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Illustrations and Biographical Sketches. 


Henry A. Ford, A. M., and Mrs. Kate B. Ford. 









Prefatory Note, 

It should ever be borne in mind that the office of an historian is one 
of immense responsibility; that it always tells for good or evil; and 
that he will be held responsible for the consequences of a want of 
fidehty. — [Hon. yacob.Burnet, Cincinnati. 

An earnest and very laborious effort has been made 
to compose this history in the spirit of Judge Burnet's 
remark. No source of information available to the 
writers has been left unsearched, nor any effort or ex- 
pense spared to produce a work which should satisfy the 
reasonable expectations of a city and county which have 
waited nearly a century for the compilation and publica- 
tion of their annals. The Hst of works consulted is too 
large for convenient citation here. It includes those of 
all the earlier writers — Burnet, Cist, the Drakes, Mans- 
field, and others — with a multitude of later volumes, and 
pamphlets, magazines, newspapers, and manuscripts in- 
numerable. It has not been practicable in so many cases 
to secure formal permission for the use of books con- 
sulted or quoted; but it is trusted that due respect has 
been paid to all copyrights, and that no author whose 
writings have contributed to this volume will object to 
such use as has been made of them. Acknowledgments 
are also due to many persons, in all parts of the county 
and at several points elsewhere in the State, for their 
kind and helpful aid in the preparation of this book. 
Particular mention should be made in this connection of 

Miss E. H. Appleton, librarian of the Historical and 
Philosophical society; Mr. John M. Newton, of the 
Mercantile library; Chester W. Merrill, esq., of the Pub- 
lic library ; Colonel Sidney D. Maxwell, superintendent 
of the Chamber of Commerce; and Mr. H. A. Ratter- 
man, secretary of the German-American Insurance com. 
pany; all of Cincinnati — and to Louis W. Clason, mayor 
of Madisonville. 

It may seem, in some cases, that public institutions or 
private interests of public importance have not received 
the notice that was due to them, or are, possibly, wholly 
unnoticed in these volumes. It may be concluded in 
such cases, with scarcely any exception, that the omission 
is the result of failure on the part of those possessing 
desired information to co-operate with the historian. 

The compilers regret most sincerely that their inability 
to read some of the proofs has resulted in many errors 
of typography, and a few of statement. It is hoped, 
however, that all of any importance will be found cor- 
rected in the errata at the close of the respective vol- 

The special biographies and "notes of settlement" 
have been prepared, in nearly all cases in both voluines, 
by other hands than those of the compilers. 











\. — Description. 
\ — Geology and Topograpiiy 
\ — 'I'he Aboriginal American 
N -The Ohio Indians 

■ V-Titles to Ohio — The Miami| Purchase 
Vi/ -The Miami Immigration 
VII. iThe Miamese 
JIP.VII1 (The Miamese and the Indians '. 

lij ; Civil Jurisdiction — Erection of Hamilton County 
- H Progress of Hamilton county 
Xl'.- Vl'Iitary History of Hamilton County 
XLI.^i'he Morgan Raid through Ohio 
XIII. — The County Institutions 
XIV. — ^The County .Associations 
XV. — Railroads ..... 
XVJ.— Cani!s ... 
XVn.— Roads , . 

XVIII. — Early Legislation and Legislators 




XIX. — Courts and Court Houses . 
XX. — Civil List of Hamilton County . 


Siipijlementary Matter 




.Armstrong Family 
L'loud, Jared , 
Cilley, Bradbury 
Gary, Freeman Grant 
Cochran, Hon. John M. 
Edwards, Williain. sr. 
Ebersole, .Abram 
Frondorf, Frank 
Friend, George H. 
Hill, Colonel W. H. 

following 254 

Hughes, Ezekiel , 

following 2t)2 

Isgrig, Daninl 


Langdon Family 


McGill, William R. 


Riddle, John L. 

following 254 

Sater Family 

following 254 

Sater, Joseph 


Turpin Family 


Wills, Thomas 


Walker, George W 



r 254 





following 254 
following 254 
following 254 
following 254 
following 254 

lit of E. J. Turpin .... 

William Edwards 
William R. McGill 
" Abram Ebersole 

T. M. Armstrong .... 

Portraits, with biography, of Mr. and Mrs. Bradbury 

Cilley, ..... between 262 and 263 

Portrait, with biography, of Jared Cloud . between 262 and 263 

Portraits, with biography, of Thomas E. Sater and 

wife . . . . 282 

Residence of George Wabnitz . . between 284 and 285 

Portraits, with biography, of George Wabnitz and 

wife ...... facing 286 

Residence of Joseph Sater . . between 288 and 289 

Thomas E. Sater . . between 288 and 289 

Portraits, with biography, of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph 

Sater ..... between 292 and 293 

Portrait, with biography, of James P. Williams . facing 297 

View of Mt. St. Vincent Academy . . facing 300 

Portrait, with biography, of Dr. E. D. Crookshank . facing 305 

Portraits of S. S. Jackson and wife, with biography facing 306 

Portrait, with biography, ofG. W. H. Musekamp, belweun 30S an 309 

Portrait of Daniel Isgrig 
Poi trait, with biography, of Thomas Wills 
Portrait, with biography, of F. Frondorf 
Portraits of Richard Calvin and wife, w 

raphy .... 
Portraits, with biography, of Stephen E 

wife .... 

Residence of M. S. Bonnell 
Portrait of Joseph H. Hayes . 
Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. M. S. Bonnell 

" Mr. and Mrs. James Campbell 

Portrait, with biography, of Charles Flinchpaugh 
Portrait of Charles Simonson 
Residence of Charles Simonson 
Portrait of Henrj- Attemeyer 
Residence of F. G. Gary 
Portrait of F. G. Cary 
Portrait, with biography, of S. M. Ferris 
Portrait of J. D, Langdon 
Portrait of John Riddle 

" Catharine Riddle 

Hon. John M. Cochran 


between 308 and 309 
facing] 310 
facing' 311 

between 312 and 313 


between 314 and 315 

between 316 and 317 
facing 318 

between 318 and 319 

between 318 and 319 

facing 320 
between 224 and 225 
between 224 and 225 

facing 337 
between 344 and 345 

facing 346 

far ^ 


between 36 

between tS wide at its mouth, 
..iin sevei al large branches navi- 
~-p7 the principal of which intersects with 
hich runs into Lake Erie, to which there 
\. portage to Sandusky. 

Portraits of Gary Johnson and wife . . between 372 and 373 

Residence of C. B. Johnson . . between 372 and 373 

Portrait of Captain George W. Walker . . facing 377 

Portraits of Benjamin Urroston and wife between 378 and 379 

Portraits, with biography, of Reeves McGilliard and 

^vife ..... between 380 and 381 
Portraits, with biography, of John R. Field and 

wife . . . • • between 380 and 381 

Portraits of Joseph and Mrs. Joseph Jaclison between 382 and 383 

Residence and Portrait of John hi Riddle 
Portrait of G. H. Friend 

Colonel W. H. Hill 
Portraits of Rev. W. B. Chidlav 

Portrait of Ezekiel Hughes 
Portrait, with biography, of W. E'. Mundell 

" " " Jacol Clark 

Portrait of Herman Knuwener 

III ( 1 
between 3B4 and 385,, 
facing ^86^ 
facing 394. 

and Mrs. W. B. 

between 408 and 409 
facing 412 
facing 41^ 
facing 421 
facing 425 







There is a land, of every land the pride, 
Beloved by Heaven o'er all the world beside, 
Where brighter suns dispense serener light, 
And milder moons imparadise the nig^hl ; 
A land of beauty, virtue, valor, truth, 
Time-tutored age, and love-exalted youth : 
The wandering mariner, whose eye explores 
The wealthiest isles, the most enchanting shores, 
Views not a realm so bountiful and fair, 
Nor breathes the spirit of a purer air. 

Man, through all ages of revolving time, 
Unchanging man, in every varying clime, 
Deems his own land of every land the pride. 
Beloved by Heaven o'er all the world beside ; 
His home the spot of earth supremely blest, 
A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest. 

James Montgomery, "My Country." 

Hamilton, the second county erected in the territory 
now covered by the State of Ohio, but, ahnost ever since, 
the first in the State in wealth, population, and general 
importance, is the southwesternraost subdivision of the 
Commonwealth. It is bounded on the south by the 
river Ohio, next beyond which are the counties of Camp- 
bell, Kenton, and Boone, in Kentucky; on the west by 
Dearborn county, Indiana, and at the southwestern 
corner by the Great Miami river; on the north by Butler 
and Warren counties, Ohio, formed from its own territory 
in 1808; on the east by Clermont county and the Little 
Miami river, beyond which, from the northeastern corner 
of the county, runs a narrow strip of Warren county. 
Upon no side of its territory is the boundary a direct 
line throughout. The tortuous windings of rivers supply 
great curves on the eastern and southern boundaries, and 
also break up the western line as it nears the southern ex- 
tremity; and the northern line is considerably zigzagged 
by the irregularity of the early surveys in the Symmes 
(or Miami) Purchase. 

The area of Hamilton, once so great as to include 
about one-eighth of the present territory of Ohio, is now 
among the smaller county areas of the State. It includes 
but about three hundred and ninety square miles, or two 
hundred and forty-nine thousand acres. Its surface was 
probably part of a vast plain many thousands of years 
ago, but has become exceedingly diversified and broken 
by the long wash of streams and by the changes of the 
geologic ages. 

It is a remarkably well-watered and fertile country. 
The underlying rocks of the Miami country are calcare- 
ous, and the drift-gravels usually composed largely of 
limestone. From both these sources fertilizing elements 
are imparted to the soil. 

The valley of the Ohio is about five hundred feet be- 
low the general level of the county; while the valleys of 
the Great and Little Miarais, of the Dry fork of White- 
water, of Mill, Duck, and Deer, Taylor's and Blue Rock 
creeks, and many small streams corrugate further the sur- 
face of the couhtry. 

The characteristics of some of these streams were no- 
ticed by travellers at a very early day. Captain Thomas 
Hutchins, of His Brittanic Majesty's Sixtieth regiment of 
foot, afterwards geographer of the United States, during 
his service with the British armies in this country in the 
last century, made many explorations in the western wil- 
derness between the years 1764 and 1775, the results of 
which are embodied in a valuable Topographical De- 
scription published in London in 1778. It contains, 
probably, the first printed notices of the Miami river ex- 
tant. He says: 

Little Mineami river is too small to navigate with batteaux. It has 
much fine land and several salt springs; its high banks and gentle cur- 
rent prevent its much overflowing the surrounding lands in freshets. 

Great Mineami, Affercmet, or Rocky river has a very strong chan- 
nel; a swift stream, but no falls. It has several large branches, passa- 
ble with boats a great way ; one extending westward towards the Wa- 
bash river, and then towards a branch of the Mineami river (which runs 
into Lake Erie), to which there is a portage, and a third has a portage 
to the west branch of Sandusky, besides Mad creek, where the French 
formerly established themselves. Rising ground here and there a little 
stoney, which begins in the northern part of the Peninsula, between 
Lakes Erie, Huron, and Michigan, and extend across the Little Mine- 
ami river below the Forks, and southwardly along the Rocky river to 

A part of Captain Hutchins' description would hardly 
be approved nowadays. However industrious he was in 
observation, he would have necessarily to rely much upon 
hearsay; and no little knowledge that he seemed to have 
appears absolutely incorrect, or vague and indefinite, 
when confronted with the facts. 

Imlay, an English traveller, wrote in 1793, evidently 
borrowing from Hutchins: 

The Great Miami is about three hundred yards wide at its mouth, 
is a rapid stream, without cataracts, with several large branches navi- 
gable_for batteaux a long way up, the principal of which intersects with 
a branch of the Miami river, which runs into Lake Erie, to which there 
is a portage, and a third has a portage to Sandusky. 


This region forms one of the richest, as well as the most 
beautiful, sections of the State, an extension, indeed of 
the far-famed "blue grass region" of Kentucky.* The 
system of agriculture in this valley is esteemed the best 
in the State, except that of the Western Reserve. By 
underdraining and other permanent soil-improvements 
and ameliorations important changes have been effected. 
It is the most famous tobacco region of the State, and in 
it more than forty per cent, of all the tobacco raised in 
Ohio is produced. The very richest bottom lands are 
selected for this crop, and the average yield for five years 
is ascertained to be eight hundred and sixty-six and one- 
half pounds per acre. In the early day comparatively 
little wheat was grown in the valley, but within the last 
quarter of a century it has sown a greater breadth, and 
harvested a larger quantity than any similar area in the 
State. A comparison of the Miami valley with other 
parts of Ohio, made a {ew years ago, showed that fifty 
per cent, wider breadth of soil was sown to wheat in this 
valley than in any other part of the commonwealth. 
The corn crop was also very large, averaging thirty-eight 
and one-fourth bushels per inhabitant, against thirty- 
seven and one-half bushels per inhabitant for the general 
average of the State. Says the report cited below: 

The farms throughout the valley are, as a rule, in good order; the 
surroundings in neatness' and good taste more nearly resemble the 
Western Reserve than does any other valley in the State. Many of the 
inhabitants are Pennsylv,inians and iVIarylanders, who have brought 
with them their ideas of good shelter and care of domestic animals; 
hence, throughout the valley are found well-constructed and good- 
sized, comfortable barns and other outbuildings. The interiors of 
farm-houses, especially the more recent ones, are well arranged fo'r 
convenience and comfort, and many of them are even luxuriously fur- 
nished, f 

How greatly and essentially the character of the county 
is changing, however, is shown by the following extract 
from the report of the secretary of the Hamilton County 
Agricultural society to the State Board of Agriculture, 
published in its annual report for 187 1. He says: 

Our county is no longer a farming community. Our farms are now 
occupied as dairies, rented by gardners, used as pasture or meadow, 
and on the railroads and leading thoroughfares are being subdivided 
and improved as country homes by the business men of Cincinnati. 

Other crops are produced in great abundance and va- 
riety from the soil of Hamilton county; the fertile valleys 
near Cincinnati, especially the broad valley of Mill creek, 
which has a peculiarly favorable location, are in great re- 
quest for market gardening. The lands here, and indeed 
generally throughout the county, are exceedingly valua- 
ble; and large sums are invested in and large fortunes 
realized by the pursuits of agriculture in this region. 

The Mill Creek valley just mentioned, which consti- 
tutes one of the most prominent and important physical 
features of the county, begins near Hamilton, in Butler 
county, not far from the valley of the Great Miami. In- 
deed, it is said that in wet seasons the water is discharged 
Irom a large pond near Hamilton at the same time 
through Pleasant run into the Great Miami and by Mill 
creek into the Ohio river. This creek becomes a con- 
siderable stream as it nears Cincinnati; and traversing, as 

*Ohio Geological Survey, vol. I, p. 26. 
■|-Ohio Secretary of State's report for 1877. 

it now does, the greatest breadth of the city, it is justly 
reckoned, notwithstanding the pollution of its water by 
manufactories and other establishments along its borders, 
an important element in the topography of the city and 
county. Other streams, except the Miami and Ohio 
rivers, are comparatively insignificant, although some of 
them, in the course of the ages, have come to occupy 
broad and deep valleys. 

North of the range of hills adjoining, or rather now 
mostly in the city, in the country beyond Avondale and 
the Walnut Hills, is a spacious basin or amphitheatre of 
about twenty-five square miles, in which a splendid city 
might advantageously be located, but to and through 
which the city of Cincinnati will undoubtedly one day 
extend. It is traversed by the Marietta & Cincinnati 
railroad, and the Montgomery and other turnpike roads. 
The soil in this and the northwest portions of the county 
is for the most part friable clay, resting on limestone, 
which gives them an excellent character as grass-growing 
regions, from which much of the hay to Cincinnati is 

Permanent springs are not very numerous in the 
county, but well water of excellent quality is in general 
obtained without difficulty. Ponds and morasses were 
formerly frequent, especially in the northern part of the 
county, but are less known now. 

More attention is given in this valley to grain and 
wool-growing than to stock-raising. The secretary of 
State's report for 1877 says: 

The lands are entiiely too dear to be devoted to sheep growing fo 
wool; hence comparatively few fine-wooled sheep are in the valley, the 
bulk of the sheep being ' ' native " and mutton breeds. As early as 1816 
attention was being directed to the improvement in the horse stock of 
the valley, and from that time until the present that interest has been 
fully maintained. Those who are familiar with the strains of thorough- 
breds will find that many of the famous horses of the west either were 
bred in this valley or else traced back to stock in this region for its an- 
cestry. Less attention is given to cattle in this valley than other agri- 
cultural operations indicate, or than the wealth and fertility of the valley 
warrant. But the lesser interest in cattle is fully compensated by the 
greater interest in horses and in swine. This latter species of domestic 
animals is one of the "leading agricultural pursuits" of the region. 
The justly famous "Magie" (pronounced Mag-gee) breed of hogs is 
claimed to have been originated in this valley. Early maturity and 
large weights are the peculiar commendatory qualities of this breed, it 
being no unfrequent occurrence that a head of fifteen or twenty are 
slaughtered averaging near about si.\ hundred pounds net. 

The average throughout the State is eight head of swine for every one 
hundred acres of area. In the Miami valley the average is over thir- 
teen head, or sixty-three per cent, more than the general average; or, 
the State average is seventy-seven head for every one hundred inhab- 
itants, and in this valley there are, in round numbers, seventy-nine 
head to the one hundred inhabitants. When it is remembered that 
more than one-fourth of the population of the State resides in this val- 
ley, it will be seen at once that one-fourth of all the swine in the State 
are grown here. Notwithstanding the Scioto valley has fifty-eight 
head of swine more to the one hundred inhabitants, it has less to the 
hundred acres than the Miami. 

The climate of this part of the Ohio valley is mild 
and genial. The average temperature of the year is 
about 54° Fahrenheit, above zero, against 52° at Mari- 
etta, also in the Ohio valley, 50° on the south shore of 
Lake Erie, and 49° to 48° in the highlands, of the inte- 
rior. In the early day the temperature was even milder. 
Dr. Drake, in his Notices concerning Cincinnati, pub- 
lished in 1810, says: 


"The latter [the Ohio river, which he was compar- 
ing with the Delaware at Philadelphia] at this place is 
but seldom blocked up with the ice which it floats, and 
was never known to freeze over." In his Picture of 
Cincinnati, published five years later, he notes the 
average temperature of 1808 as 56.4°; that of 181 1 as 
56.62°, and the average for the eight years, 1806-13, as 
54.25°, which, he says, "maybe regarded as an accurate 
exponent of the temperature of Cincinnati." One 
hundred degrees, from below zero to above, was the 
mean temperature of those years. During nine years' ob- 
servation the thermometer at Cincinnati was below zero 
but twice in a winter. The mean summer heat for those 
years was but seventy-four, and the thermometer stood at 
ninety degrees or above for an aveiage of but fourteen 
days a summer. In those times, according to Dr. 
Drake's observation of six years, there was an average 
per year of one hundred and seventy-six fair, one hun- 
dred and five cloudy, and eighty-four variable days. 
The annual fall of rain and snow amounted to thirty-six 
inches, while now it is forty-seven and forty-three one- 
hundredths inches at Cincinnati and along the Ohio val- 
ley, against thirty-six in the northern part of the State. 
Said Dr. Drake, in his publication of 1815: 

This country never been visited by a violent storm, either from 
the northeast or southeast, nor do the clouds from any eastern point 
often exhibit many electric phenomena. But from every direction on the 
opposite sides of the meridian they come charged with lightning and 
driven by impetuous winds. Of these thunder-gusts the northwest is by 
far the most prolific source. They occur at any time during the day 
and night, but most frequently in the afternoon. 

He gives a vivid description of such a storm, which 
occurred May 28, 1809, and of which some notice will 
be found hereafter in the history of Cincinnati, in this 

For eighty-three years ending with the last day of 
1879, during which observations had been taken at Cin- 
cinnati, the average temperature of the year was 57° 65', 
and for the last decade of that period it was 53° 65', 
showing a change of five degrees for the colder since 
1797. Some of the cold seasons in that day, however, 
were intensely severe. The lowest degree of Fahrenheit's 
thermometer ever registeaed in the city was noted Jan- 
uary 8, of the year last named, when, according to the 
observations of Colonel Winthrop Sargent, secretary of 
the Northwest Territory, it went to 18°, and would have 
gone lower, it is believed, had not the then dense forests 
of southern Ohio and the Cincinnati basin broken the 
icy northwest wind that prevailed. The winter-of 1806-7 
was also thoroughly frigid, and the seventh of February, 
of that season, when the thermometer marked 11° below, 
has come down in local tradition as "the cold Friday." 
Other cold winters were those of 1855-6, 1856-7, and 
1857-8, when the thermometer thirty-two times indicated 
temperatures below zero, and at one time the Ohio was 
for two months so soHdly frozen over that loaded wagons 
crossed safely. Another severe winter was that of 1863-4, 
which brought so much suffering to soldiers in the army. 
On the first of January, 1864, which has a permanent 
reputation in meteorology as "the cold New Year," 14° 
below was touched at Cincinnati. Since then, the win- 

ters of 1870-1, 1872-3 and the three succeeding winters, 
and those of 1877-8 and 1878-9 have been among 
the coldest known in the valley. Among warm winters 
that have been observed are those of 1792-3-4, i795~6> 
1799-1800-1, 1805-6-7, 1809-10-11, and 1879-80, the 
last of these warmer than any other since 1827-8, and 
10° warmer than any other since 1835-6. The thermom- 
eter exhibited 69° above in the shade on Forefathers' 
day, December 20, 1877, although that was a generally 
cold winter, and stood at 63° or more for some days. 

The average rainfall per year, during the eighty-three 
years designated, has been 39.71 inches, and somewhat 
lighter, 37.61, for the last twenty five years of the period. 
Least fell in 1856 — 22.88 inches; and most, 69.42, in 
1847. The average snowfall annually is about twenty 
inches, against thirty-five in central and northern Ohio. 
The greatest depth at one time ever observed in southern 
Ohio was twenty-eight inches, January 18, 1862, though 
twenty-two fell January 19, 1846. Sixty-nine inches fell 
in the winter of 1855-6, and sixty-five just ten years 
thereafter. Snowfalls in April sometimes occur, but very 
seldom later. April 20, 1814, ten inches fell, and five 
April II, 1874. 

Forest trees abounded in the early day in great variety, 
and are still, notwithstanding the dense population and 
extensive cultivation of the soil in the county, prominent 
among its physical features. Dr. Drake in his day enu- 
merated over one hundred and twenty species, and from 
their number and the luxuriance of the forest growth 
he argued the superiority of the soil to that of the United 
States generally — "for it has as many kinds of trees above 
sixty feet in height as all the States taken together, while 
it has only one-half the number of species." He also enu- 
merates a great number of such herbaceous plants as are 
deemed useful in medicine and the arts, most of which 
are indigenous to the soil. Of trees, the following-named 
are twenty of the most common species in Ohio, which 
are now found in Hamilton county, in the relative order 
of abundant growth in which they appear in the list: 
Oak, beech, hickory, sugar maple, poplar, walnut, elm, 
sycamore, ash, locust, mulberry, pine, Cottonwood, white 
walnut (butternut), cherry, gum, soft maple, tulip, buck- 
eye, and silver maple. In 1853 the county still had 
eighty-eight thousand one hundred and twenty-three 
acres, or thirty-seven and seven-tenths per cent, of the 
area, in forest; within seventeen years thereafter fifty- 
three thousand six hundred and fifty acres were removed, 
and in 1870 it had but thirty-four thousand four hundred 
and seventy-three acres in forest, or fourteen and seventy- 
six hundredths per cent, of its acreage — by far the least 
of any county in the State — and the breadth of its woods 
is annually decreasing. 

The great municipality of Hamilton county, as all the 
world knows, is of course Cincinnati, with its area com- 
prising about one-fourteenth of the entire territory of 
the county and its population of more than a quarter of a 

The townships of the county along theOhio river are: 
To the east of Cincinnati — Anderson, between the Little 


Miami and the Clermont county line, and Spencer, ad- 
joining the city ; west of Cincinnati, in order — Delhi and 
Miami. Those west of the Great Miami are Whitewater, 
Harrison (in the northwestern corner of the county), and 
Crosby (east of Harrison on the lines of Butler county 
and the Little Miami river). Other townships in the 
northern tier, between the Great and Little Miamis, from 
west to east, are Colerain, Springfield, Sycamore, and 
Symmes. There remain, all these adjoining Cincinnati, 
Green township on the west. Mill Creek township on the 
north, and Columbia, between Mill Creek and the Little 

The post offices of the county, besides Cincinnati, are 
[February, 1881]: Banesburgh, Bevis, Bond Hill, Califor- 
nia, Carthage, Cedar Point, Cherry Grove, Cheviot, Cleves, 
College Hill, Columbia,* Creedville, Corryville,* Cum- 
minsville,* Delhi, Dent, Dunlap, East Sycamore, Eliza- 
bethtown, Elmwood Place, Evendale, Forestville, Fruit 
Hill, Glendale, Grand Valley, Groesbeck, Harrison, Hart- 
well, Karr, Linwood, Lockland, Ludlow Grove, Ma- 
deira, Madisonville, Miami, Mill Creek,* Montgomery, 
Mount Airy, Mount Healthy, Mount Lookout, Mount 
Washington, Newton, North Bend, Norwood, Oakley, 
Plainville, Pleasan Ridge, Pleasant Run, Pleasant Valley, 
Preston, Reading, Remington, Riverside, Sater, Shann- 
ville. Sixteen Mile Stand, Sedamsville,* Spring Dale, 
Sweet Wine, Symmes, Taylor's Creek, Terrace Park, 
Transit, Trautman Walnut Hills, Winton Place, West 
Riverside, and Wyoming. Many of these are also incor- 
porated villages; those marked* are within the corporate 
limits of Cincinnati, and are branches or "stations" of 
the Cincinnati post office. 

The description of Hamilton county will be incident- 
ally continued through the next, necessarily a much more 
elaborate chapter. 



Wliere is the dust that has not been alive? 

— Young, "Night Thoughts," 

There was life in the valley of the Ohio untold ages 
before man came to gaze upon its beautiful hills and 
waters. Away back in the stately march of the geologic 
epochs, the Silurian seas here swarmed with animate ex- 
istence, many of its forms so small that the aid of the 
microscope is needed to trace them; and some so nu- 
merous that great and valuable layers of rock are com- 
posed almost wholly of their remains. The history of 
the countless varieties of sentient life that so abounded 
here seons on geons ago may be read for us only in the 
rocks of the valley and the hills. It is otherwise un- 
written, except in the books of their Creator. Industrious 
inquirers, working slowly and carefully through many 
years, have traced the forms of them, have given them 

names, and catalogued them. It does not fall within the 
province of this work to present a Hst of these. It may 
suffice for our purposes to say that the paleontological 
catalogue published within two or three years by Pro- 
fessor Mickleborough, of the Cincinnati normal school, 
and Professor Wetherby, of the University of Cincinnati, 
represents no vertebrate, and their presence in the rocks 
of Hamilton county is exceedingly rare; but from the 
sub-kingdoms are presented fifty-seven species of annu- 
losa (besides seventy-eight undetermined), one hundred 
and forty-five of moUusca, one hundred and thirty-nine 
of molluscoida, sixty-three of ccelenterata, and nine of 
protojoa, besides sixteen species representing, in a very 
small way, the vegetable kingdom. 

The duty of the historian, in this, one of the opening 
chapters of this work, is to present something of the to- 
pography and geology of the county. In accordance with 
our custom in this series of local histories, we rely almost 
exclusively for these upon the authorized Report of the 
Geological Survey of Ohio, for which the section relating 
to Hamilton county was prepared by Professor Edward 
Orton, now of the State university at Columbus. What 
follows is taken almost verbatim from his report, with 
the addition of two or three foot-notes, and some slight 
changes in and arrangement of the text. 


The prominent topographical features of Hamilton 
county divide the surface into two main divisions — high- 
land and lowland. 

The first division embraces all the higher table-lands 
of the county, which have a general elevation of two to 
five hundred feet above low-water at Cincinnati. All of 
these areas, though often covered with superficial drift 
deposits, are underlain with bedded rock, which is every- 
where easily accessible, and which impresses pecuhar 
features upon the face of the districts that contain it. 

To the second division are referred the valleys of the 
county, and not only those which hold the present rivers, 
but also those in which rio streams of considerable size 
are now found, but which are due to the eroding agen-, 
cies of an earlier day. Both of the classes of valleys are 
often filled with heavy accumulations of drift, but they 
agree in being destitute of bedded rock — except at the 
levels of the streams they contain, or, as is often the 
case, at considerably lower levels. 

The thickness of the drift beds does not generally ex- 
ceed one«hundred feet, and thus it will be seen that in 
the Ohio valley the lowlands have a maximum elevation 
of one hundred feet above low-water at Cincinnati ; but 
as we follow back the Miamis and the .lesser streams, we 
find these beds assuming higher elevations, as the floor of 
the country that sustains them is gradually elevated, so 
that they sometimes attain, in the northern and eastern 
portions of the county, a height of one hundred and fifty 
or even two hundred feet above the same base. 

In other words, the highlands of the county are the 
areas in which the bedded rocks remain, to an elevation 
of three hundred feet and more above the Ohio river, 
while the lowlands are those areas from which the rocks 




have been removed, at least to the existing rivers and 
lesser streams. 

The slopes that connect these two kinds of areas are 
commonly precipitous, as in the river-hills of Cincinnati; 
but sometimes the descent is broken by the interposition 
of drift deposits. 

The valley of the Ohio, which here runs in an east and 
west direction, makes the southern boundary of the 
county, and, though deep, is comparatively narrow. Sev- 
eral of the north and south valleys that traverse the 
county are absolutely wider than the Ohio valley; and 
when the volumes of the streams that they contain are 
taken into the account, the disproportion between them 
and the first-named valley is very great. A similar state 
of facts obtains through southwestern Ohio — the valleys 
that trend to the west of north especially having been 
excavated on an ampler scale than the rest, other things 
being equal. These facts seem to point to glacial ero- 
sion as a prominent cause in the production of the sur- 
face features of the country, as the glaciers are known by 
the striae they have left to have advanced from the north- 

An examination of the map of the county, * in the 
light of the facts already known, will serve to show, what 
an acquaintance with it abundantly confirms, that its sur- 
face has suffered a vast amount of erosion. The most 
interesting facts in this connection are not the valleys 
which are occupied by the greater streams of to-day, but 
those deep and wide valleys that are at present either 
entirely deserted by water-courses or traversed by insig- 
nificant strenms, wholly inadequate to account for the 
erosion of which they have availed themselves. Atten- 
tion will be called to one or two instances of this sort. 

The broad valley now occupied in part by Mill creek, 
and in part left entirely unoccupied, extends continuously 
from the. present valley of the Great Miami at Hamilton 
to the Clifton hills, just north of Cincinnati, where it 
divides into two branches — one passing to the north and 
east of the city, and entering the valley of the Little 
Miami between Red Bank station and Plainville — while 
the other branch, the present valley of Mill creek, passes 
directly to the Ohio through the site of the city of Cin- 

No rocky barriers — nothing, in fact, but the same drift 
terraces that make the walls of its present course — shut 
out the Great Miami from entering the Ohio valley at the 
same points where the Little Miami and Mill creek now 
enter. Indeed, there is the best of reasons for believing 
that it has followed, in the past mutations of its history, 
those very courses to the great valley. Mill creek has 
taken possession of the middle portions of this valley, 
but has never occupied more than one of its lower 
branches, that one the narrower. 

The most striking examples of this erosion of an earlier 
day are to be found, however, on the western side of the 
county, and are, for the most part, to be referred to the 
same river whose agency has already been invoked. 

There is an open cut, at least two miles wide, in the 

'■'Geological Survey of Ohio, Vol. I. 

northeastern part of Crosby township, which bears due 
westward from the present course of the Great Miami. 
Near the west line of the township this old channel is 
deflected to the southward, and is thenceforward occu. 
pied by the Dry fork of Whitewater, until it is merged in . 
the valley of this last-named river. That the streams 
which hide themselvss in this great valley to-day have 
had next to nothing to do with its excavation, is evident 
from the fact that there is not one of them whose course 
agrees with the direction of the valley, but all cut across 
it transversely. More than half of the townships of 
Crosby, Harrison, and Whitewater have been thus worn 
away and made to give bed to the rivers in the successive 
stages of their history. The channel above named can 
be confidently set down as another of the earlier courses 
of the Great Miami. 

Still a third of these old channels, more interesting in 
some respects than either of the two just named, is found 
near Cleves, Miami township. By reference to the map, 
it will be observed that the river here approaches within 
a mile of the Ohio ; but, instead of entering the great val- 
ley at this point, it makes an abrupt detour to the west 
and south, and only reaches its destination after a circuit 
of ten miles. Its approach to the Ohio at Cleves is 
blocked by a ridge that is interposed, one hundred and 
fifty to two hundred and seventy-five feet in height. A 
tunnel that was carried through this ridge, in the con- 
struction of the Whitewater Valley canal, and which is 
at present used by the Indianapolis & Cincinnati rail- 
road, shows it to be composed of glacial drift. The di- 
rection of this channel is in the line in which the glaciers 
advanced, so that its existence can be quite plausibly 
ascribed to the great agents of denudation. Whether or 
not the origin of this channel can be referred to the 
glacial period, its closure was certainly effected there. 

It tasks the imagination to account for the excavation 
of these broad and deep valeys by existing erosive agen- 
cies, even when they are reinforced by the important ad- 
ditions of glacial ice; but to agencies identical with 
these the work must be referred. ■ There is no evidence, 
as has already been shown, of minor flexures or axes of 
disturbance in the Blue Limestone region, by which the 
strata could have been thrown into hills and valleys; but, 
on the contrary, the beds are found to occur in unbroken 
regularity, being affected only by the slight general dip, 
of which account has been previously given. It is 
scarcely necessary to say that opposite sides of valleys 
give every possible proof of having been originally con- 
tinuous, the sections which adjacent exposures furnish 
being absolutely identical in their leading features. 

The Cincinnati group has been found to demand for 
its original formation long-continued cycles of peaceful 
growth and deposition, and in, like manner the fashion- 
ing of its bed into the present topographical features of 
the country must have been in progress through such 
protracted ages that the historic period in comparison 
shrinks into insignificance. 

[The correctness or necessity of the appellation, "Cin- 
cinnati group," which often occurs in the geological reports, 
is gravely doubted by the local geologists. In January, 



1879, a committee of ten, headed by S. A. Miller, esq., 
reported to the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 
"that the fossils found in the strata for twenty feet or 
more, above low-water mark of the Ohio river, in the 
first ward of the city of Cincinnati, and on Crawfish 
creek, in the eastern part of the city, and in Taylor's 
creek, east of Newport, Kentucky, at an elevation of 
more than fifty feet above low-water mark in the Ohio 
river, indicate the age of the Utica Slate group of New 
York. A fauna is represented in these rocks that is not 
found above or below them. . . Moreover, 

brown shales and greenish blue shales and concretionary 
nodules give a lithological character to the strata which 
distinguishes them from the strata both above and 
below." All strata containing Iriarthriis becki, the com- 
mittee hold, are to be referred to the age of the Utica 
Slate group of New York. Above its range is the Hud- 
son River group. The Trenton group is not exposed at 
Cincinnati nor in the Ohio valley anywhere west of the 
city, but is probably represented in the rocks of Ohio a- 
few miles east of that point. The Utica group is not 
represented elsewhere in Ohio. All the lower Silurian 
rocks in southwestern Ohio belong to the Hudson River 
group, except the small exposure of the Utica slate in 
the banks of the Ohio and east of the city in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of the river. The committee therefore report 
that the name "Cincinnati group" should be dropped, 
"not only because it is a synonym, but because its re- 
tention can subserve no useful purpose in the science, 
and because it will in the future, as in the past, lead to 
erroneous views and fruitless discussions." Investiga- 
tion, so far, they add, has not led to any other or further 
sub-divisions than those formerly adopted.] 

Strictly speaking, there are no hills in Hamilton 
county, the surface being all referable to the table-lands 
and to the valleys worn in them. What are called the 
Cincinnati hills, for example, are merely the isolated 
remnants of the old plateau, which have so far escaped 
the long-continued denudation. Indeed, the highlands 
of the county are all of them outliers or insulated 
masses, surrounded on every side by the valleys of exist- 
ing rivers, along the deep excavations wrought out by 
these streams at an earlier date and under somewhat 
different geographical conditions. These islands of the 
higher ground vary in area between quite wide limits, 
some of them containing a few scores of acres, and others 
as many square miles. 

The high ground immediately appertaining to Cincin- 
,nati furnishes a good example of these outliers. By 
reference to the map, the insulation of this high ground 
will be seen to be perfectly effected by the Little Miami 
valley, the Ohio valley, the Mill Creek valley, and the 
abandoned channel of the Great Miami, already describ- 
ed, on the northern and eastern sides. Very important 
consequences result to the city from this insulation. It 
follows, for instance, that there are but two natural ways 
of ingress to the city by lowland, or, in other words, that 
there are but two railroad routes possible — one by the 
Ohio valley and the other by the Mill Creek valley. 
Both of these are circuitous and in other respects unfa- 

vorable, especially as ways of approach from the east. 
These difficulties have led to the project of reaching the 
business center of the city by a tunnel from the northern 

The Dayton Short Line railroad encounters, near West 
Chester, one of these outliers in its route, which necessi- 
tates a grade of forty-five feet to the mile at this point — 
the highest grade, in fact, on this line (New York Cen- 
tral) between tidewater and the Ohio river. 

Another very noticeable outlier is found a mile west of 
North Bend. The Ohio & Mississippi railroad skirts it 
on the Ohio valley side, while the Indianapolis & Cincin- 
nati road passes to the north of it, through the old glacial 
channel, which has already been described. 


The upper division of the Blue Limestone or the 
Lebanon beds has never been found in Hamilton county. 
The lower boundary of the Cincinnati group has not 
yet been definitely fixed, but enough is known to make 
it certain that it is not found among the surface rocks of 
Ohio. The approximate place in the general geological 
scale of the strata exposed in the hills of Cincinnati has 
long been known. For the last forty years, at least, they 
have been r.:ferred to the later divisions of Lower Silu- 
rian time and recognized as belonging to the Hudson or 
Hudson River group of the New York geologists and of 
the general geological scale of the country. 

The Cincinnati beds proper come next in order after 
the Point Pleasant beds, in Clermont county, which are 
the lowest rocks of the series in the State. They have 
for their inferior limit low-water in the Ohio and for an 
upper boundary the highest stratum found in the Cincin- 
nati hills. The greatest elevation above low-water in the 
immediate vicinity of Cincinnati is given by the city eu; 
gineer as four hundred and sixty-five feet. Abating fif- 
teen feet for the drift covering of the surface, we can 
certainly find forty-five feet of bedded rock in this divis- 
ion, almost every foot of which lies open to study within 
the city limits. The only stratum, however, that admits 
of easy identification, lies at an elevation of four hundred 
and twenty-five feet above the river; and this is accord- 
ingly assumed as the upper limit of this division. 

Upon differences in lithological character, with which 
also changes in fossil contents ally themselves, a sub- 
division of the Cincinnati beds is possible into three 
groups, which may be named respectively, in ascending 
order, the River Quarry beds, the Middle Shales, and the 
Hill Quarry beds. The first of these subdivisions has a 
thickness of fifty feet, the second of two hundred and 
fifty feet, and the third of one hundred and fifty feet. 

Above the highest stratum of the Cincinnati hills and 
the lowermost beds of the Upper Silurian age, three 
hundred feet of rock intervene, that belong unmistakably 
to the same formation, being connected with it by identity 
in lithological character and by a large number of com- 
mon fossils. These upper beds are nowhere found within 
twenty miles of Cincinnati, and yet there has never been 
the slightest hesitation in referring them to the same series 
to which the rocks there exhibited belong. 



The names assigned, it will be remembered, to the 
three divisions recognized here, are in ascending order: 

The River Quarry Beds; 

The Middle, or Eden Shales; 

The Hill Quarry Beds. 

No explanation is necessary of the first and the last of 
these names. To the intervening division a name can 
properly be assigned, derived from the name of the park 
on the eastern side of the city, in the grading of which 
so great a display of this division is made. This division 
can, therefore, be styled the Eden shales, from the Eden 

The whole series of the Cincinnati group is composed 
of alternating beds of limestone and shale. The shale 
is more commonly known under the name of blue clay; 
and this designation is not inappropriate. It is sometimes 
styled marl or marlite, and the use of the latter designa- 
tion is also justified by its composition. The most objec- 
tionable term by which it is characterized, is soapstone, 
as this name is pre-occupied by a metamorphic magne- 
sian silicate. 

The limestone of the series may, in general terms, be 
described as an even-bedded, firm, durable, semi-crystal- 
line limestone, crowded for the most part with fossils 
through its whole extent and often bearing upon its sur- 
face the impressions of these fossils. Its color is not 
uniform, as the designation by which the whole series is 
familiarly known, "blue limestone," would seem to imply. 
The prevailing color, however, may be said to be a gray- 
ish blue, chiefly due to the presence of protoxide of iron, 
which, upon exposure, is converted into a higher oxide. 
The weathered surfaces generally show yellowish or light 
gray shades, that are in marked contrast with the fresh 
fracture. Drab-colored courses occasionally alternate 
with the blue. 

The limestone varies in all these respects somewhat, 
however, in its different divisions. The Point Pleasant 
beds, and the lower courses of the Cincinnati division, 
deviate most widely from the description already given. 
They are lighter in color than the upper courses and in 
some instances are slaty in structure, while in others they 
have a tendency to assume lenticular forms of concre- 
tionary origin, sometimes to such an extent as to destroy 
their value as building-rock. The layers are also excep- 
tionally heavy, attaining a thickness of sixteen or eighteen 
inches, and are often so free from fossils as to afford no 
indication of the kinds of life from which they were 

A few feet above low-water at Cincinnati, a very fine 
and compact stone comes in, that is found in occasional 
courses for fifty to seventy-five feet. It is composed, as 
its weathered surfaces show, almost entirely of crinoidal 
columns, mostly of small size, and mainly referable to 
species of heterocrinus. The courses vary in thickness 
from an inch to a foot. The lighter layers ring like pot- 
metal under the blows of a hammer. 

Ascending in the series, the limestone layers are very 
generally fossiliferous and are rarely homogeneous in 
structure, being disfigured, to a greater or less degree, by 
chambers of shale or limestone mud, from some of which 

cavities, certainly, fossils have been dissolved. The 
thickness of the courses varies generally between the 
limits indicated above, but a large proportion of the 
stone ranges between four and eight inches. Now and 
then, however, a layer attains a thickness of twenty 
inches, or even two feet. Near the upper limits of the 
formation the layers are thinner and less even than be- 
low, affording what quarrymen call "shelly" stone. 

