Association reduced from 238 
to 196. 

James and William Stiffler, and others, till January, 1868, nearly two 
years. Three were added by baptism, seven by letter, one by experience 
and former baptism, twelve were dismissed, leaving the membership 195. 
I ought to say here, that in different interregnums Joel Terry, B. B. 
Hamilton, and H. T. Chilton frequently supplied. 

W. D. Clark, January, 1868, to January, 1870, two years. During 
the pastorate of Bro. Clark the church enjoyed unusual spiritual pros- 
perity. The church increased from 195 to 264. Received by baptism, 
sixty-nine ; by letter, thirteen ; by experience and former baptism, three ; 
by restoration, four; dismissed, twenty-five; excluded, four; died, four; 
whole number, 264. 

R. F. Parshall, April, 1870, to Oct. 1871, one and a half years. During 
the pastorate of Bro. Parshall another very extensive and precious 
revival increased the membership from 264 to 317. Fifty-one were 
added by baptism; eleven by letter, including his own family; four by 
experience and former baptism, two died, leaving the number as before 
stated, 317. 

H. A. Guild, called in June, 1872, resigned February, 1874. Between 
the pastorates of R. F. Parshall and H. A. Guild seventeen were dis- 
missed by letter, leaving the number at the beginning of Bro. Guild's 
pastorate, 300. During his pastorate sixteen were added by baptism, 
one by experience and former baptism, thirty-two were dismissed, and 
five had died, leaving the number 280, while the minutes of the Associa- 
tion show but 235. I can only account for the large discrepancy by 
supposing a revision of names, and the erasure of a large number. The 
church was without a pastor until October, 1875. In June, 1874, the 
list of members was revised and further reduced to 232. Since that 
time, including the pastorate of J. C. Bonham for six months from 


October, 1875, to April, 1876, seven joined by letter; nineteen dismissed 
bv letter, four of the number registered June 28, 1874; one dead, leaving 
the present membership about 216. Rev. J. E. Roberts, son-in-law of 
Dr. J. Bulkley, was installed pastor of the church in the Summer of 1878, 
and is the present incumbent. 

Up to September, 1871, the entire additions to the church, as gotten 
from the minutes of the Association, are as follows: By baptism, 498; 
by letter, 164; restored, 27; l)y experience and former baptism, 27; 
total, 716. Dimminution by exclusion, 101 ; by death, 52 ; by dismissal, 
257; total, 410. You see by these statistics, that of all baptised, one in 
five have been excluded, and of the whole number received, from all 
sources, one in seven. The exclusions are just about double the deaths. 

Benevolence of the Church. — The church from the very first 
arraigned herself on the side of active beneficence. She has given her 
sympathies, prayers, co-operative and financial support to all the denom- 
inational benevolent organizations of the day and the age. Resolution 
after resolution has been passed, advising these benevolent organizations, 
or rather, vote after vote in some shape sanctioning them. During all 
the anti-mission discussion and excitement of former days, I have yet to 
learn that in a single instance, did ever a delegate from this church to 
the Association, by word or vole or sympathy, oppose our appropriate 
benevolent Church work in Sunday Schools, Bible and tract societies, 
home and foreign missions, and ministerial education. As a sample, I 
may refer to the years 1856 and 1857. In the former year, in addition to 
giving her pastor a good support (I know because I speak from experi- 
ence), she paid for benevolent outside work, -^173.60, and in 185/, §477.10. 
In the year 1857, the CarroUton Association, as shown by the report of 
the treasurer, in addition to pastoral support, raised and paid out 
$2,459.34. She has ever given earnest and unwavering support to min- 
isterial education and to Shurtloff College. She has deeply sympatliized 
with our young men, who, amid great discouragements, are pursuing a 
course of study for the pulpit. She fully believes that our ministry to 
influence the popular mind must be cultivated, disciplined, trained; 
hence, she has ever been more than willing that they should very early 
in their course of study stand in this desk, and, as well as they were 
able, hold forth the word of life, and she has prayed for them. When, 
a few years since, an effort was made to endow the chair of church his- 
tory in Shurtleff College, three of her members gave ^1,000 each, one 
gave $500, and others carried the entire amount up to 81,100, and all 
felt the better for it. Greenville and Chicago Universities have not been 
forgotten in her benefactions. 

Houses of Worship. — In May, 1834, the church first held meetings in 
their new house of worship. 

In January, 1835, the church met in the brick meeting room. 

In March, 1852, during the administration of W. F. Bo}akin, a com- 
mittee, consisting of A. W. Cavarly, Tliomas Hobson, John Headrick, 
and Messrs. Alfred Hinton and Francis P. Vedder, was appointed to in- 
quire into the expediency of erecting a new house of worship. In April, 
24th, they submitted a report, through Judge Cavarly, chairman, recom- 
mending that the church be built of brick and rock, with a basement 
story — the building to be 66 by 42, and, with lot, to cost $5,000. To 


carry out the purposes contemplated in the report, a building committee 
was appointed, consisting of David Pierson, Thomas Hobson, John 
Headrick, A. W. Cavarly, and Z. A. Morrow. In time the committee 
reported $2,700 raised and the rock and brick contracted for. In July, 
1852, the trustees were instructed to sell to the highest bidder the south 
side of the lot, purchased for the site of the house, subsequently sold ta 
Lyman Wheeler for $501. The old church was also sold to advantage, 
to P. M. Brown for $410. It subsequently passed into the hands of the 
Cumberland Presbyterians. The new house was dedicated Jan. 6, 1856, 
D. P. French preaching the sermon. 

In March, 1857, the church passed the following resolution : 
Whereas, the church has been dedicated to the worship of God, there- 
fore, be it resolved that it can not be used for any other purpose without 
violating:- the covenant made at the dedication. I am afraid it has some- 
times been used for other purposes. 

I see to-day families occuping the same pews they occupied in 1857, 
tweny years ago and I presume they will occupy them till they are borne 
to the city of the dead. 

