Skip to main content

Full text of "The history of Guilford County, North Carolina"

See other formats

Collection of American ^Literature 

3BcqucaIbr6 to 

Cfje ILibvavp of ttjc Bnibersitp of 
i^ortfj Carolina 

'He gave back as rain that which he 
received as mist" 





This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building. 









sallif: w. s'iy)ckari), 

A. n. (IS'JT, C^uilford College), A. H. (18'W, University of Noitli 
CaroliiKi), A. M. (l«JXt, University of North Carolina.) 

'O WDUlil that my oncmy ml^tit write a book." -Job. 

Knoxvillx, Tknn.: 
Co., I'kimteks and Book Binhehs. 

1110 2. 


Col. James Turner Morehead, 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles D. Alclver, 

Col. and Mrs. W. H. Osborn. 

Dr. and Mrs. Lewis Lyndon Hobbs, 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Wyatt Armfield, 

Major and Mrs. Joseph M. Morehead, 

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred ^loore Scales, 

Mrs McAdoo-King and her children, 

Prof. P. P. Claxton and P<-of. J. Y. Joyner. 


Guilford County, her historic lore, 

her glorious past, and her 
wealth of promise for the future. 

Copyright, 1902, 



"Rejoice wc arc allied 
To That wliich doth provide 
And not partake, effect and not receive! 
A spark disturbs our clod ; 
Nearer we hold of God 
Who gives, than of His tribe that takes, I must believe. 

Tlien, welcome each rebuff 

That turns earth's smoothness rough. 

Each sting that bids not sit nor stand, but go ! 

Be our joys three parts pain! 

Strive, and hold cheap the strain ; 

Learn, nor account the pang; dare, never grudge the throe. 


C?IAPTER I. Guilford County, Its Establishment ii 

CHAPTER II. The Slttlement 13 

CHAPTER III. Prerevolutionary Land Grants 20 

CHAPTER IV. The Part of Guilford in the Revolution. 24 

CHAPTER V. "^Iinute Packet," i782-'S8 33 

CHAPTER VI. Notes from the Minute Docket, 1796-1811 40 

CHAPTER VII. The Slavery Question 46 

CHAPTER VIII. The Part of Guilford in the Civil War. . . 52 

CHAPTER IX. Industrial Development 55 

CHAPTER X. History of Education in Guilford 7-7 

CHAPTER XL History of Religion in Guilford 114 

CP[APTER XII. The Towns of Guiliord and History of 

Families 132 


Histon- relates the rise and progress of the human spirit. 
History is the story of what has been done. It shows the free play 
of reason, and is mind objectified into strenuous, potential, fruitful 

Guilford County is the heart of Piedmont North Carolina. 
Once it was the hunting-ground over which the Catawba Indian 
chased the buffalo and built his wigwam fires by the many whis- 
pering streams. By right of discovery the Spanish claimed pos- 
session until England assumed her place as mistress of the seas. 
In 1776 the British Colonies of America declared their power of 
self-government. Old Mecklenburg of North Carolina was the 
first to raise the flag of Independence. In 1861 North Carolina 
withdrew from the United States to become one of the Confederate 
States of America, and the star of destiny shone red above her. 
In five years the Old North State was again admitted into the 
I'nion. In the galaxy of nations the United States of America 
takes her place as the honored of all the world. 

Guilford County is midway between the mountains and the 
sea. Greensboro, the County seat, is a city of twenty-two thou- 
sand inhabitants, situated a thousand feet above sea level, midway 
in the state from Raleigh and Charlotte, Asheville and Wilming- 
ton. High Point is twelve miles south of Greensboro. 

Guilford is the typical Piedmont region. From her broad- 
backed ridges many creeks and rivers rise. Near the swell of 
land. C)ak Ridge, two of the largest rivers of the state have their 
origin. Here the upper waters of the Dan of the Roanoke, and 


of Deep River and Haw River of the Cape Fear, almost inter- 
mingle in the loving gambols of childlike springs. The Great 
Alamance, the Little Alamance and the Stinking Quarter Creeks 
also have their source in this County. These waters turn more 
cotton-mill wheels than any other in North Carolina. 

Guilford County has an almost uniform soil and forest 
growth'. Oak, hickory, walnut, persimmon and maple abound. 
The soil of the wide ridges is of yellow, sandy, gravelly loam 
underlaid by a yellow and red clay. 

The southern part of the County belongs to the cotton zone ; 
the western part to the tobacco zone. Guilford is the wheat- 
growing and fruit-raising County of the State. Before the War 
mining was carried on profitably. Gold and copper are found on 
the south side of the Southern Railway, which bisects the County, 
and iron on the north side. 

Guilford County is rectangular, 28 miles east and west, 24 
miles north and south. There are eighteen townships, namely: 
Oak Ridge, Summerfield, Center Grove, Monroe, Madison, Wash- 
ington, Deep River, Friendship, Morehead, Gilmer, Jefferson, 
Rock Creek, High Point, Jamestown, Sumner, Fentress, Clay 
and Green. 

In regard to the people of this County succeeding chapters 
will show. How really to know them is by experience. In no 
way does one come closer to understanding them than by writing 
the history of their county. 

In the history of Guilford County only four dates have any- 
thing like a general value. These are: 1750, when the first settle- 
ment was made; 1774, when the Quakers freed their slaves and 
began to agitate the slavery question; 1840, when the Whig idea 
attained supremacy and the internal improvement and educational 
wave began to break over the country; and 1865, the close of 
the Civil War. Around these dates each of these ideas has 
hovered like a shadow with a penumbra fainter and fainter in 


However absurd and unpatriotic it may seem to some rich 
people, I undertook this work as a business enterprise and I hoped 
to earn sonic money out of it. 

1 hope this work will awaken in the younp people a deeper 
interest in the land they live in. I wish to sec a buildinjr, commo- 
dious and imposinp^, erected at the State Normal College for the 
purpose of preservings the history of North Carolina, the relics 
which show the life and the development of the people of this 
state. The State Historical Society, the Colonial Dames, the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, the Daug^htcrs of the Con- 
federacy and other historical orp^anizations would be interested in 
having such a building, fire-proof and secure, as a receptacle for 
this objective teaching of history. A hall for this purpose will be 
erected somewhere soon or late. 

The portraits of Governor John M. Morehead, Judge Gil- 
mer. Governor Scales, Judge R. P. Dick, Dr. Calvin H. Wiley, 
Dr. J. Henry Smith and some others would be an adornment 
for the Greensboro Public Library. A statue of John M. More- 
head will perhaps some time be erected near the depot of the 
Southern Railway in Greensboro, to commemorate the name of 
him who did more for the North Carolina Railroad than anv 
other, and thus hastened industrial activity in the state. It would 
beautify the square on which the courthouse is situated if walks 
were laid off, grass plots and flower beds were made, over which 
beautiful fountains played. The fine old Roman roads in Eng- 
land were the beginning of her civilization and prosperity. Such 
macadam roads as lead out from Summer Avenue in Greensboro, 
if they were all through the County, would be a credit to any 
people. It would be an honor to Guilford if every school-house 
in her borders was made attractive without and within. Horti- 
culture should be taught in the public schools. 

The Audubon Society, organized through the interest and 
energ>' of Prof. T. Gilbert Pearson, of the State Normal College, 
for the study and preservation of birds, is an advance both indus- 


trially and educationally ; birds affect agriculture and the natural 
products of a country ; this society creates the love and study of 
natural history. 

The organization of the Society for the Improvement and 
Beautifying the Public Schools in North Carolina, during the 
spring term of 1902 at the State Normal College, is an advance- 
ment to the cause of education. Miss Laura Kirby, of Goldsboro, 
is its president. The plan of the society is to organize the women 
throughout the State in this movement. 

The Southern Education Board, of which Mr. Robert C. 
Ogden is chairman, has inaugurated the greatest philanthropic 
movement this country has probably known in its history. The 
Civil War left the South impoverished. This body of men of both 
North and South have come together for the sake of humanity to 
do what can be done for the education of the Southern youth for 
the development and salvation of America. 

The History of Guilford County was undertaken at the sug- 
gestion of several prominent men of this County. Its accomplish- 
ment is largely due to Mr. Victor Clay McAdoo. My thanks are 
due Col. James T. Morehead, Dr. Charles D. Mclver, Mr. A. M. 
Scales and Mr. V. C. McAdoo for presenting the interests of this 
book before the County Board of Trustees. Upon their request 
the Board granted one hundred dollars. To. Col. Morehead, Mr. 
Scales, Prof. J. Y. Joyner, Prof. W. C. Smith, Mrs. L. L. Hobbs 
and others I wish to make grateful acknowledgment for reading 
various parts of the manuscript. The excellent library of the 
Greensboro Female College has been of service to me. Prof. P. P. 
Claxton has given some very helpful suggestions. To Hon. W. 
H. Ragan, as Chairman of the County Board of Trustees, and to 
Col. W. H. Osborn, as Mayor of Greensboro, I express my thanks. 

This book may be severely criticised. A chapter from the 
Kingdom of Glory would be distasteful to some folks. The writ- 
ing of this history, the collection of the data, and getting up the 
subscriptions, has indeed been hard work. This has been no child's 


l)lay. The writing of local history is truly arduous. It is hard to 
write history, hardest of all to write local history. Advice has 
not been wanting. May all the good live immortal and all the bad 
be buried. 


Greensboro, N. C, 1902. 



SEE PAGE 1/2. 




Guilford County was erected in 1770 by an Act of the General 
Assembly then in session at Xcwbern. The Act crcatinj;^ it reads 
as follows : 

"An Act for erecting a new County between the Towns of Salisbury 
and Hillsboro, by taking part of the Counties of Rowan and Orange. 

I. irhi-rcas, the great Extent of the respective Counties of Rowan 
and Orange, render the attendance of the Inhabitants of Part of Rowan 
County, and the Inhabitants of the upper Part of Orange County, to do 
public Duties in their respective Counties, extremely difficult and expen- 
sive : For Remedy whereof. 

II. Be it enacted by the Governor, Council, and .Assembly, and by the 
.\uthority of the same. That a Line beginning at a Point twenty-five Miles 
due West of Hillsborough, running thence North to the Virginia Line, then 
West to a Point due North of the Painted Springs, then South to Anson 
Line, then along .Anson and Cumberland Lines to a Point due South of the 
Beginning, then North to the Beginning, be erected into a distinct County 
by the name of Guilford County, and Unity Parish." 

This is accompanied by a foot-note which says: "The (^ripi- 
nals being missinc;." 

The Act is copied from the Laws of North Carolina, printed 
in 1791 by J. A. Iredell, "Anno Rej^^ni Georgii III.. Regis Magn?e 
Britannijc, Franciie, & Hibcrni?c, Undecimo." 

The new county was called Guilford in honor of Lord North, 
the Earl of Guilford, who was a Tory, King George IIL's Prime 
Minister, and "one who bowed to the roval will, and endeavored to 


carry out George Ill's favorite policy of 'governing for, but never 
by, the people.' " 

This new county was strongly \\'hig. Dr. David Caldwell, 
Alexander Martin, six times Governor of North Carolina, General 
Gillespie, James Hunter and William Rankin were Whigs of no 
uncertain soundings. This was the hotbed of the Regulation 
movement. The people of Orange and Rowan petitioned the 
Legislature requesting that among various reforms relating to 
taxes, fees, etc., an Act be passed "to divide the county."* 

Therefore Guilford County was erected, a concession to the 
Regulators. As Guilford was established at the request of such 
wilful Whigs, why was it called by the name of the English 
premier ? It seems quite human to cover the point of yielding with 
the name of the High Priest of the Tories. Perhaps it was to 
inspire loyalty to the King's policy. The tone of that Legislature 
was Tory, Tryon was governor. Did he name Guilford ? 

Guilford County has always been Whig in principle. Internal 
improvements, public education and industrial development are 
Whig ideas. 

Randolph County was formed, in 1779, from Guilford, and 
named in complim.ent to the Randolph family in Virginia, dis- 
tinguished for patriotism and talents. (See Wheeler's History.) 

Rockingham County was formed, in 1785, from Guilford 
County, and named for Charles Watson Wentworth, ]\Iarquis of 
Rockingham, a distinguished friend of America in the English 
Parliament, who acted with William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, in 
opposition to Lord North. He was premier of England in 1782. 
(See Wheeler's History.) 

It appears that the dividing of the County of Guilford from 
Orange and Rowan was a political division for the purpose of 
separating the "Insurgents from Orange and left them in Guil- 
ford." "The spirit of the Revolution was twin-born with the 
County of Guilford." f 

* See North Carolina Colonial Records, Vol. VIIL, Preface, pp. xvii-xviii. 
•hSee the Oration of Maj.Jos. M. Morehead on "James Hunter." 




About 1/49 t'lt^ fij"^^ settlers came to this section. At that 
time a heavy stream of nii<jration was pourinpf into North Caro- 
lina. In the portion of the State marked by the present towns of 
Greensboro. Salisbury. Concord and Charlotte, the Scotch-Irish 
and German settled. 

To the territory now known as Guilford County people repre- 
senting: three nations, the Scotch-Irish, the German exiles from 
the Palatine and the Eng^lish Quakers, came. These people were 
dissenters seckiuii: reliijious liberty as well as homes for wives and 
children. From the colony of William Penn. where they had first 
set foot on American soil, they passed on through Virginia, where 
the Church of England was already established, and traveled 
through a wild country to a milder climate and the freedom of 
forest and river to be found in Piedmont North Carolina. In the 
beautiful scope of country that later became Guilford County these 
three peoples settled, building their homes amid the fertile, rolling 
plains and wide ridges of Middle Carolina. The houses, manners 
and customs of the lands they had left were soon firmly fixed upon 
the new country. 

■ In central Guilford the Scotch-Irish settled: in east Guilford 
the Gennans built their homes; while in west Guilford the English 
Quakers took up their abode. A band of Welsh also came to this 

In central Guilford were: the Archers, the Hrannocks, the 

ells, the Dennys, the Donnells. the Foulkes, the Gillespies, 

Gorrells, the Hunters, the Kerners, the Lindsays, the McAdoos, 

the McMikels, the Osbornes, the Stokes, the Sanders and the 

^f ytaldw 
Jv//the Go 


Weatherlys. (Mr. Robert ]\I. Sloan of Greensboro is authority for 

In east Guilford were: the Albrights, the Clapps. the Cobbs, 
the Cobles, the Fousts, the Holts, the Keims, the Linebergers, the 
Sharps, the Shoffners, the Straders, the Summers, the Reitzells, 
the Whitsells, the Whitsetts and the Wyricks. 

In west Guilford were; the Armfields, the Beasons, the Chip- 
mans, the Coffins, the Elliotts, the Edwards, the Gardners, the 
Horneys, the Mendenhalls, the Pughs, the Starbucks, the Stan- 
leys, the Welborns. 

One band of Scotch-Irish came from Lancaster Coimty, Penn- 
sylvania ; another poured into the province by way of Charleston,. 
South Carolina. These two streams met in central Guilford. A 
company called the Nottingham Company of Pennsylvania bought 
a large tract of land on the Buffalo and Reedy Fork Creeks. ( See 
Life of Caldwell.) These were the blue-stocking Presbyterians. 
On the headwaters of the Alamance the * followers of Whitfield 
built their homes. Old Alamance Church was the nucleus of the 

"From the stock of Scotch-Irish in the north of Ireland," say 
Hawks, Swain and Graham in their History of the Revolution^ 
page 51, "came the Carolina immigrants. They reached the place 
of their settlement by two different avenues of approach ; the one 
portion came to America by the Delaware River, landing in Phila- 
delphia ; the other touched our shores at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. They struck into the fertile country of Virginia, and in 
Carolina the two tides of migration met. The line of their settle- 
ments across the whole state from North Carolina to Virginia may 
be traced through Charlotte, Concord, Salisbury, Lexington, 
Greensboro, Milton and the head waters of the Roanoke." "Our 
forefathers," says Dr. C. H. Wiley in his address on the Centen- 
nial of Alamance Church, "came not as adventurers or hunters, 
not as outlaws and wanderers, but as intelligent men, with good 

• These were Presbyterians who had been influenced to emotionalism by John Wesley. 


worldly substance, with nct-dod inii)lemcnts of industry, with civi- 
lizati«m and the church." 

The characteristics of the Scotch-Irish are mainly noticeable 
in tbouirht-inovenients. From this stock have come our public 
men. soldiers, politicians, statesmen, ai^itators. Morehead. Gilmer, 
Wiley were Scotch-Irish. In the first battle for American rij^hts, 
that of Alamance, in 1771. and the last decisive battle of the Revo- 
lution, that of Guilford Courthouse, of 1781, the Scotch-Irish were 
most prominent. 

The Germans, who settled east of the Scotch-Irish, had 
come from the Palatine, driven by the scourge of war from 
what was once their happy home. Up the Rhine from 
Cologne the Thirty Years' War had left terrible devastation. 
Thousands of these people came to America upon William Penn's 
invitation. With them they brought that love of domestic life so 
marked a characteristic of the race. For many years their German 
speech excluded them from public offices, but they were among 
the fighters in the Regulation War and among the Whigs of the 
Revolution. Their manners and customs are German, their old 
German F>ibles and text-books are extant. 

Unlike both German and Scotch-Irish was the Quaker in his 
territory in western Guilford. It is this element which makes the 
history of Guilford unique in North Carolina. The Scotch-Irish 
and Gennan may be found in many other counties in the state ; 
but not these three together. In the conjunction of these a clash- 
ing of ideas came about which has made history. In the question 
of slavery Guilford County history is vital not only in this State 
but touches national life as well. The aggravating element kept 
the Scotch-Irish mind active. Out of the active Scotch-Irish mind 
came the impulse for internal improvements in North Carolina. 

In England. Quaker and Presbyterian had alike suffered re- 
ligious persecution. They were impelled by the same purpose to 

NoT»: InUmeoflhe Revolution and before it, William Rankin lived in Guilford on the 
North Buffalo; Walter Dennv lived near by; Col. Daniel and Col. John Gilletpie, Ralph 
Gorrell, Hantz Mc Bride and John Thorn lived in the vicinity of Greenaboro; Jamei Hunter, 
Robert Bruce, Jamea .Mendenhall and Henry Ballinger lived north and west of Greensboro 


gain for themselves new homes and freedom to worship as they 
chose. About the same time, and probably together, they had 
journeyed to Guilford County. Though they had much in com- 
mon they v.'ere yet unlike. In the Quaker settlement the hip-roofed 
houses and the various crafts are manifestations of English train- 
ing. Besides the Quakers who came from Pennsylvania about 
1749, a band of Nantucket Quakers came to this territory in 1771 : 
another band of emigrant Quakers came here from eastern 
North Carolina ; others still were of Welsh extraction. Among 
these last were the Benbows, Brittains, Hoskins and others. 

The followmg, taken from S. B. Weeks' ''Southern Quakers," 
pages 107-108, gives us some interesting information concerning 
the Guilford Count}' Quakers : 

"The island of Nantucket being small and its soil not very produc- 
tive, a large number of people could not be supported thereupon. The 
population of the island still increasing, many of the citizens turned their 
attention to other parts and removed elsewhere. A while before the Revo- 
lutionary War, a considerable colony of Friends removed and settled at 
New Garden, in Guilford County, N. C. William Coffin (1720-1803) was 
one of the number that thus removed about 1773. Obed ^Slacy, writing of 
the period about 1760. says that because of the failure of the whale fishery 
some went to N^ew Garden, N. C. About the outbreak of the Revolution, 
because of derangement of their business by the war, some went to New 
York and North Carolina. 

"In 1764, Friends had begun investigations to find out who were the 
original Indian owners of their new homes, in order that they might pay 
them for the land, as they were trying to do at Hopewell, Va. It was 
reported that the New Garden section belonged to the Cheraws, who had 
been since much reduced and lived with the 'Catoppyes,' Catawbas. In 
1780 two-thirds of the inhabitants of Nantucket were Quakers. Among 
their leaders were the Coffins, Starbucks, Folgers. Barnards, Husseys. 

■'During a period of five years there were no less than forty-one cer- 
tificates recorded at New Garden Monthly Meeting from Nantucket out 
of a total of fifty certificates received. 

'In this number there were eleven families, including many that have 
since been prominent in Guilford County. Among them were : Libni 
Coffin, William Coffin, Jr., William, Barnabas, Seth (and wife), Samuel 
(and family), Peter and Joseph Coffin; Jethro Macy, David. Enoch, Na- 

iVO/v'77/ CAROLINA. 17 

thaniel. Paul (and family). Matthew (and five children) and Joseph Macy ; 
William. Gayer. Paul (and family), and William Starbuck; Richard, Wil- 
Ii:im, Stephen and Stephen Gardner; Tristrim. Francis and Timothy Bar- 
nard; Daniel. Francis and Jonah Worth; John VVickersham. William 
Recce. Jonathan Gifford. Reuhen Bunker. Nathaniel Swain, Thomas 
Dixon " 

The Pennsylvania and Xantucket Quakers did not mingle and 
inter-irarry with the Scotch-Irish, whose whole modus vivendi 
was the opposite of their own. 

Ahnost all the members of the denomination at the present 
day who are "birth rij^ht," can trace their descent from one or 
both of these sources, and those who cong^ratulate themselves upon 
their Xantucket origin may be interested in the followinjr doggerel 
which was supposed tersely to describe those same ancestors. 

The Rays and Russells coopers are, 

The knowing Folgers lazy. 

A lying Coleman very rare. 

And scarce a learned Hussey. 

The Coffins noisy, fractious. loud, 

The silent Gardners plodding. 

The Mitchells good, 

The Bakers proud, 

The Macys cat the pudding. 

The Lovetts stalwart, brave and stern. 

The Starbucks wild and vain. 

The Quakers steady, mild and calm. 

The bwains sea-faring men, 

And the jolly Worths go sailing down the wind. 

In a letter of Tryon to the Board of Trade. August. 1766 
(Col. Rec, \'ol. 7, page 248), he said: 

"I am of opinion that this province is settling faster than any 
on the continent. Last autumn and winter upwards of one thou- 

iKi.^i**V' i?i*" •?"■'«' r°r*'"" "'"*»'« county, even within our preMnt boundaries, was at 
Ih.t Ume wilhoul white inhabitant.. The bcauuful middle region was the hi^hwav of 

DrW^e;°^«^„"^7'""'"°^•^ '-■;■"'' V^'f'J"" ^.'''* '^^ lndian,we.t.''nd.'uth. 
Ur. Wilej s acldrew on Alamance Church. »ce al»o Record* at Salisbury .N C bk» 1.7 at 

^fte^'w:r7. wentwV."'."""' "'" ' "'"••^'" """"• '^'""^ °' Iboie'^who LVttled here 


sand wagons passed through Salisbury with families from the 
northward, to settle in this province chiefly ; some few went to 
Georgia and Florida, but liked it so indifferently that some of them 
have since returned. 

• "The dispatch of patents I have granted since my administra- 
tion will show to your Lordships the great increase of settlers in 
the western or back counties. These inhabitants are a people dif- 
fering in health and complexion from the natives in the maritime 
parts of the province, as much as a sturdy Briton differs from a 
puny Spaniard." 

Governor Try on regarded this territory "as of great value, 
being perhaps the best lands on this continent, particularly Her- 
man Husbands', who had (in May, 1771) on his plantation about 
fifty acres of as fine wheat as perhaps ever grew, with clover 
meadows equal to any in the Northern Colonies." (Col. Rec, Vol. 
8, page 615.) 

These people did not live in crude log cabins. Many of them 
had comfortable homes, hiproof ed, with dormer windows, built of 
brick or frame material. They had wealth ; they loved beauty. 
All worked, continually stirring from four o'clock in the morning 
till late at night. Industry at length brought luxury and plenty. 
They were a pastoral and agricultural people such as good living 
never spoils, but, on the contrary, develops in them spirit and 

Spacious fields of wheat, corn, buckwheat and patches of 
flax and cotton surrounded their homes. Sometimes a hundred 
bee hives added another charm to the garden, with its lilacs, roses, 
sweet lavender and daisies. 

The home itself was like a colony of bees in which there were 
no drones. It was a custom that no young woman should marry 
until she possessed forty or more bed-quilts, counterpanes and 

Note: These Nantucket settlers were not the first Friends to come to North Carolina, 
and it is likely that Henry Phillips, who, in 1665, came to Albemarle from New England, 
was seeking a refuge from the tyranny of Massachusetts,where Friends suffered martyrdom 
on Boston Common. 


snowy sheets that she had made herself. These articles of her 
handiwork she embroidered with all sorts of needlework. 

The women wove for the whole family, tow shirts, barndoor 
breeches and silken p^owns. They sold p^reat quantities of cloth, 
wajj:onloads of butter, cheese and honey. They raised silk, flax, 
cotton and wool, and manufactured these products for sale. They 
sold preen apples and chestnuts all winter. 

People lived without much expense. They had no fear of work. 
The men prided themselves on their physical strength. A friendly 
fight as a test was not infrequent, while even old men wrestled 
occasionally. It was customary for a company of men and boys 
to collect on Saturday evenings at a mill or cross-roads. One 
described a circle. Upon bagter being given two men stepped into 
the ring and they laughed at black eyes and hard knocks. They 
boxed each others' ears as a joke, and gouged and bit each other 
for fun. 




From the Register of Deeds, Rowan County,* Books 1-7, at 
Salisbur}', North Carolina. 

The Province of Carolina, embracing that territory which is at 
present North and South CaroHna, and extending westward to the 
Pacific Ocean, was, under a grant issued by King Charles II. of 
England, the property of eight Lords Proprietors. In 1729 the 
right to this land was surrendered to the King by all the lords 
except Granville, who retained his one-eighth part. 

"In 1743 Granville's interest was laid off in severalty. It embraced the 
northern portion of North Carolina, and extended as far south as the Mont- 
gomery County line, or near it, and thus included the lands in Guilford 

"Though Granville retained no political power, his right in the soil 
carried with it the right to appoint land officers and agents, thus forming 
a sort of government in a government, and involving complications which 
added to those grievances which helped to prepare the way for the 'Revo- 
lution.'" (Dr. C. H. Wiley's Address on Alamance Church.) 

In 1744, September the seventeenth, George II. granted the Earl of 
Granville one-eighth part of iNorth and South Carolina. 

In 1745 George II. granted Henry Eustice McCulloh eight tracts of 
land in the Province of North Carolina, each tract containing twelve hun- 
dred and fifty acres. That part of McCulloh's land in Guilford County 
lay on the head waters of the Alamance and Stinking Quarter Creeks. 
Parcels of it were sold to William Rose, Peter Amick, Nathaniel Robinson, 
Jeremiah Kimbro, James O'Neal, Solomon Grace and Smith Moore. The 
remainder of McCulloh's lands ni Guilford County was confiscated to the 
use of the State, and by an act of the Legislature of 1795 it was granted 
to the trustees of the University of North Carolina. McCulloh's land was 
within the limits of Granville's part of North Carolina. 

* Rowan County was set up from Anson County in 1753. Orange County was once a 
part of Granville County. From Rowan and Orange, Guilford County was erected in 1770. 


In >753 James and his wife Jeane Graham, of Anson Coimty, sold 
to William McKnight, for five shillings, a parcel of land in Anson County 
on a branch of Buffalo Creek, six hundred and forty-one "Eackcrs," "Be 
ye same more or less, yielding and paying ye yearly rent of one pepper .-orn 
at ye Feast of St. Mickals ye Archangel only if ye same be then demanded." 

In '753 William Renolds and Rachel, his wife, of Orange County, 
conveyed by deed to their son, Jeremiah Renolds, two hundred and sixty- 
six acres of land on Polecat Creek. 

In '753 Tabuland Gant (also spelled Gaunt. Gauant) bought of 
James Carter, for five shillings, six hundred and thirty-two "acors by esti- 
mation." on the south fork of Deep River. 

In 1/53, in the twenty-seventh year of the reign of George II. of 
Great liritani, France and Ireland. King, Defender of the Faith, etc., Henry 
Beddingfield sold William Mebane six hundred acres on the North Buffalo 
Creek for the sum of forty-five pounds, current money of Virginia. To this 
indenture Alexander Mebane and John Thompson were witnesses. 

In 175J Granville ^fnnted Robert Rankin a tract of four hundred and 
eighty acres for three shillings proclamation money. 

In 1753 Granville sold John Cunningham a grant of six hundred and 
forty acres of land on Reedy Fork Creek for three shillings. 

In 1754 George Jordenjur sold to Jonathan White three hundred 
and twenty acres of land on the south side of Hogin's Pond, south of Haw 
River. To this indenture Daniel Weldon, Blake Baker and Edward Under- 
bill were witnesses. 

In 1754 Granville granted Alexander Mebane a tract of six hundred 
and forty acres of land on the upper branches of the Great Alamance. A 
yearly rent of twenty -five shillings was agreed upon. 

In 1755 Henry Ballinger sold David Renolds, for five shillings, a 
tract of land on South Polecat Creek. "A yearly rent of one pepper corn" 
was agreed upon, "if the same be demanded." In May of that year Gran- 
ville sold Henry Ballinger a tract of land on the same stream. 

In 1755 Granville's agents granted Robert Thompson a tract of four 
hundred and sixty-four acres on the north side of Reedy Fork. Robert 
Thompson was the first man killed in the Battle of Alamance, 1771. 

In 1755 Robert Rankin and his wife, Rebckah, sold William Denny 
six hundred and forty acres of land in Rowan County. 

In 1755 Granville sold George Finley a tract oirthe north side of the 
Reedy Fork, in Orange County. 

In 1755 Robert Jones sold John Blair, of Virginia, land on the Dan 

In 1755 Granville sold Anthony Hoggctt, for three shillings proclama- 
tion money, four hundred and eighty acres on Deep River. Granville also 


in the same year granted Philip Hoggett four hundred and twenty acres on 
Deep Creek. 

In 1756, November the ninth, Granville granted John McNight that 
tract of land on both sides of Nix's Creek, a branch of the Reedy Fork 
of Havk^ River. To this indenture the signature of Peter Henley, Chief 
Justice of Rowan County, is affixed. Mordecai Mendenhall came to this 
territory at or before this time. He owned many hundred acres of land 
on Deep River. 

In 1756 Granville granted John Kirkpatrick a tract of land embracing 
three hundred acres in the Parish of St. Luke, on the Buffalo Creek. In 
the same year Granville granted John Rhodes, for ten shillings, a tract 
joining Robert Harris's land on the north fork of Haw River. 

In 1750 Granville granted Joseph Ozburn 640 ^cres of land on the 
Reedy Fork of Haw River. 

In 1757 Zebulon Guantt, wheelwright, sold John Hiat six hundred and 
thirty acres of land on the north of Deep River. William Shepperd and 
his wife, Martha, sold Isaac Beason four hundred and eighty acres of 
land on the Deep River. 

In 1757 Christopher Nation and his wife, Elizabeth, sold Benjamin 
'Cox a tract of land on Polecat Creek. 

In 1757 Henry Ballinger and Thomas Hunt bought of Richard Wil- 
liams fifty acres of land for five shillings. This tract the deed declares to 
Tdc "for .the use, benefit, privilege and convenience of a Meeting House 
which is already erected, and bears the name New Garden, for the Chris- 
tian people called Quakers to meet in for publick worship of Almighty 
God, and also the ground to bury their dead in." 

In 1758 [Nlordecai Mendenhall and his wife. Charity, of Rowan 
County, sold Nathan Dick four hundred and fifty acres on Horsepen 
Creek. That year Uriah Woolman, merchant of Philadelphia, and Joseph 
Miller, yeoman of Chester County, Pennsylvania, bought of William Buis 
a tract of land on the Deep River. To this indenture Moses and John 
Mendenhall were witnesses. 

In 175Q Granville granted William Mebane six hundred and thirty- 
six acres in St. Luke's Parish on South Buffalo, beginning at Kimbrough 
Corner and running along John McAdoo's line. In that year Granville 
granted John Boyd four hundred and sixty-seven acres on Reedy Fork. 

In 1760 Thomas Donnell sold James Donnell three hundred and 
twenty acres of land on the North Buffalo for five shillings. 

In 1762 Granville granted William Armfield five hundred and forty 
acres of land in St. Luke's Parish for ten shillings, or two dollars and a 
half. He also granted James Mendenhall for the same amount two hun- 


drcd and four acres of land joininR Richard Reason's land on Deep River; 
and Willianj Millican. six hundred and twenty acres of land on the same 

In 176.? John Nick? sold James Denny, of Pennsylvania, six hundred 
and fifty acres of land on the North Buffalo. 

In 1764 Thomas DonncU sold Alexander McKnight land on the North 
Buffalo. In that year Robert Tate sold William Trousdale land on the 
North Buffalo. 

In 1765 Henry Eustice McCulloh sold Robert Sloan two hundred 
and eight acres on Pott's Creek. 

In 1766 Thomas Donnell sold Francis Cummings, for five shillings, 
four hundred acres of land on a branch of the South Buffalo. 

In 1766 James Mathew, Sr., sold James Mathews, Jr., for one hun- 
dred pounds proclamation money, five hundred acres of land on the 
Alam.incc Creek. 

In 1767 John Hodge sold Alexander Penny, for five shillings, three 
hundred and twenty-six acres of land on the Buffalo Creek, this being a 
part of a tract granted John Gillespie by Granville in 1762. 

In 176K Adam Mitchell sold John McKnight and William Anderson, 
as trustees for the Presbyterian Congregation and their successors, one 
acre of land on the waters of the North Buffalo, for twenty shillings. This 
land the deed affirms to be for the use of a Presbyterian Meeting House 
for those that are members of the Synod of Philadelphia and New York, 
and is '"for that use forever, including the meeting house and the study 
house " 

In 1769 Benjamin and Elizabeth Reason gave land on the Polecat 
Creek to their sons, William, Richard, Benjamin and Isaac Beason. 

In 1770 Robert Forbis sold Welcome W. Hodge land on Joseph's 

In 1770 Joseph Scales owned land on the Dan River. 

In 1770 John Fraizer and Abigal, his wife, sold Thomas Buller land 
on the Deep River. 

In 1770 James Graham, of Rowan, sold John McGee, of Orange, 
a tract on the Great Alamance. This was a part of the land sold by Her- 
man Husbands to James Graham in 1766. 




The life of David Caldwell, by Dr. Eli Caruthers, gives the 
history of the society in North Carolina called the "Regulators." 
This society was organized about 1764. Dr. David Caldwell was 
the most prominent man then living in the heart of the territory 
in which the Regulation movement had its greatest strength. ( See 
prefatory notes to the Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. 8.) 

The Regulators were the first company of men banded together 
in the interest of home rule, or government by the American 
people in matters relating to their own business, and opposed to 
Great Britain. Hence their movement was the beginning of the 
Revolutionary War. Dr. Caruthers, the successor of Dr. Caldwell 
as both pastor and teacher, a biographer and historian, certainly 
regarded the movement of the Regulators as the beginning of the 

As early as 1760 Igrievances were made to the king, among 
others, because "illegal and arbitrary pecuniary claims were in- 
forced for the use of the governor and secretary." The land 
agents, ^deputy surveyors, entry takers and other officers of in- 
ferior grade in that department, encouraged by the example of 
their leaders, soon became as much adepts in the practice of chicane 
and extortion. Sfhis state of things continued, and perhaps be- 
came much worse, at least in the lower grades of office, until the 
people, unwilling to bear it any longer, undertook to regulate mat- 
ters themselves ; so assumed the name Regulators. -^When all 

Note: l See (2) Colonial Records Vol. 7, page 159. 
See Lite of David Caldwell, page 98, 185. 

2 Life of David Caldwell, page 99. 

3 " " page 102. 

4 " " page 107. 


lej^al means of redress had failed, they had recourse to an expres- 
sion of puhHc sentiment by hohhn^ meetinjT:s in ditTerent parts of 
the country for the purpose ; then they refused to pay illef^al taxes 
or fees, and this brou^lit about an open rupture witli tlie govern- 

A large i)roportion of the men in Dr. Caldwell's congregations 
were Regulators.'* Hemian Husbands, James Hunter, Rednap 
Howell, all of them Guilford County men. were guiding spirits in 
the movement. 

In April. 1771. Governor Tryon marched up toward the 
Regulation section with an army to enforce the authority of his 
officials. He met several hundred Regulators, probably eleven 
hundred, just over the Guilford County line, on the banks of the 
Great Alamance Creek. Dr. David Caldwell was there to present 
resolutions of the Regulators and to ask for peace. Many mem- 
bers of his congregation were there, and others, to demand redress. 
A battle occurred, in which Tryon was victorious. But the Regu- 
lators thus made the first open resistance to British authority. 
Colonial Records of N. C, \'ol. 8, shows that Tryon and his army 
then marched through the territory of the Regulators, "destroying 
everything that was in his power to destroy by fire and sword." 

On May 30, 1771, the Superior Court of Oyer and Terminer, 
for the trial of the Regulators in the "back country," began at 
Hillsboro. X. C. Twelve men were tried and condemned for high 

"A PROCL.AM.\TION.— Whereas. I am informed that many Persons 
who have been concerned in the late Rebellion are desirous of submitting 
themselves to Government I do therefore give notice that every Person who 
will come in either to mine or General Waddell's Camp, lay down their 
arms, take the oath of allegiance, and promise to pay all taxes that are 
now or may hereafter become due by them respectively, and submit to the 
Laws of this Country, shall have His Majesty's most gracious and free 
pardon for all Treasons, Insurrections and Rebellions done or committed 
on or before the 16th Inst., provided they make their submission on or 
before the loth of June ne.xt. The following persons are however excepted 

5 Their (graves mav be seen at AUmancc and BufTalo graveyards. 


from the Benefit of this Proclamation, Viz. All the Outlaws, the persons 
in Camp, and the under named persons, Samuel Jones, Joshua Teague, 
Samuel Wagones, Simon Dunn, Jr., Wilkerson, Sr., Edward Smith, John 
Bumpass, Joseph Boring, William Rankin, William Robeson, John Wink- 
ler, and John Wilcox. Wm. Tryon." 

"31 May, 1771." 

See Col. Rec, Vol VITL, page 613. 

The spirit of the Regulation movement was the same North 
CaroHna love of liberty which in 1766 resisted the Stamp Act in 
Wilmington, when the British sloop-of-war Diligence arrived in 
the Cape Fear River, laden with stamps, and was peremptorily- 
refused permission to land them. The Regulators were fired with 
the same zeal for liberty which actuated the men of ^lecklenburg 
in 1775 when they declared independence. This love of liberty is 
found today in every North Carolinian. 

"James Hunter, The Regulator," by INIajor Joseph M. More- 
head, gives conclusive evidence that the Regulators made the be- 
ginning of America's great struggle for freedom from Great 
Britain. All revolutions have begun in this way. 

"North Carolina in 1780-81," by Judge David Schenck, has 
shown the history of the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, when 
Greene so crippled Cornwallis and his army that they were forced 
to leave the state. The Battle of Guilford Courthouse was the 
beginning of the last act of the Revolution, which ended at York- 
town by the surrender of Cornwallis. The beginning of the 
Revolution was in Guilford County, because of unjust taxation ; so 
it was permitted her to strike the last great blow at the Battle of 
Guilford Courthouse. 

Dr. Eli Caruthers and Judge David Schenck have exhausted 
the subject of the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. To get a full 
view of the battle, its causes and its effects, read them. Also 
visit the battleground and see the various imposing monuments 
that tell the story of the part of Guilford in the Revolutionary 


In Mardi. 1781, the forces of the American Revohition under 
the coinniand of General Green met the forces of Great Britain 
under Lord Cornwallis on the field near Guilford Courthouse, then 
at old Martinsville. 

C(<rn\vallis had heen attracted l(xi far from his supplies. It 
seemed at first that he had won the battle, but Greene had so 
weakened his force as to compel him to retire to Wilminj^ton. 
North Carolina, 'riuiice he went to 'S'orktown, \ir,i,nnia. and 

Many American and English, soldiers died on the battlefield 
of Guilford Courthouse and in the county surroundinpf. New 
Garden Meetinefhouse was used as a hospital for the British. In 
the graveyard there are larpje square p^raves, under a great oak 
tree, containinq; the last of British soldiery on this territory. 


Between Cornwallis and Greene there seems to have been a 
difference similar to that between America and England. They 
were representative men, each of his.own country. Cornwallis was 
a member of the House of Lords, born at London, educated at the 
famous Eton College. City-bred men are different from those of 
the coujitry. So Cornwallis was true to his birth and his training 
when, at Brandy wine, he evinced much coolness and bravery. He 
could fight gallantly and show kindness too. In his encampment 
at Jamestown he pressed the mill into service, took all the meal, 
tlour, meat, wheat ; took the cow, the mother's last chance for 
feeding her children, Mrs. Judith Gardner Mendenhall demanded 
her cow of the General, saying that she needed it and must have 
it for the support of her children. Cornwallis had the cow re- 
turned and ordered the soldiers to let her alone. "He was an 
accomplished soldier. While he did not himself commit acts of 
cruelty, he allowed his subordinates to do so without rebuke." 

Marching from the Battle of Guilford Courthouse through 
the state, he found disappointment instead of supplies awaiting him 


at Wilmington. He moved to Yorktown, where he was obhged 
to surrender. From Yorktown he was sent, in 1786, to the East 
Indies, as governor and commander-in-chief. He fought gallantly 
the Sultan of Mysore. Upon his return to England he was ap- 
pointed master-general of Ireland. Later he was minister pleni- 
potentiary to France. In 1800 he received the appointment of 
governor-general of India, where he died, in 1805. 

So England regarded him as a brave soldier and a diplomat. 
He must have felt himself to be superior to the backwoodsmen 
and their rustic Rhode Island commander. 

Nathaniel Greene had no special lordship to sustain. It re- 
quired great energy and wit on the part of Greene to meet an 
English earl and general with his well-trained body of soldiers, 
famous for their record — the best in the world at the time. They 
had fought with Wolf, with Wolf had scaled the Heights of 
Abraham. Greene knew that fight he must, and think as well as 
fight — something Cornwallis had done beforehand, so probably 
packed away his thinking cap. Greene and Cornwallis were about 
equally matched, except in this respect : Greene did the thinking, 
Cornwallis relied upon training. 

Those daily readings of Greene, in his Rhode Island home, on 
the subject of military tactics, served to entertain and occupy his 
youth, like that of Napoleon on the Island of Corsica. 'But the 
real benefit came later v/hen, in the flower of his life, this fund of 
resourceful reading was like a mine of gold to America. 

Greene and Cornwallis had been ordered South by their 
respective governments ; chance pitted them against each other. 
They resembled each other physically. Neither was over medium 
height, both broad-shouldered. Cornwallis was forty-three, Greene 
thirty-nine. An eye of each was impaired. One was America, 
fresh, resourceful, self-dependent, a maker, or shifter, of circum- 
stances. One was England, proud, sure of herself. Both had 
been at the Battle of Brandywine. 

'Greene was born May 26th, 1742. His father was a miller, an 
anchor-smith, and a Quaker preacher. In early life he followed the plow 


and worked at the forge. He had no educational advantages in his 
youth, was born and reared in obscurity. But Jie is an example of what 
good principles, native sense, industrious habits and careful improvement 
of time can accomplish. A British officer said. "Greene is as dangerous as 
Washington: he is vigilant, enterprising and full of resources. With but 
little hope of gaining any advantage over him, I never feel secure when 
fiicamped in his neighborhood.'" (Garden's Anecdotes, p 76.) 

Battle is the game of chess nations play at. Had Greene lost 
this one. the poptilation of Guilford County and of North Carolina 
would prohably be today entirely different, for the ancestors of her 
people would have been mutilated or destroyed by Tories, dops and 
scavengers of war. 

"Comwallis led a country dance; 

The like was never seen, sir; 
Much retrograde and much advance, 

And all with General Greene, sir. 
They rambled up and rambled down, 

Joined hands and off they ran. sir; 
Our General Greene to old Charlestown 

And the Earl to Wilmington, sir." 

In Guilford and her neighbors the strife was kept well stirred. 
There were loyalists here true to the kingdom of Great Britain. 
These had property and did not like to see a change in government. 
There were also "Tories."' rapacious, wicked, who hated all Whigs 
and the American cause. Their leader was David Fannen, a 
scrawny, raw-boned man with the scaldhead, bitter, spiteful, re- 
vengeful with the soul of an Indian. His band of Tories was 
almost omnipresent in its cruelty to Whigs. The novel, "Ala- 
mance," by Dr. C. H. Wiley, gives a good idea of what the Tories 
were in Guilford County. Dr. Caruthers gives a good history of 
this period in his books, "The Old Xorth State," first and second 

ai,ivX.\.\I)i;r M.\kTi.\. 

(Extracts from Judge Douglas's Speech.) 

Alexander Martin, one of Guilford's first great leaders, and 
hei first governor of Xurth Carolina, was of Scotch- Irish descent, 


his father being a Presbyterian minister. He was born in 1740, 
graduated at Princeton University in 1756. 

In i772 he settled at Guilford Courthouse, then situated near the 
battlegrgand, and was later named Martinsville in his honor. When the 
Battle of Guilford Courthouse occurred he was a member of the Council 
Extraordinary; and in company with Dr. David Caldwell was present at 
the Battle of Alamance. 

In 1774-75 he was a member of the Colonial Assembly from Guilford 
County. He was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second Regiment 
from this State in the Continental line on September the first, 1775, and 
wa's promoted to the Colonelcy in 1776. He, with his regiment, was 
present at the Battle of Brandywine, 1775, where Lafayette was wounded, 
and was near him. In the attack of Washington on the British at Ger- 
mantown, he was present. His General, Francis. Nash, was killed. 