The composition of the limestones from the upper 
half of the group is quite nearly uniform, averaging 
about ninety per cent, of carbonate of lime; but as we 
descend in the series the limestones grow more silicious. 

The shales, clays, or marlites, which with the lime- 
stones make up the Cincinnati group, must next be 
characterized. They constitute a large part of the sys- 
tem, certainly four-fifths of it in the two lower divisions, 
and probably not less than three-fifths of its whole ex- 
tent. The proportions of limestone and shale do not 
appear altogether constant, it is to be observed, at the 
same horizon, a larger amount of stone being found at 
one point than at others. 

The shales, as implied in one of the names by which 
they are known, " blue clay," are generally blue in color, 
but the shade is lighter than in the limestone. In addi- 
tion to the blue shales, however, drab-colored clays ap- 
pear in the series at various points. As the blue shales 
weather into drab by the higher oxidation of the iron 
they contain, the conclusion is frequently drawn that the 
last-named variety marks merely a weathered stage of 
the former. But, aside from the impossibility of ex- 
plaining the facts as they occur on this hypothesis, analy- 
sis disproves it, and shows that the differences in color 
are connected with essential differences in the composi- 
tion of the belts to which they belong. 

Most of the shales slake promptly on exposure to the 
air, and furnish the materials of a fertile soil; but there 
are other portions included under this general division 
which harden as the quarry-water escapes, and become 
an enduring stone if protected from the action of frost. 

The shales are sometimes quite heavily charged with 
fossils, which generally have a firmer structure than the 
material that encloses them, so that the fossils, often in 
an admirable state of preservation, remain behind after 
the shales have melted away. All of the groups of ani- 
mals that are represented in the limestones are found 
also in the shales; but from the unequal numbers that 
are represented here to-day, it seems evident that some 
sorts were able to adapt themselves to the conditions 
which shaly deposits imply much more easily than others. 

The proportions of limestone and shale in the series 
we have already spoken of in a general way; but it will be 
profitable to give additional statements on this point. In 
the River Quarry beds, the lowermost portion of the Cin- 
cinnati beds proper, there are about four feet of shale to 
one foot of limestone, but the shales increase in force as 
we ascend in the series, until at about one hundred feet 
above low-water the proportion was more than twice as 
great. For the two hundred feet next succeeding, that 
have been styled the Eden shales or Middle shales, there 
is seldom more than one foot of stone in ten feet of as- 



cent. The amount of waste is so large, therefore, that 
quarries cannot be profitably worked in this whole di- 
vision. The third portion of the series, the Hill quarries, 
have often lower limits — the beds in which the solid rock 
has risen again to as high a proportion as one foot in five 
or six feet of ascent. From this point upward to the 
completion of the group, there is no such predominance 
of shales as is found below, though in the lower parts of 
the Lebanon beds shales still constitute more than one- 
half of the whole thickness. 

It is seen from analyses made that a notable quantity 
of alkalies and phosphates, sometimes at least, occurs in 
the composition of the shales. It is upon these sub- 
stances that the fertility of soils in great measure depends; 
and as they are in this case properly distributed through 
the sand and clay that make the bulk of the shale, it is 
in no way surprising to find very fruitiful soils forming 
from the weathering of these beds. The most note- 
worthy fact in this connection is the rapidity with which 
they are converted into soils. Most of the rocky shales 
of the State require a long course of progressive im- 
provement before they can be justly termed soils. Their 
elements are slowly oxydized and disintegrated, and vege- 
table matters slowly added. The exposure of a single 
season, however, suffices to cover the Cincinnati shales 
with a varied vegetation. All of our ordinary forest trees, 
when opportunity is furnished for the distribution of their 
seeds, estabhsh themselves promptly upon the shales. 
-The black locust seems especially well adapted to such 
situations. There is no other use to which the steep 
slopes of the Cincinnati hills can be turned that would 
subserve as many interests as planting them with black 
locust would do. 

Dr. Locke called attention to a peculiar feature of the 
Blue Limestone beds, viz., a waved structure of the solid 
limestone, somewhat analogous in form to the wave-lines 
and ripple-marks of the higher series of the State. This 
peculiar structure was noticed by him in the upper beds 
of the formation, but it is even a more striking character- 
istic of the rock in its lower beds, as shown in the river 
quarries of Cincinnati, or in the lowermost hundred feet 
that are there exposed. 

The rocks exhibiting this structure at the point named 
are the most compact beds of the fossiliferous limestone. 
The bottom of the waved layer is generally even, and be- 
neath it' is always found an even bed of shale. The up- 
per surface is diversified, as its name suggests, with 
ridges and furrows. The interval between the ridges 
varies, but in many instances it is about four feet. The 
greatest thickness of the ridge is six or seven inches, 
while the stone is reduced to one or two inches at the 
bottom of the furrow, and sometimes it entirely disap- 
pears. The waVed layers are overlain by shale in every 
instance. They are often continuous for a considerable 
extent, and in such cases the axes of the ridges and fur- 
rows have a uniform direction. This direction is a little 
south of east in the vicinity of Cincinnati, but in travers- 
ing the series these axes are found to bear in various di- 

Dr. Locke's explanation of these facts, involving a fluid 

state of the carbonate of lime and sheets of shale falling 
in a "vertical strata" through deep seas, seems entirely 

The only other explanation thus far proffered is that 
suggested by the name, viz., that the floor of the Cincin- 
nati sea was acted on from time to time by waves or sim- 
ilar movements of the ocean waters. In opposition to 
this view it may be said: First, that there are many rea- 
sons for believing that the Cincinnati rocks grew upon 
the floor of a deep sea, far below the action of the sur- 
face waves; and, second, that the fact of the limestone 
layers alone being thus shaped is sufficient to set aside 
the explanation. If these inequalities of surface are due 
to wave-action of any sort, it is impossible to see why the 
action should be limited to the firmest limestone beds of 
the series, while the soft shales, which could easily regis- 
ter any movement of the waters, never exhibit the slight- 
est indications of such agencies. 

While both of these modes of accounting for the facts 
are rejected as entirely unsatisfactory, nothing in the way 
of explanation will be offered here, save the suggestion 
that the facts seem to point to concretionary action as the 
force to which we must look. 


of the Cincinnati group are limited to building stone, 
lime, brick and pottery clays, and cement; and of these 
none but the first two have, at present, any great impor- 
tance. The series yields everywhere abundant supplies 
of stone, suitable in every respect for building purposes,. 
The advantages that the city of Cincinnati reaps from 
the quarries that surround it, are immense. While blue 
limestone has been used as a building stone from the first 
settlement of the country, it has hitherto enjoyed the 
reputation of being serviceable rather than beautiful; but 
within the past few years it has been so treated by com- 
bination with other building stones as to produce very 
fine architectural effects. Numerous exhibitions of this 
skilful use of the blue limestone can be seen in tlie re- 
cent buildings of the city and suburbs of Cincinnati. 

The analysis of the stone shows it to contain ninety or 
more per cent, of carbonate of lime. From this it will 
be concluded that it can be burned into a hme of a good 
degree of purity and strength. When water-washed peb- 
bles from gravel banks or river beds are used, the product 
is excellent; but the quarry stone always carries with it 
so much of the interstratified shale as to darken the lime 
and so reduce its value for plastering. For this last use 
the mild and white magnesian limes derived from the 
Upper Silurian formations that surround Cincinnati, are 
the only varieties that are at present approved. The 
native supply can, however, be furnished much cheaper 
at but little more than half the cost, indeed, of Spring- 
field lime; and as it makes a strong cement, the shales 
that adhere to the stone possibly adding an hydraulic 
quality, it is generally used in laying foundations of all 

The shales are sometimes resorted to for the manufac- 
ture of brick, tile, and pottery ware. The instances are, 
however, rare, and are confined to the uppermost beds of 



the system. The products were, in the few instances 
noted, unusually fine, the clay working very smoothly 
and burning into cream-colored ware of great strength and 

The occurrence of concretions in the shales of the 
Point Pleasant beds and in the lowest strata of the divis- 
ion found at Cincinnati, has already been noticed. The 
analysis of specimens from the river quarries suggests 
hydraulic cement, and they are in fact found to possess a 
high degree of hydraulic energy. The supply of these 
concretions depends upon the extent of the quarrying, 
but at the present rate several hundred tons are thrown 
out each year, and as the concretions prove nearly enough 
uniform in composition, they can certainly be turned to 
good, economical account in the manufacture of a fine 
quality of cement. The famous Roman cement of Eng- 
land is obtained from similar concretions, which are gen- 
erally gathered on the shore after storms and high tides, 
though sometimes obtained by digging. All of the river 
quarries from Point Pleasant to Lawrenceburgh, Indiana, 
yield these concretions — the lowermost beds of all most 
abundantly. It may be added that the limestones en- 
closing the concretions are silicious enough in composi- 
tion to transfer them to the best of cements. 

The Cincinnati section exhausts the scale of the coun- 
ty, the upper division of the blue limestone, as before 
stated, having never been found within its limits. The 
River Quarry beds do not constitute a marked feature, in 
any respect, of the geology of the county. There are 
but comparatively few points where these strata are ex- 
posed. A moderate amount of building stone of super- 
ior quality is taken from the Covington quarries, oppo- 
site Cincinnati. But little of the stone in this portion of 
the series can be burned into lime, but the concretions 
so abundant in many of the beds, as just hinted, consti- 
tute an hydraulic lime of great energy. 

The second element of the Cincinnati section — the 
Middle or Eden shales — is as much more prominent 
than the first in the county as its greater extent in the 
vertical scale would lead us to infer. It is, however, 
mainly found in the slopes of the hills, as it is not firm 
enough in structure to resist denuding agencies, when 
unprotected by the higher series. Very few products of 
economical value, as we have seen, are derived from this 
part of the scale. Indeed, its relations to economical 
interests are mainly in the way of disadvantages to be 
overcome. These disadvantages result directly from the 
nature of the materials of which these beds are com- 
posed. It will be remembered that in the two hundred 
and fifty feet now under consideration, not more than 
one foot in ten is limestone; the remainder being soft 
shales, or soapstones, as they are variously designated. 
These shales have scarcely tenacity enough to hold their 
place in steep descents when acted on by water and ice; 
still less, when they have been removed from their or- 
iginal beds, can they be made to cohere; and they thus 
form treacherous foundations for buildings erected on 
theiii or for roadways constructed in them. 

The- city of Cincinnati, in many of its building sites. 

streets, and approaches, encounters these disadvantages, 
which can only be overcome by increased outlay in the 
way of foundations. These facts are most clearly shown 
in the approaches to the city from the east by the Ohio 
valley, frequent slides occurring along the steep slopes of 
shale in which streets and dwelhngs are involved. Gilbert 
avenue, in process of construction through Eden park, 
especially suffered from its geological formation, and re- 
quired a large expenditure to give it stability along this 

Nearly all the smaller streams that are bedded in these 
shales show contortions and flexures of their strata that 
have resulted from the slipping of the higher beds into 
the valleys. 

The third division, viz., of the Hill Quarry- series, 
which makes the upland of the county, is by far the most 
important of the three, in the area it covers and the pro- 
ducts it furnishes. The summits of the insulated masses 
already named belong to this division, and constitute 
about three-fourths of the surface of the county. Most 
of the quarry stone of the county is also derived from this 
source. The Cincinnati quarries have thus far been vast- 
ly more important than those of any other district; but 
as the hills within and adjoining the city limits are being 
occupied for building sites, it will result that railroad 
transportation will be invoked; and when it comes to 
this, the more desirable building stone of the different 
formations from adjoining counties will come into com- 
petition and be more largely used. 

It may be noticed here that it is chiefly due to the 
fact that so large an amount of quarrying has been done 
about Cincinnati, that this particular locality has become 
the classic ground in the way of fossils that it now is. 
The numerous and ample exposures gave to the ear- 
lier collectors unexampled opportunities — opportunities 
which are not likely to be repeated. Many of the most 
interesting localities of twenty to twenty-five years 
ago are now covered by permanent buildings, and every 
year diminishes the available areas. The waste of the 
hill quarries furnishes, however, by far the larger propor- 
tion of the admirable fossils in the vicinity of Cincin- 
nati. Scarcely any exposure of it in the county has 
failed to yield choice forms of the various and rarer 


The drift formations of the county are mainly divided 
into two groups, corresponding to the main topographical 
features of the county already indicated, viz. ; 

First — The drift deposits of the highlands and slopes. 

Second — The low land, or valley drift beds. 

I. — Drift deposits cover the highlands of Hamil- 
ton county, with but very limited exceptions. Towards 
the southern boundary these beds are light, measuring 
but a few feet (four to ten) in thickness; and, as already 
intimated, areas are occasionally found from which these 
deposits are altogether absent, the shallow coating of 
soil found in such areas being native or referable to the 
decomposition of the limestone that has been bedded 

There is a good degree of uniformity among these 



high level drifts, and the distinction between them and 
the native soils, indeed, is not always very manifest. 
The presence of rounded pebbles of blue limestone and 
of northern rocks, the drift beds, though often but very 
sparingly distributed, is the best means of distinguishing 
these beds from the native soils. The drift clays are 
certainly derived in large part from the waste of blue 
limestone, eifected in their case by glacial attrition ; while 
the native soils have the same origin, except that the 
work of disintegration has been done in their case by 
the slow action of the atmosphere. The agreement be- 
tween the drift soils of these southern counties and the 
native soils which are met here, is closer than is found 
between native and foreign soils in most sections of the 
State. This seems to be accounted for by the fact that a 
large area of the same formation lies north of them, 
which the glacial sheet was obhged to traverse and de- 
nude before striking upon this region. The blue lime- 
stone of these counties is thus largely covered with blue 
limestone waste. 

The average thickness of these upland drift beds falls 
below twenty feet, but occasionally heavier sections are 
found. In the northern part of Sycamore township, in 
the vicinity of White Oak school-house, a high drift 
ridge occurs in which twenty feet of surface clays are 
underlain with a deposit of fine yellow moulding sand. 
This stratum, when filled with water, is a quicksand, 
and renders wells impossible, or at least very difficult to 
secure. But little clean gravel occurs in the uplands of 
the county, and boulders also are infrequent. 

The yellow surface clays sometimes overlie a few feet 
of tough blue boulder clay, filled with scratched and 
striated pebbles, apparently the product of the melting 
glacial sheet. This is not, however, by any means a con- 
stant element in the section. 

In short, the upland drift of this county is not as 
varied and interesting as that of the regions immediately 
to the northward, or even to the eastward. The slopes 
show the same characters in their drift beds that have 
already been described, except that the deposits are 
generally heavier. 

II. — The second division, or the lowland drift- 
beds of the county are in their characteristic formations 
of much later date than the deposits already discussed. 
These deposits can be classified in their superficial 
aspects, under the principal divisions, viz: (a) The bot- 
tom lands; (b) the terraces or second bottoms. 

These divisions are distinguished from each other, not 
only by their different elevations but also by the different 
materials of which they are composed, the terraces 
being largely composed of gravel, with occasional beds of 
sand and clay, while the bottom lands contain, in all 
cases, a greater proportion of fine materials. 

Of the upland drift no general or typical section was 
given, for the reason that, aside from the monotonous de- 
posits of yellow clay, there is no uniformity in the order 
in which the different formations occur; but in the case of 
the division now under consideration, it is possible to 
represent in a single section the more important facts that 
are to be observed. The deposits of the Ohio valley, it 

will be remembered, are to be especially considered in 
this report. 

A section is here appended, taken at Lawrenceburgh, 
Indiana, which gives the general structure of the Ohio 
bottom lands more clearly than any exposure met with, 
strictly within the limits of the county. Beginning at 
low-water, we find the deposits that make up the river 
bank arranged in the following order (ascending): 


6. Brick clay, covered with one to two feet of soil 6 

5. Land, gravel, and loam 30 

4. Ochreous sand I'A 

3. Carbonaceous clay, an ancient soil or forest bed 7 

2. Ochreous sand J^ 

I. Clean gravel 6 

Total SI 

The elements of this section will be noted in their 
order. The first of them, six feet of gravel, is perhaps 
the least constant of the series, being sometimes substi- 
tuted by some of the clays of the drift. The gravel of 
the Ohio differs from that of the Miamis in being largely 
composed of sandstone pebbles instead of limestone. 
It is, consequently, less durable than the river or bank 
gravel of the Miami districts, and this fact, taken in con 
nection with the difficulty of access, withholds it generally 
from applications to road-making. 

The second, third, and fourth elements need to be 
taken together, as they are closely connected in their his- 
tory. The point to be noted in regard to them is the 
constant occurrence of carbonaceous clay between the 
seams of ochreous gravel. The clay is quite heavily 
charged with vegetable matter, much of it in such a 
state of preservation that it can be readily identified, and 
often portions again intermingled in a fine state of subdi- 
vision with the substance of the clay. The minutest 
roots of trees — some of the latter still in place — twigs 
and branches, layers of leaves, ripened fruits, grapes, and 
sedges, are all clearly distinguishable. Several of the 
species of trees can be determined, some- by their wood, 
others by their leaves and fruits. Among them may be 
named the sycamore, the beech, the shellbark hickory, 
the buckeye, and the red cedar. A cucurbitaceous plant, 
probably the wild balsam apple, is also shown to have 
been abundant by its seeds, which are preserved in the 

The leaves frequently occur in layers several inches 
thick, and are very like the accumulations that are now 
left in eddies of the river by freshets or floods. The de- 
posits of the river at present always have an elevation of 
at least twenty feet and sometimes even of forty feet 
above the bed now under review. 

The constant occurrence of vivianite or phosphate of 
iron in this deposit is to be noticed. Its presence, in- 
deed, is an invariable characteristic. The mineral is 
usually found in small grains, but sometirnes it replaces 
twigs and leaves and other vegetable growths. The 
quantity in some portions of the beds is considerable, 
amounting, sometimes, to two or three per cent, of the 
whole deposit. In such cases it imparts its color to the 
mass, and this justifies the name by which it is known, 
"blue earth." 



Several apparently trustworthy accounts have been re- 
ceived of the discovery of the bones and teeth of the 
mastodon and mammoth in this deposit; but these and 
all other mammalian remains are of very rare occurrence. 
It is possible that the "chips" and "axe-marked" stumps 
reported at various points in excavations in the drift beds, 
attest the former presence here of the gigantic beaver now 
extinct — castoroides Ohioeinis. It was certainly a tenant 
of the State during the general period to which this old 
forest bed must be referred. That its work upon trees 
might easily be mistaken for axe marks, will need no 
proof to any one acquainted with the work of the existing 
species of beaver. 

In a few instances, land and fresh water shells have 
been found in the clay, sometimes in quantity enough to 
convert the clay into a shell marl. 

This stratum is shown at all points along the valley in 
which bottom lands occur. Its elevation above low- 
water varies from five to twenty feet. It is generally 
covered superficially with the waste of the overlying 
banks; but even in such cases it reveals its presence by 
the long lines of willows and other vegetable growths that 
establish themselves upon its outcrop. Two things con- 
spire to adapt it especially to the growth of vegetation. 
In the first place, it is an impervious stratum, and turns 
out the water that descends through the overlying loams 
and sandy clays, thus giving to willows and other plants 
of like requirements a constant supply of moisture; and 
secondly, this stratum, as has been already intimated, is 
in reality an ancient soil, having been carried at an earlier 
day through the processes of amelioration by which beds 
of sand and clay are fitted to support vegetable growths. 

There are, however, many places where the force of 
the current in high water uncovers these beds, and where 
consequently good sections are always offered. Excel- 
lent disclosures of them are found at New Richmond, 
Clermont county, and also at Point Pleasant, on the Ken- 
tucky shore. The spring flood of 1872 furnished an un- 
surpassed exhibition of this formation at the mouth of 
the Little Miami river. Rafts of tree trunks are shown 
at all of these points, though the wood generally perishes 
very quickly when exposed to the air. 

That this very interesting stratum so long escaped ob- 
servation is probably due to the fact that it could so easily 
be referred to the agencies that are now at work in the 
valley. When the trunks of trees and layers of leaves be- 
longing to it have been noticed in the banks of the river, 
it has naturally enough been supposed that they are the 
deposits of earlier floods, agreeing as they do with the 
materials transported by the floods of our own time. But 
in describing the Lawrenceburgh section, now under con- 
sideration, as the general section of the Ohio valley de- 
posits, it has already been shown, at least by implication, 
that this explanation is inadmissible. The extension of 
this sheet of carbonaceous clay under all the various drift 
deposits of the valley, as is shown by very numerous nat- 
ural and artificial sections, proves that it is of earlier date 
than these overlying deposits, and the character of this 
stratum shows that it has a very different history from that 
which these higher deposits record. 

It is, perhaps, still too early to write out this history in 
its minuter features, but the facts already given show us 
that we have in this sheet of blackened clay the bottom 
lands of the Ohio at an earlier day, and, indeed, under 
very different conditions from those that now prevail. 
The river then ran in a channel lower by forty feet, at 
least, than that which it now holds, and the great valley 
was then empty of the immense accumulations of sand, 
clay, loam, and gravel, which constitute its bottom lands 
and terraces to-day. 

The various vegetable growths with which this stratum 
is filled, are to be regarded as largely the production of 
the soil on which they are now found. There is no other 
satisfactory mode of accounting for the particular kinds 
and enormous amount of vegetable matter traced here. 

The ochre seams above and below this ancient soil 
seem to point to marshy conditions that were brought in 
with the changing levels of the valley. Of the two, the 
upper seam is the more constant. 

In the Lawrenceburgh section we find thirty-five feet 
(thirty to fifty in the general section) of sands, gravels, 
clays and loams, which constitute the Ohio bottoms, as 
the term is generally used. There is no fixed order in 
the alternation of these materials, except that the surface 
portions have, for a few feet in depth, a tolerably uniform 
character. The soil of the bottom lands is quite 
homogeneous in constitution, and has obviously been 
formed by the subjection to atmospheric agencies of just 
such material as it now covers. Beneath the soil, and 
extending to a depth of about fifteen feet, beds of yellow 
clay occur. The proportions of sand mixed with the 
clay vary somewhat, increasing towards the lower limit 
named, and below this the beds consist rather of sand 
than clay. The beds of clay above named furnish an 
excellent material for brickmaking. The supply of the 
Cincinnati market is almost entirely derived from this 
horizon. The great depth of these brick clays, and their 
entire freedom from pebbles, render a very economical 
manufacture of brick possible. 

Below this limit, sand and gravel and streaks of loam 
are met, without regularity of arrangement. Of the fif- 
teen to twenty feet intervening between the bottom of the 
brick clays and the summit of the buried soil, the larger 
part consists of gravel. The gravel of this horizon is 
seldom clean, like that described at the level of low- 
water, but consists of large-sized sandstone pebbles, four 
to six inches in diameter, mingled with finer materials. 

An equivalent of these beds, but of local occurrence, 
is the fine-grained clay described in the geological reports 
as "Springfield clay." It never occurs in extensive 
sheets, but is quite limited in vertical and horizontal ex- 
tent. The heaviest accumulation of it observed in 
Hamilton county is in the city of Cincinnati, on East 
Pearl street, above Pike. It has a thickness there of 
more than thirty feet, as has been aiscertained in the ex- 
cavations for the foundations of buildings. It has been 
turned to account in its different exposures for different 
purposes — at Miamisburgh, for the manufacture of paint; 
at Springfield, for the manufacture of "Milwaukee brick," 
the clay being rich in lime and poor in oxide, and thus 


burning white, while a new use has been found for it in 
Cincinnati. It was successfully employed in preparing 
the floor of the new reservoir, its fineness of grain and 
consequent toughness fitting it admirably for this purpose. 
It must have been accumulated in eddies or protected 
areas, during the later ages of the period of submergence. 

The gravel terraces occupy a higher level than the 
formations already described. The terrace on which 
Cincinnati stands, may be taken as a fair example of 
them all. Its altitude above low-water varies from one 
hundred to one hundred and twenty feet, the average 
elevation being one hundred and eight feet. It is com- 
posed of distinctly stratified gravel and sand of varying 
degrees of fineness and purity. The gravel stones are all 
water-worn. In weight they seldom reach ten pounds. 
The upper tributaries of the Ohio supply the materials in 
part, but a much larger proportion in the vicinity of Cin- 
cinnati is derived from the limestone rocks of western 
Ohio and the crystalline beds of Canada. The propor- 
tion here to be noted among the smaller-sized pebbles is, 
of ten feet, five of Upper Silurian and Devonian lime- 
stones, three of Lower Silurian, least worn, one foot of 
granitic, and one of sandstones, etc., of the Upper Ohio. 

Occasional seams of clay loam occur, but seldom of 
extent or tenacity enough to constitute reliable water- 
bearers. Less frequently met, but still constituting a 
noteworthy feature of the gravel terraces, are seams of 
bituminous coal, in small water-worn fragments. 

The terraces overlie, as will be seen, the formation 
previously described. Few sections are carried deep 
enough to reveal the lower beds, but the leaves and wood 
of the buried soil are occasionally met at considerable 
depth, and usually, on this account, they attract attention. 
The following general order of materials will be observed 
in passing from the surface of the terrace to low-water. 

Soil 2- s 

Gravel and sand, with seams of loam -4060 

Brick clay, with sand and loam ^ . , 20-30 

Buried soil, witli trees, leaves, etc 5-10 

Gravel and clay 5-10 

72. 1 IS 

The leading facts in the structure of the terraces show 
that their history is not to be explained by the present 
conditions of the continent. They must have been 
formed under water at a time when the face of the coun- 
try held a lower level than it now does, by one hundred 
or more feet. They thus bear direct testimony to two of 
the most' surprising conclusions which the study of the 
Drift period has furnished to us, viz: That the continent 
sank, during the latter stages of this period, considerably 
below its present level, and that it was afterwards re-ele- 

There is one other line of facts in connection with the 
drift beds of the county that must not be omitted here. 
It is the great depth which some of these deposits have 
been found to hold below the present drainage of the 
country. The series of facts obtained by Timothy Kirby, 
esq., in boring a deep well in Mill Creek valley, at Cum- 
minsville, now within the corporate limits of Cincinnati, 
proves very interesting in this as well as in other respects. 

Beginning at an elevation of ninety feet above low-water 
of the Ohio, a succession of drift deposits was penetra- 
ted until a depth of sixty feet below low-water was 
reached, the bedded rock being first struck at a depth of 
one hundred and fifty-one feet below the point of begin- 
ning. The deposits included, in descending order, twelve 
feet of soil and brick clay, four of sand, thirty-four of 
blue clay with gravel, nineteen of gravel, three of coarse 
sand, eleven of sand with fragments of bituminous coal, 
nine of blue clay with gravel (at the bottom of this the 
level of low-water in the Ohio was reached), sixteen of blue 
clay and fine sand and sprinkled with coal, and forty-three 
of sand, water-worn gravel, and blue clay, with occasional 
fragments of bituminous coal, below which, at the depth 
of one hundred and fifty-one feet from the surface, 
were the shales of the Blue Limestone group. Several 
remarkable facts are to be observed in this section, the 
most striking of which is the great depth to which the 
excavation of Mill Creek valley was formerly carried. 
The bed of the stream that occupies the valley to-day is 
at a higher level by one hundred and twenty feet than 
that of the ancient channel. It is easy to see that this 
erosion could not have been effected under existing con- 
ditions. It can only be explained by a higher altitude 
of the continent, and is thus referred to the opening 
division of the glacial period. It has not been demon- 
strated that continuous channels exist at this great depth ; 
but the rocky barriers that fringe the streams do not at 
best disprove this theory, as there is always room for a 
deeper channel on one side or the other of the great 

Another interesting fact is the occurrence of water- 
worn fragments of bituminous coal, quite similar to those 
found in the terraces already noticed. They occur at 
various depths, the lowest at one hundred and fifty feet 
below the surface and the highest at eighty feet below. 
These facts, so far as known, stand by themselves, and 
no explanation is proposed. It is hard to see how the 
waste -of Ohio coal-fields should find its way in quantity 
into Mill Creek valley, and there is certainly no other 
obvious source of supply. 

The well from which these facts were obtained was 
carried to a depth of five hundred and forty-one feet be- 
low the surface. Analysis of the chips and borings 
brought up and preserved reveal the character of the 
strata underlying Ohio to a depth greater by about four 
hundred feet than any other rocks exposed within the 
limits of the State. The shales of the blue limestone 
series appear to continue to a depth of four hundred 
feet from the point of beginning. 

Carburetted hydrogen gas escaped from the well in 
considerable quantity from a depth of two hundred and 
eighty feet downwards, but no large accumulations of 
petroleum compounds were indicated. 




Are they here — 
The dead of other days? — and did the dust 
Of these fair solitudes once stir witli life 
And burn with passion? Let the mighty mounds 
* That overlook the rivers, or that rise 

In the dim forest crowded with old oaks, 

Answer. A race that long has passed away, 

Built them ; — a disciplined and populous race 

Heaped, with long toil, the earth, while yet the Greek 

Was hewing the Pentelicus to forms 

Of symmetry, and rearing on its rock 

The glittering Parthenon. These ample fields 

Nourished their harvests; here their herds were fed. 

When haply by their stalls the bison lowed 

And bowed his maned shoulder to the yoke. 

The red man came. 
The roaming liunter-tribes, warlike and fierce. 
And the Mound Builders vanished from the earth. 

— W. C. Bryant, "The Prairies." 


The red men whom Columbus found upon this conti- 
nent, and whom he mistakenly calls Indians, were not its 
aborigines. The Western, not the Eastern hemisphere 
is the Old World. Agassiz finely said: 

First-born among the continents, though so much later in culture and 
civilization than some of more recent birth, America, so far as her 
physical history is concerned, has been falsely denominated the New 
World. Hers was the first dry land lifted out of the waters, hers the 
first shore washed by the ocean that enveloped all the earth beside; and 
while Europe was represented onlv by islands rising here and there 
above the sea, America already stretched an unbroken line from Nova 
Scotia to the Far West. 

Great, learned, and eloquent as was Agassiz, however, 
his doctrine of the separate creation of the races of hu- 
manity — that men must have originated in nations, as 
the bees have originated in swarms, and as the different 
social plants have covered the extensive tracts over which 
they have naturally spread — has failed to obtain general 
acceptance among the scientists. Later investigations 
tend to return anthropology and ethnology to their an- 
cient basis, upon the principle sounded forth by Paul in 
the scholarly air of Mars Hill: "God hath made of one 
blood all nations of men." America, old world as it is, 
is not a cradle-land. Her native physiognomies, the 
manners and customs of the races found by Europeans 
upon her soil, their traditions, and something in their 
architecture, point toward the historic regions of the 
far east. The travellers who see Kalmuck Tartars upon 
the Asiatic steppes, with almost the precise face and figure 
of the American Indian, catch thus a hint of the far-away 
past of emigration to and colonization of this continent. 
Not only across the tract now occupied by Behring's 
Straits, — very likely dry land in the period of exodus 
from Asia, — but also across the Atlantic sea, storm-driven 
or pushed by adventurous souls who never returned to tell 
their tale, the wave of immigration may have come. 
Quite certain it is now, the time of man's appearance 
upon American soil dates long back among the ages pre- 
vious to the advent of Christ. Before the Indians were, 
as dwellers here; before the Mound Builders; before 
Aztec and Nahuan and Mayan civilizations, was still, in 
all probability, the pre-historic man of millenniums ago. 

So long since, in the study of our antiquities, as 1839, ■ 
Dr. McGuire, in the Transactions of the Boston Society 
of Natural History, brought forward evidence, from dis- 
coveries recently made in the improvement of the High 
Rock spring at Saratoga, to show the presence of human 
beings there fifty-five hundred years before. The find 
of a human bone near Natchez, in association with the 
remains of the mastodon and the megalonyx; the human 
skeleton dug from an excavation at New Orleans, at a 
depth of sixteen feet, and beneath four successive buried 
forests of cypress; the matting and pottery found on 
Petit Anse Island, Louisiana, fifteen to twenty feet below 
the surface, underneath the fossil bones of the elephant 
and the mastodon; the mastodon found in his miry grave 
on the bottom lands of the Bourbense river, in Missouri, 
with every token about his remains that he had been 
hunted and killed by savages there; the skeletons found 
under some depth of soil and accumulations of bones 
in caves at Louisville, Kentucky, and Elyria, Ohio ; — all, 
with other facts developing from time to time, seem to 
point a high antiquity for the aboriginal American. Col- 
onel Whittlesey, of Cleveland, in his Evidences of the 
Antiquity of Man in the United States, argues from the 
find in the Elyria cave, that, "judging from the appear- 
ance of the bones and the depth of accumulations over 
them, two thousand years may have elapsed since the hu- 
man skeletons were laid on the floor of this cave." The 
arguments from other finds multiply this number to sev- 
eral scores of centuries. In a later and very recent 
pamphlet Colonel Whittlesey says: 

Man may have existed in Ohio with the mastodon, elephant, rhinoc- 
eros, musk ox, horse, beaver, and tapir of the drift period, as he did in 
Europe; but to decide such a ciuestion the proof should be indisputable. 
There is some reason to conclude that there were people on 
this territory prior to tire builders of the mounds. Our cave shelters 
have not been much explored, but as far as they have been examined 
the relics lying at the bottom of the accumulations indicate a very rude 
people. I anticipate that we shall find here, as in other countries, that 
the most ancient race were the rudest and were cave-dwellers. I have 
seen at Portsmouth, Ohio, on the banks of the Ohio river, fire-hearths 
more ancient than the earthworks at that place. Whoever the people were 
who made these fires, they must have had arrow-points, war-clubs, and 
stone axes or mauls. But we have at this time no evidence to connect 
such a primeval race with the human effigies scattered profusely through- 
out Ohio. These effigies present no uniformity of type, and, therefore, 
cannot represent race features. They approach nearer to the North Amer- 
ican savage than any other people, but are so uncouth that they are of 
little or no ethnological value. There was no school of art among either 
the cave-dwellers, the builders of the mounds, or the more recent Nor- 
thern Indians, which was capable of a correct representation of the 
human face. These effigies must have been the result of the fancies of 
idle hours, produced under no system and with no uniformity of pur- 
pose. They thus have no meaning which the historian or antiquarian 
can lay hold of to advance his knowledge of the pre-historic races. 


We are thus brought to consider the peoples who, pos- 
sibly later, but still anciently, dwelt in the valley of the 
Ohio. They left no literature, no inscriptions as yet de- 
cipherable, if any, no monuments e.xcept the long forest- 
covered earth- and stone-works. No traditions of them, 
by common consent of all the tribes, were left to the 
North American Indian. As races, they have vanished 
utterly in the darkness of the past. But the compara- 
tively slight traces they have left tend to conclusions of 
deep interest and importance, not only highly probable. 


but rapidly approaching certainty. • Correspondences in 
the manufacture of pottery and in the rude sculptures 
found, the common use of the serpent-symbol, the likeli- 
hood that all were sun-worshippers and practiced the 
horrid rite of human sacrifice, and the tokens of com- 
mercial intercourse manifest by the presence of Mexican 
porphyry and obsidian in the Ohio Valley mounds, to- 
gether with certain statements of the Mexican annalists, 
satisfactorily demonstrate, in the judgment of many anti- 
quaries, the racial alliance, if not the identity, of our 
Mound Builders with the ancient Mexicans, whose de- 
scendants, with their remarkable civilization, were found 
in the country when Cortes entered it in the second dec- 
ade of the sixteenth century. 


It is not improbable that the first marks of Mayan civ- 
ilization upon the continent are to be found among the 
relics of the Mound Builders, particularly in the South- 
ern States. The great Maya race, the first of which 
Mexican story bears record, inhabited Yucatan and the 
adjacent districts as early as looo B. C, when Nachan, the 
"city of the serpents,." afterwards Palenque, the seat of re- 
markable ruins to this day, was founded as their capital. 
It is accounted to have been among the most civilized of 
the American aboriginal nations. It possessed an alpha- 
bet and so a literature, engaged in manufactures and 
trade, cultivated the ground, sailed the waters, built great 
temples and other edifices, and executed sculptures 
which remain, the wonder of antiquaries, at Palenque, 
Copan, Uxmal, and other ancient capitals and centers of 
population. It was, undoubtedly, the oldest civilization 
in the Western Hemisphere ; and so permanent was its 
influence, and so numerous did the race enjoying it be- 
come, that no less than fifteen languages or dialects of 
Central America, north and south of the Tehauntepec 
sthmus, are found related to the Mayan tongue. It was 
already ancient and perhaps decaying when the Nahuas 
pressed upon it from the northward, partially adopted it, 
carried it on, and gave it fresh life and vigor. 

The legends of the Maya people indicate an origin in 
the Mediterranean countries of Europe or Asia. It is 
supposed, accordingly, that their home here was upon the 
Atlantic coast, and that thence they emigrated to Cuba, 
and in due time into Yucatan and the region south of the 
Tehauntepec isthmus, whence they spread in both direc- 
tions, reaching finally as high as Vera Cruz at the north- 
ward. Their story, as still found in the manuscripts, is 
that their ancestors went into the country from the direc- 
tion of Florida, which was long afterwards the general 
name of the country traversed by De Soto (who gave the 
name), from the present Florida coast to the Mississippi. 
It seems quite within'the limits of probability, then, that 
some of the more ancient of the remains in the east and 
south of the United States, particularly the immense 
shell-heaps on the Atlantic seaboard, found all the way 
from Nova Scotia to the Floridian peninsula, along the 
Gulf shores, and up the southern river valleys, were 
left by the Mayas in their advance on the final home in 
Central America. It is hardly probable, however, though 

not at all impossible, that their habitations extended so 
far north, on any line west of the Alleghanies, as the 
Ohio valley. 


The conclusion is different, however, concerning the 
race which, many ages after the settlement of the Mayas 
at their ultimate destination, confronted them thS'e — 
the Nahuas, notably that tribe or nation of them known 
as the Toltecs — neighbored, probably, somewhere in the 
valley of the Mississippi by the conquerors of the latter 
in the eleventh century of our era. The Chichimecs are 
believed to be racially, if not identically, the same with 
our Mound Builders. The Mexican traditions name the 
Olmecs as the first of Nahua blood to colonize the re- 
gions north of the Tehuantepec isthmus, where they 
overcame a race of giants, and found also the Miztecs 
and Zapotecs, not of Nahua stock, who had built up, in 
what is now the Mexican State of Oajaca, a civilization 
rivaling the subsequent splendor of the Aztecs. The 
Olmecs came in ships or barks from the east, as did their 
relatives some time after, the Xicalancas. The former 
tribe settled mainly in the present State of Pueblo, and 
built the tower or pyramid of Cholula, as a memorial, tra- 
dition says, of the tower of Babel, whose building the 
progenitors of the Olmec chiefs witnessed. Other of the 
Nahua tribes, as the Toltecs, possessed a tradition of 
the deluge coming close to the Scriptural account. Both 
of these look to the other side of the continent as afford- 
ing the points of ingress for the later immigration, which 
was doubtless originally from Asia, and many think was 
of Jewish descent. Long before entering Mexico, how- 
ever, as the story runs, the seven families of similar lan- 
guage who were the ancestors of the Toltec nation, wan- 
dered in many lands and across the seas, living in caves 
and enduring many hardships, through a period of one 
hundred and four years, when, five hundred and twenty 
years after the flood, twenty centuries or more before the 
Christian era, they arrived at and settled in "Hue hue 
Tlapalan," which has been identified with reasonable 
probability as the valley of the Mississippi. Here their 
families grew and multiplied, extending their boundaries 
far and wide, until about the middle of the sixth century 
after Christ, when two families of the land revolted, but 
unsuccessfully, and were driven out, with their numerous 
followers, and took their way by devious wanderings to 
Mexico. Here they fixed their capital at Tulancingo, 
and eighteen years afterward more permanently at Tolean, 
on the present site of the village of Tula, thirty miles 
northwest of the city of Mexico. 

The character and dates of subsequent Toltec or 
Mound Builder immigrations, with slight exceptions, has 
not even the dim light of Mexican tradition to reveal 
them. The last irruption of the Nahuan tribes is fixed 
at about iioo A. D. One of them, and the best known, 
the famous Aztecs, did not reach Anahuac with their 
unique and magnificent civilization until near the close 
of the twelfth century. Previously, however (1062 A. D.), 
the Toltec capital had been taken and its empire had 
fallen by the hands of the martial Chichimecs, their for- 
mer neighbors in the far north, who had followed them 



to their new home, and upon a son of whom, three and 
a half centuries before, as a peace offering, they had be- 
stowed the throne of the Toltec monarchy. The Toltecs 
now disappear from history, except as amalgamated with 
their conquerors, and as founding, by many of its fugi- 
tive noble families and in conjunction with Mayan ele- 
ments, the Quiche-Cakchiqual monarchy in Guatemala, 
which was flourishing with some grandeur and power so 
late as the time of Cortes. 

The migrations of the Toltecs from parts of the terri- 
tory now covered by the United States, are believed to 
have reached through about a thousand years. Apart 
from the exile of the princes and their allies, and very 
likely an exodus now and then compelled by their ene- 
mies -and ultimate conquerors, the Chichimecs, who, as 
we have seen, at last followed them to Mexico, the 
Mound Builders were undoubtedly, in the course of the 
ages, pressed upon, and finally the last of them — unless 
the Natchez and Mandan tribes, as some suppose, are to 
be considered connecting links between the Toltecs and 
the American Indians — driven out by the red men. The 
usual opening of the gateways in their works of defence, 
looking to the east and northeastward, indicates the di- 
rection from which these enemies were expected. They 
were, not improbably, the terrible Iroquois and their 
allies, the first really formidable Indians encountered by 
the French discoverers and explorers in "New France" in 
the seventeenth century. A silence as of the grave is 
upon the history of their wars, doubtless long and 
bloody, the savages meeting with skilled and determined 
resistance, but their ferocious and repeated attacks, con. 
tinned, mayhap, through several centuries, at last ex- 
pelling the more civilized people — 

"And the Mound Builders vanished from the eartli," 

unless, indeed, as the works of learned antiqua- 
ries assume* and as is assumed above, they afterwards 
appear in the Mexican story. Many of the remains of 
the defensive works at the South and across the land to- 
ward Mexico are of an unfinished type and pretty 
plainly indicate that the retreat of the Mound Builders 
was in that direction, and that it was hastened by the re- 
newed onslaughts of their fierce pursuers or by the dis- 
covery of a fair and distant land, to which they deter- 
mined to emigrate in the hope of secure and untroubled 
homes, t Professor Short, however, arguing from the 
lesser age of trees found upon the. southern works, is 
"led to think the Gulf coast may have been occupied bv 
the Mound Builders for a conple of centuries after they 
were driven by their enemies from the country north of' 
the mouths of the Missouri and Ohio rivers." He be- 
lieves two thousand years is time enough to allow for 
their total occupation of the country north of the Gulf 

* Wc have so far relied chiefly upon the very excellent and recent 
work from the pen of Professor John T. Short, of the State university at 
Columbus, Ohio, the latest and probably the best authority on "The 
North Americans of Antiquity" yet in print. Harper & Brothers, 
1880. Professor Short must not, however, be held responsible for all 
the statements, inferences, and conclusions set out in the foregoing 

fSee, further. Judge M. F. Force's interesting paper on the Builders, 
Cincinnati, rS72 and 1874. 

of Mexico, "though after all it is but conjecture." He 
adds: "It seems to us, however, that the time of aban- 
doninent of their works may be more closely approxi- 
mated. A thousand or two years may have elapsed 
since they vacated the Ohio valley, and a period em- 
bracing seven or eight centuries may have passed since 
they retired from the Gulf coast." The date to which 
the latter period carries us back, it will be observed, ap- 
proximates somewhat closely to that fixed by the Mexi- 
can annalists as the time of the last emigration of a 
people of Nahua stock from the northward. 