Ministers. — Twenty ordained and four licensed ministers have at dif- 
ferent times made their homes in this church : S. Crane, Elijah Dodson, A. 
Baily, Amos Dodge, Wm. H. Briggs, Porter Clay, J. N. Tolman, W. I, 
Boyakin, J. C. Harney, J. Bulkley, R. C. Vinle, R. S. Cole, Niles Kinne, Z. 
Whitney, T. C. Elliott, W. D. Clark, Wm. B. Hill, R. F. Parshall, H. 
A. Guild, J. C. Bonham. The four licentiates were Charles Scandrett, 
J. Osgood, John Russell and J. B. Jackson. This church has sent forth 
three young men into the ministry ; J. B. Jackson, Daniel Wise and J. B. 
English. Persons first received for baptism, and by letter, excepting Elijah 
Dodson and wife, who joined by letter in March, 1828, Wm. H. Rider, 
was the first person that joined by letter in August, 1831, Hannah 
Crane the second, August, 1832. By baptism, Wm. and Mary Vaughn, 
Serepta Crane, Morris Crane, Margaret Kinney, Rebecca Johnson, 
August, 1<S32 ; September, 1832, for baptism, Justus Rider, (sub- 
sequently expelled) Peter M. Brown, (subsequently expelled) Crissa 
Cornelius, Cynthia Cornelius and Zoe Rowland ; October, 1832, David 
Pierson, Eliza J. Pierson and Clarinda Pierson (Collins). 

The Dead. — While the minutes of the church mention only a single 
death, the wife of J. N. Tolman, from the records of the Association 
we learn that more than fifty have been reported from this church, and 
probably nearly as many more, from the 358 who have been dismissed 
and excluded have closed their earthly labors. Of the original six, all 
are gone. Rev. Sears Crane and Phebe Harris I never knew, the others 
I remember well ; I formed the acquaintance of Mrs. Rider at Woodburn, 
I Avell remember when I first began to preach in CarroUton, the feelings 
of awe akin to reverence awakened as Abraham Bowman, senior dea- 
con, was accustomed to sit almost exactly in front of me, with locks 
silvered with the frosts of more than seventy Winters. With every 
expression of his countenance indicating imperturbable gravity and firm- 
ness, as much as to say, " Young man, if you do not preach the truth to- 
day, you may never expect my approval to enter that pulpit again," and 
then, as I descended from the pulpit the severity of his expression would 
relax, and with all the kindness and tenderness imaginable he would take 


my hand, thank me for the words spoken, and express the deepest inter- 
est in my future welfare. At that time our churches were filled with 
men, as stern, as firm, as unyielding, as kind, as tender, as considerate, 
as Abraham Bowman. And Mother Crane, living till 1871, long after 
the last of her associates had crossed the river, always in her place, 
dressed in black, as if in deep sorrow, quiet, unpretending, unostentatious, 
gentle, genial, appreciative, devoted — she was here all through my pas- 
torate, leaving us occasionall}' for a season to visit loved ones at Virden. 
I must not stop to speak of Sister Montague, Sister Thompson, Sister 
Sue Rowland, Sister Fishback, Sister Morrow, Sister Thos. Black, Sister 
Thos. Hobson, Sister Lindey English, Sister Dodge, Sister Harriet Bow- 
man, Sister M. Hill, of Bro. Richard Tucker, Chas. McFadden, A. 
Pinkerton, Chas. Green, B. A. Green, Jos. Pierson, Warren Fales and 
wife, J. O. Graves and wife, N. M. Perry and wife, R. B. Hill. A. W. 
Cavalry, Jno. Russell, Jas. Cullimore, Elijah Dodson, Amos Dodge and 
Alvin Bailey. " They rest from their labors and their works do follow 
them."' Honored while living. Remembered with interest and affection. 
We believe their immortality is blessed and glorious. 

The Methodist Church — The early history of Methodism in Carroll- 
ton and its immediate vicinity is somewhat obscure, owing to the loss of 
the church records. Indeed much valuable history of every new country 
is lost in the same wa}- , or by making no recorded account of its events, 
trusting merely to memory. The pioneers finally die or move to other 
sections of the countr}-, and thus the means of information are lost. In 
the year 1821 the Dodgson family came from Yorkshire, England, and 
settled some two and a half miles north of Carrollton. John Dodgson, 
the father of tliis noted and worthy family, was a Wesleyan Methodist in 
England, and soon after coming to this country, in about 1822 or 1823, a 
society was organized called the Hopewell Class. This was the first 
organization of Methodists in Greene County. The first preaching place 
was at Mr. Jackson's, a little north of where Benjamin Roodhouse now 
lives, and occupied at that time by John Dodgson, already referred to. 
This society in a few years built a brick church a little north of Daniel 
Morfoot's, which continued a preaching place for many years. The first 
organization of the M. E. Church in Carrollton, of which there is any 
record, was in 1832. This was included in what was called Apple Circuit. 
Joliu Van Cleve, who died a few years ago, was preacher in charge, 
assisted by Levi Springer. At this time (1879) there are but two living 
who were members of this society at that time, viz., Chas. Stout and 
Veranda, his wife. These live at Palmer, in Christian County. Promi- 
nent among the other early members might be mentioned M. P. Taylor, 
who was leader of this class, Ansel Hubbard, the father of old Mrs. 
Keeley, old Mr. Landiss, father of W. H. Landiss and several other child- 
ren, the first wife of the late venerable Dr. Samuel, who soon afterwards 
also became a member oi this society, and Thomas Short, who was so 
long and favorably known in Greene County, and who died some two 
years ago. The Rev. B. C. Wood, universally loved and respected, to- 
gether with his wife, have long been members of this society. The church 
first worshiped in the Court House and afterward held its meetings in a 
school house which stood on the east side of the Square, about where 
Loomis & Villinger's jewelry store now stands. In 1836 a brick church 


building was erected on the present site. This was an awkward, ungainly- 
building and afterward was torn down to make room for the present 
sanctuary, which was erected in 1850-51. Among those who have been 
stationed here as preachers are, Rev. Messrs. "Wm. H. Askins, J. Van 
Cleve, I. Phelps, Jesse Hail, David Corey, Norman Allen, B. Randall, J. 