In 1779 he was elected state senator from Guilford County, serving 
for a number of years. In 1780 he was speaker of the Senate. Upon the 
capture of Governor Burke by David Fannen, Alexander Martin suc- 
ceeded to the governorship. He was elected Governor of North Carolina 
in 1786 and 178.3. 

In 1786 he was elected by joint ballot of the two houses of the 
General Assembly one of the five delegates to the Federal Convention, 
called to meet in Philadelphia to frame the Constitytion of the United 
States. The convention met May 25, 1787, and among the delegates from 
North Carolina Alexander Martin's name appears first. 

Six times Governor of his State, once by succession and five times 
by direct election, Alexander Martin has left a record that has never been 

In 1793 Governor Martin was elected to the Senate of the United 
States. He was a staunch Federalist and a friend of Washington. 

At the general meeting of delegates at Newbern. on April 3rd, 177S, 
Alexander Martin was the delegate from Guilford. At the meting at Hills- 
b'orough, August 21st, 1775, Alexander Martin, Ransom Southerland, 
Samuel Parke Farley, Thomas Henderson. William Dent, George Cortner 
and Nathaniel Williams were delegates. 

On April 4, 1776, at the meeting which placed the State in military 
organization, the Guilford delegates were Ransom Southerland, William 
Dent and Ralph Gorrell. The officers appointed for Guilford were : James 
Martin, Colonel ; John Paisley, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Thomas Owens, First 
Major; Thomas Blair, Second Major. 


At the meeting at Halifax. November I2th, 1776, which formed the 
Constitution, the delegates from Guilford were: David Caldwell, Joseph 
Hinds. Ralph Ciorrell. Charles Liruce and I sham lirowdcr. 


The orip^inator of the Guilford Battlegrouml Company was 
Jiulpe David Schenck, who, in 1882, came to Greensboro from 
Lincolnton, X. C. He was a brilliant man, interested in the devel- 
opment and up-buildinp of North Carolina, and for years worked 
ceaselessly toward that end. To him was due the early establish- 
ment of the Greensboro paraded schools. In 1886, October, he 
purchased the j^frounds on which this g^reat decisive battle of the 
Revolutionary War occurred ; to Jud^e Schenck is due the honor 
of rescuinc: the battlejii^round and its history from oblivion. He 
tauc^ht the history of the conflict of 1780 and '81 in North Caro- 
lina cflFectively. both by his pen and his redemption of the Guilford 
Batlle^c^round. Until he came this battlej^round, blessed by the 
blood of patriotism, was an old sedge-field of pines and briars, a 
tangled wilderness. Today everyone knows of the great Battle 
of Guilford Courthouse. The imposing monuments there will tell 
the youth for many a generation the history of North Carolina 

A charter from the Legislature of North Carolina was pro- 
cured at its session in 1887 and on the 6th of May, 1887, Friday, 
J. W. Scott, David Schenck, Julius A. Gray, D. W. C. Benbow 
and Thomas B. Keogh met in Greensboro and organized "The 
Guilford Battleground Company." Judge D. Schenck was elected 
president ; J. W. Scott, treasurer, and Thomas B. Keogh, secretary. 
Citizens of Greensboro responded liberally. Mrs. McAdoo-King 
was the only lady stockholder. 

In 1889 the Legislature appropriated two hundred dollars 
annually to the support of the Guilford Battleground. The first 
monument, given by McGalliard and Huske, quarrymen of Ker- 
nersvil'.e, N. C, was erected in honor of Arthur Forbis, 


who was wounded and died on the field of battle, a brave soldier of 
Guilford County. 

Governor A. M. Scales had prepared granite blocks, begin- 
ning with a base of five feet square and running up to two feet, 
in form pyramidal. This was erected "with joy" in the centre 
of the battlefield, near the railway, where all travelers might read : 
''GuTLFORD Battle Ground, Thursday, March the 15TH, 
1 781" — the Battle Monument. 

Two natural springs of cool water on the grounds were de- 
veloped and beautified bv the Northern gentlemen, who were one 
with us in the great American cause — Mr. William P. Clyde, of 
New York, for whom Clyde Spring is named, and Mr. Leonidas 
W. Springs, of Philadelphia, for whom the twin, "Leonidas 
Springs," is named. 

In 1891 the remains of Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner 
were re-interred in this hallowed mould of the Guilford Battle. 
That year a museum was built on the grounds, which has gathered 
many relics of the Revolution. 

In 1892 Maryland Monument was erected, in memory of 
the Maryland Regimentals. 

In 1893 The Hoi,t Monument was erected by Governor 
Thomas M. Holt. 

The Oak Ridge students have erected a monument to the 
Bugler Boy of Light Horse Harry's Troops, who was killed 
near Oak Ridge Institute. 

In 1900, James Hunter Monument was built (through the 
efiforts of Hon. Joseph M. Morehead), and the history of the 
Regulators established as the first patriots of American liberty. 
There are many 'other monuments. The Fourth of July is cele- 
brated each year. Thousands of people visit annually this scene 
of the Revolutionary War. 



(4L'ARTER SESSIONS. 1782-1788. 

The County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions was a con- 
tinuation of the Enghsh fomi of government. It met quarterly, in 
February, in May, in Aug^ust and in November. Three, five or 
more Justices of the Peace sat on the bench. Besides rendering 
judgment, tliey appointed county officers, to be confirmed by the 
governor, deeds were probated and wills were proven in their 
court. It was a quarterly meeting of the Magistrates' Court. 
(Nov., 1782. Book I in Clerk's office at the County Seat of Guil- 
ford.) This court, in time, became the Board of County Commis- 
sioners, which meets the first Monday in each month, and some- 
times in the middle of the month, composed of three citizens. 

Thf County ta.x is laid by the Court to one shilling on every 
hundred pounds ta.xable property in the County. (Book in Clerk's 
office at Greensboro. Nov 18, 1782.) 

Ordered that each constable who warned the inhabitants to give a 
list of taxable property for the years 1781 and '82 be allowed forty shil- 
lings. .■\lso each assessor be allowed the same. (17 Feb., 1783.) 

Ordered that Col. John Peasly, Col. John Gillespie, John Forbes, 
William Kerr, Thomas Wiley, John Foster, Thomas Landwith. Moses 
Craner, .Vndrcw Wilson and John Mc.\doo be a Jury to lay out a road 
from the Highrock ford on Haw River to the County line at Elisha 
Mcndcnhall's Mill. 

Daniel Allen, who was brought before the Court for speaking defama- 
tory words against the State, was fined twenty poinuls — (not paid). 

.At a Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, .\le.x Caldwell, William 
Dent. George Peay, Esquires, present: "William Dick is allowed £5, 4s, 4d 
for his attendance as Juror at Salisbury Superior Court, March term, 1780. 
(May 20, 1783.) 


Sprow Macay, Esq., is appointed attorney to act in behalf of the 
State in the County of Guilford. 

For each district a constable and assessor were appointed. David 
Peebles is appointed in Mr. Bruce's district for the present year and Justin 
Knott constable for the same year. (David Peebles' son, Lewis, had a 
daughter, Patsey, who married Col. Walter McConnell, who was the 
father-in-law of C. N. McAdoo.) 

At a Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions begun and held for the 
County of Guilford, the third Monday in August, 1783; Present, Charles 
Bruce, William Goudy, James Brown, Esquires. 

The last will and testament of James Mendenhall is recorded. Also 
an inventor\' of the estate of James Hunter, deceased, was returned in 
open court and recorded. 

Ordered that Allen Unthank's tax for the year 1782 be remitted, it 
being proved to the satisfaction of the court that he was a balloted man 
to serve in the Continental service nine months and had paid his tax 
regularly until that year. 

John Williams, Esq., is appointed attorney in behalf of the State for 
the County of Guilford. 

Ordered that John Wilej' be allowed the sum of 40 shillings for 
his services in warning the inhabitants of Mr. Larkin's district to give a 
list of their taxable property for the year 1779. 

John Gillespie, Esq., produced a commission from his Excellency, 
the Governor, appointing him Sheriff of this County of Guilford, and 
qualified as such by taking the necessary oaths prescribed by law for the 
qualification of Public officers and gave bond with security for the faithful 
discharge of his duty. 

Ordered that the Collectors receive no more than a two-fold tax from 
those Quakers who are above fifty years of age and not exceeding four- 
fold from those under that age that have not given in a list of their taxable 

Ordered that Alex. Caldwell and George Peay, Esq., be appointed a 
committee to settle with James Brown, Esq., former Sheriff of this County, 
who reported that they had done the same and that by the several vouchers 
produced there appeared to be a balance due the said Brown from the 
County £582, 8s, 3d, as per and filed. The same persons also settled with 
the said Brown for taxes. 

Ordered that the following persons, to wit, Elijah Oliver, Thomas 
Cook, William Allen, William Stephens, Robert Coleman, Jeremiah Morris, 
John Nix, William Peay, Eli Surry, Derby Hoppen, David Walker and 
Jeremiah Johnson, be appointed patrolers in their several districts. 


Ordered that the sheriff or collector pay Thomas Blear one pound 
titteen shillings t(»r his attentlance as Juror at Salisbury Court in June, 1775. 

F'resent Wni. Gowdy. Wni. Dent, Robert M. Kaniie, Alex. Caldwell, 
Adam Larkie. (Nov.. 1783.) 

Ordered that Thomas Henderson have leave to remove the House, 
called the store house, that is now on the lot of James Buchanan to his own 
lot for the purpose of keeping the Records and other papers belonging to 
the clerk's office of said county. 

The county tax is laid to one shilling for the present year. 

Ordered that the Sheriff agree with some person to repair the Court 
house, erect a Barr and make report to ne.xt court. 

Col. John Gillaspie, high sheriff of Guilford County, came into Court 
and excepted against the Jail. 

Ordered that Thomas Henderson, clerk of Guilford County, be 
allowed 40 pounds for two years. The county is in arrears to him for 
extra services, and 20 pounds for present year. 

Ordered that Robert Wiley be allowed £5, 17s, 8d, for his attendance 
at Salisbur>' Superior Court which met in March 1784. (May, 1784.) 

Jes^e Benton, Esq., produced a license to practice law from their 
honors the Judges of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity. (Minute Bk. 
Court of P. & Q., 1781-8.^.) 

James Hunter, Esq., being elected sheriff of this county, ordered that 
he be recommended to his Excellency the Governor to be commissioned 
for that purpose. 

Jacob Brown. Wm. Crawford. Wni. Fathom and John McXary, Esqs., 
produced each a license with testimonial annexed agreeable to law from 
the honorable the Judges of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity, and 
were admitted to practice in this Court as attorneys at law. 

Ordered that the sheriff summon all the Constables within this county 
to give their attendance with proper staffs, as wands, during the sittings 
of the County Courts to be held for this County during Term time, to do 
their duty in office or otherwise be subject to the pains and penalties of the 

Thomas Archer, indicted for retailing liquors, came into Court and 
submitted and was fined. 

License is granted William Reed to keep a Tavern at his own dwell- 
ing house, Francis McXary, his security. (May, 1784.) 

In 1784 Thomas Henderson was Clerk of the Court. 

At a County Court of P. & Q., present the worshipful Alex. Cald- 
well, Wm. Gowdy and William Dent. Agreeable to the petitions of Sundry 
Inhabitants, ordered that Peter Oneal have leave to build a Grist Mill over 
Prewit's fork of Hogan's Creek. 


On motion of John Williams., Esq., ordered that an instrument of 
writing or Duplicate of the last Will and Testament of Daniel M. Collom, 
Dec'd, be recorded (the original being destroyed by the British), which 
was proved in the open Court by the oath of Thomas Wratherford. 

Ordered that Jehu ]\Iorton be fined 15 pounds for three profane oaths 
by him sworn in the presence of the Court and that he should be com- 
mitted till fine and fees be paid. 

Ordered by the Court that Jehu Morton be committed to stocks for 
two hours and that the Sheriff summon a guard sufficient for that purpose 
and that any convenient fence be deemed stocks for that purpose or any 
other place of confinement. 

Thomas Brown is appointed Overseer of the road from the Court 
House to the middle of Horsepen Creek and that he with the hands of 
Francis AIcNary, Widow Foster, John Hamilton, Nathan Brown and Capt. 
Wm. Dent keep the same in good repair agreeable to law. 

"Ordered that in future each sheriff attend this court with a Wand 
of tough wood eight feet in length and one inch in diameter, and that 
each constable attend the courts with staff's neatly shaved 6^ ft. in length 
and iy'2 in. in diameter painted black on the head for 8 inches." James 
Hunter, High Sheriff. (August, 1788.) 

Chas. Bruce and Wiliam Dent, Esqs., are appointed to superintend the 
next election for members for Legislature for this County. 

Wm. Gowdy. Ralph Gorrell and William Dent were present at the 
term of Court. John Stokes, Esq., produced a license with a testimonial 
annexed from their honors the Judges of the Superior Courts of Law and 
Equity and was admitted to practice law accordingly. Ralph Gorrell, Esq., 
is by the Court elected Register of the County of Guilford. (Nov. 1784, 
Court of P. & Q.) 

Ordered that the sheriff or some of the collectors pay James Brown 
£20, 6s, Sd, which appear to be due him from the settlement of his amount 
as former sheriff of this county. (Nov. 1784.) 

Ordered that the County tax for the year 1784 be laid to one shilling 
on every poll tax and the same on every 300 acres of land. Andrew John- 
ston being of a proper age came into court and made choice of Henry 
Ross, William Gowdy, Esq., his security in the sum of 200 pounds for the 
faithful discharge of his duty. (Feb. 1785.) 

■"Charles Galloway records his mark, to wit, 'a crop and slit in each 
year.' " (Each farmer had his stock marked.) 

The Esquires present at this court of P. & Q. were Wm. Gowdy, 
George Peay and Adam Lackey. James Hunter is unanimously elected 
Sheriff of this County for the present year. (May 1785.) 

corKTiicrsK OK (.rii.i-oui) cointv 


On the petition of Suntlry of the inhabitants of the two Buff ilos, it is: 
Ordered that a road be laid off from Ralph Gorrcll, Esq., to Elijah Stan- 
ley's Mill and from thence to the Cape Fear Road and that the following 
Jury, to wit. Daniel Ciillaspie, John Foster, John Mc.^doo, John Mcb:ine, 
David McAdoo. James McAdoo, Francis Cummings, John Holt, John Orr, 
George Parks, Samuel Martin and James Butler, be a jury to view and 
lay ofT sai<l road and make report tlureof to next Court. 

Nichlas McCubbin is appointed Overseer of the road from the Sorrow 
Town to Quaqua Creek; James McCoIium from thence to the County line 
of Caswell ; John Odell from the County line of Caswell on the Iron Works 
Road to William Bethel's Muster Ground; Natty Jordan frojn thence to 
the roads at Browder's Executor's; William Hickman overseer of Hen- 
derson's Road from Samuel Bethel's to Cantrel's Meeting House; Lawrence 
Bagston from thence to the Governor's Road ; David Suttlcs from Manlcave 
Tarrant's to Hugh Reeds'; and Hugh Reeds from his own house to Thomas 
Gray's. Jacob Williams' road. 

Nathaniel Scales is appointed Overseer of the road from Sinythe's 
or to Dry Creek and the road from the Saura Town ford to the Vir- 
.;a line. 

A deed of sales from James Buckhannon and wife to James McQuis- 
• :i for 60 acres of land was proved in open court by the oaths of James 
1 ir.nlap and ordered registered. 

Ordered that the sheriflF, or collector, pay Ralph Gorrcll. Eso.. £5. 6s, 
r his attendance as a Juror at Salisbury Court of Oj'cr and Terminer, 
. held for the district first of June, 1775. 

Ordered that the SheriflF or collector pay Ralph Gorrcll. Esq.. £1, 12s, 
for blank books furnished his office as register. 

Ordered that the Sheriff or collector pay Robert McKamie, Esq., £9, 3s, 
4d, for his service done as Crowner of his county. 

John Duke was sworn in as Juryman with Henry Whitesel, Thomas 
Green, George Glass. (Nov. 1785.) 

Agreeable to an act of the assembly for appointing an inspection of 
tobacco at the Court of Guilford Co., Wm. Dent, E.sq., and Alex. 
McCain are appointed inspectors of the same. 

Court house repaired. Ordered that the said Commission (William 
Dent. John Ilamilttm. William Duke) also engage with said workman who 
undertake the Court house to build a pillory and stocks for the use of the 

On the resignation of Thomas Henderson as Ckrk of Guilford 
County, live members being pristnt, Thomas Leary is unanimously elected, 
into bond with William Dent .-.nd Thomas Henderson in the sum of two 
thousand pounds for the faithful discharge of his duty, etc. 


Hance Hamilton was by the Court elected Sheriff and that he be 
recommended to his Excellency the Governor to be confirmed. Accord- 
ingly the said Hance Hamilton Produced a commission from the Governor 
appointing him sheriff. Bond, £5000. (May 1786.) 

James Buckanon submits to the court and is fined 40s for selling liquor 
above the rates. 

Ordered that Abner Willis, orphan of Richard Willis, dec'd, aged 14 
years, be bound to Edward Ryan until he arrives at full age, to learn the 
art and mystery of weaving, and the said Ryan engages to give the said 
orphan one horse to the value of 10 pounds, and learn him to read, write 
and cypher as far as the five Common rules in Arithmetic. 

Ordered that the Sheriff or some Collectors pay Thomas Hamilton 
48 shillings for his service in making the line between this county and 
Randolph County. (Laid off in 1779.) 

"I do hereby certify that John Stockard appeared before me within 
the space of two or three months after Isham Lett had entered a Bay Gild- 
ing on the Stray Book in or about the year 1784 and the said John Stockard 
made oath that the said Gilding was his property." Given under my hand 
Feb. 24. 1787, Wm. Gowdy. 

It is ordered that an issue to each Justice be made "that at the time 
of taking tax list they likewise take a list as law requires of the number 
of inhabitants m each district." 

The county tax is levied at 2s, 6d, for the year 1786 on each poll and 
the same on every 300 acres of land. 

Joseph Hoskins. Constable, enters into bond with the Court in the 
sum of 250 pounds for the faithful discharge of his duty, George Denny, 
his security. (May 1787.) 

Ordered that John Hamilton and William Dent, Esqs., be allowed the 
sum of 16 pounds for running the dividing line between Rockingham and 
Guilford Counties, and that Richard Burton be allowed the sum of 40s for 
his services in carrying the chain in running the line between the Counties 
of Guilford and Rockingham. (Rockingham formed from Guilford in 


Rockingham being made for the Election of a sheriff for the year 1787 
Hance Hamilton offered himself a candidate for the same who was unani- 
mously elected, five members being present. 

Ordered that William Dent and Ralph Gorrell, Esqs., be appointed to 
settle with James Hunter, sheriff of said County, for the County tax for 
the years 1784- 1785. 

Hance Hamilton produced a commission from his Excellency, Richard 
Caswell, Esq., appointing himself Sheriff of Guilford County, who took the 


oath agreeable to Utw— who at the same time protested against tlic goal 
of the County. Joseph Hoskins and John Spruce qualified as deputy sheriffs 
for the County of (iuiltord. 

Ordered tliat Thomas Smith, who was a continental soldier in the line 
of the snte. he allowed the sum of 15 pounds, it appearing that he lost one 
of his legs in the Battle at Utaws (Eutaw Springs?). .-Kged .28 years, left 
eye out. Capt. Porter Shaw repaired the Court House for 400 pounds. 

"Andrew Jackson produced a license from the Judges of the Superior 
Court of I^w and Equity to practice Law and was admitted an attorney of 
his Court." (Nov. 1787.) 

( .\ndrew Jackson was born at Waxhaw, N. C. He removed to Guil- 
ford County, X. C, read law at the home of Charles Bruce, at Summer- 
field, Guilford County. N. C, became constable in Guilford County, went 
to Tennessee with Judge McNairy, and afterward became President of the 
I'nited States, and the head and shoulders of the Democrat Party. While 
in Guilford he is said to have enjoyed the sports of cock-fighting and 
horse-racing. His old race paths are at Summerfield.) 

Hance Hamilton re-elected sheriff. (May 1788.) 

Ordered that Capt. Patrick Shaw be allowed to keep a tavern in his 
own dwelling at Martinsville. 




On petition of Alexander McKeen, Trustee of the Publick Buildings, 
ordered that the following repairs be made, viz, the goal to be weather- 
boarded and the doors made secure and a pair of steps made to ascend to 
the upper door; further that the window shutters of the Courthouse be 
repaired and the glass repaired that is broken out. Also that the steps of 
the Courthouse be repaired and the floor of the stocks new planked, the 
gullies by the goal to be stopped by a stone wall to be made low in the 
middle, and the Barr in the Courthouse to be made some longer and ele- 
vated about 18 in., with a step at each end and a platform from the middle 
to extend to the Bench on which the Clerk's seat and desk, or table is to 
be placed near to the Bench and a Jury box to be fixed on each side of said 
platform, between the Barr and the Bench to hold twelve Jurors, at least, 
with convenience, and the Banister or railing of the Bench are to be 
repaired. (November 1796, page 5. See Minute Docket in Clerk's office in 
Greensboro, N. C.) 

In No-^'ember, 1796, there were summoned for the next term of court 
sixty-four Jurors. At this court twenty-nine deeds were acknowledged. 
(Page 7.) 

Hance Hamilton and Cieorge Bruce, Esqrs., who were appointed at 
the last General Assembly Justices of the Peace for the County of Guilford, 
produced a commission from the Governor for the time being to that pur- 
port and took the necessary oath of office in open court, and took their 
seats accordingly. (Feb. 1797, page 11.) 

For the year 1796 county tax was one shilling for one poll and one 
shilling tor every 300 acres of land. (Page 13.) 

Ordered that the clerk give Public Notice for the inhabitants of this 
County to attend on the first day of next Court and every succeeding Court 
in order to do all kinds of County Business of a special nature as the 
Court will attend hereafter for that purpose and those that do not, ne.ed 
not expect to have such business done at any other period in the term. 
(Page 15.) 

Ordered that the Sherifif hold an election for Wardens for the Poor 
on Easter Monday next, agreeable to Law or within the limits. (Page 15.) 

NORTH C.lROl.L\.'i. 41 

Z. D. Brn<lur was slioritT for 1795- At the February 1797 Term of 
Court 8t deeds were aunounced in open Court and ordered recorded. 

(Page 15 ) . , . 

Ahner Weatherly was electd sheritT for 1797. He received six votes, 
a maiority; seven votes were cast. 

Ordered tliat the slierifT be directed to .idvertise for an election for 
Wardens of the poor held at the same time of next annual election. (May 

1797. P'igi- -V) , , <• • 

Ordered that the Clerk he allowed the sum of 20 pounds for services 
in 1796. Ordered that the SheritT be allowed X pounds for 1796. Ordered 
that the following Justices be appointed to take the lists of Taxables for 
the present year in the following manner and districts: "Adam Stevor for 
liis own and .\lexander Gray and Thomas Dick to take in .said Gray's and 
George Wilson's districts and north of Reedy Fork from the lower end of 
the County up to Samuel Thomp.son's Bridge, then along Dixes ferry road 
to where 1 sham Coffee formerly lived; Hubbard Peoples from Samuel 
Thompson's Bridge up to Reedy Fork to Scott's Mill, thence along the old 
road to Joseph Erwin's, thence down to said Coffee; Robert McKime, 
Hance Hamilton and Benjamine Beason to take in from said Leatt's Mill 
up including Jean's District and that of Lindsey's north of the old Salis- 
bury road. 

Thirty-seven deeds were proven in open court this term. 
Abner Weatherly, shcrifT, came into open court and protested against 
the goal of this County, the same being insufficient in his opinion, (.\ugust 

1797, page M) 

John McMurray is appointed trustee fur the year 1796 who gave bond 
in the sum of 500 pounds. (Page 35.) 

Ordered that the following insolvents be allowed to John Henley. 
Sherift for 1796. by the oath of Joseph Hoskins. deputy sheriff in Hubbard 
' Peeple's District. Fifty-three deeds at this term of Court. (Page 37) 

Also "the certificate of a procession made for William and Andrew 
Jackson on the 8ih day of June, 1797. all of which are filed with the 
petitions of the Court, (fees not being paid). 

Gottlieb Shober. Esq., produced a license from their honorables, the 
Judges of the Superior Courts of this state, licensing him as an attorney 
in the County Courts of this state who it appeared had taken the oaths 
prescribed by law and was admitted accordingly." (Page 41.) 

At the November Court of 1797 one hundred and twenty-one deeds 
were proven in open court and thirty-seven deeds the following February. 
U'age 48.) 


Abner Weatherly was re-elected Sheriff and allowed 30 pounds for 
year's service. Ordered that the clerk be allowed 22 pounds for his ex- 
officio services for 1797. (May 1798, page 65.) 

John Hamilton proved a power of attorney from William Bridges to 
Andrew Jackson impowering him to make a title to David Dawson, Jr. 
Andrew Jackson proved release from Robin Weeden and Wife to Christian 
Full. (Page 69.) 

Andrew Jackson, attorney for William Bridges, acknowleded a Deed 
from Daniel Daeson for 74 acres of land. At this court one hundred deeds 
were proveq. 

Present at this term of Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, Samuel 
Lindsay, William Armfield, Matthew Cunningham. Abner Weatherly, Esq., 
(elected Sheriff by the Court) produced his commission from Gov. Saml. 
Ashe appointing him as Sheriff of Guilford County. 

Ordered that it be entered on record that John Goodrich came into 
open court and acknowledged that he expected that some time ago in a 
quarrel he deprived John Wright, son of Francis Wright, of a small piece 
of his right ear. 

William Farrington ^ Charged with passing base metal as money in 

gtajg ( the similitude of a Spanish milled dollar. 

William Farrington was bound over to Salisbury Superior Court. He 
gave bail of 100 pounds. 

Forty-six deeds were reported at this court. In November Court 
thirty-seven deeds reported. Ordered that Duncan Cameron be appointed 
attorney to act for the State during this court. (August 1798.) 

At this court were present Hance McCain, Hubbard Peebles, George 
Mendinghall, John Howel and Jonathan Parker. (Feb. I799-) 

Abner Weatherly" was re-elected Sheriff unanimously at the May 
Court. William Armfield was appointed Trustee for Guilford County. 

Ordered that George Rankin be appointed to procure and keep a 
proper standard of weights and measures for this county. (May 1799, page 

John Plowel was appointed entritaker for Guilford. His duty was to 
keep ihe public and confiscated lands, and to sell them. His bond was 
2,000 pounds. (Page 103. Page 113.) 

Ordered that James, a wounded soldier in the services of the 
United States, one of the militia of his state, wounded in 1779 in Ashe's 
Defeat in Georgia, being shot through the body and right arm, which was 
broken, rendering him incapable of pursuing his business as a blacksmith, 
be allowed the sum of 17 pounds 10 shillings per year and the certificate 

.\Of:ril C.IROHS'A. 48 

of same l)c made known to the C.cncral Assembly of North Carolina. 
(Nov. I79«j, paRC I2l.) 

Ahncr W'eathcrly was unanimously elected Sheriff by the Court. 
Ordered tliat lieorpe Bruce, Samuel Lindsay and John Hamilton be 
appointed to jud^e the paper currency in the county agreeable to the 
.Assembly. William Armtield was appointed trustee for county. 

Ordered that Charles Bruce, John Howel and John Hamilton be 
appointed a committee to establish a stanTlard'of weights and measures for 
this county which shall be a guide for the person appointed to regulate the 
same. (Feb. 1800.) 

.•\t an e.xtra session of this court held in February, 1801. there were 
present (ieorge Bruce. John .Moore. Jester Knott, Zaza Brasher, David 
Price. Rol)ert Bell and William .\rmfield. Court called to try a negro 
charged with rape, sentenced to be hanged. (Page 156.) 

.\t the May court, 1801, Abner Weathcrly was elected Sheriff, receiv- 
ing twelve votes out of si.xtcen cast. 

The following Jury: Andrew Jackson, William Dick, John Wheeler, 
Thomas Rose, George Waggoner. George Starbuck, James Thompson, John 
Swicher. Zeal Shepherd. John White, Isaac Hiatt. (Page 16S. ) 

Ordered that the seven sets of the Acts of Congress (i Vol. lacking) 
furnished this county be distributed as follows: One set left in the office 
and the remainder to each three Justices, it appearing that there are seven- 
teen Justices in the county, and the broken set to go to the class of Justices 
that contains two. Justices are to be classed as follows: Ralph Gorrell, 
Roddy Hannah. Jonathan Parker ; David Price, George Bruce, John Moore ; 
James McNearry, Alex. Gray, Samuel Lindsay; John Howell, George Mtn- 
denhall. William Armfield ; William Gilchrist, John Cummings, Zaza D. 
Brasher; Jestin Knott, Robert Bell. 

For 1801 the county tax was two shillings to the poll and eight pence 
for every 100 A. 

George Bruce, David Price. Jestin Knott presided. Archibal.l Murpliy, 
Esq., produced license from the Judges of the Superior Courts of Law and 
Equity authorizing him to plead and practice law in the different Courts, 
on his taking the oaths by law he is admitted to practice in this Court. 
(May 180J, page 202.) 

Andrew Jackson is appointed road overseer from Reedy Fork Bridge 
to the Widow Flack's branch. (Page 218.) 

Ordered that Abner Weatherly, sheriff, be fined for swearing. ( Page 

Agreeable to an order of Court, the sheriff summoned a jury to 
inquire into the sanity of David Coble's mind, it being suggested to the 


court by Barnabas Troxlow that the said David was of mind, 

wasting his estate. Twelve good men duly summoned in behalf find the 
said David Coble to be of sound mind and that he is not wasting his 
estate. (May 1803.) 

On petition of Elizabeth Wheeler, widow, the owner of a slave called 
Saul, who has performed divers meritorious services, of fair and good 
character, it is ordered that the said negro Saul be let free and that he be 
called by the name Saul Wheeler forever hereafter. (Aug. 1804.) 

Two indictments for retailing spirituous liquors by the small without 
license. Sixty-three deeds recorded. (x\ugust 1805.) 

A bill of sale from Andrew Jackson to Latham Donnell of one negro 
woman slave was proven. (November 1805.) 

(The word dollar is used instead of pound. Feb. 1806.) 

Administration on the estate of Andrew Jackson, dec'd, is granted 
John Starrat and Edward Gran. (Aug. 1806, page 387.) 

IMartinsville was the first county seat of Guilford, known in history 
as the scene of the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. The wealth of the town 
was, in 1806, as follows : 

John Adam's lot 150 pounds 

John Hamilton's lot 250 pounds 

John Hamilton's lot, where he dwells 525 pounds 

Charles Bruce's lot 200 pounds 

Saul Cummings' lot 175 pounds 

Robert Lindsay's lot 325 pounds 

David Brice s lot 125 pounds 

Sm.ith ]\Ioore's lot 275 pounds 

James Cannon's lot 375 pounds 

Robert Lindsay's dwelling lot ■ 400 pounds 

John Hamilton's lot 40 pounds 10 

Alexander Martin's lot 275 pounds 

David Price's lot 43 pounds lO 

Town lots 25 pounds 

The Commissioners to appraise the property of Martinsville were John 
Cunningham. George Nicks, Geogre Swain. (Page 392.) 

Thomas Dick, William Ryan and Abner Weatherly, Esqrs., are ap- 
pointed a committee to arrange and prepare a list of 'persons qualified to 
serve as Jurors in the Superior Court of Law hereafter to be held for this 
county and that they make report of proceedings at present term of this 
court. (Feb. 1807, page 398.) 

Ordered that Thomas Dick, William Lease, William Ryan, Charles 
Bruce and Joseph Davis, Esqrs., be appointed commissioners for the build- 

NORTH CAROI.l.W.-i. 45 

ing of a new Courthouse and jail, hy plans aRrced upon l)y commissi. >iicrs. 
A sufficient tax was levied for 1S07-8-0-10. ( I'ane .v)-^. ) 

Elections were held at Martinsville. Jamestown and Findley Stuart's. 
I, Page 407.) 

At a "County Court" for Guilford. .\t the May term for 1808 a plan 
of a town at New Courthouse was discussed. (November 1S07. page 4.^7.) 

At this term Ahner Weatherly, who had been sluritT ten years, re- 
signed and James Dunning was elected for nine months. (August iSaS.) 

At the term of Court held May, 1809, nt Martinsville it was an- 
nounced "the new courthouse in (ireensboro now ready for reception of 
court. The court adjourned from the town of Martinsville to the town of 
Greensboro (which was the centre of the county)" to meet at ten o'clock 
tomorrow, Friday, 19 May, 1809. (Page 465.) 

The esquires present at the first term of Court held in Greensboro 
were John Starrat, Jonathan Parker, Joseph Gullet, George Swain, John 
McAdoo, Ephraim Burrow. 

This court was interested in hying off new roads, appointing road 
overseers, palrollers. constables, binding out children, acknowledging deeds, 
electing county officers, levying taxes. They had only poll and land taxes. 




Slavery, an institution bequeathed to us like the church, the 
state or other forms of mediaeval life, was the embryo of a parasite 
growing from the roots of our republic. In Europe this principle 
had the form of feudalism ; in America, that of negro slavery. 
Through this system in the south, negroes from African jungles 
were trained into a class of men with some degree of civilization. 
In its day, in the South, slavery was the greatest of blessings to 
the blacks. 

Though the institution of slavery had a much stronger hold 
on industrial life in Warren, Halifax and other eastern counties, 
still there were many slaveholders in the eastern half of Guilford 
County, Among the files of the Greensboro Patriot may be found 
advertisements like the following, offering a reward of ten dollars 
for a "Runaway negro man named Dutchman, formerly called 
Caesar. About forty years old, five feet, eight inches tall, long 
head, and stooped shoulders, has a down look and 'zacly,' or 'zack- 
ly, sar," is a common word with him. He took different kinds of 
clothing, old suit of blue jeans, and striped pants, some coarse 
summer cloths, two hats and a cap." 

A reward of fifty dollars was offered by another subscriber 
for a runaway negro from his master in Washington County, Vir- 
ginia : "On Sunday a negro named Mack, sometimes called Wil- 
liam, jet black, very free spoken, tw^enty-four years old, about five 
feet, eight or ten inches, he wears a blue jeans frock coat, tow- 
linen pantaloons and straw hat. It is probable he may have pro- 
cured a pass and aims to get to a free state or to North Carolina. 
The said negro can write a little. I will pay the above reward for 

XOHril C.iROLlX.l. 47 

the delivery of said slave to nie in Washington County, or half 

the amount, if secured so that I may ^et him aj^ain." 

Pat riot of 1845 : "In pursuance to a decree issued from the Court 
i.f Equity, we shall expose to public sale, to the hitjhest hitliler. on 
the credit of 9 months, at the late residence of William I'.ayles, 
dec'd, on 25th day of July next, the following 

"Uen, Jim, Logan, Alsy. and Dicey, (two men, two women 
and one boy), all young and lively. The purchaser will be re- 
<iuired to give note and api)roved security. 

"Wii.i.iAM A. Lash. 
"John Hannkr, 
"Admr. of \Vm. lloyles." 

Now. there were those in Guilford County having decided 
conscientious scrui)les against all this business. The western part 
of Guilford County was peopled by Quakers, Englishmen coming 
by wa\ of Pennsylvania, and another type not so mild — the Nan- 
tucket Quaker, who came to this western part of Guilford about 
the time of the first brewings of the Revolutionary War. This 
section was. and is today, the centre of Quaker element in the 
state. For some reason, or impulse, the Friends, or Quakers, re- 
garded the freeing of the slaves as their own peculiar mission. In 
their yearly meeting as early as 1772. according to Stephen B, 
Weeks, Friends were discussing slavery and the sin of it ; and in 
1774 they freed their own slaves. The North Carolina yearly 
meeting of Friends chartered a ship, called The Sally Ami, for the 
purpose of sending slaves to Havti, where they might be free. 
Captain Swain, of Guilford County, was the skipper of the boat. 
Slaves were bought and sent to Hayti. (Mrs. ^L M. Hobbs.) 

Even earlier than The Sally Ann, soon after the Revolutionary 
War, societies were formed all over North Carolina to protect and 
restore to freedom those negroes kidn3i)ped and sold into slavery. 
In the first decade of the ninetenth century a society was organized 
in Guilford Countv. calle<l the "Manumission Societv of North 


Carolina." Its meetings were held in the Deep River section, and 
others besides Friends were members, among them many slave- 
holders, who eagerly discussed the question of slavery. There 
was at this time in Washington City a society for the colonization 
of "free people of color." 

The Manumission Society of North Carolina sought to put an 
end to the slave traffic by allowing no more to be brought into 
North Carolina ; by allov/ing no slave to be exchanged from one 
master to another ; and by allowing all negroes born after a certain 
date to be free. By this means they would gradually promote 
emancipation, thus averting the disastrous consequences of releas- 
ing suddenly upon North Carolina civilization about 205,170 
slaves (See Census of 1820-1830), of half-savage negroes. 

The representative members of the Manumission Society were 
the Coffi.ns, the Worths, James and Richard Mendenhall. The 
active members numbered several hundred, many prominent slave- 
holders being members. A large per cent, of the people of North 
Carolina at that time v.-ere philosophizing about some scheme for 
the emancipation of slaves. 

What to do with slaves when freed was a question. Emigra- 
tion to Hayti was encouraged. Many of this Society preferred 
that the negroes be kept in slavery to having them remain in the 
state when freed. They were all, however, abolitionists. (This 
information was given by Mrs. M. M. Hobbs.) 

The Underground Railway, though in reality an outgrowth of 
the Manumission Society, was not connected with it. This was 
a secret organization, begotten in the ingenious brain of the Coffins, 
by which slaves were sent to the Northwest. The scheme remained 
a secret for a quarter of a century, in which time many a slave- 
holder found his number of slaves greatly diminished, and his 
negroes skipped and gone. 

Note: Friends did not receive negroes into their denomination as did Presbyterians, 
Baptists and others. Who ever saw a negro who was a Quaker? 

1 have several times heard Addison Coffin talk of the Underground Railway and how- 
it was operated. S. W. S. 


The first "Mcpot" of this "railroad" was in southwest Ciuil- 
ford County, not many miles from the Randolph Comity line. The 
nej^ro escapeil from his master by ni,u:ht, went to one of these 
"aj^ents." was concealeil by day in the hiproof of his house ; 
by niyb.t he was sent to the next "aj^jent's" home, and so to free 
territiiry. A system of nails driven in trees along; the way marked 
which fork of the roatl to take. 

Slaveholders themselves indulj;ed in "heavy threats," which 
intimidated many non-slaveholders who knew nolhiu}:; whatever of 
the "L'nder^'round Railroad." Thouj^h these were innocent, they 
coulil not endure the sentiment. They, too, went to the Northwest. 
W hole counties in Indiana and Ohio were peopled by Guilford 
County stock and their homes were left vacant. What was the 
primary cause of this? Slavery. For forty years before the 
Civil War, slavery was a pretty hot subject in Guilford County. 
North Carolina. It was the conjunction of the "Nantucketers" and 
the Scotch- Irish. 

The Census of 1850 brouj^ht out the fact that nearly one- 
third of the population of Indiana was from North Carolina, wlnle 
Illinois, Iowa, Missouri and Kansas each had a large number of 
Carolinians. In 1835 the res^ion in the far Northwest was opened 
for settlement and Carolinians were among the first to enter the 
new territory. In 1849 the gold fever excitei'nent in California 
attracted "Carolinians who became the first to blaze the way." 
Far up in North Dakota, near Uevil Lake, Addison Coffin found 
a colony of young men located and holding their claims. Their 
parents were from Guilford County, North Carolina. 

The first emigrants went west by horseback, with pack horses, 
following the buffalo trails. These animals, now extinct, came to 
Guilford to feed on the great peavine pastures in the winter. In 
the spring they went again to the northward, fording the IhitTalo 
Creek, the Haw River, the Dan River, at the best fords. Buffalo 

See Guiironl Colteeian, Vol. 4. published at Guilford Collcfce. Paper by Addi<^ort 
Coffin and Stephen B. Wccka on "Southern leakers and dlavcry. 


trails and buffalo fords were an advantage to those seeking outlet 

Many places in the west, in Indiana especially, were named 
for those places left in Guilford County. Knightstown, Ind., was 
named for a family of Knights living in west Guilford; Greens- 
boro, Ind., w^as named for Greensboro, N. C., it is settled by Guil- 
ford people; Center and New Garden townships were laid off in 
Indiana. (See Steven B. Week's "Southern Quakers and Slav- 
ery.") Whole families and monthly meetings went west from 
Guilford. Deep River Monthly Meeting, Dover Monthly Meeting, 
Springfield INIonthly Meeting, New Garden Monthly Meeting 
were impoverished by the constant drain of migration. 

The town of Florence, in Guilford, went west almost bodily. 
Men living remember when Florence was a thriving little town; 
now it is a deserted village. Jamestown and Friendship have 
been depopulated in a similar way. Gardners, Dillons, Winslows, 
Hills, left almost all of them. About 1830, four hundred families 
went west from Guilford County. The efficient cause was slavery, 
the old. old story of the time. 

Though Guilford was drained by migration to the west, she 
probably lost less wealth, and suffered less because of slavery than 
any other county in North Carolina. Look at her enterprise, her 
industrial development, her educational system. Compare her 
towns with those of Warren County, Halifax County, Edgecombe 
County and others that had an immense wealth in slaves. Though 
these counties are drowsily waking up, by the demands of the 
tobacco and peanut markets, still they have no such industrial 
foundation as Guilford. Why? Their industrial life received 
the greater paralysis at the loss of so much wealth. With Guil- 
ford it was not so. Guilford had not, in the first place, so much 
wealth in slaves to lose. Guilford men were already hardened 
to labor. Guilford was not "aristocratic." Guilford men had 
long ago learned to be self-reliant. Guilford had the crafts of 
New England firmly fixed in her industrial organism by the "Nan- 

.\\ji:ri] L.iROLi.wi. oi 

tucketers." Thoup:Ii there has been contendinpf and clashinjj. it 
was the contlict of ideas which always develops education. The 
wranijli'iiJ ^vas not wranp;ling destructive; it was the throbbing 
of lusty life. This chapter directly affects our industrial and 
educatitMial deveh^penunt. Thouij^h Guilford County lost a great 
many people before and since the Civil War because of the slavery 
question, still the foundation of her industrial life remained. 

Addison Coffin, one of the leaders of the "Underground Rail- 
road." was also emigration agent from Guilford County to the 
Northwest. In iSC/\ once each month he was in Greensboro, 
X. C. for the purpose of conducting emigrants. Thousands of 
white people left this County under his guidance until he, in 1872. 
went out of the business. In May. 1866, he conducted over three 
hundred: in June of the same year, he conducted a troop of emi- 
grants, of which 300 were twelve years old and younger, 100 were 
three years old and under. 

The data for this chapter has been collected here and there ; 
from Addison Coffin's Life, from sketches in the Guilford Co/- 
lci;iau, from the complete file of the Greensboro Patriot in the 
library of the Greensboro Female College, and from conversing 
with many people, Mrs. Mary Mendenhall Hobbs. Mrs. P. B. 
Hackney; and Addison Coffin's talks to the students at Guilford 





To Governor Ellis's call to arms in 1861 the Guilford Grays 
at once responded. Of these, fifty men went into the Battle of 
Bristow Station, in the fall of 1863, seven men came out alive, and 
only three of these were unhurt. (Per Mr. Wm. Rankin.) 

From the Roster of North Carolina troops in the war between 
the States during the years 1861 and 1865 it is learned that the 
following commanding officers and companies were from Guilford 
County and there were other soldiers besides these from Guilford 
County : 


John Sloan, Captain; cm April 20, 1861 ; p Lieutenant-Colonel September 

28, 1861. 
William Adams, Captain; cm September 28, 1861 ; pr from ist Lieutenant; 

killed at Sharpsburg. 
John A. Gilmer, Captain ; cm April i, 1862, p from 2d Lieutenant. 
J. A. Sloan, Captain. 

Wm. Adams, ist Lieutenant, cm April 20, 1861. 

J. T. Morehead, ist Lieutenant, cm October 5, 1861 ; p Captain 45th Cal. 53d. 
John A. Gilmer, ist Lieutenant, cm January 6, 1862. 
Rufus B. Gibson, ist Lieutenant. 
Rufus B. Gibson, 2nd Lieutenant, p. 

James T. Morehead, Jr., 2nd Lieutenant, April 20, 1861, promoted. 
John A. Gilmer, 2nd Lieutenant, April 20, 1861, pr — 


Columbus C. Cole, Captain, cm May 23, 1861, p Major Jime 13, 1862. 
Charles E. Harper, Captain, cm ]\lay 2t„ 1861, k June 30, 1862 at Frazier's 

Farm; p from ist Lieutenant. 
Joseph A. Hooper, Captain, cm, — , w — at Seven Pines; r April 20, 1S63; 
p from 2nd Lieutenant. 

Cm— Commissioned. K— Killed. R— Retired. 
P— Promoled: W— Wounded. Dt— Detailed. 


1^ ' ^ - 








M. M. Wolf. Captain, cm June 30. 1862. w August 30, 1862. at Manassas; r 

Sept. 15. 1863; p from 1st Lieutenant. 
R. W. Cole. Captain, cm Sept. 15, 1863, w at Chancellorsville. 
Charles IX Harper, 1st Lieut., cm May 2^. 1861. w and k. 
Martin M. Wolf, ist Lieut., cm. p and w. 
.\. J. Busick, 1st Lieut., cm Sept. 15. 1863, p from Sergeant. 
R. W. Cole. 1st Lieut., cm, p and w. 
W. H. Faucett, 2d Lieut.. May 23, 1861, dt to Comm. 
James M. Hanner. 2nd Lieut., cm May 2^, 1861 ; r July 21, 1861. 
John N. Nelson. 2nd Lieut., cm July 30. 1861, d November, 1861 ; p from 

Joseph A. Hooper. 2nd Lieut. 
R. W. Cole. 2nd Lieut., cm June 3. 
' ' C. Wheeler. 2nd Lieut., cm ; r Jan. 26, 1864. 