Here we base upon firmer ground. The extent and 
soinething of the character of this are known. They are 
tangible and practical realities. We stand upon the 
mounds, pace off the long lines of the enclosures, collect 
and handle and muse upon the long-buried relics now in 
our public and private museums. The domain of the 
Mound Builders is well-nigh coterminous with that of the 
Great Republic. Few States of the Union are wholly 
without the ancient monuments. Singular to say, how- 
ever, in view of the huge heaps and barrows of shells 
left by the aboriginal man along the^tlantic shore, there 
are no earth or stone mounds or enclosures of the older 
construction on that coast. Says Professor Short : 

No authentic remains of the Mound Builders are found in the New 
England States, ... In the former we have an isolated 
mound in the valley of the Kennebec, in Maine, and dim outlines of 
enclosures near Sanborn and Concord, in New Hampshire; but there is 
no certainty of their being the work of this"'people. .... 
Mr. Squier pronounces them to be purely the work of Red Indians. 
Colonel Whittlesey would assign these fort-like struc- 
tures the enclosures of western New York, and common upon the 
rivers discharging themselves into Lakes Erie and Ontario from the 
south, differing from the more southern enclosures, in that they 
were surrounded by trenches on their outside, while the latter uniformly 
have the trench on the inside of the enclosure, to a people anterior to 
the red Indian and perhaps contemporaneous with the Mound Builders, 
but distinct from either. The more reasonable view is that of Dr. Fos- 
ter, that they are the frontier works of the Mound Builders, adapted to 
the purposes of defence against the sudden irruptions of hostile tribes. 
It is probable that these defences belong to the last 
period of the Mound Builders' residence on the lakes, and were erected 
when the more warlike peoples of the north, who drove them from 
their cities, first made their appearance. 

The Builders quarried flint in many places, soapstone 
in Rhode Island and North Carolina, and in the latter 
State also the translucent mica found so widely dispersed 
in their burial mounds in association with the bones of 
the dead. They mined or made salt, and in the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan they got out, with infinite labor, 
the copper, which was doubtless their most useful and 
valued metal. The Lower Peninsula of that State is 
rich in ancient remains, particularly in mounds of sepul- 
ture; and there are "garden beds" in the valleys of the 
St. Joseph and the Kalamazoo, in southwestern Michi- 
gan; but, "excepting ancient copper mines, no known 
works extend as far north as Lake Superior anywhere in 
the central region. Farther to the northwest, however, 
the works of the same people are comparatively numer- 
ous. Dr. Foster quotes a British Columbia newspaper, 
without giving either name or date, as authority for the 
discovery of a large number of mounds, seemingly the 



works of the same people who built further east and 
south. On the Butte prairies of Oregon, Wilkes and his 
exploring expedition discovered thousands of similar 
mounds." We condense further from Short ; 

All the way up the Yellowstone region and on the upper tributaries 
of the Missouri, mounds are found in profusion. . . . The 
Missouri valley seems to have been one of the most populous branehes 
of the widespread Mound Builder country. The valleys of its affluents, 
the Platte and Kansas rivers, also furnish evidence that these streams 
served as the channels into which flowed a part of the tide of popula- 
tion which either descended or ascended the Missouri. The Mississippi 
and Ohio River valleys, however, formed the great central arteries of the 
Mound Builder domain. In Wisconsin we find the northern central 
limit of their works: occasionally on the western shores of Lake Michi- 
gan, but in great numbers in the southern counties of the State, and es- 
pecially on the lower Wisconsin river. 

The remarkable similarity of one group of works, on a 
branch of Rock river in the south of this State, to some 
of the Mexican antiquities led to the christening of the 
adjacent village as Aztalan — which (or Aztlan), meaning 
whiteness, was a name of the "inost attractive land" 
somewhere north of Mexico and the sometime home of the 
Aztec and other Nahua nations. If rightly conjectured 
as the Mississippi valley, or some part of it, that country 
may well have included the site of the modern Aztalan. 

Across the Mississippi, in Minnesota and Iowa, the predominant type 
of circular tumuli prevails, extending throughout the latter State to 
Missouri. There are evidences that the Upper Missouri region was 
connected with that of the Upper Mississippi by settlements occupying 
the intervening country. Mounds are found even in the valley of the 
Red river of the north. . . . Descending to tlie interior, 

we find the heart of the Mound Builder country in Illinois, Indiana, 
and Ohio, It is uncertain A\hether its \'ital center was in southern Illi- 
nois or Ohio — probably the former, because of its geographical situa- 
tion with reference to the mouths of the Missouri and Ohio rivers. 
The site of St. Louis was formerly covered with 
mounds, one of which was thirty-five feet high, while in the American 
Bottom, on the Illinois side of the river, their number approximates two 

It is pretty well known, we believe, that St. Louis takes 
its fanciful title of "Mound City" from the former fact. 

The multitude of mound works which are scattered over the entire 
northeastern portion of Missouri indicate that the region was once in- 
habited by a population so numerous that in comparison its present 
occupants are only as the scattered pioneers of a new-settled coun- 
try. . . . The same sagacity which chose the neighbor- 
hood of St. Louis for these works, covered the site of Cincinnati with 
an extensive system of circumvallations and mounds. Almost the en- 
tire space now occupied by the city was utilized by the mysterious 
Builders in the construction of embankments and tumuli, built upon 
the most accurate geometrical principles, and evincing keen military 
foresight. . . . The vast number as well as magnitude of 
the works found in the .State of Ohio, have surprised the most care- 
less and indifferent observers. It is estimated by the most conservati\'e, 
and Messrs. Squier and Davis among them, that the number of tumuli 
in Ohio equals ten thousand, and the number of enclosures one thou- 
sand or one thousand five hundred. In Ross county alone one hun- 
dred enclosures and upwards of five hundred mounds have been exam- 
ined. The Alleghany mountains, the natural limit of the great 
Mississippi basin, appear to have served as the eastern and southeast- 
ern boundary of the Mound Builder country. In \vestern New York, 
western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and in all of Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, their remains are numerous and in some instances imposing. In 
Tennessee, especially, the works of the Mound Builders are of the most 
interesting character. . . . Colonies of Mound Builders 

seem to have passed the great natural barrier into North Carolina and 
left remains in Marion county, while still others penetrated into South 
Carolina, and built on the Wateree river. 

Mounds in Mississippi also have been examined, with 
interestinsj; results. 

On the southern Mississippi, in the area embraced between the ter- 
mination of the Cumberland mountains, near Florence and Tuscumbia, 
in Alabama, and the mouth of Big Black river, this people left numer- 
ous works, inany of which were of a remarkable character. The whole 
region bordering on the tributaries of the Tombigbee, the country 
through which the Wolf river flows, and that watered by the Yazoo 
river and its affluents, was densely populated by the same people who 
built mounds in the Ohio valley. . . . The State of Louis- 
iana and the valleys of the Arkansas and Red rivers were not only the 
most thickly populated wing of the Mound Builder domain, but also 
furnish us with remains presenting affinities with the great works of 
Mexico so striking that no doubt can longer exist that the same people 
were the architects of both. . . . It is needless to discuss 
the fact that the works of the Mound Builders exist in considerable 
numbers in Texas, extending across the Rio Grande into Mexico, es- 
tablishing an unmistakable relationship as well as actual imion between 
the truncated pyramids of the Mississippi valley and the Tocalli of 
Mexico, and the countries further south. 

Such, in a general way, was the geographical dis- 
tribution of the Mound Builders within and near the ter- 
ritory now occupied by the United States. 


They are — such of them as are left to our day — gener- 
ally of earth, occasionally of stone, and more rarely of 
earth and stone intermixed. Dried bricks, in some ins- 
tances, are found in the walls and angles of the best 
pyramids of the Lower Mississippi valley. Often, especi- 
ally for the works devoted to religious purposes, the earth 
has not been taken from the surrounding soil, but has 
been transported from a distance, probably from some 
locality regarded as sacred. They are further divided 
into enclosures and mounds or tumuli. The classifica- 
tion of these by Squier & Davis, in their great work on 
"The Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," 
published by the Smithsonian Institution thirty-two years 
ago, has not yet been superseded. It is as follows: 

I. Enclosures — For Defence, Sacred, Miscellaneous. 

11. Mounds — Of Sacrifice, or Temple-Sites, of Sep- 
ulture, of Observation. 

To these may properly be added the Animal or Efifigy 
(emblematic or symbolical) Mounds, and some would 
add Mounds for Residence. The Garden-Beds, if true 
remains of the Builders, may also be considered a sepa- 
rate class; likewise mines and roads, and there is some 
reason to believe that canals may be added. 

In the treatment of these classes, briefly, we shall fol- 
low in places the chapter on this subject in our History 
of Franklin and Pickaway counties, Ohio. 

I. Enclosures for Defence. A large and interest- 
ing class of the works is of such a nature that the object 
for which they were thrown up is unmistakable. The 
"forts," as they are popularly called, are found through- 
out the length and breadth of the Mississippi valley, 
from the AUeghanies to the Rocky mountains. The 
rivers of this vast basin have worn their valleys deep in 
the original plain, leaving broad terraces leading like 
gigantic steps up to the general level of the country. 
The sides of the terraces are often steep and difficult of 
access, and sometimes quite inaccessible. Such locations 
would naturally be selected as the site of defensive works, 
and there, as a matter of fact, the strong and complica- 
ted embankments of the Mound Builders are found. 
The points have evidently been chosen with great care, 
and are such as would, in most cases, be approved by 



modern military engineers. They are usually on the 
higher ground, and are seldom commanded from posi- 
tions sufficiently near to make them untenable through 
the use of the short-range weapons of the Builders, and, 
while rugged and steep on some of their sides, have 
one or more points of easy approach, in the protection of 
which great skill and labor seem to have been expended. 
They are never found, nor, in general, any other remains 
of the Builders, upon the lowest or latest-formed river 
terraces or bottoms. They are of irregular shape, con- 
forming to the nature of the ground, and are often 
strengthened by extensive ditches. The usual defence is 
a simple embankment thrown up along and a little below 
the brow of the hill, varying in height and thickness ac- 
cording to the defensive advantage given by the natural 
declivity. "The walls generally wind around the borders 
of the elevations they occupy, and when the nature of 
the ground renders some points more accessible than 
others, the height of the wall and the depth of the ditch 
at those weak points are proportionally increased. The 
gateways are narrow and few in number, and well 
guarded by embankments of earth placed a few yards in- 
side of the openings or gateways and parallel with them, 
and projecting somewhat beyond them at each end, thus 
fully covering the entrances, which, in some cases, are 
still further protected by projecting walls on either side 
of them. These works are somewhat numerous, and in- 
dicate a clear appreciation of the elements, at least, of 
fortification, and unmistakably point out the purpose for 
which they were constructed. A large number of these 
defensive works consist of a line of ditch and embank- 
ments, or several lines carried across the neck of penin- 
sulas or bluff headlands, formed within the bends of 
streams — an easy and obvious mode of fortification, com- 
mon to all rude peoples."* Upon the side where a pe- 
ninsula or promontory merges into the mainland of the 
terrace or plateau, the enclosure is usually guarded by 
double or overlapping walls, or a series of them, having 
sometimes an accompanying mound, probably designed, 
like many of the mounds apart from the enclosures, as a 
lookout station, corresponding in this respect to the bar- 
bican of our British ancestors in the Middle Ages. As 
natural strongholds the positions they occupy could 
hardly be excelled, and the labor and skill expended to 
strengthen them artificially rarely fail to awake the admi- 
ration and surprise the student of our antiquities. Some 
of the works are enclosed by miles of embankment still 
ten to fifteen feet high, as measured from the bottom of 
the ditch. In some cases the number of openings in the 
walls is so large as to lead to the conclusion that certain 
of them were not used as gateways, but were occupied by 
bastions or block-houses long ago decayed. This is a 
marked peculiarity of the great work known as "Fort 
Ancient," on the Little Miami river and railroad, in War- 
ren county. Some of the forts have very large or smaller 
"dug-holes" inside, seemingly designed as reservoirs for 
use in a state of siege. Occasionally parallel earth-walls, 
of lower height than the embankments of the main work, 

* American Cyclopcedia, article "American Antiquities." 

called "covered ways," are found adjacent to enclosures, 
and at times connecting separate works, and seeming to 
be intended for the protection of those passing to and 
fro within them. These are considered by some antiqua- 
ries, however, as belonging to the sacred enclosures. 

This class of works abound in Ohio. Squier and 
Davis express the opinion that "there seems to have 
been a system of defences extending from the sources of 
the Susquehanna and Alleghany, in western New York, 
diagonally across the country through central and north- 
ern Ohio to the Wabash. Within this range the works 
that are regarded as defensive are largest and most nu- 
merous." The most notable, however, of the works 
usually assigned to this class in this State is in southern 
Ohio, and not very far from the boundaries of Hamilton 
county, being only forty-two miles northeast of Cincin- 
nati. It is the "Fort Ancient" already mentioned. This 
is situated upon a terrace on the left bank of the river, 
two hundred and thirty feet above the Little Miami, and 
occupies a peninsula defended by two ravines, while the 
river itself, with a high, precipitous bank, defends the 
western side. The walls are between four and five miles 
long, and ten to twenty feet high, according to the natural 
strength of the line to be protected. A resemblance has 
been traced in the walls of the lower enclosure "to the 
form of two massive serpents, which are apparently con- 
tending with one another. Their heads are the mounds, 
which are separated from the bodies by the opening, 
which resembles a ring around the neck. They bend in 
and out, and rise and fall, and appear like two massive 
green serpents rolling along the summit of this high hill. 
Their appearance under the overhanging forest trees is 
very impressive."* Others have found a resemblance in 
the form of the whole work to a rude outline of the con- 
tinent of North and South America. 

Another fortified eminence, enclosing sixteen and three- 
tenths acres, is found in the present Butler county, once 
within the old county of Hamilton. The entrance to 
this enclosure is guarded by a complicated system of 
covered ways. Another, and a very remarkable work, as 
having walls of stone, constructed in their place at the 
top of a steep and lofty hill with infinite toil and difficulty, 
is near the village of Bourneville, Ross county, on Spruce 
hill, a height commanding the beautiful valley of Paint 
creek. The wall is two and a quarter miles long, and 
encloses one hundred and forty acres, in the center of 
which was an artificial lake. Many enclosures of the 
kind have been surveyed and described in other counties 
of the State. 

II. Sacred Enclosures. — Regularity of form is the 
characteristic of these. They are not, however, of inva- 
riable shape, but are found in various geometrical figures, 
as circles, squares, hexagons, octagons, ellipses, parallelo- 
grams, and others, either singly or in combination. How- 
ever large, they were laid out with astounding accuracy, 
and show that the Builders had some scientific knowl- 
edge, a scale of measurement, and the means of com- 
puting areas and determining angles. They are often in 

'Rev. S, D. Peet, in the American Antiquarian for April, 1878. 



groups, but also often isolated. Most of them are of 
small size, two hundred and fifty to three hundred feet 
in diameter, with one gateway usually opening to the east, 
as if for the worship of the sun, and the ditch invariably 
on the inside. These are frequently inside enclosures of 
a different character, particularly military works. A sac- 
rificial mound was commonly erected in the center of 
them. The larger circles are oftenest found in connec- 
tion with squares; some of them embrace as many as fifty 
acres. They seldom have a ditch, but when they do, it 
is inside the wall. .The rectangular works with which 
they are combined are believed never to have a ditch. 
In this State a combined work of a square with two 
circles is often found, usually agreeing in this remarkable 
fact, that each side of the rectangle measures exactly one 
thousand and eighty feet, and the circles respectively are 
seventeen hundred and eight hundred feet in diameter. 
The frequency and wide prevalence of this uniformity 
demonstrate that it could not have been accidental. The 
square enclosures almost invariably have eight gateways 
at the angles and midway between, upon each side, all 
of which are covered or defended by small mounds. 
The parallels before mentioned are sometimes found in 
connection with this class of works. From the Hope- 
town work, near Chillicothe, a "covered way" led to the 
Scioto river, many hundred feet distant. 

More of the enclosures left by the Mound Builders are 
believed to belong to this class than to the class of de- 
fensive works. They especially abound in Ohio. The 
finest ancient works in the State— those near Newark, 
Licking county-^are undoubtedly of this kind. They are 

rather were — twelve miles in total length of wall, and 

enclose a tract of two miles square. The system of em- 
bankment is intricate as well as extensive, and encloses a 
number of singular mounds — one of them in the shape of 
an enormous bird track, the middle toe one hundred and 
fifty-five feet, and each of the other toes one hundred and 
ten feet in length. A superb work, representing the combi- 
nation of a square with two circles, of the dimensions pre- 
viously stated, exists in Liberty township, Ross county, a 
few miles from Chillicothe. A work in Pike county con- 
sists of a circle enclosing a square, each of the four cor- 
ners of which touches the circle, the gateway of the circle 
being opposite the opening in the square. Several com- 
binations of the square and the circle appear in the Hope- 
town works, four miles north of Chillicothe. Circleville 
derives its name from the principal ancient work — a cir- 
cle and a square — which formerly stood upon its site. 
Many other remains of the kind are familiarly known in 
Ross and Pike, Franklin, Athens, Licking, Montgomery, 
Butler, and other counties. 

III. Miscellaneous Enclosures. — The difficulty of 
referring many of the smaller circular works, thirty to 
fifty feet in diameter, found in close proximity to large 
works, to previous classes, has prompted the suggestion that 
they were the foundations of lodges or habitations of chiefs, 
priests, or other prominent personages among the Build- 
ers. In one case within the writer's observation, a rough 
stone foundation about four rods square was found iso- 
lated from any other work, near the Scioto river, in the 

south part of Ross county. At the other extreme of size, 
the largest and most complex of the works, as those at 
Newark, are thought to have served, in part at least, other 
than religious purposes — that they may, besides furnishing 
spaces for sacrifice and worship, have included also arenas 
for games and marriage celebrations and other festivals, 
the places of general assembly for the tribe or village, 
the encampment or more permanent residences of the 
priesthood and chiefs. Mr. Isaac Smucker, a learned 
antiquary of Newark, to whom we are indebted for im- 
portant facts presented in this chapter, says : 

Some archseologists maintain that many works called Sacred Enclo- 
sures were erected for and used as places of amusement, where our 
predecessors of pre-historic times practiced their national games and 
celebrated their great national events ; where they held their national 
festivals and indulged in their national jubilees, as well as performed 
the ceremonials of their religion. And it may be that those (and there 
are many such) within which no central elevation or altar occurs, were 
erected for the purposes last named, and not exclusively (if at all) for 
purposes connected with their religion, and are therefore erroneously 
called Sacred Enclosures. Other ancient peoples, if indeed not all the 
nations of antiquity, have had their national games, amusements, fes- 
tivals, and jubilees ; and why not the Mound Builders, too? Notably 
in this regard the ancient Greeks may be named, with whom, during 
the period known as the "lyrical age of Greece," the Olympic, the 
Pythian, the Nemean, and the Isthmian games became national festi- 
vals. And without doubt the Mound Builders, too, had their national 
games, amusements, festivals, and jubilees, and congregated within 
their enclosures to practice, celebrate, and enjoy them. 

IV. Mounds of Sacrifice. — These have several dis- 
tinct characteristics. In height they seldom exceed eight 
feet. They occur only within or near the enclosures, 
commonly considered as the sacred places of the Build- 
ers, and are usually stratified in convex layers of clay or 
loam alternating above a layer of fine sand. Beneath 
the strata, and upon the original surface of the earth at 
the center of the mound, are usually symmetricaly formed 
altars of stone or burnt clay, evidently brought from a 
distance. Upon them are found various remains, all of 
which exhibit signs of the action of fire, and some which 
have excited the suspicion that the Builders practiced the 
horrid rite of human sacrifice. Not only calcined bones, 
but naturally ashes, charcoal, and igneous stones are found 
with them; also beads, stone implements, simple sculp- 
tures, and pottery. The remains are often in such a con- 
dition as to indicate that the altars had been covered 
before the fires upon them were fully extinguished. Skele- 
tons are occasionally found in this class of mounds; 
though these may have been " intrusive burials" made 
after the construction of the works and contrary to their 
original intention. Though symmetrical, the altars are 
by no means uniform in shape or size. Some are round, 
some elliptical, others square or parallelograms. In size 
they vary from two to fifty feet in length, and are of pro- 
portional width and height, the commoner dimensions be- 
ing five to eight feet. 

V. Temple Mounds are not so numerous. In this 
State it is believed they were only at Marietta, Newark, 
Portsmouth, and about Chillicothe. They are generally 
larger than the altar and burial mounds, and are more 
frequently circular or oval, though sometimes found in 
other shapes. The commonest shape is that of a trun- 
cated cone; and, in whatever form a mound of this class 



may be, it always has a flattened or level top, giving it an 
unfinished look. Some are called platforms, from their 
large area and slight elevation. They are, indeed, almost 
always of large base and comparatively small height. 
Often, as might reasonably be expected, they are within 
a sacred enclosure, and some are terraced or have spiral 
ascents or graded inclines to their summits. They take 
their name from the probable fact that upon their flat tops 
were reared structures of wood, the temples or " high 
places" of this people, which decayed and disappeared 
ages ago. In many cases in the northern States these 
must have been small, from the smallness of their sites 
upon the mounds; but as they are followed southward 
they are seen, as might be expected, to increase gradual- 
ly and approximate more closely to perfect construction, 
until they end in the great teocallis ("houses of God"). 
One remarkable platform of this kind in Whitley county, 
Kentucky, is three hundred and sixty feet long by one 
hundred and fifty wide and twelve high, with graded as- 
cents; and another, at Hopkinsville, is so large that the 
county court house is built upon it. The great mound 
at Cahokia, Missouri, is of this class. Its truncated top 
measured two hundred by four hundred and fifty-two feet. 
VI. Burial Mounds furnish by far the most numer- 
ous class of tumuli. The largest mounds in the coun- 
try are generally of this kind. The greatest of all, the 
famous mound at Grave creek, Virginia, is seventy-five 
feet high, and has a circumference at the base of about 
one thousand. In solid contents it is nearly equal to 
the third pyramid of Mykerinus, in Egypt. The huge 
mound on the banks of the Great Miami, twelve miles 
below Dayton, has a hight of sixty-eight feet. Many of 
the burial mounds are six feet or less in height, but the 
average height as deduced from wide observation of them, 
is stated as about twenty feet. They are usually of con- 
ical form. It is conjectured that the size of these mounds 
has an immediate relation to the former importance of 
the personage or family buried in them. Only three 
skeletons have so far been found in the mighty Grave 
Creek mound. Except in rare cases, they contain but one 
skeleton, unless by "intrusive" or later burial, as by In- 
dians, who frequently used the ancient mounds for pur- 
poses of sepulture. One Ohio mound, however — that 
opened by Professor Marsh, of Yale college, in Licking 
county — contained seventeen skeletons; and another, in 
Hardin county, included three hundred. But these are 
exceptional instances. Calcined human bones in some 
burial mounds at the North with charcoal and ashes in 
close proximity, show that cremation was occasionally 
practiced, or that fire was used in the funeral ceremonies; 
and "urn burial" prevailed considerably in the southren 
States. At times a rude chamber or cist of stone or tim- 
ber contained the remains. In the latter case the more 
fragile material has generally disappeared, but casts of it 
in the earth are still observable. The stone cists furnish 
some of the most interesting relics found in the mounds. 
They are, in rare cases, very large, and contain several 
bodies, with various relics. They are like large stone 
boxes, made of several flat stones, joined without cement 
or fastening. Similar, but much smaller, are the stone 

coffins found in large number in Illinois and near Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. They are generally occupied by single 
bodies. In other cases, as in recent discoveries near 
Portsmouth and elsewhere in Ohio, the slabs are arranged 
slanting upon each other in the shape of a triangle, and 
having, of course, a triangular vault in the interior. In 
Ihe Cumberland mountains heaps of loose stones are 
found over skeletons, but these stone mounds are proba- 
bly of Indian origin, and so comparatively modern. Im- 
plements, weapons, ornaments, and various remains of 
art, as in the later Indian custom, were buried with the 
dead. Mica is often found with the skeletons, with pre- 
cisely what meaning is not yet ascertained; also pottery, 
beads of bone, copper, and even glass — indicating, some 
think, commercial intercourse with Europe — and other 
articles in great variety, are present. 

Tiiere is also, probably, a sub-class of mounds that 
may be mentioned in this connection — the Memorial or 
Monumental mounds, thrown up, it is conjectured, to 
perpetuate the celebrity of some important event or in 
honor of some eminent personage. They are usually of 
earth, but occasionally, in this State at least, of stone. 

VII. Signal Mounds, or Mounds of Observation. 
This is a numerous and very interesting and important 
class of the works. Colonel Anderson, of Circleville, 
thinks he has demonstrated by actual survey, made at his 
own expense, the existence of a regular chain or system 
of these lookouts through the Scioto valley, from which, 
by signal fires, intelligence might be rapidly flashed over 
long distances. About twenty such mounds occur be- 
tween Columbus and Chillicothe, on the eastern side of 
the Scioto. In Hamilton county a chain of mounds, 
doubtless devoted to such purpose, can be traced from 
the primitive site of Cincinnati to the "old fort," near 
the mouth of the Great Miami. Along both the Miamis 
numbers of small mounds on the projecting headlands 
and on heights in the interior are indubitably signal 

Judge Force says: "By the mound at Norwood signals 
could be passed from the valley of Mill creek to the 
Little Miami valley, near Newtown, and I believe to the 
valley of the Great Miami near Hamilton." 

Like the defensive works already described as part of 
the military system of the Builders, the positions of these 
works were chosen with excellent judgment. They vary 
in size, according to the height of the natural eminences 
upon which they are placed. Many still bear the marks 
of intense heat upon their summits, results of the long- 
extinct beacon fires. Sometimes they are found in con- 
nection with the embankments and enclosures, as an en- 
larged and elevated part of the walls. One of these, near 
Newark, though considerably reduced, retains a height 
of twenty-five feet. The huge mound at Miamisburgh, 
mentioned as a burial mound, very likely was used also 
as a part of the chain of signal mounds from above Day- 
ton to the Cincinnati plain and the Kentucky bluff 

VIII. Effigy or Animal Mounds appear principally 
in Wisconsin, on the level surface of the prairie. They 
are of very low height — one to six feet — but are other- 


wise often very large, extended figures of men, beasts, 
birds, or reptiles, and in a very few cases of inanimate 
things. In this State there are three enormous, remark- 
able earthwork effigies — the "Eagle mound" in the cen- 
ter of a thirty-acre enclosure near Newark, and supposed 
to represent an eagle on the wing; the "Alligator mound," 
also in Licking county, two hundred and five feet long; 
and the famous "Great Serpent," on Brush creek, in 
Adams county, which has a length of seven hundred feet, 
the tail in a triple coil, with a large mound, supposed to 
represent an egg, between the jaws of the figure. By 
some writers these mounds are held to be symbolical, 
and connected with the religion of the Builders. Mr. 
Schoolcraft, however, calls them "emblematic," and says 
they represent the totems or heraldic symbols of the 
Builder tribes. 

IX. Garden Beds. — In Wisconsin, in Missouri, and 
in parts of Michigan, and to some extent elsewhere, is 
found a class of simple works presumed to be ancient. 
They are merely ridges or beds left by the cultivation of 
the soil, about six inches high and four feet wide, regu- 
larly arranged in parallel rows, at times rectangular, other- 
wise of various but regular and symmetrical curves, and 
in fields of ten to a hundred acres. Where they occur 
near the animal mounds, they are in some cases carried 
across the latter, which would seem to indicate, if the 

■ same people executed both works, that no sacred charac- 
ter attached to the effigies. 

X. Mines. — These, as worked by the Builders, have 
not yet been found in many different regions; but in the 
Lake Superior copper region their works of this kind are 
numerous and extensive. In the Ontonagon country 
their mining traces abound for thirty miles. Colonel 
Whittlesey estimates that they removed metal from this 
region equivalent to a length of one hundred and fifty 
feet in veins of varying thickness. Some of their opera- 
tions approached the stupendous. No other remains of 
theirs are found in the Upper Peninsula; and there is no 
probability that they occupied the region for other than 
temporary purposes. 


Besides the human remains which have received 
sufficient treatment for this article under the head of 
Burial mounds, and the altars noticed under Mounds of 
Sacrifice, the contents of the work of the Mound Builders 
are mostly small, and many of them unimportant. They 
have been classified by Dr. Rau, the archteologist of the 
Smithsonian Institution, according to the material of 
which they are wrought, as follows: 

I. Stone. — This is the most numerous class of relics 
They were fashioned by chipping, grinding, or polishing" 
and include rude pieces, flakes, and cores, as well as fin. 
ished and more or less nearly finished articles. In the 
first list are arrow and spear-heads, perforators, scrapers, 
cutting and sawing tools, dagger-shaped implements, 
large implements supposed to have been used in digging 
the ground, and wedge or celt-shaped tools and weapons. 
The ground and polished specimens, more defined in 
form, comprise wedges or celts, chisels, gouges, adzes 

and grooved axes, hammers, drilled ceremonial weapons, 
cutting tools, scraper and spade-like implements, pen- 
dants and sinkers, discoidal stones and kindred objects, 
pierced tablets and boat-shaped articles, stones used in 
grinding and polishing, vessels, mortars, pestles, tubes, 
pipes, ornaments, sculptures, and engraved stones or tab- 
lets. Fragmentary plates of mica or isinglass may be 
included under this head. 

2. Copper. — These are either weapons and tools or 
ornaments, produced, it would seem, by hammering 
pieces of native copper into the required shape. 

3. Bone and Horn. — Perforators, harpoon-heads, fish- 
hooks, cups, whistles, drilled teeth, etc. 

4. Shell. — Either utensils and tools, as drinking-cups, 
spoons, fish-hooks, celts, etc., or ornaments, comprising 
various kinds of gorgets, pendants, and beads. 

5. Ceramic Fabrics. — Pottery, pipes, human and ani- 
mal figures, and vessels in great variety. 

6. Wood. — The objects of early date formed of this 
material are now very few, owing to its perishable char- 

To these may be added : 

7. Gold and Silver. — In a recent find in a stonecist 
at Warrensburgh, Missouri, a pottery vase or jar was 
found, which had a silver as well as a copper band about 
it. Other instances of the kind are on record, and a 
gold ornament in the shape of a woodpecker's head has 
been taken from a mound in Florida. 

8. Textile Fabrics. — A few fragments of coarse 
cloth or matting have survived the destroying tooth of 
time, and some specimens, so far as the texture is con- 
cerned, have been very well preserved by the salts of 
copper, when used to enwrap articles shaped from that 

the mound builders' civilization. 

This theme has furnished a vast field for speculation, 
and the theorists have pushed into a wilderness of vis- 
ionary conjectures. Some inferences, however, may be 
regarded as tolerably certain. The number and magni- 
tude of their works, and their extensive range and uni- 
formity, says the American Cyclopaedia, prove that the 
Mound Builders were essentially homogeneous in cus- 
toms, habits, religion, and government. The general 
features common to all their remains identify them as 
appertaining to a single grand system, owing its origin to 
men moving in the same direction, acting under com- 
mon impulses, and influenced by similar causes. Pro- 
fessor Short, in his invaluable work, thinks that, however 
writers may differ, these conclusions may be safely ac- 
cepted: That they came into the country in compara- 
tively small numbers at first (if they were not Autoch- 
thones, and there is no substantial proof that the Mound 
Builders were such), and, during their residence in the 
territory occupied by the United States, they became 
extremely populous. Their settlements were widespread, 
as the extent of their remains indicates. The magnitude 
of their works, some of which approximate the propor- 
tions of Egyptian pyramids, testify to the architectural 
talent of the people and the fact that they developed a 
system of government controlling the labor of multitudes. 



whether of subjects or slaves. They were an agricultural 
people, as the extensive ancient garden-beds found in 
Wisconsin and Missouri indicate. Their manufactures 
offer proof that they had attained a respectable de- 
gree of advancement and show that they understood the 
advantages of the division of labor. Their domestic 
utensils, the cloth of which they made their clothing, and 
the artistic vessels met with everywhere in the mounds, 
point to the development of home culture and domestic 
industry. There is no reason for believing that the peo- 
ple who wrought stone and clay into perfect effigies of 
animals have not left us sculptures of their own faces in 
the images exhumed from the mounds. They mined cop- 
per, which they wrought into implements of war, into or- 
naments and articles for domestic use. They quarried 
mica for mirrors and other purposes. They furthermore 
worked flint and salt mines. They probably possessed 
some astronomical knowledge, though to what extent is 
unknown. Their trade, as Dr. Rau has shown, was 
widespread, extending probably from Lake Superior to 
the Gulf, and possibly to Mexico. They constructed 
canals, by which lake systems were united, a fact 
which Mr. Conant has recently shown to be well es- 
tablished in Missouri. Their defences were numer- 
ous and constructed with reference to strategic prin- 
ciples, while their system of signals placed on lofty 
their settlements, and communicating with the great 
water courses at immense summits, visible from dis- 
tances, rivaled the signal systems in use at the begin- 
ning of the present century. Their religion seems to 
have been attended with the same ceremonies in all 
parts of their domain. That its rites were celebrated 
with great demonstrations is certain. The sun and moon 
were probably the all-important deities to which sacri- 
fices (possibly human) were offered. We have already 
alluded to the development in architecture and art which 
marked the possible transition of this people from north 
to south. Here we see but the rude beginnings of a 
civilization which no doubt subsequently unfolded in its 
fuller glory in the valley of Anahuac and, spreading 
southward, engrafted new life upon the wreck of Xibalba. 
Though there is no evidence that the Mound Builders 
were indigenous, we must admit that their civilization 
was putely such, the natural product of climate and the 
condition surrounding them.* 


Very brief notice of them will be made here, anything 
like detailed description being reserved for the special 
histories to come later in this work. Reference has been 
made above to the extensive signal system in the Miami 
country, and to numerous works upon the present site of 
Cincinnati. Elsewhere in the county the Builders have 
left frequent remains. They abound in Columbia, An- 
derson, and Spencer townships, and are found all along 
the Little Miami valley from below Newtown to points 
above Milford. On the other side of the county, in the 
valley of the Great Miami, they are found numerously at 
the mouth of the stream, about Cleves, and for miles 

* The Americans of Antiquity, pp. 96-100. 

along the banks above and below Colerain. Near this 
place, about one mile south of the county Hne, is the cel- 
ebrated enclosure known as "the Colerain works," sur- 
rounding a tract of about ninety-five acres. Judge Force 
thinks there was a strong line of fortifications along the 
Great Miami, from the mouth to Piqua, with advanced 
works near Oxford and Eaton, and with a massive work 
in rear of this line, at Fort Ancient. In the interior of 
Hamilton they apiiear at Norwood, Sharon, in Springfield 
township, and elsewhere to some extent. This region 
was undoubtedly one of the densest centers of popula- 
tion. We shall view some of their works more closely 
before this volume is closed. 



' ' Tlien a darker, drearier vision 
Passed before me, vague and cloudlilie; 
I beheld our nations scattered. 
All forgetful of my counsels. 
Weakened, warring with each other; 
Saw the remnants of our people 
Sweeping westward, wild and woful, 
Like the cloud-rack of a tem^^est. 
Like the withered leaves of autumn. " 

H. W. Longfellow, "Hiawatha." 

After the Mound Builder came the red man. For un- 
told centuries his history is a blank. Whence he came, 
how he spread over the continent, what his earlier num- 
bers, supplies material for the philosophic historian. 
The literature of past ages is silent concerning these 
things; the voice of tradition is almost equally reticent. 
It seems quite certain, however, notwithstanding some 
speculations to the contrary, that no other race inter- 
vened between the mysterious people of the mounds and 
the savages whom Columbus and other discoverers found 
upon our soil. By the red men — fewer in numbers, 
doubtless, but fiercer, braver, and more persistent than 
their antagonists — the Builders were driven out and 
pushed to the southwest, hosts of warriors on both sides 
perishing in the protracted struggle. As Halleck says: 

"What tales, if there be tongues in trees. 
These giant oaks could tell 
Of beings born and buried here!" 

The new race was vastly inferior to the older. It was 
more a nomadic people. Villages and other permanent 
habitations seldom contained, through the course of 
many generations, the same tribes. They were not 
given, except to a very limited extent, to the tillage of 
the soil. War and the chase were their chief occupa- 
tions, and the products of the latter, with spontaneous 
yields from the forest and stream, furnished the simple 
necessaries of their lives. Change for the worse as it 
was, apparently, in the population of this part of North 
America, it was doubtless in the order of Divine Provi- 
dence, that the land-might, by and by, be the more easily 
and advantageously occupied by the white man, who 



would come to fill it again with busy life and to dot its 
surface with the monuments of a civilization to which 
the wildest dreams of his predecessors never reached. 


(,. The light of history begins to dawn upon the Indians 
of Ohio during the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. As early as 1609 the explorer, Champlain, made 
mention of the Iroquois, who then dwelt about the 
eastern end of Lake Ontario. In 1683 La Hontan 
names thgm again and says' they are "in five cantons, 
not unlike those of the Swisses. Though these cantons 
are all one nation, and united in one joint interest, yet 
they go by different names, viz. : The Sonontouans [Sen- 
ecas], the Goyagoans [Cayugas], the Onnatagues [Onon- 
dagas], the Ononyonts [Oneidas], and the Aguies [Mo- 
hawks]." The Five afterwards became the famous "Six 
Nations," and are sometimes mentioned as seven. These 
formed one of the three great divisions of the Indian 
tribes east of the Mississippi — the Huron-Iroquois, the 
Algonquins, and Mobilians, dwelling respectively, it may 
be stated in a general way, on the great lakes, the Ohio 
river, and the Gulf of Mexico. The second of these 
families, though perhaps not the most powerful in war, 
the first seemingly holding the supremacy, was by far the 
most numerous and widespread. Their habitat is de- 
scribed as "originally reaching from Lake Superior to the 
mouth of the St. Lawrence, and from the west of Maine to 
Pamlico sound along the Atlantic coast, and from the Ro- 
anoke river to the headwaters of the Ohio and westward 
to the mouth of the river, and from that point, including 
all south and west of Lake Erie, to Lake Superior again, 
leaving the Iroquois on Lake Ontario like an island in 
the midst of a great sea."* To this stock belonged most 
of the Ohio tribes ; but to their neighbors, east and 
west, the Iroquois and the Hurons, were allied in blood 
the ill-fated Filians, or Fries, the first of all western tribes 
to be observed and mentioned by the French explorers. 
They are first designated by the former name on Cham- 
plain's map, published in 1680; are again so named on 
the map of Richard Blome three years later; and so gen- 
erally on the old maps until 1735. Long before this, 
however, they are supposed to have been driven out, ex- 
terminated, or amalgamated with other tribes. Blome, in 
1683, places the "Senneks," or Senecas, one of the Five 
Nations of the Iroqouis, among the Fries on the south 
of the lake to which the latter gave the name; and that 
probably is the tribe into which the Fries ultimately 
merged. Charlevoix, in 1744, puts their later tribal 
designation upon his map near the east end of Lake 
Frie (they had been located upon a map of 1703 near 
the west end), but adds the remark: "The Fries were 
destroyed by the Iroquois about one hundred years ago." 
Also, upon a map prepared by John Hutchins and pub- 
lished in 175s, where the tribe is assigned a former terri- 
tory stretching along the whole south shore of Lake Erie, 
this note appears: "The antient Fries were extirpated 
upwards of one hundred years ago by the Iroquois, ever 
since which time they [the Iroquois] have been in posses^ 

*Rev. S. D. Peet. in The Ainerican Antiqiuirian, Vol. I.. No. 2. 

sion of Lake Erie." Mitchell's map of the same year 
supplies an interesting note: "The Six Nations have ex- 
tended their territories to the river Illinois ever since the 
year 1672, when they were subdued and incorporated 
with the antient Chaouanons, the native proprietors of 
these countries and the river Ohio. . . . The 

Ohio Indians are a mixt tribe of the several Indians 
of our colonies, settled here under the Six Nations, who 
have allwaies been in Alliance and subjection to the 
English." The territory of these renowned conquerors 
appears upon the rriaps as early as 1722 as a geographical 
district or political division named "Iroquois." It ex- 
tended from Montreal to the Susquehanna, thence to the 
west end of Lake Erie, north to Lake Huron, and east 
to Montreal again — thus including about half of the 
present territory of Ohio. In the maps of 1755 the Iro- 
quois' tract is extended to the Mississippi, and includes 
everything between that river and Lake Ontario, the Ohio, 
and the great lakes. One map divides "the country of 
the confederate Indians," now enlarged from five to 
seven nations, into their "place of residence," New York;, 
their "deer-hunting country" (Tunasonruntic), which 
was Ohio; and their "beaver-hunting countries," or 

Nearly, then, to the period of exploration in the Ohio 
country, the Eries dwelt here; and fragments of their 
tribe probably remained when the first white men came, 
dwelling amid their conquerors, but not to be identified 
as separate from them. The indications, from traditions 
and the maps, which furnish the only data we have con- 
cerning them, are that the Eries only occupied the lands 
east of the Cuyahoga and south of the lake; while that 
west of the river was held by a kindred tribe, the Wyan- 
dots or Hurons. The later of the two classes of earth- 
works found in northern Ohio are assigned by some in- 
quirers to the Eries, to whom many of the burial places 
and skeletons found in this region undoubtedly belong. 
The Indian names of streams, as well as that of the great 
lake to the northward, are supposed to have been given 
by them. 


