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Full text of "History of Greene County, Pa. : containing an outline of the state from 1682, until the formation of Washington County in 1781. History during 15 years of union. The Virginia and new state controversy--running of Mason's and Dixon's line--whiskey insurrection--history of churches, families, judges, senators, assembly-men, etc., etc."

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History of Greene County, PA 





/\0*7 ^7 ZOCZ 


MAI' 3. l"3J03 


DEMCO, INC. 38-2931 






Formation of Washington Co-anty in 1781. 

-o — :o: — o- 


The Virginia and New State Coxtroveksy — Ruxxing op 

Mason's and Dixon's Line — Whisk fy Ixsukrection, 

— History of Churches, Families, Judoes, 

Senatoks, Assejibly.aien, Etc., Etc. 




Entered according to Act of Congress, 
Bv Rev. Wm. IIanxa, 
Id the Copy-Riglit Office, Washingtor, D. C, 
On the J St day of December, 1882. 


IT was a cnislung blow to the nobles and ignoblos of the old 
world when an obscure man like Christopher Columbus T>'a3 
daily receiving the thanks of Monarchs and the continuous ap- 
plause from the masses. The envious were heard to say, "Oh, 
who could not do that ? Nothing easier in the world/* To si- • 
lence these gainsjiyings he ])roposed at the dinner jiarty that 
each guest should try to make an egg stand on its end on the 
marble table. When all had failed, he struck his ogg a sliglit ' 
blow on its larger end, crushing the shell slightly, and at onco 
it stood up. The sore-headed growlers at once said, "J low easy 
any one can do that," to which tlie great discoverer modestly , 
replied, "Yes, after I have showed you how." The historian 
often meets the same class of envious peo])le who are continu- 
ally saying, "what an easy thing to Avrite history ; any onc: 
<"an do that." So they can after some one has shown them how. 
And this is the great difficulty in Avriting a history of Greene 
County : no one has gone over the whole county before me to *i 
show me how. Another difficulty is' that I have presumed '' 
to bring the history down to the present day ; had I droj)pe(ll '; 
tlie tliread eighty years ago there would have been but few if 
any now living tliat ccjuld risv n\> and contradict me. But. 
there are hundreds of men and women of my own age who ■! 
have witnessed tlie scenes that I describe and who-se recollec- • 
tlon of the particulars will very likely dilTL-r from mine. Let 
the candid reader ask hitnself, how is it that eight or ten men, 
good citizens of Greene Countv, wili come into Court and uu- 



der oath give such different statements with refci-ence to a 
transaction that occurred within the last six months. lie (tlio 
reader) will then be prepared to make a great amount of allow- 
ance for thr different statements of persons who have witnei«ed 
the same transactions forty or fifty years ago. Some of these 
difficulties I do not pretend to solve, but give the different views 
of intelligent men and then leave the reader to form his owu 
opinion. In -wiiting this history I have imitated no model, ; 
purj)Osely intending that it shall differ in style and aiTange- 
ment from any other history that ever was written. Hoping 
all persons will extend to me that charity that hopeth all things 
I submit these pages, trusting that no wa-ong motive will be im- 
puted to me, although some of my statements may differ from, 
tbeir opinions. Wiixiaji Haxna. j 



kl^^ ^ t"''^ 4t1i of March, lesi, Charles TI. grnntea to Win. 
' ^1^^ Ponn a charter for tlie Province of Pennsylvania, the 
t^^^i^ King liaving i-egard to the meiuory of his (Penn's) 
^J^'^ father, who had served his Majesty in nuraerQus ways, 
csix-cially in tho lat<^ victory over the Dutcli fleet, commanded by 
Heer Von Oixlara in the year 1 G55. The English forces in the 
■ battle were command^l by James, Duke of York. In consid- 
eration of these services, King Charles II granted to William 
I'enn all that tract of land in North America, bounded on the 
Biist by the Delaware river, commencing at a point twelve 
miles northward from New Castle town unto the forty-third 
degree of north latitude if the river doth extend so far; but if 
the river does not ext.end so far northward, then by the river 
HO ftar as it docs extend, and thence by a meridian line to bo 
nrawn from the head of the river extending northward as far 
as the forty-thiixl degree. The said tr;xct of land to extend 
, westward five degrees of longitude to be computed from the 
i Delaware river, and the said land to be bounded on the nortli 
by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern 
j latitude, and on tlie south by a circle drawn at twelve miles- 
;. distant from New Castle northward and westward unto the be- 
j ginding of the fortieth degree of northern latitude and then by 
' a straight line westward to the limits of longitude mentioned 
Above. This Cliarter is in tlie office of the Secretary of the 
State of Pennsylvania until this day, and consequently is up- i 
■yrards of two hundred years old. It is written on parchment 


In Uie o)d English haTxi-writing ; cacli. line luidcrscoi-exl \rltb >^ 
Ted ink. The bcn.lers are cniblazeni^Hl with heraldic designs, ■ 
and on t/.)}.> is a poortrait of King Charles the Second. Enucr 
the provisions of this Charter "William Penn, by and witli the 
advice, assent and approbation of tlie freemen of the c<juntry 
■above described liad authority to make, ordain and enact laws. 
;. Accordingly on the 2oth of April, 1G82, ^Villiam Penn framed 
■a form of govei-nment for the I'rovinco of Pennsylvania. It 
consist-ed of a preface and twenty-four articles, contirming 
' :;nto the freemen thereof their liberties, franchises and j/roper- 
. ty. (Creigh History, page 28, William Markman was inniiedi- 
, utely dispatched as Penrrs deputy, Avho entered into negoti:i- 
tion with the Indians on the loth of July, 1C82, leaving their 
contracts open for the opproval or rejection of the projn-ietc" 
himself when he should arrive, which event took place on the 
2-ith*of October, 1682. The landing of Penn and a large num- 
ber of colonists at New Castle formed a kind of epoch in the 
history of those early times. Indeed the 24th of October, 1GS2 
ought to be celebrated on the 24:th of October, 1882 as a kind 
of "Red Letter Day." The consequences were so important td 
all parties. Had his rapacity and love of gold been equal tti 
that of a Cortes or Pizarro, how different doubtless would 
have been the results of his landing. Indeed it requires all the 
= ingenious laudations of the descendents of some of those prima- 
' live settlers of some of these northern colonies to preserve the 
names of their ancestors from justly merited odium. Not so 
with AA^illitmi Penn. His career needs no sophisticated apolo- 
• o-ist ; his conduct was endorsed by the savages tliemselves ; the 
■ very kind of hat he wore became in after times a pastport of 
safety t-o all who conscientiously wore it, as the following and 
, numerous other instances will abundantly illustrate : Soon aftei , 
I Christopher Gist had built his log cabin at the foot of Laurel 
Ilill on the location long known as Mount Braddock, Jacob' 

ik:Tw<.'D;.v.iio\'. 7 

^Bccson built liis caLin at tho cdiro of r.i; oxtor.slvo plumb thicket- 
that tlioii covcrod llic ontiie silf* of 'Aw I'rcsent I'niontowri.' 
One night tlic iuiiiatesoi" thishunibio '-hoiiic li: the woods" wer<?-. 
awakeucHl by the animntod disc-ussioji Lroin'^- on "itt.-ide with, 
reference to the proprictv of at ;rmi'.i!:i'iii!4" those })nmitvc 
;|^ clwellcrs. While the family listoncd -a i'h tl.iobbiiia; hearts 
' to the half Indian, half English discussion, they could distinct- 
ly hear the expression "na na na : Brua<l Ibim/' The argument 
was ('onclusis^e ; the savages withdrew without doing the least 
harm, for Mr. J^eeson did conscicnciously wear the "Broad 
Hrim. ' and no Indian could be four.d so low-fallen as to do vi- 
olence to a family protected by this well recognised "talisman."' 
No wonder then that all jtarties rejoiced on th.e arrival of tho 
man whose good name had gone lu'iore hiio. and v/ho after long 
years of contact and trial was found to be in all respects Avorthy 
of it. His attention was innnediately called t-o the condition- 
al contract made by his deputy on tho l.'th of July, 1682. 
This contract Penn continued v/itii the Sachems and their 
tribes under tlic "Elm Tree" at Shackamaxon," now Kensing- 
ton. This treaty was the first nnide l)y Penn with the Indians 
and was for the purchase of the lands lying between the falls 
of the Delaware and the Neshamiug Ci'cek ; the deed was 
dated October 21, 1G82. The next purchase was made on the 
23d of June, 1083, and was for a tract of land between Xesh- 
aniing Creek andPenncpack, and was to exti'ud as far back into 
the country as a man could travi'l in two days on horseback. 
Two days afterwards, June 25, KiHo. Penn ])urchased from tho 
Chief Wiuebone, what is styled his (Wiuehone) "release," for 
lands on the west side of Schuylkill. l)egimiing at the falls and 
extending back on the same as far as his right is uiubsputed. 
On tlie 14th of July of the same year, another deed was mado 
to Pemi by the Chiefs conveying tlie lands l)etwcen Selmylkill 
river and Ch.cstcr creek. On the da'-' another deed V\'rii 


tmade conveying the lands between Schuylkill and Penn- 
iepack. On the 10th of September, 1G83 "Kake Tap^ 
jpan"' makes a deed for his half of <ill his lands between Susque- 
I hanna and Delaware rivt?i-s on the Susquehanna side. October 
/1 8. 1683, the Cliief Machaloha, executes a deed for lands be- 
tween the Delavv'are river and Cliesepeak bay, as far up as the 
^ falls of the Susquehanna. June 3, 1684, Manyhenghsin sign;v 
; a release for lii.-, ]and on Peckioming. June 7, 1684, Mettam 
'micont releases his lanus on l.'Oth sides of Pennepach on Dela- 
Avare rivei". Jidy 80, 1685, the Ciiiefs execute a deed for land:; 
between Pennepuck on Chester Creek as far back as a mancai. 
•go in two days from a point on Conshocken hill. October 2c\ 
■1685, Penn received his eleventh deed for lands between Duck 
'■ and Chester creeks as far back as a man could ride in two days 
' with a hoi-se. On tlie loth of June, 1692, the Indians acknov". 
edge full satisfaction for lands between Neshaming and P<>- 
quessing creeks as far back as the boundaries of the Pi'ovincc . 
June 13, 1696, the Chief, Dongan, made Penn a deed for lands 
on both sides of tlie Susquehanna from the lakes to the Chese- 
peak bay. January o, 1697, Penn was put in possession of ai- 
other deed made by Taming, for the land between Pennepacl: 
! and Neshaming, as far back as a horse can travel in two sun> 
nier days. September 13, 1700, a deed was made by the Su?- 
quehanna Indians for the lands on both sides of the Susquehan- 
bi a river, comprising Dongan's deed of January 13, 1696. It 
. would seem from the record that this Dongan was an enter- 
. prising fellow and was, like many white men, ready te 
' 'Teeon without his host," and consequently seems to have sold 
as his own ])roperty, lands in which he only had a small inter- 
, est ; and here wc see the generosity of Penn — instead of insist- 
/ ing on his precious purchase, he seems to have bought this 
same land at lea;:t twice, perhaps three times, for on the 23d 
'.,S«f April, 1701, tlierc seems to have been a general gathering of 



tlie Indians, when after various speeches and payments of ad- , 
'jltional sums, the Cliiefs of the Shawnees, Fotomacks and ■ 
Conestoges all ratify the transaction and relinquish all claim to j 
the lands in dispute. These dissentions seem to have rendere^i 
the proprietors more slow in jjurchasmg Indian claims, hence 
ivo further ]>urchase Avas made for upwards of seventeen years, 
when on the 13th of September, 1718, a deed of release is made 
by the Delaware Indians' for the lands between the ])elaware 
and Susquehanna from Duck creek to the Lehigh hills. A 
controversy arose at th;s time about the distan^.-e that a man ci; 
horseback onaht to travel in oiic day, which hs will be seer, 
above was the way in winch sevt-ral of the previous bounda- 
ries were to be decided. The presumption is that the horse had 
traveled much further than the Indians expected. These dis- 
l>utes were satisfacforily adjusted by a deed executed on the 
■Mth of Decembei, IT^U. I\Jay SI, I720, the Indiant- execute u 
deed for lauds on both sides of Bi-andywine creek. September 
7, '.732. the proprietors are put in possession of their twentieth 
deed lor lands betw^'en Tehigh hilis and Kittatinny mountains, 
I'etween Schuylkill and its branches and the brancties of the 
Doiawwi. October '% '7:1*5. a deed was made by the Indians 
f-.'! fiie Susquehanna rivcx and the lands cm both sides thereof 
..'astsv:ii-d to tne head of the liranche;--, and westwara to thf. 
: -ctttintj sun, and from its mouth to tne Kittatiunv hills. On 
i the 2ot]i of .October loilowing the Indians in Council admitted 
that the cieed ot the llth was intended to mcluue the lands on 
the Delaware, and westward tc ihe Kittatinnv hills. Auirust 
28, 1737 the purchase known as the '"vvalKing purcnase" took 
place, which extf-nded from the westerly branch of the JSesti- 
aming up tht; Delaware as tar as a m.iii coula walk in a day i, 
and a half. August 22, 1749, the twenty- fourth Inuian deed '} 
was made for lan<ls trom the Kitiatinny mountains to Mahanoy 
mountain and between Susquehanna and Delaware rivers ou 

10 iiiSTor.Y OF Gi:!:i:xic countv. 

the nortli side of Lackawaxen creek. 'Tuly 6, 1754, a deed was 
made at Albany for the hinds on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna from Kittatinny mountains to a mile above Penn's ci'eek, 
thence northwest as far as the Province extends to its western 
boundaries. October 23, 1758, deed for lands from Penn's 
creek northwest a:id by west to Buffalo creek, thence west to 
Allegheny mountains and along the east side thereof to the 
western boundary of the Province. November 5, 17C8, at a 
great treaty held at Fort Stanwix on the present site of Home 
in the State of New York, a deed was made by the Iroquoise 
Indians for the lands west of the Monongahela river, commonly 
called the new ])urcha:^e. Under this puix-hase the Penn's 
oj)cncd their land otncc in Philadelphia on the 3d of A|)ril. 17G0 
for the sale of lands in the new })urchase. During the first 
montli numerous a])i)lications were made for patents for land 
by parties who were already on the ground, having begun to 
make their tomahawk marks as early as 1760, while as yet the 
Indian title to this domain had not been extinguished. This 
last menlioncd purchase at Fort Stanwix, it will readily be seen, 
Avas the tdl-important one for Greene County. On the 21st of 
Januaiy, 1785, a deed was made for all the Indian lands in the 
bounds of this Commonwealth, including those purchased at 
Fort Mcintosh on the 23d of October, 1784. 

After following up the puTchases until we arrive at the time 
when our own county was purchased from the Indians, we find 
ourselves under the necessity of going back in order to ascer- 
tain what were the other personal transactions of the worthy 
old Quaker who so conscientiously purchased, at different times, 
so much of the teriitory for which he already held the title 
from the King of Great Briton. One of his first acts towards 
white men was to assemble all the freemen of this province at 
Chester, as well as those of the three teritorries, as they were 
then called, of New Castle, Kent and Sussex. At thismeetinrf 



-an act of ITnion was passed, aniiexinc;- the tlirce torritones to 
the Province of Pennsylvania for Ici^-islative pnrposes. William 
Penn. h}- and with the advice and consent of this first assenv ' 
bly cl the freemen, divided the Province of Pennsylvania into- 
three connties, viz : Plnladf.lphia, l>ucks and Chester. For each 
of the connties and tonitories, Sheriffs and other necessary 
officers were appohited hy the proprietor, hut the Council and 
Assemblymen were elected by the people. On jNIarch 10. 1683, 
ilie Council and Assembly met in Pliiladelphia, ca -h county 
liavinu retuiMicd three membei-s for'the Council and nine for the 
Asseml)ly. William Penn returned to Eni^land in 1G84, after 
■u>ponn!n<4 a T^resident to administer his affairs in his absence. 
i )issiitisfaction arismg-, the three counties that had been annexed 
tcilne T*rovince, withdrew, and in IfJOl elected a leti'islaturo 
:■! their <!wn and Mere henceforth known as Delaware. 
^\'iIllam Markman was now apjiomted Deputy Governor 
linh'i \\'i!liani I'cnii. In Auuust, P.-.99, William Penn returned 
',-■ lh(> Province and reassunied the reins of o-overnmont, to the 
■j:vq:\{ ioy of the people who seem always to have had more con- 
li^'^'.i:-'^ in him ihan any one he could place over them. On the- 
■^Sfh of •ctobi.M. 1701. he ])resented the Council and Assembly 
with a new charter of ])rivileges, and havinu- appointed Andrew 
liamihoii as laeutenant Governor, he again departed for Eng- 
iand. This cliaiter continued the supreme law of the land until 
! lie Declaration of Independence was ^promulgated on the 4th 
.Inly. 1770. A convention then assembled on the 8th of July 
'.■»r the ])urpose of forming a constitution for the State. 

Pennsylvania has been very justly called the Keystone State 
in consequence of having about an equal number of the origin- 
al colonies on each side of it. On the southwest, Georgia, 
South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and Dela- 
ware ; on the north east. New York, Connecticut, Phodo Island, 
Massachusetts. New Ilam))shire and ?ilaine. As this State io 


situated in the center of the original arch, with Kew Jersey at 
its eastern end to keep it from falling out, it deserves special \ 
notice in its different forms of government, as follows: 1681, 
William Fenn, Proprietor; 1684, Thomas Loyd, President of 
Governor's Council ; 1688, Captain John Blackwell, Lieutenant 
Governor; 1690, Thomas Loyd, Deputy and Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor", 1693, Benjamin Fletcher, Captain General and Lieuten- 
a'.it ; 1698, William Markman, Lieutenant Governor; 1700, 
William Penn again dieting as Governor; 1701, Andrew Hara- 
iiton, Deputy Governor ; 1703, Edward Shiphen, President of 
Couucil; 1704, John Evans, Deputy Governor ; 1709, Charles 
^Jookiii. De])uty Governor; 1717, Sir William Keith, Deputy 
(ioveniur, 1726, Patrick Gordan, Deputy Governor; 1738. 
George Thomas, Lieutenant Governor; 1747, Anthony Pal- 
mer, l-*residenL of (.,^ouncil ; 1748, James Hamilton, Lieut.Gov.i 
17.')4, i»ubert Morris, Lieutenant Governor; 1756, William 
DGiiny, Lieutenant Governor; 1759, James Hamilton, Lieu- 
it-nant Governor ; 1763, John Penn, Deputy Governor; 1771, 
I'irliiird Penn. Governor ; 1773, John Penn, Governor; 1775, 
iJeiijamin Fi'anklin. Presulent of Council; 1776, Thomas Whar- 
ton, l^x-sidcnl of Council; 1777, Joseph Peed, President of 
(.'ouncil ; 1781. William Moor, President of Council; 1782_ 
.Tohn Dickson, President of Council; 1785, Benjamin Franklim 
President of Council; 1788, Thomas Mifflin, President of Coun- 
cil. Under tlie new constitution of 1790, Thomas Mifflin was 
ciecred first Governor , over Arthur St. Clair by a majority of 
•24,522 votes. In 1793, Thomas Mifflin Avas again elected Gov- 
ernor over F. A. Muhlcnburg by a majority of 8,890; in 1796, 
Thomas Mifflin w;\s elected a third time, defeating F. A. Muhl- 
enburg, this time by a majority of 20,018 votes. In 1799 I 
Thomas McKean was elected Governor over James Ross by a 
majority of 14,601 votes. In 1802, Thomas McKean was again ; 
elected by a majority of 30,748. Thomas McKean was elected 



a third time in 1805 by a majority of 4,766. In 1808, Simon 
Snyder was elected Governor by a majority of 24,386. Simon 
Snyder was again elected Governor in 1811 by a majority of 
47,035. In 1814, Simon Snyder was elected Governor a third 
term by a majority of 20,605. William Findley was elected 
Governor in 1817 by a majority of 7,048. In 1820 Joseph 
Iliester was elected Governor by a majority of 1,584. Andrew 
Sliultz was elected in 1823 by a majority of 25,709, and re-elec- 
ted in 1826 by a majority of 70,361. In 1829, George Wolf 
was elected Governor by a majority of 16,433, and re-elected 
in 1832 by the small majority of 3,170. I remember this elee. 
tion very distinctly. The parties were dividc<l into "Masons" 
and ''Anti-Masons." Mr. Wolf was accused of being a ^lason^ 
consequently his diminished majority. In 1835, Jose[)h Kitncr 
was elected as the Anti-Mason candidate : the whole number of 
votes polled was 200,413. Of these, George Wolf received 
65,804, Joseph Kitner, 94,023, and Henry A. Muhlenburg, 
40,586, making Ritnor Governor, agreeable to the provisions of 
the constitution, although he lacked 12,377 votes of having a 
majority of the Avhole vote. In 1838, David R. Porter was 
elected over Joseph Ritner by the small majority of 5,496. Al- 
though there were but the two candidates in the field, the con- 
test was a fair one, and the unprecedentedly large vote of 250,- 
146 was in consequence of the intense excitement of the cam- 
, paign. In 1841 a new party began to make its a])pearance, 
called the Liberty party. Dr. Le Moyne, of Washington, Pa., 
I was a candidate this year on this ticket for Governor, and re- 
\ ceived 763 votes ; John Banks was also a candidate and received 
! 113,473; David R. Porter received 136,504 votes, making him 
l«Governor by a majority of 22,245. In 1844 Francis R. Shunk 
was elected by a majority of 1,716, Dr. Le Moyne receivingthis 
year 2,566 votes. In 1847 Francis R. Shunk was re-elected by 
ia majority of 4,819. In 1848 William F. Johnston was elected 


■by the small majority of 225. In 1851 William Bigler was 
elected by G,539 majority. James Pollock was elected in 1854 
^ by a majority of 34,604. William F. Packer was elected in 
1 1857 by 14,527 of a majority. In 1860 Andrew J. Curtain was 
placed in tlie Governor's chair by a majority of 32,110, and re- 
elected in 1863 by a majority of 15,333. John W. Geary wa;? 
elected in 1866 by a majority of 17,178. He was re-elected 
over Asa Packer in 1869 by the small majority of 4,596, (for the 
size of a majority must be reconed by the number of votes polled.) 
On this occasion the number was 576,508, whereas for the firsl 
Governor, Thomas MifHin, in 1790, there were but 30,528 votes 
all told. An idea can from this be formed of the rajjid p-owtli 
of the State in ninety-nine years, Having now prepared the 
minds of our readers by this outline liistory of the State, I 
invite their attention to our existance during fifteen ycai-s as the 
eastern part of Washington county, our interests being identi- 
cal Avith theirs. The preamble to the Act of the 2Sth of 3Iarch 
is in these words: 

"Whereas, The inhabitants of that part of Westmorland 
comity which lies west of the Monongehela river, have rejire- 
sented to the Assembly of this state the great hardships they 
lie under from being so far remote from the present seat of judi- 
cature and the public offices ; " To remedy these inconveni- 
encies, they therefore passed tlie Act of Separation, which is 
in eighteen Sections, the preamble being numbered the first. 
Section second gives the boundaries of the county. Section 
third gives the same rights and i)rivileges to the inhabitants as 
enjoined by other counties of the State. Section four author- 
I izes the Trustees to take assurance of ground whereon to erect 
a Court liouse and prison, and divide the county into to\vn.ships 
before July 1, 1781. Section five empowers the inhabitants to 
.elect Inspectors, two Ilepresentatives for the Assembly, one 
\Oiember of the Suprsrie Executive Council, two persons for 

I1ISTC>HV OK Cr.Kl'.M-: COlNTV. 15 

Sheriff, two for Coroner and tliroe for Coiiiinissioiicrs. The 
election w:u^ ordered to be lield ;it tlie liouse of David Ilogo 
ut tlie place called ''Cattish Cainji.'' Swtion six declares th:ir 
Justices of the Supreme Court shall have likei)o\ver and author- 
ity in Washington County. Section seven and eight, provides 
for the election of Justices of the Peace, to he ht'ld on the I'jxh 
of July, 17S1, for the various townships (after Judges and In- 
spector have been elected). Section nine pi'ovides for Justice.^' 
uf the Peace to liold Courts of (rcneral (Quarter Sessions and 
('•ioal Delivery. Section ten ])rovides that James Elugnr, Ilug'.-. 
Scott, Van Swearingcn, Daniel Lect and John Armstrong, shall 
I>e appointed Commissioners to pnrchase ground for a Court 
house, as provided in Section four. Sections eleven and twelve 
1-rovides for the mode of defraying the exi)enses of the jiublic 
i)uildings. Section thirteen provides for the continuance of 
huits commenced in the original county. Sections fourteen., 
rifteen and sixteen, provide for the appointment of a collector 
<^f the excise, his powers and fees. Section seventeen directs 
ihe Sheriff and Coroner of Westmorland county to officiate un- 
til these officers could be chosen in the new county. Section 
eighteen directed the amount of the security to be given by 
llie Sheriff' and Treasurer. Under the provisions of this Act, 
Greene as part of Washington Co. Avas governed up to the 9th of 
Feb. 1796, when an Act was passed dividing the territory into 
two parts, leaving the townshijis of ]V[organ, Cumberland, Frank- ■ 
lin, Greene and IvichhilK to constitute the new county of Greeno. 
Of these five townships, Morgan and Cumberland were organized 
en the loth of July, 25, 1781. Greene was organized on the ' 
6d of April, 1782. Franklin Avas organized on the 10th of 
July 1787, and Kichhill was organized ."Man-h 18, 179;l These 
iOriginal townships have been sub-divided into Jefferson, Morris, 
jAleppo, Dunkard, Monongahela, Springhill, Jackson, Gilmorc, 
i^entr(?, Marion, Washington, AVayne, Whiteley, Perry. 

16 msTonv of greene couxty. « 

Before we leave that part of our history that is identical Avith 
, Washington county, it is but proi>er that we notice the state of 
'; public sentiment in this region of country about the time the ' 
mother county was formed. It must always be born in mind 

' that this section of country west of the Monono-ahela was set- 


j tied largely by persons favorable to Vii-ginia rule ; that colony 

I claimed the territory as her rightful domain, and the majority no 
doubt thought the claim was just. They therefore brought 

: their slaves vrith them as part of their pi'operty, feeling confi- 
dent that they Avould be pennitted to hold them in perpetuity. 

• Their indignation was unbounded when in 1780 the legislature 
of Pennsylvania passed an Act for the gradual abolition of 
slavery. The first ebullition of contempt that manifested itself 
was the preparation of those that were footlose to irmnediately 
depart for Kentucky, which was now in its turn the new "El- 
dorado of the West." This interference with what they pleased 
to call their "domestic rights,"' was immediately visited upon 
the devoted heads of the Quakers in the old counties of Phila- 
delphia, Bucks, Chester, &c., until the curses were loud, long 
and bitter. Discontent and alarm also, existed almost every- 
where with reference to the final result of the revolutionary war. 
Cornwallis was not as yet overthrown. A Quaker govei"nment 
was much better adajited to a condition of peace than one of 
war. All that had ever been done for these backwoods settlers 
(they said) had been done by Virginia. But now since they 
find themselves no longer in that State, they are ready to show 
their dislike in every possible way. "Old England," they say» 
'•did once protect this western section from the Indians and 
French both, and is willing to do so again, but now the Indi- 
ans murder our families with impunity, and our State authorities 
do nothing for our preservation.'' "Huzza for King George,"* 

was the disloyal expression that often fell from the lips of those 

i ( 

who thought themselves deeply wronged. This is not a pleas- . 


ant theme on Avhich to dwell, and yet a sense of duty should 
prompt the historian to write the truth whether H be pleasan:, 
or otherwise. I therefore make a few quotations, to prove that 
I am not slandering our ancestors. On the 7th of December, 
17S*0, General Broadliead who commanded the U. S. troops at 
Pittsburg, writes: "I learn more and more of the dir.affection 
of the inhabitants on this side of the mountains. The King of 
Britain's health is often drank in company." He gave it as the 
opinion of many of his Virginia officers well acquainted in this 
part of the country, among them Col. John G'bson, "that should 
the eneray approach this frontier and offer protection, half the 
inhabitants would join them ! Gen^^l Irvir.c writes from Fort 
Pitt in November .1781, saying, "I am comidtnt that if this post- 
was evacuated the bounds of Canada woidd be extended to the 
Laurel Hill in a few weeks." Still further on this unpleasant 
Fubject is a letter from General Washington himself, dated 
April 25, 1781, in which he says : "I have received the follow- 
ing intelligence : Col. Connolly (who it will be remembered 
made his escape to Canada) with his corps is to proceed to 
Quebec as soon as possible, to be joined in Canada by Sir 
John Johnson with a number of Tories and Indians, said to 
amount to three thousand. Their route is to be by Brick Is- 
land, Lake Ontario and Venango. His object is Foil Pitt and 
all the adjacent ports. Connolly takes with him a number of 
commissions to persons now residing at Pittsburg ; and several 
hundred men at that place have agreed to make prisonei-s of 
Col. Broadhead and all friends of America." As I have already 
intimated that the movement to abolish slavery was one of tho 
causes of complaint on the part of those who tliought they were 
settling on Virginia soil, but who afterwards found themselves 
in Pennsylvania, I deem it proper at this point to give tho 
reader a little insight into this subject which has in the Last 
score of years assumed such immense jiroportions. ::i order that' 



he may draw his own conclusions and intelligently contrast the 
^present Avith the past. I find my authority for these statements ' 
in Creigh's History, Page 362. April 30, 1781, thg; estate of 
I Alexander McCandless sold a negro girl for sixty pounds- 
May 16, 1781, Jacob Johnson bequeathes to his wife Mary a 
negro woman slave named ''Sukef to his daughter Elizabeth 
^ Pierce, a n-L'gro girl named '"Zelph," and her futui-e increase to 
his daughter Eleanor Decker ; the first child, male or female, of 
Suke, to his daughter Esther Johnson, at the death of her moth- 
er, the above named Suke. Should the said Suke have no 
■children, one hundred pounds in the hands of John IJuchanan 
is to be divided equally between his daughters ; but if children 
are born to the slave Suke, the money is to be divided equally 
among his five children. On the 3d of June, l79o. Reason 
Pumphrey sells his slaves at the following prices : Lot, aged 
18 years, for seventy j)ounds. Ben, aged 14 j-ears, for one 
hundred pounds. Dinah, aged 10 years, for seventy-five pounds. 
March 20, 1795, John Moor manumitted two sla\es. Abraham 
^nd Jonas. In the Beporter of March 8, 1813. is the following 
advertisement : For sale a negro boy A\hc has thuteen years 
to sen-e ; he is stout and healthy. Apply at the office of the 
Reporter. On the 29th of December. 1823, the first meeting of 
citizens of Washington County was held to form a society for 
"the abolition of slavery. October 2, 1835, the citizens of this 
I county met to express their disapprobation of the cause of the 
abolitionists. This meeting was presided over by Hon. Thos. 
H. Baird. Rev. Thomas Hoge, R. H. Lee, Alexander Reed, W, 
iv. McDonald and Dr. John Wishart, were appointed a com- 
taittee to report resolutions, one of which was, that any com- 
^ bination of citizens of one State organized for the purpose of 
, disturbing the civil institutions of another State, is a violation 
•of the spirit of the Union and of the enactments of the Federal 
.Constitution and must tend to dissolve the L^nion. This with 



Other resolutions of the same spirit was unanimously adopted. 
But it is difficult to get the descendents of the men and women 
who lived in "the times that tried men's souls" to understand 
the numerous difficulties by which their ancestors were sur- 
rounded. Two parties, known at that time as the Virginia and 
Pennsylvania parties were uncompromisingly hostile. The 
headquarters of the Virginia party was alternately at the 
Court House of Youghiogheny Co. near West Elizabeth, and 
Hi Fort Dumore (Pittsburg). The headquarters of the I'enn- 
■sylvania party Avas at Hannatown,* about three miles north of 
•Greensburg, Westmoreland county. Here the first Court foi 
the counties west of the mountains was held. In the jail here 
■Connolly himself was incarcerated until released on bail for h;>; 
appearance at Court. When the day of trial arrived Connolly 
put in his appearance (backed*by a numerous band of Tory m:- 
iitia), defied the Court, and finally ejected them from the 
house and locked the door before their faces. As a reprisal the 
Pennsylvania party from Hannatown swooped down on Fort 
Dunmore, broke the jail and rescued the Justices and tax col- 
lectors there imprisoned, when in turn the Virginia party led on 
'•by Simon Girty, with a band of Tories and Indians, came sud- 
denly upon Hannatown, while nearly all the men were ab- 
sent in the harvest fields, and soon the Court house, jail and all 
the dwellings were in flames. This was in July, 1782. By 
.this time our readers will be willing to admit that the wound 
was incurable and that the original parties to the quarrel could 
never become reconciled unless by some compromise measure. 
This compromise came in the way of a proposition to form a 
"New State," to be called "Vandalia." Exactly what bounda- 
ries were demanded for this new Connnonwealth has never been 
revealed. It was evidently a pet theory of. the Virginia parti- 
sans by means of which they could at least play the "dog in 

* KobertHanna was a lineal ancpRtor of mine, the founder of llannatown. 


the manger." If ive cannot have the territory in dispute, Penn- 
' sylvania shall not have it. But the New State project liad 
Other advocates beside the Virginia partisans. Some good hon- 
est Pennsylvanians saw in it an end to their troubles, for tlte 
' Virginia element was far in the majority. So much so that if 
a man wanted to have his "election made sure" in the bound:s 
of Washington, and what afterwards become Greene, county, 
his safest plan Avas to declare himself either in favor of Vii-- 
ginia or Xew State rule. Among the aspirants who were will- 
ing to climb either of these political ladders, none were more 
prominent than John Cannon and Dorsey Pentecost, men whcin 
tlie people of this territory in a special manner delighted to 
honor. Hence Judge Veech, himself a son of Greene county, 
>::iys v.-ith reference to the Xew State project : "In 17S2 tl-.e 
most active if not the most open promoters of the scheme were 
<.'olonels Cannon and Pentecost,* each of whom had taken the 
iron-clad oath, the former as Assemblyman, the latter as Goun- 
cllor." "Pentecost attempted a noisy disclaimer of this, but 
1 hereby afforded only more convincing proof of its verity." In 
order to establish this contradicted assertion, "Hugh Henry 
Jirackenridge testified on oath that he heard Pentecost on his 
return from the Council in July, 1782 say that the line never 
\vould be run, and that this country never would be Pennsyl- 
vania nor Virginia, but a Xew State." [See Pennsylvania Ar- 
chives, IX, 572.] 

Previous to 1872, this Xew State project had been looked upon 
as mere effervescence of maddened and disappointed Virginia 
partisans, and it was hoped that the whole matter would expire 
by its own convulsions. At this stage of affairs, however, 
the disease assumed a new form. Virginia now offers to 
cede to the United States the Northwest Territory, on the 
condition that all her claimed territory east of the Ohio, 
sliould be granted to her. This, as will be seen, was a virtual 

niSTor.Y OF county. 2l 

reopening of the boundary controversy, tliat it was hoped had 
been settled by the Conference at Baltimore. Congress very 
wisely refused to make the guarantee demanded, and left 
Virginia to establish her claims as best she could. As the 
Northwest Territory has noc been accepted on Ih.e terms (mi 
which it was offered, it is now proposed that a large portion 
of this Northwest Territory shall be taken into the New 
Stnte, and that instead of making the Allegheny ?>Iountaiiis 
the eastern boundary with Pittsburgii for its capital, that tl;t' 
Mor.ongahcla river shall be the eastern line, and that its capital 
shall be a new city to be erected somcAvhere on th.c Tuscarawi^ 
branch of the Muskingi;m river, perhaps on the site of thi' 
."Moravian town^5 that had been recently depopulated by tlie 
disgraccfid slaughter of the peaceful Indians in the Wil- 
Jiamson expedition. In April, 1782, General Irvine wroie 
lo Governor Harrison, of Virginia, and also to the Suj)ren.o 
Executive Council, in 3Iay, saying, "An expedition niucli 
talked of, is to emigrate and set up a new State. A day 
is appointed to meet for the purpose. A certain Mr. John- 
son, who has been in England since the commencement 
• if the present war, is at the head of the emigrating party, 
and has a form of Constitution ready for the new gov- 
ernment. I am well informed that he is now in the 
East trying to procure artillery and stores. Sojue think 
he is too trifling a being to be worthy of notice. l>e tliis 
:is it may ; he has many followers. ^\nd it is highly jirob- 
able that men of more influence than he are ])rivately at woi'k. 
Shoidd they be so mad as to attempt it, I tliink tliey will 
cither be cut to ])ieces or Ix; comjielled to take protectit ii 
from and join the British. Perhaps some have this in 
view, thofigh the majority, I tliink, are well meaning people, 
who have at present no other views than to acquire large 
tracts of land." [See Craig's Olden Times, II., 3:^7.] 



As all manias, no matter how wild and extravagant, have 
some extenuating thing that can be said in their favor, so had' 
this. Previous to the adoption of tlie Federal Constitution in. 
1788, there was no positive prohibition by statute or otherwise, 
to prevent the erection of a new State anyv»-here on the public 
domain, provided it did not ar.sail the integrity of the chartered 
limits of an already recognized State. Hence this project 
(•ould not have been regarded as objectionable if confined en- 
tirely to the Territories that were not Avithin their chartered 
lunits. But it Avas the unconquerable determination that this 
Xew State must have all the land between the Monongahcia and 
(.)hio rivers attached to it, that made the thing so exceedingly 
heinous. Although this territory Avhich is now so valuable .-is 
the counties of Washington and Greene, it could not at that 
early day be regarded in that light, and hence the animus of 
the conspirators became so self-evident, that it only failed to 
be discovered by those who are "blind because they won't see." 
.Opportunely, a Court of Congress under one of the Articles of 
(.Confederation, Avhich was sitting at Trenton, had unanimously 
decided against Connecticut in her dispute Avith Pennsylvania 
— in Avhich the Yankees had gone so far as to set up and people 
a town called "Westmoreland," on the east branch of the Sus- 
quehanna.) The plea of Connecticut Avas that she had na 
western boundary described in her charter, and consequently' 
she claimed all due-Avest of her to the Pacific Ocean, and as 
part of Pennsylvania lay Avest of her, of course it belonged to 
her, as her charter Avas antecedent to that of Pennsylvania. 
This Court maintained the integrity of Penn's Charter, and iu 
order to conciliate Connecticut in vieAV of her supposed losses, 
they granted her that portion of the Northwest Territory lying 
north of the forty-first degree north latitude, extending about 
one hundred and tAventy miles west from the Pennsylvania line,, 
usually called the "Western Reserve," which has since been. 

"^ iiiSTOKY OF r,r.i:i:NK colnty. ' 23 

divided into the counties of Trumbull, Ashtabula and Portage. 
As it was known that tlicre were other Colonies that had no 
well defined western boundary, and in view of the fact that' 
this might eventually give trouble and perplexity, this Couri»! 
for the purpose of crushing out all schemes foi' dismembermenl; 
or intrusion, present or future, an Act was passed on the 2d '.'f 
December, 1782, declaring that any attempt to set up a new 
State in whole or in part on her (Penns^-lvanias) territory shouli? 
be '■^reason,'' and punishable accordingly. The Pennsylvania 
authorities anxious to avoid difficulty sent oxit IIcv. James Fin- 
ley (the ancestor of the family of that name, still in Fayctle 
county) into Fayette, Washington, and what afterwards becan-.o 
Greene counties. He arrived in Llarch, 1783 armed with a 
hundred copies of the Act of Deccnd)er, 17S2. In his report 
he says, "I was six weeks in the disafl'ectcd country, that por- 
tion east of the Yougli in th.e Fayette part; being mostly 0]>- 
posed to the New SLate, I ])r.ssed them by. A considerable 
number of those, between said river and the ilonong-iiiela, ns 
well as a greater part of Washington county, I found to b«: 
favorable to it, being misled by a few aspiring, and I suspect, 
ill-designing men, or by men vrho had not thcronghly consid- 
ered the whole matter, which latter was the case with some of 
:he clergy." Mr. Finley's mode of operating wiis to caution 
the people after sermons ; talk to the ministers aiid other gen- 
tlemen, and write argument! vely, an;l i)ursuasively to other>', 
but never disclosing his agency. "The New State men alleged I 
was too officious. Tiie law intimidated and discouraged tho 
populace. Even the ringleaders were for eating their own 
words." He hoped he had done some good, "yet the jjcoplc 
seemed rather hushed than convinced." He feared that being 
disappointed as to a New State, they would try to avoid the 
payment of taxes, ludess in tlour to be run by n State Agent to 
Orleans. "For." says he. "those setthnnents are nUnost desti- 

24 insTonY of G::i:rxK county. 


' tute of cash."* "Tliis suggestion,' says Judge Veech, "was 
adv^ising the same measure of relief wliich Robert Morris had 
proposed h\ 1782, but whicli Pentecost, (a strong Virginia par- 
tizan and a Kew State man) had o})enly resisted." 

I have thus far dragged out the weary length of this boundary 
controveroy andXew State agitation in order to show the inhab- 
itants of Greene county liow near they came at one time to 
being located as denizens of Virginia. And at another tiinc. 
how great were the probabilities that the smiling fields and 
sunny vales they now fondly call their own, were destined to 
become component parts of some undefined, ill-begotten State, 
to be designated by the name of either "Walpole," or "Van- 
dalia," with its ca})ital on the Muskii:gum, in Ohio. 

The ten years that immediately followed the dying out of 
the New State mania, were years of comparative quiet and good 
order iu all parts of Peimsylvania, both east and west, a de- 
cided Improve on the decade that immediately preceded thcii . 
Many of the late disturbers of the i quiet and good order n; 
these western counties, gradually went ofT to other localities, gi\- 
ing place to a better class, who came principally from the interior 
counties of the State, soiiic from the "Jersies," from Scoilaiul. 
and still others from the Emerald Isle. Even Pentecost, who had 
been appointed in 1783, President Judge of the Courts of Wash- 
ington county, after two or three years of brooding over his faliei; 
schemes, as well as the departure of his magnificent "estate, rt-- 
lired in disgust to a neighboring State, without the courtesy to 
his late colleagues in council, of sending them his resignation.'' 
[Cent page 357.] These factionists, although many of them 
personally departed, left the seeds of dissension which they had 
so long been sowing, to still cumber the ground with their j^er- 
nicious crop, which manifested itself in various ways, particu- 
larly hi an ineradicable aversion to the burdens of goverr- 

• Pcmisvlvania Archives, X 40-44. 


ment no matter wliat source tliey emanated from. Even the 
best of tliose primitive settlers were constantly ready to chal- 
lenge whatever came by way of questionable taxation, espe- 
cially if it was formulated after any English model, from 
which many of them had fled in the old country, and when the 
same burdens were attenijited to be fastened on them in thc- 
jjlace of their retreat, they liad resistecT unto blood and had 
obtained the victory. The war for Independence Avas over, 
but not its consequences which lingered long in the demorali- 
/.ution it had brought, and the load of debt that had been in- 
;;ui-ied. The west had its full share of these calamities, and 
it had not equal facilities for shaking off its crushing load, 
tliat were ])ossessed by the East, where they had a home mai-- 
ket at their door, and a foreign one across the ocean. All 
taxes, therefoie. in order to really make them equal, ought tc 
take into account the long weary miles of pack-horse trans- 
portation that existed between the value of the products of the 
West and the East, and because this discrimination was nc;i 
made, and an excise law was passed, all the horrors of the 
Whisky Insurrection was visited U])on these western counties. 
In view of the fact that this history will be read by the 
youth of tl:is county, now so justly styled the "Young Amer- 
icas," It will be a curiosity to them to know that their ances- 
tors were once the willing subjects of King George, and did 
in solemn manner lift up their hands and swear to be true 
and loyal to his ]ierson and goverment, I cannot illustrate tliis 
matter in a clearer light, than to transcribe the substance of the 
Act constituting what the Virginia authorities wei-e pleased to 
call the District of West Augusta. It will be borne in mind 
tliat Augusta was one of the old counties of Virginia, and 
when that Commonwealth determined to spread her mantle 
of government over the territory of whicli Greene count} 
forms a part, her Legislature adoi^ted the following pream- 

"26 iiisTOTiv (->i- c.r.M.M; ;.oi;Nry. ' "^ 

blc and r.mdc a description of her boundaries as follows i 

WnERKAS, It is expedient to ascertain the boundaries be- 
tween the county of Augusta, and the District of West Au- 
gusta, be it enacted by the Assembly of Virginia that the 
boundary line between the two shall be as follows : Beginning 
on the Allegheny mountains, between the heads of the Poto- 
mac and Cheat and Green Briar rivers, (Haystack Knob or 
north end of Pocahontas county) ; thence along the ridge of 
mountains that divides the waters of Cheat river from those of 
Green Briar, and that branch of the Monongahela river, called 
Tigart's Valley river, to the Monongahela ; thence up the said 
river and the west fork thereof, to Bingerman's creek, on the 
northwest side of the -west fork ; thence up the said creek to the 
head thereof ; thence in a direct course to the head of Middle 
Island creek, and thence to the Ohio, to be called the District 
of West Augusta. 

At a Court held at Fort Dunmore, now Pittsburgh, Septem- 
ber 18, 1776, the Court decided as soon as this ordinance was 
passed, they became a separate and independent jurisdiction, 
and as such, they assumed control over this territory of Greene 
county, and much other territory contiguous to it. In this 
District, Justice Courts w^ere organized by Lord Dunmore, as 
early as December, 1774. The regular Virginia Court 
that usually sat at Staunton, was now adjourned to meet at 
Fort Dunmore, where the following persons were created Jus- 
tices of the Peace, after subscribing to the following oaths, 
which are preserved as a curiosity: 

Oath of Allegiance. — I, A. B., do sincerely promise and 
swear tliat I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to His 
Majesty King George the Third. So help me God. 

Oath of Supremacy . — I, C. D., do swear that I from my 
heart, abhor, detest and abjure as impious and heretical, that 
damnable doctrine and position that Princes, excommunicated 
and deprived by the Pope, or any authority of the See of 

lUS'IOlU' 0|- ClM.CNi: COrNTV. 27 

Rome, may be deposed or murdered by their subjects, or any 
other whatsoever. And I do declare that no foreign prince, 
person, prelate, State or potentate, luvth or ought to liave 
any jurisdiction, power, jjreenainence, superiority or authority, 
ecclessiastical or spiritual, within this realm. So help me God. 

The Test Oath. — T, E. F., do declare that I do believe there 
is not any transul)stantiation in the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, or in the elements of bread and wine, at or after the 
consecration thereof, by any person or persons, whatever. So 
help me God. 

OatJi of Abjuration. — I, G. II., do hereby truly and sincerely 
acknowledge, profess, testify and declare in my conscience, be- 
fore God and the world, that our Sovereign Lord, King George 
the Third, is lawful and i-ightful King of this realm, and all 
other of His Majesty's dominions thereunto belonging. And 
I do solemnly and sincerely declare that I do believe in my 
conscience, that the person pretended to be Prince of 
Wales, during the life of the late King James, and sino3 his 
decease, pretending to be and takes upon himself the stj le 
and title of King of England, by the name of James the 
Third, or of Scotland, by the name of James the Eighth, or 
the style and title of king of Great Britain, hath not any 
right or title whatsoever to the crown of this realm or any 
other of the dominions thereunto belonging, and I do renounce, 
rofuse and objure any allcgience or obedience to him. And I do 
swear that I will bear faith and true allegiance to His IMajesty 
King George the Third, and him will defend to the utmost of my 
power against all traitorous conspiracies, and attempts whatsoev- 
er, which shall be made against his person, crown or dignity, and 
I will do my utmost endeavors to disclose and make known to 
His Majesty and his successors, all treason and traitorous con- 
SMiracies which I shall know to be against him or them. So 
he Ip me God. 

These oaths were taken by George Croghan, Edward "Wai'd, 
John Stepheson, Isaac Cox, George McCormick, Josej)!! Becket, 
John Cami)hell, Dorsey Pentecost, John Connolly, John Gibson, 
Ge:)rge Valandingham, Thomas Sniallman, William Crawford 
aud William Goe. / 



RoBBEKS. — In the yenrs 1780.1784, the territory composiiur 
the three Counties of Fayette, Greene and Washington were 
infested by a band of robbers, tliatfor cunning and daring were 
scarcely surpassed, by Robin Hood, himself. One of the prin- 
(■ipal families connected with this band was one by the name 
of Doan. Anything on which they could lay their unhallowed 
liands seemed to come in good play for these villians, such as 
horses, negroes, money,. household goods, clothing, &c. Their 
depredations had become so numerous during the time of di- 
vided supremacy, when neither Virginia nor Pennsylvania could 
"P.force her laws that the whole community lived in constant 
i error, not knowing what hour these free-booters might swooi. 
'l(>v.-n upon them and carry off their stock, food, &c. After 
ihe organization of the county of Washington (which also ii;- 
'.hidcd Greene) in 1781, more determined efforts were made to- 
•>\;Lrd;i bringing order out of confusion. While the differen'^ 
] 'artisans might dispute about Avho should 7-ule them, they seem 
•>o have been unanimous in the opinion that these desperadeu;:^ 
-should no longer rob them. Hence under the leadership -if 
<ach energetic men as James Marshall, Thomas Scott and V.-u' 
Swcaringcn, different bands of militiamen were gotten together 
m different parts of the United counties of Greene and Wash- 
ngton, Avno began vigorously to patrol the the woods in all di- 
rections,- occasionally picking up a straggler, or discovering a 
vacated c;'!;np, until the leaders of the gang of robbers seem to 
have dcci-icd like the larks in the wheat field, that they must 
leave a region where the persuit was becoming so hot. Under 
this influence they seem to have started for Detroit, where they 
would L'C Avithin easy reach of Canada. They were however 
incarubered with so much stolen property that after traveling 
about one hundred miles they were overtaken and scattered. 
The old man Abraham Doan was captured ; also a man named 
Thomas Richardson^ and two women, claiming to be wives of 

iiisTo:;v oi" ckkkni; countv. -^J 

some oi" tlic men who had made tlieir escape. These four per- 
sons were confined in tlie old log jail at Washington. Thomas 
lt"chardson -was tried and convicted of various crimes, and :; 
lull report of his trial was forwarded to the Supreme Executive 
Council at Philadelphia. Avhich after receiving the testimony 
and findings, made this order on the 10th of September, ITSI : 
"Ordered, that execution of the sentence of the Court be made 
and done upon hhu the said Thomas Richardson, on Saturday, 
(he I'd day of October, next, between the hours of ten of iho 
clock in the forenoon and two of the xilock in the aflernoon of 
vhe same day, at the most proper and public ])lace within i!ie 
said day." TJiis was tlie first execution that took place, within 
the bounds of the two counties, and was performed on ''GclloAr, 
jlill," a name given at that time and still retaineil until ti.i.* 
day — an elevated piece of ground a short distance south-eaof. 
of the town of Washington, on a part of the saiue locality the. 
late Dr. LeMoyne, a short time before his death, caused a crem- 
atiiig furnace to be erected, in strange contrast with a majority 
of the acts of his life, in which he always claimed to be an ad- 
vanced thinker. But when the masses would not keep pace 
vitli him in thinking, he seems to have taken a long step back- 
\^ ards and picked up the cremating idea which was so very old 
tliat it h;id become new again. But to return to the robbers. 
<Jld Abraham Doan was rescued from jail by an armed party, 
and as to what became Oa the two women who were incarcer- 
ated at the same time, history, so far as I have been al)le to 
discover, is silent. I find the pait of a letter however in Dr. 
Creigh's history, page 367, from Eph Douglass, dated Union- 
lovrn. May 27, 1784, that no doubt refers to the same gang of 
robJjers, as follows : ''The banditti have established themselves 
iji some part of -.his county not certaiidy known, but thought 
to be in the deserted I'art of Washington county, whence they 
aiake frequent incursions into the settlements under cover of 


the night, terrifyiiig the inhahitaiits, sometimes beating them 
unmercifully, and always rob them of such property as they 
think proper, and then retire to their lurking places." A diver- 
sity of opinion exists Avith reference to the locality wMch Doug- 
lass calls the "deserted part of Washington county," Some 
have been kind enough to say that it was that part of Greene 
county known as Fish Creek. I incline to think that it was 
some more favored locality, from the fact that it was doubtful 
whether there had as yet been any settlements made on Fish 
•Creek as early as 1784, much less to have been settled and then 
deserted at so early a date. I have read in a book entitled the 
'^ White Rocks," an account of a robbers' den at one of the over- 
, hanging cliffs of the Monongahela. But there is so much 
tiction in that book, in my opinion it decides nothing. 

Hakd Times, — Although this is not a pleasant theme, yet the 
truth of histbry demands that we should give a passing glance 
at the painful subject. One of the fruitful sources of haiJ 
lijnes was to our ancestors that they settled in an almost nn- 
broken forest where nothing could be raised until the gvound 
•A" as cleared of the heavy timber that almost everywhere ex- 
isted. How different from the settler in our Avestern prairiia 
ai this date. In the month of May, 1879, I was on a westeiu 
bound train, running swiftly over the great plains betweoi: 
Fargo and Bismarck in Dakota Territory. A man was standing 
in the baggage car watching the large cedar posts with the 
great big black figures that told the number of the sections we 
were passing. Presently he sees his number, the rope is pulled, 
the whistle snorts "down brakes," the train stops; the man, wife 
and three children climb down on the green prairie ; the train 
hands switch off a car containing their household goods and the 
lumber already framed for dwelling house and stable ; the bell 
"begins to ring and we move off leaving the man and his family 
and carpenters behind. We pass to the upper Missouri river. 



Five days after as the train returns, that house is up and the 
family living in it ; tlicir cow is grazing on the prairie ; the 
man has gone a few miles to Jamestown, purchased three mules, 
a sulkey ploA\-, and is quietly turning over the prairie sod as we 
stop for the empty car. Not so with the early settlers of 
Greene county. The caravan of pack horses was their train. 
No saw mill or ])laning mill prepared their lumber. No nail 
factory furnished their nails at three cents per pound. Conse- 
']uently they were compelled to build houses without nails. 
Tiie horses very seldom had their feet lifted by a blacksmith. 
j);iring the greater part of the year the business of the men 
was to chop, chop ; the employment of the women — spin, spin. 
When a small field was cleared during the winter and planted 
in corn, the soil was so wild, having enjoyed so little sunshine, 
!'iat it seldom produced more than fifteen bushels of corn to 
•he acre ; and yet, light as the crop was, it was not worth more 
ilian tvrenty-five cents per bushel. It seemed like a small busi- 
ness tD plow land so full of stumps and roots; cut the wheat 
with a sickle; pick out the big weeds with which it was po- 
inted ; thrash it out with a flail ; clean it up with a sheet and 
tlien only get from five to eight bushels to the acre, Avorth forty 
cents per bushel. 

Another of the hardships of our ancestors was the scarcity 
of vvlls. After the scanty pittance of a crop was secured, it 
was difficult to get it manufactured into even course flour. The 
first effort towards milling in these western counties Avas the 
horse mill, where every customer furnished his own powen 
wliu-h was a team of either horses or oxen. These were some- 
times hitched to a sweep by which they pulled and drove the 
machinery somewhat on the principle of a threshing machine, 
only the wheels were all of wood. Sometimes the team was 
placed on a large tramp wheel which lay almost iu a horizontal 
position, the team being attached to a post and started to uuU 


instead of the stationary post moving, the wheel begaii to re- 
volve and started the machinery. These mills were unlike the 
fabled gods ; they did not grind line if they did grind very 
slowly. In consequence of this slowness they often got behind 
time, so much so, that often a dozen, sometimes a score, of teams 
u'ith their owners were waiting for their turn to come. Tln.- 
iiiiller would be woiui out being compelled to attend both d;iy 
nvid night. It sometimes happened, however, that some trusty 
in an came in who had some little knowledge of the ma- 
chinery and who would have to wait some six or eight houn-; 
I'or his turn to come. This man v.'as installed miller vro te7i>, 
his pay being that he could grind his own grain toll fit.?. Oni^ 
of the indispensable attachments of a horse mill was to puL iij.' 
large enough sheds for shelter for the waiting teams, for if .-t 
raan went away he forfeited his turn. I distinctly recollect see- 
ing two of these horse mills in the state of Ohio in 1828. One 
c( them was pulled round with a sweep, the other was driven 
v.-ith a tread wheel. I never expected to see another of thcs'; 
mills, and was surprised, on my arrival on Ten Mile in 1856. to 
lind one' of the old fashioned mills still in running order on th',: 
farm of old Ephraim Cooper, about eight miles from the boi-- 
ough of "Washington. 

When the country began to be somewhat improved, water 
mills soon made their appearance. But as there was almost 
a total destitution of capital, the idea was to get them up a:i 
cheap as possible, hence some streams were, as a general thing, 
selected where a fall of from twenty to thirty feet could 
be obtained. An overshot wheel was generally constructed 
usually of light timber, on the sujjjiosition tliat it would require- 
less w^ater to drive it than if the w^heel was heavy. These small 
streams seem to have answered the jiurpose well during, per- 
haps, half the year. Their capacity, of course, was limited, and 
as the people lived in a kind of ''hand to mouth"' way, when 


dry weather came there were always people who had nothing to 
F»t ; then the tug of war began to come even worse than it did 
l)efoi-e. The horse mills, being temporarily constructed, had 
rotted down or were worn out. The steam mill had not yet been 
erected in Greene county. Indeed, James Barns, who is stil' 
living, was the first man who erected a steam engine in the 
bounds of this county about the year , and that was attache i 
to, I believe, a carding machine and not to a mill. In conscv 
quence of the drying up of these small streams (many of whic/t! 
can now scarcely be traced at all) the inhabitants were often 
compelled to boil corn and make what was called "slots hominy'' 
as a substitute for bread. Others would chop and adze out a 
liollow in the top of a stump. They would then secure a long 
stone, perhaps six inches in diameter and two feet long; througli 
the slimest end of this they would chisel a hole ; through this 
hole they would drive a tough piece of wood, to each end of 
'.vliich they attached strong strings of buckskin or tanned hog- 
skin. A convenient hickory sapling was then bent down and 
theses trings were attached to the top of it. Corn was poured 
into the artificial hollow in the stump, and the slow proce.^^s of 
pounding and sifting meal to make mush for supper commences. 
The stone was drawn down by the hands generally of one of 
the stalwart women of those days, in connection with its own 
weiglit. The rebound of the stone and the spring of the sapling 
elevated the stone into the air, when those brawny arms sent it 
down again, until the woman was tired and the meal was ready 
for mush. Slow and painful as it was, it nevertheless kept the 
wolf of starvation from tlie door. (Others would boil wheat for 
several hours until it would form a kind of pasty pulp, add r. 
little maple sugar and eat it with sweet milk, and it was consid- ^ 
ored quite good enough for -'common people." I have eaten 
it myself, and had it not been for the terrible stint in the way^ 
of the maple sugai-, I could have been content if the grist mill] 

. 34 HiSTOKV OF gkekne county. --.- 

'had stood still a great deal longer, but the quantity of sugar be- 
ing so limited made me as anxious as other people for rain. 

Another of the hardships of our fathers was from what was 
called ^'■sick wheat.'''' This was something peculiar to virgin soil 
[where the land had been recently reclaimed from the shade and 
, ! tvas, to a great extent, overshadowed, at least part of the day, 
I by the forest. This, it was supposed, had a tendency to leave 
' a small amount of poison adhering to the blossom end of each 
gi-ain. . Most of this came off in the bran in bolting. So that 
the bread could be eaten with tolerable safety to those who rel- 
ished sudh diet. "Bears grease," a})plied as butter on this bread, 
xvas said to be an antidote for the poison. But where the wheat 
'was "sick" no one would dai-e boil and eat it in the way I have 
(J -escribed, A safer food in many localities was buckwheat. This 
grain was valuable also in taming the soil. It answered the 
same purpose in Western Pennsylvania that tobacco still does 
on the new lands of Kentucky; although they are both very ex- 
haustive, yet they very speedily remove the wildness from the 
soil. One of the difficulties with buckwheat is, that it must be 
l»aked warm every meal if you wish to have it good. The rigid 
old Presbyterians and Seceders made a difficulty out of this. 
Their veneration for the Sabbath was so great that they would 
by no means allow a buckwheat cake baked in their dwelling 
on the Lord's day, consequently those great big buckwheat 
•cakes were baked in their skillets on Saturday and piled up for 
■the tiDo Sabbath meals, (for they did not get their meals on 
Sunday). These cakes were dipped in water and then laid in 
the same skillet to warm. I am here reminded of what was said 
by an old Scotch Covenanter at communion in Washington 
OOUnty. He was engaged in that work of superarogation called 
I "fencing the tables. "When he came to the fourth commandment 
h.Q said "all unnecessary cooking is forbidden ; such as roasting 
and baking." Here he hesitated a moment and then said, "un- 


!os3 you are so unfortunjite as to have nothing hut this new 
kind of wheat, I believe they call it bcwhate; I dunno about 
that, for it is no gude cold." My own private opinion is that 
those old fathers and mothers had enough difficulties without 
magnifying thein. Their soil would jjroduce this grain more 
ubinidantly than any other. An abundance of wild honey could 
i.hcn be found in the woods without any danger of a lawsuit 
fur cutting a bee tree. Why not then spread the honey cu 
then- warm buckwheat cake and call the -'Sabbath a delight '? ■■' 

JScAUcrrY ok S.\i/r. — Another of the hardships under whici; 
I'lo i)rnnitive settlers labored, was the extremely high price oi' 
s lit. We often hear it said, it is but little difference whether 
tilings are high or low, so that they are in proportion, and the) o 
i> some truth in the declaration. But here we find things io 
tksperately out of proportion. Wheat 40 cents and salt Six 
f'Ounds, ten shillings per bushel ! A great inducement for a man 
•-0 turn savage and do without salt. But as salt is considered a:, 
indispensable ingredient in civilization even in its I'udest forms, 
our ancestors considered themselves, under the circumstances, 
• ompelled to have salt, and yet the thought of paying thirty-two 
dollars and fifty cents for one bushel of salt! Surely it would 
l)e a cheat who would skimp the measure, "Ignorance is bliss" 
sometimes, it is said, but it was hardly such under these circuna- 
stances, Avith vast quantities of salt all around them, but a few 
hundred feet below the surface, and yet they were compelled to 
go to Winchester, Staunton, London, &c., for this article that 
sDme of their ungrateful decendants think it is dear if they have 
to pay one dollar and fifty cents for three bushels, or fifty cents 
l)er bushel! How changed. But there was another inconve- 
nience in this scarcity of salt. It seemed like taking a man's 
life to give even the smallest i)ittance to his stock, and yet their 
instinctive craving could not be api)eased by informing them of 
the high piice : lience whenever they were released from their 


enclosure, in order to obtain browse, in the absence of pasture, 
'they immediately wandered off in search of those sprmgs slight- 
Uy impregnated with salt, which a benificent Creator had placed 
lin certain localities for the purpose of satisfying the wants of 
the beasts of the forests, which springs were denominated by 
the early settlers, '"licks." Hence when the stock was wanted, 
long weary hunts of days in succession were to be made in which 
the hunter often became lost. The undergrowth in the woods 
was so thick that the person in search of the stock might pass 
within a few rods of it without discovering it. To obviate this 
difficulty, bells were placed on the necks of the cattle, at least 
ojie sheep in each little tiock was denominated "the bell weath- 
er." while bells were sometimes placed on the necks of the hoi-scs. 
Then bells must be bought east of the mountains and transport- 
ed perhaps two hundred miles on the back of a pack horse. 

Sc.vnciTY OF Money, — We now come to consider the most 
fruitful source of all hard times — the scarcity, almost the en- 
tire absence of money, ITiat great statesman, Henry Clay, said 
t here were but two sources of wealth known to mankind. One 
tlie spontaneous production of the earth; the other — labor. 
While this is true, all mankind, from the days of Abraham 
down, have recognized the necessity of having some circulating 
medium that could be denominated "current money with the 
merchants." Lycurgus, although one of the wisest rulers of 
the Grecian States, made a great financial mistake when he 
made iron money a legal tender with a view of keeping the 
vices of the surrounding nations out of Greece. While he 
partly succeeded in doing this, he brought poverty and all its 
inconveniences into the country he loved so well. Why? Be- 
, cause iron was too abundant to have that intrinsic value so im- 
paratively demanded by the coin we call money. To the man 
who is capable of reflecting, it must be evident that money is 
either real or fictitious. The real is the coin itself, made out 


oi sotue metal, so scarce as to render it in the strictest sense of 
the word — precious. The fictitious is some kind of notes, cer- 
titlcates, bonds or bills — ]»roinising the holder that whenever it 
is liis wish to convert them into coin, he can do so, thus ex- 
changing the fictitious into the real. It is self-evident that this 
lictitious money would not float a single day unless we have 
sotne kind of faith in the })romise made on the face of it 
showing that the terms therein proposed will be complied 
witli; this confidence Ave call credit. Now credit is different 
from assurance, for '^seeing is believing, but feeling is the naked 
truth." Now what was the situation of our ancestors at the 
coiumencement of the revolution ? They were doing biisines's 
almost altogether by what is denominated barter, or trade. 
They had their scedule of prices about as follows : "Ten 
buckskins for a match coat ; five doe-skins for a calico shirt ; 
three fawn skins for a pound of lead ; five pounds of ginseng 
lor a wool hat ; ten pounds of bees wax for a straw bonnet ; 
tiiree gallons of whiskey or apple jack for a quarter of tea. A 
liundred gallon co})per still would buy a good farm. Two bar- 
rels of whiskey would buy a corner lot. A five gallon keg 
would be exchanged for a pound of powder. Five barrels of 
whiskey was the price of a rifie gun.'' — Veech's Secular History 
in Centennial Volume, page 363. 

NoAV that they have determined to go to war wntb Old Eng- 
land, with the longest purse in all Europe, they must have mo- 
ney ; buckskins Avill no longer answer the purpose ; how are 
they to get it ? They have a small quantity of coin, all foreign, 
but this is only a "drop in the bucket ;" how are they to get 
the millions they need ; only one way — in the absence of the 
real, they must have recourse to the fictitious. This w^as done. 
On the 2'2(\ of June, l77o, an issue of paper money was made 
amounting to two millions of dollars, and was denominated 
^Continental Money." From this date up to January, 1780, 


■Otter emissions were made until the whole amount was no less 1 
/than two hundred millions of dollars. Now why was not this ' 
(fictitious money kept up to a par value, and thus make the war^ j 
linstead of the source of the hard times, make it the imme- 
diate cause of good times ? If Clay was right (and I believe he 
■was), the recources were abundant, an almost boundless unsold 
domain waiting the hand of the laborer to make it spontaneous- 
ly produce the untold millions of bushels that we now behold. 
As to laborers the colonies, even at that early day, had millions 
of them; hence there was no necessity for failure, and yet this 
pajjer money did fail. What were the causes? First, it was 
not made a legal tender. In all my intercourse with mankind 
I have found we must take them "as they are, and not as they 
.')ught to be." All observation proves that men are naturally 
^keptical; especially is this the case in things that pertain to his 
pecuniary interests. Hence the fii-st impulse Avas to doubt 
whether the holder would ever receive those "Spanish milled 
•lollars" mentioned on the face of these roughly executed notes. 
He might say "I would take this if I thought I could pay a 
lebt with it." But the paper did not propose to do that, and 
'•onsequently this man who, perhaps, is the principal business 
man in the conununity, refuse to take this trash, as he calls it, 
in payment of debts due him, and the report of his act spreads 
from lij) to lij) until the credit of the new emission was crippled 
at the very outset. And yet while there was no well defined 
legal tender attached to those notes, the Government virtually 
made them such. For while the stay-at-home patriots were 
snufiing up their noses at this money and taking their pay in 
buckskins, ginseng, or anything else, the poor soldier (who was 
leaving his blood in the tracks made by his bare feet in the 
snow), was paid off in this depreciated paper money which 
1 would not buy him a meal for less than forty dollars. One of 
my xii-st recollections was hearing my feeble,, tolterino- orand' 

IIirrOEY 01" (iRlCKNE CO! NIT 39 

father tell that — on his I'etnrn from the army in Virginia in the 
beginning of the winter of 1781, after the fall of Coniwallis ' 
at Yorktown — he and three comrades were compelled to travel i 
riost of the night and lodge the remainder in a barn, and then j 
tin the morning compelled to pay forty-five dollars each for their 
breakfast of money that they had received at eight dollars per 
montli, thns serving almost six months for one miserable meal. 
Surely Esau did not do much worse when he sold his birth- 
right for a morsel of pottage. And whose fault was it ? Not 
the Government. It could do no better. The war was upon 
it. It could not borrow from abroad, and the business men 
of the country would not give the National currency credit, 
l-'or I take it as a truth that cannot be gainsaycd, that the cur- 
rency of any country is precisely what the business men of that 
country make it. As an illustration, I recollect hearing men 
talk in 1828 about the superlative goodness of the notes of tlio 
old United States Bank ; "better far than gold and silver," ai>d 
they really made it such. There was a premium on those old 
tiotes, while gold and silver only passed at par. Why were the 
notes of this bank so good ? Was it because there was so 
much specie in its vaults? I do not know but that fictitiou.<* 
character, JMajor Jack Downing, told Nicholas Biddle that he 
"had hearn tell that there was not enough silver and gold in 
the bank to make the Ginneral a pair of specks." Be that as it 
may Andrew Jackson refused to sign the bill for its re-charter, and 
it died amidst the loud lamentations of the men of business who 
could and did make it the best kind of money. With million? 
in circulation, all the great merchants boasting of its excellence, 
it did not need more than $1,000 in coin to make it a specie 
paying bank for millions of outstaiuling notes. Is any one 
skeptical yet about the position I have taken that the currency 
of any country is dependent for its success or failure on the , 
manner its issues are treated bv the men Avho handle the largest I 


part of that currency ? If there be siich "a clonbting Thomas," 
I please permit another iUustration. Martin Van Buren, the suc- 
jCesfor of Andi-ew Jackson, was always regarded as a shrewd, 
i sh?,rp man. He was the only man that could keep on the good 
side of General Jackson all the time. Yet, when he came into 
the Presidential chair, he found himself surrounded by so many 
' financial difficulties that, although he was called the "Fox," the 
*'Magician," ttc, he scarcely knew how to extricate himself. 
The plan of putting the public money in the "pet" banks was 
so loudly reviled that a man's political head almost instantly 
' fell into the basket if he dared to say that he was in favor of 
it. Van Burcn concluded that this clamor on both sides was 
the result, to a great extent, of prejudice. He therefore pro- 
i posed a kind of compromise measure, known as the "Sub- 
Treasury." I have no copy of the plan as originally proposed, 
but my recollection is about tliis : that tlie Government money 
was to be lifted out of the vaults of the "pet" banks, Avhere it 
; was in such imminent dauger of being squandered, and placed 
in the vaults of a building called the Treasury ; then, on the 
strength of this deposit, notes were to be issued as a circulating 
medium in order to transact the business of the country. The 
old men of this county remember the long howl of indignation 
that came up from both sides of the line. The friends of the 
"pet" banks were loud in their denunciations, because they 
wanted to keep the money, and the friends of the old liank de- 
nounced it as nonsense, not because it was such, but because 
they were not willing to adopt this measure (that they them- 
selves had not originated) instead of their "dead baby." Now 
I do not claim to be a financier, much less a politician, yet, as 
far as I remember this Sub-Treasury scheme, 1 am only able 
to detect some slight differences between it and the present 
greenback note">, and they are all in favor of the Sub-Treasury 
jglan. Oue of the differences was tiiat these notes of Van 


Buren's were to start with a full treasury, whereas, in 1862, I[ 
believe it was generally admitted that the Treasury was empty, j 
Another difference was that the Sub-Treasury notes were not a 
legal tender, while the present greenbacks are ; which Avas ira- 
paratively demanded as a war measure, but on terms of equity 
could never be justified. And yet, with all these advantages 
in favor of the Sub-Treasury, it was doomed to go down, while 
the greenbacks have become the best paper money this country 
ever had. Now in view of all this, why did not the business 
tnon of thr.t day rise n\> in- their might and give credit to this 
rDiitiiu'ntal money and save the occurrence of all the direful 
i-.ilainities aiid national disgrace that have been the bitter conse- 
quences of the going down of this money. Among those that 
sr.lfered most deeply were some of the early inhabitants of 
Greene county. They had invested their all in these cheap 
lands, and when Eastern sharks found the money was about to 
collapse, they bundled it up and hurried across the mountains in 
advance of the mail, and by offering ample compensation for 
the improvement many a poor man had made, they became 
possessed of his home, from which they turned him out pemii- 
less, either to agian brave the unbroken forest, or beg his way 
to Kentucky, tlie then new "Eldorado of the West." Poor 
man ! ITo asked "bread and they gave him a stone ;"' he asked 
"fish and they gave him a scorpion." The depreciation of this 
money was one of the bitterest dregs in the poisoned cup of 
wrong, that was drained to its last drojj by the different front- 
iers of the vast country, whose honor stood pledged for its 
redemjition, which money might have floated, and would have 
floated if the business men of the nation had held it up. Why 
did they not do it? Ah, thereby hangs a tale which I will not 
unfold further than to suggest a strong probability — perhaps the 
largest monied men of the land were opposed to the cause for 
the defense of which this money was issued, and did they es- 


cape with impunity ? The very opposite of this is true, al- 
though they seeifted to be the immediate gainers by this sharp 
practice, yet the recoil of the hard times that had long lingered 
around the poor man's door at last came home to roost in thn 
iurapteous halls of those who coidd but would not prevent the 
Impending calamities. Is the question asked, why does not 
ihe Government now redeem this money and thus wipe out tin; 
national disgrace? This question is j)ardonable when it comes 
from the lips of the young, and only from such lips will it come. 
The jnen of eighty or ninety years cfo not ask it. They know 
lliat in those times that tried men's souls, there was a constant 
iUruggle to keep the wolf of starvation and nakedness away 
from the door, and if those small farmei's with large families 
arc in possession of a note calling for one hundred dollars foi' 
which he can only get two dollars, although it seems like a des- 
])erate sacrifice, yet it must be made, and so the note changes 
•lands for almost nothing, and yet tlie depreciation was even 
worse than this; for in December, 17 SO, it took seventy-four 
dollars of this money to buy one dollar m silver. As a grand- 
son of an old revolutionary soldier I never want to hear tluit 
that landlord's decendents have received forty-five dollars and 
accumulated interest for that poor breakfast their ancestor fur- 
nished my ancestor ; consequently to pay those notes off now 
as they are held by persons who scarcely gave a decent song 
for them, would only be adding insult to injury, and would be 
in the highest sense of the word, unjust. The Nation must 
leave the stain on her fair escutcheon, since to attempt lo wipe 
it out would only be to extend the blur. 

Just a few words more in reference to this money question, 
which will throw light upon this subject when the writer is in 
his grave, and I ho^je this will be pardonable, as history is in- 
tended for the benefit of the future generation as well as the 
gratification of the present. I distinctly remember the first 



greenback I ever harl in my hands, thougli I do not remember 
'the exact date, probably in 18G2 or 18G3. 1 remember thcl 
; doubts that were expressed about it, one of wliicli was : "Oh, [ 
it will turn out like the old Continental money. I have some 
of it in my house now, and it ain't worth a d — d continen- 
tal." And why did it not turn out thus ? First, it was a legal 
tender. If you could do nothing else with it, you could i)ny 
your debts, and leave some other i)erson to bear the loss, pro- 
vided he was so unfortunate as not to be in debt. But the 
greatest source of success Avas in the fact that when you met 
a business man, he began to eulogise the now money: "Nov 
we had something that would be par everywhere in the United 
States. This will be a deathblow to brokers and big interest, 
mind if it don't," etc. Gold and silver vanished from sight, 
and even our small change down to three cents Avas in 
"scabs"; although the gold went up, and consequently the 
greenbacks may have been said to go down until it took tw^) 
dollars and ninety cents to buy a gold dollar, yet the coun- 
tiy lived. The ".scabs" took their flight and the long concealed 
silver suddenly showed its smiling face like the sun after a 
storm : the silver and gold accumulated until the United States 
Treasury buildings were encumbered by it, and then Uucle 
Sam said he would pay specie for his ]>apcr. A few calls were 
made to see if he were in earnest, and when the bright silver 
dollars were pushed towards the visitors, they bowed respect- 
fully, saying ; "No, I thank you," and retired with his piora- 
ises to pay, tightly clutched in their hands. So we all do, ex- 
cept for a little change. We all prefer the Government note, 
which was nothing but enforced credit at first, with national 
honor alone to back it ; but is now voluntary credit, with untold 
millions to back it. And so might it have been with the fi-st 
{national money, if the same course had been pursued. Al- 
' though the resources of the land are greater in point of im- 



I port duties, nnd her resources are fai" less in the way of public 
lands than tliey were at that day, yet this money was allowed 
to go down. Oh, shame ! For what comparison did their 
debt of $200,000,000 bear to our debt at the close of the war, 
which was so tremendous large I will not attempt to put it on 
paper for fear I should make a mistake. I will liere add 
a list of tavern keepers' i)rices established by the Court of 
Youghiogheny county, in the 1781 : For half a pint of whis- 
key, four dollars ; breakfast or supper, fifteen dollars ; dinner, 
twen/,y dollars; lodging, witli clean sheets, three dollars; one 
hoise, over night, three dollars; one gallon of corn, five doHars; 
one gallon of oats, four dollars ; string beans per quart, six 
dollars. These prices were proclaimed on Court days, from 
"'jhe steps, and also set up in the most public places. Our gen- 
eral title to these pages was "hard times," and I do not know 
why I should confine my remarks' to the times of the Kcvolu- 
tion. I in common with all poor boys, have seen hard times 
personally. I began in 1838, to seek a portion of tliis world's 
goods. Times were tlien comparatively good. Two or tlneo 
years before, times were brisk. There was an of 
money in circulation, such as State Bank of Illinois, State Baiil: 
of Indiana, and Ohio money in abundance on such banks :'r. 
Circleville, St. Clairsville, Urbana, Miami Exporting Company, 
Wooster, Cai.t:)]', ]\lassilon, Mccliaiiics' Bank of Wheclini , Sec. 
In 1839, Sibet tfe Jones, brokers of I^ittsburgh, and I'obcrt 
Bricknell, of Philadelphia, began to quote this money up oi- 
down as suited their whims or interests — down if they wanted 
to buy ; up if they wanted to sell — until no jicrson knew what 
any of the money was actually worth. In 1840, the money 
had almost all disappeared and General Harrison was elected in 
order to make money so i)lenty tliat every laboring man 
could receive "-two dollars a day and roast beef." In the spring 
of 1841, money began to be ])lcnty again, and we began to 


feel like saying: "glad to see yoii, but where have you been 
all this time ?" Then we t<x)k a second look — yes. these were 
our old friends, but how changed. They once were "new aud 
pretty too," but now dirty, greasy and i-agged. Tliey looked 
as tliough they might have been fumbled during their entire 
absence by the filthy Sodomites, after at least a ]>artial scorch- 
ing. The inauguration took place on the 4th of March, 1841, 
and we all stood on tij>-toe in anticipation of the good time 
coming. An extra session of Congress was called in order to 
raise the tariff and prevent the gold and silvvr from all run- 
ning out of the country. Congi'ess met, and very prudently 
seemed to conclude that the tariff might answer the pur])Ose a 
few months lonocr, but it would be askincf too much of the 
good people of this country to ask them to ^)ut uj) with this 
dirty, ragged money any longer. Hence, the first thing these 
good men undertook to do, was to prepare for making a large 
amount of new, pretty, bright money with the words, "Bank 
of the United States," engraved on the top of every note. Tlio 
bill was under consideration, when suddenly and unexi)ectedly, 
William Henry Harrison died '. The Nation stood aghast. 
Consternation was written on every countenance, until some 
one spoke and said : " As yet there is no cause for discour- 
agement Here is honest John Tyler, wlio is as good a 
man as ever Harrison was ; let us inaugurate him and all will 
be right. Tyler came forward, and with his most jxrofoundly 
dignified bow, accepted the situation, suui tlie Government 
moved on without a jar. Congress finished the consideration 
of the bank bill, and passed it, and sent it up to the Whit€ 
House with their compliments. But what was the astonish- 
ment of the nation when he vetoed the bill. One of the rea- 
sons assigned by President Tyler for this unexpected veto 
was, that the Bank question had in no shape or fonu been be- 
ifore the people during the exciting campaign of 1840. That 

J 6 


lie considered this qnestion settled by the second election of 
General Jackson, in 1832, when even his best friends trembled, 
lest he should reap the consequences of what they regarded as 
his rash act in vetoing the bill to recharter the United States 
IJank. When this election resulted so overwhelmingly in Jack- 
son's favor, he (Tyler) considered it an endorsement of the 
Liourse he (Jackson) had persued. "VVliether his reasons were 
i;orrect or not is not for the historian to decide. But we come 
MOW to witness the result of this act. The bloated aristocrats 
\vho controlled the finances of the country, seem to have detei*- 
inined that if they can not have the kind of money they want, 
Llie people shall not have any. Almost immediately the diity 
ragged money in circulation begins to go down ; the brokers 
liad heretofore quoted down or i;p, as suited their interests, but 
now they quote altogether down. There seemed to be an im- 
derstanding that there should only be three specie paying 

banks w^est of the mountains, and that these should be the Old 
Bank of Pittsburg, Monongahela Bank of Brownsville, and 

the Franklin Bank of Washington. Why were these the 
favored pets ? Because for years they had been i-efusing to 
lend their own notes in their own neighborhoods. What little 
they did lend was sent to the extremes of either east or west. 
But there were accommodating banks in this section what were 
willing to help the people bear their burdens, provided they 
were let alone. Among the accommodating institutions, none 
wer6 more so than the Mechanics' Bank of Wheeling, and the 
Farmers & Drovers' Bank of Waynesburg. But now the time 
has come for them to run the gauntlet. The brokers try to cry 
them down, until the Waynesburg Bank made an issue of 
notes that were due some months after date. These were called 
"post notes," and the uncompromising enemies of this accom- 
modating institution did succeed in putting these notes .down 
ten cents on the dollar. How about the Western paper ? State 

niSTOi:v oi" gkkene countv. 47 of Illinois, Shawneetown, etc., went down to fifty cents 
on ihe dollui- ; wliile other western banks ranged all the 
\\;!y between five and fifty per cent., just whatever way tho 
I'rokers saw projjcr to make them; this and nothing more. 
Ciil it may he asked, why all these complaints ; is there not 
;!:! extra session of Congress, sitting for the relief of the ])eo- 
'■•\n f Yes; woW why don't tliey relieve them? It looks as if 
■ •!d John Tyler would have to bear the blame forever. Let ii.s 
■.■o<.' lu)w this turned out. It was supposed that the hard times 
j'i is;^9 and 181') was in consequence of the low tariff that pre- 
vailed at that time. The calling of this extra session of Con- 
1,1-ess was for the express purjiose of revising the tariff, and 
;ln;> securing immediate relief. Xow that Tyler had vetoed 
tliC' bank bill it was declared in many directions, that it was 
useless to pass a tariff bill, for it would be sure to share the 
same fate. When hints to this effect came to the ears of "Old 
honest John," he said, " just let them pass the bill and then 
, ihey will see." The bill was eventually passed and the Presi- 
<Ient, without a word of criticism, signed the bill and it became 
•'the law of the land." Surely the people are relieved ; this 
Congress that composed this extra session, as well as the two 
regular sessions, have done enough to immortalize their names 
as the benefactors of the people ; but no, their great immortal- 
izing act is yet to be performed, and it comes in the shape of 
a bankrupt law." This brought hard times indeed to every 
l)oor man's door. I among the rest was the holder of several 
notes on men said to be good, but before I was aware, three of 
them had applied for the benefits of this law involving the 
loss of nearly all I was worth. Yet these men, anxious to hold 
up their heads in society, and not willing to have it said of 
them that they cheated a poor boy out of hard earnings, were 
willing to compromise on their own terms and at their own 
prices. One would furnish the amount of his note in lumber; 


another in brick ; another in nails. These were some of the 
things that induced me to commence the erection of a large 
house, tbe carpenter work of which amounted to four hundred 
and twelve doll are. One hundred and thirty dollars of this 
sum remained due and unpaid. Sheriff and constables were 
riding in all directions hunting up the unhappy victims of 
boundless credit who now labored "under the suspicion of 
debt.'' Prothonotaries were compelled lo employ additional 
clerks. While the minds of the people seemed completely de- 
moralized, "mercy seemed clean gone forever." Constable and 
Sheriff sales were matters ot weekly occurrence, at which it 
was common to hear such announcements as this: "Nothing 
taken Iroiu j)urchasers at this sale excepi gold and silver, or 
the notes of Old Bank of I'lttsburg, Monongaheia Bank of 
Brownsville, or Franklin Bank of Washington." Just at this 
critical moment, mv carpenter frightened by the crash all around 
tiled a mechanic's lieu and directed the issuing of a writ of 
le cart fit ■tai, that if permitted to issue and be executed, would ^ 
have sold iny new house and left me worse off than when I 
started four years before. Things were growing serious ; my 
own resources were exhausted, and yet something must be done 
and that soon or the consequences would be fatal. With a view 
of obtaining relief if possible, I left my home in Fayette County 
on Jiorse back, crossed the river at Hatfield's Ferry, took dinner 
in Jefferson, Greene Co., and in the evening passed over the 
dividing ridge at the head of Kuff's Creek into Washington 
county and continued my journey until on the evening of the 
third day, I arrived at the place of my nativity in Trumble 
county, Ohio. Soon after the first salutations were over, even 
'before I had stated my business, the doleful tale of "hard 
times" was repeated in my ears in even a more exagerated 
form than I knew them to exist in the place from Avhence I 
came ; and when I told my errand to relatives living in fine 


houses, surrounded by magnificieut broad acres, I was told thata 
I had come "to the Goat's house for wool," that money was » 
ihmg of the i)ast, that its history might now be written, &c^ 
After turning every stone, offering to sell some obligations I 
held that were not yet due, for about two-thirds of their value^ 
oven this liberal offer not being accepted, I turned my face 
liameward, "a sadder but a wiser man." In retracing my steps 
I crossed the Ohio river at Georgetown, came through Frank- 
Tort, Florence, Burgettstown and Hickory, to Washington; 
r'lou in the direction of present plank road to "Gobies" (Van 
!Iui-en). Thence down the ridge to the house of Robbert Wal-I 
iace, near the present town of Prosperity, which had no exist-' 
.' ice then (1842). About sundown I arrived at the house o£ 
'roorge M. French, right in sight of, and only a few rods fronx 
•!;e Greene county line. With him I remained until morning, 
when I was surprised by him telling me that he thought he 
•ould furnish the funds to meet the demands of my false and 
lavd-liearted car})enter ; and he did furnish the one hundred^ 
uid thirty dollars in notes on the bank of Brownsville, as good 
as gold, showing that it is not ahvays the man that puts on 
the most style and spreads the loftiest sail, that is in possession 
of the ])resent alulity to relieve a friend, or has the largeness of 
heart to do it, even if he has the ability. I kept a horse in 
those days, but having no pasture lot, I hired jiasture of a man 
near a mile away. This pastui'e was to be paid for monthly.r 
Harvest had come, two months ])asture was due, and not a dime 
had I to pay it with. There Avas a way. however. I had two- 
strong arms, a'nd with these I shouldered a cradle, and cut oats 
two days at seventy-five cents per day. 