C. Houts, Richard Bird, S. Sweney, Carpenter, W. D. R. Trotter, J. S. 
Akers, J. B. Corrington, E. Corrington, Wm. Wilson, J. Anderson, E. 
Gentry, Newton Cloud, Wm. R. Powers, A. M. Pitcher, Robt. Clark. 
The latter gentleman resigned March, 1879, and the church is now with- 
out a pastor. 

The Christian Church — The Christian Church in Carrollton was 
organized in the year 1832, under the rainistery of Elder B. W. Stone, 
and consisted of about 120 members. The congregation in its infancy 
enjoyed the ministrations of Elders Stone, Hewit, Osborn, Elly, Challen, 
Graham and others, and for a time prospered. But from dissension, 
deaths, removals and other causes a coldness ensued, and the church in 
the beginning of 1841 had ceased to meet. In December of this year, 
under the labors of Elders B. W. Stone, John T. Jones and D. P. Hen- 
derson, a reorganization was effected, with about twenty-eight members. 

D. W. Kennett was elected elder and W. R. Montague and J. H. Mar- 
mon, deacons. Since then the church has had a regular ministry the 
greater part of the time, among whom may be mentioned Elders E. V. 
Rice, E. L. Craig, John Harris, John McPherson, J. A. Berry and others. 
The present membership is about sixty. Elders, A. Hinton, J. H. Under- 
wood ; deacons, L. Hensler, Thos. Hough, J. V. Dee. 

The Catholic Church— The Catholic Church of St. John the Apostle 
was organized in 1860, with but few members. Among those who are 
still living may be mentioned the Carmodys, McMahons, Turneys, 
Luneens, Flemings, McDonougbs, Brooks, Kalahers and others. The 
present very substantial brick edifice was erected in 1864, and is by this 
time much too small for the grown and growing congregation. It is the 
intention to enlarge it as soon as possible. Since the build hig of the 
church the parish has been frequently visited by the Bishop of Alton, to 
whose diocese it belongs, and he has confirmed about 400 children. The 
parochial residence was erected under Rev. Father Macken, and the 
parochial school, numbering 100 children, was organized and opened un- 
der the present incumbent. Rev. Father Sauer. Among the rectors who 
have administered the parish are Fathers Klein, Macken, Recouvreur and 
Sauer. The number of communicants at present is 700 with over 200 
children. The parish consists chiefly of Irish Catholics from County 
Clare, Ireland. There are about 35 or 40 German Catholics. About one- 
half are well-to-do in earthly things — the other half are poor, though 
generous. The parish embraces only Carrollton and the region within 
six or seven miles. There are also congregations in Roodhouse, Rock- 
bridge and Greenfield. The present trustees of St. John's Church are 
Thomas Luneen and Hermann Geers. 

Secret Societies. 

Carrollton contains the following secret societies : 

Masonic— CsiYvollton Lodge, No. 50, A. F. & A. M., was instituted 
October 5, 1848, with the following charter members : Henry Dusenberry, 
Edward A. Darcy, David M. Woodson, Isaac Daniels, R. S. Hollenbeck, 


E. Van Horn, D. B. Stitli, Jas. B. Samuels. Dr. J. B. Samuels was the 
the first W. M. The lodge was orginally called Fletcher Lodge No. cO, 
but this was afterward changed to Carrollton Lodge No. 50. The fol- 
lowing are its present officers: Geo. W. Davis, W. M.; Jos. T. Cameron, 
S. W.^; Adam Gimmy, J. W.; W. H. H. Newbold, Treasurer ; John C. 
Woolford, Secretary ; F. P. Green, S. D.; Thos. J. Pinkertoii, J. D.; 
Jas. L. Fasnacht, S. S.; Lewis Hensler, J. S.; M. L. Reed, Tyler. 

Carrollton Chapter, No. 77, R. A. M., was organized October 6, 1865, 
with the following charter members: Jas. W. English, Jas. B. Samuel, 
Wm. R. Davis, Jas. W. Gregor3% Jas. P. Morrow, Jas. i\L Wilcox, Jno. 
D. Baird, R. G. Robinson, Wm. L. Greene, J. B. Eldred, Joel G. Reed, 
Morgan L. Wood, Clinton Armstrong, Leonard E. Eldred, W. P. Bur- 
roughs, Jas. M. Davis, M. L. Robinson, Paul Wright, Edwin Wooley, A. 
C. Reno. The present officers are : Henr}^ C. Withers, M. E. H. P.; Jos. 
T. Cameron, E. K.; Wm. W. Beaty, E. S.; Jerome B. Nulton, C. of H.; 
Charles W. Keeley, P. S.; Adam Gimmv, R. A. C; John C. Woolford, 
M. of 3d v.; Wm. H. H. Newbold, M." of 2d V.; Henry C. Sieverling, 
M. of 1st v.; Joel G. Reed, Treasurer; W^illiam L. Orr, Secretar}^ ; Rev. 
B. B. Hamilton, Chaplain ; Marquis L. Reed, Tyler. 

Five years later, October 6, 1870, was formed, Carrollton Council, 
No. 48, R. &: S. M., with John Hill, H. C. Withers, Abe Gottgetreu, C. W. 
Keeley, A. H. Smith, W. W. Beaty, John C. Woolford, J. P. Morrow, 
J. B. Nulton, J. W. English, W. H. Peny, W. L. Orr, as charter mem- 

The date of the charter of Hugh de Payens Commandery, No, 29, 
Knights Templar, is November 16, 1878, and the folJowino- took part in 
the organization : Henry C. Withers, Fiank Winfield, Allen Marshall, 
Jas. W. English, Geo. W. Davis, J. B. Nulton, Jas. S. Vedder, Wm. L. 
Orr, Wm. L. Greene. The present officers are : Jerome B. Nulton, E. 
C: John Hill, Generalissimo ; Leander R. Lakin, Capt. Gen.; George 
W. Davis, Prelate ; Charles W. Keeley, S. W.; William W. Beaty, J. 
W.; James P. Morrow, Treasurer; William L. Orr, Recorder; H. C. 
Sieverling, St'd Bearer ; T. G. Jefferies, Sr'd Bearer ; W. H. H. Newbold, 
Warder: M. L. Reed, Capt. of Guards. 