After the middle of the last century, knowledge con- 
cerning the Indians of Ohio was rapidly multiplied. 
Traders and explorers began, a little before that time, to 
contribute information about the tribes among whom they 
journeyed or traded; and Colonel Bouquet's expedition 
in 1764, to the Indian valleys on the Tuscarawas and 
Muskingum rivers, offered more definite, detailed, and 
authentic knowledge than had been accessible to that 
time. Among the tribes thus early reported, one of the 
most important was the Wyandots,'br Hurons, as they 
were called by the French. This was a branch of the 
great Iroquois family, but had been warred upon by their 
red kindred, driven from their homes on the lake whose 
name perpetuates their memory, pushed to the northwest, 
into Michigan and Wisconsin, among the Ottawas and 
other tribes. Here, however, they encountered an un- 
friendly wing of the Dakota family, from the west of the 
Mississippi, and were by them hunted again southeastward. 
They finally appear upon the maps as located in northern 



and western Ohio, west of the Cuyahoga river, "assigned 
to this territory," says Evans' map of 1755, "by express 
leave of the Iroquqis." They held from the lake south- 
ward to the headwaters of the Scioto and the Miamis, 
and in some places below. They had villages even 
upon the site of Columbus and elsewhere in the present 
Franklin county. They were also mingled with the Del- 
awares of southeastern Ohio. Although so often over- 
powered, they were still a martial people, and never sur- 
rendered themselves prisoners. General Harrison said 
of the Wyandot : " He was trained to die for the inter- 
est or honor of his tribe, and to consider submission to 
an enemy the lowest degradation." Their grand sachem 
during the early white occupancy of the State, Tahre, or 
the Crane, was undoubtedly a distinguished example of 
the finer sort of American Indian. The Wyandots held 
their lands in Ohio for a long time, subject to the Iro- 
quois, without claiming proprietorship; and their name 
appears on none of the treaties with the English or the 
United States until after 1784. 


These claimed to be the elder branch of the Lenni- 
Lenape tribes, and called themselves the "grandfathers " 
of the kindred nations, while recognizing the superiority 
of the Wyandots. This claim has been admitted by 
most writers upon the Indians. like the Fries, they were 
of Algonquin stock, and had removed from the Delaware 
and Susquehanna rivers to the Alleghany and the Ohio. 
This territory they were allowed by the grace of the all- 
cbnque ring I roquois, who had early subjugated them. 
Their first removal from their original seat upon or near 
the Atlantic coast did not occur, however, until after the 
adven t of Wi lliam Penn. They then occupied lands in 
Virginia, but sold them by the treaty of Lancaster in 
1744, and moved westward. In 1752, with other tribes, 
by the treaty of Logstow n, they formaUy assented to the 
settlement oi whites in the region south of the Ohio. 
About that time they were found numerously in villages 
on the Muskingum and the Beaver, but, according to 
Gist's journal of 1754, not anywhere west of the Hock- 
hocking. One unimportant Delaware tribe, the Munsees 
(some call these the Mingses), are found on the maps as 
far up the Ohio as the Venango river. (JBetween this and 
the Scioto the Delaware territories were presumably 
located. y In 1779, however, the delegates of the tribes 
gave to Congress, then at Princeton, New Jersey, the 
defini tion o f a boundary which included the Miami and 
Wyandot tracts, and very likely others, as well as their 
own. It was as follows : 

From the mouth of the Alleghany at Fort Pitt to Venango, and from 
thence up French creek and by LeBcBuf along the old road to Presque 
Isle, on the west; the Ohio river, including all the islands in it, from 
Fort Pitt to the Oubache (Wabash) on the south; thence up the Ou- 
bache to the broad Opecom'ecah, and up the same to the head thereof; 
and from thence to the headwaters and springs of the northwestern 
branches of the Great Miami or Rocky river; thence across to the head- 
waters and springs of the most northwestern branches of the Scioto 
river ; thence to the head westernmost springs of the Sandusky river ; 
thence down the same river, including the islands in it and the Httle 
lake, to Lake Erie on the west and northwest, and Lake Erie on the 

There is no probability that the Delawares ever occu- 

pied, at least within the period of white exploration or 
occupancy, any large part of this vast tract. What they 
did own north of the Ohio or east of the Cuyahoga they 
ceded to the whites by the treaty of 1785. The tribe, 
however, was represented among the Ohio Indians so late 
as 181 3, when Delawares joined with others in a contract 
of amity and peace with the whites at Frankhnton, on 
the present site of the western part of Columbus. 


The first that is known of this important and warlike 
tribe, they lived to the south of the Cumberland and 
Ohio rivers, as all the early Frenth and English maps of 
the western country show. One writer says they formerly 
lived on the Mississippi, whence they removed to the 
sources of a river in South Carolina, and, there coming 
in contact with the Cherokees and the Catawbas, they 
moved on to the Savannah. This seems to be con- 
firmed, in part, by the tradition of the Sauks and Foxes, 
of the Upper Mississippi region, who say the Shawnees 
were of the same stock with themselves, but migrated to 
the south. As early as 1632 they were mentioned by De 
Laet as residing on the Delaware river, whither they are 
supposed to have emigrated from Ohio. Forty years 
after the above date they joined theinselves in an alliance 
for the defence of the Andastes against the Iroquois. 
The Andastes were themselves an Iroquois tribe, now 
long extinct, which had its home on the Alleghany and 
the Upper Ohio, and are said at this time to have been 
located on the Susquehanna. Soon after, however, 
they are again found among the Delawares of the 
Delaware, where they staid till a backward emigration to 
Ohio began about 1744. They, a portion of the tribe 
which had not gone south, had been previously on the 
Miamis, being the first tribe of which we hear in this 
region; and were there attacked and scattered by the 
terrible Iroquois. They now, upon their return, were 
located, by express permission of the Wyandots and the 
Iroquois, on and near the Scioto and Mad rivers. Here 
they were divided into four bands — the Chillicothe, 
Piqua, Kiskapocke, and Mequachuke; and in the Scioto 
valley their chief town was situated, called by the English 
"Lower Shawneetown." There is also a Shawneetown in 
southern Illinois; and the wide wanderings of this people 
are elsewhere shown by the names they have left, as the 
Suwanee river of the popular song, in South Carohna, the 
Piqua of Pennsylvania and the town of the same name 
in the Miami country, and the Chouanon (now Cumber- 
land) river of the old maps. They were the only tribe 
among the northern Indians who had a tradition of for- 
eign origin; and for some time after the whites began to 
know them, they held a yearly festival to commemorate 
the safe arrival of their ancestors in the Western, world. 
After their arrival in the Scioto valley, they were i( id 
by the portion of the tribe which had settled .1 the 
south. From this branch, son of a Shawnee father who 
had married a Creek woman during the southern resi- 
dence, the celebrated Tecumseh and his brother, Els- 
quataway, or "the Prophet," are said to have sprung. 
Under the leadership of the former a part of the tribe 



joined the British in the AVar of 1812, in which Tecum- 
seh lost his life. Cornstalk, the leading chieftain of the 
Scioto bands; the Grenadier Squaw, his sister, so called 
from her height and size, and whom all accounts repre- 
sent as an Indian woman of unusual ability and acute- 
ness; Cornplanter, and other famous warriors, were also 
of the Shawneesjand Logan, the celebrated Mingo chief, 
lived among them here. The sites of their towns and 
the places where they tortured their hapless prisoners are 
still pointed out upon the fertile "Pickaway Plains," in 
Pickaway county, a few miles from Circleville. Cornstalk 
is described as "a man whose energy, courage, and good 
sense placed him among the very foremost of the native 
heroes of this land." The following pathetic story is told 
of his fate, which reflects anything but credit upon the 
whites who were concerned in it : 

"This truly great man, who was himself for peace, but 
who found all his neighbors and the warriors of his own 
tribe stuTcd up to war by the agents of England, went 
over to the American fort at Point Pleasant, at the mouth 
of the Great Kenawha, to talk the matter over with Cap- 
tain Arbuckle, who was in command there and with 
whom he was acquainted. This was in the early summer 
of 1777 ; and the Americans, knowing that the Shawnees 
were inclining to the enemy, thought it would be a good 
plan to detain Cornstalk and a young chief. Red Hawk, 
who was with him, and make them hostages. The old 
chief, finding himself entrapped, calmly awaited the re- 
sult. Ellinipsco, the son of Cornstalk, who came the 
next morning to see his father, was also detained. Toward 
night, one of the white hunters having been shot by an 
unknown Indian, the soldiers raised a cry, 'kill the red dogs 
in the fort,' and immediately carried their bloody thought 
into execution, the commander endeavoring, though almost 
unheeded, to dissuade them from their purpose. Corn- 
stalk fell pierced by seven musket balls, and his son and 
Red Hawk mel the same fate. Cornstalk saw his assas- 
sinators coming, and met them at the door of the hut in 
which he was confined, his arms folded upon his massive 
chest and his whole mien expressing a magnificent stoi- 
cism. This was by no means the only shameful act of 
treachery on the part of the whites. The murder very 
naturally aroused an intense feeling of hatred for the 
whites throughout the Shawnee division, and was the 
cause of much future bloodshed." 

For more than forty years after the return and reunion 
of the tribe, 1750, it was engaged in almost constant war- 
fare with the whites. They were among the most active 
allies of the French and sometimes of the British. After 
the conquest of Canada by the latter, they continued 
hostilities against the settlements, in alliance with the 
Delawares, until after the successful campaign of Colonel 
Bouquet. He, in 1764, estimated their bands upon the 
Scioto to number five hundred warriors. They, took an 
active part against the patriots in the war of the Revolu- 
tion and in the Indian war that followed, continuing it 
among the early settlers in this State until hostilities were 
terminated by the peace of Greenville in 1795. These 
Indians are specially distinguished in our national history. 
They have been variously called the "Bedouins of the 

American wilderness" and "the Spartans of the race," 
from their constancy in braving danger and enduring the 
consequences of defeat. They were undoubtedly among 
the ablest and bravest of the red men of the Ohio wilder- 


Of these there is not much to say, as they make no 
great figure in early Ohio history. The former had their 
headquarters in this State, near or with the Wyandots, in 
the valleys of the Maumee and the Sandusky. They 
lived originally, so far as is known, upon the banks of 
the Canadian river which retains their name (the name 
also of the capital of the Dominion), whence they were 
driven by the confederated Iroquois and scattered west- 
ward and southward along both shores of Lake Erie. 
Their chief seats were far away on the south shore of 
Lake Superior, where they became a powerful tribe, and, 
though remote, were exceedingly troublesome to the 
whites. Pontiac, hero of the famous conspiracy of 1763, 
was an Ottawa chief, and his tribe was foremost in the 
meditated mischief. -They were the last of' the greater 
tribes to succumb U^ the po\\:/r of the whites. 

uiib td' the poWr 
;was were also an 

The ChippewaS were also an important and numerous 
people, having their tribal centre in the far north, even 
beyond the Ottawas, in the Lake Superior region. There 
they were principally known as Ojibways or Ojibbeways, 
and were the first Indians met in that country by the 
French missionaries and explorers about 1640. They 
are an Algonquin tribe, and were formerly all well-de- 
veloped, fine-looking fellows, expert hunters, brave war- 
riors, and fond of adventure. They are still but little 
given to agriculture; yet some members of the tribe have 
proved susceptible of considerable education. "George 
Copway," "Peter Jones," "Edward Cowles," and perhaps 
others of the tribe, have been reputable writers and speak- 
ers upon matters concerning their people. In Ohio they 
oc cupied land s on the south shore of Lake Erie, most of 
which they surrendered in 1805, and the remainder in 
1817. They were much engaged in hostilities against 
the settlers, but joined in the peace of Greenville, and 
gave no serious trouble afterwards until the second war 
with Great Britain, when they were again hostile, but 
joined in the general pacification of the tribes the year 
after it closed. 

Not much is recorded in Ohio history of the Mingos, 
who are by some supposed to be identified with the 
Shawnees. They are known separately, however, as 
residing in considerable number about "Mingo Bottom," 
on- the Ohio, below Steubenville, and to some extent in 
the Scioto valley. Here their most famous leader, Tah- 
gah-jut e, or Lo gan, though himself the son of a Cayuga 
chief, chose his home, as before noted, among a cluster 
of the Shawnee towns on the Pickaway plains, his own 
residence being at "Old Chillicothe," now Westfall. 
It was in this neighborhood that Logan gave Colonel 
Gibson the substance of his famous address to Lord Dun- 
more, and at Charlotte, on the other side of the river, 
that Dunmore's campaign of 1774 came to a peaceful end. 
They are believed, unlike the Shawnees, to have been 
an offshoot of the Iroquois family. It may here be noted 



that the Ohio tribes seem to have Hved in general friend- 
liness, and that so me of their land s were frequently com- 
r non or neutral terr itory, in which the tribes intermixed 
at pleasure, outside of the tracts claimed as peculiarly 
the property of each. Hence they became more or less 
commingled, and in the Scioto valley, and elsewhere in 
the State, when the first definite knowledge of the Ohio 
Indians was obtained, not only the Mingos and Shaw- 
nees, and the Shawnees and Miamis, but also the Wyan- 
dots, Delawares, and others were found residing amicably 


The people of southwestern Ohio are chiefly interested 
in the story of the Miami Indians, although they occu- 
pied but a comparatively small tract in this State, their 
habitat being mainly between the Miami country and the 

The famous Miami chief. Little Turtle, however, thus 
outlined the former boundaries of his tribe, in the great 
council at,Greenville, in 1795 : "My forefather kindled 
the first fire at Detroit; from thence he extended his 
lines to the headwaters of the Scioto; from thence to its 
mouth ; from thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Wabash; and from thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan. 
These are the boundaries within which the prints of my 
ancestors' houses are everywhere to be seen." The nar- 
ratives of the early French explorers singularly confirm 
the statements of the Indian orator. They found the 
Miamis here and there upon the territory thus defined, 
and not anywhere else. 

They were of the Algonquin stock, and Charlevoixj in 
1 72 1, wrote that there was no doubt they were not long 
before identified with the Illinois, the hereditary and 
most formidable enemies of the Iroquois, and the first 
Indians encountered by Father Marquette in his voyage 
down the Mississippi. They included the Ouiatenon or 
Wea tribe of Indiana, the Peanguichia or Piankeshaw, 
the Pepikokia, Kilatak, and other tribes or bands. In 
Ohio, however, they were known in but three sepa- 
rate tribes — the Miamis proper, occupying the territory 
drained by the Maumee; the Piankeshaws, south of the 
former, and mainly between the Wabash and the Miami 
rivers; and the Twigtwees (by which name all the Miamis 
have sometimes been designated), still south of them, 
and likewise on the Wabash and Miami rivers, *vvhere 
they had invited the Shawnees to settle among them and 
aid in resisting the incursions of the Iroquois. The 
Hon. Albert Gallatin wrote in his Indian Tribes: "In 
the year 1684, in answer to the complaint of the French 
that they had attacked the Twigtwees or Miamis, the 
Five Nations assigned as one of the causes of the war 
that the Twigtwees had invited into their country the 
'Satanas' [the Shawnees] in order to make war against 
them." There was another and probably related tribe 
toward the headwaters of the Miamis, called Pickawil- 
lanies or Picts, who had a well known village called 
Pickawillany, where was also an English fort established 
in 1748, and marked on maps of that period as "the 
extent of the English settlements." 

The Miamis were found by the French in 1658 as far 

to the northwest as Green bay, and AUouez fell in with 
a large village of them in 1670, at the head of Fox 
river. Ten years afterward La Salle found them in con- 
siderable number upon the St. Joseph's river, in south- 
western Michigan, which was called from them the River 
of the Miamis. They also frequented the region about 
Chicago, but had retired from both these districts when 
Cadillac, commandant at Detroit, marched against them 
in 1707. By 1721 they had returned to the St. Joseph's 
and were also on the Miamis, and were subsequently 
found, in their various bands, scattered through the Ohio 
and Indiana country before mentioned as their home. 
They joined in the conspiracy of Pontiac, and captured 
the British forts Miami and St. Joseph's ; but during the 
Revolution sided with England, and made peace only 
after the successful expedition of George Rogers Clark, 
in which some of their towns were devastated. They 
continued hostilities against the settlers at intervals, how- 
ever, and were the main instruments of the disastrous 
defeats sustained by Generals Harmar and St. Clair, in 
1790-91. They were led in these actions by their most 
renowned chief, Meche Cunnaqua, or "Little Turtle," 
who is remembered by persons still living as a noble 
looking specimen of the sons of the forest, and other- 
wise a superior Indian. He was present, but not com- 
manding, at the defeat of the savages by "Mad Anthony 
Wayne" in 1794, and advised strongly against going into 
action. He is reported to have said on this occasion: 
"We have beaten the enemy twice; we cannot expect 
always the same good fortune. The Americans are now 
led by a chief who never sleeps. The day and the night 
are alike to him. I advise peace." He was one of the 
chiefs who signed the treaty of Greenville, and was faith- 
ful to it, never taking the war path thereafter. He died 
thirty years afterwards, at Fort Wayne, of gout, induced 
by too generous living among his white friends. Mr. 
E. D. Mansfield, who saw Little Turtle at his father's 
house early in the century, mentions him in his Personal 
Memories as "this most acute and sagacious of Indian 
statesmen, and a polished gentleman. He had wit, 
humor, and intelligence. He was an extensive traveller, 
and had visited all parts of the country, and became 
acquainted with many distinguished men. He had seen 
and admired General Washington." Colonel John Johns- 
ton, long Indian agent in Ohio, has also put on record 
his high appreciation of Little Turtle's qualities of mind 
and character. For many years after the peace of Green- 
ville, in which they bore full part, they gave the whites 
little trouble and rapidly declined as a tribe. By sundry 
treaties between this time (1795) and 1809 they ceded 
their lands between the Wabash and the Ohio State line, 
beyond which they do not seem to have claimed the 
territory, or, if claimed, the claim was not allowed them. 
They refused to join in the hostile alliance proposed by 
Tecumseh, but their sympathies were finally enlisted 
against the Americans in the War of 1812, and they 
attacked a detachment of General Harrison's army sent 
among them under Lieutenant Colonel Campbell. De- 
feated in this action, they again sued for peace, and a 
final treaty was concluded with them September 8, 1815. 



They had become much addicted to drunkenness and 
violence, and their numbers decreased fast. They are 
now more nearly extinct than any other great Indian 
nation of their day. 

The first settlers of Hamilton county confronted prin- 
cipally the Twigtwees or Miamis. We shall presently 
consider the character of their intercourse, and rehearse 
some of the thrilling stories of Indian massacre in this 


In the year 1811 the following fragments of tribes 
were enumerated or estimated as still remaining, with 
the numbers stated, in the northwest corner of the State 
— that part as yet unpurchased from the Indians: Shaw- 
nees, seven hundred; Ottawas, five hundred and fifty; 
Wyandots, three hundred; Senecas, two hundred; Dela- 
wares and Miamis, two hundred. An aggregate was 
thus made up of but one thousand nine hundred and 
seventy; and the number continually decreased until 
their ultimate removal. The Shawnees were then resid- 
ing about the headwaters of the Auglaize and the Great 
Miami rivers, the Ottawas principally on Lake Erie, the 
Wyandots on the Sandusky, and the little bands of the 
Senecas, Delawares, and Miamis on the same river and 
its tributary streams. 



Long after the occupancy by the Mound Builders 
ceased, but nearly a century and a half before that of 
the red man had closed in all parts of Ohio, came in the 
claim of the French to possession. The daring explora- 
tions of that renowned discoverer, Robert Cavalier de La 
Salle, included, it is rather hesitatingly said, a journey 
from Lake Erie to the southward, over the portage to the 
Allegheny river, and thence down the Ohio to the falls at 
the present site of Louisville. Upon this reputed dis- 
covery was based the claim of France to domination of 
the territory thus traversed by her courageous knight- 
errant; and, although it was somewhat feebly disputed by 
Great Britain, the title was held good until the treaty of 
Paris, in 1763, when it, together with the title to all the 
rest of "New France" northwest of the Ohio, was vested 
in the British Empire. The Revolutionary war, culmi- 
nating in the peace convention concluded at -Paris in 
1783, transferred the ownership thereof to the new Amer- 
ican Republic. 


Upon the arrogant assumption that their prowess had 
subjected all the territory between the oceans, the Iro- 
quois, or Six Nations, included in their claim, as we have 
seen, the present State of Ohio. The treaty of Fort 
Stanwix, October 22, 1784, in which the Indians were 
represented by the famous chiefs, Cornplanter and Red 

Jacket, and Congress by its commissioners, Oliver Wolcott, 
Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee, finally extinguished this. 
In January of the next year the treaty of Fort Mcintosh, 
negotiated by General George Rogers Clark, General 
Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee, for the Government, 
and the chiefs of the Delaware, Wyandot, Ottawa, and 
Chippewa Indians, fixed the boundary of their tribal 
territories along the Cuyahoga river and the main 
branch of the Tuscarawas, to the fork of the latter near 
Fort Laurens, and thence westwardly to the portage be- 
tween the headwaters of the Great Miami and the Miami 
of the Lakes (later the Maumee), down that stream to the 
lake, and thence along the south shore to the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga. Similar limitations for the Ohio tribes 
were prescribed by the treaty of Fort Finney, concluded 
with the Shawnees at the mouth of the Great Miami, 
within the present tract of Hamilton county, January 31, 
1786, by Generals Butler, Clark, and Parsons; by that of 
Fort Harmar, arranged by Governor Arthur St. Clair, Jan- 
uary 9, 1789; and the treaty of Greenville, August 3, 1795. 
Subsequent treaties and purchases extinguished all re- 
maining Indian titles in the State. 


For some time before the close of the Revolutionary 
war, and thereafter, the States of Massachusetts, Connec- 
ticut, and New York laid claims, under the old colonial 
grants, to parts of the territory now occupied by the com- 
monwealth of Ohio. Virginia went further, and claimed 
the whole, as included in her title to all the land north- 
west of the Ohio, holding, she asserted, under the colo- 
nial charters granted by King James I in 1608, 1609, and 
161 1, and by right of conquest by General Clark in 1778 
and 1779. The conflicting claims were composed with- 
out serious trouble. New York led the way, May i, 
1782, in ceding her rights therein to the United States. 
Virginia followed in a deed of cession, March 17, 1784, 
reserving, however, for grants to her Revolutionary sol- 
diers, what has since been known as the "Virginia Mili- 
tary District," between the Scioto and Little Miami rivers. 
Massachusetts came next, in a resolution of November 
13, 1784, authorizing her delegates in Congress to cede 
to the United States all her lands west of New York 
State. Connecticut closed the acts of cession in Sep- 
tember, 1786, by relinquishing all her claims west of the 
Western Reserve. This grant was fitly characterized by 
the late Cliief Justice Chase as "the last tardy and re- 
luctant sacrifice of State pretensions to the common 


to the lands of Ohio were all derived, primarily, from 
the General Government. It was a condition in the 
terms of admission of Ohio as a State into the Federal 
Union, that the fee simple to all lands within her bor- 
ders, especially those previously sold or granted, should 
vest in the United States. Under this stipulation, and 
by earlier grants or sales, divers companies, corporations, 
and persons have acquired title by grant or sale from the 
General Government. An unusual diversity, indeed, for 
a western State, has prevailed in this matter, as will be 



seen by the list of the most important classes into which 
the lands of Ohio are divided: Congress Lands, United 
States Military Lands, the Virginia Military District, the 
Western Reserve, the Fire Lands, the Ohio Company's 
Purchase on the Muskingum, Symmes' Purchase (or 
the Miami), the Donation Tract, the Refugee Tract, the 
French Grant, Dolerman's Grant, Zane's Grant, Canal 
Lands, Turnpike Lands, Maumee Road Lands, School 
Lands, College Lands, Ministerial Lands, Moravian 
Lands, and Salt Sections. The history of some of these 
is highly interesting; but it cannot be detailed here. 
The lands belonging to the present county of Hamilton 
more immediately concern us. They belong, for the 
most part, to what is famous in Ohio land history as the 
Miami or Symmes Purchase, in part also to the class 
designated as Congress Lands, and in part to 


That portion of Hamilton county lying east of the 
Little Miami river, being the township of Anderson, is 
included among the Virginia Military lands. The Gen- 
eral Assembly of the Old Dominion, at the session of 
October 20, 1783, passed an act authorizing its delegates 
in Congress to convey to the United States all the right 
and title of that commonwealth to the territory northwest 
of the Ohio river. Congress agreed to accept this ces- 
sion, with the stipulations that this vast tract should be 
formed into States containing each a suitable amount of 
territory, and that the States so formed should be dis- 
tinctly Republican, and admitted members of the Federal 
Union, having the same rights of sovereignty and free- 
dom as the other States. On the seventeenth of March 
following, the Hons. Thomas Jefferson, Arthur Lee, 
James Monroe, and Samuel Hardy, the Virginian dele- 
gates in Congress, conveyed to the United States "all 
right, title, and claim, as well as of jurisdiction, which the 
said commonwealth hath to the territory, or tract of 
country, within the limits of the Virginia charter, situate, 
lying, and being northwest of the river Ohio." The act 
of cession contained, however, the following reservations: 

That in case the quantity of good land on the southwest side of the 
Ohio, upon the waters of Cumberland river, and between the Great 
and Tennessee rivers, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North Carolina 
line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than was expected, 
prove insufficient for these legal bounties, the deficiency should be made 
up to the said troops in good lands, to be laid off between the rivers 
Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest side of the river Ohio, in 
such proportions to them as have been engaged to them by the laws Of 

The land embraced in this reservation constitutes the 
Virginia Military district in Ohio, and is composed of the 
counties of Adams, Brown, Clinton, Clermont, Highland, 
Fayette, Madison, and Union, and portions of Scioto, 
Pike, Ross, Pickaway, Franklin, Delaware, Marion, 
Hardin, Logan, Clark, Greene, Champaign, Warren, 
and Hamilton counties. 

Congress passed an act authorizing the establishment 
of the reservation, and its location as defined by the leg- 
islature of Virginia, upon the report of the executive of 
that State that the suspected deficiency of good lands 
upon the waters of the Cumberland actually existed. 

The Virginia soldiers of the Continental line, who 
served in the Revolutionary war, were compensated in 
bounty awards out of these lands according to their rank, 
time of service, and other bases of claim. The course pur- 
sued in locating and patenting the bounty lands was as 
follows : The Secretary of War made to the Executive 
of Virginia a return of the names of such officers 
and soldiers as were by the State law entitled to them, 
and the governor issued warrants to the same. When 
these were located, a return of the surveys was made to 
the Secretary of State of the United States, the warrant 
was returned to the Virginia land office whence it issued, 
and a patent signed by the President obtained, which 
vested full ownership in the patentee or his grantees. 
When it was found, as often happened, that a survey in- 
cluded land previously located, the holder of the warrant 
was permitted to vacate his survey, or a part of it, and 
locate his warrant elsewhere. This provision, however, 
did not obviate much subsequent litigation, which is now 
mostly quieted. Dr. Drake, in his Picture of Cincinnati, 
pubHshed 181 5, remarks that the interfering claims, up 
to that time, had " seldom produced litigation," which is 
a pleasant thing to remember, in view of the troubles 
that arose afterwards. Not only the soldier primarily 
entitled to the warrant, but any heir or assignee of his, 
was entitled to location. Large numbers of these warrants 
came into the hands of the early surveyors and settlers, as 
General Nathaniel Massie, Duncan McArthur, Mr. Sulli- 
vant, and others, and were by them used in securing vast 
and valuable tracts in the district. The names of these 
gentlemen appear very frequently as original owners upon 
the maps of the townships and counties now lying within 
its territory; and some of them are in the list of original 
owners in Anderson township, which will be given in the 
history of that division of the county. 

On the same day on which the act was passed, Richard 
C. Anderson, a colonel in the Federal army, was appoint- 
ed surveyor for the Continental line, by the officers 
named in the act and authorized to make such appoint- 
ment as they saw fit. He opened his office at Louisville, 
for entries upon the Kentucky lands, on the twentieth of 
July, 1784. When the Kentucky grant was exhausted, 
he opened another office — in Chillicothe we believe — for 
entries in the Ohio tract. He held this position up to 
the time of his death in October, 1826; and during the 
long period of his incumbency faithfully discharged its 
onerous duties. His son-in-law, Allen Latham, esq., of 
Chillicothe, was appointed surveyor some time after Col- 
onel Anderson's death, and opened his office in the town 
named in July, 1829. The office is still held in that 
place by one of the surveyors under Latham, now the 
venerable E. P. Kendrick, esq., though its duties have 
become little more than nominal. He has held the post, 
under Presidential appointment, for nearly forty years. 
The district was originally surveyed with extreme irregu- 
larity, no such thing as section or range lines being 
recognized, and warrants being located according to the 
eligibility of the lands or the taste or fancy of the pro- 
prietor. Nothing like ranges or townships was laid off 
until the work was done by the county commissioners in 



the several counties, when it became necessary to erect 
townships for civil purposes. Hence the irregular shape 
and utter want of uniformity in size of most of the town- 
ships in the Military District. 


In this division, by far the largest known to the history 
of land titles in this State or the country at large, belongs 
all the territory in Hamilton lying west of the Great Mi- 
ami river, viz.: Whitewater, Harrison, and Crosby town- 
ships. The immense tract of which these are part was 
surveyed and put into market at first by direct sales from 
the Treasury Department of the Government, as soon as 
practicable after the passage of an ordinance by Congress 
to that effect, in 1785, when the several States claiming 
ownership had all made deeds of cession to the United 
States and the title had been cleared and perfected by 
Indian treaties. By this ordinance the initial steps of 
the survey were directed to be taken by the "Geographer 
of the United States," an official ■ personage of no little 
importance, considering his talents and character and the 
extraordinary work he did, but whom history seems 
strangely to have neglected. A' well directed attempt 
has been made by Colonel Charles Whittlesey, of Cleve- 
land, to rescue the name and services of this useful public 
officer from oblivion; and we take pleasure in presenting 
here in full his note upon the subject: 

An office was created by the Continental Congress about the 
middle of the Revolution, called the "Geographer of the United 
States." Its purpose is not now fully understpod, but appears at first 
to have been military. The Government, and especially the army, 
needed a bureau of charts and of geographical knowledge, such as all 
civilized governments have, but of which it was then destitute. 

At the opening of the American rebellion Thomas Hutchins, of 
the colony of New Jersey, was a captain in the Si.\tieth Regiment of 
Foot, which was raised in the colonies, forming one of the battalions 
known as the "Royal Americans." This regiment constituted part of 
Colonel Bouquet's command in the expeditions of 1763 and 1764, into 
the Ohio country against the Indians who lived upon the Muskingum 
river. Hutchins appears to have been a well educated man.* Bouquet 
made him engineer to the e-xpedition, and in pursuance of this duty he 
surveyed and measured the route day by day, after it moved west of 
Pittsburgh. He was one of those frontier characters who combine 
fearlessness, intelligence, and a love of adventure, of whom there were 
at that time quite a number in the British army. Hutchins kept a 
journal of the march, with a map of the route showing the position of 
each encampment, which was published at Philadelphia in 1765, by the 
historian of the expedition, the Rev. William Smith, of Philadelphia. 
While in the Ohio country, he conceived the plan of settling it by mili- 
tary colonies, as the best mode of 'securing peace with the Indians. 
The scheme was at the same time brilliant and practical. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution Captain Hutchins was in Lon- 
don, where he was soon afterwards suspected by the British agents of 
being in communication with Benjamin Franklin at Paris. He was put 
in prison, and his fortune, amounting to about forty thousand dollars, 
confiscated. In 1778 he succeeded in reaching Savannah in Georgia, 
and was soon after made "Geographer" to the Confederation. There 
is very little information in regard to his functions until the new govern- 
ment had achieved its independence, and in 1784 acquired title to the 
western lands. By the ordinance of May 20, 1785, the geographer is 
directed to commence the survey of Government lands on the north 
side of the Ohio river where the west line of Pennsylvania should cross 
the same. An east and west base line was to be run thence westerly 
through the territory, which Mr. Hutchins was required to superintend 
in person and to take the latitude of certain prominent points, espe- 
cially the mouths of rivers. Longitude on land was not then attainable, 
for want of proper instruments. 

* He was author of the book cited in Chapter I of this volil 
a unique description of the Great and Little "Miueanii" rive 

, from which 

To that day the surveys of all countries had been made on a base 
line determined arbitrarily by roads, rivers, mountains, or coasts. The 
most simple of all modes, that of north and south and east and west 
lines, had never entered the minds of mathematicians; or, if it had, 
had never been reduced to practice. The plan provided for in the 
ordinance of 1785 is no doitbt the invention of Mr. Hutchins, which 
was foreshadowed in his scheme for military settlements, promulgated 
in 1765. 

By this original mode of laying out land, the township lines were to 
be run in squares, on the true meridian, six miles apart, and at right 
angles, east and west, parallel to the equator. Within these squares 
the lots or sections are laid out, also in squares, thirty-six in number, 
of one mile on a side, each containing six hundred and forty acres. 
All our Government lands have been surveyed on that plan, from that 
day to this. Each section and township throughout this vast space is 
so marked as to be distinguished from any other. Wherever the corner 
and witness trees are standing, whoever visits them can at once deter- 
mine the latitude and longitude of his position, and the distance from 
each base and meridian line. 

"Hutchins, as geographer, had power to appoint surveyors, who 
were first to run the lines of seven ranges of townships, next west of 
the Pennsylvania line, from the Ohio river to the forty-first parallel 
north latitude. It was accomplished during the years 1786-7, among 
hostile Indians, who, notwithstanding the land had been ceded to the 
United States, were wholly opposed to the occupation by white men. 
Colonel Harmar's battalion, stationed on the Ohio and Alleghany 
rivers, was required to do duty in the woods as a guard with the sur- 
veyors. Otherwise the lines could not have been run. 

While Hutchins was zealously engaged in this work, having his 
office at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was called away from it by 
death early in the year 1788. The office of geographer expired with 
him. Its duties were fora time transferred to the Treasury department 
and eventually tlie office of "Surveyor General of the Public Lands" 
was created. Very little is known of the private history ot this.tnodest 
patriot of the Revolution. Probably he left no descendants. The 
office he held during nearly the entire existence of the Continental 
Congress was a very important one, requiring a high order of mathe- 
matical talent, physical energy, and personal courage. As the author of 
the best system of public surveys now. known, his name should in some 
way be made more conspicuous in our annals. Even the place where 
his remains were interred, has passed into forgetfulness. From his first 
journey in Ohio with Colonel Bouquet, he foresaw and predicted that it 
would become a populous country. He lived barely long enough to 
see his favorite scheme of colonization commenced at Marietta by the 
soldiers of the Revolution. 

The office of "Surveyor-Generalof the Public Lands" 
was created by Act of Congress May 18, 1796, his duties 
at first being confined to the Northwestern Territory, but 
including, after the purchase of Louisiana, all the public 
domain west of the Mississippi and north of the thirty- 
third parallel of latitude. He appointed and instructed 
his own deputies, by whom the field surveys were exe- 
cuted. General Rufus Putnam, one of the Ohio com- 
pany, and a pioneer at Marietta, was the first surveyor- 
general (1796), and his successors, during about half a 
century after the creation of the office, were Jared Mans- 
field, 1803; Josiah Meigs, 1813; Edward Tiffin, 1814; 
William Lytle, 1829; Micajah T. Williams, 1831; Robert 
G. Lytle, 1835, and Ezekiel S. Haines, 1838. The 
office was at first kept in Marietta, but was removed to 
Ludlow's station, near Cincinnati, in 1805, by Mr. Mans- 
field, and was afterwards for a long time kept in Cincin- 
nati. Very important work was done in the surveys by 
this gentleman. He was of English stock, his ancestors 
in this country settling at Boston in 1634, and at New 
Haven five years thereafter. He was a graduate of Yale 
college, and a thorough scientist for his day. Hon. E. 
D. Mansfield, his son, in his "Personal Memories," ex- 
presses the opinion that he was the only man appointed 



to public office solely on the ground of his scientific at- 
tainments. He was appointed by President Jefferson 
while a teacher at the West Point Military academy, in 
1803, more particularly to establish meridian lines, for 
want of which some of the surveys had gone sadly astray 
and made much trouble. After waiting some time for 
the importation of necessary instruments which could 
not then be procured on this side of the Atlantic, he es- 
tablished three principal meridians in Ohio and Indiana, 
which have since been among the fixed bases of the sur- 
veys. General Mansfield retained the office until 1813, 
when he resigned, and after some engineering duty for 
the Government, resumed his professorship at West 
Point, which he retained for fifteen years. 
. The land-office was established in Cincinnati under the 
law of 1800, creating the Cincinnati Land district and 
establishing the offices of register and receiver. Similar 
offices were opened by the Government in Marietta, 
Steubenville, and Chillicothe. Before this time the 
Congress lands had been sold only in tracts of a section 
or more each. When William Henry Harrison, after- 
ward President Harrison, became the first delegate of the 
Northwestern Territory in Congress, he, feeling the obsta- 
cle presented by this provision to the rapid settlement of 
the country, secured the passage of the law of 1800, 
which, among other enactments, directed a portion of 
the public lands to be subdivided and sold in tracts of 
three hundred and twenty acres, or a half section. The 
working of this beneficent provision was so satisfactory 
that, by a subsequent act, the subdivisions were offered 
in lots of one hundred and sixty acres each, at two dol- 
lars per acre, on a credit, if asked, of five years. Finally, 
at the instance of Senator Rufus King, of New York, a 
law was passed for the offer of eighty acre tracts as the 
minimum, and the price was reduced from two dollars to 
one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, which has since 
been the standard rate. Under the credit system, how- 
ever, admitted by the acts of 1800 and subsequently, an 
immense and most burdensome debt was created by the 
settlers on Congress lands. In 1820 it was ascertained 
that the amount due from purchasers at the western land 
offices aggregated twenty-two millions of dollars — a sum 
believed to exceed the total volume of money then cir- 
culating in the Western States, and one far beyond the 
ability of the delinquent settlers to pay. If Congress 
should grant no relief and the laws be enforced, nine- 
tenths of theai would be ruined by the loss of their land 
and improvements. It was a time of great financial de- 
pression. Money could not be had, and no property 
could be sold for cash. Over half of the settlers north 
of the Ohio were indebted to the Government, and the 
feeling among them and their sympathizers in the south- 
western States was such that there was imminent danger 
of civil war if the Government should rigidly claim its 
own. Extension of time for payment would bat increase 
the obligations and postpone the evil day; and it was 
seen that no practicable way was to be had out of the 
difficulty, except by the prompt and utter extinguishment 
of the debt as an act of generosity and policy on the 
part of the Government. In this exigency a conference 

of a number of leadmg business and professional citizens 
of Cincinnati resulted in the preparation by Judge Bur- 
net — who has left, in substance, this history of the trans- 
action — of a memorial to Congress setting forth the facts 
in the case. A thousand copies of this were speedily 
printed and sent, with a letter of explanation and instruc- 
tion, to every city, village, and post office in the States 
and territories where public lands were then sold. In a 
comparatively short time they began tO| come back in 
lar-ge numbers, and very numerously signed. A copy 
sent to Mr. Worthington, then governor of the State, se- 
cured his approval and influence in reaching the object 
of the movement. At the next session of Congress the 
memorials were sent in, the desk of every western mem- 
ber and delegate being literally covered with them ; and 
an act was consequently passed granting the desired re- 
lief. Under it the delinquent purchaser received in fee 
simple so much of the land he had entered as he had 
paid for, and had the privilege of relinquishing so much 
as he had not paid and could not pay for. If anything 
had been paid upon tracts relinquished, it might be cred- 
ited upon tracts retained, so as to save important 
improvements. The settler was further reheved by this 
most beneficent enactment, in the-release of all the back 
interest held by the Government against him. At the 
same session, in 1821, the King act before referred to, in 
relation to the public lands, was also passed. 

Originally, in the survey and sale of Congress lands, it 
was proposed to reserve one-seventh of the lands surveyed 
for the purpose of bounties to certain of the Continental 
troops; but this plan was presently abandoned, in favor 
of the grant of an entire tract in the central part of the 
State, containing one million five hundred and sixty 
thousand acres, and including the whole of the present 
county of Coshocton and parts of nine other counties. 
Four sections in each township were, however, reserved 
for future sale by the Government, and one section was 
set apart in each for the maintenance of the public 

The public territory immediately west of the Great 
Miami-was surveyed in 1799 and the following year, and 
the first sales under the act of Congress putting it 
into the market were held at the newly established land, 
office in Cincinnati, under direction of the receiver, Gen- 
eral James Findlay, beginning the first Monday in April, 
1801; and were by public vendue. The minimum price, 
as before mentioned, was fixed by the act at two dollars 
an acre. Not much more than this was commonly bid. 
Jeremiah Butterfield and associates, for example, by the 
bid of ten cents per acre more than the minimum, se- 
cured two thousand acres along the river, in the north 
part of this county, and south part, of Butler, which is 
among the finest land in the Miami country, and is to-day 
worth at least two hundred thousand dollars. Five per 
cent of the purchase money was to be deposited at the 
time of purchase, and to be forfeited if an additional sum 
making the whole amount equivalent to one-fourth of the 
price were not paid within forty days after the sale. An- 
other fourth must be paid within two years; the next 
within three; and the final installment, with all accu- 



mulated interest, within four years from the day of sale. 
The land-office was kept in Cincinnati for many years, 
or until the sales of Congress lands within its jurisdiction 
were very nearly completed. Colonel Israel Ludlow was 
the first register, and General Findlay first receiver. The 
line of registers was continued by Charles Killgore, Daniel 
Symmes (who was appointed after the expiration of his 
term as judge and served till near the time of his death, 
May lo, 1 817), and Peyton S. Symmes, who had his office 
in 1819 at the corner of Lawrence and Congress streets, 
while General Findlay, still receiver, had his at 30 North 
Front street, "in the hotel." The latter Symmes held 
the post for many years — so lately as 1833, at least. Of 
the names of receivers after Findlay, we have only 
those of Andrew M. Bailey, who was receiver in 1829; 
Morgan Neville, receiver in 1831, and probably for some 
years before and after; and of Thomas Henderson, who 
was appointed July 28, 1838. 