Thus mucli for hard tiincs as eiulnred by our fathers and' 
mothers in the early settlement of the country, and by myself) 
and thousands of others, as late as 1842. This much for my' 
opinion, founded on foity years' observation, that the goodnesat. 

50 iiiSTor.Y o;- <;i:i;k>;k coLyrr. 

or wortlilcssness of paper money does not depend so much on 
",he real solvency of the corporations that issue the same as on 
the determined combinations of business men, who decide before 
Jiaud that they will put one up and another down. As illus- 
trative of this, I will record an old story, that no doubt many 
of the old men of Greene county have already heard. I have 
it from good authority. Many years ago when banks went 
up and down — almost annually — Gideon Johns, whom many of 
•Us knew, was in Baltimore on business. One morning there 
came a rumor that caused an immediate panic. Slam ! went the 
doars of the rickety banks, and the brokers began to count over 
tlie funds in the safes, as eagerly as a card-player ever inspected 
his deal. When several of them found they had considerable 
amounts on Brownsville Bank, the thought was a simultaneous 
one — no'.v l3t us grab their gold before they hear this news — 
for there was no telegraph in those days, and we'll send a man 
Ut once, and lay their much-boasted specie over the Blue moun- 
\ ains, where it will soon command a high premium. No matter 
now how imparative the business of Mr. Johns, in Baltimore, 
as a good loyal friend of the bank, he now has paramount in- 
leret^ts at Brownsville ; the stage (the only means of convey- 
ance then) is ready, and Gen. Johns has a seat and whirls away. 
By his side sits a quiet, reticent man, and as the long hours pass 
away they become somewhat acquainted, and finally make the 
discovery that they both stop at Brownsville. After a few 
pauses and conmients, Mr. Johns is in possession of the all im- 
portant fact that this man now carries in his "belt," thirty thous- 
and dollars of Brcwnsville paper, for which he is going to try 
to get the specie. Mr. Johns assures him that for that little 
sum it is scarcely worth while to call at the bank, that almost 
any of the merchants of the place can furnish him the 'change" 
in time for the morning stage for the East, and he need not wait, 
till nine o'clock for the bank to open. The stranger, however, 



thinlcs this is yarning ; but finally Brownsville is reached, it is' 
one o'clock in the morning, and no time is to be lost. Mr. 
Johns knows that the teller sleeps in the bank. He first sees, 
that the stranger is safely ensconced at Workman's hotel, then. 
wends his way down the dark, back street to the Bank, knocks 
first lightly, then vigorously, then furiously. A cross voice 
from within demands. '-Who's there?" "Gideon Johns," is the 
response. "What docs Gideon Johns want at this time of 
night?" is the question asked. "Come here to the keyhole and 
I will tell you," is the intimation. The teller approaches, re- 
ceives the information, admits Mr. Johns, and wakens up the 
(-ashicr and President. Several good horses make fast time out 
into the country and back for the purpose of borrowing the 
various "piles" of old Jonathan Sharpless, Daniel Brubaker, 
Solomon G. Krepps and his father, as well as various parties in 
town. Against daylight the horses are all back in their stables, 
the specie is in the store at Goodlo Bowman, the old Cashier. 
Old man Workman gets a hint of the way he may talk to his 
Eastern guest at breakfast, and ])lays his part well, informing 
liim that he can be off m the morning coach if he wishes to, as 
"A[r. Bowman or any of these round here, can pay 
you that little sum." The stranger calls, receives his specie, and 
is off, believing that he has visited the "Golconda." And 
Brownsville Bank, with a dcjtleted i)ile of specie, is a stronger 
bank, so much so, that her notes were locked up to that extent 
that they did not relieve the distresses of the people to half the 
degree that the notes of Waynesburg did, although they had 
n )tliiiig like the same amount of hallalujahs sung in their wake. 
In view of all this, I conclude that the businessmen of this land 
could have made tlie Continental money good, and thus saved 
all the aecuimdated suffering that was the consequence of its 
failure. That the business men of this land did keep the notes 
of the Old United States Bank up to par and even at a premium 


when there was very little, perhaps almost no specie in her 
vaults. I conclude that the business men of this nation could 
have accepted Martin Van Buren's Sub-Treasury propositioii 
and could have saved the hard times of 1839 and 1840. I con- 
clude that if General Harrison had not died just when he did 
lie would have signed the bank bill and then the business men 
of this nation would have made money abundant and good 
and thus would have saved all the disasterous losses of 1842 
and 1845. I conclude that the greenbacks would have went 
ilat to the ground, except for payment of debts, had it not 
tfcen that the business men took hold of this paper, as well as the 
national currency, they smiled on all that spoke well of it, 
1 )oked sour and stamped their feet, denouncing as disloyal all 
who doubted its intrinsic excellency ; and thus they brought 
these notes up and have kept them up, to a standard of excel- 
lence that has never been surpassed by any paper money in the 
civilized w^orld, and I conclude that whenever these business 
men think it will promote their secular interests, pecuniary 'ad- 
advantages, or political aspirations, (judging the future by the 
past,) they will at once tear down the magnificient currency 
that has so long blessed us, and leave in its stead nothing but 
poverty and financial disaster. Whenever the disastrous wave 
shall start in Wall Street, I presume it will be found to be 
irresistably rolling on still further Avestward, depreciating val- 
ues, undermining confidence, and crushing out business until 
its direful work is done. 

Topography. — Thus far I have said but little with reference 
to the topography of Greene county. At a distance we often 
hear people say with a sneer, "the Greene county hills," as 
though it was composed entirely of hills. Now there are abun- 
dance of hills in this county, yet it is exhonerated from the 
possession of mountains, and we are content to be left in the 
possession of green hills whose very sumits are rich ; yet as it 



always did require two liills to form one valley, m'c find about 
this proportion in the entire southwestern portion of the county, 
while in the extreme eastern portion the valleys extend on al- 
most continuously without the interruption of a single hill. 
The southwestern portion of the county slopes toward the Ohio 
river and is drained by the waters of "Wheeling creek which 
unites with the "Beautiful River" (Ohio) at the city of Wheel- 
ing. The numerous affluents of this stream are known as En- 
low's Fork, Hunter's Fork, South Fork, Thomas' Fork, Owens' 
Run, Wharton's Run, Crab Apple Kun. Some of the tributa- 
ries of Fish Creek also rise in this county on the southwestern 
slope. But the prmcipal part of the county is dranied toward 
the east and northeast, where Big Tenmile foi-ms the line be- 
i.\veen Greene and Washington counties up to the junction of 
ihe north and south fork at Clarksville, some three or four 
miles from the mouth of the large creek at Millsboro, where it 
■empties into the Monongahela river. From Clarksville to what 
ivas formerly known as Wallace's Mill, the north fork divides 
■lie two counties and then bears off still more northwesterly, 
".'xclusively in Washington county. The large stream of Dunk- 
ird rises partly in West Virginia and paitly in Greene county, 
Ahere after crossing and reorossing Mason and Dixon's line 
it flows about m a northeast direction and empties into the 
Monongahela river a short distance above Greensboro opposite 
New Geneva. ]>ig Whiteley, Little Whiteley, Muddy Creek, 
Pumpkin Run and the South fork of Tenmile, drain the re- 
mainder of the eastern slope of the county. Of these the South 
fork is much the longest stream, fully three-fourths of the 
length of the county, receiving into its bosom, above Waynes- 
burg, the waters of Bates' P^'ork, Brown's Fork, Claylick, Pur- 
sley Creek and Smith Creek. Below Waynesburg, it is sup- 
plemented from the north by the waters of Ruffs Creek about 
4;hree miles above Jefferson. But the great water course of the 

54 iiiSTOUv OI- <;::i:i;Ni' countv. 

county is the Monong.aliola river, Avhich rises in Randolph 
county, West Virginia, at the foot of Laurel Hill Mountain ; it 
flows in a northward direction for about three hundred miles, 
including its numerous bends and curves, to Pittsburg, where 
uniting Avith the Allegheny river, the two form the placid Ohio. 
' It is from three to four hundred yards wide through the last 
hundred miles of its course. The waters are exceedingly tur- 
bid and muddy, notwithstanding the accession of the two little 
mountain rivers of Youghiogheny and Cheat, which flow into 
it from the eastern side, the waters of these streams being re- 
markably clear. The Monongahela is made navigable at most 
seasons as far as Greensboro by the construction of six or seven 
dams, at the end of which a capacious lock allows the large 
class of river steamers to pass through. It is said to derive its 
name from its highly discolored waters to which the Indians 
gave the name Monongahela or Muddy Water. Beyond the 
boundary of our State some of its tributaries are Tigart Valley,. 
West Fork, Decker's Creek, at Morgantown, Buffalo near Fair- 
mount, Pricket's Creek, Morgan Creek, &c. 

Geology. — In geology very little has been done in a sci- 
entific way by wliich the reader can be enlightened. The rocks 
however appear to belong to the upper series of bituminous coal 
formation, consisting of alternate strata of sand stone shales, and 
limestone with intermediate beds of coal of from two to six 
feet in thickness. These alternate stratas extend nearly all 
over the county, deeply buried in some of the central parts, but 
cropping out on both the eastern and western sloj^es in the 
vicinity of the larger streams, where an excellent article of 
stone coa^. is found in connection with a hard blue limestone^ 
In some of the more elevated regions coal for fuel must be 
transported a few miles, while a soft, yellow limestone is found 
on the sumits of the very highest hills. These hill-tops are the 
favorite sleeping places of the numerous flocks of fine sheep that 

insTor.Y OF or.r.i.xK county. 55 


are being rapidly bred and kept upon them, and the time is not 
far distant when it can be truthfully said that the flocks are 
roaming "on a thousand hills." , 

Timber. — A history of Greene county would be incomplete 
without a description of the magnificent timber with which her 
hil!s and valleys rrj adorned. Much of this original growth hrs 
been wasted by ''the prodigal practice of girdling, or deadening,, 
by which means some of the loftiest forests have been destroyed! 
ui a few years; yet vast groves of it still remain, consisting of' 
oak, poplar, hickory, ash, walnut, &c. A few years ago in' 
making rails, we cut several oaks that made five rail cuts to the 
tree. During the last summer while we were building a barn, 
we had no difliculty in securing trees that would square eigli 
or ten inches, fifty feet long. One of my neighbors cut several 
logs sixty feet long ; he also cut one tree which made three 
thousand five hundred shingles, each shingle tAventy-eight inches 
long. We also cut one i)oplar tree the smooth trunk of which 
measured sixty-nine feet in length. The timber in these groves 
is so perfect that it can be riven into shingles that need almost 
no shaving. Some twelve years ago a man in my woods split' 
four hundred rails in a day, the timber being previously cut ! The 
upper end of this county is very justly called the region of' 
"White IIoiscs,"' from the fact that almost all the buildings are' 
weatlierboarded with poplar, which, when painted, is much' 
whiter than pine. j 

ExECUTivK CouN'ciL. — 111 examining the Acts of this body I' 
find a few scraps of Greene county history. One is dated Phil- 
adelphia, August 7th, 1788, as follows: "Two certificates frorai 
the County of General Quarter Sessions of the peace for the 
county of Washingfon, that a division of the districts of the 
townships of Cumberland and ^Morgan in said county, has been- 
made agreeable to Act of Assembly, dated the 31st of March,' 
1784, for tlie election of Justice of tlie Peace has been proper; 


and will be useful, which were received and read on the 6th of 
May, were this day taken into consideration and the decision as 
made by the same Courtjconfirmed." Also that Thomas Ryerson 
Avas appointed and commissioned Justice of the Peace of Rich- 
iliill township, at Philadelphia, on the 8th of April, 1789." Also 
I that "John Minor, Esq., was appointed and commissioned a 
Justice of the Peace, and of the Court of Common Pleas in and 
for the county of Washington upon a return made according to 
law from the district of the township of Greene," (now in 
Greene county). This was done at Philadelphia Nov. 30, 1789- 
Also a lectcr was received at Philadelphia from Thomas Rier- 
son, Esq., on the Sth of March, 1790, relative to the defence of 
the "N^'cstcrn portion against the invasion of the Indians. 
The constitution of 1790, going into effect at this time, the 
body called the Supreme Executive Council was abolished. 
Although its minutes fill twenty-eight octavo volumns, yet as 
our county had no separate existence then, it is only occasion- 
illy that I find a scrap that I am able to localize as having ref 
Brence to any part of this territory. 


Soon after the middle of the Eighteenth Century the region 
of country lying west of tlie Allegheny Mountains became the 
Eldorado of emigration. The Inirdy bucksin-clad explorer had 
■ crossed that lofty barrier, had paddled his hand-made raft 
■across the turbid waters of the Monongahela and held on 
fhis western way' until he had stood on the margin of "The 
(Beautiful River," Ohio. Then he had turned his face eastward 
and had described, in terms of exaggerated wonder, the country 

iiisTf)i:v or (;ui:i,v;.: coi"N"ty. 57 

he had seen, its fertile liills, its quiet valleys, its pearly streams, 
its magnificent forests of oak, pojjlar, sugar and hickory, until 
the (Icni/.eii who had years before })Urchased his few acres on 
the banks of the Brandywine around Havre De Grace, along 
the Susquehanna, or on the sites where now the cities of York, 
Cohunbia and Lancaster stand, when a feeling of uneasiness 
takes the place of contentment, and a desire to migrate to 
•'enter in and possess the land" becomes wide-spred. But the 
.■^lory does not stop here ; it is carried by the '-white- winged 
liicssongers" that had begun with considerable regularity to 
pldw the mighty Atlantic, until the tale of "Homes for the 
I Iiiii-.elct^s,"'' "Lai:d for the Landless" is again repeated in a still 
more exaggerated form around the turf-fires of the medium 
'■lasses of Scotch Irish in Leister, Antrim and Derry, until the 
bosom of the Old World heaves with a sigh of anxiety. But 
in order to make "assurance doubly sure," they call in the mes- 
senger who has brought these glad tidings, and ask him the 
all-i:ni)ortant question, how are we to get to these delightful 
lands ? Does no one else have a claim upon them ? The face 
o: the hitherto exhultant messenger becomes elongated; his 
l);ow becomes thoughtful, as he somewhat unwillingly admits 
that f roiu "Wills Creek" (Cumberland) to the "Western Wilds," 
thei'c is no road, no l)ridges, no houses of entertainment, no 
food cxcc})t what game may be found in the woods. Then 
c;mies the blood-curdling question from the excited Avife, ''But 
Inogh about the Injuns of whom we have hearntellsoo much?" 
'J'i) tliis (piestioii the messenger replies that tlie red man is still 
1 ird of the soil ; but his tomahawk is l>uried in an unknown 
place, his pipe of peace is in his hand, and he is ready on all 
occasions to smoke it with his pale-faced brother. As to his 
l:iii(l. he sets no price on it and is ever ivady to barter it away 
for a few strings of beads, a few yards of brilliant goods, pow- 
der, lead, hatchets, etc. He is then ready to exchange "speech 


belts," and live on terms of friendship and amity with all who 
may wish to become his neighbors. The fears of the intending 
emigrants are quieted by these representations, and the ques- 
tion is again repeated with reference to roads. On this subject 
the messenger can give no new light, and so the conversation 
ceases, and the emigrants remain where they are. But as tho 
Land of Canaan was prepared for the Hebrews, so this land 
must be prepared for the Scotch Irish. How is this to be done? 
Precisely in God's plan of making "the wrath of man to praise 
Him" and restraining the remainder thereof. Hence although 
the Royal Charters of Virginia and Pennsylvania had both 
been granted by English Kings, their right to sell this domain 
was by no means admitted by the rest of mankind. France 
claimed the country on the waters of the Ohio by right of pri- 
ority of discovery by La Salle in 1669. Immediately previous 
to the date at which our history begins, the French determined 
to expel all the English traders and erect a line of forts con- 
necting their dominions in Canada on the north with their do- 
minions in Louisiana in the South. To effect this purpose in 
1749, Captain Celeron de Bienville, with a detachment o5 two 
hundred soldiers, was sent down the Allegheny and Ohio rivers 
to take military possession of these streams and their tributa- 
ries and tJl the lands that were drained thereby. In order to 
do this in a tangible way they halted at all prominent places 
and deposited plates of lead with suitable incriptions thereon. 
The one at the point between the Allegheny and IMonongahela 
is dated at the Three Rivers, August 3d, 1749. This laid the 
foundation of the long and bloody French and English war in 
which France placed the tomahav/k and scalping knife in the 
hands of the Indian to be used in exterminating the traders and 
colonists of Great Britain. The French had the advantages of 
transportation on their side by descending the Allegheny river, 
while the English were compelled to cut at first a path and then 



a wagon road for the transportation of ordinance and supplies 
to the seat of war. This path was traveled by Washington,' 
guided by Christopher Gist, in the month of November, 1753,' 
on their way to Fort Le Boeuf. When the war had progressed' 
for some time the chivalrous Gen. Braddock was sent out to 
exterminate the French. This man had no notion of doing^ 
things by halves ; hence one of his first attentions was given, 
to the straightening and widening of this path into a road,' 
which has ever since borne his name. This road was (soon 
after the expulsion of the French from Fort Duquesne by Gen. 
Forbes) lined with wagons and pack horses conveying emigrants 
to what afterwards became the counties of Fayette, Washing- 
ton and Greene. Yet it could not be considered the thorough- 
fare of the two latter counties, for the main trunk of this road 
diverged from the route afterwards occupied by the Old Na- 
tional Uoad near the top of Laurel Hill, and bore more north- 
wardly, passing the new improvement of Christopher Gist on 
the sight of Mount Braddock ; thence by way of the "Wash- 
ington Bottoms" now Perryopolis; thence directly to the mouth 
of Turtle Creek, where it ceased in consequence of Braddock's 
defeat. There was, however, a branch road leading from Gist's 
Plantation to "Redstone Old Fort" (Brownsville.) This was 
the road along which the early settlers of this region came. 
Arriving at the ]Monoiigahela river andlindiug their road at an 
end, they distributed themselves up and down the river, until 
the prime lands on the eastern side were taken up. 

Thus far the student of Pennsylvania history has halted on 
the banks of this western "Jordan," and has only viewed the 
land of promise from the opposite shore. We are now about 
to cross. over into this Mesopotamian region, and look into the 
beginning of things over there. But let us advance slowly, 
for the red man still lurks in those valleys and builds his camp 
fires on those hills, and lie i)Ossibly may denumd our liair as the 


penalty of squatting on liis land. Before we make our domicil 
on the west side of this nniddy river, we had better ask the 
question, "Wliose dominion will we be under ?" for this is an 
unsettled question. William Penn has a charter for a tract of 
land five degrees of longitude west from the Delaware river, 
but this distance has not been measured yet; it has not yet 
l.)een determined how long a degree of longitude actually is in 
this degree of latitude ; for, although all parties are agreed as 
to the length of a degree on the Equator, we are now 40 de- 
grees north of the Eqitator, and the degi'ees shorten as the 
lines of longitude approach the Poles. All these questions are 
unsettled. Virginia as the Old Dominion, claims all lands not 
granted to some other colony. On the strength of this claim 
Virginia erected all the territory that was in dispute into three 
counties, viz : Ohio, Monongalia and Youghioglieny. The Court 
house of Monongalia county stood on lands of Theopolis Phil- 
lips, near New Geneva, immediately over against the tei'ritory 
that afterwards became Greene county. Lord Dunmore, the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, maintained that Penn's five degrees would, 
run out by the time tlie sumit of the Alleghenies was reached, 
Avhile even some of the sanguine friends of Pennsylvania 
Tule thought that tlieir western boundary would not go beyond 
the Monongahela. Dr. John Connolly, the tool of Lord Dun- 
more, finding the civil arm they pretended to wield too weak 
to answer their purposes, finally in January, 1774, usurped all 
power, civil, military and mixed, over this entire region. These 
and other reasons which existed from 1749 to 1774, will in 
part account for the tardiness of settlements on the west side 
of the Monongahela. And yet through all these perplexing 
complications the settlers came. Tlie first permanent commu- 
nity seems to have been on Muddy Creek, spreading out to- 
ward Tenmile on the nortli and Whitcley on the south! The 
beo"inning of this settlement seems to have been in 1769, 



and seems to have consisted of persons Avho were favorable to 
Pennsylvania rule. As the question of Dominion had at least 
been partially settled by the extension of Mason & DixonV 
line in 1767, as far as the second crossing of Dunkard creek, 
near where the town of JNIt. Morris now stands, where they 
wore forbidden to proceed by the Indian Chiefs, who seem to 
have thono-ht that as tliis ]):irt of the country was a "bone of 
contention" among the wliites, they (the Indians) the lords of 
the soil, might be ]:)ermitted to gnaw it a little also. While we 
lind Virginia spreading her mantle of goverimient over this dis- 
trict under different names, first as West Augusta and then as 
Monongalia county, Pennsylvania was by no means indifferent 
to her interests in this direction. Hence, she claimed junsdie- 
1 ion over this sama region as part of Bedford county. These 
•ounty officers in 1773 made the first assessment of the taxable 
nhabitants as part of Springhill townsliip, the major i:)art of 
which lay on the east side of the river, in Avhat is now Fay- 
ette county, where it still retains the same name. According 
lo tliis assessment the po})ulation of this settlement of 31uddy 
Creek at this date was not less than five liundred. Tliese set- 
tlers like those of Fayette county, had mostly come from along 
the Potomac, some from Virginia, some from ^Maryland, some 
(V(im the Kittatinny valley and some from Ireland. 

The oldest Presbyterian Churcli in Gi-eene county is on the 
waters of Muddy Creek. At the Jiouse of John Armstrong, in 
the bounds of this settlement, Kev. John McMillan preached his 
second sermon west of the mountains, in August, 177.'), having 
preached his first sermon in the west at old Mount Moriah 
Church in Fayette county on the previous day. The first appli- 
cation that was made for supplies to the old Presbytery of Ked- 
stone (after its erection in 1781) was fi-oni Muddy Creek and 
the South Fork of Ten Mile (Jefferson). There were also Bap- 
tist Churches on AVhiteley, Muddy Creek and Ten Mile organ- 


ized at about this rlato. I expect to 2:lvp :i sketch of the history 
of each of them as I ]irocecfl. But inasmuch as I have some 
personal knowledge of the Muddy Creek Church which extends 
back nearly fifty years, I may be permitted to refer to it here. 
This church has long been called Xew Providence, and is lo- 
latcd principally on the south side of the town of Carmichaels, 
tlie house of Avorship being about two miles from the village. 
Fifty years ago Uev. George Vaneman was jjastor of this 
church. He was a short, stout man, nervous and quick in his 
movements, and somewhat remarkable for his sallies of quick 
wit, as the following Avill illustrate: About the year 1830 the 
Presbytery of Redstone convened at Georges Creek Church. 
,\.n ordination Avas to take place, and Rev. Vaneman was ap- 
I)ointcd to preach the sermon. He retired from the house to 
make his preparation. The day was Avarm and sunny, caus- 
ing him to seek the shade on the north Avcstern side of the 
house along the graA'e yard Avail, Avhere he began to pace back 
and forth the entire length of the shade. While thus engaged 
in thoughtful meditation, one of his brethren came out of the 
house to indulge in chcAving a quid of tobacco. At the corner 
of the house he encountered Re\'. Vaneman, who during his 
meditations had lighted his pipe. The intruder immediately 
assailed hnn Avith the accusation, "Ah ! you are at your Idol !" 
To AAdiich Mr. Vaneman instantly and mournfully replied, "Yes, 
but I am burning mine Avhile you are rolling yours like a sweet 
morsel under your tongue." For many long years — I do not 
knoAV how many, but think it must be fully forty — Rev. John 
McClintock has been pastor of the same old Church. A man 
as orthodoxy as John Calvin himself ; exceedingly fraternal ; a 
most exemplary pastor, Avho is almost alone in this fast age 
from the fact that he has the good fortune of wearing well. 
He never indulges in any kind of levity. I have heard it posi- 
tively asserted that he never did laugh in his life. This I, 

iiiSTor.v 01" or.Ki.NK cuntv. 63] 

could scarcely believe : but the assertion was positively macle 
and maintained at a wedding where I officiated in the town of 
Joll'erson, 20 years ago, on tlic part of the bride, who gave the 
following story to prove her assertion : "We were regular 
hearers of Mr. McClintock at Jefferson. One hot day my father 
}iad gone to church while I stayed at home to prepare dinner. 
J'^ither brought Mr. McClintock home with him. When they 
arrived I had tlic table set on the back porch. I was about 
to remove it and place it in the dining room, when Mr. Mc- 
Clintock interfered and insisted tliat we should leave the table 
where it was. Just after we had seated ourselves and the 
blessing was asked, footsteps were heard approaching around 
the upper end of the house, and immediately the crazy man, 
McXurlin, made his appearance, looking tired, dirty and hun- 
gry. Father at once directed me to get him a plate, etc., 
which I (lid, the crazy man all the while maintaining a pro- 
found silence. When all but him were done, the preacher re- 
turned thanks. As soon as the voice of prayer was heard 
McXurlin reverently bowed his head and remained quiet until 
it was over. The family then withdrew from the table, but 
remained seated on the porch, Mr. McClintock leading the 
conversation while I served the crazy man who had taken an- 
other cup of tea, and still continued to eat. Finally he was 
done, when he at once duly crossed his knife and fork on his 
plate, which he pushed back a few inches, laid his hands rev- 
erently on tlie table, and said ; "Xow Lord I thank thee for 
what I have eaten over and above since the preacher thanked 
thee, amen !" Tlie rest of us withdrew from the porch in order 
to take a hearty laugh, but Mr. McClintock remained quiet, 
liis countenance bearing a more sober look." I gave the argu- 
ment iq), and have ever since regarded llev McClintock as one 
of the most remarkable men of our age. In the bounds oi 
this congregation sixty years ago lived David Veech, the father 

64- lUhTOKv OK <;i:i:kni', iOUNTT. 

of the Hon. James Vcccli. Of this old gcntlemnn's antece- 
dents I know nothing, but lie himself" was remarkable for 
his steady and quiet, oven-going industry. I heard my old 
aunt who raised )ne tell this as illustrative of his "dilligcnce in 
business" as well as his "fervency of spirit," and urbane hospi- 
tality. The date Avas upwards of sixty years ago. It was 
seeding time in the autumn ; tlie dav of the week was Saturday : 
the next day Avas communion. M^^ aunt and her sister had 
ridden across from old Dunlap's Creek ; preaching was at 2 
o'clock. When tlie service was over no one was more diligent 
ii anting up the strangers than Mr. Veech. He was about the 
'ist man to leave the place, for fear some stranger would not 
1k' supplied with lodging. My Aunt and her sister were two 
of the niany guests that were taken to Mr. Veech's own house. 
Alter the horses of the strangers were all fed they were turned 
out in the big meadow in the best pasture on the farm. Su]i- 
])er was now ready, and w^hen all w^ere fed, and there remained 
nothing more that he could do for the comfort of his guests, 
Mr Veech quietly withdrew to his barn, slipped the harness on 
his horses, and in the twilight hooked them up to his plow and 
peacefully laid over his furrows side by side, round and round 
the field until nine o'clock at night, while his female guests sat 
on his spacious porch and watched the operation by the light of 
the full moon. He did not claim two or three hours sleep on 
Sabbath morning to compensate him for this extra labor, but 
was the first to rise and assist his family and numerous guests 
in preparing for the sanctuary. I had one little business trans- 
action with this old gentleman about the year 18.51, after his 
removal to Uniontown. I was building a new house and was 
in need of some clear pine lumbei', and as habit had become 
second nature with Mr. Veech he must have something to do, 
and consequently he kept a small board yard of pine lumber I 
was advised to go to him as he would '-do better for me than 

iiiSTOKV OK <;ri;i;xk county. 


any one else ;" yet wlien I asked liim his prices they were so 
high that I ahiiost dedined purchasing of him. But as the 
team was there I concUuled to risk it, and found that "he did 
do better for nic than any one else ;" every board with the least 
fracture or knot was laid aside, so that T shoidd have exactly 
wliat I contracted for, "clear stuff." This little transaction 
gave me a high opinion of the old gentleman's conscientious in- 
tegrity. To his son. Judge A'eeeh, I am greatly indebted for 
many of the facts and dates of this history. I have drawn on 
liim freely for everything but phascology. The first time I ever 
saw him was about 1837. He and his sister Rebecca, (who 
afterwards became the wife of Rev. Joel Stoneroad) were, on a, 
.•isit to Fayette county. I knew more about the son than I 
rlid about the father, and yet I have written much more about 
Lhe latter than T intend to do about the former, from the fact 
that it would seem like a piece of unpardonable egotisiii for mc 
to attempt, with as feeble a pen as mine, to describe the pro- 
found scholar, the successful lawyer, the exalted judge, and the 
accurate historian, which all found their in the })er- 
son of James Veech. The last person that T shall at present 
mention as living within the bounds of this settlement fifty 
years ago, is James Barns, a millwright liy trade, and one of 
the few men justly entitled to the name of nu'chanic. The first 
time I ever saw him was in 1831, while he was engaged in 
building an oil mill for Andrew Olihpai^.t, Esq., in Fayette Co, 
As an oil mill was something new in this section of the country 
at that date, Mr. Barnes received a great deal of grntuitous ad- 
vice from would-be machinists, who thoi;ght they "knowed it 
all." To all this unasked advice he resjiectfuUy listened, then 
took his own way, and when the mill was done it was f(v.nid to 
be a model of perfection. We may inadvertantly allow our- 
selves to think that in a dense, heavy timbered wilderness, sucli 
as this was one hundred and fifty years ago, all the roads 


Misioiiv oi <;in:i;N:. < 

were started by guess, and all llie lauds taken up at random. 
Kothing is farther from the truth than sucli a couclnsion. As 
an illustration, the old pack horse path from Wills creek (Cum- 
berland) across the mountains, that was located without either 
CO .nijass or quadrant, was ascertained to be the very best grade 
iliat coidd ]iossibly be found. So with many of our Virginia 
roads. This was also the case in tlie taking up of land. It 
i'ivas not done at rendom ; but on the contrary "our fathers" 
'seemed to have had a map of the whole country, as it would 
be in one hundred years, spread out before the eye of their 
inind before they made their selection. Such was pre-eminently 
the case in the settlement of the eastern part of Greene county. 
I am quite extensively acquainted in Western Pennsylvania, 
"iiud I know of no body of land of equal extent that is so mag- 
'niucieritly situated as the region fronting on the Monongahela 
river, Ibetween Whiteley creek on the south and Tcnmile on 
the north, including the entire region of Muddy Creek, the 
Valley of IJuffs Creek and extending up the south fork of Ten- 
mile beyond Waynesburg. Much of the land is almost level, 
just rolling enough to drain it completely. Its serpentine 
creeks, runs and rivulets are in many places adorned with 
fringes of evergreens, such as pine, hemlock, cedar and laurel, 
i)oneath whose perpetual foliage, steep bluffs, huge chasms and 
Vugged rocks all assist in lending "enchantment to the view." 
Some of these groves and caves in the vicinity of Jefferson de- 
■serve particular description. About one mile west of the town 
^he south fork makes almost a complete circle, reaching ait its 
furthest eastern extremity, almost to the brick house built by 
old Mr. Luse, and occupied twenty years ago by my friend M. 
W. Denny, Esq. The creek then returns westward until it is 
within some six or eight rods of the place where it began the 
curve. Down the center of this dividing ridge the great "drove 
road" from west to east divides the splendid little valley into , 

HisTor^Y or (;rj:i:xE cointy. 67 

about equal pavt?. and then passes over a noble ridge near the 
Denny mansion. I have often wondered that some capitalist 
did not utilize this vrater by throwing a dam across at the upper 
end of the curve, tunneling through the narrow hill and erect- 
ing mills of some kind below. One pine grove demands a no- 
tice in the history of the "State of Greene." It is on the north 
of the town of Jefferson, overlooking the creek just above the 
mill dam that belonged to William Davis twenty years ago. 
This grove one hundred years ago was very extensive, covering 
the entire "plateau" of level land where the village has long 
stood. But it has been curtailed until it does not exceed three 
or four acres, part of which was enclosed in the fair grounds* 
a score of years since, and is now the site of Monongahela Col- 

In the year 1831 a new denomination called the Cumberland 
Presbyterians, in the State of Tennessee and Kentucky, sent out 
John Morgan, Alfred Bryan, Reuben Burrow, Robert Donnel. 
Leroy Woods, Milton Bird and Alexander Chapman, as minis- 
ters to Westsrn Pennsylvania in the interest of the new church. 
Tfiese men came to Washington county, into what is some- 
times called the "Jersey Settlement," on the North Fork of 
Tenmile, near where the town of Prosperity now stands. 
They came out at the invitation of Luther Day, Odle Squier, 
William Stockdale and Isaac Connet. These men were very 
genteel in their appearance, exceedinly fluent in speech, entirely 
Presbyterian in their forms, and above all they sustained the 
scmi-sacred character of missionaries preaching the Gospel with- 
otit money and without price, for the only seeming purpose of 
having sinners converted. They made no effort to organize rival 
churches, but labored day and night for the seeming purpose of- 
having the old Presbyterian Church gloriously revived. If all 
parties had been wise as serpents and harmless as doves, 
no doubt great and ]»ernianont good would have been accom- 


iiisrouv oi' r.uKKNi-; county. 

plislied. But human nature often involves the actors in trouble. 
Instead of taking the advice of Ganialie they fii-st became "too 
good" to last, and then became hostile rivals. I never could 
?ec any good reason for envious rivalry between these denomi- 
;:iaLions. Be this as it may, such was the case in Washington 
county. This and other reasons induced these missionaries to 
come to Greene county, where they held a meeting in the 
|)ine grove before mentioned, Avhich was attended with 
great success, and where the enemy of souls was very anxiour, 
to do evil. While some one was preaching at the stand on 
Sabbath day, the sharp eye of the Rev. John Morgan discov- 
ered that prei)aration was being made some thirty rods from 
'the stand for a horse race. lie inmiediately descended from the 
stand, slid noislessly through the crowd until he was in the 
midst of the sportsmen, when he opened his Bible and read the 
text, ''Why stand ye here all the day idle," from which he 
preached a powerful sermon, standing on a pine stump, and 
that Avas the end of the horse race. A Cumberland Church was 
the result of these meetings, to which I ministered twenty years 
ago, and for all the membership Avho composed the Church at 
that date, and all who survive, I have nothing else but feelings 
of the highest respect — many of their names I recall, some of 
them I mention, viz: Hon. ThosP. Pollock and family av ho re- 
sided at the mill ; also the two sons who resided in town ; Wm. 
Davis and family, Richard Hawkins and family, John Prior 
and family, John Lindsey and family, Francis Moudy, Avhoso 
Avife Avas a Baptist, but none the less hospitable on that account, 
M. W. Denny, etc. W. T. II. Pauley OAvned a farm in that 
neighborhood then, and Avould occasionally call in and see 
us, especially when I preached at the school house near his 
country residence. He often took me home Avith him, Avhere 
he, on one occasion, offered to help me to a piece of the "Rocky 
Mountain Shad." On .another occasion in my sermon I had 

HISTORY OF <;ki:kxk county. 69 

maint.aincfl that those Avho laid claim to the liighest perfection 
ill the present life often came much farther short of it thart 
tliose who tlid not make such liigli sounding pretentions. As 
nil ilhistiation I referred to a Western Resei-ve Yankee, 
wlio asserted that he was as perfect as Adam was in the Gar- 
ilcn of Eden hefore he fell ; yet I had seen this man go out on 
S:il)l):it!i morning to limit his cow that had strayed off on 
Thursday previous. After we were seated in Mr. Pauley's par- 
lor, he said with a serious air, there was one thing he would 
like to know — "whether that man ever found his cow." But I 
give it u\K Avho could describe the editor of the Messenger ? 
15ut I will for the present leave this smooth, level region, prom- 
ising to i-eturn again and extend my history of this section so 
soon as I am fully informed on some subjects that I now only 
liave a 'partial knowledge of; and as I leave them for the pre- 
sent T shull go to a region very justly called Richhill, for al- 
thougli the part I have been describing is almost destitute of 
hills, tiie county at large has certainly no reason to complain; 
and as one portion has been so nearly exhonerated, it seemed 
l)ut rcasoiiub'.o tliat the other part should have a double portion ; 
and for fear the inhabitants of this section should be dis- 
posed to complain, as they vainly tried to farm both sides of 
some of their liilly acres, an indulgent Creator determined if 
tlu'v 'lid have hills they should have a deep fertile soil: hence 
tlie "fathers" in their wisdom put both these facts together in 
the name they gave this township. But inasmuch as our data 
lor history does not extend back into the last century, but is 
wiiolly coiiiined to this, I deem it proper at this place briefly to 
notice the erection of the county itself. In the year 1781, the 
Suinvme Executive Council and Legislature of Pennsylvania 
erected -All that i)art of the State of Pennsylvania west of the 
Monongahela river, and south of the Ohio, beginning at the 
junction of said rivers, tlience up the ]Monongahela river afore- 


said, to the line run by Mason & Dixon, thence by the said linei 
due west to the end thereof; and from thence the same course 
to the end of the five degrees of west longitude, to be computedi 
from the river Delaware ; thence by a meridian line extending 
north until the same shall intersect the Ohio river, and thence 
by the same to the place of beginning, to be called henceforth \ 
the county of Washington." All will see at a glance that this ' 
boundary included the whole of Greene county. The town- 
ships of Morgan, Cumberland, Franklin, Greene and Richhill, 
in their original undivided forms, were townships in AYasliing- 
ton county, and so existed until the 9th of February 1796, when 
l)y act of the Legislature Washington county was divided, the 
soutlieastern portion of it being erected in a new county to be 
called Greene. The boundary line is described in these words: 
'•Beginning at the mouth of Tenmile on the Monongahela river; 
Ihence up Tenmile to the junction of the north and south forks 
<:>f said creek ; thence up the north fork to Col. William Wal- 
lace's Mill; thence up in a southwestern direction to the nearest 
pai't of the dividing ridge between the north and south forks 
of Tenmile creek ; thence along the top of said ridge to the 
ridge which divides Tenmile from Wheeling creek ; thence by 
a straight line to the head of Enlow's branch of Wheeling ; 
thence down said branch to the western boundary of the State; 
thence by State line south to the end of Mason & Dixon's line : 
thence along said line east to the Monongahela river, and thence 
down said river to the place of beginning." On the 22d of 
January, 1802, by authority of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
the following alteration took place in the line between Greene - 
and Washington counties : Beginning at the present line on 
the ridge that divides the waters of Tenmile fi*om Wheeling, 
near Jacob Babbit's ; thence by a straight line to the head wa- 
ters of Hunter's fork of Wheeling creek, and thence down the 
\ same to the mouth thereof, where it' meets the present county 

iiiSTor:v 0[- <;::i;i;Nr. countv. 71 

line. It will thus ho seen Richliill wns one of the original 
townsliips of Washington county, an;l was entirely witliout di- 
vision or subtraction (except this little piece) set over into 
Greene. Of its early inhabitants I liave but little information. 
It seems to have been hampered and injured by three large land 
grants, known as the "Lieper Lands,"' "Cook Lands," and "Ry- 
erson Lands," all of which I propose to more particularly de- 
scribe in an appendix to this work. As it Avas uncertain where 
the boundaries were, or in whom the title was vested at differ- 
ent dates, it led in many instances to the |)artial settlement of 
land without a title, and as the occupant felt that he was only 
a "squatter," as a matter of course he made as little improve- 
ment as possible, skimmed the surface of the soil for the scanty 
pittance it afforded, sowed no grass for enriching the land, cut 
no hay for the wintering of his stock, depending on the little 
straw from which he expected to pound his wheat with a flail, 
whenever dire necessity compelled him to do so. The few 
shocks of tops that he cut off his corn stocks, and the husks 
that were thrown into the rail pen at the "husking," made up 
the balance of his winter feed, which Avas usually all exhausted 
by the first of March. His only dependence from that time 
till grass came, Avas "brows," which Avas procured by cutting 
doAvn the small maples and hickories, the buds and young 
leaves of Avhich Avere a substitute for a better feed. A consid- 
erable portion of the toAvnship Avas thus deprived of that health- 
giving emulation that is ])roduced only by OAvncrship. Habits 
of idleness Avas the result of this state of things up to the be- 
ginning of the jiresent century. Soon after that date a differ- 
ent kind of ])eople began to arrive, Avho were not Avilling to 
"squat," on any man's land, but either took out their jjatent 
•from the Land Office at once, or purchased their land from some 
one who had previously done so. Among this number was 
Francis Braddock, who settled on land still owned bv his de- 

niSTo::v of (;i:kkni.: colnty. 

scendents, in 1805. This man was of Scotch descent on his 
mother's side, and of English descent on his father's side, (a ; 
distant relative of the unfortunate English General who 
figured so prominently in the campaigns of 1754-5.) He was 
undoubtedly a good judge of land, having selected some of the 
finest in the township. lie was a zealous, earnest, uncompro- 
mising Presbyterian, and seems to have been the means of 
gathering kindred spirits of the same faith and order around 
liim. In the year 1809, two brothers, Moses and Thomas Dins- 
more, who were of Scotch Irish descent, became settlers in this 
township, on lands still held by their descendants. They also 
were Presbyterians. One peculiarity of both these original 
families was the number of their sons that became ministers 
in the Presbyterian Church. Three of the sons of Francis 
Braddock, Sr., viz : Francis, Jr., Cyrus G. and Joseph, were 
inducted into the ministry. While David and James H. still hold 
the original lands, they are both elders in the Presbyterian 
Church of Unity. Of the sons of Moses Dinsmore six studied 
for the ministry, and have gone to different parts of the land, 
principally in the West, while the two sons of Thomas Dins- 
more, Robert and John G., still own the original land. The 
latter of these Avas recently the High Sheriff of Greene county. 
John Conkey came as a poor boy from Virginia, early in the 
present century ; he worked for a long time as a hired hand on 
Ruff's creek, then near Amity, W^t^shington county, carefully 
husbanding all his wages, until he was in possession of a suffi- 
ciency to purchase a good farm pleasantly situated on the south 
fork of Tenmile, adjoining lands of the Braddock settlers. From 
this beginning he eventually came into possession of some of 
ihe best farms in the neighborhood. He still lives, and is up- 
wards of ninety years of age. He is a quiet, conscientious man, 
»a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Immedi- 
ately below Mr. Conkey, lived, until a few ^^ears ago, anoth- 

iiisToi'.Y or f;iu:i:xi-: countv. 73 

2:- old settlor, David Enoch. The organ of acquisitiveness 
was veiy fully dovcloi)e(l in this old man. The situation was 
favorable for making money, being right on the great Drove 
Uoad from west to east. Fifty years ago, during the summer 
mouths, this road was croAvded with light beef and stock cattle. 
In the fall and early winter it was tedious traveling Avestward 
on this road from the fact that you were continually meeting 
droves of fat hogs. In March and April the large fat cattle 
from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, began to arrive. They left 
the road in a fearful condition ; treading in each others stejis 
lliey would form ridges across the road making travel in a car- 
liago almost an impossibility. These drovers left a large 
amount of money with Mr. Enoch, which he husbanded with 
great care, putting it out on interest always in safe places, and 
allhough he could not write his name, he never made a mistake 
in the calculation of interest. Even when partial payments 
were made his calculation was said to be right. Immedi- 
ately below on the same road lived until a few years ago. Dr. 
Wm. I>. I*orter, who made a fortune in the practice of medicine, 
farming and keeping stock. I was acquainted with his ances- 
tors in Fayette county, high-toned honoi'able, pious people, al- 
ways ready for every good word and work. The Dr.'s wife 
was a daughter of Dr. Ilcnry Blachfey, of Washington county, 
who always seconded his efforts for the improvement of his 
farm, the beautifying of his buildings, at the same time never 
forgetting the wants of the poor and the necessities of the 
church, of which she was a consistent member. 

About one mile nortli of the State road lived for many years 
Abraham C. Rickey, who even down to old age was a living 
illustrationof the advantage of being '"diligent in business" as 
well as "fervent in spirit." He began the world under unfavor- 
ble circumstances, grubbed out the saplings where afterwards 
his buildings stood, imjirove'! his rough acres until he was 

74 nisr();.\ <ji <i;;i;i:N!; cf>i n rv. 

one of the foremost grain raisers in tlie township. He early 
gave attention to the improvement of stock, until instead of 
j-aising small-bodied cattle with large horns, ho succeeded in 
raising large bodies and small horns. In the last years of his 
life he was a successful raiser of fine sheep. While thus care- ' 
ful about worldly things he esteemed "the prosperity of Zion 
above his chief joy." He w'as always one of the burden-bear- 
ers of the Church, and during the last two years of his life he 
gMve two hundred dollars towards erecting a new church at 
<jl raysville, and it seemed to afford him abundant satisfaction 
on his death-bed to think that he could leave the little church, 
■or which lie had prayed and labored so long, in possession of 
a neat, comfortable house. In this township has long lived 
jjortions of a family of Teagardens ; some of them still living 
in and around Clarksville. They are so numerous that they 
deserve special mention, and I will give such facts and figures 
about them as I have gleaned from various som-ces as well as 
from personal knowledge. Abraham Teagarden settled at 
Red Stone Old Fort (Brownsville) in 1767, two years before 
any portion of Greene county w'as settled. About two years 
afterward, two of his sons, William and David, crossed over 
into what afterwards became Greene county, and made Toma- 
hawk imjjrovements, one along the river, including the landings 
of both the ferries that have long been known as "Jerry David- 
son's" and "David Davidson's." The other* son took up one 
thousand acres of land on Tenmlle creek, between Millsboio 
and Clarksville. This son, after making his pre-emption marks 
around his land, returned to the "old Fort," where he was mar- 
ried to a Miss Treble. After the honeymoon was over he be- 
came very anxious to improve his land, and his young wife, 
like a true help-meet, consented to accompany him, although 
she was to be surrounded by savage beasts and more savage 
men. Soon the logs for a cabin are cut, hauled to the place,. 


and the few settlers that were found on the west side of the 
river, are invited to the raising. Just as the first log is about 
to be laid in its place, lo ! a freebooter of the woods put in an 
appearance and claimed the land as his own, and forbade the 
improvement going on imtil the question of title was settled by 
a fist and skull fight. Teagarden was young and active, but 
his antagonist was a man of war from his youth, yet he (Tea- 
garden) quailed not. Having asked his friends to show nothing 
but fair play, he "buckled in." After a long, bloody and doubt- 
ful battle, victory perched upon Teagarden's baimer. The bul- 
ly, a brave but unprincii)led man, acknowledged himself van- 
quished. After he had washed himself and the wife of the man 
whose rights had been called in question, had dressed his 
wounds, he turned in and helped raise the cabin, fonnally re- 
•iinquished all claim to the land, took up another tract lying 
alongside of Teagarden's homestead, where both victor and 
vanquished lived as good neighbors for many years. Some 
lime after this event, William Teagarden sold his magnificient 
land on the Monongahela, with a view of emigrating to Ken- 
tucky, which was then known as the"dark and bloody ground.'^ 
He received his pay in Continental money, which soon depre- 
ciated to that extent that it became utterly Avoilhless. The 
man was financially nnned. But his spirit Avas unbroken. 
Wending his way westward he again braved the forest, and 
began another improvement in Richhill township, between 
Ryerson's Station and Ackley's. Here he and two of his boys, 
Abraham and Isaac, enlisted in Capt. Seals' company and did 
valiant service under General Anthony Wayne in his vigorous 
campaign against the western Indians. Abraham Teagarden 
married a Miss McGuire and raised a family of ten children. I 
have had some pei-sonal knowledge of different members of this 
numerous family. Among the rest Avas Reuben Teagarden, of 
Clarksville ; liis second wife Avas the widow Alexander of Fred- 


erictown. Precisely what way he is connected with the origi- 
nal stock I cannot tell. I also knew his son John, and other 
members of his family whose names I have forgotten. I also 
k new Hamilton Teagarden, now residing in Richhill. He is an 
older of the Presbyterian Church of Unity, a blacksmith by 
trade. His wife was a Burns, one of the numerous family of 
that name in this township. He has also two sons, Warren 
and Will, who are now regular M. D.'s, the one practising in 
Burnsville, Washington county, the other in Haneytown, West 
Virginia. William Teagarden, now an old man, resides on En- 
low's branch of Wheeling creek, near the late residence of 
.Toshua Ackley. Isaac Teagarden resides in Waynesburg, but 
I have no acquaintance with him. But I must not forget the 
metropolis of Richhill, Jacksonville, or "Jacktown," as it is 
usually called. The Quaker said to the dog who was gnawing^ 
his hides, "I will not kill thee but I will give thee a bad name." 
Eighteen hundred years ago the question was asked by a good 
]iian, "Can any good come out of Nazereth?" Hence that great 
dramatical writer Avas right when he said, "Yes; there is some- 
thing in a name." The greatest being ever found in human 
foi-m came out of Nazereth, notwithstanding its bad name. It 
is true that Jacktown has not yet produced either a Solomon or 
a Solon, but we should remember that we are to "judge nothing 
before the time." Perhaps against this place is as old as the 
l)laces that gave those great men birth, even Jacktown will 
})roduce some man that will astonish the Avorld with his mighty 
deeds. But I nmst not prophesy, for this has already been 
ti-ied on this village and failed. Upwards of forty years ago, 
as tradition has it, a drover passing through the town was as- 
sailed by some bad boys, when lie lifted up his hands and in a 
solemn manner said. "Yet forty days and Jacktown shall be 
destroyed." Time has proven that he was a false prophet, and 
as I am not inspired, as the poor fool who shot the President 

ni8T()i;v oi 


claims to have been, I will ventuic no jux'diction, lest my name 
should add another to the long list of false prophets. But to 
speak more seriously, Jacksonville is by no means entitled to 
the bad name it has at a distance. It cannot be denied that 
riots, routs and rowdies have taken ]>lace in these streets from 
time to time. But who Avere the actors on these tunuiltuous 
occasions? Kot the citizens of the place, but the roughs from 
the surrounding country and neighboring towns who presumed 
to misbehave just because they were in Jacktown. On the 
contrary there is a great deal of sobriety and virtue and even 
piety in this ])lace, notwithstanding its bad name. The Meth- 
odists have a flourishing Church here, the Cumberland Pres- 
byterians have a numerous society and a church building, 
while the Disciples have regular ministrations in the Odd Fel- 
lows Hall. This Order of I. O. of O. F. is also progressive 
and happy. There are also two large stores. A. J. Goodwin 
has a large stock of almost everything usually kept in country 
stores. William Drake has a sjdendid building in which will 
be found at all times a large stock of seasonable, fashionable 
and serviceable goods. A. J. Goodwin is also principal partner 
in a carriage factory which has already turned out, and has 
vui hand a multitude of carriages of as tine finish and durable, 
material as can be found within the bounds of my knowledge. 
But time would fail me to tell of carpenters, masons, shoemak- 
ers, blacksmiths, wagonmakers and butchers, the last named 
selling a better article of beef for less money than can be )»ur- 
chased else\\ here. A splendid fair grouiul, on the south side of 
the town, has at least its annual attraction, where better order, 
finer stock and far less picking of pockets can be met with than 
in places that boast of their refinement and morality. The 
name of the Postoftice here is "Windridge," which seems to 
liave been given to it in consequence of its elevated position, 
and the long northwestern slope, which sends old Boreas 

78 iiiSTOKY OF gri:i:nic county. 

across here with ( oiisiclerable fury. Graysville is another vil- 
lage of Richhill township, but it cannot boast as great antiquity | 
as the town I have just been describing. The name of thei 
postofRce here is "Harveys," and for many yeai"s, indeed until' 
quite recently, the locality was known far and near as the 
"Brie-k," from the fact that a large brick hotel has long been 
kept, and although different proprietors have entertained 
the traveling public, the reputation of this house has usually 
been good. Mr. Loar, its present occupant, has a reputation 
for uprightness and integrity, fully equal to his predecessors. 
The reason why the village is called by its present name is that 
about the commencement of the present century quite an ex- 
tensive family by the name of Gray settled on this site, 
owning all the lands around for a considerable distance. At 
the house of David Gray, on the 27th of August, 1814, a com- 
mittee, consisting of Rev. John Anderson and Rev. Joseph 
Stephenson, met the few Presbyterians of this neighborhood, 
and the Church of Unity was organized by electing David 
Gray, Jacob Rickey, Francis Braddock and Moses Dinsmore, 
Elders. This was on the farm owned and occupied by the late 
Mrs. McClelland, a little below the present village. Although 
the Church was organized on this spot, the place selected for a 
church edifice was more than a mile above on the lands of 
Francis Braddock, Sr., where the people worshipped in a log 
school house until 1840, when they erected a frame church on 
the lot where the graveyai-d still is. In 1879 this building 
was consumed by fire. The congregation almost immediately 
began the erection of a new church in the village of Graysville, 
which was dedicated on the 20th of June, 1880. A large and 
flourishing Sabbath School composed of the children of the 
village, seems to promise success for the future. Quite a num- 
ber of small, neat frame houses have been put up here within 
the past year or two, adding considerable to the number of the 

ttlSTOl:V ni <^f;(;l:M-: cch;\tt. 7^ 

population. Maj. Jas. W. Ilays was for a long time the only 
merchant of the place. lie still keeps on haiul as good a stock, 
and as varied in its kind, as can be found in any country vil- 
lage ; this added to the fact that the old gentleman and his son 
nj-e unsurpassed anywhere as kind, obliging, honest salesmen, 
gecures to this firm a large trade. Mr. ITiggins & Sons have 
recently opened a store in this place, embracing quite a variety. 
Ijut it is too soon to say how they will succeed ; as far as I am 
individually concerned his manner and prices have been ex- 
tremely accommodating. Robert Johnson is engaged in run- 
ning a large flouring mill and saw mill driven by steam. His 
iMiildings are commodious and durable; his engine is unsur- 
passed ; his skill as a miller and a sawyer cannot be called in 
question, and his customers are as numerous as desirable. The 
only drawback is the great distance which he is compelled to 
wagon his coal. But he and his neighbors all hope the time is 
Jiot far distant when their quiet valley will be disturbed by the 
neighing of the iron horse, and then their coal will be trans- 
, ported on rails of iron instead of on roads of mud. Why not''^ 
Living right in the valley of the South Fork of Teumile Creek, 

• not a single tunnel would be needed between here (Harveys) 
-and the Monongahela river. One and a half miles from here 
: the dividing ridge is reached, where a cut of forty feet deep 

will allow the cars to pass over to Wheeling Creek in a direct 
route for the metropolis of West Virginia. But we must bide 

• our time, and for fear our readers will think we are tarrying 
too long in Richhill, we will give a few biographical sketches, 
and take our departure, promising to return and tell them a 
great deal more as we get further along in our history. 

John Loar emigrat-^d from Maryland to Whiteley township, 
Greene county, in 1 820. From thonce he removed to Richhill 
in 18o0. He and his wife were thn parents of fourteen child- 
ren, eleven of whom are still living — six sons and five dauo-h- 


tors. Five of these persons are still in Greene county, viz : 
.T:i(;ob Loar, Esq., Rev. Geoi'ge Loar, Sarah Morris, Martha i 
Loar, (wife of Rev. Jacob G. Loar, a cousin,) and Hester Jane 
' Jacobs. The remainder of this extensive family are scattei*ed 
in different parts of the great West. Of the i:)ortion still in 
Greene county, Jacob has eight children living; George has 
eight; Sarah has four, and Martha seven. The ancestors of 
tliose still here belonged to that hardy race that were capable 
of living so long and enduring so much. The old lady died on 
the 20th of December, 1881. She was a devout Methodist, of 
whom it was almost impossible to truly say a harmful word. 
She had reached the good old age of eighty-six years. Previ- 
•.)us to their immigration to this county the old man passed 
through one of those dangerous adventures that were some- 
what frequent three-fourths of a century ago, as follows : One 
night while enjoying that sound, refreshing sleep that only 
comes to the relief of the weary, he was awakened by the loud 
squealing of one of his hogs. Suspecting that some wild beast 
had made a descent from a neighboring mountain, he sprang 
up, seized his rifle and proceeded to investigate. Dimly seeing 
some dark object by the light of the stars, he drew the trigger 
and sent a ball through the front leg of a mammoth bear, 
which immediately let go its victim and departed for the thick 
woods. When daylight came, his trail was plainly visible. 
Mr. Loar and a few of his neighbors started in pursuit, some 
armed with guns, some with axes, and others with pitch-forks. 
Mr. Loar seems to have been armed both with a gun and a fork. 
The bushes were dripping with dew, and soon the priming in 
the pan of his old flint-lock gun had become so dampened that 
when the wounded bear was at length aroused, and a fine op- 
])ortunity presented itself for a shot, the gun snapped. Mr. 
i Loar in his excitement dropped his gun and seized his socket 
^fork, thinking to dis]>atch his enemy in that way. After pur- 


suing the bear for some distance, they engaged in mortal con> 
bat, Mr. Loar vigorously applying his fork ; sometimes thrusting, 
sometimes sticking, until the liandle came out of the socket, 
when Bruin, as though conscious of his advantage, made his 
last grand charge with rampant body and open mouth. Mr. 
Loar, seeing that the chances were against him, made a spring 
und seized his antagonist by tlie lolling tongue, preferring to 
loose his arm rather than his head. -By this means, he kej t 
the wide extended jaws from closing upon him, and as tho 
bear only had one foot that could be used, Mr. Loar seemed to 
have some chance for his life. But the other paw, applied to 
different parts of his body, tore off large portions of flesh, al- 
most divesting him of clothing and lacerating him in the most 
fearful manner, so that death would soon have ensued, had it 
not been for the timely arrival of two of the remainder of the 
company, who dispatched the ponderous beast, and carried 
their bleeding companion to a place whei-e his many wounds 
could be dressed, which, severe as they were, fortunately did not 
terminate fatally, for he lived many long years, and died in a 
good old age, respected by all who knew him. Mrs. Jacob Loar,' 
who was formerly the wife of Benj. Durbin, deceased, is one 
of these intelligent reading women who are thoughtful enough' 
to keep a scrap book. She placed this book in my hand, say- 
ing I was welcome to copy anything it contained. In turning 
through it I came across an extract from the docket of Thomas 
Lazear, Esq., father of the late General Jesse Lazear. This old 
VBAn was th© most prominent Justice of the Peace in Richhin 
township, seventy years ago. This extract contains a list of 
marriages which will no doubt be interesting to the descend- 
ants of those gallant old beaux and dames, who at that early 
day, <d»d in buckskin and linsey, stood before the hyraeniai 
altar. The list is as follows: Married — In the year 1704, Joha 
Tjiylej and Lydia MoClung; John Scott and Susanna Nysonyq)/ 


82 xiiSTOKY OF gi:i:exi: couxty. -. 

In 1805, John Teagavden and Eosa McGriiire. Jacob Teagar- 
den and Elsie -McGuire were married in 1806; so also was 
Mattliew Gray aftd Lottie Enoch. In 1807, Alexander Cald- 
well and Elizabeth Whctzel. In 1808, Thomas Whailon was 
wedded to Eliza Gray. In 1809, Daniel Clark and Elizabeth 
Tcagardcn ; also Robert Wharton and Elizabeth Speclman ; 
also Jacob Gander and Rosy Ryley. In 1810, .Christian Dur- 
bin and Margaret McGuire ; also Hiram Gray and Mary Crow. 
In 18,11, Thomas Dinsmore and Mary Gray. In 1812, Edward 
Graudon and Debbie Wright; also Joshua Hix and Eleanor 
Dunche ; also Thomas Scott and. Eleanor McBridc ; also Ilciiry 
Bane and Jane McBride. In 1813, Christian Cummings and 
Betty Holmes. In 1814, Thomas Barnet and Margaret Gray. 
In 1815, William Gray and Sally Nysonger; also David Ruple 
and Miss Durbin ; also Henry Ilaish and Mary Nysonger. In 
1816, Martin McCleary was married to Eleanor Whetzel, a de- 
scendant of Lewis Whetzel, the great Indian hunter. Steven 
Durbin was married in 1814 to Mary Fink. In 1817, James 
McDonald and Amy Gray were married ; also Abraham Ny- 
.songer and Elizabeth Holden. In 1819, AVilliam Teagarden 
and Mary Holmes ; also John Mellon and Elizabeth ' Gray. 
♦Leonard Plants and Elizabeth Barney were married the same 
year, 1819. James Mellon and Elizabeth Amos were married 
in 1820. Marcus Gun and Louisa King were married the same 
year. In 1822, John Barnet and Mary Stoutmen. Francis 
■Gray and, Sarah Roseberry were married in 1824. Samuel 
Cummings and Martha Crichbaugh, Stephen Simmons and 
Rebecca Speelman were man-ied in 1826. ^ > 

Close to the line of Richhill township, now resides William 
IX. Cook, who is descended from William Cook, who in company 
withjiis brothor, Alexander came to New York City about, the 
commencement of the 19th century. Here William was mar- 
^'igd %o Miss .Margaret Harvey, and in companv with -the Har- 

lUSTonV OF CliKKXl-; COlNT\-. ■" 83 


vey family the Cooks came out to Greene county ancT settled 
on a tract of land adjoining one of the large bodies of land 
held by Thomas Liei)er and known as "Lieper lands." William 
Oook was a lame man unable to farm or clear land. He was a 
carriage trimmer by trade and occasionally engaged in small 
speculations. At that day it was often the case that a few men 
would invest their small means in a boat load of merchandise 
and provisions destined for the trade along the shores of the 
Ohio River, and mdess sale was previously made, they finally 
arrived at New Orleans. This boat usually contained flour, 
whisky, apples, cider, crockery ware, etc. On one of these 
I'oats ]Mr. Cook took passage,' and was never heard of by his 
friends again. Wliether he was killed by the Indians, cap- 
tured by the Spaniards, or fell overboard and was drowned, are 
questions that cannot be answered. The widow lived to ex- 
treme old age. During her last years, she made her homcAvith 
her son, William H. Cooke, who still resides on the old home- 
stead by the side of the old Drove Road, some two miles 
beloAv Graysville, where he lives iii easy circumstances, sur- 
rounded l)y a numerous family of intelligent, kind children. 
The only drawback to his hapi)iness seems to be that many 
5'ears ago he lost his partner in life whose place has never been 
filled by anothfer. This lady's maiden name was Elizabeth 
Rinehait. For many years jNfr. Cooke has been a very success- 
ful sheep raiser, having invested considerable sums about the 
year 1845, in some of the best grades of Vermont sheep, 
which, although living on a road along which so much stock 
has been driven, he has been able to protect from foot-rot. 
In the Avestern extremity of this township the Burns family 
settled On Owens run. Here the ancestors, Alexander Burns 
and James Burns, first built their cabin on their arrival from 
Ireland about the conmiencfement of the present century. The 
sons of Alexander were James, Jr., Robert, John (who was for 

8't HISTORY OP <^::r: :::: colnty. 

many years a Justice of the Peace in West FInley township, 
Washington county), William and Alexander, Jr. The two \ 
daughters of Alexander, Sr., were Mary, who married John ' 
Johnston, and Nancy, who man-ied William Davis, The sons 
of James, Sr., were John, James, Jr., and Joseph ; also three 
daughters who all married and settled in Clairmont county, 
Ohio. A very unusual circumstance occurred at the port in 
Ireland from which these ancestors sailed which seemed to be 
the cause of their coming, as follows : They seem to have been 
H couple of inquisitive boys who, during their rambles one day. 
had arrived at the sea coast, and actuated by curiosity they 
stepped aboard a vessel lying in the harbor which was about 
to sail, and while feasting their eyes on the "sights," the 
!?hip weighed anchor and was gone bearing away the two un- 
willing passengers who never set foot on land again until they 
arrived at Xew York, from whence by different stages they fi- 
nally arrived in Greene county. The sons of James, Jr., were 
Alexander, William and Robert. William still lives on the 
old homestead, Owens run. Alexander lived one and a-half 
miles from the old homestead, where he raised a large family, 
consistmg of James, William, Oliver, Harvey, John, Robert 
and Grant ; also three daughters — Jane, married Newton Brad- 
dock ; Martha, married Francis Throckmorton, while Mary 
still remains at home in single blessedness. 

I will now invite your attention to the partial history of the 
original Greene township, which at the time of the organiza- 
tion of the county included all the territory between Little 
Whiteley creek on the north , and Mason & Dixon's Line on the 
south, fronting all the way on the Monongahela river, including 
the entire valley of Big Whiteley, and the principal part of the 
valley of Dunkard ; hence it may be treated as the south-east- 
em or comer township of the county. I find this definition of 
|tg^lK>iiDdajiee in Creigh's History, page 123: "Beginning a 

I11S1X)KY US' (jr.KKNi: <;<)LNTV. 85 

the mouth of Little Whiteley creek and running therewith to 
the dividing ridge between that and Big ^\ hiteley creek ; 
thence with that ridge between it and Muddy creek to Mason 
and Dixon's Line ; thence to the Monongahela river ; thence by 
the river to the place of beginning, having Cumberland town- 
ship on the north, the Monongahela river on the east and Ma- 
son & Dixon's Line on the south." In the bounds of the orig- 
inal township, at a point a little west of the present town of 
Mt. Morris, in the year 17G7, a scene of most intense interest 
took place. The long and angry dispute between the author- 
ities of Virginia and heirs of Wm. Penn had from lime to 
time almost led to the shedding of blood. IIow soon the pur- 
ple tide would begin to flow no human being could divine; all 
parties are frightened ; the boundary line must be run. The 
ambiguity of the charter granted by King Charles II to Wil- 
liam Penn, rendered it very uncertain where the bouudai-y was 
to commence, and much more uncertain where it would end. 
Different surveyors had been selected for the purpose of settling 
these vexed questions, who after three years of diligent labor 
in rimning lines of which "the town of New Castle, Delaware, 
was to be used as the centre of a circle of twelve miles radius, 
whose north-western segment was to connect the river with the 
beginning of the 40th degree, while the province was to extend 
westward five degrees of longitude, to be computed from said 
eartern bounds." [Creigh's History, 2d Ai)pendix, i)age 2o.] 
No wonder the surveyors did not undeistand the charter, for 
even I do not understand it. In consequence of their failure 
to proceed with the bound.iry line they were sui)erceded in 
August, 1763, by Chailes Mason and Jeremiah Dixon of Lon- 
don. These men seem to have meant business from the very 
start. They were called on to run a line due west from the 
Delaware river, extending five degrees of longitude in length. 
They first ascertain the latitude where their line is to begiu, 



which they make to be 39° 43' 32." By the 27th of October, 
1765, they have arrived at the North Cove, Kittatinny Mount- 
ain. Wearied with their summer's labor, and fearing to be 
caught in a trackless mountain wilderness by the snow storms 
that might any day be expected, they take Caj^tain Shelby 
with them to the summit, who points out the blue Allegheny 
Mountains as part of the extreme western landscape. They 
then return to their settlements along the Delaware to spend 
the winter and get their appointments rencAved. As soon as 
the weather Avill permit, in the spring of 1766, they are 
again at their arduous work ; by the 4th of June they are on 
top of the Allegheny Mountains. Hope stands on tip-toe that 
this herculean work will be accomplished before another win- 
ter's storms shall come. But these brave, energetic men are 
doomed to disappointment. The Six Nations of Indians send 
a deputation of chiefs to inform the white men that they "must 
stop." The valorous Mason and Dixon are anxious to jsroceed, 
but these imperious Iroquois chiefs clenched the tomahawk and 
gave the same intimation that Brunnus did to the Romans, 
when he informed them tliat his sword made the weight by 
which they were to settle, there was but one alternative — stop. 
Thus one year of valuable time was lost. During the ensuing 
winter, the Governors of Maryland and Pennsylvania expended 
about £500 in purchasing the consent of the Indians to the ex- 
tension of the line. Early in June, 1767, the surveyors are in 
their camp on top of the AUeghenies, and are here met by 
fourteen warriors with an interpreter and a chief, who have 
come to escort the surveyors and other "pale-faces" down into 
the Valley of the Ohio, whose tributaries they were soon to 
cross. All hands now work Avith a hearty good will, hoping 
the uttermost limits Avill surely be reached this year. By the 
24tli of August they have reached the crossing of Braddock's 
Road. They still hold on their western way across Brice 

iiiSTOr.v ()!■■ (;r.Ki::v"K coitnty. ' 87 

Mountain nnd Laurel TTill, down tlio stoc]) (leclivitics of Cheat 
river, which stream they cross at the "lino ford," throMing 
about six miles of the narrow peninsula into Pennsylvania. 
Again they are coinjX'lled to cross the Mononijahela near the 
mouth of Crooked run. Here, on the 27th of September, 
when they have already run the line two hundred and thirty- 
three miles, twenty-six of the laborers desert, leavint^ but fif- 
teen ax-men to clear out and mark the line as they proceed. 
Undaunted, however, by desertion or dan <.^er. they still proceed, 
cross Dunkard Creek once, and still hold on their western 
way, conscious that less than thirty miles will finish the 
work which is to innnortalize their names. They have reached 
the "Warrior Branch" of the old Catawba war path at the sec- 
ond crossing of Dunkard creek, when suddenly their Indian 
escort cries "Stop." Plow disappointed are all ]3arties. The 
Penns are anxious to ]n'oceed ; the scattered settlers are 
wearied with the controversy, and are anxious to know where 
the end of the line would be, so as to ascertain Avhether they 
are in Pennsylvania or Virginia. But none are more disgusted 
than the surveyors, Mason and Dixon. They can almost seethe 
end of the five degrees of longitude ; they have seen the joy 
and satisfaction that lit up the countenances of the rude settlers 
on both sides of this line, as they fixed their destiny in one or 
the other of the colonies ; they were well aware of the litiga- 
tions and animosities that would still coTitinue to fester along 
the remaining twenty-three miles that they Avcre not permitted 
to run. But remonstrance was useless ; the savnpes this time 
can neither be reasoned out nor bought out, and hence, after 
several days of dis]>uting, right there on the bank of Dunkard 
creek, in what afterward became Greene township, Greene 
county, the assembly broke up, the Indians went their Avay, 
the disappointed surveyors make their final report, and on the 
27th of December. 17G7. thev ^re honorably discharged. They 


^ail for England, and there is no evidence that they ever visited 
this land again. Bi*ave men! Although disappointed, you 
did immortalize your names. Garard's Fort was built in the 
; bounds of this township, of which I propose giving a particu- 
lar description hereafter. 

On the west side of the Monongahela river, opposite New 
Geneva, still stands the town of Greensboro, in the bounds of 
this old township of Greene. This town was laid out by Elias 
Stone, on the 31st of May, 1791. It is located on part of a 
tract of land called "Delight," which was patented to Elias 
Stone and Elizabeth, hi§ wife, in 1787. Each lot contains 
eighty-one perches ; the streets are forty feet wide. Lot No. 
60 was presented to the citizens for public uses at their discre- 
tion. The town contains eighty lots ; the names of the streets 
back from the river, arc Water, Front, Second, Third and 
Fourth. The cross streets are named as follows : Diamond, 
Stone, Clear, AValnut, Minor and County streets. One of the 
principal business pursuits of late years in this town has been 
the manufacture of stoneware. Mr. James Hamilton has 
bi'ought this business to a high state of perfection — so much so 
that it has to a great extent superceded the former staple of the 
town which was almost exclusively glass. Before we take our 
departure from this end of the county, it may be well to say 
what remains to be said about the completion of this great line 
about wliich we have already written so much. I have already 
said that about twenty-three miles remain to be run. Mason 
and Dixon had estimated the entire length of the line to fill up 
' Penn's Charter to be two hundred and sixty-seven miles, and 
one hundred and ninety-five and one-sixteenth perches. They 
had already run to the stopping place at the old war path at 
the second crossing of Dunkard creek, two hundred and forty- 
^four miles, and one hundred and thirteen perches and seven 
I and one-fourth feet. They made their measurements with a 



four pole chain, and marked each mile as they went alonjr, 
1 But now the question began to be agitated by interested par- 
ties, as to whether the calculation was right. Mason and 
Dixon had said that a degree of longitude in the latitude of 
their line, was fifty-three miles jind one hundred and sixty- 
seven and one-tenth perches. Were they right ? was the ques- 
tion ; for as Penn was to have a due north meridian line from 
the end of his five degrees of longitude, it is evident that every 
perch of distance in the length of this line, whether minus or 
plus, would add or subtract thousands of acres to or from Penn- 
sylvania. Lord Dunmore and men of his ilk contended that 
the line was much too long already, that it ought never to have 
crossed the Monongahela river. But during the years that the 
line was halted at this point, a new state of things is intro- 
duced. The Empire of England in these western wilds has 
"tottered on its old foundations." Lord Dunmore and his usurp- 
ing tool, Connolly, have become fugitives, and the representa- 
tives of freemen in the old Colonial Assembly, have declared, 
"These Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent States!" It is now no longer the subalterns of the 
King of Great Britain that are authorized to make decisions, 
but the representatives of a fi-ee people have this prerogative. 
Here we see the advantage of having persons possessed of 
astronomical knowledge in high places. That great man, 
Thomas Jefferson, was at that time Governor of Virginia. 
Rising above all pecuniary or partizan motives, he notified both 
parties that this whole matter might be settled by astronomical 
observations. Agreeably to this recomendation, two astrono- 
mers of each State, provided with proper instruments and a 
good time-keeper, repaired to Wilmington, Delaware, nearly at 
the eastern end of the line, and there they erected an observa- 
tory- The other four proceeded to the western end of the 
temporary line, twentv-three miles from the second crossing of 


Dunkard, near tlie site of Mt. Morris, and there on one of the 
highest Fish creek hills, they erected a rude observatory. At 
both these observatories, during six weeks immediately ])reced- 
ing the 20th of Sejitember, 1784, tliey take their observations 
o!:' different celestial phenomena, particularly the immersion of 
the moons of Jupiter. When this is done, they meet and com- 
pare notes, and find that their stations are twenty minutes and 
one and one-eighth seconds apart ; on the supposition the globe 
is 25,000 miles in circumference, and that every part of 
this distance is turned to the sun in twenty-four hours, they de- 
cide that twenty minutes of time is equal to five degrees of 
longitude ; hence their stations are a little too far apart. They 
then shorten back on their line to precisely twenty minutes of 
time, and here they fix the corner of the great Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania; they then and there set up a square, unlet- 
Lorcd white-oak post, around which they rear a conical pile of 
i<)ug]i stones, which is still visible near the Board Tree Tunnel, 
;)n the ]jaltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

Among the surveyors that comi)leted the remaining twenty- 
three miles of this famous Mason & Dixon's Line, I find this 
difference between Judge Veech and Dr. Creigh : The former 
has the name Andrew Ellicott, the latter writes it Andrew El- 
liott. As they both say he was from JIaryland they no doubt 
refer to the same man, and the difference is merely an uncor- 
rected error on the part of Dr. Creigh's printer, who has omit 
ted the letter "c" in setting his type. If then, this was Andrew 
Ellicott, I presmue I was acquainted with some of the same 
family on Cheat river, where Evan T. Ellicott & Co., were 
largely engaged in the manufacture of iron, within a very short 
distance of this famous line. While preaching in that vicinity 
T was occasionally invited to dine with them. They were from 
Ellicott's Mills on the Potapsco, some fifteen miles from Balti- 
more. Another difference among historians is the spelling of 

msToitv OK (j::i;i:m; culmv. 91 

the name of one of the creeks of this county. Jntlgc Veoch 
always sjiells it "White CLay," wliile ahnost all other writers 
spell it "Whiteley." Who is right? But this is a small matter. 
We have seen with how much reluctance the Indian permitted 
the running of this great State line, and ruialiy utterly rebelled 
against its further extension. The very efforts made by the 
Penns to coax and buy the right of way for their line was a 
tacit admission that the Iroquois Indians were the owners of 
the soil. Their title had in no instance been extinguished be- 
yond the Monongahela in the present Greene county, in 1767, 
and yet settlers were taking up and making preparations to per- 
manent settlement of the choice lands along Tenmile, ]Muddy 
creek, both the Whiteleys and Dunkard. The Indians became 
loud and boisterous in their declarations, that if the settlers are 
not driven away, something serious will happen. Forthwith 
the Governors of Virginia and Pennsylvania issue proclama- 
tions notifying all persons settled on Indian lands to pull up 
stakes and depart. The notice is unheeded, and soldiers arc 
now sent up from Fort Pitt to drive them away. But when 
the settler met the soldier on the threshold of his cabin, with 
his ample draught of old Monongahela whiskey, his artillei-y 
"was spiked at once, and he allowed the settler to set his goods 
out of his cabin into the woods until the soldier was gone, when 
the goods were carried back and all things assumed the statu 
quo ante. It became evident on the extension of the line that 
these intrudei's were all in Pennsylvania, principally in Fayette 
and Westmoreland counties on the east side of the river. Gov- 
ernor Penn, in January, 1768, called the special attention of 
the Assembly to the subject, saying, "Their removal was in- 
dispensible in order to avert war." The Assembly was as 
much alarmed as the Governor himself, and on the 3d of Feb- 
ruary, 1768, they pass a law wliich Avas certainly a complete 
Brutem Fulmen, declaring that all persons who had presumed 


to settle on or tatc up Indian lands, should evacuate the same 
within thirty days from the time notice was served upon them, 
and if after their removal they should return, or if any should 
settle after being notified, "every such person thereof legally 
convicted by their own confession or the verdict of a jury, 
shall suffer death without benefit of clergy." To try the effect 
of the new law Governor Penn sent out Rev. Capt. John Steel 
of Carlisle, a Presbyterian minister, to deliver proclamations, 
preach to the people, and warn them to quit. But it was all to 
no purpose. The first meeting seems to have been held at 
Christopher Gist's plantation at the foot of Laurel Hill, on the 
spot that has long been known as Mount Braddock. The sec- 
ond meeting was at Red Stone Old Fort, (Brownsville). While 
here a deputation of Mingo Indians came to the meeting and 
publicly forbade the whites from settling on any Indian lands 
until after the treaty. This treaty came off at Fort Pitt in 
May, 1768. Nothing how^ever was accomplished except sun, 
dry talks, the lodging of various complaints, and the distribut- 
ing of about one thousand pounds sterling \voith of presents. 
In the autumn of the same year, (1768) a great treaty came off 
at Fort Stanwix, at which, for the sum of £10,000, the Penns 
bought all the before iinbought portions of the Province, except 
what lay north and west of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. 
As this was just at the time when tomahawk rights were be- 
coming numerous along the eastern border of Greene county, 
and very few if any permanent settlements were yet made, the 
'bloody law" did not effect them much. It is quite certain 
that none of them ''suffered death without the benefit of cler- 
gy." On the 3d of April, 1769, the Penns opened their office 
at Philadelphia for the sale of land on the new purchase. Dui*- 
ing the first month there were 3,200 applications for titles. 
No doubt many of these were for land on the eastern border of 
Greene county, as during the autumn of the same year we find 

UISl'ORY OK «.JaKKN!: < OUNTY. -93 

ltb« settlers there with their families, commencing to improve 
the land and set things in order. 