Independent Order of Odd Felloivs. — Carrollton Lodge, No. 342, 
I. O. O. F., was instituted January 31, 18G7, with the following charter 
members ; J. i\L Russell, McDonald Gee, J. T. Adauis, W. S. Taudj'-, 
J. J. Parish, T. G. Jeffries, James W. Montague, James O. Pope, Ben 
Shetterly, John Cox. The present officers are: J. L Johnson, N. G.; S. 
O. Smith, V. G.; J. H. Stout, Sr., Treasurer; S. F. Corrington, Secre- 

Knights of Honor. — Olympic Lodge, No. 913, was organized Feb- 
urary 25, 1878. The lodge is growing and has a very good membership. 
The following are the present officers : E. A. Doolittle, D.; Ed. Miner, 
P. D.; B. C. Hodges. V. D.; C. H. Weaglev, A. D.; Clement L. Chi|)p, 
R.; C. Kergher, T.; W. L. Armstrong, F. R.; O. B. Hardcastle, G.; C. E. 
Russell, C; J. T. Johnson, Gn.; James Lavery, S. 



The G-azette. 

The Press. 

The Carrollton G-azette^ a forty-eight column paper, 
was established in June, 1846, by. 
George B. Price, who is still a mem- 
ber of the publishing firm, though 
retired from active participation in 
business. ' Since 1856 Mr. T. D. Price 
has been prominently connected with 
the office, and in 1870 took his place 
at the head of this sterling paper. 
The Gazette uses the only steam 
power press in the county — a Chicaga 
Taylor cylinder — and has four job 
presses. The office is finely fitted up 
for doing good work, and is one of the 
best country offices in the State. 

The Gazette was originally a Whig 
paper, and in 1856 advocated the 
election of Fremont. After this it 
became conservatively Democratic in 
its views, never fiery, but calm and 
outspoken. For several years the 
Gazette was edited by H. L. Clay. 
In 1875 he took charge of the Illinois 
Courier^ at Jacksonville, owned by 
T. D. Price & Co. (T. D. Price, G. 
E. Doying, H. L. Clay, and M. N. Price.) 

The Oarrollton Patriot. — When the struggle between the friends and 
the enemies of slavery was waxing hot, in the days when the Republican 
Party was yet very young, those who were opposed to the administration 
and who gave their adherence to the new party, felt the need of a county 
paper that would represent them. Accordingly, in 1858, the Carrollton 

Press was established, with S. P. Ohr as 
editor. When the war broke out Mr» 
Ohr enlisted and went South, at the 
head of a company from this county. 
At this time there was a Union League 
in the county, and under its influence 
and by its contributions the Press was 
revived under the name of the Carroll- 
ton Patriot^ with Elder Craig as its 
\'W editor. He was followed, after some 
1^ time, by Mr. Wm. B. Fairchild, who 
was one of the ablest editors who ever 
practiced his profession in this county- 
Afterward it suffered a decline in the 
hands of Lee, Lusk & Piatt and othel's, 
until, in 1873, Miner & Lindley, of 
Jersey ville, bought the paper. Mr. 
Miner's ability as a writer and his genial 
temper gave the paper a decided lift upward, and when Clement L. Clapp 


bought the office, in September, 1875, he found little difficulty in still 
farther improving it. Of late its growth has been rapid, and the Patriot 
now boasts of being the "Newsiest, Promptest, Fullest." The large job 
office attached is one of the most successful in this part of the State. 

In 1866 Hon. H. C. Withers began the publication of a live, 
trenchant Democratic sheet, called the Carrollton Democrat. Its career 
was brillant but brief, and the office was sold and removed in 1867. 

The Library. 

The Carrollton Library Association was organized in 1873, with the 
following officers : President, H. C. Withers ; Secretary, Dr. E. B. Hob- 
son ; Treasurer, L. S. Eldred ; Finance Committee, Hon. A. G. Burr, R. 
G. Robinson and Dr. E. B. Hobson. The library now occupies a very 
neat room over the Carrollton Bank, and has a collection of several hun- 
dred well selected books. The following are the life members : Mrs. 
Geo. Wright, G. Siddall Wright, Arthur Wright, J. M. Roodhouse, John 
Jones, Uen Linder, W. W. Beaty, B. Roodhouse, J. T. Crow, Milby 
Smith, E. A. Doolittle, H. C. Withers, Isham Linder, Jr., John Kaser, 
Jas. P. Morrow, Spencer Smith, J. C. Hardcastle, Geo. L. Burruss, W. 
B. Robinson, C. C. Furgeson, H. D. Burruss, Thos. Scott, Jr., C. L. 
Clapp, W. H. Newbolt, A. G. Burr, Mrs. Fannie Sharon, Miss Emily 
Bowman, E. B. Hobson, Chas. D. Hodges, Miss Hattie E. Hodges, L. S. 
Bushnell, Geo. L. Williams, Thos. D. Price, Henry N. Price, Fred. F. 
Vedder, Jas. W. English, Chas. McAninch, Ed. Miner, Mrs. Ed. Miner, 
S. F. Corriugton. 

Fire Department. 