Congress, by its early compact with the people, sug- 
gested in the ordinance of 1785, and embodied in the 
act of 1802, by which Ohio became a State, gave them 
one thirty-sixth part of the public domain northwest of 
the Ohio river for the education of their children. The 
lands set apart for this purpose, in this State, at least, 
were often appropriated by squatters, and through un- 
wise, careless, and sometimes corrupt legislation, the 
squatters were actually vested with a proprietorship with- 
out consideration. Mr. Atwater, in his history of Ohio, 
says: "Members of the legislature not unfrequently got 
acts passed and leases granted, either to themselves, to 
their relatives, or to their warm partisans. One senator 
contrived to get by such acts seven entire sections of 
land into either his own or his children's possession." 
From 1803 to 1820 the general assembly spent much 
time every session in passing acts relating to these lands, 
without advancing the cause of education to any appre- 
ciable extent. In 1821 the house of representatives in 
the State legislature appointed five of its members — 
Messrs. Caleb Atwater, author of the history just cited, 
Lloyd Talbot, James Shields, Roswell Mills, and Josiah 
Barber — a committee on schools and school lands. This 
committee in due time made a report rehearsing the 
wrong management of the school land tract on behalf of 
the State, and warmly advocating the establishment of a 
system of education and the adoption of measures which 
would secure for the people the exercise of the rights 
which Congress intended they should possess. In com- 
pliance with the recommendation of the committee, the 
governor of the State, in May, 1822, having been so 
authorized by the legislature, appointed seven commis- 
sioners of schools and school lands, viz.: Caleb Atwater, 
the Revs. John Collins and James Hope, D. D., Nathan 
Guilford, Hon. Ephraim Cutler, Hon. Josiah Barber, and 
James M. Bell, esq. The reason why seven persons 
were appointed was because there were as many descrip- 
tions of school lands in the State — i. e., section num- 
bered sixteen in every township of the Congress lands 
and in Symmes' Purchase, and a similar proportion in the 

Virginia Military District, the Ohio Company's Purchase, 
the Refugee lands, and the Connecticut Reserve. For 
the three different grants represented in the lands of 
Hamilton county the commissioners were: For the Mil- 
itary lands, Mr. Bell; for the Congress lands, Mr. Col- 
lins; for the Symmes Purchase, Mr. Guilford. The 
commission of seven was finally reduced, by various 
causes, to three members, Messrs. Atwater, Collins, and 
Hoge, who performed the arduous duties incumbent 
upon them with little remuneration and (at the time) few 
thanks, though posterity has not been wholly unmindful 
of their valuable services. Mr. Guilford, of Cincinnati, 
always a warm friend of education and an active pro- 
moter of the public school interest, though his name may 
not much appear in the later transactions of the commis- 
sion, was specially prominent and influential in its forma- 
tion and earlier work. 

The legislature of 1823 adjourned without having 
taken any definite action upon the report presented by 
the commission; but during the summer and autumn of 
the next year the subject of the sale of the school lands 
was warmly agitated, and the friends of this measure tri- 
umphed over the opposition so far as to elect large ma- 
jorities to both branches of the general assembly in favor 
of its being made a law. The quantity of land conse- 
crated to this purpose was carefully ascertained, and 
amounted in 1825 to a little more than half a million of 
acres, valued at something less than a million of dol- 
lars. A portion of these lands was sold by the State 
government, under due authority of Congress, and the 
remainder was leased, the avails of the leases and sales 
forming a part of the present school fund of the State. 


The time had come for planting the foundations of 
"the State first born of the ordinance of 1787." That 
organic act had called the attention of the New World 
to the great fertile wastes to the north and west of La 
Belle Riviere. The rich valleys and deep forests had 
been growing into knowledge and fame for more than a 
generation, and had even attracted the notice and 
prompted the official remark of members of the British 
government. In 1 750-1 Christopher Gist, as agent of 
the old Ohio Land Company, which had been organized 
a year or two before by some Enghshmen, and the Wash- 
ingtons, Lees, and other Virginians, accompanied by 
George Croghan, reached the Great Miami in his journey 
across the wilderness country from the present site of 
Pittsburgh, and explored its valley for about a hundred 
miles to its mouth. His companion had brought liberal 
presents from Pennsylvania to the Miamis, and in 
return obtained the concession to the English of the 
right to plant a fortified trading house at the junction of 
Loramie's creek and the Miami, in the country of the 
Piankeshaws, the subsequent county of Shelby — an en- 
terprise carried into effect the next year, the stockade 
then erected being considered the first point of English 
settlement in Ohio. It was taken by the French and In- 
dians in 1752, and in 1782 was plundered and destroyed 
by George Rogers Clark, in his expedition against the 



Miami towns. The soldiers who returned from these in- 
cursions, and particularly the Virginians and Marylanders 
who accompanied Lord Dunmore in his campaign to the 
Scioto valley in 1774, carried back glowing accounts of 
the beauty and fertility of the virgin country, and pre- 
pared the way for its subsequent colonization. The Mi- 
ami valleys were carefully inspected by Daniel Boone, 
when a captive among the Shawnees in 1778, and by the 
war ])arties led from Kentucky by Bowman and Clark, 
against the Indians on the Little Miami and Mad rivers. 
In the autumn and winter of 1785, scarcely more than 
three years before the permanent occupancy began, Gen- 
eral Richard Butler, with a company comprising Parsons, 
Zane, Finney, Lewis, and others who were or became ce- 
lebrities, voyaged on a tour of observation and official 
duty from Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) to the mouth of the 
Great Miami, where they built a fort, dwelt for some 
months, and concluded an impartial treaty.. In the 
years about this time, 1784-5-6, the way was cleared 
by Indian treaties and Congressional legislation — 
specially by the ordinance of May 20, 1785, providing 
for the survey and sale of the public lands — for the set- 
tlement of southern Ohio. The more renowned ordi- 
nance of July 13, 1787, erecting the Northwest Territory, 
and certain minor measures adopted by Congress at the 
same session, granting authority to the Government 
"board of treasury" to contract for the sale of the lands 
thus opened to civilization, completed the preliminaries 
necessary to regular and permanent settlement. A be- 
ginning of this was promptly made the next year, as is 
well known, by the settlement of the Ohio Company, 
mainly New Englanders, under the leadership of General 
Rufus Putnam, upon their purchase at and about the 
mouth of the Muskingum, where they founded Marietta, 
named from the hapless Marie Antoinette, at that time 
queen of France. 

Among those who had been attracted by a visit to the 
Miami country was one Captain (or Major) Benjamin 
Stites, of. Redstone, Old Fort, now Brownsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, who was the prime mover in the inception of the 
Miami Purchase. Stites is, indeed, the real hero of the 
Purchase, as regards the original conception of it. He 
was, like many of the first colonists in the tract, a native 
of New Jersey, born at Scotch Plains, Essex county. 
While still young he emigrated to western Pennsylvania 
and settled on Ten Mile^ creek, in the present county of 
Green. Here he became a captain in the militia, and 
took an active part in the frontier struggles with the In- 
dians. In the spring of 1787 he descended the Ohio 
from Redstone with a trading venture, in the shape of a 
flat-boat loaded with flour, whiskey, and other wares 
adapted to the river market of that day, and floated 
down to Limestone, or Limestone Point, now Maysville, 
Kentucky. Here his sales had small success, and he 
pushed with his goods into the interior at Washington, a 
few miles back, where he had better fortune. While 
here the Indians came upon a marauding expedition into 
the neighborhood, and ran off some horses, taking other 
property with them. Stites was a man of great strength 
and courage, and accustomed to Indian warfare. He at 

once volunteered to go with a party in pursuit. It was 
speedily raised, and he hastened with it across the coun- 
try on the Indian trail until the river was reached, below 
where Augusta now stands, when they kept the Kentucky 
shore down to a point opposite the mouth of the Little 
Miami. Here it was ascertained that the red robbers 
had made a raft and crossed with their booty, evidently 
striking for their towns in the Miami country. The 
whites likewise made a raft, crossed themselves and their 
horses, and pursued the enemy to the vicinity of Old 
Chillicothe, a few miles north of Xenia, near the head- 
waters of the Little Miami, which it was deemed prudent 
not to approach closely, and the expedition retraced its 
steps. The return through the valley was made more 
leisurely, and Stites had the better opportunity to observe 
its beauty and fertility. Before recrossing the Ohio he 
had decided to come back to the valley with a colony, 
and make a permanent settlement. The idea of 
the Miami Purchase, in its rude outlines at least, was 
born in his sagacious mind. He closed his business at 
Washington as soon as possible and returned to his fam- 
ily. Some time afterwards he went to New Jersey for 
means with which to accomplish his intents; and there, 
at Trenton,* met him whose name was to be forever more 
conspicuously identified with the memory of the Pur- 
chase than his, the active agent in the prosecution and 
consummation of the enterprise — Judge John Cleves 

Judge Symmes held at this time an influential position 
as a member of Congress from the State of New Jersey. 
This celebrated Ohio pion eer was born Iul;^2i, 1742, 
at River head, Long Island, th e oldest son of the Rev. 
Timothy and Mary (Cleves) Symmes. In early life he 
was engaged in teaching and land-surveying. He went 
to New Jersey some time before the war of the Revolu- 
tion, in which he bore an active and honorable part — 
was chairman of the Sussex county Committee of 'Safety 
and colonel of a militia regiment in 1774, and took his 
regiment in March, 1776, to New York, and buill fortifica- 
tions, and was afterwards in the battle of Saratoga. He 
was presently elected delegate to the New Jersey State 
convention, and helped to draft the State constitution. 
During the remainder of the war he performed important 
military and civil services. In his own State he was suc- 
cessively lieutenant-governor, member of the council, and 
twelve years a judge of the supreme court; and was for two 
years a member of the Continental Congress. February 
19, 1788, he was elected by Congress one of the judges 
of the Northwest Territory. He was thrice married, his 
last wife being a daughter of Governor Livingston, of 
New Jersey,' He had two daughters as his sole offsping, 
one of whom, Maria, married Major Peyton Short, of 
Kentucky, and the other, Annie, became the consort of 
General William H. Harrison. ' He was the founder of 
North Bend and South Bend, upon the Purchase secured 
by himself and colleagues, and, after a long and useful 

* We here follow the narrative of Dr. Ezra Ferris, of Columbia, af- 
terwards of Lawrenceburgh, Indiana, in his communication to the Cin- 
cinnati Daily Gazette oi July 20, 1844. The common statement is that 
Stites met Judge Symmes in New York, during tlie session of Congress. 


but troubled life, he died at Cincinnati February 26, 
1814. In his later years he became so straitened in 
circumstances that he was compelled to assign his 
property to his sons-in-law. Some further notice of 
Judge Symmes, including a copy of his remarkable will, 
may be found hereafter in the annals of Cincinnati. He 
is fitly called by Mr. Cist, author of numerous booksand 
miscellaneous writings upon Cincinnati and early local 
history, "the patriarch of the Miami wilderness," "the 
William Penn of the West," "the Columbus of the 
woods." The compiler of Annals of the West has neatly 
applied to him the words (with slight variation) of R. J. 
Meigs' poem, pronounced at Marietta during the Fourth 
of July celebration of 1788 : 

To him glad Fancy brightest prospect sliows, 
Rejoicing Nature all around Iiim glows; 
Where late the savage, hid in ambush, lay, 
Or roamed the uncultured valleys for his prey. 
Her hardy gifts rough Industry extends, 
The groves bow down, the lofty forest bends. 
Arid see the spires of towns and cities rise. 
And domes and temples swell unto the skies. 

To Judge Symmes Major Stites, probably for the sake, 
mainly, of Symmes' influence in Congress and with the 
officers of fhe Government, proposed the purchase, for 
themselves and their associates, of a large body of land 
in the Miami country, the first eligible tract west of the 
Ohio company's purchase and the Virginia Military reser- 
vation. Symmes is said to have visited the land of 
promise, with five companions, no doubt in the summer 
of 1787, before deciding upon the proposal; and on his 
return began operations in his own name by the following 
memorial : 
To his excellency, the President of Cotigfess: 

The petition of John Cleves Symmes, of New Jersey, sboweth: 
I'hat your petitioner, encouraged by the resolutions of Congress of the 
twenty-third and twenty-se\'enth of July last, stipulating the condition 
of a transfer of Federal lands on the Scioto and jMuslcingum rivers 
unto Winthrop Sargent and Manasseh Cutler, esqrs. , and their asso- 
ciates of New England, is induced, on behalf of the citizens of the 
United States westward of Connecticut, wlio also wish to become pur- 
chasers of Federal lands, to pray that the honorable the Congress will 
be ]3leased to direct that a contract be made by the Ironorable the 
coiiimissioners of the treasury board with your petitioner, for himself 
and his associates, in all respects similar in form and matter to tlie said 
grant made to Messrs. Sargent and Cutler, differing only in quantity 
and place where, and, instead of two townships for the use of a uni- 
versity, that one only be assigned for the benefit of an academy; that 
by such transfer to your petitioner and his associates, on their comply- 
ing with the terms of the sale, the fee may ]Dass of all the lands lying 
within the following limits, viz; Beginning at the mouth of the Great 
Miami river, thence running up the Ohio to the mouth of the Little 
Miami river, thence up the main stream of the Little Miami river to 
the place where a due west line, to be continued from the western 
termination of the northern boundary line of the grant to Messrs. Sar- 
gent, Cutler & Company shall intersect the said Little Miami river, 
llience due west, continuing the said western line, to the place where 
the said line shall intersect the main branch or stream of the Great 
Miami river, thence down the Great Miami to the place of beginning. 
[Signed] John C. Symmes. 

New York, August 29, 1787. 

This was the same day, as a letter of the next June 
from the treasury commissioners shows, when a favorable 
act of Congress was passed, in regard to contracts for 
the pubHc lands. Another act, of similar character, was 
passed on the twenty-third of October, authorizing the 
board of treasury to contract with anyone for tracts of 

not less than a million acres of western lands in a single 
purchase, the front of which on the Ohio, the Wabash, 
or other river, shall not exceed one-third the depth. Un- 
der this, as we shall see. Judge Symmes presently sub- 
mitted a second proposal. His associates in this under- 
taking were a number of friends of his, mostly, if not all, 
Jerseymen, and a number of whom had been fellow- 
officers in the Revolution. Chiefly notable among them 
was Captain Jonathan Dayton, also a delegate in Con- 
gress from New Jersey, and subsequently speaker, under 
the constitution, of the house of representatives, and the 
gentleman from whom Dayton, Ohio, was named. He 
was the principal mouthpiece of the association (called 
the "East Jersey Company") in the long and complica- 
ted correspondence and negotiations with Symmes which 
ensued. Their scheme looked to the acquisition of two 
millions of acres, which, in the imperfect knowledge then 
had of the country, was supposed to be included within 
the limits designated, though the survey ultimately 
showed but about six hundred thousand acres there. 
Symmes drew up a plan for the management and dis- 
posal of the vast estate they expected to acquire, which 
was approved by his associates. His petition had been, 
on the second of October, as an endorsement upon it 
states, referred to the board of treasury to take order. 
The "board of treasury" was a small body of Govern- 
•ment officials, representing the treasury department, and 
entrusted with the power of disposal of the public lands, 
which was afterwards vested in the Secretary of the 
Treasury, and finally in the general land office. The 
reference of Symmes' petition to Congress to the board 
"to take order" gave them discretionary power in the 
premises; and they presently agreed to negotiate the 
sale to Symmes and his associates. 

Meanwhile, so confident was the judge of the success 
of his application, that he soon began to advertise the 
lands and make conditional grants thereof. On the 
twenty-sixth of November, 1787, he issued at Trenton, 
in pamphlet form, "Terms of Sale and Settlement ot 
Miami Lands," a sort of elaborate circular addressed "to 
the respectable public." In this the advantages of the new 
country are suitably set forth. The price of the lands 
offered is fixed for the present at sixty-six and two-thirds 
cents; but, "after the first of November next, the. price 
of the lands will be one dollar per acre, and after the 
first day of November next [ensuing], the price will rise 
higher, if the country is settled as fast as is^xpected." 
The certificates raised by this augmentation in the 
price shall be applied towards the making of roads and 
bridges in the purchase. One penny proclamation, or 
the ninetieth part of a dollar, per acre, in specie or bills 
of credit of the States of New York, New Jersey, or 
Pennsylvania, must be paid by the purchaser at the time 
of purchasing the land- warrant. This fee of. one penny 
per acre is to defray the expense of surveying the country 
into townships and lots, agreeably to the land ordinance. 
And one farthing proclamation, or the three hundred and 
sixtieth part of a dollar, per acre, in specifti ar paper 
money aforesaid, to be paid by the purchaser to defray 
the expense of printing the land-warrants, purchasing 



proper books for record, accommodating and paying the 
register for his services in attending to the recording of 
entri-es, and other incidental charges which will necessa- 
rily accrue. It was further expressly stipulated as to "al' 
purchasers of lands from the said John Cleves Symmes, 
within his grant from the United States, of lands lying 
between the Great and Little Miami rivers, that if the 
locator (purchaser) shall neglect,-for two years, after loca- 
tion entered, to make a settlement on every section 
which he or they may have located, or to settle some 
other persons thereon, or in some station, who shall con- 
tinue to improve the same for seven years, in such case 
one-sixth part of every such neglected section or quarter- 
part of a section, to be taken off in a regular square at 
the northeast corner, shall be forfeited, and shall revert 
back to the register for the time being, in trust so far as 
to authorize him to grant the same gratis to any volun- 
teer settler who shall first make application to the register 
thereof; and the register shall proceed to make out a 
deed to such volunteer settler for such forfeited sixth 

In this prontinciamento Symmes reserved to himself 
the entire township lowest in the neck between the Ohio 
and the Great Miami, and the three fractional parts of 
townships north, west, and south between that and the 
rivers. These he would pay for himself, and lay out "a 
handsome town plat " thereon. It was here, evidently, 
that the judge expected to locate the future metropolis of 
the Ohio, and where, indeed, he did made his pioneer 
settlement. The tract reserved included what afterwards 
became Miami, Green, and Delhi townships, in Hamilton 
county. He also proposed an appropriation or reserva- 
tion, for the benefit of an academy or college, of one full 
township, to be laid off as nearly opposite to the mouth 
of the Licking river as an entire township might be 
found eligible in respect to soil and situation. 

Mr. Symmes likewise began the issue of certificates or 
"Miami land warrants," the first of which, date of De- 
cember 17, 1787, authorizing the location of six hundred 
and forty acres in the Purchase, was issued to Mayor' 
Stites, and seems to have been used by him "at the point 
betwixt the mouth of the Little Miami and the Ohio in 
the pint," in securing the tract upon which he after- 
wards set down the first stakes of Columbia. Stites does 
not appear in the history of the Purchase thereafter, ex- 
cept as a pioneer settler and prominent citizen at Colum- 
bia. He had, however, a liberal arrangement with 
Symmes, by which he was entitled to locate ten thousand 
acres in the Purchase, as near as might be about the 
mouth of the Little Miami. These, however, as we shall 
see, he was in imminent danger of losing some time after, 
by the determined effort made to compel Symmes to fix 
his eastern boundary upon a line drawn northeastward 
from a point on the Ohio twenty miles above the mouth 
of the Great Miami. 

On the eleventh of June following Symmes addressed 
another letter to the board of treasury, reciting the diffi- 
cultier ^^ had experienced in arranging credits with "the 
late Jersey line" — the soldiers of the New Jersey contin- 
gent in the war of the Revolution — in regard to their 

bounty lands, so- as to help his first payment on the ex- 
pected contract for the Purchase, and asking a new con- 
tract "for a part of the same lands of one million of acres 
fronting on the Ohio and extending inland from the Ohio 
between the Great Miami river and the Little Miami 
river, the whole breadth of the country from river to 
river, so far as to include on an east and west rear line 
one million acres, exclusive of the five reserved sections 
in every township, as directed in the ordinance of the 
twentieth of May, 1785, and that the present grant be 
made on the principles laid down by the resolution of 
Congress of the twenty-third of October last." The 
board now declined to agree to these boundaries, and pro- 
posed the inclusion of a million of acres within confines 
starting from a point on the Ohio river twenty miles above 
the mouth of the Great Miami, along the courses of the 
former and following the latter, an east and west line on the 
north, and a line running nearly parallel with the general 
direction of the Miami to the place of beginning. This 
point was within the present limits of Cincinnati. Aline 
drawn northwestward from it would leave Stites and other 
purchasers (for Symmes continued to sell the lands be- 
tween the Little Miami and that line) outside of the Pur- 
chase. More than three years afterwards — July 19, 1791 
— Governor St. Clair issued his proclamation warning 
against such purchases, and threatening ejection by the 
officers of the United States, at the same time defining 
the boundaries of the Purchase pretty nearly as in the 
letter of the treasury board. Much annoyance was 
caused to Symmes, and much trouble and alarm to the 
settlers of Columbia and elsewhere on the west side of 
the Little Miami, by this uncertainty as to their lands; 
but the patent finally granted and fixing the Miamis as 
the eastern and western limits of the Purchase, quieted 
and confirmed their titles. 

Shortly after the action of the board of treasury agree- 
ing to the proposed Miami purchase, Thomas Hutchins, 
then geographer of the United States, offered Israel Lud- 
low, a young surveyor from New Jersey, an appointment 
to survey the boundary of the tract, "being assured," he 
wrote, "of your abilities, diligence, and integrity." He 
was also commissioned to survey the Ohio company's 
purchase, and received an order from the Secretary of 
War on the frontier posts for sufificient troops to serve as 
an escort into the wilderness. He accepted the appoint- 
ment, and made repeated application for escorts to Major 
Zeigler and Generals Harmar and St. Clair; but without 
success, on account of the weakness of the garrisons, 
until October 21, 1791, when St. Clair gave him a ser- 
geant and fifteen men. With these he accomphshed the 
survey of the Ohio company's boundaries, but, he writes, 
"with the loss of six of the escort, and leaving in the 
woods all my pack-horses and their equipage, and being 
obliged to make a raft of logs to descend the Ohio as far 
as Limestone, from opposite the mouth of the Great 
Sandy river." At Fort Washington he now applied to 
Major Zeigler, commandant, for an escort on the Miami 
survey, but could get none, and undertook the work, in 
the winter of 1791-2, with sin:iply the protection of three 
woodsmen to serve as spies and give notice of approach- 

\ (" 



ing danger. He Vent with these a hundred miles up the 
Great Miami, through deep snow and severely cold 
weather, during which his men had their feet frozen and 
were unable to hunt for the supply of the expedition; 
and he consequently returned. When the season moder- 
ated, he made another attempt to run the boundaries, 
with but three armed men in the party; but was fright- 
ened back by signs of Indians, and was again denied an 
escort at J'ort Washington. By May 5, 1792, Ludlow 
could only report to the Government that "I now have 
the satisfaction to present to you the whole of the survey 
of the Ohio and part of the Miami purchases executed 
agreeably to instructions." The full commission was, 
however, finally executed by Colonel Ludlow, and in good 
shape. He was subsequently the surveyor of the original 
site of Cincinnati, in which he was also a joint proprietor. 

Messrs. Dayton and Marsh, representing the Synimes 
company, concluded a contract with the treasury com- 
missioners May 15, 1788, for two millions of acres, in 
two separate and equal tracts. The judge in July made 
up his mind to take but one million-acre tract, and, after 
his departure for the west, Dayton and Marsh arranged 
a new contract with the Government for that amount of 
land between the Miamis, but its eastern boundary begin- 
ning at a Hne twenty miles up the Ohio from the mouth 
of the Great Miami. This agreement seems now absurd, 
in the light of knowledge that less than six hundred thou- 
sand acres are included in the entire tract between the 
rivers south of a line from the headwaters of the Little 
Miami due west to the other stream, and that, between 
the boundaries now agreed upon, less than half the 
quantity of land was enclosed that had been solemnly 
bargained for. 

On the fourteenth of July, 1788, Judge Symmes again 
addressed the treasury board, expressing his desire "to 
adhere to the banks of both Miamis in the boundaries 
of the one million acres," but asked permission to enter 
the tract with a party of settlers and cause a survey to be 
made and an accurate map of the country to be prepared, 
"on which you may delineate your pleasure. Until we 
have better knowledge," he adds, reasonably enough, "I 
conceive any further stipulations of boundaries would be 
rather premature." The board made no concession, 
however, and withheld the desired permission for him to 
enter upon the premises. Confiding in the ultimate decis- 
ions of Congress, he nevertheless, as Stites and other 
purchasers had already started for the Miamis, and part 
of his own following had been equipped and had crossed 
the Delaware en route westward, set out with a consider- 
able caravan, reached Pittsburgh August 20th, and the 
mouth of the Great Miami on the twenty-second of Sep- 
tember. From here he explored the country as far up as 
the north side of the fifth range of townships, and re- 
turned to Limestone, from which he did not set out with 
his party to. make permanent settlement at North Bend 
until the twenty-ninth of the next January. 

Limestone was still a small place. Only three years 
before. General Buder, one of the commissioners to ne- 
gotiate treaties with the Indian tribes, passed it with a 
large party, and thus recorded his impressions in his diary. 

This I think to be a settlement of fine land, and believe the people 
will do very well, provided they have peace. There are about fifteen 
good cabins for families, kitchens, etc., included, and twenty-five houses. 
Here is a small creek, and from here a good wagon-road to Lexington 
and other places. The people seem determined to defend themselves; 
every man walks with his rifle in his hand, so enured are they to alarm. 
They are very civil, but possess that roughness of manner so univer- 
sally attendant on seclusion from general society. 

Meanwhile, though, the settlement of Columbia had 
been made by Major Stites and others, and surveying 
parties sent out by Symmes to begin the survey of the 
proposed Purchase, a party on each of the Miamis, each 
to move north to points sixty miles in a straight line from 
the Ohio. The Losantiville (Cincinnati) colony had also 
made its settlement opposite the mouth of the Licking. 
The occupation of the Purchase had fully begun. Con- 
gress took alarm at the departure of Symmes before the 
closing of the business, fearing that he would get posses- 
sion of the tract and set the Government at defiance. 
Judge Burnet, in his Notes on the settlement of the 
Northwestern Territory, says a resolution was offered in 
the body, ordering Colonel Harmar to dispossess him and 
pay the expenses of any military operations thus made nec- 
essary, out of the moneys deposited for his first payment; 
but that, through the representations of Dr. Boudinot and 
Captain Dayfon, two of his associates and also members of 
Congress, the message was withdrawn. Certain it is, a reso- 
lution was moved in Congress a month after Symmes left, 
repealing the several acts of the previous October, by which 
the board of treasury was authorized to contract for the 
sale of western territory. It was referred to a commit- 
tee, who consented to waive their report of the resolu- 
tion back with recommendation of its passage, upon the 
intercession of the gentlemen named, together with Dan- 
iel Marsh, also of the East Jersey association. These 
persons urged its suppression mainly upon the ground 
that Judge Symmes, before departure, had completed 
his first payment in certificates and "army rights," and 
that in accepting it the United States were as firmly 
bound as if a contract had been signed. They agreed, 
in consideration of the failure to report the resolution, to 
sign a contract with the Government for the Purchase, 
with the limits prescribed by the board in the letter of 
June 1 6th. Symmes had given Marsh a power of attorney 
at Pittsburgh, and, although technical objection was made 
to it, a tripartite contract was finally concluded October 15, 
1 788,* after many difficulties and disputes with the treasu- 
ry board, between the board representing the Government 
as party of the first part, Dayton and Marsh as party of 
the second, and Symmes and his associates as party of 
the third part, for one million of acres in the Miami 
country, to be bounded as insisted upon by the commis- 
sioners and agreed to by Dayton, Boudinot, and Marsh. 

The contract stipulated that if Symmes, of the party of 
the third part, should neglect or refuse to execute it, the 
same should inure to the benefit of the parties of the 
second part, who, in that case, covenanted to perfect it 
themselves. It was further stipulated that the association 
should have the privilege of selling and locating as much 

* This instrument was not entered in the official records of Hamilton 
county until March 17, 1821. 



of the remainder of the Purchase as they chose to take 
at the contract price — sixty-six and two-thirds cents per 
acre, payable in cirtificates of Federal indebtedness. 
These could then be bought for five shillings on the 
pound, Pennsylvania currency — so that the original cash 
price of lands in the Miami Purchase, paid by Syrames & 
Company was but fifteen pence, or sixteen and two- 
thirds cents per acre. In pursuance of this provision 
the community at large was publicly invited to become 
associated with the company and avail themselves of this 
privilege. The terms of this offer bore a general and in 
some respects close resemblance to the original "Terms of 
Sale and Settlement," issued at Trenton in November, 
1787. To induce them to do so without loss of time, 
it was stipulated that after the first of May then ensuing 
the price of the land should be one dollar "proclamation 
money," but that it would be still further increased as 
the settlement of the country would justify. It was ex- 
pressly promised that all moneys received on those sales, 
above the Congress price, should be deposited with the 
register and expended in opening roads and erecting 
bridges for the benefit of the settlements. It was also 
stipulated that a register should be appointed by the as- 
sociates to superintend the location of the land and to 
receive and apply the surplus money to those purposes. 
This provision, however, was neglected by the company, 
Mr. Symmes himself acting practically as register, receiv- 
ing and using all moneys paid in after as well as before 
the raising of the price. ' The consideration money was 
to be paid to the parties of the second and third parts in 
six semi-annual equal instalments, and they were to re- 
ceive patents for proportionate parts of the lands. Pur- 
chasers could pay one-seventh of the amount in military 
land warrants, issued by the Government to the Revolu- 
tionary officers and soldiers; and, for the convenience of 
those who wished to do so, Colonel Dayton was appointed 
to receive such payments. Subsequently the third entire 
range of townships in the Purchase was conveyed to Day- 
ton, in trust for persons holding these warrants; it hence 
was called the Military range. It is now in Butler 
and Warren counties. Every locator was required to 
place himself or some other person on the land he 
purchased, within two years from entering his location, 
or in some station of defence, beginning improvement 
on every tract if it could be done with safety, and con- 
tinuing the improvement seven years, if not disturbed by 
Indians, on penalty of forfeiture of one-sixth of each 
tract. This fractional part the register was to lay off at 
the northeast corner in a regular square, and grant to any 
settler who should first apply and perform the require- 
ments. The object of this was to secure actual inhabi- 
tants, who would open up the country, and to make sure 
of at least one bona fide settler on each section. The 
tract thus held in abeyance was commonly called the 
"forfeiture." No register, as before noted, was appointed, 
though the forfeiture tracts were reserved ; and the busi- 
ness was otherwise somewhat loosely conducted, so that 
it is considered doubtful whether any "forfeiture" title in 
the purchase was free from incumbrance; but when they 
came into litigation, the courts and juries took liberal 

views of the equities of the case and sustained the settlers. 

Symmes and his associates were to survey the Purchase 
at their own expense, and adopted a plan which was more 
economical than accurate. The principal surveyor — at 
first John Filson, and, after his death at the hands of the 
Indians, Colonel Israel Ludlow — was instructed to run a 
line east and west from one Miami river to the other, 
sufficiently north to avoid the bends of the Ohio, for a " 
base line, and to plant stakes every mile. The assistant 
surveyors were to run meridian lines by compass from 
each of these stakes, and plant a stake at the end of each 
mile for a section corner. Purchasers were then allowed 
to complete surveys by running east and west lines be- 
tween the corners, at their own expense. This was, of 
course, a very defective plan, and it resulted that scarcely 
two sections could be found in the purchase of the same 
shape or of equal contents. Some were too narrow, 
others too wide. It was doubted whether there was one 
in the entire tract of which the corresponding corners, 
either on the north or south side, were in the same east 
and west line. In some instances, says Judge Burnet, 
the corner on one meridian would prove to be ten, 
twenty, and sometimes thirty rods north or south of the 
corresponding corner on the other meridian. This irreg- 
ularity was very much the subject of complaint. Three 
or four years afterward, when many of the sections had 
been occupied and improved. Judge Symmes adopted a 
plan to remove the difficulty, which rather increased it. 
He caused the meridian line, part of which formed the 
eastern boundary of the site of old Cincinnati, to be re- 
measured, and new stakes to be set at the terminus of 
each mile. This line he then declared to be the stand- 
ard, and directed purchasers and settlers to run their 
lines anew east and west from these stakes, and re-estab- 
lish their corners at the points of intersection on the me- 
ridians. This plan, had it been persisted in, would have 
changed every original corner in the purchase. Some of 
the land owners followed the judge's directions, and 
bounded their possessions by the new lines thus estab- 
lished. Much confusion and trouble resulted; but not 
for a great while, since a decision was presently obtained 
from the supreme court of the State, which confirmed 
the old corners on the ground that the original surveys 
had been made under authority of an act of Congress 
and accepted at the treasury department, and were there- 
fore final and obligatory, and not to be disturbed by 
either party. The territorial lines of many parts of Ham- 
ilton county therefore remain to this day exceedingly un- 
even. The county maps show its northern line, for ex- 
ample, about as angular, in places, as a Virginia rail fence. 

About the same time a similar difficulty arose as to 
the boundaries of the Military range; but in this case also 
the original surveys were confirmed by the supreme court. 

In the former case, as some sections were too large 
and others too small. Judge Symmes adopted a rule that 
he would pay the purchasers four dollars an acre for the 
amount that their land was short of the quantity bar- 
gained for, and require the payment of a like sum per 
acre for those who had secured too much by the incor- 
rect surveys. Notwithstanding all his eflbrts to obviate 



the dififiiculties, however, they continued to multiply, re- 
sulting in much litigation, kept up in some cases even 
after the decision of the supreme court. 

The contract of October, 1788, required the payment 
of the purchase money to be completed within three 
years after the boundary lines of the entire tract had been 
surveyed and plainly marked by the geographer of the 
United States or some other person appointed for the 
purpose. The last instalment fell due early in 1792, 
when only the first and part of the second payment had 
been made; and so the entire contract became liable to 
forfeiture. Symmes had sold not only in the purchase 
as defined by the contract, but also most of the land be- 
tween his east line and the Little Miami. In the spring 
of that year he petitioned Congress to allow the altera- 
tion of the contract extending the eastern boundary to 
that river, as originally asked. It was fortunately granted 
by an act of April 12, 1792, and by this a large number 
of innocent purchasers were secured in the quiet posses- 
sion of their lands. It also provided for the reservation 
of fifteen acres to the Government, near the first town 
plat of Cincinnati, upon which Fort Washington was 
afterwards built. . Judge Symmes then petitioned for a 
law authorizing the President to issue to him a patent for 
so much of the purchase as he had paid and could pay 
for. This, too, was allowed May 5, 1792, and two years 
thereafter he visited Philadelphia, then the seat of Gov- 
ernment, settled with the Treasury department, found he 
had paid for two hundred and forty-eight thousand five 
hundred and forty acres, and received a patent signed by 
President Washington and dated September 30, 1794, 
for three hundred and eleven thousand si.x hundred and 
eighty-two acres, which included total reservations of 
sixty-three thousand one hundred and forty-two acres, 
fifteen acres for Fort Washington, and all sections 
or lots numbered eight, eleven, twenty-six, and twenty- 
nine, for such purposes as Congress might direct. All 
these, including the Fort Washington reserve, were re- 
leased and put into the market by Congress in 1808. 
The remainder of the original Miami Purchase under the 
contract of course reverted to the Government. Sections 
sixteen were also reserved for public schools, and the 
equivalent of a section at or near the mouth of the Great 
Miami river, probably for a fortificaton, but afterwards sold 
to the Symmes' company; and one full township, to be lo- 
cated as near the center of the tract as possible, "for the 
purpose of establishing an academy and other public 
schools and seminaries of learning." The boundaries of the 
tract were substantially defined as the Great and Little Mi- 
ami rivers, the Ohio, and a parallel of latitude to be drawn 
between the two former rivers, so as to comprise three hun 
dred and eleven thousand six hundred and eighty-two 
acres. These enclosed, of course, all of Hamilton county 
between the rivers, and parts of the present counties of 
Butler and Warren to the northern boundary of the third 
range of townships, on an east and west line several 
miles north of the subsequent site of Lebanon. The 
tracts sold by Symmes north of this line were allowed by 
the Government to be regularly pre-empted and entered 
at Cincinnati by the purchasers, they taking the usual 

patents therefor at two dollars per acre. This re- 
sult was not reached without long delay and much dif- 
ficulty. Doubts of his right to sell lands so far to the 
northward had previously harassed purchasers, and they 
finally insisted that he should take steps for their security. 
They wanted to petition Congress, but he dissuaded 
them, went again to Philadelphia in the fall of 1796, 
and spent the following winter and spring in efforts to 
induce the Government to take his offered money and 
make him a further grant in the Purchase, which would 
cover his troublesome sales. The arrangement of 1792 
had apparently left open the contract of 1788, as to the 
remainder of the million acres bargained for; and, even 
so late as 1797, Symmes and his agents continued to 
offer lands in the fourth, fifth, sixth, and even the tenth 
range of townships "in the Miami Purchase." Congress 
finally decided, however, that the law of 1792 and the 
settlement and patent of 1794 constituted a fiill adjust- 
ment of his claims and a full performance by the Gov- 
ernment of its obligations toward the company, and that 
he had no further rights under the contract. The situa- 
tion of his grantees outside the Purchase was now despe- 
rate. Many had paid in full, all had in part, and most 
had spent much money and labor in improvements, 
which they were now liable to lose, together with their 
lands. Several towns had been laid out and settled upon 
this tract, mills built, orchards planted, and other im- 
portant beginnings made. Of all these there was danger 
the rightful proprietors would be dispossessed, without 
remuneration. Congress was memorialized, and was 
generous in its provisions for relief By an act passed in 
1799 all persons having made written land contracts with 
Symmes before Aiml ist of that year, outside his patent, 
were secured preference over all other purchasers from 
the Government. Two years thereafter the right of pre- 
emption was extended to all purchasers from Symmes 
prior to the first of January, 1800. The extension of 
credit by Congress was so liberal that many were enabled 
to complete their payments from the produce of the 
farms; and all, it is believed, by the indulgence of the 
Government from year to year, were at last made secure 
in their titles. 

The act of Congress March 3, 1801, provided in ef- 
fect that any person who had contracted in writing, be- 
fore the first of January, 1800, with Judge Symmes, or 
any of his associates, or had made payment to them 
for the purchase of any land between the Miami rivers, 
within the limits of the survey of the Purchase made by 
Ludlow, and not within the tract which Symmes had re- 
ceived, his patent should be entitled to preference in 
purchasing said land from the United States, at the then 
fixed price of public lands, two dollars per acre. Under 
another section of the act President Jefferson appointed 
Messrs. John Reily and William Goforth to act with 
General Findlay, receiver of public moneys at Cincin- 
nati, as commissioners to hear and determine the rights 
of claimants under the law. A year did not suffice for 
the settlement of all claims, and by another law of May 
I, 1802, the provisions of the former act were extended 
twelve months longer. Mr. Reily was re-appointed com- 



missioner; Dr. John Sellman was also appointed; and the 
two, with General Findlay, as commissioner ex officio, 
closed up the business within the year. 

The following copy of the letter of transmittal ac- 
companying the commission to Dr. Goforth, a well-known 
member of the board, will be read here with interest: 

Treasury Department, October 9, 1801. 

Sir: — The President of the United States having thought proper to 
appoint you a commissioner, tinder the fourtli section of an act of 
Congress, passed March 3. 1801, entitled "an act giving a riglit of 
pre-emption to certain persons who have contracted with John Cleves 
Symmes, or liis associates, for lands lying between the Miami rivers, 
in the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio," I en- 
close to you, herewith, a commission for that purpose. 

The duties to be performed, and the compensation to be allowed to 
you therefor, being fully detailed in the act above recited, I shall only 
remark that, as the commissioners will not arrive in time to admit of 
the three weeks' notice required by the law, all practicable means 
should be employed to apprise the parties concerned of the appoint- 
ment of the commissioners, as well through the medium of the news- 
paper published at Cincinnati, as by hand-bills posted up in the neigh- 
boring districts. As it will be proper, however, that the commissioners 
should act in concert in this, and all other matters confided to them, I 
. beg leave to recommend that a meeting be immediately held for that 
purpose. I am, very respectfully, sii, 

Your obedient servant, 

Albert Gallatin. 

William Goforth, esq., at Cincinnati. 

THE "college township" 

also gave Judge Symmes and others much embarrassment. 
He had sold all or most of the township proposed 
to be reserved for academic purposes, which, originally 
advertised in his "Tenns of Sale and Settlement," was 
one of the best tracts in the purchase. It is now Green 
township — the only regular thirty-six section township in 
the county. Strictly, the Purchase was not entitled by law 
to a college township, since the ordinance under which 
the early sales of public lands were made only allowed it 
when a purchase of two millions or more of acres was 
made. When Symmes' associates and agents reduced 
the Purchase to one million, he accordingly gave up 
the idea of a college township, erased the entry of it 
which had previously been marked out upon his map, 
and sold its lands with the rest. But when the bills for 
the change of boundaries and the grant of the patent 
were before Congress, Dayton had secured the insertion 
of a provision for such township, for "an academy, or 
other school of learning, to be located within five years 
in nearly the center of the patent as might be." There 
was now not an entire township left unsold in the Pur- 
chase. Symmes, in 1799,' offered the Government 
the second township of the second fractional range; 
but' that had also been sold in large part, and the 
offer was rejected successively by the Federal and 
Territorial Governments, the State legislature, and then 
Congress again, to whoin he in turn offered it, holding 
previous sales from it to be void. After the State gov- 
ernment was formed Congress granted the legislature an- 
other township, or thirty-six sections, from the public lands, 
in lieu of one in the Purchase, which was selected by a 
commission appointed in 1803, from unsold lands west 
of the Great Miami. These form the pecuniary foundation 
— such as it is, through mismanageinent and waste — of 
Miami University, established by the legislature in 1809, 

located at first by the commissioners at Lebanon, within 
the Purchase, but afterwards fixed by the legislature at 
the present village of Oxford, Butler county, where it 
has since remained.* 

The troubles of Judge Symmes concerning his Pur- 
chase were endless, and embittered much of his later life. 
In 1 811 his house at North Bend was burned, presum- 
ably by an enemy who was angered at him for having re- 
fused to vote for the incendiary for some local office. In 
the destruction of this house also perished the certificates 
of the original proprietors of Cincinnati, upon which the 
judge had made deeds to purchasers after he was enabled 
to do so by the obtainment of his patent. In some cases 
they had been irregularly and fraudulently secured; in 
others deeds had been made to assignees of certificates, 
upon assignments asserted by the original holders to be 
fraudulent. It was also important to learn whether all 
deeds for lots in the town had been authorized by the 
proprietors; but, whatever the facts were, the loss of 
certificates, which was irreparable, shut off investigation, 
and operated as a quietus for the claimants in possession. 
The agitations created by the disaster, however, increased 
seriously the burdens of the now aged pioneer. Four 
years thereafter the enterprising adventurer and hero of 
the Miami Purchase found rest in the grave, where, 

After life's fitfnl fever, he sleeps well. . 



' ' I beheld, too, in that vision 
All the secrets of the future, 
Of the distant days that shall be. 
I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown, crowded nations. 
All the land was full of people — 
Restless, struggling, toiling, striving. 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes, 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys, 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

— H. W. Longfellow, "Hiawatha." 