William L. Scott, Captain, cm June 4, 1861 ; p Lieut. -Colonel Feb. i. 1862. 
William S. Rankin, Captain, an .\pril 26, 1862; p Major, .August 28, 1862. 
John E. Gilmer, Captain, cm .\ugust 28, 1862; w at Fredericksburg. 
William S. Rankin, ist Lieut., cm June 4, 1861. 

Wilson S. Hill, 1st Lieut., cm 

John E. Gilmer, ist Lieut., cm April 26, 1862. 

John S. Dick, ist Lieut., cm Aug. 25, 1862; w at Fredericksburg. 

John Doggett, 2nd Lieut., cm June 4, 1861. 

Andrew Summers, 2nd Lieut., w June 4. 1861. 

J. A. Cobb.. 2nd Lieut., w at Winchester and Gettysburg. 

S. F. Stewart, 2nd Lieut., cm 


Barzillai F. Cole, Captain, cm June 4, 1861. 

P. .A. Tatum, Captain, p from ist Lieut; cm June 4, 1861. 

N. C. Tucker, ist Lieut., cm June 4, 1861 ; p from 2nd Lieut; w. 

J. .\. Hooper, 2nd Lieut. ; cm June 4, 1861. 


John Henry Morehead, Colonel, cm Sept. 2, 1862; p from Lieutenant- 
Colonel; d at Martinsburg, Virginia. June 25, 1863; p from Captain 
of Company E, Second Regiment. 

Charles E. Shober, Major, cm June 26, 1862; p from Captain of Company 
B; p Lieut.-Colonel of Second Battalion. 


Charles E. Shober, Captain, cm Feb. 15, 1862; p Major Sept. i. 1862; Lieut.- 
Colonel of Second Battalion. 


Samuel C. Rankin, Captain, cm September i, 1862; p from ist Lieut.; w 

July, 1865. at Gettysburg. 
S .C. Rankin, ist Lieut, cm Feb. 15, 1862; p and w. 
James M. Wharton, ist Lieut, (cm Feb. 15, 1862), cm Sept. i, p from 2nd 

Charles W. Woolen, 2nd Lieut., cm Feb. 15, 1862. 
Henry C. Willis, 2nd Lieut., cm June 29, 1862, w. 
R. R. Sanders, 2nd Lieut. 


James F. Morehead, p Captain, cm Feb. 15, 1862, p Lieut-Colonel of 53d 
Regiment, p Colonel. 

Peter P. Scales, Captain, cm May 8, 1862, Virginia ; d of w received at 

Robert C. Donnell, Captain, cm Sept i, 1862. 

Robert L. Morehead, ist Lieut., cm May 8, 1862; r Sept. 1863; p from 
2nd Lieut. 

Joseph Henry Scales, ist Lieut., cm Sept. i, 1863; p from 3rd Lieut., Vir- 


James T. Morehead, Jr., Lieut-Colonel, cm May 6, 1862, p from Captain of 
Company D, p Colonel. 


David Scott, Jr., Captain, cm March i, 1862. 

Peter F. Daub, 2nd Lieut, cm March i, 1862. (This Company from For- 
syth, Stokes, Surry and Guilford.) 


Rufus L. Hooper, Captain, cm Feb. 14, 1863. 
Joseph S. Ragsdale, ist Lieut, cm Feb. 14, 1863. 
Charles W. Ogbum, 2nd Lieut., cm Dec. i, 1862. 
Wm. H. Young, 2nd. Lieut., cm Aug. 13, 1863, p 1863. 

(The above from Vols. H. and HL of N. C. Roster.) 
Johnson and his army for days and days poured in one steady stream 
into Greensboro, where he surrendered. Wheeler's Cavalry, Dibble's Divi- 
sion, was in Guilford also. The last meeting of the Cabinet of Jefferson 
Davis was held in Greensboro. 

Note: Wars of mediseval Europe were fought along the lines of race or religion; 
Wars of modern history are industrial problems wrought out under restraint iind com- 
pulsion. The Civil War was fought along the lines of Southern institutions. That was 
the great problem of institutionalism versus individualism. The verdict of the western 
world is that the individual is above and better than all sorts of institutions. But the lives 
of men like Morehead, Gen Scales, Col. J. I. Scales, Gilmer, Gorrell, Vance, Maftatt, 
Lee and Jackson, and many another, will forever give the Southern cause and the South- 
ern army glory and dignity in the world. It is sweet and beautiful to die for one's 

>- ' ;.. J. 1. si .\i.i;s. 







Guilford County, lyinj^: near the middle of the plateau region 
of North Carohna. is twenty-four by twenty-eifjjht miles, rectanp:u- 
lar. This is the watershed county of the State; Haw River and 
Deep River rise from the Oak Ridge elevation, but join in Chat- 
ham County, flowing to the ocean as the noble Cape Fear. The 
Dan may be called a Guilford river, because this land was once 
Guilford's. Draining part of Guilford's territory, the beautiful 
Dan flows north, joining at length the great Roanoke. The aver- 
age elevation of Guilford County is between 800 and 1,000 feet 
above tide. The mean temperature is 50 degrees. Roses bloom 
out of doors nine months in the year. Guilford County is almost a 
square. Her eighteen townships are rectangular. Fifteen of these 
are penetrated by one hundred and eleven miles of railway. 

Guilford has always been a great public highway. Before 
railroads, the Salisbury and Petersburg stage coach line passed 
tlirough Guilford, as did also the Salisbury and Fayetteville road. 
And before these, the same roads were the great Trading Paths of 
the Indians. The Five Nations on the north ; the Tuscaroras, in 
their Kehukee and Toisnot rendezvous, on the east ; the Catawbas 
on the south ; and the Cherokees on the west, passed over the 
Trading Path in their commerce with each other, or with the 
whites. But the road was not original with them. They held it 
by right of comjuest from the buffalos, which fed all winter on 
the tall peavines growing luxuriantly and abundantly in Guilford. 
These early lords of the savannahs of Guilford left their name 
writ in the waters of the North and South Buffalo Creeks. 

Peavines grew here tall enough to reach the shoulder of a 


man on horseback. (Col. J. T. Morehead.) Hawks, Swain and 
Graham say that: "Between the Yadkin and the Catawba were 
immense grazing grounds. The Reedy Fork was bordered by 
cane brake, within which game abounded." McAdoo's Woods 
was a resort for bear, deer, wolf and panther. C. H. Wiley and 
Addison Coffin agree iii saying that there were all kinds of game 
and fish in abundance. The Address on Alamance Church, by Dr. 
Wiley, shows ''that shad came up the Buffalo." At one time the 
crows and blackbirds were so numerous and destructive a law was 
passed that each should kill so many. (Life of Caldwell, also 
Addison Coffin in Guilford Collegian, Col. Rec, Vol. 8.) A bonus 
was given for their skins. Before 1850 chestnuts were so plentiful 
that hogs were fattened on them. The ground where Greensboro 
is situated was, when the site was chosen, an unbroken forest with 
a thick undergrowth of huckleberry bushes, that bore a finely 
flavored fruit. Dr. Wiley, in his Address on Alamance Church, 
says : "That a scientific Englishman, who was in the Van Buren 
exploring expedition around the world, thought that he found 
more kinds of wild flowers in Guilford and the adjoining region 
than he had ever seen elsewhere." 

There were only a few scattered oaks in Guilford previous 
to the Revolutionary War. (Col. J. T. Morehead and others.) 
These rolling plains, with fertile soil and temperate climate, fur- 
nished a good foundation for the earliest occupation of the Pioneer 
Settler. With the present staples, wheat, corn and tobacco, they 
cultivated flax, indigo, hemp, and made large quantities of butter 
and honey. Agriculture, mining, manufacturing and many of the 
occupations known to men have been followed here. On many of 
the old plantations were made most of the things of common use. 
vSalt, and on rare occasions, a pound of coffee, were bought. 

Guilford has been a leading section in the South in the culti- 
vation of fruit. The early settlers brought with them from across 
the "Big Waters" seeds of the different kinds of fruits. To a 
Quaker woman is due the honor of bringing the first varieties of 


fruits and j^arden seeds liorc. In 1790, says Addison Coffin in the 
Guilford Colli'^iau (\ol. 3, papc 175). Ann Jessop, a minister of 
Friends, went to Enjjland and returned two years later brinpinj; 
e^rafts of the standard fruits. Ahijah Pinson, an expert in praft- 
inp. did the work of successfully j^raftinpf her seedlinp^ trees in 
the spring of 1793. These varieties of apples were the "Father 
Abraham." "Red Pippin," "June-eating:." "Yellow Pippin," "Enj^f- 
lish Russett." "Horse Apple," "Pearmain." "\'andever." 

While enduring hardships, the early settlers of Guilford were 
working out great problems that would reach far into the next 
century. Tliere are now about forty nurseries in the state. Four 
of these are around Greensboro — Pomona Hill, John A. Young, 
Lego, and X'andalia Nurseries. At the first railroad meeting in 
Greensboro, July 4, , Mr, Joshua Lindley came up from Chat- 
ham County bringing a crate of the first ripe peaches. Thev were 
considered very early, but at the present his son, Mr. J. Van 
Lindley. has developed the culture of that fruit so that peaches 
may be gathered from the trees in Guilford from June to Novem- 
ber. In the cultivation of fruits the name Lindley has stood for 
much. Joshua Lindley was the pioneer in the business in Indiana. 
(His son, J. \'an Lindley, Pomona Hill. N. C.) In 1850 he came 
to Guilford County. Pomona Hill is a continuation of his "New 
Garden Nurseries" and the "Mendenhall and Westbrook Nur- 
series." three miles west of Greensboro. In the last twenty-five 
years the old-fashioned pears have been replaced by the Oriental 
varieties, and the quantity greatly increased. Japanese plums have 
been introduced, which are more delicious and productive than 
the old. Guilford is the mother of the peach orchards of Georgia. 

Though the soil of Guilford is well adapted to the cultivation 
of wheat, the old people say that their fathers and mothers rarely 
saw wheat bread except on Sunday. This was due largely to the 
want of a good thresher. The history of how the early Guilford 
people worked out the problem of threshing wheat is a good index 
to their power of industrial development. They at first spread the 


wheat on the barn floor and the horses were driven around to tread 
it out. Elihu Coffin made an improvement on this method by 
having his barn loft made with holes all over the floor for the 
wheat to drop through. So the horses were led upstairs to tread 
the wheat, the straw being left above, the wheat falling on the 
floor below. Dr. Swain had a means of threshing by rolling a big 
log over and over the scattered sheaves. John Ballinger run the 
first thresher. It was called the "chaff piler." The sheaves were 
run through it, the straw and wheat coming out together. The 
next improvement separated them by means of a trough, which 
carried the straw off, this being an invention of Addison Boren. 
(All these improvements were thought out by Guilford men.) 

The wheat was harvested with a reap hook until in 1840 
cradles were introduced. Matthew H. Osborn, a Guilford man 
who went to Kansas City, invented the reaper. Madison Osborn 
invented a thresher in 1842, called the "Osborn Thresher," or the 
"ground-hog." He lived about six miles west of Greensboro. 
Before the war of i860, three hundred bushels was an unusually 
large crop of wheat. In the vicinity of Deep River and James- 
town a thousand bushels is now raised by many farmers. On Mr. 
Ragan's farm near High Point, one of the best wheat farms in the 
state, forty-seven and one-half bushels has been raised to the acre. 
The farm yields three thousand bushels of wheat annually. 


The industrial development of Guilford resembles that of 
New England. Whittier might have written his "Songs of Labor" 
for these people as well as for those of Massachusetts. The "Nan- 
tucketers" brought with them the handicrafts, and the idea of 
apprenticeship. New England ideas, transplanted from Old Eng- 
land. (See the Chapter on the Settlement of Guilford County.) 
Western Guilford is Yankee North Carolina. 

The old records show (see Chapters V. and \'I. above), that 
the boys, and girls too, were trained in industrial pursuits, i. e.. 

NORTH C.-iROlJX.l. 69 

"to learn the art and mystery" of weaver, tanner, hatter, plow or 
^ninmaker. Guilford was the county ot jjuninakers, plowmakers, 
hatters, tanners, woodworkmen and other industries. 

In the section of country between Guilford College and Hiph 
Point were many punmakers. Though this was under Quaker 
influence, a people opposed to war, still they seemed to think it 
the rijjht thinjj: to make puns. Ther-.' were the Wriphts. the 
.•\rmfields. the Lambs, the Ledbetters. the Stephens, the Couches, 
Dixons and Johnsons who made puns for the Regulators and 
Tories of the adjoining counties. The soldiers of the Rattle of 
Guilford C(Hirthouse used puns of home manufacture. Many rifles 
were made here. About the first puns with percussion locks were 
made by these people. '"The Guilford Rifle" was known in the 
other States. 

The plows of Guilford attracted public attention. The metal, 
or cast-iron mould-board, succeedinp the wooden mould-board, 
was invented in 1830 in Guilford by Eli Puph, near Jamestown. 
The output of plows from his shop was about three dozen per 
week. The manufacture of plows was a repular business for 
years ; they were sold directly to farmers, beinp hauled by agents 
in wapons for many miles. 

I have see.i an old hatmaker livinp a few miles from Greens- 
boro. He said that the makinp of hats in this county was once 
a fine busine.^s. It was usual to pet six, eipht or ten dollars in 
those days for hats. The hatters used the hides of rabbits, squir- 
rels, opossums, coons, foxes and sheep. The fur was trimmed 
v.ith a knife made for that purpose. A liquid was used on the fur. 
That mixture, just as fine as silk, was "bowed out on a bip hurl," 
like a counter. A linen cloth was used to raise it from the hurl. 
A rouplv awkward hand could not touch it without breakinp it 
all to pieces. With the linen cloth the fur was moulded into the 
shape of the letter \'. It was sized over the fire in a boilinp pot. 
"It would felt up fast, sometimes too fast." In a few moments it touph as sole leather and could not be torn. These hats held 


water like a bucket. A ten-dollar hat lasted ten 3'ears, a two-dol- 
lar hat was made to last the purchaser two years. 

The Mendenhall tanyard, as old as the county, is still doing 

The greatest auger-maker in the State was j\I. C. Iddings. 
His augers and gimlets have been in use over seventy-five years. 
The Swains were chair and bedstead makers. The beds were 
made with high posts, with curtains aroimd the top, to be grace- 
fully looped back. The "Valance," or foot-curtains, were strung 
around the bottom. 

Westbrook, the tailor, employed several hands in making 
suits for Guilford and neighboring counties. 

Spinning wheels were made by Col. James Neeley. His flax 
wheels sold for four dollars, his cotton wheels for three dollars. 

Ballard's soap yard and Beard's hat shop were industrial 
enterprises until the slavery question drove their proprietors west. 

A notable example of old-time industries carried on by slave 
labor was at Jamestown. From 1820 to 1845 George C. Menden- 
hall had a large system of industrial labor on his farm. His 
slaves were all special workmen. Being taught a trade they 
worked at it, not running around from one thing to another. He 
introduced the system that prevailed among the white people. In 
his store a negro clerk sold and bought goods. His harness shop 
was kept by a slave, a set of whose harness before the War took 
first premium at the State Fair. His carpenter helped to build 
the capitol at Raleigh, N. C. His caterer was sent to wait on 
President Buchanan when he visited the University of North 
Carolina. George Mendenhall had a shoe shop; a work shop in 
which were made plows, rakes, hoes, etc.; a large flouring mill, 
cotton gin, tanyard and farm, all worked by specialW skilled 
negro slaves. 


The mining interests in this county have in the past been 
worked to some profit. In north Guilford is the iron zone. The 

]. \ AN I.INDI 
liiMdNA, N. C. 

A'()A'77/ CAROLINA. 61 

old iron works existed in»the days of Greene and Cornwallis. In 
south Guilford is the pold zone. It is said that no jjold has been 
found north of the railroad in Guilford, but south of it ^old and 
copper ore are found. Tradition says that the Iiulians had some 
knowledge of gold in this section. 

The following: is a copy of a letter written by Robert W. Hod- 
son and placed in my hands through the kindness of Mr. Phillip 
Horney Hodson. 

Plainficld, Indiana, 5 nio., 24th, 1879. 
P. H. Hodson. 

Dear Cousin : Thy letter reached in due time, I)ut from various causes, 
has not been replied to earlier. I have been from home and otherwise 
engaged. I have recently returned from Philadelphia, Pa., as well as some 
shorter visits nearer home. 

My health is pretty good for a person of my age (in my 83rd year). 

.•\s to thy inquiries relative to the gold mines in N. C. The mine 
where I worked was in my brother Jeremiah's land, I was only privileged 
to work on a certain part of it under a lease to my father, James Kersey, 
and myself. 

1 think in the year 1825 my brother Jeremiah and I in prospecting 
along a branch found sonv.- particles of gold by washing the sand in a 
pan (a little previous I think some particles had been found on John 
Teague's land near by on another branch, perhaps by a \Vm. Jessup, which 
was afterwards known as the Homey mine). From some knowledge of 
the Geological stratas of the earth we coursed the vein over the high land 
to the next branch, thence up the hill some distance, where a ledge of 
quartz jetted out, not more than a foot thick, leading S. S. \V., the gen- 
eral course of ledges of rock in that section of the country. \Vc found 
some particles of gold in quartz. 

After harvest that summer my brother and I commenced sinking a 
pit on the hill, went perhaps 15 or 18 feet deep, looking for larger pieces of 
gold than are generally found in the veins, but finding none then gave up 
the pursuit till next summer. 

In the meantime I applied my mind closely to gain a knowledge of 
Geolog>'. .Mineralogy, and Metallurgy from the best books, papers and men. 
&c.. in my reach — the manner of gathering and working metals in Peru and 
elsewhere. Then we commenced work with a little better understanding of 
the manner of gathering gold in other countries by following the vein of 
quartz only, gathering the ore, crushing it in mortars, grinding it, &c., and 


washing with Mercury. We washed the ore first, then crushed and ground 
the residue. The gold in the ore was pure, but there was sulphates of 
various metals combined in the ore. When we succeeded in the work it 
produced a wonderful excitement. Men came from far and near, went 
to work sinking shafts at random and getting no pay. 

The Horney mine was soon opened and worked with some success; 
and subsequently many other places in Guilford and Randolph Counties 
were worked for gold, though copper abounded in some of those mines. 

I think gold was first found in Cabarrus County, in the southwest part 
of the State, in alluvial beds in larger pieces, some of those pieces very 

We worked more or less of the time about four years in the mine. 
The value of the ore by the ton varied so much that I can make no satis- 
factory estimate of it. There were small beds in the veins very rich ; we 
called them pockets. 

My brother-in-law and myself worked together, one dug ore, one 
hauled to the washing place and the other washed. Some days not make 
more than $i.oo to the hand, other days much more. The largest day's 
work we ever done, was to dig out the ore, haul it to the washing place 
and wash out a little over $90.00, or $30.00 to the hand. We only went a 
little over fifty feet deep while I worked the vein. The vein thickened from 
near a foot on the surface to near five feet in the bottom. We sold out, I 
think, in the spring of 1831 to Andrew Lindsay, James Robbins and Jesse 

Perhaps I need not say more at present. If we were together, we 
might speak of many things transpiring betwen '25 and '31 when I left 
Carolina for Indiana. I am so nervous it is difficult to write. 

In love, thy cousin, Robert W. Hodson. 

Among the older mines of Guilford County lying from six to 
twelve miles south and southwest from Greensboro, that were, 
previous to the Civil War or at one time, successfully operated for 
gold and copper, are "The North Carolina or Fentress Mine," 
"The Hodgin Hill," "The Fisher and Millis Hill Mine," "The 
Gardner Hill Mine," "The McCulloch or North State Mine," 
"The Lindsay Mine," "The Deep River Mine," "The Guilford 
Mine," "The Twin Mine," and some twelve to twenty miles north 
and east, "The Melvin Mine" and "The Gibson Hill Mine." These 
mines were worked to depths varying from fifty to three hundred 


and fiftv feet, tlic quartz veins varying in width from one foot to 
twelve feet or more. They produced free millinp^ pold ores run- 
ning' from $2 to $100 per ton or more, and even a better average 
gratle of iron pyrites gold ores from which they were unable to 
extract the gold with the methods then known and used. 


North Carolina is the pioneer of the Southern States in the 
manufacturing of cotton. Feeble beginnings were made in Lin- 
coln and Edgecombe Counties, but these were unsuccessful. By 
these failures the cause was hindered rather than established. 

Henry Humphreys, a citizen of Greensboro, was the first to 
demonstrate that cotton manufacturing might be carried on profit- 
ably in the South. He built and completed the Mount Hecla Steam 
Cotton Mill, in 1832. To build a cotton factory then was a great 
undertaking. The machinery had to be hauled in wagons either 
from Petersburg, \'irginia, or from Wilmington, North Carolina. 
Postage on letters was twenty-five cents. Mr. James Danforth 
came down from Paterson, New Jersey, to set up the machinery, 
and spent a year or so teaching the people how to run it. The 
hands were white people from the neighborhood. 

A bill of lading for Mr. Humphreys' machincfy says that "seventeen 
bo.\es had been shipped on the Schooner Planet whereof Capt I. Cole is 
master for this present voyage now lying in the port of New York harbor 
and bound for Petersburg, \'a. Goods to be delivered in good order and 
well conditioned at the port of Petersburg, Va. (the danger of the seas 
only is excepted). Freight for said machinery is eight cents per cubic foot. 
These goods were insured, marine insurance, policy costing $1.25." 

•Another letter bears date of August 5. 1835, Paterson, X. J. : 
To Mr. Henry Humphreys: 

Wages with mechanics have advanced in a much greater ratio and 
there is a scarcity of workmen. Besides the Trades Unions have created 
throughout all the whole Northern and Eastern section of the country 
much insubordination. Workmen have struck in many places for a reduc- 
tion of the hours of labor. The cotton mill hands have been standing out 
for eleven hours per day for more than four weeks. 


We trust the reasons stated are sufficient to justify the increased price 
of the I20 spindle frames. Rogers, Ketchen & Grownor. 

The mill was built of brick and contained four stories, with 
a basement. It was one hundred and fifty feet long by fifty feet 
broad. Tv/enty-five hundred spindles and seventy-five looms were 
run. Sheeting, shirting and osnaburgs were woven, and also cot- 
ton yarn, which was put up in five-pound packages and sold 
throughout the country round to be woven on old-fashioned 
looms. When the mill was first established the yarns were so 
popular that people from the country camped all around the fac- 
tory, v/aiting for the yarns to come off the machinery. Other 
products of the factory were hauled in large wagons to Virginia, 
Tennesseee, Kentucky and v/estern North Carolina. 

This, the first cotton mill in this State, stood on the corner of 
Bell Meade and Green Streets, in Greensboro, N. C. Edwin M. 
Holt, who became the leading cotton mill owner in the State and 
in the South, learned the cotton manufacturing business from 
Henry Humphreys. (See a letter of Governor Thos. M. Holt's in 
the "History of Alamance.") 

Currency was issued by Mr. Humphreys. This bore a picture 
of Mount Hecla Steam Cotton Mills. Fifty-cent bills, dollar 
bills and three-dollUr bills were issued in 1837. Many of these 
were made payable to Thomas R. Tate, his son-in-law. 

At present Gieensboro is the home of one of the great cotton 
manufacturing plants in the State. Western Greensboro is a 
manufacturing city in itself. 

The Proximity Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of 
colored cotton goods, was organized in 1895. Its ofiicers are: 

Caesar Conk, President. 

B. N. Duke, Vice-President. 

J. W. Cone:, Secretary and Treasurer. 

R. G. Campbell, Superintendent. 

This mill began operations in the latter part of 1896, with 
about 240 looms, and now has 985 looms. The company employs 


abcKit IK)0 people. The villajje immediately surrounding thamill 
contains about .^oo residences and a population of about 2.500. In 
the village there arc three churches of various denominations, and 
also a public graded school. 

Hucomuga Mills, manufacturers of colored cotton goods, was 
organized in 1895 ?i"*l t>egan operations the same year. Its of- 
ficers are : 

J. \V. Cone, President. 

G. O. Coble. Vice-President. 

Clarence X. Cone. Secretary and Treasurer. 

J. H. Dennv, Superintendejit. 

This mill contains 144 looms. 

The Revolution Cotton Mills, manufacturers of cotton flan- 
nels, organized in 1899, began operations in 1900. The officers 
are : 

E. Sternberger. President. 
S. Fk.xNK, Vice-President. 
H. Sternberger, Secretary and Treasurer. 
J. \V. Holt, Superintendent. 
This mill contains 374 looms. 

The Coulter & Lowry Co. Finishing Works are also situated 
at Ureensboro. 

The \-an De% enter Carpet Co. operates the onlv carpet fac- 
tory m the State. 

The Minneola Manufacturing Company, of Gibsonville. began 
busmess m 1886 as a private company, of which B. and J A 
Davidson were the proprietors. In 1888 the company was incor- 
porated, with Mr. B. Davidson as president and J. A. Davidson as 
secretary and treasurer. 

In 1862 Oakdale Cotton Mills were moved from Petersburg. 
\ a., to Jamestown, in Guilford County, where thev occupy the 
site of the old gun shops. In 1892 the original stockholders, ex- 
cept Mr. J. A. Davidson, retired, and Lawrence Holt became the 
president. Mr. Holt was succeeded in 1894 by Cxsar Cone and 


he in 1896 by B. Frank Mebane, of New York. The mill is 
equipped with a 200-horse power Corliss engine, 181 looms, 2,000 
spindles, and employs 150 hands. 


"After the War," men said, "fashions came and destroyed 
our peace." P'actoi y-made cloth and calico put an end to home- 
spun dresses. After the war cotton was per pound sixty cents in 
gold. A suit of clothes was worth a thousand dollars in Confed- 
erate money. Th2 soldiers turned farmers and wore out their 
army clothing in the cornfield. Men wore homespun hats and shoes 
with wooden soles. People practiced all sorts of economy. The 
wom.en of North Carolina, God's women, thought, planned and 
worked, during the War and while its darkest clouds were pass- 
ing over, they held the country together. 

During the Civil War Guilford County was continually 
flooded with soldiers. Wheeler's Cavalry, Johnson's Army, Sher- 
man's, marched through. In 1865 the commissary stores at Mc- 
Leansville were destroyed for fear the Yankees would appropriate 
these supplies. A carload of shells was exploded, barrels and 
barrels of molasses and of whiskey were burst open. Hungry 
women dipped up molasses from the gutters in buckets. Hopeless 
m.en lapped up the liquor like dogs. 

Though Guilford's life-blood was freely given to feed the 
awful fury of war, still her industrial life was not choked alto- 
gether. Her people did not have the greater portion of their 
wealth invested in slaves. Of course there were some large slave- 
holders here ; many were content with a dozen or so. One-third 
of the population was non-slaveholding, the western half of Guil- 
ford being largely Quaker. In Warren, Halifax and other eastern 
counties, many slaveholders owned one or two hundred slaves. 
When the crash came they suffered most. 

The remarkable occurrences of nature affect industrial life. 
On the night of the thirtenth of September, 1833, "the stars fell." 


Tlu' shower of luetfors hc^an about throe o'clock in the iiK^niiiitj 
ami lasted until day. Thousands of shootinp lights fell to the 
earth, "just like the snow" cominj? softly down. The "bip snows" 
came in 1854 and 1857. Ten-rail fences were covered out of 
sight. The snow in the roads r»?ached the side of a horse. In 
1857 it bei^an snowinp: before Christmas, on Saturday, and for 
five Saturdays it snowed. Au<jitst 7. 1869, there was a total 
eclipse of the sun. ^~*-^ 


In 1867 a barrel of shuttle-l;l(Kks made of persimmon wood, 
as an experiment, was shippetl from Greensboro to Lowell, Massa- 
chusetts. Prior to this all shuttle-blocks had been made of apple 
trees, very costly since apple trees must be planted and allowed 
to jjrow. To Captain W. H. Snow belonj^s the honor of the dis- 
covery that persimmon and dop^wood and some other North Caro- 
lina timber mij^ht be used for the manufacture of shuttle-blocks. 
The discovery meant thousands of dollars to the State as well as 
to this County, ijreat industrial activity and enterprise and more 
wholesome living. Captain Snow demonstrated to Guilford people 
the way to utilize the unbounded but hitherto untouched resources 
of th«ir forests. In 1872 he went to High Point and touched the 
corpse of industry and it sprang into life. (See Chapter XII. on 
the Towns of Guilford.) 


The newspaper, as invented in London by the scholarly Addi- 
son, was a factor in literature in which the drama, the theatre and 
society figured largely. Hut, according to American sentiment, the 
newspaper belongs to industrial development. 

The Greensboro Patriot through fourscore years has been a 
factor in the life of Guilford County. 1821 was its birthyear and 
't has since been continuously published. Its circulation is large; 
many homes in Piedmont Carolina would feel lost without its 
weeklv visits. The Greensboro Patriot mav be found in almost 


complete file in the library of the Greensboro Female College. 
This paper was originated by C. N. V. Evans and Clancey, who 
were succeeded by William Swaim,. whose successors were Lyndon 
Swaim and M. S. Sherwood. Col. James A. Long, of Randolph, 
was at one time connected with it ; also Hon. D. F. Caldwell and 
A. W. Ingold. About 1867 W. and Robert H. Albright, 
who had been publishing the Times on West Market Street, 
secured control of the Patriot and consolidated the two publications 
under the name of the Patriot and Times. One year later R. H. 
Albright sold his interest to J. W. Albright, who took Major P. F. 
Dufify, now political editor of the Wilmington Star, as an associate. 
The latter became sole proprietor about 1876 and remained so 
until 1880, when he was succeeded by R. G. Fulghum, who began 
a daily in connection with the weekly. The former lasted but six 
months. Mr. Fulghum died in 1885, but had been succeeded in 
1882 by John B. Hussey, then librarian of Congress. In 1890 the 
paper became the property of Messrs. Bethel, Scales and Cobb. A 
daily edition was issued from May to November, 1890. Wallace 
N. Scales, who was one of the publishers, moved to Idaho and 
became county judge in that State. Mr. Bethel retired from the 
firm in March, 1890, and the remaining members continued to 
conduct the publication until 1891, when J. R. Wharton succeeded 
them. Among others who at some time were connected with the 
Patriot were Whitehead & Hemby. In 1893 the present owners, 
W. M. Barber & Co., became proprietors, and under their man- 
agement the Patriot has fully maintained its honorable record of 
the past and broadened its field of usefulness. It is a paper of the 
people, which is read at the hearthstones of Guilford County and 
goes to other counties and states to tell those who are bound by 
ties of consanguinuity and social or business connections of the 
weekly happenings in the County of Guilford. The staff is: 
W. M. Barber, editor ; Wm. I. Underwood, local editor ; and Wil- 
liam P. Turner, foreman. 

The Daily Record was launched on the journalistic sea 

(. M'T. W. M. SNOW, 


November 17, i8c)0, with Messrs. H. J. Elam and J. M. Reece as 
editors. It is a popular paper, orij^inally five columns, but its size 
has been increased at various times. At present it is an ei{jht- 
page, six-column evening daily. 

The Brett iti^i^ Telegram was established in July, 1897, by the 
Telegram Publishing Company, with Mr. C. G. Wright, president. 
It was a six-column folio at first, but was enlarged in 1898 to a 
seven-column folio. It is a lively, up-to-date publication, gener- 
ously supported. 


"Even as late as 1833, a committee of an internal improve- 
ment convention^ in their address, say, 'We have nothing that de- 
serves the name of maufactures. No process for changing the 
values of the raw materials are in use among us, except those 
effected by manual labor, or by machinery of the very simplest and 
commonest construction.' " — Dr. Wiley's North Carolina Reader, 
page 341. 

About this time internal improvements was the line of cleav- 
age in politics ; the Whigs represented the progressive policy, the 
Democrats were conservative. 

Among the names connected with this era in the industrial 
history of the State that deserve to be remembered are John M. 
Morehead. John A. Gilmer — both father and son — Calvin Hender- 
son Wiley and Nereus Mendenhall, all of them sons of Guilford. 

That period from 1830 to 1840 was like a great storage bat- 
tery in the history of Guilford County and North Carolina, not 
only, but of the world as well. In 1833 slavery in all the English 
Colonies was abolished. In 1830 the first railroad was run. It 
went from Liverpool to Manchester. In this decade telegraph 
lines were first stretched, and the first steamship crossed the Atlan- 
tic. In this decade Tennyson, the Brownings, Thackeray, Dickens 
and Ruskin became famous. They were unknown before. Ameri- 


can literature was born in this period. Before it, Washington 
Irving had been the only one supreme writer in this country. But 
in this ten years Bryant, Holmes, Whittier, Longfellow and 
Lowell came into prominence. 

It was in this decade that the "Internal Improvement" and 
"General Education" policies thrilled the souls of people in North 
Carolina. Governor Alorehead kept in close touch with the indus- 
trial development and studied English newspapers and English im- 
provement. About this time there first began to be in North Caro- 
lina, railroads, the public school system, colleges, asylums for the 
insane, the deaf and dumb and the blind, the penitentiary, cotton 
factories, banks, good roads and generosity. 

The Legislatures of 1840 and 1848 deserve also to be com- 
memorated — the first for an act to establish eommon schools, 
always indicative of industrial and healthful feeling; and the 
other for an act for the charters of the North Carolina Railroad, 
the Fayetteville and Western Plankroad, "The Slackwater Navi- 
gation of the Cape Fear and Deep Rivers, and prospectively of 
the Yadkin, with a portage railroad connection with Deep River." 
In those days the impulse for more effective transportation was 
so great that the project for making the rivers navigable was 
entered upon with enthusiasm. The Dan River even was one on 
which was expended much means and labor without any adequate 

Governor John ]\I. Morehead, in his last message to the Legis- 
lature of North Carolina, urged upon that body the demands of 
philanthropy and statesmanship for the establishment of a state 
asylum for the insane, which had before been housed in jails. John 
A. Gilmer's speech in the Senate of North Carolina was a most 
earnest appeal in behalf of these vmfortunates. That noble and 
praiseworthy woman, Miss Dorothea L. Dix, of New York, had by 
her personal appeals succeeded in inducing the Legislatures of 
many states to make provision for the insane. It was through her 
efforts also that the asylums were built. The Home for the Aged 


and Iiihrni of Guilford County was planned by no others than 
Dorothea Dix and Governor Morehead. Dr. Xereus Mendenhall 
lielpevl in a ^reat measure toward the founding and erection of 
the Insane Asylum at Morganton. probably the best institution of 
the kind in the South. 


Governor John Motley Morehead was a man of action and of 
great affairs. State institutions, railroads and factories were intro- 
duced into North Carolina by his creative hand. Our educational 
ami industrial life received an im.pulse from this man that can 
never be lost. 

John M. Morehead was born the fourth of July. 1796. the 
birthyear of the University of North Carolina, from which, in 1817, 
he was graduated, with John Y. Mason and James K. Polk. For 
one year he was tutor and later a trustee of his Alma Mater. Far 
more than is usual in this State, he was familiar with hcllc lettres, 
history, arts and science. In practical surveying he was an expert. 
On mechanics and architecture he was well informed. With 
Archibald D. Murphy he studied law and in 1819 he was licensed 
to practice. His contemporaries were Murphy, Ruffin. Settle and 
Yancey, an array of intellect sure to bring out the best in man, and 
soon, in the face of competition, he had built up a fine pra.ctice, 
with his brother, the Honorable James T. Morehead. In 1821, 
John M. Morehead was elected to the House of Commons from 
Rockingham County. In 1827 he represented Guilford in the 
Legislature. In 1840 he was the Whig candidate for governor of 
North Carolina, in competition with General R. M. Saunders, 
Democrat. They made the first canvass of the State for that office. 
In 1842 Governor Morehead was elected to a second term of office 
as Governor of North Carolina, this time in opposition to Hon. 
L. D. Henry. 

In 1 8^8 John M. Morehead was president of the convention 
which nominated General Taylor for President of the L'nited 


States. In those days the South had great men in the pubhc 
Hfe of the nation. Henry Clay was a personal friend of Governor 
jMorehead. In the General Assembly of North Carolina of 1858- 
59, Governor JMorehead fought the fight for the railroad system of 
this State, a fight of giants about a real subject. In the Peace 
Congress which met in Washington City in February, 1861, Gov- 
ernor Morehead, together with Judge Rufiin, Governor Reid, 
George Davis and Daniel M. Barringer, represented North Caro- 
lina. Governor Morehead went opposed to separation of the 
States, but he returned in favor of it, taking the cause of his native 

At a meeting of the stockholders of the North Carolina Rail- 
road, held in 1855, in Greensboro, Governor JMorehead said, in his 
farewell address as president of the company: "Living, I have 
spent five years of the best portion of my life in the service of the 
North Carolina Railroad; dymg, my sincerest prayers will be 
offered up for its prosperity and its success; dead, I wish to be 
buried alongside of it in the bosom, of my own beloved Carolina." 
After the War, broken in spirits and with fortune impaired. 
Governor IMorehead died, twenty-seventh of August, 1866, a man 
who had lived a hundred years ahead of his time. He was buried 
in Greensboro, where a beautiful monument should be erected to 
his memory. 

"When Spring with icy fingers cold 

Returns to deck her hallowed mould, 

She there shall press a sweeter sod 

Than Fancy's feet have ever trod." 

The Piedmont Railroad Company, at a meeting of its Board 
of Directors held in 1866 in Richmond, \^irginia, adopted the 
following resolutions : "Resolved^ That as a testimonial of our 
appreciation of the exalted talents and eminent services of the 
Honorable John M. Morehead, of North Carolina, in the con- 
struction of many of the most important railroads in his own state, 
but specially for the liberal views and unceasing efforts for the 


])ast fifteen years to obtain the charter from the Legislature of his 
native state for the construction of this Road, the depot nearest 
Greensboro. North Carohna, and known as Sepinan, shall here- 
after be known and designated by the Company as 'Morehead 
Depot.' " 

Governor Morehead was the friend of education. His earnest 
support was given to the efforts made for the public school sys- 
tem. Out of his own means he built Edgeworth Seminary for 
young ladies and gave it his personal attention. This was a school 
nnich in atlvance of the time in scholarship. In his young man- 
hiMxl he. with his brother, James T. Morehead, gave to his father- 
less brothers and sisters a liberal education. 

With John M. Morehead's advent into the gubernatorial 
chair, the idea of internal improvements reached its high-water 
mark in North Carolina. The public school system was set upon 
its feet through the personal efforts of Dr. C. H. Wiley. Asylums 
were built for the insane and for the deaf and bumb and blind. 
Governor Morehead. John A. Gilmer, Miss Dorothea Dix and 
others combined their zeal for a Hospital for the Insane of the 
state, who had up to this time lain in jails without medical atten- 
tion, without care. The speeches of Governor Morehead and John 
A. Gilmer, two sons of Guilford, before the Legislature, are classic, 
equal to Cicero. 

Governor Morehead was a man of action and business 
capacity. "The City of Jackson." in Rockingham County, showed 
his efforts at city-building. This would have been a great success 
had nature, too, done her part. 

In 1842 people were discussing whether or not North Caro- 
lina should have a penitentiary. In his message Governor More- 
head directed the attention of the General Assembly to this sub- 
ject. John M. Morehead was the great industrial magnet of the 

Ah ! this man was a man with a head, heart, hand- 
One of the simple, great ones gone 
Forever and ever by. 


He owned cotton mills, had many slaves, which was a paying- 
business ; was a large farmer, great lawyer ; but his great work for 
the state was better transportation, good roads, railroads. The 
work of building the railroad, beginning at Raleigh and Charlotte 
and working toward a common centre, met in January, 1856, near_ 
Greensboro. It was a gala day in the little city when the first train 
came in. The young ladies from Edgeworth Seminary had 
special privileges to go down and ride in on the first train. The 
people came from far and near to see carriages without horses. 
Prior to this the mail arrangements were as follows : Eastern, 
daily ; southwestern, daily ; western, three times a week ; Danville 
mail, three times a week. When the railroad was completed to 
Raleigh in 1840, the news was brought to Greensboro by a stage- 
coach driver. Fifty years ago it was thought dangerous to ride 
faster than ten miles an hour. Today Greensboro is probably the 
most accessible city of the state. The North Carolina Railroad, 
the Northwestern North Carolina Railroad, the main line of the 
Southern Railway, and the Atlantic and Yadkin Valley Railway 
meet at Greensboro. Forty or more trains come daily. 


Capital Stock. 

American Lumber Co $ 20,ooO' 

Brooks Manufacturing Co 5,ooo 

Central Carolina Fair Association 3,50O 

Cape Fear Manufacturing Co 10,700 

Chisholm, Stroud, Crawford, Rees 15.000 

Carolina Mfg Co 6,000 

Cone Export and Commission Co tax 400 

Eagle Furniture Co 35,ooa 

Greensboro Lumber Co 15,000 

Gate City Furniture Co 6,850 

Greensboro Ice and Coal Co 10,000 

Greensboro Furniture Mfg. Co 20,000 

Gibsonville Store Co 3.50O 

Globe Furniture Co 40,000 

Goose Grease Liniment Co lO 


Guilford Lumber Mfg. Co 27,400 

Hucomuga Mills 7.500 

Hunter Mfg. Co 

Harry-Bdk Brothers 10,000 

1 lagueMcCorklc Ory Goods Co 20,000 

High Point .Milling Co 2.000 

High Point Hardware Co 6.000 

High Point CotVni and Casket Co 16.000 

High Point Mantel and Table Co 15.000 

High Point Clothing Co 7.500 

High Point Trunk and Excelsior Mfg. Co 4.100 

High Point Metallic Bed Co 10,000 

High Point Shirt Mfg. Co 10.000 

Home Furniture Co 43.000 

High Point Chair Co 10.000 

Johnson Bros. & Co 4.000 

Julian Milling Co 5.300 

Lindsay Chair Co 24.000 

\'3n Lindley Nursery Co 40.000 

Merchants* Grocery Co 18.000 

Mount Pleasant Mfg. Co 37-20O 

Mineola Mfg Co 40,000 

North State Bobbin Co 3.050 

Odell Hardware Co 49.500 

Oakdale Cotton Mills « 50.000 

Piedmont Cotton Co 5.000 

Pomona Terra Cotta Co 25.000 

Pro.xiiTiity Mfg. Co 150.000 

Piedmont Shuttle Works 5,000 

Piedmont Table Co 1 2.400 

Revolution Cotton Mills 300.000 

L. Richardson Drug Co 22,000 

Sunmierficld Gun Club 300 

J. W. Scott Co 30.000 

Sherwood Bobbin Mfg. Co 6.000 

Simpson-Shields Shoe Co 18.000 

Snow Lumber Co 75.000 

Snow Basket Co 3.500 

Southern Chair Co 20,000 

Tucker & Irwin 2,000 

Tate Furniture Co 48,000 


Tomlinson Chair Co 9,ooo 

Vanstory Clothing Co l8,ooo 

Victor Chair Co 1,250 

West End Land Co 2,400 

Ward Shoe Co 3,000 

Wakefield Hardware Co 12,100 

Welch Furniture Co 15,000 




Prior to the Revolutionary War the classical school of Dr. 
David CaUlwcll was the centre of educational work in the state 
and in the south. The early settlers brou.s^ht with them love of 
cuUure. The education of the orphan children was cared for by 
law and manual training given them. 

The old Minute Rooks of Pleas and QCiartcr Sessions have many in- 
stances of children being bound out to a master, who would give them a 
certain number of months at school and "to learn them the art and mystery 
of weaving," or farming, or coopering, etc.. and give them freedom dues, a 
set of tools and a suit of clothes. The masters agreed "to find tliem suf- 
ficient dyet and lodging and give them learning as the law directs." One 
record shows the boy should get "one suit on and off when free" and "learn 
the art and mystery of a tanner." 

In the Minute Book of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions of 
1784, page 82. in the office of the clerk at Greensboro, N. C, is shown that 
Mary Carnaham, aged ten years, was bound to Andrew Carnaham until she 
arrive at the age of eighteen years. Her guardian promised then to give 
her a cow and calf and spinning wheel, also he promised to give her a 
year|s schooling as soon as possible. 

In November, 1784, it is ordered that William Millon, orphan, aged 
thirteen years the fifteenth of February next, be bound to John McBride 
until he arrive at tlie age of twenty-one years, to learn the art of a cooper, 
and the said John McBride dotli here agree to learn or caused to be learned 
the said apprentice, \Vm. Millon, to read, write and cipher as far as the 
rule of three, before he is free, and at the time of his freedom to give him 
one good suit of clothes and a set of tools." 

Minute book of Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions. May, 1799: 
"Ordered that Abigal Perr)', aged eight- years, an orphan, be bound to 
Capt. Patrick Shaw until she arrive at the age of maturity agreeable to law, 
at and before which time he is to learn her to read the Bible and also the 
different arts of a spinsttr and to give her a full suit of dollies, win 11 free. 
exclusive of her common apparel and also a new tlax wheel." 


Minute Book, August, 1804, page 300: "Ordered that a child of color, 
aged six years, named Hannah, free born, be bound to James Dicks until 
she arrives at the full age of eighteen years. He is to teach her to read 
and to give her freedom dues." 