In 1878 the City Council purchased for $600 a fine hook and ladder 
truck with Babcock extinguishers, ladders, leather buckets, etc., and 
thereupon the Carrollton Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 was organized. 
The following is a list of its officers and members: 

President, James P. Morrow. Vice-President, Henry Smith. Cap- 
tain, Mark L. Reed. Foreman, John G. F. Powell. Assistant Foreman, 
Adam Gimmy. Secretary, William Lavery. Treasuer, Harry S. Moore. 
Steward, William Sinclair. Tillerman, William L. Orr. Wm. L. Arm- 
strong, Wm. W. Beaty, Joseph A. Binker, S. A. Black, George Debolt, 
William Eglehoff, Thomas E. Evans, O. B. Hardcastle, Louis N. Hensler, 
B. C. Hodges, George Hussey, Thomas C. Hussey, E. D. Johnson, James 
I. Johnson, L. R. Lakin, I. M. Linder, C. S. Luthy, James R. Lynn, 
Samuel H. McAninch, Joseph Milnes, J. P. Moore, W. H. Newbold, T. 
J. Pinkerton, John A. Platner, L. W. Reed, F. M. Roberts, J. M. Rood- 
house, W. W. Samuel, Edward Smith, G. F. Smith, Josepli B. Stone, 
Henry Teason, O. T. Vedder, Chas. A. Weimer, J. C. Woolford, B. F. 
Wooster, H. W. Wright. 

The attorneys of Carrollton are Judge C. D. Hodges, James W. 
English, Henry C. Withers, James R. Ward, E. P. Gilson, Jolin C. F. 
Gardner, H. T. Root, Thomas Henshaw and Wm. B. Lynn. 

The practicing physicians are Doctors C. Armstrong, J. T. Crow, J. 
M. Davis, C. P. Clemmons, W. D. Turner, H. C. McFall, W. O. Lang- 
don, G. W. Lasher, J. C. Lindsay. The dentists are Dr. J. E. Brecht 
and Dr. A. D. Bull. 


Military. f^\^ 

In September, 1877, a company was organized in Carrollton under 
the State militia law, which is known as The Carrollton Guards, Company 

B, Fifteenth Battalion, I. N. G. The following is a roster of its officers 
and men at the organization : 

Hosier : — Captain, George L. Williams, age 42. Lieutenants : John 
Scruby, 1st Lieutenant, age 33 ; James L. Fasnacht, 2d Lieutenant, age 
30. Sergeants : William Sinclair, 1st Sergeant, age 40 ; Montford F. 
Tully, age 34 ; Walter B. Kelly, age 41 ; Robert Lyman, age 39 ; Joseph 
A. Binker, age 48. Corporals : John L. Postlewait, age 34 ; Samuel 
Garrett, age 34; John Simpson, age 42; Calvin S. Bayless, age 31 
Henry Teason, age 29 ; Alexander H. Johns, age 27 ; Henry Barnett 
age 21 ; Charles Burton, age 38. Musicians: William Bailey, age 19 
Frank Warren, age 34. Privates : Wm. H. Brown, age 18 ; Henry B 
Bull, age 19; Charles W. Boggess, age 20; Jacob M. Bowman, age 21 
Edward Buchanan, age 20 ; Charles Ballow, age 29 ; A. Leslie Burruss 
age 21 ; George W. Bandy, age 24 ; Thomas Chandler, age 45 ; George 
W. Cook, age 28 ; George W. Dacus, age 23 ; M. Eugene Drum, age 22 
Wm. H. Dulaney, age 32 ; Robert A. Erisman, age 18 ; Oscar B 
Edwards, age 41 ; Orren Fuller, age 27 ; John B. Feaster, age 21 ; John 
F. Foust, age 38 ; Hugh B. Green, age 19 ; George F. Graham, age 27 
Thomas Hazle, age 24 ; Robert Hobson, Jr., age 19 ; William C. Kelly 
age 19 ; Charles W. Kelly, age 19 ; John Killarney, age 20 ; Richard J 
Lovett, age 21 ; Isaac Landiss, age 22 ; Michael E. McMahon, age 22 
Francis M. Maupin, age 20 ; Aionzo R. Nichols, age 22 ; Howard B 
Nelson, age 23 ; Frank Prant, age 23 ; Lafe F. Bobbins, age 22 ; Henry 
T. Scott, age 22 ; George W. Scott, age 19 ; Aionzo Stone, age 19 
Sebastian Smith, age 22 ; John Stout, Jr., age 19 ; Charles Scruby, age 
22 ; Thomas Taylor, age 23 ; George Taylor, age 18 ; Robert D. Under- 
wood, age 19; William Vigus, age 29; John A. Walker, age 24; John 
Walker, age 21 ; Elmer Williams, age 19. 

County Officers. 

As Carrollton is the county seat a list of the county officers properly 
belongs here. They are : 

Circuit Judge, Hon. A. G. Burr. States Attorney, J. R. Ward. 
Sheriff, John Jones ; deputies, T. E. Evans, J. G. Powell, and Thomas 
McGown. Circuit Clerk, J. Henry Short ; deputy, Fieldon Roberts. 
County Judge, Hon. L. E. Worcester. County Clerk, Lee R. Lakin ; 
deputies, Ed. Miner and A. Connole. Assessor and Treasurer, W. D. 
Gullett ; deputies, N. J. Andrews, L. J. Patterson, James L. Patterson, 

C. J. Crist, Stephen Cannedy, James Sullivan, Lucien King, J. B. Pegram, 
A. F. Halbert, Isaac Powell and F. M. Hatler. County Commissioners^ 
Wm. M. Morrow, Wm. M. Mayberry, Singleton F. Greene. School 
Superintendent, David F. King. County Surveyor, Jay C. White. Cor- 
oner, Anderson Headrick. County Physician, J F. Simpson, M.D. 
Public Administrator, S. F. Corrington. Master in Chancery, S. F. Cor- 
rington. Representative, Frank M. Bridges. 



Business Interests. 