By the winter of 1788-9 there were white settlements 
on all sides of the Miami Purchase, though some of 
"them were distant. Pittsburgh was founded; the Ohio 
company's colony was set down at Marietta; Limestone 
Point, or Limestone, afterwards Maysville, was much 
nearer at the eastward, and Lexington and Louisville, in 
the same State, both founded already ten years or more, 
lay at other points of the compass; while Detroit at the 

* Almost the entire account of the contract of 1788, and the subse- 
quent transactions, has been derived from Judge Burnet's interesting 
and instructive Notes upon the settlement of the Northwestern Terri- 



northward, Vincennes to the west, and St. Louis yet be- 
yond, might be said to complete a cordon, though some- 
what far away, of civilized settlement. In Kentucky, 
particularly at Lexington, as we shall see more fully in 
opening the history of Cincinnati, a lively interest be- 
gan to be taken, in the summer and fall of 1788, in the 
colonization of the fertile tract between the Miamis. 
Attention was especially directed to the eligible site oppo- 
site the mouth of the Licking, which many of the men 
of Kentucky had seen, as they crossed the Ohio going 
upon or returning from their expeditions against the 
Indians. In this region the first steps were taken for the 
planting of Losantiville, which became Cincinnati, the 
"Queen City." So far had the project gone in early 
autumn that the fifteenth of September of that year was 
appointed "for a large company to meet in Lexington 
and make a road from there to the mouth of the Licking, 
provided Judge Symmes arrives, being daily expected." 

The first organized parties for the settlement of the 
Miami country, however, set out from the far east. A 
feeble scatter of emigrants had come to the Purchase and 
its vicinity on either side, from time to time, in the spring 
and summer of 1788; none of whom, however, dared at- 
tempt permanent settlement as yet, through fear of the 
savages and the total want of military protection. Some 
of them, on their return, remained at Limestone and 
joined the early expeditions back to the Miami country. 
Meanwhile the material of those expeditions was collect- 
ing, under the auspices of Symmes and Stites, away in 
the comparatively old districts of Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey. The latter started with his party, at just what 
date we know not, but probably in the early summer of 
1788, and waited at Limestone until and for some time 
after the arrival of Judge Symmes. The latter left New 
Jersey late in July of the same year, with an imposing 
train of fourteen four-horse wagons, and, with the wagons 
and on horseback, sixty persons, including his own family. 
He travelled leisurely across the then difficult country to 
Pittsburgh, and thence to Wheeling, sending his horses 
by land to the latter place from Devon's Ferry, on the Mo- 
nongahela, while he embarked his people and their effects 
on the river. He regretted afterwards that he had not 
purchased ox-teams instead of horses, declaring that he 
should have saved three hundred pounds by it. He 
recommended his eastern friends proposing to immigrate 
to come with oxen, "as they are cheaper by one half in 
the first purchase, not so much exposed to accidents — 
the Indians have never disturbed them in any instance 
(except in the attack on Colerain, when the enemy took 
all the cattle for the supply of their small army) — and 
after long service they are still of their original value." 
He was not troubled by Indians on the route, but was 
delayed somewhat by heavy rains and bad roads, which 
caused the breakage of several of his axles by the time 
Pittsburgh was reached. He remained in that city but 
two days, and pushed on to Wheeling, as before recited, 
from which the party floated briskly down, the Ohio being 
in flood at the time, to the infant colony at Marietta, and 
thence to Limestone, at which he arrived the latter part 
of September, two months from his departure from New 

Jersey. This place was to be his base of operations for 
some months. He paid an early visit of exploration to 
the Miami country, but was doomed to weeks of weary 
waiting, at first for a sufficient military escort to justify 
the completion of his journey and the execution of the 
Muskingum treaty pending with the Indians, which was 
delayed till almost midwinter; then for supplies. He 
complained bitterly of the delay of General Harmar in 
sending him troops from the fort at Marietta; and when, 
on the twelfth of December, Captain Kearsey reached 
Limestone with a force of forty-five men, the arrival was 
"much more detriment than use," as Symmes wrote, 
since he was not ready to start, St. Clair not yet having 
advised him of the conclusion of the treaty, and, the 
troops coming to him with very limited supplies and 
Harmar failing to send more, he had to feed them from 
his own stores. The purchases he was compelled to 
make from the surrounding country after a time were ef- 
fected with difficulty and at large cost, since the "amaz- 
ing emigration, " as he called it, into Kentucky had al- 
most exhausted the Limestone region and put every kind 
of provisions up to three times the price at Lexington. 


There had been a numerous gathering at Limestone, 
waiting to go on to the Miamis. Major Stites, however, 
got away the twenty-fifth of November with the surveyors 
dispatched by Symmes into the Purchase, determined to 
wait no longer for the beginning of his meditated settle- 
ment at or near the mouth of the Little Miami. The 
two or three block-houses (Fort Miami) erected by the 
party, with the adjoining cabins, formed the nucleus of 
Columbia, now the oldest part of Cincinnati and the old- 
est white settlement in Hamilton county or anywhere in 
the Purchase. A sergeant and eighteen men were pres- 
ently sent to Stites. A sergeant and twelve men were 
also started with a party of settlers coming down the 
river for the "Old Fort" at the mouth of the Great Mi- 
ami; but all these were turned back at Columbia by ice 
in the river gorging it and damaging their boats, and re- 
turned, discouraged but in safety, to Limestone. Just 
one month after the departure of Stites's company, on 
the twenty-fourth of December, the throng at Limestone 
was further relieved by the exodus of the party led by 
Colonel Patterson, of Lexington — which, however, was 
composed much more of eastern men than of Kentuck- 
ians. Their objective point was the coveted spot opposite 
the debouchure of the Licking into the Ohio, to which 
they moved accordingly, and successfully arrived, though 
with some trouble from floating ice — probably on the 
twentj'-eighth of December, 1788. The town they found- 
ed here took at first the name suggested by the pedantic 
Filson, who was one of the original projectors — "Losanti- 
ville," a name compounded of little words from several 
languages, and intended to signify "the village opposite 
the mouth of the Licking river." Thus was the second 
settlement in the Purchase made. The third was effect- 
ed by Judge Symmes himself and the party then over 
six months out from their New Jersey homes. He had 
taken a house for himself and family at Limestone, ex- 



pecting to be detained there until spring. He waited 
vainly and long, struggling with the difficulties of subsist- 
ing the troops and his following there, for a boat-load of 
flour which had been ordered from up the river, and 
which had been promised him by Christmas at furthest, 
or for Harmar to forward supplies. But the last of Jan- 
uary bringing an enormous freshet in the river, sweeping 
out the ice and furnishing a current favorable for rapid 
movement down the stream, he determined to tarry no 
longer. This determination was hastened also by mes- 
sengers from Stites, who came on foot through the wil- 
, derness along the river banks, to advise him of the ex- 
pressed friendship of the Indians and their eagerness to 
see him. A second message of this kind led him to fear 
that, if his journey were longer delayed, the savages 
would retire in disgust and anger; and he decided to 
leave. Collecting with much difficulty a small supply 
of flour and salt, he embarked his family and furniture, 
with Captain Kearsey and the residue of the force, and 
committed his fortunes to the swelling waters on the 
twenty-ninth day of January, 1789. Reaching Columbia, 
he found it flooded, with the soldiers driven to the gar- 
rets of the block-houses and finally to boats, and only 
one house, built on high ground, out of water. Passing 
on to Losantiville he found the people there entirely out 
of the floods; but, knowing from his previous observa- 
tions of the country at the mouths of the Miamis that 
the land about the "Old Fort" would be flooded, he 
abandoned his project of founding a city at the point 
between the Great Miami and the Ohio, and, at three 
o'clock in the afternoon, as he carefully notes, on the 
second of February, 1789, in an inclement season, his 
party stepped ashore at the site of North Bend. Im- 
provement here was speedily begun; and Howe, in his 
Historical Collections of Ohio, says that about the same 
time another beginning was made, three miles below this 
place and two from the Indiana line, on the tract which 
afterwards formed part of the farm of the younger Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison. This took the name of the 
"Sugar Camp Settlement," and at one time, says Howe, 
had as many as thirty houses. The block-house built 
here was still standing in 1847, though almost a ruin. 
Soon after the North Bend occupation, a site was select- 
ed by Judge Symmes for another town, which was des- 
tined to have a short career and a limited fame — South 
Bend, at the southernmost point of the Ohio in the pur- 
chase. North Bend, says Mr. Francis W. Miller, in 
Cincinnati's Beginnings, obtained its appellation from 
being farther to the north than any other northwardly 
extending deflection of the Ohio between the Muskingum 
and the Mississippi. Judge Symmes wrote in August, 
1 791, that "South Bend is pretty well established," and 
Mr. Miller says "the village which was started there 
soon showed such signs of progress as to be considered 
for a time a competitor in the race for supremacy." In 
September, 1791, it had eighteen or twenty families. 
The entire chain of settlements along the river, particu- 
larly Columbia, Losantiville, and North Bend, received 
rapid accessions of immigration. In the years 1789-90 
the first -named had the largest population of any of them. 

THE "stations." 

At all periods of its history, the vast majority of immi- 
grations to the Miami country has come in by way of the 
river Ohio. In the early day there was rarely an arrival 
by any other means of transportation, from the absence 
or paucity and poorness of roads in the interior. It was 
natural, therefore, that the settlements along the north 
bank of that river should be the first made in the Pur- 
chase. The policy of Judge Symmes, however, was to 
disperse settlers through the entire tract. In this he dif- 
fered from the Ohio company. He wrote to Dayton in 
May, 1789: 

At Marietta, the directors of tlie company settled tlie settlers as tliey 
pleased, on the New England plan of concentrating in towns and vil- 
lages, so as to gtiard against Indians. In "Miami" every purchaser 
chose his ground, and converted the same into a station, village, or 
town at pleasure, with nothing to anticipate but fear of the Indians. 
If ten or twelve men agree to form a station, it is certainly done. 
This desultory way of settling will soon carry many through the Pur- 
chase, if the savages do not frustrate them. Encouragements are 
given at every man's will to settlers, and they bid on each other, in or- 
der to make their post the more secure." 

In accordance with this wise policy, Symmes was soon 
able to announce (to Dayton, April 30, 1790): 

We here established three new stations some distance up in the coun- 
try. One is twelve miles up the Big Miami, the second is five miles up 
Mill creek, and the third is nine miles back in the country from Colum- 
bia. These all flourish well. 

The first of these small forts or stockades was named 
"Dunlap's station," at Colerain, seventeen miles north- 
west of Cincinnati, about which a good many settlers 
early concentrated; the second, although at first called 
by Symmes "Mill Creek station," is better known as Lud- 
low's, and was at Cumminsville, within the present limits 
of Cincinnati; and the third was probably " Covalt's sta- 
tion." A few months later, in November, after Harmar's 
defeat, Mr. Symmes writes: " But for the repulse of our 
army, I should have had several new stations advanced 
further into the Purchase by next spring; but I now shall 
be very happy if we are able to maintain the three ad- 
vanced stations." 


The next year, in September, General St. Clair, while 
marching to his defeat, established Fort Hamilton on 
the Great Miaini, in the Purchase, twenty-five miles from 
Cincinnati, which speedily became the nucleus of a 
thriving settlement, and finally gave way to the town 
(now city) of Hamilton, founded in 1794. Long before 
this, in June, 1789, when the Mad river region was pre- 
sumed to be included in the Purchase, Major Stites and 
other Columbians, arranging with Symmes for the pur- 
chase of the seventh entire range of townships, drew a 
superb plan for a town upon the subsequent site of Day- 
ton, for which they proposed the name "Venice." The 
project failed, from difficulties in obtaining title from 
Symmes, and very likely also from fear of the savages. 
As soon, however, as the Indian troubles were pacificated 
this very desirable site at the mouth of the Mad river 
was occupied by a company composed of Governor St. 
Clair, General Dayton, General Wilkinson, and Colonel 
Ludlow, who founded and secured a rapid early growth 
for their new town of "Dayton." They had negotiated 



for the land with Symmes, but were compelled, of course, 
eventually to purchase from the Government, as, by the 
Judge's patent of 1794, it lay far outside of his tract. 
At an early day, also, Lebanon and other towns and 
country settlements in the Miami country, in and out of 
the Purchase, made their hopeful beginnings. 


Thus rapidly, under the circumstances, was setting in 
the tide of Miami immigration. Some of those circum. 
stances were specially formidable to the rapid develop- 
ment of the country. Notwithstanding the peaceful 
auspices under which the first treaties and settlements 
had been made, and the comparative freedom from 
attack which the httle communities enjoyed for some 
time, the fear of savage inroads was ever present, and 
even afar off it deterred the intending immigrant from 
making his venture. The fear of Indian massacre, cap- 
tivity, and torture hung like a pall over the advance 
guard of civilization in the Miami wilderness. This was 
greatly increased by the disastrous defeats of Generals 
St. Clair and Harmar, and was not entirely removed 
until after the victory of Wayne at the battle of the 
Fallen Timbers, and the subsequent peace of Greenville. 
An era of security and peace then set in. The inhabi- 
tants could now leave their fortified stations and remove 
to tracts selected in the open country. Here they built 
their cabins anew, and began to subdue the forest and 
get in their first crops. Other immigrants rapidly arrived 
on the news of apparently permanent peace, to join 
them; and the wonderful growth of the region fairly 
began. . 

Another cause operated almost as powerfully, early in 
the immigration, to deter settlement. This was the hos- 
tility of the Kentucky people, who, from being warm 
friends of the Miami country, had become its bitter ene- 
mies, and lost no opportunity to decry it. They doubt- 
less suffered "the piques of disappointment," as Symmes 
put it, at seeing the rich prize of the Purchase carried off 
by eastern men, after they, the leading K=ntuckians, had 
fixed their longing eyes upon it. Nevertheless, many 
land-jobbers from that region had bargained with the 
judge for tracts of his land, and had been granted gen- 
erous terms — abundant time in which to pay the fees for 
surveying and registering required of land-buyers at that 
time, and to make their first payments. In most cases 
they utterly failed in these ; and after waiting a reason- 
able length of time, their negotiations or contracts were 
declared void by Mr. Symmes. They consequently took 
especial pains, particularly at Limestone, where all parties 
of immigrants going down the Ohio called, to discourage 
settlers from locating in the purchase. Symiiies writes 
to Dayton in May, 1789: 

At Limestone they assert with an air of assurance that the Miami 
country is depopulated, that many of the inhabitants are killed and 
the settlers all fled who have escaped the tomahawk, adjuring those 
bound to the falls of the Ohio not to call at the Miamis, for that they 
would certainly be destroyed by the Indians. With these falsehoods 
they have terrified about thirty families, which had come down the 
river with a design of settling at Miami, and prevailed with them to 
land at Limestone and go into Kentucky. Nevertheless, [added the 
stout-hearted pioneer] every week, almost every day, some people 

arrive at one or other of our towns, and become purchasers and set- 
tlers. . . Many persons who have been with us, made pur- 
chases, built houses, and are fully satisfied and much pleased with the 
country, go back and get their families. 

But later the feeling in Kentucky seems to have 
changed, or the disappointed and pestilent landsharks 
there had lost their influence; for a large immigration 
from that very region northward to the Miami valley was 
promised. Judge Symmes wrote November 4, 1790: 

Never had been finer prospects of speedy sales and settlement of 
lands in the Purchase, than were about the time the army marched to 
Harmar's defeat. Great numbers were arranging their business to 
emigrate from Kentucky and the Pittsburgh country: but the strokes 
our army has got seem to fall like a blight upon the prospect, and for 
the present seem to' appall every countenance. 

Still another source of discouragement was found in 
1 79 1, in the arbitrary conduct of Governor St. Clair to- 
wards Judge Symmes, and of the governor and the 
mihtary towards the citizens of Cincinnati and the pur- 
chasers of lands in the southeast corner and elsewhere 
in the Purchase. On the twelfth and fourteenth of July 
in that year St. Clair addressed somewhat dictatorial let- 
ters to the judge, on the subject of his continued sales 
of lands between the Little Miami and the new hne es- 
tablished by the Treasury board as the eastern boundary 
of the Purchase, and on the nineteenth issued the proc- 
lamation of warning and threat mentioned in our Chap- 
ter V. Mr. Symmes wrote : 

EN'ery person must admit that the Governor has treated me and the 
settlers in a most cruel manner. 

He also writes of the proclamation, which seems to 
have been preceded or followed by another placing Cin - 
cinnati, or some part of it outside of the fort, under 
martial law: 

The Governor's proclamations have convulsed these settlements be- 
yond your conception, sir, not only with regard to the limits of the 
Purchase, but also with respect to his putting part of the town of Cin- 
cinnati under military government. 

The governor had shortly before summarily arrested a 
respectable setrter from New England, named Knoles 
Shaw, although he lived beyond the limits of martial 
law, as prescribed by the proclamation, put him in irons, 
as the jadge was "credibly informed," and finally, with- 
out hearing before judge or jury, exiled him and his 
family from the territory, while his house had been burned 
by the troops, under St. Clair's orders. The charges 
against him related to the purchase of some articles of 
soldiers' uniform and the advising soldiers to desert ; but 
they rested solely upon the assertion of a soldier who 
deserted and was retaken, against whom Mr. Shaw 
stoutly asserted his innocence, and they wer,e not, even 
if fully substantiated, such as called for the severe penal- 
ties inflicted, had the governor legal power to inflict 
theni at discretion. Some of the military oflScers, par- 
taking of St. Clair's spirit, had been guilty of other high- 
handed and unwarranted acts. One Captain Armstrong, 
commanding at Fort Hamilton, for example, ordered out 
of the Purchase some of the settlers at Dunlap's station, 
and threatened to eject them vi et armis if they did not 
go. Previously, under Harmar's command at Fort 
Washington, the regular officers at the fort committed 
"many other acts of a despotic complexion," "beating 



and imprisoning citizens at tiieir pleasure," writes Symraes. 
When, late in the same year, the defeat of St. Clair by 
the Indians was added to the disastrous repulse of Har- 
mar, the combined discouragements certainly looked as 
if the Purchase would be ruined. Symmes wrote to 
Dayton : 

I expect, sir, that the late defeat will entirely discourage emigration 
to the Purchase from Jersey for a long time. Indeed, it seems that we 
are never to have matters right. What from the succeeding defeats of 
our army, and the Governor's arbitrary conduct towards the settlers^ 
still more discouraging at the time than even the defeats, many settlers 
became very indifferent in their attachment to the Purchase, and num- 
bers had left it on accoimt of the Governor's conduct before his unpar- 
alleled defeat. 

Yet the elasticity of the indomitable spirit of the 
pioneers and their leaders rebounded from all depres- 
sions, and the immigration, after a period of relapse, went 
bravely on. It is estimated that there were two thou- 
sand white persons already in the Miami country in 1790, 
and that ten years thereafter the number had jumped to 
fifteen thousand. In 1810 Hamilton county alone had 
fifteen thousand two hundred and four, and the entire 
Miaini country about seventy thousand, or one-seventh of 
the whole population then in the State. By August, 
1815, it was judged by Dr. Drake that one hundred thou- 
sand at least were in the same region, or twenty-five per 
square mile, scattered over about four thousand square 
miles. It was a remarkable growth for the first quarter 
of a century. 

The expectations entertained of the whole Ohio coun- 
try, long before it was permanently settled, are well shown 
by an official communication addressed in 1770 to the 
Earl of Hillsborough, then attached to the British govern- 
ment as Secretary of State for the North American De- 
partment, in which the following passage occurs: 

No part of North America will require less encouragement for the 
production of naval stores and raw materials for manufactories in 
Europe, and for supplying the West India islands with lumber, provi- 
sions, etc., than the country of the Ohio. 

The writer then gives six excellent reasons for the faith 
that is in him, with observations that involve many com- 
pliments to and a high appreciation, of the beautiful 
fertile land watered by the Ohio and its tributaries. 


It was a beautiful land to which the Miami immigra- 
tion was invited — 

A wilderness of sweets ; for Nature here 
Wantoned as in her prime, and played at will 
Her virgin fancies, pouring forth more sweet, 
Wild above rule or art ; the gentle gales. 
Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense 
Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole 
Those balmy spoils. 

Judge Symmes had called it, with tolerably clear pre- 
science, "a country that may one day prove the brightest 
jewel in the regalia of the nation." The forest was lux- 
uriant, and fertile in native fruit products. The fine bot- 
tom lands in the valleys had been cultivated by the sav- 
ages, and by the Mound Builders before them, for untold 
centuries, and were found by the early settlers as mellow 
as ash heaps, and with their fertility unimpaired by long 
culture, much less exhausted. Said Symmes to Dayton, 
in a letter from North Bend, May 27, 1789: "The coun- 

try is healthy, and looks like a mere meadow for many 
miles together in some places." The "Turkey Bottom," 
still so-called, a clearing of about six hundred and forty 
acres, or a "section," made ready to the hand of civiliza- 
tion, a mile and a half above the mouth of the Little 
Miami, on the east side of the Purchase, with the produce 
of soiTie smaller lots near Columbia, furnished the entire 
supply of corn for that hamlet and for Cincinnati during 
their first year. This tract, like many others in the val- 
leys, was extremely fertile. Benjamin Randolph, one of 
the occupants, planted a single acre of corn upon it, 
which he had no time to hoe, hastening back to New 
Jersey upon some errand of affection or business; and 
when he came back in the fall, he found that his neglect- 
ed acre had one hundred bushels of excellent maize ready 
for him to husk. From nine acres of this tract, the tra- 
dition goes, the enormous crop of nine hundred and 
sixty-three bushels was gathered the very first season. 

Oliver M. Spencer, one of the earliest residents at this 
corner of the Purchase, thus pleasantly records his im- 
pressions of the Miami country in the primitive time: 

The winter of 1791-92 was followed by an early and delightful 
spring ; indeed, I have often thought that our first Western winters 
were much milder, our springs earlier, and our autumns longer than 
they now are. On the last of February some of the trees were putting 
forth their foliage ; in iVIarch the redbud, the hawthorn, and the dog- 
wood, in full bloom, checkered the hills, displaying their beautiful col- 
ors of rose and lily ; and in April the ground was covered with May- 
apple, bloodroot, ginseng, violets, and a great variety of herbs and 
flowers. Flocks of paroquets were seen, decked in their rich plumage 
of green and gold. Birds of various species and every hue, were flit- 
ting from tree to tree, and the beautiful redbird and the untaught song- 
ster of the west made the woods vocal with their melody. Now might 
be heard the plaintive wail of the dove, and now the rumbling drum of 
the partridge or the loud gobble of the turkey. Here miglit be seen 
the clumsy bear, doggedly moving off; or, urged by pursuit into a la- 
boring gallop, retreating to his citadel in the top of some lofty tree ; or, 
approached suddenly, raising himself erect in the attitude of defence, 
facing his enemy and waiting his approach ; — there the timid deer, 
watchfully resting or cautiously feeding, or, aroused from his thicket, 
gracefully bounding off, then stopping, erecting his stately head for a 
moment, gazing around, or snuffing the air to ascertain his enemy, in- 
stantly springing off, clearing logs and bushes at a bound, and soon 
distancing his pursuers. It seemed an earthly paradise ; and, but for 
apprehension of the wily copperhead, which lay silently coiled among 
the leaves or beneath the plants, waiting to strike his victim ; the hor- 
rid rattlesnake, which, more chivalrous, however, with head erect 
amidst its ample folds, prepared to dart upon his foe, generously with 
the loud noise of his rattle apprised him of danger ; and the still more 
fearful and insidious savage, who, crawling upon the ground or noise- 
lessly approaching behind trees or thickets, sped the deadly shaft or 
fatal bullet, you might have fancied you were in the confines of Eden or 
the borders of Elysium. 

Many, notwithstanding these drawbacks, were the 
charms, attractions, and delights of the Miami country. 
The immigration thereto, as we shall now see, was every 
way worthy of it. 




I hear the tread of pioneers, 

Of nations yet to be ; 
The first low wash of waves, where soon 

Shall roll a human sea. 
The elements of empire here 

Are plastic yet and w.arm. 
And the chaos of a mighty world 

Is rounding into form. 

— J. G. Whittier. 

"The Miamese (so we call ourselves)," wrote Symmes 
to Dayton in 1789. They were the noble men and 
women of the earliest Miami immigration. Very fortun- 
ate was the Purchase, from the beginning, in the charac- 
ter of its settlers. The general expression of those who 
met them personally, or have known them as represented 
in their descendants, concurs with thetestimony of Mr. F. 
W. Miller, in his valuable work on Cincinnati's Beginnings : 

Whoever traces his lineage up to the early emigrants to the Miami 
Purchase comes of a stock which may be extolled on grounds that will 
bear scrutiny. Of course, those who were the first to seek homes in 
this section of the country, while yet in its primitive condition, were not 
so self-sacrificing as to suppose they were coming to a field which was 
likely to prove ungrateful to the laborer's toil. On the contrary, the 
idea was universally entertained that the field was one of great promise' 
Still, the promise was not of a nature to attract, to any considerable 
e.xtent, a kind of adventurers who abound in some of our new settle- 
ments nowadays — people who come merely with a view of making a 
sudden impact on some oleaginous deposit, and, in the pursuit of their 
object, are usually more or less affected with an apprehension of eon. 
tingencies which may render an expeditious change of their location 
desirable or necessary within a brief period, and such like carpet-bag- 
gers of the worst description. The early emigrant hither sought here a 
permanent abode, looking forward to a time when he might expect to 
repose in peace and plenty under his own vine and fig-tree, yet well 
aware that there was a great preliminary work to be performed — the 
work of reclaiming a wilderness , and naturally a goodly portion of the 
first-comer's were such as came with characters and capacities adapted 
to the task which they saw before them. Moreover, those who pro- 
jected and managed the commencement of the civilizing process in this 
quarter were persons who could have given, as well as any Sir 'Wise" 
acre, the answer to the question, "'What constitutes a State?" 

The late E. D. Mansfield, in his Life of his brother-in- 
law. Dr. Daniel Drake, published in 1855, gives yet more 
glowing and eloquent testimony to the valor and virtues 
of the Ohio pioneers: 

The settlement of the Ohio valley was attended by many circum- 
stances which gave it pecuhar interest. Its beginning was the first hui^ 
■ of the Revolution. Its growth has been more rapid than that of any 
modern colony. In a period of little more than half a century, its 
strength and magnitude exceed the limits of many distinguished nations 
Such results could not have been produced without efficient causes. It 
is not enough to account for them by referring to a mild climate, fer- 
tile soil, flowing rivers, or even good government. These are important. 
But a more direct one is found in the character and labors of its early 
citizens ; for in man, at least, consists the life and glory of every State. 

This is strikingly true of the States and institutions which have gone 
up on the banks of the Ohio. The first settlers had no such doubtful 
origin as the fabled Romulus, and imbibed no such savage spirit as he 
received from the sucklings of a wolf. They were civilized — derived 
from a race historically bold and energetic ; had naturally received an 
elementary, and in some instances a superior, education ; and were 
bred to free thought and brave actions in the great and memorable 
school of the American Revolution. If not actors, they were the chil- 
dren of those who were actors in its dangers and sufferings. These 
settlers came to a country magnificent in extent and opulent in all the 
wealth of nature. But it was nature in her ruggedness. All was wild 
and savage. The wilderness before them presented only a field of bat- 
tle or of labor. The Indian must be subdued, the mighty forest leveled, 
the soil in its wide extent upturned, and from every quarter of the globe 

must be transplanted the seeds, the plants, and all the contrivances o 
life which, in other lands, had required ages to obtain. In the midst of 
these physical necessities and of that progress which consists in con- 
quest and culture, there were other and higher works to be performed. 
Social institutions must be founded, laws must be adapted to the 
new society, schools established, churches built up, science culti- 
vated, and, as the structure of the State arose upon these solid columns, 
it must receive the finish of the fine arts and the polish of letters. 
The largest part of this mighty fabric was the work of the first settlers 
on the Ohio — a work accomplished within the period of time allotted 
by Providence to the life of man. If, in after ages, history shall seek 
a suitable acknowledgment of their merits, it will be found in the sim- 
ple record that their characters and labors were equal to the task they 
had to perform. Theirs was a noble work, nobly done. 

It is true that the lives of these men were attended by all the common 
motives and common passions of human nature ; but these motives and 
passions were humbled by the greatness of the result, and even co.m- 
mon pursuits rendered interesting by the air of wildness and adventure 
which is found in all the paths of the pioneer. There were among 
them, too, men of great strength and intellect, of acute powers, and of 
a freshness and originality of genius which we seek in vain among the 
members of conventional society. 

These men were as varied in their characters and pursuits as the parts 
they had to perform in the great action before them. Some were sol- 
diers in the long battle against the Indians ; some were huntsmen, like 
- Boone and Kenton, thirsting for fresh adventures ; some were plain 
farmers, who came with wives and children, sharing fully in their toils 
and dangers; some lawyers and jurists, who early participated in coun- 
cil and legislation ; and with them all, the doctor, the clergyman, and 
even the schoolmaster, was found in the earliest settlements. In a few 
years others came, whose names will long be remembered in any true 
account (if any such shall ever be written) of the science and literature 
of America. They gave to the strong but rude body of society here its 
earliest culture, in a higher knowledge and purer spirit. 


It was a hopeful mixture of elements and stocks in 
this part of the valley of the Ohio. Various States and 
nationalities had their representatives here, and some of 
the "crosses" of blood were fortunate for the history of 
their succeeding generations. New Jersey, at first and 
later, contributed such representative men as Judges 
Symmes and Burnet; New England appeared by her dis- 
tinguished son, Jared Mansfield, and by others before 
and after him; Pennsylvania sent citizens of the mental 
and moral stature of Jeremiah Morrow, Judge Dunlavy, 
and Major Stites; the Old Dominion had worthy sons 
among the pioneers in the persons of William H. Harri- 
son, William McMillan, and others; while Kentucky 
spared to the rising young empire beyond its borders a 
few noted and useful citizens like Colonel Robert Patter- 
son, one of the original proprietors of Cincinnati for a 
time, and later and more permanently, the Rev. James 
Kemper, one of the founders of Lane seminary. In the 
one settlement of Columbia, among its founders or very 
early settlers were not only Stites and Dunlavy, but the 
Rev. John Smith, afterwards United States Senator, Col- 
onels Spencer and Brown, Judges Goforth and Foster, 
Majors Kibby and Gam, Captain Flinn, Messrs. Jacob 
White and John Reiley, and others equally worthy of 
mention — all of them men of energy and enterprise, and 
most of whom were then or subsequently distinguished. 
The letters interchanged by Symnies and his associates 
of the East Jersey Company show that many people of 
the best class, as Senator Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, 
the Rev. Dr. David Jones, of Pennsylvania, and others, 
were inquiring with a view to purchase or settlement in 
the new country. Those who actually did so, as the 



event has proved, were the very sort of persons, in the 
words of Judge Symmes himself, already quoted, "to re- 
claim from savage men and beasts a country that may one 
day prove the brightest jewel in the regalia of the nation." 
In much of the material of the succeeding immigration 
the purchase was equally fortunate. Dr. Drake, a care- 
ful and conscientious writer, was able to say in 1815: 
"The people of the Miami country may in particular be 
characterized as industrious, frugal, temperate, patriotic, 
and religious; with as much intelligence as, and more 
enterprise than, the families from which they were de- 

Such were the "Miamese," the pioneers of one of the 
grandest armies the earth ever knew, an army whose hosts 
are still sweeping irresistibly on, and which now, after 
more than ninety years, has hardly yet fully occupied the 
country it has won. It was the army of peace and civiliza- 
tion, that came, not to conquer an enemy with blood and 
carnage and ruin, but to subdue a wilderness by patient 
toil, to make the wild valleys and hills to blossom as the 
rose, to sweep away the forest, till the prairie's pregnant 
soil, make fertile fields, and hew out homes, which were 
to become the abodes of happiness and plenty. The 
pioneers were the valiant vanguard of such an army as 
this. They came not, as has already been suggested, to 
enjoy a life of lotus-eating and ease. They could admire 
the pristine beauty of the scenes that unveiled before 
them; they could enjoy the vernal green of the great forest 
and the loveliness of all the works of nature spread so lav- 
ishly and beautifully about them; they could look forward 
with happy anticipation to the life they were to lead in 
hte midst of all this beauty, and to the rich reward that 
would be theirs from the cultivation of the mellow, fer- 
tile soil — but they had, first of all things, to work. The 
seed-time comes before the harvest, in other fields than 
that of agriculture. 


to which these pioneers were exposed were serious. The 
Indians, notwithstanding their peaceful attitude at first, 
could not be trusted, and, as will be detailed in the next 
chapter, often visited the early settlements with devasta- 
tion and slaughter. The larger wild beasts were often a 
cause of dread, and the smaller were a source of constant 
and great annoyance. Added to these was the liability, 
always great in a new country, to sickness. In the midst 
of all the loveliness of the surroundings, there was a 
sense of lonehness that could not be dispelled; and this 
was a far greater trial to the men and women who first 
dwelt in the western country than is generally imagined. 
The deep-seated, constantly recurring feehng of isolation 
made many stout hearts turn back to the older settle- 
ments and to the abodes of comfort, the companionship 
and sociability they had left in the Atlantic States or in 
the Old World. 


Many of the Miamese arrived at their new homes with 
but little with which to begin the battle of life. They 
had brave hearts and strong arms, however; and they 
were possessed of invincible determination. Frequently 

they came on alone, to make a beginning; and, this hav- 
ing been accompHshed, would return to their old homes 
for their wives and children. It was hard work, too, get- 
ting into the country. On this side of Redstone and 
Wheeling there were for a long time no roads westward, 
and the flat- or keel-boats used in floating down the Ohio 
were so crowded with wagons, horses, cows, pigs, and 
other live stock, with provisions, and with the emigrant's 
"plunder," that there was scarcely room for a human 
being to sit, stand, or sleep. There was much inevitable 
exposure to the weather and many dangers from ice, 
snags, and other perils of the stream. 


The first thing to be done, after a temporary shelter 
from the rain or snow had been provided, was to prepare a 
little spot of ground for some crop, usually corn. This was 
done by girdling the trees, clearing away the underbrush, 
if there chanced to be any, and sweeping the surface 
with fire. Ten, fifteen, twenty, or even thirty acres of 
land, by a vigorous arm, might thus be prepared and 
planted the first season. In autumn the crop would be 
gathered carefully and garnered with the least possible 
waste, for it was the food supply of the pioneer and his 
family, and life itself depended, in part, upon its preserva- 
tion. • Their table was still largely furnished, however, 
from the products of the chase, and supplies of the 
minor articles of food, of salt, etc., were often only to be 
obtained at a distance. In this respect the settlers in the 
southern part of the Purchase were more favored than 
those in the interior, since merchants were in all their 
towns almost from the beginnmg, and with stocks pretty 
weH supplied. By January, 1796, Judge Symmes wrote, 
"we have twenty or more merchants in Cincinnati." At 
first there was much difficulty in getting grain ground, as it 
had to be done often at a great distance, and in a clumsy 
and rude way by floating mills, whose wheels were turned 
by the current of a stream or by horse-power. Some had • 
hominy hand-mills at home, or grated the grain or 
pounded it into the semblance of meal or flour with an 
extemporized pestle. In default of cultivated breadstuff's, 
as sometimes happened, certain roots of wild grasses and 
plants served for food. This was particularly true of the 
beargrass, which grew abundantly on the Turkey bottom 
and elsewhere in similar places. Its bulbous roots were 
gathered by the women, washed, dried on smooth boards, 
and pounded into a kind of flour, from which bread and 
other preparations were made. Many families at Colum- 
bia, at one time of scarcity, lived on this food. Some- 
times even this was wanting. One person, who was a 
boy in the first days of Columbia, long afterward averred 
that he had subsisted for three days together upon noth- 
ing more than a pint of parched corn. Crops were liable 
to be damaged or destroyed, if near a stream, by its over- 
flow; and sometimes serious inconvenience to the settler 
and his family resulted. It was hard to keep one's 
horses, and most other portable property, from being 
stolen by the Indians; and from this fact, as late as 1792, 
according to a note in one of Judge Symmes' letters, 
"more than half the inhabitants were obliged to raise 



their corn by the hoe, without the aid of ploughs." The 
redskins commonly refused, however, to meddle with the 
slow ox. 

While the first crop was growing, the settler busied 
himself with the building of his cabin, which must serve 
as shelter from the coming storms of winter and from 
the ravages of wild animals, and, possibly, as a place of 
refuge from the savage. If he was completely isolated 
from his fellows, his lot in this was apt to be hard, for 
without assistance he could construct only a poor sort of 
habitation. In such cases the cabin was generally made 
of light logs or poles, and was laid up roughly, only to 
answer the temporary purpose of shelter, until others had 
come into the neighborhood, by whose help a more solid 
structure could be built. In the Miami country, how- 
ever, as has been observed, the plan at first was to gather 
in small clusters of population at fortified stations, where 
sufficient help \yas always available. Assistance was 
readily gi-'en one pioneer by others, whether near or far 
removed, within a radius of many miles. The usual plan 
of erecting a log cabin was through such union of labor. 
The site of a cabin, home was generally selected with 
reference to a good water supply, often by a stream or 
never-failing spring, or, if such could not be found, it was 
not uncommon first to dig a well. When the cabin was 
to be built, the few neighbors gathered at the site, and 
first cut down, within as close proximity as possible, a 
number of trees as nearly of the same size as could be 
found, but ranging from a foot to twenty inches in diame- 
ter. Logs were chopped from these, and rolled to a 
common centre. This work, and that of preparing the 
foundation, would consume the greater, part of the day 
in most cases, and the entire labor would very likely oc- 
cupy two or three days, and sometimes four. The logs 
were raised to their places with handspikes and skid-poles, 
and men standing at the corners notched them with axes 
as fast as they were laid in position. Soon the cabin 
• would be built several logs high, and the w-ork would be- 
come more difficult. The gables were formed by bevel- 
ing the logs, and making them shorter and shorter as 
each additional one was laid in place. These logs in the 
gables were held in position by poles, which extended 
across the cabin from end to end, and served also as 
rafters, upon which to lay the rived clapboard or "shake" 
roof The so-called "shakes" were three to six feet in 
length, split from oak or ash logs, and made as smooth 
and flat as possible. They were laid side by side, and 
other pieces of split stuff laid over the cracks so as to 
keep out the rain effectually. Upon these logs were laid 
to hold them in place, and these in turn were held by 
blocks of wood placed between them. The chimney 
was an important part of the building, and sometimes 
more difficult to construct, from the absence of suitable 
tools and material. In the river valleys, and wherever 
loose stone was accessible, neat stone chimneys were fre- 
quently built. Quite commonly the chimney was made 
of sticks, and laid up in a manner very similar to the 
walls of the cabin. It was, in nearly all cases, built out- 
side of the cabin, and at its base a huge opening was cut 
through the wall to answer as a fireplace. The stakes in 

the chimney were held in place, and protected from fire 
by mortar, formed by kneading and working clay and 
straw. Flat stones were procured for back and jambs of 
the fireplace, and an opening was sawed or chopped m the 
logs on one side the cabin for a doorway. Pieces of 
hewed timber, three or four inches thick, were fastened 
on each side by wooden pins to the ends of the logs, and 
the door, if there were any, was fastened to one of these 
by wooden hinges. The door itself was apt to be a rude 
piece of woodwork. It was made of boards, rived from 
an oak log, and held together by heavy cross-pieces. 
There was a wooden latch upon the inside, raised by a 
string which passed through a gimlet-hole, and hung 
upon the outside. From this mode of construction arose 
the old and familiar hospitable saying, "You will find 
the latch-string always out." It was pulled in only at 
night, and the door was thus easily and simply fastened. 
Many of the pioneer cabins had no doors of this kind, 
and no protection for the entrance except such as a 
blanket or skin of some wild beast afforded. The begin- 
ners on the banks of the Ohio frequently enjoyed the 
luxury of heavy boat-planks and other sawed material 
obtained from the breaking up of the boats in which they 
came (a quite customary procedure), from which floors, 
doors, or roofs, and perhaps other parts of the cabin, 
were constructed. The window was a small opening, 
often devoid of anything resembling a sash, and seldom 
glazed. Greased paper was not infrequently, used in lieu 
of the latter, but more usually some old garment consti- 
tuted a curtain, which was the only protection at the 
window from sun, rain, or snow. The floor of the cabin 
was made of "puncheons" — pieces of timber split from 
trees about eighteen inches in diameter, and hewed toler- 
ably smooth on the upper surface with a broadaxe. They 
were made half the length of the floor. Some of the 
cabins first erected in this part of the country had nothing 
but the earthen floor which Nature provided. At times 
they had cellars, which were simply small excavations for 
the storage of a few articles of food or, it may be, of 
cooking utensils. Access to the cellar was readily gained 
by lifting a loose puncheon. There was generally a small 
loft, used for various purposes, among others as the 
guest-chamber of the house. This was reached by a 
ladder, the sides of which were split pieces of sapling, 
put together, like everything else in the house, without 
nails. It is worthy of note that Judge Symmes, writing 
from North Bend New Year's day, 1790, some descrip- 
tion of his new houses at that place, took pains to 
mention those that were "well-shingled with nails," and 
the "good stone chimney" and "sash-windows of glass" 
that several of them had. 


of the pioneer cabin was in many cases as simple and 
primitive as the cabin itself A forked stick, set in the , 
floor and supporting the poles, the other ends of which 
rested upon the logs at the end and side of the cabin, 
formed a bedstead. A common form of table was a 
split slab, supported by four rude legs, set in auger-holes. 
Three-legged stools were made in a similar simple man- 



ner. Pegs, driven in auger-holes in the logs of the wall, 
supported shelves, and others displayed the limited ward- 
robe of the family not in use. A few other pegs, or per- 
haps a pair of deer's antlers, formed a rack where hung 
rifle and powder-horn, which no cabin was without. The 
cradle for the pioneer babe was more likely than not to 
• be a bee-gum or a sugar-trough. Some who became 
prominent citizens of Cincinnati and other parts of the 
Purchase were rocked in sugar-troughs. These, and 
perhaps a few other simple articles brought from the old 
home, formed the furniture and equipment of many a 
pioneer cabin. The utensils for cooking and the dishes 
for table use were few. The best were of pewter, which 
the careful housewife of the olden time kept shining as 
brightly as the more pretentious plate of our latter-day 
fine houses. It was by no means uncommon that wooden 
vessels, either coppered or tinned, were used upon the 
table. Knives and forks were few, crockery scarce, and 
tinware by no means abundant. Food was simply 
cooked and served, but it was, in general, very excellent 
of its kind and wholesome in quality. The hunter kept 
the larder supplied with venison, bear meat, squirrels, 
wild turkeys, and many varieties of smaller game. Plain 
corn-bread, baked in a kettle, in the ashes, or upon a 
board in front of the great open fireplace, answered the 
purpose of all kinds of pastry. The wild fruits in their 
season were made use of, and afforded a pleasant variety. 
Sometimes a special effort was made to prepare a deli- 
cacy, as, for instance, when a woman experimented in 
mince-pies, by pounding wheat to make the flour fo rthe 
crust and using crab-apples for fruit. In the cabin-lofts 
was usually to be found a miscellaneous collection that 
made up the pioneer's materia medica, the herb medicines 
and spices, catnip, sage, tansy, fennel, boneset, penny- 
royal, and wormwood, each gathered in its season; and 
there was also store of nuts and strings of dried pump- 
kin, with bags of berries and fruit. 


of the Miamese were of a simplicity and purity in 
conformity with their surroundings and belongings. 
The men were engaged in the herculean labor, day 
after day, of enlarging the little patch of sunshine 
about their homes, cutting away the forest, burning off 
brush and debris, preparing the soil, planting, tending, 
harvesting, caring for the few animals which they brought 
with them or soon procured, and in hunting. 