After this long digression in following lines and conse- 
quences, let us return again to the original Greene township, 
where we find a very early settlement at Garard's Fort, located 
in a beautiful valley on the left bank of Big Whiteley creek ; 
the name of the postoffice now is Whiteley, which is situated a 
short distance west of the spot where the old fort stood in those 
'•times that tried men's souls." The first Christian association 
ever formed on the teiTitory of the present Greene county, was 
at this spot, on the 7th day of October, 1776, three months after 
the signing of the immortal Declaration of Independence. This 
society was organized by the Redstone Baptist Association.'' 
It has long been known by the name of Goshen Baptist Church. 
Among its early ministers were two brothers by the name of 
Sutton, who preached here at different periods of time. But 
perhaps its most distinguished minister in those "troublous" 
times, was Rev. John Corbly. This man settled on JIuddy 
ereek prior to May, 1782, for at that date we find him suffering 
some of the most excruciating sorrows that our poor humanity 
is heir to. We cannot do better than to give this tale of horror 
in his own words as. we find them in a letter written to Rev. 
Dr. Rogers of Philadelphia, dated Muddy creek, Washihg- 
ton county, July 8, 1788: "On the 2d Sabbath of May, 1782, 
being by appointment at one of my meeting houses about a 
mile from my dwelling house, I set out with my dear wife and 
five children for worship. Not suspecting any danger, I walked 
behind sorae two hundred yards witli my Bible in my hand, 
meditating. As I was thus employed all at once I was greatly 
atlarmed by the frightful shrieks of my dear family before me. I 
immediately ran with all the speed I could, vainly hunting for a 
club, till I got within forty yards of them. My poor wife see- 
[ii\g me, cried to rae to make my escape. Ai> Indiab then ran 

94 iiisior.v OF <i::Ki:NK corNTV. 

np to shoot me. I Hctl and by so doing out-ran lihn. My wife 
had a snc-kling child in her arms. Tliis Hltlc infant was hilled 
and scalped. They then struck my wife several times, but not 
getting her down, the Indian Avho aimed to shoot me then ran 
up and shot her througli the body and scalped hei-. My little 
boy, an only son, about six years old they sunk the hatchet 
in his brain and thus dispatched him. A daughter besides 
the infant, they also killed and scalped. My eldest daughter 
who is still living, was Ind in a tree about twenty yards from 
the place where the rest were killed and saw the whole ]iro- 
ceeding. She seeing the Indians all go off a^ she thought, got 
up and deliberately crept out of the hollow tree ; but one of 
them espying her, ran up, knocked her ttmvn and scalped her ? 
also her only sister, on whose head they did not leave more 
than an inch round either of flesh or skin, besides taking a piece 
of her skull. They still retain their senses, notwithstanding 
the painful operations they 'liave already and must yet pass 
tlirough." Among the prominent members of this chin-ch 
none were more so than Pierson Minor, who was not only fer- 
vent in spirit, but also diligent in business, being extensively 
engaged in droving, and one of the active participants iu 
the, affaiji's of the farmers & Drovers Bank of Waynesburg. 
Stillf urther back "in the years beyond the flood" we find — — ■ 
Moreflock, one of the pillars that for more than a half century 
as;^|sted in holding up before a gainsaying world this portion 
of' the primitive heritage of our Lord in these western wilds. 
Another of the leaders of this old church was Hon Jonathan 
Garard, a Deacon whose exemplary character was so highly 
appreciated by his fellow citizens that they elevated him to the 
jjosition of Associate Judge. He Avas also extensively engaged 
in droving,^ an excellent judge of stock, always saving himself, 
and at th-e same time doing ample justice to those with whom 
he dealt. Among those who have ministered to these peoplej 

iiisTouV' OF (jukknV; culntv. 95 

"lo, these many years," were Revs. William Whitehead, John 
Thomas, William Wood, Levi Griffith, Charles Tilton and 
Francis Burn-ell. In the bounds of this old township, in what 
IS now Monongahela township, stands a little liamlet of a fev/ 
lionses called Mapletowu, situated on Big Whiteley creek-. 
This town is surely small of its age, for it had its existence at 
a very early day. The first flouring mill ever erected in this 
county, was built near this point by Colonel John Minor, a short 
tlistance up the creek from the present mill. I am not positive, 
but I think it probable that the ancestors of Robert Mujile and 
Thomas Maple gave name to it. I had some knowledge of 
these men. Thomas Maple was a local Methodist preacher. They 
were both men of large property and hu-ge progressive idea.^, 
by which they not only were an advantage to themselves bur, 
to all their neighbors. In the extreme southern end of this old 
township, we find a large creek called Dunkard, which empties 
into the Monongahela river a short distance above the town of 
Greensboro. This stream derives its name from the fact thai 
three brothers by the name of Eckerline, came from the east- 
ern part of Pennsylvania, and took up their abode among sav- 
age beasts and poisonous reptiles, on the Avestern side of the 
"muddy river." These men were Dunkards by profession, 
claiming to be "at peace with All mankind, and wishing to 
maintain friendly relations with the rest of the world." They 
named this stream after their denomination of Christians. 
Here, arhid the seclusion of the forest, they lived, obtaining 
their provision by cultivating a few of the rich acres of these 
unsurpassed bottom Idnds, and by occasibnally slaying one of • 
the denizens of the forest, such as bear, deer, elk, etc., that' 
then abounded all about them. They spent much of their time 
in exploring the country about them, iii whose sublime soli-- 
tudes they found ample fields for contemplation where their 'u': 
hearts were "carried up through * nature's works to the throne* 


of nature's God." Eventually they removed their camp from 
Dunkard creek to "Dunkard bottom," near the mouth of Cheat 
river, where they made a more permanent residence, and 
where they remained unmolested for some years, while a deso- 
lating war was raging at no great distance from them, the 
probabilities being that even the sharp eye of the Indian had 
not yet discovered the place of their retreat. When their 
stock of salt, powder, lead, etc., was nearly exhausted, one of 
their number, whose name was Thomas, concluded to cross the 
Mountains for the purpose of replenishing their stock of abso- 
lute necessities. On his return westward, to rejoin his broth- 
ers, he lodged on the south branch of the Potomac at Fort 
Pleasant. After stating that he and his brothers had lived all 
these long years in the "midst of war's alarms," without a sin- 
gle visit from the hostile foe, those who "listened to his won- 
drous story," either honestly or dishonestly, arrested him as 
a spy who was returning to the seat of war with contra- 
band articles in his possession. In vain he asserted his inno- 
33nce, offering to conduct his persecutors to their home in the 
woods, where he felt confident his loyalty would be vindicated, 
and his story proven true by meeting with his brothers. His 
proposition was finally accepted by those who had deprived 
him of his liberty. A guard of armed men accompanied him 
across the mountains who were instructed to return him a pris- 
oner if there was the least evidence that the charges preferred 
against him were true. In due time the guard and the pris- 
oner arrived at the designated spot. But instead of being met 
and welcomed by his brothers, a pile of smouldering ruiiis 
marks the spot where so lately their cheerful cabin stood. Jn 
the yard lay the mangled remains of the two brothers. The 
Buspicious guard who so lately thought they had a felon in 
charge, now have all their sympathies enlisted in behalf of the 
man whom they had thus far wronged. Thery now assist io 

msToiu' OK (atKKNi: couxrv. 97 

mournful duty of giving sepulture to these ill-fated men whose 
peaceful prineiijles had not succeeded as well with the savages 
as perhaps those of Cromwell Avould, viz : 

"Face di'ath and daiimT witli a Icvol eye, -■ ..-*v^ •-'» --_ 

Trust in God and kecj) your powder dry." 

l>ut our readers will think it is surely time we sliotdd pay 
our respects to Franklin townsliip and Wayuesburg, the county 
seat. The first time I ever visited Wayuesburg was in 1843, at 
:i grand volunteer parade. In the year 1841, I became a mem- 
ber of the George's Creek Cavalry, in Fayette county. Dur- 
ing the next year I was promoted to the "high position" of 
Orderly Sergeant. James ^l. Oliphaut was our Captain, 
v.hen we were invited to attend a three days' parade at the 
'county seat of little Greene. Our Company met at Mason- 
town, crossed the river at McCann's Ferry and came through 
Carmichaels to Jefferson. . Tliere we halted some time to w^ait 
for the arrival of the Monongahela Cavalry. Tliis company 
was trained to a high state of perfection by Colonel James C. 
Simrainson, with whom I was acquainted. The company was 
at that time commanded by Cajstain James Davidson. We 
were met here by Captain John Harper, who lived near Car- 
michaels, who most heartily welcomed us to Greene county- 
We now took up our line of march for Waynesburg. We 
were met at the end of the bridge near Morrisville, by several 
marshals Avearing blue sashes, who acted as an escort to our 
place of encampment, which Avas about one-half mile west of 
town, up a little hollow on the right hand side of the present 
pike. One of our escort made us a speech w^elcoming us to 
the State of Greene. The parade came off on tlie two follow- 
ing days, partly in a large field adjoining the grove in which 
we were encamped, and partly in a large meadow on the south 
side of Tenmile creek, where a sham battle was fought on the 
second day of our encampment. T believe there were thirteen 


companies ; the names of some of tliem I have forgotten ; but 
] recollect in addition to those already mentioned, the Cooks- 
t >\vn Cavalry, and Tenmile Troop. Of infantry, I remember the 
Waynesburg Blues, Cumberland Rangers, Union Volunteers 
of Uniontown, the Sixty Majors of Smithfield — a rifle com- 
pany that had received this nickname in consequence of the 
shape of their caps. On the first night of our stay a proposi- 
tion was made by Colonel Sam Austin, of Uniontown, that we 
should visit Waynesburg in dress parade, which was that each 
volunteer should lay aside his coat and cap, tie up his head in 
a red, bandana handkerchief, double his blanket, throw itoxer 
his shoulders and fasten it around his neck with a strap. When 
all were thus prepared, the order to march was given, the only 
music being a gourd fiddle, on which the valorous, but afterwards 
unfortunate Sam Austin continuously played the then new tune 
of "Old Dan Tucker." As the line of march was from the 
encampment directly to the town, along the side of the hill, we 
came in contact with a rail fence, when it was suggested that 
soldiers ought not to go unarmed ; each one, as by general con- 
sent, shouldered a rail. With these we paraded the streets, oc- 
casionally receiving the command to "order arms," which was 
followed by a sound and jarring sensation somewhat resem- 
bling a small earthquake. I afterwards visited Waynesburg 
in 1849 or 1850, when I had a small business transaction with 
■Thomas Porter, Esq., son of Moses B. Porter, of Fayette 
county, who had lately opened a law ofiice at the county seat of 
Oreene. I had not again visited this town for twenty years until 
the evening of December 15, 1881, when I met a few men I 
had formerly known as men in the prime of life, but who now, 
like myself, show by many unmistakable signs, that we are all 
approaching "that country from whose bourne no traveller 
shall ere return." Some four miles from Waynesburg, near 
the road leading to Washington, on lands now owned by Geo. 

iiisTOHV <)i- <i;.'Ki:N:; roiMV. 99 

Wisccarver, fifty years .ago lived a veiy singular man, whose 
name was Wm. ]\[cXurlin. I saw liiiu just once in Fayette 
county in an old Lutheran eliurch, where ho unexpectedly made 
his appearance, walking slowly uj) the aisle, Avith his coat and 
pants turned wrong side out, while liis straw liat was filled with 
turkey and chicken feathers. He seemed to be intently listen- 
ing to what the preacher said, until something was uttered that 
lie did not believe, when he clenched his fist and raised his arm 
in a threatening attitude, and said, "now that ain't so ; now, 
don't say that again." To this the preacher aptly replied, 
''You sit down, Mac, and I wont say it again." At this, 
McNurlin immediately sat down and remained very quiet 
during the remainder of the service. This man was by no 
means an idiot, for doing most of the time he was exceedingly 
bright; his mental aberrations were only occasional. The first 
evidence of the coming on of one of these periodical visita- 
tions was that he would take his position on some rising 
ground, and there mark out the course he proposed to travel, 
which was always in a straight line, crossing hills, fences, creeks 
and even haystacks, if they stood in his bee line. In this 
way he would often travel until he was sometimes nearly ore 
hundred miles from home. When the hallucination would 
])ass off, and reason again ascend the throne, if he could find 
his reckoning without inquiry he would preserve a profound 
silence ; if he could not tell where he was, he was compelled to 
ask. On one occasion he had almost reached Lake Erie, and 
when he became sane again, he was in a dense forest, with no 
liuman abode in sight. Night came on, the snow began to de- 
scend, and after wandering round and round, he was compelled 
to pass the stormy night in the woods. Some portions of his 
flesh were frozen. From the effects of this exposure he never 
fully recovered. 

As to the town of Waynesburg. it sefims to have had no ex- 


istance at the time of the passage of the act for creating Greene 
coimty. But the act passed 179G, constituted David Gray, Ste- 
phen Ga^iin, Isaac Jenkenson, William Metkirk and James 
Seals, Commissioners to procure, by grant or purchase, any 
quantity of land, not to exceed five hundred acres, within five 
miles of the centre of the county. These men eventxially pur- 
chased 158^ acres of land from Thomas Slater, called Eden, for 
which they gave $2,376. They run off and offered for sale 
201 lots on the 29th of the following September. The lots sold 
at various prices ranging from five to one hundred and forty 
dollars, according to situation. They then proceeded to erect a 
Court House and Jail. The first ^L-ourts were held at the house 
of Jacob Kline on Muddy Creek, near where the late Eli Long- 
resided. The first Court House of Greene county was built of 
logs which can yet be seen at the corner of Greene street and 
Whisky alley, on lot 195, (now owned and occupied by D. jVI. 
Anderson.) The borough was incorporated on the 29th of Jan- 
uary, 1816. Its present population is a little less than two 
thousand. Its situation is pleasant and somewhat romantic, 
being near the centre of the county in a rich valley on tlic 
north bank of the south branch of Tenmile creek, surrounded 
by towering hills and fertile valleys, well adapted to raising 
stock, the climate being mild. All the grains and fruits of the 
temperate zone flourish and yield abundantly in this immediate 
vicinity. After the first excitement of locating a county seat 
had died away, the town seemed, for many years, to have been 
finished. Its situation was extremely isolated, having no thor- 
oughfare of travel except the great Drove Road, which, while 
it was the means of bringing large quantities of money into the 
county, held out much greater inducements to locate in the 
country than in town. There was another cause for stagnation 
of trade in this town, from the fact that, in 1818, the great Na- 
tional Turnpike was opened through the neighboring towns of 

HISTOUV 01- GKl.KXi: (-OUNTV. 101 

Wheeling, Wnsliiiigton, Brownsville nnd T'niontown. Along 
this grand thoroughf.-in! three dail}- lines of stage coaches con- 
veyed the Congressmen and merchants from the West to the 
i*last. Here the traveler was scarcely ever out of sight of those 
broad-tread Avagons, with their snowy covers and ponderous 
Juirses that trans})orted the niorehandise of our sea-hoard cities 
'.<> the rapidly growing West. Along the track of that old road 
almost every other house became a hotel, where the spacious 
stables were filled with horses, and the large dining rooms were 
oci'Uj)ied by substantial tabler. that litterally groaned with the 
abundance of the magnificently cooked food that Avas placed 
u|)on them. After 9 o'clock p. yi., the floor of the large old- 
fashioned bar-room was covered over with beds, on which the 
tireil wagoners slqit and snored like the Seven Sleepers, while 
up-stairs in forty-pound feather beds the horse-back or foot-sore 
traveler shivered or sweat, whichever the season of the year 
rendered the most fashionable. All these things contributed to 
t irn the attention of money-seeking or fun-loving paities away 
from a town so completely isolated as Waynesbtirg. But a 
brighter day is approaching. The little cloud, although "no 
bigger than a man's hand," seems to be "big with blessins." 
The l^altiniore & Ohio Kailroad had been completed to Cum- 
berland, Md., and her representatives come knocking at the 
door of the Pennsylvania Legislature, asking the right of way 
through this immediate neighborhood. But oh! the wisdom of 
the citizens of Fayette and (xreene c^iunties, througli which the 
road v.'as expected to ])ass, instead of hailing the proi)Osition 
Avitli delight and receiving the representatives with open arms, 
they rise up in fierce op))osition. K. T. Caloway, of Union- 
town, and Dr. J. C. Ciimniiiigs, of Coniu^llsville. werethe Repre- 
sentatives of Fayette county in the State Legislature at the time. 
Tiiese men were possessed of sufficient intelligence to know 
that the railroad could not be i>prmanently halted at Cum- 



berland. Not so the people. I listened to the sophistical ar- 
guments of some of the demagogues of that day, in which 
they asserted that the iron horse could not eat oats or corn. 
*^Let us just compel them to stop at Ciuuberland, and then all 
the goods will be wagoned through our country, all the hogs 
will be fed with our corn and the horses with our oats. Go 
away with your railroad ! We don't want our wives and chil- 
tlren frightened to death by the screaming of the locomotive. 
We don't want our hogs and cows run over and killed by the 
cars of a soulless corporation." Meetings were held and in- 
structions formulated and forwarded to the Representatives in 
the Legislature warning them of the fearful precipice on which 
they were standing, and notified them of the all-important fact 
that the people had a heavy "rod in soak" for them, if they 
dared to violate the Avill of their constituents. These men did 
in j^art violate the instructions and reaped the bitter conse- 
quences. But how were the applicants treated ? They re- 
ceived a negative answer. The Baltimore & Ohio Company 
built their road over the almost impassable mountains of Vir- 
ginia, almost touching Pennsylvania at the south-west corner 
of Greene county, leaving the regions that had said "no," to 
reap the consequences of their folly, while that proud, imperi- 
ous company "sits and laughs at their calamity," not even 
deigning to build them a branch road, that would no doubt be 
a very profitable feeder to their main trunk line. But at last 
Waynesburg has a railroad, which, although only a Xarrow 
Gauge, is a great improvement on the old system when this town 
sustained an annual blockade of mud from two to five months. 
I traveled over this road a few days ago, and was agreeably sui-- 
prised at the smoothness of the track, the speed at which trains 
run, and the extremely polite treatment I received from ofiicers 
and employees. Prominent among these ofticers I found Jus- 
tus F. Temple, a man descended from the old Quaker stock' 

iiisT()::v OF <;:;r.i:Ni: i oiniv. 103 

who settled ill Cumbcrlaiid township one luinilred years ago. 
He has by his own unaided merit risen n\} until he has filled 
different positions of honor and ])rofit, both in the* county and 
in the State, occupying the important position of Auditor Gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania, in 1875 to 1878. When I met him ho 
hailed me as an okl acquaintance ; spoke encouraging Avords 
with reference to the history I am engaged in writing. 

Another old acquaintance whom I met, after an absence 
of twenty years was, W. T. H. Pauley. Although we had 
known each other for twenty-five years, we never knew until 
now that we were both native "Buckeyes," born Avithin six 
miles of each other, in the vicinity of Youngstown, Ohio. 
He, like myself, was left an orphan boy in poverty's vale, the 
same injunction being set before us both, viz: "root hog or die." 
I met with men in different parts of the State, who although 
differing widely with Mr. Pauley in politics, yet always admit 
that he never allows political differences to interfere with his 
gentlemanly conduct ; but on the contrary always seems dis- 
posed to be particularly obliging to a political opponent, never 
concealing his opinions for a single moment, but ahvays avow- 
ing them. He watches closely for the place where the laugh 
comes in at his opponent's expense. Thus he renders himself a 
most enjoyable traveling companion in a crowd, and if he 
should inadvertently give offence, no man is more ready to 
apologise and seek reconciliation; for if there is a man in the 
county who honestly abhors a mean, dirty trick more than he 
does, he is hard to find. I>ut it would be a work of superaroga- 
tion to attempt to Avrite a history (to inform the peo})le of Greene 
county) of a man they already knovr much better than I do. 
He has for many long ye irs been the editor and proprietor of 
the Waynesburg Messenger, the oldest pai)er in the county. I 
can remember his predecessor, John Irons, in Uniontown many 
years ago. A full history of all the papers of the county will 

104 lusruiiY ()!■' (ji:i;i:Ni-: cointv. 

be given as soon as I can collect tlie nei-essary information. 

A long step has been taken in the last thirty years in the 
way of education. Wayne.sburg College, while it has not yet 
reached the height of fame and usefulness acquired by older 
institutions, is nevertheless a light in what was previously a 
dark place. I have known its President for the past tweuty- 
tive years, during Avhich time he has tenaciously hung on to 
that institution, through evil as Avell as good report. Although 
often poorly paid and sometimes all manner of evil has been 
spoken falsely against this institution, yet he resembles that 
lady who said that if her body should be opened after death, she 
liad no doubt they would find "Calls" at her heart. So with Rev. 
A. B. Miller, D. D.; if he sliould be subjected to a, post mortem 
examination after his death, Waynesburg College might be 
said to be at his heart, for I know of no man who has per- 
sisted all these long years m rendering so much unrequited ser- 
vice. For it cannot be denied that with the education, talents, 
energy and self-denial of Dr. Miller, he could obtain a far more 
lucrative position at almost any time. 

Among those that I have personally known as prominent 
residents of Waynesburg, none were more so than General 
Jesse Lazear, a self-made man, who began low down on the 
ladder of fame and also finance, but by diligence in business 
^ and rigid economy, he gradually rose to be one of Greene 
county's men whom her sons delighted to honor. He was 
for many years Cashier of the Farmers & Drovers Bank of 
, Waynesburg. Among the first five dollar notes I ever owned 
was one on this old Bank. In those days when the first 
thing to be done after receiving a note was to call on some 
one that had in his possession either "Bicknell's Detector," or 
'"Sibbett's Western Review." I being ignorant of what was 
good and what Avas bad, presented one of these notes to see 
whether it was good. The answer I received was, "Whenever 

Ill.-ST(>i:V Ol" (MiKKNK COUNTY. 105 

you get a note with Jesse Lazear's name on it you may rest 
easy, for if the bank should break, he will pay it himself." Mr. 
Lazear's friends made him prominent as a politician, not that 
lie had any j)oliti(;al aspirations, but he Avas willing to serve 
the people of this county whenever they demanded his ser- 
vice. Hence he was called on to repi'esent his District in the 
National Legislature at Washington, D. C, which he did to 
the entire satisfaction of those who sent him. He was also 
exceedingly benevolent. I presume he never knew, much less 
did any one else know, what sums of money he contributed at 
different dates for liquidating the debt of Waynesburg College, 
as well as numerous acts of liberality. One of the most re- 
markable of these occurred in 1859. On the morning of thc; 
5th of June, although almost in midsummer, yet the fields, 
gardens and roads were glistening with an icy frost that fell 
in small cakes about the size of a dime, freezing to the core all 
vegetation that was then in a luxuriant state of growth. Dark, 
gloomy and awful were the forbodings of many with reference 
to the question, "What shall we eat ?" Many sat down in sul- 
len silence during that Sabbath day, when it Avas not yet 
known that the wheat was killed. Rut when Monday and 
Tuesdays' suns had revealed tlTe fact that the staff of life was 
broken by the destruction of the wheat, then the pitious 
Avails became loud and long. Some rushed to tlie heads of 
market and purchased flour enough at fabulous prices to do 
them a Avhole year. Others confiscated the flour found in thc 
neighboring mills and divided it out among a favored few, 
while others Avho had promised flour to their slioemaker. their 
blacksmith or day laborer at six dollars a barrel, immediately 
put the price up to twelve dollars. Some refused to let it go 
at any price, while one man whom I knew, told his wife they 
would have to eat their children ! AVIiile all this stonu of 
foolish nonsense was going on Avhat was General Lazear eu- 

'100 HISTORY OK <;i:i:knk <jolntv. 

gaged in? He was quietly purchasing a large lot of seed 
'])uckwheat, which was sent throughout the entire county, esi- 
pecially the upper end, where it was placed in the care of re- 
liable parties, with instructions to give no man more than ouv; 
bushel, no matter how much money he might have, and everj- 
man a bushel whether he had money or not. While tliis Ava.-, 
■by many, regarded as an act of disinterested benevolence, it, 
nevertheless was found to be a profitable and popular sjiccmi- 
lation, as the seed was sold at a large adA-ance on the origiual 
cost, and scarcely a dollar was lost of that portion sold on 
credit. This buckwheat was sown on almost eveiy farm, as avi'iI 
as seed procured from other sources, almost all yielded ;i v.xnsi 
hixuriant crop, in different places yielding one hundied I'ol 1. 
giving abundant evidence of the goodness of God, tliat wliik- 
He permitted the unseasonable frost of June otli, lie iii.-ule 
such ample amends by restraining the frosts in aulu.nn unlii 
this great crop of buckwheat was harvested, and until iuik;!) u!,' 
the corn, which in many instances was not rejilantcd until the 
loth and even the 25th of June, was fully matured. And v> lini 
a revelation did this seeming calamity make of the small 
amount of faith that was found to exist even among professed- 
ly pions people. A prophet in old times said "Although the 
fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall there be fruit in llie 
vines, the labor of the olive tree sliall fail, and the iields shall 
yield no meat, the flocks shall be cut off from the fold, himI 
there shall be no herd in the stalls, yet I will rejoice in the 
Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvivtion." Hab. o : IT, 18. 
In view of this exhibition may we not ask the question that is 
asked in Luke 18:8: "Nevertheless when the Son of man com- 
eth shall he find faith on the earth ?"' I hope he will, br.L 
5f he had come in 1859, I think that grace would surely have 
been no larger than "a grain of mustard seed." 
V Of the old inhabitants I havo b-^.t very little personal knowl- 

iiiSTOUV OF (;i:i:i;m: <<h\tv. 107 

edge. I have seen Samuel Cleavcnger, Henry Pennock, Mat- 
thew Dill, Ephraim Sayers, etc. 

There seems to have been no Indian depredations committed 
in the immediate vicinity of Waynesburg, yet the settler in 
this neighborhood was terribly frightened in 1774 and 1775, 
when the Indian chief, Logan, (who had so justly deserved the 
name of "the white man's friend)" made his murderous raid of 
retaliation. Among the first victims that in i)art satisfied the 
revenge of Logan for the slaughter of his friends, were Wm. 
Spicer and family at the head of Deep Run. The act was en- 
tirely unexpected. The wildest i)anic immediately prevailed. 
The nearest place of refuge seems to have been Gaiard's Fort. 
When the savages were driven away the settlers seem to liave 
determined, that they would have a nearer place of refuge, and 
almost immediately constructed Fort Jackson, near tl:e sight of 
the present borough. Soon after this the nnirder of i\Iatthe\v 
Gray took place. lie was killed by the Indians under about 
the following circumstances: An Indian raid hr.d occurred in 
Richhill township. Most of the settlers had taken refuge in 
Fort Jackson ; among them the family of the Grays. In a day 
or two all was quiet again, and Matthew, anxious to know 
how their cabins, farms and stock had fared, started out of the 
fort to reconoiter. He had only proceeded to a point about mid- 
way between the present residence of Wm. Reese, innnedi- 
ately west of the covered bridge on the State Road, near tlic 
residence of J. A. J. Buchanan, Esq., and Hill's school house, 
when he was shot by an Indian in ambush. When the time 
for his return had gone by, his brother David (who afterward 
became Judge), went in search and found the body stiff in 
death : he stood it up against a tree and mounted his three year 
old colt on wliich he can-ied the body to the fort and hurried it. 

Among the earliest instructors in Waynesburg College was 
Rev. Joshua Loughran, who had previously been connected with 

108 !!i:<:(Mn' oi- cizki.m; colntv. 

Greene Acarlemy at Carmichaels. Tliis man was a son of Rev. 
Cornelius Loiighran, formerly pastor of Upper Tenmile Church 
in Washington county. Soon after the founding of this insti- 
tution Rev. J. P. Wethee was elected President, who had for- 
merly been connected with Madison College at Uniontown. 
This man's scholarship Avas never called in question. His abil- 
ity to govern and control was also of a high order; yet he wa^; 
In possession of some exceedingly singular opinions. Promi- 
nent among these was his notion of the materiality of the sot;' 

• ••11 

■.v'hich he seems to have supposed could not exist without tno 

body, and that consequently when the body died the soul be- 
came torpid and dormant until the resurrection of the body 
from the grave, when a re-union Avould take place, which would 
be eternal. There was also the belief of the pre-millennial 
coming of Christ, when the righteous that were alive on tlio 
earth should be "caught up to meet the Lord in the air." Thi? 
opinion was said to be held by him, and in view of its proba- 
bility it is affirmed by him that he even provided himself with 
a robe in which he expected to leave this mundane sphere, and 
bodily ascend to Paradise. It is even told of him that he ar- 
rayed himself in this robe and sat up all night waiting for the 
coming of the Lord at a specified date. 

In this vicinity there lived, in 1791, a man named Willian. 
Rhodes, who has a very checkered and diversified liistory. He 
was born in the State of Rhode Island, about 1759. He went 
out as a sailor when he was only sixteen years old. He Avas 
taken prisoner by the French in 1778, and kept such for two 
years. After his release he Avas again captured on a voyage 
from London, but Avas liberated through the influence of 
Americans, as an American citizen. In October, 1780, he ac- 
companied a large fleet of trading vessels to the Barbadoes. 
from Avhich Aoyage he seems to have returned safely. But the 
next year he Avas again captured by the French. After his re- 

iiisri>i;v (IF <i::iii;\r. corNTY. 109 

lease he was captured by the liiitisli during the Revohition, 
and kept a prisoner in New York for five montlis, at the end of 
wliich time he was exchanged. In 1784 he was Avrecked off 
Cape Cod. Seeming to be thus unfortunate on the seas, he de- 
termined to try his fortune on dry land. Hearing the great 
stories that were then being told of the marvelous fertility of 
the soil in this region, he began his journey to "Redstone," in 
the latter part of the year 1787. On the 18th of January, 
1788, he arrived at the spot where Brownsville now stands in 
Fayette county. His first employment seems to have been 
peddling dry goods and notions around the country on his 
back. He then oi)ened a small store at Jackson's Fort, now 
Greene county. Here, in 1791, he bought a plantation, (where 
his son, the late James K. Rhodes, recently resided), got mar- 
ried, and settled down for life at the humble but honorable 
avocation of farming. He seems to have been something of a 
natural artist, and has left behind him several pictures of men, 
women, ships, animals, etc. 

1 10 iusro::Y of (;in:i:M-: coumt. 



At tliis period of time, 1791, the entire inhabitants of the 
ilistrict of territory lying between the Allegheny mountains 
and the Ohio rivci-, were convulsed as by the upheaval of an 
oartliquake, in consequence of an act of Congress, imposing a 
four-pence tax on every gallon of whisky. This act was inter- 
])reted as a direct personal insult to the inhabitants of South- 
western Pennsylvania, from several considerations : 1st, it was 
an "excise," which kind of acts the Congress of 1774 had de- 
clared to be "the horror of all free States." 2d, it forcibly re- 
minded them of the old "stamp act," to resist which, their 
fatliers had fought, bled, and many of them died. 3d, the de- 
tails of the law were so exceedingly exasperating in conse- 
quence of introducing a system of espionage through the 
agency of the "Inspectors" who came prying around not only 
the log cabin distilleries, but also the cabin dwellings of the 
settlers, in a way that seemed to them totally incompatible 
with tlie liberties of "a free people." 4th, the law seemed to them 
to mock their very poverty. Many of them in the east had been 
the owners of a few acres of land, for the products of which 
they could receive cash ; but now, although possessed of hun- 
dreds and even thousands of acres, their lands were yet an un- 
subdued forest, yielding no income except the small pittance of 
tlie coarsest knid of food on which the primitive families lived. 
5th, the manufacture of whisky was the business of the west- 
ern counties, and the only business by which they could obtain 
the small pittance of naoney that was absolutely necessary to 
procure their salt, iron, Dutch ovens, skillets and lids ; also 

niSTOin' OK (illKKNK (.01 N TY. Ill 

tliC'ir wool cards, and tlie few yai-ds of chintz calico that were 
thought to be absolutely necessary for making "short gowns" 
for their Avives and daughters to enable them to make a respec- 
table appearance at ''nietin'." 6th, by this means also, to a great 
extent, their lands were cleaied and made ready for the plow. 
Two or three little farmers wliose lands lay adjoining, find- 
ing themselves in possession of a surplus of several bushels of 
rye, would confer together and agree to start a distillery at tlie 
'argest and best spring eitlier of them possessed. When tliis 
,vas erect-Hl they were ready to manufacture not only tlicir own 
^lu•plus but that of tlieir nciglibors. There were also numer- 
ous single men who had taken tracts of land, but having no 
'better half" to cook their ''hog and homony" for them, they 
Avere glad to get the chance to chop wood all winter for the 
•'Still house," feeling that they were abundantly compensated 
by getting their "boarding and bitters" without being left in 
debt in the spring. The residium of ashes was sometimes run 
off into lye and then boiled into potash, which would bear 
■ransportation. But the main dependence was on the whisky, 
vhich was generally reduced to "fourth proof ;" then placed 
in kegs holding from six to ten and even twenty gallons each. 
The kegs were then put into a wallet, and placed across the 
T)ack of a "pack horse," which had previously been surmounted 
by a "pack saddle, that the farmers made themselves, by ob 
taining two short crooks or forks of (generally) dogwood. To 
these they riveted two pieces of wood about two and a half feet 
long, eight inches wide and one and a half inches thick ; on 
the inside of these, next the horse, they nailed buckskin, leav - 
ing space for stuffing, which was usually composed of horse 
hair, sometimes of wool. When some twenty or thirty of these 
pack horses were thus fitted out the caravan was ready to start. 
From this section they generally went to "Redstone Old Fort," 
(Brownsville.) Thence to Gist's Plantation ; thence by "Brad- 

113 HISTORY OF (;iu:i;ni-: county. 

dock's Road" to Cuuibei-land, Avhere tliey began to diverge in 
different directions in order to obtain supplies. In 1788 the 
territory wliich now constitutes Greene county had within its 
boundaries seventy registered distilleries, and most likely many 
that were not registered. This "whisky insurrection," as it is 
generally termed, has often been dished up as a burning re- 
proach against Western Pennsylvania, her enemies asserting 
that the original settlers were a whisky-loving, brandy-guz- 
zling set of drunkards. I presume no one acquainted with me 
will expect me to palliate or screen the use of ardent spirits as 
they are used at the present day. But the truth of history de- 
tiiaiuls that a line of demarkation should be drawn between the 
iisy of intoxicating drinks of to-day and one hundred years ago. 
Then whisky was the pure essence of rye, which was not re^ 
garked as tit for use until it was from one to ten years old. It 
:lid not seem possessed of those Satanic qualities that are 
:iow looked for as the immediate results of indulging in the 
iO-aalled whisky of the present day, which is little else than a 
filthy compound of water and poisonous drugs, producing in 
almost all instances bl asphemy, profanity and vulgarity. Not so 
in those good old days ; men often became eloquent in their 
quotations of Scrijjture, and sometimes would engage in sing- 
ing with great veneration some of those immortal Psalms o;f 
the old 'varshion' by Rouse. They could then do what men 
are often heard to say they can do now, viz : "Either drink or 
let it alone." But now it seems if a man contracts the habit of 
di'inking he cannot let it alone. One of my own earliest recol- 
lections was of a wedding where two young men were singled 
out to "run for the bottle." Soon one of them who was mounted 
on a better horse than his competitor, returned, swinging aloft 
a well-filled bottle, and presented it to the old preacher, who 
was waiting to perform the marriage ceremony, very politely 
asking him to "take the bead off this liquor." And sure enough 


the preacher did it with a hearty good-will. There was also a 
poetry in drinking in those days that seemed to rob it of those 
offensive features that are now so disgusting. Two of these 
came under my own observation more than fifty years ago. 
They were as follows : First, a man came into a tavern where 
1 wasstandina*. Xo one knew him ; no one offered him a seat ; 
*U(1 not even make room for him by the tire. Yet he knew 
liow to be jjopular in that age of universal drinkmg. Plencc 
he exclaimed, "Well, gentlemen, what will you all drink? With 
one accord they gathered round the bir, while smiles lit up 
r.heir countenances. When the glasses were all tilled the strau 
ger lifted his and exclaimed, by way of grace i 

Oh ! good grog yon are ray darling ; 

Some times you make me friends, 

And some times foe-;. 

Some times you make mo wear old clothes ; 

But now since you are so near my nose, 

I'p, good grog, and down she goes. 

[t is useless to say that he was at once a hero, and as he handed 
over his old Spanish dollar for the drinks, he received the land- 
lord's blandest smile. Every man there was ready to do the 
stranger any favor that lay in his power, bought by that three 
3ent dram." On another occasion one of those jolley drinkers 
entered a tavern under circumstances differing but slightly 
from those described above. As he held up his little tin nog- 
gin that held only a gill, he exclaimed : 

Here is health to those who have old clothes. 
And have no wives to mend them ; 
Here is sorrow to those who have half joes, 
And have no heart to spend them. 

The fun-loving landlord was so Avell pleased on this occasion 
that he treated all hands "free gratis for nothing." Still on an- 
other occasion, while standing in a bar one very cold morning, 
a man came in with a wagon whip under his arm, exclaiming, 
"Landlord. I want to get a whip cracker." Soon the door of 
the old fashioned bur was unlocked, and instead of the skein ofj 



silk that I supposed would be handed out, the bottle was set 
on the counter and from it this man took a "whip cracker.' 
In a short time in came another man, asking if he could be ac- 
commodated with a little "Hardware." The same bottle, to 
till appearances, was set out, and from it this man took a little 
'•hardware." As I boarded at this house, and as there was 
fire nowhere else but in the bar-room and kitchen, I still re- 
mained a while longer, when in came a regular old "soap stick," 
and in a subdued tone of voice called for some "red-3ye." 
•'Boneface" hesitated this time. The customer saw it, and after 
i'some considerable fumbling in his well-worn, thread-bare pock- 
ets, he produced three old copperhead cents, at sight of which 
out came the same bottle and from it a hearty draught of "red- 
sye" was extracted. 

I have detailed these apparently little stories for the purpose 
of showing what a fascinating charm was thrown like a halo 
all around the practice of making and drinking ardent spirits. 
It was esteemed not only a luxury, but an indispensable neces- 
sity. The good old Scotch Irish must have whisky at their 
raisings, their log-rollings, corn-huskings, wood-choppings and 
in harvest. They must have it at their weddings and funerals, 
last but not least, they must have it when the minister and el- 
der come to visit them and catechise the children. They scarce 
ever became intoxicated, yet the force of habit had become so 
strong that they regarded the excise tax as a strike at their 
^'idol," and they were ready to resent it. There were also 
demagogues in those days who saw the means of success, po- 
iitically, by espousing the cause of the people who thought 
themselves aggi'ieved, and consequently listened with eager ear- 
nestness to the harrangues of unprincipled aspirants who were 
over ready to fan the flame of opposition to the government. 
There were also fears to be contended with, which had great 
influence in causing many to quietly submit and go with the 

iiiSToriv OF <;i:i;i:nk colntv. 115 

masses, although their consciences told tliem better. I do not 
know whether there were any buildino-s burned in tlie bounds 
of Greene county, but there were several barns, houses and 
i^rain stacks burned in the western half of what was tlien all 
Washington county. A certain incognito demon who signed 
his name "'Tom the Tinker,'' was almost ahvay;-! notifyin"- some 
one that his ''ladle was hot," and that if they dared to comply 
with the requirements of law, vengeance would be meetedoutto 
uhem Avith the utmost severity; and to show these Avere no idle 
clireats, the mid-niglit skies were oftenlitupby the lurid ilamcs 
of the burning buildings of those who had submitted to th-.; 
'luthority of the government. Then without a single effort v> 
]>rove our ancestors right, but admitting all the time tliat tlicy 
were wrong, we will be able to see, by examining these various 
circumstances, how many extenuations might be pleaded in 
their behalf, which the enemies of AVestern Pennsylvania eith- 
er deny or at least try to keep out of sight. The majority of 
the excesses were along the waters of Peters Ci-eek, Mingo and 
Pigeon Creeks ; until finally these lesser outbreaks culminated 
in the burning of the splendid buildings of the Inspector Nevil, on 
Chartiers Creek, near Bower Hill Station, on the valley railroad. 
During this attack McFarlin, the leader of the insurgents, was 
killed. At his funeral on the following Sabbath day several 
men came prominently to the front, some to fan the Hame, 
others to try to restrain and control it. Conspicuous among 
these were Bradford and Breckenridge. In many respects this 
anan Bradford might be considered the head and front of the 
rebellion. It was at his persistent request that the grand dem- 
onstration came off at Braddock's Fields, where it might be 
truthfully said the rebellion "went up like a rocket and came 
down like a stick." 

Our readers will pardon us if our history is somewhat 
:4issultry, as Ave do not propose to make it like any other 


liistory. Consequently will insert any facts that may be 
met with at any time and any place ; hence I call atten- 
tion to the following additional history of the town of Jeffer- 
son, which I find in the county atlas ; "That part of the town 
west of Pine street was laid out in 1814, by Col. Heaton, and 
Av^as called Hamilton. The part of the town east of said street 
was laid out the same year by Thomas Hughes and called Jef- 
lerson. The two jjlaces Avere incorporated under the name of 
Jefferson by act of the Legislature in 1827. It has a popula- 
tion of about 600 inhabitants. Nothing could be more sugges- 
Uve than the two names that were given by the original pro- 
prietor. Those two great statesmen were justly considered the 
founders of the two great political parties that were at that 
time just rising into existence, and have ever since divided the 
suffrages of this great nation. Yet what an incongruity did it 
seem to name the two opposite sides of the same street for tw(^ 
men \yhose political princiijles Avere so diametrically opj)osed to 
each other. It Avould seem an augury of continuous coiiten ■ 
tions, and yet nothing is farther from the fact, for I know of 
no place where there is more political toleration than in the 
town of Jefferson. There is also a A'ery broad religious toler- 
ation, from the fact that although the town contains four 
churches, viz : Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist and Cumber- 
land Presbyterian, I have never seen or deard of any con- 
troversy arise between these different branches of the Church 
of Christ. 

Monongahela College is located at this tOAvn just outside the 
corporate limits, on a magnificient plat of land containing 
about fourteen acres where majestic ornamental pine trees Avere 
placed, not by the' skill of man, but as part of the handiwork 
of nature's God. This institution was chartered during the 
winter of 1868 and 1869. Rev. Joseph Smith, A. M., was its 
first President. After his retirement, J. B Solomon, A. M.' 


filled the Presidential chair. He in turn was succeeded by 
Iv<jv. H. K. Craig. Among its Professors I lind the names of > 
T. \V. Grier, W. P. Kendall, J. W. Phillips, J. W. Scott, D. D. 
Mrs. Jennie Smith was elected Principal of the female de^jart- 
uient and was succeeded by Mrs. J. B. Solomon. Miss Nannie 
I'oUock was elected assistant teacher in the female department, 
•iudshe was afterwards Principal. This college has an English 
department — a department embracing a full course in mathe- 
matics — and also a Normal department. The curriculum em- 
braces both a classical and scientific course. It claims to be 
equal to that of American Colleges generally. It is the design 
of those having it in charge, that it shall mee'. the demands of 
those desiring a thorough mental training, to lit them for the 
acti\e duties of life. While it is under the direction of the 
Baptist denomination, it claims to be in no sense sectarian. All 
students are required to go to church every Sabbath day ; yet 
the church they go to is left to their own discretion, or that of 
their parents. No doubt great good has been accomi)lished by 
'Jiis institution, yet it is unfortunate that the two colleges should 
l)e located so near each other, as this institution and the 
VYaynesburg College at the county seat, are only eiglit miles 
apart. This thing has been effectually tried in the case of 
Jefferson College, located at Cannonsburg, and Washingtoi; 
College at the county seat, being al)out the same distance from 
each other that these Greene county institutions are. Ikivaliy 
seems to l^e the natural result of close proximity, which will 
lead to financial leanness resulting from divided patronage and 
reduced terms of tuition, tending to force a kind of classical 
smattering into the duml) skulls of those whom nature and na- 
ture's God never intended to fill positions in any of the learned 
professions. Let us hope for the best, but if the community 
around Washington and Cannonsburg could not sustain two 
rival institutions, and were compelled (after three quarters of a 

118 HISTOltV (J!' (illKKNK COUXTl". 

century of j^ersistent effort) to unite, we may well rejoice with 
trembling in view of the jirobable fate of these younger insti- 
tutions, either of which, if they had the patronage of the entire 
community, would almost certainly be a success. This borough 
of Jefferson is located in a township of the same name, which 
is bounded on the east by the Monongahela river, on the nortb^ 
1)y the Washington county line, north-west by Morgan town- 
ship, west by Franklin township, south by Greene township 
and south-east by Cumberland townshij). One of the earliest 
settlers in this township was Thomas Hughes, who came in 
company with Jesse Vanmeter and John Swan from the State 
of Maryland, in 1767. They were among the very first set- 
tlers on Muddy creek where they at least made their tomahawk 
claims before the treaty of Stanwix, while the land still be- 
longed to the Aborginal inhabitants. In a few years Thomas 
Hughes removed from the present site of Carmichaels, and 
purchased the land on which the town of Jefferson now stands^ 
He erected the stone house still standing which was long occu- 
pied by the Stephens family. He Avas a Justice of the Peace 
for many years, and was at one time County Commissioner. 
He married Elizabeth Swan and raised a family of ten chil- 
dren — four sons and six daughters. This man's descendants 
are extensively connected with such families as Swan, Neel, 
Hiller, Roseberry and Lindsey. Two miles east of Jefferson 
in Jefferson township, still resides or did lately, Isaac F. Ran- 
dolph, who was born July 2d, 1797, on the farm where he has 
had his home all his life. His father was born in the "Jerseys ' 
in 1731, and emigrated to this locality in 1795. Isaac F. Ran- 
dolph is the youngest of a family of sixteen children, fifteen 
of whom have already gone the way of all the earth. He was 
married on the 4th of September, 1827, to Miss Sarah A. Ad- 
amson, by whom he has had eight children, all of whom are 
yet living. He has twenty-seven grand-children, and two great 

iiisTO"Y <)i' <;ui:i;nv: coimv. 


grancl-cliildren. lie has been a farmer all liis manhood days, 
highly respected by all -svho know him. In tliis same town- 
ship, at Lock No. G, on tlie MonoiiLrahcla river, is situated the 
busy little town of Rice's Landinjr, a name derived from John 
Rice who landed here in 1786, and ijatented the land above the 
mouth of the run. Those lots below the run were laid out by 
Abijah McClean and went by the name of Newport for many 
years before the lock and dam Avere built. This place, small 
a.s it is, ivS the principal port for the landing of all goods for 
the nortii-eastern end of Greene county. Large quantities of 
grain are also exported from this place to Pittsburg and other 
markets, by way of the Monongahela slack-water improve- 
ment. The town contains about three hundred inhabitants, 
three dry goods stores, one saw and planing mill, one grist 
mill, one grocery and two hotels. Immediately across the rivev 
thirty years ago lived a man whose name was Benjamin Coob- 
ert, a very devout Methodist and a famous singer, according to 
the system taught in the old "Beauties of Harmony," as pub- 
lished by Freeman Lewis, in 1814. Mr. Coobert was a very 
large man, exceedingly stout, and I introduce his name here for 
the purpose of recording this story about him. It has often 
been asserted that the Bible requires impossibilities, among 
other things such precepts as this: "Love your enemies," 
"When they smite you on one cheek turn the other also," etc. 
I have been creditably informed that Mr. Coobert gave an il- 
lustration that at least one of these precepts can be obeyed. A 
very quarrelsome man met him at the muster and made vari- 
ous assaults on him with his [)rofane vulgar tongue, all of 
which were born in silence, until finally the insolent fellow 
struck him upon the right cheek, Mr. Coobert turned round, 
saying: "My INIaster said, 'when they smite thee on the right 
cheek turn the other also.' " Althougli this liberty was given, 
the ruffian was so overawed by the words and by the manner,, 


that instead of striking again, he turned pale, and stammered 
out, "excuse me sir," and immediately left the place, showing 
Konclusively that the reason why skeptics say that the teach- 
ings of Jesus can not be carried out, is because they do not try 
theju. This story which is well vouched for forcibly reminds 
me of another that I heard many years ago as follows : A de- 
vout old Presbyterian minister was making his annual visit at 
a house where the woman was a member of his church, but the 
man was not, and the woman very seldom ever attended at the 
church. The minister was urging her to attend more regularly. 
She began to excuse herself by saying what a bad husband slic- 
had, and that he always opposed everything she tried to do 
that was right, etc. The preacher told her she ought not to 
talk so about her man, but on the contrary she ought to be 
more kind and affectionate, consealing instead of publishing his 
faults, and thus heaping coals of fire on his head, as the Scrip- 
tures require us to do. The woman exclaimed, "Oh, it would 
not do a bit of good !" When the preacher asked the question, 
did you ever try it, to which she replied, "No, I never did just 
try coals of fire, but I have tried bilen water !'' 

On the south-eastern line of Jefferson township, just inside 
of Cumberland township, on Pumpkin run, is the spot where- 
old fort Swan and Vanmeter stood one hundred years ago. I 
was at the place almost thirty years ago, the exact spot being 
pointed out to me by Thomas Allfree, who resided at no great 
distance from the place. Andrew J. Young now resides on 
the identical place where the old stockade M'as erected about 
the year 1770. John Swan, the great-grandfather of Mrs. 
Young, made his towahawk marks here as early as 1767 and 
his permanent settlement in 1779, in company with Thomas 
Hughes and Jesse Vanmeter. I am ' inclined to think this was 
the very first white settlement, of a permanent kind, in Greene 
county. Some have supposed the Eckerline brothers were in 

nisTo::v oi- <;::i.;.n!; < crNrv. 121 

the bounds of the present county on DunUard Creek, previous 
to the coming of those three men. Be this as it may, those 
Kckerlines were liardly entitled to the name of settlers at all. 
Tliere is no evidence that they had any families, hut en 
the contrary they were a kind of batchelor liermits, neither 
-multiplying and replenisliiiig the earth," nor subduing it, as I 
can find no evidence that they eve]" cleured oin: acre of land. 
Their ])Iace of al)ode on Diinkard creek is no doubt very justly 
called a "camp," which in my opinion is not a settlement 
Their time was employed in "exploring, hunting and medita- 
tion," very different avocations from those in which the Muddy 
creek settlers, men, women and cliildrcn engaged, viz : clearing 
the land and cultivating cio >s on the virgin soil. So that if 
these three families had any predecessoi's, it must have been 
(-'ol. John Minor (who built the first flouring mill in the county. 
It ]Mapleto\vn, and was anjjointed a Justice of the Peace by 
the Supreme Executive Council at Philadelphia, Nov. 30, 1789) 
and Jeremiah Glasgow, as we have evidence that they explored 
the region of Big Wiiiteley Creek about the year 1700. How 
much ihey did towards m.aking a permanent settlement, is not 
known, but one thing seems well established, that they were 
tiiere, at tliat date, ready to suffer the privations of frontier 
life in one long protracted battle with the panther, bear, wolf, 
wild cat, etc., but above all tlie savage red man, whose wiles 
tliey were to study, whose courage they were to brave, and 
Avhose long-winded self-denial tliey were to out-wind. Tiie 
mightv forest was to be subdued, and the liowling v.ihh'rness 
must become a fruit fid field, .'ukI tlie desert must be made to 
blossom like the garden of the I.ord. After the expiration of 
one century may we not exclaim, "What hath God wrought?" 
As there is no better way by which we can appreciate the 
blessings of the present than to compare the times in which wo 
live with those times that "tried men"s souls" in the i):ist, I in- 


troduce right hevc some of tlioso firy trials. In tiie spring of 
17<Sl, (the same year that tliis territory was created into Wash- 
ington county), the Indians made tlieir appearance on Crooked 
run, close to Mason and Dixon's line in what is now Dunkard 
township. Avhere tlicj'' seem to have lain in ambush during the 
night near the cabin of Thomas Pindall, who had gone the day 
]n-evious to Harrison's Fort Avliere the principal part of the set- 
tlers had taken refuge. jMr. Pindall and his family had not 
yet returned to the stockade, and he being more brave than pru- 
■leiit, induced three young men whose names were Harrison, 
Oi'awfcn'd and Wiiglil to go home with him and spend the 
ii'ght. .Sometime after they had been in bed, PindalFs wife 
;iwoke him, sayiiig that she had several times heard a noise 
'Aiiich s!ie Avas quite sure was the whistling on a charger, nisist- 
i ig t!ia: they liad better go to the fort immediately for safety. 
He insisted, however, that it was only the wind, the sound oi 
•vliich her fears had magnified into the Indian signal, and ns 
t!ie night was exceedingly dark, all parties took their rest till 
morning, when the men rose early and apprehending no 
danger. 3Ir. Pindall walked out into the woods to catch his 
horse, while the young men went to the spring for the piirpose 
o!" wasliiitg themselves. While thus engaged three guns were 
lired at tlicm by the ambushed Indians, and Crawford and 
Wright were instantly killed. Harrison immediately fled, and 
arrived safely at the fort. Mrs. Pindall and her sistei--in-lavv, 
] lachel, hearing the report of the guns, leaped out of bed and 
ran toward tlie fort, pursued by the Indians, who overtook, 
killed and scalped Mrs. Pindall, while Rachel escaped safely to 
the fort. In the month of June of the same year, another dep- 
redation was committed by the savages at Martin's Fort, on 
Crooked run. The majority of the men had gone forth at an 
early hour to labor on their farms. The women Avere engaged 
.in milking the coavs at the gate of the fort. The Indians, Avho 


were lying concealed in the woods, made a simultaneous rush^ 
and killed or captured ten of the females who were outside of 
the fort gate. They also killed James Stewart, James Siiiolley, 
and Peter Crouse, while John Shriver and his wife, two sons of 
James Stewart, two sons of James Smollcy and a son of Peter 
Crouse were carried into captivity, a fate for tlie women more 
frightful than death. These two depredations were on the ex- ^^ ^ 
treme southern boundary of Greene county. Let us now notice sVr . _^ 
another murder on its northern border. In the month of Sep- J^ / (M ^ 
tember of the same year, Nathan Davidson and his brother had't^ I v^ 
gone on a hunting expedition up Tenmile. Tliey left their 
(;amp one morning intending to meet there at a certain house, 
and then they would return home the same evening, (which 
home was near Davidson's Ferry). At the appointed hour 
Josiah arrived at the camp, but Nathan never came back. In 
tlie following March his body was found by John Reed Avhero 
he had been shot and scalped. But the sneeking perpe- 
trator was not known to have committed, any other crime. 
This same Tenmile region had previously been stained with the 
blood of the whites, shed by the murderous hands of their im- 
placable foes, the Indians. In the month of February, 1780, 
several families had gathered into Ilarbert's Block House. On 
the third of Mai'ch while some children were playing Avith a 
crippled crow in the yard, they espied several Indians coming 
toward them. They immediately gave the alarm, when John 
Murphy looked out at the door to ascertain the nature of the , 
danger, when he recived a shot from the gun of an Indian 
(who had just come round the house), and fell back into the 
house. The Indian, eagre for his scalp, sprang into the block 
house, the door still being open. Here Harbert, a brave man, 
laid hold on him and threw him on the floor. A shot from the 
outside of the house wounded Harbert. Still he maintained his 
hold on his savage antagonist, trying, in the meantime, to dis- 



patch him with his tomahawk, wlien he received anotlier shct 
through the liead and immediately expired. His wounded an- 
tagonist then sprang out at the door ^vhich was partially open. 
Another active young warrior sprang in, carrying in his hand 
a tomahawk with a long si)ear at the end of the handle. Ed- 
ward Cunningham raised his gun to shoot this savage, but it 
missed fire and the two grappled in a dreadful struggle. At 
length Cunningham wrenched the tomaliawk from the hand of 
the savage and buried the spear end of the handle in his back. 
Mrs. Cunningham now struck the Indian in the face with the 
edge of an ax, wounding him severely, when he loosened his 
liold of her husband and staggared out of the house. A third 
Indian now ran in, and aimed a murderous blow at the head of 
iMiss Reese, which did not kill her, only inflicting an ugly 
wound. Her father, who was a Quaker, seeing his daughter 
thus brutally beaten, seized hold of the Indian, but was soon 
thrown to the floor, and would have been killed but for the op- 
portune interference of Cunningham who had been released 
from his struggle Avith the first Indian just in timer Seeing 
the danger Reese was in, he drew out the spear end of the toma- 
hawk from the back of the first Indian and instantly sunk the 
bit into the head of the second Indian as he was about to dis- 
patch Reese. The door was now shut and firmly held by the 
women, although the Indians on the outside made desperate 
efforts to force it open. They now killed and scalped, or cap- 
tured, all the children in the yard. When disparing of being 
able to do any moi'e mischief, they departed, leaving the whites 
in possession of the stronghold they had so valiantly defended. 
Of the whites in the house only one (Halbert) was killed 
and four wounded, while seven or eight children in the yard 
were killed or captured. One Indian was killed and two des- ' 
perately wounded, showing it to be a draw battle in which 
savage valor of one sex: was met by equal valor on the part of 

iiisTOKV OK <;ri:knk countv. 125 

both sexes of tlie wliitcs. VVlien the third Iiuliaa aimed his 
deadly blow at the head of Miss Reese, the girl's mother rushed 
forward and cauglit the wai-rior l)y his false horns which came 
off in her hands, and, althoiioh her interference did not entirely 
protect her (hiug-htcr fi-om injury, it no doubt turned aside the 
nnn-derous weapon sufficiently to save the girl's life. If lieese 
liad laid aside his Quakerism at an earlier ])eriod in the strug- 
gle the probabilities are, that the two wounded Indians would 
have been incapacitated forever from })articipating in another 
such battle, and yet the Quaker owed his life to the man wliom 
he at first refused to assist. 

While on the subject of Indian barbarities I will add one 
more sad chapter to the list that might be indefinantely pro- 
longed. That is the murder of the two sisters by the name 
of Crow, on Wheeling Creek. Jacob Crow had settled here 
in 1770 or 1771 ; he Avas the father of live daughters and 
at least one son. As these were "times that tried men's souls,'' 
so, also, did they try the nerve and muscle of the bodies of thcii- 
wcrasn. 'Hence one of the daughters had been woi-king for 
ivages for Mr. James Davis near llyerson's Station and had re- 
turned home on Saturday night for the i)urpose of spending 
the Sabbath at her father's house. A colt belonging to the 
old man had broken out of its enclosure and ran off up the 
creek. A son, whose name was Michael, had gone in search for 
this colt up above the mouth of Wharton's run. Upon finding 
it he returned down the creek until he was again opposite the 
mouth of this run, near which at a few rods distance from the 
creek lay a sa,nd stone rock probably twenty feet square. Be- 
hind this rock, in concealment lay the notorious young Spicer 
and two Indian warriors who might easily have shot down the 
hoy on the colt but he was permitted to pass in safety as the In- 
dians evidently had designs on other parties close at hand. These 
parties were the five daughters of old Jacob Crow and sisders 

lyt) HisTOUY OF <;ki:ene CuUNTV. 

to the young man Micliael. Four of these daugliters had ac- 
companied their older sister (on her return back to her weekly 
work near the Station) and Avere now engaged cracking wal- 
nuts under a tree preparatory to separation. Here they were met 
l3y their brother who told them they had better go on as it was 
getting late and there might be "Injuns" about. The girls 
the:i ie^)ar; t?d, two of them staring to the creek, the others to 
return home. At this moment two guns were fired from behind 
ihe rock and the two girls in the creek both fell fatally wound- 
ed. The other three fled with all possible speed, pursued by 
the savages who threw a tomahawk striking Taner in the back 
between the shoulders near the spine, and bringing her instantly 
to the ground. The Indians kept up the j^ursuit until the re- 
maining young woman was captured, to whom they made offers 
if she would go with them as a companion that they would save 
"her life. These offers were refused with contempt and disdain, 
Avhen in hateful rage the scalping knife was applied and her 
luxuriant head of hair was torn off to grace an Indian's belt and 
yhe was left to die a lingering and horrible death that occurred 
about nine days after, partly from starvation and partly from 
exposure and loss of blood. During this parley in making 
these offers and having thena rejected Taner (who had been 
knocked down apparently dead by the stroke in the back) 
had revived from the shock and had secreted herself so 
successfully that even Indian vigilence failed to find her and she 

lived to be an old woman as the wife of McBride, and the 

mother of ten or eleven children. The mark of the tomahawk 
in her back was distinctly visible at the time of her death and 
was seen by one of my informants. Mary, the little sister, 
who had " scarce entered her teens," out-ran all parties and 
was taken up behind her brother on the colt on which they both 
made their escape, first to their father's house, where, after 
alarming the remaining inmates, all parties made their escape 

iiisToia' <>i- (j::i:i:nk colntv. i27 

that night to RN'evson's Fort, where this same infamous Spicer 
and his savage allies luul coniiuitted another depredation the 
same day about a mile above the station in the slaughter of the 
Davis family. This little girl, 31ary Crow, who made such a 
narrow escape was aftei-wards married to Hiram Gray. S; e 
lived to be 104 years old and was the mother of fifteen chil- 
dren. This ^lichael Crow iiad already had a distressing Iiuli; n 
experience when he was only five years old. An Indian ab.rm 
had come; those who Avere older Avere started to run to the Fort 
while those Avho were smaller were carried in the arn^s of their 
[larents. This boy was too large to be carried and too small to 
iuii, hence a puncheon in the cabin floor was lifted and he was 
pushed down '■'• nolens volens''' and directed, under all circunr 
stances, to keep quiet, which he certainly did, as the Indians 
soon entered the cabin in their work of pillage and held high 
v^arnival immediately above him while he maintained a pro- 
found silence even long after the departure of his, foes from 
which unpleasant position he was finally released by other 
members of the family, after remaining under the house for 
three days with nothing to eat and no companion but a large dog. 
These statements I have received from Mrs. Ann Rickey, wife 
of William S. Rickey, and grand daughter of Michal Crow, 
Sr. Robert Dinsmore, John Dinsmore, and David Braddock, 
Jr., also concur in substantially the same statements. I am 
aware that thei'e are other versions of the affair, but these de- 
scendents and relatives think that this chapter is about as near 
correct as we possibly can have it at this late day. Another 
of these Indian depredations occurred in the month of March, 
1779, on Dunkard Creek. The heroine was a woman whose 
name was Experience Bozarth, who seems to have been a avo- 
raen of unusual courage, and was recognized as such by her 
neighbors, two or three families of whom had taken refuge at 
her house, deeming themselves safer in her company than they 


iiistoi:y oi- <i::i-;Kxi-; colnti:. 

would be at their own homes. On a certain clay some of 
the children thus collected together came running in, saying 
that there were Indians coming. One of the men in the house 
walked to the dooi- to see and found the report was true, 
v.'lien he received a ball in the side of his breast which caused 
liim to fall back into the house. The Indian rushed in after 
liis scalp, when he Avas met by a very stout man who was un- 
armed at the time ; he, however, seized the Indian and threw him 
on the bed and called loudly for a knife to kill him with. Instead 
of hunting for a knife, Mrs. Bozarth seized an ax that stood in 
(lie comer and with one blow let out the Indians brains. At 
that instant a second Indian ran in and seeing the man leaning 
over the body of the Indian on the bed drew up his gun and 
shot the white man dead. Mrs. Bozarth now attacked this 
siecond Indian with her already bloody ax inflicting several 
wounds, one of which let out his entrals, causing him to bawl 
out murder. This brought out a third Indian to his relief who 
had only stuck his head a short distance into the door when 
the murderous ax (wielded by the stalwart arm of this Amer- 
ican Amozonian) clave his skull in two, stretching him lifeless 
on the floor. A foiirth Indian now seized the bellowing fellow 
by the leg and drew him out at the door, which was immedi- 
ately shut and barred by the woman and the white man who 
was flrst shot, and who by this time had j^artially recovered. 
Here they were compelled to remain for several days with the 
dead white man and dead Indian both in the house. They were 
finally relieved by the arrival of several, hunters who drove 
away the Indians who still continued to beseige them. This 
affair was in the bounds of the present Greene county, although 
it was then called a part of Westmoreland county. But I have 
already mentioned the murder of the Davis family, of which I 
have obtained the following additional particulars from Eze- 
kiel Grandou, a grand nej^hew of old man Davis. This mas- 


sacre was done on the morning of the same day that the Crow 
sisters were killed. The oldest daughter of the Davis family 
had risen early and went out to milk the cows. While thus en- 
gaged she saw two Indians and a white man stealthily creep- 
ing along the fence of the field in which she Avas milkmg. 
Without showing any, signs of alarm, slie walked deliberately 
to the house and told what she had seen. Tliis her father and 
brother refused to believe, as so many i-umors had Ijcen started 
that had proven untrue, and derided her declarations as the re- 
sult of fear. Soon after the family sat down to a breakfast of 
bread and milk. But scarcely had they Ijegun to eat when in 
rushed the two Indians whom the girl had said she had seen. 
and instantly shot down the old man and his full-grown son. 
They handed their empty guns to the white fiend who accom- 
panied them, and he immediately proceeded to re-load the same, 
while the Indians, with their tomahawks, soon dispatched the 
five younger children, taking the mother and her infant captive 
and leaving seven scaljiless, bleeding corpses lying on the floor. 
This constituted the entire family, except the daughter who had 
first spied the savages ; who was on the look-out, and, although 
her report was not credited, still she could not disbelieve the 
testimony of her own eyes, and as soon as the massacre com- 
menced, (she having refused to sit down with the family), she 
sprang out of a low window and fled to the fort. Another 
full-grown son had gone out hunting, and when he heard the 
report of the guns he concluded that it A\as the settlers at the 
fort killing a beef. The bodies of the murdered family were 
hurried in one grave on the bank of Thomas' Fork of Wheel- 
ing creek, about three hundred yards from the spot where the 
massacre occurred, on landslately owned by the late Armstrong 

About three miles from this place, on the other branch of 
Wheeling creek, about forty-three years ago, a murder occurred 

I'oO iiiSTOiiv OK (ji;i:ene county. 

winch involved the whole community in a state of the most in- 
tense excitement. An old man, whose name was Samuel Ven- 
jilta, who owned a large tract of land on the Thomas branch 
of Wheeling creek, had also bought a settlement right on the 
South branch. A man whose name was Jesse Pettit had pur- 
chased the same land — as part of the Cook or Lieper lands — 
;rad insisted on having possession of the same. This Venatta 
refused to give, when a i:)osse of some ten or twelve men 
nctempted to forcibl)^ eject Venatta's tenant. The old man 
cuiie to their assistance and was very much abused by them ; 
but still he and his tenant held the "fort." On the next day 
iihey returned, armed with a warrant, in the hands of Nathaniel 
Pettit, who was the Constable of Morris township. This war- 
rant the Constable attempted to serve, and was refused admit- 
;.ance on the ground that Venatta was afraid to risk his life in 
the hands of the men who had torn his shirt off his back tht 
iay before, as well as otherwise bruising and kicking him. The 
Jonstable then attempted to break open the door, when V. u- 
itta warned him from the inside that if they persisted th'V 
vould do it at their peril. This warning was unheeded ; ihv 
posse from behind pressing the Constable on against the doo). 
which yielded and flew open, when the Constable rushed lu 
and was met by Venatta, who held a butcher-knife in his hand. 
He instantly thrust the knife into the breast of the Constable, 
who immediately exclained, "it is all over; let him alone!" and 
■turned to go out at the door, when he received another thrust 
in the back, and after walking a step or two, fell dead on the 
porch. Either of these wounds would have proved fatal as the 
knife in both instances had touched the heart. A av arrant was 
pi'ocured the same evening from 'Squire Lazear for the arrest 
of Samuel Venatta for murder. This warrant was immedi- 
ately served by George Stroup, the Constable of Richhill town- 
ship, to whom Venatta peaceably surrendered himself, and was 


taken to Waynesburg the same niglit. He was permittccl to 
iile a bail bond, endorsed by Francis Gray and John Conkey. 
He was eventually tried, and acquitted on the ground that the 
killing was in self-defense. 

About two and a half miles from the place where the Davis 
family were murdered is a spring known by tlie old settlers as 
the "Panther Lick." This name is derived from the following 
circumstance: Edward Grandon Avas out of meat, and was 
anxious to procure a supply. For this purpose he resorted to 
a salt spring or "lick," at a time when the deer were ac- 
customed to procure their supply of salt by imbibing these 
salien waters during the darkness of the night. The usua! 
method was to get the exact range of the spot where the ani- 
mals drank during the day light, then stake the gun in that po- 
sition and await the arrival of the expected game, when the 
hunter had nothing to do but draw back the hammer of the 
old flint lock gun, pull the trigger, and away went the ball,.- 
bringing down the denizen of the forest (providing the ball hit.) 
On this occasion Mr. Grandon arrived at the "lick" about sun- 
down and was engaged in staking his gun in the proper posi 
tion, when his attention was diverted from his work by a piece 
of bark, falling from a tree. Casting his eye upwards he was 
horrified at the sight of a large panther, within easy spring- 
ing distance of him, which evidently was also awaiting the 
arrival of the deer. Mr. Grandon now discovered that he had 
other use for his gun, and profiting by the hint he did not wait 
to "stake down his piece" in the range of the panther, but rais- 
ing it to his shoulder he drew a "bead" on the intruder and 
drove a ball through his heart. Had it not been for that fall- 
ing bark, some luckless deer might have been shot, and the 
hunter would have found it difficult to make an equitable divide 
with his rival in a struggle over the corpse of the animal that 
both parties would no doubt claim as their lawful prey. While 

I'S'J iiisTOuv OK <iKi:L;xK county 

the hunter might insist that he alone had done the killing, the 
panther might demur on the grounds that he was there first 
and consequently had "preemption" rights. Not far from this 
panther lick an affair occurred "in early day, as poets say," 
that was somewhat amusing to the spectator, but full of deep 
serious earnestness to the parties engaged in it. William Gran- 
don (the son of the same Edward Grandon who shot the pan- 
ther at the lick) was out on a bear hunt, and finally succeeded 
in bringing down a mammoth bruin of the femcnine gender. 
Without the usual precaution of loading his gun, he ran up to 
bleed his victim. Just as he was within easy reach he made- 
the discovery that her bearship was not yet ready to part witJ: 
life, and thinking, no doubt, that she had been basely mal- 
treated by an intruder on her rightful domain, she determined 
to resent any further indignities, and just as he applied the 
knife to her hairy throat she struck her ponderous paw into 
the back of his hunting shirt, giving him a hint that "one good 
lurn deserves another." The idea seems to have been suddenly 
impressed on his mind that "prudence was the better part of 
ralor." In order to carry out this new impression he sud- 
denly departed from the place, leaving a small patch oflinsey in 
the claAvs of Mrs. Bruin as a memento of his kindness. In 
these efforts to break the "last link'' that bound the friends to- 
gether, Mr. Grandon was very much indebted to the timely 
interference of a large dog, that seemed to have had some- 
what peculiar ideas of "fair play," and in order to carry them 
out, just as Mr. Grandon applied the knife to the throat, he ap- 
plied his teeth to the hind leg, which divided the affection of 
the gentle female between the two friends to such an extent 
that they both escaped from her tender embraces. But although 
Toiled this time she is apparently determined that she will not 
"waste all her sweetness on the desert air," and consequently 
she renews the pursirit, again extending an open paw, and in- 


Berts it not only in the liunting shirt, but in something more 
tangible beneath it. Her prospects are good for a renewal of 
the previous proximity, but here th^ "pesky" dog again inter- 
feres and she is compelled to let go. But this thing is becom- 
ing monotonous, and as Mr. Grandon is a lover of variety he de- 
termins to change the program. Not a single ball is found in 
his shot-pouch, but there is plenty of powder in his horn. A 
o'.iarger full of this is poured down his gun, and as Mrs. Bruin 
approaches for a final "hug," the ungrateful man, who failed to 
ap})rcciate all this intended kindness, thrust the muzzle of his 
gun down her open mouth and yawning throat and then dis- 
charges his powder, which was more potent in its effects than 
his ballet had j^reviously been. Her bearship dropped helpless 
on the ground, and after several convulsive throws of anguish, 
expired a victim of unappreciated kindness. Now, gentle 
reader, after this pantlier and bear story, which occurred at 
different periods of time, please listen to one more in which 
the two animals were combined, as follows : Out on Fish 
<-reek, about eighty years ago, a famoiis hunter who was known 
as Killhim Gothard, was out hunting without success. The 
shades of evening were beginning to fall and the humilia- 
ting thought was momentarily impressing itself on his mind 
that he must return home without game. He was almost ready 
to curse his day, at least his luck ; but there is no alterna- 
tive. Reluctantly he turned his steps slowly towards the spot 
where he knew he could cross Fish Creek on a tree that had 
fallen across the stream. When he came in sight of this 
bridge he saw that there were other parties about to cross, and 
their growls and screams indicated that they intended to be cross 
about it. A panther on one side and a bear on the other side, 
both seemed insisting on their right to pi-eempt the bridge. 
As no compromise could be effected they both started on the 
log at the same moment, and met in the midst of the stream. 


niSronV Oi' OiREEXE COrNTl'. 