From Colonial days Guilford County has been foremost in 
educational work in North Carolina. Presbyterian and Quaker 
have been alike zealous in the cause. Soon after building homes 
in the pioneer country, churches and schools were erected. As in 
the Old Country, Church and State had been united, so in this 
New Country Religion and Education were at first closely allied. 
The preacher was most often teacher as well. In 1766 or '67 Dr. 
David Caldwell established his classical school in Guilford County, 
at that time the northeastern part of Rowan County, about three 
miles from the present site of Greensboro. This became the 
most noted school of the South. For many years "his log cabin 
college served for North Carolina as an academy, a college, and 
a theological seminary." An able Presbyterian divine, the Rev. 
E. B. Currie, says that "Dr. Caldwell, as a teacher, was probably 
more useful to the church than any one man in the United States."* 

"Five of his scholars became governors of different states ; 
many more became members of Congress ; and a much greater 
number became lawyers, judges, physicians and ministers of the 
gospel. It would have been a credit to any man to have been 
the instructor of such men as Judge Murphy, Judge IMcCoy, John 
M. Morehead and others." 

The most illustrious names in the educational history of 
North Carolina are the names of David Caldwell, from 1766 to 
1824; Dr. Calvin Henderson Wiley, from 1840; and Dr. Charles 
D. Mclver in later years, upon whom the sacred mantle has 


David Caldwell, the son of a Scotch-Irish farmer, was born 
in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, March the twenty-second, 

* See the Hist of Education in N. C, by Charles Lee Smith, page 2". 



1723. After receiving the riuliments of an education, he bepan 
hfe as a carpenter, working at tliis trade until his twenty-sixth 
year. Decithnj; to become a minister, his tirst steps were to obtain 
a classical education. For some time he studied in eastern Penn- 
svlvania at the school of Rev. Robert Smith, the father of John 
W. Smitli. president of Hampden-Sydney College, and of Rev. 
Samuel Stanhope Smith, D. D., at one time president of Princeton 
College. Before entering college David Caldwell taught school 
one or more years. 

At the time he entered Princeton, "candidates for admission 
into the lowest class must be capable of composing grammatical 
Latin, translating X'irgil. Cicero's Orations, and the four Evan- 
gelists in Greek." 

His biographer. Dr. Caruthers, relates that: "An elderly gentleman of 
good standing in one of Dr. Caldwell's congregations stated to me * * * 
that when a young man Dr. Caldwell was spending a night at his father's 
one summer about harvest, and while they were all sitting out in the open 
air after supper • * * Dr. Caldwell observed that, so far as his own 
experience had gone, there was nothing unwholesome in the night air; for 
while he was in college, he usually studied in it and slept in it, during the 
warm wcathtr, as it was his practice to study at a table by the window, with 
the sash raised, until a late hour, then cross his arms on the table, lay his 
head down and sleep there until morning. This was not very far behind the 
most inveterate students of the seventeenth century, * * * and a man 
who had strength of constitution to pursue such a course of application, 
though of moderate abilities, could hardly fail to become a scholar." See 
Caruther's Caldwell, page 20. 

In 1 761 he graduated at Princeton. For a year he taught at tape May, 
then took a graduate course and acted as tutor in languages as well at 

At a meeting of the Presbytery held at Princeton. 1762, David Cald- 
well was received as a candidate for the ministry. In 1763 he was licensed 
to preach; in 1764 he labored as a missionary in North Carolina, returning 
to New Jersey m 1765. being ordained to the full work of the ministry, he 
immediately returned to North Carolina, where he labored as missionary, 
until March 3, 1768, he was installed as pastor of the Buffalo and Alamance 
congregations, of Guilford County. 

Dr. Caldwell was one of the first Presbvterian ministers to 


make the state his permanent home. His history is identified with 
the reHgious and educational history of the state more than is that 
of any other one man of the eighteenth century. 

Dr. Caldwell was one of the first Presbjiierian ministers to make the 
State his permanent home. His history is identified with the reHgious and 
educational history of the State more than is that of any other one man of 
the eighteenth century. 

In 1766 he married the daughter of the Rev. Alexander Craighead, and 
as the salary from his churches was not sufficient for the support of a 
family, it became necessary for him to his fortune. He established 
the first institution for the higher education that achieved more than local 
fame. The average attendance of students was from fifty to sixty, a large 
number for the time and the country. The school was not interrupted by 
the war until 1781, the students being in the American army. The number 
was small until peace. 

Judge Archibald D. IMurphy, in an address before the literary societies 
of the University of North Carolina in 1827, referring to the facilities for 
higher education before the opening of the University in 1795, said : "That 
the most prominent and useful of these schools was that of Dr. David Cald- 
well, of Guilford County. The usefulness of Dr. Caldwell to North Caro- 
lina will never be sufficiently appreciated. The facilities of the 'school 
were limited. His students were suppHed with a few Greek and Latin 
classics. The students had no books on history or miscellaneous literature. 
There were indeed very few books in the State, except in the libraries of 
lawyers who lived in the commercial towns." "I well remember that after 
completing my course of studies under Dr. Caldwell I spent nearly two 
years without finding any books to read, except on theological subjects. 
* * * Few of Dr. Caldwell's students had better opportunities of get- 
ting bookj than myself. At this day, 1827, when libraries are established 
in all our towns, when every man has a collection of books, it is difficult to 
conceive the inconveniences under which young men labored thirty or forty 
years ago." 

During the Revolution, Dr. Caldwell was in the prime of 
manhood and his service to the state was of great value. Hated 
alike by Tories and British, he was driven from home and to 
escape his enemies was forced to spend many nights, in the forest. 
His library and many valuable papers which he had prepared 
were destroyed. They tried to seduce him with British gold, but 


neither persecution nor money could shake his loyaUy to the cause 
of America. "Dr. Caldwell was a memher of the State Convention 
of 1776, which drew up the 'Bill of Riijhts' and^ framed the Con- 
stitution. He was a member of the convention to consider the 
Constitution of the United States, in 1778, where he took a decided 
stand as an advocate of states' rig:hts." When the University of 
North Carolina was erected he was urjjed to accept the presidency. 
In 1810 the institution conferred upon him the dep^ree of Doctor 
of Divinity. 

Dr. Caldwell died the twenty-fifth of Aufjust, 1824. It is 
said that "time-worn veterans in the service of their country, men 
who have stood firm ap^ainst the intrigues of ambition, who have 
fous:ht tjie battles of freedom and maintained the rijjhts of the 
pc<iple in the halls of our National Legislature, year after year, 
until they had grown gray in the service, have been known to shed 
tears at the mention of his name, when passing in public convey- 
ance by the place where his remains lie buried, and by the church" 
in which they had heard him preach. (Caruthers' Caldwell, p. 36.) 

The work of Dr. Caldwell had carried the educational devel- 
opment near the beginning of Dr. C. H. Wiley's work for the 
state. Now let us go back to bring forward another thread in the 
educational growth in this County. During the last decades of the 
eighteenth century Richard IMendenhall was demonstrating 
Quaker patriotism by teaching at night for si.xteen years in his 
store at Jamestown, furnishing books and tuition free of charge. 
Young men, old men and boys, busy struggling with the 
problem of existence, were taught the rudiments of education. 
Richard Mendenhall, himself a classical and mathematical scholar 
of ability, inspired a love of culture. A monthly paper. The Public 
School Journal, published by him, was probably the first paper in 
the South in the interest o( education. 

From 1820 to 1830 George C. Mendenhall was the most 
prominent man in this section of the state — lawyer, farmer, 
wealthy slave-owner and teacher. On his farm the negroes were 


trained as special workmen ; carpentry, harnessmaking, shoemak- 
ing, tailoring, cooking, agriculture, reached a high state of per- 
fection. The problem of the education of the negro was solved. 

"Tellmont," the law school of George C. Mendenhall (for 
-white students), was situated on a beautiful knoll on his farm at 
Jamestown. Long cedar avenues leading up to it were terraced 
and the grounds rendered otherwise attractive. Some of the 
State's eminent lawyers here received instruction for their life- 
work, Judge Dick, Judge Armfield, ^Ir. Simmons of Montgomery 
•County, and others. 

About 1830 Horace Cannon taught in "the little brick school 
house" at New Garden. His school was largely attended. He 
gave instruction in philosophy and Brown's English Gramhiar. 
(His son, Joseph G. Cannon, is a leading Republican in Congress 
from Illinois.) 

In 1833 a classical school for males was founded as Greens- 
boro by the Orange Presbytery, called Caldwell Institute. Rev. 
Dr. Alexander Wilson, a man of high scholarship from Ireland, 
became principal, with Rev, Silas C. Lindsay as assistant. After 
two years Rev. John A. Gretter was added to the faculty. In 1844 
Prof. Ralph H. Graves succeeded him. 

About this time the school was moved from Greensboro to 
Hillsboro, N. C. The Greensboro High School was chartered to 
take its place, with John M. IMorehead, John M. Dick, John A. 
Gilmer and others as trustees. Its principal. Rev. Dr. Eli W. 
Caruthers, was, like Dr. David Caldwell, a graduate of Princeton, 
and the pastor of Buffalo and Alamance churches. He wrote a life 
of Dr. Caldwell and history of the "Old North State," valuable 
contributions to the North Carolina literature. In no small way 
did he serve the people of the state. A classical school at Old Ala- 
mance church was taught by him. 

The decade from 1830 to 1840 in North Carolina was full of 
effort and enthusiasm for education. In this period Baptists, 
Methodists, Presbvterians and Friends each resolved that educa- 


tion was the question of paramount importance, and the demoni- 
national colleges of the State were foumled ; Wake Forest, in 1832 ; 
Trinity Collej;e. in 1838; Davidson Collepfe, in 1836: New Garden 
Boarding: School, in 1837; Greensboro Female College, in 1837. 
Of these five denominational colleges in the state, two were in 
Guilford County — Xew Garden lioarding School and Greensboro 
Female College. Xew Garden lioarding School became, in 1888, 


Six miles west of Greensboro, on a beautiful, undulating 
plateau, is located Guilford College, or Xew Garden r>oarding 
School of Friends. For a hundred years the Yearly Meeting, the 
highest authority of the Society of Friends in the State, was held 
here. ( Since 1881. High Point has been the scat of that assembly.) 

Guilford College had its origin in a deep religious concern for 
the education of the members of the Xorth Carolina Yearly fleet- 
ing and for the' promotion of the Society of Friends. Nothing 
less powerful than religion could have sustained the worthy men 
and women in their struggle against poverty and indifference for 
the establishment and maintenance of this school for their own 
children and for future generations. Steps prelimmary to its 
erection were taken at the Yearly Meeting of 1830. Subordinate 
meetings were asked to report the following year upon the charac- 
ter of the schools attended by the children of Friends, of Friends' 
children of school age. and tlic number of these not in school. The 
subordinate meetings reported that : "There is not a school in the 
limits of the Yearly Meeting under the care of a committee either 
of monthly or preparative meetings. The teachers of Friends' 
children are mostly not members of the Society and the schools 
are in a mixed state; which brought the Meeting under exercise 
for a better plan of education, and Dougan Clark, Jeremiah Hub- 
bard, Nathan Mendenhall, Joshua Stanley and David White were 
appointed to prepare an address to the subordinate meetings on the 
subject of schools." 


That address contained the following high estimate which 
Friends have in regard to education : "We believe that the Chris- 
tian and literary education of our children, consistent with the 
simplicity of our profession, is a subject of very deep interest, if 
not of paramount importance, in supporting the various testi- 
monies that we profess to bear to the world, and even the very 
existence and continuance of the Society." 

A committee was appointed to receive subscriptions for the 
establishment of a boarding school, and $370.55 was received that 
year. Another committee was appointed later to digest a plan 
relative to buying a farm on which to locate the school. In 1832 
$1200 was subscribed, and a plan of operation was proposed. This 
plan was that a small farm be bought, buildings erected for the 
accommodation of fifty boarding pupils. The institution should 
be near a meeting house, "somewhere within the limits of New 
Garden, Deep River, Western, or Southern Quarterly Meetings." 
The farm was not to be located on a public road, it was to be 
provided with an orchard to furnish fruit for the students, and a 
pasture for cattle for the convenience of the institution ; the farm 
was to be in a healthful neighborhood and watered by a con- 
stantly running stream. The farm, the orchard, the dairy, the 
running brooks and the healthful environment have always been 
marked features of this school. 

A committee, appointed by the Yearly Meeting, consisting of 
tw^o men and two women from each of the Quarterly Meetings, 
decided upon the location, appointed the superintendent and 
teachers. This was probably the first time it was ever seriously 
proposed to appoint women for such duties in North Carolina. 

Each monthly meeting within the limits of the Yearly Meet- 
ing was to select one man or woman who would be willing, when 
sufficiently educated, to teach in the primary or monthly meeting 
schools. These were to be educated at the expense of the monthly 
meeting, or from the general' fund of the Yearly Meeting, if the 
parent or guardian were unable to pay. 

In 183.^ the school was located at New C.anlcii. A cliartcr 
from the General Asscnihly was obtained through George C. Mcn- 
denhall. that year a member of the Senate of North Carolina. In 
1834 Klihu Cotlin donated a tract of seventy acres of land, adja- 
cent to that first bouj^ht. Interest in the school was not confined 
to the North Carolina Yearly Mcetino;. Interest in education was 
the chord of vibration between North Carolina Friends and those 
of England. Philadelphia and elsewhere. In 1834 English Friends 
had given $2000 for buildings; in 1837 Joseph John Gurney, of 
England, gave $500, one-half of which was to be used as the 
trustees saw fit, tjie other half in aiding the children of Friends 
unable to meet the expenses of their education. Through the 
gifts of English Friends "early provision was made to defray the 
expenses, wholly or in part, of ten children at the school. This 
assistance was given for several years at a period in the history of 
the school when, but for this aid, "the attendance would have been 
discouragingly small." George Rowland, of New England Yearly 
Meeting; Roland Green, of Rhode Island; Francis T. King, a 
noble philanthropist of Baltimore; New York Yearly Meeting, 
Philadelphia Friends and others have given large contributions. 
At present the school is well endowed. 

"Of the members of North Carolina Yearly Meeting," said 
President Hobbs in his address on August 23, 1883, before a 
students' reunion, "no one. perhaps, exerted a greater influence 
for the school at home and abroad than Nathan Hunt. An emi- 
nent minister of the gospel, he used his extraordinary eloquence to 
aid the effort which was being made for the establishment of a 
higher institution of learning." 

Destined not to close its doors though Civil War raged wild, 
and the slavery question drove many from this high and quiet 
place, though Poverty howled about it like a hungry wolf. New 
Garden Boarding School was opened ist of August, 1837. Fifty 
students were in attendance the first day — twenty-five boys and 
twenty-five girls — second in the United States in regard to co- 
education, Oberlin College being first in that respect. 


Dougan and Asenath Clark, two well-known and accom- 
plished Friends, were the first superintendents. The first teachers 
were Jonathan L. Slocum. of Providence, R. I., governor of the 
boys' school; Catherine Cornell, governess of the girls' school; 
Harriet Peck and Nathan B. Hill. 

The various buildings of GuOford College are Founders' Hall, 
Khig Hall, named for Francis T. King; Archdale, for Governor 
John Archdale, our Colonial Quaker Governor; the Y. yi. C. A. 
Hall, and Memorial Hall, built by Messrs. B. N. and J. B. Duke, 
in memory of their sister, Mary Elizabeth Lyon. 

For a decade before the Civil War the school was harrassed 
by financial matters. In i860 the sale of the property was pro- 
posed. Friends, North and South, rallied to its support. New 
Garden Boarding School was the only school of its grade in this 
State to withstand the Civil War without the loss of a day, con- 
tinued without interruption on a gold basis. Isham Cox was a 
great friend of the school, helping to reHeve it of debt. Jonathan 
E. Cox, for many years, was interested in disbursing the debt. 


Born in the County of historic Panquotank, inheriting the 
equanimity and spiritual life of a Quaker ancestry, Jonathan E. 
Cox was born twenty-first of January, 1818, the son of a 
widowed mother. While a boy on the farm he was an industrious 
worker, and accumulated with his own hands a comfortable living. 
He had great strength and endurance, his physical manhood he 
regarded as holy and he was a man in the happy union of constitu- 
tional harmony. When he was forty-one years of age he was 
elected superintendent of New Garden Boarding School and re- 
moved with his wife and four children to Guilford County for 
the purpose of educating his children. Seeing the oncoming cloud 
of war, he hoped to remove to the Western States. But in two 
years the Civil War broke upon the South, the darkest day for 
the Quakers of North Carolina. Jonathan Cox was determined 


to emigrate with his family whin nu-ii Hkc Francis T. King said 
to him that in view of the $18,000 deht on the school and the war, 
the institution wouUl have to he'' sold, uidess Jonathan Cox would 
take the school upon his own responsibility. A hasty council was 
held. Xereus Mendenhall, Isham Cox and Jonathan Harris were 
found willing to stand I)y the school, and Jonathan Cox assumed 
the whole resixMisihility of maintaining the institution. 

Jonathan E. Cox did what no other man in North Carolina 
could do — he preserved a high-grade school during the Civil War 
without the loss of a day. This was due no less to his business 
ability than to his tact and smooth temper. With his means he 
helped many a youth in this State to an education. He gave away 
his fortune in the support of the school where for fourteen years 
he was super'ntendent. For this cause he gave away the best of 
his life. 

In 1888 the school was chartered as Guilford College. Three 
courses of study are given : Classical, Scientific and Latin-Scien- 
tific. The bachelor's degree in Arts and in Science is conferrecf 
after a course of four years. Guilford College was the first and 
only school in the State for many years ofTcring women the advan- 
tage of Greek culture and higher mathematics. 

Among the best friends of the institution have been the Men- 
denhall family, the Cox family, Jesse M. Bundy, Dr. Joseph 
Moore. Francis T. King, Dr. J. C. Thomas, Jeremiah Hubbard 
and many others. 

Representative students of this school arc: Dr. A. Marshall 
KUiott of Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Nereus Mendenhall. Dr. 
Dougan Clark of Indiana, Judge Blair of California, Mr. B. G. 
Worth. Captain James X. Williamson, Mr. L. Banks Holt, ex- 
1 ieutenant-Governor Reynolds and others. 


The first president of New Garden Boarding School after 
becoming Guilford College, in 1888, was Lewis Lyndon Hobbs. 


He was born in Guilford County, the youngest son of Lewis anrl 
Phoebe Hobbs. He was prepared for college at New Garden. In 
1872 he entered the Freshman class at Haverford College, Penn- 
sylvania. At Haverford he received the degree of Bachelor in 
Arts, and later, Master in Arts. In 1876 he returned to New Gar- 
den Boarding School as Professor of Greek and Mathematics. In 
1885 Dr. Joseph Moore, of Indiana, became president of the school, 
and Prof. Hobbs taug-ht Latin and Greek. 

Not only has President Hobbs been president of Guilford 
College since the trustees secured the charter raising the standard 
for higher education m the State, but he has also been clerk of the 
North Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends. Clerk of this body 
corresponds to the office of Speaker of the Senate in the Legisla- 
ture. President Hobbs is most thoroughly conversant with his^ 
church, its needs and its members. His work on educational mat- 
ters, however, has been felt beyond the limits of the Yearly Meet- 
ing. After the death of Dr. Nereus Mendenhall he filled the 
vacancy caused thereby in the County Board of Education ; he 
also was for four years a member of the State Board of Examiners. 
President Hobbs is a young man, quiet, unassuming, but a close 
thinker and an unceasing, effective worker for education, standing 
among the foremost in North Carolina in the warfare for culture, 
education, strength and beauty of character. 


(See "History of Church and Private Schools" by Prof. Raper of the 
University of North CaroUna, pages 202-210.) 

The year 1837 marks an epoch in education in Guilford 
County. Not only was New Garden Boarding School opened 
for students, but also steps were taken for the erection of Greens- 
boro Female College. The members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church sent a petition ( See Hist, of Education in N. C. by C. L. 
Smith, p 120) to the Virginia Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, asking that a college, under the auspices of the 
denomination, be established at Greensboro. This year the North 


Carolina Conference began its separate existence. Greensboro 
Female College is of the same ajje as the Conference. In 1838 
the North Carolina Conference secured a charter for the institu- 
tion from the State Legislature, so this school has the honor of 
being the first chartered college for women in North Carolina, 
ud with the exception of the Wesleyan Female College at Macon, 
' .oori^ia, the first sou'h of the Potomac. 

The Church bought two hundred and ten acres of land in 
•h;- western limits of Greensboro, and in ihc centre of a beautiful 
ark on West Market Street the school was erected. The intelli- 
gence and social refinement of the people of Greensboro determined 
the location. In April, 1846, the College was opened, with Rev. 
Solomon Lea as its president. His successors have been: Rev. 
William Albert Micajah Shipp, Rev. Dr. Charles F. Deems, Rev. 
1<. M. Jones. Dr. B. F. Dixon. Dr. B. L. Reid, Dr. Dred Peacock, 
Mrs. Lucy Roberson. 

.\mong the best friends of the institution have been the great 

nd good Dr. C. F. Deems, J. S. Carr, T. U. Jones, J. A. Odell, 

'r. Sidell, Mrs. Susan Mendenhall and Mrs. Ann Rumpass. The 

'umnae from 1S48 to 1863 numbered 191 ; from 1863 to 1873. 51 : 

irom 1873 to 1897, 428. These graduates are to be found all over 

the South, many in the North and West. 

At commencement, 1902, Mrs. Lucy H. Roberson, having 
been unanimously chosen by the trustees of the College, was 
inaugurated as president to succeed Dr. Dred Peacock. The 
alumna? and friends of the institution hailed with enthusiasm 
President Roberson's inauguration. Woman as president of a 
college in North Carolina is a new departure, opening a wider 
field and new incentive to woman's work in behalf of education. 
The library of this College is considered the best collection 
of books and papers on North Carolina history. 


In 1S40 Edgeworth Fe.m.\le Semkv.xrv was established by 
Governor Morchead. On a centrallv located site he erected a four- 


story brick building. Miss Ann Hodge was chosen principal. 
Among the teachers were Misses Emily Hubbard and Eliza Rose, 
Misses Nash and Kollock, Rev. Mr. John A. Gretter. Professors 
Breite and Brandt were instructors in music. 

Dr. and Mrs. D. P. Wier succeeded Miss Hodge. After them 
came Rev. Gilbert Morgan and wife, who introduced the collegiate 
plan with four classes and preparatory department to train young 
girls to enter the lowest classes. The expenses for board and 
tuition were $150: wax-works, $20; shell-work, $20; silk and 
worsted work, $10. In the first collegiate year were taught Arith- 
metic, English, Latin, and Greek Grammars ; . Spelling, analysis 
and dictionary; Geography, History of United States, Book of 
Commerce, Mythology, Jewish Antiquities, Watts on the Mead. 
French, Latin or Greek Ivanguages, with one ornamental branch,, 
and lectures on Self Knowledge and Self Culture. Some of the 
women of the best intellectual culture of the State have matricu- 
lated at Edgeworth, who in their old age were women of marked 
scholarship. They enjoyed mathematics and even worked prob- 
lems in Calculus for pleasure. A gold medal for especial excel- 
lence through a four years' Edgeworth Seminary is pre- 
served at the State Normal College, a relic of the thorough edu- 
cation of young women in Guilford County before the days of 

Li 1850 Prof. Richard Sterling succeeded Mr. ^lorgan at 
Edgeworth Seminary. The school was closed in 1862 by reason 
of the War. In 1868 Rev. J. M. AL Caldwell, grandson of Dr. 
David Caldwell, conducted Edgeworth Seminary until 1871, when 
Edgeworth died and passed into history. 


In 1880 Major William Bingham Lynch founded an excellent 
School at High Point. A brick house was provided, 100 feet long- 
by 47 feet wide, four stories, capable of accommodating 125 board- 
ing pupils. It was destroyed by the War. 

Note: For much of the above information see Educational Report for North Caro- 
ina, by C. H. Mebane, for 189ti-'97-'98. 


In 1880 Major William niiiKliani Lynch founded an excellent 
military school at High Point, but it scx>n closed. 

Tim Co%fMON ScHOOi System of North Carolina went into 
operation in 1840 with the administration of Governor John M. 
Morehead. who was much interested in educational development. 
This was the era of internal improvements. Dr. Nereus Menden- 
hall. a Guilford man. was also one of the architects of our public 
schcKil system. lUit Dr. C. H. Wiley was the main spirit and 
became the first Superintendent of Public Instruction in North 

Dk. Wii.kv wa-^ born in the neitjhborhood of old Alamance 
Church. The Rankin and Wharton families of Guilford County 
arc his relatives. Dr. Calvin H. Wiley was a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, statesman and educator. The present system of public educa- 
tion in this State was organized by his efforts. Before the days 
of railroads he visited every county in the State from sea to 
mountains in the mterest of schools. The Annual Report 
of the General Superintendent of Common Schools of North 
Carolina, by Calvin Henderson Wiley (the year 1854, page 8), 
states these facts : The Common School System went into opera- 
tion in 1840. The Literary iJoard was made the chief executive 
head until 1854, from which Hoard not a single report or an 
official statistic appeared. 

The whole income of the public schools of the United States, 
in 1850, aside from that raised by taxation or donations, was two 
millions, five hundred thousand dollars. The income of the Pub- 
lic Fund of North Carolina, aside from swamp lands and county 
taxes, was equal to one-twentieth of the whole. The Legislature, 
by granting of lotteries and corporate privileges, was. the only 
substantial aid to the cause of general instruction. Judge A. D. 
Murphy, in 18 19, made report for education, but it passed soon 
from public mind. 

Dr. Wiley says: "I felt, too,— not .t pleasant reflection to a sensitive 
mind — that while I was spending freely in books, in postage, in travels and 


neglecting more profitable sources of revenue, and not saving much of my 
salary, some were thinking I was growing rich on the public money, and 
robbing the schools which had lost many thousands for the want of a more 
efficient organizer, and which contributed to my salary about 50 cents each, 
or in the ratio of three-fourths of one cent to the child, while I was trying 
to save twenty times that amount to each on the single small item of books 

'■'Such was the prospect on one side, on the other were tempting 
pecuniary inducements to resign. Very strong financial considerations had 
to be sacrificed by my continuance in office. I felt that to resign would at 
once create confusion and a want of confidence in the system, and that the 
eyes of many were turned to me in hope while those who elevated rne to 
office had reason to expect my best exertions to the last and under all temp- 

The popular will is represented in the District Committees 
selected by the people ; these Committees chose the teachers, while, 
at the same time, they are limited in their choice. A County Com- 
mittee of Examination is appointed to pass on the merits of all 
teachers, and only those having the certificates of the committee 
are allowed to draw public monies. A tolerably wide margin is 
allowed this Committee to discriminate as to the merits of teachers 
so as to suit all classes. From this method good results are ex- 
pected. The certificate shows on its face whether the holder takes 
the lowest or the highest or an intermediate place. 

(By R. D. W. Connor, Superintendent Oxford Graded Schools.) 

"The work of Calvin H. Wiley was essentially that of an originator 
and organizer. Beginning with practically nothing except opposition as a 
foundation, he built up by his own power, often unassisted, a flourishing 
system of efficient schools. Although the strain of the terrible days follow- 
ing the war broke down the system he had founded, so strongly had he laid 
the foundation, so well had he builded, so deeply had he instilled into the 
minds of the people the common school idea, that it proved but a temporary 
suspension. With the rescue of the State from the hordes which were 
sucking her life-blood, came the opportunity to redevelop her resources. 
Far-sighted statesmen and leaders clearly foresaw that the first essential 
for development was universal education. Upon the apparent ruins of 
Wiley's system, they founded our present growing, influential public school 
system, with many of the improvements which Wiley himself would have 
adopted had he held the helm." 

•KKSIM'.NT I.. I,. Ilor.liS. 


"When Dr. Wiley took charge of the educational interests of the 
Stnte he clearly perceived two important things, heretofore passed hy with- 
•r notice: first, that before a system of schools coiild he successfully 
tiblished the adult population must he educated to believe in public educa- 
tion and to act upon that belief; second, that he must educate, train and 
equip a full supply of efficient teachers. These two things done, then it 
would be time to consider the details of the system. He bent all his energies 
toward a''Coinp'ishing these ends." 

"He resorted to every conceivable method of reaching the great mass 

of the people. Personal visits, newspapers, circulars, private and public 

' rtcrs, ringmg and eloquent speeches — all were brought to his use in edu- 

ing the people. He succeeded beyond his fondest hopes. Nothing better 

phasires the success of his labors than the fact that with every nerve 

-.lined to meet the demands of war. the people were willing to strain a 

•lie further in order to continue the operation of their schools." 

"In the training of a sufficient force of teachers Dr. Wiley adopted as 
his motto. "Scatter judiciously over the State good copies of any good work 
■1 education and it will create a revolution.' He began his work with less 
n a thousand old-field teachers, whose ideas of teaching were that the 
■cher must be merely a recitation-hearer and a thrasher of boys. Bcs'des 
•ing this force to be used in the work he was compelled to furnish a 
pply of two thousand new ones. His plan for doing this cannot be ex- 
plained here. It is sufficient to say that after five years of labor he supplied 
to the State more than three thousand well-equipped, trained, enthusiastic 
instructors. What a powerful influence this force had on the development 
of the State it is impossible to estimate, no little part of that quality which 
made our State 'First at Pethel ; last at Appomalto.x,' was due to this 
trained army of devoted worker.s. When wc think of the work done by 
Calvin H. Wiley and his splendid school system, it does not seem strange 
that North Carolina rallied so soon after a destructive war in which she 
had spent her life-blood freely, and has had such marvelous success in 
building up her resources. Back of all her wonderful development in other 
matters as well as in school affairs, lies the solid foundation of Dr. Wiley's 
;J<8 schools and his trained force of teachers." 

"Our people are just beginning to awaken to a knowledge of Dr. 
Wiley's gre.Ttncss and of his wonderful work. Our educators have long 
been working under his influence without knowing it. When they fully 
realize what his labors have meant in the past to their work, his influence 
will spread as it ought to do and continue to grow until it pervades the 
rank and file of all who arc interested actively in our material, intellectual 
and moral welfare." 


•'In this great educational campaign now arousing our people to a full 
sense of their educational duties and responsibilities, it would be a fitting 
time for the teachers to whom it properly .falls to start a movement for the 
erection of a monument to Dr. Wiley as a testimonial of their recognition 
and appreciation of his great efforts and results. A resolution looking to 
this end will probably be introduced in the meeting of the Teachers' Assem- 
bly and it is to be hoped that it will receive the earnest and active support 
of that body — such a movement would do much for the cause of education 
by showing to the people that teachers honor their educational heroes and 
demand the same from others. No North Carolinian better deserves such 
honor than Calvin H. Wiley, for no man has better served his State." 

In 1853, Guilford County had seventy-two Districts; five 
thousand, nine hundred and eighty-nine children reported; three 
thousand, five hundred and forty-five children taught; average 
time, four and one-half months; average salary, for men, $17.00, 
for women, $14.00. The number of teachers licensed was fifty- 
seven males and nineteen females. 

Guilford County has at present about ninety public schools 
for white children and thirty for colored. The salary of teachers 
and the length of the school years is about the same as it wa^ in 


In May, 1874, Greensboro voted a special tax for the support 
of its public schools. So much in sympathy with the movement 
were the people that only eight votes were cast against the tax. 

The first graded school in the state was established in Greens- 
boro in 1875. Mr. J- R- Wharton was the first superintendent until 
elected County Supervisor of Schools. Prof. J. A. Grimsley 
served the graded schools as superintendent for ten years. His 
successor is Mr. Edgar D. Broadhurst. The number of children 
enrolled in the three schools for whites under his supervision ex- 
ceeds the number of children reported in Guilford County in 1854. 

Guilford County is not only the first in the State to establish 
graded schools in the larger towns but also the first to establish 
rural graded schools. In the neighborhood of New Garden in 


icpi a tax was voted for the New Garden ^^raded schools. At 
SunimerfieUl and Urown's Summit a similar plan is in projrrcss. 
In April, i<>02. a meetin?; held in the interest of education at 
Greenshoro donated $8,050. iti addition to the tax money, for rural 
puhlic schools. 

The Board of .Mdermen and the Chairman of the School 
Committee of Greensboro were interested in jjettint; a more suit- 
able school building and in 1887 the handsome building on Lind- 
say Street was comi)leted. In May. 1891, the corporate limits of 
Greensboro were extended, and in that year graded schools were 
provided for both white and colored children. In May, 1893, 
Ashboro Street School was built. 

The graded schools enrolled during the first year. 1875. one 
hundred students. In i8t)7 there were enrolled i.oc)6 white chil- 
dren and 452 colored. Ninety-five per cent, of white children 
between the ages of six and sixteen are in school. 

The High I'oint graded school was established the first Mon- 
day in May. 1897. when the citizens of High Point voted $10,000 
for the erection of buildings and equipments. It opened the 20th 
of September. i8()7. The following is a brief history of its 
growth: Its enrollment the first day was 386, which increased 
during the year to 476. It began the second year with 479 
I)upils and ended with 562 ; the third year, with 568 and ended 
with 5f)8; the fourth year, with 559 and ended with 662; the fifth 
year with 670. and will end with about 725. The increase the first 
year was c)o pupils : the second, 83 ; the third. 30; the fourth, 103 ; 
the fifth. 55. and a real increase for the four years of 339. 


In 185 1. Jesse Benbow. .-Mien Lowery, Dr. John Saunders, 
Jas. B. Clark. Thomas J. Benbow and Samuel Donnell. of Oak 
Ridge; .Archibald Bevil. of Hillsdale; Wyat Bowman, of High 
Point, feeling the need for a preparatory school for young men, 
founded Oak Ridge Institute. P>y a majority of one, the present 


beautiful location was selected. From this knoll, with its majestic 
oaks, the peaks of the Blue Ridge mountains may be seen. From 
this knoll as a watershed the Haw River and the Deep River rise 
and, winding each its separate way, they unite in loving embrace 
and flow to the sea as our noble Cape Fear River. This is one 
channel by which the heart of Piedmont Carolina reaches the East. 
The natural beauty of Oak Ridge is fine, probably the most pleas- 
ing in the County of Guilford. 

Dr. Saunders was the first chairman of the Board of Trustees ; 
Dr. Charles F. Deems was chairman ex-officio, then president of 
the Greensboro Female College, a man who did much for edu- 
cation in North Carolina, and became pastor of the Church of 
Strangers of New York City. 

Oak Ridge Institute first opened its doors to students in Feb- 
ruary, 1852, with Prof. John M. Davis as principal. Fifty students 
greeted him. Among them were INlr. Rufus Benbow, of Oak 
Ridge, and Dr. Morris, of Forsyth County. Although students 
came from North Carolina, Virginia, South Carolina. Mississippi, 
Louisiana and Texas, the school was not a financial success. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War the students numbere(^ about one 
hundred. Hon. John A. Gilmer, Sr., addressed the people of Oak 
Ridge on the coming storm of war. All but three students volun- 

Tn 1866 Prof. O. C. Hamilton, a graduate of Trinity College, 
was chosen principal. He found the building burned, probably 
by an incendiary, before reaching his charge. Obstacles did not 
daunt the courage of Oak Ridge. The new trustees added to the 
old board were Messrs. W. O. Donnell, J. F. Hoh, C. R. Benbow, 
Charles Case, A. J. Rolling, Thomas Graham, Charles Wilson, 
J. S. Brown, John King, R. A. Blaylock and Thos. J. Benbow. 
They erected a new building. 

In 1869 Prof. Pendleton King, a graduate of Haverford Col- 
lege, librarian of the State Department at Washington City, 
was principal of Oak Ridge. After him the school declined until 


1875, when Prof. J. A. Holt brought energy to it and the influence 
of Mark Hopkins, his teacher and friend. In 1879 Prof. M. H. 
Holt became junior principal. As the school grew year by year, 
new and more spacious buildings were erected, wood giving place 
to brick. In 1891 a large, three-story building, containing a 
V. M. C. A. hall, library, gymnasium and class rooms, was built 
and christened "Holt Hall." 

For twenty years this institution, under the present manage- 
ment, has been giving young men thorough commercial training. 
It is this training which has made a place for Oak Ridge Institu- 
tion. This influence is felt in every trade centre in this State. 
Her graduates are everywhere. 

To Professor J. Allen Holt and his brother, Prof. Martin H. 
Holt, is due the credit of contributing to North Carolina the 
Rugby of the State. This is a business age ; everything seems to 
turn on the pivot of the dollar, even religion, etiquette, good prin- 
ciples. Death and the Grave have to do with money, the one great 
basis. Therefore a business education, to know not only the 
classics but also to understand people in business and how to 
clinch a bargain is of great importance. With a keen eye Oak 
Ridge has seen the point of contact between the scholar and the 
world. Therefore they seek to unite in their students what is best 
in the old idea of culture together with business ability. 

The Holts come of a race remarkable for business capacity. 
They were born in Alamance County, near the battleground of 
the Regulators. In Colonial days Michael Holt, their forefather, 
lived here, a fanner, innkeeper, large land-owner, man of wealth 
and of aflfairs in the State. His descendants have made of Ala- 
mance County and the State a great manufacturing centre. "Isaac 
Holt, the son of Michael Holt, married Lettie Scott. Their son, 
Thomas Scott Holt, married Sallie Foust. She was the niece of 
George Foust, who married Maria Holt, sister of Isaac Holt. 
John Foust Holt, of Alamance County, married Louise Williams, 
of Rockingham County." This is the direct line of descent of the 


professors of Oak Ridge, showing who they are and at the same 
time giving an index of the success of the school. 

Prof. T. A. Holt was born in 1852. For many years he has 
been chairman of the Board of Education of Guilford County. 
His name was prominently before the people for State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction at the last convention. He was 
president of the Teachers' Assembly in 1901. 

Prof. M. H. Holt was born in 1855. When a member of the 
Legislature in 1893 he served as chairman of the Committee on 
Education. From 1893 ^o 1897 l^^ wgs a trustee of the State 
University. He has been for some time director of the North 
Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb, at Morganton. For 
years he has been on the township board and public school com- 
mittee. In 1875 and 1878 Professors J. A. and AI. H. Holt came 
to Oak Ridge. 

Fifty years ago Oak Ridge Institute was founded. This 
year, 1902, its year of jubilee is celebrated. 


Thirt>--eight years ago there was established a school which 
became later, Whitsett Institute. Located in Southeast Guilford, 
on a beautiful plateau eight hundred feet high, the institution was 
built, looking toward the southeast over a beautiful expanse of 
open country, like a rolling savannah. About the buildings and 
westward are great oaks of nature's own, a reinforcement against 
the ttmiultuous world beyond. The landscape offers philosophic 
repose and sweet peace. Nature has contributed her advantages 
luring youth to health, to beauty and to thoughtfulness. Tw^o or 
three miles away the lonesome whistle of the train blows at Gib- 
sonville, the nearest station. The village of Whitsett without the 
student is deserted, like an oasis without the songs of birds or 
merry antics of animals. Nothing there tempts the youth to waste 
his time. To study is the natural way at Whitsett. 

Toward the south is Southern Pines ; toward the west is 


Aslifvillo. The soil of Whitsctt is loam, not red clay. I'lowcrs 
bloom and the t^rass y:ro\vs tall. 

Country life reduces the expenses of the student away at 
school. Courses for business, teaching or ct)llege are offered both 
boy and girl, young men and young women. In 1900 the student 
body numbered 329. with room for more. Still a beautiful new 
buiUling is being erected. 80 by 100 feet, furnishing every modern 
convenience for school work, library, chapel, reading room, society 
halls, gymnasimu and nnisic rooms. At the State Fair, held in 
Raleigh, this school was awarded two elegant diplomas, one for 
•'i'.est General Display by School" and another for "Ilest Com- 
mercial Display." 

Rev. r.rantley York. D. 1).. "the founder of Trinity College," 
and Charles H. Mebane. one of North Carolina's best Superin- 
tendents of F'ublic Instruction, and of Guilford County by birth, 
have helped by years of teaching and superintending to build uj) 
this institution. 

William Thornton Whitsctt is a native of Guilford County, 
North Carolina. He attended the public schools of his native 
county and was prepared for college by private tutors. He was 
educated at North Carolina College and the University of North 
Carolina. He has been president of Whitsctt Institute since 1888, 
is a trustee of the University of North Carolina ; member of the 
Southern Historical Association, Washington. D. C. ; secretary of 
the North Carolina Association of Acadamies; member of the 
American Authors" Guild. New York ; member of the School 
Directors of Guilford County; member of the .\merican Academy 
of Social and Political Science. Philadelphia. For three years 
he was secretary of the North Carolina Teachers' Assemblv. 


The Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored 
Race was established by an act of the General Assembly of North 
Carolina, ratified 9th of March. i8<)i. The financial support of 


the school is derived from the United States, under an act of 
Congress known as the "Morrill Act," passed August 20, 1890. 
The citizens of Greensboro donated twenty-five acres of land and 
eight thousand dollars to be used in the construction of buildings. 
In 1893 the General Assembly appropriated ten thousand dollars. 
Substantial buildings have been erected. They have about two 
hundred students. Its president is James B. Dudley, A. M. of 
Shaw University, A. M. of Livingston College, teacher in public 
schools 1 876- 1 880, principal of Peabody graded school 1880- 1896. 
He is a blessing to his race. 

Fully 80 per cent, of the colored people in this State live in 
the country and subsist on agriculture. The future of the colored 
race in the South depends upon the ownership of farm lands and 
their intelligent and skillful treatment by colored farmers. This 
field is free from competition and race feeling. Owners of large 
tracts of land now yielding nothing are only too glad to rent them 
to the skilled farmers who graduate from an agricultural college, 
and also provide him with stock and implements of husbandry. 
The young man who leaves this college with honor, a good charac- 
ter and a well-trained mind, who is familiar with science and art 
relating to his calling in agriculture, mechanics or any of the 
trades, will not be compelled to canvass the country seeking em- 
ployment. Capital will be looking for him to place him in charge 
of land and stocks, to handle machiner.v and direct unskilled labor. 
Wherever skilled labor is found among producers, turning the 
wheels of industry that increase the wealth of the world, there will 
be found graduates of the Agricultural and Mechanical College. 
The reputation of the Agricultural and Mechanical College 
is extending over wider fields. Immediately following the infor- 
mation that the College had received notice of the awarding of a 
silver medal on the account of its exhibit at the Paris Exposition, 
comes information from another remote section, showing the rec- 
ognition of this institution elsewhere. 

"President Pulido, of San Chez, Mira, Philippine Islands, 




XORTH C.lROIJN.-i. 101 

writes that he intends to have his son enter the 'famous college 
of Greenshoro' al)out the first of April. He will make arrange- 
ments for his son to remain here until graduation," 

Hknxktt Coi.i.EC.K was opened in the city of Greensboro in 
1873 by the Treedmen's Aid and Southern Education Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. North, one of forty-six such in- 
stitutions founded and sustained by that church. About 1876 the 
institution became a boardins: school in a larp:e four-story brick 
buiidincr. and chartered under the laws of North Carolina. It is 
situated on the outskirts of Greensboro. Its president is Rev. J. D. 
Chavis. a neg[ro man reared in Guilford County. The classics and 
mathematics are tau.yfht. It is co-educational. 

Near Bennett Collcj^e is the Kent iNnrsTuiAi. Homk for 
CouoRED Girls, under the support of the Woman's Missionary 
Society of the M. E. Church. North, Troy, N. Y.. Conference. 
This Home was dedicated May 2, 1887. Industrial traininj:;: for 
sixteen girls is yearly given. The superintendent is a white woman 
from the North, Miss Carrie L. Crowell. They have also a 
teacher of sewing and a primary teacher. The building erected 
for this home is of brick, neat and convenient. A new and larger 
house will be erected soon. Servants from this home are well 


When the South began to recuperate after the paralysis of 
Civil War and of slavery and her people had a little easy leisure in 
which to think, they gave their attention to education. Thought- 
fully and with great earnestness a few men in the State studied 
the great plan of education, as developed in other lands. They 
soon came to the conclusion that teachers should understand their 
I)rofession before being allowed to practice, that the minds of chil- 
dren were just as sacred as their bodies. The quack physician had 
long ago been relegated to the dark corners. 

Institutes were held for the training of teachers in the court- 
houses in manv counties in the State. These institutes were usu- 


ally in session for two weeks in July and August. During the 
years 1889 and 1890 the Board of Education sent out two men 
as Institute conductors to visit every county in the State and hold 
in each an institute lasting one week. The two men sent by this 
Board were Dr. Chas. D. Mclver and Dr. E. A. Alderman. They 
aroused a love for learning and a desire for reading and study 
among the teachers. Page's "Theory and Practice" and other 
books on pedagogics were placed in the hands of teachers, many 
of whom had never seen a book on teaching, though they were 
"duty-loving and duty-doing men and women." 

To quote from the report of Prof. J. Y. Joyner to the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction (See report 1897-98, p. 964), he 
says : "To one who, for the past fifteen years, has been engaged in 
this educational work, and who, during each year, has mingled 
much and talked much, publicly and privately, with all classes of 
our people in the interest of public education, there is noticeable a 
very marked and hopeful change in their attitude toward the public 
schools. This change has come about so gradually that many 
whose work has not kept them in touch with the educational 
sentiment of the State are not conscious of the extent of it." 

Out of these institutes for teachers the feeling grew and there 
arose a demand for a State Normal and Industrial College for 
the education of young women, giving them thorough training in 
the science of teaching, and instead of a few weeks of training in 
their profession, to give them four years of instruction at much 
less than cost, at prices within their reach. 

At the Teachers' Assembly, which was the congregation of 
the Teachers' Institutes, the first formal step was taken toward 
the establishment of a Normal College. The teachers passed reso- 
lutions, in 1886, asking for this institution, and they appointed a 
committee to memorialize the General Assembly. 