While the men were engaged in the heavy labor of the 
field and forest or in following the deer or other game, 
their helpmates were busied with their household duties, 
providing for the day and for the winter coming on, 
cooking, making clothes, spinning, and weaving. They 
were commonly well fitted, by nature and experience, to 
be consorts of the brave men who first came into the 
western wilderness. They were heroic in their endurance 
of hardship, privation, and loneliness. Their industry 
was well directed and unceasing. Woman's work, then, 
like man's, was performed under disadvantages since re- 
moved. She had not only the common household duties 

to perform, but many now committed to other hands. 
She not only made the clothing of the family, but also 
the fabric for it. The famous old occupation of spin- 
ning and weaving, with which woman's name has been 
associated throughout all history, and which the modern 
world knows little, except through the stories of the grand- 
mother, which seems surrounded with a halo of romance 
as we look back to it through tradition and poetry, and 
which alwyas conjures up visions of the graces and virtues 
of a generation gone — that was the chief industry of the 
pioneer women. Every cabin resounded with the softly 
whirring wheel, and many forest homes with the rhyth- 
mic thud of the loom. The pioneer woman, truly, an- 
swered the ancient description of King Lemuel in the 
Proverbs: ''She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh 
willingly with her hands : she layeth her hands to the 
spindle, and her hands hold the distaff." Almost every 
article of clothing not made of deerskin, as many a hunt- 
ing shirt and pair of leggins was, and, indeed^-about all 
the cloth to be found in some of the old cabins, was the 
product of her toil. She spun flax and wove linen and 
woolen for shirts and pantaloons, frocks, sheets and 
blankets. Linen and wool, the "linsey-woolsey" of the 
primitive day, furnished most of the material for 


of the men and women, though some was obtained from 
the skins of wild beasts. Men commonly wore the hunt- 
ing shirt, a kind of loose frock reaching half-way down 
the thighs, open before, and so wide as to lap over a foot 
or more upon the chest. This generally had a cape, 
which was often fringed with a ravelled piece of cloth of a 
different color from that which composed the garment. 
The capacious bosom of the shirt often served as a pouch, 
in which could be carried the smaller articles that a hunter 
or woodsman needs. It was always worn belted, and 
was made of coarse linen, linsey, or buckskin, according 
to the taste or fancy of the weaver. In the belt was worn 
a hunting or "scalping" knife," unhappily too ready at 
hand, as was sometimes proved at the cost of a human 
life, upon occasions of deadly quarrel. Breeches were 
made of heavier cloth or dressed deer-skin, and were 
often worn with leggings of the same material or some 
kind of leather, while the feet were frequently encased in 
moccasins after the Indian fashion, which were quickly 
and easily made, though they often needed mending. 
The buckskin breeches or leggings were very comfortable 
when dry, but seemed cold when wet, and were almost 
as stiff as wooden garments would be when next put on. 
Hats or caps were generally made of coonskin, wildcat, 
or other native fur. The women, when they could not 
procure "store duds," dressed in linsey petticoats, coarse 
shoes and stockings, and wore buckskin mittens or gloves, 
not for style, but when any protection was required for 
the hands. All of her wearing apparel, like that of the 
men, was made with a view to service and comfort, and 
was quite commonly of home manufacture throughout. 
Other and finer articles were worn sometimes, but they 
were brought from former homes or bought at the stores 
in the settlements along the river, in the former case being 



often the relics handed down from parents to children. 
Jewelry was not common; but occasionally some orna- 
ment was displayed. 


In the cabins of the more cultivated pioneers were 
usually a few books — the Bible and a hymn-book, the 
Pilgrim's Progress, Baxter's Saint's Rest, Hervey's Medi- 
tations, Esop's Fables, Gulliver's Travels, Robinson 
Crusoe, and the like. The long winter evenings were 
spent pardy in poring over a few well-thumbed volumes 
by the light of the great log fire, and partly in curing and 
dressing skins, knitting, mending, and other employ- 
ments. Hospitality was simple, unaffected, hearty, and 
unbounded. The latch-string was "always out" at nearly 
every cabin. 


was in common use, and was furnished on all occasions 
of sociability. It was brought in from Kentucky and the 
Monongahela country, and down the Ohio and Licking 
rivers. A few years later many of the settlers put up 
small stills, and made an article of corn whiskey that 
was not held in so high esteem, though used for ordinary 
drinking in large quantities. Nearly every settler had 
his barrel of it stored away. It was quite the universal 
drink at merry-makings, bees, house-warmings, and wed- 
dings, and was always set before the traveller who chanced 
to spend the night or take a meal at a pioneer cabin. In 
this the settler but followed the custom of other pioneer 


As settlements increased, the sense of loneliness and 
isolation was dispelled, the asperities of life were soft- 
ened, its amenities multiplied, social gatherings became 
more numerous and enjoyable, the log-roUing, harvesting, 
and husking bees for the men, and the apple-butter 
making and quilting parties for the women, furnished 
frequent occasions for social intercourse. The early set- 
tlers took much pride and pleasure in rifle-shooting, and, 
as they were accustomed to the use of the gun in the 
chase and relied upon it as a weapon of defence, they 
exhibited considerable skill. A wedding was the local 
event of chief importance in the sparsely setded new 
country. The young people had every inducement to 
marry, and generally did marry as soon as able to pro- 
vide for themselves. When a marriage was to be cele- 
brated, all the neighborhood turned out. It was custom- 
ary to have the ceremony performed before dinner, and, 
in order to be on time, the groom and his attendants 
usually started from his father's house in the morning for 
that of the bride. All went on horseback, riding in 
single file along the narrow trails. Arriving at the cabin 
of the bride's parents, the ceremony would be performed, 
and after that dinner was served. This was a substantial 
backwoods feast of beef, pork, fowls, and deer or bear 
meat, with such vegetables as could be procured. The 
greatest hilarity prevailed during the meal. After it was 
over, dancing began, and was usually kept up till the 
next morning, though the newly made husband and wife 
were, as a general thing, put to bed by the company in 
the most approved old fashion and with considerable 

formality, in the midst of the evening's rout. The tall 
young men, when they went on the floor to dance, had 
to take their places with care between the logs that sup- 
ported the loft floor, or they were in danger of bumping 
their heads. The figures of the dances were three and 
four-handed reels, or square sets and jigs. The com- 
mencement was always a square four, which was followed 
by "jigging it off." The settlement of a young couple 
was thought to be thoroughly and generously made when 
the neighbors assembled and raised a cabin for them. 


During all the early years of the settlements, varied 
with occasional pleasures and excitements, the great work 
of increasing the tillable ground went slowly on. The 
implements and tools were few, compared with what the 
farmer may command nowadays, and of a primitive kind; 
but the soil, that had long held in reserve the accumu- 
lated richness of centuries, produced splendid harvests, 
and the husbandman was well rewarded for his labor. 
The soil was warmer then than now, and the seasons ear- 
lier. The bottom lands, if not flooded by the freshets, 
were often as green by the first of March as fields of 
grain now are a month later. The wheat was pastured 
in the spring, to keep it from growing up so early and 
fast as to become lodged. The harvest came early, and 
the yield was often from thirty-five to forty or more bush- 
els per acre. 


The first circulating medium in the new country was 
composed mainly of raccoon and other skins from the 
forest. Mr. John G. Olden says, in his entertaining His- 
torical Sketches and Early Reminiscences: "A deer-skin 
was worth and represented a dollar; a fox-skin, one-third 
of a dollar; a coon-skin, one-fourth of a dollar; — and 
these passed almost as readily as the silver coin. The 
buffalo and bear-skins had a more uncertain value, and 
were less used as a medium of trade." Spanish dollars, 
very likely cut into quarters and eighth pieces, sometimes 
appeared, and in time constituted, with the smaller pieces 
of Mexican coinage, the greater part of the currency 
afloat. Smaller sums than twelve and a half cents were 
often paid or given in change in pins, needles, writing- 
paper, and other articles of little value. A Cincinnati 
merchant named Bartle brought in a barrel of copper 
coins to "inflate the currency" in 1794, but his fellow- 
merchants were so exasperated at his action that they al- 
most mobbed him. These troops at Fort Washington were 
paid in Federal money, commonly bills of the old Bank 
of the United States, of which a three-dollar note was 
then the monthly pay of a private. The bills were usu- 
ally called "oblongs," especially at the gaming tables, 
which many of the officers and soldiers frequented. The 
funds disbursed at Fort Washington made valuable addi- 
tions to the currency of the lower Miami country, and 
greatly facifitated its commercial and mercantile growth 
and business operations there. 


From some parts of the Purchase long journeys had 
to be made upon occasion, and very likely on foot, when 



medicines or delicacies were required for the sick, or 
some indispensable article for the household or farm was 
to be procured. The commonest goods at first com- 
manded large prices, from the distance of the wholesale 
houses in the Eastern cities where they were purchased, 
and the cost of transportation. In parts of Ohio, if not 
in the Miami Purchase, in the early days coffee brought 
seventy-five cents to a dollar; salt five or six dollars a 
bushel of fifty pounds; and the plainest calico one dollar 
a yard. What was raised in the country, however, was 
cheap enough. Judge Syrames notes in August, 1791, 
that "provisions are extremely plenty; corn may be had 
at Columbia for two shillings cash per bushel; wild meat 
is still had with little difficulty; and hogs are increasing 
in number at a great rate, so that I expect any quantity 
of pork may be had next killing time at twenty-five shil- 
lings per hundred." 


During the War of 181 2 many of the pioneer husbands 
and fathers volunteered in the service of the United 
States, and others were drafted. Women and children 
were left alone in many an isolated log-cabin all through 
Ohio, and there was a long reign of unrest, anxiety, and 
terror. It was feared by all that the Indians might take 
advantage of the desertion of these homes by their nat- 
ural defenders, and pillage and destroy them. The dread 
of robbery and murder filled many a mother's heart; but 
happily the worst fears of this kind proved to be ground- 
less, and this part of the country was spared any scenes 
of actual Indian violence during the war. After it end- 
ed, a greater feehng of security prevailed than ever before. 
A new motive was given to immigration, and the country 
more rapidly filled up. An 


was fairly begun. Progress of the best kind was slowly, 
surely made. The log houses became more numerous 
in the clearings; the forest shrank away before the wood- 
man's axe ; frame houses began to appear in many local- 
ities where they were before unknown; the pioneers, as- 
sured of safety, laid better plans for the future, resorted 
to new industries, enlarged their possessions, and im- 
proved the means of cultivation. Stock was brought in 
greater numbers from Kentucky and the east. Every 
settler now had his horses, oxen, cattle, sheep, and hogs. 
More commodious structures about the farm took the 
place of the old ones. The double log cabin, of hewed 
logs, or a frame dwelling, took the place of the smaller 
one; log and frame barns were built for the protection of 
stock and the housing of the crops. Then society began 
more thoroughly to organize itself; the school-house and 
the church appeared in all the rural coinmunities ; and 
the advancement was noticeable in a score of other ways. 
The work of the Miamese pioneers was mainly done. 
Their hardships and privations, so patiently and even 
cheerfully borne in the time of them, were now pleasantly 
remembered. The best had been njade of what they 
had, and they had toiled with stout hearts to lay the 
foundations of the civilization that began to bloom about 
them. Industrious and frugal, simple in their tastes and 

pleasures, happy in an independence, however hardly 
gained, and looking forward hopefully to an old age of 
plenty and peace which should reward them for the toils 
of their earliest years, and a final rest from the struggle 
of many toilsome seasons, they were ready to join in the 
song which was pleasantly sung for them long after by 
the Buckeye poet, William D. Gallagher, dedicated to the 
descendants of Colonel Israel Ludlow, and entitled ' 

A song of the early times out west and our green old forest home, 
Whose pleasant memories freshly yet across the bosom come! 
A song for the free and gladsome life in those early days we led, 
With a teeming soil beneath our feet and a smiling heaven o'erhead ! 
O, the waves of life danced merrily and had a joyous flow, 
In the days when we were pioneers, sixty years ago! 

The hunt, the shot, the glorious chase, the captured elk or deer! 
The camp, the big, bright fire, and then the rich and wholesome cheer; 
The sweet, sound sleep at dead of night by our camp-fire blazing high, 
Unbroken by the wolfs long howl and the panther spnnging by, 
O, merrily passed the time, in spite our wily Indian foe. 
In the days when we were pioneers, sixty years ago! 

We shunn'd not labor; when 'twas due, we wrought with right good-will; 

And for the homes we won for them, our children bless us still. 

We lived not hermit lives, but oft in social converse met; 

And fires of love were kindled then that burn on warmly yet. 

O, pleasantly the stream of life pursued its constant flow. 

In the days when we were pioneers, sixty years ago! 

'We felt that we were fellow-men, we felt we were a band 
Sustain'd here in the wilderness by Heaven's upholding hand ; 
And when the solemn Sabbath came we gather'd in the wood. 
And lifted up our hearts in prayer to God, the only good. 
Our temples then were earth and sky; none others did we know 
In the days when we were pioneers, sixty years ago! 

Our forest life was rough and rude, and dangers closed us round ; 
But here, amid the green old trees, we freedom sought and found. 
Oft through our dwellings wintry blasts would rush with shriek and moan : 
We cared not, though they were but frail ; we felt they were our own. 
O, free and manly lives we led, 'mid verdure or 'mid snow. 
In the days when we were pioneers, sixty years ago! 

But now our course of life is short; and as, from day to day. 
We're walking on with halting step and fainting by the way. 
Another land, more bright than this, to our dim sight appears, 
And on our way to it we'll soon again be pioneers; 
Yet, while we linger, we may all a backward glance still throw 
To the days when we were pioneers, sixty years ago! 

Without an iron will and an indomitable resolution, 
they could never have accomplished what they did. Their 
heroism deserves the highest tribute of praise and admi- 
ration that can be awarded, and their brave and toil- 
some deeds should have permanent record in the pages 
of history. 




Let us welcome, then, the strangers. 
Hail them as our friends and brothers. 
And the heart's right hand of friendship 
Give them when they come to see us, 
Gitche Manito, the Mighty, 
Said this to me in my vision. 

H. W. Longfellow, "Hiawatha." 

Friendship was in tlieir loolcs, but in their hearts there was hatred. 

Straight there arose from tlie forest the awful sound of the war-whoop. 

And, lilce a flurry of snow in the whistling wind of December, 

Swift and sudden and keen came a flight of feathery arrows ; 

Then came a cloud of smoke, and out of the cloud came the lightning, 

Out of the lightning thunder, and death unseen ran before it. 

Longfellow, "Courtship of Miles Standish." 


It was remarked in the last chapter that, while Tyflge 
Symmes was detained with his party at Limestone, he 
had repeated information from Major Stites, then just 
getting settled in his block-houses and cabins at Colum- 
bia, that Indians had coine in to see him (Stites) and 
share his hospitality, and that they had expressed a strong 
desire to see the great man of the Miami Purchase and 
make a peace compact with their new white brethren. 
This information was evu^ntly considered important by 
the pioneer Columbian, since he dispatched two mes- 
sengers on foot, in the inclement days of early December, 
to make their way for sixty miles along the banks of the 
Ohio, to convey his tidings to the leader still tarrying at 
Limestone. Symmes not appearing, and the Indians con- 
tinuing their visits and beginning to express some impa- 
tience at his delay, another message was sent to him, 
which, as we have seen, had the effect of hastening his 
departure with the colony for the settlement contem- 
plated near the mouth of the Great Miami. Before his 
expedition set out, however, he, remembering, perhaps, 
the great example of Penn in his dealings with the In- 
dians, prepared and dispatched the following unique 
proclamation or letter to the red men of the Miamis: 

Brothers of the JVyandots and Shawancei : Hearken to your brother, 
who is commg to live at the Great Miami. He was on the Great Mi- 
ami last summer, while the deer was yet red, and met with one of your 
camps ; he did no harm to anything which you had in your camp ; he 
held back two young men from hurting you or your horses, and would 
not let them take your skins or meat, though your brothers were very 
hungry. All this he did because he was your brother, and would live 
in peace with the red people. If the red people will live in friendship 
with him and his young men, who came from the great salt ocean, to 
plant corn and build cabins on the land between the Great and Little 
Miami, then the white and red people shall all be brothers and live to- 
gether, and we will buy your furs and skins, and sell you blankets and 
rifles, and powder and lead and rum, and everything that our red 
brothers may want in hunting and in their towns. 

Brothers ! a treaty is holding at Muskingum. Great men from the 
thirteen fires are there, to meet the chiefs and head men of all the na- 
tions of the red people. May the Great Spirit direct all their councils 
for peace. But the great men and the wise men of the red and white 
people cannot keep peace and friendship long, unless we, who are their 
sons and warriors, will also bury the hatchet and live in peace. 

Brothers ! I send you a string of beads, and write to you with my 
own hand, that you may believe what I say. I am your brother, and 
will be kind to you while you remain in peace. Farewell ! 

JNO. C. Symmes. 

Jan. the 3d, 1789. 

What was the immediate effect of this epistle upon the 
aboriginal mind has not been recorded; but a few months 

afterwards a white man, Mr. Isaac Freeman, going in from 
the Maumee towns, with several captives released by the 
Indians, was charged in reply with the delivery of the 
following address to Judge Symmes : 

Mawme, July 7, 1789. 

Brothers ! Americans ! of the Miami Warriors ! Listen to us war- 
riors what we have to say. 

Now, Americans ! Brothers ! we have heard from you, and are glad 
to hear the good speech you sent us. You have got our flesh and blood 
among you, and we have got yours among us, and we are glad to hear 
that you wish to exchange. We really think you want to exchange, and 
that is the reason we listen to you. 

As the Great Spirit has put your flesh and blood into our hands, we 
now deliver them up. 

We warriors, if we can, wish to make peace, and our chiefs and 
yours will then listen to one another. As we warriors speak from our 
hearts, we hope you do so too, and wish you may be of one mind, as 
we are. 

Brothers, Warriors — when we heard from you that you wished to 
exchange prisoners, we listened attentively, andnowwe send some, as all 
are not here nor can be procured at present, and therefore we hope you 
will send all ours home; and when we see them, it will make us strong 
to send all yours, which cannot now all be got together. 

Brothers, Warriors — when we say this, it is from our hearts, and we 
hope you do the same; but if our young men should do anything wrong 
before we all meet together, we beg you to overlook it. This is the mind 
of us warriors, and our chiefs are glad there is hope of peace. We 
hope, therefore, that you are of the same mind. 

Brothers, Warriors — it is the warriors who have shut the path which 
vour chiefs and ours formerly laid open; but there is hope that the 
path will soon be cleared, that our women and children may go where 
they wish in peace, and that yours may do the same. 

Now, Brothers, Warriors — you have heard from us; we hope you will 
be strong like us, and we hope there will be nothing but peace and 
friendship between you and us. 

In explanation of a part of this missive it should be 
said that Symmes held at North Bend ten Indian 
women and children, who had been ■ left with him by 
Colonel Robert Patterson, as captives taken in a raid 
from Kentucky to the Indian towns, to be exchanged for 
whites when the opportunity should offer. Freeman had 
been sent by Symmes to the Maumee, with a young In- 
dian for interpreter, to arrange such exchanges. Subse- 
quently, while under a flag of truce approaching the In- 
dians on a friendly mission, Freeinan was fired upon and 


The reference of Judge Symmes' letter to his visit to 
the Great Miami the preceding "summer" seems rather 
to refer to his tour of exploration in that valley in the 
early fall, thus mentioned in a letter of his dated Octo- 
ber, 1788: "On the twenty-second ultimo I landed at 
Miami, and explored the country as high as the upper 
side of the fifth range of townships. " About forty miles 
inland, at some point on the Great Miami, his party came 
upon a small camp of the savages, so small that they 
could easily have destroyed it and its inhabitants. In 
his company were a number of Kentuckians, who had 
accompanied Colonel Patterson and the surveyor Filson, 
two of the projectors of Losantiville, in the "blazing" of 
a road, through the forest from Lexington to the mouth 
of the Licking, as one of the preliminary steps to the 
proposed settlement opposite that point, and had incited 
him to make the exploration by promising him their es- 
cort until it was finished. These men, sharing the in- 
veterate hostility of their people to the red man, desired 



to make away with this little band of wandering savages 
and their humble property at once. Symmes prevented 
them, however, and would not allow the Indians to be 
harmed or their stuff to be taken. About half the Ken- 
tuckians, therefore, after giving him all the trouble they 
dared by their disorderly conduct, deserted his party and 
started for^horae, leaving him almost defenceless in the 
perilous wilderness. The rest of the men of Kentucky 
soon also showing an intention to desert, he was obliged 
to leave his exploration but partially accomplished, and 
make his way as rapidly as possible back to the Ohio, up 
which he pushed again to his headquarters at Limestone. 
Filson, who, together with Patterson, had accompanied 
the expedition, also deserted it about the time the first 
Kentuckians went, through fear of remaining longer with 
either detachment of the party; but, strange to say, in 
his eagerness to make greater haste out of the wilderness, 
he decided to confront its dangers solitary and alone, and 
so swung away from even the feeble protection which he 
had with Symmes and the remainder of the escort. He 
was never seen or directly heard from again. Within 
three hours from the time of his abandonment of the 
party, it is supposed he had fallen a victim to the ferocity 
of the Indians. The locahty of the occurrence, thinks 
Mr. Miller, author of Cincinnati's beginnings, was "prob- 
ably not far from the northern boundary line of Hamilton 
county, and the northeast corner of Colerain township. " 
With Filson also perished his plan of Losantiville, which 
had been carefully prepared at Lexington, and is believed 
to have been on his person at the time. 


Notwithstanding subsequent hostilities between the 
Indians and the whites of the Purchase, the feeling of 
the sons of the forest toward Judge Symmes personally 
appears to have been kind and friendly — perhaps in mem- 
ory, if not of his proclamation or letter, yet of his re- 
straint of the Kentuckians when some of their people 
were threatened with pillage and murder, and of his sub-' 
sequent kindness to them. He does not appear ever to 
have, been attacked or otherwise molested by them in his 
own person or property; and nearly seven years after- 
wards, at the negotiation of the treaty of Greenville, 
some of the Indians assembled there told him that they 
had often been on the point of shooting him, but had 
recognized him in time to save his life. Nevertheless the 
kind-hearted and hospitable judge was sorely tried and 
troubled by their hostility to his settlers on the Purchase 
— a feeling which early developed in cruel and bloody 
deeds. The traditions of the region were those of in- 
veterate warfare and hatred between the races. Only ten 
years before Symmes' settlement at North Bend, Colo- 
nels Bowman and Logan had led a hundred and si.xty 
Kentuckians up between the rivers against the Shawnee 
towns on the Little Miami, within the present limits of 
Greene county, in retaliation for atrocities committed by 
the Indians in Kentucky shortly before, and had experi- 
enced some sharp fighting. The Indians pursued them 
to the mouth of the Little Miami, where they recrossed 
the Ohio on their homeward march. The next year 

after this e.xpedition the redoubtable George Rogers 
Clark headed a troop of a thousand Kentuckians against 
the Little Miami and Mad river towns, and destroyed the 
Indian village at Piqua and much corn of the growing 
crops of the Indians. It is said that after crossing 
the Ohio at the mouth of the Licking, on their north- 
ward march, they built two block-houses on the present 
site of Cincinnati, and that the force was disbanded there 
on their return, homeward bound. 


were destined to play an active part in die Indian and 
pioneer affairs of the Symmes Purchase. They were 
erected by associations of colonists for mutual safety, 
upon a plan of settlement proposed by Judge Symmes as 
best for the development of the country. A strong log 
block-house being put up, it was surrounded by the cabins 
of the settlers, rather closely crowded together, and the 
whole was then encircled by a stout stockade or picket, 
made of tree trunks or logs set pretty deep in the ground, 
and making, in some cases, a really formidable work of 
defence. Not until this was completed did the settlers 
venture to begin clearing land and planting crops. Even 
then they were- obliged to work with their rifles near and 
sentinels constantly on the alert. At sunset all returned 
to the - stockade, taking everything portable and of value 
with them. These stations were made as numerous as 
the number of settlers, and more particularly the number 
of troops that could be obtained for each from the mili- 
tary commander in this region, would warrant. It might 
be presumed that, in the exposed state of the country, 
nothing would have been easier than to get or retain sol- 
diers for the protection of the settlers, since that was pre- 
cisely for what the forces of the United States were sent 
to the valley of the Ohio. But it was not always so. We 
have recorded the difficulties and detentions which beset 
Judge Symmes at Limestone, while endeavoring to get 
his colony to its destination, through the failure of Gen- 
eral Harraar to send him an escort promptly. After he 
had secured the protection of Captain Kearsey and the 
small remnant of his troop, and had made his settlement 
at North Bend, he was very soon unceremoniously de- 
serted by Kearsey and all but five of his command, the 
rest putting off down the river to Louisville, without even 
building him a stockade or block-house. It was then 
nearly a month before the earnest persuasions of Symmes 
prevailed with Major Wyllys, the commandant at that 
place, to secure him a garrison, consisting of an ensign 
and eighteen men, which speedily, by desertion and In- 
dian attack, was reduced to twelve, and Luce, after build- 
ing a tolerable block-house and remaining four months, 
transferred his little force to Losantiville, again leaving 
Symmes' hamlets nearly or quite unprotected. The 
country had no adequate protection, indeed, until the 
early part of the following summer, when Major Doughty 
arrived from Fort Harmar with two companies of sol- 
diers and began the erection of Fort Washington. Even 
then, and for some time after, troops were arbitrarily sent 
to or withdrawn from the stations. 

In a letter from North Bend, January 17, 1792, Symmes 



relates how "General St. Clair, by much importunity, gave 
Mr. Dunlap a guard of six soldiers. With these the set- 
tlers returned to Colerain [Dunlap's station]. In a very 
few days after the station was re-settled, the Governor 
ordered the six soldiers back again to Fort Washington. 
But the next day General St. Clair set out for Philadel- 
phia, and Major Zeigler came to the command. His 
good sense and humanity induced him to send the six 
men back again in one hour's time, as I am told, after 
General St. Clair left Fort Washington, and he assured 
Mr. Dunlap that he should have more soldiers than si.\, 
rather than the station should break. Majors sometimes 
do more good," he naively adds, "than generals." 

Dr. Goforth, then of Columbia, wrote September 3, 

The number of militia at these stations, from the best accounts I 
have received, are at Columbia, 200; Cincinnati, 150; South Bend, 20; 
City of Miami, 80 ; Dunlap's, 15 ; and Covalt's, 20. 

A considerable number of these stations, more or less 
strongly fortified, are known to have existed within the 
present limits of the county during the period of Indian 
warfare ; and it is quite possible that the memory of others 
has disappeared. So far as known, they were as follows: 

1. Covalt's Station, at Round Bottom, twelve miles 
up the Little Miami, below the present site of Milford. 
This was erected in 1789, and Mr. John G. Olden, author 
of Historical Sketches and Early Reminiscences of Lock- 
land and Reading, is disposed to place it first in chrono- 
logical order, although similar claims have been made for 
Clemens', Gerard's, Dunlap's, and Ludlow's stations. 

2. Clemens' station, also on the Round Bottom, about 
, half a mile below Covalt's. 

3. Gerard and Martin's station, on the west side of 
the Little Miami, and about two miles from its mouth, 
near the present Union bridge. 

4. Dunlap's station, established in the early spring of 
1790, in Colerain township, on the east side of the Great 
Miami and in the remarkable bend of that stream which 
begins about half a mile south of the county line. 

5. Campbell's station, also on the east bank of the 
Great Miami and in Colerain township, opposite the 
present site of Miainitown. 

6. Ludlow's station, whose site is now embraced 
within the limits of Cincinnati, about five miles from 
Fountain square, in the north part of Cumminsville. It 
was also established in the spring of 1790. This was the 
most famous of all the stations. 

7. White's station, probably established in 1792, on 
the bank of Mill creek, northeast of the present site of 
Carthage, near the aqueduct, and about where the ice- 
pond now is. 

8. Tucker's station, on section four, Springfield town- 
ship, east of the old Hamilton road and about a mile and 
a half northwest of Lockland. 

9. Runyan's station, also of 1792, on section nine- 
teen, Sycamore township, about a mile and a half north 
of Sharonville, and near the present county line. This 
was the outpost in that direction. 

10. Griffin's station, established, probably, in the fall of 
1793, about half a mile west of White's station, where the 

Carthage and Springfield turnpike now crosses Mill creek. 

11. Voorhees' station, in the south part of section 
thirty-three, Sycamore township, on the west bank of 
Mill creek, built early in 1794. 

12. Pleasant Valley station, on the line between sec- 
tions four and ten, Springfield township, near the "Sta- 
tion Spring." Also built in the spring of 1794, by the 
builders of Tucker's station, to protect them and another 
party which had moved in to the westward. 

13. McFarland's station, in Columbia township, near 
the site of Pleasant Ridge, established in the spring of 
1795, and believed to be the last founded of the pioneer 
stations in this county. 

Some of these stations were the scene of fierce Indian 
attacks, and others of cowardly murders by the savages. 
Their story will be more particularly related in the histo- 
ries of the townships. 

In 1794-5 Mr. Benjamin Van Cleve, then of Cincin- 
nati, but soon afterwards of Dayton, made many interest- 
ing memoranda of affairs in the Miami country, among 
which we find the following, made in the latter year: 

On the twentieth [ot August], seventeen days after the treaty [of 
Greenville], Governor St. Clair, General Wilkinson, Jonathan Dayton, 
and Israel Ludlow contracted with John Cleves Symmes for the pur- 
chase and settlement of the seventh and eighth ranges, between Mad 
River and Little Miami. One settlement was to be at the mouth of Mad 
River, one on the Little Miami in the seventh range, and one on Mad 
River above the mouth. 

Two parties of surveyors set off [from Cincinnati] on the twenty- 
first of September — Mr. Daniel C. Cooper, to survey and mark a road 
and cut out some of the brush, and Captain John Dunlap to run the 
boundaries of the Purchase. I went with Dunlap. There were at this 
time several stations on Mill Creek : Ludlow's, White's, Tucker's, 
Voorhees's, and Cunningham's,* The last was eleven miles from Cin- 
cinnati. We came to Voorhees's and encamped. 

A limited number of regulars was stationed at several 
of these by General Harmar or his subordinate officers. 
All together they afforded protection and food to a large 
number of pioneer families, who must otherwise have 
been driven out of the country. They were of use else- 
where among the early settlements, as well as for local 
defence, and the pioneers in other parts of southern 
Ohio were less annoyed after their establishment, because 
the Indians had to spend a part of their time in watch- 
ing the stations, instead of taking the war-path against 
the scattered and isolated settlers. They regarded these 
defences, indeed, with peculiar disfavor. Judge Burnet 
accompanies an interesting paragraph upon the stations, 
in his Notes, with these remarks: 

The Indians viewed these stations with great jealousy, as they had 
the appearance of permanent military establishments, intended to re- 
tain possession of their country. In that view they were correct ; and 
it was fortunate for the settlers that they wanted either the skill or the 
means of demolishing them. The truth is, they had no idea of the 
flood of emigration which was setting towards tlieir borders, and did 
not feel the necessity of submitting to the loss to which immediate 
action would subject them. . . Their great error consisted in 
permitting those works to be constructed at all. They might ha\'e pre- 
\ented it with great ease, but theyappeared not to be aware of the serious 
consequences which were to result, until it was too late to act with ef- 
fect. Several attacks were, howe\'er, made at different times, with an 
apparent determination to destroy them ; but they failed in every in_ 

* Cunningham's settlement, according to Mr. Olden, "was not a regular sta- 
tion in the proper sense of that term. No block-house or other defensive work 
were erected, and there was no organized community. 



"captain blackbeard. " 
Shortly after the permanent location of Judge Symmes 
upon the Purchase, he had the honor to entertain, in his 
rude shelter at North Bend, a Shawnee chief bearing the 
English piratical name of "Captain Blackbeard," who 
lived some scores of miles to the northward, near Roche 
de Boeuf, on the Maumee river. The Judge has left the 
following entertaining account of the interview: 

The chief (tlie others sitting around him) wished to be informed how 
far I was supported by the United States, and whether the thirteen 
fires (States) had sent me hitlier. I answered in the affirmative, and 
sf)read before them the thirteen stripes which I had in a flag then in 
my camp. I pointed to the troops in their uniform, then on parade, 
and informed the chief that those were the warriors which the thirteen 
fires kept in constant pay to avenge their quarrels, and that, though 
the United States were desirous of peace, yet they were able to chas- 
tise any aggressor who should dare offend them, and to demonstrate 
this I showed them the seal of my commission, on which the American 
arms are impressed, observing that while the eagle had a branch of a 
tree as an emblem of peace in one claw, she had strong and sharp 
arrows in the other, which denoted her power to punish her enemies. 
The chief, who observed the device on the seal with great attention, 
replied to the interpreter that he could not perceive any intimation of 
peace from the attitude the eagle was in, having her wings spread as in 
fiight, when folding of the wings denoted rest and peace; that he could 
not understand how the branch of a tree could be considered a pacific 
emblem, for rods designed for correction were always taken from 
the boughs of trees; that to him the eagle appeared, from her bearing 
a large whip in one hand and such a number of arrows in the other, 
and in full career of flight, to be wholly bent on war and mischief. I 
need not repeat here my arguments to convince him of his mistake, 
but I at length succeeded, and he appeared entirely satisfied of the 
friendship of Congdis (for so they pronounce Congress) to» the red 

Captain Blackbeard staid a month or so in the neigh- 
borhood of Judge Symmes, with whom he had frequent 
friendly conferences, and whose hospitality he accepted, 
especially when it took the form of whiskey, without 
reservation or stint. Notwithstanding subsequent martial 
events, some of which must have come very near to his 
lodge on the Maumee, Blackbeard seems to have re- 
mained friendly to the whites, and long afterward he 
repaid with interest the kindness and hospitality he had 
received from Symmes by requitals to Judge Burnet 
and other lawyers and federal officials on their way 
through the wilderness from Cincinnati, to attend the 
courts in Detroit. 

treachery and murder. 

Much of the promise of the Indians to thetri, however, 
was to be broken to the hope. Their expressed friend- 
liness was undoubtedly, in some cases, used to mask 
treachery. Scarcely more than two months after the de- 
parture of Blackbeard, namely, on the ninth day of April, 
1789, one of Symmes' exploring parties was fired upon 
by the savages while leaving its camp, and two of its 
number — a man named Holman, from Kentucky, and 
Mr. Wells, from Delaware — were instantly killed. John 
Mills and three others, staying not to fight the foe and 
standing not upon the order of their going, escaped to 
the settlements.* A straggler into the forest from the 

* The year before Symmes came with his colony, about the twentieth 
of May, a large party of whites, descending the river in three boats 
was attacked by the Indians a little below the mouth of the Great 
Miami, and cut off or captured to a man. Samuel Purviance, a prom- 
inent citizen of Baltimore, was one of the company, and was never 
afterwards heard of, though General Harmar caused a long and careful 

villages had now and then also been picked off, and on 
the twenty-first of May an attack was made in some force 
from the Ohio shore upon a boat-load of settlers whom 
Ensign Luce, the officer then stationed at North Bend, 
was escorting with a detachment of his men from that 
place up the river to South Bend. The boat was not 
captured with its precious freight ; but by the fire one of 
the soldiers — Runyan, a New Jersey recruit — was killed, 
and four others of the troops were wounded. Mills, also 
a Jerseyman, who had escaped the previous disaster, was 
now among the wounded, being shot through the lungs; 
but was taken in hand by friendly squaws and cured with- 
out much difficulty. One of the settlers — William Mont- 
gomery, of Kentucky — was also hurt, and so badly as to 
be sent to Louisville for treatment. The affair created 
intense excitement and fear at- North Bend, where the 
garrison was now felt to be utterly inadequate; and 
Symmes, in an indignant letter to Dayton, bitterly re- 
news his complaints of the neglect of the commanders 
to send him troops enough for protection. He says: "We 
are in three defenceless villages along the banks of the 
Ohio, and since the misfortune of yesterday many citi- 
zens have embarked and gone to Louisville; and others 
are preparing to follow them soon; so that I fear I shall 
be nearly stripped of settlers and left with one dozen 
soldiers only. Kearsey's leaving the Purchase in the man- 
ner he did, ruined me for several weeks." Five days later 
he writes : " I believe that fifty persons of all ages have 
left this place since the disaster of the twenty-first. The 
settlers consider themselves as neglected by the Govern- 
ment. . . We are really distressed here for the 
want of troops." About this time the jealous and angry 
Kentuckians, before mentioned, began to designate the 
Purchase as "a slaughter-house," from the danger of mas- 
sacre they really had some reason for representing as ex- 
isting there. 


At this time the settlers at Losantiville and Columbia 
were tilling their in. lots, as well as out-lots, with firearms 
at their elbows and sentinels carefully posted. Weeks 
before the pacificatory letter of the Indians at "Mawme" 
to Symmes, it became evident that, as soon as they could 
prepare for serious inroads, the tribes would show their 
thorough-going antagonism to the new settlements being 
planted upon the Ohio, whatever their verbal or written 
words might be. The most alarming reports were brought 
in by Mr. Isaac Freeman, who had penetrated the Indian 
country on an errand from Symmes, and had returned in 
safety and with several released captives, and also the ■ 
olive-branch missive from "Mawme," but, writes the 
judge, he "brings such terrifying accounts of the warlike 
preparations making at the Indian towns, that it has raised 
fresh commotions in this village, and many families are 
preparing to go down to the Falls" [Louisville]. British 
influence was busy in stirring up the Indians to acts of 
hostility. In the same letter Symmes writes : 

While Mr. Freeman was at the Indian towns he was lodged at the 

search to be made for him. It was one of the most terrible and sweep- 
ing disasters from Indian attack that ever occurred in the valley of the 



house of a chief called Blue Jacket, and while there he saw the pack- 
horses come to Blue Jacket's house loaded with five hundred weight of 
powder and lead equivalent, with one hundred muskets; this share he 
saw deposited at the house of Blue Jacket. He says the like quantity 
was sent them from Detroit, to every chief through all their towns. 
Freeman saw the same dividend deposited at a second chief's house in 
the same town with Blue Jacket. On the arrival of the stores from De- 
troit, British colors were displayed on the housetop of every chief, and 
a prisoner among the Indians who had the address to gain full credit 
with them and attended at their council-house every day, found means 
to' procure by artifice an opportunity of conversing with Freeman. He 
assured Freeman that the Indians were fully determined to rout these 
settlements altogether; that they would have attempted it before this 
time, but had no military stores; but these being then arrived, it would 
not be long before they would march. 

Confirmation of these reports was received about the 
same time from two widely separated points at the east 
and west, from Vincennes and from Pittsburgh. 


We can find in Mr. Freeman's account one reason at 
least why the infant settlements along the Ohio were for 
so many months spared from Indian outrage, conflagra- 
tion, and general massacre. Individual cases of capture, 
maiming, or murder were not wanting, however. Judge 
Symmes writes, January i, 1790: "We have already had 
a man murdered by the Indians within the squares of 
the city." This may refer to the case of a young son of 
John Hilliers, a settler at the Bend, who had gone out on 
the morning of the twelfth of December next previous, 
to drive home the cows, and, when scarcely half a mile 
from the block-house, was tomahawked and scalped, and 
his gun and hat were carried off. On the seventeenth of 
the same month two young men from the settlement, 
James Lafferty and Andrew Vaneman, hunting along the 
river, were surprised by Indians while sitting at night by 
their camp-fire, and were both killed at the first shot. 
Their bodies were then stripped of clothes, and toma- 
hawked and scalped in the most barbarous manner. A 
letter from Judge Symmes, written in May following, re- 
ferring to matters at North Bend, says: "Things were 
prosperous, considering the mischief done there this 
spring by the Indians. They plant considerable corn, 
though much more would have been planted if no mis- 
chief had been done. Many fled on those occasions — 
two men have been killed. The Indians are universally 
hostile, and the contrary opinion is ill-founded." 

On the other side of the Purchase, the settlers at Co- 
lumbia were greatly troubled after the depredations and 
attacks once began, which was not until nearly a year 
after the founding of the colony. In time too soon, how- 
ever, the dreaded blows fell. Among the cultivators of 
the soil to whom Major Stites had leased the rich clear- 
ing known as Turkey Bottom was one James Seward, 
who occupied a lot upon it for his daily labor, but had 
his residence on the hillside near the village. Two sons 
of his, Obadiah and John, aged respectively twenty-one 
and fifteen years, were at work in this field one afternoon, 
September 20, 1789, when they were surprised by a small 
party of Indians, at a hickory tree which had been felled 
for nuts, whose bushy top gave the savages an excellent 
opportunity for concealment and stealthy approach. 
Obadiah gave himself up at once, and was securely bound 
by withes or twigs; but the other ran for his life, in a cir- 

cuitous course towards home. The Indians easily gained 
upon him, however, and one of them hurled his toma- 
hawk at the boy with such force as to cleave his skull 
immediately behind the right ear. He dropped in his 
tracks, and, when overtaken an instant later, was again 
tomahawked and was then scalped. His mangled form 
was not found until the next morning, when John Claw- 
son, one of the pitying neighbors who gathered around, 
carried it on his back to the bereaved home. Strange to 
say, young Seward was not yet dead, though unconscious, 
and in his delirium, as his clothing and the surroundings 
showed, he had dragged himself round and round upon 
his knees. He actually survived the terrible injury for 
thirty-nine days, his senses returning to him, and even 
cheerfulness and good spirits, so that he was able to give 
a correct and detailed account of the affair. Obadiah 
was for some time unheard from; but a captive returning 
at length from the Indian country brought word that he 
had been killed by a bloodthirsty and drunken Indian, 
simply for taking the wrong fork of a trail. The young 
man, it is said, had long cherished a presentiment that 
he should perish at the hands of the savages. The 
doubly bereaved father afterwards removed to Springdale, 
where he suffered the loss of another son by the fall of a 

The captive just mentioned was Ned Larkin, an em- 
ploye of Mr. John Phillips who was seized and taken by 
the Indians the same day the young Sewards were at- 
tacked. He was alone in the field at the time, cutting 
and binding cornstalks for fodder, and was bound and 
marched through the wilderness to Detroit, where his cap- 
tors sold him to a French trader. By this man, who 
seems to have had a heart in his bosom, Larkin was lib- 
erated not long after, and with other released captives 
made his way to Pittsburgh, whence he found conveyance 
down the river to Columbia. 