The old maxim, "When Greek meets Greek, then comes the 
tug of war," is now to be tested. The panther, witli his supe- 
rior agility, might have leaped safely over his clumsy antago- 
nist : but no, he was anxious for a fight. The bear, however, 
seeing his opportunity, raised his awkward foot and striking 
his antagonist on the side of the head, hurled him headlong 
into the boiling stream below. No doubt bruin congratulated 
himself on his easy victory. But alas! his laurels are destined 
soon to fade, for his incensed enemy can never forgive such an 
insult as that. He swims nimbly to shore on the same side^ 
where the exultant bear has just arrived, and now with growl 
and yowl, each angry monarch of the forest approaches the- 
other. The deep chasms and towering hills of Fish Creek 
echo and reverberate with their miitual imprecations, and when 
their rage has reached the liighest sublimity, with one deep- 
:lrawn, dreadful yowl, the conflict begins. The panther makes- 
one high leap, and as he descends, lights on the back of tin- 
animal that had so recently insulted him. Vain are bruinV 
efforts to shake him oif. Plis long, dagger-like fangs sink 
deeper and deeper into the neck of his luckless foe, until at last 
the jugidar vein is reached, and the hot life-blood soon reddens 
the ground, and causes the previously victorious bear to suc- 
cumb to superior activity. All this time our hunter has watched 
with intense anxiety to see the favorable time for him to iiitei- 
fere. It has come at last ; he need not return home without^ 
having made as high a mark this day as he ever did ;iny dnv 
of his life. Thus while the victorious panther triumphant] v- 
lashes his sides with his great cat-like tail, and commcn(;es U>- 
lick up the blood of his fallen foe, tlie unseen hunter wipes off 
his "frissen," examines his priming, carefully lays his rifle in r* 
rest, pidls the trigger and the deadly bullet lays the pantlier 
low. Thus man, "to whom Avas granted dominion over the 
beasts of the earth." comes not to divide the spoil, but to retaui 


It Jill. I am still further indebted to my old friend Ezekiel 
Grandon for another story, which I have no doubt is true, as 
he is a man of unsurpassed memory, especially as regards oc- 
currences fifty or sixty years ago. He has almost lived out 
his three score and ten years. He is a great Bible reader, a 
man of undoubted veracity, a zealous member of the South 
Tenmile Baptist Church, and in short just about the right kind 
of a man, (only in your conversation with him, reader, you 
must just let him have his own way on the mode on babtism,) 
as I do. But now for the narrative. It occurred almost sixty 
years ago in the bounds of the present Richhill township, 
Greene county. At that date game was abundant, especially 
in the upper end of "Little Greene." There were a few Nim- 
rods, whose daily avocation was scouring the woods in search 
of deer, elk, bear, wolves, panthers, etc.; and woe be to luckless 
animals that came within range of their deadly rifles, which 
discharged a ball, forty-five of which made a pound avoirdu- 
poise. There were also abundance of men to w^hose palate 
a roast of deer meat, a slice of jerk or a hunk of venison 
tasted just as sweet as it did to the regular hunter. But alas ! 
they cannot procure it ; although they can draw a fine sight at 
a mark, or can knock down a squirrel from the tallest 
tree, yet such game as we have named above, is too large foi 
them. They meet it in the woods, but that strange disease knowii 
as "buck fever" at once attacks them, and trembling similar to 
Bellshazar, unstrings their nerves ; the gun refuses to remain in 
one position ; they fire, but the untouched deer boimds away, 
showing them his heels in a way that seemed to say, "I guess 
you didn't." The regular hunters, proud of their success, were 
not by any means backward in ridiculing their less fortunate 
neighbors who now determine to act the "dog in the manger." 
If we can't the hunters shan't feast on the corpses of the buck 
and the doe. For this purpose they got up the most extensive 

136 ■" insTOnv OF greeni'. county. 

circular hunt ever known in these western counties. Marshals 
are selected Avith great care, not only from Greene but Wash- 
ington and Fayette counties ; the Pan-Handle and West Vir- 
ginia respond to the invitation to join in the extermination. 
The lines of circumvollation were not precisely the boundaries 
of old Richhill township, but were about equally extensive. 
The place of rendezvous is carefully selected, which is a circu- 
lar valley near Kincaid's mill'. The long expected day arrives. 
From all quarters horsemen and footmen, armed with guns, 
may be seen hastening towards the spot where their respective 
lines are to be formed. But not a dog, neither mongrel puppy, 
whelp, hound, nor curr of low degree can put in an appearance 
that day ; although it is said -'every dog has his day," yet that 
was not ilieir day ; if they must bark, they must lay in their 
kennels or at the end of their chains and bark at their fleas. 
But the stalwart men press on ; the lines are formed, and tlie 
blowing of horns and the firing of guns announce that the deadly 
march has begun. Nearer and nearer the formidable lines ai-- 
proach the ])lace of the anticipated slaughter. But alas ! th.- 
line from Morris township is behind time. The game find in«^ 
gap, and away goes the stag, the wolf and most of the yniii.4 
I'cynards ; but there is one old fox that seems to have bad uu 
inkling that as there were to be no dogs present, consequcnliy 
not much danger, even if some of his descendants had ;?nld liio 
Nimrods are in the line, he might have replied in fox parhiaco. 
"what of it; they are all on our side," which was true. Al- 
though the force of circumstances almost compelled the; rogular 
hunters to take their places in the line, they did it' 
and whenever they saw an opportunity of doing so with iui))n- 
nity, they stepped aside and purposely let the game escape, 
virtually bidding it go in peace. But the okl i-ed fox cou.V! 
not be thus dismissed. Being of an inquisitive disposruou, lio 
determined to go on and see wliat will be tin- rcsnii m! t '••o oon)- 



ing-out place. Finally that place is reached ; it is advanta- 
geously chosen ; a circle of tress are blazed around the crest of 
the hill so as to allow no human billed to enter the dark valley 
where the congregated thousands of quadrupeds are to be 
slaughtered without mercy. When the thousands of eager 
men began to crowd thickly together on the hills overlooking 
this Golgotha, what a siglit met their expectant vision. But I 
draw a veil over the scene of slaughter. A large number of 
deer were swung behind the saddles of the horsemen. Some 
few wolf scalps were taken. But now the grand exhibition 
commences. The same old fox is not satisfied with the day's 
performances. He has been at many a hunt, but none witliout 
^logs before. Why, he has had no exercise at all. This will 
never do ; and as he seems to know that the Nimrods are on 
his side, and that only the men who are afflicted with Inick- 
fever will shoot at him, he makes his appearance and de- 
scribes one flaming circle around the ring. Unliuvt he runs 
the gauntlet again and again, while hundreds of rifles are tii'cd 
;it him. The guns of the Nimrods contained nothing but pon'- 
der, while the bullets of the masses go almost everywhere else 
than into the hide of this celebrated racer. Sixteen com- 
plete circles had been made, when esteeming this glory en()U!i;li 
for one day, he finally yielded to his fate and fell pierced by 
several bullets which seem to have struck him about tlie same 
time. Several persons claimed the honor of sheding the bloo'l 
of this brave red fox that certainly did enough to immovtali/.e 
his name if he only had been fortunate enouglito have had one. 
After having taxed the patience of our readers thus long 
with old Indian, panther and bear stories, I will now })roceed 
to give some brief biographies of some of the old settlers in the 
ujiper end of the county of Greene. James Burns was of 
Scotch descent, (somewhat distantly descended from the same 
family of which the old Scotch ])oet Avas a member). IIi^ set- 



tied at an early day on the waters of Owens' run where he be- 
came the owner of several tracts of land, which had previously 
been part of the Thomas Leiper lands. He was an expert 
hunter, whose deadly rifle was almost sure to bring down any 
animal on which he drew a bead. About sixty-five years ago 
Richhill township had only two Whig voters, Mr. Burns being 
one, and Francis Braddockthe other. The descendants of these 
men, to a considerable extent in their numerous affinities, make 
up the Republican voters of Richhill township to-day. When 
Mr. Burns became old he divided out his extensive tracts of 
hind among his children, entailing those lands to them and 
their children after them, as far as the constitution of the State 
will permit. However praisworthy the intentions of the grantor 
in making this entailment, it has always been a question in my 
mind as to whether there are not more evil than good consc 
quences resulting from it, as its direct tendency is to constitute 
the children of any given generation nothing more than ten- 
ants for life, thus destroying that mainspring of enterprise which 
is found to result alone from ownership, and as man must have 
his support from some source, it is evident that it must either 
be obtained by his own exertions, or bs filched from the com- 
munity in which he lives. My own observation is to the effect 
that man will do more by way of improvement and aggrandise- 
ment when he is the sole owner, and when every acre of land 
is at all times liable for the fulfillment of all his contracts. Yet 
I have known instances in other localities where insolent rascal- 
ities were practiced just because the parties were shielded V)y 
entailment. Although there may be exceptions, as there are 
in the Burns case, still I am disposed to think that the fewer 
shielding exemption laws we have the better for all parties. 
Possibly an instance may occur occasionally in which a rapa- 
ciouse, cold-blooded creditor may cruelly strip a most worthv 
but helpless debtor. Yet the instances of wrong-doing will 



not be more than one in twenty of what there will be if all 
debtors can bid their creditors defiance and langh them to 
scorn when they attempt to secure their just dues. When the 
debtor is protected by a law that exempts everything below a 
certain value, by this means a double wrong is done : first, to 
the creditor by depriving him of his dues ; secondly, to the 
debtor who must carefully calculate lest accidentally he might 
come in possession of more property than the law will exempt, 
thus tying his hands and destroying his earnings to that extent 
that he often deprives himself of the comforts of life rather 
than run the risk of paying what ho honestly owes. About 
six miles from the place where Mr. Burns settled there lived, 
about eighty years ago, a very singular old man of the German 
])ersuasion, wliose name I will not mention, as lie has some 
very respectable descendants. This old man was afllicted with 
that singular disease called hypocondria, and the particular 
type of it was that he imagined himself to be made of glass and 
was contiimally cautioning those around him to be careful lest 
they sliould break off some of his limbs, or otherwise deface 
hull. His family protested and scolded and derided his notions. 
b:it all ill vain. The more his opinions were controverted the 
more firmly he became convicted of their truthfulness. Some 
one advised tlie family to humor his whims in all particulars 
luitil a favorable opportunity should be presented of convinc- 
ing him of their absurdity. At his suggestion the sons procured 
a cart to which they attached a yoke of quiet oxen ; they care- 
fidly placed a feather bed in it, on which they placed the old 
man in a position, partly sitting, partly lying and partly stand- 
lu'j;, veiy exactly complying with his most minute wishes. 
Thus carefully equipped, the oxen, the cart and tlie sons started 
out to give the old invalid the benefit of the fresh air. One 
of the sons drove the oxen slowly along the bank of Wheeling 
cre^k, until they had anived at the mouth of Crab A])j)lo run — 



occasionally stopping to let all parties rest — when the young 
man who walked behind as a kind of rear guard, seems to have 
conceived the idea that there was something wrong with one 
of the wheels of the cart, at least he had something to do with 
the linchpin which he was seen carrying in his hand, and it 
evidently was not put back in its proper place, as the cart had 
only proceeded a short distance when just above the steepest 
part of the bluff, Oh ! horror of horrors, the M'heel came off, 
down went that side of the cart, away went the feather bed, 
and worst of all, down went the man who imagined himself 
made of glass, over the bluff, over the rocks. Surely he will 
share the fate of Nebuchadnezzar's image — he will "become as 
the small dust of the threshing floor." But no! from the bed of 
the creek up comes, first horrid imprecations, then stones hurled 
from a giant arm, then an enraged man who gave chase to the 
undutiful rascals who with difticulty made their escape. The 
sequel of this story, Avhich I have from undoubted authority, is 
that the man was cured of his foolish delusion, drove the oxen 
and cart home himself, after putting on the wheel and gather- 
ing up the feather bed. But it was long before he forgave 
the boys who played him such a mean trick. As troubles sel- 
dom ever come single-handed, so delusions often make theii- 
appearance near the same localities and about the same dates. 
Hence not far from the date when the dutchman was tumbled 
out of his cart, a man moved over from Washington county, 
that "land of learning, where the people all believe themselves 
smart ; Avhere they never tire of glorifying their ancestors, 
whose sons, find them where you may, whether on the bound- 
less prairies of the Avestern States, in the fastnesses of the 
Rockey Mountains, or on the Pacific slope, always arogate to 
themselves the chief places in assemblies, and although they 
may scarce be able to tell who made them, yet they will place 
their tliumbs in tlio :\?--.^!()]es of llieir vests, teter themselves 


np and down on their toes, and exclaim with an air of superi- 
ority, "stand back here ; let me see. 1 am from Washington 
county. How must the benighted inhabitants of Greene have 
rejoiced to see such a light as this settling on the State Road, 
within two miles of the present Jacktown What grand antic- 
ipation must have lit up the darkened imaginations of those prim- 
itive settlers when this luminary of the first magnitude, conde- 
scended to squat among them. But alas ! their air castles are 
destined to crumble around them, for it is soon found that he 
is laboring under a delusion almost equal to the Dutchman wlio 
was dumped into the creek, tlie difference being the German 
was content to think himself glass, while the other, (because 
he came from Washington county, of course must imagine him- 
self something superior), consequently imagined himself Porce- 
lain China. He was very fearful that, in his contacts with the 
rough masses among whom his lot was cast, that he might be 
broken, maimed or dashed to atoms; consequently he was always 
cautioning all Avho came in to see him to be ware how they 
handled him, as he was composed of the most costly kind of 
China ware. These men, rough as they were, could not Inive 
'•the wool jiulled over their eyes" in that Avay. They were in 
possession of good "mother wit," and concluded that this new- 
comer was only flesh and blood, created out of the same dust i's 
the rest of mankind, tlierefore could not look upon him v,it!i 
that degree of veneration that he seemed to claim as liis duo, 
and in the abundance of their benevolence they co"ncluded to 
Llispel the delusion under Avhich he Avas laboring and cure 
him for all time of his belief that he was a helpless invalid. 
With this determination in view, some four or five of tlieni 
called on him one morning and insisted that he shoidd take a 
ride for his general health. After much persuasion he Avas in- 
duced to allow himself to be lifted carefully on the sumit o[ a 
saddle, the stiru])s and givtli of whidi had been nlmost cut i-ll" 


immediately under the skirt so that he could not make the dis- 
covery, ' This saddle was placed on the back of an antiquated 
but spirited nag that would by no means bare the whip. Two 
kind-hearted neighbors, mounted on more sober horses, were to 
accompany the sick man in his morning ride, while the remain- 
der were to act their part on foot. All things being ready, one 
of the irreverent footmen picked up a thorn bush previously 
prepared, and struck the spirited horse on which the porcelain 
man was mounted, a severe blow. The consequences were im- 
mediate and alarming. The horse sprang forward with a des- 
perate leap ; the invalid thrusts his weight into the stirups, one 
of which immediately broke, throwing him on one side of the 
saddle ; the girth now gave way, dropping both man and sad- 
dle on the ground, where it might be supposed the man would 
have gone to fragments, and that those who had so kindly as- 
sisted him, would have had a busy day in placing the different 
pieces in something like respectable shaj)e for burial. But no. 
The breaking of Pandora's box could not have produced a more 
frightful aparition than was seen to rise up from the spot where 
that man fell. Without stopping to reflect that he was only 
China and certainly must be dashed to hopeless nonentity, he 
immediately appealed to stone after stone, and finally the thorri 
bush, which was as potent as the scourge of small cords in 
driving the money-changers out of the Temple. With this 
weapon he cleared the ridge from the intrusions of his real but, 
in his opinion, false-hearted friends. The halucination was 
broken and dispelled. But the man became the butt of ridicule 
to such an extent that he returned to Washington county whera 
the people were sufficiently advanced to appreciate properl^' 
the refined feelings of a man made of porcelain China. Whilex^ 
writing of delusions and halucinations, I will mention just one 
more, which used to exist in the bounds of Greene county, that 
was perhaps equally absurd with any thing that ever did occur 


in any locality, and yet no names dare be mentioned, from the 
fact that the man was respectably connected then and has left 
beliind him descendants of high respectability. This man was 
evidently dispeptic, and as he suffered greatly in the region of 
his stomach he came to the conclusion that that important lo- 
cality was occupied by a shoemaker whose incessant pounding 
gave him all his acute misery. lie would often invite his 
friends to listen, saying "don't you hear him pounding on his 
lapstone," "now he is sewing up the eye-seam," "now he is 
driving in his last," &c. His friends adopted the following 
])lan to disabuse his mind of those ridiculous notions; hence one 
of them procured some lobelia which was made into tea, and the 
man was induced to drink it. It soon produced vomiting, and 
the suffering man beheld an awl which a bystander had dropped 
down before him, which he thought he had ejected from his 
mouth. Presently a shoemaker's knife, then the different j^arts 
of the "kit" were thrown down before him, and finally a small 
man with a leather apron on sprang past him and ran for the 
woods. This he believed to be the veritable shoemaker who 
had given him so much pain, and as his emetic had caused him 
to disgorge the contents of an overloaded stomach, his healtli 
was much improved and the ailment gone. 

In Centre township there liyed for many years a man who 
had a grevious crime laid to his charge, and that crime was no 
less than the murder of one Polly Williams at the White Rocks, 
in Laurel Hill Mountains, in the year 1810. In the year 1846, 
in company with my fathei"-in-law, Hon. Samuel Nixon, of 
Fayette county, I visited the mountains for the purpose of ex- 
ploring Delaney's Cave and also of seeing the spot where this 
murder Avas committed. We arrived first at the cave where wo 
only made a partial exploration in consequence of the lateness 
of the hour, haviug consumed considerable time in gathering 
huckleberries. About four o'clock, i'. m., we arrived at the 


! White Rocks. After hitching cxir horses, we started to walk 
across a level bed of moss, and soon were stopped, and I was 
startled by finding myself standing on the ledge of a smooth 
Tock, perhaps eighty feet in perpendicular height. My father- 
in-law said "this is the White Rock." The day was excessively 
hot, hence he started, saying "follow me." He then led the 
way through the bushes by a surpentine course down to the 
base of the rock. Then stooping down and creeping under a 
projecting rock, he said "there is where the body lay when we 
found it. "Turning a little to one side, we sat down in the cool 
shade of the rock, where he told me the following story, viz : 
"This girl, Polly Williams, lived with Jacob Moss, about eight 
miles from the foot of the mountain, near McClellandtown. 
There she became intimately acquainted with Philip RogeiT?, 
who seems to have brought himself tinder obligations to marry 
her. He then began to frame a great many excuses, until his 
conduct became so suspicious that Mr. Moss forbade him com- 
ing about his house. Having found means to communicate 
with the girl, he invited her to meet him at Boyd's mill, near 
New Salem. The girl arrived first, but having had her fears 
excited by what Mr. Moss had said, she climbed into a tree. 
Rogers soon arrived, but acted so suspiciously that she con- 
cluded he intended to drown her in the deep waters of the mill 
dam, and she remained concealed. Some time after this she 
received a letter from him, inviting her to meet him at his iu> 
cle's, who lived on a farm near the foot of the mountain, which 
farm is now owned and occupied by Alfred Stewart, brother 
of the late Hon. Andrew Stewart. Here they met. After so^Te 
conversation, they started, saying they were going to get lunr- 
ried. All was quiet from this time (Thursday afternoon) until 
Saturday evening about sun-down, when two cliildren arrived at 
Nixon's mill, informing those they met that while huiitincr 
their cows in tlie mountains their dog had conmicnced bai'lciiiL* 


furiously at something at the foot of the White Rocks ; that 
they had ventured up until they had seen the body of a dead 
woman. Some believed the tale, while others did not. As 
soon, however, as breakfast was over next morning (Sabbath)« 
several men had collected at Oliphant's Furnace and Nixon's 
mill for the purpose of ascertaining what truth there was in 
the report. After climbing the mountain side they came to 
the foot of the rocks, and there, sure enough, lay the body of 
Polly Williams. The moss on the top of the rock showed 
signs of a severe struggle. There lay one of her slippers and 
one of her gloves, while perhaps thirty feet down the face of 
the rock there grew out of a crevice a laurel bush, part of it 
was broken off and held in the hand of the murdered girl. On 
the remainder of this bush that still clung to the rock, lay her 
other slipper and handkerchief. The murderer fearing his 
work was not accomplished by the fall, had descended by about 
the same path that we had, and inflicted three distinct blows 
with a sharp stone on the head of the dying girl, leaving the 
stone besmeared with blood as evidence of the fact. A mes- 
senger was dispatched to XJniontown for the Coroner. The body 
was lifted from the place where it lay and attached to a long 
pole by numerous bands of hickory bark. A path was then 
cut down the mountain to Nixon's mill, where the inquest wa.s 
held. The neighbor women dressed the body the best they 
could and about sun-down a large procession followed and laid 
it to rest in Hayden's grave yard, where a sand stone marks 
the spot, and this verse tells the sad tale : 

"Remember man as yon pass by. 
Here doth the bones of Polly Williams lie, 
Who was cut off in her youtliful bloom, 
By a vile wretch, her pretended fjroom." 

This stone I have seen, and this verse I have read. A small 
piece of this stone I have in my house, and the verse is said to 
have been made by Samuel liittle, Sr., editor of the Genius of 



Liberty, at Uniontown. Although no human eye had seen the 
dreadful act performed, though no human ear had heard the 
frightful screams that doubtless rose from that lonely spot 
when the girl found what his fiendish intentions were. Yet 
suspicion immediately pointed to Rogers as the man. He was 
arrested, tried and acquited, although his subsequent life seem- 
ed to contradict the verdict of the jury. This man became a 
citizen of Greene county. He married a wife who is said to 
have left his home either from real or immaginary noises and 
.-apperitions that were heard or appeared there. Rumor says 
the bed clothes were frequently withdrawn from the bed by 
;au invisible hand. He was a stone mason by trade, yet he 
would not take a job more than two miles from home, and 
would always return at night, lest during the hours of sleep he 
: should betray the fatal secret which seemed like a burning 
fire shut up in his bones. His sleep was broken and disturbed, 
he often uttering the most distressing groans, loading the mid- 
night air with reproaches and blasphemies, and on at least 
one occasion calling out the name of the girl that was supposed 
to be his victim. Thus if all that tradition has recorded be 
true, there surely is such a thing as "a hell on earth," complete- 
ly dei^riving the guilty man of all happiness here, and leaving 
.him nothing "but a fearful looking for of judgment and fiery 
indignation which shall destroy the adversaries." 

But the reader will think it high time that our history should 
give some of the manners and customs of the early* settlers. 
One word would describe them to a great extent and that word 
would be "rude ;" but if they were rude they were cheery, be- 
cause they were well meant. Families could not afford to be 
bad neighbors, because they were to a great extent dependent 
upon each other. They could not raise their cabins without 
help. They could not roll their logs without the assistance of 
one another, and as tlieir liarvests were cut with the sickle, it 


was a lonely business for one man to go into his field alone,, 
and as many hands make light work, they soon adopted the plaa 
of "neighboi-ing," or sometimes of having a "frollick." These 
frolics were exceedingly common. Their clothing for sumJ 
mer was procured by sowing a patch of flax, and if there was 
any Dutch blood in the veins of the settler this flax was sure 
to be sown on "Good Friday." It was ready to pull about the 
"heels of harvest," and those who were invited were about an 
equal number of both sexes of young people who pulled the 
long stalks of flax up by the roots and tied it up in small 
sheaves four or five inches in diameter. When these sheaves 
were sufticiently dried they were threshed out on the puncheon 
Hoor of the little log barn. The seed was gathered up very care- 
fully, and after laying aside enough to sow, the balance was 
sold at the oil mills that began to exist at an early day in this 
county. The stalks of flax were then spread out in the little 
meadow to rot. "This must be done when the moon was point- 
ing down." When it was completely rotted it was raked up, 
bound in large bundles and was then ready to "break." This 
was often done by natives of "the Emerald Isle," as the "regu- 
lar bog trotters" claimed it as their prerogative to break tlic 
flax. Now comes the scutching frolic, where men, women, 
boys and girls would meet and scutch and shout and sing and 
wash the tow out of their throats with a little old rye whisky ; 
and when night had come and they had washed and put on 
their "meetin clothes," they would take a few rounds of regular 
break-down dancing on a puncheon floor. It often happened 
however, that at this great frolic the "folks" w^ere divided— 
the young men and the young women scutched the flax while 
the mothers quilted a quilt for "the Avoman of the house ;" 
while the fathers hewed house logs, or perhaps made rails. 
The next process through which the flax was put was hackling, 
done by drawing it slowly through long steel teeth, firmly 


clinched in a hard board and called a hackel. One of these 
was deemed enough for five or six families, provided they all 
kept good neighbors, and it was no idle threat that was some- 
times heard — "if you don't mind I won't lend you my hackel." 
The next process through which the flax went was spinning. 
The hackel has separated the fibers into two parts, one of 
which is called tow. The day's work for adult girls and women 
was twelve cuts of flax or "a dozzen." Of tow, eight cuts was 
a day's work. The woman or girl who could not spin her 
dozzen was considered much under par. The weaving came 
next. While every one was expected to have a wheel for eve- 
ry spinner, looms were only found alternately, where a woman 
done the weaving for her neighbors and they in turn did her 
spinning, the usual mode of exchange being to spin one dozzen 
of flax for the weaving of two yards of either flax or tow linen. 
It often happened that some dainty house wife was not con- 
tent that her "dear old man" and boys should wear plain tow 
linen pants (trowsers), but she wanted them to be a little ahead 
of other people, and so she must have enough of "copperas 
check" for at least one pair of "trowsers" for each of the men 
and a "check apern a-piece for me and the gals," and in that 
case the weaver must have one cent more on each yard for the 
weaving. A part of the flax was spun into stocking thread, 
which was doubled and twisted and knit into "meetin stock- 
ins." These stockings the females would bleach until they 
were quite white, and then they would carry them under their 
arms, rolled up in a big "hankercher," along with their home- 
made shoes until they were almost to the "meetin house," then 
they would turn aside, sit down on a log, dust off their feet, 
put on the stockings, and also the shoes, and walk up to the 
church, feeling that they were as well equipped as the times 
and circumstances required. But how did our fathers and 
mothers procure their winter clothing? is a question that comes 


in right here. It was about as follows : A man who had 
twenty-five acres of cleared land was expected to keep ten or 
twelve long-wooled, coarse, "mottled-faced" sheep, that would 
shear about three pounds of wool each. This wool was always 
cut off without washing and was washed in a tub. Then, oh ! 
then came the wool picking, and as this was in the spring of 
the year, what a grand old time it was for the interchange 
of news that had lain dormant all the long winter and had al- 
most spoiled for want of ventilation ; but now the memories 
of those good old dames brought to the surface those almost 
forgotten items of intelligence, which were bartered off at 
par for an equal quantity received from the lips of their 
eager listeners. While the old and middle-aged women were 
picking the wool to remove the burs and dirt, as well as to 
"tease" it apart, the men often had an independent frolic in the 
woods by themselves, making rails and peeling tan bark. I 
knew one of these old mothers to* get so excited that she got 
her sentences wrong end foremost. In describing the great 
frolic at her house, she said they had a "pick-Avoolen and a 
maul-railing at their house, and they "killed six hens, two tur- 
keys, and a half of a veal." What they done with the other 
half of the veal she did not say, but said they killed half of it. 
When this wool was picked 80 years ago it was almost invari- 
ably carded witli hand-cards. Fifty years ago it was sent to 
the carding machines, which were generally driven by water 
power, sometimes by a tramp wheel on which horses or oxen 
were placed. Tlie rolls were then taken home and tlie music 
of the "big wheel" began. The yarn was then colored with 
white walnut bark, making an ugly butternut brown color. 
Some people however, could afford to buy a few ounces of 
Indigo and a small quantity of madder and thus make red and 
blue cross-barred flannel. But this Avas generally confined to 
the aristocracy of those days, and consequently they were ob- 


jects of envy to their less fortunate neighbors who had to 
wear their walnut brown. But it often happened when "the 
frugal house wife" made her annual calculations and weighed 
out her wool (with the steelyards that did similar duty for five 
or six families) she found that it would not reach all around the 
family and make them two garments each, consequently it 
must be supplemented by a quantity of cotten yarn for chain, 
and then the goods was called linsey, the filling being wool. 
This was made up into pantaloons (without lining) and hunt- 
ing shirts surrounded with fring of red and blue. A part of it 
was made into garments called a "wamus," which had just ont^ 
button up at the neck and was tied in a knot around the waist. 
The portion of goods falling to the females was generally made 
into skirts, it being the great ambition of every adult female to 
wear at least one "flannen frock." The linsey skirt was often 
surmounted by a body and sleeves of calico and was called a 
"short gown." But I must not dwell too long in describing cos- 
tumes of our ancestors, as I promised to write about customs. 
One, the grand "galla day" of the year, was the "big muster,** 
generally coming off in May. There was a laudable ambition 
on the part of almost every boy to get his name on a muster 
roll, which could be done at eighteen years of age, yet he was 
not subject to fine for non-attendance before twenty-one. On 
the first Monday in May all enrolled militia of the State of 
Pennsylvania met at the places of holding township elections, 
appearing in the earliest times of training with their ever-present 
rifles on their shoulders ; but when fear of Indians was gone 
the old gun was often left in its accustomed place in v/ooden 
hooks on the rude joist of the cabin. As the militia man 
found his way to the muster with a cane, sonietin-cs a com 
stock, he came not to drill but to save fine. Here lie wa>; els:"iit,y 
years ago met by some man who had s(>rvod in the revolution- 
ary war and now i)osscsse(l a St.-Uc fomniissioji :i-; i^•■^^ ti'.i of 


militia. This man was in serious earnest, deeply feeling the 
want of military training on his own part as well as on the 
part of his camrades, when compelled to stand up face to face 
with well-drilled British Grenadiers. This Captain wanted men 
committed to his care better qualified for active service than 
ho was when required to enter it. 

How different was the situation fifty years ago. In a seconfl 
struggle with Great Britian ; our nation was victorious, not 
only over the "red coats," but also over Indian allies. These 
were the only recognized enemies our ancestors ever expected 
I o be in their way. As these were again defeated, it was deemed 
unnecessary to continue a system of general military training, 
so an effort was made to turn it all into a burlesque. Cap 
Iain's commissions were accepted by only two classes of men ; 
first, persons loving money so well they were willing to bear 
overy snear and scorn heaped so abundantly upon them, for the 
sake of obtaining the small pittance paid by the State ; secondly, 
by a class of men always having an e^'C to honor, in whose 
ears the name of Captain, when applied to themselves, reached 
I he very sumit of earthly greatness. It was easy work mus- 
Lei'ing under the first class, a com stock being equivalent 
lo a gun at any time. If the men could succeed in getting 
themselves into anything like a "straight row," just once, and 
would respectfully answer to their names, they were dismissed 
■•vith thanks. But wo ! to a militia man having one of the lat- 
rer class of men for a Captain- -with an old blue coat orna- 
.•nented with numerous rows of "bullet button^,"' closely stt 
tog<?thcr, with its broad philactory of red facings, its epaulettes 
of sheep skin, with the yellow wool still adhering to it. This 
"limb" of the law was also surmounted by a hugli leather hat, 
greased and varnished to an extent wonderful to behold. Add- 
ed to all this he generally carried a sword that usually repre- 
sented somo legend. It was said to have belonged to Marion, 



Sumpter, Grcone, oi' Morgan ; or it was picked up at Brandy- 
wine, Princeton or Lundy's Lane. Put all these awe inspir- 
ing things together and it would seem sufficient to fill the 
minds of the most wayward with veneration for the man who 
undertook to train them. But alas ! such seems not to have 
been the case ; it frequently occurred that some luckless sol- 
dier had the misfortune to be placed under guard, because he 
had called in question the infallible wnsdom of the man whom the 
law had placed over him. But now a new trouble arose ; the 
guard recognising the affair as a burlesque, generally needed 
another guard to take care of them. But this difficulty was 
peculiar alone to the "little muster," on the first Monday in May. 
The batalion musters began the next week where the parade 
came ofi^, generally at some town or village. A large propor- 
tion of the marriagable young women of the neighborhood 
had imparative business in town and if they had a relative 
there this was the day to visit. Then if any daughters of the 
villiage had eaten a meal or spent a night in the country, as a 
matter of course on their departure they said "you must b.? 
sure and come over to see us." How quickly did the answer 
iome back from the oldest daughter, "yes, I am coming tlic 
.lay of the big muster." But oh ! there was another class of 
persons — the "small boy." For many days and weeks he has had 
muster "on the brain." It has haunted his waking hours with 
the question always recuri-ing, but seldom answered, "hov/ 
shall I get my fip ?" And even when sleep, "sweep, balmy 
sleep, tired nature's fond restorer," came to his relief it vrag of- 
ten disturbed by visions of enormous piles of gingei" brea^, 
which he had no ability to purchase, rendering grief almost 
intolerable. He has asked for a "fip" long ago, but a liftul 
hearted parent has made the condition of its reception 1o de- 
pend on his diligence in business and general good behavior. 
Poor fclloAV ! his loc is a hard one. How can he woi'k v,bea 


his mind is set on the muster and ginger bread. He knows 
his own follies ; how can he behave himself well when there 
are so many things to distress him. But time has rolled on 
and brought round the long expected day. At four o'clock 
the sullen boom of a cannon at the distant village brings the 
small boy to his feet and also wakes up the "buxom lass" who 
has over-slc})! herself in consequence of having set up so late 
tlie niglit before arranging her finery by the flickering light 
of a twisted rag laid in an old saucer about half filled with 
grease. Both parties cast their first glance towards the eastern 
sky, and to their great joy it is clear. The boy seizes hie 
pants; but instead of drawing them on, he dives his ti'embling 
hand deep down into his pocket to find if his long-looked-for 
'•fip'" is there. "Yes here it is," is his involuntary ejaculation. 
It was given to him the night before and has slept safely at 
the bottom of the pocket of his new "pepper and salt" cotton 
"trousers" all night, wrapped round in three or four thicknesses 
of paper ; he is happy, he will never be richer the longest day ho 
lives. But what is our "buxom lassie" doing all this time? Tho 
cows are to milk ; the breakfast is to "git," for "mam" is about 
lialf anad about her going and can't be expected to help much. 
Do all these considerations cause her to run to the spring 
house and get the bucket to do the milking in, or even to stir 
up the coals and put on a few sticks, and hang the kettle over 
them so as to have a cup of sassafras tea before she goes? No, 
none of these things move her. On the contrary she quickly 
opens the drawer and takes one more peep at the ornaments to 
see how they will look by day light. Satisfied, she inwai'dly 
exclaims, "I know he'll like it." She shuts the drawer and 
hastily begins to work. But there are other parties who have 
no pleasing prospects before them this day. A whole year's 
difficulties are to be settled up to-day. These parties have 
been a* <^1'" Tiisin;;-- i^'^ vollin ■•. ihn ^nrn-huskinp- .niid t,]ip vond 


chopping, and at all these places they have had the company 
of a famous fellow in those days. He is known as "Captain 
Whisky." He has unlimbered their tongues and pursuaded 
them that they were stout, and while they felt this and be- 
lieved that, they have very unwisely commenced a quarrel with 
some good-natured fellow who on sober reflection they are com- 
pelled to admit is their superior in point of strength. He wa? 
a man of but few words and only replied, "I will see you at 
the muster." A great deal was meant by this threat ; hence 
the muster day to such was fraught with forebodings that are 
everything but pleasant. I must either take back what I have 
said or engage in a fight in which I almost know I will coma 
Dut second best. But the day is advancing ; it is time wo 
were there and soon, in imagination at least, we are there. What 
a concourse of high and low people. The street is fillei9 
with the rougher sort, while on the side-walk the candidate 
"s shaking the friendly hand with men "whose farthers he 
ivould have disdained to have set with the dog? of his flock."' 
But see! there is a field officer. Ah ! it is the Major with his 
cap resembling two half moons sewed together on the circulai 
edges, and open on the almost straight side, into this )»art his 
head is thrust. He has epaulets on his shoulders, but tlioy are 
?mall, with a great deal more tinsel than gold about tlieni 
Yes, and there is the Colonel with heavier epauh?ts, and lil; 
•'Shaberdebraugh" (cap) turned up at one side. Mark! wlinj^ 
that calling out. Oh, yes! Oh, yes! "by coin])anies lall in 
line !" It must be an Aid-de camjj or an Orderly ; but no diflo!- 
ence, the men are already falling in, some already a litilu weak 
in the knees from having looked through the bottom of a tum- 
bler at the landlord. Soon the starting order, "niarcli !" is 
heard ; and such a miarch — each keeping his own stej* ;uid fol- 
lowing those before. Somewhere not far from the niiddio of 
the road they proceed to some ncighboriiic,' fi<?l(l. whore for a 


time the young man must try to keep his place in ranks, which 
he was utterly unable to do while the lines stood in town, from 
the fact that every window and porch were- filled with those 
"buxom lassies," that divided his attention to that extent that 
he could not hear the words of command. But once in the 
field the lines are formed, the rolls are called, when many per- 
sons, fond of hearing their names repeated, do not answer until 
the third call, when they respond "here'' in tones that seem to say, 
•'I have been trying to make you hear me this long time." The 
men are worked back into line again as sti*aight as possible, 
when yonder comes some body, indeed. Who is it ? Why, it 
is the Colonel Commandant, the Brigadier-General, the Bri- 
gade Inspector, the Surgeon, etc. Now, the boy who has spent 
the whole amount of his muster money has a chance to niako 
another fip if he can only get an officer's horse to liold while 
t.hose officers accompany the Brigade Inspector through the 
lines, which must be done on foot, the law not allowing the In- 
spector to examine a man's corn-stalk while he (the Iiis])ector i 
is on horse-back, lest he should be mistaken with i-eferenco 
to the good order in which it was kept. It is now time for 
recess ; the lines are broken, and soon the locality about tL<; 
:;ake wagons is crowded to that extent that the small boy is 
in eminent danger of being trodden under foot. But now a 
new scene begins ; the man who came here with those fore- 
bodings (that were founded on the threat that a man would 
meet him here), has seen his old acquaintance. Captain Whisky, 
and after imbibing a portion of the Captain's spirit, his fears 
:ire all gone, and he is anxious to have the burden off his 
mind, and he starts off to seek the man who dared to threaten 
him. This man has not forgotten the threat he made and is on 
the look out. Soon they meet ; a few words and a good many 
oaths and the hunting shirts or coats come off with a vim 
worthy of a better cause. Tiic crowd begins to break away 


from the enraged men. A ring is formed, two "bullies" ap- 
pear as seconds, a blow is struck and the men are down. While 
biting, gouging, scratching and striking are the alternate busi- 
ness in which the beligerants engage until one of them calls 
out "enough," the seconds pull them apart. Water is procured 
at a cake wagon (where it is kept in readiness, knowing that 
it will be wanted), the men wash their hands and faces ; then- 
wounds are bound up, when the seconds bring them up to the 
cake wagon, and there they "drink friends," shake hands and 
that quarrel is at an end. But there are other chaps in the 
i;r6wd who are as base cowards as ever existed, and they seem 
Lo feel that others think so too. This will not do ; they must 
get up a reputation for courage, hence they secure two or three 
good friends on both sides, wliom they know "won't" let them 
fight. With this kind of "backing" they meet, and the hair 
of the pious man almost stands straight upon his head to hear 
r,hc awful blasphemies that proceed from their profane lips ; 
yet their friends, true to their instructions, hold them fast and 
seem to try to get them away. But no ! they will hear no ex- 
planations, and "will just mash each other into the ground, "• 
etc. Sometimes, however, their friends become wearied hold- 
ing them and agree on both sides to let them at each othei 
The crowd form a ring and wait for the fight to begin ; but no, 
they are ready to explain and take back everything rather than 
enter the ring and fight it out. Other cases occur where men 
would lay a chip on their shoulder and go around, politely ask- 
ing some one to knock it off, which was generally done, and 
the fiijht bearan that instant. Others would go around drag^o-inq; 
their coats after them, and requesting some one, as an act of 
kindness, "just to please to tread on the tail of this ere coat." 
If any one was anxious to try his muscel, here was his chance, 
which was often accepted. So that from these various causes 
the crowd Avas genorallv entertninod with several fiajhts. 1 



well remember seeing no less than seven in one day in the ye.ii 

Now let us turn to another interesting feature of our ancc*' 
o.-s, namely, weddings: From what has been said about th^ 
b.ixoiu la^sij and young blood who could not hear the word o» 
cDmmand at the muster, it might be inferred that Cupid was not 
I stranger among the early settlers of this country; indeed our 
ancestors were much more likely to contract agreeable matches 
tiiau their grand-children are, from several causes : First, there 
was more equality then than now. Parents seldom ever inter 
I'ered because their children were not marrying "their equals." 
Secondly, the love of money and money distinctions were almost 
ii:i ;i In those days the question was not asked, "has he 
sii.lijient money to keep you in splendid idleness all the rest of 
your life? " On the contrary, if it was known hp possessed an 
iiouest heart, two willing hands and two brawny arms, these 
A'cre considered sufficient recommendations, and the consent 
.va^ mutual. Thirdly, educational distinctions did not exist 
i.lien as now. The fathers, when they consulted that great 
^tore-house of common sense laid up in their uncombed heads- 
■•oiicluded about one in one hundred of the great mass would 
')e needed to expound the civil law, to enforce the precepts of 
' he Gospel, or to cure the ills suffei'ing mankind was heir to. 
These must be the brightest stars the community could furnish. 
N^o thought then of sending a boy to college because he wap 
good for nothing else. If he were considered a fool, they 
never thought of sending him to a high school to learn com- 
mon sense. The country was not cursed then as it is now with 
a miserable host of literary lazaroni sporting Latin diplomas 
that they cannot translate. If there U an opening in a common 
school, one dozen api)licants are on hand like hungry office 
seekers, clamoring for the ])Osition. These educated pauper.s 
of one sex. as a matter of course, must inarry educated paupers. 

l.'tS tiisrouv ;)i' ci:; i.m-; «;i)iNrv. 

of the 0|-positc sc\-. Tlie taicnts oi" neither can find them em- 
ploy mint. Thuy cannot d'l^^ -. to bog some of them are ashamed 
As the cottimunily fail? to discover their ability,it Avill not su]"»- 
port theni. Tiioy must coir^ecjuently fall back on poor old fa- 
ther and m.othcr, who, after tolling- as long as they can to suj)- 
port this idleness, finally drop iiito the grave with a conscious- 
ness that their hard-earned accumulations will soon be like the 
"small dust of tlic threshing floor," driven away by the wind of 
literary smattering. Our ancestors had no trouble like this. 
Tlieir sons could chop, grub, plow, make rails, build fences, &c. 
Their daughters were not like the lilies of which it is said, "they 
toil not, neither do they spin, yet Solomon, in all his glory, wr.s 
not arrayed like one of these." Our mothers could spin, an-J 
the little education they got in the log cabin school house made 
them a match for the shrewdest sharpers of that day who tried 
to cheat them out of their hard earned pittance. This ed'u-a- 
tion was not visionary, but practical, preparing them for the 
stern realities of life. Consequently the young men and wo- 
jiien who loved each other, saw no barrier in the way of their 
marriage, the parents on both sides saw none, and so the wed- 
ding day was set. This was to be no ordinary occasion. Thi 
kinsfolks and neighbors were to be there ; old Captain whisk;, 
usually came the day before ; the sedate old minister, (with his 
buckskin breeches, long stockings fastened above the knees 
with silver buckles, and low slippers fastened in a similar way), 
must be there ; the bride must be as "fine as a fiddle," especially 
her cap ; no matter how abundant and beautiful her hair, she is 
done going bare-headed now. No Roman Catholic convent was 
ever more exacting in its demands that the young nun should 
wear her veil and brow-band of spotless linen than these old 
mothers were that their daughters should now begin to wear a 
cap, just because they had got married. Where they got the 
notion, I know not, but one thing is certain they had it ; and 



then the cap must be of a peculiar pattern, all crimped and 
frilled and ornamented "with numerous bows and furbelos. 
IIow about the groom? Matters are becommg serious with 
him. Every time he calls to see the girl to whom he has 
plighted his faith and troth, the over-anxious mother-in-law 
(as she is soon to be) puts him through his catechism about 
what he is going to wear on the "weddin day." She knows he 
has no coat of his own. All the sparking has been done while 
the groom was clad in his hunting-shirt. But now motherly 
pride rebels against the thought that her daughter must be 
married to a man "standin up before the minister with nothing 
but a hunting-shirt on." But one evening the intended groom 
comes in with a smile on his face and soon relieves the anxiety 
of all by telling what a clever man he has found who has con- 
sented to lend him his coat on the wedding day. He has lent 
it already eight times on similar occasions ; all he "axes" for its 
use is a share of the good dinner and a dance at the wedding. 
All parties are happy now. This coat that has been married ro 
often, deserves a minute description. It is made of sky-blue 
cloth, with a very short waist and an extreemly long swallovv- 
tail. It has just fourteen large brass buttons on it, with tlic 
words, "treble gilt stands color," on the inside of each on<:, 
but are simply for ornament and not utility. This is a self-ad- 
justing coat — will fit either a large or a small man ; hence the 
sleeves are made long with a cuff that can be turned up if worn 
on a short arm, or down if the man should happen to be long 
in the arms. But the most exquisite thing about this coat is the 
collar. It took a tailor a whole day to quilt it. No wonder, 
for it must be five inches broad — a complete foundation for a 
man's hat to set on, so if his hat must fall off it always falls 
forward, as it cannot fall backward. If the wearer is traveling 
away from the Avind the back of ]\'\< neck is com^jletely prO' 
tected. But while we have been de.-crib;;!;.; llic- bride's cap and 


the groom's coat, the wedding day has come. It is ushered in 
by the firing of rifle guns, for want of artillery. The females ; 
oh ! how busy are they. That wild turkey must be well 
"biled ; " them buckwheat-cakes is "gitten" too "lite ; " them 
corn-dodgers must be put to bake now, etc. All this time the 
men are gathering out in the yard. They have picked out two 
of the best riders to "run for the bottle" (old black Betty.) The 
signal for the start is to be the firing of a gun near a mile 
away, by the side of the road along which the groom's company 
is expected to come. Hark ! that is it ; now there is mount- 
ing in hot haste, and away go the two horsemen, "helter skel- 
ter," "neck or nothing" — best man foremost — who, when hfi 
meets the approaching company, receives from the hand of the 
groom's right-hand man, a well-filled bottle, with which be 
i-eturns in triumph, the groom's first treat, of which all 
parties partake, even the minister condescending to take the 
"oead off the whisky by taking the first dram out of the neck 
of the bottle, all following him by drinking from the bottle, 
'.nstead of pouring the liquor into a tumbler. The groom's 
company now arrive. Most of the young men are without sad- 
iles, while the girls are mounted on pack-saddles. Not a cloth 
soat in the assembly except the harrowed one that the groom 
wears, while the man who lent it to him acts the part of grooms- 
man •, for it is the condition of lending the coat that the owner 
shall be present, and as he has been to so many weddings ho 
knows how to do, and in consequence of this superiority, he is 
selected as "second best." He is on this occasion arrayed in 
the nice new hunting shirt of the groom. The company dis- 
mount. The girls are clad in flannel and linsey skirts, sur- 
mounted by bright colored chince calico short gowns. Most 
of the boys have buckskin moccasins on, while the girls gener- 
ally have coarse cow-leather shoes. It is now time for the ser- 
vices to comiuoiice, wluch i.s vvith iii-;!yor about live minutes 


long, then an exhortation about ten minutes in length. Now 
all the questions that are found in the statutes of the State and 
also the canons of the church, the holy man telling the parties 
how Adam and Eve were married in the garden of Eden, etc., 
another long prayer and the twenty minutes ceremony is over, 
except kissing the bride, in which the preacher leads off, and 
is immediately followed by the groom, and then by all present 
— both male and female. Dinner is now ready, during the eat- 
ing of which the adventures of the morning are recounted — 
how a brush fence was built across the road ; how near one ol 
the girls was to being "throwed" by the firing of a gun, by a fel- 
low hid in the woods, Avho was mad because he was not 
"axed" to the wedding ; how they had to turn out into the 
woods because somebody had tied grape-vines across the road, 
etc. Dinner over the minister departs, after receiving one dol- 
lar for his services. Then the fun begins. A game of "corner 
ball" is the first thing in order, by the boys alone, while tlife 
"gals" are helping clear the tables and wash the dishes. Wheii 
this is done, "prisoner's base" is introduced, which is engaged 
in by both sexes. Running foot races, hop, step and jump, all 
claim a place in the afternoon amusements. The shades of 
evening are now beginning to fall, and what was left from din- 
ner is now handed round as a piece for supper. The young 
people have paired off for the dance. The fiddler has his vio- 
lin in order, and the dance begins, the bride and groom always 
laking part in the first "set." About ten o'clock the nev.'ly 
•aiarried couple retire, while the rest keej^ up the dance. Tijose 
^ho are not dancing are sitting on benches ai-onnd the', 
•vnd in order to make the seats go as far as possible they jncko 
•tach one carry double, the young man sitting down first, takiDj; 
his girl on his lap. Some would become so enamored witii 
ibcir position that when they were rcfpicsted to take tb»ir 
places in the nc\i set, instead ol' coiiiplying ihoy wouM roar 



out, "Oh ! dear mother my toes are sore, dancing on your 
puncheon floor !" About twelve o'clock the dancers are treated 
to another piece, and are pei-mitted once more to kiss old black 
Betty's lips (take a dram). Some one suggests that the bride 
and groom must be hungry, and a committee is appointed to 
carry them some of the roast pig, corn bread and pumpkin pie 
up the ladder into the "bridal chamber" immediately under the 
clapboard roof. "Don't forget to take old "Betty" (the bottle) 
along with you," shouts one of the thoughtful swains as the 
::;omraittee is about to start, which is accordingly done. The 
•-ommittee on refreshments having discharged its duty, returii 
:iiid make their report, when the dance is renewed with vigor, 
oonie of the party grow weary and secrete themselves for a 
\mp, but they are soon hunted up and hauled out on the floor, 
and the fiddler is requested to play, "We'll dance all nighi 
till broad day -light, then go home with the girls in the morn- 
ing," or another piece, "We'll all hold out till morning." Ej 
Lhis time morning has come. The tired dancers readjust their 
ilelapidated finery preparatory to their depai-ture for the "i.o- 
f are," where another day of fun and frolic comes off. But jn.-.L 
as the "sun retires to rest in his wigwam behind the wesi eru 
Hvaters," the company breaks up, the chivalrous beaus seutbaL 
iheir vai-ious sweet-hearts don't fall off the pack-saddle on theli 
way to their fathers' houses. The tired swains return to theit 
, various places of abode, esteeming this quite "glory enouo). 
(ot any two days" of their lives. About two weeks after tJie 
wedding the whole neighborhood is invited in to build a hi^use 
for the couple hereafter to be considered an independent famiU. 
The two old men have met, and looked out a place near a good 
spring. When the morning of the appointed time arrived, 
men on hoi'seback and on foot come shouting through tiie 
woods towards the place indicated in the invitation, with a\cs 
on their shoulders. See, llicre comes a yoke of ovimi ;;l'.'i'.,'V(.d 


to a log sled. Yes, there is another team of oxen drawing a 
large sled on which are seated three women, bringing Dutch 
ovens, skillets and lids, pewter dishes, knives and forks, to 
assist in getting dinner down in the "big woods," nsing the 
water out of the new spring for cooking. This was called 
"christening the spring." But all hands have come to work, 
not to talk. Men with axes are coniing in from all directions 
More women arrive bringing bear and deer meat and pork. 
The small trees are falling all around. The first log is hauled. 
A large tree is cut near the spring for clapboards for the ro of, 
the stump of which is taken for one corner. Large short logs 
are laid in for the other corners. Then the old rough carpen- 
ter, who acts as "boss," begins to call loudly for four men by 
name to come forward as corner men. Now one log is on, 
now another, now "up it goes." Against dinner is ready the 
lower story is up and the "jice is on." Dinner is eaten amidst 
great hilarity, and many a joke is at the expense of the 
recent groom and bride. But all must hurry for four rounds 
of logs are to go on besides ribs, weight-poles and gable-end 
timber ; yet many hands make light work. Log by log, stick 
by stick, the balance of the materials go up until just as the 
sun is beginning to cast long shadows through the tree- 
tops, the roof is on. The puncheons are ready, but cannot be 
put in yet because of "a mortar hole," which, for the sake of 
convenience, must be xmder the house. A few men are busy 
removing soil and digging up clay, and boys are equally busy 
carrying water from the new spring to mix the clay. What 
is this coming in at the new door-way ? Ah, I see, it is an 
ox and his mate coming to tramp the clay into mortar for 
plastering the new-made home. "Come to supper," are the 
glad tidings uttered by a woman's voice. The tired men dis- 
patch this meal more quietly than the previous one, and now 
a\\ who have family cares of their own to discharge, take 



tools, oxen, horses and dishes and depart for their own cabins, 
leaving the young men and boys to daub the house before com- 
ing home. The oxen have been kept going round and round 
all this time ; the clay and water, under pressure of their feet, 
is a glistening batch of sticky mortar. The faithful oxen are 
turned out to eat a half-bushel of nubbins that awaits them in 
a trough before the door. The bare-footed boys now roll up 
their buckskin linsey or tow trousers and leap into the mortar 
liole, where they gather up double handfuls of mud and throw it 
into the cracks between the logs, in Avhich one of the heart 
pieces out of the clap-board tree has already been inserted 
and is called "chunking." These mud throwers are followed by 
the young men with wooden trowels, made out of a waste 
clapboard, who smooth the mortar off and close all the crevices 
so well the summer rain and winter wind are compelled to stay 
on the outside. Against 9 o'clock, p. m. the house is completely 
daubed inside, and the sleepers are laid in. The lights used 
are old gourds half filled with grease into which a twisted racr 
has been inserted, the end hanging over the edge of the gouri"! 
and is set on fire. The next day three or four old men cam»:» 
back to fit down the puncheons in the floor, make the door asid 
build the chimney. The door is made by pinning two bro.'uJ 
puncheons together with large wooden pins driven into croa* 
pieces, which project about eight inches on one side. Througl, 
this projecting end a hole is bored and an upright piece of 
wood is dressed small at the top to fit this hole and then pinnovi 
fast to the door cheek for a hinge. A wooden latch is made Jo 
drop into a wooden catch and in order that it may do so easily, 
both catch and latch are copiously greased. Now let us have 
the chimney built and we are done. The fire-place is aboi.t 
ten feet wide, for our new beginner does not want to spend ah 
his time chopping wood ; he expects to put in his winter days 
clearing land. The logs that are sawed out are split in two for 


jambs. Logs are laid across these to support the back -wall. 
This then is built up as high as the mantel, and then small 
sticks are built on it intersected with mud, into which straw 
cut about two inches long is mixed, giving the whole thing the 
name of "cat and clay." When the chimney is thus carried up 
above the roof and large stones are set in for the jambs to keep 
the fire from burning the wood-work, the cabin is done, 
and is left to dry for a few days, when the mothers on both 
sides do their best to rig out the young couple for house-keep- 
ing. If the bride is twenty-two years old, she most likely has 
a feather-bed of her own ; but women were scarce in those 
days, and were not often allowed to arrive at that age, unless 
ihey Avere outrageously ugly. In case they were married at 
seventeen or eighteen, the two mothers generally managed to 
get them a feather-bed, but sometimes they went to house- 
keeping on straw. Some kind of a dresser must be made tc 
hold in a conspicuous way the new set of pewter plates that 
''dad" has bought for liis daughter. The six pewter spoons 
are hung in notches in the edge of the lower shelf of the 
dresser, while the mush dish and little porringers are stood isp 
on their edges, just behind where the knives and forks are laid. 
The bed-stead is made by boring two holes in a log and tno 
more holes in the puncheon floor. Into these holes in the ilcor 
the lower end of a small forked stick is driven, a\ hieh fork is 
about two and a half feet h*gl), so as to be on a level with iho 
hole in the wall, into whicli hole another pole is tighllv driven 
and allowed to rest at the outer end in tlio lop of tlio forlc. 
Two poles are now laid lengthwise, one i'l front and the otiior 
ba8k against the wall. Acrcis these po'?s, clap boaids are 
laid and the stead is readv f 3r ilo bed. Now (or the "'uouso- 
warming." The first eveniiig afir,r the mo vn;;:. those ^o^^il:» 
men who A*;orked so hard at buildi'ig and dua-ihiu': the r.d.ii., 
arc now invited to bring i'lJjx pi.*-n;<is an;] «:'i;oy soniij of ll.o 


hospitalities of the new home. The new dishes are to be 
eaten off of the first time as they set so nicely on the new pun- 
cheon table. After the homely meal is over, all hands engage 
in five or six reels or jigs, and then go home. They must 
not dance all night as they did at the wedding. 

Another of the gatherings of our ancestors at a later date 
than the times I have been describing, say about fifty years 
ago, was the '-corn-husking." I never saw corn cut up and 
Dusked on the stalk in Western Pennsylvania until within the 
last forty years. Previous to that time the farmers pulled the 
(.-ars off the stalks, which they left standing in the field. 
The corn was then hauled and thrown in a long ridge about 
four feet high. The neighbors were invited in on a moon- 
light night. Two young men or boys were nominated as caj^- 
lains, who requested two, sometimes three old men to d> 
vide the heap for them. This Avas done by carefully steppini: 
:he heap, asking which end was hauled first, etc. They then 
1 lid a large rail across the pile and declared it ready. Tin- 
• aptains had previously tossed a board or a stone, liavint: r, 
wet and dry side to it ; the one who got the wet side fAvico, 
had the choice of hands, and as soon as the rail was, iio 
:;alled out his favorite's name, requesting him to come Vj tiiC 
rail. As fast as the hands were thus alternately chose;), lliey 
set into husking with all their might, each one making a? rout h 
noise as he possibly could. Wlienever one side found ilicni- 
f-elves sure of victory, they picked up tlieir captain on their 
shoulders and began a most frightful screaming — this v,:i.« railed 
''hoisting the captain." But it often liappcned that I'oih side.? 
claimed the victory. In that case boll; captains were };oist«'fl. 
They were often thrown against each other by men under l:ie 
influence of liquor. A ground scullle and soniotini»;a a li,!;^t 
was the result. If any unfair play was sho'An \r, any i'«*rvt.iU 
'%n favor of one of tlie captains :u:d li^'r'n^t '.oo ou-t«' .u 'hin 


scuffle, it was immediately resented, sometimes leading to two 
or three fights during the same evening. When all things 
had become quiet again, the husks were thrown in pens j^revi- 
ously prepai'ed. All hands then proceeded to the house where 
supper was smoking on the table. This supper consisted prin^ 
( ipally of chicken pot-pie washed down with an occasional 
tin of sweet cider ; this course was supplemented by several 
l)ieces of pumpkin pie. I have gone to as high as six of these 
hustings in one week, in the moonlight nights in the fall of 
the year, and I believe to-day that it was the surest and quick- 
i>st way of getting corn into the crib. The cattle and hogs 
were turned into the corn-field while the ground was still dry 
They eat most of the fodder, gathered up all the corn that was 
ui'.sscd in pulling. The stalks were then left where they 
ought to be on the field, and not in the barn-yard, where they 
.ire only a nuisance, besides a man can husk three ears to one 
where they are pulled off the stalk. While our fathers weio 
.;l)out right in getting in their corn, I think they made several 
mistakes in their methods of farming, first as regards the rota^ 
lion of ci'ops. They had the corn field where they expected 
Lo raise their corn from year to year, although almost all the 
iiutnmcnt suited to the grain was gone, and their crop would 
not exceed fifteen bushels to the acre, yet with all their good 
(.-ojiimon sense they failed to see what the diiiiculty v/as. 
Tiiey also had the wheat field where they expected to raise 
iheir wheat for nixmbers of years in succession, never allowing 
the land to icst a few years under a good coat of grains. They 
would have thought a man insane who would have sp«?nt a few 
ilollars of his hard-earned money for a bushel of clover or 
timothy seed. TLey also had the narrow strip of land along 
the spring run or some largei' rivulet which they denominated 
the meadow, so called just because it happened to be level 
and smooth. The stones were picked off it, and although it 


was mowed with a scythe for ten successive years, although 
scarcely a tiuiothy head was to be seen, yet they persisted in 
mowing that small undei'growth, which required a scythe so 
sharp that it must literally sliave the mossy sod, else the mower 
would leave but a light swath behind him. About the only ro- 
tation that I have any knowledge of was in the new piece of 
ground of about one acre that was just cleaned out last spring, 
and named tlie "potato patch." Next spring, on good Friday, 
it must be sown in flax, and a new piece cleared for potatoes. 
There was also the truck patch which was to be omnibus, f rom^ 
the fact of its containing almost every thing — pumpkins, 
squashes, beans, peas and onions, garlic, red peppers, shives. 
etc., with quite a large space left for setting out the tobacco 
plants and cabbage plants, with just room enough for two or 
three hills of Jerusalem apples (tomatoes) which were only 
raised to lay in the window for ornament, the children being 
caitioned under penalty of death not to touch them, for 
they "are the baddest kind of poison." The tobacco was al- 
most sure to be a good crop, provided the suckers were kepi 
pulled off and the tobacco worm was carefully looked after. 
The cabbage was not likely to head very well as the land was 

too new. 

Thus far we have said nothing about the religious habiia 

of the people of Greene county one hundred, eighty or even 
fifty years ago. We hope no one will conclude that this si- 
lence is because our ancestors had no religion. Nothing could 
be farther from the truth than such a conclusion as this. It is 
true that some other localities had the advantage over soino 
portions of this county, from the fact that tliere was iiioro 
congruity among our early settlers, which enabled them to or- 
ganize congregations, build churches and sustain ministers .it 
a mucli earlier period than Greene county did. With the sin- 
gle exccpLioii of the Muddy Creek sottlonuMil. and South 'J'en- 

tiiolOiil UP OUr.rtAtt COoWli. 


mile. Presbyterianism did not get any footing for about forty 
years after the first settlements made in the county. Although 
this denomination was about abreast with he Baptists, yet the 
settlement of the former sect was more marginal than the lat- 
; er, and when the thoroughfare that afterwards became the 
National Road was opened early in the present century, the 
line of Scotch-Irish emigration followed that road into Wash- 
ington county instead of Greene, where they settled down on 
Chartier's, Pigeon, Mingo and Raccoon creeks. They were 
^noblc people, but have been eulogized too much by their de- 
scendants of the first generation, by covering up all their de- 
fects and hiding all their excellencies. While Presbyteriahs 
weri; tlius found shying off from Greene county, the Baptists 
had come here to a great extent on account of Episcopal perse- 
fution in Virginia, and as the communications Avere kept open 
iu the rear, there was a constant tide of emigration to this ter- 
ritory as long as there was puplic land to be taken up. An- 
other reason for the increase of one denomination over the 
• )ther is, that Presbyterians at a very early day introduced u 
long and expensive course of ministerial education, which, when 
:ic(|uired, compelled the man on which so much was expended, 
Lo demand more for his services than the man who had just 
stepped from his plow or shop into the ministry. In conse- 
quence of much of the rougimess of the territory of Greene 
county and the lightness of crops, their salaries, as a mat- 
ter of course, were small, causing all those who must 
liave fat salaries to go elsewhere to seek them, thus leaving 
the few Presbyterians already here as sheep without a shepherd. 
Another difficulty that was found to exist was thai, inasmuch 
as it required so many long years to enter the Presbyterian 
ministry, anxious, pious parents did not often wait to see 
whether the Lord would call their sons as he did Aaron and 
Samuel, but concluding He would surely call them, seized 


time by the lorelock and sent on their sons to the academies 
and colleges almost before they had come to years of discre- 
tion. When those years were reached it was too late to send 
ibem to a trade or to the plow. Too much money had already 
been expended on them to be lost, and although the most san- 
guine friends could detect no existing qualifications for preach- 
ing the everlasting Gospel, yet the distressed parents hoped 
those qualifications would make their appearance in due sea- 
son. The faculties of colleges were slow in telling those dis- 
tippointed parents their "dear sons" could never succeed in the 
ministry, teaching with them was a "matter of bread and but- 
ter." The Presbytery also was hopeful that the talent that 
was noio evidently buried in a napkin, would in due time be 
brought to light, and thus the dear boy was pressed on through 
uollege, through the semmary, and now sure enough he wss 
through. The common people did not want to hear him : lie 
CO lid not look them in the face ; he reads his little discourso 
from the manuscript that no doubt he wrote, but who com- 
posed it is quite another question — the probabilities are tiiat 
he did, but there is a possibility that he did not Along side oi 
this one talented youth, there graduated a fine talented man — 
a star of the first magnitude ; one that his Creator had en- 
dowed with all the qualifications neccssaiy for his arduou;? 
work. But men of this kind are so few and far between that 
it is not likely that he will settle down on a salary of five hun- 
dred dollars, when there are abundance of jilaces that are olli'er- 
ino' two or three thousand dollars ; hence the brilliant num go 
to the large churches, while the men Avho dopeiid on their di 
plomas as their only recommendation, were under the necessity 
of "stopping" — for a while at least — in Greene county, wlieru 
they often become almost the laughing stock of the people ^\ho 
alternately listened tothem, and then to men who had never 
spent a week in a college in their lives. These petiplf \i'ouH 


and did draw the lines of distinction between these men, al- 
most always deciding in favor of the uneducated man, thus 
<loing great injustice to the educational institutions of our land, 
which are held resi^onsible because they did not educate 
lira ins into the empty skulls of those placed under their care 
^Methodism of various grades and shades has been at times 
V ery successful in different parts of this county. A great di- 
versity of talent and also education can be found among them. 
Tiieir itinerating system seemed well adapted to the condition 
-•.l" the people of this region, fifty or eighty years ago ; for al- 
though the masses were poor, yet there were men of wealth 
-ind liberality in the bounds of almost every circuit, who were 
not only able but willing to sustain the ministers and carry for- 
ward the work of the church. Thus Methodists became a 
power for good, especially on the frontier, where the tempta- 
tions incident to poverty existed, for although the converts did 
often fall away, they were not treated as though they had 
committed the unpardonable sin, for a "door of hope" was left 
constantly open for their return, which was often entered and 
re-entered until either the man became possessed of sufficient 
stability to fall no more, or was treated as an incorrigible offen- 
der. The year 1807 was somewhat remarkable in a religious 
point of view, on account of the rapid growth of the church 
in numbers. The great revival of 1800 had about done 
its work in Western Pennsylvania, and a glorious work it 
among the churches that were considv;rod orthodox, building 
them up in "their most holy faith," and leaving sucii indelible 
impressions that they were never eradicated during the lives <tf 
iliosc who had been the subjects of this grent work. But :»s 
dcneneracy and heresy crept into the primitive church soon 
afier the days of the Apostles, so in thi^ year and the years 
immediately succeeding ; sonio of the strimgost :iotions wero 
foimd to exist in the upper end of Orcone ('ounty, and in the 


adjacent townships of Washington county. Permanent among 
these dehisions was what was called Halconiteism. One of 
the pnnciple leaders of this deluded sect w as a man by the 
name of Sergeant. He claimed to have had a direct revelation 
from Heaven that it was all a mistake with reference to the ex- 
istence of such a place as hell, and that there was neither such 
a locality nor such a state of existence. This doctrine was so 
palitable that many deluded followers gathered around him. 
His fame was so great that he was invited to preach in the 
town of Wheeling, where, among his numerous auditors, was a 
lawyer who, regarding the harangue as heretical, contradicted 
him. This enraged the false prophet to such a degree that he 
brought suit against the lawyer for disturbing a worshiping 
assembly. In due time the suit came off, when the defendant 
took the ground that this was not a religious assembly, and iri 
order to make out his case, he proved many of the assertions 
that were made prominent; among them the oft repeated 
declaration — there was no hell. The lawyer was acquitted and 
the Courts decided the Halconites were not a religious society. 
This man seemed determined that his conduct should not be 
better than his creed, and in order to derive some profit ivoin 
his convenient doctrine, he committed a forgery, and was im- 
l^risoned in Cumberland, Maryland. This put an end to his ca- 
reer as a preacher. But as his deluded followers looked uvounci 
for a leader among those that had adhered to him, they loun-'l 
one in the person of Rhoda Fordycc. This woman was x^ol 
content to adopt the creed of her predecessor — ''ex anwxo'' — 
without making additions thereto, one of whicli was that if a 
person "would abstain from all animal food, live on parehcd 
corn and sassafras buds for a given length of time, his bo«^y 
would become so etherial that he would be translated toHoavfu 
without passing through the iron gate of death. It isafhnurd 
that a man by the name of Parker tried the experiment. ?mo 


instead of ascending to Heaven, he starved to death. This in- 
fatuated old woman would not permit the body to be buried 
until after the third day, insisting that at the expiration of that 
time it would ascend to Heaven. When tlie time had elapsed 
the neighbors took it by force and buried it. This failure to 
ascend seems to have disabused the minds of the people to that 
extent that both Rhoda and the Rhodianites — as her followers 
were called — sank into merited oblivion. Soon after the ex- 
tinction of this last imposter, a sect arose in the upper end of 
Greene and Washington counties call "New Lights." They 
made converts by scores from the ranks of both the Holy 
Conites and the Rhodianites. They laid great stress on immer- 
sion as the only mode of baptism. They also denied the Divin- 
ity of Christ, maintaining that he was not from everlasting 
and Avas not equal w^th God, the Father. They also introduced 
the custo m of feet washing into their assemblies, where men 
and women did literally "wash one another's feet." This sec; 
became quite numerous in Marshall county, West Virginia •, 
also in some of the adjoining parts of Ohio. But their day 
was almost as brief as some of the isms that had precede*! 
them. I saw one of their preachers who came over to Fay- 
ette county about 1831. His name was Peter F. Lashlie, but 
he made only a few converts on the east side of the river. 
These people were, in their turn, destined to be absorbed by 
still another sect, generally known as Campbellites. This is, 
however, a name that they repudiate as a misnomer, and I see 
no right that any one has to insist on a people keeping a nrwiiO 
that they dislike. As Alexander Campbell and his fat}« )\ 
however, were undoubtedly the founders of this sect, a brief 
sketch of his history, and that of his father, will not, I hojie, 
be deemed out of place here : 

In the year 1807 Rev. Thomas Campbell enngratcd to the 
United St;i'('< from ' Milaiid. IK- w :i>< a i mlicr dI' the ••Gen- 


eral Associate Synod." He was received by the Presbytery 
of Chartiers ; his omnipresent theme was "the all-sufficiency of 
the Holy Scriptures, so that he was frequently led to denounce 
all creeds and confessions as were human inventions, tending 
to divide the church and mar the beauty of the body of 
Christ. Although he was raised with the catechisms of the 
Westminster divines in his hand and had their teachings care- 
uUy stored in his head, yet he could not be quiet for a single 
:lay with reference to the perniciousness of such teachings. 
As might be expected, such departures as this met with decided 
opposition by some of those grave old fathers among whom 
liis lot had been so recently cast. The first public discussion 
5eems to have been August 17, 1809 at a meeting held, on 
the head waters of Buffalo creek in Washington county. An 
address and declaration was here presented by Mr. Campbell 
Tom what he is pleased to style "The Christian Association of 
Washington," for the sole purpose of promoting simple evati- 
gelical Christianity, free from all mixture of human opinions, 
and inventions of men. At a meeting of the Synod of the 
Presbyterian Church, held on the 4th of October, 1810, Rev. 
Thomas Campbell, formerly a member of the Associate Synod 
but representing himself as a member of the Christian Associ- 
ation of Washington, ai:)plied to be taken into ministerial 
standing. The record shows that Mr. Campbell was heard at 
length. The Synod resolved unanimously that they could not 
admit Mr. Campbell with his present views and feelings, deem- 
ing his plan as much- more likely to promote dissension and 
divisions than unity. Their refusal to admit him was not on 
account of any alleged defect in educational ability, or any 
defect in moral character, but on account of his peculiar 
views being inconsistent with the standards of the Presbyte- 
rian Church. Finding no home among kindred spirits, either 
in the Associate, nor yet in the Presbyterian Church, he re- 



solved to take the responsibility of originating a new denomi- 
nation, and consequently on the 4th day of May, 1811, he 
constituted a few persons as a church with no other creed than 
the Bible. At this same meeting Kev. Thomas Campbell was 
appointed Elder ; his son Alexander, who was a member of the 
first class in Canonsburg Academy in 1791, was licensed to 
preach the Gospel, and John Dawson, George Sharp, William 
Gilchrist and James Foster were chosen Deacons. The views 
of both father and son seem to have undergone a sudden change 
with reference to the mode as well as the efficacy of water bap- 
tism. Previous to this time they have, to all appearance, been 
the strictest kind of Pedo-Baptist. But now they insist that 
immersion is not only a mode but the mode of Christian Bap- 
tism. Two churches of this new denomination soon spring into 
existence; one at Cross Roads, six miles north west of Wash- 
ington, and the other on Brush run, eight miles south-west of 
the same place. These churches were organized by Elder Thos. 
Campbell, who gradually retires from public notice in order t'"> 
give place to superior genius and more brilliant talents of \vs. 
•ion Alexander Campbell, who became one of the most eloquent 
and persuasive public speakers that ever preached in Westerr. 
Pennsylvania. As a forensic debator, he had but few equalf. 
perhaps no superior. The printed debates of "Campbell and 
Owen" and "Campbell and Rice" will remain monuments of tiio 
abilities and skill of those who engaged in them. This man v» as 
just in the prime of manhood and in the very zenith of his elo- 
quence, at the time so large a part of Greene county might so 
justly be called "the burned district," as i^:m after ism had con- 
sumed it until thei-e was eminent danger of infidelity aial cvoii 
barbarism spreading their sable palls over the minds of mfiiiy- 
At this critical moment Elder Alexander Campbell came proicli- 
in"- among them. The preaching of John the Baptist in il)o 
wilderness of Judea was not mucli more powcrftd in its cOVcts 


than the preaching of Mr. Campbell. The flimsy hay, wood and 
Btubble structures erected by the Halconites, Rhodianites and 
Xew Lights fell before his eloquence like grass before the 
scythe of the mower. In some instances, I am told, entire con- 
gregations of New Lights abandoned their Arianism and adopt- 
ed the views of Mr. Campbell, which was certainly a long step 
\ii the right direction. Although many of the professed follow- 
ers of Mr. Campbell are but little better than Unitarians, hav- 
«:ig loose views of the Divinity of Christ and <3octrine of the 
Trinity, yet many of them are much more orthodox than any of 
iMC preceeding sects could possibly be. As proof of this, many 
( f the disciples of Mr. Campbell, as they have become more 
enlightened, have united with orthodox Baptist denominations. 
The coming of Cumberland Presbyterians fifty years ago 
seemed to be a necessity, from the fact that coldness and luke- 
ivarmness so generally i:)revailed. This young church had its 
'origin in the great revival of 1800-10, when its first Presbytery 
,vas formed. Its ministers, although often destitute of classica- 
etlucation, were evidently called of God to preach. This wrin 
especially true with the ministers who arrived in Greene counry 
in 1831 and 1832. This assertion is abundantly proven by the 
success that attended their labors at Hewitt's Grove, Jefferson. 
Waynesburg, Milliken's Camp Ground, &c. Whether this de- 
nomination will be perpetuated, is a question I will not prctcmi 
lo decide. At first view it seems to possess advantages superi- 
or to almost any other denomination, as it occupies an interrao- 
diate position between Galvanism and Armenianism. It would 
seem capable of drawing recruits from both tliese extreme?,, 
A'hich, no doubt, is true, and j'ct its disadvantages from its iu- 
icnnediate position are quite as numeious as its advantages; Tor 
Iho man Avho will make an acceptable Cmuborland Prcsb;, Icfiaa 
will, with a few modifications, make a good Methodist ',»r Pits 
LyIeri.'UiV, About twenty' yo.irs ago this <lfi.oii;ii),i(i«/U s.onud 



in great danger from certain belligerent parties then existing 
among them. But having grown wise by their own defects, 
they have, in many quarters, settled down into the conviction 
that ambassadors of the Prince of Peace ought to be peaceable, 
consequently I have heard of no prosecutions of any of their 
ministers by their brethren for many yeai-s, indicating a more 
])eaceful and happy state of existence, Avhich, if persisted in, 
will no doubt perpetuate their organization for many long years 
to come. 

One of the most conclusive arguments in favor of the per- 
jietuity of this denomination is the attention they have given 
lo the subject of classical education. Scarcely were the great 
meetings at upper Tenmile, Concord, Milliken's, Jefferson^ 
Hewitt's Grove, Hopewell and Nixon's camp meeting, near 
Uniontown, over, when John Morgan, wiio was undoubtedly 
the leading spii'it among these missionaries, began to agitate 
the question, "Where shall we have an institution of learn- 
ing?" I have been credibly informed that Rev. Morgan pressed 
this matter early upon the attention of the men of wealth in 
the neighborhood of Concord and Bethel, in Washington 
.-.ounty, yet the indifference of the masses was such that the 
missionaries turned away disappointed but not disheartened. 
'I'hey are soon found pressing the same subject on the citi- 
zens of Fayette county, where, through the energy and liber- 
ality of a number of prominent men, they secured control of 
Madison College, at Uniontown. This institution had been 
under Presbyterian influences at the outset of its existence. 
The afterwards distinguished Rev. Robert Baird began his 
collegiate course in this institution. At a later period the 
Methodist Episcopal Church obtained a preponderating influ- 
ence which they used so poorly as to induce the Board of 
Trustees to seek new affinities, which they found among the 
Cumberland Presbyterians, led on by Rev. Jno. Morgan, who 



was then pastor of the church at Uniontown. Rev, J. P. 
"Weethee, a graduate of the University at Athens, O., was 
elected Presidentof Madison College, about 1838. A female 
department was added in 1839, which was presided over by 
Miss Eliza J. Hanmer, a graduate of Ipswich Seminary, Mass 
achusetts. In the same year Rev. Jno. Morgan was made 
Professor of Moral and Mental Science. 

In 1842 there was a serious rupture between Presideni 
Weethee and some of the trustees, in which Jno. Dawson. 
jEsq., took a very decided stand against Mr. Weethee. This 
•4-upture resulted disastrously to Cumberland Presbyterian ism in 
Madison College. Who were the most culpable parties, it is. 
perhaps, unnecessary to inquire at this late date. I was ac- 
quainted with John Dawson, and knew him to be one ol 
the leading lawyers at the Uniontown bar, who made up his 
mind slowly and deliberately ; but when his mind was made 
up "he would do what he thought was right though thf 
lieavens should fall." Mr. Weethee was a man with whom I 
had but little acquaintance. He no doubt had his exalted ex- 
cellencies, but his greatest infirmity was that he was so ex- 
ceedingly sensitive as to his preogatives, so exceedingly fcar- 
iul that some one would interfere with his supremacy. Uf 
Ujese things as they may, the prestige of this denomination 
Was at an end in that institution. Defeated, but not destroyed, 
this denomination began to cast about them for other fields in 
which to cultivate their educational interests. Some hopes of 
carrying out their cherished educational policy was presented 
by casting in their lots with Beverly College, in the State of 
Ohio. Yet the different elements were so heterogeneous that 
the labors of these zealous pioneers of this young denomina- 
tion were under the necessity of turning elsewhere. And 
Avherd did they turn ? To Greene county, Pa., in many re- 
sjiects the most hopeless of all the fields they had hitherto sur- 


^■eyed. But the lapse of time, that great interpreter of human 
events, has proven that sometimes the most unpromising soil 
finally yields the largest increase. Such has pre-eminently been 
the case with the educational interests of this denomination 
as far as Greene county is concerned. 

The first success of this denomination, as patrons of educa- 
tion, was at Greene Academy, located at the village of Car- 
michaels, twelve miles east of Waynesburg. As the original 
settlers of this locality were mostly from Virginia and Mary- 
land, the Episcopalian element largely predominated. Among 
the instructors we find the names of Messrs. Ely, Wakefield, 
Whipple, Loughran, Miller, Horner, Ross, Martin, Long, 
Baker, Crago, Orr, Larkin and Nickeson. During the time 
that Joshua Loughran was Principal of this academy, the 
Cumberland Presbyterians were largely in the ascendant. A 
number of young men, who afterwards became influential 
ministers, received at least a part of their education there ; 
among this number were several whom I personally knew, viz : 
Jas. McFarland, A. B. Brice, E. F. Baird, Luther Axtell, A. J. 
Baird, A. B. Miller and J. S. Gibson. 

Much as Greene Academy had already accomplished, j-et 
there was no chartered connection between it and the denom- 
ination that had furnished a considerable amount of its pat- 
ronage. Any sudden freak of the trustees might place it be- 
yond the control of this denomination, and, therefore, the 
Pennsylvania Presbytery, at its meeting in Greenfield, Wash- 
ington Co., Pa., in April, 1849, appointed a committee of 
which Rev. J. H. D. Henderson, General Jesse Lazear and 
Samuel Moredock, Esq., were members. This committee was 
charged with the duty of making and receiving proposals from 
different localities with reference to the amount of aid each 
would contribute tovs'ards the erection of buildings and endow- 
ing of professorships in a new institution, to be placed under 


the care of the Pennsylvania Synod of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church. The competing localities were Carraichaels 
and Waynesburg. Although neither locality contributed as 
liberally as was hoped, yet Waynesburg contributed much the 
larger sum, which at once decided the locality. Application 
was made to the Legislature of Pennsylvania for a charter, 
which was granted in March, 1850. The 3d section of this 
charter i-eads as follows : "That Jesse Lazear, Jesse Hook, W. 
T. E. Webb, Bradley Mahanna, John Rogers, Mark Gordon, 
li. W. Downey, Wm. Bi-aden, A. G. Allison, Wm. W. Sayers, 
Dr. A. Shaw, John T. Hook and John Phelan are hereby ap- 
pointed Trustees of said corporation, to hold their positions 
until their successors in office are elected in the manner herein- 
after provided." This section provides that three out of the 
seven Trustees shall be annually elected by the stockholders of 
the building, and four by the Pennsylvania Presbytery of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church. B/ the provisions of this 
charter the control of Waynesburg College was to be exer- 
cised exclusively by this denomination, on the condition that 
three professors should be constantly maintained. In the au" 
tumn of 1849, Rev. Joshua Loughran left Greene Academy, 
and located in Waynesburg, where he commenced a school in 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The citizens of Waynes- 
burg subscribed about five thousand dollars towards the erec- 
tion of suitable buildings, which were commenced in thu 
spring of 1850, and were completed in the autumn of 1851; 
when on the first Tuesday of November the new College went 
into formal operation in the new building. This day might 
be regarded as an epoch — not only as the first day of teaching 
in the new building — but also from the fact that on that day 
Alfred B. Miller entered this institution as a student, and has 
been continuously connected with it from that time until the 
■present day (August 1882.) 


In the autumn of 1850 Miss Margaret K. Bell was employed 
lo take charge of a school of young ladies with the design of 
founding a female seminary in connection with the College. A 
separate building was proposed, but never erected. A seal 
and diploma were engraved, and several classes of young ladies 
were graduated and received diplomas under the seal of 
*'Waynesburg Female Seminary." The opening of the spring 
term of 1852 witnessed a large increase of students, the numbei 
in all for this first year being one hundred and thirty. The 
end of the year was marked by the graduation of the first class 
in the Female Seminary, consisting of Miss Elizabeth Lindsey, 
now Mrs. David Crawford, Miss Caroline Hook, afterwards 
^Irs. Edmiston, and Miss Martha Bayard, now Mrs. Howarri. 
of Brownsville. At the close of the second year, 1853, anothei 
■'•.lass of young ladies was graduated, among whom we find the 
uames of Miss Lucy Lazear and Miss Virginia Morgan. At 
the same time the first class of young men were graduated, 
consisting of A. B. Miller, the distinguished President of this 
institution, W. E. Gapen, now a prominent lawyer in Bloom- 
ington. 111., Clark Hackney, now of Washington county, Pa., 
and James Rinehart, of Waynesburg, Pa. This being the fii-st 
commencement day, occurring September 28, 1853, was a day 
of intense interest to all parties concerned. The Presbytery 
and Synod were present as well as many distinguished visitors 
from abroad ; among whom are found the names of Hon. An- 
drew Stewart and Hon. Samuel Gilmore, of Uniontown, Pa. A. 
B. Miller delivered the graduating oration, being the first deliv- 
ered in the new building, consequently he is justly entitled to the- 
fiame of "first born" of the numerous sons of this Alma-Mater. 
{Soon after this date the college was received under the care of 
the Pennsylvania Synod. At a meeting of the Trustees held 
October 14, 1853, I find this resolution, viz : ^'■Resolved, That 
Rev. Alfied ^Miller be employed as Professor of Mathematics 


at a salary of $150 per session." But my sketch is growing to 
proportions entirely too large for the space allotted it in the 
History of Greene County, and I propose to close it by giving 
some brief biographical sketches of some of its instructors, 
some of whom I have personal knowledge, but the principal 
source of my information is obtained by consulting a very in- 
teresting history written by Rev. A. B. Miller, D. D., as I find 
it in a volumn entitled, "Theological Medium," a copy of which 
the Dr. has sent me : 

Rev. Joshua Loughran was educated at Jefferson College, 
Canonsburg, Pa. A great reader, a great thinker : with 
almost boundless ability to illustrate, he could hold his classes 
spell -bound for an hour without weariness. Prof. Thomas C. 
Lazear was elected to the vacant chair of Languages at the 
same meeting of Trustees that accepted Rev. Loughran's resig- 
nation. He served in this capacity for one year, at the close 
of which he resigned, and is now a leading practitioner at the 
Pittsburg bar. Miss Minerva Lindsey, now the wife Rev. 
A^el Freeman, of Concord, Washington county, Pa., taught a? 
assistant in the female department during part of the time that 
J. P. Weethee was Pi-esident of the institution. Rev. Samuel 
H. Jeffrey was elected to the chair of Natural Science which 
he occupied for one year, when he fell a victim to consumption 
and died in November, 1859. He was born in an old log house 
on Montour's run, Allegheny county, when no theological semi- 
nary was in existence; consequently when he completed his 
collegiate studies he commenced to study theology with o\\ 
Rev. George M. Scott, of Mill Creek church, near the spot 
in Beaver county where Ilookstown now stands. During the 
time of his theological studies he contracted an alliance witit 
Miss Jane Scott, daughter of his preceptor, and at the close of 
his term, they were married. After various removes, they ai- 
rived in Waynesbur>>;, Avheve he l)cc;une i):istor of the Presby- 


terian congi'egation, also the Church of Unity at Graysville, 
fourteen miles distant. His widow still survives him, and re- 
sides in "Waynesburg, revered and respected by all who know 
lier. Rev. A. J. McGlnmphy entered on his duties as Profes- 
sor of Mathematics at the same time Rev. Jeffrey entered on 
his duties as Professor of Natural Science, resigning at the 
close of one year, telling the President he "believed the college 
hopelessly environed with financial difficulty." Prof. M. E. 
Garrison was a graduate of Allegheny College, Pa., and was a 
most faithful and zealous worker in Waynesburg College, 
which he served for ten years, when declining health compelled 
him to give up his position. So highly was he esteemed by 
President Miller that he accompanied him to the Hygienic 
Home at Danville, N. Y., where, on April 7, 1870, he peacefully 
i oil asleep. Prof. W. (7. /S'cofMvas placed in the chair of Math- 
•'inatics in the spring of 1860, being a graduate of the class of 
1 857. He served the College very acceptably, and was, like 
many of his co-workers, compensated with a very "moderate 
pecuniary reward." Prof. J. M. Crow, A. 31., a member of the 
s siior class of 1871, was in the autumn of 1872 made Professoi 
of Greek and Latin, and proved one of the most useful men in 
the faculty. After teaching for one year, he went to Europe 
where he spent two years at Liepsic, Germany, and at Basel, 
Switzerland, extending his knowledge of the classics and also 
the German language, returning to America in the fall of 187.5. 
He resumed his place in the College and became exceedingly 
popular in his department. To the regret of all concerned he 
felt compelled at the close of the year, on account of insufficient 
salary, to resign his position and accei:)t a more lucrative one. 
In 1881 he returned to Germany, and resumed his studies inthe 
University at ]5erlin ; September, 1882, he went to Athens, 
Greece, to attend an institution of learning. After a tour in Pal- 
estine he will graduate at Berlin, and return to America in 1883. 