Meanwhile, Dr. Chas. D. Mclver, the propelling spirit of the 
movement, was studying the system of the education of women. 
His determinative wisdom and zeal fought the fight before the 


General Assembly for the higjher and better education of her 
women by the State. By his persistent energy and logic the 
North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College was estab- 
lished in 1 89 1. The time was hastened throughout the whole 
State by the teachers, the King's Daughters, the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union and the Fanner's Alliance. Dr. J. L. M. 
Curry made a strong appeal for the cause. The citizens of 
Greensboro gave $30,000 for its location. Mr. R. S. Pullen 
and Mr. R. T. Gray, of Raleigh, and others donated the land 
— ten acres. During the ten years of its existence hundreds 
of young women who could not have gone elsewhere have been 
sent out into this State and everywhere as most efficient teachers 
and as cultured women in every walk of life. The course of 
study has been arranged for meeting the needs of young women 
in North Carolina and it embraces the Normal Department, the 
Commercial Department and the Department of Domestic Science. 

At the comencement of 1902 of the State Normal and Indus- 
trial College at Greensboro, President Mclver presented the fol- 
lowing report, which embodies the history and the wonderfully 
successful career of that great school: 

"Ten years ago on this hill, then a bleak and barren ten-acre 
lot— the gift of Mr. R. S. Pullen, Mr. R. T. Gray, Mr. E. P. 
Wharton and others, with $30,000 voted unanimously by the far- 
sighted citizens of Greensboro to secure the location of the institu- 
tion, and with an annual appropriation of $10,000, voted by the 
General Assembly of 1891 to aid in the employment of a faculty, 
the State Normal and Industrial College began its work. 

"In 1886 the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, then in 
session at Black Mountain, passed resolutions asking for the 
establishment of a normal college and appointed a committee to 
memorialize the General Assembly. Each succeeding Teachers' 
Assembly for five years passed similar resolutions and appointed 
similar committees to present the question to our law makers. In 
his biennial report to the General Assembly the late Hon. S. M. 


Finger, then Superintendent of Public Instruction, urged the im- 
portance of establishing the institution. But it was at the session 
of 1889 that the question really came before the General Assembly 
for serious consideration for the first time. A committee from 
the Teachers' Assembly, consisting of Charles D. Mclver, chair- 
man ; E. G. Harrell, E.' P. Moses, E. A. Alderman, Geo. T. Win- 
ston, D. Matt. Thompson and Mrs. J. A. McDonald, presented in 
person and urged the adoption of a bill establishing a training 
school for teachers, and this bill, in spite of active and intense 
opposition, passed the Senate by a large majority, and failed in 
the House by only a few votes. Had this bill become a law the 
institution would be co-educational. 

"Before the meeting of the next General Assembly in Janu- 
ary, 1891, Governor F.owle had in his message urged the establish- 
ment of the institution. In the meantime, the King's Daughters 
had petitioned the Legislature to establish an indusrial school for 
girls. The North Carolina Farmers' Alliance, in 1890, at its 
annual meeting at Asheville, had passed strong resolutions asking 
the State to aid in the higher education of girls and women of 
the white race as it was already aiding in the education of white 
men, negro men and negro women. Hon. J. L. M. Curry, agent of 
the Peabody Fund, appeared before the General Assembly and 
made an earnest and powerful plea for the establishment of a 
normal college, and through him the Peabody Fund has always 
given substantial aid to this institution. 

"By 1891 the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly had decided 
that it was wise to eliminate the co-educational feature, and in- 
structed its committee to that effect. This committee suggested 
the establishment of a normal college with industrial features, 
whereupon the act establishing the State Normal and Industrial 
College was passed and an annual appropriation made for its 


"In choosing the Faculty of the College the Board of Direc- 
tors has selected those who in their judgment could best carry 


out its policies. Neither peopraphical. iu»r political, nor denomina- 
tional influences have dtV'ided their selection of teachers. 

"The charter Faculty of the College numbered twelve, besides 
the assistants. Of these twelve, ei^ht— Misses Boddie, Bryant, 
F.^rt. Kirkland and Mendenhall. and Messrs. Forney, Brown and 
Mclver— are members of the present faculty. Three other mem- 
bers of the present faculty — Misses Allen, Jamison and Lee — 
answered to the first roll-call of students in 1892. The college 
now has a faculty and executive corps numberinj^ thirty-six. Its 
teachers have come from all sections of the country. Four-fifths 
of them are Southern people, most of these having received train- 
ing in both Southern and Northern colleges, and more than one- 
half of them have been native North Carolinians. It has been a 
young company of aggressive workers, representing in their train- 
ing several State Universities, the leading normal colleges of the 
country, and such institutions as Johns Hopkins, Cornell, Welles- 
ley, Bryn Mawr. Massachusetts Institute of Technology and sev- 
eral Furopean universities. The Governor has recently called 
Mr. James Y. Joyner, IVofessor of Knglish in the State Normal 
and Industrial College, to the State Superintendency. 


■'For the past nine years the average number of students in 
the college has been about four hundred and twenty-five. This 
number will not materially change until more dormitory room shall 
have been provided. The total matriculation for the past ten 
years has been about 2,200, about 450 of whom have been in the 
college this year. Of the 1,750 who have left the college, 68 have 
died, leaving about 1,700. One thousand and five hundred of 
these have reported to me during the past two months, and more 
than (16 2-^ per cent, of them have taught school. I have asked 
each student to give the number of pupils taught by her. The 
aggregate number reported is, in round numbers, 130.000. It is 
natural to suppose that some of these children have been taught 


at different times by two or more representatives of the college. 
Deducting, therefore, 30,000 for duplicates, this would mean than 
100,000 children have been taught by students. 

"As the finances of the institution have justified it the Board 
of Directors has increased the physical equipment. Beginning in 
1892 with dormitory capacity for less than one hundred and fifty 
boarders, with only fifteen recitation rooms in the college building, 
including the chapel, the president's office and the physician's 
office; with a teaching force of fifteen, including assistants, and 
with an enrollment of two hundred and twenty-three students, the 
college has steadily developed until at the end of its tenth year it 
has dormitory accommodations for three hundred boarders, 
twenty-five recitation rooms and offices in the college building and 
fourteen rooms in a practice and observation school building, a 
teaching force and executive corps of thirty-six, and an enroll- 
ment of about four hundred and fifty regular students, besides 
about three hundred pupils in the practice and observation school. 
Instead of ten acres of land the college now owns one hundred 
and thirty acres, and instead of five buildings owned and rented 
it now uses eleven buildings. Instead of looking upon a bleak 
hill of clay and briars its students enjoy, to some extent, looking 
upon growing trees and grass and flowers, and, by the generosity 
of Mr. George Foster Peabody, we have the immediate prospect 
of a beautiful park, plans for which have already been made. 

"Representatives of the college are working in twenty-three 
of the States of the Union and the District of Columbia. In nearly 
every leading city from Greensboro to Boston representatives of 
the State Normal and Industrial College can be found working as 
teachers, students, stenographers, bookkeepers or trained nurses. 

"The State Normal Magazine, a self-supporting publication, 
has been the work of the faculty and students of this college. The 
best educational journal ever published in the South and now one 
of the leading educational journals of the country, was established 
and managed by our Professor of Pedagogy in connection with 


his work licre. Several texl-bnoks that liave received ^a-nerous 
recognition throitfjhout the country have been published by inem- 
l)crs of our faculty. The Audubon Society and the Association 
of North Carolina Women for the Betterment of the Public School 
Houses of the State are two State organizations which have 
resulted from the work of the faculty and students of the State 
Xormal ami Industrial College. 

'"This college has given some prestige to North Carolina's 
name beyond the borders of the State, and has had the good for- 
tune to interest influential people in the educational development 
of the State which it serves. In the ten years of its existence it 
has become as strongly entrenched in the regard of the people of 
North Carolina as if it had an hundred years of history behind 
it. Ii> this short period it has enrolled 2,500 students, every county 
in the State has been represented in its matriculates, and ninety 
per cent .of its graduates have taught or are now teaching in the 
schools of the State. About every year witnesses an addition to the 
buildings of this institution, made necessary by its increased attend- 
ance and its growing usefulness. Only about two months ago the 
cornerstone was laid for the Curry Building, a practice and 
observation school, and a new Alumni Building is to be erected 
during the coming year. 


"This report would not be complete without some reference to 
tlif special benefactors of the institution. 

"Within the past two years Mr. George Foster Peabody, of 
New York, donated $11,000 to the State Normal and Industrial 
College ; $5,000 of this is to be used for developing the Peabody 
Park, named for the great philanthropist, George Peabody, who 
in 1867 gave to the public schools of the South $3,000,000. 

"The Students' lUiilding is a gift to the college which means 
more than any single donation of money. It represents the affec- 
tion and loyalty of its daughters and those whom they have been 


able to interest in their Alma Mater. The gift of $i,ooo from Mr. 
and Mrs. T. B. Bailey, who lost their only two children while 
students at this college, was made as a subscription to the Students' 
Building. Mr. and Mrs. Bailey have also established a permanent 
scholarship to be known as 'The Sarah and Evelyn Bailey Scholar- 

"Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Buxton in 1893 established the 'Jarvis 
Buxton Loan Fund' of $100 in memory of their little son. Soon 
after this Mr. and Mrs. Josephus Daniels established the 'Adelaide 
Worth Daniels Loan Fund' of $100 in memory of their little 
daughter. These funds, while small, have aided in the education 
of several students. In 1896 General and Mrs. Julian S. Carr 
established the Xida Carr Fellowship Fund,' the income of which 
is $200 a year. This has made it possible for from two to four 
people to remain in college each year since that time, who could 
not otherwise have done so. Much help along this line has been 
provided by the two literary societies, by the Alumnae Association, 
and by the Woman's Education Club. Charles Broadway Rouss, 
of New York, gave one hundred dollars to be used as a loan fund 
to the daughter of a Confederate soldier. 

"The State wants this institution to be good enough for any 
of its citizens, and the expenses low enough for all. The purpose 
for which the institution was created is clearly stated in section 5 
of the act establishing it. It is as follows : 

" 'Section 5. The objects of this institution shall be (i) to 
give to young women such education as shall fit them for teach- 
ing; (2) to give instruction to young women in drawing, telegra- 
phy, typewriting, stenography and such other industrial arts as 
may be suitable to their sex and conducive to their support and 
usefulness. Tuition shall be free to those who signify their inten- 
tion to teach, upon such conditions as may be prescribed by the 
Board of Directors.' 

'Tt is the general purppse of the institution to give such edu- 
cation as will add to the efficiency of the average woman's work, 


whatever mav be her field of labor. To that end there are three 
distinct departments in the course of study : the Normal Depart- 
ment, the Domestic Science Department, the Commercial Depart- 

It is well to close this chapter with a few facts relatinjjj to 
the Southern Hducation hoard, of which Dr. Chas. D. Mclver is 
secretary, having the oversiijht of the work of this Hoard in 
North Carolina. 

The Southern Education Hoard consists of twelve members. 
They are Robert C. Oj^den. president ; George Foster PealwDdy, 
treasurer: Charles D. Mclver. secretary; E. A. Alderman. W. H. 
I'.aldwin. Jr.. Wallace lUittrick, J. L. M. Curry. Charles W. Dab- 
ney. H. 1'.". Frissell. H. U. Hanna. W. H. Page and Albert Shaw. 
The Board was created and organized last November in accord- 
ance with the platform and resolutions adopted at the fourth 
annual meeting of the Southern Educational Conference at Win- 
ston-Salem a year ago. April lyoi. The work undertaken by this 
lioard is that of agitation and stimulation of all efforts toward 
universal education in the .Southern States. It does not make any 
gifts to any educational institutions whatever. It has sufficient 
funds to aid in a campaign for local taxation and for the better- 
ment of public school facilities in several of the Southern States. 

So far its chief work has been done in Virginia. North Caro- 
lina and Louisiana. It began to arrange for continuous cam- 
paigns in these States in January. It has also done some work 
in the State of Georgia, and is planning to aid in public educa- 
tional campaigns in South Carolina. .Alabama and Mississippi. 

.Ml the campaign work of the Southern Education Board is 
under the immediate direction of the Southern members of the 
Southern Education }^>oard. The field work is in charge of three 
district directors, I3octors Alderman, Frissell and Mclver. Dr. 
Charles W. Dabney is Director of the Bureau of Investigation and 
Publication. His chief assistant is Professor P. P. Claxton, and 
he is also aided by Professor J. D. Eggleston and an efficient corps 


of clerks. Rev. Edgar Gardner Murphy, of Montgomery, Ala., 
is the executive secretary and personal representative of President 
Robert C. Ogden, wherever his services may be needed, whether 
in New York or in visiting the various offices in the South. 

Dr. F. S. Dickerman and Dr. Booker T. Washington are 
doing special work for the board as field agents, the latter being 
the special adviser in regard to educational matters relating to the 
colored race. 

Hon. J. L. M. Curry and Messrs. Alderman, Dabney, Frissel 
and Mclver constitute the general campaign committee, and have 
direction of all the work of the Southern Education Board. 

The plan and work of the Southern Education Board is 
merely an extension of the campaign work that has been done for 
many years in the towns and cities of the Southern States by the 
Peabody Board under the guidance of the General Agent, Dr. J. 
L. M. Curry. 

Many of these men and those composing the Southern Edu- 
cation Board are Southern people; some of them born here, and 
some having resided here for several years. Having seen the 
heavy load we are carrying, especially in maintaining a double 
system of public schools for two races, and recognizing the neces- 
sity for continuing this double system, they would like to aid us 
in carrying that burden, exactly as the Peabody Fund aided nearly 
every town and city in North Carolina to carry its burden when 
the latter were establishing their graded schools. 

The General Education Board, with headquarters in New 
York, is composed of ten men, five of whom have lived in the 
South. Wm. H. Baldwin, Jr., chairman ; George Foster Peabody, 
treasurer ; Wallace Buttrick, secretary and executive officer ; J. L,. 
M. Curry, Frederick T. Gates, Daniel C. Gilman, Morris K. Jesup, 
Robert C. Ogden, Walter H. Page and Albert Shaw compose this 
board. All except Messrs. Gates, Gilman and Jesup are also mem- 
bers of the Southern Education Board. Dr. Curry and Dr. Gilman 
are members of the Peabody Board and the Slater Board, and 


Messrs. Baldwin and Georpfe Foster Pcabody arc members of the 
Slater Board. The General Education Board will make an efTort 
to co-operate with the Peabodv, the Slater Board and the Southern 
Education Board so as to aid in Southern education, and to pre- 
vent duplication of effort. 

The underlying principle of the Association is the recognition of the 
fact that the people of the Southern States arc earnestly engaged in the 
promotion of public education, and that in this effort they should receive 
generous aid ; and to this end, and in pursuance of the following named and 
kindred objects, the Association will seek gifts, large and small, from those 
in sympathy with its plans. It is the purpose of the Board : 

1. To promote education within the United States of America, with- 
out distinction of race, sex or creed. 

2. To develop the public school system, especially in rural districts. 

3. To develop the principle of self-help by urging increased local 
taxation, local contributions, or by other means. 

-t. To further the establishment of training schools for teachers, 
especiilly those designed to educate teachers of industrial and manual 

5. To co-operate with other organizations interested in educational 
work, and to simplify and make effective the general work of education, 
avoiding unnecessary duplication. 

6. To aid in the maintenance and improvement of educational insti- 
titutions already established. 

7. To collect full information and statistics in respect to educational 
matters in the districts covered by the operation of the Board, which shall 
be kept at a general office. 

8. To furnish the public with information, suggestions and counsel, 
and for this purpose to act somewhat as a clearing-house for educational 
statistics and data to be collated by the Board. 

9. To educate public opinion in all matters pertaining to the gen- 
eral cause of education by publication of reports through the daily press 
and by other means. 

10. To promote by all suitable means every form of valuable educa- 
tional work. Wallack Buttkrick, 

Secretary Executive Office. 
116 Nassau St, New York, N. Y., May 31, 1902. 

A few weeks ago Greensboro, N. C, raised $4,000 for the 
public schools of Guilford County. This amount will be duplicated 


by the General Education Board, the only condition attached being 
a special tax levy for schools in each district that receives any of 
the money raised. 

"The educational awakening is now on in full force. We are 
at last realizing that universal education is a necessity for our 
people, and also that in our higher institutions of learning we 
must produce the best scholarship and culture. Libraries, labora- 
tories and great teachers must give scholarship a chance." — Prof. 
Mimms, of Trinity College. 

The Outlook, May 17, 1902, has this to say in regard to 
Southern education : "North Carolina is one of the leading States 
in this new movement. * * ^' The first gift of the National 
Board was one of $4,000 to the public schools in Guilford County, 
and that gift was made contingent upon the raising of an equal 
sum by the citizens of the vicinity." 

This is a real movement of reconstruction. 

Fifty years from the present the historians will say that Dr. 
Charles W. Dabney, of the University of Tennessee, was in his 
day the great educational statesman of the South, They will 
probably say that he, more than any other, brought learning from 
the heights of theology and law to the fruitful, pleasant valleys 
of how-to do things. Manual training, agriculture, school garden- 
ing he encouraged. He presented the greatest need of the South 
before the thoughtful men of the Southern Education Board, so 
that they saw the situation. Dr. Dabney brought about self-reali- 
zation in the South. He focussed all eyes on the remedy of weak- 
ness. In science, in art, in literature, his work has been of creative 
service. "Everything in the South," said he. "waits on general 

He organized the Summer School of the South, and gave the 
teachers there assembled charge of this individual, resourceful de- 
velopment. Recognized leaders of thought and great teachers 
came and all were inspired by a new hope. Dr. G. Stanley Hall, 
the distinguished philosopher, said in regard to the vSummer 
School of the South : 

DR. MelVEK, 
i'kesiuknt of thf. st\ti- nokmai, coi.i,f,ce. 



"It is the bij^jjcst one in the world. In numbers and interest 
it has never been surpassed. From what observation I have been 
able to give the class work, the character of the work being done 
is of the best. I think that the greatest impression made upon 
me, next to the number, is the .social quality of the students. You 
have the advantage over us in the North by far, in the high char- 
acter, socially, of the ladies, especially, who are the teachers in the 
schools. Most of our teachers are from the lower walks of life, 
while yours arc from the best. This means more than you can 
possibly appreciate. This school is sure to have a tremendous 
influence upon Southern civilization." 




Guilford has been a county of many religious sects, of 
churches and of ministers. However these people may differ in 
regard to other beliefs and manners, they all agree in the doctrine 
of Puritanism. To deviate from the Puritan standard to them is 
sin. The rigidity of Friends concerning outward show, and the 
will power of the Presbyterians relating to duty, have each the 
essence of Puritanism in them. 

The Presbyterian Church, the Society of Friends, the German 
Reformed and Lutheran Churches, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, the Methodist Protestant Church, the Episcopal Church, 
the Baptist Church and the Roman Catholic Church have had 
each a share in the moral and religious tone of this section of 
the State. In regard to time, influence and number, the Presby- 
terians and Friends are first. The work of the Society of Friends 
in this County relating to slavery and to the settling up of the 
West has touched our national life. The Presbyterians of Guil- 
ford have been soldiers and architects of state. 


The Presbyterian Church is and has been since its organiza- 
tion here a strong and most influential denomination in North 
Carolina. Her ministers have been men remarkable for allegiance 
to duty and for leading men. The true worth of many men is 
largely brought out by the shepherd of the people. Dr. David 
Caldwell, Dr. Eli W. Caruthers, Dr. Calvin Henderson Wiley, 
Dr. Jacob Henry Smith and his son. Dr. Egbert W. Smith, have 
had an influence for good in North Carolina equaled probably by 


no other body of five men. In statecraft, literature, education and 
the development of character as well as in the buildinj? up of the 
church, they have shed an intUience of lipht and calory from the 
lH\£:inning of the history of Piedmont Xorth Carolina. 

In 1753 the Nottingham Company .from Pennsylvania bouu:ht 
J 1.1 20 acres of land on the waters of the North Bufifalo and 
Reedy Fork. Dr. Eli \V. Caruthers, in his Life of David Caldwell, 
pages 24 and 93, says that when these people were making their 
arrangements to change their residence, which was about the time 
David Caldwell commenced his education, or soon after, they 
made a conditional agreement with him that when he obtained 
license to preach he would come and be their pastor. From 1745 
to 1758 the two Synods of Philadel])hia and New York appointed 
missionaries to North Carolina. liook seven in the Register of 
Deeds office at Salisbury, N. C, contains the indenture to the 
Synods of Philadelphia and New. York for a tract of land on the 
Bufifalo Creek for the use of a church, and "to that use forever, 
including meeting house and study house." 

In the life of the Presbyterian Church not only, but in educa- 
tional w'ork also, perhaps no name stands above that of David 
Caldwell. In the spring of 1765 he was appointed by the Synod 
of New York and Pennsylvania to labor at least one year as a 
missionary in North Carolina. He settled near the present site of 
Greensboro. In this pioneer settlement he was pastor of both 
Buffalo and Alamance churches, a practicing physician, and 
teacher of what was for many years the largest school in North 
Carolina. He was a good farmer and had much to do with aflfairs 
of state. Marked intellectual vigor and physical energy character- 
ized his work in North Carolina. 

Buffalo Church, two miles or more north of Greensboro, was 
organized five or six years before Dr. Caldwell came; and Ala- 
mance church soon after, or when he was here as a licentiate, in 


1764. His installation as pastor took place according to appoint- 
ment of Presbytery at Buffalo, March 3, 1768. In the graveyard 
at Buffalo he is buried and his stone bears this inscription : 

"Sacred to the memory of Rev. David Caldwell, D. D. Graduated 
at Princeton College, N. J., removed to North Carolina at a period not 
exactly known. Organized the churches of Buffalo and Alamance, over 
which he has faithfully sustained the office of pastor for more than sixty 
years. He departed this life August 28, 1824, aged near one hundred 

The tablets and headstones in the old graveyard at Buffalo 
reveal the last repose of many brave Revolutionary st)ldiers. The 
Gillespies, the Donnells and Rankins there buried fought for the 
cause of American liberty. 

"In memory of Col. Daniel Gillespie, born in Frederick Co., Va., 
October, 1743. Son of pious and worthy parents, endowed by nature with 
a mind above ordinary grade, with a strong love of liberty and great 
decision of character, though without the advantages of a liberal educa- 
tion, he will nevertheless be ranked by a grateful posterity among the noble 
band of patriots whose skill and valor in the field of battle during the 
struggle of national independence, and whose wisdom and integrity in the 
council chamber where the principles were discussed and the platforms 
constructed of the happiest government on earth. Having through a long 
life discharged the duties of husband, father, soldier, statesman, citizen, 
with uncomon fidelity, he died in a good old age, January, 1829." 

Alamance church, a few miles east of Greensboro, is the 
second oldest Presbyterian church in Guilford County. William 
Cusach gave the land for the church, of which it may be said that 
prayer was its cornerstone. On a day appointed the people, with 
their axes, came together. Andrew Finley proposed that they 
should kneel in prayer for Divine blessing on their undertaking 
on this consecrated ground. The band of workmen offered solemn 
supplication to God for the upbuilding of this church in their 
pioneer country. Soon a log house was built for worship. Henry 
Patillo, a missionary sent out by the Synod of New York, was 
present at its organization. 

The people of Alamance Churcl^i were of the New Light 


faith, or bclicviTs of tlii- rtvival doctrine of George Whitfield. 
Those of HulTaU) were conservative Presbyterians. When these 
classes were formed into one pastorate by Dr. Caldwell, an anti- 
W hitficlilian. bnt a man of great piety and prndencc, there was 
a l)lcti(li!ig of the better elements of both sides and a quiet resist- 
ance to extreme tendencies either way and a development of an 
active, conservative, religious life. In 1791 a great revival, ex- 
tending through several counties, was felt at Alamance. In 1799 
new names appear on the list of Orange Presbytery as ordained 
in the vear 1797 or '98. These were Guilford County men: Wil- 
liam T. Thomas. William I'aisley. John Gillespie, Samuel McAdoo 
and Robert Tate. J jce Dr. Wiley's Address on Al amance Church. 

Among the early members of Alamance Church was John 
Thorn, who lived about two and one-half miles from Alamance 
Church. He came from Maryland. Other members were David, 
\\ illiam and John McAdoo, Abram and Samuel Leckey. A sub- 
sc?-iption list of .August 23, 1800. shows that Marshall McLean, 
Robert Shaw, Andrew McGee, David Wiley and William Wiley 
were trustees of Alamance Church. 

In 1813 the Synod of the Carolinas was divided into the 
Synods of North Carolina and of South Carolina. In that year 
the North Carolina Synod held its first meeting at Alamance 

In 1825 Sabbath School was established at Alamance Church. 
Master John Finley was its first superintendent. The school was 
held all day Sunday, with an intermission for dinner. The "A, B, 
C Card," the "Blue-backed Speller," the Bible and the Shorter 
Catechism were the text-books used. 

In 1829 a revival meeting came, and for days and nights the 
tents, the church and all the woods resounded with prayer and 
religion was the absorbing theme. In 1830 there were added to 
the church one hundred and twenty members. 

Dr. Eli W. Caruthers succeeded David Caldwell as pastor of 
both Alamance and Buflalo churches. His life of David Caldwell, 


and his histories of the Old North State during the period of the 
Revokition are foundation stones in North CaroHna history. 

The Presbyterian Church at Greensboro was organized on tRe 
third of October, 1824. Rev. John Witherspoon, of Hillsboro, 
N. C, presided over the meeting and the church was organized 
with twelve members — two male members, six female members 
and four negro slaves. Wm. R. D. Lindsay, Justin Field, Mrs. 
Frances Paisley, Mrs. Ann Mebane, Polly Paisley, Mary Ann 
Paisley, Elizabeth Caldwell, Mrs. Mary Carson are the names of 
the original white members ; and the names of the servants were 
Tony, Milly and Tilly, slaves of Rev. Wm. D. Paisley, and Kezia, 
slave of Robert Carson. 

Wm. R. D. Lindsay was unanimously elected to the office of 
ruling elder. The following persons were elected trustees to 
attend to the temporal affairs of the church, none of whom, it 
appears, were at that time communicants : Thomas Caldwell, 
Robert A. Carson, Dr. John A. Mebane, Christopher Moring, 
Abraham Geering. In 183 1 twenty-six persons were added to the 
membership — twenty whites and six colored. 

In 1832 the first house of worship was built. Jesse H. Lind- 
say donated the lot for it. Four additional ruling elders were 
elected: Silas C. Lindsay, Christopher Moring, Wm. H. Gumming, 
Green D. Jordan. The whole membership that year was thirty- 
eight — twenty-eight whites and ten colored. Green D. Jordan 
became a member in 1832 and soon became a ruling elder, and 
with him Silas C. Lindsay, Christopher Moring, Wm. H. Gum- 
ming also became ruling elders. Rev. Wm. D. Paisley was supply, 
and preached twice a month. In 1833 the Sabbath School was 
organized, with W. H. Gumming superintendent. In 1839 Wm. 
D. Rankin became ruling elder. In 1840 Watson W. Wharton, 
Dr. David C. Mebane, Dr. David C. Weir were ordained ruling 
elders. On October 23, 1843, a congregational meeting was held, 
presided over by Rev. John Witherspoon. A unanimous call was 
extended to the Rev. John A. Gretter, who accepting the call, was 


duly ordained and installed as the first pastor, October 13. 1849. 
Ralph Gorrell and Jesse H. Lindsay were elected ruling' elders. 
Mr. Gretter died July 21. 1853. and Rev. John M. Sherwood acted 
as supply for a year. July 26, 1854. Rev. J. Jones Smythe was 
called to the pastorate. Until his arrival, January i, 1855, Rev. 
Martin McQueen acted as supi)ly. On the fifth of February, 
1851;. a call was made for Rev. J. Henry Smith and he came April 
20, 1859. 

The Civil War had an cftVct on the Presbyterian Church. In 
i8t>8 the colored members withdrew and were organized into a 
Colored Presbyterian Church. They had sat in the gallery, listened 
to the same sermons, and partook of the Lord's Supper in the 
same church with their masters, the sheep of one fold. This had 
much to do with making the old-time negro the beautiful char- 
acter that he was. After the War their names were erased from 
the book of this church. They had their own pastor, officers, 
Sunday School and about one hundred members. 

When Dr. Smith came to the church its membership was one 
hundred and eighty. In 1887 it numbered three hundred and 
eighty-five. The present membership is seven hundred. April 29, 
1863, Richard Sterling, C. G. Yates, J. L Scales, L. Swain and 
John H. Dillard became ruling elders. In 1879 Robert P. Dick, 
Samuel C. Smith, John A. Gilmer, became ruling elders. In 1882 
Robert M. Sloan, Sr., became ruling elder. In 1887, Dr. Smith's 
son. Egbert W. Smith, was junior pastor, and in December, 1893, 
he became pastor with his father, being unanimously elected. In 
1879, the session of this church, feeling that the growth of the city 
was tending toward the depot and south of it, took measures to 
establish a chapel in that section. In 1882, a lot was bought with 
a view to building a mission chapel. 

The Register of Elders of the First Presbyterian Church from 
October 3, 1824, to March, 1902: 

Wm. R. D Lindsay Silas C. Lindley 

Christopher Moring Wm. H. Cuniming 



John A. Gilmer 

Robt. M. Sloan, Sr. 

Dr. Robert F. Robertson 

William S. Moore 

Governor Alfred Moore Scales 

Jas. T. Carson 

Lunsford Richardson 

J. William Scott 

Judge Thomas J. Shaw 

Alfred M. Scales 

Rudolph G. Lea 

William C. McLean 

Dr. Albert R. Wilson 

Lee G. Wharton 

'Green D. Jordan 
Wm. S. Rankin 
Watson W. Wharton 
Dr. David C. Mebane 
Dr. David P. Weir 
Ralph Gorrell 
Jesse H. Lindsay 
John C. Wharton 
Prof. Richard Sterling 
Chas. G. Yates 
Lyndon Swain 
Junius L Scales 
Judge John H. Dillard 
Judge Robt. P. Dick 
Prof. Sam'l C. Smith 

The Register of the Deacons of 
from November 25, 1849, ^ March 
James Sloan 
Robt. G. Lindsay 
Andrew Weatherly 
Milton Rose 
Fenner M. Walker 
Chas G. Yates 
Robt. P. Dick 
Wm. A. Caldwell 
Wm. S. Moore 
Wm. B. Bogart 
Wm. R. Murray 
Jas. T. Carson 
Robt. M. Sloan, Jr. 
Geo. S. Sergeant 
Jed H. Lindsay 
J. Wm. Scott 


In the history of the Presbyterian Church of North Carohna 
one character is set reflecting rays of Ught like a diamond. To 
his city and his country, to civiHzation and humanity, his Hfe has 

Note: 1 suppose that from the organization (1824) till Nov. 1849, the elders dis- 
charged duties of deacon*. E. W. Smith, (Pastor.) 

the First Presbyterian Church 

25, 1900: 

Wm. Edmund Bevill 

Robt. F. Robe rr son 

Wm. C. McLean 

Sam'l A. Kerr 

Sample S. Brown 

Neil Ellington 

James King Hall 

Robert G. Glenn 

Robert R. King 

William E. Allen 

Jesse T. Abbott 

Edward M. Hendrix 

Lee G. Wharton 

J. Walker Fry 

Robt. G. Vaughn 






been a Mcssinj;. 'I'lu- best friend on earth is the wise, true pastor. 
Th«nit,^b (lead, yet Dr. Smith Hves in the hves of his children and 
the jHTiple of his church. 

Rev. Jacob Henry Smith was born iu Lexington. Rockbridj^c 
County, \irtrinia. Auirust 13. 1820. He (bed at his home in 
("irccnsboro. \. C. Monday. November 22. 1897. Dr. Smith was 
the oldest son of Samuel Runckle Smith and Margaret Fuller. His 
father's parents. Henry Louis Smith and Margaret Runckle. were 
of German extraction and spoke only the German lanj^ruaij^e. 

Jacob Henrv Smith at an early ajje joined the Presbyterian 
Church of Lexington. \a.. then under the pastorate of Dr Gcorpje 
A. Baxter — the church in which Stonewall Jackson was later a 
deacon. In 1843 ^^ qraduated with hiph distinction from Wash- 
ington College, now Washingfton and Lee University. In 1846 
he received his certificate from I'nion Theolog^ical Seminary. 
From 1850 to 1854 he was principal and professor of Latin and 
Greek in the Samuel Davies Institute. Va. In 1839 he was called 
to Charlottesville. In June. 1859, he was received by Oranpfe 
Presbytery and in Julv installed over the First Presbyterian 
Church of Greensboro. Xorth Carolina. 

In u%i Dr. Smith submitted a paper before Oranf^e Presby- 
tery on the "Reported Action of the General Assembly in Relation 
to the Political Crisis in the Country." This was one of the first 
steps, if not the first, taken toward the orj^anization of the South- 
em General Assembly. 

The Church in Greensboro jjrew steadily and rapidly and "It 
became." says Dr. W. W. Moore, "the State's chief nursery of 
pure and learned lawyers, judg^cs and j^overnors.'' 

Dr. Smith was a man of sjreat natural abilities. He possessed 
a mind of fine |q:rasp. lofjical. acute, analytic, broad and just. He 
had an insatiable love of learning: and was indefatig^able in acqui- 
sition. He was a scholar-student. He was not content alone to 
study, but he mastered any department of knowledjje bearings on 
his life-work, which meant not only the building^ up of a church in 


re,^ard to numbers and wealth, but the much higher task of 
making men, developing the highest type of character in its indi- 
vidual members. Tenderness, wisdom, strength and firmness, with 
the courage of an Isaiah, sympathy and love so blended in him as 
to make the ideal pastor and teacher of a lifetime. 

In 1870 the General Assembly appointed Dr. Smith chairman 
of the Committee of Education, and in 1888 chairman of the 
Committee on Foreign Missions. From 1866 he was director of 
Union Theological Seminary, Va., and for many years President 
of that Board and a member of the Board of Directors of David- 
son College, N. C. 

In 1872 Hampden-Sidney College conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity, and in 1877 the University of North 
Carolina gave him again the same degree. His last public duty in 
the church was as chairman of the General Assembly's committee 
to prepare a program for the celebration of the two hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of the Westminster Assembly. 

Dr. Smith was twice married: to Miss Catharine Malvina 
Miller, who died in 1854; in 1857 to Miss Mary Kelly Watson. 
His children are : ]\Irs. L. Richardson, Mrs. R. G. Vaughn ; Rev. 
S. M. Smith, D. D., of the First Presbyterian Church of Colum- 
bia, S. C. ; Dr. Henry Louis Smith, President of Davidson College ; 
Rev. Egbert W. Smith, D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Greensboro, N. C. ; Dr. C. Alphonso Smith, Professor 
of the English Language in the University of North Carolina ; 
Rev. Hay Watson Smith, of the Congregational Church, Park- 
ville, N. Y. 

A tablet to the memory of Dr. J. Henry Smith in the Presby- 
terian Church at Greensboro has inscribed on it the following 
stanza : 

Thirty-eight years 

Down History's tide 
In the life of this church 

Fondly side by side 
Pastor and people floated 
Gently on, 


Loving and loved, in days 

That arc gone. 
The billows of tinu- 

Have borne him away. 
From the starlit dawn 
To the golden day. 
\ larRC and handsonte building is bcin- erected adjoinitip: the 
ITesbvterian Church for the Sttnday School department of chnrch 
work.' It will be a me.uorial to Dr. J. Henry S.mith. The idea 
and the plan .s ori^nnal with Dr. Egbert W. Smith. The schoo 
will be carried on with the best means of education of the present 

''''■' The I'resbvterian Church of Guilford County has had three 
pastors of re.narkable power. Dr. David Caldwell and Dr. Eh W 
Caruthers in successive ministry labored here for one hundred 
years, and Dr. J. Henrv Smith for thirty-eight years. These men 
in a large measure contributed to the civilization of North Caro- 
lina. Thev each were men of vital strength of doctrme and their 
lives would indicate that Presbvterianism is conducive to 

longovitv. . r-i 1 • 

(The data for the sketch of the Presbyterian Church in 
Greensboro were obtained from a sketch of that church by Dr. J. 
Menrv Smith, now in the possession of Dr. Egbert W. Smith. The 
data for the historv of Alamance Church were obtained from a 
speech delivered at the Centennial of that churchj)y Dr. C^H. 
Wilev. ) 


The center of the influence and strength of the Society of 
Friends in North Carolina has been Guilford County. For a 
hundred and f^ftv vears their Yearly Meeting has been held in 
this Countv. first at New Garden, but of late years at High Point, 
N. C. Friends had first settled in Pasquotank Countv. this State, 
and John Archdalc was the good Quaker governor long before. 
But Friends came among the earliest settlers to this section. There 
is some record that they chartered or traded with the Catawba 


Indians for lands in the beautiful undulating plains of western 
Guilford. Guilford College, six miles west of Greensboro, is ihe 
seat of learning of Friends in the South. This institution was 
founded, in 1837, as New Garden Boarding School. Friends l.ave 
always been great advocates and leaders in regard to education. 
From the first they seemed to have believed in the equal educ-ition 
of the sexes. Their women have responded in the noblest anfl 
most intellectual types of character. 

The principles of Friends have been laid down by George 
Fox, whose works are sometimes read fifty or one hundred times 
by the most consistent Friends. Like the Israelites of old, they 
have been a "peculiar people." Their opinions in regard to tem- 
perance, war and slavery have been very decided. Though not 
great in regard to number, but, united in fidelity, firm in convic- 
tion, believing in the "inner light" and the "written word," their 
influence has been felt most strong. Their position before and 
during the Civil War is better imagined than described. The 
chapter on the slavery question in this book will show some of their 
principles at work. In 1774 the North Carolina Yearly Meeting 
of Friends freed their slaves. 

Some Friends came to this section from Pennsylvania at the 
same time the Scotch-Irish and Germans came, having crossed 
over with William Penn. With this company were the Menden- 
halls, Hunts, Ballingers, etc. About a score of years later Friends 
from New England came. These were the "Nantucketers." 
Again another company came from eastern North Carolina. See 
the chapter on the "Settlement." 

Friends came here not as hunters and wanderers, but with 
civilization and the Christian religion. There is a tradition that 
the first meeting of Friends in the County was held at "Cobbie," 
or Concord, an old place near Centre Meeting House. It is said 
that the first Yearly Meeting in western North Carolina was held 
here. But from New Garden as a centre the other meetings of 
Friends have been established. New Garden may be called the 


mother of the society in Caiilfor<l Oniiity an«l also of the society in 
Tn(hana. where the I'rieiuls constitute the prevaiHnj:; and intUiential 

Fmni the Register's hook at Sahshury. X. C. it is learned 
that "on the 19th of ( )ctoher. 1757. Henry iJallinper and Thomas 
Ihmt houj^ht of Richard Williams fifty acres of land for five 
shillings, for the use. henefit, privilege and conveniency of a Meet- 
ing house which is already erected upon the ahove and bears the 
name New Garden for the Christian people called Quakers to meet 
in for publick worship of Almighty God. as also the ground to 
bury their dead in." The place was called Xcw Garden from their 
home in Pennsylvania, and that in turn from Xcw Garden in 

In 1 75 1 a meeting fi>r worship was granted Friends at Xew 
Garden by Cane Creek Monthly Meeting. For three years the 
Monthly Meeting circulated between Cane Creek of Orange 
County and Xew Garden. 

( Dr. Weeks' "Southern Quakers and Slavery" is an exhaus- 
tive treatment of the subject of the early church history of 

Early members of Xew Garden from Pennsylvania were: 
Joseph Ogburn. Peter Cox, Abram Elliot. John and Richard 
Mendenhall and William Reynolds. 

Xew Garden is one of the most historic places in Piedmont 
Xorth Carolina. The church was used as a hospital for British 
and American soldiers wounded at the Battle of Guilford Court- 
house. Tv/o large mounds in the graveyard show the last resting 
place of some of the bravest of Cornwallis's army. 

In 1757, Friends' Meeting House at Centre was established. 
The meeting was hrsl held in private homes, then a small house 
was built which was used for both worship and for school. Dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War Daniel Worth and James Dix sat at 
the head of the meeting. Centre is a historic place also for the 
number of great men who were born there. Three governors of 


three States were born almost in a stone's throw of the church. 
The Nixons, who edit the Inter-Occan, were born here. In the 
old graveyard are buried members of the Worth family for genera- 

Deep River has been one of the strongest Monthly Meetings, 
In 1758 it was established as a Preparative Meeting. In 1778 it 
became a iMonthly Meeting. In 1818 it was made a Quarterly 
Meeting. The records of Deep River Monthly Meeting show 
that migration westward began about 181 1 and continued to i860. 
Many of its members, Mendenhalls, Hills and others, left their 
home meeting to live in Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio and elsewhere. 
Beeson, Clark, Cook, Elliot. Beard, Gardner, Harris, Horney, 
Ham, Henley, Howell, Hubbard, Hiat, Pike, Pegg, Starbuck and 
others went to Ohio. Deep River Meeting House is situated on a 
beautiful high plain sloping in all directions toward the horizon. 
Mighty oaks are back of the large, almost square, brick building. 
A large graveyard lies in front, the low stones in the centre of 
which mark a time in the history of Friends when gravestones 
were not allowed higher than eighteen inches. Around these are 
more imposing monuments. However quaint the place may be 
within this hallowed mould, though gray and sere, romance and 
beauty and nobility are laid away with some of earth's grim 
secrets. Diversity and individuality may be safely studied in the 
congregation of the dead. Deep River is a typical Friends' j\Ieet- 


The first record of Methodism in Piedmont Carolina is that of 
1770, when Andrew Yeargan was appointed to Yadkin Circuit, 
which embraced Guilford County and was a part of Virginia Con- 
ference. Three years later Guilford Circuit was formed and 
Samuel Dudley and James Gibbons were put in charge of it. In 
1800 this Circuit reported five hundred and fifty-one white mem- 
bers and thirty-nine colored. A year later the minutes show that 
the Circuit was a part of the Salisbury District, and James Douthit 


was presii'iii.i; cldtr. A list oi the pastors of the church from 
1800 to the present time is fjivcn : 

ivSoo. \Vm. Atwood; 1801. Josiah Phillips; 1802. John Moose; 1803, 
Thomas L. DouRlas. J. C. Ballew ; 1804. Win. Huhhard. George Dillard; 
1805. John Cox. Nathan Weldon ; 1806, John Gibbon. Richard Owen ; 1807, 
William Barnes. Chas. Ronndtree: 1808. Edminid Henley. J. T. Brockwell; 
i8<x), Chas. Ronndtree. John Humphries; 1810. Joel Arrington ; 181 1. Kd- 
ward Cannon. Erasmus Stinson; 181 j. F.thelbert Drake; 1813. Joel .Erring- 
ton. John Hoylc; 1814. Joel Arrington, Cyrus Christian; 1813. Henry 
Robertson, Chas. Mos'ey ; 1S16. James Hammer, Abraham Frail; 1817, Sam- 
uel Garrard. James Smith; 1818. John F. Wright, .A.rchibald Robinson; 
181Q. Samuel Hunter. Benj. Stephens; 1820. Thomas Howard; 1821. James 
Rcid; i8.:3. Thacker Muis; 1824. Jesse Lee; 1825. Rufus Wiley; 1826. Thos. 
Mann. Jacob Hill; 1^27. Rufus Wiley. Thomas Mann; 1828. W. N. Abing- 
ton; 1829. Richard D. Merriweathcr. Joshua Jaliff; 1830. Peter Doub ; 1831, 
John H. Watson. W. W. Albca. helper; 1832-3. Joshua Bethel. In 1834 
the record reads: '"Greensboro — Samuel Bryant." In 1835. Robert O. 
Burton; 1836. B. B. Miles. In 1837 the North Carolina Conference was 
established by the General Conference. Its first session the following year 
was held, at which time James Purvis was sent to Greensboro. In 1838 
Thomas S. Campbell was pastor; 1839. William Class; 1840. Addison Lea; 
i8Ut, Ira T. Wyche ; 1843. Bcnj. M. Williams; 1844-5. S. S. Bryant; 1846, 
Joel W. Turker; 18 17. Peter Doub. Joseph B. Martin; 1848, Samuel M. 
Frost; 1849, A. S. Andrews; 18^0, James P. Simpson; 1851, James Jami- 
son. S. D. Bumpass: 1852-3. N. H. D. Wilson; 1854-5. W. H. Bobbitt; 
1856, Numa F. Rcid. Joshua Bethel ; 1857-8. L. S. Burkhcad ; 1859-60. L. L. 
Hcndren; 1S61-2. H. T. Hudson; 1863-4. Joel W. Tucker; 1865-8. William 
Barringer; 1869. A. W. Mangum ; 1S70-3. J. A. Cunningham; 1874. W. H. 
Bobbitt; 1875-7. S. D. Adams; 187S-80. D. R. Burton. J. C. Thomas. Supt. 
in '79: 1881-4. L. W. Crawford; 1S85-8. J. E. Mann; 1889. L. W. Crawford; 
i8'/)-94. S. H. Hilliard; 1894. J. li. Weaver; 1897. Dr. Roe; 1900. S. B. 