The Carrollton Machine Shop and Foundry. One of the most extensive 
manufacturing establishments in the county is J. C. Burruss' machine 
shop and foundry, at Carrollton. This institution has grown from a small 
cross-road blacksmith shop to such proportions that it requires for its ac- 
commodation the spacious brick block represented on this page, beside 
the large, two-story iron covered warehouse in the rear, not here exhib- 
ited. In 1850, William W. and R. B. Winn established themselves as 
gunsmiths, in Carrollton. Little by little they added lathes, drills, plan- 
ing machines, etc., to their machinery, and extended their limits until 


when, in 1877, they sold oat to J. C. Burruss, their machine shop and 
foundry was a credit to the town. Ver}^ soon after the sale was consum- 
mated, the wooden buildings in which the machinery was housed were 
burned to the ground. Mr. Burruss was not at all discouraged by this ill 
fortune at the outset of his business experience, and at once commenced 
to put up a temporary shelter for his machinery and workmen, on the site 
of the ruins. New tools and appliances were purchased, and the work 
of the establishment went on as before. Here the heavy iron front for 
Russell's building, and lO.OOO pounds of castings for the Burruss' building, 
were made, and other difficult work executed. 

Meantime, Mr. Burruss formed a j)artnership with G. R. Valentine, 
of Pennsylvania, and the style of the firm became Burruss «fe Valentine. 
The new firm at once purchased the lots at the southwest corner of the 
Public Square, and commenced the erection of the buildings now occu- 
pied by the concern. These were completed, and the various departments 
occupied about January 1, 1878. Since that time the business has rapidly 
increased in all branches of manufacturing, until about twenty men are 
now employed during the greater part of the year. In August, 1878, 


Valentine retired from the concern, disposing of his interest to his part- 

The machine shop joins the business office and salesrooms, and con- 
tains lathes, planing machine, polishing wheels, drills, and all the tools 
and machinery required to build or repair an engine, or any kind of ma- 
chinery or tool. In this room is the large thirty-horse-power engine, 
which drives all the machinery in the block. 

In the rear of the machine shop is the brass and iron foundry, which 
is constantly employed in casting machinery, hollow ware, aquaria, house 
fronts, etc., etc. 

Next to the machine shops are the blacksmiths' forges, and beyond 
these, the woodworkers' room. Here are lathes, circular saws, planer, 
and a full complement of tools. This department of the manufactory 
can turn out every variet}^ of wood work in the most satisfactory man- 
ner. There is, also, in the building, a gunsmith's and general repair 
shop. * 

The products of this establishment, although it is yet in its infancy, 
find a market in many distant points. Over ^1,000 worth of farm wag- 
ons were manufactured and sold during the first year of its occupancy of 
the new buildings, beside quantities of spring wagons, plows, stalk cut- 
ters, and other farm machinery. The sales of reapers, mowers, harvest- 
ing machines, self-binders, farming implements, pumps, hardware, etc., 
are also very large, and customers are thereby drawn to the city from a 
considerable distance. 

Mr. Burruss, who is the proprietor of this hive of industry, gives it 
his constant personal attention. He is himself a thorough, practical me- 
chanic, and has under him skilled workmen in each department. None 
but the most perfect and thorough work is allowed to go out of the estab- 

Mr. Burruss is a member of one of the oldest and most worthy fam- 
ilies in the county, and as such his success is a matter of congratulation 
to the whole community. 

One of the most attractive mercantile establishments in the city is 
Loomis & Villinger's jewelry store, of the interior of which the accom- 
panying cut is a representation. This elegant establishment is situated 
on the east side of the Square, and is always filled with a beautiful display 
of goods. Mr. Vallentine Villinger established the business at this loca- 
tion in 1854. In 1863 Mr. B. Villinger of the present firm bought out 
his uncle above mentioned, and conducted the business alone for ten 
years. In 1873, Mr. L. W. Loomis entered into partnership with Mr. 
Villinger, and the firm has been thus constituted ever since. In this 
establishment may always be found a large and complete assortment of 
silverware, tea sets, ice pitchers, castors, tea and coffee pots, and all those 
beautiful pieces of table furniture which delight the heart of the house- 
wife. There are also two long show-cases filled with jewelry of every pat- 
tern, material and price, from roll plate to solid gold, or the most elegant 
diamond set, as well as coral, celluloid, and all the novelties of the day, 
beside the reserve stock contained in the two ponderous safes which stand 
at either end of the store. It is a conceded fact that no similar establish- 
ment in this part of the State contains a larger stock of gold and silver 
watches and reliable clocks than Loomis & Villinger's. And in gold, cameo 



or diamond rings, and the thousand and one articles pertaining to such 
a house, their assortment is complete. Loomis & Villinger make a specialty 
of manufacturing microscopes, telescopes, spy-glasses, and other optical 
or electric instruments, and are agents for first class pianos and organs, 
samples of which they have constantly on hand. 


This one of the old established houses of the county, and has hosts 
of friends. It has done a successful business for a quarter of a century, 
and its facilities and the richness and variety of the goods have been 
constantly increasing. 

The CarroUton Tile Works were incorporated in 1878, with C. W. 
Keeley, as President ; W. L. Barnett, Secretary ; and G. W. Davis, Trea- 
surer. Soon after, Mr. Barnett bought out his partners, and the erection 
of buildings near the depot was pushed rapidl}^ forward. The establish- 
ment is fitted with the best machinery, a powerful steam engine, and a 
full corps of workmen. Large quantities of tile are manufactured, find 
a rapid sale, and are pronounced equal to the best. 

The Underwood Spring Bed Factory is one of the institutions of the 
town. The bed is the invention of Mrs. Wm. Underwood of this city, 
and is conceded to be the best in the market. 

Banks. — In 1855, David Pierson started a private bank, at first in his 
store, but, 1860, removed to the fine brick building erected especially 
for its accommodation. Tliis was the pioneer bank of the county. In 
1874, Mr. Pierson's sons, Messrs. Robert, and David D., became partners in 
the concern, and the style of the firm became David Pierson & Sons, 
bankers, and the institution was known far and wide as Pierson's 
Exchange Bank. During the panics of 1857 and 1872, when nearly 
every bank in the State was closed, this institution never refused to 
meet a just demand. In 1878, David Pierson, Esq., wished to retire 


from business on account of his advanced age, and the Greene County 
National Bank was organized to succeed the old institution. By its 
promptness and reliability it has been of great service to the community, 
and is regarded as perfectly secure. The following are its officers : John 
I. Thomas, President ; David D. Pierson, Vice President ; Robert Pierson, 
Cashier; Oman Pierson, Assistant Cashier: John I. Thomas, Albert 
Gregory, David D. Pierson, Daniel Morfoot, Dr. James M. Davis, Oman 
Pierson, H. W. Wright, Directors. Paid up capital, ^100,000. 