Rev. S. K. Craig acted as professor of Greek for three sessior.s 
and was then called to the Presidency of Monongahela College 
at Jefferson, Pa. Profs. J. G. Gwynn, D. S. Williams, S. IJ- 
Patton, Albert McGinnis, Jno. F. White, Z. X. Snyder, B. V 

Foster, Shepard, B. V. Atkisson and Geo. S. Frazer, D.D , 

have rendered valuable service in their respective places. But 
of all the persons that were ever connected with Waynesburg 
College, none occupied so important a position as the Principal 
of the Female Seminary, Mrs. M. K. B. Miller. This lady was 
a daughter of Andrew Bell, and was born in Washington, Pa., 
where she graduated quite young. In 1850 she was invited 
to Waynesburg with a view of building up a school for young 
ladies, to be known as "Waynesburg Female Seminary." In 
the spring of 1855 she was united in marriage with Rev. A. 
B. Miller, with whom she spent the remainder of her life, dis- 
charging all the duties of wife and mother with the greatest 
fidelity. And yet there was one paramount object for which 
she lived and for which she died — the best present interests 
and ultimate triumphant success of Waynesburg College. 
In order to show the readers of this history that I am noi, 
a mere panegyrist, I will insert from memory part of her ad- 
dress to the graduating class about the year 1851), viz: ''Do 
not, I beseech you, young ladies, allow yourselves to think tiiat 
your education is completed ; on the contrary, permit me tu 
anticipate fondly that you will be life-long students, for I assure 
you your education has just commenced. I have borro^^•e.l 
you from your mothers for the few years tliat have passed t>M 
pleasantly by. I now propose to return you to the source from 
which you came, that you may there in your inotlier's kitchen, 
dining room and parlor still pursue your education, for bo as- 
sured of this one thing, that every young lady, be she high or 
low, rich or poor, ought to know how to make and mend, wash 
and iron, bake and scrub, and if she is ignorant of all tJiesr, 


fraportant duties, an essential part of her education has been 
omitted." She was possessed of a large amount of physical as 
well as mental vigor, that enabled her to endure an amount of 
hardship that would have prematurely crushed more feeble 
constitutions. Such must have been pre-eminently the case 
f we allow ourselves to retrospect the labor she performed : 
Usually she taught six hours each day, and in addition to this, 
ilid a great amount of work for her family and home, where 
slie entertained, almost every day, some of the numerous 
friends of the students and visitors of the college. Misses 
(iiace Oviatt, M. C. Foote, S. V. Abbott and Mary A. Hume 
'i.ive, in the order named, served as Principal of this depart- 
ment the present worthy incumbent being Miss Bell M. Day. 

Among the ladies who have from time to time contributed 
ilioir inliuence and time in the department of music, I find the 
lollowing : Miss Mary Fisher, Mrs. Laura D. Jacobs, Miss Fannie 
r.nzear, Miss Anna Moore, Miss "Charlie" Pettigrew, Miss Lucy 
Morgan, Miss S. Virginia J^utler, Miss Lucy Inghram, Miss Lido 
C. Millei-, Miss Lizzie N. Day, Miss Williams, Miss M. A. 
Ilumo, Miss Ida V. Blake and Miss Male Close. Miss Emma .L 
Downey, of the class of 1864, was a number of years teacher 
of French, a position she filled with entire satisfaction to her 

Having spent this much time in writing something of the 
religious history of this county, I will now introduce a 
biography or two as a means of relieving our history of all ten- 
dencies to monotony. I spent the evening of January lo 
1882, and the forenoon of the 16th with Anthony Trip who 
has long resided in Morris township, Greene county. He was 
born in 1815 on the bank of the river ''Weiser," where he lived 
until Octobw, 1840; when wearied with the constant demand 
made by the Prussian King (whose subject he was) for military 
Bervice, young Mr. Tripp applied for a passport to the Uni- 


ted States of America. His application Was rejected. The 
authorities would dismiss old men, women or children, but 
would not grant passports to young men in any instance to the 
United States, and only in a few instances to any other country. 
Fully determined to emigrate, Mr. Tripp applied at another 
window for a passport to England, which was granted. Armed 
with this permit he arrived in safety, as he supposed, at the 
free city of Breemen where he learned a vessel was about to 
start from Bremerhaven for the United States. This vessel he 
determined to board, but just as he stepped into the boat to be 
coiwcyed to the ship, his passport was demanded. Finding 
that it read to England instead of America, he and his compan- 
ions were arrested and turned over to the tender mercies of the 
];oIice whom Kmg William had employed to arrest any of his 
subjects who were about to escape to the United States. Learn- 
ing the boat would return again in the evening, the young men 
'Ictermincd to take tlie matter cooly, inviting the officers to 
^!rink wine at their expense, hoping a* they were kidnapped 
'he wine would kidnap the officers. The wine was supplc- 
p.iPutGtl by large draughts of lager beer which sc-cu had its effect 
on their cajitors who began to curse King Wiiiixm, declaring 
he <ni!y paid them ■x ~mall fee for returning his --"ibj6cts, when 
ov.v young men, taki^-^ the hint, presented the officers with a 
•-halcr-. a price in connection with the wine and beer rendered 
tbein entirely oblivious of all their duties. The boat was aboui 
to depart again, and one by one the young men were finally ai) 
aboard the ship, standing out into thel^orth Sea on their way 
to "the land of the free and the home of the brave." Novem- 
ber 22d, 1840, they landed at New Orleans where Mr. Tripp 
spent the winter workitig at "whatsoever his band found to 
do," which he did with his might. When spring came he con- 
cluded that, as he was a native- of as high a northern latitude as 
Prussia, it would be impriulent for him to remain as far South 



as Orleans, hence he started northward. After a short sojourn 
at St. Louis, he eventually arrived in the vicinity of Washing- 
ington, Pa. His first service was rendered at the nursery of 
Hugh Wilson, immediately north-west of the borough. He next 
liired with William Gabby, one mile west of Washington. Here 
he became acquainted with Mariah Johnston, whom he married 
in 1841. His first experience in housekeeping was on a rented 
farm on the north fork of Tenmile, close to the Greene county 
line, where he commenced keeping sheep on the shares for Jas. 
G. Strain. It was not long until he found himself in possession 
of enough money to make the first payment on the farm on 
which he now resides, to which he removed in 1856. The 
farai was in a deplorable condition when he arrived on it. 
What little cleared land there was had usually been plowed 
about two inches deep. What few fences there were were 
covered up beneath a tangle of sprouts, vines, elders and grape- 
vines. Not a peck of grass seed had ever been sown on this- 
land, which required a very good season to produce fifteer* 
l)ushels of corn, or eight bushels of wheat to the acre. So 
i 'C predictions of poor Anthony's neighbors seemed likely to 
l)e verified, that he would "soon starve out." Kothing discour- 
aged, however, he went bravely to w^ork ; turned over the soil 
eight inches deep instead of two; grubbed out the thickets, 
and planted them in corn and potatoes ; cut oft' the saplings, 
and turned his sheep in to keep down the sprouts : carefully 
husbanded all the manure, and with it top-dressed his crop of 
winter wheat, on which land he sowed a bountiful supply of 
timothy seed. His wool was the finest that had ever been pro- 
•luced at that date in this part of Greene county. Such was 
his care and such was the adaptation of his locality, that af- 
ter keeping the same stock of sheep on the same farm for 
twenty-five years, he has never had a single case of "foot-rot." 
He now owns tAVo hundred and forty acres of land that was 


thought dear at the ten dollars per acre which he gave 
for it. And for this land he can obtain fifty dollars per acre 
any day he wishes to sell it. We often hear persons urged to 
invest money in western land with the understanding that it 
will increase so rapidly in value. I have some knowledge of 
the rapidity of these increases. A brother-in-law of mine 
went to Iowa thirty-four years ago, and purchased four liiii - 
dred acres of land at four dollars and fifty cents per acre. He 
has made just as expensive improvements upon it as Mr. Tripi. 
has on his Greene county farm. My brother-in-law can only 
get thirty dollars per acre for his farm at this time, so tliai 
after a lapse of thirty-four years, his land has only increascil 
twenty-five dollars and fifty cents on the acre, while in twenty - 
five years, Mr Tripp's land has increased forty dollars per 
acre. Verily, there is such a thing as advance on the price of 
Greene county land, the opinions of others to the contrary not- 
withstanding. So that in the plain, unvarnished history of tl i-i 
man, we have several lessons. 1st. Industry and economy will 
secure a man a livelihood any place. 2d. "The hand of the 
diligent maketh rich." 3d. That some men ought to be jjvose 
cuted for slander that they bring on the soil they pretend i«^ 
farm, which, by proper treatment, would now be bearing a 
good instead of a bad name. The last thing that I will writi- 
about Mr. Tripp is that he is a man of peace. He became •; 
professor of religion many years ago in a congregation of 
Cumberland Presbyterians, where he would certainly have 
remained, had it not been that for some cause or other there 
was constantly on hand some quarrel, from which it was 
often with the greatest difiiculty t hat he could keep clear. 
When he removed to his present location, he united with an- 
other congregation of the same denomination, where fiom 
Bome cause the same ecclesiastical dissensions were found to 
exist, M'hen disgusted and disiieartencd he withdrew, and 


nnited with the Presbyterian Church of Unity, where he has 
ever since led a quiet and peaceable life. When an effort was 
made three years ago to build a new church, Mr. Tripp gave 
two hundred dollars towards its erection, notwithstanding the 
great distance that he lives from the church prevents him in 
unpleasant weather from being present, yet it seems to afford 
him satisfaction to know that he has assisted in giving other 
people comfortable church accommodations. In this samo 
township of Morris there lived for many years, even down to 
old age, William Stockdale, a man of considerable prominen( c 
in the community in which he lived forty years ago. He was 
one of the men who signed the letter of invitation to the 
Synod of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, asking them 
to send missionaries to this neighborhood, who made such a 
revolution in some of the affairs of the old churches. Mr 
Stockdale was for many years an elder in the C. P. Church of 
West Union, (situated close to the side of the Waynesburg it 
V\rashington Railroad). His children were very anxious to 
aave an education, in which their father gratified them, an-i 
they seem to have profited vastly by the money expended ou 
them. John M. is the able editor of the Washington Hevieio 
dk Examiner, after having spent a number of years in the 
South. James Stockdale was for many years a prominent 
business man in Baltimore, Md., while Sarah married a Mr. 4- 
B. Wise who recently resided near UUery's Mill. But I a:iv 
admonished that I cannot write a history of every person in 
Greene county, including their ancestors and descendants, 
hence some of the present generation must be content with 
merely the brief mention of the names of their ancestors in. 
certain communities. One of these communities I find right, 
along the dividing line between Greene and Washington-: 
counties, in the vicinity of North Tenmile Baptist Churok^ 
Although the house of worship is in Washington county, a largo 


portion of the worshipers are, and always have been in Greene 
since the counties were divided. I have already said in this 
history that Goshen Baptist Church, on Whiteley, was the first 
organization within the bounds of the present Greene county. 
The date given to that organization is October 7, 1776. Yet 
here we find an organization some four years older than even 
Goshen. I am fortunately saved from making a mistake by 
the fact that the present house, as well as the two buildings 
that have preceded it have all just been across the line iu 
Washington county. I cannot give the exact date of the or- 
ganization of North Tenmile, but Dr. J. C. Milliken says, "its 
history runs back as far as the year 1772." Some of the 
earliest settlers around this spot on both sides of the present 
line were John Rutman, Dennis Smith, "William Gordon, Rus- 
sie Rees, John Sorrison and John James. These men seem to 
h ive taken time by the forelock, and were not content to wait 
until the Penns had purchased this land at Fort Stanwix 
IVom the Indians, but being bold adventurers they purchased 
tlie land directly from the savages themselves, trading them a 
few guns, trinkets and notions. It was not long, however, be- 
fore they had reason to repent their folly in placing those fire- 
arms in the hands of the Indians to be used so soon against 
themselves. The two first named, however, escaped all the hor- 
rors of the wilderness, dodged every Indian bullet and toma- 
hawk, and lived to an unusual old age, the former reaching 
99, while the latter attained to 104 years. These settlers seeui to 
have located here as early as 1770. Soon after this other 
settlers began to arrive who took out their patents in the regu- 
lar way, so that between the years 1770 and 1790, I find the 
following persons had located here, most of whom I pi-esume 
from the location of their descendants, were on the Washing- 
ton county side of the present line, viz. : Nathanial McGiffin, 
David Evans, James Milliken. Abel McFarland. Georcre Cooper 


and John Bates. This last named, I presume, was a Greene 
county man who gave name to Bates' Fork of Tenmile creek, 
where we find anotlier Baptist church as the off-shoot of the 
old parent church of North Tenmile. Also another Baptist 
Church on Ruff's creek as descended from the same old fruitful 
vine. A history of these two daughters I propose to give as 
;goon as I am better informed, and will now redeem my prom- 
ise in part, made at the outset of this history, by giving some 
further details of the history of the old mother north Tenmile 
church. About the time of its organization in 1772 the settlers 
far and near were called together for the purpose of erecting a 
log cabin church. But where were their resources ? Where 
JLhe long subscription papers each containing their thousand? 
of dollars as a basis on which to begin to build a forty thousanr^ 
dollar temple for the worship of Jehovah? Ah! these were 
r[uestions not asked, not even thought of by those hungry pio- 
neers who had fled from persecution from the old Dominion to 
«n joy the benign fruits of liberty under the Quaker banner o f 
vthe Penns. . If there were one doubting Thomas; present that 
bright morning who presumed to ask the question, where arc 
your resources with which to build? I think 1 hear the re- 
sponses, here they are ! Look at these beautiful oaks, see here 
are the axes, here is a log-chain brought over the mountains or 
4a pack-horse, and here is a log-sled I made yesterday on pur- 
pose to haul these logs ; here is the very tree for clapboards f oi 
;the roof ; look at these little chestnut trees for ribs, and these 
straight maples for wait poles. But ho ! come on ! we have 
waited too long already. So saying, the speaker seized an axe 
xmd sunk its glistening edge into a small tree near at hand. 
The action is contagious, and soon the trees are dropping in all 
directions. The log-sleds and oxen are at work; the best axmen 
are called out to carry up the corners. The old men are riving 
•out the clapboards. The sisters and mothers are present with 


the homely dinner, and by sundown the house is up and cov- 
ered. The floor was a superfluity that crept in in after years-^ 
it was not needed now. Those hardy old fathers and mothers 
coiild sit on a round log and listen to the long sermons of those 
days with nothing but the earth beneath them : for although it 
was deeply frozen, they were not troubled with that modern 
luxury, fire, which would have at least partially thawed out the 
ground and subjected them to the inconvenience of mud. I will 
mention the names of the majority of those who have preached 
the Gospel to this people first in this rude cabin and then in 
the two succeeding edifices which improved in their materials 
and superstructure as the country and its inhabitants advanced 
in wealth and refinement. Rev. James Sutton seems to have 
been their first regular pastor. He was elected February 4, 
1774, and sei'ved in this capacity for seven years. He was suc- 
jeeded by Rev. John Corbley who served two years. From the 
dates and Mr. Corbley's own words at the commencement of 
his letter written to Dr. Rogers, I would infer that he alterna- 
ted between this church and Goshen, for he says, "being near 
one of my meeting houses." Mr. Corbley was succeeded by 
Rev. David Sutton who, I infer, was brother of the first pastor, 
for I find Judge Veech speaking in general terms of the Bap- 
tist churches here, says : "Old Virginia had, for a long time, 
made a special business of persecuting Baptists. Hence they 
took refuge on Muddy creek, Whiteclay, [this is his way of 
sj)eHing Whiteley,] and Tenraile and on Pike run and Peters 
creek at an early day where they were ministered to by Elders 
Corbley and the Sutton brothers" — Veech's secular history in 
Presbyterian Centennial, Memorial volumn, page 328. How 
long David Sutton preached, is not known, as this part of the 
record is lost. Rev. Charles "Wheeler became pastor in 1831, 
and served them for five years. He was succeeded by Rev. A. 
B. Bowman in 183G, who remained only three years, as I find 



Rev. Levi Griffith was elected in 1839, who resigned in 1842, 
-when Rev. William Whitehead succeeded him for one yeai 
and a-half. The next pastoi- was Rev. S. Kendal Lenning, who 
remained with them six years and a-half. Rev. F. C. Gunford 
now took charge of this church for one year ; Rev. W. Scott 
for six months, Rev. B. P. Ferguson for two and a-half years, 
Rev. I. Boyd for three years ; after his departure Rev. W. B. 
Skinner supplied them for two years. In 1868 Rev. Samuel 
Kennall was elected pastor, and was followed by Rev. C. W» 
Tilton who completed the labors of the first century of the ex- 
istence of this old church, in the history of which we may 
learn several lessons : 1st, those who are compelled by perse- 
cution to form independent societies, often make the most en- 
during associations ; 2d, we are sorry to learn that, as the gen- 
erations roll on, the people become more fastidious in their 
choice of ministers, and hence although preachers of late years 
were no doubt much more refined and better educated than 
those who first preached to this people, yet there is a constani 
shortening of pastorates until in late years ihev only amounte<i 
to a few months, and this thing is by no means confined to this 
congregation nor denomination ; for it is a notorious fact thai 
in numerous instances where the fathers, with their large stock 
of common sense well supplemented by Scriptural knowledge, 
could listen for forty years to the same man and be edified all 
the time, their grand-children, with a mere smattering of class- 
ical knowledge rattling about in their empty skulls, are done 
with many of the best ministers in two or three years, and in- 
stead of trying to get some knowledge as a kind of ballast for 
their air castles, they are often heard to say, with disdainful 
squeamishness, "oh ! he is too prosey. Too much redundancy 
about him." Bah ! I say, and sensible people say amen. Lej 
this thing go on for a few years more and it will be necessary 
for ministers lo bji:!..! their !i;il)it:it'<ii! (like the ]'liotographer) 



on wagons, so whenever they detect discontent, they can mov© 
on before they are kicked out and the boots come thundering 
after them. Oh! that themillenium wou)d soon come, or that 
our sages could invent some way to teach their descendants 
■common sense, which Mark Twain says is about the most un- 
Kjommon thing he has any knowledge of. The worshipers at 
•this old church were often compelled to leave their rude sanc- 
tuary on account of the incursions of the Indians who were ex- 
ceedingly troublesome during the first few years of their exist- 
ence. On such occasions they were accustomed to have their 
preaching and other services either in Fort McFarland or Fort 
Milliken, and as "eternal vigilance was the price of liberty/' 
they were accustomed to place sentinels at a considei'able dis- 
tance in the woods around their log cabin churches during ser- 
vices for the purpose of giving timely notice of the approach 
t)f the savages for whom they were always prepared by havin^j 
\vith them their trusty rifles, even on the Sabbath day. 

On the 2d of February, 1882, (ground-hog day) I started out 
in search of more material for my history, arriving in the even- 
ing at the house of George M. French at Lindley's Mills, a sta- 
tion on the W* & W. R. R. This man is eighty-three yean 
'old, and has resided at this spot for upwards of fifty years, close 
to the Greene county line just over on the Washington county 
iiAe. On this farm there is a deep well in which the water is 
remarkably cold. About sixty years ago John Fulton resided 
on this farm. He had been plowing corn on a very hot day, 
became thirsty, went to the house for a drink and found tho 
bucket was at the bottom of the well. Being an impulsive man 
he determined to climb down the wall and bring it up. His 
wife protested against his rash resolution, as he was dripping 
with sweat ; but her cautions were unheeded. He descended 
to the bottom, hooked on the bucket, arrived safely at tho 
mouth of the well drcAv up tlic vvnter, took a large draught o. 


it and was almost immediately taken with a chill from which 
he never recovered, and in a few days he was laid in his grave. 
My old friend, assisted by my own recollection, gave me some 
items of interest along the valley of Ruff's creek from forty to 
fifty years ago. Crossing over the dividing ridge the first farm 
on the right was occupied by Phillip Archer at that date. In 
this same old house a few years ago, Rev. John Thomas, a 
Welsh Baptist preacher died. He was widely known through- 
out Greene and Fayette counties as an earnest, faithful la- 
borer in che vineyard of his Divine Master. Descending the 
stream a little farther you come to the farm of old Timothy 
Ross, father of Benjamin and Thomas Ross. Mrs. Hannali 
Ross long outlived her husband. During her occupancy tbo 
locality was known as the "Widow Ross' farm." Benjamin 
Ross located on a fine farm further down the creek. He was a 
- man of considerable prominence both in the church and also 
in the affairs of the county. He became a leading member of 
the Baptist Church, of Bates' Fork in the early part of his life. 
The distance from his residence was so great that he en- 
tered into consultation with his neighbors and friends will) 
regard to the propriety of asking an organization nearer tlie 
places of their abode. Finding their views agreed with his 
own, on the 16th of September, 1843, at a regular congregational 
meeting of the Bates' Fork Baptist Church, he and the fol- 
ilowing persons were regularly dismissed for the purpose of 
organizing a new church on Ruff's creek, viz : James Huff- 
man, Jacob Meek, Absalom Hedge, Shadrack Mitchel, James 
Boyd, George Huffman, Isaac Sibert, Rebecca Huffman, Jane 
Meek, Rebecca lams, Nancy Hedge, Elizabeth Mitchel and 
Phebe Sibert. In due time the church was organized and a 
house of worship built not far from Benjamin Ross' residence, 
in which he continued a faithful worker until the day of hi;» 
-death. But Mr. Ross' neiglibors concluded he conhl serve his 


county without interfering with his duties to his family, farm 
or church, consequently elected him one of the Associate Judges, 
which position he occupied for several years. Between 
the locations on which old Timothy Ross and his son Benjamin 
resided, there were three old settlers, viz : Daniel Cary, Jacob 

Johns and Boyd. Of the history of these old men I have 

but little information, causing regret that descendants are not 
more careful to preserve the family records of their ancestors. 
About twenty-five years ago I had the pleasui-e of uniting Syl- 
vester Cary (a descendant of Daniel) to a Miss Cooper, a 
daughter of old John Cooper, of Washington county. De- 
scending Ruff's creek below the farm of Judge Ross, we come 
to the splendid farm of Benjamin Shirk. On this farm, near 
thirty years ago, the barn was struck with lightning and totally 
consumed. Between this locality and Waynesburg many years 
ago there lived a singular genius whose name was Peter Fitzer. 
It is said of him he would "rather fight than eat." To say the 
man was rough, could never be construed into a slander, and 
yet in that great rough man there beat a heart as tender as a 
child's, which could not resist a tear of sympathy when a case 
of suffering humanity was presented. He was kind of a stere- 
otype constable for Franklin township in those days when it 
was lawful to imprison a man for "suspicion of debt." Then 
money was almost as scarce as "hen's teeth." Many persons 
who were even considered good livers, would be for months 
without a single "fip" (6^ cents) in their pockets. In view of 
a lack of the "needful," it was common for officers to take their 
costs in such articles as beeswax, ginseng, yarn, home-made lin- 
nen, hanks of tobacco, &c. This constable had made an agree- 
ment with the old Squire from whose omce most of his business 
came, that he (the Squire) would take his portion of the costs 
in the same kind of pay the Constable accepted for his ser- 
vices. It so happened that an execution was placed in the hands 


■of Fitzer against a poor man in the upper end of the county, 
duly directing him, in the absence of goods and chatties, to 
l)ring the body of said debtor and place it in the county jaiL 
The Constable arrived in due time at the humble home of this 
poor man, found him working for a neighbor in order to pro- 
cure a little bread and meat to keep the souls and bodies of the 
Avife and children, whom he loved, together a little longer. The 
debtor made no attempt to escape, but declared (what was 
already self-evident to the Constable) that he was utterably un- 
able to pay, and consequently must go to jail. They came to 
the cabm in order that the man might make some prejDaration 
for remaining, perhaps, several weeks inside the gloomy walls 
of the debtor's prison. But what a scene was now j^resented to 
the eye of the tender hearted-officer. There was no bread, no 
meat, no wood, almost no clothing. The wife had hoped when 
•evening came her husband and father of her children would 
return home with some provision for the next day, but now her 
hopes are blasted, but above all the man to whom she had given 
her heart and hand at the hymenial altar, must go to jail. Oh! 
it is more than she can bear. But when the word "good-by'*' 
is said and the father liks his little todling babe to imprint a 
farewell kiss on its cheek, it is too much for the manly officer 
who turns away his head and brushes the falling tear from his 
•eye. Gloomily and silently they start toward the jail. A 
lonely spot is reached in the woods, the Constable breaks the 
silence by saying, "I don't want to take you to jail to leave your 
family to starve. I like to fight ; what do you say, we will 
fight right here, and if you whip me I will pay the debt." To 
this the man replied, "I have nothing against you, you are 
only doing what the law commands you." After considerable 
parley the man however consented to fight, and after a well 
contested battle the Constable sang out "enough," his opponent 
immediately let liiiii np and said, I recon now I can go home 


to which Fitzer replied, "no, I only agreed to pay the debt, 
how about the cost? Now if you will fight me as manfully as 
you did before, I will pay the cost." After a second battle 
the debtor who fought for liberty again came off victorious 
and was immediately released agreeably to agreement. Bui 
this was not the end of it ; the debtor joyfully returned to hi:« 
home. The Constable wended his way back to the Squire's 
office and paid over the amount of the debt. He was about 
to put away his purse when the Squire said, "how about the 
cost," to which the Constable replied, "Didn't you agree to take 
the same kind of trade that I had to take mine in ?" to whicli 
the Squire replied, "yes." "Well then, take that," said he, di- 
livering a blow that sent the Justice sprawling into the far cor- 
ner of the room, who angrily demanded an explanation, when 
the Constable related the above* story, substantially as I have 
written it, which information I received fi-oni no less a per 
sonage than W.T.H. Pauley, himself. Some young persons will 
perhaps say I don't believe it. But the men of sixty, seventy 
or eighty years of age who were familiar with the "times tliat 
tried men's souls,'' will have no hesitancy in believing this nar 
rative which I find is remembered by at least two individuals 
besides my first informant. After this long digression, let u* 
ugain return to Ruff's creek, and pay our respe<tts to sonn^ 
other parties there, though it may only be to mention their 
names, which is about all 1 can at present do. Among these 
men that live close to the highway from twenty-five to fifty 
years ago, was Hugh Montgomery and John Bell. These mc" 
both owned large tracts of land ; that portion of ii lying i!» 
the valley could scarcely be surpassed for fertility, and that 
portion of it wliich extended to the tops of the surroundinc 
hills was covered with magnificent groves of timber and wheit 
cleared out the land affords fine pasturage for the numerou* 
flocks of sheep that hu\c begun to spread tl emselves over th^ 



'thousand hills" of Greene county. Not far from the State 
road near the mouth of this creek, a man whose name was 
Husk, owned and operated a mill where a large business was 
done, the mill being a substantial structure. Near this mill 
fifty years ago there stood an old Baptist Church at which tho 
Rev. Barnabas Whitlatch ministered. I have never been able 
to fully comprehend the exact difference between these people 
and the regular Baptists that are so numerous in many 
parts of this county. I have never known but three ministers 
of this particular denomination. One of these was Rev. Wil- 
liam Brownfield of Uniontown. Another was Rev. Adah Win- 
net, of Washington county, and the other was this man 
Whitlatch. All these people claim to be Calvinists and yoi 
they are not agreed. I have heard the enemies of these peo- 
ple who worshiped in the old church call them Antinomiaus 
because they did not abound in the multitude of good worL>* 
chat some others were engaged in, such as Sabbath School?, 
prayer meetings, and missionary work in general. My ow:i 
private opinion has been that those people were so rigidly Cal- 
vanistic that it might be said of them they were "so straight 
ihat they leaned backward." 

On the morning of the 4th of February, 1882, I arrived 'it 
Sycamore Station on the W. & W. Railroad. Here I called on 
old Jacob Smith, who was born in 1811, within three miles of 
the spot where he now resides. He was married in 1834, lo 
Miss Nancy Hill who was also born in the immediate vicinity. 
They have raised nine children, four of whom are dead. Ouo 
of the sons was a soldier in the war of the rebellion, was 
taken prisoner in one of the battles of the Wilderness, and 
gent to Anderson ville, from which fatal spot ''no tidings ei\' 
came back," leaving those bereaved parents during the last 
seventeen years, to imagine almost everyching. But they have 
finally settled down in tlie conviction that in that "prison-pe»,' 


he died, and that his is one of thatlong line of graves marked 
"unknown," the recital of which probability still brings a tear 
to the eye of botli father and mother, as I witnessed myself. 
Jacob Smith, Jr., who still resides with his father, is the obliging 
clerk of the Baptist Church of Bates' Fork. He produced the 
church book at my request, and also gave me a co|)y of the 
minutes of the Association of Tenmile, for the year 1869. 
From these two sources, I gain the following facts viz : Thi6 
church was organized on the 29th of December, 1842. The 
present site is near Sycamore Station, on the W. & W. Rail- 
road. The ministers that superintended the organization were, 
Isaac Petti t, T. Richards, Levi Griffith and William Woods. 
Fifty -one persons were received by letter, who were memberjs 
of an old organization some two miles further up the creek, 
which society had been gathered by the labors of Rev. Mat- 
thias Luce and others at an early day, but had now been de 
pleted by removals and death, until the house of worship waa 
no longer in a central position, hence the removal and new oi- 
ganization, at which time Thomas Taylor, Lewis Ketchum an«l 
John Pettit, were elected and set apart to the office of deacon. 
The ministers who have served this church are as follows : Isaat* 
Pettit, Simeon Sigfried, John Pool, Wm. Ellis. Elder Rich- 
ards a^so served one year. ^ A licentiate whose name was Cam- 
onson served as a supply from August, 1852, until April, 1853. 
In 1853, Elder Charles Tilton became pastor. He was suc- 
ceeded by Elder S. Parcell. Elder J. Rossel continued wit^ 
this church two j-ears. After the close of his labors. Elder 
William Scott served three years. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Morgan Tilton, who remained seven years, his pastorate ending 
in April, 1869. Rev. Job Rossel was t'.ien chosen as pastor. 
For want of time I did not pursue the record further. Rev. 
Charles Tilton was expected to commence a protracted meetiKjy 
at this now church builJuig, tlic same ila\- that I obtained tld* 


Information from Mr. Smitli, February 4th, 1882. Near the 
site of the old church building, about the commencement <>f 
the present century, Nathaniel Pettit took up his abode in the 
almost unbroken forest. Here he raised ten children — eight 
boys and two girls. One of these sons, "Nat," was tlic uu- 
I'ortunate constable who undertook to arrest Samuel Venatta. 
;md lost his life in the attempt. Of this numerous family. :il'. 
are dead except Jemima, who was living a few weeks ago ;n 
Columbus, Ohio. Leaving the house of Mr. Smith, I \>vo- 
ceeded up Brown's Fork as far as the house of Dennis I.imr, 
where I was kindly entertained, treated to a good dinner, .ui'l 
furnished with a large amount of valuable information as 1 al- 
lows: Richard lams emigrated from the State of Maryland, 
about 1780, and settled on a large tract of land near the prcsttj!: 
village of Nineveh, part of the land being now owned by iho 
widow Wolf. This old man removed to a farm on Daic j 
Fork, near the first building of the Baptist Church, and tiu.'iliy 
died on the farm recently occupied by Elias Cary. IIcio 
•lis son Thomas was born, who fell heir to this particuhir 
part of the old man's possessions. Here in 1806, Dennis lams, 
my informant, was born, being the son of Thomas, and ^i 
grandson of Richard lams. This Dennis has been a quiet, 
even going, industrious man, not one of those who wait tor 
something to turn up, but one of the class who persons who 
turn something up. Consequently, he is now the owner of 
eighteen hundred acres of land, on which his numerous descend- 
ants are now settled, and which they will no doubt inherit. 
Mr. lams has been for thirty years a successful wool grower, 
having gone somewhat extensively into the fine grades of wool, 
and has purchased from the Vermont dealers animals ranging 
all the way from twenty-five dollars up to two hundred. Ho 
has moreover given his time and attention to the church, as 
well as the world. I find by refereneo to th« minutes of the 


Baptist Association, that he was elected deacon in the Bates* 
Fork Baptist -Church, in .1863,; where in conjunction witli Na- 
ihaniel Parshal, John Pettit and Deacon Taylor, the affairs of 
this church have been successfully carried forward. John Pet- 
\Ai was the first clerk and was succeeded by Deacon Taylor in 
;hat office, and he in turn is now succeeded by Deacon Jacob 
Smith. While the leading object in writing this book is tc 
give at least a partial history of Greene county, yet a few moral 
reflections from time to time will not I hope be deemed amiss, 
hence when looking over the old church book, which I regard 
•as a public document, I found a few things to which I invite 
attention. Fiist, a resolution declaring that any member of 
nhis church, who shall be present at three communions and shall 
refuse to commune shall be considered "disorderly" and shall 
'i»e dealt with accordingly. With all my heart 1 say Amen. 
I have so often met with this stereotyped excuse, "Oh ! I can't 
coMimune while you keep that man or that woman in the 
(.•hv'rch!" Ask them to prefer charges against this designated 
:>orson in order that this stumbling block may be removed out, 
of the way, they cooly reply, "oh, no ! I don't want to make 
any fuss," and so neglect not only their duties to the church, 
but also towards that offending brother or sister. My doctrine 
'..m this subject is that no human being can be better than 
Jesus, and since he condescended to commune with Judas Is- 
.ariot, surely the followers of Jesus may afford to commune 
with those who are far from being perfect in heart and life, 
and ail manner of conversation. I think the very best of us 
ought to commune when we are invited to do so, although 
Judas and Simon Magus should both be seated at the same 
table. On the 7th of March, 1S45 a woman was excluded from 
fellowship for communing with a Pedo Baptist Church. Now 
1 believe in open communion, and it might be expected that I 
would at onee condemn tlie action of this church. On the 


contrary, I condemn them not. If I am asked the question, 
was it wrong for that woman to do as she did, I should unhes- 
itatingly answer, yes. Whenever she became satisfied that 
close communion was wrong and open communion was right, 
she should have asked for a letter of dismission and gone and 
united with an open communion church. I have administered 
the communion a gi*eat many times during the last thirty years, 
and have always invited all professing Christians of other de- 
nominations in good standing in their respective churches to 
commune with us, provided your own church has placed no> 
barrier in the way. If they have, I do not ask you to violate 
■\ rule of your own church. 

Among the interesting reminisences given to me by Mr. Den- 
nis lams were some of his earliest recollections about the years- 
1818 and 1820, when his grandfather, Richard lams, would take 
him out with him on a hunting excursion. Although deer had 
become scarce they were occasionally met with, especially when 
they made their camp in the deep woods and would slip along 
in the morning twilight to intercept the timid buck or doe as 
Lhey returned towards the dense forest after their nocturnal 
foraging raids. Then if one of them came within range of the 
grandfather's deadly rifle there was but one decree for him 
and that was he must die. During the day they hunted lesser 
game still abounding in the hills and valleys of Greene county, 
such as wild turkeys, pheasants, squirrels, rabbits, etc. A few 
bear still lurked in the woods along Bates' Fork ; yet during 
the hunting season in the fall of the year these thieving bruins 
could live so well in the corn fields of the settlers where they 
^rew so fat that it took many of the beligerant propensities 
out of them, so much so that they scarcely ever showed fight,, 
and generally either ran away or took to a tree for safety from 
which they were usually dislodged by the unerring rifle of the 
^Id man who. though not fond of bear meat, delighted in stretch. 


ing the hairy hides of those monsters around the walls of hia 
cabin ; yet the grand-son could not remember a single instance 
in which there was a fight worth recording. A few wolfs 
still lurked in the woods, sometimes making night hideous, 
nnd almost curdling the blood of the boy of fourteen summers 
ac! he lay awake by the side of his slumbering grandfather in 
the deep woods far from the abodes of men ; yet there was a 
^n-eat deal "more noise than wool" about these night walkers ; 
their numbers had been so depleted by the hunters that thej 
h:id not courage enough to attack the camp of even an old mac 
:iiid his grandson, consequently they never sustained any dam- 
age by them. 

On the morning of the 14th of February, St. Valentine's 
iluy, 1882, I called upon James Hays, Jr., who kindly furnished 
;ne with the recoi'ds of South Tenmile Baptist Church from 
^\ liich I learn that this church was organized on the 18th day 
^f September, 1836. James Woods was Moderator of the 
moeting at which the organization was affected. The minis- 
'n'ls invited as council were Revs. Bowman, Pettit and Semour. 
The congregation then adopted a creed consisting of fourteen 
-'irticles of belief which I have carefully examined and which 
1 pionounce orthodox, ver hatim et literatim. If this creed was 
4)resented for my adoption or rejection I would ask leave to 
• Jter a few words. I have more fully learned than I ever knew 
before that the Baptists are strictly independent, hence I find 
■ii difference in phraseology in their different church books, and 
yet their doctrines are essentially the same, being at least mod- 
ifiedly Calvinistic, and hence I am satisfied that these people 
liave been grossly misrepresented in time past by their enemies. 
In order that my readers may understand what I mean by this, 
I introduce a circumstance that occurred in Fayette county, 
about the year 1842. I have no minutes of the trial an d only 
write from memory. During the last century a Baptist church 


was organizod at Unioiitown, then known as "Beesontown." 
The land on which the church was built was deeded to thtj 
Trustees and Deacons, (nruning them) of the "regular Baptist, 
thnrch," and their successors in office forever or so long as it. 
should be occupied by the above named denomination. This- 
land had previously been part of a tract of land belonging to 
Rev. Wm. Brownfield. who was at a later day regarded as the 
leader of a minority of the Baptist church who were deemed 
"ultra" Calvinistic. Among the prominent persons in this old 
organization were such families as the Wins, Suttons, Hatficlds» 
llutchcsons, Troutmans, Brownfields and others. The affairs 
of this old church moved on smoothly until that uufoniinate 
decade of years arrived between 1830 and 1840, during which 
time the Presbyterian church had been convulsed from ijcntrc 
to circumferance and had been finally divided into "Old School" 
and "New School," both branches still subscribing to the same 
Confession of Faith. During this decade the Cumberland 
Presbyteriarj missionaries had also arrived, who were incessant- 
ly denouncing Calvinism on one hand and Arinsnianism on the 
other, all the time magnifying the beauties of the "middle^ 
way." Dr. Fairchild and Rev. Milton Bird had each appealed 
to his pen in order to defend his favorite theory. As might 
be expected these theological discussions would to a greater or 
less extent be felt by all the surrounding demominations, among 
the rest of the Baptists. Rev. Brownfield had become super- 
anuated and did not act as regular pastor for any church, but 
almost always preached in this old church whenever a fifth Sab- 
bath occurred in a month, which among Baptists is considered- 
a kind of vacant pulpit day. Meantime Mr. Brownfield was an 
attentive and critical listener to almost all that was uttered' 
from the pulpit during the other forty eight Sabbaths of the 
year, When he came to the conclusion that these younger 
men were certainly preaching at least partial Armenianism^ 

206 h:story of greene cotjnty. 

which was detested alove all things by the righteons soul of 
this old man, so much so that he felt it to be his duty on his 
fifth Sabbath to denounce, in the most unmeasured terms, 
not only the doctrines but also all that held thera, and espe- 
cially those who preached them. As might be expected divis- 
sion at once occurred in the church and also in the community 
at least in sentiment, each defending his own theory to the best 
of his ability. Mr. Brownfield had the sympathies of the out- 
ride community with him to a great extent ; so much so that 
!\e was called on to do the marrying for almost all the loos- 
rooted oatSAders who had no church connections until his home 
became a perfect "Gretna Green." All these things put togeth- 
er encouraged the old gentleman until he bi-ought suit to eject 
ihose from the premises who had departed from the original 
:reed. In due time the trial came oif, Mr Brownfield acting 
in part, as his own attorney, making a speech three hours long 
His assistant lawyer was old "Fox Alden," of Pittsburg, who, 
ill making his closing speech, carefully reviewed the churcl: 
records in which the creed was written, and compared it to the 
;ieed as written in the books of newer organizations. He re- 
viewed the testimony of such witnesses as Rev. Milton Sutton, 
iviev. Isaac Win and others who testified they had not departed 
from "the old paths," but still adhered to the doctrines of th<! 
old regular Baptist Church. Alden strongly maintained Rev, 
Biownfield was the only Calvinist among therii, consequently 
those differing from him must be ejected. He said, "Gentlemen 
of the jury, an effort has been made to prove Calvinism and Armi- 
nianism are synonomous terms and mean the same. As well 
assert black and white are alike. In my opinion the difference i?t 
3S great between good old school Calvinism and the rank, 
green-eyed Armenianism as there is between the highest 
ridge pole of Heaven and the lowest mudsills of hell." 
i do not I'emeinber the precise words of the verdict, but 


but the actual workings were that they all henceforth worshiped 
in the same new brick church building on the site of the old 
one, the young man chosen by the majority preaching all the 
lime except the fifth Sabbath, on which the old pastor usually 
dispensed the Gospel of peace and good will to all men. The 
M'ar was at an end. The old gentleman preached as long as he 
was able, and still continued to make the young people happy 
by uniting them in marriage, until finally he sank dow^n in a 
good old age to sleep in an honored grave, respected and be- 
loved by at least a large majority of those who knew him. 1 
introduce this long incident to throw all the light I can on tht 
question, what is the real point of difference between the old 
regular Baptists and the present regular Baptists, and am dis- 
posed to say, as far as doctrine is concerned, it is a "distinction 
without a difference ; " the difference is in practice. 

After this long digression, please permit me to return to tho 
history of South Tenmile Church. The organization was effect- 
ed at John Goodwin's house. Jno. C. Hughes was the first 
;lerk. The constituting prayer was made by Rev. Abi*aham 
Bowman. Rev. Isaac Pettit, by invitation, held the first com- 
munion for this church on the last Lord's day in October, 1830, 
At a meeting October 22, 1836, Thomas Hendershot and John 
C. Hughes were ordained as the fii-st Deacons. November 2C, 
1836, William Throckmorton was elected moderator. A reso- 
lution was passed at this meeting, fixing the time for the regu- 
lar congregational meetings on the Saturday previous to tho 
fourth Sabbath of each month. December 24, 1836, Thomas 
Hendershot was elected Moderator. On March 18, 1837, 
Father James Seymour was elected as first pastor of this 
church. At a meeting April 15, 1837, a resolution was passed, 
asking admittance into the Monongahela Association. Daniel 
Throckmorton, Ellis Hughes and Jno. Goodwin were elected as 
61*81 messengers to the Association. At a re'^nilar mcotinf on 


Deeembcr 1 6, 1837. This church granted a license to Jas. Wooda 
to preach, and also declared "that they could have no fellow- 
ship with slavery in any of its bearings." On the resignation 
of Father Seymour, Rev. Bowman was called as pastor Febru- 
ary 23, 1839. March 14, 1840, Rev. James Woods was called 
as their pastor. About May 1st, 1840, the congregation seems 
to have first occupied their new church, as on May 16 they 
passed a resolution that their "monthly meetings be moved to 
the meeting house." An election was held February 13, 1841, 
at which John Goodwin and John Ridgeway were elected Dea- 
cons. September 7, 1 842, the Association met with this church 
for the first time. December 3 Bro. Sowers was elected sing- 
ing clerk. Rev. Isaac Pettit being pastor at this time. July 6, 
1844, J. C. Hughes was elected first Sabbath School Superin- 
tendent. October 5, 1844, a resolution was passed declaring it 
the duty of all church members to abstain from dealing in or 
using intoxicating liquors as a beverage. April 4, 1846, Rev. 
John Thomas took charge of this church as pastor. Thonia? 
Hendershot was appointed church clerk Feb. 6, 1847. Re\ . 
James Orr served as supply for a brief time. Rev. Willianj 
Whitehead was elected pastor January 1st, 1848. Rev. Chas. 
Tilton was elected pastor Feb. 3, 1849. Samuel Harvey was 
ordained Deacon March 15, 1850. May 15, 1852, Robert Brad- 
ing was elected Clerk. William Clutter was received as Dea- 
con, which position he formerly filled in Beulah church, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1854. Edmond Smith was elected church Clerk on 
April 15, 1854. June 16, 1860, a request was made by the 
church at Enon that the South Tenmile Church take the usual 
preparatory steps for the ordination of Morgan Tilton. TJiis 
church granted the request, and set August 16 as the time, 
when the services were as follows : Reading the Scriptures 
by Rev. William Scott; sermon by Rev. H. K. Craig; ordina- 
tion prayer by Rev. I. Sharp ; charge by Rev. J. Rossel ; hand 


of fellowship, Rev. C. Tilton ; address to the church, Rev. S. 
Kendall ; benediction by Rev. Moi-gan Tilton. Rev. A. J. Col- 
lins entered on his duties as pastor of this church in May, 1861. 
Rev. Zook was called as stated supply July 15, 1865. Rev. 
Samuel Kendall was elected pastor May 18, 1867. October 
17, 1868, this church licensed Bro. A. Sharpneck to preach, 
and on January 16 it also licensed James C. Ileaton. Feb- 
ruary 20, 1869, Rev. Morgan Tilton was selected for stated sup- 
ply for one year. April 15, 1871, Rev. Foulks was elected as 
supply, Morgan Tilton's time having been extended up to this 
date. September 23, 1871, the following persons were elected 
Deacons: M. Burrows, Seth Goodwin and A. J. Scott. Febru- 
ary 17, 1872, Thomas Smith was elected Clerk of the church. 
July 20, 1872, Rev. Job Rossel was invited to preach as supply 
until April next. March 22, 1 873, a call was presented for 
Rev. J. R. Foulks. Rev. J. B. Solomon was unanimously 
chosen pastor March 14, 1874, but in consequence of his nu- 
merous duties as President of Monongahela College at Jeffer- 
son, he was constrained to decline the call. November IS. 
1877, Rev. Sigfried was invited as a stated supply for foui 
months. May 18, 1878, Rev. Burwell was elected pastor, and 
here the old records of this church came to an end as far as 
calling pastors is concerned. Rev. James Miller is the present 
pastor, a zealous, earnest, peaceable man. 

Among the prominent members of this South Tenmile Church 
none were more so than Samuel Harvey, who is a son of Thorn- 
as^IIarvey, who settled on the farm where his grandson, Charle? 
Harvey, now resides, at an early day, Samuel Harvey having re- 
moved to Waynesburg a few months ago. Two brothers, Rob- 
ert and George, made up the balance of his father's family. His 
ancles were William, Joseph and Sanuiel, and his aunti 
were Maria and Prudence. Plis grandfather emigrated from 
Philadelphia among the earliest settlcM-s of tliis region- 



William Ilarvcy (uncle to the present Samuel) settled on tbe 
tract of land now owned and occupied by William H. Cook, who 
IS his nephew. The descendants of William Harvey were quite 
bumerous, consisting of Norwood, Robert, Joseph, William, 
Jane, Elizabeth, Sarah, also Mary, married to James Tlirock- 
morton, Margaret, married to John G. Dinsmore, and Amanda, 
married to David Gray, now of Burnt Ilanch, California. Thii- 
■old gentleman, William Harvey, was a man of considerable 
iprominence in the community in which he lived, being the first 
Post Master in this section of country, giving his name to tht 
office, "Harvey's." He was educated for a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, but from some cause was never inducted into that position, 
yet he was a diligent instructor of youth in the church, said to 
be the best Bible class teacher the whole neighborhood could 
produce ; but he was destined to come to an untimely end, by 
itwo wounds inflicted by an ax in the hands of an insane boy 
whom he had raised. Mr. Harvey had been frequently cau- 
tioned by his neighbors with reference to the danger he Ava> in 
from this boy, but the old man turned a deaf ear to all the warn- 
uigs, took the crazy boy with him to the barn to assist in grind- 
ing an ax, where his body was found by other members of the 
family, the lunatic having immediately fled to a dry well on the 
far in, where he concealed himself so successfully that no traci- 
of liim could be found until the day of the funeral, when just :;s 
the broken-hearted relatives were about taking leave of tht 
corpse the frenzied lunatic broke through the crowd, up to tlie 
side of the coffin where he stood with a vacant stare until arrett- 
ed and taken to the asylum. In this same locality has existed 
for many long years a very nimierons family by the name oi 
Throckmorton, which is descended from Daniel Throckmorton, 
who builded his cabin on the waters of South Tenmile, 
in a howling wilderness, and died near tlie same place at nfir 
one hundriHl years •<{ a-e, Icavin- DimIl-I. Jr.. Isaac. \ViIIi:i(!., 


Phoebe, Polly and Jane as heirs to his large estate. A distant rel- 
ative of this old man, Joseph Throckmorton, was the father of the 
following children : James, Joseph, Daniel and Job were his sons; 
while his daughter Sarah was married to Samuel Harvey ; Maiy 
Ann was married to Isaac Throckmorton ; Elizabeth was mar- 
ried to John Kegley ; Catharine was married to Joiin Reese. 
Morford Throckmorton's children were as follows, viz. : Samu- 
uel, Morford, John, Dr. William and J. Reed. His daughter 
Margaret was married to Caleb Grimes ; Alice was married to 
Jesse Lazear. The children of James Throckmorton were Job, 
James and Westley, sons. His daughter Mary married James 
Braddock; Nancy Married Washington Ferrel ; Jane married 
William Elder; Unice married Jesse Braddock ; Catharine mar- 
ried John Cole and Elizabeth married Samuel McCul lough. 
The children of Isaac Throckmorton (son of old Daniel) were 
Spencer and Isaac, while^ his daughters married the following- 
men: Catharine to Jonas Jacobs; Rachel to John McCul- 
lough; Sarah Jane to Josiah Cathers ; Elizabeth to John Woods: 
Ursula to Jones Doran, while Eva and Spencer died single, in 
Illinois, with milk sickness. Daniel Throckmorton, Jr., was tliL- 
father of Axtel, Oliver and Judson. Another extensive familv 
in the same neighborhood was the Hendershots, of which Peter 
Hendershot seems to have been the ancestor. His sons werf 
Thomas, Jacob, Isaac, David and Abi-am. His daughter Mary 
was married to Sylvanes Sutton ; Harriet was married to Darius 
Sutton. Of these sons of old Peter, Jacob and David still live. 
The sons of Thomas Hendershot were Peter F., Isaac B., Di. 
John T. His daughter Mary became the wife of John Hiskey ; 
Parnel became the wife of Mulford Burrows, while the daugh- 
ter Sarah has long since been dead. 

The Tenmile Baptist Association held its first meeting at Ml. 
Hermon Church, Washington Co., Pa., October 1, 1859. The 
following Churches are or have been in connection with that asso- 


cintion: 1st Goshen; 2cl, North Tenmile ; 3d, South Tenmile ; 
•l?,h, Bates Fork; 5th, Bethlehem; 6th, Fish Creek; 7th, Beu- 
lah; 8th, South Wheeling; 9th, Enon. ^ 

GosiiKx Church. — In giving tliis brief account, we regret to 
p.n,y that we cannot avoid some omissions in the statistics, as 
some part of the records have either been lost or the proceedings 
not registered in the Church Books. 

The Goshen Baptist meeting house was built in Greene town- 
^iilp, Greene county, Pennsylvania, in the year A. D., 1771, 
and the church was constituted by Revs. Isaac Sutton and Dan- 
iel Fristo, November 7, 1773. The constituent membership was 
;'.0. The first deacon chosen was Jacob Vanmeter, on the llth 
of December, 1773. At this time Rev. James Sutton was called 
to the pastoral office of the church, and continued his labors with 
the church until 1775. About this time Rev. John Corbly was 
received by letter from the Mill Cre^k Baptist Church, and was 
urdanied to the Gospel ministry June 10, same year, and called 
to the pastoral care of the church, and continued his labor with 
them until the year 1803, making 28 years. Rev. Thomas Har- 
vey succeeded Bro. Corbly, and continued this relationship un- 
til 1808 ; dui-ing part of this time he was assisted by Rev. Amos 
Mix ; then Bro. Stone was called, who continued for about nine 
years. Bro. James Seamor was then called as a supply, and 
continued until 1821. Bro. Jacob Myers was then invited 
to preach in connection with Bro. Seamor, as often as he could . 
On April 21, 1824, Bro. Seamor was recalled and continued to 
serve as its pastor for nine years ; then Bro. F. Downey was in- 
vited to preach for the church once a month, and continued for 
ten months. On December 25, 1830, he and Bro. Seamor were 
called for one year. On March 24, 1832, Bro. James Seamor 
was recalled, who continued to serve the chui'ch until March 2, 

* These brief histories of these churches are lalien from the minutes of the various 
associations, without re-writing. Some contradiction in dates and in the different way? 
of spuihng the same names will be found. That I cannot account for.— Author. 


lS3-t, when they called Brother Seamor and Rev. Benoni Allen, 
who labored for them in conjunction for one year. At this pe- 
riod the church called Bros. Milton, Sutton and William Wood, 
who served them in conjunction for one year. They then re- 
called Bro, H. Sutton for one year. On February 25, 1837, the 
church called Rev. J. W. B. Tisdale, who continued with them 
I'oi- three years. On July 25, 1840, Rev. Jno. Curry was called 
4uid continued for one year. Feb. 5, 1842, Rev. Levi Griffith 
was called to the pastoral charge of the church, who continued 
h s services for four years. The pastorate of this brother was 
greatly blessed of the Lord, to the good of this people, in the 
icstoration of i)cace and harmony, and in the ingathering of 
many precious souls. Bro. William Wood succeeded Bro. Grif- 
fith in the pastoral charge of this church, and continued three 
\ears. The church then called Bros. William Whitehead and 
John Thomas, who labored in conjunction for one year. Bro. 
William Wood was then recalled and served the church for 
•Jirec yo;us. At the expiration of this term the church extend- 
t'll a (;all to Rev. S. Kendall, who contimaed for eighteen months. 
The Rev. G. W. Ilartzog was called as a supply for one year. 
.\fter this Rev. Joel Greene served the church as its pastor one 
year. Bro. S. L. Parcel was called to the pastoral charge of this 
i;hurch, and continued his labors with them for two years. J. 
n. Sharp followed Bro. Parcel and continued for two years. 
JJrother S. Kendall was recalled to serve as pastor of this church, 
and continued for the period of twenty-one months. Bro. C. 
Tilton, the present pastor, commenced his labors with them 
April 1st, 1864, under whose labors the church has been blessed 
of the Lord. The whole number of pastors and supplies from 
the constitution of the church until the present time is 23. In 
connection with the regular ministrations of the pastors and 
supplies, this church has enjoyed the valuable labors of many 
ministering brothers in protriictod efforts and visitations. Num- 


ber of deacons since the constitution of the church, 17, four of 
whom are still living, and are in active service. Whole num- 
ber of membership from beginning, 845 ; whole number dismiss 
ed, 343; whole number died, 177; whole number excluded,. 
131 ; left without letters, 6 ; present number ,188. 

Bethleham Church. — The Bethleham Baptist Church was- 
constituted September 22, 1843. The recognition council con- 
sisted of Revs. L. Griffith, Wm. Wood and James Woods. 
Number of constituent members, 26. The first deacon, Bx'other 
James Huffman, has been dismissed to the North Tenmile 
Church. Since the organization the following brethren have 
been elected deacons: John R. Hughes, Abijahlleaton, Jesse 
Craig, John Regester, Benjamin Shirk, Jacob Weaver, Solo- 
mon B. Wise and John Ross; the last four are surviving fife 
present. The first clerk was Brother James Boyd, succeede'l 
by Brother John Regester, and he succceed by Brother Solo- 
mon B. Wise, the present clerk. Brother Amos Pratt was ca'.i- 
ed to the pastoral care of the church in October, 1843. He was- 
succeeded by Rev- Simeon Sigfried, Sr., who served for onu 
year, he being succeeded by Rev. Charles Tiltou, who continued 
to serve the church until April, 18o0. During Brother TilLon'd 
pastorate. Brother J. A. Pool acted in conjunction with Brothei 
Tilton as a supply for a short time. Rev. Wm. Whitelieud wa.s 
called to the pastoral care of the church in April, 1850, and served. 
until April, 1851, when Rev. Wm. Ellis was called, who served. 
until April, 1852, when Rev. C. Tilton was recalled to the pas- 
toral care of the church, and continued until April, 18(38, mak- 
ing the whole pastorate of Brother Tilton twenty yeais. The 
inext pastor, H. K. Craig, commenced serving the church in; 
April, 1868. The whole number of persons having their mem- 
bership in the church is 349, of which 57 have been dismissed 
by letter ; excluded, 88; deceased, 40; leaving at present SOS- 


The pastors were assisted during these years by Revs. Wm. 
Wood, Sr., Samuel Kendall, A. J. Collins, Solomon Parshel, C. 
Tilton and William F. Burwell in protracted meetings. While 
the church has had her seasons of adversity, she has also had 
many seasons of rejoicing. Our trust is in God, looking forward 
lo the time when "they shall teach no moi'e every man his neigh- 
bor, and every man his brother, saying, know the Lord ; foi 
they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the great- 
est of them, saitli the Lord ; for I will forgive their iniquity, 
and I will remember their sins no more." 

South Wheeling Chukcii. — The South Wheeling Church 
v/as constituted September 19, A. D. 1840. The ministci'.s 
present were James Woods, Isaac Pettit and Levi Griflith. 
Tlio visitors were Phillip Axtel, Daniel Throckmoiton, Mr. and others. This interest seems to have begun especially 
through the divine blessing upon the ministerial labors of Rev. 
Woods, who was chosen the first pastor. The first Deacon.s 
fjhosen, four in number, were Francis Baldwin, Ezekiel Bradc;!. 
Menry Bane and Mordecai Bane, one of whom, Ezekiel Braden. 
still lives and is recognized in an official character ; but he i?? 
quite infirm, and destined soon to follow those who ha^■e gone . 
before. Wm. Gray was chosen first Clerk. The Articles <'i 
Faith adojited were eleven in number, upon which the Churcli 
i-.nited with the Monongahela Association, continuing with it 
until the formation of the Tenmile Association, with which it 
has since been connected. About 420 mcinbcrb', for a longer 
or shorter period, have had their religious home in this churcl', 
Jibout 100 being the present membership at the writing liereof. 
During these thirty-seven years of its history ten ministering 
brethren have served as pastoi-s, varying as to time from three 
months to thirteen years, generally <'>ne or two years being t)i« 
length of pastoral engagements, l>ro. Job Rossell serving the 
onger yteriod. Changes, by reason of death nnd other causes. 


have been made in the offices of deacon and clerk. Ezekiel 
Bradeii, Daniel Lewis, Isaac Booher, H. R. Sherrick and F. W. 
H. Baldwin are the present deacons, and W. R. Barnett the 
present clerk. In the early part of its history, church sittings 
and privileges were comjiavatively few in this community. A 
great change has been wrought in this respect through the la- 
bors of other denominations. We find the names of twenty- 
eight ministers upon the church book, who have kindly visited, 
aided in seasons of protracted worship, or served as pastors. 
At times its prospect for usefulness has been small ; but it 
has realized many seasons of refreshing from the presence ol 
the Lord, who has been better to it than it deserved. Some 
three years since we erected a new house of worship, located 
at Ryerson's Station, being about a mile from the former place 
of meeting, and the second house erected ; and though not en- 
tirely paid for, yet arrangements are such that a full discharge 
of the debt is expected soon. The church has co-operated in 
general objects of benevolence, but perhaps not to the full ex- 
tent of a faithful steward of the manifold grace of God, whoso 
goodness endureth continually. Rev. J. Y. Burwell is serving 
in the pastoral relation at present. May the Lord of the Har- 
vest render fruitful the soil, water from clouds of mercy, and 
give increase as shall be for His glory and gladden the, hearts 
of His people. 

Enon Church. — The Enon Baptist Church was constituted 
September 22, 1848. The recognition council consisted of Rev. 
Wm. Whitehead and Rev. Chas. Parker. Number of constit- 
uent members, 13. The first deacons were Brothers Morris 
Jones and John Feaster. Brother Feaster Avas dismissed bv 
letter to some other sister church. Since the organization the 
following brethren have been elected : James Allum, in the 
year 1853 ; Joshua Ackley, 1856 ; Wm. Clutter, 1868 (by lettei 
from South Tenmile ChurohV These four are still deacons. 



Brother Geo. D. Jones is the present clerk. Rev. Wm. White- 
head was called to the pastoral care of the church at its consti- 
tution in 1848. He was succeeded hy Rev. John West, in 1850. 
Rev, Wm. Whitehead was recalled in 1851 and 1852. Rev. 
John Edmonson supplied in 1853; succeeded by Rev. Lewis 
Samraons, in 1854 ; succeeded by Rev. George W. Hartzog, 
cndmg in the year 1857 ; Rev. John Henderson for 1858 ; then 
Rev. Lewis Sammons was called as a supply for the year 1859 ; 
(lieu Rev. Morgan Tilton was called April 1st, 18G0, ending 
Ills labors in 1863; Rev. l-icwis Saoimons was recalled for the 
year 1864, ending in 1865; Rev. David G. Zook was called 
September 1st, 1865, ending his labors in 1867; Rev. Mor- 
:r.iii Tilton was recalled in 1868, who served as pastor. 
U'c omit giving the number of excluded and deceased, for 
•A-anL of correct dates. We find many omissions. The pres- 
ejii, membership is about 96. In connection with the regular 
ministrations of pastors and supplies, this church has enjoycJ 
:.'•.(.' valuable labors of many ministering brethren in protract«;d 
meetings and visitations. Our trust is in the blessed Savior. 
M:iy his Holy Spirit dwell in our hearts. 

IJkulaii Church. — About the year 1823, Lewis Ketcham 
moved where the meeting house now stands, and had preachini; 
r'.t his house as often as he could obtain it, which for many years 
l?i'foie the constitution of the church was every fifth Sabbaili» 
iiv the pastors of Tenmile (now Mt. Hermon) Church, and some- 
times by visiting ministers. Several times three days' meetings 
were held at other points near. Elder Isaac Pettit was the prin- 
cipal laborer at this station, but was assisted by Brethren Mai- 
ihias Luce, Charles Wheeler, Wm. Wood, Levi Griffith, anJ 
others. In January, 1843, Brother Trevor Richards, of Virgin, 
ia, commenced preaching once a month atPowere' School Houjjo, 
not far from the present location, and continued his meetin;:'s 
about once a week cacli v'w'f 'ill Auiil. whon ii. was rftsolvod 


by Tcnmile, Bates' Fork and South Tenmile churches, to con- 
stitute a church on the first of May next, which was according- 
ly done by Brothers I. Pettit, E. T. Brown, and T. Richards, 
acting as officers for the occasion. A building committee was ap- 
pointed, who superintended the construction of the meeting house 
the same year. The pastors who preached for Beulah Church, 
and the time they served are as follows : Elder Trevor Rich- 
ards, three years, once a month, from the 1st of April, 1843 to 
the 1st of April 1846; Elder John Thomas, two years, once 2 
month, from 1846 to 1848 ; Elder Wm. Whitehead, one year, 
twice a month, from 1848 to 1849; Elder Charles Tilton, four 
years, twice a month, from 1849 to 1853 ; Elder Caleb Rossel, 
six months, and S. L. Parcell, licentiate, supply, six months, 
from 1S53 to 1854 ; Elder Job Rossel, four years, twice a month, 
Irom 1854 to 1858 ; Elder H.K. Craig, ten years, twice a month, 
for six years, and every Sabbath for four years, 1858 to 18G8. 
No pastor from April 1st, 1868, to July 1st, 1869, in which time 
the church repaired their house, at a cost of six hundred dol- 
lars ; Elder W. F. Bur well, from July, 1869, to April 1st, 1871 : 
Elder Patton, supply, four months, and Elder C. Haven, supply, 
one month, during the year to April, 1872 ; since then no pas- 
tor. S. L. Parcell, one of the members, was licensed to preach 
in the year 1853, and ordained to the Gospel ministry in Janu- 
ary, 1854, and was an acceptable pastor of two or three churches. 
FisHCREEK Chdrcii. — The Fishcroek Regular Baptist Churcli 
was located in Springhill township, Greene county. Pa. It wa?- 
constituted on the 31st day of Jul}', 1844. The council con- 
sisted of Elder Simeon Sigfried, Jajnes Woods, Benoni Leon- 
ard and A. J. Bowman. The exact number of constituent mem- 
bers is not known ; but when received into tlie Monongahela 
Association in the following Sei)tember, 1844, 22 were reported. 
The pastors' and the time they served the church are as fol- 
lows: Elder James Woods to Ami-II 1st, 1845; Elder Charles 


Tilton to April, 1847, two years, once a month ; Elder Benoni 
Leonard to April, 1848, once a month ; to April, 1852, the church 
was without a pastor for three years ; Elder Thomas Rose, to 
April, 1854, two years, once a month ; Elder Solomon Parcel, 
to April, 1845, one year, once a month ; Elder Lewis Sammons, 
10 April, 1859, four years, once a month ; to April, 1860, Elder 
John West, one year, once a month ; to April, 1863, Elder Lew- 
is Sammons, three years, once a month ; to April, 1864, Elder? 
Job Rossell and Lewis Sammons, each one year, once a month : 
to April, 1870, Elder Sammons, six years, two Sabbaths in the 
month; to April, 1871, the church was without a pastor one 
year; to April, 1872, Elder F. Morrow Sturm, two Sabbaths lu 
the month. It was during this year that the name of the church 
was changed to New Freeport. Soon after this feat was ac- 
complished. Brother Sturm went over to the Southern Method- 
ists, and had his name changed. To April, 1873, Elder Rossejl. 
once a month, one year; to April, 1874, Elder Milton Owen, n 
supply, once a month, one year. For eleven years the Church was 
(i'stitute of a house of worship, and met in the school house. 
iJut through the aid and lead of Brothers C. Tilton and S. 
I'orcel they succeeded in 1855 in building a neat frame chi:rc;i. 
:vj.\36 feet in size, in which they now meet for divine worship. 
During the thirty years of the church's existence about threo 
' imndred persons have been baptized into its fellowship, and of 
ihat number about two hundred were baptised by Elder Sum- 
mons. Springhill Valley and Belton were olf-shoots from the 
j'arent stem. Belton from emigration and other causes has bf- 
<'jmeextinct._ Springhill valley still lives. The deacons, as far 
.is the writer can learn, are all still living (witli the exc-jption of 
Brother Carl Moore, who has gone to the rest that remains 
for the people of God), viz. : Silas Ayers, Jacob J. Monro, 
Joseph Whitlatch, Isaac Bebout and Jacob Ayres. Broth- 
er Silas Avres is near 85 veais of age, is confined t(.' liis 


home, and will soon have to lay his armor by and dwell with 
Christ at home. It is to be hoped the other deacons will bo 
spared for many years to work in the Master's vineyard. 

New Freeport is one of the most important centers in tho 
Tciiiaile Association. Aleppo township has no Baptist churcri ; 
Gilmore has none; Jackson has one near its noithern bordt;:'. 
Thus New Freeporthas a surrounding population of more thr.i! 
four thousand souls. The question might be asked, why is tl,< 
church so small — only seventy-five members ? In reply 1 woi.l.i 
^ay, many have moved away ; some have gone home to »<— \ 
from their toils ; some have gone to other denominations, (for ix- 
p.iins have been spared to proselyte from our ranks;) and, sad i.i 
:oll, many have gone back to the world — zealous in the servi •<■ 
of Satan. Our trust is in Zion's King, that in years to com-' 
iherc will be a strong and prosperous church at New Freepoi t . 

Nineveh. — The Prophet Jonah, after his submarine \oy:\-j- 
had been completed, wrote a partial history of the Ninevirs.", 
iJut that history is so old that perhaps many of the readers -i 
this history of Greene county have overlooked it of late year-. 
i come to this conclusion from the fact that I greatly surprisc-i 
• jme of them a few Sabbaths ago by asserting that the book • '■ 
ilonah does not say that he was swallowed by a whale. I woul ! 
advise all my readei's to go and read this old book of Jonab 
over again, and there they will find that the language used is 
"Now the Lord had prepared a great fish to swallow up Jo- 
nah. " After they have informed themselves on this subject, I 
respectfully invite their attention to the history of a small vil- 
l.ige of the same name, in Morris township, Greene county. P:i., 
a place which I visited a few days ago, and obtained fron*. 
Amos Day, M. C. Lightner, Warren Mankey and his Avife, the 
iollowing information : This town is situated on a bran^^h o[ 
Brown's Fork of Tenmile creek, at a point where three origi- 
nal tracts of land met ; these tracts were known as the " Car- 


ter, Barker and lams tracts. " In the year 1845 William Day 
purchased three acres of land about the center of the present 
town. On this lot he erected a small house, in which his son. 
Francis (Frank), commenced selling goods, which were furn- 
ished by Alexander Sweeney, of Washington, Pa. This three- 
acre lot was divided out into small lots, on which quite a num- 
ber of good houses were erected ; and also a Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church, which was built about 1850. This same build- 
ing is still in existence, but after the lapse of thirty years it had 
become somewhat dilapidated and also antiquated, when the 
congregation resolved to extensively repair it, which was ac- 
complished during the summer of 1881, at a cost of fifteen hun- 
dred dollars. A Methodist Episcopal Church of the most mod- 
ern style of architecture, presenting a neat, chaste, tasty appear- 
ance, has been erected within the last three years. The lead- 
ing spirits in the enterprise were Dr. Wm. Throckmorton an.l 
John D. Patterson, assisted by the community at large. Rev. 
W. D. Slease is pastor in charge ; Rev. J. R. White is his as 
slstant, who is located in the village. The present stated su]i- 
ply of the Cumberland Church is Rev. Johnson. Dr. AVilliam 
Throckmorton is the practicing physician of the place. There- 
are two stores, one of them owned by J. W. Day, the other by 
J. S. Lewis & Bro. There are several 2:)ersons in this place di 
rectly aad indirectly engaged in the manufacture of light bu'i,'' 
gies and carriage*. I claim to know something about themai'- 
iifacture of these articles, having learned this business when I 
wa,s a boy, and from the samples of wood, iron, steel, painl. 
varnish, duck and workmanship which I saw, I am satisfied 
that no man nor set of men can put up hand-made buggies of 
this style for sixty dollars, and yet this is all they ask for an 
*'open top " buggy. Among the persons engaged in this busi- 
ness, I found Samuel Burroughs, R. B. McGlumpliy, and others. 
I. F. Millikcn is onsracrcd in tlie cabinet and uiulertaking busi- 


ness, thus giving assurance to the people of this vicinity that 
they shall not go unburied when they die, but on the contrary 
shall be decently laid in the tomb. This village also rejoices in 
the possession of a substantial brick school building, in which 
Pi"of. F. M. Nickeson teaches the small pupils in the forenoon 
and the larger scholars in the afternoon, and for the sake oi 
variety he occasionally "teaches the young idea how to shoot,' 
and when this thing becomes monotonous, he varies the exer- 
cises and teaches the youngsters how to shout. 1 took din- 
ViCr at the hotel of Warren Mankey, where as good a meal cur-. 
he obtained on short notice as anywhere else that I know of -ii 
the country, and then he is content with a reasonable corai-eii- 
>ation, and does not resemble some other landlords, who seeui 
anxious to have your bottom dollar now for fear you will nevci 
.-.orae again. Mrs. Elizabeth Mankey was a daughter of San:- 
uel Moninger, deceased. He was a brother to George, lieniy 
John, Ezekiel (Ake) and Jacob. These were sons of Jacil' 
3Ioninger, whose parents emigrated from Ireland about a Ijuh- 
dred years ago. These old people, like many in the day 
in which they lived, had their peculiarities, among 'Ahicli 
was this, that they did not put off all thoughts of death r.ntil it. 
f-urprised them, but. on the contrary, knowing that it is appoint- 
ed unto all once to die, the old woman, long years before tlie 
death of either of them, scutched, hackeled, spun and wovi'. 
then bleached, cut out and made a shroud a each for horsi'.f 
and her "dear old man, " and when their deatlis occurred their 
descendents and survivors wrapped them in their fuioiinengai- 
tnents and laid them in the grave. Mrs Mankey's mother -.^ c^s 
a daughter of James Fonner, of Fonner's Run, whore he raiscJ 
a large family, consisting of four sons and live druighters. Tl © 
names of the former were William, Jamc^s, Ji-., l^jcnlcrick ai J 
Philip; the names of the daughters were Tiscinda, Cliristeu-i 
Eva, Elizabeth and Jane. The luinies of the old settlers whu 


sun'ounded this town of Nineveh when its first house was erect- 
ed were partly as follows : Jesse Carter, who was of a family 
part of which now resides in Buffalo township, "Washington 
county, Pa.; Jacob Mankey, who had five brothers, viz. : Eli, 
John, Isaac, George and Michael. Peter Mankey (their father), 
emigrated from Eastern Pennsylvania early in the present cen- 
tury, and was of German descent. Another old settler, imme- 
diately below this town, was Edward Barker, who was con- 
nected with a large family, of whom I could gain no informa- 
tion as to the survivors, except Lewis, who married a daughter 
of old General Dickerson, and now resides in Washington, Pa. 
C'-eorge Lightner resided in this immediate vicinity forty years 
ago. He was a son of Henry Lightner, who came here from 
iN'ew Jersey some eighty years ago. Another old settler in this 
vicinity was Christopher Wolf. His son, George, settled on 
the old lams farm upwards of thirty years ago. His wife vvas 
r. daughter of John (Johnny) Day of Washington county ; she 
siAll lives a short distance above Nineveh. The original stock 
came from New Jersey. Amos Day, my informant, is of the 
/jAtensive stock of Days "whom no man can number," who are 
sc> thickly strewn along the line of the two counties partly in 
Greene and partly in Washington. The brothers of Amos 
.«till surviving are Frank and Hiram. Their fathers name was 
William, who resided within a few feet of the county line. 
John Shape, Micheal Shape, Abraham Clutter and John Kiiey. 
are said to have made up the remainder of the cordon of oUl 
settlers by whom this locality was surrounded forty years ago. 
Just outside of this circle, I find Cephas Day, who is a living 
illustration of the truth of the Scriptural declaration that •'the 
hand of the diligent maketh rich." He purchased large quauli- 
lies of land many years ago, while it was cheap. He has care- 
fully and diligently improved it until it has becoiue valuablo. 
A great part of this improvement has been made by keeping 


large Tiuinbers of sheep that are the most diligent of all agen- 
cies in subduing sprouts and briers and inducing abundance of 
natural grass by the fertilizers they leave on the top of the 
highest hills just where it is needed most. Mr. Day has been 
a very successful wool grower for many years. He is also an 
elder in the •Cumberland Pi-esbyterian church of Nineveh. 
Mrs. Amos Day is a daughter of John Jennings, Sr., and was 
born and raised near the county line, near the Jennings school 
house. She is a sister of John Jennings, Jr., who now resides in 
the brick house on the State road, one and a half miles east of 
Jacksonville, Richhill township, Greene county. Pa. 

A few evenings ago I met Peter Shape, Jr., at Deer Lick 
Ntation. From hitn I received a history of his ancestors who 
settled near the present site of .Nineveh fully eighty years ago, 
as follows : John Peter Shape was the father of John, Jr., 
George, Michael and Jacob. He had also three daughters., 
(.'atharine married Samuel Horn, Elizabeth married Saui.uel 
McCuUough, Polly married John Horn. The children of John 
Sha]ie, Jr., were Peter, Kesm, George, William, Stephen, Katy, 
Polly, Julia, Betsey, Debby, Jennie and Minerva. These peo- 
ple, as their names indicate, are of German descent. Their 
ancestor resided for a short time in Eastern Pennsylvania pre- 
vious to his emigration to Greene county. 

At the same place I met Ce[ihas ]>aldwin, Avliom I have 
known for the last twenty-five years, who gave me some ac- 
count of the Brooks family, to one of whom he is at present 
married, as follows : Enoch Brooks settled at the head of 
Founer's Run fully sixty years ago. He had four sons — Henry, 
William, Cephas and Enoch. Two of them were in the Union 
army during the late war. Old Mr. Brooks also had three 
daugliters — Esther, Judith, (the wife of Mr. Baldwin) and 

At the same ])lace I als(.i met A. J. Barker, a son of George 


Barker, who informed" me his grand-father, Edward Barker, set- 
tled on the old homestead at Nineveh in 1802 ; also that his aunt 
Lucy Baker had married N. K. Lightner. He informed me of 
a sad affair that took p lace at the old Pettit mill, a short dis- 
tance from Deer Lick. A young man named Sylvester Cary, 
son of Abel Cary, was at work in this mill, when'he was caught 
by a revolving shaft, drawn in and hurled around until almost 
divested of his clothing, scalp, &c., and was crushed to deatli- 
Soon after this calamity the dam was swept away by a flood. 
The old mill house can be seen at Svvartz's Station as a memento 
of the past and as a reminder of the misfortunes of many that 
were once connected with it. 