In 1830 the first regular Methodist Church of Greensboro was built, 
when Rev. Peter Doub was pastor. In 1850-1 a new site was chosen on 
West Market Street. Again in 1892 the congregation had grown so large 
as to demand a more commodious building. .Vnother lot was bought on 
West Markvt Street, more elevated and nearer the centre of the city. On 
April 17, 1893, the Quarterly Conference appointed as a building committee, 
Mcssr.s. S. L. Alderman, W. G. Balsley. C. H. Dorsett. W. H. Hill. Chas. 
H. Ireland. H. H. Merrimon. T. M. Pickard. S. L. Trogdon. C. W. Whitsett, 


G. W. Alley. S. Brown. H. W. Cobb. C. M. Hackett, H. M. Alford, J. A. 
Odell, H. L. Scott, J. I\I. Winstead. July 5. 1893, the first brick was laid for 
the edifice; the new West iMarket Church is one of the handsomest 
churches of any denomination in the State.* 

Pastor.— Rev. S. B. Turrentine, D. D. 

Bo.vRD OF Stewards.— J. A. Odell, President; C. H. Ireland, Vice- 
President; Prof. W. F. Alderman, Treasurer; Dr. J. E. Wyche, Secretary; 
J. N. Richardson, E. J. Stafford. C. H. Dorsett, C. A. Bray, J. N. Leak, 
J. W. Landreth. W. W. Wood, Dr. Dred Peacock, A. W. Vickory, Dr. Jno. 
H. Wheeler. F. C. Boyles, M. S. Sherwood, T. M. Pickard. E. L. Sides, 
Prof. J. M. Bandy, R. R. Alley, W. P. Hutton. W. T. Smith, O. F. Pearce. 

Lookout Committee. — C. H. Ireland, Chairman; Dr. J. H. Wheeler, 
F. C. Boyles. W. W. Wood. W. T. Smith. 

Finance Committee. — E. L. Sides, Chairman; Dr. Dred Peacock, 
M. S. Sherwood, J. N. Richardson, T. M. Pickard. 

Committee on Care of Sick. — C. H. Dorsett, Chairman; E. J. Staf- 
ford, J. W. Landreth, O. F. Pearce, W. P. Hutton. 

Committee on Church Property.— C. A. Bray, Chairman; J. N. 
Leak, A. W. Vickory, R. R. Alley. Prof. J. M. Bandy. 

Trustees.— G. W. Alley, Chairman ; G. Will Armfield, M. Lamb, J. A. 
Odell. S. L. Trogdon. W. E. Coffin, J. N. Richardson, W. H. Turner, S. C. 

USHERS.-C. H. Dorsett, Chairman; V/. T. Smith, Jos. J. Stone. J. N. 
Leak, E. J. Stafiford, E. A. Brown, R. E. Reeves. G. W. Patterson. M. R. 
Reeves. O. S. Ball, H. G. Reinickcr, A. E. B. Alford, Sidney N. Peters, A. J. 
Sykes, R. G. Stockton. 


Early in the nineteenth century there was a division in the 
Methodist Church in regard to church government, and the Metho- 
dist Protestant Church was created, beheving that obedience to 
bishops was inconsistent with a repubhcan people. The first 
Methodist Protestant church in central and western North Caro- 
lina was Moriah, in Guilford County, four miles south of Greens- 
boro. Moriah had once been a Methodist Episcopal church, but 
under the leadership of Rev. John Coe, Joseph Gilbreath, James 
Hendricks and William Gilbreath it became Methodist Protestant. 

* I am indebted for this data to Miss Ruih York, who has an excellent sketch of the 
Church in Vol. 3, College Message. 



.\(;i:i) OVKR NI.NM-TY. 


This little band of thirty-four nu-ti and wonu-n planted the Metho- 
<list Protestant Church in Guilford County. It is said that there 
are more churches of this denomination in Guilford County than 
anv other, thoutjh it is surpassed by others in regard to numbers. 
.\l)out 1840. Tabernacle Church was established. Jonathan Causey 
donated the first plot of p:round. In 1841 they built a commodious 
house, and a i)reacher. Kev. Joseph Causey, painted it. The 
trustees were: John Forbis. Samuel Hunter. Levi Cau.sey, Joseph 
Alexander and John Hardin. This church has now a membership 
of three hundred. 

About 1830. IMeasaiit rnion was built. Rev. .\lson Gray, one 
of the cfreatest preachers of this denomination, organized the 
church. In 1842 I'eter Julian, Christian Kime and G. W. Bowman 
were appointed trustees. Peter Bowman was first Sunday School 
superintendent. One special rule in a long list of rules which were 
read each Sunday was : "That males and females were not to go 
together, but males by themselves and females by themselves." In 
1855 the church numbered twenty-four males and eleven females. 
Following this time the pastors were: Revs. Jordan Neese, A. W. 
Lineberry. T. II. Pegram, J. L. iMichaux, W. C. Kennett, C. F. 
Harris. R. R. Michaux, J. H. Page, J. W. Heath. J. W. Ball, R. H. 
W ills. S. W. Coe, T. F. McCuUocli, J. R. Hutton, W. W. Amick, 
G. F. Millaway. 

Bethel. Flat Rock, \\, are also Methodist Protestant churches, 
built up by the labors of Revs. Alson Gray and A. W. Lineberry. 
Grace Methodist Protestant Church was erected in 1892. Its first 
pastor was Rev. W. F. Ogborn, from Maryland, who was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. S. Williams. Rev. J. F. McCulloch served one 
year and was followed by Rev. T. M. Johnson. The erection of 
this church marked a new era in the life of the Methodist Protes- 
tant Church in this State, and in a great measure Grace Church 
determines the thought and progress of the denomination. Many 
little children attend Grace Church. Seated in a body they are a 
beautiful group. 


The Methodist Protestant Church at High Point was begun 
in 1894. On the fourth Sunday in September, 1895, Rev. F. T. 
Tagg, D. D., preached the opening sermon, at the close of which 
a collection was taken sufficient to cover the indebtedness. In the 
evening Rev. T. J. Ogburn preached the dedicatory sermon and 
organized the church with thirteen members. At the following 
conference W. R. Lowdermilk was made pastor. 

The oldest of the German Reformed churches in Guilford 
County is Lows Church, standing on the old road from Hills- 
borough to Salisbury, North Carolina. (See Colonial Records, 
Vol. 8, 1735.) It was a union Reformed and Lutheran church 
until dissentions arose in regard to the Regulation war. Upon 
that the Reformed members moved out to a house of their own, 
"Brick Church," of which Rev. Samuel Suther was pastor until 
the close of the war. In these years Ludwig Clapp and Christian 
Foust were elders. After three years Rev. Bithahm succeeded the 
Rev. Suther. After this Rev. Andrew Loretz made annual visits 
for a number of years. The people were accustomed to meeting 
without a pastor each Sabbath for worship, when the ruling elder 
or the schoolmaster read a selected sermon. In 18 12 Capt. Wil- 
liam Albright secured the services of a young minister, who was 
deputed to visit all of the Reformed churches of the South. Rev. 
James R. Riley came, making the visit on horseback by way of 
the emigrant route. Under his preaching fifty-seven members 
were added to this church. 1814 was the most prosperous year 
of Brick Church. In 1841 Rev. G. William Welker became pastor 
and served in that capacity this church about fifty years. 

Frieden's Church was organized soon after Brick Church, 
probably by the same minister, ten miles northeast, in Guilford 
County. It was first known as Stahmaker's Church. The Re- 
formed families here were the Weitzells, Wyricks, Straders, De- 
Wolds, etc. In 1855 Rev. G. William Welker became their pastor, 
bringing new life to the church. Gideon DeWald and William 
Weitzell were chosen elders ; John Clapp, Duncan Trosler and 


Joshua Wcitzell. deacons. After a few years St. Mark's Riforined 
Church was built, at Boon's Station. 

In 1851 the Reformed Congrcpation built a church on the old 
Martinsville road to Fayelteville. on the upper Alamance, and 
named it Mt. Hope. This conprep^ation after the Civil War grew 
to be the stronijest church numercially, numberinp; over 425 mem- 
bers. Rev. G. W'm. Welker was its pastor for forty-six successive 

(It has been impossible to ^et the history of all the churches.) 




The principal towns of Guilford County are Greensboro and 
High Point. Those who travel say that in no part of the country, 
North or West, are there greater signs of growth and industrial 


Greensboro, the County seat of Guilford, has a population of 
about twenty-two thousand. Situated on a plateau, slightly in- 
clined toward the sunrise, is Greensboro, Queen of Piedmont Caro- 
lina. Surrounded by beautiful, undulating fields covered with 
soft Japanese clover, bufifalo grass and abundant wild flowers, 
she is called the "City of Flowers." Once this section was prairie, 
it is said, but there are now tall oaks, poplars and elms of such 
strength and size as to suggest the forest primeval. Greensboro, 
the Gate City, is the open door of transportation between North 
and South. This advantage alone would have made her strong 
industrially. Her hotels are famous. Her people are kind, cul- 
tured and hospitable. Her health is perfect. Greensboro, City of 
Flowers, Garden of Roses, Abode of the Birds, is the centre of 
Guilford County. 

In 1909 Greensboro will see her centennial. One lucky Fri- 
day morning in May, 1809, the Court of Guilford County was 
removed from Martinsville to the centre of the county, Greensboro. 
From the Court Records, 1809, is the following: 

■'At a County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions begun and held 
for the County of Guilford at the Courthouse in the town of Martinsville 
on the third Monday of May, 1809, it being the fifteenth day of the month. 

Cdl.. w . n. r)SI!()UN'. 
iii:.\(>()i- Ki:i:i,i;v instititk in north cakoi.ina. 


XOI^ni C.lR()lJ.\'.l. 188 

"The Esquires present were Joliii Starratt, H. lUirrow. R.iddy Hannar, 
Jonathan Parker, Obadiah Anthony. 

"Court adjourned from the town of Martinsville to the town of 
C.rccnsboro to meet at to o'clock Friday. 

"According to adjournment the court met Friday. 19 May, i8og, at 
('.reensboro, for the first time." 

Tlic Judfjjcs present at this first court held in Oeensboro 
were Joliii Starratt, Jonathan Parker, Joseph Harnett. John Gul- 
lett, George Swain, John McAdcx) and E. Hurrow. 

When Greensboro was made the chief town of Caiilford 
C.nntv. Raleigh, as the capital of the State, was still very young; 
Wilmington was possibly a month's journey distant; Fayetteville, 
the chief trade centre for Piedmont North Carolina; and Hills- 
boro. almost royal in its degree of aristocracy. The great high- 
way between Salisbury and Hillsboro, leading by the little town 
of Greensboro, was traversed by the stage coach, not hourly, as 
the trains pass today, but a lumbering stage coach drawn by 
six horses. A daily newspaper was something undreamed of, 
Init unconsciously the stage coach driver fulfilled the functions of 
newsmonger as well as engineer, conductor, baggage master and 
expounder of the law and Constitution. 

The University of North Carolina, established in 1796, was 
not very old wh.en Greensboro became a town. The first degree 
conferred by that scat of learning was upon a Guilford man, Dr. 
David Caldwell. 

Kven the United States had not grown old enough to feel 
its importance in the world. Boston was a town of much beer, 
rather than much learning. Fulton's first steamboat was only 
two years old. The spirit of Young America was just an.sing up. 
Did the citizen of Greensboro go to Washington then he might 
sec Thomas Jefferson retiring from the President's chair. William 
Henry Harrison was fighting Tecumseh. The map of the United 
States looked very different from the map of the same territory at 
the pre-sent. Scientific study was only beginning. Darwin, Tyn- 
dall and Huxley had not yet begun their wonderful work. In 


fact, the city of Greensboro be^^an with the beginning of a cen- 
tury, greatest in the civiHzation of the Germanic race. 

The People's Savings Bank of Greensboro, N. C, the first mutual 
savings bank ever organized in North CaroHna, and at present the oldest 
bank m Greensboro, opened its doors for business on July 2nd, 1887. Its 
organization was effected by many of the leading citizens of the city, to 
provide a safe and convenient place of deposit and interest for persons of 
small means, and to aid and encourage the youth and the industrious to 
save a portion of their earnings for a period of life when through sickness 
or misfortune or as capital for business they might need it. Its first set of. 
ofiicers was : President, J. M. Winstead ; Vice-Presidents, Prof. W. F. 
Steele, J. A. Odell and J. H. Harris; Treasurer, Samuel L. Trogdon; Sec- 
retary. H. H. Cartland ; Attorney, Robert M. Douglas. At the close of the 
first year the deposits of the bank had run up to $27,300, since which time 
they have gradually increased until for the last six months the average 
deposits have lieen about $200,000. Among its leading organizers. Judge 
Robert P. Dick, J. M. Winstead and H. H. Cartland have passed away, but 
the work is still being carried on by others, as hundreds of its depositors 
can testify, who have been enabled through its advantages to provide homes 
for themselves and families. Its depositors now number more than 
twenty-six hundred, scattered throughout the Piedmont section of the State. 
Its present officers are : President, J. W. Scott; Vice-President, J. A. Odell ; 
Treasurer, J. Ad. Hodgin ; Assistant Treasurer, L. M. H. Reynolds ; Secre- 
tary, Samuel L Trogdon; Attorney, R. D. Douglas. 

The Greensboro Loan and Trust Company was organized on July 19th, 
1899. Following is a list of officers and directors: President, J. W. Fry; 
Vice-President, J. S. Cox; Secretary and Treasurer, W. E. Allen; Direc- 
tors, J. A. Odell, R. M. Rees, Geo. S. Sergeant, R. R. King, J. S. Cox, J. C. 
Bishop, W. L. Grissom, W. D. McAdoo, R. P. Gray; John Gill, Baltimore, 
Md.; W. H. Watkins, Ramseur, N. C. ; O. R. Cox, Cedar Falls, N. C. ; 
W. F. Williams, Red Springs, N. C. ; J. A. Hadley, Mount Airy, N. C. ; 
S. Bryant, Randleman, N. C. ; J. Elwood Cox, High Point, N. C. ; J. W. 
Fry. The company does a general banking business; acts as receiver, 
fustee, guardian, executor and administrator of estates; runs a savings 
department m which 4 per cent, interest is allowed on deposits remaining 
three full months ; has a fire- and burglar-proof, steel-lined safe deposit 
vault, where safe deposit boxes are rented and chests of valuables are kept. 

The City National Bank was organized January 20, 1899, with a capi- 
tal of $100,000, and succeeded to the business of the Piedmont Bank, which 
had been doing business in Greensboro for about ten years previous to that 

II I'. 11 rolNT, N. C. 


time. The Piedmont Bank was organized by ex-Governor A. M. Scales, 
who was its first president, and served the bank in that capacity until his 
death, which occurred on February 0. 1H92. He was succeeded by Col. J. M. 
Winstead. who from the organization of the bank and at that time was 
cashier. . The tirst Board of Directors was composed of e.\-C.overnor 
vScales. J. A. Odell. J. M. Winstead. Lawrence S. Holt and Samuel L. Trog- 
don. On August 23. l8f4, the bank suffered the loss of its president. Col. 
Winstead, he having died suddenly, and in tlie following September J. M. 
Walker was elected to this p«i.sition. As stated before, the Piedmont Bank 
went ouf. of business in January. 1899, and was succeeded by tlic City 
National Bank. The new bank commenced growing immediately and in 
two years had more than doubled its business. The surplus fund of the 
bank at present is $,?o,ooo, all accumulated since the organization of the 
bank, besides having paid the stockholders over $12,000 in dividends. The 
present ofticers of the bank are: President, J. M. Walker; Vice-President, 
J. \'an Lindley; Cashier, Lee H. Battle. The Board of Directors is com- 
posed of the following well-known business men of Greensboro: J. C. 
Bishop, president of the Merchant Grocery Co. ; Jas. A. Hodgin, treasurer 
of the People's Savings Bank; R. H. Brooks, of the Odell Hardware Co.; 
Dr. Dred Peacock, president of tlie Greensboro Female College; Mr. J. 
\'an Lindley. president of the Lindley Nursery Co., and Mr. J. M. Walker, 
president of the bank. 

lll(;il POINT. 

His:h Point is a thrifty town of six thousand inhahitants, 
situated on the Raleigh and Charlotte road. Six miles to the west 
is Thotnasville. a smaller town, but larijc industrially, as if it. too, 
had caught the spirit of work from its hustling neighbor. Within 
a few miles of High Point is the Orphanage of the great Mission- 
ary Baptist denomination of North Carolina. 

High Point is the centre of the furniture business in North 
Carolina and the South. It is regarded as second only to Grand 
Rapids. Michigan. Thirty years ago High Point was a little place, 
as dead industrially as a town could be. Dried fruit was its prin- 
cipal product. In 1872 the school house at High Point, according 
t^Captain Siiow, was a little log hut that cost less than twentv 
dollars. The seats were made of slab-boards with poles stuck in 
holes for legs. Shingles were simply laid on the roof and held 


down by weights. Instead of windows, holes in the wall admitted 
the light. At present the little city has one of the finest graded 
schools in the State, in a beautiful stone building. The popula- 
tion numbers five thousand, with a factory for every one hundred 
and thirty-three of its inhabitants. The many northern riien who 
visit this section and Pinehurst regard High Point as an exceed- 
ingly busy and industrious town, and its development one of the 
most remarkable anywhere. Her success is due to plain, legiti- 
mate business. Her people work. High Point has no "dead 
elephants," no wrangling. A spirit of co-operation pervades the 

To what then is due this remarkable growth? Given a man 
of energy and knowledge of industry in the presence of North 
Carolina resources and much will be accomplished. 

Captain W. H. Snow may well be regarded as the father of 
High Point. He is the pioneer in the State in the manufacture 
of shuttle blocks, spokes and handles. He brought into the State 
the first Blanchard lathe and band saw operated in North Carolina. 
The standing timber in Randolph, Davidson and Guilford counties 
determined Captain Snow's location at High Point. Our people 
had no idea of the wealth that was before them in sight. Captain 
Snow called out the latent energy to develop these resources. 

Captain W. H. Snow was born in Washington County, Ver- 
mont, in 1825. In response to the call to arms by President 
Lincoln, Captain Snow responded and arrived in Washington 
City from New England among the first troops. He was in the 
first battle of the Civil War with the Sixth Regiment from ]\Iassa- 
chusetts. So when he came to Guilford County at the close of 
the war the odds were against him. The people regarded with 
suspicion a Yankee, as if he were seeking his own good at their 
expense, but at length Captain Snow won the lasting high regard 
of our people. For seven times he has been elected mayor of High 
Point, by all the people. 

His work in industrial life of North Carolina has been an 

MU. I. Kl.WOOl) COX, 
H 11.11 I'OINT, N. C. 

A'OA'77/ CAROUX.l. l-"i7 

important factor. In i8(.7 he sent a sintjic barrel of persinunon 
shuttle blocks to Mr. IC. .A. Thissell. of Lowell. Massachusetts, the 
first sent from the South, as an experiment. Hitherto shuttle 
blocks were made of apple trees. Captain Snow discovered that 
persimmon, dogwood and hickory timber had a commercial value. 
Men came ten miles to sec the man who was such a fool as to pay 
money for dogwood. In 1S72 he went to High Toiiit and built its 
tirst factory working^ in wood. Soon this was burned, and ho 
fiuuvl himself four hundred dollars poorer than wluii lie began 
business. I'pon borrowed money without security he began again. 

Captam Snow says: "If any man is able to say that a good 
name is capital. I am the man." For fifteen years he was the 
busiest man in the countrv. For some time all the wood business 
in High Point was under his management. lUit suddenly the 
energy of the people "broke loose," and then High Point became 
one of the greatest examples of intlustrial workmanshij). Captain 
Snow's son. Mr. F. A. Snow, and his son-in-law, Mr. J. Flwood 
Cox. entered work with him ; now in his old age they have taken 
the burden of his business, which has many times doubled itself. 

Captain Snow is a remarkable man. He is a genius in indus- 
trial development. He went to Australia to better his fortune in 
early life and built the first telegraph system south of the ec|uator 
for the Colony of \ ictoria, from Melbourne to Sydney, in Aus- 
tralia. With his knowledge of people all over the world he says 
the Xorth Carolina type of character has as high a sense of honor 
and integrity and perhai)s the best of any people on earth. 

Mr. J. Flwood Cox purchased from Captain Snow the plant 
for manufactiinng spokes and handles, shuttle blocks and bobbins. 
Gradually the business has increased until these mills are dotted 
over Xorth Carolina, and the South as well. Mr. Cox received 
his education at Guilford College, Xorth Carolina, and at Farlham 
College. Indiana. He is j)resitlent of the Globe-Home Furniture ) 
Manufacturing Company, the largest industry of the kind in the 
.^outli. having a capital stork .-t' ..n.- hundred and fiftv thousand ' 


dollars. He sells ninety per cent, of the shuttle blocks of the 

In June, 1891, Mr. Cox was elected president of the Com- 
mercial National Bank at its organization, and still holds that 
responsible position, lending his energy and business skill to its 
successful operation. Mr. Cox is connected also with many of 
the industries of High Point, and is a fine type of North Carolina 
manhood. He is much interested in the "History of Guilford 

Another one of the best business men of this "Hub of the 
Furniture and Wood Business in the South" is Mr. W. H. Ragan. 
Mr. Ragan was born in Randolph County, one of the daughter- 
counties of Old Mother Guilford. Early in life he came to Guil- 
ford and began farming and merchandising nine miles southeast 
of Greensboro, at the age of fourteen. Before the Civil War he 
went to Franklinsville, N. C, where he learned the cotton manu- 
facturing business. At the close of the war he returned to Guil- 
ford, entering into the mercantile business of the firm "Pleasants, 
Ragan & Co.," afterward the "Ragan, Millis Co.," of High Point. 

"Tell something of Mr. Ragan's work in Guilford County, 
please?" asked the author of a certain book on North Carolina. 

"Something of Mr. Ragan's work? Well, I'd like to know 
what line of honorable business he is not engaged in," responded 
the well-informed business man of Greensboro. Then, more 
kindly, "Mr. W. H. Ragan is one of the most public spirited 
county commissioners of this State. I believe he will send a copy 
of that history of Guilford County to every county commissioner 
in the State and to every public library in North Carolina. But 
to tell you, lady, something of his work. He is secretary and 
treasurer of the Eagle Furniture Company, president of the Oak- 
dale Cotton Mill at Jamestown, president of the Southern Chair 
Company, director in National Bank of High Point ; director 
in National Bank of Greensboro, director in Wachovia Loan 
and Trust Company of Winston, treasurer of the High Point 

NORTH C.-lROLIX.l. >:^« 

llanlwaro Company. He lias licUl important positions in the city 
i>t Hiijh Point ami is an export in banking: business." More than 
this still I have learned. Mr. Rapan is a pood Methodist, a man 
of tine taste and education, exemplifyintj in life the j::olden mien. 

Iliijh Point is the head of a triangle made by Deep River. 
This town is remarkable for its soberness, piety, business and 
thrift. The city has never luul a bar-room or saloon: only one 
murder case in all its history, and this was an imported affair; 
everybody works in Ilij^h Point; everybody there has a Rood 
livini:^ and. judging from the beautiful homes and other new build- 
inc:s going: "P. everyone has plenty of money to lay by. To Quaker 
influence and ancestry this city owes these pronounced character- 
istics. Moralitv, soberness, living: within one's income, thrift and 
love of work arc Quaker attributes, the inheritance of the youth of 
High Point, better than grandure, better than gold. The yearly 
meeting of Friends has been held in this town in August for years, 
this is the North Carolina city of good-will, of brotherly love. 

In a town such as this all its citizens are people of beauty 
and strength of character. When none stands up as a type above 
his fellows it is a token of special energy. When one writes, it is 
a duty to tell the truth, the truth creative, which can help some 
other to lift up his heart and take good courage. The real success 
of one good man is an inspiration to many another. The real suc- 
cess of a whole city full is a great inspiration to very many people. 
I like people who have done something. I like people who do 
things. For the sake of young people just now struggling, fight- 
ing life's battles that shall place them firmly, I like to tell of the 
success of other people, our own kin, they are; and work like 
theirs will gain recognition at last ; victory is indigenous in every 
real effort. There is no failure. Failure is like sin, a deformity. 
Our successful men have all had their struggles. 

Another one of Guilford County's successful men, and a 
resident of High Point, is Mr. J. H. Millis. He began life as a 
salesman for the Worth & Walker Comi)any of .Xsheboro. Later 


he came to Greensboro to the firm of Odell, Ragan & Co., where 
he remained two years. He became afterward a member of the 
firm of Ragan, Millis & Co., now under the name of W. H. Ragan 
& Co.. of High Point. Mr. IMiUis is largely interested in the furni- 
ture and wood business in High Point. For ten years he was 
chairman of the Board of County Commissioners for Guilford 

Mr. J. A. Lindsay is a citizen of High Point who has gained 
for himself an honorable name in the business world as an indus- 
trial leader. The Lindsay Chair Company was organized in J\Iay, 
1900; this company manufactures rocking chairs, diners, making 
twenty-five dozen chairs per day. Mr. Lindsay is also president 
of the Union Furniture Company of High Point, which manu- 
factures suites beautifully finished in golden oak. 

The High Point IMantel and Table Company was incorpor- 
ated March 15. 1900, with Messrs. E. M. Armfield, A. M. Rankin, 
Wescott Roberson as incorporators. This company makes hat 
racks, tables and kitchen safes. These goods find a great market 
all over the South and Southwestern States. 

The only complete upholstering business in North Carolina is 
f High Point Upholstering Co., which was organized in 1895 by 
\ Messrs. T. T. Wrenn, J. J. Welch, P. V. Kirkman. In fact, this 
is the only establishment South making handsome overstufl^ed 
parlor suites and pulpit and lodge furniture. Their Morris chairs 
are very beautiful and delightfully comfortable. Their leather- 
bound rockers are especially elegant. They make felt and hair 
mattresses also. 

The Southern Chair Company was incorporated in 1896 by 
W. H. Ragan, J. A. Lindsay, J. J. Welch, E. A. Snow, R. F. Dal- 
ton and others, with a capital stock of $24,000. In 1898 Mr. W. 
H. Ragan resigned as secretary and Mr. S. L. Davis was elected 
his successor. This company makes arm chairs, rocking chairs 
and dining chairs. Mr. Davis is a graduate of the University ot 
North Carolina. 

S \ni'|;\r\ ii.i; i.m;i \M!UKU, N. C. 


Th'- \ ictor Chair Company wa-^ ort^anizc-d March 21, 1901, 
with Mr. S. L. Davis as i^residcnt, Mr. \V. H. RaK^in as vice- 
lircsiileiit and Mr. Harvey l^avis as secretary and treasurer. The 
name "\ict(M-" was <Tiven it hy the secretary in honor of his 
friend. Mr. \ ictor Cl:i\ MeAdoo. of Greensboro. The \ictor 
Chair Comi)any makes a specialty of children's chairs, all j.;rades 
and designs. Mr. Davis is a University of North Carolina student 
of the class of i8<;<;. 

The Tomlinson Chair Factory was estahlislud in i«;(ki by Mr. 
1 lalstead Tomlinson. 

The Welch Furniture Company l)ei;an business in 1900. with 
Messrs. W. P. Picket, president; R. 1>. Strickland, vice-president; 
I. W. Harris, secretary and treasurer. They manufacture oak 
and parlor chamber suites. chitToniers. odd dressers, folding beds. 
Xo other factory in this State makes folding beds. This very 
successful business yields an output of $icx),C)00 yearly. 

The youngest manufacturer of High Point, the boy manufac- 
turer of Xorth Carolina, is Mr. \Villie.E. Snow, who in 1899 took 
in hand the business of the Snow Basket Company — the only 
basket factory in the State. He is a grandson of Captain Snow, 
the- father of the furniture manufacturing business in Xorth Caro- 
lina, and inherits much of his grandfather's genius for work. The 
Snow baskets are sold to the tobacco men of Wilson, Durham, 
Henderson, Oxford, Winston, Rocky Mt., Greeneville. Snow 
ba'^kets are used by the cotton growers of the eastern and southern 
section; the truckers of Mt. Olive, Faison, Kinston and all along 
the A. C. L. buy the Snow basket. 

The oldest furniture plant in High I'oint was established in 
1888 by Mr. Wrenn. The first piece of furniture made in High 
Point is a desk in the office of the High Point Furniture Company. 
This company has an average shipment of one carload per dav, 
sending its suites of furniture all over the country. 

Green logs arc brought to High Point from the forest.<? primc- 
--■! ot Guilford, Davidson. Randolph and elsewhere. This timber 


is made into the highest grade of furniture, coffins, chairs, suites, 
etc., to the finest wood workmanship. 

The McAdoo Family and their Connections. 

By Victor Clay McAdoo. 

Dr. Caruthers, speaking of the Scotch-Irish, says : "Combin- 
ing the inteUigence, orthodoxy and piety of the Scotch with the 
order and love of hberty pecuhar to the Irish, they were the most 
efficient supporters of the American cause during the struggle for 
independence; and they have done more for the support of learn- 
ing, morality and religion than any other class of people." 

Along with the first settlers of that noble race in this County 
came James and John ]\IcAdoo, and a little later, their sister, 
Nellie. They came via Charleston, S. C, and were prompted to 
leave home because their father, William, had married a second 
time, against their wishes. Upon their arrival in this section they 
took up large grants of land near Alamance Church, and settled 
there and reared large families. Nellie ]\lcAdoo married John 
Ryan and among her children was William Ryan, who took a 
prominent part in the battles of Raft's Swamp and Wetzel's Mill, 
and represented Guilford County in the Legislature of 1816-1817- 
1818. Dr. Caruthers speaks of him as "one of our most upright 
and estimable citizens." Nellie McAdoo Ryan died at the age of 
105 years, and is buried at Buffalo Church. 

John McAdoo was granted, in 1759, 640 acres near Alamance 
Church, and he and his wife, Ellen Nelson McAdoo, had among 
their children, David McAdoo, Samuel INIcAdoo, John, W^illiam 
and James McAdoo. Samuel IMcAdoo, a son of John and Ellen 
Nelson AlcAdoo, was born in Guilford County, April 10, 1760, 
and educated at Mecklenburg College, and married Henrietta 
Wheatfey. He moved with his brother-in-law, John Larkins, and 
James McAdoo's wife and children to Dickson County, Tennessee, 


Nvliore John Larkins hail hccn fjrantetl. with his brother HuK'h, two 
tliousand acres of land by North Carolina for their conspicuous 
services durinp: the Revolutionary War. Samuel McAdoo became 
a minister of ijreat distinction, and was one of the founders of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, which was organized by 
him and associates at his house in Dickson County, in 1810. 
He died in Illinois, March 30. 1844, leaving two sons and two 

James Mc.\doo married Margaret Houston, and their chil- 
dren were Mary, Sarah, Dorcas and Martha, John, William. David 
and Ezra. James Mc.\doo died in 1800. and his wife, with her 
children, moved to Dickson County, Tennessee. Mary McAdoo 
married James Larkins, Sarah married Houston, and Dorcas mar- 
ried Xesbitt. 

John Mc.Kdoo married Hannah McXeiley. and was a trustee 
of Dicki^on County for fourteen years. His brother, David, was 
sheriff of the county for six years. Among their children were 
John, Hugh and James McAdoo. James now lives at W'averly, 
Tenn, and is the oldest elder in the Cumberland Prcsbvtcrian 
Church there, and one of the largest farmers in that county. 

John M. McAdoo is the Judge of the County Court at W'av- 
erly, Tennessee, was a captain in the late war, and several times 
represented his county in the Legislature, and is now a ruling elder 
in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

Hugh ^L McAdoo was born in Dickson Couirty in 1838, and 
was educated for a lawyer. He was a captain in the late wai, 
several times member of the Legislature from Humphreys County, 
and was in 1876 elected to the Senate, being chosen its Speaker. 
He was a man of great legal ability. He died in 1894. The 
descendants of James McAdoo in Tennessee are now among the 
state's foremost citizens, and they are now residing in many of the 
Western States. Some of those who have attained prominence 
and are descendants of the McAdoo family are Samuel J. Keith, a 
banker; Dr. William Morrow, a prominent physician, and Rev. 


J. H. IMcXeilly, of Nashville, Tenn., a prominent Presbyterian 
minister: also the late Prof. William G. McAdoo, of the University 
of Tennessee, at Knoxville, and Capt. Brantley McAdoo, of Texas. 

James McAdoo married and had David, Samuel, John, James 
and William, Margaret and Jean, and granddaughter Ann Boyd. 
He died in 1802 at 94 years of age, and is buried at Alamance 

Capt. John McAdoo was a reckless fighter during the Revolu- 
tionary War, and was nicknamed "Devil John." He was killed in 
the battle of Raft's Swamp, and Caruthers says his death "was 
greatly lamented as a man of tried firmness and dauntless cour- 

William McAdoo fought at Wetzel's Mill, and rode up almost 
imder the guns of the British, and drew his wounded companion, 
Shaw, across his saddle and carried him off the field. William 
McAdoo moved to Tennessee, and his children and grandchildren 
acquired large estates in Gibson County, and one of his grand- 
sons was a captain under the command of General X. B. Forrest 
in the late war. 

I\Iy great-grandfather, David McAdoo, was born December 
7, 1760, and married Elizabeth Nicks, a daughter of George and 
Elizabeth Nicks, of Guilford County. They resided on the old 
family estate near Alamance Church, and conducted a large farm, 
Elizabeth Nicks was the daughter of George Nicks, who was one 
of the largest land owners north of the city, and they lived in 
excellent style for those days. Their children were : Calvin Nicks, 
Pleasant, Albert Y., John, Asynath and Elizabeth. 

Albert Y. McAdoo graduated at the University, and became 
a practicing physician, and died at thirty-four years of age, ]\Iay 
28, 1849. 

Asynath McAdoo died May 27, 1849. at the age of forty-two, 
never having married. 

John McAdoo lived in Greensboro, and was engaged in 
business. He never married, and died March 2^, 1872, age fifty- 
four years. 

NOKTll C.lROU.\.l. 146 

Pleasant McAdoo luarricl l-.uphrasia Gilchrist, who was a 
pranddauijhter of Wilhaiu Kvan. who married his cousin. Jean 
McAdoo. and of their children. Adolphus married Kmma lievill, 
and died at twenty-three years of aj^e. July i8, 1875. leavini,' one 
son. Adolphus McAdoo. who now resides in Xew York. 

IClla Dora McAdoo married William Iv lievill. and died 
Decemher 28. 1880. at the ai;e of twenty-five years, leavint? one 
dau.irhter, Dora lievill. 

Alhert McAdoo manird Xantiie Summers, and left at his 
death in 1901 four small children: Urantley McAdoo resides with 
his mother, and has never married. Elizaheth McAdoo married 
Col. John Milton Cunnin.q:ham. and resided ahout five miles north- 
cast of Greenshoro. and had three children : .Aut^usta and Lenora, 
who both died leavinij no chihlren. at the atj:e of twenty-two 

James Milton Cunninp^ham married Rettie Jones, a dauL^hter 
of Harriet Keen and Decanter Jones, of Pittsylvania County, \'ir- 
!:::i!iia. He died in 1881. and left five children. He was a very 
popular man and held in the hi,i,diest esteem by his friends and was 
at the time of his death sheriff of this county. Ilie Cunningham 
family were of the first settlers in this section, and were relateil to 
the old Patrick family, who were very large land owners on Haw 
River. Matthew Cunningham, a member of the family, was for 
years one of the county justices, and Col. John M. Cunningham 
was. at the time of his death, a very large land owner and slave 
holder. John Cunningham, a member of the family, was granted 
by Lord Granville 640 acres in this county in 1753. 

Calvin Xicks McAdoo, my grandfather, was born on the old 
family estate near Alamance Church, October 22, 180), and at- 
tended Caldwell Institute in Greensboro, and engaged in the mer- 
cantile business here after leaving the Institute. He formed a 
partnership with his cousin, David Scott, and the firm of Scott & 
McAdoo was one of the first to engage in business here. He was 
married to Isabella McConnell, the only daughter of Col. Walter 


McConnell and ^lartha Peeples McConnell, March 7, 1839, t^e 
ceremony being performed at the McConnell home, four miles 
east of Greensboro, by Rev. EH Cariithers. Col. Walter ]\IcCon- 
nell came to this county from near Harrisburg, Pa., when a young 
man, and engaged in farming, and conducted several large tan- 
yards in this and adjoining counties. He married Martha, a 
daughter of Capt. Lewis Peeples and Jane Hicks Peeples. 

David Peeples, father of Capt. Lewis Peeples, was one of 
the early settlers in this county, and took up large grants of land 
on Jacob's Creeek and Haw River, and I judge from the number 
of grants recorded in this county to him that he must have been 
among the largest land owners in the county. 

Capt. Lewis Peeples inherited a great deal of property from 
his father, and he lived in style and luxury for those days. He 
was born December 22, 1760, and died December 29, 1828, and 
left a son, Col. Allen Peeples, who was a man of prominence in 
this county for years. He was a member of the Legislature in 
1830, 1 83 1, 1832 and 1833, and married Betsy Braziel. Capt. P. 
A. Peeples. a son of Col. Allen Peeples, was mortally wounded 
at Gaines' Mills, in 1862. Another son. Dr. Pinkney Peeples, was, 
at the time of his death, president of the National Bank at Jack- 
son, Miss. Col. Allen Peeples left here before the War with his 
family, and went to ]\Iississippi, where his children married, and 
are prominent people in that State. 

Col. Walter McConnell had one son, Washington McConnell, 
who married Mrs. Garvin, of Rhode Island, and they had two 
children, Dr. Charles McConnell and Lola McConnell ^IcLeod, 
who now live in Boston, JMass. Col. McConnell built for his son, . 
Washington, the large brick storehouse on West Market Street 
now owned by Mrs. C. C. Gorrell, and built a home for him, also, 
on West Market Street, now occupied by Mrs. M. A. Winstead. 

The store conducted by Washington McConnell was, before 
the War, the principal store in Greensboro, except the store con- 
ducted on East Market Street by my grandfather, C. N. McAdoo. 


Washiiifjton McConnoll ilicd in St. Louis, October 21, 1865. My 
grandfather. Calvin X. McAiloo. and wife, Isabella McConnell 
McAdtx\ resided at their home at the corner of Gorrrell and Ashe- 
boro Streets, and iheir children were: WaUer David, born Jan- 
uary 28. 1840; Martha Klizabcth. born May. 1842, died September 
20. 1843: \'ictor Clay, born March 25. 1845. died November 5, 
iS-8: \Villiam Calvin, born May 25, 1848, died April 8, 1878. 

Calvin Xicks McAdoo was for years the most successful 
merchant in this county, and conducted branch stores at Madison 
and Graham, his business extending: over several surrounding 
counties. He was one of the organizers of the Greensboro 
National r»ank, and a director in it at the time of his death. He 
ilietl April 24. 1887. and left one of the largest estates in the 
county. "For more than half a century he was connected with 
the active business affairs of Greensboro and Guilford County. 
He was scrupulously correct in all his dealings and probably had 
more transactions with his fellow-citizens than any man who has 
lived here. His strong intellect held to the last. His was a busy 
life. He was always considerate of the feelings and rights of 
those in his employ. His loss will be keenly felt throughout the 
county and many will sincerely mouni his death. One more of 
the few remaining early settlers of Greensboro has released his 
grasp on this world and passed over to join the great majority." 
C'Capt. W. S. Bali in Greensboro Xortli State.) 

My father, \'ictor Clay McAdoo, was educated at Wilson's 
School and the University of North Carolina, and joined Company 
I, Fifth North Carolina Cavalry, Capt. Nathaniel Rankin, Gor- 
don's Brigade, Stuart's Division, Army of Northern \'irginia, and 

Note: The name McAdoo ha« stood for much in the commercial life of C;uilford 
Countv. It has been like a business backbone in Grcen>boro since the founding ol the 
city. \o McAdoo ever failc<l in business, or failed to pay a debt, or to make money. The 
McAdoos love real estate and know how to hold on to it. The genuine McAdoo'has no 
fibre of stin|;iness in him. but "you can't hoodoo a McAdoo."' I'hey have a clearer per- 
ception of justice than some folks, and have a way of recoifnizinf; goo'd in others. Met>srs. 
Victor Clay and Thomas J. .McAdoo have belived in the South as the great field of future 
literature. .More than one writer of rccnenition can take otV his hat to these men. They 
love the old North State. 1 h« McAdoo family have some pride ot race and sense of honor 
for the name inherited from a noble line. Honor to whom honor i* due. 

Sali.ik Walker Stockard. 


was in the battles of Ream's Station, Stoney Creek and Yellow 
Tavern. He was wounded several times and given his parole in 
Virginia at the close of the War, He married Nannie Witcher 
Jones, a member of the families of Jones, Keenes and Witchers, 
of Virginia. They have three sons, Thomas Jones, Victor Clay 
and Calvin Nicks. 

William Calvin AIcAdoo was educated at Wilson's School, 
the University of North Carolina and Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, Virginia. He was engaged in business in this city and 
died at thirty years of age, never having married. 

Walter David McAdoo was educated at Wilson's School and 
Dickinson College, Pennsylvania. He joined the army at the 
breaking out of the W^ar and fought bravely till severely wounded 
at Gettysburg, on which field he was commissioned Major, but 
never was able to accept the commission. After the close of the 
War he married Aliss Josie A. Moore, of Virginia, and has two 
children, William and Mary. 


As far as is known, all the Armfields in America have sprung 
from the same source, i. e., from English Quakers in the north of 
England, where the family is still numerous. And although the 
majority of them have drifted away from the old church, yet they 
still exhibit many Quaker traits, such as honesty, thrift and sim- 
plicity. It is believed that they are of Anglo-Saxon stock, judging 
from the name and from the florid complexion and light hair of the 
older members of the family in this country. But the name is now 
common in Sweden, and a Count \'on Armfeldt was a brilliant 
general under the meteoric Charles XH. of Sweden. (See Enc. 

The original John Armfield, from whom all the Armfields of 
whom we know were descended, was born in the north of England 
in 1695. He was a strict Quaker and a school-teacher by profes- 
sion. He and his young wife came with a colony of Quaker emi- 


HK.ll I-DINT, X. C. 

.Vt)/v'77/ C.iROU.Wl. 149 

j^-rants io riiiladtlphia in 171H. Afterward he moved to Hucks 
Count V. Pennsylvania, wlure he houpjht a farm and taujjht scIkxjI. 
He had tive sons and three dauj^'hters. About i-rK) John and his 
oiliest son. William, together with a company of twenty men and 
thirty horses, came to North Carolina on an explorinj^ expedition. 
For the greater part of the way they traveled throuj^h dense for- 
ests of unpopuK^ted country and located in Rowan County, now 
the northern part of Ciuilford. This proved to be a favored sec- 
tion, as there were no Indian settlements in this particular locality. 

This band of ailvcnturers avoided the Indians as much as 
p<issible. though the savages did not seem to be very hostile at 
that time, for they often ran off and slii)ped away from the white 
men. These emigrants had no sources of living except game, 
wliich was found in large quantities, and consisted of bear, deer, 
buffalo, wild turkeys and squirrels. Their horses fared sumptu- 
ously on the grass and pea-vines which covered every spot not 
covered with leaves. There was no undergrowth at that time, but 
the whole country was a vast forest of large timber. 

Their horses were herded in a pen, with one or more men to 
guard them. This pen was built on a creek which therefore 
became known as Horse-Pen Creek. The Indians once endeavored 
to stampede their horses, but failed. However, the emigrants be- 
came alarmed anil moved their camp and settled on Deep River, 
at a point near the present Coltrane's Mill. Game was not quite 
so abundant there, but the river furnished quantities of fine fish. 

Having remained in North Carolina about three years, they 
packed up, loadmg some of the extra horses with furs, dressed 
hides and a few relics, and returned to Pennsylvania. 

In 1765 John Armfield and wife, with their sons, viz., Wil- 
liam. John. Robert, Isaac and Thomas, and a number of their 
neighbors, sold their furniture and set out for North Carolina. 
The three daughters were married, and remained in Pennsvlvania. 
There were about one hundrefl men. besides women and children, 
all traveling horseback. John Armfield acted as leader, as he was 


acquainted with the route. It took nearly two months to make 
the journey. Several families came from Nantucket, via Penn- 
sylvania, and John Armfield and others joined them and all came 
on to North Carolina together. The party reached its destination 
the last of May, 1765. 

Upon their arrival in North Carolina, John Armfield and 
family settled on South Buffalo, about one-quarter of a mile 
southwest of Pomona or Salem Junction. Their first log-house 
stood a short distance north of the present railroad tracl<:, a little 
over three miles from Greensboro, on land now owned by J. Van 
Lindley. The Ballingers settled west of New Garden Meeting 
House, on land which is still owned by the family. The Iddinges 
settled on the road which leads from Greensboro to Guilford Col- 
lege at a place which became later the home of the late Joshua 
Lindley. The Hodgins settled in what is now South Guilford; 
the \\"orths still farther south on Deep River, in the present county 
of Randolph, and also in South Guilford, near Centre. The Stu- 
arts built their home near the headwaters of Deep River, in south- 
west Guilford. The Coffins settled in northwest Guilford, near 
the Ballingers ; the Mendenhalls on Deep River, which place is 
now known as Old Jamestown. The Gardners lived east of James- 
town. The names of other families have become extinct, on ac- 
count of emigration to the West. 

As only two of John Armfield's sons, William and Isaac, had 
families and remained in North Carolina, we will trace each 
branch separately and mention the other three sons in the proper 

John Armfield, who came from England, had five sons, whose 
names were given above as follows : William, John, Robert, Isaac 
and Thomas. William, the oldest son of John, was born in Penn- 
sylvania in 1720, married Mary Hamilton there about 1745. They 
had sA^en sons: William (Little Billy), Robert. Nathan, Solomon, 
Jonathan, David and John; also three daughters. One daughter 
married a Fields, another a Macy, and the third a Barnet. Wil- 


liam moved to the Worth Settlement, in southern Guilford, now 
Centre, about 1770. and tojjjether with his brother-in-law, Hamil- 
ton, opened a blacksmith ami waj^on shop. At the bey:innin^ of 
the Revolution, his father. John, beinjj very old, persuaded Wil- 
liam to sell out and return to the old homestead. This he did. and 
manaijed the farm very successfully, and took care of his father 
until his death in 1702, in his ninety-seventh year. John Armtield, 
ami later his sons William and Isaac, were buried in the N'ew Gar- 
den c:raveyard. 