In 1867, John Long and Frank Yivell combined their capital and 
opened a bank under the name of John Long & Co. This firm has 
ample capital, and has the reputation of doing a safe, careful business. 
The bank occupies a commodious building on the east side of the Square. 

The (^arrollton Bank was organized in 1877, with the following 
officers : Benj. Roodhouse, President ; John Kaser, Vice President ; 
W. W. Beaty, Cashier ; J. M. Roodhouse, Assistant Cashier. Early in 
1878, the bank took possession of the elegant new building, erected 
especially for its use on the north side of the Square by Judge C. D. 
Hodges. Soon after, W. W. Beaty resigned his position as cashier, and sold 
his stock to Mr. C. H. Hodges. Mr. John M. Roodhouse became cashier, 
and E. B. Hobson assistant cashier. This institution is doing a good 
business, and has the confidence of the communit}'. Its directors are : 
Benjamin Roodhouse, David Wright, Jeduthun B. Eldred, John Kaser, 
and Charles H. Hodges. 

There are besides, two steam mills, one steam elevator, one grain 
warehouse, seven wagon factories, six blacksmith shops, one cigar factory, 
one broom factory, two photograph galleries, one nursery, one sign 
painter, three hotels, two livery stables, two harness shops, four dry 
goods, eight grocery, three hardware, two tobacco, two furniture, three 
drug and four boot and shoe stores, one bakery, five milliner and dressmak- 
ing establishments, two merchant tailors, one dyer, two jewelers, two 
meat markets, two book and stationery stores, two barber shops, two 
private billiard halls, one horse dealer. A heavier business is done here 
than in any other town in the county, and the largest and finest stocks- 
of goods displayed. 


The greater part of the following sketch of Greenfield was con- 
densed from Prof. R. E. Wilder's very able historical address, delivered 
July 4, 1876 : 

Up to 1820, so far as I can learn, no permanent settlement had been 
made within the corporate limits of Greenfield ; but during the Summer 
of this year, Stephen Hand, son of Jeremiah Hand, and the first husband 
of the present Mrs. Edmondson, then a young and single man anticipat- 
ing, we may suppose, his future necessities in this direction, began a 
house on the site where Wm. H. Wylder's now is, on the south side of 
the Public Square ; but for reasons not known, perhaps like the man in 
the parable, " not being able to finish," he sold out his unfinished home 
and the entire premises in the Fall of that j^ear to James Cannedy, better 
known as the late Esq. Cannedy, who had settled on the Philips farm in 
the Spring of this same year and made one crop. Mr. C. finished this 



dwelling and became installed in it with his little family just in season to 
escape the violence of "■ tlie Bit^ Snow-storm," which began December of 
this year, thus laying an undisputed claim of being the first resident of 

our town. 

Living here and making a small crop of corn in the Summer of '30, 
and on the south side of town in '81 ; Mr. Cannedy returned to Tennessee 
in the Fall of this latter year, selling out to Geo. W. Allen, Esq., the 
future projector and proprietor of the place, who in the following March 
moved his family from his farm on the other side of Apple Creek, and 
took formal possession of the premises. 

In this connection it may be remarked, that Mr. C. came here in 
what most would regard now, as very straightened circumstances, having 
only a bank of $2 to draw from, which he completely exhausted on the 
first night of his arrival here, to pay for a tolerably sized porker, rendered 
necessary for the immediate supply of his family. Although he had made 
three good ci-ops of corn on the few acres he planted, yet finding the 
facilities for replenishing his pocket very limited, coupled with his ex- 
periences in passing through two northern winters of unwonted severity, 
he determined to set his face toward his old Tennessee home. Accord- 
ingly, in the early Spring of '32, loading his family and what few articles 
of^furniture he had left, into his little ox-cart, he trudged his weary way 
back to the sunny South, arriving in season to put a few acres in cultiva- 
tion, whose soil would scarcely produce "black-eyed peas" — appearing 
to him all the poorer in contrast with the prolific soil he found here. 
Finding that he would have to choose between starvation upon the worn- 
out lands of his native State, or the inconveniences incident to all set- 
tlers here in early times, he wisely selected the latter alternative and 
returned and made his first crop here in 1834, where he continued to 
reside till his recent decease at his late residence some three miles south 
of town. 

Returning from this digression, Mr. Allen was joined in a few \yeeks 
by his brothei-in-law, the Rev. Amos Prentice, who, leaving the circuit 
he had ridden for some two or three years, now associated himself with 
Mr. A. in the dry goods business, carried on in a store built on the site 
of the present Odd Fellows and Masonic Hall, at the same time dis- 
charging the duties of a local preacher for the two years during which 
the partnership continued. The store thus occupied was built by Mr. 
Allen — who shortly afterwards appended a two-story dwelling house in 
which he continued to reside for a considerable time. 

We are now brought to 1834, when Wm. Caldwell and family arrived 
and occupied for a time a house on the northwest corner of the Square ; 
but soon after built and moved to that now owned by Mr. Sailor, where 
he died some years since. Wm. P. Burroughs, also the same year, moved 
from west of White Hall, and located on his farm some four miles north- 
west of town. At the same time likewise, Samuel B. Culp, now the 
Rev. S. B. Culp, pastor of the Hickory Grove Church, came here and 
opened a tailor's shop — he and the late Dr. M. A. Cooper occupying a 
room over Allen's store for their respective callings ; but greater induce- 
ments were held out to him to remove to Rivesville, which he did the 
next year, but whether his anticipations were realized or not, I am unable 
to say. Certain it is, however, he obtained some military promotion, as 


he officiated as major of the militia in this end of the county for some 
years after his removal to Rives ville. 