A Visit to an Old Graveyard. — During the summer of 
1882, I arrived at Deer Lick, a station on the Waynesburg & 
Washington Railroad. Finding I would have to wait two 
hours for a train, I walked to West Union Church, situated in 
Greene county near the dividing line between this and Wash- 
ington county. This church is in connection with the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian denomination, and was organized about the 
year 1832, soon after the missionaries, as they were called, ar- 
rived in this section of country. I was anxious to stand by the 
grave of my old friend, Wm. Stockdale, who, I suppose, was 
buried here. But I sought in vain for his name on the numer- 
ous liead stones and monuments in that city of the dead. Yet I 
found many names of persons I once had known in the prime 
of life, which led ray thoughts in a multitude of directions in a 
few minutes. The first was the name of Mrs. Sophia N. Hack- 
ney, who died January 24, 1866. This lady I had known as 
Miss Sophia Neeland in Fayette county in 1851-55, a daugh- 
ter of John Neeland who resided in Luzern township, near 
Hiestresburg, in what was usually called the Bend of the river. 
I had never heard of her death until I saw it on the "cold mar- 
ble." Another name was that of Rev. George Mattocks. This 



young man was almost a graduate of Waynesburg college, a 
kind, obliging, pleasant youth, of considerable promise, who 
after he was licensed to preach, went on a tour in the servicie 
of the Christian commision. Soon after his return he fell a vic- 
tim to disease which ended his earthly career in 1864. Going 
a step further, I read the name John Mattocks, once an elder 
in this church, with whom I was once acquainted. He died very 
suddenly in the prime of his life. On the largest monument in 
the enclosure was the name of Timothy Ross, who I believe 
was the father of Benjamin Ross. On the headstone of John 
Mattocks I saw an old ambrotype likeness which although it 
has occupied that nitch for over twenty years it is still a strik- 
ing likeness of the deceased, i^oing on through this city of 
the dead, I found the names of Rachel Dunn, Joseph Dunn, 
Daniel Dunn. I also found the grave of Walter Robertson, as 
strange a piece of humanity as I ever knew and yet it is admitted 
on all hands that he was a good man ; and if so, his strangeness 
all departed before reaching that happy land. A step or two fur- 
ther brought me beside a headstone where I read the name Wm. 
Robertson. I knew a Rev. Wm. Robertson. Could this be he ? 
was the question that presented itself to my mind. I had no 
means of deciding and passed on to examine the gi-aves of 
Stephen McVay, Silas McVay and others. Desiring other in- 
ionnkiion I called on old Mr. Meeks, immediately below the 
church, when I was informed that Wni. Stockdale and wife 
were hurried at the Presbyterian church of Upper Tcnmile, 
with which they were connected before the coming of Cum- 
berland Presbyterians to AVet^tern Penns34vania. Indeed Mr. 
Stockdale was one of the four men who signed the letter of in- 
vitation requesting missionaries to be sent to this region of 
country. Still seeking further information, I proceeded to the 
liouse of Daniel Loughnian, Sr., who resides within a few feet 
ol tlie county line. His spring of water is one of the largest and 



best, in the bounds of my knowledge, supplying the wants of 
his family, quenching the thirst of multitudes of horses an^ 
cattle that resort to the large trough by the side of the road ; 
fvlso filling to overflowing the water tank of the Waynesburg 
& Washington railroad. Mr. Loughman's wife was Miss 
Rachel Stagner, of German descent, who was born in the State 
of Maryland forty miles from Baltimore, from which place she 
came to live at the big spring, right on the edge of Greene 

First White Child Born in this County. — While such di- 
versity of opinion exists with refere)ice to the question vvho 
was the first permanent white settler in Greene county, 1 might 
Introduce another question, that may possibly present an equal 
variety of opinions, and that is who was the lirst white child 
"^orn on the territory of this county ? I answer this question by 
saying that the strong probability is that Abraliam Armstrong 
is entitled to this distinction as his father John Armstrong was 
<inc of the very first men who settled on JNIuddy creek in jTGT 
Vefore the Indian title had been extinguished by the treaty oE 
Fort Stanwix. This first child Abraham was born in a teni- 
j.orary log hut soon after their arrival. The original Jolin 
Armstrong seems to have been a man of considerable means 
.'.ud soon proceeded to erect a hewed log house, the first in tho 
•oounty, in -which his remaining nine children were born. This 
liouse was undoubtedly the most commodious in the settlement 
and in consequence of this was selected as the place in which 
the afterwards renowned Dr. McMillian preached in the month 
of August, 1775, This old house stood until a few years ago, 
when it was superseded by an elegant and permanent mansion 
house in which the present Joseph H. Armstrong and his lam- 
,ily still reside. Mrs. Armstrong, the lady of this house, is a 
grand-daughter of James Flennikcn who settled in this immo- 
diate neighborhood between 17G7 and 1770 in company with the 


Swans, VanMeters, Hughes, etc. This hillside farm now con- 
tains one hundred and twenty five acres and is situated in Cum^ 
bcrland township. 

On the 31st of May I was introduced to Daniel B. Jacobs, 
who at my request furnished me with a few items of the history 
of himself and family, as follows : He was born in the 
State of Maiyland, on the exact location now occupied by the 
Loconing Iron Works, in 1809. When but two years of age 
his father removed to a farm now owned by Jessie Lazear re- 
cently owned by the late Armstrong Grim, on the Thomas 
loric of Wheeling Creek, about two miles above Ryerson's Sta- 
tion, near the spot where the Davis family was murdered by 
the Indians. Here as a boy Mr. Jacobs early met and com- 
I.-ated the stern realities and hardships of frontier life, abound- 
i ig in adventures, privations and trials too tedious to enumer- 
ale. One of his hair-breadth escapes was as follows: One even- 
ing while he and his little sister were hunting the cows, they 
)iad wandered a long distance into the forest, when the dog 
ihat accompanied them began to act strangely, now sniffing th*^ 
air, now uttering a low whine, then raising his bristles to a f ul. 
r-oach on his back, then running among the feet of the children 
natil it was with difficulty they could proceed, until coming to 
an open place in the bushes they vsrere horrified at the sight oi 
a large panther with snarling teeth and arched back, lashing 
l)is sides with his tail, as though about to spring upon them, 
but the presence of the dog evidently caused him to hesitate 
With great presence of mind the children stood their ground, 
wliile the dog, although trembling in every limb, showed no 
signs of retreat, but like the frightened youngsters stood look- 
ing the savage beast in the face, until that Divine declaration 
"the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of 
the earth," was verified and the panther sullenlj' retired over 
awed by the human gaze, although it cam^ from the faces of 


two half grown children. Mr. Jncob?, although he began poor, 
is one of those men who verify the truth of Solomons declara- 
tion that the hand of the diligent maketh rich. In 1837, he 
removed to lands of Francis Gray on Archer's Run, and from 
thence to the four mile bridge near the site of the old Round 
school house. Two of his sons Francis and William own and 
occupy farms on the head waters of South Tenmile, near the 
line between Richhill and Center townships. His son Ilemy 
owns two farms usually called the McCrackcn and the Huston 
Tarm. His son Warren D. Jacobs still resides Avith his father 
t'our miles below Wayncsburg, while his only daughter, Nancy 
'■"' the wife of John N. Loar and landlady of the hotel at 
Graj'sville, known far and near as the Brick. Mr. Jacobs seems 
to have a /id always had a vein of dry humor about him that 
sometimes rendered him a kind of a practical joker, as the fol- 
lowing will illustrate : Ho at one time had the misfortune of 
being compelled to live beside one of those men who might 
be justly denominated a "bad neighbor." As this man's fences 
Were exceedingly bad, of course his stock soon became 'breachy' 
especially one large black mare which seemed to delight in 
trespassing on the premises of Mr. Jacobs, eating his grow- 
ing corn, wallowing down his grass, wheat, etc. In vain he 
plead Avith his neighbor to keep her away, or at least to put a 
yoke on her, but all to no purpose, except that the man one day 
in insolent anger exclaimed, "yoke her yourself if you want her 
yoked." ]\Ir. Jacobs replied "well, then I will.' This declara- 
tion gave the neighbor no uneasiness as he knew an ordinary 
yoke would have no restraining effect upon her. But Mr. Jacobs 
knew "a thing worth two of that." He quietly caught the mare, 
led her into the woods, where he selected a small hickory sap- 
ling, shaved it off smoothlv, bent it over in the shape of a yoke 
fastened it around her neck, and, after furnishing her with an 
abundant supply of grass, departed, leaving the hickory bush 


of which the yoke was made, still growing in the gronnd. After 
long hunting the neighbor found his mare ; he was very indig- 
nant, and talked loudly about whipping the man who had 
so successfully yoked the mare. However two considerations 
restrained him ; first, he ordered Mr. J acobs to do it ; secondly, 
there was something in the appearance of the broad shoulders 
and brawny arms of Mr. Jacob's which seemed to intimate 
that prudence was probably "the better part of valor.** 

Near the western line of Richhill townhip still resides James 
Dailey who was born in Trumble county, Ohio, in 1801, where 
he remained for fifteen years among surroundings that were 
common at that day on all the extreme frontiers of civilization. 
Wild animals in abundance roamed through the unbroken for- 
ersts, and were hunted by the settlers for the double purpose oi 
obtaining the flesh for food and ridding the country of their dep- 
redations. One of these hunts is remembered by Mr. Dailey. 
He was a boy of some ten summers. His father came i^ 
one morning, sayinglhere A^erebear signs just back of the barn. 
Taking down the trusty rifle from the buck horn hooks, he di- 
rected his son to follow him, Avhich he did for considerable dis- 
tance without seeing the object of their search. His father 
called out "stop ;" and almost immediately the report of the 
gun was heard; and as yet the boy had seen no living object. 
The father diopped his gun, and ran forward with his huntini^ 
knife to bleed his victim which jDrovcd to be a young female 
bear. The wounded animal commenced a most piteous cry» 
closely resembling those of a young girl. Tlie boy supposed 
they were the cries of a girl, and they would both be arrested' 
for murder. He commenced running with all ])ossiblc speed: 
through the woods, in an opposite direction from home. When' 
his father discovered this he gave chase, overtook and brought 
back the bo}^, Avhose fears were only removed by seeing tliat 
it was really a bear, and not a girl that was shot. In ISIGI 


old Mr. Dailey left the "Western Reserve and removed to 
Washington county, where he was married to Miss Kehpcca 
Applegate, near Williamsport (IMonongahcla City.) They re 
moved to Greene county in 1847. These persons were the pa- 
rents of thirteen children, all but two of whom grew up to 
adult age. Their names were Calvin, TJohert, Mary, Sarah, 
John, James, Elizabeth, Susanna, Rebecca, Elisha and William ; 
of these Elisha, Sarah and John reside in Greene county, Pa., 
while Robert is m Idaho. 

I have been favored by my old friend Rev. JohnMcClintock, 
pastor of New Providence Church, with a history of the con- 
gregation over which he has so long presided, and of the peo- 
ple to which he has so long ministered. This church bas been 
Known by three names ; first, as "Muddy Creek," situ- 
ated on the waters of the stream, and in accordance with a 
custom amoTlg the Scotch-Irish fathers of naming their clnrrchos 
after the waters on which they Avere situated. Hence the older 
churches in Fayette, Washington and Greene counties were 
Dunlap's Creek, George's Creek, Mingo Creek, Pigeon Creek, 
Raccoon, Chartiers, Miller's Run, etc. Tliis old chuixli was 
also known as the "Glades," in consequence of being i^ituated 
on the verge of a smooth, level tract of land on wliich the wa- 
l-er stood to that extent that the large timber died out, and in 
its place there grew up a tangle of hazle bushes, alders, etc. 
This was the "Glade." IIow it come to be called New Provi- 
dence I am not informed, but suppose it was a name-sake of 
some church that might be denominated "Old Piovidci'.ce," or 
jDerhaps the fathers had reference to some special act of Di- 
vine Providence that they wished to comn'.emor:;te. Be this 
as it may this church has a history almost coeval with the his- 
tory of the territory that now constitutes the county of Greene. 
For in the year 1770 William Crawford is said to have become 
a resident of this immediate vicinity, Jesse VanMeter, James 


Hughes aud Charles Swan having arrived the year before. Mr. 
Crawford's wife was a daughter of David Kennedy, of Cham- 
bersburg, Pa., who was a Presbyterian of the old Scotch-Irish 
stamp, and was not disposed to adopt the maxim, "When you 
are in Rome do as Pome does ;" but who, on the contrary, al- 
ways carried their religion with them, and the , more fiercely 
their opinions were assailed the more brilliant the flame of theii 
devotion grew. The organization of this church, like many 
others at that early day, was no doubt effected without formal- 
ity, and consequently the exact date cannot now be ascertained. 
But it was undoubtedly previous to 1789, for at that date we 
find this church uniting in a call with the South Fork of Ten- 
mile (Jefforson) for the ministerial labors of Rev. James 
Hughes, which call he declined to accept. It is evident from 
the Presbyterial records that supplies had previously been sent 
to this church — Rev. James Powers one day ; R^v. John Mc- 
Millin preached his second sermon west of the mountains, at 
the house of John Armstrong, one of the first Elders in 
this church. This sermon was delivered in the month of Au- 
gust, 1775. McMillin's first western discourse was delivered a 
day or two before at the Log Cabin Church, near New Geneva, 
Fayette county, which church was called "Mount Moriah." 
The names of Revs. Thaddeus Dodd, James Dunlap, Josepli 
Patterson and John Brice, appear on the minutes of the olc. 
Presbytery of Redstone, as occasional supplies. From Septem- 
ber 1789 until 1790 these people were supplied with preach- 
ing by Revs. James Dunlap and James Hughes ; also by three 
voung men who were licentiates, viz : John McPherrin, John 
Brice and Robert Marshall. About this time Rev. Robert 
Finley from North Carolina, was employed as a stated supply. 
In the year 1791 Rev. Jacob Jennmgs was appointed to sup- 
ply this church part of his time, up to April, 1792, at which 
date New Providence and Dunlap's Creek Churches were un:- 

nisTOUY OK onicKN'i: couxty. 233 

Led as a pastoral charge luulcr tlie care of Rev. Jennings, avUo 
was descended ffom the pilgrims who came over in the May- 
flower. He, himself, was born in New Jersey, w'nere, after re- 
ceiving a liberal education (for that day) practiced medicine 
for about twenty years, when he became a minister in the 
Dutch Reformed Church, from which he afterwards changed 
his ecclesiastical connection and became a member of the Pres- 
bytery of Redstone, in connection with the Presbyterian 
Churcli. His sons were Obediah, Kennedy, Ebenezer and 
Jonathan, the first-named being, for many years, a member ol" 
the I ar at Washington, and afterwards a prominent minister in 
tlie P.esbjteryof Ohio, which was formed by the Synod of 
Virginia in 1793, embracing all the temtory west of the IMon- 
ongahela river, with all the Presbyterian ministers located upon 
i , which, as will be seen, embraced the congregation and min- 
ister of New Providence. In October, 1798, permission w;is • 
given to this church to unite with George's Creek and Tent 
Churches in presenting a call to Rev. James Adams, which 
was accepted, and Mr. Adams was ordained and installed as 
pastor of these three churches on the 16th of October, 1799 
In consequence of the intervening river that was often impass- 
able, Mr. Adams was released from the care of the New Prov- 
idence Church at the expiration of two and a half years. lie 
continued his labors on the eastern side of the Monongahela 
up to 1814, when he was dismissed from his charge, after hav- 
ing served George's Creek, nine years ; Tent, fourteen years, 
and Sandy Creek, eleven years, Personally, I am somewhat 
f imiliar with the history of Revs. Jennings and Adams, al- 
t'lough I have never seen either on of them, but have seen both 
t'icir widows. When I was brought to Dunlap's Creek in 
1S28, George M. French was just about removing from the old 
Dr. Jenning's farm, near Meritstown, to make room for Col 
James C. Simonson, and right there and right then I saw old 


Mrs. Jennings. When we removed to George's Creek in 1829, 
among the first calls my aunt received was one from Mrs. Bath- 
sheba McClelland, wife of General Alexander McClelland, 
who was accompanied by Mrs. Adams, widow of Rev. Adams, 
deceased. October 20th, 1802, New Providence Church uni- 
ted with the church at Jefferson in asking for the services of 
Kev. Cephas Dodd as stated supply for one year. Again on 
the 19th of October, 1803, Mr. Dodd is appointed to supply 
the churches of New Providence, Jeiferson and Ruff's Creek, 
tlie whole of his time, until the next meeting of Presbytery, 
when an order was passed for his ordination. Soon after his 
settlement over these churches Mr. Dodd was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Ruth Flenniken, daughter of James Flenniken, 
one of the first ruling Elders in this church. This woman and 
her husband I have seen, and also their children, Dr. Thaddeus, 
Dr. Elias, and two daughters — the Avives of William Llewellyn 
and Dr. S. S. Strouse. A call was presented to Presbytery on 
the 20th of October, 1807, from the united congregations uf 
New Providence and Jefferson for the labors of Mr. Moses 
Allen, who was ordained and installed on the 24th of the De- 
cember following, and seems to have served until 1817. Tlio 
next minister at this church was Rev. Boyd Mercer, who was 
ajipointed stated supply for one year. October, 1820, this 
cliurch united with Jefferson in securing the labors of Rev. 
George VanEmon as stated supply, Avhich application whs 
changed on the 18th of April, 1821, into a call, which was ac- 
cepted, and he was installed on the last Monday of September, 
1821. This relation contiiiued for fourteen and a half years. 
I have seen this man frequently and heard him preach : but 
alas ! his messasrcs have all been like the seed sown by the 
wayside, except the little incident rccjarded in the second 
chapter of this history. In October, 1835, Rev. James Baker 
was chosen as stated supply for two years. This man I scfin 


on one occasion when he assisted our old pastor, Dr. Fairchild, 
at the "Old Frame" (George's Creek.) Although I was but a 
boy I was struck with the peculiarity of his gestures and man- 
ner, such as bowing so low that his hand could have easily 
touched the floor, then raising both his long arms high above 
his head, etc. I had never seen such motions made by a public 
speaker before and only once since, and that was in 1810, 
when I listened to John Tyler, who was such a perfect /ac 5»JuYe 
Df Rev. Baker that I concluded they surely must have been 
trained in the same school. Plow this was I do not know, 
but there is a probability of it, as they were both from 
b^astern Virginia. During the frequent vacancies that have 
.'ccurrcd in this old church in the last hundred years, the pul- 
pit wa<5 filled occasionally by Revs. Guthrie, Gillet, Henry, 
i3ristol and Davis, also by four young men, viz : Robert Fin- 
ipy, Joseph H. Chambers, John M. Smith and Wm. McMichael, 
?ach remaining about six months. On the 3d of Decem- 
ber, 1830, a call was placed in the hands of Rev. John McClin- 
lock, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Washington, asking 
iliat he might be ordained and installed as pastor of this 
•-hurch, which solemn act was performed on the loth of Janu- 
ary, 1840, at which time Rev. A. G. Fairchild preached the or- 
daining sermon, and Rev. Joel Stoneroad presided and deliv- 
ored the charges. The time of the new pastor was to bo 
Lwo-thirds at New Providence, and one-third at Jefferson ; tho 
salary at IMuddy Creek, being three hundred dollars, and at 
Jefferson, one hundred dollars. This arrangement continued 
until 1849, when Rev. McClintock was at his own request re- 
leased from his charge at Jefferson, and commenced preaching 
on alternate Sabbath evenings at Greensboro, Avhich arrange" 
ments have continued with but slight change until the present 
day. And now in conte nplating a pastorate of upwards of 
forty years, how many things are there that may truly be said 


to be both joainful and pleasing. How painful to reflect that 
^^ the Elders thou in active service, all are dead. Of the fifty- 
live unofficial members, twenty-six had died previous to the 
>SLh of September, 1876. Many others had moved away an^ 
were dismissed to other churches until at that date there Vv-ere 
but ten persons living who were members Avhcn the pi'csent 
pastor began his long continued labor. How many of these 
leu have gone since that date to that country from whose 
bourne no traveler shall ere return, I cannot tell, but on the 
day of the centennial celebration the names of these ten Avcre 
as follows: Garret Mom lle. Paul Rca, John Rea, .Tolin S. 
Flenniken, Hetty Ann Flenniken, Hannah Mundle, Elizabelli 
Jamison, Martha Davis, Catharine Davis and Helen M. Aim- 
strong. The men that have served in this church as elders 
during the one hundred and six years of its existence, arc about 
as follows: First elected at the organization, James Fleimikcn, 
John Armstrong, John Crawford and John Flenniken. Each 
of these men has a biography full of interest to the student of 
history, as follows : James Flenniken came from eastern Penn- 
sylvania, and was of Irish descent. He was sent by his Pres- 
bytery in 1802, to the meeting of the General Assembly. He 
died August 25, 1823, aged seventy-six years. John Arm- 
strong was of Scotch-Irish descent, exceedingly tenacious and 
Bi'm in his adherance to the "faith once delivered to the saints." 
He trod in the good old way until a good old age, and then as 
a shock fully ripe, he was gathered into the garner. This man 
had two sons whose history has reached us. Their names wei-e 
Abram and "William. It was at his house that the youthful 
preacher McMillin delivered the first Presbyterian sermon ever 
listened to in Greene county, in August, 1775. Of the history 
of John Crawford, but little is known, only that having served 
liis generation well, he fell asleep. John Flenniken came to 
the territory that now constitutes this county at a very early 

. HISTORY OK <;ni:i:xK coi ntv. 237 

period in its history. The place from which he emigrated wa» 
North Carolina, whei*e he had already exhibited his patriotism 
by taking an active part in the convention that assembled at 
Charlotte, on the 19th of May, 1775, where he not only used 
his influence, but also signed his name to the instrument 
i-alled the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, which 
paper antedates the one drawn by Thomas Jefferson, by about 
thirteen and a half months. From this declaration the sage- 
Df Monticello, drew some of his strongest and most patriotic 
sentiments embodied in the Declaration of Independence, of 
July 4th, 1776. Soon after the erection of Greene county, 
li^lder Flenniken was elected to represent it in the State Legis- 
'atui'e. He was also for many years one of the Associate 
Judges of the Court of Common Pleas of this county. Ho 
raised a numerous family of children. One of his sons, I have 
•jften seen in Uniontown. He, in early life, had served an ap- 
prenticeship to the millwright trade Avith James Barnes ; then 
studied law, and was a prominent member of the Fayette 
I ounty bar ; then elected to the State Legislature. I seen him, 
uid heard him make a speech in 1841, standing on the stone 
portico of the National House, in Uniontown, at the close of 
ivhich he introduced to the assembled thousands, James K. 
Polk, President-elect of the United States. He was afterwards 
appointed by President Polk as Minister to Denmark, and still 
later he was appointed a Judge in one of our Western Terri- 
tories. His name was Robert P. Flenniken. Elder Flenni- 
ken's youngest daughter Hannah, was married to Rev. Asa 
Brooks. The next addition of Elders in this old congregation 
were Andrew^ McClelland, Henry Jennings, Robert Morrison, 
Josiah Lowrie, William McClelland, and Samuel Harper. Tha 
last mentioned was a man of considerable prominence in hi< 
day in Cumberland township. He was a son-in-law of Rev. 
John McMillin, having married Mrs. Jane Moorhead, who hati 


been left a widow. Soon after the erection of the county, Mr. 
Harper was elected Sheriff, and besides serving as a Ruling 
Elder, he acted for many years as a member of the Board of 
Trustees. Another man of considerable prominence in this 
church and county was David Beech with reference to whom I 
have already written a few things near the first of this his- 
toiy. He died in 1866, in the eightyfifth year of his age. A 
small Quaker Church existed at an early day about two miles 
.south-west of Carmichaels, where remnants of a grave-yard 
ai'e still visible. But the original worshippers have passed 
away, while their descendants have as a general thing united 
with other denominations. It has been fully fifty years since 
any service was held in this place by this people. Among the 
original settlers in this locality was the family of the Swans. 
Charles Swan came from England, during the last century. 
He had four sons, William, Richard, Thomas and Charles. 
Two of these, viz: Richard and Thomas removed to the vicin- 
ity of Uniontown, where they purchased some of the best sit- 
uated and most fertile land in Fayette county, where after 
living long, peaceable lives, they died. I remember one of 
these old men. Of the descendants of Wm. Swan, but little 
is known. None of them seem to be left in the place of their 
nativity. Charles Swan was for many years an Elder in New 
Providence Church. He had seven sons, two of whom are 
dead, while Hugh, Henry, Thomas and Alexander are in the 
West. Only one son, Solon B. Swan, remains in the locality. 
He is at present a Ruling Elder in New Providence Church. 
He also has two sons. Alexander D., who is now an Elder in 
the Presbyterian Church in one of the Western States ; Thomas 
T). Swan is still surviving; but I have no definite history of 
him. The Barclays were also early residents in this neighboi- 
hood. Hugh Barclay was the ancestor of this family. I have 
been informed that he had four sons, but have only been able 


to leai-n the names of three of them — Hugh, Henry and Solon. 
Hugh became an Elder in the Cumberland Presbyterian 
</hurch. Two of his sons — Isaac and Wm, Henry, still reside 
near the old homestead. Henry Barclay was an Elder in the 
Presbyterian Church. He had three sons — Russel, Aretas and 
Alfred. Aretas became a member of the Presbyterian Church. 
All the family went West, where the father, Henry Barclay, 
died at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. Hugh Barclay at one time repre- 
sented Greene county in the Legislature, and finally died at 
home on Muddy creek. Some of the numerous brandies of 
the Flenniken family of whom I have received information is 
as follows : Miss Rebecca resides in Waynesburg. So also 
does Mrs. Hannah Brooks, widow of the late Rev. Asa Brooks. 
John C. Flenniken also resides at the county-seat of Greene. 
Mrs. Brooks' son, Aretas, is an Elder in the Second Presbyte- 
rian Church of Pittsburg. Her daughter Cordelia lives with 
her mother. Another of the ancestors of this large family 
was Elias Flenniken, Sr. His sons — John W., Jose^^h and 
Elias, Jr. are all dead. Four sons of John W. — James D., 
William, Elias and A. Stewart, now residing in the vicinity 
of Muddy creek, aij-e married and have families. J. S. Flenni- 
ken, a son of Eli^, Jr., is also living near Carmichaels. He 
has three sons, young men. William Flenniken, a grandson of 
James, the original settler, is still living in the Muddy creek 
settlement. Of the three brothers, James, William and Cyrus, 
the two former still reside in Greene county, while the latter 
is a resident of Iowa. But I must close my long history of 
this old church, and I cannot do it better than to refer to some 
of the religious customs of the times in which it was planted. 
First, their family instructions. To say that the manners of 
the ministers of the Pi-esbyterian church one hundred years 
ago, were attractive and pleasing would no doubt be saying 
too much. Those ministers were learned, dignified and pious, 


^■"el; the people did not go to the sanctuary thidh for the pur- 
pose of being fascinated and pleased ; but they went for the 
purpose of having themselves and their children instructed, 
and they did not regard their duty as being done without fam- 
ily instruction, consequently when the often long services at 
the church were over, all parties, parents and children went 
directly home. A very small jDortion of time was spent in pro 
paring the Sabbath dinner, as most of it had been cooked th . 
day before. When this plain meal was over, then all persons 
present, whether pai'ents, grand-parents, children or visitors, 
formed the "circle round the ingle wide," and the well-worn 
Confession of Faith, or the John Rodgers Primer was pro- 
duced, and the one hundred and seven questions wei"e asked, 
und the one hundred and seven answers were given — the 
smaller children commencing at the "chief end of man," and 
answering as far as they could, and then dropping 
out and listening, while the older ones and parents con- 
tinued on to the end of the "Petitions." Pernaps Fisher 
t>r Erskine, and always the Bible were present as the 
highest source of appeal. Another custom of Presbyterians 
and Seceders in those good old days, was that they made it a 
conscientious duty to sing the praises of Jehovah. They had 
uo thought of selecting some half-dozen persons, and making 
them responsible for that part of the worship. On the con- 
trary the Session chose a man who had the ability to read well 
and sing well, and they called him "the clerk." A grand de- 
scription of one of these personages is found in the language 
of Rev. John McClintock, who has for upwards of forty years 
ministered to this old church on Muddy creek. The name of 
this singer was Francis McClelland, the pen-picture is as fol- 
lows: "Coui'teous in manners of the old Virginia type, ven- 
erable for age, of commanding appearance and erect form, of 
genial temper and social habit." Nearly simultaneous with the 

iiisrouv OF gi:ec:ne county. . 2-11 

<l:ite of Amei-icau Tiidcpendenco, he made his home in wha* 
was then called west of the AUegiieny Mountains. A pleasure 
enjoyed by few persons nuw living — he once had the op- 
portunity of seeing," hiiu wliom the Americans delight to c£l» 
the Father of his Country, ^tr. AEo-'lelland was conversant 
with the stirring scones and events of the llevolution, and 
■ •Duld relate inany thrilling adventures connected with Indian 
warfare. In the nineteenth year of his age, under the iiiiuis 
1 rations of Rev. Robert Finley, he united with this ciiurc*. 
of which he continued to be a nioniber for a period of seventy- 
< \ years. His pilgrimage on earth closed with the ;ioyi'(d 
liope of heaven at the age of ninty-(ive years. This man for 
inaiy long years stood up before the congregation reading 
i-.\u lines at a time fron^. Watts, then raising some ono 
.if the following tunes : Oid hundred, Coronation, Mear, 
Pisgah, Portugai, IJussia, Dunlap's Creek, America, or 
CjIcs lIiU. The clerk usually beat the time, while all the peo- helped to raise the "joyful sound."' The people and sessio'u 
• ;f this old church have long ago pledged themselves to total 
.ii)stinance from all intoxicating drinks ; hence we lind on tliei? 
.ainutes this record. "Resolved that in the judgment of this 
r^ession, no person can be regarded as a member of this church. 
Ill good standing, who habitually indulges in the use of intoxi- 
<-ating drinks." In addition to this I fear dissultary history of 
. ome of the old families connected with this old church. I 
wid append several names of persons not so immediately con- 
nected with the church, but dwellers in the neighborhood up- 
wards of half a century ago. The list was sent to me by Mr. 
-John H. Rinehart, an old Greene countian now living in Ash- 
land Co., Ohio, who has not been in this county for fifty-two 
years. I sent the list to Rev. J. McClintock, who has ap- 
pended numerous explanations. The first name is William 
Carniichaels, proprietor, I supjiose, of the town ; James Londec, 



Isaiah Cleavenger, father of Samuel Cleaveiiger, a mcm'ber of 
*.lic Waynesburg bar, and at one time a prominent candidate 
For Congress ; Samuel Higinbothem is said to have no descend- 
ants in Greene, but several in Fayette county , Mathew Irwin, 
no descendants in these parts ; James Hughes, numerous de- 
scendants about Jefferson and Rices' Landing ; Jay Thomp- 
son, Justice of the Peace ; James Seaton, Esq., descendants 
all gone from original neighborhood , Daniel Moredock has 
two sons, James and Ligget, near the place of their ancestors' 
settlement ; Aaron Gregg has one son Aaron still in the vi- 
-cinity; Alfred Gregg has several sons in the neighborhood. 
James Curl was the father of Thomas and Hiram; Thoman 
is dead. John Sharpneck has some children here yet. John 
Orawford was the father of John, William and Jefferson, 
nil deceased. Charles Anderson has no children here except 
Mrs. John Hathaway. James Carr and Archie Carr are both 
here yet with many children, each family having a James, 
William and Archie. James Barnes, one of the most ingen- 
ious men in this county, came from Virginia at an early day 
und is still living. He also has two sons, William and Thomas. 
Philomen Hughes, a school-teacher ; Benjamin West, a school- 
teacher. John Crago was among the early settlers of the 
Muddry creek region. His son John, of Carmichaels, is said 
{,:>h& ill possession of some interesting reminiscences, whicli 
I hope to see before the history is closed. I learn there is 
also another John Crago, a carriage-maker living in the t,own, 
WAile "Jack" lives in the country. The Rea family were old 
settlers. James and J. H. Rea are sons of John Rea, who 
emigrated from Bucks county long ago. The Jamison fam- 
ily that once was numerous, has now only three representa- 
tives left — Jehu and two daughters of Henry Jamison, Abbie 
and Jennie. The McClellands came to Greene county shortly 
after the commencement of th 3 present century aid, beca.m& 

iiisTOiiY oi-' <ii;i;i.Ni: counjy. 243 

very numerous, but by emigration and death their numbers 
have been depleted until they ai'e nearly all gone. The Cree 
family, which was once numerous in this vicinity, have now 
but three rei^resentatives left ; these are Iliram Cree and two 
sisters. Theu* father's name was Hamilton Cree. The men 
who were at different times members of the Board of Trustees of 
New Providence Church, which was incorj)orated in 1804, are 
as follows : James Flenniken, John Flenniken, Josias Lowrie, 
Sauuiel Harjier, John McClelland, William Moore, AndrcAv 
McClelland, Jr., Samuel Huston, Robert Morrison, Elins Flen- 
niken, Robert McClelland, James Veech, Francis McClelland, 
David Veech, Abram Scott, George Davis, William Armstrong, 
Daniel Stej^henson, Andi'ew Morrison, James Irwin, Charles 
Swan, John Rea, John N. Flenniken, Ileni-y Barclay, James 
Flenniken, Russell Armstrong, William Crawford, Alfred Arm- 
strong. Other extensive familes are located on Muddy Creek 
in the direction of Jefferson and Waynesburg. Among these 
families are the Longs, the ancestors of which I have no in- 
formation at present. Eli Long was a man of considerable 
prominence. His homestead was near the sjDot where the 
first court was ever held within the bounds of this county, at 
the house of Jacob Kline, in 1799, previous to the building of 
the log house on the corner of Greene street and Whisky 
alley, which was long occupied as a temple of justice. 
Another extensive family of this neighborhood was the Baileys, 
My information concerning them is chiefly confined to my 
own recollection during the last fifty years and is very imper- 
fect, at that. Ellis B. Bailey and most of his family ai-e Pres- 
terians. E. E. Bailey has been a minister and active worker in 
the C. P. Church a number of years. He visited the Indians in 
Indian Ter. as a missionary. I also knew a silversmith, Wm. 
Bailey, in Uniontown, who, I believe, was of the same family ; 
also a Mii^ Louisa Bailey, who afterward became the wife of 


Moses Nixon, of Fayette county. Another of the families of 
this immediate vicinity wns that of the Gwynns. Upwards of 
a quarter of a centui-y ago I preached several times at Gwynn's 
school house as one of the outposts of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian congregation of Carinicliaels. Since this, however, 
a plain, neat church has been erectedin order to accommo- 
date the upper portion of this large congregation. I have been 
told that some of the ancestors of these people were of Qua- 
ker origin. Whether this and other facts relative to them are 
30, 1 propose to write whenever I am better informed myself. 
FiKST White Man who Settled in Gkeene County. — As 
to who deserves the credit of being the first white settler in 
this county I find such a diversity of opinion that I can do no 
better than to give some of the various versions, and leave the 
reader to judge for himself. I have gathered the idea from 
Judge Veech and others that Swans, Vanmeters and Hughes, 
on Muddy creek, were tnidoubtedly the first permanent settlers. 
Lawrence Minor, Esq., of Waynesburg, insists that his father, 
Col. John Minor, aud Jeremiah Glasgow who settled on 
Whiteley, were certainly entitled to this honor. L. K. Evans 
is fully persuaded that the Eckerline Brothers, who first pitched 
their "camp" on Dunkard creek, and then removed to "Dunk- 
. ard Bottom," were unquestionably the pioneers of Greene county. 
I have this day (May 17, 1882,) received a letter from William 
Bonghner, of Greensboro, claiming this honor for quite another 
man. As Mr. Boughner is a man of the first respectability 
and intelligence, and Avrites in a very easy, readable style, I 
give this part of his letter in his own words : "The first white 
settler in the present Greene county v^^as Augustine Dilliner, 
who, with his wife, came from the valley. of Virginia in com- 
pany with the Swearingens, who founded Swearingen's Fori 
on the farm of Michael Crow in Fayette county, near Morris' 
X Roads. The six or seven families, including Dilliner's and 


Swcfiiing-onV, emigrated before Israddock's defeat, and all set- 
tled in Fayette county, except Dilliuerwlio settled ou the farm 
now occupiiul by bis grand-son, Jacob Dilliner, in Dunkard 
township, one mile below the mouth of Cheat river, at Dilliner'a 
l''eriy. There are four grand-sons of Augustine Dilliner still 
living near this place, viz : Samuel R. Dilliner, of New Geneva, 
aged over eighty years ; Jacob Dilliner, at the old homestead 
above named; Ambrose Dilliner, one mile above Jacob on the 
rivei" bank ;and Allen Dilliner being a mile further up the liver 
from Ambrose. These old men all concur in the statemenl 
that tlieir grand-father Augustine Dilliner was the first settlei 
oj. the west side of the Monongahela, and claim that he settled 
on the farm now owned by Jacob Dilliner, built his cabin and 
lived in it with his wife before "Redsone Old Fort" was 
built — long before. When he heard of Braddock's defeat in, expecting an nnmediate Indian raid, he fled to Swear- 
ingen's Fort, across the river in Fcyette county, and remained 
there for some days, returning to the east bank of the river 
daily to make observations whether the Indians had burned 
his cabin on this west side of the river, and only returned 
after being satisfied that there were no Indians about. These 
four grand-sons all live here in Greene county (except Samuel 
R., who lives in New Geneva, Fayette county,) are highly re^ 
ipectable people, good citizens Avhose word is as good as their 
bond. These traditions they have from their father, and they 
have not a particle of doubt as to their correctness. They 
claim also to have some family records in their possession to 
substantiate the fact that Augustine Dilliner settled on this 
homestead farm not later than 17o4, and had his cabin on the 
<jame spot now occupied by the residence of Jacob Dilliner." 
I have often crossed the river at Dilliner's Feiry during the 
decade of years betAveen 1845 and 185.j. I have often been 
on the site of old Fort Sweringen, on the farm of Michael Crow 


near Morris' Cross Roads, and am disposed to think there is a 
great deal of truth in the above statement, and yet it does not 
contradict the statement I made, which is as follows : "The 
first permanent community seems to have been on Muddy Creek, 
spreading out towards Tenmile on the north and Whiteley on 
the south." Taking for granted that Augustine Dilliner 
did settle on the west side of the river in 1754, his one isolated 
cabin did not form a "community.-' as his neighbors and place 
of retreat were always on the east side of the river, in what, 
afterwards became Fayette county. In reply to the question 
who is right with reference to the orthography of the cicek.. 
Judge Veech who spells "White Clay," or others who spell 
"Whiteley," Mr. Boughner says: "1 have in my pos?ession arii 
old map once the pi-operty of Albert Gallitin. printed in Lon- 
don in August, 1792, in which the name is spelled 'Whiteley,' 
the original settlers having brouglittlie name with them from: 
I'nc valley of Virginia — same as did the fn-st settlers of Wliite- 
ley county, Ky." This would indicate that Judge V'ecch staiuls 
all alone in spelling Wliite Clay, Another of Mr. BoughiierV^ 
si'.ggestions is that "James Veech was not born in Cumberiann 
township, but in Monongahcla township, one mile south of 
Little Whiteley creek, on the old Veech farm now owned by 
Robert Hanna." This is all very true as the townships are now 
subdivided ; but we must remember that at the time of tlic 
formation of Greene county in 1796, the entire len-itory 
embraced the five townships of Cumberland, Morgan, Franklin. 
»Ti-eene and Richhill. It is evident ail tlie oiiginai townslii])s 
have been shorn of tlieir former greatness, and as Monongahcla 
township had no existence at that day, the locality of this old 
farm must either have been in Cumberland or Greene township- 
1 certainly was right when I said it was in the bounds of the old 
Presbyterian congregation of Muddy Cj-eck. The last of Mr. 
3>oughner's suggestion is with reference to the question who- 


started the first successful steam engine in Greene county. I 
wrote what I did on the strength of the statement made in 
the County Atlas in the sketch of Mr. Barns. When this was 
called in question, I received a letter from Mr. Barnes, dated 
May 8, 1882, in which he says, '■! claim to have been the first 
in the county who succeeded with a steam engine." He then re- 
fers to the same effort to establish a steam engine that Mr. 
Boughner refers to, in these words: "About 1815 or 181G a 
company was organized at the old glass Avorks, just below 
Gi'eeusboro. They built a steam mill (house). But the cana! 
not being finished to tlie East, they withdrew their stock as 
unprofitable for the want of trade, and it closed." After Mr. 
Barnes has given a detailed account of liis own expericco and 
success up to 1833, he says: "In the year following- I]s(juirf. 
Stone put up a saw mill between town (Greensboro) .-ind tliL' 
mouth of Dunkard." He leaves the imi)ression on my mind 
that this mill Avas driven by steam. These diversities o" state- 
ments all go to prove that Greene county ought to have had an 
accurate history written long ago, and yet tiiey will nee ^ssitattt 
so many corrections that the present history, in many places, 
will resemble a piece of "])atch work" which our read :s must 
condone, as it is better to have patches even in this fw/in than 
to have fiction, no matter how smootldy it m:iy read. As lu 
the conflicting statements between these men, I think one woid 
will go far towards making an explanation, and tiiat woid is 
successful, which Mr. Barnes a))plies to his own adventures, but 
will not apply it to the efi'orts made by others. 

At different times I have received communications t'roni 
William Boughner, Esq., of Greensboro. One of them is iu- 
follows, with reference to the manufacture of the first gias^ 
made west of the Allegheny Mountains: 'About the year 1700, 
Albert Gallatin, (who was the founder of tlic town of New 
Geneva, whicli he nrinicd after his birtli place in S A'it/.t rland), 


wliile crossing the Allegheny mountains on horseback, lodged 
at "Tomlinson's old tavern stand." Here he providentially 
met eight German glass blowers, the names of five of 
whom were as follows, viz : Christian Kramer, Baltzer Kra- 
mer, Lewis Reitz, George Eeppert and Adolph Eberhart. The 
other three names are lost. These glass blowers had previ- 
ously been settled on tlie "Monocracy," near Tyderville, Md., 
and were then emigrating to Limestone, (now Maysville), Ky,, 
which State was then the great Eldorado of the west. The 
public spirit that always animated Mr. Gallatin, prompted him 
to try to induce these men to locate near his splendid farm 
and mansion at "Friendship Hill," at the mouth of George's 
Creek, opposite Greensboro. Agreeable to their promise, thej 
left the main emigrant road at Mt. Braddock, at the foot o! 
Laurel Hill, and came to inspect the site for a glass manu- 
factory at the log cabin town of New Geneva. After a few 
days spent in prospecting, three of their number started in a 
canoe for Limestone, Ky., where, after carefully comparing tho 
advantages and disadvantages of both situations, they decided 
in favor of the Monongahela. They then pushed the same ca- 
noe five hundred miles up stream to the place of starting. A 
glass furnace was soon erected, surrounded by log buildings, 
about three-fpurths of a mile from the mouth of the creek where 
they manufactured principally window g^ass 8x10, which they 
sold for cash at fourteen dollars per box. 

About the year 1816 these men decided to cross the river 
into Greene county, where they purchased the property and 
erected the buildings known as the "Old Glass Works," a short 
distance below the town of Greensboro where they soon com- 
menced using stoiic coal as fuel for melting glass. A great 
amount of prejudice had to be encountered in introducing it. 
as all the fuel previously used had been wood. Albert Gallatin 
had furnished a large portion of the capital while they remained 


on tlie east side of tlie river, but as they were now abundantly 
able "to stand alone," and as his duties in the Commonwealth 
and Nation were so numerous, he seems to have withdrawn 
from them with the greatest good will on all sides. Mr. Galla- 
tin has furnished all the wood and sand without money or price 
while they remained on the east side. Mr. Boughuer claims 
that these men were the pioneers of the glass manufacture, not 
only in Greene county, but in Western Pennsylvania, as they 
undoubtedly commenced here one or two years before the build- 
ing of the O'Harra glass factory in Pittsburg. About forty- 
two years ago I formed some acquaintance with George Kra- 
mer and his son Lee (merchants), of Morgantown, W. Va., who, 
I suppose, were descended from this same original glass blow- 
er stock. I have paraded many a day in the "George's Creek 
Cavalry" in company with Adolph and Martin Eberhait, de- 
scendants of Adolph (Dull) Eberhart. This glass factory passed 
through numerous firms, and was not finally abandoned until 
some time between 1850 and 1860^^ 

Pigeon Roost. — Upwards of fifty years ago, one of these 
resorts existed on the waters of Fish Creek, not far from Free- 
port in Springhill township, one mile from White's mill on 
what is often called "Wagon Road Run." Near this same date 
John and William Lemons (whose father was one of the pi- 
oneers of this region of country) decided to make a visit, and 
spend the night at this famous rookery. They were accompa- 
nied by David and James Lemons, (sons of John), also by four 
voung men who were neighbors, viz: Alex. Cox, Cephas Morris, 
Amos and John Minor. They airived at the outer vei-ge of the 
roost about sundown and built their camp-firo, and prepared 
for a night's rest. But in this they were sadly disappointed, for 
the flocks of pigeons had already begun to arrive, ami as the 
shades of evening began to fall, those shades were rapidly in- 
creased by the vast multitudes of croaking, crying, living 

250 HisTonv OF gizekxe county. 

birds that filled the dr. All thoughts of sleej) at the camp 
were abandoned, for before their homely supper was ended, a 
neighboring tree became so overloaded with croakers that it 
turned out by the roots, and fell prostrate on the earth a short 
distance from their camp, crushing beneath many birds that 
had taken refuge among its branches. The torches of the 
visitors were at once liglited, and they sallied forth to gather 
up and bag the killed and crippled jDigeons that were not able 
to rise with their companions whose discomfiture had added 
two-fold noise to their piteous complainings. The falling of 
this tree only seemed to be the harbinger to numerous others 
which shared the same fate, accompanied by limbs without 
number that cam3 crashing to the ground, making a Bable of 
confusion and conflicting jargon of sound that efl[:ectually drovo 
all "sleep from the eyes and slumber from the eyelids" of tliose 
who thus passed a night on the verge of a roost. "When the 
first streaks of morning light began to retui^n, our hunter;! 
stood ready, guns in hand, to give the birds a parting salute. 
Uut as soon as their first volly was fired, they discovered thai 
it was a Avaste of time to attempt to relo;id. When abandoing 
iheir tire-armes and siezing some poles ihat had been u<ed by 
other hunters, they continued to knock down their unresisting 
game until the lower limbs v>"ere cleaned, when, by a seeming- 
ly preconserted signa'', the vast flocks took their f.ight in dif- 
ferent directions, Avitli a whirring, roaring sound, somewhat ic- 
sembling distant thunder, leaving our hunters in possession of 
the "goaiy field," with abundant time to gather up their nu- 
merous sacks of birds and retire to tlieir homes. 

During the month of July, 1882, Mr. J. Brice Rickey and 
Hannah, his wife, made a \ isit to their friends in Greene county 
of which they are botli natives, being I'esidents for many years 
of Oskaloosa, Wahaska county, Towti' From them I obtained 
the following historical statements: The f imily of the Rick- 


eys was descended from the stock of Puritans Avho fled to 
Holland during the days of persecution m England for opin- 
ion's sake. From Holland Bejamin liickey emigrated to 
America during the last century and settled in New Jersey. 
Jacob Rickey was brought across the Atlantic when a very 
small boy. He was united in marriage to Miss Parnell Geerin 
Avho was one of the little girls tb'cssed in Avhite, who strewed 
the ground with Howers at Trenton in April, 1789, when Wash- 
ington was on his way to be inaugurated first President of the 
United States. The family removed to the town of Amity, 
AVashinrrton county, Pa., about 1810, where after a short so- 
journ, Jacob Rickey removed to Greene county, where he was 
e'.ecled an Elder in the Presbyterian Church of Unity in 1814. 
He was also appointed Justice of the Peace by the Governor. 
Hfic he raised a large family consisting of three sons and 
live daughters, as follows; Abraham C, B. Erunklin and J' 
Biice. His daughter Jane married Silas Ayres ; Susanna 
married Eii Mastcis; Pornina married Tkomas Hendcrshot : 
JMiitilda r. married Lindsey McVay, while Harriet died siiigi«^ 
at ubout nineteen years of age. Mrs. Hannah Rickey's maiden 
naiue was jMiNay, daughter of James McNay, who came to 
Gieenc county in 1815 and settled in Franklin townshi)i, 
t'iree miles from Waynesburg. Mrs. Rickey was born in 1820. 
She had seven brothers and two sisters — Samuel, Jolin, 
AVilli.un, ^Marion, Harry. Porter and Newton. All are living 
except iMarioii, who died at home of fevei', and Newton, who 
died at the Union Hospit.-d at Louisville, Kentucky, during tlie 
late civil war. Hci- si-ter, Mary Ann, inarric d John Sprowls, 
of "Windy Gap, Vvhile Caroline married Jonailian Simpson, of 
Washington county. JMrs. Rickey s mother's maiden name 
was Miss Anna Dickeson, of Butler county, Pa. 

On September 9, 1 882, 1 got off the train at Sycamore Station, 
and came u}> Brown's Fork iv; far as the house of G. W. L. 


Johnson, who is a son of Andrew Johnson, dec'd, who was the 
fatlier of the following additional children — Jackson, Colnni- 
bus, Harrison, Daniel, Jane, Mariah, Lavina, Caroline and 
l^osanna. Their father emigrated from New Jeri:ey upwards 
•of fifty years ago. Layfayette Johnson's wife was Miss Ma- 
riah Taylor, daughter of Thomas W. Taylor, Esq., who was 
for many years a deacon in the Baptist Church, at Hate's Fork. 
This woman is a niece of the late Major Maxwell jMcCaslin, 
and cousin of William Maxwell Kincaid, whom 1 had the 
jueasure of uniting in marriage u]) wards of twenty years ag-o, 
V. ith Miss Emily Nichols, daughter of "VoV Nichols, of th'e 
vicinity of Jefferson. At the same house I met a grand-daiigh- 
ter of Michael Rupe who emigrated fi'om the valley of the 
.Shenandoah, near Winchester, Virginia, near sixty year? ago. 
He was of German descent, and settled on Brown's Fork of 
Tenmile. His son Samuel afterwards settled on Bato's Fori:, 
whore he raised a family of eight children — five boys and three- 
girls. One of these daughters, Nancy, was married to George 
McLane who enlisted as a soldier in Company A, of the Onc- 
liundredth Regiment. He was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Cold Harbor, and when last heard from was at Florence, Soutu 
Carolina, where in all probability he died, leaving his friends 
to this day ignorant of his fate. Leaving the house of Mr. 
Johnson, I soon arrived at the residence of .David Buchanan, 
Esq., who is now engaged in putting up a splendid dwelling- 
house. From his most excellent lady .1 learned that he ha<] 
three brothers — Andrew, John and J. A. J., Esq., one of the 
i oading attorneys at the Waynesburg bar. Tliey also had fivo 
rtisters — Elizabeth, who married William McClelland; Martha, 
who married Zachariah Kagan, a Methodist minister ; Harriet, 
who married Elijah Adams ; llachel who married J. N. Bro\rn. 
These nine children were the sons and daughters of Andrew 
Buchanan, Sr., a prominent lawyer at the Waynesburg bar 


fifty years ago. Mrs. David Buchanan Avas formerly Miss 
Keziah Swart, of Washington county, a sister of ray 
old friend, Henry C. Swra-r. I still pursued my way up 
Brown's Fork, where the road has heen greatly improved dur- 
ing the present year, making it now a smooth, easy grade in- 
stead of the continuous ups and downs Avith. which it was 
formerly adorned, showing a decided improvement in engi- 
neering, since the old road was located in the days of "the fa- 
thers." Near sun-down I arrived at the hospitable home of 
James Patterson, Jr., a grand-son of James Patterson, Sr., who 
was born in Ireland in 1755, from whicli place he emigrated 
to America while quite a young man. Almost immcdi.-itcly 
after his arrival he enlisted in the Continental Army, where 
he was engaged in some of the fiercest battles of that sangui- 
nary struggle for independence. He Avas attached to a Vir- 
ginia regiment near Winchester. Soon after the clooe of the 
Rovolution he emigrated to Greene county, Pa., and settled 
in what is now Whiteley to^vnship, near NcAvtoAvn, on the 
same farm that William Patterson now resides, he being 
in the seventy-fifth year of his age. John Patterson, the 
father of my informant, Avas born in Whiteley tOAvnship in 
1791, where he spent his minority, at the expiration of Avhich 
he was united in marriage Avith Elizabeth Shriver (who still 
lives, and is in the eighty-eight year of her age). This young- 
couple immediately set out for the "back-woods," Avhich Avas 
then found in abundance along the different forks of Ten- 
mile creek. Here on BroAA-n's Fork they arrived in 1820, the 
locality being in Morris tOAvnship. Here these hardy pioneers 
began the Avork of subduing the mighty forest. Here they 
set up their "altar" and became noted as the leading Metho- 
dists of this section, Avhose hospitable home became the place 
of retreat for the toil-wom embassador of the cross a« he 
wended his Aveary way over the rough hills and valleys of this 


then inhospitable region. As I looked upon the the elegant 
buildings, the green fields and smiling meadows, the refiined 
family, the magnificently spread table, loaded with splendidly 
cooked food, I could not resist the uprising exclamation, 
"What a change !" Here on this spot John Patterson and 
Elizabeth, his wife, raised six children, viz. : Jacob, John and 
James (my informant); also three daughters, Nancy, who mar- 
ried James Fonner ; Mahala, who married John Patterson 
(no relation, although of the same name), and Elizabeth, who 
is now the wife of Hiram Smith. John D. Patterson resides 
on a farm adjoining the old homestead. His wife was Miss 
Amanda Mahana, daughter of Bradley Mahana, and grand- 
daughter of Capt. James Seals, both prominent men in 
Waynesburg during the last generation. The wife of James 
Patterson is a grand-daughter of Caleb Spragg, one of the 
old pioneers of Greene county. He was born on the 22d day 
of Sept., 1778, and died in 1854. He was married on the 6th 
of November, 1798, to Miss Deborah McClure. They emi- 
grated from Trenton, New Jersey, to what is now Wayne 
township. They raised a family of eleven children — six sons 
and five daughters, viz. : John, Uriah, David, William, ,lero- 
miah and Otho ; one of the daughters. Amy married Joseph 
Wells, Eliza married Simon Strosnider, Rebecca married Wil- 
liam Cosgray, Deborah married Thomas Hoge, Sarah remain- 
ing single. John Spragg's descendants are as follows : David 
R., Caleb, Henry, John and Mark ; one of the gii'ls, Sarah 
married John Stewart; Elizabeth, my informant, marrio.] 
James Patterson ; Minerva married Kendall Brant, and 
Lydia married Inghram Strosnider. These families of ihc; 
Pattersons have long been connected with the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of Hopewell, situated on the ridge road Ik-ih 
Graysville to Waynesburg. The house of worship is i;ow 
being rebuilt in elegant, modern style. Mr. Patterson showed 


mo tht- original deed for tlie church lot, which was made by 
Peter Grimes, and Mary, his wife, to John Simpson, James 
Smalley and Icliabo.l Ross, Trustees and their successors in 
office. The deed is dated Aug. 6th, 1839, and is acknowedged 
the same day before Jesse Kent, J. P., and is recorded in 
boon "I," Vol. 1st, page 75, March 17th, 1840, George Ho?- 
l:inso]i, Recorder. 

The Rineiiaet Family of Greexe County. — Joseph Rine- 
hart emigrated from Germany during the last half of O/he 
eighteenth century. His first location on this continent was 
in Maryland, where his father and mother died. Shortly after- 
wards, JoscjVi Rinehart, Jr., removed to Greene county, Pa.. ' 
Avlicre he was? married to Miss Elizabeth Huffman, sister oi 
Benjamin Huffman. They had but two children — Thomas and 
Joseph. Thomas had but two children, both daughters, named 
Delila and Elizabeth, the latter of whom was married to Jos., 
a son of William Rhodes, the artist, near Jackson's Fort. 
Dcllla was married to Isaac Nelson. Joseph Rinehart was 
born on the fifth of November, 1776. His wife was Miss 
Saiah Smith, daughter of Ichabod Smith. They were married 
on the 29th of November, 1807, and were the parents of six 
sons and three daughters, who were all born in Greene county. 
Tlieir names and dates of their births are as follows : Eliza 
was born December 2 1st, 1808; Aaron G. was born Septem- 
ber 26th, 1810 ; Josej)h was born January 19th, 1813 ; John 
IT. was born January 18th, 1815. Mary was born Octobex 5th, 
1817. Hiram H. was boni Jauuaiy 1'), 1820; William Har- 
vey was born May 2d, 1823 ; Sarah was born June 22d, 182.'> : 
Benjamin Franklin was born August 29th, 1829. John H. 
Rinehart has for upwards of fifty years been a citizen of the 
State of Ohio ; his present address is McKay, Ashland county, 
Ohio. He seems to be a man of remarkable memory, and lias 
sent me at different times numerous reminiscenses of events 


that occurred in this county upwards of half a century ago, 
which are hereto appended in his own words: In the year 
1829, Joseph Rinchart sold his farm of two hundred acres, two 
and a half miles east of Waynesburg, to Solomon Gordon, 
and in April 1830, he removed to a farm adjoining the west- 
ern line of Wayne county, Ohio. Seven years later, he re- 
moved to Richland county, Ohio, and settled in Greene town- 
shin, which is now part of Ashlaiid county. Aaron J. lline- 
hait became a hook-keeper, and Alderman in the fourth ward 
of Pittsburg, Pa. Joseph Rinehart, became a carpenter. 
H.ram became a minister of the Gospel. William H. became 
:i mill-wright and farmer. Benjamin Franklin is an artist and 
uorirait painter in New York City. Of the ne:Jit generation of 
:liis name were the follownig persons: Barney, Shnon and 
Snumel, of one family. John, William and Arthur we:e sons 
ia another family, -while John, Stephen and Jacob were 
,~ons in a third family. Of the next generation — 1st, Earney 
had three sons, James, Samuel and Simon. 2d, Simon had 
two sons and three daughters ; Samuel and Jesse were the 
sons, the daughters' names not remembered ; 3d, Samuel R. 
was the father of six sons and three daughters, viz : Joseph 
Asa, Enos, Reason, John and Samuel; these sons if living, 
are all over sixty years of age. 4th, Barnet Rinehart of this 
generation, also raised a large family, but the names c:iniJ0t be 
f juud. Of the sisters of this generation, Sarah was married 
to Henry Church, Elizabeth to William Inghram, Mary R. to 
Richard Hughes; also one sister whose name was Susan 
was married to Isaiah Strawn. John Hughes Riuehait. my 
informant, is now sixty years and sixmonths old. He was born 
near Tenmile creek, where Hicey, now Pollock's mill, below Jef- 
ferson, has since been erected When he was one year old, his 
father removed to a spot one-half mile from the town of Car- 
michaels, on Muddy creek, where they resided for four or live 


years ; thou removed to tlie east branch of Laurel ran, about 
two and a half m.ilcs cast of Waynesbrj'g'. where they con- 
tinued to reside until tlic si)rinj^- of 183;), when tlioy removed 
to Ohio. Tiie only school teachers this man ever received in- 
struction from, were Arthur McCourlnoy and Dr. Arthur In 
o;hram, who both taught in an old log school-house, on Di'. 
Aviiiur Inghram';] father's farm, on Laurel run. Since John 
II. has lived in the Buckeye State, he has ei-cctcd several mill>^. 
and is now possessed of a vahiable landed property. Theson^; 
of Simon Einehart (of Barnet) are J. iMorris and Jarne.? R. li. 
The daughters, Mary F., who married Frederick Ilambright . 
31ariah is now the wife of Elias llartzell. The sons of Jess^ 
(of Thomas) are J. Workman, Thomas, Dill, Henry and George;. 
Gtor.GE WISECA^v^R was born in Franklin townsliip, Greent; 
county, Pa., on the 22d of July, 1815. His parents had emi- 
grated from Frederick county, V^irg-inia, about the year 1800. 
Through various losses common to frontier life, the old man 
died about "square with the world,"' leaving his son George the 
same legacy he did the rest of his children — "'root hog, or die." 
Geoi'ge happened to be one of those boys who had no notion 
')f dying, if a living could be made by "rooting." The firs E 
day's work he ever done for wliich he received the pay was 
when he was very small and the compensation was a "fish- 
hook.' This Avas his fii'st property, and from it spiang the de- 
sire to accumulate more. Finding that fishing not did pay, he 
learned to make flour barrels, whisky-barrels, meat tubs, lard 
kegs, etc., and it was not long until he became so proficient in 
his business and so active in his movements, that he could 
dress the staves, heads and hoops and fiame sixteen flour bar 
rcls in a day, and by a little extra exertion, he has on severa' 
occasions made one liundred barrels in a week. The first set 
tlement of the family was on the farm now owned by Peter 
Mon-is. On the 1st d;i:r of May, 1843, George Wisecarver 



and Priscilla Barnes v/ere married, and soon began to accumu- 
late by investing in good lands that liave steadily increased in 
value until he has become one of the most wealthy men in the 
county, owning- at the present time a little upvy^ards of three 
iliousand acres of as good land as the county can produce. 
It is truly said "liistory is always repeating itself." In ike 
•case of this man we have the old adage verified, that the 
••poor boys of one generation become the wealthy men of the 
i'Lext generation." Mr. Wisecarver's reason for his success 
is that "he was always so busy with work that he had no 
lime to get into mischief." Let poor boys profit by the cxrau- 
jjle of so many of our v.'calthy men who began the world oi; 
;;".G-tiJing. I 

While making a visit at the house of John OrndofF, on tlio 
lv)th of Octobci-, 1882, I came in possession of the following 
facts : William Orudoif was of German descent an d emigrnted 
fj-om the Shauendoah Valley near Winchester about the year 
1826. His first location in Greene county was on big Wliitelcy 
;ibout four miles from Newtown, where he was united in mar- 
riage with .Miss Salome Wisecarver. Tliier sons were Eli, 
■Joseph, William, John, Isaac and Lindsey. Tlieir dangliici's 
Jiachel married Jesse Fordyce; Jane married Asa Sellers -. Sti- 
.sanna Jiiarried Levi Hoge ; Margaret Ann married Abijaii 
Scott ; Salome married Daniel Orndoft". The second place of 
residence of this family was on Hargison's branch of Sontli 
Tenraile ci-eek in Centre township, about two miles f)-orri 
Jvodofersville, where the old gentleman still lives, enjoying 
good health, although in the eighty- third year of his age. Tiie 
old lady still survives and is in her seventy-sixth year. Jolin 
Orndoff (my informant) resided at the head of Pursley tor 
about eleven years, and then removed to the old David Enoch 
farm near Graysville in April 1879, where he is extensively en- 
''•ao-ed in fr.rniinir and s ock raiding. His wife's m.iideu nnine 

uisTonr OK (;r.i:i:Ni; county. 


was Miss Minerva Kosberry, daughter of Matthias Roseberiy. 
and consequently extensively connected with some of the ear- 
liest settlers in the eastern part of the county, such as the 
Hughes, IkJindolphs, Curls, Swans, Neels, Lindseys and others. 
Second White Child corn in Greene County. — On the 
24th of October, 1882, I met in tlie office of the Independent 
James Moore of Wayne township, avIio claims that his father 
John Moore was the second white child born on the territory 
of Greene connty, Abraham Armstrong being the first. The 
original John Moore, was born about fourteen miles from Dub- 
lin, Ireland, about the year from which place he came 

to Greene county about the year 1770, in company with the 
Crawfords and Armstrongs, one of whom Miss Hannah iVi'm- 
rtrong, became the wife of Mr. Moore. After the bii-th oi' 
their first child, John, on Muddy creek, they removed to the 
v/aters of Whiteley, not far from Xewton, on the farm where 
Lindsey Stephens now^ resides. Here en this old homestead 
James Moore, my informant, was born His wife was 
Miss Elizabeth Brown who is in the seventy-sixth year of her 
age. This man had four brothers — Armstrong, Jolin. W.'. 
Abraham and Thomas. He had also three sisters — Eli^^ie, Jane 
and Sally. James Moore seems to be a great reader ; is in his 
pevcnty-sixth year; possesses a good memory; has carefully 
lead the portions of my history published in the Independent, 
and unlike many others, he finds much to approve and nothing 
to condemn. He has passed through all those scenes I have 
described, such as "weddings," "huskings,'' "raisings,"' a!i<! 
'•musters," and thinks the portraits are true to tlie life. How 
'nuch more pleasant to meet persons of this kind than those of 
the opposite description, who in an unmannerly way .approacli 
the historian, exclaiming : "See here, ^Ir., I want to tell you 
of a great mistake you made." After hunting through tht* 
manuscript for a long time thcynt last exclaim : "There i^ is . 


that man had five daughters, and here you have only named 
four." What a pity ! I was really under no obligation to 
name any of them ; but I have got four of their names right, 
and inadvertently omitted the fifth. Good-humored, healthy 
criticism is always invited and cheerfully received and the cor- 
rection made. But this petulent, peevish hunting for matters 
of no possible consequence is by no meaus desirable. On the 
same day at the Allum House, I met Hon. Jesse Phillips, who 
has been attentively reading my history from the first and ex- 
presses his convictions that the statements made are about all 
strictly correct. 

Tke Ackley Family. — On the western line of Greejio 
county adjoining Washington county, has long lived a 
family by the name of Ackley. The ancestor of this family 
was Sarah Ackley, a widow, who came in 1818, and settled on 
the same tract of land that was originally taken up by Williain 
Teagarden, after his disastrous loss of the entire funds ve- 
oeivcd for the sale of his magnificent land which he had taken 
■:i]D on the Monongahela river. The descendants of this old 
lady were Joshua, Daniel, Jehu, Naomi and Eliza. Joshua 
continued to reside on the old homestead until October 1 st, 
1881, when he died. He was a man of considerable promi- 
nence, and was married three times. Plis last wife Ava:^ Mrs. 
Rhoda Litman, originally Miss Rhoda Sturgis, daughter of 
Isaac and Dianna Ross Sturgis, of Fayette county, one of the 
companions of my early school-boy days. One of Joshua 
A-ckley's daughters, Sarah, is now the wife of Robcat Carrel, a 
citizen of Richhill township. Daniel Ackley ;ind his sister 
Naomi live on part of the old homestead farm at the mouth of 
Owen's run, where it forms a junction with l^^nlows fork of 
Wheeling creek. The wife of Daniel was Mrs. Rosanna 
Rockey. Jehu was married to Elizabetli Atoi-, with whom 
he removed to Athens countv, Ohio, manv years as'o. He has 


been dead for several years. Mrs. Khoda Ackley, widow of 
Joshua, and their son Ellsworth, still reside on the old home 
place. The sons of Joshua by a former wife were John, who 
still resides on Owen's run — his wife was jMiss Cliarity Jewell; 
Bichard, who now owns and occupies a part of the old home 
place, married Barbary Lawrence ; James married Anna Pot- 
ter; Avery married ]Mrs. IMary Ellen Craig, daugliter of Dr. 
Simpson, of Washington county, who as his widow still resides 
in the village of Prosperity ; Park is dead ; Elizabeth mariied 
Esquire McCleary, of West Alexander. 

The Quakers of Greene Couxty. — During the decade of 
years between 1770 and 1780, Nathanial Temple emigrated 
i'rom Bucks county, Pa., to Greene county, settled on the farm 
now occu[)icd and owned by Alpheus M. Temple, in what was 
formerly Greene township, now AVhiteley township. He was 
a moiAbcr of the Society of Friends or Quakers (orthodox.) 
His wife vras Miss Mary Beaker. Their children were Heturn,* 
Benj. and John ; their daughters were Sarah, who married Benj. 
Gillett ; Hannah, who married James Morcdock, and still liv- 
ing near Moredock's Cross-roads. The wives of the sons 
were as follows. : Return married Sarah Darr ; Benjamin 
mariied Jane Douglas ; John married Elizabeth Doiigla'^?, 
{two sisters and daughters of Thomas Douglas, of Fayette 
county.) The children of Return Temple were Benjamin, 
Nathaniel and William ; the daughters were Rebecca, Avho 
married John Wise, of IMonongalia Co., Va. ; Mary, who mar- 
ried John Starkey; Sarah, who married Robert Anderson: 
Eliza, Avho married Theadore Wade ; Elizabeth, who married 

Haines, of Monongalia Co., Ya. ; Charlotte, wlio is now 

the wife of Fox. The boys, Benjamin, married Matilda 

*'lhc )inine Kctiirn was given to this boy unckT the following circumstances: TIii; 
piui-iits had made one trip to America and livu.l for some time at 'i'renton, Xew Jersey. 
They tliei returned to Kn'iland, when, after a few years, they ai,'ain started for America. 
AVhile oiitliis voyage this boy wa-- born, hence his name "Return." 


Reaves, now of Iowa ; Nathaniel married Ilenretta Rice ; Wil- 
liam married Eliza Wade, both of Monongalia Co., Va. Ben- 
jamin, son of the ancestor Nathaniel, died without leaving issue. 
John had four children, viz. : Justus F., Alpheus M., Pleasant 
Jane and John. The original settler, Nathaniel, was associated 
in his church relations with the families of Baileys, Gwynns, 
Blakers, Barclays, Crafts, Huftys, etc. Their place of wor- 
ship was on the dividing ridge between the waters of 
Muddy creek and Big Whiteley, where an old grave-yard may 
still be seen, and where the sleeping dust of those primitive 
.settlers still reposes. One of the principle preachers, who 
ministered to these revered saints, was Miss Ruth Graves, 
whose place of residence was in Brownsville. She also minis- 
tered at the Quaker "meeting-house," of Westland. My in- 
formant, General Justus F. Temple, still retnins a vivid recoi- 
lection of this venerable old lady, as she often called at the 
liouse of his father and grand-fallier. The children of Jus'iiio 
F. Temple are Mary E., James B., S. Nevade and Anna Belle. 
The IxGHRAjr Family. — William Inghram resided on Lauri'l 
Run as early as 1812. His wife was Miss Elizabctli Rinc- 
hart. Their sons were Dr. Arthur, Thomas and Willi ;ii:i. 
Their daughters were Margaret, Avho married Hiram PoitLM- ; 
Ollie, who married Armstrong Porter ; Sai-ah C, who mariied 
Solomon Goi'den ; Delila, who married Brice Gordon ; Cassun- 
rlria, who married Madison Bell, and Nancy, who manifi.! 
William Bell. Of the next generation Dr. Arthur mairicl 
Elizabeth Gathers. Their children were Sarah C, who is v.ow 
the widow of Hon. James Lindscy, deceased, and re.-idos uitii 
her mother ; James, Esq., a practitioner at the bar. His ^vS'^' 
was formerly Mary Black, daughter of C. A. Black, Es(|. Eliz- 
abeth is now the wife of Enos Hook ; Lucy is the \-.-iie 
of Prof. H. D. Patton, and Gcoi'ge, \vlio is still single. A 
son, whose name was Wi'.ii.'.m, dii'd many }X'ars ;igi>. .:;;!■« 

TiisTor.Y OF rir.r.r.xr, cc,v:<rr. 2CJ^ 

yonng. Thomas niairicJ Harriet Cia3"ne. Tlicir cliildren 
were William, Alcinda, Tlioraas, Arthur and Luiira. William 
marriod Martha Ilogo. Their cliildren were Frank, James, 
Lizzie, Emma, Margaret and Ollie. I am aware that the above 
is but a partial histoiy of tliis very extensive family, but in 
ihe absence of records it is the best I can do, as I have, as yet, 
met Avith no one whose memory extends back beyond 1812. 
Catholic CHuncii of WaynivSijijikj. — 3ome time previous _^o 
1 he year 1830, some benevolent liersons* in the vicinity of 
Wayiiesburg, contributed a sum sufficient to erect tbe brick 
walls and put under roof a church on Main or High street, 
near the eastern end of the borough. Soon after the above 
date, three brothers, viz. : Andrew, John and Joseph Friedely, 
in company with Dominic Ilass, came to Waynesburg. These 
men were clock makers and clock peddlers by trade and Cath- 
olicf; by profession. They immediately interested themselves 
in behalf of this society, ns they had been accustomed to do in 
ilieir native laud (Germany), contributing liberally of tlioir 
ineaus towards completing the unfinished building, and al>(> 
■;siiig their influence in securing the services of Father Michai.-I 
'r.dfigher, whose re>idc;uc3 was at Brownsville, Fayette county. 
Tiiis m:in seems to have been the first regular priest, who o?.\- 
<-iatcd at this station. He was a missionary on a large circuit 
llion in the Diocese of I'liiladolpliia (which llifii cxerciso-i 
supervision over all the Catholic churches west of the Allegheny 
mountains, until 1843, wjien the Diocese of Pittsburg v.-as 
erected, wiih Father jMichael O'Connor as its Bishop). I'atiior 
Gelagher was succeeded by three brothers, viz.: J.ames. 
Jerome and Dennis Kearnney. Father Hickey, \vho lesidc-x! 
at West Alexander, also niinistereil to this pou])le. Father 
Farren, Nolan, Scanlan and McHugli also minisl'-vod at this 

•,\mon{r these contributors wure Hon. Mark (J'Ttlon, wliu \ ;:•? .i-;o ilrctcfl V!ica': Id 
IS'iT; also Solomon Gordon, who st'il resides on Lniiri'l Uini. 

264 HISTORY OF greene county. 

nltar at diifevent xoeriods of time. During the pastorate of 
Father McHugh, the old edifice Avas torn down, and a neat, 
chaste and modern edifice was erected, which j)resents a good 
appearance on the outside, and is said to be equally as good 
inside. Rev. P. S., Herman, a native of the Sunny Clime of 
Italy, now ministers to the church, which, in addition to those 
already named, has enjoyed the ministrations of Fathers Mc- 
Enroe, Sheehan and Tahaney. 

Part of the McNay Family. — About the year 1800 Jolm 
McNay emigrated from Adams county, Pa., and settled on 
"'Samel's Run," about three miles from the residence of George 
Wisecarver, adjoining farms with the one on which the crazy 
man William McNerlin so long resided. Mr. McNay's soils 
were John, Jr., Smith, Brown and Asa. His daughters were; 
Rebecca, who married Arthur Fleming, Hannah, who manied 
Robert Marshall ; Prissilla died in the sixteenth year of her 
age ; Mary Jane married Dr. Cephas Dodd ; Eliza and Nanc}'- 
Ann are still single. In the year 1836 John McNay, Jr. took 
up his abode in Richhill township, where he had purchased a 
tract of land from old James Burns. In the year 1840 he Avas 
united in marriage with Miss Jane Reed of Washington Co., 
who was a daughter of James Reed, who was for many lojig 
years an Elder in the Presbyterian Church of Upper Tenmiio. 
In the year 1866 Mr. McNay returned to the old homestead in 
Franklin Tp. about three miles north of Waynesburg, and aftcv 
a residence of three years, he removed to the borough whcj-o 
he still resides in the seventy-fifth year of his age. Mrs. Mc- 
Nay's brothers Avere William Reed who is a Presbyterian min- 
ister in Shell City, Mo. John Reed was for many years an 
Elder in the Unity Church, Greene county, and now holds Lho 
same office in the Presbyterian Church of West x\lcxander. 
Mrs. McNay's sisters were Margaret, who married John W'. 
Bradford (his Avidow still resides in Waynesburg). Flannali 


was married to William Montgomery, now of Washington, Pa. 
She has been dead for several years. Smith McNay married 
Jan ! Bell, with whom he removed to Washington County, 
■n here lie still resides. His present wife was Miss Mary Kerr, 
lie has but one child living, who is now the wife of John Po^t, 
of Clay Centre, Kansas. Brown McNay married Rachel IMc- 
Connell, with whom he removed to Washington, Iowa, where 
his wife died. From thence he removed to Mellville, Kansas 
v.-here he died in 1879. J. Reed McNay still resides on th<: 
old homes teafl farm. 

Reminisckxces by J. II. RiNEiiAKT. — I firsL became ac 
quainted witli James Gooden in the year 1819. He was an 
old veteran of the Revolutionary War, and. one of General 
Moi'gan's famous riflemen. He had been wounded twice, and 
was taken prisoner by the British at the battle of Cowpen.^. 
Effecting Ills esL-ape he traveled two daj'-s before reaching the 
Ams'.ic !n army. While with the British he, as well as the 
rest of the captives, was treated very cruelly. One of his fel- 
low prisoner escaped with him, but having one of his hands 
shot off at the wrist joint, the wound had not been dressed, 
and being almost starved to death, he gave out at the close of 
the first day. At the poor fellow's request IMr. Gooden cov- 
ered him over with leaves and left him alone in the wilds of 
the forest. Tliere he probably perished, as that Avas the last 
ever seen or heard of hiui. Another resident of Fi'an.klir. 
townshij), with whom I was acquainted was Henry Churcih, a 
clescendnnt of the Archer fauiily, all of whom had been mur- 
dered by the Indians, save one son aiul one daughter, 'i'lio 
daughter, Mr. Church's motlier, had, however, been scalped 
by the savages, and feigning death, escaped with her life, and 
lived to a good old age and to rear a large family of childie:.. 
After the cruel death of his parents, brothers and sisters, Mr. 
Archer swore veugennce against tlie Indians, and duvi.i.ig the 

2G6 iiiSTOy:\' of o"::r.\"r, oorATV. 

■wliolo jKM'iod of his life Itad but one object ill view — to help 
•leoimate the ranks of the red shinr; inhabiting the frontier .iiiJ 
border liij/^s of civilization. In those terrible d:-.ys the whites 
threw up a fortiTication on Tenmile creek, a short distance 
above where Ja'ues Hook's mill stood, on the Waynesburg side 
of the stream. This was called ''Fort Jackson." My father, 
J()soi>h IJinehart, was an inmate of the fort, and was then 
about five years old. During the time he remained there he 
s;i\v one of his father's brothers, who had been killed about 
two and one-half miles east of Waynesburg, in the valley oJ 
Coalick run, and brought to the fort on horse-back. His Ijody 
v,-as thrown across the back of the horse, after the manner oi 
i-.arrying a sack of grain, and thus was conveyed to his family 
■■'ho were liouoed at the fort. One of the inmates, i-egardlcsi 
Ol the order not to go too far from the fort, crossed the i;;ct'k 
■A short distance bolov/ in search of a cow, and was therf .-;iiot 
a'id scalped by an Imlian. The Indian ran up the hillside, 
shaking the bloody r.v")phy in defiance of the white men"s bul- 
lets, and disappear^:! iiuinirined. This occurred in the year 

Methods At)o:*t-d by thk E\'?ly' Suttlkrs to Ent':;ap 
^VoLVSo. — ■In the year IS 15 many places in the glades xieav 
Carmic aclo. on JiL'.ully ci'eck, still bore evidence of the mctli- 
ods employed by early settlers to entrap wolves. Pits ten t<: 
twelve feet in deplli were digged in the ground and covored 
with rotten poles and rubbi-h, upon wliich woi'C sj)read a layci 
•■>'[ leaves and mos:;. Over this from a pole was suspouded a 
l>:oceof meat. In th.cir efforts to secure the tempting morsel 
l\]v. animals turablod into the pit, and once there v/ere cum- 
i)letely at the mercy of tlicir captors. Another method 
of which I saw traces, was bo erect two scoffolds twelve or 
fourteen feet high and from one-half to three-quarters of a 
mile apart. The Avolf hi^^ter. havii'g thr.s ]irepared for the 

TiiSTOKY OF <;ui:i;m-; cointv. 207 

animals, would rub the soles of his shoes -with asafoetiua and 
tramp from one scaffold to the other. Tiie wolves having 
scented the drug would speedily follow the trail and ''tree" 
the hunter often to their sorrow, as many wolf scalps were se- 
cured by these means. One poor fellow, w^hose name I now 
have forgotten, Avas overtaken by the hungry animals before 
lie reached the other end of his path thr(;ugh the woods, and 
M'as torn to pieces. Some of the forks of these scaffolds v.crc 
yet standing in 1820, and the bark was gnawed and the poies 
scarred by the toeth of the wolves. About this time I rcrnem- 
ijiT of hearing Jnm:'.-; r/r.r-.?;, a mill-wright, tell of the wolves 
having pursued nun in the woods and forcing him to cruob a 
sapling. Unfortunately he ascended rather a small one and- 
tlie ravenous beasts began to gnaw the trunk. He I'emainoil 
till he felt the sapling begin to give, when, ))y great (ilfort,. h;-. 
:r,vung it against a larger tree and got into ii;. JS'-cing lio wn-- 
safe the wolves raised a howl and plunged ijito the di>;)lhb of 
the forest, and left him to desceuil and n'\ake his way home iii 

.\ HicH BUT XovEL PuLiMT. — Li tho sumnicr of 1S:3S a de- 
ranged fellow, by name of Win. McNtirliii, ounie to iho f:,u'n"i 
of AVm. Inghram, in Franklin township, ;uid climbed into the 
t,o|) of a hickory Iree in a fR'ld not far iro:r: tlie house, llr^ 
drew in the toj) branches and withed them together in thu cen- 
ter so as to form a sort of platform, -.viiicii. he moun?ed. 'i'ho 
top of the tvec, Avhich he had fitted u}!, was twonty-rivo or 
thirty feet frinn the ground. Fiom his eievared j)OsiLi(i!i ho 
In'gaii lo jir a -h. IIi[; stentorian voice could be Jicard a long 
way off. Alter cont:n;;ing lai> harangue fr^m early inorn m;- 
li! noon, with no auditoic, though it was on. tin; Sabbatli day, 
MVs. Iiighrani sent an old colored servant with something tor 
ihc would be minister to (at. One of Alc-Ncrlin's peculiaiiiie.s 
was his intoiis;' di'-liko f'^r m'u-i-ocs. Si) \vhcii the negr-- came 

2G8 HisTOr.y of greene county. 

near, the deranged orator abruptly closed his discourse, and. 
Avith an oath, declared he would kill the Ethiopian, as he 
termed him, and began speedily to descend. The old negro 
terribly excited, ran back to the house, declaring "dat man be 
no moll crazy dan I am." The hickory in 1830 remained still 
wiLh its tops withed together as McNerlin had left it. 

Thk IiEES Family. — On the morning of the 4th of Novem- 
b^r, 1882, 1 left the Downey House, in Waynesburg, and 
\valkcd out to the house of William liees, who now owns and 
oLcupies the brick building on the same farm on which Mathew 
'rray was killcc'' by the Indians in the early settlement of this 
'ivounty. I was recieved with the gi'eatest kindness, invited to 
(at breakfast, which I declined in consequence of having al- 
ready breakfasted. From the family I recieved the following 
information : William Rees settled on what is generally 
i^alled the Keighley farm, about the year 1790. His sons 
\vere John, Abraham, James, Joseph and William. His daugh- 
t -rs were Charity, who married Obadiah Vancleve ; Polly mar- 
ried Peter Brown ; Catharine married George Moore, and Cas- 
-ie remained single. John had two sons — John and William. 
His only daughter, Nancy, married Samuel Throckmorton, 
who was killed by lightning. William Rees, my informant, 
was inari-ied about twenty-five years ago to Lucy Zollars, 
'daughter of Neal Zollars. She was raised on what is usually 
called tue Conkey farm. Their children are Frank and Alberv. 
The brothers and sisters of Mrs. Rees are Richard, Earner, 
Emalinc, Libby and JMargarot. Ella Bennington now resido'« 
ill this family. When I had obtained this history, Mr. Hill 
came along, from whom I obtained at least a partial history 
vtf that family. 