William was a strict Quaker and took no active part in the 
\\ ar \uuil shortly before the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. The 
Tories made a raid in advance of the armies. They went to his 
house and took six horses, twenty or thirty head of cattle, all his 
corn, bacon and such articles of clothing, bedding, etc., as they 
wanted. William implored the Tories to leave him one favorite 
black horse, as he had a large famliy, but they mocked him and 
went away, leaving him only one poor, sickly calf. 

At this point William Armfield lost his Quakerism for a 
time. He shouldered his musket and, pretending that he was 
going to hunt, he set out to join the Continental Army. The 
morning of the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, he went to head- 
quarters at New Garden Meeting House and said to General 
Greene: "General. I have come to help thee out today." The 
General smiled at his broad-brimmed hat and Quaker coat, but at 
William's urgent request, he gave him a place in Joe Lovett's 
company, where he fought all day. Joe Lovett was a private 
soldier and a great friend of William Armfield. When the latter 
reached home that night, weary and worn out. his wife asked : 
"William, where is thy game." He replied : "The game I killed 
was not worth bringing home." 

William Armfield married the second time. Mrs. Lydia Fields, 
the widow of a soldier who was killed in the P.attle of King's 
Mountain. She had ten Fields children and her husband. William 
Armfield. had eleven children bv his first wife. Marv Hamliton. 


They had two more children after their marriage, which made 
twenty-three in all. One of the last two died early ; the other was 
Joseph B., from whom much of this history was obtained. He 
lived to be ninety-six years old and remembered his grandfather, 
John Armfield, of England. Much of this information was writ- 
ten down at his dictation about twenty-five years ago by his 
grandson, G. Will Armfield, of Greensboro. 

William Jr. (Little Billy), oldest son of William, the first, 
married Bettie Greeen, of Jamestown. They had four sons, Jacob, 
Robert, William and Isaac; and three daughters. One married 
John Macy, another Christopher Hiatt, and the other John Un- 
thank. "Little Billy" lived to be ninety-nine years old. 

Jacob, oldest son of William Jr., married Ann Stevenson, 
sister to the wife of his half-uncle, Joseph B. Jacob's sons were 
as follows : Hiram, Alfred, Tillman, Isaac, Paris and Elam. His 
daughters were: Jane, Diana and Susan. Hiram married Jane 
Carmichael. Alfred married Polly Iddings, sister of Meshach 
Iddings, who was the manufacturer of the celebrated Iddings 
augers, Diana married Joseph Iddings. The entire family of 
Jacob went to Indiana in 1831. This ends all our knowledge of 
his branch of the family. 

Robert, William Jr.'s second son, married a Bland. He had 
five sons, who were: William Nelson, John T., Robert Franklin, 
Alexander and Morehead. William Nelson married Aliss ]^Ioon. 
Their children were: John F., Julius, William E., jMary ]\Iay, 
Alice Lee and Sarah. John F., oldest son of Nelson, married 
Rosa Holmes and went to the West. He has five sons : John, 
William, Robert, Frederick and Nelson. Julius, second son of 
Nelson, married Leanna Reich. He died and left a widow and 
one son, Claud, who lives in Winston. William E., Nelson's 
third son, married Ella Shore. Their children's names are as 
follows : Walter, Weldon, Duke, Allen and Ruth. Mary May, 
Nelson's oldest daughter, married Harper Cummings. Their sons 
are Cyrus and Charles. Alice Lee, second daughter of Nelson, 


marricil C. F. IVrry. Their cliildrcn an- Aldcii and P.yron. 
Sarah, voung^est daughter of Xolsoii. married KuKcne X'auKdin, 
antl lias two children. Sadie and Xelson. John T., second son 
of Rohert. studied medicine under Dr. Coffin, at Jamestown. He 
practiced in South Carolina, where he married a Miss Campbell 
and then moved to Alabama. P.oth are dead. They left several 
children, whose names we are unable to give. 

Robert Franklin, third son of Robert, married a Miss Deimy. 
Their sons are Charles H.. Josei)h. James and Robert, and there 
are three daujjhters. Robert Franklin was the well-known Juds:^e 
Armfield. of Statcsville. who was one of the State's most g^ifted 
sons. He served as Colonel in the Confederate Army, as Con- 
g^ressman for two terms, as Lieutenant-Governor of the State, and 
as Jud,c:e of the Superior Court. But he was perhaps g^reatest as 
a criminal lawyer. He defended many men in the most noted, 
murder cases in the State, and was successful without exception. 

His oldest son. Charles H.. is bearinj^ his name and wearing 
his father's mantle worthily. Another son, Joseph, was the bril- 
liant and admired young Colonel of the First North Carolina 
Regiment, which served in Cuba during the W'^ar with Spain. 
Alexander, fourth son of Robert, married in Georgia. 

Robert, second son of William the first, was a soldier in the 
American Army and died during the Revolution. Nathan, third 
son of William the first, married Polly Dempsey. They lived near 
Pleasant Garden Church. Nathan represented Guilford in the 
State Senate for years. He went South, returned with yellow 
fever, but recovered. He died in 1839. One of his sons severely 
cut his foot with an axe and died at the age of sixteen. The other, 
John, went to Tennessee and became a slave-trader, being a mem- 
ber of the firm of .A.rmficld & Franklin. He amassed a large for- 
time. He had an elegant summer home at Beersheba Springs, in 
the Cumberland Mountains, and winter homes in Alexandria, Va., 
and in New Orleans, where Jie and his wife lived and entertained 
in princely style. He was one of the original founders and 


trustees of the University of the South, at Sewanee, Tenn. He 
left a widow and an adopted daughter, who Hve at Belle Air, Md., 
the latter being the wife of ex-Congressman Archer. 

Solomon, fourth son of William the first, married Thankful 
Cummings. Three sons and as many daughters were born to 
them. Their names were: William Addison, Allen, Calvin, Ma- 
linda, Elvira and Jane. 

William Addison, oldest son of Solomon, married and had 
three sons. They were : Dr. John, Jesse and Solomon. John went 
to Indiana. He has two sons living at Elwood, Ind., Orla, a law- 
yer, being one. Jesse and Solomon both went West. Allen, sec- 
ond son of Solomon, never married. He went to California dur- 
ing the gold fever, then to Missouri, where he died. Calvin, Solo- 
mon's third son, married first in eastern North Carolina, again in 
Indiana, and was living there in 1900. Malinda, oldest daughter 
of Solomon, married Allen Short. Elvira never married, but 
Jane married Andrew Kirkman. The following are their chil- 
dren : Calvin, Alpheus, James and a Mrs. Jarvis. Calvin married 
Adela Armfield, daughter of Ithamar. Alpheus married a J\Iiss 

Jonathan, fifth son of William the first, went to Indiana and 
died of cholera during the War of 1812. 

David, sixth son of W^illiam the first, married Betsy Trotter. 
They had a large family, who were all prominent people in their 
day. Their names were as follows : Solomon, Jonathan, Needham, 
Hamilton, Abner, Ensley, Betsy and Jane. 

Solomon, oldest son of David, married a Aliss Bland. Their 
children are these: John, Jesse Lee, Solomon, ^Mary Alag and 
Asenath, who died unmarried. John, Solomon's oldest son, mar- 
ried Roxana Patterson. They had two sons and a daughter — 
Edgar, William Ensley and Clara. His second wife was Belle 
Wiley. He lives ten miles south of Greensboro. Jesse Lee, second 
son of Solomon, married Nannie Kirkman. Their children are: 
Charles, who married Miss Groome; Minnie, now ]\Irs. Lee 


Groonie. who has several children; and Genevieve, wife of Chas. 
Covin^rton. of HiRh Point. Jesse Lee and his children, with the 
except io!i of the last-named, live near Jamestown. Solomon, third 
.son of Solomon, never married, but lives one mile east of James- 

Marv yiaix. daui;htcr of Solomon, married J. M. Wharton. 
a merchant of Jamestown. They have no children. 

Jonathan, second son of David, married Sarah IJrown. of 
Iredell County. They had three children: Matthew. Luther and 
Lou. r>oth .sons went West. The dau.t,diter died receiuly. un- 

Xeedham. third son of David, married and moved to Georjjia. 
His son Lmsley is now Clerk of the County Court at Monroe, 
X. C. Emsley married Rachel Phifer, ami they have a large and 
interestinij family, whose names are as follows : Ella. Alice. Frank, 
Davis. Rufus. Wilma, Lina and Emsley. Ella is now Mrs. W. S. 
Lee. and has six children. Alice married Major W. C. Heath. 
They have three children. Frank is a prominent young lawyer 
in Monroe. Rufus married Lola Houston. All live in Monroe. 
Kmsley served in the Civil War. His only brother, Frank, served 
four years in the Confederate Army and was killed at .Appomattox, 
two days before Lee's surrender and a few months after his mar- 
riage to Ellen Houston, daughter of the late Hugh Houston, of 

Hanulton. fourth son of David, married Thankful Short. 
Their sons are Xeedham, David the Doctor, Jonathan and Allen, 
and their daughters, Bettie. Emeline, Mary and Corinna. Xeed- 
ham. oldest son of Hamilton, married a Ward. Their children 
are Rhodema, Walter. Xona, Eugenia Mary, John and Emma. 

Dr. David, second son of Hamilton, married Delia Sapp. 
luigene S., Carl and Earl are their sons. Their daughter, \^era, 
married Dr. Foscue. 

Jonathan, third son of Hamilton, died at the close of the War 
from exposure in the service. .Allen, fourth son of Hamilton, 


married Miss Ford and went to Kansas. Bettie, daughter of 
Hamilton, married a Crow and lives in Randolph County. Mary, 
second daughter of Hamilton, married Julian Kirkman, and moved 
to Indiana. Corinna, youngest daughter of Hamilton, married 
J. M. Moon. 

Abner, fifth son of David, married Hannah Wilson. They 
had three children : Wilson, Oliver and Emily, who married Mon- 
roe Kirkman. 

Emsley, sixth and youngest son of David, married Jane 
McGibony. Their only child. Roxie, married Hon. John L. King, 
and resides in Greensboro. Emsley Armfield was a successful 
financier. He was Chairman of the Board of County Commis- 
sioners for years. 

Betsy, oldest daughter of David, married Col. James Millis. 
They had three sons and two daughters, all of whom died young 
except J. Henry Millis and Mary. Henry married Cornelia 
Walker, of Asheboro. He is a prominent manufacturer and busi- 
ness man of High Point, and served as Chairman of the Board 
of County Commissioners for ten years. His children are Albian, 
Edwin and Sallie, who married William Armfield, son of Wyatt. 
Henry Millis' older daughter, Mary, died at the age of nineteen. 

Mary, daughter of James Millis, married Samuel Walker, of 
Asheboro. Their children are: James Walker, of High Point; 
Emma, now Mrs. C. W. Worth, of Wilmington, and Annie, who 
is Mrs. James H. Pou, of Raleigh. 

Jane, David's other daughter, married John W^iddows. They 
had one son and two daughters, all of whom died unmarried. 

John, seventh and last son of William Armfield by his first 
wife, married a Miss Avery and went to Tennessee. His oldest 
son, John, volunteered and went into the War of 1812. He fought 
in the Battle of New Orleans. It is tradition in the family that 
he killed the British officer Packingham with his father's rifle, and 
that that turned the tide of battle in the Americans' favor. All 
trace of this branch of the family has been lost. This ends the 

NORTH C.'lKOUX.t. 157 

liistory of the cliildron of William Armtkld hy his first wifr. Mary 
1 1 ami It on. 

A few years after his wife's death William Armfield married 
Mrs. Lydia Julian Fields, the widow of a Revolutionary soldier 
who was killed at the P.attle of Kinj^^'s Mountain. She was the 
mother of ten children hy her first hushand. After her marriac^e 
to William Armfield she had two sons. One died younj::; the 
other was Joseph 11. .Armfield. He was horn in \y^$ and i^acw 
up to he an honorable and uprit^ht man, prominent in church 
affairs and in the county. Mis wife was Xellie Stevenson, sister 
of Robert Stevenson, the noted wheelwriij^ht and wapon-maker. 
I le made both the larjrc spinninjij-wheels and the small Ha.x-wheels 
which were in use in nearly every household at that time. 

Joseph 15. remained with his father William at the old home- 
stead on lUiffalo. near Pomona, until his father's death. Some- 
time afterward he sold this orig^inal homestead, which was settled 
by John Armfield, of Pennsylvania and Enj^land, and bought a 
farm on P.ull Run Creek, two miles northeast of Jamestown, where 
he anil his faithful wife lived for more than si.xty years, until her 
death in 1875. They were strict Primitive Baptists for half a 
century and attended church rcs^ularly at Abbott's Creek. Joseph 
r.. was a stronc]^ L'nion man before and durinj^ the War, and a 
Grant Republican. He voted in every Presidential election from 
I Serf') to and includinfj 1880. He remained at his home until a few 
weeks before his death, when he went to visit his daujc:hter. Char- 
lotte Gardner, who lived at the Gardner Hill mine. Althout^h he 
was i)erfectly blind, he expressed ijreat rejT^ret upon leavinjj his old 
home, sayinc^ that he feared that he would never be there as^ain. 
Soon after he was taken sick and died, after an illness of two 
weeks. His phvsician said that he was without disease and that 
his death was entirely due to old age. 

He was over ninety-five years old. His mind was clear and 
liis memory perfect to the last, and it was from him, as has been 
said, that the greater part of this history was obtained. He was 


literally "the last leaf upon the tree," as he was the youngest of 
the thirteen children of William Armfield, the son of John Arm- 
field, who came from England. He outlived all his brothers and 
sisters, many cousins of the same name and all the associates of his 
early youth. 

The sons of Joseph B. were the following: Julian, Jesse, 
Ithamar, Joseph S. and John J. Julian, the oldest, married Han- 
nah Iddings, and settled on the southeast quarter of his father's 
farm, now known as the Capt. John Endy place. In 1849, while 
his children, Isaac, Alpheus and Sarah, were not yet grown, he 
moved to Indiana, where he died. Isaac, son of Julian, married 
and moved from Indiana to Iowa, where his children now reside, 
Alpheus died in Indiana. Sarah married and moved to Kansas. 

Jesse, second son of Joseph B., died at the age of twenty- 
five, a bright and promising man. 

Ithamar, third son of Joseph B., married Martha Gates, and 
settled north of his birthplace, where he still lives at an advanced 
age. His children are Albert, Elizabeth and Adela. Albert mar- 
ried Emily Hassell during the Civil War. He served through the 
war with his uncle, John Armfield, was captured at Appomattox 
two days before Lee's surrender and was taken to Point Lookout 
Prison, where he was kept six months. A few years after the 
War he died. He had two sons, James and Frank, and several 
daughters. James married and lives in Pilot ]\Iountain^ and Frank 
lives in High Point. 

Elizabeth, daughter of Ithamar, married James Ledwell, and 
died several years ago. Adela married Calvin Kirkman, who is 
yardmaster for the Southern Railway in Greensboro. They have 
three sons, Albert, Alexander and Calvin (all train-dispatchers), 
and two daughters. 

Joseph S., fourth son of Joseph B., was born in 1823. His 
wife was Nellie Iddings, daughter of Mark Iddings, and settled 
near Jamestown. He was an expert gunsmith and was a mei^iber 
of the firm of Lamb & Armfield, who made the famous Lamb Ken- 

XORTH C.lROLLWl. 1<>» 

tucky rifles. They maiuifacturcil these pms ami sent them in 
wa.ijons to the various courts throughout western Xortli Carolina 
and over into Tennessee and Kentucky. Joseph S. suffered many 
hardships during; the War on account of his strong, outspoken 
I'nion principles. He died in 1887 at the age of sixty-four, and 
was interred in Deep River churchyard. 

Joseph S. had oidy two children. Geor}j:e Williamson and 
Melvina. O. Will married in 1875 Ksther Wakefield, dau^'hter of 
the late Henry Wakefield, who was a native of England and came 
to Canada and thence to North Carolina. She is also a sister of 
Dr. W. H. Wakefield, of Charlotte. G. Will settled in Greensboro, 
where he engaged in merchandising in the dry goods line, first as 
salesman with Houston & Causey, succeeded by Houston & Bro. 
Then he became a member of the firm of Brown & Armfield. but 
latter carried on a successful business under his own name until 
1893, when he closed out to Thackcr & Brockman. 

He has had five sons and two daughters: Josei)h, now in 
Greensboro P. O. ; Mrytle; Clay, electrician for McAdoo Tele- 
phone Co. ; Hazel, whose tragic accidental death on August 26, 
i<>oi, has forever marred the bright and happy home ; Roy, George 
and Hugh. 

Melvina. daughter of Joseph S.. marricil Franklin Frazier. 
and lives at Gladesboro. She has no children. 

John J., youngest son of Joseph B., married Lydia Hill, and 
settled near his father's home. He was superintendent of the 
Lamb Armory, which was broken up about six months before the 
close of the War, when he was conscripted and taken to the army. 
Two days before Lee's surrender, he was captured, and then 
l)laced in Point Lookout Prison, where he died a few days after 
the assasination of Lincoln. He left a wife, one son and two 
daughters, Mary L. and Laura, who married Prof. J. M. Weath- 
erly. She has three sons, Carl, John and Ralph. John J.'s son, 
Nathan, went to Indiana. 

Lydia, oldest daughter of Joseph B.. married John P.artley. 


Their sons were R. IMadison and John. The latter went to Indi- 
ana at the beginning of the Civil War. R. ]\Iadison married a 
Miss Barker, and settled at Avon, Ind. Their children's names 
are Erastus, Orla and Nellie, all of whom are married and live 
in their native State. The daughters of Lydia and John Bartley 
were Mary, Eleanor and Charlotte. None ever married. 

Charlotte, second daughter of Joseph B., married John Gard- 
ner, the original owner of the Gardner Hill mine. She had one 
son, Jesse, who married Louisa Freeman. He and his one child, 
Mary, are dead. 

Lavinia, third daughter of Joseph B., died in 1820, while a 

Patience, the fourth daughter, married Jabez Stephens, and 
had ten children, all of whom are dead except Jesse F., who is a 
Pullman car conductor, and lives in Greensboro. 

Eleanor, fifth daughter of Joseph B.', married William Reece, 
Jr., of Randolph County. He died while a soldier, in 1864. She 
has several children. 

Mary Ann, youngest daughter of Joseph B., married Donnell 
Burney. This ends the history thus far obtainable of the family 
of Joseph B. Armfield. 

John, Jr., second son of the original John Armfield, mar- 
ried and brought his wife from Pennsylvania, settled southeast of 
his father, on South Buffalo, near the present Vandalia. He had 
a small family, and moved west, probably to Tennessee. We have 
no further account of him or his family. 

Robert, third son of the original John Armfield, married in 
Pennsylvania, just before he came to North Carolina. He settled 
on the headwaters of South Buffalo. While he was out hunting 
one day, the Indians killed and scalped his wife and child. He 
never married again. Although he was a Quaker and therefore 
exempt from service, he fought through the Revolutionary War, 
and served as a Regular, fighting the Indians after the War. He 
died at his brother William's house not long after the Revolu- 


Isaac, fourtli son of the original John AnnfKld. inarricd a 
Miss I'.rown. and lived on a farm tuar his father's place on South 
r.uflalo. He fouf^dit with the North Can>lina militia at the Uattle 
of C.uilford Courthouse. Althouj,di he had six sons, there are very 
few of his descendants, beariufj; the name, now livinjj in Guilford 
County. These were his sons: John. William. Robert, Joseph C, 
Isaac and Jacob. His dauj^hters were Ann and Betsy. Johtt. the 
oldest son. moved to Shelby County. Tennessee, about 1810. One 
of his daujjhters married a Zarecor, and her grandson, J. H, 
Zarecor, is now a prominent lawyer in Nashville. Tenn. 

William, second son of Isaac the first, familiarly known as 
"Sheriff Billy." was a well-known figure in his day and time. He 
was County Treasurer and Sheriff of Guilford for a number tf 
years, being Sheriff at the time the courthouse was move 1 from 
Martinsville to Greensboro. He married Hannah Greene and 
lived near Pomona. They had a large family, their children being 
Isaac. Robert. Hans. Joseph. William Cameron, John, Jacob, 
Hannah. Betsy, Jennie, Sallie and Delilah. 

Isaac, oldest son of '"SherifT Billy," married a Miss Hoskins. 
Their son, Joseph, lives with his family on Deep River, near Free- 
man's Mill. 

Robert, second son of "Sheriff Billy," married Miss Lovett. 
Their son, Boston, died in the Confederate Army, and their 
daughter married a Hayworth. 

Hans, "Sheriff Billy's" third son, was educated at Chapel 
Hill. He built an academy near Jamestown, where he taught 
school about ten years. Later, he moved to Jackson, Miss., where 
he practiced law. He was married before leaving this State to 
Lucinda, daughter of George Gardner. They died in Mississippi, 
without children. 

Joseph, fourth son of "Sheriff Billy." lived near Kernersville. 
His children were William, Joseph, Tabitha and Mary Ann 
William moved to Pennsylvania and Joseph to Texas. Mary Ann 
married a King, a brother of Hon. John L. King. 


William Cameron, fifth son of "Sheriff Billy," went to South 
Carolina and married there. He was a practicing physician for 
many years. He died there, leaving two or three children. 

John, sixth son of "Sheriff Billy," lived in Rockingham 
County, and was never married. 

Jacob, seventh and youngest son of "Sheriff Billy," also lived 
in Rockingham. He married IMiss Bland, and had one daughter, 
Rose, w^ho is Mrs. Wooters, and lives in Richmond, Va. 

Hannah, daughter of "Sheriff" Billy," married Hezekiah John- 
ston, who was the father of J. Harper Johnston, of High Point. 
The latter has four daughters, Mrs. W. G. Bradshaw, ]\Irs. O. E. 
Kearns, INIrs. C. C. Wilson of Florida and Alice. Jennie, another 
daughter of "Sheriff" Billy," married a Coe, and Sally married a 
Burton. Betsy died single. 

Robert, third son of Isaac the first, died young. 

Joseph C. was the fourth of the six sons of Isaac, who came 
from Pennsylvania with his father, John. Joseph C. was born 
January 3, 1776, therefore a subject of George III. He married 
Elizabeth Beeson. In 1 795 he bought a farm on Deep River, near 
the present town of High Point, where some of his descendants 
still reside. Joseph C. held positions of trust in the county and 
in his church. He was coroner for years and deacon of the old 
Baptist Church at Jamestown. The following were his children: 
Richard Beeson, Wyatt J., Sallie, Mary, Betsy and Laura. Of 
these, Richard Beeson was the only one who remained in the 
State and married. He married Annie Chipman, and lived on 
Deep River his v/hole life. He w'as an upright man, honest and 
truthful to the core. His was a character without sham or pre- 
tense, and his long life of toil and saving and simplicity was an 
open book wherein all true and honest men might read. 

Wyatt J., only son of Beeson, grew to manhood in the 
troubled times of the Civil War. He started out in business in 
1866 without capital, and now, after thirty-five years of honest 
endeavor, economy and good judgment, he has accumulated a 


lari^c fortune. He was enga^^il in the juirsery husincss for many 
years ami haiulled larije «iuantities of fruit aud ornamental trees, 
sending: salesmen throup;hout the country from Xew York to Xew 
Orleans, and as far west as the Mississippi. 

Later, he went into the banking: business, and is now a direc- 
tor of eicrht banks in the counties of Guilford. Randolph, Davic- 
son. Rix'kiuijham. .Mamance. Montj^omery and Davie. All these 
hanks are uniformly successful. His first comiectlon with a bank 
was ma>Ie in 1876. when he became director of the National Bank 
of Greensboro. In 1886 he was elected president of the National 
r.ank of Hijjh Point, and in 1896 director of the Greensboro 
National I'ank. In 1897 he was made vice-president of the Batik 
of Rantlolph. Asheboro. He is the larg^est stockholder in each of 
the three banks last mentioned. 

He also invests e.xtensively in stocks, bonds and loans on his 
personal account, and is considered very fortunate. He assures 
his friends that he has g;iven only one note and endorsed only one 
as surety, and never has overdrawn his bank account during his 
entire business career. 

In i8<'>8 he married Jennie Britt. daughter of W. O. P.ritt. of 
Nashville. Tenn. Their children are as follows. Eugene M., Wil- 
liam J.. Frank, Jesse, lilanche ( Mrs. R. T. Pickens, of Lexington) 
and Lucile.* 

Eugene M. .the oldest, has been cashier of the National Bank 
of High Point since 1888. He is also president of the Bank of 
Thomasville and president of the Bank of Alamance, Graham. 
N. C. He is interested in various manufacturing enterprises in 
High Point, and is easily one of the ablest and most progressive 
business men among the young men of the State. He was the 
leading spirit in the establishment of a chain of banks which 
covers seven counties. He has a mind wonderful for its breadth 
of grasp and accuracy of detail, and also an unusual memory. 

* Sonifs from the Carolina Hills is a bonk of poems written by Nf iss Lucile Armfield. 
She is A clear and bcauuful writer and one of Norili Carolina's gifted women. 


Though his time is largely taken up with his business, he is a 
man of culture and scholarly tastes, and is at all times loyal to his 
Alma Mater, the University of North Carolina, of which he is a 
trustee. He has lately established the Armfield Scholarship at 
the University. 

William J., second son of Wyatt J., is cashier of the Bank of 
Randolph, Asheboro, N. C, and president of the Bank of Mont- 
gomery, Troy, N. C. In February, 1900, he married Sallie ^Nlillis, 
daughter of Henry Millis, of High Point. They have one son, 
Britt Millis Armfield. 

Jesse L., youngest son of Wyatt, has been cashier of the Bank 
of Thomasville since he was seventeen years old. He is also 
treasurer of the Thomasville Manufacturing Co., and secretary of 
the Lambeth Furniture Co. 

Mary, daughter of Beeson, married 1. H. White, and has 
eight children. 

Wyatt J., younger son of Joseph C, died in 1843, ^ short 
time before his nephew and namesake, the present Wyatt J., was 
born. He was about twenty-tive years old and unmarried. 

Mary, daughter of Joseph C, married John Chipman, and 
moved to Texas. Betsy married Enoch Stevens ; Sallie, Obed 
Chipman, and Laura, Albert Dillon. These three, with their hus- 
bands, moved to Missouri many years ago. 

Isaac, Jr., fifth son of Isaac the first, lived near the present 
\^andalia. The following were his children : Martin, Harmon, 
]\Iark, Isaac, Jacob, Polly and Jennie. Martin, oldest son of 
Isaac, Jr., married and had one daughter, Isabella, who died 

Harmon, second son of Isaac, Jr., married Delitha Wilson, 
in 1837, and went to Tennessee. They had five children, as fol- 
lows : Jane, Mary, Andrew, William and Jesse. 

Jane married James Lockman ; her children are : W. W. 
Lockman, Bolivar, Tenn. ; Mrs. Leona Stewart, Blythesville, Ark.; 
A. L. Lockman, Janesville, Ala.; Mrs. Cora Milstead and Mrs. 
Mattie ^liistead, of Cranesville, Tenn. 


Marv. second daiij^htor of llarinon, married Dr. William 
Thompson, and they live with their only dauj^hter, Cora, in 
I'.olivar. Tenn. 

Andrew. oMest son of Harmon, was lost in the Civil War. 

William, second son of Harmon, died in 1885 at .\rkadelphia. 
Ark., and left two children — James, who lives at lUinis, ( )kla., and 
Mrs. Cora Hunt, of Little Rock. Ark. 

Jesse, third son of Harmon, lives at Ardmore, I. T. His 
children are: Mrs. Ora Citty. Ozan, Ark.; William, who died in 
hkxd; .\nnie Lee and Gertrude. 

Mark, third son of Lsaac, Jr.. had one son, William, and 
three dauc:hters, Mrs. Lucy Cunninj^ini and Misses Fannie and 
r.ettie. who have tau{::ht in Greensboro College for years. 

Lsaac, fourth son of Isaac. Jr., married a Miss Hendrix, and 
moved to Mt. Airy. He died a few years ago at an advanced 
age. There are now nearly fifty of his descendants living in 
and near Mt. Airy. His sons are Monroe, Frank, Martin and 
.Marcus: his daughters, Annie and Jennie, the latter being dead. 

Monroe, son of Lsaac. has three children: John 0.. Fred and 
Lelia. who married a Cochran. Frank, Isaac's son, has five boys 
and a daughter, as follows : James, Isaac, Ester, Elma. Cleveland, 
Roy and Ora. Martin, son of Isaac, married a Mitchell. These 
are their children : Thomas, Walter, Luther, Charles, Loton, 
(.eorge, Florence, Elizabeth, Jeanette and Alice. 

Marcus, son of Isaac, married a Prather. Their children are: 
Frank. Edward. James. Thomas. Arthur. Maud, Annie, Ethel and 
r.ert. Frank, oldest son of Marcus, lives in Fayetteville, and has 
two children. Donald and Dennis. Thomas is married and has 
two children. Ralph and Louise. Maud is also married and has 
two daughters. Bert married Dr. Duncan. 

Nannie, daughter of Isaac, married John Greenwooil, ami has 
si.x children. 

Lolly, daughter of Isaac. Jr.. married Roderick Hendrix, and 
Jemiic married a McClintock. Loth went to Tennessee. 


Jacob, youngest son of Isaac the first, son of the original 
John, never married. 

Thomas, fifth and youngest son of the original John, never 
married. He was always spoken of as "The Bachelor." He was 
a strong Loyalist during the Revolution, which was quite differ- 
ent from all his relatives. This fact made it unpleasant for him 
to remain in this country, so he returned to Pennsylvania sooii 
after the close of the war, and died there. 

This ends the history of the original John Armfield and of 
his posterity to the present time, January, 1902. He was the only 
one who ever came from England, and so far we have never met 
nor ever heard of one of this name who could not be traced to 
this original ancestor. 

In apology, we wish to say that we have spared no time or 
pains in obtaining these facts, and if we have made mistakes or 
omissions we trust that none will feel slighted or take ofifense. 
This has been a much greater task than one would suppose at 
first thought. These facts were obtained chiefly from G. Will 
Armfield, who wrote them down about twenty-five years ago at 
the dictation of his grandfather, Joseph B., and from W. J. Arm- 
field, who has lived his entire life where his father and grand- 
father lived, and who heard the story of the family from their 


In 1718 three Benbow brothers came from Wales to America 
in a sailing vessel. As they had no money they were, according 
to custom, sold in Philadelphia to the highest bidder for the short- 
est length of time, to meet the expenses of the passage on the ship. 
Charles, then fourteen years old, was bid off by a man by the name 
of Carver, who resided in Pennsylvania. He afterwards came 
with the family to Bladen County, North Carolina, and later 
married one of Carver's daughters. His brother Gresham was 
taken by a New Jersey man. Later, he and his family went to 
Bush River, South Carolina, and several of the famliy moved to 


Indiana. Grcshani and his sons, Powell and Richard, were noted 
for their fondness for tine horses and racing. During the Revolu- 
tioary War Mr. Carver and Charles Benbow were engaged in 
the culture of the indigo plant, antl later moved to Guilford County 
and, being Friends, settled at Centre Meeting House, ten miles 
south of Greensboro. The third brother was sold, but never has 
been traced. 

The r.enbows are a long-lived people. Charles had five 
daughters and two sons. Thomas being the ancestor of the family 
now living in Guilford County and several of the Western States. 

Thomas married Hannah Stanley. March 24, 1787. They 
had two daughters and three sons. They settled near the Guilford 
Battleground and Mr. Benbow owned and operated a tanyard 
there. He must have owned a blacksmith shop as well, for he 
made the nails and door-latches for the New Garden Meeting 
House in 1792. 

One of his sons, Charles, married Mary Saunders, antl they 
gave issue to four sons and one daughter, the youngest child being 
Dr. D. W. C. Benbow, of Grensboro. N. C. 

The Benbow family have worked for the industrial and edu- 
cational development of Guilford County. Dr. D. W. C. Benbow 
has taken an active part in the erection and maintenance of the 
first graded school in this County and the State. Mrs. Priscilla 
l>enbow Hackney, for many years matron at Guilford College, has 
helped numbers of girls and voung women toward an education. 
For a number of years she occupied the responsible position as 
clerk in the woman's division of the Yearly Meeting of Friends 
of Xorth Carolina. Mrs. Hackney certainly holds a high place in 
North Carolina. Her yearly epistles to the women and to the 
children of Friends are beautiful expressions of Christian love 
and fellowship. 

Dr. Benbow has taken an active interest in the betterment of 
the road law; he also was interested in the change in the local 
stock law, which before had required the owners of grain, fruits 


and vegetables to take care of stock. The Benbow Hotel wa& 
made a popular resort by his efforts. 


"Richeard Gardner was born in England and removed to 
Salem in New England at or about 1684; from thence to Nan- 
tucket. He begot a son Richeard, he begot Solomon, he begot 
Stephen and a number of sons and daughters. Stephen, the anther 
of this, was born on Nantucket the 10 mo, 11, 1746, and married 
Abigail Pinkham the 11 mo, 1766; had one daughter Eunice, who 
diede yong; Abigail born i mo, 20, 1772. In the 11 mo, 21, 1772, 
removed from Nantucket with my wife and child, father and 
mother, brothers and sister, to Guilford County, in North Caro- 
lina. Miriam, born 5 mo, 24, 1774; Stephen Gardner, my oldest 
son, 6 mo, 10, 1776; Shubal, 6 mo, 20, 1778; Eunice, i mo, 4, 1781 ;. 
Roda, 2 mo, 15, 1783; George, 4 mo, 9, 1785; Abel, 8 mo, i, 


My daughter Abigail married Zeno Worth — had one son and 
three daughters. Miriam married Jonathan Gardner — had one 
son, Stephen. My daughter Eunice married David Worth — had 
twelve children, nine of which are living at this time, the 10 mo, 
23, 1829. 

My son, Stephen, married Mary Turner, of New York, and 
had three sons — John, Franklin and Stephen T. — and four 

My son Stephen died in Louisiana. 

My son Shubal married Mary Brooks, and have now living 
John and Stephen and three daughters. He died in the State of 
Indiana in the year 1824, 

My daughter Roda married Abel Coffin — had four sons and 
three daughters. 

My son George married Lidia Coffin — have four sons and 
four daughters. 


Mv son AI)fl inarriol Mary lUiUock — had one dauf^htcr, 
Ascncth. born 3 mo, 10, 1813: Kachfl. 7 nio, 4, 1817; Abigail, 12 
mo, 12. 1818: Alcb B.. 5 mo, 4. 1820; Mary Marier, 9 mo, 15. 
1822: Nathan M.. 2 mo, 18. 1824: Miriam P.. 8 mo, 15 (faded 
out) ; Martha Jane. 4 mo, ii, 1832. 

Stei)hen Gardner dejiarted this hfe 20th of 3 month, 1830, 
ag:ed 83 years and 5 months. 

Abi^-ail Garchier departed this hfe 10 mo, 29, 1825, aged yj 
years and 15 days. 

Roda Coffin departed this hfe 2 mo, 2, 1839. 

Lydia Gardner departed this Hfe the 11 mo. 2S, 1833. 

George Gardner, ser, departed this hfe the 8 mo, 6, 1836. 

Jonathan Gardner died 11 mo, 5, 1843. 

Mary Gardner departed this hfe Marcli 17. 1867, aged 76 
years. 9 months and 4 days. 

Abel Gardner departed tliis hfe Xovember 26, 1873. aged 
85 years. 3 months aiul 25 davs. 

Eunice Worth departed this hfe the 17 of August, 1866, 
aged 86 years. 7 months and 17 days. 

Nathan M. Gardner died Jan. 16, 1861, aged T^y years. 


This is a name which has been identified with this County 
since the Regulation War. The Gorrells. Gillespies and Donnells 
were soldier-patriots in America's first great struggle for liberty. 
To know them, read Caruthers' "Old North State." On the fair 
honor roll of the Colonial Dames and Sons and Daughters of the 
American Revolution their names still glow with the fire of true 

Hon. Ralph Gorrell. a descendant of Ralph Gorrell of the 
Revolution, was a distinguished lawyer and statesman of Guilford 
County during the Civil War period. A biographical sketch of Mr. 
Gorrell was prepared by Mr. John G. McCormick in the Histori- 
cal Monoi^raf^h, published by Mr. James Sprunt for the University 


of North Carolina. This monograph gives the personnel of the 
Convention of 1861, of which Mr. Ralph Gorrell was a member. 

Mr. Gorrell held many positions of trust. In early manhood 
he was elected to the General Assembly, and in that capacity he 
served the State upon many occasions. His devotion to duty, his 
sound judgment and wisdom made him an honor to his country. 
The following is a clipping from the Greensboro Patriot : 

"Ralph Gorrell departed this life Saturday morning last, at 
4 o'clock, in the 73rd year of his age. 

"His death had been expected for some time past, but it is not 
the less mournfully felt by the community in which he had lived, 
respected and beloved, for over three score years and ten. He had 
been confined to his house since last February by disease, which 
seemed chiefly to affect his lungs, and for the last two months had 
kept his bed, becoming weaker until the lamp of life gradually 
went out, yet retaining to the last, in a remarkable degree, his 
mental faculties. Conscious of his situation, his last faltering 
words to the loved ones at his bedside were : 'I am dying — good- 
bye !' 

"Mr. Gorrell had been distinguished in this community, in 
professional and public service, since his early manhood. When 
young, near fifty years ago, he was elected to the General Assem- 
bly, and has since, on many occasions, been chosen by his fellow- 
citizens to the Legislature, and has held other places of honor and 
trust connected with the improvement and progress of the State. 
In every station he was distinguished by fidelity and the wisdom 
and sound judgment of his counsels. Devoted to principle and 
acting on deliberately formed plans of action, he never stooped to 
the arts of the demagogue to secure popular favor. Hence the 
solid respect in which he has always been held by his fellow-citi- 
zens of all parties and classes. 

"In his profession of the law, Mr. Gorrell furnished an ex- 
ample to every young member of the bar who would achieve an 
honorable and desirable reputation. His practice was marked not 

NORTH C.-!R01.L\'.t. 171 

only l)v hi<;h lu»iu)r in his intfrcDurst- with his hrcthrcn. hut hy 
stcrhnj; honesty with his cHcnts. A lahorious student and a cou; 
scicntious man. he acqnired and maintained, thnni^di a lon^j and 
eheciuered i)rofessional career, the cliaraeter of a safe counsellor 
antl ahlc advocate. 

'In adihtion to losses by the war and frequent suffering: from 
hodilv disease in the latter years of his life. Mr. Gorrell endured 
family afllictions more than usually fallinjj to the lot of man. He 
had buried one dauj^hter. just bloominij into womanh<x»d. Five 
sons were claimed by the jjrave — three of them before maturity, 
one just as he was entering: public life with hi^h hope of the 
future, one on the battlefield at the head of his company, and a 
son-in-law at the sad cont1a.c:ration of the Spotswood Hotel, in 


About the name of Gilmer clusters much, not only of the 
history of Guilford County, but also that of the State and Nation. 
Coming to Guilford County in company with other Scotch-Irish 
from Ireland, by way of Pennsylvania, they settled near Alamance 
Church. William Gilmer, an active Whig of the Revolution, be- 
longed to Capt. Arthur Forbis' Company at the Battle of Guilford 
Courthouse. Where they stood their ground, deserted by all the 
militia of North Carolina ; their leader fell, a martyr patriot to the 
cause of American liberty. 

Capt. Robert Shaw Gilmer was the first son of William Gil- 
mer. His wife's father was Major John Forbis, another hardy 
Scotch-Irish Presbyterian of the earliest history of Piedmont 
Carolina civilization. 

John Adams Gilmer was the son of Capt. Robert Shaw Gil- 
mer. He was one of the foremost men in the State and in the 
United States before the Civil War. His service in the Congress 
of the United States was during the term immediately jireceding 
the Civil War. He exerted all the energy of his powerful will to 
turn the current which was fast leading to disunion. He was the 


warm personal friend of President Lincoln, by whom he was 
offered the place of Secretary of the Interior. Without hesitation 
he declined, taking part with the South, and soon he was a member 
of the Confederate Congress at Richmond. "He supported Gov- 
ernor \'ance in preserving for his people civil liberty amid the 
clash of arms and the desperate resistance of a high-spirited na- 
tion, overpowered by superior numbers and more abundant 
wealth." (See Century Magazine, January, 1888.) 

John Adams Gilmer was born November 4, 1805, and died 
May 4, 1868. He was reared on his father's farm, where he was 
accustomed to the plow-handles. At seventeen years of age, hav- 
ing acquired a fair English education, he taught school in the 
neighborhood. He boarded at home and dressed in clothes made 
by his mother's hands. Aided by means earned in teaching, Mr. 
Gilmer entered, in 1824, the Grammar School in Greensboro, N. 
C, taught by Rev. Eli W. Caruthers and Abner Gay. He boarded 
in the home of INIrs. Mebane, a friend of the cause of education, 
and a cultured woman. After two well-spent years in this school 
in closest company with the classics of the great languages and 
with mathematics — a combination which rarely fails to make great 
men — Mr. Gilmer, though having the advantage of culture, found 
himself in debt. He went to South Carolina, where, in Lauren's 
District, he taught for three years the Mount Vernon Grammar 
School. In 1829 he returned to Greensboro, where he studied law 
with Hon. Archibald D. Murphy, a great judge, statesman and 
scholar of the South. In 1832 John Adams Gilmer was licensed 
to practice law. 

In this year he married Julianna Paisley, daughter of the Rev. 
Wm. D. Paisley, the first preacher in the Presbyterian Church in 
Greensboro. She was a granddaughter of Col. John Paisley and 
General Alexander Mebane — soldier- Whigs of the Revolution. 

Thus reinforced by "Poverty, Patience and Perseverance" 
and a "good angel whose radiance guided and controlled me in 
darkest hours," John Adams came to a bar already crowded 


bv a hrilliaiU array of the first men of the State — John 
M. Moreheail. James T. Mt>rehea(l. Thomas Settle, Frederick 
Nash. George C. Mentlenhall. and. contemporary with him, 
Gen. John F. Tointlexter. for several years solicitor-jjeneral of 
that circuit; William A. Graham. Secretary of the Navy; lluf^h 
Wadilell. Ralph Gorrell. John Kerr, men of the highest order, all 
i.^i them. Mr. Gilmer Iniilt up his professional practice alone, "by 
individual attention to his business, by attending promptly to 
everything committed to him. by hard work and tireless energy." 
Early in his career he was elected to the office of Oiunty Solicitor 
for Guilford. In getting cases and in gaining them, his career 
was most successful. 

\\y his eloquent advocacy and uncommon i)owcr of winning 
men, he was in the front rank of those who worked for internal 
improvements in this State, and who induced an economic and 
unprogressive Legislature to agree to subscribe, for building a 
great trunk railroad through North Carolina, two million dollars, 
conditioned on the previous subscription by individuals of one-half 
that sum. I'y energetic private work, by strong speeches in public 
meetings, and by a subscription of his own, he was a great factor 
in securing the ])erformance of the condition precedent necessary 
for obtaining the grant of the State. Again in 1854. through his 
ettorts. the State appropriated another million dollars for finishing 
the railroad. His intluence and his vote were given to all the 
measures entered upon in 1848 — navigation works, railroads, 
plank and turnpike roads in every section, the inauguration of 
a progressive public school system, the establishment of schools 
for the deaf, the dumb and the blind, and for hospitals for the 
insane, the geological survey of the State, the State Agricultural 

.After the tide of public oj)inion in North Carolina had turned 
irresistibly toward Democracy, Mr. Gilmer was chosen to oppose 
Thomas Bragg for the office of Governor. Gilmer fought for 
Whig principles, but the Democratic party prevailed. 


John Adams Gilmer was a master of oratory. (See his speech 
for the estabHshment of insane asyhims in North CaroHna Third 

John Alexander Gilmer, a son of John Adams Gilmer, was 
born in Greensboro, X. C., April 22, 1838, and died Alarch 17, 
1892. He was a graduate, of the University of North Carolina, of 
the class of 1858. He began the study of law with his father in 
i860. He had completed his law course at the University of Vir- 
ginia, when he entered the partnership of his father in the practice 
of his profession. At the beginning of the War he was a member 
of the Guilford Grays, which was organized at Fort Macon, S. C., 
in April, 1861, into the Ninth and later into the Twenty-seventh 
Regiment of North Carolina. In 1862 he had been promoted to 
]\Iajor, and was in command at Newbern, N. C. At the Battle 
of Sharpsburg he was made Lieutenant-Colonel. In the Battle of 
Fredericksburg he was wounded, and again he was wounded at 
the Battle of Bristow Station, where the Guilford Grays, all except 
three men, were either wounded or killed. He was assigned to 
duty at Salisbury, N. C. 

In 1864 he returned to Greensboro and resumed his practice 
of the law. Governor Worth appointed him Adjutant-General of 
the State. In 1868, in the convention at Raleigh, N. C, he was a 
delegate, but was counted out by General Canby, at Charleston, 
S. C. Gilmer was the forlorn hope of the people to battle with 
Canby and the recently enfranchised blacks and carpetbaggers in 
the Loyal League. In 1870 he was elected Senator from Alamance 
and Guilford, receiving a majority, though at the time of "Kirk's 
cut-throats" undisputed sway. In 1879 ^^e was appointed Judge 
of the Superior Court of the Fifth District, and to the same office 
in 1880. He held courts in every county of the State. In 1891 
he resigned this judgeship, having served with integrity. 