The people at and arouhd this point hitherto experienced no little 
inconvenience in not having any connection with the outside world by 
means of a stated mail. Such connection was a desideratum. How 
to secure it, was a question of no small moment to these isolated, mail- 
less new settlers. Their nearest post-office, at this time, was Carrollton, 
whither they were obliged to send weekly some one, in order to reach 
such mail matter as the post-office there might furnish them. To remedy 
this inconvenience it was suggested that a town be laid out and a post- 
office established here, if possible ; for, it should be borne in mind, that, 
at this time, nothing in the shape of a town had any existence here — the 
few settlements already made being those merely of people in the open 

The suggestion for a town and post-office, therefore, was no sooner 
made than acted upon and carried into practical operation by one of the 
most enterprising residents at this point, Geo. Washington Allen, Esq., 
who, during this year, 1835, laid out a plat of fifty-four lots, to be 
remodeled in 1836 and the number of lots increased to 208, when it was 
formally christened Greenfield by that early apostle of the Methodist 
faith here, the Rev. James B. Carrington, living then, as a local preacher, 
on a farm northeast of town, better known now as the Cole place. From 
this period, then, dates our separate existence as a town. 

The lots thus laid off, were offered for sale at low figures ; but, like 
many other paper towns that had a temporary existence at that day, there 
were few applicants, and still fewer purchasers who paid any thing but 
pledges, never to be redeemed. The consequence was, a very slow ad- 
vance of the future (to those then living here) city. Yet the great end 
of securing increased mail facilities was early realized. 

Through the persistent efforts of Mr. Allen in getting up numerously 
signed petitions to the Post Office Department at Washington, though 
vigorously opposed by other rival claimants, he succeeded in getting the 
first mail route through this point from Jacksonville to Alton, and a post 
office located here — himself being appointed the first incumbent, which 
he continued to be for seventeen years — and a Mr. Conley, or, as claimed 
by others, a Mr. Twitchell, the first mail carrier. 

Thus was our infant town brought into early and uninterrupted con- 
tact with the outlying world, to be operated upon by such influences, for 
good or evil, as such connection is wont to generate — an advantage, how- 
ever, far more highly appreciated, by our early friends than by us who are 
almost surfeited with both mail, railroad and telegraphic communication. 

Not long after the above route was established, another was laid out, 
thereby furnishing a cross mail from Carrollton to Carlin ville — " Uncle 
David Miller " doing the honors of the first mail carrier. 

The Winter of 1835-0, brought to our little hamlet some three or 
four, who have figured somewhat conspicuously in its subsequent history; 
for which reason, therefore, a brief notice of these, in this connection, 
may not be inappropriate. 

Benjamin King, Esq., then a young man, stands first on the list of 
those arriving here in the Fall of 1835, from " Old Kentuck." Fortun- 
ately for Esq. Allen, he came just in season to fill a vacancy in his store 


as clerk. Though not possessing a large share of what the Latin boys 
term suaviter in modo, he came well furnished with that sterling integrity 
which never fails to inspire confidence, and commands the respect of all 
customers. It is no marvel, then, that Mr. Allen retained him in his em- 
ploy till summoned to go the way of all mankind — a term of two years, 
when Mr. and Mrs, King retired to the farm they now occupy — he, to 
discharge the manifold duties, in church and state, which a confiding 
public imposed upon him ; and she, to meet the responsibilities appro- 
priate to her sex, with no disposition to press '' woman's rights " beyond 
that circle. 

Up to this period, though other points had enough and to spare, 
Greenfield and vicinity had no resident physician in their own right, and 
were under the necessity, therefore, when one was needed, of sending to 
CarroUton — Dr. Throcmorton, resident there, being their nearest. It was 
therefore, a matter of no little interest when, at this time, the late Dr. 
Martin A. Cooper, then a young unmarried man, arrived here from Ten- 
nessee and proposed to make this his future home, provided there should 
be sufficient encouragement given him to do so. This he promptly re- 
ceived ; and amongst other encouragements furnished, the people here 
generally took hold and aided him in erecting a small cabin, 12x14, on 
the site now occupied by Mr. E. Boulton's residence, to be succeeded by 
a more commodious structure two years after, now known as the " Pursley 
house," occupied at present by Mr. Joseph Dalby. 

The cabin completed, the doctor returns to Tennessee, but soon 
makes his appearance here with a bird for his cage. Installed now in his 
new home, with some one to preside over and superintend his domestic 
affairs, the doctor himself "swings around no mean circle," embracing 
as it did, Rockbridge, Witt's Mill, Hickory Grove, Athensville, Scott- 
ville, Barr's Store, Fayette and Rivesville. With such a territory to look 
after, the doctor seems to have been fully equal to the situation ; as for 
many years no competitor thought it worth while to disturb him in the 
quiet occupancy of his little principality ; and when at length Drs. Met- 
calf, Mayfield and Rice, each made an attempt in this direction, it was 
only to retire from the field successively and leave him an undisturbed 
occupant of it. Nor was it till the arrival of Drs. Ledbrook and Finch in 
1850 and 1852, that he divided, permanently, the medical practice Avith 
any one. 

With such opportunities most of his profession would have amassed 
a princely fortune ; but though regarded as well read in his profession, 
he was equally thought a miserable financier — doing a large amount of 
practice gratuitously, not to be charged, and a still larger amount to be 
charged and never collected. Kind in his disposition and sympathizing 
in feelings, he made many friends and but a single formidable enemy 
through his long career. 

Another notable personage, who, during a sojourn here of seventeen 
years failed not to leave his impress upon persons and. things, was Richard 
Marshall Booker, the A. T. Stewart of our little New York. Arriving 
here indirectly from Kentucky, with liis family in the Fall of 18o5, like 
most who can find nothing else to do, he played the pedagogue for three 
months, in the first house ever built here for that purpose, situated upon 
the rising ground between Vale