The Hii.L Family. — This is one of the old Greene county 
families, Samuel Hill having settled on the same farm wliero 
his dcsconda:it-; still reside, lu-ar Hills' school-house, in the year 



1789. His wife was Elizabeth Gathers, an aunt of Mrs. Ehza- 
beth Inghrani. The sous of Samuel and Elizabeth Hill were 
Thomas, William, Corbly, Jesse aud Samuel. Theii- daughters 
were Naucy, who married Jacob Smith (now residing near 
Sycamore Station); Margaret married Morford Tlirockmorton; 
Mary manicl J(phn Moore ; Samuel married Hannah Hill 
(daughter of Rees Hill) ; Thomas uiarried Xancy Roseberry ; 
William married Margaret Milliken ; Corbly married Hannah 
Porter ; Jesse married Maria Hoskinson ; Elizabeth married 
Jotliam Jennings. I was now reaJy to pass on to the new 
,-,nd beautiful brick house of Jonas Ely where I obtained from 
ills wife the following history of that family: 

The Ely Fa:mily. — Jonas Ely Avas of German descent; was 
raised in wl;at is nov.- Schuylkill Co., Pa.; came to Washington 
rounty in 1810; was drafted as a soldier in 1812 ; wasmaiTied 
;oMiss Euphen Wilson. Their children were James, George, 
Jonas, Caleb and John. Elizabeth married Miller Andrew ; 
Ixancy married Danit'l Tlirockmorton ; James married Malissa 
(JJlemens ; George married IMary Warrick; Jonas married Eli- 
zabeth Hill (my informant) ; Caleb married Elizabeth Patter- 
-on ; John died single in his thirty-fifth year. The children 
■){ Jonas Ely, Jr. and Elizabeth Hill his wife, are William Hill, 
Jonas, Belle, Avho married J. M. Funk ; William married Mattie 
Loar ; Jonas married Alice Sanders. 

Smiths. — Leaving the house of Mr. Ely, I persucd my way 
across the second bridge to the house of llev. Thomas B. 
Smith, from whom I obtained the following facts in reference 
to this one branch of the numerous family of Smiths : Thos. 
Smith immigrated from near Chambcrsburg, Pa., about 178!!. 
His wife Avas INIary Williams. Their first settlement was oii 
Smith Creek, and from their cabiu homo they Avere often 
compelled to flee and take refuge in Fort Jackson. Hei-e thc^y 
raised a large family, several living to a great age. Thenamca 


of tlieir sons Avere John, I^azil, Vincent, Natlianiel, Thomas 
and Hugh. Their daughter Martha never married; Hannah 
niai-ried Thomas Porter ; Olive married Thomas Kent ; Mary 
remains single ; Sarah married James Smith (no relation) ; Jno. 
married Jane Hamilton, and died at the age of ninety-two 
years ; Bazil married Elizabeth Staggers, and died at eighty- 
eight years of age ; Vincent married Elizabeth Bell, and still 
lives in Jackson Township in the ninety-second j^earof his age. 
N"athaniel married Lydia Smith, and died in the seventy-eight 
year of his age. Thomas married Catharine Johnston and 
(lied at about fifty years of age. Hugh never married, and 
died in the eighty-seventh year of his age; Sarah is still living 
and is near eighty-seven years old. The sons of Vincent were 
John, Hiram, Jason, Hng-h, Josiah and Thomas B. '''ny infor- 
mant). Of the davTghters Eliza remained sing-Ie ; Sarah is dead; 
IMargai-et is still single ; Mary married William Kent and is 
(load. The children of Rev. Thos. B. are Corbly Vincent, wha 
ii'.arried Agnes Oi-ndoff ; Sarah C. married Porter Lough ; El 
miradeclines telling whom she intends to marry and consequent- 
ly she and her brothers — Morton G., John C, Melvin O., and 
liiimer C. — still remain with their parent'^, and are now busily 
ejigaged in building an elegant new house. The mother of 
these children Avas Miss Mary Fordyce, a niece of old Justus 
Forilyce, a man whom I have often seen nearly fifty years ago. 
as he passed along through Fayette county following the nu- 
merous di'oves of fine stock that he was accustomed to pur- 
chase and drive. Her sisters were Eliza A., Elizabeth, Henri- 
etta, Jane and Sarah Ellen. Her brothers were Garrard, Joab 
B,, John J., Corbly, Homer C. and Joseph B. I now persued 
my way up the South Fork of Tenmile creek, called at the old 
Buchanan farm, but finding no one to give me information, I 
Avnlked on until I reached the new house occupied by Charle.s 
Adamson. This buililiMg is said to be almost in the center of 



the county, botli in its length and width, not deviating forty 
rods cither "way. Young Adainson referred me to his father 
as being much more captdjle of infoi'ming me. A walkof threc= 
fourths of a mile brought mo to tie old homestead where I 
obtained the following : 

TiiK Adamsox Family. — Tlioma«! Adamson was of English 
■descent, was raised near Philadelphia, removed to Greene county 
.about 1787, His first scttlcmeut was on the farm on which 
Samuel Braden, son of Judge Eraden, now resides. His wife 
was Miss Eagon. Their children were John, James, Bar- 
net, Joseph, Charles and Josiah. The daughters were Mary, 
who married Mr. Gary; Gassandiia, who married Uriali 
Eagon ; Sarah married Jesse Eice ; Debba married Samuel 
Mickle. John married a Smith ; James married a Smith ; Jo- 
seph concluding his brothers had done Avell, also married a 
Smith. My informant had forgotten the christian names oi 
these three ladies. Gharles married Sarah Hatfield and Josiah 
married Elizabeth Hatfield. The sons of Charles were Thomas, 
Stephen II. John, Enos,'' Smith and James. The daughter-; 
were Elizabeth, Letta, Sarah Ann, Stephen II., my informant, 
married ^Mary Grouse. His sons were James and Charles. 
The former resides with his father, while Charles lives throe- 
fourths of a mile l>elow at the centci' of the county. 

The Church Faaiily. — About noon I arrived at the hospli;:- 
ble home of John Church., near Rogersville, Avhere I was treated 
to a good dinner, for which I had a good appetite, from the 
fact that I had walked all the way from Waynesburg i1:.jt 
morning and helped to extinguish a fire in a burping house 
at the old town of Clinton through Avhich I passed. After 
dinner I was permitied to coj)y one of the most remarkable 
records that I have yet met with, which is as follows : '■ITor.- 
ry Church was born in 1779. He came to Greene county while 
yet a small boy, and lived almost all his manhood days on iho 


'iame tract of land now owned and occupied by Lis son John. 
The next name on tins record is Jane Arclier, tlie first wife 
.■>f old Mr. Church, whose ancestors had almost all been slaugh- 
tered by the merciless Indians — born February 20, 1778. The 
aext name is Sarah Rinehart, the second wife, born December 
15, 1786 ; Jane Church, March 22, 1797 : Elizabeth Church, 
rVugust 17, 1799 ; George Church, born October 5, 1801 ; Jane 
Gliurch, born October 8, 1803 ; Henry Church, born January 
9. 1805; Sarah Church, born May 22, 1807; Elijah Church, 
!>oru August 20, 1809; Elisha Church, born August 22, 1809. 
These boys were evidently twins, and were named for the two 
famous old Projdiets. Jesse Cluu'ch was born August lo, 
1812. Nancy Church was born March 11, 181C. These per- 
^0!!S v/ere brothers, sisters, wives, and children, of old Henry 
nnd his first wife, Jane Archer. The children of this saufe 
old man, by his second wife, Sarah Einehart, M^cie as follows: 
Ruth, born January 18,1818 ; William, born December 5, 1819: 
Rinehart B., born March 29, 1821 ; Delila, born July 9, 1824 : 
John Church, born November 21, 1826 ; Elizabeth, August 2, 
1831. The wife of John Church was Miss Elizabeth Fordyco, 
who furnished Rev. S. Young and myself with a good dinner, 
after which Ave started out in search of the history of the town 
of Rogersville, which is about as follows: John Ilodgers pur- 
chased the mill in the year 1835. The lots were part of the 
large tract of land which Henry Church owned and formerly 
belonged to John Craig. The building commenced in 1815. 
Alexander Black and Hiram Black, purchased lots nos. 1 and 
2, fi'om Henry Church during his life time. Zadok Gordon, 
pui'chased the first lot sold by the widow. It now contains 
two stores, one cabinet shop and undertaker establishment, one 
planing mill, one saw mill and one grist mill, one smith shop 
and one carriage shop. A magnificent bridge, built of iron, spans 
the entire creek without a pier. Near the upper end of the 


town stands a neat, tasty church, belonging to the Protestant 
Methodist denom'.nation. This house was built in the year 
1874. But the organization of the society was affected about 
1837. The officiating Ministers at the organization were Peter 
T. Lashlie and John Clark. The succeeding Ministers were 
James Hopwood, William Munhall. Revs. Sutton, Curry, Lucas 
and Young, have at different times ministered to this peopI<\ 
Widow Naxcv Throckmorton. — I left the house of Joli!; 
Church in company with Rev. Young, who kindly furnished 
me a seat in his buggy. After driving one mile we came to 
the residence of the late Samuel Throckmorton, who was 
killed by lightning on the 28th of July, 1881. The circum- 
stances were about these : He and four of his sons were 
busily engaged in the harvest lield. Near noon a cloud was 
seen rising, but no danger was apprehended until the big- 
drops began to fall, when all parties started for the house. 
The old man inserted his fork in a. bunch of hay and lifted it 
on his shoulder as a protectiou against the rain. He had 
reached the brow of a small bluff over against his lioiise, when 
suddenly the whole heavens seemed on tire and a most terrific 
peal of thunder for the time lieing stunned all parties, who on 
recovering discovered that their iiumber had been depleted by 
one. The electric shaft had descended in the immediate vicin- 
ity of Mr. Throckmorton, when the steel tines of the fork, 
,icting as a conductor, conveyed the electric fluid to his bod)'. 
Death seems to have been instantaneous. Great was the sor- ^ 
row over this bereavement, and great Avas the concourse of 
people at the funeral on the following Sabbath day, when thf 
widow and eight children followed ilie co)-pR(; to its last resting 
place in Greene Mount Cemetei-y. Rev. W. D. Slease an<s 
Rev. G. H. Huffman of the IMctij*"!!.-*;. chnrcb and Dr. Frascr 
of the Presbyterian church, oflicMated at his funeral. The sui- 
tivors of hU family are as follows : yir^. "NTanov Throckmorto:; 



is a daughter of Joliu llees, deceased. Her marriage took 
place on the 25 th of July, 1845 ; EHzabeth is the wife of Jas. 
Hmith. She was born May 3, 1847 ; Margaret is the wife of 
Morgan Ross, and was born April 29, 1849 ; William Spencer 
married Amanda Cross, and was born Nov. 10, 1851 ; John 
Rees was born September 29, 1854 ; Samuel James married 
Carrie lams, was born October 16,185G. Thomas Morf or d was 
))orn Oct. 6, 1858 ; Albert Brownson was born September 17. 
1860 ; Charles was born March 8, 1862. Leaving the house of 
Mrs. Throckmorton, we persueJ oiu' way up the South Fork, 
-tlirough Entail, of which I propose to give a more par- 
ticular account hereafter. We stopped at the house of Acke- 
^on Ross, who was not at home, and consequently, I received 
11,0 history here. Finally, we arrived at the house of William 
S. Carter, who is a son of John Carter, a native of Scotland, 
who immigrated to America some sixty years ago and settled in 
"iV'ashington county. Pa., came to Greene count}'- many years 
ugo. The brothers of John were .Tames and Andrew. Their 
sisters were Ellen, Margaret and Agness. John married Han- 
nah Shearer ; Margaret married John Allison ; Agness mar- 
A'ied David G. Braddock, while James, Andrew and Ellen re- 
mained single. The sons of John Carter were John Whittim, 
' Vndrew, William Shearer and James Hem-y (young). The 
daughters were Violet, Mary and Hannah Jane. John Whit- 
tim, Andrew and Hannah Jane died young. William Shear- 
er married Louisa J. Porter, daughter of Dr. Porter, dec'd. 
Mary marrietl M. Crow Braddock, James Henry married 
Anna Jewel, while Violet still remains single. The children 
of Margaret Allison were Hugh, Violet, John C, and Andrew. 
The cliildren of Agness Braddock are Violet C, By3;on M. and 
John C. Byron M. married Adda C. lams ; John C. married 
Bell Eugene Alley ; Violet still remains single. William S.'-^. 
children nrc Wm. P.. ^^l.irN Tv.ifin- (Kr.t-V J.S.,.Ja^. and Carlir-. 

iiiSTOUY OF <;ui:knk «joi:nty. 2<o 

Braddocks. — A short distance below John Carter's, on CraS 
Apple Uiin, has long resided David G. Braddock, Avho was 
bom on the 9th of May, 1807. His first wife was Susan Crow, 
a neiee of those unfortunate girls who were slain by the Indi- 
ans. The children of this couple were Frank, Nancy, M. Crow. 
Newton, Anna, David, Margaret, and Jacob. Frank married 
Mariah J. Porter. Their children are Evaline and Franlv 
Sherman. Nancy died in the 19th year of her age. Crow 
married Mary Carter. Their only child was '-Jen" V. Ne^v■- 
ton married Jane Burns. Their children are Lizzie N. and 
David G. Anna married W. S. Rickey. Their children were 
Sadie E. and Dora. David married Lou Henderson. Their child 
is Joseph Harvey. Margaret died in the lOth year of her age. 
,'acob married Margaret Cook. Their child is Laura. 

DuuBixs. — About one and a- half miles below David 
Braddock's for many long years has resided the family of the / 
Durbins. The original settlers consisted of four men, viz: 
Stephen, Edward, Thomas and Benjnmin. The children of 
Stephen were Joseph, Andrew and Stephen. Jr.; also two 
daughters, Mariah and Sarah Jane. Edward manied IVIatiida 
Finch. Their children were Lucy and Ellen. Thomas married 
Hannah HughoH. Their children were Jaiocs, Thomas, Lucy 
and Hester Jane. Benjamin married Nancy Parnel. Their 
children were Thomas, Benjamin, Jane, Tluth, Salh^ Amy, 
Polly, Nancy and Betty. Joseph (of Steplien) married Polly 
Durbin, his cousin. Their children were Lucinda, Nancy Jane, 
Lindsey, James, Sally and Belle. Andrew (of Stephen) married 
^IMartha Bane. Their children were David, Andrew, Frank, 
and Lib. Stcjdien (of Stephen) married Nancy Throckmorton. 
I{o was killed by a burning tree falling on him. Their chil- 
dren were Jane and INIary. Mariah remained single. Sarali 
Jane married Enos Gillctt. Lucy (of Edward) remained single, 
so far as is known. I'^Jlcn manied .Afr. .Vslibrnok. Boniamin 


(of Thomas) married Polly Dinsmore. Their children were 
Mary Ann, J. Harvey, Elizabeth Jane, Thomas, William 
and Ackison. James (of Thomas) married Lucretia Nuce. 
Their children were George, Oliver, Alonzo, James, Frank, 
Thomas, Leoline, Jefferson and Willis. Thomas (of Thomas) 
married Cassy Pettit. Their children were Hughes, Jane, 
Hannah Ann, et al. Lucy (of Thomas) married George Rail, 
Their children were Thomas, Samuel, Hannah, Cassy, James, 
William, Benjamin, David, Mary Jane, George et al. Hester 
Jane remain single. 

Lazears. — Decending Crabapple run a short distance fur- 
ther we arrive at the old Leazer farm which was so long occu- 
jiied by Thomas Leazer, Esq., who acted as Justice of the 
Peace for qviite a number of years, and united in marriago 
;;)ore couples than any other person in this section of the county. 
Kis children were Gen. Jesse, of whom I have already written 
-everal things and whose history is so well known to the peo- 
;»h^,of this county that any addition here must needs be regarded 
as a superfluity. Frank who married Mary Crow — another 
niece of those murdered girls who were the victims of savage 
cruelty. Their children were Jesse, Jr., Nancy, William, 
-Michael, John McClusky and Mary. Jesse, Jr., married Alice 
Throckmorton, sister of Dr. William. Their children were 
ALary, Fanny and William, Nancy married John Throckmor- 
ion. Their children, when they removed west, were Thomas 
and Frank ; the names of the remainder are not known. Will' 
iam married Nancy Jacobs, but had no children. Michael 
went to Sacramento Valley, Cal.; John McClusky died while 
single ; Mary married Porter McNay, and they have several chil- 
dren, whose names I could not learn. Sally married Matthew 
Gray. Their children were Hannah, Thomas, Ellis, John, Lib, 
Leander and Fanny. Hannah married William Laughridge. 
Thomas married Hannah Barnhart. Ellis died single. John 



■went "West yet single. Lib married William Phillips. The 
names of some of their children were Sadie and Maiy. Lean- 
der and Fanny went west while single. 

Dark Day. — On the 27th of October, 1882, it was so dark in 
some parts of Greene county, from 1 to 4 o'clock, p. At., that 
lamps were lighted and chickens went to roost. Some persons 
were alarmed, but it was only those who had not been living 
right. Such things have previously occurred, viz: on the 21st 
of October, 1761, October 19th, 1762, and May 19, 1780. 

J. S. Hertig. — While walking the streets in Waynesburg on 
the morning of November 2, 1882, my attention Avas attracted 
by the sign "J. S. Hertig, Dentist." I entered the building 
•and was surprised to find myself recognized and called by 
name by a man whose ancestors I had known in Fayette coun- 
13% near half a century ago. His father, John G. Hertig. was 
•I native of France, and emigrated to America in the year 182^. 
Free schools had no existence in the State of Pennsylvania at 
that day, and as Mr. Hertig was a very fine scholai-. ho wa>^ 
almost immediately engaged as a school teacher in George >= 
township, Fayette county. Pa. (This township derived its 
name from Col. George Wilson, grand-father of Lawrenco 
Minor, Esq.. of Waynesburg). Here Mr. Ilertig became a 
kind of stereotyped instructor. He Avas also an ardent poli- 
tician on the Democratic side. I heard him make, several 
speeches in 1840 in opposition to "Tipecanoe and Tyiei" too. ' 
His wife was Miss N. S. Showalter, daughter of Jnse])h Show- 
alter, from whom the "Waynesburg dentist lakes liis name. J. S. 
Hertig came to "Waynesburg in 1867 where he boon very 
successful in his profession, with one single drawback on his 
happiness, namely, that his wife has been an invalid for aboni 
fourteen years. This lady is a daughter of WilHain Scott, of 
Morris' Cross Roads, Fayette county, Pa. This fan:ily I was 
acquainted with tliirty years ago. 

278 TiisTOT^Y OF <;t:ki:nk cottxty. 

Commission Dopket. — Throngli the kindness of W. W. Pat- 
terson, the present Register of Greene county, I was put in 
possession of the old Commission docket, in which I find the 
following conmiissions : 

1. To Jolm Boreman and John Minor, nutliori/ing tliem to 
administer oaths of allegiance and office. This commission is 

. granted by Thomas Mifflin, Governor of Pennsylvania, and 
countersigned by A. J. Dallas, &ecrulejy oi" ilie Common wealth; 
and dated March 17, 170G. 

2. The Bond of John Boreman for sixteen hundred pounds- 
sterling, to which is attached the names of James Carmichael, 

• William Crawford and Charles Anderson, dated April 23, 1700. 

3. A commission from the same source authorizing -Jolm 
Boreman to act as Clerk of the Cc-rt z' Cz.::::.- Tliz.r, 1" j.l: 
of Court of Quarter Sessions, Oyer and Terminer. Also. IvV'- 
'•onler of wills and granting letters of administration and 
I't'corder of deeds. 

4. A Commission to John Minor, from Thomas MitHin. an- 
tlioiizing Minor to act as Associate Judge in the county o( 
<ircene. This commission was recorded on the 13th day of 
•Tuly, 1796, at which date Judge Minor was sworn into oilice by 
John Boreman, Prothonotar y . 

."). A commission from the same source to John Flenniken, 
appointing him Associate Judge, dated at Philadeli:»hia, March 
17. 1790. This man was sworn into office on the 13th of July, 
1790, by John Boreman, Prothonotary. 

0. A commission to John Badolet, authorizing him to act as 
one of the Associate Judges in the county. This commission 
was examined and approved and Mr. Badolet inducted into tlie 
office on the 23d of April, 1790, by John Boreman and John 

7. On the 9Qi day of March, 1790, a commission is granted 
to Thomas Sedgwick as Justice of the Peace. This commis- 

insTonv OK onF.r.xK pot-xtv, 


sion is signcrl hj Governor Thomas ]MifHiii on the '21st day of 
March, 179G: sworn in on the IHth of July, 1796. 

9. On the 9th of Marcli, 1700, a commission was granted to 
William Lee as a Justice of the Peace. This took the 
oath of fidelity to su])port the constitution of the United States 
and of the State of rcnnsylvania, before John Boreman and 
John Minor, on the 13th of July, 1796. 

10. A commission was gi-anted on the KJlh of Apiil, 1796, 
to William Soaton, authorizing him to act as Justice of the 
Peace, and he was inducted into office on the 2d day of August 
of the same year. 

The first deed put on record in Greene county is dated July 
■J.>. 1796, and is between John Holton and Lydia his wife, of 
C'luuherland towu-hi}) and Abraham Scott of Greene townslii]!, 
ior a tract of land which was ]>atented on the oth of A[)rii 
1 796, and named "Ilolton's Pleasant," situated on the waters 
1. J" Little AVhiteley, containing 397f acres, with common allow- 
iinc. The coiisidciation money mentioned is two hundred 
and eighty ouiids, Pennsylvania currency. This deed is ac- 
knowledged before Sajiuicl Hyde, on the 25th day of July, 
1 796, and is recorded on t'lc 3d of August of the s.amc year by 
.'olin Ijoieman. 

The iirst IMorlgage admitted to record in this county is dated 
August 13, 1796, and is between James Farney, of Cumber- 
land towiiGlii[) and Alexander Jamison of the same place. It 
is given to secure the pnyment of twenty i)Ound.s, "good mo- 
ney." The amount of land covered by the mcilgagc is five 
and one-half aei'cs. 

Througli tl'.e kindness of .T. C. Garrard, who is at present 
Clerk of the Court, and who is also a groat -gi and son of Kev. 
Corbley, whose family was slaughtered by the Indians in 1782, 
I was put in possession of the old records of the Orphans" 
Court, in which I find tlie folIowin<x, viz: 

280 HISTORY OF guki:kk countv. 

An Orphans' Court was held at the house of Jacob Kline on 
Muddy creek', in and for the county of Greene, on the 2d day 
of January, 1797, before Hon. Alexander Addison, Esq. and 
his Associates. "No proceedings." These associates were 
John Minor and John Flenniken. Another term of the Or- 
])hans" Court was held at the same place on the 3d day of 
-\pril, 1707 before the same Judges at which the following bu- 
siness was transacted, viz : On petition of Betty Carmichael, 
Administratrix and Samuel Hyde Administrator of the estate 
of James Carmichael, dec'd, setting forth that the said James 
Carmichael in his life time, laid out a town on the Avaters of 
Muddy creek in Cumberland township, in the count}' of Greene. 
A number of the lots in the town have been sold, but many 
yet remain undisp)0sed of. The petitioners therefore p>ray the 
Court to order the sale of the reiuaining lots, and among other 
reasons they state that there is nut sufficient i)ersonal estate 
to pay all the debts and educate the children of the intestate, 
ccc. The Court ordered the sale. The same Judges presided 
in all the Courts held at the house of Jacob Kline, and also at 
t he old log Court house in Waynesljurg until the si>;th day of 
September, 1802, when Judge Addison seems to have iield 
Ids last Court. 

On the 4th of March, 1803, an Or))]ians' Court was held which 
was presided over by John Minor and the other Associates. 

On the 6th day of June, 1803. an Orphans" Coxu't was held in 
Waynesburg, when I find the name of Hon. Samuel Roberts 
api)earing for the ilrst time as the second Law Judge of this 
Judicial District. Part of the business of tliis session was 
hearing the petition of William Thomas, a minor, asking the 
Court to appoint Martha Vanmeter (his grand- mother) Ids 
guardian. This woman was then the widow of Henry Vanmeter, 
deceased. Part of the business transacted at the session of 
the Orphans' Court held on the .')th of December. 1803, -\\ as 


acting on the petition of William Seaton praying the Court to 
appoint some proper person as guardian of Margaret E. Car- 
michael and William S. Carmiciiael, minor children of James 
Carraichael, deceased, "whereupon the Court appointed William 
Seaton and Josias Lowrie, said guardians. An Orphans' 
Court was held on the 27ih of Januarj'^, 1812, which was pre- 
sided over by John Minor and David Gray. Judge lloberts 
presided in all the Courts of Greene county, up to the fourtli. 
I\Londay of August, 1818, when agreeably to the record, his 
last Court here was held, for on the 21st day of December, 
1818, the name of Hon. Thomas H. Baird appears for the first 
lime as a law Judge in the records of Greene county. Tliis 
jnan I have often seen in Uniontown when I was quite a hoy, 
but his image is yet before the eye of my mind, as well as his 
quick nervous voice as he delivered his charge to a jury. Tlie 
old voluran ends with June term, 1832, leaving Judge i^aird 
still on the bench. He was a son of Dr. Absolem Baird, a 
prominent citizen of the town of Washington m the early t 
of this century. 

Thus far, June 20, 1831, these old records have been kept 
by W. T. Hays, Esq. 

PuEsioEXT JuDGKs. — Hon. Alexander Addison was aj.poiut- 
ed on the 22d of September, 1791, as law Judge in the district 
enibriuin^- the counties of Washington, Fayette, Westmorland 
and Allegheny. When Greene county was erected, in 179G, his 
prerogratives were enlarged, so as to include the Courts of this 
county, during the first seven years of its existence. On tlio 
2d day of June, 1803, Hon. Samuel Eoberts was appointed in 
the district composed of the counties of Washington, Fayette 
Greene and Beaver. This position was held by him until the 
appointment of his succsssor, Hon. Tho mas II. Baird, on the 
19th of October, 1818. The lines of tlie Judicial district were 
again changed so that Judge Baird ]>rcsidcd over the counties 


of Washington. Greene, Fayette and Somcrsst, nntil superceded 
by Hon. Natlianiel Evving of Uniontown, avIio was appointed 
on the 28th of February, 1838, over tbe district composed of 
the counties of Washington, Fayette and Greene. All these 
President Judges, as well as their numerous Associates, held 
their positions under the Constitution of September 2d, 1790, 
previous to which time justice bad been administered by men 
not graduated in law wiio discharged their duties under the 
provisions of the Constitution of .Se2:)teniber 28, 1776. Among 
the presiding Justices I find the names of Hon. Henry Taylor 
and Hon. Dorsey Penticost. The new Constitution of 1838 
provided that one-half of the commissions of those Judges 
who had held oflicc for ten j-ears previous to its adoption* 
should expire on tlie 27th of Februr.ry, 1839. As Judge E\v- 
ing had only just cntci'cd upon the duties of his ofiice at the 
lime the Constitution came into ojioratiou, its provisions did 
not affect his CDuunission and ho held over until February, 
1848. These two Judges, Baird and Ewing, I have often 
seen. The constitution of 1838 affected a radical chnnge in 
the mode of seating Judges on the bench. Previous to that 
time the Judiciary luid been considered above and independent 
of tlie peo})le. But now the offices wore taken out of the hands 
of the Governor, and he was restrained from commissioning 
any Judge who had not previously been elected by the ballots 
of the voters of the district over wliich he was to preside. 
Under this arrangement, Hon. Samuel A. Gilmore, prcAdously 
of Butler county, was commissioned on the 28th of February, 
1848 ; was reelected on the 11th of October, 1851, and com- 
missioned for ten j^cars. At the expiration of this time, on the 
nth day of October. 1861, Hon. James Lindsey, one of Greene 
county's own sons, was elevated to this joosition the duties of 
which he discharged to the admiration of not only the 
citizens of his own nalixo (•.lnnt^ . Init .-ilso of those of th*^ 


otlier counties of the district, Fayette and Washington. But 
although only a young man in the prime of life he suddenly 
sickened and died after having filled the position a little over 
three years. On the 9th of January, 1865, Hon. J. Kennedy 
Ewing, of Uniontown, was commissioned and held a few Courts 
in the counties of "Washington, Greene and Fayette, then 
composing the Judicial district, from which Washington 
county was taken off, and in 1806 was connected with Beaver 
county under the Presidency of their Honors B. B. Chamber- 
lain, Alex. W. Achesonand George S. Hart. On the 17th of 
i^ecember, 1874, Hon. A. E. Willson, of Fayette county, wa^ 
constitutedPrcsident Judge in all the Courts of Greene count}', 
which position he still tills at this writing, near the close of 
1 882, with dignity and integrity. 

Associate Judges. — AUhough the territory now constitu- 
liiig Greene county, was created as an intrcgal part of Wash- 
ington county, in 1781, yet no Associate Judges seem to have 
')een commissioned for about ten years, when as though to 
make amends for lost time, four were created on the same day, 
April 16, 1791, when Henry Taylor, James Edgar, James Alli- 
son and Matthc^w Piitcliie, were appointed to this j)Osition, and 
consequently up to 1796, belonged to this part of the united 
i-ounty as much as the other. John Minor and John Flenni- 
ken were the two persons who occupied this position, first in 
the new county. Soon cAtev this the name of John Badolet 
makes his a,p[iOii;ancc; on llio records. In the minutes of the 
Orphans' Court I !in(l ti;e iitiino of David Gray. Esq., appear- 
ing for the tiist time as an Associate Judge, on the 27th of 
January, 1812. The pic:;cnt Associate Judges are Hon. Silas 
Barnes and Hon. Jesse PhilHi)s. 

Among the prominent sons of Greene county who have risen 
from obscurity to notoriety, under forbid ding circumstances' 
few were more so tliau Avtlmr Itiolnam Borcman, wlio wn» 

284 nisTOT^Y OF grkfai: coirxTY. 

born in an old log cabin near the old Court house on tlie corner 
of Greeu street and Whiskey alley in Waynesburg. This man 
is a son of John Boreman, who was conaniissloned by Governor 
Mifflin, in 1796, as Prothonotary, Register and Recorder. 
This young man studied law and became a leading member of 
the bar at Parkersbnrg, West Virginia : was elected to a seat 
in the Virginia Legislature previous to the war ; was present 
when the preliminary discussions with regard to secession 
arose, in which he took an active part. He was President of 
the convention that consumated the Act of Separation of West 
Virginia from the old parent State. Of this new State lie was 
elected Governor in 1863. Tliese statements I have from Rev. 
Young who has for several years past been a renident of that 

A CoLLECLiox ov Oli) Mex. — I find it stated in a late nuii<- 
her of the Waynesburg McssenQcr, over the signature of A. Pat- 
■Lon (who I suppose is the State Senator elect), that ou the 
9th of November, 1882, Abraham Burson celebrated his eighty- 
eighth birtli day on the same farm on which he was born, be- 
ing the same locality on which his father Edward Burson set- 
tlced over one hundred years ago, and where' he raised a fam- 
ily of eleven children, all of whom are dead except Abraham. 
On the above named day twelve old men, several of wlion;. 
were octogeiiarions, were present, their names and ages being 
as follows : Abiaham Burson, 88; Benjamin Craft, 86 ; D.-u.i- 
iel Turner, 82 ; Perry Bayard, 81 : Ruben Teagarden, 7G; J as. 
Shannon Kerr, 74; Jas. C. Hawkins, 74; Jacob Sliape, 7-J : 
Thomas Ross, 72 : Samuel Bnrr, 70 : Cejihas Caiy, 70, and 
Edward Burson, 69. How many things connected with such 
an assemblage of old men may be considered both painful and 
pleasing. How pleasing to think that twelve men, who have 
lived neighbors for four-score years, are permitted once more to 
meet amidst such pletsa-it, >urronnding-;. What comjiarisoiis 


would those oltl veterans institute between the sumptuous din- 
ner to which they sat down on this occasion and the plain 
homely meals to which they were accustomed 70 yeai's ago. 
15 lit how painful on the contrary to reflect that in all probabil- 
ity this was their last earthly meeting ; and how painful and 
lonely the feeling, that of the companions of their youth nearly 
all are gone — they might well have engaged in singing as a 
parting hymn, 

"We a little longer wait, 
But how little none can know. 

Members of Congress. — Albert Galatin seems to have been 
the first man who represented Greene county in the National 
Legislature, to which position he was elected in 1798 ; the dis- 
trict being then composed of the counties of Allegheny, Wash- 
ington and Greene. In 1801 Wm. Hoge was elected to repre- 
sent Greene, Allegheny, Washington and Crawford counties. 
The district was then altered and Washington and Greene coun- 
ties were separated until 18.'^2, -when John L. Dawson was 
elected as Representative for ±'''ayette, Greene and Washing- 
ton. In 18o-i Jonathan Knight represented the same district 
in Congress. In 1856 William Montgomeiy was sent to the cap- 
ital as the Representative from the same district composed of 
Washington, Greene and Fayette counties. In 18G0 Jesse 
Lazeav, one of Greene count}' 's own sons, became her Repre- 
sentative in the halls of Congress. He also represented Fay- 
ette and Washington counties. The district was again changed 
so as to embrace Washington, Greene, Beaver and Lawrence 
counties. George V. Lawrence was elected in 1864 to repre- 
sent this new district. In 1868 J. B. Donley, another of 
Greene county's sons, was selected as the representative of 
the same counties. Morgan R. Wise represented this district 
in Congress in the sessions of 1875 — 6. This man "was born 
in Greene county, June 7, 1830; graduated at Waynesburg 
College in 1856. is :u ])rcsont engaged in farming and genera] 



business." Jacob Turner represented the twenty-first district 
in tlie 45tb Congress in the years 1877 — 8. Charles E. Bo/lc 
was elected Nov. 7, 1882. 

So3iE OF THE Members of the State Legislature. — Greene 
county is at present (1882) j^art of the fourteenth Judicial 
district, composed of Fayette and Greene. She is also a part 
of the fortieth Senatorial district, composed of the same coun- 
ties. She is also a part of the twenty-first Congressional dis- 
trict, composed of Westmorland, Greene and Fayette counties. 
Some of the men avIio have represented her in the State Leg- 
islature are as follows : John Flenniken and John Minor were 
among the very fi.rst men who rejiresented this county af tei- 
its erection, the latter had, as a representative of the united 
county, taken a very active part in securing the separation of 
this from the western portion of the original county of Wash- 
ington. Maxwell McCaslin was a member of the State Sen- 
iite about the middle of the nineteenth century, i have often 
Kcen this man, and as he was one of those poor boys who rose 
up from obscurity, I will furnish a s ketch of his history near 
the close of this volumn. James W. Hays was a member of 
vhe Senate at a later day. He was born in Waynesburg on 
"lie 2lst day of December, 1817; educated in the common 
•Schools; learned the profession of editor; was collector of 
tolls on the Pennsylvania canal in 1850; and is at present en- 
gaged in merchandising at Graysville, Pa. Among the mem- 
bers of the House of Representatives in 1878, I find the name 
(<f Morgan R. Wise, who was at a later day a member of Con- 
gress. On the 7th of November, 1882, Dr. A. Patton was 
elected to the State Sanate, and Andrew Lantz as representa- 
tive in the lower house of the Legislature. 

Old Messengers. — In c6nnectic=n with the history of newH- 
papci'g I v/isli to insert, si least a sjncpsis, of the news con- 
tained m two copies of this ^•enorabio journal ; one is dated 


niSTOTiv Of onF.EXK corxTT. 2ST 

June 27, 1829, the other May 27, 1830. The first wr- loaned 
me by j\Ir. John Conkcy wlio still resides in Richhill township, 
and is now in the U 1th year of Ills age. The fii'st article on uie 
lirst jiagas of this old iiajier is a notice to the "Liberty and 
Dunkard Hangers,"' calling on them to parade at the house of 
Jacob Kuhn, in Wayne township, on the 4th of Jnly, 1829, pre- 
L-isely at 10 o'clock. Signed John Mehen, O. S. By order of 
Samuel White, Captain. The second, article is a notice from 
Richard Fiirniun, Adiii"r of the estate of David. Rumble, no- 
lifying all persons interested to meet at the house of the de- 
;cased in Dunkard township, Friday, July 24, 1829. Next 
George Kenny offers a reward of twenty dollars for the arrest 
of a certain Simon Johnson, who, not having the fear of the 
law before his eyes, had broken away from the constable of 
Wliiteley township. The fourth article states that Nathaniel 
Jennings still continues to card avooI at his old mill where a 
;;'ood quality of rolls will be found at the following prices : 
L'')mniou wool for four cents, if the money is paid down, if not 
]>: il in si.Y months, five cents per pound will be demanded; 
i; [)aid in the yeai, one '"fip" per pound Avill settle the bill ; if 
uoL }»aid until after the expiration of the yeai*, eight cents per 
I'ound will be charged. In order to encourage prompt pay- 
I'leiit Mr. Jennings piojoses to take wheat, rye, corn, flax seed, 
Sec. He doer; not inform the public where his old mill is situated, 
i)Ut I ain iufoi'med that it was directly in front of J. A. J, 
JJuchanau's residence. The fifth article is entitled "Stray 
Cow,' in which Samuel House, of Morgan township, complains 
tliat a black muley cow, wuth a white face, has been troubling 
liim, and he desires tlje owner to come and take her away. The 
sixth is a notice of Thomas Fletcher, William Seals and Solo- 
mon Fordyce, stating tliat they had audited the accounts of 
Greene Academy on the 19th of May, 1829, and find a balance 
ill the l.unds of the trfasurrr tlici-cof of }§2,677.7-l. The sec- 


end cokimn is almost exclusively devoted to a proposal made 
by J. Baker and J. Morris for publishing a book entitled "A 
Revelation of Rights," written in Greene county, by Elias E. 
Ellmaker, Esq., in the year 1809. The contents of this book 
are as follows : 1st, On the proper study of man and his orig- 
inal rights ; 2d, of society and the natural and unnatural state 
of man ; 3d, of government in general ; 4th, of political and 
civil liberty ; 5th, of the form and administration of govern- 
ment ; 6th, of criminal law ; 7th, of slavery ; 8th, miscellaneous 
reflections on the alteration of our system of government ; 9tli, 
address to the citizens of the world. At the foot of tliis 
column is an advertisement of the pHper called the Pennsylva- 
nia Reporter, a Democratic journal published at Harrisburg by 
Stambaugh, Welsh & Co. The editor of the Mesesnger gives 
notice that he will receive subscriptions for the above jmper at 
111 3 office in Waynesburg, and in order to accommodate himself 
u the times and scarcity of money, he proposes to take wJioat 
»ud bacon in payment of any debts due at his office. At ilie 
t ead of the 3d column Hugh Workman notifies the public ti-at 
he has erected a new tan house on Greene street, near i»J r. 
1 saac Slater's, where he proposes to furnish all kinds of leatiie; 
lor cash, or tan all kinds of skins on the shares. He also wishes 
all persons that know themselves indebted to him to make im- 
mediate payment and save costs, as further indulgence cannot 
be given. Just below is a notice of the old "Colonization So- 
ciety," stating that the churches generally propose taking up 
collections on the Sabbath immediately preceding the 4tli of 
July each year to aid this society. This statement is made on 
the authority of the National Intelligencer. The next is a com- 
munication dated Providence, R. I., May 29th, 1829, in wliich 
the correspondent mentions as a matter of surprise that a cargo 
of cotton goods lias been shipped faom that part to Canton, 
China, whii^h -^v ss v -.c^-^ ;. 1 om advantageous terms for a car- 


go of tea which was broui^ht back by the ship Pavthiam. At 
the foot of this column is a piece entitled ••Fraud,"' giving an 
account of a rascal in Albany, wlio gave liis note to another 
man, writing his name with spittle and sprinkling black sand 
over it. When the spittle became dry, the snnd rubbed otF, 
aud the name was invisible. Verily there were villians in tho«o 
days as now. We now ccme to a communication from C. 
Minor in defence of Free Masonry. Tiiis article and the edi- 
torial notes attached to it, fills five and a-half columns of this 
little old paper which measures thirteen inches wide by nine- 
teen inches long. On the last page of this paper is another 
article taken from the Ontario Messenger dated May 25, 1829, 
entitled "The Morgan Conspiracy." In these two articles wo 
find the germ of •'Anti-Masonry,'' which was at that time just 
beginning to make its appearance as a jDolitical element which 
caused the defeat of George Wolf and the election of Joseph 
IJitnerin 183o. And from the history of political parties with- 
in the bounds of ray own recollection which extends back ag 
^ar as 1828 when Gen. Jackson was first elected, I think \vc 
learn one lesson, which is, that the American jieople demand 
some living issue. Thus in 1828 and 1832 it was bank or no 
bank; in 1835-38, Masonry or Anti-Masonry; in 1840, tariff or 
no tariff; in 1844, when tlie Texas question of annexation was 
agitated, it Avas Texas or no Texas : then in 1860 the all absorb- 
ing question, slavery or no slavery. Now I want the readers 
of my history to understand that I am neither a prophet nor 
the son of a prophet, but as coming events cast their shadows 
before them, so I think I see that the next issue will be whiskv 
or no whisky. But to return to the contents of the old paper. 
The article on the Morgan Conspiracy is exceedingly interest- 
ing and revives in my memory many tilings about the Morgan 
abduction and nuirder that I heard talketl about when I was a 
boy. before I could read. 



On the second page I find a letter from Gen. Andrew Jack- 
feon to the Creek Indians, dated Milled ge villa. Georgia, May 
26j 1829, entitled "Indian Talk," which I will copy la full. 
^'Friends and Brethren : By permission of the Great Spirit 
above and the voice of the people, I have been made President- 
of the United State!?, and now speak to you as your father and 
friend, and request you to listen. Your warriors have known 
me long. You know I love my white and red children, and 
always speak with a straight and not a forked tongue ; that I 
have always told you the truth. I now speak to you as my 
children in the language of truth. Listen. Your bad men 
have made my heart sicken and blead by the murder of one of 
my w^hite children in Georgia. Our peaceful mother earth has 
'been stained by the blood of the white man, and calls for the 
punishment of his murderers whose surrender is now demanded 
under the solemn obligations of the treaty which your chiefs 
and warriors in council agreed to. To prevent the spilling of 
more blood, you must surrender the murderers, and restore the 
property they have taken. To preserve peace yon must com- 
|)ly with your own treaty. Friends and brothers, listen : 
Where you now are, you and white children are too near to 
"each other to live in harmony and peace. Your game is de- 
stroyed, and many of your people will not work and till the 
eai'tll. Beyond the great river Mississippi where a part of 
your nation has gone, your Fath( r has promised a country 
laro-e enough for you all, and he advises you to remove to it 
There your white brother will not trovible you ; they will have 
no claim to the land, and you and your children can live upon 
it as long as the grass grows or water runs, in peace and plenty. 
It will be yours forever. For the improvements in the country 
where you now live, and for the stock which you cannot take 
with you, your Father will pay you a fair price. In my talk 
to you in the Creek Nation many y< ;vs a-o I told von of this 


new country where you might be preserved as a great nation, 
and where your white brotliers would not disturb you. In that 
country your Father, the President, now promises to protect 
you and feed you, and to shield you from all encroachments. 
Where you now live your white brothers have always claimed 
the land. The land beyond the Mississippi belongs to the 
President and no one else, and he Avill give it to you forever. 
j\ry children listen : The late nuirder of one of my white chil- 
dren in Georgia shows that you and they are too near to each 
other. These bad men must be delivered up and suffer the 
])er.alties of the law for the blood they have shed. 
i have sent my agent and your friend, Col. Crowell, to de- 
mand the surrender of the murderers and to consult with you 
on the subject of your removing to the land I ihave provided 
for you west of the Mississippi in order that my white and red 
children may live in peace, and that th* land may not be 
stained Avitli the blood of my children again. I have instructed 
Col. Crowell to speak the truth to you and to assure you that 
j-^our Father, the President, av ill deal fairly and justly with you^ 
:ind whilst he feels a father's love for you, that he advises your 
wliole nation to go to the place where he can protect you. 
Should any incline to remain and come under the laws of Ala- 
bajna. land will be laid off for them and their families in fee. 
My children, listen : My white children in Alabama have ex- 
tended their laws over your country. If you remain in it, you 
must be subject to that law. If you remove across the Missis- 
sippi, you will be subject to your oavu laws, and tlie care of 
your Father, the President. A'o i will be treated with kindness 
and the land will be yours furever. Friends and brethers, 
listen : This is a straight and good talk. It is for your nation's 
good, and your Father requests you to heai* his counsel,'' 
Signed, AudrcAV Jackson. 

Immodiatelv below thi-' letter I find another letter from John 


H. Heaton, Secretary of War, addressed _ to Joseph Ross. 
Richard Taylor, Edward Gunter and Wm. S. Coody, delegates 
from the Cherokee Nation, in answer to a communication they 
had sent to him. But the letter is too long to be transcribed 
in full. The next is a notice that Rev. A. Leonard will preach 
in the court house to-morrow at 11 o'clock. In the same col- 
umn is the announcement that the Independent Blues and 
I'ranklin Rangers have appointed the undersigned a commit- 
tee of arrangement and invitation to a celebration of the 54th 
anniversary of our Independence on the 4th of July, 1829, 
:nid is signed by Wm. Baltzell, B. Mahana, I. Hook, J. Hook, J. 
Hoge, John Chirk, A. Rinehart, Jesse Kent, Hugh Workman. 
In the next article the editor expresses his regret that Col. 
DeWitt Clinton had resigned his position, Engineer on the Ju- 
niata Division of the Pennsylvania Canal, which our old readers 
w ill recollect ■wa'^at that date being brought into existence. 
Just below is a short extract from the '■'■Franklin Repository,^'' 
m which he refers to the article of Hon. Charles Minor, m de- 
fense of Free Masonry. His article represents Mr. Minor as 
the senior editor of the Villiage Record, and a membei' of 
Congress. I find by reference to SnuiU's Legislative Hand 
Book, that Charles Minor was a member of the 19th and 20th 
Congresses. This statement is found ni the same column: 
Rumor cannot always be relied on — it nevertheless states that 
Amos Ehnaker, Esq., will be taken up as the anti-masonic can- 
didate for Governor at the convention in Harrisburg next week. 
.So mote it be. — Carlisle Volunteer. Another little piece of 
news is that "a letter received in Borton, dated Smyrna, April 
4, 1829, states that the Russians have taken possession of 
Messervia to the north of lioui-gas, and Sizi boli to the south- 
ward, and are fortifying both } daces. The next article is en- 
titled "Meeting of Fieemen," in Ileidleburg township, Berks 
county, at which the following was passed, one hundred and 

iiisTOiiY OK GJa:r.xK county. 293 

fifty persons signing their name* to the proceedings: '■'Re- 
solved, That hereafter we will receive no preacher into our con- 
gregation who is an adherent or supporter of a Theologica! 
Seminary, of the Sunday School Union, or the Bible, Mission- 
ary, Tract, or any other similar society ; or who is engaged in 
distributing any so called religious paper or magazine." A 
clipping from Raleigh, S. C, states that the locusts have made 
their appearance in great numbers in the vicinity of Salisburg. 
Then comes a couple of marriages ; 1st, by Nicholas Ilager. 
Esq., Mr. Ai-mstrong Porter and Miss Olive Inghram, Juno 25, 
1829. The other marriage was performed by William Kincade, 
on June 23, 1829, the parties being Mr. Thomas Adamson and 
Miss Catharine Grant. The remaining column is filled with 
brief announcements : 1st, Daniel Fuller, of Whiteley town- 
.ship, announces himself as a candidate for County Connnis. 
sioner ; 2d, David Sellers, of Centre township, is announced for 
the same office ; 3d, Beuj. Jennings, Asa McClelland and llich- 
ard Long, County Commissioners, advertise that they will give 
out the btiilding of a bridge over Dunkard creek, near Mt. 
Morris, on July 8, 1829; 4th, Thomas Mitchell requests all per- 
sons indebted to the estate of Ezra Mitchell, deceased, to call 
;ind settle with William T. IlawKins, Esq. ; 5th, a stray stear 
is announced as trespassing on the premises of Abraham Scott, 
l^iimberland township ; Gth, John Neff gives notice that an "old 
I 'ay mare, with a star m her forehead, has been troubling him 
"lown on Muddy creek, and that he would be glad if the owner 
'ould take her away; 7th, Israel Hook, Orderly Sergeant of 
Me Franklin Rangers, requires that company to parade in 
iront of the Court House on the coming 4th of July. He says 
he does this by order of Cap't Baltzell ; 8th, the Independent 
Blues are required to parade m the Borough of Waynesburg 
on the 4th of July, 1H29. P^ach member is to be provided with 
ihirteon rouTids of blank cartridges. By order of C:-|<'t. Jack. 

234 HISTORY OF gui:ene county. 

son, John Irons, Orderly Sergeant; 9th, Ann Irons informs 
the ladies of Waynesbura; that she is prepared to serve them 
in all departments of the millinery business, which means, I 
presume, that she will wash, bleach, rip and alter their old 
leghorn bonnets and make them look as good as new ; 10th, 
is a notice from James Hughes that a brown cow broke into 
liis enclosure some time in July, 1828, and is there in Morgan 
township until this day, and that he desires the owner to take 
lier away. This closes the news found in the old Mesesnger 
of June 27th, 1829, I now come to the other old paper to 
which 1 referred, bearing date May 27, 1830. My old friend, 
W. T. H. Pauley, has saved me the trouble of condensing the 
";icws found in this second paper by doing it himself and com- 
inenting on it. I will only add by way of "seconding the mo- 
liou,"' that I often saw Dr. John F. Bradee whose name is 
mentioned in this paper. 1 have been in his office, and am 
disposed to think he was certainly in possession of some skill, 
inasmuch as he guaranteed a cure to an uncle of mine, uot- 
\'.ithstanding which he succeeded in bringing him to the grave 
-Doner aj^jDarently than he would otherwise have reached it. 

The next thing on the first page of the old paper now before 
•!>< is the advertisement of an order of the Court for this sale 
of a house and lot in Mt. Morris, belonging to the estate of 
John Wood, deceased — Adaline Wood, Administratrix. 

Next comes the Proclamation of the Hon. Thomas H. Baird, 
President of the Court of Common Pleas in 18.30, in the I ourth 
Judicial district, comjiosed of the counties of Fayette, Greene 
:.nd Washington, and the Hon. John Minor and William Craw- 
ford, Esqs, Associate Judges in Greene county, for the holding 
of a "Court of Oyer and Terminer and General Jail Delivery,"" 
on the "third Monday of June next, being the 2 1st day.)" To- 
this "proclamation" is attached the name of our venerable and 
liighly est eonu'd fellow c|ii.-ei), lion. ^Lirk Gordon, as Sherid' 



Judge Gordon is still living, erect and straight as an arrow, 
and still taking a lively interest in the political affairs of the 
county and country, which he discusses wiih much intelligence 
and interest. 

The next item is the iidvertiseinent of "military goods" by 
r. B. McFadden, of No. 83, Market street, Pittsburg, who an- 
nounces that he has just received an assortment of military 
articles, consisting of Swords, saslies. Wings, Epauletts, Shoul- 
der Knotts, Pompoons, Plates, Eagles, Buttons. »fec.,»tc., all oi 
-.viiich will be off ered at reduced prices." 

Next comes the advertisement of "New Spring and Simimei 
Goods," by A. N. Johnson, who, at that time, was among the 
most enterprising merchants of our town. 

"Look Here" is the heading of an advertisement for '-00,000 
l)oimds of cleaned washed wool" by B. Campbell, Jr.. & Co. 
h\r.m this it is quite evident there was some wool raised in 
llieene county at that early day. 

Next we have the "List of Causes set down for trial at June 
'1 crm, 1830," consisting of twenty-three cases, and signed by 
Wm. T. Hays, as Protlionotary, who, we believe, served in the 
snno capacity for an unbroken term of about twenty years. 

Then comes the "Notice" of Dr. Jolm F. Bradce, of Union- 
'.iowu, to all persons indebted to make immediale payment. 
I'Lis is tlie same Dr Bradce who was sent to the Penitentiary 
i.boiit 1840, for mail robbery, and aftei-wards dUnl there. 

Jiichard Led with, who is remembered by many of our older 
•-iiizcns, is next announced as "a candidate for the oflicc of 
County Connnissioner." 

Then comes "a card" from Dr. T. C. Hawkins, tendering "his 
l)rofessional services to the inhabitants of Waynesburg and the 
public generally. Dr. Hawkins is still a resident of Wayncs- 
bnrg, and is regarded as one amongtlie oldest inhalutants. 

'•Good B:irg;iii)s" by Heesoti i"i- Peiniock comes luxt in order 

296 ins'pom- of okkkm: cot-nty. 

Tlacy have just received irom the Pliiladelpbia and Baltimore 
markets a g-cneral assortment of seasonable goods, which they 
OiT.u'low — -aye, very low for cash oi- ap}>roved produce." 

Next comes the advertisement of John Golden, another old 
landmark still residing liere, who informs "the public that he 
has commenced the wagon business at bis new frame sbo[) on 
Mechanics' Row, corner of Washington and Greene streets." 
The building still stands, and serves Mr. Goldcn's purposes as 
a wagon maker's shop. 

Next is a rule of Court to perpetuate testimony — Amos Mar- 
tin vs. Abijah Ileaton, Samuel Heatoii, Daniel Ileatou, John 
Huss, et al. Wm. T. Hays, Clerk. This advertisement closes 
the first page of this ancient paper. 

The first article on the second page is a very interesting let- 
ter from Thomas Jefferson, dated January 21, 1809, — just be- 
fore leaving the Presidential chair — to Mr. Leiper, father of 
Geo G. Leiper, who, in a note dated April 27, 1830, furnishes 
the original copy of Mr. Jeffercon's letter to the Upland Union 
lor publication. It is a short private letter, and treats a little 
of religion but more of politics. It predicts the war with 
Great Britian, which was then already threatening the young 

The next article on the second page is from the BnlUmnre, 
American, dated May 14, giving an account of a trial trip on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, from Baltimore to Ellicott's 
Mills, preparatory to the road being opened for travel. This 
trial trip was made by "'Mr. Knight, the Chief Engineer, with 
some of his assistants." This was, no doubt, our former Wash- 
ington county neighbor, Hon. Jonathan Knight, who surveyed 
the route of the proposed B. & O. R. R. through this county, 
about the year 183G, or about that date, and who was elected 
to Congress iu the memorable Know Nothing campaign of 
1854. Mr. Knght had invented what was then known as the 


"improved conical wLeels." and the principal object of the ex- 
cursion trip was to test the applicability of these new railroad 
wheels on that part of the B. & O. road which had been com- 
pleted to Ellicott's Mills. The ret^ult of the experinKiital trii) 
was announced as a great success, and the opinion confidently 
expressed that with such wheels ''curvitures, not exceeding- 
four hundred feet radius, offer no impediment to the transpor- 
tation upon railways, even at the rate of at least fifteen miies 
.an hour." 

The next item of interest is the double column advevti^^c- 
iiient of "Fresh Spring aud Summer Goods," by Kenjamii; 
(..'ampbell & Co., who "respectfully inform their friends an<l 
the public that they have received from Philadelphia and Bal- 
timore a splendid assortment of merchandise, consisting ()f 
'loths, 100 pieces of calico, queenswarc. hardware, liquors,"' 
itc. Nearly all the stores kept a supply of various kinds of 
liquors, and a good customer need never go away dry, or Avith- 
out having been well treated by the store keeper. The thing- 
is a little different now — the ding stores monopolize the trade. 
The first article on the third page, which Avas then (;ditorial 
page, is the proceedings of a n;eeting held in the Court House 
in Waynesburg, jNlay 14, 1830, for the purpose of organizing 
;i temperance society, at which Obadiah Vancleve was called 
to the chair, and James M. Junkin appointed Secretar\. A 
Constitution was adopted, consisting of seven articles, the -jtli 
reading as follows : "The means employed by this society 
for the suppression of intemperance shall be the influrnco of 
moral example ; abstaining fnm the use of ardent sj)iiits; tlu' 
dissimination of publications in newspapeas and pamphlets, an-l 
appeals to the reason, hearts and consciences of men, in the 
form of persuasion." After the adoption of the Con.stitutioK 
Joel "Wood, of Wayne township, was chosen President: John 
Conkey, of P;-" ' ;'■ ;.-.> «-;;'.'';i;.. Yi -e l'rcs;.]e:it; aud Win. ''-'r.-i- 

298 iiiSTOKY OF (jnr.KXE county. 

ham, Sccretaiy. Both the President and Vice President of 
this temperance society have adhered with religious fidelity to 
the principles they then espoused, and are both r.till living in 
this county, which, to a great extent, may he owing to their 
temperate and exemj^Lary hves. Mr. Graham, the Secretary. 
left the county about forty years ago. 

At the bottom of the first column of the third page it is an- 
nounced that Congress is to adjourn on the ;Ust inst., (IMay.) 
Also that Dr. Daniel Sturgeon, v»'lio had been appointed Audi- 
loi- General of this State by Gov. Wolfe, had entered on the 
Julias of the ofiice on ^Monday, May 3d. Also that Jacob 
Spaugler, Surveyor General and S. Workman, Secretary of the 
Land Office had entered on the duties of their respective offices 
Monday, May 24th. 

Quite a lengthy article on the "Next Census" which indui- 
U'cs in some falicitous prognostications iu regard to the growtli 
•vhich the coming census will develope as having occurred in 
the last decade— or from 1820 to 1830. 

Next we have a notice of an address delivered by the cele- 
i'VivLed preacher, jNfr. Bascom, of the M. E. Church, to the peo- 
; lie of Mount Sterling, Ky., on the subject of the American 
<. Colonization Society. This address was highly sp)oken of. 

At the head of the fourth column of the third page, is this 
orief but compreheus'vj notice: "Died, at his residence in 
Morgan township, on Saturday last. May 22, 1830, at an ad- 
\anced age, Isaac Weaver, Esq., formerly a Senator from tl.i - 

Next is the notice of a "Court of Appeal" for the 2d Battal- 
ion of the 119th Regiment P. M., to be held at the house of 
James Lindsey in Jefferson. Capt. Frost, Lieutenants Price 
and Bell were to compose the Court of Appeal. Signed John 
Jiindsey, Colonel Commanding. 

Then comes a list of five Sheriff sales, to take place at the 

iiisTOKY OF gri:i:nk COUN'TV. 


Court House in Waynesbuvg, on the 3d Monday in June. 
These advertisements are signed by INIark Gordon, Avhom Rob- 
ert Wliitehill once asked if he spelled cabbage with a "k." 

At the head of the fifth and last column on the "third page 
is an article headed "Tract Society," followed by a notice to 
the members of the Female Tract Society to meet at the Court 
House on next Monday evening, at 5 o'clock, to receive their 
tracts. This notice is signed by Miss "M. A. Harvey, Secre- 
tary." This venerable lady is still living in our town, where, 
by industry and energy, and a life of probity and business in- 
telligence, she has acquired a handsome competence for all her 
worldly wants, and now at four-score years and ten she is pa- 
tier ly waiting her call to a higher and better state of existence. 

Beeson & Pennock advertise for a quantity of clean washed 
wool, for which they will i)ay a good price in goods. 

Wm. Inghrani informs the public that he has received and 

-s for sale, low for cash or approved country produce, a 
fi esh supply of spring and summer goods. He further an- 
nounces that he still carries on saddlery. 

Then comes the quarterly notice by the Register of certain 
liinistrators and Executors' accounts having been filed, and 
w ill be presented at June Court for confirmation and allow- 
ance. Jessie Lazeai*, Register. 

Next the order of Court for the sale of the real estate of 
John Woocl, decease', Adaline Wood, Administratrix. The 

1 otice is different from that found on the first page, by the 
>;inie administratrix. W. T. Hays, Clerk. 

The paper was printetl and ]>ublishc(l by John Irons, who 
was then and for several subsequent years its editor. 

300 iiiSToiiv oi (j::i.kni> colnti'. 


There are four weekly newspapers publishetl in ^Vaynesburg 
— the Messenger, [wliich is by fai- the oldest,] the Republican, 
Independent and Democrat. These I will present in my book 
according to their respective ages. 

HiSTouY OF TiiK McssEXfiEK. — Haviiig givcn tlic contents of 
these two old papers, I will now give the history of the paper 
itself, as I received it from the present editor according to the 
best of his recollection. It began its career in 1813, during 
the second war with Great Iiritain, and was a strong supporter 
of the "powers that be."' Its iirsL editor was Dr. Layton, who 
was superceded by John Baker who is said to have been a 
^ery excentric man. He was succeeded about the year 1828 
by Thomas Irons, who was associated in the ownership and 
management with his brother John Irons, who became solo 
proprietor in 1825, and continued such until 1837. This man 
I have often seen in Uniontown when he was connected with" 
the Genius of Zi6^rty, buti was too young to know much about 
him : however, I have often heard his political opponents say 
"well, John Irons won't lie." The next editor was John Phe- 
lan, Esq., who is still well and favorably remembered by the 
present generation. He only owned and edited the paper for 
one year, when John Irons again became proprietor in 1838. 
In 1840 the paper became the i)roperty of Charles A. Ulack, 
Esq., who published it until 1842, when Major Jas. W. Hays 
became proprietor. The paper was printed at this date by W. 
T. H. Pauley, wlio had entered the office in 1833 as an appren- 
tice to the printing business, aiid who became })ro2>rietor in 
1844, and continued such until 1852, when he sold to John M. 
Stockdale and James S. Jennings. One year from this date he 
again became proprietor, and continued until 1859. A part of 
the time during this period James S. Jennings was associated 
as assistant editor. J:rn'-. W. IT i . >. and .1 rimes S. Jennino-s 

n;.sioi;v - : <.:•:. :..•;:; < »i •.v. '601 

became equal partners as proprietors for one or two year?, 
when Major Hays sold out to Joseph G. IJichey, who subse- 
quently gave place to R. W. Jones, who was one of the few 
fortunate men who amassed considerable wcajth by speculat- 
ing in Greene county oil lands, to such an extent that he quit 
tlie printing business. James S. Jennings continued to pul> 
lish the paper as sole proprietor until 1867, at which date J. 
F. Temi)le, Peter Brown and "W. T. II. Pauley became associ- 
ated as proprietors. In the course of a year or two this ar- 
rangement ceased to exist, and W. T. II. Pauley again became 
sole proprietor, and continued such until January 18^;^. when 
he sold to Jas. S. Jennings, a former i)roprietor, During 
tlie time the Messenger was published hj Jones and Jennings, 
the Cumberland Presbflteriaiun, religious weekly, was published 
on the same press and with the same type. This paper is now 
]>ublished by the C. P. Board of Publication, Nashville, Tenn., 
with Eev. John E. Brown, D. 1)., as editor. Tlie paper is now 
one of the leading religious journals of the day, 

Waynesburc^ Eepublican. — This is the continuation of a 
journal that has long been the organ of a highly respectable 
party in Greene county. I had hoped to have given an accu- 
rate history of this very respectable paper, and for this purpose 
I addressed a letter to its present editor asking such facts and 
figures as would enable me to inform its readers of the ante- 
cedents of this journal. The editor declines complying Avitli 
this reasonable request, and consequently I must avail myself 
of such information as I can derive from other sources. Mr. 
Eagan of the Independent has sho^vn me a paper entitled the 
Village Watchman edited by Rev. Simeon Sigfried, and dated 
August 4, 1846, during tlie Mexican War. This jiaper is said 
to be one of the ancestors of the present Eepublican. I am 
told that at one time a paper called The Greene County Eagle, 
occupied a place in the direct line of descent. At another 


time tlie Repository is said to liave been the name of the paper 
that has been absorbed by the present journal. Among the 
able editors of this paper I have been informed that our 
present Postmaster, Col. J.Cooke, L. K.Evans, James E. Sayers, 
and James Miller, have made their mark high up on the tablet 
of fame and have left behind them unsullied reputations as 
successful journalists. I regret this imperfect sl^^tch, but un- 
der the circumstances it is the best I can do. 

Waynesburg Independent. — The Messenqer, which was loj- 
a long time the only paper in the county, has always been 
.•^trongly and uncompromisingly Democratic. After the estab- 
lishment of the Republican the usual result that "extreme be- 
gets extreme," seemed to require the necessity of a paper un- 
iv.ammelcd by partisan spirit and devoted to a class of reading; 
111 it ter more acceptable to the home circle, and 1 1 meet this 
demand of the people, in the month of October, 1872, Z. ('. 
liagan and J. W. Axtell began this enterprise without capital, 
except that which they borrowed at exorbitant interest, witli- 
■:;tt even the promise of assistance from their friends, who we 
;ire informed, very confidently pointed their prophetic lin- 
gers at the financial ruin of both these daring adventiirers. 
Vet the paper was issued and the first volumn almost complet- 
ed, when as suddenly and luiexpected as a clap of thunder in 
a clear day came the J. Cook exj^losion. Long established 
banking houses went down, corporations of different kinds 
closed their doors, while "consternation turned the good man 
pale." What was to be the fate of the two penniless proprie- 
tors of the Independent"^. Nothing strange, they had nothing 
to lose. They had brave hearts and cunning hands, being 
both practical printers they girded on their armor and "smiled 
at the storm." Their running expenses were economised and 
their patrons promptly paid their dues. The storm passed 
awav and the sunshiiu: of l1l■..)."^lv-'i•ilv ;!":fi"" srn:lodo)i the entei'- 



piise. After five years of connection Mr. Axtell sold his in- 
terest to W. W. Kodehaver. Two years later Mr. liodehaver 
concluded to take the advice of the great Horace Gree- 
ly "young man, go West, sold his interest to W. W. Evans, 
formerly one of the proprietors of the Monndsville, W. Va., 
Reporter, and who is at this date one of the editors, proprie- 
tors and operators in this establishment. Mr. Ilaganhas clung 
to this enterprise these ten years through evil as Avell as good 
report, writing for its colunms, keeping its books and compos- 
ing at its desks. The Aveekly circulation of this journal is over 
1,800 with a constantly increasing subsci'iption list. The firm 
of Ragan & Axtell were the first to introduce the power print- 
ing press with steam attachments in Greene county, the first 
edition run off by steam being in May, 1875. The first paper 
that passed through the power press was picked up by Jolui 
Ilagar, one of Greene county's oldest citizens, with the remark, 
''well done, Greene county." The present firm increased tho 
facilities of their well stocked job office by adding the latest 
improved process of stereotyping, and this history is printed 
from plates made on this machine. Other editions can be 
issued from these plates at a small cost. 

GuEEXK County DE.Mocu.vr. — This youngest of all the pa- 
pers of this county sent out its first number on the 17th of 
December, 1881. J. F. Campbell was the first editor, while 
Simon R. Huss is its present editor and proprietor. It lias 
entered on its second volumn with a respectably increasing sub- 
scription list. The principles of the Democratic party are ad- 
vocated and defended by this journal. 

WAYXEsnuKii Bi.iES. — I have been requested by oix- 
of the members of the present organization of Waynes- 
burg Blues, to give a short sketch of their history. Inas- 
much a^ Ihavealreadv mentioned their ancestor which existed 



fully forty years ago, I Avill comply Avith the request. The 
AVayiiesburg Bhies, Co. K, is in connection Avitli tlie Tenth 
Regiment, second brigade of National Guards of Pennsylvania. 
The oi-ganization Avas effected in 1879, John M. Kent being 
the first Captain. Capt. Kent has since been promoted to the 
position of Lieut. Colonel. The term of enlistment is five 
years. The first inspection and j^rize drill was at Wasliing- 
ton, Pa., July 4, 1879, when the prize sword was awai-ded to 
this company for proficiency in drill and fine soldiery appear- 
ance. The first encampment was at Camp Hoyt, Allegheny 
county, Pa., in September, 1879. This camp was named for 
the Governor of the State. The second inspection was at 
Thompson's Station, Allegheny county, Pa. The second en- 
campment was at Camp Alexander Hays, Allegheny county, 
Pa., in 1880. The company was sent to Washington, D. C, 
on the 3d of March, 1881, to participate in the military display 
at the inaugural of President Garfield, and on account of their 
tine soldiery bearing attracted special attention in the long- 
military procession. The third inspection was at Finleyville, 
Washington county, Pa., July, 1881. James E. Sayers was 
elected Captain this year. The third encampment was at 
Camp Vincent, Indiana county, Pa., August, 1881. The fourth 
encampment was at Camj) John Fulton Reynolds, Mifflin coun- 
ty, Pa., in August, 1882. This camp was named in honor of 
Gen. Reynolds who was killed at the battle of Gettysburg in 
July, 18G1. This company was sent to PhiladeliDliia in Octo- 
ber, 1S82, to take pait in tlie bi-Centennial military j)arade. 
The commissioned officers of this company are Jas. E. Sayers, 
Captair. , .!o]tn M. Wiley, 1st I-iciiJ,; Henry P. Berryliill, 2d 



Ontlie lltliof December, 1882, I culled at the house of Jno. 
D. Patterson, on Brushey Fork of Tenmile creek, and received 
from Mrs. Patterson (who was formerly j\[iss Amanda Mahan- 
na) the following information Avith reference tocher father, and 
grand-father: Captain James Seals, who was born in England 
during the 18th century, immigrated to America somewhere 
near the middle of the century, and was united iu marriage 
with Miss Sarah Brown, sister of Capt. John Brown, (not old 
Ossawatamie), came to the vicinity of "Waj-uesburg before the 
town had much of an existence. Here he erected the old stone 
house, a part of which can yet be seen near the toll gate imme 
diately west of the borough. Here he and his wife raised 
thirteen children, viz: John, James, Samuel, AVilliam and 
Vincent were the sons, while the daughter Sarah married Mr. 
Bloomiield; Lottie married Robert Hix ; Martha married 
Mr. Boyle ; Matilda married Cornelius Ogden ; Mary married 
Mr. Beck ; Catharine married Bradley Mahanna ; tlie other 
two names my informant could not recall. Capt. Seals lived 
ill those troublesome times when ''eternal vigilance'' was not- 
only "the price of liberty," but also of life. He was Captain 
jf a company that might be denominated "minute men," or 
"u ood rangers,'' who were constantly on the alert to protect 
Llicmselves and their fami'ies against the prowling savages by 
whom they were surrounded. Reports were made at different 
titnes to various connnanders : among the rest, to Gen. Antho- 
ny Wayne, in 1794, who inunediately directed Capt. Seals and 
company to join liim on the banks of the Miami. The com- 
pany was put in motion without delay and marched as far as 
Catfish camp (Washington). Here the news met them that 
tlie victory was gained and their services were not needed. 
!Mrs. Patterson then proceeded to give me some account of her 
father. C iptain Brndloy M Jiaiin:), luid then loaned me a paper. 



Towa state Fress, dated Iowa City, Sept. 16, 1874, whicli con- 
tains quite a lengthy obituary notice from wliicli the following 
is obtained : "Bradley Mabanna was born in Hopwood, Fay- 
ette county, Pa., March 1, 1806." He removed to Waynesburg 
in 1827, where he and Catharine Seals were married on the 
ist of Septembe]* of that year. Here he continued to reside until 
April, 1855, when be removed to Iowa City where he resided 
until his death on the 11th of September, 1871. Early in life 
he became a member of the Methodist Episcoijal Church, and 
Ko consistent was his profession that neither prosperity nor 
adversity could damp the ardor of his devotion. He, like 
many of his day, was fond of military training. He was com- 
>niissioned by Gov. David R. Porter, Captain of the "VVaynes- 
•burg Blues, in 1842. I remember seeing him in 1843 at a 
grand encampment in McClelland's grove, just north-west of 
Waynesburg. The incident was this ; A volunteer whom I 
will not name, was accused of stealing a piece of meat. A 
Court Martial was at once called to try the case. Col. Joshua 
B. Howell, Capt. James M. Oliphant and Capt. Bradley Ma- 
hanna were the officers of the Court, while Capt. Sam Austin 
was Prosecuting Attorney. Various witnesses testified in the 
case ; the attorneys made their speeches ; the Court found the 
'defendant guilty and sentenced him to be bumped seven times 
Sig-aiust a tree, and the sentence was immediately executed ; 
wiieh to the surprise of all parties the accused came before the 
Court for a new trial, which the Court readily granted, at the 
conclusion of which the cvilprit was sentenced to receive four- 
teen additional bumps against a tree, which was summarily 
executed. The commission of Capt. Mahanna was renewed in 
1849 by Gov. Wm. F. Johnson, and Mas again renewed in 
1854 by Gov. Wm. Biglei-. The subjcut of our sketch was 
finally commissioned Brigade Inspector of the Fourth Penn- 
sylvania Brigade. In Ur- v. ar <>:• fir : c>l)L''.'i():i he took an ac- 


the part, liaving gone to the i'ront uiuong the seventy-five 
thousaucl that were called out by the President immediately 
after the fall of Fort Sumptcr in 180 J. After the term of his 
enlistment had expired he returned home, recruited a company 
and was elected its Captain. In this capacity lie continued 
until the end of the war. lie was also a member of the Ma- 
sonic order by whom he was decently interred. 

Maj. Maxwell McCaslin. — While writing of men who were 
distinguished for their military abilities, permit me to intro- 
duce another whose career was perhaps moi-e diversified than 
that of any I have yet named. This man was Major Maxwell 
McCaslin, who was born in Martinsburg, Berkley county, Vir- 
ginia, on the 1st of March, 1802. His father, Francis McCas- 
lin and Jane (Booth) McCaslin (,both natives of Ireland) re- 
moved to Waynesburg, Greene Co., Pa., in 1807, Avherc they 
resided until the old man's death in 1820, leaving his widow 
and six daughters, almost entirely dependent upon the exer- 
tions of his only son (Maxwell). Feeling the resx^onsibility 
that now rested upon him, the subject of this sketch immedi- 
ately commenced working at the brick-laying business, in 
which he became so i^roficient that his services were in con- 
stant demand in Waynesburg and vicinity, until he frequently 
built from twelve to fifteen houses in a single season. His 
Hrst purchase of real estate was about two and a half miles 
west of Waynesburg. Soon after this purchase he went into 
partnership with B. B. Woodruff and James Bell in the drov- 
ing business, at which the firm accumulated considerable 
amounts of money. The same firm engaged in merchandising 
in the town of Jefferson, which adventure was attended with 
far more loss than profit. The early education of the Major 
was very defective, being about what many otheis of us got 
in the connnon schools — "learn to read, write, and cypher iu 
the Western C;i\-ulat;n- V.> t;:c V.vA- jf Three." Ai the age of 


twenty he joined a rifle company called the Franklin Rangers, 
■which together with nine other companies composed the reg- 
iment called the Washington and Greene Vanguards, com- 
manded by Col. Thomas Ringland. Young McCaslin made 
such proficiency in drill, that Col. Ringland appointed him Ad- 
jutant of the Regiment m room of Adjutant T. P. Pollock, 
(late Judge Pollock) who had resigned to take command of 
a rifle company. In June, 1828, Adjutant McCaslin was 
elected Major ; in June, 1835, he was elected Brigade In- 
spector, the only military officer who drew a salary from the 
State. McCaslin's competitors on this occasion were Major 
Samuel M'Guire, of Washington county, and Major R. H. Lind- 
sey of Greene county. While holding the office of Brigade 
Inspector he Avas elected CajDtain of an Infantry Company 
called the Franklin Blues. These volunteers he continued to 
drill until he brought them up to a high state of perfection ; 
indeed McCaslin seems to have excelled almost all others in 
his military skill, as the following will illustrate : At the in- 
auguration of Francis R. Shunk (who had been elected Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania in 1844), a vast number of volunteers 
were present at Harrisburg, who requested the new Governor 
to review them. Although Shunk had been in actual service 
in the war of 1812, yet he had given so little attention to mili- 
tary affairs of late year's that he felt his inability to that ex- 
tent that he was about to decline, when General Roumforfc 
recommended Major McCaslin (who was present as a member 
of the House of Representatives) as a most expert military- 
tactician who could ably assist the new Governor in the per- 
formance of this arduous duty. McCaslin was immediately sent 
for who at once agreed to assist Shunk. Gen. Roumfort was 
requested to form his lines forthwith, and the review proceeded. 
When the imposing aifair was ovei', the Governor was compli- 
mented ^'.'' r'^vcral pi'^'n'iio'.it m'litary men who wore present 


for his ability as a field officer. To this the Governor replied 
that whatever credit was due to the performance, belonged ex- 
clusively to his friend Major McCaslin. "SATien he went to his 
desk in the House of Representatives the next morning he, 
found a commission from the new Governor as liis first aid 
with the rank of Colonel. He was twice re-elected to the House 
of Representatives, filling the years 1843-44-45. During these 
years and for three years thereafter, Hon. Chas. A. Black ably 
represented this District in the State Senate. At the close of Mr. 
l>lack's second term, Major McCaslin became a candidate for 
the same position. This claim was opposed by the Democracy 
of Fayette county on the ground of rotation, and in conse- 
quence of their presenting a candidate in the person of Hon. 
Samuel Nixon, in every way qualified to fill the iDOsition 
— a man who had served three terms in the State Legislature, acted for several years as Justice of the Peace and had 
filled the position of Associate Judge by the side of Hon. Thos. 
II. Baird, — all these things seemed to promise success to Judge 
Nixon, and yet the superior skill of McCaslin in electioneering, 
secured him the nomination. I know that some persons have 
given a different reason for McCaslin's success. But I claim 
to know, for Judge Nixon was my father-in-law, I having been 
married to his daughter Sarah in 1844. I have often heard 
ihe old gentleman talk about it in his own house, and it al A^ays 
consoled him under his defeat that it was accomplished by a 
man of superior ability and skill. The next position of honor 
held by McCaslin was that of Presidential Elector to which he 
was elevated in 1852, casting his vote for Franklin Pierce for 
President and William R. King for Vice-President. The next 
responsible position in which McCaslin was placed was that of 
Indian Agent. This office was obtained tlu'ough the influence 
of Major George W. Mannypenny, who served an apprentice- 
ship in the ilfe55c;?r/<r printing office. This caused him to take 


up his abode in "bleeding Kansas" in 1855 when human life 
in that locality was held exceedingly cheai?. He was finally 
removed from his office by President Buchanan for having ex- 
pressed himself too freely in favor of Kansas becoming a free 
State. We next find him at Parkersburg, W. Va., at a great 
meeting which was addressed by Gov. Pierpoint, urging the 
yjeople to raise another regiment, (the 4th W. Va.) A great 
many Pennsylvanians then resided in the vicinity of Parkers- 
. burg, who now proposed to give the regiment a lift, provided 
Colonel McCaslin was allowed i o command it. This declara- 
tion was made known to the Governor who immediately filled 
up a commission for him, and soon the regiment was on tho 
Wheeling Island waiting to be organized. After organization 
it was moved to New Creek. Soon after this the Colonel, 
feeling the infirmities of age creeping upon him, resigned his 
command, returned to Parkersburg, sold his extensive property 
and came back to Greene county, Pa., making his home most 
of the time, after the death of his wife (who was formerly Mrs. 
Hale, a widow with whom he boarded while in Hai-risburg,) 
with his widowed sister, Mrs. Jane Kincaid, in Jefferson 
township, Greene county. Pa. He visited Washington City 
in 1865, and was in Ford's Theater when Wilks Booth fired 
the fatal shot at President Lincoln. After this he returned to 
Kansas where he died of apoplexy in the 78th year of his age. 
I am indebted for almost all the above facts to my old friend. 
W. T. H. Pauley, Esq. 