Judge Gilmer was a member of the National Convention 
which met in New York in 1868. Judge Gilmer was a stockholder 
in the National Bank of Greensboro, the North Carolina Railroad 


Company, ami was iiUiTostcl in any inovcniont that jKoniotftl 
tlie industrial welfare of Greensboro or North Carolina. Full of 
love lor his native huul ami the atlvancenunt of her people, he won 
a rijjht to their hijj:h rej^anl. worthv of his father's son. 

Jmljjc John Alexantler Gihner was married July 14. liM^, 
to Miss Sallie L. Lintlsay. a daui^hter of Hon. Jesse H. Lindsay, 
who was the first president of the National Bank of Greensboro, 
N. C. 

I t^ive below some newspaper cli])i)in^;s which show something 
of the character of John A. Gilmer: 

(Judge Gilmer fur Governor.) 


Some weeks ago, we lioistcd at our mast head the name of this pure 
and patriotic son of North Carolina as our choice for Governor of this 
great Commonwealth. We did not wish to name a man every 
energies were in seeking tlie place; whose whole aim was to become Gov- 
omor of North Carolina. Wo wanted a man that the office was seeking, 
who, if left to his choice would prefer another. We wanted a man who 
would please the masses. C\nc whom everybody loved and admired for his 
purity of character, untarnished bv cliques — rings; one whose sole record 
has been only as Judge of the Superior Court and whose fame is lauded 
by the himiblest citizen. Judge Gilmer is known from Cherokee to Curri- 
tuck, from \'irginia to South Carolina, as one of the purest, ablest and best 
men in North Carolina. Sound in his political convictions, willing to swear 
by what is right and just towards every one; possessing peculiar attractions 
as a speaker, he would instill such an enthusiasm in the Democratic ranks 
as no other but the illustrious Vance could do. Nominate him and our 
victory is assured. He does not seek the ofticc but would prefer to be left 
alone. — (Paper not known).* 


And all other soldiers and true men of North Carolina. At no distant date 
you are to nonnnate a candidate for Governor of North Carolina, and this 

is to call your attention and ask you to rally to the support of one of our 
old comrades, a man you all know but to love. One who in all the walks 

• People who knew him »«v th.-it Judee Gilmer wai one of North Cnrolin.i'» fcrentett 
men. He wa* brave, and did not shirk his part in the world's work, lie was true and 
lovely in his life, and men loved to honor him. 


of life has reflected only honor to his name and State. Who as a soldier 
honored the ofiicers and private soldiers of his command alike so long as 
they were gentlemen. One who at the battle of Fredericksburg, when shot 
down on the slope of the hill, and his men lay thick around him, and the 
storm of battle made many true hearts beat quick with terror, could rise 
up in his glorious manhood and unselfish devotion to his men, and com- 
mand the litter bearers, who were anxious to remove their beloved Colonel 
out of danger, 'To remove these poor fellows first, he could wait, though 
unable to move.' John A. Gilmer is the man, you all recollect him; tell 
your neighbors and friends of other commands about him. There are other 
good men in North Carolina, but none better. And you know he is a 
modest man, and will not, like some, push himself forward, and I call on 
Cooke's N. C. Brigade, his comrades who knew him well, and are composed 
of men from the cloud-capped hills of the Blue Ridge to the restless, roll- 
ing breakers of the Atlantic. * * * I call on you. one and all, to go to 
your county conventions, tell your neighbors and friends of his gentleness 
in peace, of his valor in war, and come in your mighty strength to the State 
convention and hand our Democratic Banner to John A. Gilmer and our 
victory will be sure. — A Voice from the East." {The Farmer and Me- 

(Judge Gilmer would not allow his name to come before the con- 

Jeremy Forbis Gilmer, soldier, was born in Guilford County, 
North Carolina, February 23, 1818. He was graduated at the 
United States Military Academy in 1839, third in honor of his 
class. He entered the engineer corps and was engaged in building 
forts and in making surveys, and in river and harbor improve- 
ments, until the Civil War, when he resigned his position as Cap- 
tain of Engineers and entered the Confederate Army. In 1861 he 
entered the service, and was Chief Engineer on General Albert 
Sidney Johnston's staff. In the Battle of Shiloh he was severely 
wounded. Upon recovery he was made Chief of the Engineer 
Bureau at Richmond. In 1863 he was promoted to i\Iajor-Gen- 
eral and ordered to Charleston to direct, her defenses. After the 
War he engaged in railroads and other enterprises in Georgia. He 
was an honorable man. 

•Joseph Whitfield Gilmer was born April 3, 1819, and died 
IMarch 16, 1887. For many years he was county surveyor, serving 


before an.l after the Civil War. In 1872 he was elected to the 
State Le^Mslature. where he served in the lower honse for two 
sessions. He was a rulinj,' elder in Alamance, for thirty-two years 
Clerk of the Session. 


The lU^skins family was amonj^ the first settlers of the 
Conntv. loseph Hoskins. the pioneer of the family in Guilford, 
came from Chester County. Tennsylvania, in the year 1773, havinj; 
obtained from Earl Granville a prant for a large tract of land 
near (aiilford Courthouse, on the waters of Horse Pen Creek. 
The r.attle of Guilford Courthouse was fought on his land. His 
residence was situated about one-third of a mile westward from 
the first line of battle, and was taken possession of by the liritish 
and used first as Lord Cornwallis's headquarters, and subsequently 
as the hospital for his wounded. It is interesting to know that 
the home-place of this tract has never passed out of the ownership 
and occupancy of some representative of the family. 

Joseph Hoskins was an ardent Whig and ])atriot of the Revo- 
lution, and shared with the Guilford men the hardships, dangers 
and glory of the great liattle of Guilford Courthouse. 

In the year 1789 he was made Sheriff of the County. b\ ap- 
pointment of Governor Samuel Johnson — the same year that wit- 
nessed the ratification of the Federal Constitution by the State of 
North Carolina and the election of Alexander Martin, his friend 
and neighbor, to the governorship of the State, under the new- 

Ellis Hoskins, 1795- 1874. was a son of Joseph, and lived and 
died on the old homestead. He was a courtly. Christian gentle- 
man of the old school, and a devout member of the Methodist 
I^piscopal Church. South. He was a soldier in the War of 181 2- 
14. Notwithstanding his strong Southern sympathies, he had a 
son who was a distinguished or"ficer in the Union Army — Col. 
Jesse K. Hoskins. who had settled in Kentucky prior to the conflict. 


Jesse E. survived the War, and achieved distinction in the legal 
profession in the State of his adoption. 

Joseph Hoskins, 1814-1880, was a grandson of the pioneer. 
He established himself at Summerfield in the year 1845, leaving 
purchased the Charles Bruce plantation. He was a large land- 
owner and a pioneer in the manufacture of tobacco in this County. 

The family has furnished two Sheriffs for the County — the 
afore-mentioned, and Joseph A. Hoskins, of the present genera- 
tion, who owns and resides on the old homestead at Summerfield. 

In the years just preceding the Civil War, many of the 
family of this name removed to Indiana, Ohio and other Western 
States. They went along with the steady stream that left this 
County and State and peopled the great Middle West. 

The English ancestor of the family came over with William 
Penn to Philadelphia, in 1682. 


Major Chas. M. Stedman, president of the North Carolina 
Bar Association, is a resident of Greensboro. He was born in 
Chatham County. His father and mother were Nathan and 
Euphamia Stedman. When twelve years old, the family moved 
to Fayetteville. At sixteen he entered the University of North 
Carolina. There he showed brilliancy as a student and orator. 
When Mr. Buchanan, President of the United States, visited the 
University in 1859, young Stedman, a member of the Sophomore 
class, was chosen by the Phi Society as one of the orators for the 
occasion. In 1861 Mr. Stedman graduated with highest honors. 

He soon enlisted in the Army of the Confederate States, vol- 
unteering as a private in the Fayetteville Independent Light In- 
fantry. He served that company in the First North Carolina 
Volunteers at the Battle of Bethel, June 10, 1861. When the 
Forty-fifth North Carolina Regiment was organized, he was 
elected First Lieutenant of the Chatham Company (E). The 
regiment was sent to \'irginia, where Major Stedman served under 



Lee in most of the cainpaiijn. He was promoted to Captain of 
his company, then to he Major of his rejjfiment. As Major he 
serve-l in command at many hattles, never shirking; a duty. He 
has the distinction of beinj^ one of the twelve Confederate soldiers 
who were enijaged in the first battle at I'.ethel and who surrcii- 
ilered with Lee at Appomattox. 

After the war. Major Stedman bcjja'n life anew, cnterinj^ his 
profession as a lawyer. He studied law with Hon. John Manning, 
at rittsboro, meanwhile teachinjj school. In 1867 he settled in 
Wilminjjton and soon had built up a larjje and lucrative practice. 
In 1884 he received the nomination of the Democratic party for 
Lieutenant-Governor and was elected to that oftke on the ticket 
with (?iOvernor Scales. 

When nominated, he resipied the attorneyships which he 
held for several railway systems, believinfr that to be his duty 
upon entering otticial life. As President of the Senate, he made a 
brilliant record, and won the encomium of being the best presiding 
ofticer in the State. Major Stedman has received many honors in 
this State. In 1880 he was a delegate to the National Convention 
which nominated General Hancock. In 1866 he married Miss 
Kate DeRossett. daughter of the late Joshua G. Wright, of Wil- 


This family migrated from Scotland to Irelaml. and thence 
to America. In 1750. John Thorn entered a plot of land south 
and east of Guilford, and built his home there. He married Miss 
Catherine Kerr, of another Scotch-Irish family living near by. 
They had thirteen children, eleven of whom lived to old age. Nine 
of these reared large families, from whom are descended many of 
the first families of Greensboro and Guilford County. At their 
old homestead, Daniel Thom brought up his large family of chil- 
dren. The place is still owned by the youngest son of Daniel 
Thom — Rev. William Francis Thom, pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church at Gulf. N. C. It is interesting and somewhat singular 


that the family of John Thorn and the famiUes of his sons gave 
each, with one exception, a son to the Presbyterian ministry. For 
sixty years this family have had a representative in the service of 
the Church. 

Many of the male members of the family moved West, so 
that the name is almost extinct in the County. Still, the descend- 
ants are numerous. Rev. James Earnest Thacker, of Norfolk, 
Virginia, is a great-grandson of the pioneer, John Thom.- 

John Thorn was a strict Presbyterian, thoroughly teaching 
his children in this doctrine. Many a winter's evening around a 
glowing fireplace, with dignity and solemnity, he required his 
children to recite the Shorter Catechism. 

His oldest child was born in 1771, and his youngest in 1796. 
During the Revolutionary War he was away from home, fighting 
for the freedom of America. He was in the regular army, and 
was consequently not with the militia at the Battle of Guilford 
Courthouse. His family cared for those wounded soldiers, how- 

John Thom was a ruling elder in Alamance Church prior 
to the Revolution. Among the other charter members here were 
Wiley's, Finlys, McBrides, McGeachys, Stuarts, Donnells, AIc- 
Ivers, Humphreys. In Church and State they have a record of 
integrity and heroic patriotism. 

Amos Ragax was born in Davidson County, February 25, 
1824 — was a son of Amos and Elizabeth Ragan. His father died 
when his son Amos was a mere child. Never went to school but 
three months in his life. Had no school advantages. Had to 
work to support his mother. At fourteen years of age he went 
to JMissouri and spent five years on the ranches, trading in cattle 
and taking them to St. Louis, Chicago and other large markets, 
and disposing of them. He then went to Tennessee and spent two 
years selling machinery in that State, Virginia and Georgia. 

\\'hile still a young man he returned to North Carolina and 
settled in Guilford County, at what was then called Bloomington, 

\ \l( - \i \l. \ \ . 



and enjijaj^fd in the lucrcantilc husincss with Clarkson ToniUiiSDii. 
For several vears he did a jj^ood business in this Hne. for a small 
country place. In 1851) he was niarrietl U) Martha E. Kuijlish. 

Since the Civil War he has devoted his entire time to farm- 
inij. He has fanns in Guilford, Randolph and Davidson Counties. 
\\ hen he first bought the farm at liloominj^ton where he now lives, 
tin- land was so poor that it would not "sprout peas." His farmms 
land is now worth $100 per acre, and yields from twenty-five to 
fortv bushels of wheat to the acre. He has raised in one year as 
much as three thousand bushels of wheat from this farm. He has 
a farm of several hundred acres on Deep River, where the fertile 
bottom lands are very productive to raisinjjf corn. He raises from 
2.500 to 3,000 bushels of corn every year. 

While Mr. Ras^an has passed the "three score and ten years," 
yet he is a very active man, havinjj a wonderful constitution. He 
can do more work now than most of the younc: people. 

Hox. Lkvi M. Scott was born in Rockinji^ham County, North 
Carolina. June 8, 1827. In early childhood he accompanied his 
parents to Guilford County, and his preliminary schooling^ wa^ 
obtained in the schools of the latter county. Leaving school at 
the age of twenty, he began his active career as a school-teacher, 
and at about the same time took up the study of law. In 1850 he 
was appointed postmaster at Greensboro, X. C, and held that office 
for about three years. In 1852 he was licensed to practice, and 
a year later received the election as Clerk of the Superior Court, 
and held that office until 1856. In the latter year, Mr. Scott was 
elected to represent his county in the State Legislature, and served 
a term of two years. In 1858 he was elected Solicitor of Guilford 
County, and for two terms of four years each most satisfactorily 
dischargefl the duties of the important jxasition. 

He was appointed as receiver of se(iuestrated property by the 
Confederate Governemnt in 1862, and was retained in that cai)acity 
until the close of the War, his duties having been to collect all 
debts owing Northern creditors from Southern debtors, for the 
benefit of the Confederate States. 


After the termination of hostilities between the North and 
South, Mr. Scott devoted himself exclusively to the practice of his 
chosen profession at Greensboro, and his indefatigability is illus- 
trated by the fact that during the long period of fifty years he has 
practiced at the courts of the Fifth Judicial District he never 
failed to be in attendance at the various sessions. 

He served as a member of the Board of Directors of the State 
Penitentiary from 1885 until 1889. 

As a lawyer he has won a name of which he may be proud. 
Dignified and able, his opinions carry weight wherever promul- 
gated, and his reputation as a man of the most rigid integrity but 
add to his fame as a distinguished lawyer and citizen. 

I\Ir. Scott has been most happy in his domestic relations, hav- 
ing been united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Weatherly in 1861. 
Mrs. Scott was a daughter of Mr. Andrew Weatherly, of Greens- 
boro. N. C. Two children have been born to this blessed union, 
the surviving one being ^Irs. Lily Scott Reynolds, now living in 
East Orange, X. J. 

Mr. Scott is a prominent member of the I. O. O. F., and in 
1866 held the high honor of Grand ^Master of the Grand Lodge of 
the State of North Carolina. 

John D. Scott, his father, was born in Guilford County, N. C, 
in 1800. - He was given a common school education, and then 
gave his attention to agriculture, and was engaged in plantmg all 
his life. He served as Colonel in the North Carolina Cavalry for 
many years, and held his commission until the breaking out of the 
Civil War, being then sixty-one years of age. In 1824 he married 
Miss Jane ]\IcLean, a daughter of Marshall McLean, of Guilford 
County, N. C, and three children were the offspring of the mar- 
riage, their names being: Allan H., of Guilford County. N. C. ; 
Levi M., of Greensboro, N. C, and William L. Scott, who died in 
1872. The father died in 1880, his wife having preceded him to 
rest in 1845. John D. Scott was the son of Adam Scott, who was a 
native of Guilford County, N. C, where he was born in 1772. His 

i.i:\ I M. si (111'. 

or (.KKI.NSIiUKO,- N. C. 


tlcmise occurred in 1837. He was a planter all his life. His 
father was Thomas Scott, a IVnnsylvanian, who eini^jratecl to 
North Carolina in early manhood, and settled in Guilford County. 
The ancestors of the Hon. Levi M. Scott on the paternal side were 
from the north of Ireland, and on the maternal side came from 

We think it only rij^ht and jiroijcr in s])cakin^ of those con- 
ditions that have made Greensboro what it is, to call attention to, 
a few of the men who have been identified with its phenomenal 
p:rowth. and standinp: in the front ranks of these, Mr. L. M. Scott 
holds a most enviable position as one of the leaders of his profes- 
sion, as ""Xestor" of the bar of Guilford County, and a gentleman 
of the old school. Mr. Scott is one whom to know is to admire 
and respect. 

W. L. Scott, brother of L. M., was licensed in 1856. Shortly 
after being admitted to the bar he moved to Georgia and formed 
a law partnership with Benjamin H. Hill. Their law partnership 
was cemented by a warm personal friendship which existed be- 
tween Mr. Scott and the gifted orator and unimpeachable states- 
man of Georgia, until the death of the former in 1872. Return- 
ing from Georgia, Mr. Scott fomied a co-partnership with his 
brother. L. M. Scott, under the firm name of Scott & Scott. This 
was the first instance in the State where relatives of the same 
surname had used the same jointly when a partnership existed 
between them. Prior to that time the style was "Richard Doe & 
Son." or "Richard Doe & Bro..*' as the case might be. The ex- 
ample of Messrs. Scott found many followers, and now the style 
is in common use. 

W. L. Scott was a read}- debater and very popular with the 
masses. In 1870 he was a candidate for Congress, but was de- 
feated by General James Leach, a strong candidate. He served 
as Colonel in the Twenty-first Xorth Carolina \'oluntcers in 1861 
and 18O3. 



The Rankins of Guilford County descend from two brothers, 
John and WiUiam, who came from that part of Ireland settled by 
the Scotch in the reign of James I., and were therefore Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians. They first came to Pennsylvania not later 
than 1760 and possibly as early as 1750. The exact time of their 
coming to Guilford County is not known, but in 1765, John, the 
older brother, bought 511 acres of land lying on the waters of 
North Buffalo, from Alexander McKnight. A descendant of his, 
Robert Rankin, still living, owns a part of this land, and his title 
is derived from John, Earl of Granville. In 1772, John sold a part 
of this land, now known as the Calvin Rankin tract, to his younger 
brother, William. 

John Rankin was born in Ulster County, Ireland, in 1736, 
came to Guilford about 1764, married Hannah Carson, and died 
March 2y, 1814. He was buried by the side of his wife, Hannah, 
in the northwest corner of Buffalo Church graveyard. The issue 
of this marriage was eight daughters and three sons, as follows : 
Rebecca, Jane. Abby, Samuel, Joseph, Hannah, Mary. ]\Iargaret, 
Robert, Ann, Ruth. 

Rebecca married John Rankin, possibly a distant relative of 
hers, and moved to Tennessee. 

Jane married John Paisley. To them were bom : Celilah, 
who married George Donnell; Hannah, who married a ]\Ir. Shaw; 
Rebecca, who married a Mr. Shaw, and Elizabeth, who married 
James Gannon. 

Abby Rankin married Cunningham Smith, and moved to the 

Samuel Rankin married Mary Scott and had issue : John, 
who married and moved to Cabarrus County ; Rebecca, who mar- 
ried Calvin McLeon ; Hannah, who married Rankin Donnell ; 
Margaret, who married Dr. Scott, father of J. W. Scott, of Greens- 
boro; and Nancy, who married Rhoddy Hanna. 

Joseph, fifth child of John Rankin, married Marv Donnell, 


hv wlioiu he had issue as follows: Ilarzella, who married Rohert 
\\'o<MU)urn. the father of Mrs. \V. S. Moon ; John C. who married 
r.etsy Denny, dauj^diter of Thomas Denny: Persis, who married 
lane ("lilmer: James Edmundson, who married and moved West; 
khuhama. who married a Mr. Thom : Samuel, who married a 
sister of Rev. C. H. Wiley, by whom he had three children — 
Joseph, killed in the Civil War; William C, and Alice. 

By second marriai;:e with Xancy Donnell. he had two chil- 
tlrcn — Thomas, father of A. L. Rankin, and Mary, who married 
Washington Wharton. 

Hamiah. sixth child of JoJin Rankin, married Thomas De'nny. 
Issue of this marriajje : Eli. Sannicl. Hannah, Thomas, i'.cttie, 
Xancv. John, Peijgy. Georjj^e. 

Mary, seventh chiUl. married Thomas Donnell. Issue : Ran- 
kin, Hester, \'innie. 

Margaret, eighth child, married John Xelson. to whom were 
born Samuel, Mary, Ann and Melinda. 

Robert Rankin, ninth child of John Rankin, by marriage with 
Margaret Scott, had the following children: William S., who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Paisley; Hannah, who married Lear Donnell; John 
Calvin, who married a daughter of William Rankin, by whom he 
had four children ; Jane, who married W. P. Wharton ; William, 
who married Mildred Dick; John, who married a daughter of 
Rankin Smith : antl Famiie. unmarried. 

Adam, fifth child of Robert Rankin, married Louisa Kerr. 

Thomas Rankin, sixth child of Robert, married a daughter 
of William Rankin, by whom he had two children — W. H. Rankin 
and Xannic. By second marriage with Xancy Wharton, he had 
one son, Alpheus, who married Zula Smith, and three daughters — 
Eva, who married Cyrus Wharton ; Louisa, who married Lacy 
Paisley, and Minnie, who married Myrom Newell. 

Rebecca, sixth child of Robert, married John C. Wharton, of 

By second marriage, with Margaret Patterson. Robert Ran- 


kin had three children— Capt. N. P. Rankin, Robert Rankin and 
Capt. Samuel Rankin, who died in Fayetteville, N. C. These 
sons by his last marriage all married and have raised families. 

William Rankin, brother of John Rankin, Sr., was born in 
Ireland in 1744 and with his brother John emigrated to America 
between 1750 and 1760, stopping a while in Pennsylvania, and 
afterwards came with the Scotch-Irish movement into this county 
about 1764. Both he and his brother John were ardent Whigs and 
were hated by Governor Tryon and his adherents for their strong 
Americanism. After the Battle of Alamance, William, who was 
present, was declared an outlaw b}' Governor Tryon and, with fif- 
teen others, had to keep in hiding till Tryon left the State. Just 
before the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, Lord Cornwallis evinced 
his hatred by camping on the plantations of John and William 
Rankin and destroying nearly all that was destructible. 

In 1873 he married Jane, daughter of Elizabeth and John 
Chambers. He died February 9, 1804, and was buried along with 
his wife and wife's father and mother in Buffalo Church grave- 
yard. To them were born four sons and five daughters — Betsy, 
Nancy, Sallie, John, Ann, Thomas, Jane, Robert and William, the 
last two twins. 

Betsy married Elam Wharton. Nancy married John School- 
field, to whom were born Betsy, Sarah (who married Samuel tiat- 
rick), Joseph, William, Jane, John, Nancy, Daniel, Samuel. 

John Chambers, fourth child of William, was born March 29, 
1 781, married Tabitha Wharton, daughter of Watson Wharton, 
Sr., and died June 6, 1858. Issue of this marriage: Jesse. Jane, 
Martha, William (who died young), Malinda, Watson, John C, 
Tabitha and Samuel. 

Ann married Samuel Donnell and had one child, Emsley Dou- 

Thomas, sixth child of William, married ^Martha ^IcOuistian. 
Issue of this marriage: Albert, r^Ioses, Elizabeth, Lavina. William, 
Nancy, Robert, Pollie. 

XORTIl C.lliOHX.l. 1S7 

Jane Rankin, seventh cliiltl of William, niarritd l".li Smith. 
Issue: MacUson. William Rankin and Xancv. 

Robert Rankin, eighth child of William, married Sarah Lee. 
Is>;ue: John C. Jane. William, h'mily. Alfred and (ireene. 

William, ninth child of William. Sr.. and twin brother of 
Robert, married Thankful Smith. Issue of this marria.i;e: Hannah 
and Xancy. 

Tile descendants of the brothers. John and William, now 
found in this county ami in three-fourths of the States of the 
Union, now number over one thousand souls. The immediate 
descendants of the two brothers. W'illiam and John, lived at a 
period and under conditions that "tried men's souls." They 
"soujjfht out, wrought out and fouij^ht out" their way in the new 
world, makincf history but leavinc^ little record of it. (^n every 
battlefield from Alamance to Appomattox descendants of these 
brothers have been found, struj^j^linp; for what they believed to bo 


Watson Wharton, Sr., the progenitor of the Wharton family 
of this county and of more than a thousand others, who lived or 
have lived in nearly every Southern State and in many of the 
X'^rthern States, w^as born in. England. perhai)s in the town of 
Wharton, June 22, 1746. 

His father, Hinman, and mother, Mary, were born, accord- 
ing to statistics found in an old famliy Uible, now scarcely legible, 
about two hundred years ago, and were married about 1729. Save 
the names and date of birth, nothing is known, of Watson Whar- 
ton's brothers and sisters. Their names are as follows : 

EIi;^abeth Wharton, born September 29. 1731; David Whar- 
ton, bom April 27, 1733; Mary Wharton, born July 30, 1735; Hin- 
man Wharton, horn December 20. 1737; Catherine Wharton, born 
August 30, 1740; Rhoda Wharton, born January 18. 1742. 

As there are numerous branches of the Wharton familv in 


the United States not directly traceable to Hinman or his son Wat- 
son, it is not improbable that they may have a common origin 
further back in the twilight of the past. There are families of 
Whartons living in Virginia, Texas and Tennessee who trace their 
line back to Lord Thomas Wharton, who in 1622 was Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. In history he was called "Veto Tom" and 
sometimes "Lying Tom." One of his descendants, Phillip Whar- 
ton, was one of Cromwell's generals. 

It matters little whether Watson Wharton was descended 
from "Lying Tom" or not. That his descendants, wherever found, 
have been and are in the main honest, industrious, independent, 
God-fearing, patriotic citizens, who have made the world better 
for living in it, is a matter of far greater import than to be able 
to trace their origin back to a "belted knight," who seems to have 
been somewhat careless in handling the truth. In the language of 
Scotland's greatest bard : 

*"A King can make a belted Knight. 
A marquis, duke and a' that, 
But an honest man's aboon his might 
Gude faith he mauna fa' that — 
The rank is but the guinea's stamp, 
The man's the gowd for a' that." 

On attaining his majority, Watson Wharton came to America 
about 1767 and settled at first in Maryland, where he married a 
lady whose maiden name the writer of this sketch has been 
unable to ascertain. The issue of this marriage is as follows : 

Elam, born 1770; Jesse, born 1771, died in infancy; Elisha, 
born 1774, died aged nearly 90 years; Tabitha, born 1776, died 
1855 ; John, who married a daughter of William Rankin and 
moved to Tennessee more than sixty years ago ; Gideon, born 1781, 
married Mary Woodburn and moved West; Martha, born 1783, 
married Arthur W^oodburn, had five children — Watson, William, 
Elam, Emsley, Tabitha. 

*I wonder a good deal about all these people in this book. I wonder also what are 
their traits. 1 will be likely to find out by the time I have sold the last copy. What 1 know 
then will be something of "value, perhaps. 


Mu. i:. I', wuautdn, 



By a scc«Mnl inarria.u'c with Aiij^vU-tta. nci- l-*vaiis, Ik- had t.iic 
son. Hvans, born 1785. Soon after tlic birth of his youiig:tst son, 
Kvans. he moved with his family to Guilford County, 17H5 or 1786, 
and liouijht from I'.lackwood a tract of land acceded to him in 1755 
by the b'arl of Granville. \V. 1*. Wharton, a ^^reat-j^^randson of 
Watson Wharton, now owns and lives on this same land. 

( )f his personal characteristics, little is known. Mr. David 
Wharton, a jjrandson, now in his ninety-ninth year, recalls that 
he was a man of almost .tjiant proportions, weij^hinf^ nearly three 
hundred pounds, that he was somewhat irascible and very much 
j::iven to havings his own wav. In politics, he was a staunch Whip:, 
in reliijion a Presbyterian, as have been nearly all his descendants. 
That he was a man of considerable means for those days is evi- 
dent from the \2ir^Q amount of lands jnirchased and the mortj^ap:es 
made to secure monies loaned by him. He died in 18 13, and was 
burietl in lUifFalo churchyard. 

Klam Wharton, his oldest son, married P.etsy, oldest dau.t,diter 
of William RanUin, the prog^enitor of one branch of the Rankin 
family in this county. Issue of this marriag^e: Joseph, Jesse. Wil- 
liam, Lemuel, Robert, Jennie, Isabella, Martha. 

Robert, fifth child of Elam. married Melinda Nelson and died 
in 1876, leaving: two sons and two daug;hters. James, his oldest 
son, a merchant of Jamestown, married Margaret Armfield. 

Elisha, third son of Watson Wharton, was born in Maryland 
in 1774, came with his father to Guilford County when about ten 
years old, married Elizabeth Schoolfield in 1796, by whom he had 
the following: children: John, James, Nancy, David, Martha, Wat- 
son, Schoolfield (who died in infancy). Eliza. Milton (who died 

r.y second marriag^e with Martha Porter he had four sons 
and one daug^hter: Porter, Samuel, Minerva, Paisley and Wash- 
ington, the last two being twins. 

John Wharton, oldest son of Elisha Wharton, born \~y)~, 
married Rhoda Webb, bv whom he ha<l three sons and two daugh- 


ters : ]\Ielinda, who married Levi Foust ; Elizabeth, who married 
Rankin Smith, and had five children — Nannie, William, Zula, 
Mary and Lizzie. 

Green Wharton, third child of John Wharton, married ^lal- 
vina Donnell. To them were born two sons and three daughter? : 
Watson, John W., Bettie, Emma and Mary. 

William P. Wharton, fourth child of John Wharton, Sr., mar- 
ried Emily Rankin, who died without issue. By second marriage 
with Jane Rankin he had two sons — Walter and Leslie — and two 
daughters — Carrie and Lizzie. 

John W. Wharton, Jr.. youngest son of John Wharton, Sr.. by 
first marriage, married Alartha Edwards. Issue : Ruth, Roy, 
Linda, Rhoda. 

By second marriage with Jane Bennett, John Wliarton, Sr., 
had ten children — C. A. Wharton and Eugenia, who died without 

John W. Wharton, son of Green Wharton, married Sallie 
McNairy. They have four'children. 

James, second son of Elisha Wharton, born 1799, married 
Jane Rankin, daughter of John C. Rankin, died 1822. They had 
only one son — John C. Wharton, now living in GreensDoro. in his 
seventy-ninth year. He married Rebecca Rankin, daughter of 
Robert Rankin, Sr. Issue of this marriage : James, who died in 
infancy; Alice, who married Wm. Ratlifif; Mary, who married 
Rev. Wm. Graves ; E. P. Wliarton, who married Ida Murray ; 
Annie, who married Edwin Shaver ; Emma, who married S. C. 
Smith; Lizzie, unm.arried; Jesse R., who married a Miss Xoves 
and now lives in Butte City; William, a merchant, living in the 
State of Washington. 

Nancy, third child of Elisha Wharton, married George Find- 
ley and went to Missouri. Issue of this marriage: Rufus, James, 
Elizabeth, Sarah, Martha, Angeline, John. 

David Wharton, fourth child of Elisha Wharton, was born 
December 18, 1803, and is still living, in his ninety-ninth year. In 

XORTH C.-iROLlN.l. I'Jl 

1S26 hi' marriot! Elizahith Donncll. by whom hf ha»l tlircc daugh- 
ters and two sons, viz : 

Khzabcth. who married Dr. Jos. A. McLean. To them were 
born Juha. Cora. Cliarles. W'aher. John. Archibald and Jesse R. 

Juha Wharton, who married Rev. C. K. Caldwell and died 
soon after marriatje. 

Mary Wharton, who married John C. Cannon. Issue of this 
marriatje : Julia. I'.essie. ICllen. Mary. Howard. I'annie. Emma and 

John Wharton, son of David, married Pattic Cole, daup^hter 
of Dr. J. L. Cole. Moved to Texas in 1869. and now lives in 
Sherman. Issue of this marriasj^e : John. Hattie, Mary, William 
and .Xnnie. 

William D. Wharton, younpfcst son of Davkl Wharton, mar- 
ried Mary Wharton. dau}^hter of Xewton Wharton. Issue: Wal- 
lace, who married Cordelia Hap^an ; Lacy, who married Lizzie 
Wharton: Charles, who married Daisy Gilmer: Mary, who mar- 
ried Rev. Samuel Rankin. 

\\y second marriap:c with Jane Gilmer he had two children — 
Hattie and Gilmer. 

Martha, fifth child of Elisha Wharton, married Jesse Smith. 
To them were born the followinc^ children : Anj^elina, John. Lafay- 
ette. Eli. William. Madison, Adison. Isabella. Rufus and Martha. 

Watson Wharton. Jr.. sixth child of Elisha Wharton, was 
born 1809, marriad Melinda Rankin and died 1S71. Issue of this 
marria<;:e: Jesse R. and Jane E. 

Jesse married Mattie Turner and had two children — Minnie, 
who died in 1876, and Turner A. Wharton, now pastor of a 
church in Memphis. 

By a second marriage with Mary Rankin, he had four sons — 
Henry, who married Nora Graves : Ernest, Lee and Robert. 

Jane E. married Dr. J. Rumple, of Salisbury, and had two 
sons and a daughter — Watson. James and Linda. 

Porter Wharton, tenth child of Elisha. married Xancv Pat- 


terson and moved to Alissouri. Issue of this marriage: Samuel, 
Martha, Mary, Washington, JMinerva, Nancy, James and Mai- 

vSamuel, eleventh child of EHsha Wharton, married Elizabeth 
Kerr and had two children — Florence, who died unmarried, and 
Rebecca, who married Lindsay Stuart. 

Minerva, twelfth child of Elisha Wharton, married James 
Paisley. Children of this marriage : John, Porter, Lacy, Annie. 

Rev. William Paisley Wharton, thirteenth child of Elisha 
Wharton and twin brother of Washington Wharton, married and 
died in 1856, leaving one child. 

Washington, fourteenth child of Elisha Wharton, married 
]\Iary Rankin, by whom he had five children — Martha, Corrinna, 
Annie, Callie and Cyrus, who married a daughter of Thomas Ran- 

Evans Wharton, youngest son of Watson Wharton, Sr., was 
born 1785; married Benitha Calk. Issue of this marriage: Lu- 
cinda, Newton, Angeletta, Clinton, Eliza, Emiline, Rufus, Jane 
and Francis. 

Lucinda married Samuel Hattrech. Newton, by first mar- 
riage w^th Elinor McMurrav, had two children — Jane and Mary. 
By second marriage with Hannah McLean, he had one daughter 
— Dora. 

Angeletta married David Ray. Issue of this marriage : Peter 
Ray, a deaf mute, who married a Miss Williams, also a mute; 
Fannie, who married Jas. Bason. 

Clinton Wliarton, son of Evans, married Catherine Conrad. 
Issue : Albert, John, Ida, Clinton, Eva, Annie. 

Eliza Wharton married David McLean. 

Nancy married Thomas Rankin. Issue : W. H. Rankin, 

Rufus Wharton married Mary L. Perry, of Beaufort County. 
Issue of this marriage: Isabella, Francis, Rufus, Thomas, David. 

Isabella married John H. Small. 


Wharton married Capt. Xat Rankin. To tluin were born two 
sons aiul two dauf^htcrs. 

Tabitha Wharton, fourth child of Watson Wharton, Sr.. was 
boni in Maryland in I77^». married John C. Rankin, and died in 
1856. Issue of this niarriaf^e: Rev. Jesse Rankin, JaneT Martha, 
William, Melinda. Dr. Watson Rankin, Dr. John C. Rankin of 
New Jersey, Tabitha and Dr. Samuel Rankin, of Rowan, X. C. 


William Worth left England in the reitjn of Charles II. His 
preat-};^randson, Daniel Worth, was born in Massachusetts, second 
month, tenth. 1739; he died in Guilford County, North Carolina, 
seventh month, tenth, 1830. He was marrieil in Nantucket to 
Eunice Husscy, a dauj^hter of Paul and Sarah Hussey, a descend- 
ant of Sylvanus Husscy. whose wife was a dauc^hter of Stephen 

Joseph Worth was also married in Nantucket to Judith Star- 
buck. These people were the Nantucket settlers of Guilford 
County and their descendants have done much for civilization in 
North Carolina. Jonathan Worth, jjrandson of Daniel Worth of 
Nantucket stock. Governor of North Carolina, and Dr. David 
Worth were men of g^reat influence in their day. Dr. John M. 
Worth was treasurer of North Carolitia. His children were: 
Shubal G. Worth, Thomas C. Worth. Addie McAllister and Dell 

Governor Jonathan Worth's children have been men and 
women of integrity and strength — David G. Worth, Roxana Mc- 
Neil, Lucy J. Jackson, Elvira Moffit. Cora Jackson, Mary Worth 
and Addie Bagley. Worth Bagley, the young hero of the Cuban 
War, was the grandson of Governor Worth and therefore a rejire- 
sentative of the Nantucket stock of Guilford County. 

Daniel Worth, of Guilford County, was a man of aflairs, a 
leader in the Society of Friends in the State, trustee of Guilford 


William Worth was Treasurer of North Carolina for two 
terms preceding 1901. 

Cyrus B. Watson, a leading lawyer in the State, is a descend- 
ant of Ihe Worth family, and therefore a representative of the 
Nantucket stock in North Carolina. 

John L. Worth, of Mount Airy, North Carolina, compiled a 
chart of this family in 1900. The Worth family is representative 
of the Nantucket in many instances from both father and mother, 
the Folgers, Gardners, Husseys, Macys, Porters, Starbucks are 
related by marriage to them. Their religious belie* is that of the 
Societv of Friends. 


Senators. Members of House of Commons. 

1777 Ralph Gorrell John Collier, Robert Lindsay. 

1778 Ralph Gorrell James Hunter, Robert Lindsay. 

1789 Alex Martin James Hunter, Danl. Gillespie. 

1780 Alex Martin James Hunter, Wm. Gowdy. 

1781 Alex Martin William Gowdy, James Hunter. 

1782 Alex Martin William Gowdy, Jones Hunter. 

1783 Chas. Bruce Jas. Galloway, John Leak. 

1784 Jas. Galloway John Hamilton, John Leak. 

1785 Alex Martin John Hamilton, Barzellai Gardner. 

1786 Wm. Gowdy John Hamilton, B. Gardner. 

1787 Alex Martin B. Gardner, Wm. Gowdy. 

1788 Alex Martin John Hamilton, Wm. Gowdy. 

1789 Wm. Gowdy John Hamilton, Daniel Gillespie. 

1790 Daniel Gillespie Hance Hamilton, Robert Hannah. 

Daniel Gillespie Robert Hannah, B. Gardner. 

Daniel Gillespie Robert Hannah, B. Gardner. 

Daniel Gillespie Robert Hannah, B. Gardner. 

1794 Daniel Gillespie Robert Hannah, B. Gardner. 

1795 Daniel Gillespie Hance Hamilton. Hance McCain. 

1796 Ralph Gorrell B. Gardner. Hance Hamilton. 

1797 Hance McCain Hance Hamilton, Samuel Lindsay. 

1798 Hance McCain Samuel Lindsay, George Bruce. 

1799 Hance Hamilton Samuel Lindsay, George Bruce. 

1 791 


Senators. Members of House of Commons. 

iSoo 1 laiKc Hamilton Samuel Lindsay. Jonathan Parker. 

iSoi Samuel Lindsay Cioortje Bruce, Jonathan I'arker. 

iSoj Cieorge Bruce Zaza Brashicr. Jonathan Parker. 

i8o.? Saml. Lindsay Jolm .Moore. Jonatlian Parker. 

1S04 Saml. Lindsay John Parker, Zaza Brashier. 

iSo^ Hance McCain Z. Brashier, Richard Mendenhall. 

i8c6 1 lance McCain Z. Brashicr, Richard .Mendenhall. 

1807 Jonathan Parker Robert Hannah, John Howell. 

180S Jonathan Parker Robert Hannah. John Howell. 

1800 Jonathan Parker Robert Hannah. John Howell. 

i^to Saml. Lindsay Robert Hannah, William Armfield. 

iSi I Jonathan Parker Robert Hannah, John Howell. 

1S12 Jonathan Parker John Howell, Robert Lindsay. 

181 3 Jonathan Parker Obcd .Macey, James Gibson. 

1814 Jonathan Parker James Gibson. James McXairy. 

1815 Jonathan Parker Jolin Howell, James McXairy. 

1816 John Caldwell James McXairy, William Ryan. 

1817 John Caldwell Wm. Rvan, Robert Donncll. 

1818 John Caldwell James McXairy, William Dickey. 

1810 John M. Dick R. Donncll, William Dickey. 

1820 John W. Caldwell John Rankin. David Xorth. 

1S21 Jonathan Parker Jolm Gordon. Wm. .Adams. 

1B22 Jonathan Parker Saml. Hunter, David North. 

182.? Jonathan Parker Saml. I lunter, David Xorth. 

1824 Jonathan Parker William Unthank, James Xeally. 

1825 Jonathan Parker F. L. Simpson. William Unthank. 

1826 Jonathan Parker F. L. Simpson, John M. Morehead. 

1827 Jonathan Parker F. L. Simpson. John .M. Morehead. 

1828 Jonathan Parker F. L. Simpson, Geo. C. .Mendenhall. 

1829 John M. Dick Geo. C. Mendenhall, F. L. Simpson. 

18.W) John M. Dick .-Mien Pceples, Geo. C. .Mendenhall. 

1830 John M. Dick .Amos Weaver, .Allen Peeples. 

1832 John Parker Allen Peeples, David Thomas. 

lS,U George C. Mendenhall David Thomas, Allen Peeples. 

1834 Jonathan Parker Ralph Gorrell, Jesse H. Lindsay. 

1835 Jas. T. .Morehead Jesse H. Lindsay, Ralph Gorrell. 

i8.?6 Jas. T. Morehead Jesse VI. Lindsay, Peter .Adams, F. L. 


1840 Jas. T. Morehead Jesse H. Lindsay. Wm. Dick, David 



Senators. Members of House of Commons. 

1842 Jas. T. :\Iorehead Geo. C. Mendenhall, Wm. Doak, Jas. 

1842 Jas. T. Morehead Geo. C. Mendenhall, Wm. Doak, Joel 

1844 Jesse H. Lindsay William Doak, Joel [McLean John A. 

1846 John A. Gilmer Hunt, E. W. Ogburn, Peter 

1848 John A. Gilmer David F. Caldwell, Calvin Johnson, 

Jas. W. Doak. 
1850 John A. Gilmer David F. Caldwell, Calvin Henderson 

Wiley, Pejer Adams. 
185,2 John A. Gilmer C. Johnston, David F. Caldwell, C. H. 

1854 John A. Gilmer David F. Caldwell, Ralph Gorrell, C. 

1856 ' Ralph Gorrell D. F. Caldwell, L. M. Scott, E. W. 

1858 Ralph Gorrell John M. Morehead, D. F. Caldwell, 

A. Clapp. 
i860 John M. Morehead C. P. .Mendenhall, C. E. Shober. J. L. 

1862 Peter Adams S. AI. Sherwood, R. W. Glenn, R. AL 

1S64 R. P. Dick D. F. Caldwell, A. Clapp, A. S. Hel- 
1866 Peter Adams Jas. Morehead, Jr., J. S. Houston, 

W. R. Smith. 
1868 E. Shoffner, 

J. W. Walker Stephen G. Homey, David Hodgin. 

1870 John A. Gilmer, 

W. A. Smith Jonathan Harris, S. C. Rankin. 

1871 Jas. T. Morehead, 

Wm. J. Murray Joseph Gilmer, William Wiley. 

Nov. Jas T. Morehead, Jr. 

1873 W. J. Murray Joseph Gilmer, William Wiley. 

1874 Jas. T. Morehead 

1875 A. S. Holton Nereus Mendenhall, John N. Staples. 

1876 Thos. AL Holt. 

1877 J. L Scales John Staples, Lyndon Swain. 


S70 J. I. Scales. 

n. R Caldwell . 
iSSi J. .\. Staples. 
J;m. H. Fv MelKine .. 
lS8.? I. T. Morehead 

SQRTH C.lROl.fX.'l. wr, 

Meinhers of House of Commons. 

J. \. MoI.e.-m. C. J. Wheeler. 

J. .\. Picket. J. S. RaRsdalc. 

J. L. King. Jas. \V. Forhis. 

Wealth of ('■nilf»)rd County. t;ikrn from the report of the State auditor 
for 18.^-55- 

In the year iKs.i. Walter .-\. Winbourne, as sheriff of Gnilford County, 
presented to the ronii'trolier-ijeneral (or State auditor) the followiuR 
report : 

Acres of land ^77,i^^ So. I'olU .W..^04 

N'aluation of l.ind $i,4iX,q64 Town prr)perty $1,7(^.440 


Land $ 800 00 

Town property loi 21 

Poll 659 95 Pedlars 

Kunatic .\sylum 430 92 Taverns 

Interest received 660 26 Circus 

Dividend and profit. ... 

Lawyers, etc 

Ciold Watches 

Silver Watches 



Playing Cards # 7 05 

Stores .153 44 

56 40 

23 57 Musicians 

93 06 Negro Traders 
73 i2 Pistols 

Rowie Knives . 

Mortgages . . . . 

48 88 
22 56 

5 59 Capital Invested 









• 14 







Pleasure Carriages 128 31 

$3,694 05 

The population of 'aiilford Comity in 17QO was 7. 191 ; in 1850 it had 
increased to 19.754. 

Area of (iuilford. 600 square miles; number of acres, 407,214; aver- 
age value. $5.40. ni<tance from Raki.i;h. Sj miles.