James Vance came from Ireland previous to the war of the 
Revolution, in company with a friend whom he called 
Billy Cree. Vance was drafted into the army soon after 
his arrival, and parted with his fi-iend Cree in Philadelphia. 
After the close of the war Vance settled near Morristown, N. 
J., from which place he emigrated to Greene county. Pa., in 
1796. He purchased and occupied the tr.ict of land now tho- 

iiTSTor.Y OK GRK.r.xi: corxTv. 31 1 

property of Jainc-; Williainsoii, one mile above Minor's mill, on 
Wliitoley creek. lie was the gi'and-fatlierof the present Wra. 
Boiio-Imer, of Greensboro, Pa. One of this old man's sons, 
Alexander Vance, made a trip to the little town of Pittsburg 
near the coinmencenient of the present century where he be- 
held witli astonishment the operations of a steam engine. On 
liis return to tlie vicinity of Greensboro he made agio wmg rep- 
lesentation of the wonders performed by steam, power, telling 
ills friends that a small steam mill would, no doubt, be a good 
investnitnt. Among those who listened to his descriptions 
were the Kramers, Reppcrts and Eberharts who were then 
successfully engaged in manufacturing glass at the Old Glass 
Works, immediately below the present village. These men 
lia\ing emigrated, from Monocacy in the celebrated wheat 
growing region in Maryland, had. large notions of what might 
be achieved by a large steam mill, hence they erected a mill 
sixty feet S(]uarc, three or four stories high. This called for 
on expenditure of an immense sum of money, hence the thing 
not being a financial success, was therefore abandoned. This 
young man Alexander Vance sold out near Greensboro and re- 
moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1817, and died there in 1850. 
Old James Vance was a Presbyterian and attended the Glades 
('hurch (New Providence). To this neighborhood his friend. 
I>illy Cree had immigi'ated some time before, and the two 
men sat down side by side at the communion table from which, 
as they arose, they recognized each other, and after services 
were over they had a good time in reviewing "Auld Lang Syne" 
friendsliip. This Alexander Vance (son of old James Vance) 
was the first man who attempted the manufacture of stone- 
ware in the bounds of Greene county. l>ut the materials at 
first used Avere of a poor quality, and m 1815 he commenced 
the maiiufactureof common eai'then-ware which he abandoned 
in 18.7 


Called the Village Watchman, was loaned me by a friend, 
which paper is dated Augnst 4th, 1846, during the progress of 
the war with Mexico, bringing to my mind many things con- 
nected with that campaign with which I was once very familiar, 
but which have not been thought of for many long years; yet 
as I am not writing a history of the Mexican war but of Greene 
county, I notice those things only which relate to the latter. 
This paper was edited by Rev. Simeon Sigfried. On the sec- 
ond page I find a long sj^eech on the "Tariff Bill of 1846," by 
Hon. Andrew Stewart, a man whom I knew and who'm I have 
heard make several tariff speeches. I recognize several of hi& 
old arguments in this printed speech. This man, although a 
resident of Fayette county, was well known to many persons 
in Greene county who generally spoke of him as "Tariff Andy." 
A part of his speech is devoted to chastising a certain Mr. 
Bowlin from Missouri, who had suggested that members o\ 
Congress should be curtailed in their pay for every day they 
were absent from their places in the house. This resolution Mr 
Stewart opposed. This paper is very severe against Vice Pres- 
ident George M. Dallas for giving the casting vote in favor of 
this Bill.. An extract from the New York Sunday Times, found 
in this old paper, predicts a direct tax on every acre of land 
m the whole country in consequence of the reduction of the 
tariff. The fulfillment of this prediction I believe still remains 
on the docket after the lapse of thirty-«ix years as unfinished 
business. There seems to have been several parties engaged 
m merchandising in Waynesburg in those days. Prominent 
among these was that of Rinehart & Minor. The persons who 
composed this firm were J. W. Rinehart and W. E. Minor, 
who called their establishment "the Farmers and Mechanies 
•cheap Exchange Store." Another competing firm was that of 
Allison & Campbell, and still riiiothcr, J. and R. K. Campbell 


& Co., wliile J. Higinbotliam, Richard Gregg, A. Wilson and 
J>. Campbell & Co. were doing business in the same line, consist- 
ing of Dry Goods, Groceries, Drugs, Hardware, Notions, &c. 
There also seems to have been need of doctors in those days, and 
consequently Dr. J. Goucher tells the people of Waynesburg 
that he will serve them "with all his former energy, attention 
and tenderness." Dr. F. B. Wilson also informs the denizens 
of this borough that he will not only attend to curing the or- 
dinary ills that humanity is heir to, but also extract their old 
teeth and replace them with 'incorruptible teeth." It aj)pears 
tVom this old paj)er there were also lawyers in that day ; hence 
I find the card of Howell & Wells, which firm consisted of J. 
B. Howell & J. H. Wells. Could this be Joshua B. Howell, 
o)' Uniontown ? If so I knew him very well ; heard him make a 
a speech as General of Volunteers about the last of May, 1846, 
at which time he and I and a multitude of others tendered 
our services to the President, offering to go to Mexico. The 
last time I saw Gen. Howell was at Jefferson in 1861 when ho 
and Judge Jame? Veech were trying to raise soldiers for the 
war of the Rebellion, in which Howell was finally killed. But 
perhaps this was another man. At the time General Howell 
made this speech the locusts were so abundant in the orchard 
where the volunteers were formed into a hollow square, that 
t'lcir cries in prjt drowned his voice. Another law firm in 
1846 was Hager & Phelan, composed of C. T. Hager and J. 
I'lielan. Their office was in Mr Hays' front room opposite the 
public square. Another title is "Not in Oregon yet," under 
which J. & T. A. Barnes inform the public that they still 
continue to manufacture wool at the old establishment, on 
Muddy creek, two miles below Carmichaels. It seems that 
some people also got mamed in those days. Hence it is an- 
nounced that Mr. Craven Hoge and Miss Violette Mitchell, of 
Franklin township, were married by J. Clark, Esq. There 


were also candidates in those days, for it is announced that 
Mr. Thomas Hill of Franklin township would like to be elected 
Sheriff at the ensuing election ; also that Mr. Samuel Jacobs of 
AUeppo township would fill the office of Commissioner if the 
people would be good enough to elect him. The Franklin 
■Rangers are ordered to meet at the house of Peter Syphers in 
Franklin township on the 29th of August, 184G, at 10 o'clock, 
J. N. BurK, O. S. J. Thomas, Sheriff, advertises a writ of j^ar- 
tition for a tract of land in Cumberland township, containing 
one hundred and thirty-sev en acres, late the property of Abra- 
ham Scott, deceased. The writ is issued at the request of Jas. 
W. Bayardand Joanna, his wife. The heii-s were John, Abraham 
and. James Scott, James Barnes, guardian of James Wiley, and 
Rebecca Jane Wiley, heirs of Jane Wiley, dec'd, formerly Jane 
Scott, John Hartman and Rebecca his wife, formerly Rebecca 
Scott. These heirs are notified that an inquisition will be held 
on the premises on the 27th of August, 1846. T. Harn in- 
forms the people of Carmichaels and vicinity that he stili car- 
I ies on the shoe-making business, and will take all kinds of 
produce in payment. The editor warns the people to look out 
lor a counterfeit Mexican dollar Rinehart & Minor notify 
their patrons that they v/ill take "all kinds of cash" and pj-o- 
•luce at their store. And many other thnigs are found in this 
'■id relic, interesting to the reader, but to which we cannot 


On ihe evening of January 9, 1883, I visited the Sherman 
House, kept by Thomas Bradley, who is a native of Bealville. 
Washington county. Pa. He lias been engaged for many 
years in collecting a cabinet of curiosities, which he took great 
pleasure in showiac, and among the collection I found the fol- 
lowing: A petrified s lak ■ ■: f cMTlll^ll ■ si 7,'. \xhich was found 


on the waters of Fish Creek, Greene Co.. Pa.; an old Continen- 
tal button, cut from a uniform of a Revohitionary soldier ; 
some of the hair taken from the head of old "Jimmy" Kent, a 
soldier of the war of 1812, who died a few years ago. A small 
bottle of peach brandy seventy-five years old, furnished to the 
proprietor by James Barnes of Muddy creek ; a helmet Avhich 
Avas once a part of the armor of one of Napoleon Bonaparte's 
Invincible Cuirassiers; a Prussian bullet from the field of "Wa- 
terloo ; a piece of the wood of the bridge constructed by 
General Braddock in 1755, across the Youghiogheny river ; 
a piece of wood that was once a part of the flag-ship of Com- 
odore Perry in his victorious contfict with the English on the 
10th of September, 1814 ; also the keys of the old jail and 
Court house which were the first erected in Waynesburg. 
Several pieces of crockery ware said to have been found in one 
of the old camps of the Delaware Indians ; also pipes, picks 
;ind hatchets all of stone. Tomahawk made of iron and steel 
of the kind used in the old French and Indian war; also an In- 
dian's skull and leg bone ; a petrified turtle ; the butt end of the 
stock of Lewis Whetzel's gun, said to have been broken by 
striking an Indian ; part of the flag carried by the Ameri- 
cans at Yorktown in 1781. when they accepted the surrender 
of Lord Cornwallis; an old paper containing the obituary ot 
the "Father of his Country," General Washmgton. The paper 
is all draped in mourning between its columns and around the 
margin, but 1 could n* ithcr find its name nor the date of its 
ssue. A j)air of elk liorns from the Rocky mountains ; a pet- 
rified squirrel ; a l^ailow pen knife bearing the figures 17G6: 
making it 116 years old; an old law book, dated 1776, wilh 
the name of Henry Taylor written in it — he was one of the 
fiist Judges of old Washington county before the erection o! 
Greene county. This name is probably in his own hand-writ- 
ing. An old newspaper, called "Xcv/ England Courant," is 


also found among these antiquities. It is dated February 11, 
1723, and is said to have been edited by Benjamin Franklin, 
The paper is so blurred that I could not find his name on 
it. An old weaver's reed for manufacturing home-made linen, 
said to have been brought to Maryland by Lord Baltimore 
when he first founded that colony. But time "would fail me to 
tell of all the old relics contained in these old cases, such as 
petrified woods, punk, snails, &c. ; a'so cannon balls, bullets of 
various sizes, etc., etc. 


Although this may not seem like Greene county history, yet 
I insert it in my book in order to make the peojjle of this 
county content with their- condition in the locality in wliich 
their lot has been cast. On the 1st of January, 1883, at r» 
o'clock A. M., I boarded the tiain on the W. & W. R. E. at 
Deer Lick Station. At 8 o'clock I arrived at \Yashington, and 
at ten I was in Pittsburg where I purchased a ticket for Chi- 
cago by way of the P. & F. "\V. R. li. As we were asceiadmg 
the up grade from Beaver Falls, I remarked to a young m:'.a 
b}"^ my side "that it would require a long time to make the tiip 
if all the way was this steep." An elderly man across the aisle 
replied, "Oh ! don't be discouraged : we will soon be out of 
Pennsylvania and then we will be done with theJiills.'' I rhen 
innocently asked, "are there hills no where else but in Penn- 
sylvania"? " to which he replied with great emphasis, "no, sir. 
It is the most deplorably rough, hilly, mountainous State in 
ihe Union. You could not give me a farm in Pennsylvania 
and compel me to live on it. I live in Illinois where we don't 
have to lie our pumpkins to the stones to keep them JVaui 
i-olling out of the field. We don't have to let our sheep down 
over the rocks into the little hollows in order to get a few 
mouth-fulls of grns? Wo raise f io:u 75 to 100 bushels of corn 

niSTORY OK f;uF.i:\i-: rorxTV. 


to the acre, 40 bushels of wheat to the acre,'' <tc. After the 
fellow had poured out a constant stream of gas of the above 
kind for perhaps half an hour, he subsided from mere exhaus- 
tion. I found time to say "well, sir, this is my third trip to 
the regions beyond the Mississippi ; each time ])assing- through 
your great State of Illinois, and there are a few things that 
have always puzzled me. Why do you not all become million- 
aires in a few years'? Why can't you afford us poor Pennsyl- 
vanians a feather-bed to sleep on when we come out among 
you? Why must we be compelled to eat your "Long Tom" 
potatoes boiled with the skins on, in conTiection with a little 
piece of the toughest kind of beef, and then pay fifty cents for 
each meal, and an additional fifty cents for the privilege of 
sleeping on one of your straw-beds? I hail from Greene county 
where we are content if we can get from 40 to 50 bushels of 
corn to the acre ; 15 bushels of wheat is considered a good 
.;rop, and still we live, have plenty to eat and plenty to wear, 
;iik1, above all, have good health." This may seem like a matter 
entirely foreign to our history, but I introduce it as a specimen 
>)f Western "gasconade" that has already had its miscliievo;is 
effects on many good livers in Greene county, causing them to 
••pull up stakes'' and leave comfortable homes in Pennsylvania 
expecting to have all these gassy promises realized in the West. 
A few bettered their condition, but the majority would have 
been better off if they had remained in the place di their na- 
tivity. But how about our jouniey ? By the time this con- 
versation was ended we were in Ohio, and the snoAv 
was falling very fast, which it continued to do until we reached 
the Indiana line when the air became so intensely cold that the 
snow ceased to descend. When we reached Chicago the bliz- 
zard was at its height, making even the hard faced "suckers'* 
keep their heads in doors. As the fifty cent omnibuses were 
scarce, I started to walk to the North Western depot. Feel- 


ing that I would freeze^ I turned into a great dining saloon 
wliere I obtained a tolerably good meal for Avliich I only had 
to pay seventy-five cents ! I finally arrived in Jackson county, 
Iowa, where, uj^on my complaining of their cold country, the 
reply was, "Oh, this is nothing ; the thermometer is only eigh- 
teen degress below zero this morning. Wait till it comes 
down to thirty-eight or forty, as it sometimes does." I con- 
cluded not to wait, but turned my face Eastward, as soon as 
iny business was completed, and fled from the "blizzards" with 
all ])ossible speed, arriving at my home on Saturday, the 6th, 
traveling near two thousand miles in six days and transacting 
business to the amount of four thousand dollars. But perhapt 
the strangest part of the affair was, that my family liad not 
found out that there had been any unusual amount of cold, as tlie 
mercury had not reached zero at all instead of eighteen de- 
grees below. Reader, keep out of the North-^\'est in lIjc 
winter season. 


On my arrival at home I found a letter from Benj. Covert. 
dated "Rice's Landing, December 28, 1882," referring to ;i 
statement I had made in the early part of my history about .i 
man striking him at the big muster. He says in his lettei- ; 
"That statement was the truth. It happened over fifty years 
ago at the general muster near Moorfield, O." Mr. Covert then 
expresses great gratitude for the notice I have taken of him, 
and also a desire to assist me in any way that he can, and in 
order to make a beginning in that good work, he makes the 
following statements that will, no doubt, be full of interest, as 
the tragic part of it occurred on the soil of the present Greene 
coimty. The story is substantially I his: In 1771 Rev. James 
Finley, who was born in the province of Ulster, Ireland, in 
1731, crossed the Allegheny mountains on horse-back in com- 


panj' with liis oldest sou, Eboiiczer, for whom his father 
wished to purchase a farm. They must liave been good judges 
of land, which they displaj^ed in selecting a magnificent tract 
•on Dunlap's creek, Fayette county, near the town of New 
Salem. The father preached several times during his stay to the 
widely scattered inhabitants, and then returned to his home 
East of the mountains. Some time after his return home, he 
"became suddenly downcast and dejected, his thoughts all the 
time brooding over the seeming impending fate of his absent 
'boy. After a few hours his dejection departed, and he ex-' 
^claimed, "the danger is past." He made a note of the time, 
whicli, when the dates came to be compared, was about the 
very hour when his son Ebenezer made such a narrow esca])0 
from the Indians, the circumstances of which were about as 
follows : In the year 1774 the Indian war, known in history 
as ''Dunmore's War," broke out. This was brought on in con- 
sequence of killing several Indians by Virginia settlers, (ii 
the west side of the Monongahela. The Indians seem to ha\e 
iregarded this river as the line between Pennsylvania and Yir- 
^nia, and hence they confined their depredations to what they 
regarded as Virginia soil, now Greene county. A requisition 
was made for help from the east side of the river, and among 
the soldiers was Ebenezer Finley. At A\liat point they crossed 
the river my informant cannot tell, but the adventure was on 
Greene county soil. The Indians being scattered, it was de- 
teimined to send out the whites in patroling parties of twos. 
Mr. Finley and one other man had penetrated deep into the 
forest without seeing any signs of the foe, when they espied 
a deer at some distance from them. Anxious to procure its 
flesh for food, both guns were discharged at it, when suddenly 
out sprang two Indians with uplifted tomahawks. There was 
but one chance for our soldiers, and that was run, which they 
did for considerable distance, when Mr. Finley 's friend fell be- 


hind and was slain by the merciless hatchet. While this was 
being done and his scalp removed, Mr. Finley made his escape. 
Tins man Ebenezer Finley I have often seen as an Elder in 
Dunlap's Creek Church when I was a small boy. I have often 
passed through the splendid farms that were formed out of the 
original tract that was located by Rev. James Finley, who was 
the first Presbyterian minister west of the mountains, although 
he does not seem to have crossed the Monongahela until aftei 
• tiie arrival of Eev. John McMillian in 1775, who did cross the 
iiser. I also find that the incident referred to and described 
by Mr. Covert has already become a matter of history among 
i'resbyterians, as Rev. Joseph Smith, D. D., in his book "Old 
lii'dstoue," on page 284 refers to the same thing, no doubt. 
I lind that Judge Beech in his secular history corroborates the 
.-;ii!ie thing in his date and circumstances of the Dunmore war 
■a'mI Connolly usurpation. The same thing is established by 
'•■jference to the minutes of the old Synod of Virginia, which 
jiotices the appointment of Rev. James Finley in 1771. No 
'. Hither ajjpointments were made for this region, except Rev. 
John King in 1772, until 1774, when Revs. John Ilanna, Wil- 
liam Foster and Samuel.Smith were appointed to go to "the 
frontier parts of Pennsylvania and Vii'ginia," the very wording 
showing how careful the old fathers were not to meddle with 
the vexed boundry question. It will be seen by the above 
lliatMr. Covert, although a most devout Methodist now in the 
S3d year of his age, has by his very welcome letter brought lo 
1 cniembrance quite a page of Presbyterian history. 


Since writing the history of the Messenger I have received 
a letter from Major J. W. Hays whicli throws additional 
light ou this history, as well as giving- several items of interest 
in the biography of a prominent resident, of Waynesburg, 
near the commencement of the present century, as follows : 
William T. Hays commenced merchandising in Waynesburg 
in 1804. In addition to his variety store he concluded to open 
a saddler shop (as there Avas none in the place nt that dato). 
He also determined that Greene county should have a news- 
paper. For this purpose he purchased a press and type in 
Pliiladclphia, in 1813, brought them on to AV'aynesburg and 
set up the press in a house of his own next door to the one ir. 
which he lived. Having abundance of businc:;; on hands, 
witliout personally attempting to edit and print a paper, he 
employed, sent his team for and moved John Baker into a liouse 
that he (Hays) had rented for Baker's use. In this way ihe 
j)aper was run for about five years. At the expiration of that 
time, in 1818, Dr. Thomas Layton became editor, who retanicd 
.John Baker as his ]jrinter. William T. Hays v^-as more or less 
connected with almost all the prominent aliairs of Waynes- 
bui'g and Greene county at an early day. lie was al'rotlion- 
otary of the county for an unbroken term ol about twenty 

The same letter that contains the above inrormalion aiso 
gives the names of the following persons as members of the 
State Senate, viz: Isaac Weaver, Yv'illlam G. Hawkins, Ulias. 
A. Black and John C. Flenniken. Also members of tlie House 
of Representatives, viz : Rees Hill, Adam Hays, W. T. Hayh, 
Thomas Burson, W. S. Harvey, Joseph Sedgwick, Thouns 
Rose, John Phelan, Fletcher Brock, Dr. D. W. Gi-av, John 



uio o .V (JK <;::;:::\-i: ouL'ni'V. 

Hagnn, (uLo clioJ dnriii- ]iis Icnn r.iid v.r.s :-v.pcr?cJcd by) 
Thoiiics L:u(!:ey, Wi:ii;i;;> KiiicrJcl and Pr.ti'icic Donloy. Isaac 
Weaver w;-; G}ie;iI:oi- of t'.ic yfi::ilc at the same liino that 
Rces Hill v.-:i3 speaker of the Ilou^e, an lienor confcrrc.l on 
this county v.-liich is said to li'ivo f:'.ilc:! to iho lot of iio other 
county ii: ;:i.-' S:r/c. - 


1! liavc l)oc:i infonuGd that the lollow-iug names r,,.-nt to Tio 
aildod as foi'iiiiiig a part of t!ie moinbcrsliip of the old Quaker 
Clrarcli, on Muddy Creek, during the llrst quarter of tliaprco- 
eut century, vie' Jolni Ilank'^, William ]\[orgai), Jacob j3urg, 
Shedlock Kigus, Joseph Gregg, Thomas Miller, William T'dil- 
Icr, Isaac Johns'lon, Jonaliian Johnston Joseph Johnston, 
Joseph Cope and Joseph Kinsey. I have also heard it sug- 
gested that the Gv/ynns, Barclays, Crafts and Iluftys were not 
originally Quakers. How this is I do not know, as I had good 
authority for the first assertion and not quite so good for the 


We no^v come to the saddest chapter iu the history of our 
beloved country. One so dark that I have seriously thought 
of passing it over in silence. This course evidently would 
not be acceptable to a multitude of my readers, as I have re- 
ceived numerous letters asking me to at least refer to this sad 
event. We are all, to a certain extent, dependent en our an- 
cestors for our opinions, both religious and political, and inas- 
much as the original settlers of this county were, to a great 
extent, from Virginia, it is by no means strange that many of ,' 
their descendants should have imbibed the notion of "State 
Eights," in consequence of which they were ever on the alert 

:iiSTOnY OF <j::i:kxk colnty. ;323 

watcliing for an}' act of tlic General Govenimcnt iLat liael tLo 
appearance of secHonahsm. Tliis, many of them tlioiujlit they 
saw in the eflort to coerce the Koulhorii States, and in- 
terfoi'c Avitli their donieslic iir^Kutinn, hence tliey licsitaled — 
looked back on their old record wlien as the "Virginia Ran- 
gers," their giand-falhcrs and great-grand-fathcrs had stood 
betu-een the living- and the d'atl (in tlic old Indian Avars) so 
valiantly tliat the savni:;es g.;vt; iln-ni tlienanie of '-Long Knife." 
They i-cvic\ved their record further until tlicy found among 
their sires here and tiierc a man who had shed his blood at 
Braudywine or Monmouth in the revolutionary struggle. Thcv 
sad if we were sure that the intention is* to maintain the in- 
tegrity of the LTnion, "Vv'e vrould accept the situation and as- 
sist in crusiiing out the rebellion :" but if the intention is t<> 
wage a war against the slavc-hoLlers for the purpose of libera- 
ting the colored race who (in their opinion) did not desire 
freedom, ''Tlien Ave are not ready to assist,'' This uncertainty, 
witli reference to the intentions of the leaders, caused many to 
"halt betv.'een two opinions." This hesitancy existed until the 
opinions of the Southern leaders became "self-evident," that 
nothing would answer their puriDose but division of this broad 
Linil (that evidently tlie Creator intended to be one and undi- 
vided), and tliat most likely the division — if it was ever 
accompli slied — would be in i)art along Mason's and Dixon's 
Line, the southern boundery of their own county. Then there 
arose up in Greene county as strong a union sentiment as ex- 
isted any wliere else. If an isolated individual was occasion- 
ally found who had the "cheek" to wear a "copperhead" or 
"butternut" breast-i)in, he was almost sure to be a poorly-in- 
fornied man. If any huzzaed for Jtfr Davis it v/as because; l:e 
was ignorant of the intentions of the President of the "South- 
ern Confederacy." Man}- of the sons and brothers of Greene 
•■ county oflfered ihoi;:selvcs as willing saerifices for their coun- 



try's good. And yet th.:y went with altogether different mo- 
tives and intentions from those that actuated some of the most 
blatant politicions of that day who regarded it as a glorious 
opportunity and privilege now offei-ed to them of urging on 
the soldiers in shedding the blood of their Southern brethren 
to avenge the long quarrel that had existed between them. 
Not so "svith the soldiers of Greene county ; they had no 
enemies to punish; they had no quarrels to avenge: but 
they seemed to view the matter in the same light, tliatthe great 
military commander did when he said "Oh! wretched neces- 
sity." They also resembled the latter of the two great States- 
men, who, when his opponent had paid, "My countr}- alwa\s 
when she is right,''' immediately, replied, "My country always 
— whether she is rigJit or wrorg.''^ Actuated by sucli feelings as 
these, multitudes from this county pressed forward to fill wy 
tlie ranks of the Union Army. I have not yet been able to 
iind anytliing like a perfect list of our soldiers, butv;ill do the 
best I can in securing it. I have been kindly assisted by Cajit. 
James E. Sayers,, in procuring the names of a large ma- 
jority of the men who went from Greene county as soldiers in 
t'lc late war of the rebellion. Inasmuch as many of t lem were 
in the Eighty-fifth Hegiment, I propose giving a brief account 
i)f tha*: organization as follows: On the 1st of August, 18G1, 
.Toshua B. Howell, of Uniontown, was directed by the Secre- 
lary of AVar, to recruit a regiment of infantry, which, when 
full, was rendesvouscd at Camp La Fayette, near Uniontown. 
On the 12th of N' vember, 1861, the regiment was organized 
by elcctmg Joshua B. Howell, Colonel ; Norton McGiffin, 
Lieutenant Colonel ; and Absalom Guiler, Major. While in 
this camp a flag was presented to the regiment by the ladies 
of Uniontown. Near the close of November it was ordered to ^ 
Washington City. At Harrisburg the State colors were 
presented by Governor Curtin. L^pon arriving at the National 


Capital the men obtained their arms and were carefully ir- 
structed and drilled. A few Aveeks later it was removed to 
Camp Good Hope, across the East Branch of the Potomac, 
where it became part of Colonel Tidball's Brigade. In March, 
1862, the regiment was removed to Miredian Hill, where it was 
assigned to General Kiem's Brigade. On the 29th it left 
Alexandria in company with the fourth corps on its w\ay to 
Fortress Monroe, where it was united with the Army of the 
Potomac on the 1st of April. It took part in the seigo of 
Yorktown, and on tlie retreat of the enemy it joined in the 
pursuit by the Winns Mill Eoad. The first battle in which it 
was engnged was at Williamsburg, in which two of them were 
wounded — one mortally. The regiment still pressed on 
ihrough a heavy artillery fire, to the banks of the Chickahom- 
my, Avhich it crossed near Bottom's Bridge, on the 20th of 
May, 18G2. Here the Eighty-fifth was directed to fortify its 
position a little in advance of Fair Oak Station. Their Avorks 
were but partially constructed, when at 1 o'clock p. m., on the 
o 1 st, the enemy — like a rushing hurricane — charged upon them. 
Notwithstanding their unprepared condition they succeeded 
in liolding their half-finished rifie pits, valiantly aided by Hart's 
i».nt«.*ry. In this action Lieutenants James Hamilton and Thos. 
8. Pui viancc were among tiic killed, and Julius A. Smith was 
mortally wounded and taken prisoner. The entire loss of this 
regiment in the campaign of the Peninsula was eighty-seven 
killed and wounded. Wlicn Gen. McClelland evacuated tl e 
country bctwoen the two rivers, Keys' Corjjs remained on duty 
at Fortress Monroe. On tiie 5th of December "VVessell's Bri- 
gade, to which the Eighty-fifth was attached, was ordered 
from Suffolk, Va., to Xewbern, North Carolina, to re-enforce 
Gen. Foster, who Avas on the p)o"nt of departure to White 
Hall, on the Nv.'use. On the 13th the column reached West 
Creek, Avhere the Confederates were jjosted to dispute the 

o2G iiisro::Y ok <;r:r.i;xi-: countv. 

[lassncfo. Iloro a shnr]i aclioii took place, in mIi'icIi tlie Eiglity- 
tifth distinguislicd itself in charging? and routing the enemy . 
on the right of the ror.l, ■.vhllc the Ninth New Jersey 
<li<l the same on the left. The troops still pressed on toward 
the town of Kingston, on the noi'th hank of the Neuse, wad- 
ing through a, swcimp which ha,d boon concidered inipassahle 
by the enemy until tlioT belield the soldiers at their very gates, 
v;hcn the cliarge avcs sounded, r.nd the enemy routed and 
driven .across the riv^r. Tow;xr>Is the close of the month. 
General Foster was ordered to South Carolina to co-operate 
ivitli General Hunter in liis operations against Charleston. 
The Eighty-tifth arrived at liilton Head on the 1st of Febru- 
;ry. Col. Eov/cll was now put in command ol' the brigade, 
;.-hiIe Lier.lonant Col. Pnr\ianco ^vas advanced to the com- 
ai.ra.i of ti:e ri';;'i::io:it.. Abouu the 1st of April the brigade 
-^■.ovcd to Cole Z>'.;ind, wlicre it crossed Folly river and landed 
0.! Folly Island, r.t Vidiich time the ti-oo[)s witnessed the first 
i)ornli:::-dm('nl of Fort Suniptcr by Admiral Dupont. Floweli's 
!>^i£-'.dc wr.s left to rarrison the Island after the withdrawal 
!>■ tiic resL of the ivoops. Folly Island is about seven miles 
o:!g and one w ide. Light houee Inlet about sirihundred yards 
". ide separates it froiu j\Ior:is Island on the north. Early in 
Ji:i:o General Hunter was superseded by General Gilmore* 
who iin.mediately commence!, opci-ations to ]iossess Morris 
Ibsr.J. For tills pui-posG batteries were ei-ee.ted on the north 
end of Folly Island. Tliis was accomplished almost cxclr,- 
Nively at night. After the fifty-two guns had weakcnetl 
(he enemy's position, an assault led by General Strong was 
made, in which the first line of the Confederate works was 
g-.iincd ; but Fort ■^Vagner still held out. General Gilmore now 
determined to reduce it by regu.lar approaches. On the 20th 
of August the Eighty-fiftli Pa.. One Hundredth New York and 
the Tliird Now Harni.^shire vrere di.t.iiled to occupy the ad- 


vance trenches. On the 21st one man in the Eighty-fifth was 
killed and twenty wounded, three mortally ; on the 24th one 
man was killed and seven wounded ; on the 27tli two were killed 
and eight wounded ; on the 30th four were killed and eight 
wounded. Lieutenant Colonel Purvianrio being among the 
killed. Sickness in the Eiglity-iifth was alarming — caused by 
the extreme heat of the daj's, the dampness of the trenches and 
poor quality of the water — until her numbers were so depleted 
that on the 2d of September only two hundred and seventy 
were fit for duty. After the death of Col. Purviance the com- 
mand of the regiment devolved on C;ipt. Is.nac 31. Abrams, 
who was promoted to the rank of ]\iajor. After the fall of 
Fort Wagner and the evacuation of Morris Island, the Eighty- 
fifth was ordered to Hilton Head, about the beginning of De- 
cember, where it went into camp a short distance from Port 
Koyal. Here the liGaith of the regiment rnpiJIy improved; so 
much so that in February, loG-i-, in coi:ipany w itli the Fourth 
New Hampshire, it was detailed to proceed to Vv'iiite Mai'sh. 
near Sf/rannah, for the purpose of dispeising :v force of the 
enemy that was engaged in throwing up fortinc.-itions. This 
expedition ended in failure, in consequence of the superior 
numbcis of the enemy, the strength of their fori iK cations and 
irambcr of their batteries. The Eiglitj'-fifth lost t v. o wounded 
and Lieut. Jno. PI Mitchner taken prisoner. .Vbout the middle 
of April, the Tenth Corjis, under the command of General 
Gilmore, was ordci-ed to Virginia to re-cnforco the Army of 
the Jnmos. The three divisions withdrawn were those of Ter- 
ry, Turner and Ames, the first of these (Terry's) being com- 
posed of the Brigades of Kowell, Hawley and Barton. When 
the Eighty-tifth arrived at Gloucester Point it vras joined by 
the veteians who h:ul been aliseiit on f iirlongh. S»)on after its 
arrival the Tenth Corps, with the I'iglitoouth, proceeded to 
Bermuda Hundred. H^re ou the 2.HU (-'i I'.L'.y ti:o Eiglity- 

S28 TiisTonv OK okkkxk county. 

fifth was cni]jr.geil in a. sliarp conflict. General Butler had 
been driven back behind liis foitification, and the enemy had 
caj^tured a line of rifle pits in front of Terry's Division. 
Howell's Brigade was ordered to drive him out and re-possess 
the pits. The charge was made in the most gallant manner, 
and the works were retaken. Tlie Confederate Gen. Walker 
had his horse shot from under him, and was himself wounded 
and taken prisoner. Tiie loss of the Eighty-fifth wns two 
killed and twenty-one wounded. On the 14th of Juno Gon. 
Grant's forces began to cross the James river, and soon after 
carried the outer works before Petersburg. The Confcdeiatfs 
being hard pressed, abandoned their works betrt^ecn the James 
and the Ai)pomattox, which Avcre at once occui)ie<l by tlic; 
Tenth Cor])s, and some prisoners were captured. Gon. Lee"s 
advanced forces also crossed the James, above Fort Daili-'L'. 
oia the iGtl), and the skirmishing became very brisk. Eni'v 
on the morning of the 17tli tlie enemy attacked the ])icket liin' 
in front of Howell's Brigade, the Eiglity-fiftli still occnpyiug 
the works evacuated the day previous. A considerable b:it)le 
ensued, in vrhich the Eiglity-fifth had five men killed and twelve 
wounded. On the 20Lh of June Howeirs Brigade marc-lied U> 
Deep Bottom and on the 25th retraced its ste))s to its foriiier 
position on the lines. On the 13th of August tho Tenth Cor])s, 
in connection with the Second under flancock, proceeded again 
to Deep Bottom, where the Confederates Hill and Longsti-cot 
were posted in strong force. Hancock led the Second Cor[)S 
into position along the New Market road. Early on i!jO 
morning of the l-tth Foster's Division moved out to Straw- 
berry Plains, and encountered the enemy's skirmishers wlio 
fell back to their entrenchments. At nine o'clock Terry's Di- 
vision made a furious charge, capturing a long line of earth- 
works. Most of the division was protected by a wood until 
within a hundred yards of tlie works, 1>ut 'c Eighty-fifth was 


c(3mpelled to advance over au open field where it was fearfully 
exposed to the enemy's fire. The Confederates retired to their 
second line some distance in the rear, and Terry rested in the- 
works he had captured until evening, when he supported Fos 
ter in a grand charge in which his troops captured part of the 
remaining earth-works ; also two mortars, four howitzers and 
a number of prisoners. Tlie loss in the Eighty-fifth was two 
kilkd and nineteen wounded — five of them mortally. Lieut. 
William T. C:im])l:)cll wns killed. At nine o'clock on the 
morning of the IGth Terry's Division moved to the front 
The pickets of the enemy wore encountered, who were pro- 
tected by rifle-pits, notwithstanding which they were driven 
out and fell back to a strong line of earth-works in the rear. 
The division was then massed for the grand charge which 
was to be na lo by columns. At the word, forward ! the 
Eighty-fifth dashed on over the slashed timbci-, through an 
incessant fire of musketry, never wavering until the works iu 
frcnt were carried. About two hundred pi'isonerG were cap- 
tured in the charge ; also three stands of colors were born 
away by tlio Eighty-fifth. Its loss was severe, being nine 
killed ajnl fifty-four woiuidcd — five of them mortally and one 
lakon prisoner. Captains Lewis AVatkins, Levi M. Rogers 
were mortally wounded. On the afternoon of the 18th the 
enemy charged, but were soon repulsed, and the Eighty-fifth 
had l)at one woun led. On the 20th the troops were all with- 
drawn from the north side of tlie James, except Foster's Divi- 
sion, and the regiment r turned to its old camp, where it rested 
until the 2.1:th, when the Tenth Corps was ordered to the Ap- 
pomattox. On the 13th of September the Eighty-fifth was 
ordeied to Fort Morton. Just previous to this change. Col. 
1 lowed was a'^signed to tlie command of a division of colored 
troops. Col. Pond, of the Sixty-second Ohio, succeeded him 
-u the conuna-id of the briL'-ale. On the n'ght of the l2th of 


September, while returning from corps headquarters Col. 
Howell was thrown from his horse and so severely injured 
that he soon afterward died. After being rcaovcd from duty 
at Fort Morton the Eighty-fiftli assisted in llie capture of Fort 
Harrison ; also the earth- works at Chapin's I'ram, and was ad- 
vanced to a point within three miles of Riclniioud. It was en- 
gaged in battle on the 1st of October, then aci^ain on the 7th, 
when three divisions of the enemy attacked Kautz's Cavalry. 
Pond's Brigade occupied the left of the line, and the Eighty- 
fifth Regiment was stationed where the line of battle crossed 
the New Market road. The loss in tlie E'ghty-fifth in this ac- 
tion was three wounded. On the 12th Gen. Terry was ordered to 
make reconnaissance, with the First and Third Divisions. The 
Eighty-eighth was deployed as sl^irmisliei'S in front of Pond's 
Iji-igade, where they soon encountered the enemy skirmishers 
v/ho were at once driven back. In tliis action the Eighty-fifth 
lost seven wounded, one of them mortally. On the 14th of 
October, 18G4, the regiment Avas witlulrawn from the front, 
the veterans and recruits were transfcrix'd to the One Huu- 
di'ed and Eightylifth Pennsylvania, and the rcnainder, whose 
term of service was about to expire, reported at Portsmouth 
and wcro ordered into camp. A month later the Eiglity-fifth 
u-as in Pittsburg, Pa., where on the 22d of November it was 
formally mustered out of the service of the United States. 
]^revious to the departure from Portsnioutli, Major Isaac M. 
Abraham, accompanied by tifty men and four commissioned 
officers, was sent to guard a fleet of transports cai-rying Con- 
federate jirisoners to be exchanged at Savanna, Georgia. Hav- 
ing devoted thus much space to the history of the Eighty-fifth 
Regiment in which tlie majority of tlie soldiers from Greene 
county iiad enlisted, I will now give the roll of Company F, 
which is said to be exclusively from this county. I will then 
insert the name of every man that I can find who wiait from 



Greene count}', no matter u 
KoLL OF Company Y, 

John Mori'is, Captain. 

Nicliolns Hager, " 

Levi M. Rogers, " 
Iioseberiy Sellers, 1st Serg't 

John IJemley, " 

E'-Miore A. lliisiell, " 

Z. C IJagan, ^erg't. 

James E. Sa;,'ers, " 

Jniaes 13. Lindsey, " 

Jc.sepli Sil veils, " 

is'.r.oD. Havcly, " 

I»';i;oli;irt I). Chui-cb, " 
Tiio!iia> J. While, 
Oliver :,I. Lo:;g, 

.\'.^.iizo Linlitiicr, " 

• eireiooii H. Zaiic, Cor[)'l. 

'i'-icma-; IToL'e, " 

R'.^-rsoii Kii uy, " 

y\\i\'. X. Kos.v uson, " 

.' '!.i Xoiiuan, " 

\'>M.i:i;ii C.;r.rcl, " 

I li-f/u AVeavoi', " 

.7.v;iies X . Diiil'iii, " 

Tiicmas M. Sellers, " 

Tliomas r. Kogcrs, " 
Daniel S.vaii, MuKician 

J.iiijC'. -.^■C'uen, " 

Aru:Gr Slrosuidci', Priv't. 

Argo Simon, " 

lirynei- James, " 

i>urk Noah, " 

Babbitt Joseph, " 

Burrougli John B., " 

Bissett Jeremiah, " 

Bissett Albert, " 

Chapman Charles, " 

here his name may be situated. 


Court\\(right J. L., Priv't 

Church Franklin, " 

Church George, " 

. Cree Alc^iander D., " 

Cooper James E., " 

Clouse John, " 

Cowen John, " 

Crouse Nathan, " 

Chaney Jesse, " 

Crouse William, " 

Davis Benjamin " 
Duvall Elias, 

Earnest Jncob, " 

Engle Solomon, " 

Estep Carnelius, " 

Fry Thomas 11., " 

Fordyce William, "■ 

Fordyce .John, " 

Fry, David, " 

Fiy Henry, " 

Gr:iham Jo' n P., " 
Gilbert Eiiel. 

Garrison Thompson, " 

Gilbert John, " 
Gladden William II., 

Gray Isaac, '' 

Hickman George F., ■' 

Hunnell W illiam, '• 

Hnys George AV., " 

Iliill'man James, " 

Huffman Jacob, " 

Hendci-scn ^ViHiam, '' 

Hunt Joseplias, '• 

Hathaway Adolph, <• 

Johnson Fiaiicis M., •• 

Jolmson Nic]ioIa'<, '• 



Kimble Jackson, 
Knight James, 
Leonard Hai-vy, 
Laughman Henry, 
Lewis George F., 
Longdon Morgan, 
Leonard William E., 
INIitchell Andrew J., 
Martin Perry, 
Mitchell Jonathan, 
Martin SiLis, 
Montgomery John, 
jMoor Carl, 
Moor Samuel H., 
INIuray John, 
Martin James M., 
jNTorris Andrew J., 
McMullin William, 
^IcCiacken Thomas, 
McGInmphy Harvey, 
McGlumphy W., 
McGary Spencer, 
.■\IcDon.ild Alfred, 
Nelson Lafayette, 
Ott Ezra, 
Ott Salem, 
I\';titt Henry, 
Plantz Maxwell, 
Packer William F., 
Patterson Samuel, 
Pettltt George, 
Patterson Joseph, 

PriT t. rvose'jerry Thomas, Private. 

" Riggs William, " 

" Rinehart Morgan " 

• " Klchard Lewis, " 

" Riggs Peter, ' " 

" Roach George, " 

" Rush John, " 

" Rizer John, « 

" Rinehart Thomas, " 

" Rinehart Meeker, '' 

" Scott Abijah M., " 

" Scott Lisbon, " 

" Sutton John, " 

" Smith James E., " 

" Seabolt W. H., « 

" Sellers John, « 

" Smith Ezra, " 

" Smith Anthony A., " 

" Thompson Sanmel, *' 

" Thomas William, " 

" Teagarden Isaac, " 

" Taylor Levi, " 

" Thomas Samuel, " 

'• Terril George, " 

" Vandivender Eli, '• 

" West Jacob, " 

" Wiseman George, " 

" Weaver Jacob, " 

" Winget John M., " 

" Wiseman John " 

" West Samuel, " 

" Wilkinson A. J., 

We also find the names of several persons in company G, 
said to be from Greene county, as follows: 
Gordon J. A.., 1st Lieut. Benjamin F. Campbell, Serg't. 

Crawford J. F., 2d Lieut. Francis M. Rush, " 

Gordon M. L., Sergeant. INIyersP. Titus, " 

Goodwin Hiram, " William Pitcock, Corporal 



Henry K. Atchison, Private. David Goodwin, Private. 

Baker Bare, " Owen Pitcock, " 

Lindsey Beech, " Benjamin Titus, " 

lu Company I the names of the fo lowing persons are found : 

George Cunningham, Private. Stephen Sanders, " 

Michael O'Conner, " Jordan Strosnidcr, " 

I have also been furnished with tlie roll of Co. A, 140th 

Regiment, snid to be almost exclusively from Greene Co., 
which is as follows : 

JohnF. McCullough Captain. Bennett John, Private. 

James M. Pipes, " Barney Petei-, " 

John A. Burns, " Clutter Sanniel, " 

J. Jackson, 1st Lieut. Cox John, Jr., " 

Mark G. Spragg, " Clutter Noah D., " 

David Taylor, 2d Lieut. Cox John, Sr., " 

Charles T. Hedge, 1st Serg't. Cowan Joseph, " 

Daniel B. Waychoff, Serg't. Doman George N., " 

X. N. Purnian, " 

Henry Zimmers, " 
John F. Coen, 

Cornelius J. Burk, " 

Williani A. Brown, " 

J. S. (lerrington, Corp'l. 

Al})heus Crawford, " 

Cary M. Fulton, " 

Thomas J. Kent, " 

James B. Rinehart, " 

Joseph Bane, " 

Kramer Gabler, " 

Spencer Stephens, " 

Leroy S. Greenlee, " 
John W. Peden, 
James Woods, I\Iusician. 

.\[organ Dunn, " 
Acklin Samuel, Private. 

Anderson Harrison, " 

Ai-mstrong Oliver, " 
Burson olivcr H. P., " 

Dunstan Benjamiji, 
Eddy Michael, 
Eddy John, 
Freeland George, 
Fisher John, 
Fiaj's F-ivid, 
Freeland Charles A., 
G.'irber Thornton, 
Gray George, 
Geaiy Simon, 
Green John R., 
Green Isaac P., 
Gray Jolni, 
H( my John, 
Hopkins, Daniel S., 
Harris Stepheu C, 
Hoge David, 
Jones John, 
Jones Gcoi\ge, 
Km: Ii'esin S., 
Kent James F., 


uiSTOiiv OF (;i;i:i:xK oountv. 

Keener Oliver, 
King Dnnie], 
Locy Samuel B., 
Lancaster John M., 
Long John, 
Lixndy John L., 
Loar Benjamin F., 
Muiglicn John, 
Miller Jolm H., 
Mariner George W., 
Miller Abraham, 
Morris Franklin R., 
Morris Lindsey, 
McCullougli L. G., 
McCullong-h Hiram, 
Ogden William, 
Pijjes Abner, 
Pettitt Joseph, 
Iviish John A., 
Koop eTohn E., 
Roop Williani, 
Roop Henry, 
Roop AVilliam, 
Hoop Lindsey, 
Robinson Alex. D., 
liidgeway Samuel, 
Hoop Michael, 

Private. Hoop Samuel, Private. 

" Steel Nicholas, " 

Steel Child, " 

" Su-art James M., " 

» Scott Sijnon P., " 

" Scott Hem-y, " 

" Sprowls Jesse, " 

" Strosnider Caleb, " 

" Sergeant Richard, " 

" Strosnider Keener L., " 

" Sanders Harvey, " 

Smith Job, Jr., " 

Smith Job, Sr., " 

" Simpson John, " 

'- Stewart Jesse, " 

Spragg John M., " 

" Taylor Abner W., *' 

Taylor Levi, " 

Troy ^orval L., " 

Wilson John R. H., " 

" Wilson George W., 

" Wallace Benjamin F., " 

Walters B. T., " 

" Walters Andrew " 

" Wallace Francis, *' 

West Simon S., " 

Welsh Morris, « 

Ullum Harrison, J., Private. 

I also find the following Greene county men in the IGOth 
Regiment, company K: 

Jacob H. Hewitt, 
Scaly S. Bayard, 
Cotterel William, 
Arvecost Joseph, 
Cotterel Jonas, 
Cunipston John, 
Chambers Wm. K. 
Puer Florence, 

Captain. Dye William L., 

Sergeant. Dc-iniy Clark, 

Private. Drake Alex. S., 

" Frankenberry A. D. 

" Sayers Harry E., 
Shirk Michael M.. 

» Rtrnsnidev Wm, A.j 

" Shope Milton S.. 

liiSTOin' OK <: 

Also Co. A. lend Rog-iincnt, 
■Greene county, ;iud con;;iiiiccl 
Wm. C. Liudscy, C:rHain. 

Guy Kryan, 

Janies P. CosirrroV, 1st Lieut. 
Bcnj. V. Crjupbell, 
■George K. Jyewlin, " 

Rosebcrry Sflle:-::-, 2i.l Lieut. 
William Scott, 

JJeiij. W. Yodt'i's, 1st Scrg't. 
Jolin ]i. Gm'don, '• 

•lohii C. Wl.itc, 
Joseph Cooko, 
Ik-nj. F. IIefrini;lcii, '' 
•Gaorge W. Kent, " 

Ell ward lyivaicke, " 

Wiili.-un J. IIol , " 

J. B. Smith, " 

• J.inics Gralnun, " 

.Incub Whijikcy, '• 

Wm. D. Smith,' 
Cyrus E. Elmns, " 

Tiiomas L. Dugg, Corp'l. 
James Seals, 
Kendiill Brunt, 
Jouas Wiiipkey, '" 

Robert 3L Yates, " 

Robert A. Tukesbcrry, " 
John Evans, " 

Salathicl Murjiliy, 
George K. Wisecarver, " 
Job T. INIorris, '• 

Henry Cooke, " 

Jolm Boylan, " 

Samuel S. Rinehart, " 
Andrew Wilson, Jr., Bugler. 
Charles White, 
Fred liamcr, Blacksmith.. 



is ?aid to he exclusively from 
the folIo^Ying men: 
Everly L. Dow, Blacksmith. 

Warren Neel, " 
Lewis Perry, Saddler. 
Adams Elijah, Private. 

A'iams Richard L., " 

Admonas John, " 

Adams Jacob, " 

Anderson William, " 

Boyers George, " 

Bryncr Wm. A., " 

Bryner George. " 

Brandy more Mort, " 

Courtwright James, " 
Campbell T. H., 
Conklin S. M., 
Cole William, 

Cooley Joseph B , " 

ChiTrc-i William, " 

Chapman George, " 

Chapman Charles, " 

Champ Charles, " 

Dickenson william, " 

Davis Henry, " 
Effock Charles V., 

Evans Ezariah, " 

Eagon Solomon, " 

Eagon Thomas, '' 

Evans Caleb, " 

Edwards Thomas, " 

Fox James F., " 

Finnegan John, " 

Fry John, " 

Friend Michael, " 

Gray Elijah, " 

Goodwin Frank, " 

Gail.itin joseiih R., ** 



Gardner Freeman, 
Goff Matt, 
Gumph John, 
Gibben Peter, 
Galloway Nicholas, 
Gibbon Elias K., 
Hackett William, 
Hendershot Thos. F., 
Harrison Moses, 

HuflFman , 

Hughes David, 
Hedge Samuel, 
Iliuernian Henry, 
Johns Ellis J., 
Jeffries Elishu, 
Johns Hiram M., 
Knox William, 
Kent Nicholas J., 
Knight S. W., 
Leanord Asa, 
Lincoln Andrew, 
Lindsey Francis, 
Longstreth William, 
Lindsey James, 
L.ipping- John, 
Lashire Henry, 
Lieb John A., 
Morris John P., 
^lonroe Thomas J., 
]\[iner Calvin, 
Millaneer Le nuel H., 
Martin Willinm H., 
Martin Phillip C., 
Mankey Henry C., 
Martin Joseph W., 
]Morris Joseph C, 
Meeks Eli., 
Miller John D., 
Murphy John, 

Private. Martin Mathias, 
" Murphy Jeremiah, 

" Madigan Dennis, 

" May James, 

" McGrady Robert, 

" McClelland, Asa S., 

" McCullough Joses, 

" O'Dwyer Thomas, 

Poland John, 
" Poland Cavalier, 

" Phelan William, 

« Rinehart J. T., 

" Reese David, 

" Radlinghafer M., 

" Rex Harper, 

" Rush Levi, 

Rhodes William P.; 
" Rush Peter, 

" Rogers Alex., 

" Rush Isiah, 

" Richie S;mme], 

" Rex George, 

" Rinehart Arther J., 

" Sy[)hei-s Peter M., . 

" Smith Dennis, 

" Smith Francis, 

" StuU Lewis. 

" Stickels Amo?, 

" Sheirick Isaac. 

" Straight Henry, 

Shai)e Fi'cderit;k, 
Smith William, 
Smith Cowper, 
Sullivan Cornelius, 
Tukesbeiry John, 
Thomas Jolui, 
Tukesberry William, 
Ulluiu Henry, 



White Francis M., 
White James D., 
Whales Alexander, 
Wagner George, 
West Thomas, 
Whipkey Silas, 
Wilson John, 

iiiSTOKY or Gni:i:xE county. 

Wcltc ruuloliib, 
Yates H. ]M., 
Yoders Joseph, 
Y^'ates Alexander, 
Yoders John, 
Young Harrison, 
» Yoders William II., 

Co. C, 18x11 Pexxsyi.vani.v Cavalry. 
Ketlar Joscpli, 
Kimbal James, 
Leauord llicliaru, 
Murjthy Deiiiii3. 
Morris Eaiidall, 
Moos Jon.ithan, 
McGlumphy W. H., 
McDonald .famr.:, 
IMcKonn Alex. 
McKenn .lolui, 
McNutL Joel, 
McKaiiii, Jolm, 
Pettitt Levi. 
Pettitt Lind>;oy, 
Poland Cavalier. 
Poland Thomns, 
Roberts Lenuiel, 
Rom William, 
Roach Samue!, 
Snider I'hilli[), 
Sollers Levi, 
Stewart Vv^iliam, 
Spilhiian .loscph, 
Sanders liuben, 
Stall .lohii, 
Suplcr Martin, 
Vaiiatta, D. W., 
Vanatia Thomas, 
Vanatta Clark, 
■' riulit J oil I', 


James ITnghes, 


.Vshbrook John, 


Alluras Porter, 


Ackley John 


Barnhart Wilson, 


Burns Jame«, 


Clutter Addison, 


Clutter Frank, 


Clutter Ely, 


Carter James, 


Courtwright James, 


Crawford William, 


Carter Daniel, 


Durbin John, 


]>urbin A. J., 


Dailey Elishu, 


Day William, 


Dille Abraham, 


lillms George, 


Elder Joshua, 


Elder Daniel, 


Filby William, 


Filby Thomas, 


Fonner James, 


Fox Heniy, 


Fonner David, 


Gregory Jonathan, 


Gray Frank, 


Grandon Isaac, 


Hughes James L., 





insfor.Y OK orjcKxn county. 

Humbeison William, Pjivate. Workman Andrew, Pjivate 
lames John, " White Eli, Lieut. 

Johnson John D., " Whipkey Noah, " 

J. Reed McNay, near Waynesburg, has furnished the follow- 

hg names of Greene county soldiers, who wore members o*^ 
the 77th Pa. regiment : 

Oavid Buchanan, Private Abraham Hamilton, Private 

Andrew Stewart, " J. U. McNay, 

Hugh 'S McDonald also furnishes the following additionnl 
liames who were principally members of Company C, 18tl 
'Cavalry : 

Anderson John, 
Barnhart Thomas, 
Barnhart Benjamin, 
Bales Maxwell, 
Barger Jackson, 
Clark Samuel, 
Denny John, 
Dunlap James, 
Douglas J. A., 
Elliott George, 
OumiD Daniel, 
'Gumj) Peter, 
Gump Phillip^ 
Glimp Wash., 
Jlaggcrty James, 

Private Jobcs James, " 

" Piinehart John, " 

" Montgomery, Lieut. 

" Montgomery Levi, Private 

" Montgomery Lemuel, " 

" Montgomery Albeit, " 

" Maley James, " 

" Morford Wilson, " 

" Masters Joseph, '* 

Oliver Samuel, " 

" Pitcock Andrew, " 

" Snider Daniel, '' 

" Sloan James, " 

" Shultz James, " 

" Staggers John P., '• 

Win get INIcses, Private. 

Aso, Jeremiah Riggs, 1st Va. Cavalry, and Thomas Herrod, 

72d Pa. Eegiment. 

i have obtained from Hughes McDonald the following addi- 
tional names of Co. B., First Va. Cavalry: 
Samuel Grim, Captain. Leonard Albert, Private. 

i Ackley Paiker, Lieut. McGlumphy Frank, " 

) Allum J. P., Private. IMcGlumphy Thomas, " 

'<■ Barnett Sanniel R., " IMcCollough Samuel, " 

Conkey Morgan, " Noble Clark, « 

Cooper Samuel, " Newman Aaron " 

nT^Tnrr nr r.nF.F.xr, rnuxxY. 


CallJefferson, Private. Kewrnan Abraham Private, 

Chambers John, " Newman Samuel, " 

Dailey James, " Pettit Mannion, " 

Fox William, " Patton Samuel, " 

F'onner Linclsey, " Sollers D. W., " 

Gilogley James, " Vanatta John, " 

Hull Melvin, " Wallis Frank, " 

Jones John, " Walton Jame?, " 

Jones ^Frank, " Younkin Daniel. " 

Co. D, 11x11 Pennsylvania. 

M. CroAv Braddock, Enos Gillet, Private. 

George Cummins, John Phillips, " 

Co. A, llm Pennsti.vania : 

Joshua Williams, Private. Alexander Holmes, Privalo. 

Martin Barney, Privaie. 

Co. H. loTii Pennsylvania Cavalry. 


Jas. B. McGlumph}-, Private. Alphcd Chambers Private. 
Newton lilcNay, " J. P. Buinett, " 

Porter McNay, " Alexander Drake, " 

Edward Bond, " William Grim. ** 

Co. K, IGth Pa. Reguient. 

Jumes Ackley, Private. George McDade, Private. 

John Sheets, " John Lucas, 

.'\iadison Dillc, " Jolni Hewitt, " 

Wilson Jones, Private. 

Also the following detached volunteers, some the companies 

Co. D, 1st Va. Infantry. 

William Murphy, Private. Samuel Mellon, Private. 

Barney Hughes, " Josiah Holmes, " 

Thomas Noon, " Snrgent Speers, " 

Addidon Dille, " Isaac Morris, •** 

Co. A. ISth Pa. Cavalky. 

Elias Gibbin, Private. Lewis Stull, Private 

Peter Gibbin, " Alex Briniard, " 

John Smith, " Geo. ^\^ Brimard, « 

340 iiisto::y of ghekxe couxty. 

Isaac Shcrrick, Private. John Pollniid, Private- 

Wiiliaiu Sinitb, " Cavalier Polland, " 

Robert Yates, Private. 
140tii Pknnsylvania Rkgi:.iext. 
John Swart, Co. D, Private. Win, Clutter. Co. A, IGStliPa 
Jno. A. Burny, Co. A, Captain. Fi-auk B.-M-nliart, 12tli Va. 

James Swart, "• Private. LeAvis Barnhart, " 

Jefferson Younkin, " " Newlon BradHock, Battery B. 

John Fisher, " " Thos. Henderson, " 

Warren Burns, " " Thomas Fry, 5th Artillery. 

" Alexander McCracken, Co. L, 4th Va. 

Companies TJnknoavn. 
Amos Davis, Private. Jjindsey Davis, Private. 

Jesse Courtwright, " Ambrose Stout, " 

Morrison Applegate, " Templeton Bryan, " 

Nicholas Fry, " George Bryan, " 

Nathaniel Lyons, " Solomon Ashbrook, " 

William Donley, " Wm. Wendell, 

John Hixenbaugh, " Wm. McClelland, "■ 

Wm. Funk, " Robert Kincaid, " 

Edward Milliken, " Timotliy Ross, " 

Samuel Milliken, " Zachary White, " 

Isaac Milliken, " Samuel Gunn, " 

Harvey McGlumphy, " Wm. Drake, " 

Oliver Armstrong, " James Milliken, " 

Thoma- Chees, " John Gribben, •' 

Richhill townsliip sends the following names of old soldiers : 
James Barnhart, veteran of 1812; John Conkey, veteran of 
1812 ; J. M. Houston, Co. A, U. S. Regulars ; James McKce, 
Co. D ; J. N. Wallace, Co. D ; P. H. Yanatta, Co. D. 




On the 10th of February Z. C. Kagnn, of the Independent, 
sho-\vcd me a kind of desk and book-case combined, which 
u'as niannfactured from an old army box, at Hilton Head, 
South Carolina, by a member of the Both regiment. Pa. Vols. 
Tiiis case was for llio purpose of holding rolls and other 
papers. When the regime;it was ordered to leave that locali- 
ty', not to return, the usual scene of bustle and pi'eparalinn 
was enacted, some rejoicing at the thought of departing for- 
ever from the malarial and fever-stricken districts, where they 
and tl'.cir comrades had suffered so much. Others of diirereut 
t'jmperamcnt had learned to love the ]cc;illty, and cni-iscipient- 
ly were parting with it^ landscapes v/itJi regret. The papei's 
u'ere taken out of the above named ease anil it v.-a.s al>out to 
hf abandoned to its fate, wlien Sergeant IJagan, reflecting that 
il might still be useful, lifted it from [t< position, and with tlic 
assistance of others can-ied it a long distance to the transyjorts 
nf different kinds, by means of which it was enabled to follow 
the fortuuc-i of war, until the linal muster-out of Comiiany 1'' 
;it Pittsburg in Xov., 18;U. 1^'rom that place the old arii-iv 
relic was still protected until it found a restiag place in tho 
office of the Indcpcndeni in \\';:ynesburg, where it still does 
duty by holding the same Company papers. 

EscAi'i; OF John Po(.::::s. — Ou the afternoon of the same 
clay as above, I called on Col. Ci)oke. postmaster at Waynes- 
burg, from whom I received a f(M\- facts with reference to tho 
3seape of Capt. Rogers from Danville jirison. General Taylor 
littered a great truth, when he said <:)n the day of the battle of 
Jhieno Vista, "these volunteers df)ii't know when they arc 


whipped." This was emphatically the case during the last 
war, which is shown in this as of many similar cases. James 
Miller, Joseph Cooke and John Rogers were all prisoners at 
Danville, and, like others, they were by no means Avhipped. 
On the contrary they were constantly plotting means by which 
they might beat the Southerners and return to their former 
places beneath the sheltering folds of the "dear old flag." CoL 
Cooke seems to have been the first to suggest that they 
make the attempt one by one to escape. • In order to better 
affect their purpose it was agreed that Col. Cooke should act 
so suspiciously as to attract the attention of the inner guaixl, 
^vho might hope to receive the promised reward for shooting 
a prisoner who was making an attempt to escape. Miller wa* 
to approach the outer guard and excite his suspicions by his 
singular conduct, while Rogers was to assume a careless atti- 
tude, put on all the "cheek" he could command and just wall-; 
right through the two guards and strike for the "land of the 
free and home of the brave." The plan was well laid and all 
that was now requii-ed was the favorable opportunity desired, 
which soon came in the following manner: The sun was 
descending to "his wigwam behind the western waters," when 
the sun-set was suddenly obscured by the rising of a dark 
idoud, the rumbling thunders and vivid lightnings from whicli 
portended a furious storm. The moment was thought to be 
propitious, and soon the three friends are at their assigned 
places. The plan works like a charm ; Rogers walks past botli 
the guards out into the darkness of the approaching storm, 
and is for the present safe. Cooke nov\^ no longer attempts to 
hold the attention of the inner guard, who now after carefully 
looking around exclaims, "what went with that other feller V" 
to which Cooke carelessly asked, "did'nt you see him go. in?" 
Well he did'nt go in. The Colonel and other friends conccrn'?d; 
turned back into their innermost prison pen, and although. 


jiiSTOi^v OK (j::i;i;nk i;o-.n!^ 343 

Capt. Kogei's waded swamps and swam streams before reacli- 
ing the Union lines, yet his perilous adventure was envied by 
those who planned and cari-ied out tlic scheme. 

Note. — Thus ends the first volume of my TTistory of Greene 
County. lu gathering up so many incidents I'rom so many 
different sources, it could not bo e.\ pecked- I hat this book 
L-ould be com]nled entii-ely free from error. 'J'o the second 
volume will be an appendix in reference to erratns. The sec- 
ond volume will connnence with a contiiiuiition of the county's 
mih'tai-y history and such other remin.cccnses sis I can gather 
from reliable sources. 

^yillia:m r.vxn'a. 

iMsior.Y OF'. couxtt. 



Allcf^hpny Mountains, 
Alien Rev. JBenoni, 
A)!um James, 
Ackley .losliua 
Alit'ree Thomas, 
Arsu'-trons Abraham, 
d.(l;iiua Ke/. .James, 
Armstrong John, 
Axtell Kev. Luther, 
Armstrong Hannah, 
Ack.!ey iSarah 
Actley John, 
Anderson Charles, 
Adamtoii Thomas, 
AdiUsciu Hon. Thomas, 
An i- Masons, 
A Journey i;i winter. 
Baber Kev. James, 
BurcUiy Hugh, 
Braddock'a Road, 
."Hradtord and Brackenridgc, 
B.-.ttish Grenadiers, 
Burns .lamej, 
Bnclianaa J. A. J. Esq. 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R., 
Blood V li'iw, 
Board Tree Tunnel, 
Bums William, 
JiaplL-t Chun^h at Uniontow 
Burroughs Mulford 
Bf^j.hlHhem Church 
Bo.iher Isaac, E-(j., 
Bo'ilah Chu'ch, 
Ba. kt-r Lewis, 
Br-.l'lwin Cephas, 
J5..1MT A. J.. 
Bell .MissM. K., 
B.-Hddoek David, .Tr., 
J}'-,iirth experience, 
]*'f-.-"i!y College, 
i^rnddock's defeat, 
Bhi:i-y Rov. K. E„ 
Biil'/y KH;s B., 
Jlnchanan l)av>d, 
, Bo'.igi. William, 
Br ice Rev. A. B., 
]>a(i's John, 
B.'>man Rev. A. B., 
Beli John. 
Browntieid Rev, W.. 
Bates Fork Chuich, 




Bankrupt Law, 



Brownsville Bank, 


21 H 

Braddock, General, 



Barnes James. 



Braddock Francis, 



Beeson .Jacob, 



Boreman Hun. Arthur 1. 






Bradley Thomas, 



Brown EiizaJ>eth, 



Boreman John, Esq,, 



Baird Hon. T. cl., 

1S-2S 1-294 


Barns Hon. Silas, 



Bradee Dr. John F., 



Bascom Rev. Henry C, 


280 2S I 

Bleeding Kansas. 



Buchanan Bres. James, 



Booth Wilkes, 



Brov.-n Rev. J. R., 



Boughner William, 



Bodoiet Hon.. John, 



Bigler William, 



Brackenridge Hugh H., 



Baltimore Conference, 

^ 21 





Bank of U. S., 



Biddle Nicholas, 



Baird Rev. Robert. 






Baird A J. Rev., 


n, 205 

B.irns Pilssilhi. 



« olumbus Christojilier, 



Charles H King of En<;la!i 

id, 5-S5 


Charter of Pennsylvania, 


2 1 7 

Creigh's History, 



Curtin Andrew G., 



Cattish Camp, 



Connelly Col .folin. 



Cannon Col John, 





3 27 

Clay Hon. Henry, 



Continental Money, 



Cornwalla.s Lord, 






Co:bley Rev. John, 



Cruw Brof J. ^>^, 


244 247 

Craig Rev H. K., 



C )'. Churcli, 



Clutter William, 



Cury Eiias. 

2i J 


Close Coniinunion, 



CleavGTiu-er .Samuel Esq,, 



Cook Wil!iam H., 





Crow SiatcTS, 


Conkey John, 


Oiab Apple linn 


Gninu Ware, 


Capruin Whiskey . 


Gaiholic Couveut' 


Ooovert"Benjaii:J[i , 


KAOW Jacob, 


'Jrow Michael. 


•-yuiiningham Edward, 


i.'unningham Mrs. 


'.Tawford William, 


nhristening the Spring, 


Corn Huskings, 


I'ampbell Kev. Tliorans, 


Oftir.pbeU Kev. Alezander, 


Camn;'r!!i.nd Presbyterians 




''arniichiiels WiUiam, 


("barter William 8., 


Carter John, 


'. armichaels James, 


'YfOVU'L Benjamin, 


''ileiJventT'^r liaiah, 


Crnjzo John, 


0(1 rr J am PS, 


'.';awford John, 


<'ree Hiram, 


'"hurcb Hiinry, 

250 ii"i5 

I'hiirch John, 


Ciiilier Mi=!s. Eli/.abeth. 


■ ,'a'.liolic Church, 


))nan Abraham, 


Jouglass Eph, 


Downing Jack, 


j)unkard Creek, 

53 95 

Dnquesne Fort, 


JJuumore Lord, 


]5enny Mpekcr W., 


Davis William, 


I'onnelRe'?. Robert, 


Dividlnir Line, 


Drake William, 


Drunkards' Poetry, 


Davidson Nathan, 


Davis family, 




Dndd Kev. Thadens, 


Daily JaniRP, 


Daily P-lsha 


J)anu R uhap], 


J)unn jM^oT^h, 


Dinsmoc Jolin Q., 


Day A m •« 


Dav rr.Hv is. 


Day Cepha-, 

2 '3 

Davrsoti John, 


Dilliner Agusiine, 


Dilliner Jacob, 

21 :> 

Dilliner's Ferry, 

Dinsmore Rober'', 

Dunkard Rangers, 


Deed, the first put on record, 

Dark day, 

Dallas George M., 


Executive Council, 

Enoch David, 

Ellicott Andrew, 

Eckerline Br(jt]iers, 

Evans L. K., 

E<lucational Ellbrts, 

Ely Jonas, 


Ewing Hon. ^'atllaniel, 

Ewnig Hon. Kennedy, 

Ellmaker El'as, E;(],, 

Ellicoti's Mills, 

Foulks Rev. J. R., 

Fordvce Khodn, 

Frif-ndrhip Hill, 

First sncce'-.>t"Ml rifam engine, 

Franklin Bt-njanr-u, 

Fiiilev Rev. James, 

Fish Creek, .';0-l". 

Farmers ik Drovers Bank, H 

Franklin t(i\vn!-ln]>, 

Furgcson Rev. B. P., 

F-ench G. Id., 

Fulton John, 

Ftzer Peter, 

Fox hunt, 

Flenniken James, 22 

F iiley Rev. Bobi-rt, 23: 

Fuircliild Rev. A. G., 

Flenniken Hon .Ino., 

Flenniken Robert P., 

Flenniken John C, 

Ferrell Washington, 

Fish Creek Church, 

Fonner Jame^, 

Gibt Chris'oplier, 

Ge^ry John W,, 

Gallows Hill, 


Good vv ill A. J., 


Gray David, 


Garanl's Fort. 

Ga ard Hon. .Tonathan, 

Gray Mattliew, 

Greene Academy, 

Glassgo .Jeremiah. 

Gilnuire Hon. Srtmuel, 

Garrison Prof, M. E., 

iJabby Wiiliam, 





















i- 1 I.I ; 





•2] 8 


;8. 100-1 "7 









IK I) EX. 


bosneu ClinrcLi, 
Gordeu "William, 
Grim Armstrong, 
Gray Francis, 
Grandon Edward, 
Urtinnon William, 
Grandon Kzekiel, 
Good Friday, 
George's Creek Church, 
Gooden John, 
Gray William, 
Great revival of ISOO, 
Gregg Aaron, 
Uwy nil's School House, 
Gallatin Albert, 
Glass Blowers, 
Garard J. C, 
Goihard Killem 
ijordon Zadok. 
Graves Kjv. Kuth, 
liooden James, 
iTray Hon. David, 
(^iMU'ire iloiJ. Samuel, 
Cioucner l»r. J., 
'■rci^-iie Cuuiity Democrat. 
G inion Hon. Mark, 
i-faima 'I'own, 
itnid time?, 
Jlarri-^on (-iuvernor, 
Marii^on W. Htnry, 
Ha V. y's P. O., 
Jla\s iVhij Jbs W, 
H»iiiilioii .IrtUies, 
H V(;e >'»«iiiuel. E»q., 
Hays Williatu T., 
Harvey IMis.s M. A., 
HKrpe-('a;)t John, 
H'i..k Mis-i I'.iroline, 
Hh-u'h Mills. 
Mill ^li>.s >ancy, 
H p.cond'ifC, 
Ha'-' en's Gravpyaid, 
Ha»*[ier Psnuiel, 
H!.c.%ney Mrs. -I'jhia 
ITays .laiiie.t W. J-., 
H mieijsliot 'I'liomte, 
H rvey H»ii-.iiel, 
Harvey 1 linnias', 
i-'arvey WiJI'ani, 
Henfierso'i Peter P., 
Har(/.!ig Kev. G. W., 
Hoiis^e warming, 
Hanmer Miss EPza. 
Henderson Kev. J. 11. D., 
Heaton Colonel, 
Hugh's Thomas. 
Halberts block house, 




Hanna Robert, 



HuHmnn Benjamin, 



Hill Samuel, 

2b i 


Hanna Rev. John, 



Hook Israel, 



Jnghriini William, 

- 25C-2(J: 

1 -.i'-) 

lams Kiciiard, 

20 L 


InniS DelUllS, 

20 : 


Ir ns John. 

103-3U 1 


lu>iiau D. predations, 



In^hram br. Arthar, 



Jonnsiuii Wuj. F., 

1 .; 


Jd^ ksoa Andrew, 



Johns Ueu. GideuD, 

60-.') I 





.lucison's Furt, 



June Frobt, 



Jeaerion President Thoi 

maa, S9-2'.J >■ 


Joi n-on Robert, 






Jacuhs Daniel B., 



Jacobs Warren D., 

22; •' 


Jennings Kev. Jacob, 

2.; 2 


Jedrey Kev. .Samuel, 



Jamison Jehu 



Jtihnson Andrew, 



Jennings Col. James S., 



Jones K. W., 



Kevston State, 



Kline Jacob, 



Kennedy David, 

2 2 


Kendall Rev. tiimuel, 

21 3- lit] 


Kiucaid Wm. iSlaxwell, 

2) 2 


Kent JesEe, Esij., 



Kendall S. Leiining, 



Knight Hon. Joiiaihan, 



l.indsey Hon. James, 



Lashlie Rev. Peter T., 






Lemoyne Dr., 

13- 2:' 





Loar John N., 



Loai John, 



Loar Kev. Jacob G., 



Loar Mrs. Mnry, 

,s \ 


Lazear Thomas, Esq., 



Lieper l.Hiids, 

S I 


La/.ear Hon. Jesse, 



Lauj-hran >.ev..)osiiua, 



LiiKlstiv Miss. Elizabeih, 



l.azear Mis-i Lucy, 



Lnmiy's Lan^, 

1.) : 


I-i^l^^r Tiioni-iS, 



L(Mi>.liniati J>:iniel, 



Lightiier M. C . 



Lashlie Rev. Peter T., 



Lazear H<.n, . I esse. 



l.Hzewr Thnriias C, 



Linfis* v Minerva, 



Lee Wi'lliam, E-q., 





r.indsev Tol. John. 29S 

l.t;ouaril Key. A., 292 

-Markman ■William, 6-12 

-MtBraddock, 6-5:) 

Money scarcity, Si 

Mason's and L>ixon'8 Line, 53-61 


lN!oiuiny;ahela River, 54 
IV1inor«;ol J. 56-95-121-244-278-283 
jMcOiintock Rev J., 62-6j-2ol-241 

McXerlin VVilliam, Po-'W 

Muddy Cre-k, 66-168 

Morgan Rpv. John, 67-68 

McClelland Mrs., 78 

Mingo 111 dinns, 92 

>iiiior I'lcraju, M4 

JMaplPiown, 95 

Miller A. B., D.D., 104-1S2 

IsrGlLiiiiphy Rev. A. J., 183 

Mil.ikeu Ur. J. <:,, 190 

Montgomery Hugh, 198 

Moss Jacob, 144 

Manners and Customs, 146 

Musers B-itadon, 150 

Matt :cks Rev. Geo., 225 

Mc Vay ibiepben, 226 
McUlellaud Gen. Alexander, 234 

Meolenburg Dechiraliou, : 37 

Miller Rev. James, 209 

Man key VvHrren and wife, 220 

Marriage Fee, 161 

Methodism, 171 
Tvliidi^on College, IOS-177-1VS 

>'cFarlan's denth, 115 

Mouongaliela College, 116 

Minor Lawrence, Ei-q., 244 

Morns Cross Roads, 244 

McNav .lame", 241 

McCii^liu M-<j. :Nra swell, i?52 

>;ahani a Biaiiiey, 254 

McCou-fey Arthur, 257 

Mo nil Peter, 257 

Moore James, 259 

McN«yJolm, 26 1 

McNay J. Reed, 265 

Mt. Morris, 85-90 

McClelland Frauds, 24' 

McNnrliu's Sermon, 2*i7 
Mortgage', first put on record, ::79 

Masonry Free, 292 

Mexican war, 312 

Messenger, history of, 300 

MahanuaCapt Bradley, 305 

Members of <'oneress, 285 

Members of Legifelature, 2S6 

•New State. 20 

Kew Provi'^ence Church, G1-23I 

Nixon's mill, 145 

Norih Tenmile Church, is;i 

-Nineveh, 201-2::o 


New Freeport, 220 

National road, 100-16ri 

Newlights, 76-17-5 

Nimrods, 137 

Nixon Hon Samuel, :.09 

Old Reminiscense, 318 

Oliphant's Furnace, 145 

Old Glass Works, -248 

O. Harra glass house, i:49 

Orndolf John, _58 

Oaths of allegience, (fee, 25 

Old messengsrs, i.S(i 

Old mpu, collection of, • 84 

Penu William, 5-0-7-11-12 85 

Porter David R., 13 

Pollock James, l-i 

Pentecost Hon. Dorsey, 20-24-282 

Pollock Hon. T, P.. 63 

Pauley W. T. H„ 08-103-198 

Porter Dr. Wm, B., 7:; 

Pettit Nathaniel, lo0-2i)j. 

Panther lick. 131 

Panther fight, 13 J 

Pettit John, 20.; 

Powers school house, 

Patterson John D.. 

Piilk James X,, 


Pollock Miss iSannie, 

Pumpkin Run. 

I'indal Thomas, 

Patterson James, Jr., 

Piiillijis Hon. Jesse, 

Pigeon Roost, 

Patterson Joliu, 

Patterson W. W., Esq., 

Porter Armstrong, 

Patteison Mrs. Atcimdn, 

(>uakors, iO 

RitniT Joseph, 


Rierson Thomas, 

Redstone Old Fort. 

RutJs Creek, 

Richhill township, 

Rickey Abraham C, 

Rickey Jacob, 

RutmHU John, 

Ross Timothy, 

Robinson Walter. 

Robinson I'ev. Wm., 

Rotation of crops. 

Religious habits, 

Rees Russle, 

Rossel Rev. Job, 

Rogers Philip, 


Rees miss, murdered, 

Rickey Wm. F. and wife 

Rhodes Wm., 



; 2i' 

J 22 




i7J 191. 

J 9. ■ 




Rhodes Ja?. R., 
Randolph Isaac F., 
Rinehart John H., 
Rea John. 
Rickey J. Brice, 
Rickey Benjamin, 
Rinehiirt Joseph, 
Ree3 William, 
Roseberry Minerva, 
Ross Ackeson, 
Roberts Hon. Samuel, 
Stanwix Fort, 
Shunk Francis R., 
Scarcity of mills, 
Sick wheat, 
Salt, high price of. 
Scotch Irish, 
Stonerod Kev. Joel, 
Stofkdale William, 
Stone Elia", 
Sham battle. 
Seals Capr. Jaraea, 
See.l buoKwheat, 
Spicpf William. 
Stewart Hon. Andrew, 
Scott W. G., 
Strain James G , 
Sorison John, 
Smith Dennis. 
Satton lev. David, 
Button Rev. James, 
Sycamore Sialion, 
Smith Jacob. 
Smith Jacob Jr., 
Sigfried Rev. Simeon, 
South Tenmile Church, 
Scott R.'v William, 
Sharp Rev Isaac. 
Solomon Rev J. B., 
Shirk Benjamin, 
South Wheeling Church. 
Sammon'i Rev. Lewis, 
Shape Ppter, 
Slease Rev. W. D., 
S«ymore Rev James, 
Rwans and Van Meters, 
Scott Rev, <•'. M , 
Smith Rev. Joseph, 
Swan Jo>in 
Stewart Jamea, 
Spragg Calpb. 
Stephens Lindsev. 
Smith Rev. Thomas B. 
Stroup Oeorgp. 
Sedgwick Thomas, 
Seaton William, 


101) Seals Capt. James. 305 

118 Savers Capt. Jas. E., 304 

241-2f.ti Sigried Rev Simeon, 301 

242 Sturgeon Hon. Daniel,, 298 

250 Tenmil3 Association, 211 

251 Tyler President John, 45-47 
245 Topography, 52 
208 Timber, 55 

258 Teagarden Abraham, 74 

259 Teagarden Ruben, 75 
274 Teagarden Isaac, 70 
280 Tomahawk rights, 92 

lu Tripp .Anthony, 385 

13 Taylor Thomas W., 200-252 

.^1 Tilton Rev. Morgan, 200 

31 Throckmorton Daniel, 207-210 

35 Throckmorton Joseph, 211 

40 Throckmorton Dr. Wm. 211-221 

58-109 Tom the Tinker. 115 

65 235 Tru'^teps of Wiivnesburg College, 180 

-189-225 Temple Nathaniel, 2Gl 

88 Temp'e Genera Justus F., 2K2 

97 Throckmorton Isancy, 

100-254 Throckmorton Samuel, 

lOG Taylor Hon. Henry, 

107 TTniontown, 

182-142 Vandalia, 

183 Van Bur^n Martin, 

1«7 Van Eman Rev. Oeorge, 

190 Veech David. 

190 Vaiinatta Samuel, 

192 Vt-ech Hon James 

192 Vat\Meter Manha, 

199 Vance Jame^ 

199 Vance Alexander, 

200 Wolf Gov. George, 
20'i Westmorland County. 

207 Washineton County. 

208 Whiskey Insurrection, '2 
2 8 We-<t Augusta. 

209-11-; W«shint:ton Co. organization, 

214 Windridge P. O., 

115 M'aynesburg, 

217-21!) WHvnoshu'-g College, 

224 Whpeler Kev. Cbarles, 

27.S WhitHhead Rev. Wm.. 

207 WbitlHtch Kev. Parnabus, 

228-2.SI Winnet Kev. Ada, 

181 Woods Rev. . m., 

1 1f) Wolf cajiturintr. 

120 Willson H.Ti. A. E., 

123 Wayn-'sbur;.-: Republirnn. 

251 Waynet-bnrg Independent, 

259 Waynesburg RIuph, 

t'H9 Wayne Gen. An hony, 

13') Wrtvrie-)>iirir AiUdeum, 

278 Whifebiil Robert, 

279 Wood Joel. 















- u ; 

1 C,; 1 


20' i 




31 -i 





White Eocks, 

144 Williams PoUey, 



157 Wisecarver George, 


Wild Turkey, 

IGO William, King of Prussia, 


Wise Solomon B., 

214 Yonng Rev, Samuel, 


Wepthee Rev. J. P., 

108-178 Youui; Andrew J., 


War, late civil, 

S22 to 343 


Read portrait, instead of "poortrait," on page 
Previous, instead of "precious," on page 
Andrew G. instead of "Andrew J." page 
Birch, instead of "brick," on page 
. Reviewing, instead of "receiving," or. page 
Country, instead of "county," on page 
Three meals, instead of "their meals," 
Loudon, instead of "London," on page 
Refuses, instead of "refase," ou page 
Bring, instead of "lay," 
Curves, instead of "caves," 
Gamaliel, instead of "Gamalie,'" on page 
Read, instead of "dread," on page 
Coovert, instead of "Coobert," on page 
Baber, instead of "Baker," on pages 
Veech, instead of "Beech," on page 
1806, instead of "1816," on page 
Sixty-seven, instead of "sixty," 
.Tuuge Veech, instead of "Beech," on page 
Their, instead of "our," on page 
Exalting, instead of "hiding," on page 
Whom, instead of "which," on page 
Prominent, instead of "permanent," on page 
Mere, instead of "were," on page 
Eneigies, instead of "earnings," on page 


- 8 


- 17 



- 1 IJ 

23 S 

- IGO 
16' t