In 1790 there were further outrages by the Indians at 
this place. At one time the families, of whom there 
were several, located on that part of the face of the hill 
afterwards called Morristown, lost all their clothes hung 
out to dry. A party of the thieving redskins being sus- 
pected, was pursued, the property found in their posses- 
sion and partially recovered; but they had already de- 
stroyed the coverlets to make belts. James Newell, one 
of the most valued of the early settlers of Columbia, also 
lost his life by the red hand of Indian murder — at just 
what date we have not ascertained. 

One of the most interesting incidents of the Indian 
period in Hamilton county occurred July 7, 1792, on the 
river between Cincinnati and Columbia, and about four 
miles from the present Broadway, then Eastern Row. 
It was the custom of boats on the river, both large and 
small, to hug pretty closely the Kentucky side, as being 
the safer from Indian attack; but a canoe which left Cin- 
cinnati for Columbia on the afternoon of the day named, 
had neglected this precaution, and was proceeding up 
what was designated, from its perils, as the "Indian 
shore." It contained one lady, Mrs. Coleman, wife of a 
settler at Columbia, two men named Clayton and Light, 
and another whose name has not been preserved, and a 



young lad, Oliver M., the only son of Colonel Spencer, 
a prominent pioneer then residing at Columbia, and who 
had served gallantly in the war of the Revolution. The 
boy had been to Cincinnati to spend the Fourth of July, 
and had remained for two or three days after. The 
stranger, a drunken soldier from the fort, presently lurched 
overboard, nearly upsetting the canoe; but managed to 
get ashore, and was soon left behind, thus escaping mas- 
sacre, although his late companions, looking back at him, 
remarked that he "would be good food for Indians." 
The boy also took to the water-side path, and walked 
along near the party remaining in the canoe. A pair of 
Indians had concealed themselves near the path which 
connected the two villages, and as the boat approached 
fired a volley upon its occupants. Clayton was wounded 
at the first fire, fell overboard, was at once dragged 
ashore by the Indians, killed and scalped. Light was also 
wounded in the arm, but not severely, and throwing him- 
self into the stream, swam off with one arm through the 
fire of the Indians and escaped. Mrs. Coleman like- 
wise flung herself into the water, and the Indians, saying, 
"squaw must drown," left her to her fate. She was 
buoyed up by her clothing, however, and floated down 
a mile, to a point where she could get ashore, then took 
the path for Cincinnati, crossing Deer creek at its mouth, 
went to the house of Captain Thorp, at the artificer's yard 
near Fort Washington, where she obtained dry clothing, 
and remained until recovered from her fright and fatigue. 
The Indians had seized young Spencer, wdthout doing 
him injury, and hastily departed with him, carrying him 
into captivity. He was taken to their towns on the head- 
waters of the Great Miami, where he was adopted into 
an Indian family, and lived with them several months, 
when he was ransomed for one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars through the intervention, it is said, of President 
Washington, who had a very high regard for his father, 
Colonel Spencer, and secured the ransom of the son 
through the British Minister and the commandant of the 
British forces at Detroit. Young Spencer afterwards be- 
came a distinguished citizen, a clergyman and bank 
officer in Cincinnati. In his manhood he wrote and pub- 
lished a narrative of his capture and captivity. 

The settlers at Columbia became exceedingly hostile to 
the red men, and with reason, as these narratives show. 
Their labors were greatly interrupted by the constant 
necessity for the exercise of vigilance against the onset 
of the wily foe. For a time they had to work and watch 
in equal divisions, as many as one-half standing guard, 
while the other half labored, the divisions being ex- 
changed in the morning and afternoon. Their annoy- 
ances, and the outrages from which they suffered, bore 
their natural fruit in an intense and abiding desire for re- 
venge. On the principle, we suppose, that the devil must 
be fought with fire, they even adopted some of the Indian 
methods. Colonel Whittlesey, of Cleveland, contributes 
this corroborative paragraph in one of his valuable his- 
torical pamphlets: 

In 1844 I spent an evening with Benjamin Stites, jr., of Madison- 
ville, Ohio, the son of Benjamin Stites, who settled at Columbia, near 
Cincinnati, in 17S8. Benjamin, junior, was then a boy, but soon grew 

to be a woodsman and an Indian figliter. Going over the incidents of 
the pioneer days, he said the settlers of Columbia agreed to pay thirty 
dollars in trade for every Indian scalp. He related an instance of a 
man who received a mare for a scalp, under this arrangement. The 
frontier men of those times spoke of "hunting Indians," as they would 
of hunting wolves, bears, or any other wild animal. I met another old 
man who then lived near Covington, on the Kentucky side of the Ohio, 
who said he had often gone alone up the valley of the iVIiami on a hunt 
for scalps. With most of these Indian hunters the bounty was a 
minor consideration. The hatred of the red man was a niucli stronger 

A tradition goes that on one occasion a reeking scalp, 
just torn from the head of an Indian, was brought on 
the Sabbath into or near the house of God in Columbia, 
breaking up the meeting and sending the inhabitants 
home to prepare against an attack from the savages. 

The settlers of Cincinnati of course shared the gen- 
eral peril. Some fifteen or twenty of them were killed 
by the Indians in the one year 1790. Not only was it 
necessary to post sentinels when at work in the out-lots 
or improving the town property, but rifles were carried 
to service by the congregation of the First Presbyterian 
church, whose place of meeting was close by where the 
the same society worships now, near the corner of Main 
and Fourth streets. A fine of seventy-five cents was 
imposed upon male attendants neglecting this precau- 
tion; and it is said to have been actually inflicted upon 
Colonel John S. Wallace, a noted hunter and Indian 
fighter of those days, and perhaps upon others. 

In 1790 the road from Cincinnati eastward crossed 
the mouth of the water-course near the then eastern 
limits of the town, as noted in the account of the adven- 
ture to Mrs. Coleman. At the point of crossing there 
was a dense forest of maple and beech, with tangled 
grape-vines and a heavy undergrowth of spicewood. Mr. 
Jacob Wetzel, of the village, had had a successful day of 
hunting, October 7th, of that year, and on his way home 
to get a horse with which • to bring in his heavier spoils, 
sat down here upon a decayed tree-trunk to rest. He 
shortly heard a rustling in the woods; his dog pricked 
up his ears, growled, and a moment afterwards barked 
loudly as he saw an Indian presenting his rifle from 
behind a large oak tree. Wetzel caught sight of him at 
the same instant, and, springing behind another tree, 
both fired together. He received the Indian's fire un- 
harmed, and succeeded in wounding his enemy's left 
elbow. Before the Indian could reload, Wetzel took 
the offensive and charged upon him with his hunting 
knife, and the Indian drew his to defend himself. The 
conflict that ensued was sharp and desperate, a life-or- 
death struggle. The white man made the first blow as 
he rushed, but the red one parried it, knocking the 
other's knife from his hand to a distance of thirty feet or 
more. Nothing daunted, Wetzel seized him with a vice- 
like grasp about the body, holding down and tightly 
against it the arm with the knife. In the struggle both 
were thrown, but the Indian got uppermost and was 
about to use his knife with deadly effect, when the dog 
sprang at his throat with such a savage attack as made 
him drop the weapon, which Wetzel seized and instantly 
stabbed his antagonist to the heart. The Indian so far 
had maintained the contest on his side alone; but after 



the victor had despoiled his body of its armament and 
gone a little distance on his way home, he heard the 
whoop of a party of savages, and ran hastily to the river, 
where he seized a canoe and escaped to the cove then 
existing at the foot of Sycamore street. He afterwards 
learned that the Indian killed was one of the bravest 
chiefs of his tribe, by whom he was greatly lamented. 

The savages were also making mischief this year on the 
other side of the river, in the interior. Judge Symmes 
wrote the last of April ; 

The Indi.ins are beyond me.isure troublesome throughout Kentucky. 
They have destroyed Major Doughty and a party of troops on the 
Tennessee. If the President knew of half the murders they commit, 
he surely would rouse in indignation and dash those barbarians to some 
other clime. 

After the defeat of General Harmar in two actions by 
the Indians, in October, they grew bolder, but still made 
no concerted attacks upon the settlements on the 
Symmes Purchase until January, when Dunlap's station 
was attacked, as will be presently narrated. November 
4th the judge writes : 

The strokes our army has got seem to fall like a blight upon the 
prospect, and for the present seem to appall every countenance. I con- 
fess that, as to myself, I do not apprehend that we shall be in a worse 
situation with regard to the Indians than before the repulse. What the 
Indians could do before, they did, and -they now have about one hun- 
dred less of their warriors to annoy us with than they had before the 
two actions; besides, it will give them some employment this winter to 
build up new cabins and repair by hunting the loss of their corn. 

The settlers at them [the stations] are very much alarmed 
at their situation, though I do not think that the houses will be at- 
tacked at those stations; yet I am much concerned for the safety of the 
men while at work, hunting, and travelling. 

Judge Symmes did not divine with his usual prescience 
in this case. Scarcely more than two months had passed 
after this dehverance before the Indians appeared in 
force but a few miles from his home and made a desperate 
attack upon one of his stations. On the eighth of Janu- 
ary, 1791, Colonel John S. Wallace, of Cincinnati, lately 
mentioned in this chapter, together with Abner Hunt, 
who was a surveyor, John Sloane, and a Mr. Cunning- 
ham, engaged in exploring the country, fell in with this 
war-party, or a detachment of it, somewhere on the west 
bank of the Great Miami, where the whites had encamped 
the night before. When setting out that morning to ex- 
plore the bottoms above their camp, towards Colerain, 
or Dunlap's station, they had got but about seventy yards 
away when they were assailed by savages from the rear, 
an ambuscade having evidently been prepared for them. 
Cunningham was shot down instantly; Hunt was vio- 
lently dismounted by the fright of his horse, and made 
prisoner; and Sloane was shot through the body, but 
managed to keep his feet and effect his escape. Wallace 
also dashed off, but on foot, and was followed by two In- 
dians, when he overtook Sloane and mounted Hunt's 
riderless horse, which had kept along with its companion. 
Both Wallace and Sloane thus escaped safely and unin- 
jured to Dunlap's station. Colonel Wallace had a nar- 
row escape, however. He was repeatedly fired upon in 
his flight, and at the first shot his leggings became loose, 
the fastenings perhaps cut by the missile, when he tripped 
and fell. Coolly but rapidly he retied the strings, in time 
to resume his flight without being overtaken. Hunt's 

fate was terrible, being that which too often befell the 
captive among the savages. During a lull in the siege of 
Dunlap's station, the third night after the capture, they 
occupied themselves in the torture of the hapless pi is- 
oner. He was prostrated across a log with his legs and 
arms stretched and fastened in painful positions to the 
ground; he was scalped, his body agonized by knife- 
wounds, and the cruel work completed, as one account 
relates, by building a fire upon his naked abdomen, or, 
as others have it, by thrusting blazing firebrands into his 
bowels, which had been exposed by the cutting and 
slashing to which he had been subjected. In this 
dreadful situation his remains were found aftei^ the In- 
dians had retired, and were taken up decently and buried 
by the garrison. 

The attack on Dunlap's began in the early morning of 
January roth. About five hundred Indians appeared be- 
fore the stockade, with three hundred more in reserve in 
the neighborhood, and demanded its surrender, promis- 
ing the garrison and settlers safety. They are believed 
to have been led by the notorious white renegade, 
Simon Girty, who was guilty of so many atrocities and 
barbarities toward the whites, and is said to have died, 
himself, in the centre of a blazing log-heap, where he 
was placed by a party of avengers, who recognized him 
long after Indian hostilities had ceased. Girty's brother 
was also in the attacking force, with Blue Jacket and 
other well-known chiefs. During the parley with 
Kingsley, which lasted two hours, Simon Girty was seen 
holding the rope with which the prisoner's (Hunt's) arms 
were tied, and sheltered behind a log. Lieutenant 
Kingsley was in command, but had only eighteen reg- 
ulars, who, with eight or ten armed residents, made but 
a feeble garrison in point of numbers. Nevertheless the 
Indian demand was refused and fire was opened by the 
garrison, being promptly returned by the besiegers. As 
soon as possible a runner was got off to Fort Washing- 
ton for reinforcements, and the defence continued to be 
stoutly maintained. The women in the station kept up 
the supply of bullets to their defenders by melting spoons 
and pewter plates and running them into balls; and the 
fire on both sides was scarcely intermitted for hours. 
The Indians entirely surrounded the stockade on the 
land side, their flanks resting on the river; and their fire 
was hot and distressing. It was kept up until late in the 
afternoon, when the Indians drew off and during the 
night put Hunt to the torture in full view of the garrison, 
between the fort and an ancient work remaining near. 
The attack was renewed in the evening and maintained 
in a desultory way until midnight, when the beleagured 
people again had comparative rest, but no refreshment in 
their weariness and terror except parched corn, their sup- 
ply of water being cut off by the merciless foe. The 
Indians in this attempt set fire to the brush about the 
station and threw many blazing brands upon the struc- 
tures within it, but they were happily extinguished before 
serious mischief was done. Again the Indians came on 
the next day, but were met with the steady, unrelenting fire 
of the garrison, and hastily withdrew, probably hastening 
their retreat from the report of their scouts that relief was 



marching from Fort Washington. In their retreat the 
Indians shot all the cattle within their reach. A force of 
thirty regulars and thirty-three volunteers had been dis- 
patched from Fort Washington, under the command of 
Captain Timmons, reaching the neighborhood of the 
station the next forenoon about ten o'clock, but finding 
the Indians already gone. They went in pursuit at once, 
but with litde effect, the detachment not being numerous, 
enough to make an effective attack. 

This heroic defence of Colerain against an overwhelm- 
ing force of savages is one of the most noteworthy inci- 
dents in the history of the county. Sometime before the 
fight David Gibson and John Crum, of the station, had 
been taken prisoners by the Indians, and Thomas Lawi- 
son and William Crum driven to the stockade, to the 
imminent danger of their lives. The inhabitants there 
were kept in a pretty constant state of alarm, and, after 
the defeat of General St. Clair the following November, 
the settlers at Dunlap's, vividly remembering the attack 
which followed Harmar's misfortune, and reasonably ex- 
pecting a similar sequel to St. Clair's, abandoned the sta- 
tion, and were only persuaded to return with considerable 
difficulty. It was important that this station should- be 
maintained. Judge Symmes wrote in January, 1792: 
"Colerain has always been considered the best barrier to 
all the settlements, and'when that place became re-peo- 
pled the inhabitants of the other stations became more 
reconciled to stay." 

At North Bend, during the same year, there were fresh 
attacks by the Indians. In September, 1791, a Mr. Ful- 
ler and his son WiUiam, employes of John Matson, sr., 
were accompanied by Matson's mother and George Cul- 
lum to a fish-dam that was planted in the Great Miami, 
about two miles from North Bend. Towards night Ful- 
ler sent his son away alone, to take the cows to the settle- 
ment, when he disappeared, and was seen no more until 
after Wayne's victory, or nearly four years after he was 
taken by the Indians, when he was restored to his friends 
by Christopher Miller, a white man who was among the 
savages at the time of his capture. 

The outrages at Cincinnati were also numerous in 
1791. In May of this year Colonel Wallace, whose 
misfortune it was to figure considerably in the Indian his- 
tory of this period, was at work with his father and a 
small lad, hoeing corn upon the subsequent site of the 
Cincinnati hospital, while two men named Scott and 
Shepherd were plowing corn upon a spot near the corner 
of Central avenue and Clinton street. To them suddenly 
appeared five or six Indians, who jumped the fence and 
raised a yell, whereupon the plowmen took to their heels, 
and were fortunately not caught by the pursuing savages, 
though they were chased as far as the corner of Fifth and 
Race streets. Colonel Wallace may have been forgetful, 
as before noted, about taking his rifle to church; but he 
had it with him on this occasion, lying in an adjacent 
furrow, and telling the rest to escape to town as quietly 
as possible, snatched it up and fired at an Indian about 
eighty yards distant, who took himself off at once. The 
other Indians rode away on the plow-horses at the top of 
their speed. Contrary to their usual custom, however, they. 

in the haste of their flight, unintentionally, of course, left 
something by way of exchange. Light blankets and blan- 
ket capotes, a leg of bear meat, a horn of powder, and 
some other small articles, were the spoils from the raiders; 
but they hardly made up an equivalent for the horses 
taken. As soon as the alarm could be given and pre- 
parations made, the best foresters and hunters in town 
started in pursuit, mounting all the horses available, a 
party going ahead at once on foot. The chase was fol- 
lowed up the Great Miami valley to where Hamilton now 
stands ; but unavailingly, as the Indians had just crossed, 
and the pursuers were turned back by tremendous rains 
and floods. 

On the twenty-first of the same month Benjamin Van- 
Cleve and Joseph Cutler, while engaged in clearing an 
out-lot, were fired at, and the latter captured, carried off, 
and never heard of afterwards. The trail of the party 
was easily followed, as Cutler had lost a shoe, and was 
kept at full run till dark, and resumed the next day; but 
the Indians got off safely with their captive. 

Eleven days after, on the first of June, Mr. VanCleve, 
again working in his out-lot, with two others, was attacked 
and pursued. He started first in the retreat; but was 
stopped an instant by a fallen tree-top, giving an Indian 
time to seize him. VanCleve threw his assailant, but 
the savage rose at once and stabbed him, following this 
by the usual barbarity of scalping. He then took himself 
out of the way of the two white men who were running 
some distance in VanCleve's rear, and who found their 
companion lifeless when they reached the spot. On the 
same day Sergeant Michael Hahn, of the garrison, with 
a corporal and a young man from Colerain, taking a cow 
to Dunlap's station, the party was attacked soon after 
starting, within the present limits of the city, and all were 
killed and scalped. 

These are recorded as the last cases of assasination by 
the red men in Cincinnati; but they continued to prowl 
about the outlying streets and roads, and sometimes 
killed cattle; in one case, it is said, an Indian shot his 
stone-headed arrow clean through the body of an ox. 
They also stole horses from time to time, and committed 
other depredations, until Anthony Wayne instituted his 
energetic measures for the protection of this region in 
1793 and 1794. 

In the spring of the latter year, however, John Lud- 
low, brother of Colonel Israel Ludlow, of the station, 
left his late residence in Cincinnati to return to his farm, 
near the junction of the old Hamilton road with the hill 
road to Carthage. An attack had been made on White's 
station, in the country, which, with a defeat sustained by 
Lieutenant Lowrey near Eaton, Preble county, had greatly 
alarmed the Cincinnatians. Mr. White himself was in 
this party, which was escorted by Colonel Ludlow and 
his company of militia. They reached the farm without 
molestation, and began unloading the wagon with them, 
while White, mounted on a sick horse, went on toward 
his station. When he reached a point abtfut two hun- 
dred yards from the stream since called Bloody run, he 
heard rifle-shots, and presently saw four pack-horses 
where as many whites had been waylaid by the Indians. 



One of them was killed, tomahawked, and scalped; his 
body was found in the river. Another was mortally 
hurt, but managed to get to Abner Benton's place, at 
Ludlow's Ford on Mill creek, where he died of his 
wounds. A third was sjightly wounded, and the fourth 
escaped unhurt. White now abandoned the journey to 
his station, and returned to Ludlow's party to give the 
alarm. Pursuit was promptly taken up by the whole 
company and the Indians followed vainly for five or six 
miles, when the party rode back to the scene of the at- 
tack and buried the dead. 

One of the saddest incidents of this time occurred 
while Wayne's campaign was in progress. Colonel 
Robert Elliott, a Pennsylvanian born, but a resident of 
Hagerstown, Maryland, was a contractor for the supply 
of General Wayne's army, and was in person superin- 
tending the delivery of supplies. While on the way from 
Fort Hamilton to Cincinnati, on the present Winton 
road, he was fired upon and killed by the enemy, his 
servant escaping in safety with both horses. An attempt 
was made to scalp the Colonel, which, from the absence- 
of his natural capillary covering and the adoption of a 
substitute, led the Indian attempting it to the exclama- 
tion, as is reported in English, "bigd — d lie!" Mr. 
Elliott's body was recovered the next day, put in a box, 
and started for Cincinnati in one of his own wagons. 
Near or exactly at the place where the Colonel was shot, 
the servant, by .a singular fatality, received' a second fire 
from the savages, and was this time killed. The escort 
was stampeded, and the Indians seized the box and 
broke it, but did not further disturb its contents, though 
they took away the horses that drew it. An armed party 
was then detached from Fort Washington, which went 
out and brought the body in. It was buried in the old 
Presbyterian cemetery at the corner of Main and Fourth 
streets, and afterwards removed to the new " God's acre " 
of that church on Twelfth street. A monument was 
erected many years after, to commemorate the tragedy, 
by Commodore Elliott, his son, with an inscription as 
follows: "In memory of Robert Elliott, slain by a party 
of Indians near this point, while in the service of his 
country. Placed by his son, Commodore J. D. Elliott, 
United States Navy, 1835. Damon and Fidelity." 

Several outrages whose history we have found recorded, 
and doubtless many others so far unnoticed to the writer, 
occurred during the period of Indian warfare, some of 
whose dates we are not able to fix with certainty. Judge 
Symmes, in April, 1790, notes that a lad had been "cap- 
tivated" by the Indians a few weeks before at the Mill 
creek (Ludlow's) station; but adds: "Otherwise not 
the smallest mischief has been done to any, except we 
count the firing by the Indians on our people mischief, 
for there have been some instances of that, but they did 
no hurt. " Not a great many years ago a large elm might 
still be seen on one of the roads leading north from the 
city, about three miles from the old corporation line, be- 
hind which a small party of Indians had been concealed, 
to await the approach on horseback of a man named 
Baily, whom they halted, seized, and took prisoner. 

At Blue Bank, a locality on the Great Miami near 

Dunlap's station, while Michael Hahn, one of the early 
settlers of Cincinnati, Martin Burkhardt, and Michael 
Lutz, were viewing lots on the second of January, 1792, 
Lutz was killed and scalped, and finally stabbed by the 
Indians. Hahn was shot through the body, but ran for 
the station, within sight of which the Indians followed 
him, and there, seeing they were otherwise likely to lose 
the chance of his scalp, shot a second time and brought 
him down?" Burkhardt was shot through the shoulder 
and took to the river, where he was drowned and his 
body found near North Bend six weeks subsequently. 
Thus perished this whole party by Indian massacre. 

About two miles below the same station, at a riffle in 
the Great Miami, a canoe in which John McNamara, 
Isaac Gibson, jr., Samuel Carswell, and James Barnett 
were taking a millstone up the river, was fired upon with 
mortal effect. McNamara was killed, Carswell wounded 
in the shoulder and Gibson in the knee, Barnett alone 
escaping unhurt 

Elsewhere in the county, at Round Bottom, two set- 
tlers named Hinkle and Covalt, while engaged in hewing 
logs in front of their own cabin, were instantly killed by 
the barbarians. 

An interesting narrative of the captivity of Israel Don- 
alson, contributed to the American Pioneer for Decem- 
ber, 1842, contains a passage which is of some local 
value, especially as illustrating the character of a famous 
old-time citizen, long since passed away. Donalson was 
captured by the Indians April 22, 1791, while on a sur- 
veying expedition with Massie and Lytle, four miles above 
Manchester, on what was called from that day Donalson 
creek, and escaped a few days afterwards, reaching the 
Great Miami, and following down Harmar's trace until 
he arrived at what he called "Fort Washington," now Cin- 
cinnati. Mr. Donalson says: 

On "W^ednesday, the day that I got in, I was so far gone that I 
thought it entirely useless to make any further exertion, not knowing 
what distance I was from the river ; and I took my station at the root 
of a tree, but soon got into a state of sleeping, and either dreamt or 
thought that I should not be loitering away my time, that I should get 
in that day ; which, on reflection, I had not the most distant idea. 
However, the impression was so strong that I got up and walked on 
some distance. I then took my station again as before, and the same 
thoughts occupied my mind. I got up and walked on. I had not 
travelled far before I thought I could see an opening for the river ; and 
getting a little farther on I heard the sound of a bell. I then started 
and ran, at a slow speed, undoubtedly ; a little farther on I began to 
perceive that I was coming to the river hill, and having got about half- 
way down, I heard the sound of an a.xe, which was the sweetest music 
I had heard for many a day. It was in the extreme out-lot ; when I 
got to the lot I crawled over the fence with difficult)-, it being very high. 
I approached the person very cautiously till within about a chain's 
length, undiscovered ; I then stopped and spoke ; the person I spoke to 
was Mr. "W^illiam "Woodward, the founder of the Woodward high school. 
Mr. Woodward looked up, hastily cast his eyes round, and saw that I 
had no deadly weapon ; he then spoke : "In the name of God," said 
he, "who are you?" I told him I had been a prisoner and had made 
my escape fi'om the Indians. After a few more questions he told me 
to come to him. I did so. Seeing my situation, his fears soon sub- 
sided ; he told me to sit down on a log and he would go and catch a 
horse he had in the lot, and talie me in. He caught his horse, set me 
on him, but kept the bridle in his own hand. When we got into the 
road, people began to enquire of Mr. Woodward, "Who is he — an 
Indian?" I was not surprised nor offended at the enquiries, for I was 
still in Indian uniform, bareheaded, my hair cut off close, except the 
scalp and foretop, which they had put up in a piece of tin, with a bunch 
of turkey feathers ; which I could not undo. They had also stripped 



off the feathers of about two turkeys, and hung them to the hair of my 
scalp ; these I had taken off the day I left them. Mr. Woodward took: 
me to his house, where every kindness was shown me. They soon gave 
me other clothing ; coming from different persons they did not fit me 
very neatly ; but there could not be a pair of shoes got in the place that 
I could get on, my feet were so much swollen. But what surprised me 
most was, when a pallet was made down before the fire, Mr. Woodward 
condescended to sleep with me. 

The next day, soon after breakfast, General Harmar sent for me to 
come to the fort. I would not go. A second messenger came : I still 
refused. At length a Captain Shambrough came ; he pleaded with me, 
told me I might take my own time, and he would wait for me. At 
length he told me if I would not go with him, the next day a file of men 
would be sent, and I would then be compelled to go. I went with him; 
he was as good as his word, and treated me very kindly. When I was 
ushered into the quarters of the commander, I found the room full of 
people waiting my arrival. I knew none of them except Judge Symmes, 
and he did not know me, which was not surprising, considering the fix 
I was in. The General asked me a great many questions ; and when 
he got through he asked me to take a glass of liquor, which was all the 
aid he offered ; meantime had a mind to keep me in custody as a spy, 
which, when I heard, it raised my indignation to think that the com- 
mander of an army should have no more judgment when his own eyes 
were witnessing that I could scarce go alone. 


The glorious victory of General Wayne brought infi- 
nite relief to the harassed people. They no longer 
trembled with anxiety and fear of Indian outrage. One 
immediate effect of the victory and the treaty of Green- 
ville was the partial abandonment of the river villages 
and the stations, by the desire of the people to settle in 
the open country. August 6, 1795, Judge Symmes 
wrote from Cincinnati : 

This village is reduced more than one-half in its numbers since I left 
it to go to Jersey in February, 1793. The people spread themselves 
into all parts of the Purchase below the military range since the Indian 
defeat on the twentieth of August, and the cabins are of late deserted 
by dozens in a street. 

Another letter of his the next year, however, shows 
that the Indians were again giving trouble, though not 
very serious this time : 

They now begin to crowd in upon us in numbers, and are becoming 
troublesome. We have but one merchant in this part of the Purchase 
[North Bend], and he will not buy their deer-skins. The next result is 
to beg from me, and I was compelled last week to give them upwards 
of forty dollars value, or send near forty of them away offended. 

They must have a market for their skins, or they can purchase 
nothing from us. Though we have twenty or more merchants at Cin- 
cinnati, not one of them is fond of purchasing deer-skins. Some 
attention of Government is certainly necessary to this object. 
Some of our citizens will purchase horses from the Indians, The con- 
sequence is that the Indians immediately steal others, fo rnot an Indian 
will walk if he can steal a horse to ride. I wish it was made penal by 
Congress to buy horses directly or indirectly from the Indians. 

But these annoyances and losses were petty, compared 
with the awful dangers of the earlier years. The Miami 
country, though not without occasional alarms, especially 
during the Indian war of 181 1 and the war with Great 
Britain that began the ne.xt year, was thenceforth almost 
exempt from savage atrocities. "Poor Lo," with the inev- 
itable destiny of his race, was being crowded westward 
and to eventual extermination. 



What constittites a State? 
Not high-raised battlements or labored mound. 

Thick wall or moated gate; 
Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned; 

Not bays and broad-armed ports, 
Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride; 

Not starred and spangled courts. 
Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. 

No; — men, high-minded men. 
With powers as far above dull brutes endued. 

In forest, brake, or den. 
As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude, — 

Men who their duties know, 
But know theii rights, and, knowing, dare maintain. 

Prevent the long-aimed blow. 
And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain; — 

These constitute a State. 

— Sir William Jones. 


In chapter IV it was remarked that upon some of the 
early maps of the territory which includes the present 
State of Ohio, a geographical district was marked and 
entitled "Iroquois," since the confederated tribes called 
by that generic name claimed jurisdiction over it. It is 
not probable that their government was represented here 
by satrap, prator, viceroy, or other governor; but theirs is, 
we believe, the first authority distinctly recognized by 
geography or history as existing over this region. One of 
the maps of 1755 designates this as Tunasoruntic, or 
"the deer-hunting country," a part of "the country of the 
confederate Indians," covering the present territory of 
New York, Ohio, and Canada, and thus signifying about 
the same thing as the former "Iroquois." 

"new FRANCE." 

The Ohio country, however, was long before this time 
claimed by the French, as an integral part of their great 
North American possessions, "New France," by virtue of 
the discoveries of her brave explorer, Robert, Cavalier de 
la Salle, and the earlier voyage (1640) of the Jesuit 
Fathers Charemonot and Brebceuf, along the south shore 
of Lake Erie. With the Iroquois they were constantly 
at war, and the claims of the confederated tribes to the 
territory weighed nothing with the aggressive leaders of 
the French in the New World. When, some time in the 
first half of the eighteenth century, the French built a 
fort on the Iroquois lands near Niagara falls, the governor 
of Canada proclaimed their right of encroachment, say- 
ing that the Five Nations were not subjects of England, 
but rather of France, if subjects at all. But, by the 
treaty of Utrecht, April 11, 17 13, Louis XIV, Le Grand 
Monarque, renounced in favor of England all right to the 
Iroquois country, reserving only the St. Lawrence and 
Mississippi valleys to France. Boundaries were so vaguely 
defined, however, that disputes easily and frequently 
arose concerning the territories owned by the respective 
powers; and in 1740, the very year after that in which 
the Ohio Land company of the Washingtons, Lee, and 
others was organized under a grant from George II, to 
occupy half a million acres west of the AUeghanies, De 
Celeron, the French commandant of Detroit, led an ex- 



pedition to the Ohio dispatched by the Marquis de la 
GalHssoniere, commander-in-chief of New France, buried 
a leaden tablet "at the confluence of the Ohio and 
Tchadakoin" (?) "as a monument of the renewal of pos- 
session which we have taken of the said river Ohio, 
and of all those that therein fall, and of all the lands on 
both sides, as far as the sources of said rivers" — a sweep- 
ing claim, .truly. He ordered the English traders out of 
the country, and notified the governor of Pennsylvania 
that if they "should hereafter make their appearance on 
the Beautiful River, they would be treated without any 
delicacy." The territorial squabbles which then ensued 
led up to the Frenchand Indian war of 1755-62, which 
closed by the cession to England, on the part of France, 
of Canada and all her American possessions east of the 
Mississippi, except some fishing stations. Thus the Ohio 
region at length passed into the undisputed possession of 
the British crown. 


In 1766 (though some confidendy say 1774*), the 
British Parliament insisted upon the Ohio river as the 
southwestern boundary, and the Mississippi river as the 
western limit of the dominions of the English crown in 
this quarter. By this measure the entire northwest, or 
so much of it as afterwards became the Northwest Terri- 
tory, was attached to the province of Quebec, and the 
tract that now constitutes the State of Ohio was nomi- 
nally under its local administration. 


In 1769 the colony of Virgjnia, by an enactment of 
the house of burgesses, attempted to extend its jurisdic- 
tion over the same territory, northwest of the river Ohio, 
by virtue of its royal grants. By that act the county of 
Botetourt was erected and named in honor of Lord Bote- 
tourt, governor of the colony. It was a vast county, 
about seven hundred miles long, with the Blue Ridge for 
its eastern boundary, and the Mississippi for its west- 
ern boundary. It included large parts of the pres 
ent States of West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and Ilh- 
nois, and was the first county organization covering what 
is now Hamilton county. Fincastle, still the seat of 
county for the immensely reduced Botetourt county, was 
made the seat of justice; but so distant from it were the 
western regions of the great county, that the thoughtful 
burgesses inserted the following proviso in the creative act : 

IV/u-rcas. The people situated on the Mississippi, in the said county 
of Botetourt, will be very remote from the court house, and must neces- 
sarily become a separate county as soon as their numbers are sufficient, 
which will probably happen in a short time, be it therefore enacted by 
the authority aforesaid, that the inhabitants of that part of the said 
county of Botetourt which lies on the said waters, shall be exempted 
from the payment of any levies to be laid by the said county court for 
the purpose of building a court-house and prison for said county. 

"west AUGUSTA." 

In 1776, the present territory of Ohio was included in 
what was known as the "District of West Augusta, fbut 
we are not informed to what State or county authority it 
was subordinated — though probably to that of Virginia, as 
was the Kentucky region at this time. 

*As Isaac Smucker, in Secretary of State's report for 1877. 
tBryant's Popular History of the United States, Vol. I., 6io. 


Government was still nominal, however, so far as the 
county organization was concerned, between the Ohio 
and the Mississippi rivers ; and the Indians and few 
white settlers within those borders were entirely a law 
unto theinselves. After the conquest of the Indiana and 
Illinois country by General George Rogers Clark in 1778 
the county of Illinois was erected by the Virginia legisla- 
ture out of the great county of Boietourt, and included 
all the territory between the Pennsylvania line, the Ohio, 
the Mississippi, and the northern lakes. Colonel John 
Todd was appointed the first county lieutenant and civil 
commandant of the county. He perished in the battle of 
Blue Licks, August 18, 1782; and Timothy de Montbrun 
was named as his successor. At this time there were no 
white men in Ohio, except a few Indian traders, some 
French settlers on the Maumee, and the Moravian mis- 
sionaries on the Tuscarawas. 


After the title of the United States to the wide tract 
covered by Illinois county, acquired by the victories of 
the Revolution, had been perfected by the cession of 
claims to it by Virginia and other States and by Indian 
treaties. Congress took the next step, and an important 
one, in the civil organization of the country. Upon the 
thirteenth of July (a month which has been largely as- 
sociated with human liberty in many ages of history), in 
the year 1787, the celebrated act entitled "An ordinance 
for the government of the territory of the United States 
northwest of the river Ohio," was passed by Congress. 
By this great organic act — "the last gift," as Chief Justice 
Chase said, "of the Congress of the old Confederation 
to the country, and it was a fit consummation of their 
glorious labors" — provision was made for various forms 
of territorial government to be adopted in succession, 
in due order of the advancement and development of 
the Western country. To quote Governor Chase again: 
"When the settlers went into the wilderness, they found 
the law already there. It was impressed upon the soil 
itself, while it yet bore up nothing but the forest." This 
measure was succeeded, on the fifth of October of the 
same year, by the appointment by Congress of General 
Arthur St. Clair as governor, and Major Winthrop Sar- 
gent as secretary of the Northwest Territory. Soon 
after these appointments, three territorial judges were ap- 
pointed — Samuel Holden Parsons, James Mitchell Var-' 
num, and John Armstrong. In January the last named, 
not having entered upon service, declined his appoint- 
ment, which now fell to the Hon. John Cleves Symmes, 
the hero of the Miami Purchase. The appointment of 
Symmes to this high office gave much offence in some 
quarters, as it was supposed to add to his opportunities of 
making a great fortune in the new country. It is well 
known that Governor St. Clair's appointment to the 
Northwest Territory was promoted by his friends, in the 
hope that he would use his position to relieve himself of 
pecuniary embarrassments. There is no evidence, how- 
ever, that either he or Judge Symmes prostituted the 
privileges of their places to such ends. 



All these appointments being made under the articles 
of confederation, they expired upon the adoption and 
operation of the Federal constitution. St. Clair and 
Sargent were reappointed to their respective places by 
President Washington, and confirmed by the senate on 
the twentieth of September, 1789. On the same day 
Parsons and Symmes were reappointed judges, with Wil- 
liam Barton as their associate. Meanwhile, on the ninth 
of July, 1788, the governor arrived at Marietta, and pro- 
ceeded to organize the territory. He and the judges, of 
whom only Varnum and Parsons were present, consti- 
tuted, under the ordinance, the territorial legislature. 
Their first law was proclaimed July 25th, and on the 
twenty-seventh Governor St. Clair issued a proclamation 
establishing the county of Washington, to cover all the 
territory to which the Indian title had been extin- 
guished between Lake Erie, the Ohio and Scioto rivers, 
and the Pennsylvania line, being a large part of the 
present State of Ohio. Marietta, the capital of the 
Territory, was made the seat of justice for Washington 
county. The next civil division proclaijmed was 


On the second of January, 1790, in the thirteenth 'month 
and second year ab urbe co?idita, the governor arrived at Lo- 
santiville. His august approach was duly heralded, and as 
he stepped ashore from his flat-boat, pirogue, or barge, 
he was received with a salute of fourteen guns, and four- 
teen more were fired as he moved with his suite to the 
embattled precincts of Fort Washington. He dispatched 
a message to North Bend for Judge Symmes, who ar- 
rived the next day, and, after consultation, the ensuing 
day (the fourth) was signalized by the erection, as the 
Judge put it in a subsequent letter, of "this Purchase in- 
to a county." St. Clair's proclamation established the fol- 
lowing as the boundary hues of the new creation : "Begin- 
ning on the bank of the Ohio river, at the confluence of 
the Little Miami, and down said Ohio river to the mouth 
of the Big Miami', and up said Miami to the Standing 
Stone forks, or branch of said river, and thence with a 
line to be drawn due east to the Little Miami, and down 
said Little Miami to the place of beginning." This was 
a long and narrow county, decidedly inconvenient in 
shape, if it had been settled throughout all its borders; 
but it was no doubt formed in accordance with the sug- 
gestions of Judge Symmes, and its northern boundary 
was much better defined than was that of the Miami 
Purchase at that time, or at any time until the patent for 
the Purchase was issued. The Judge writes: "His ex- 
cellency complimented me with the honor of naming the 
county. I called it Hamilton county, after the Secretary 
of the Treasury" — Colonel Alexander Hamilton, the dis- 
tinguished revolutionary and cabinet officer, now but 
thirty-three years old, in the prime of his powers, and 
considered the pride of the Federal party, perishing mis- 
erably fourteen and a half years afterwards, from a mor- 
tal wound received in the duel with Aaron Burr. It is 
altogether probable that Judge Symmes may have desired 
to do the secretary fitting honor; but it is also not impos- 
sible that, since the negotiations for the Purchase were still 

incomplete, and the duties of the late treasury board, in 
regard to the sales of the public lands, had now, under 
the new constitution and before the organization of the 
general land office, devolved upon the Secretary of the 
Treasury, he was also prompted by a lively sense of favors 
to come. He adds, in his notes of this affair: "The 
governor has made Losantiville the county town by the 
name of Cincinnata [thus Symmes spells it, for reasons 
that will appear by and by], so that Losantiville will be- 
come extinct." St. Clair soon afterwards made it the 
capital of the Northwest Territory, and in 1799 the first 
session of the territorial legislature was held there. 

On the same day that Hamilton county was proclaimed 
commissions were issued by the gov^nor for a county 
court of common pleas and general. Quarter sessions of 
the peace, for said county. Messrs.' Wi lliam McMillan , 
William Goforth, and WiUiam Wells — a triumvirate of 
Williams — were appointed judges of the court of com- 
mon pleas and justices of the court of general quarter 
sessions of the peace. They were also appointed and 
commissioned as justices of the peace and of the quorum 
in said court. Other justices of the peace were appointed 
for the new county, in the persons of Benjamin Stites, 
our old Columbia pioneer, John Stites Gano, another 
Columbian, and Jacob Topping. J. Brown, "Gent," 
was commissioned sheriff "during the governor's pleas- 
ure;" Israel Ludlow, esq., was made prothonotary to the 
court of common pleas and clerk of the court of general 
quarter sessions of the peace. 

Some appointments were also made at this time to 
commands in the "First Regiment of MiUtia in the 
County of Hamilton." Israel Ludlow, John S. Gano, 
James Flinn, and Gershom Gerard, were commissioned 
as captains; Francis Kennedy, John Ferris, Luke Foster, 
and Brice Virgin, as lieutei'iailts; and Scott Traverse, 
Ephraim Kibby, Elijah Stites, and John Dunlap, as en- 
signs. Provision seems to have been made by these 
appointments for the formation of but four companies. 

On the twenty-fourth of the following May the organi- 
zation of the county was furthered by the appointment 
of William Burnet as register of deeds, and on the next 
fourteenth of December Mr. George McCullum was 
added to the justices of the peace. 

The boundaries of the county were afterwards changed 
by the governor, as the settlements widened ; and its area 
was greatly enlarged. By his proclamation September 
15, 1796, erecting Wayne county (now, as reduced, in 
Michigan), with Detroit as its seat of justice, St. Clair 
described the eastern boundary of Hamilton county as a 
"due northern line from the lower Shawnees' town upon 
the Scioto river," which was a long remove to the east- 
ward from the Little Miami." 

By, proclamation June 22, 1798, an alteration was 
made in the boundaries of Hamilton, Wayne, and Knox - 
(now, as reduced, in Indiana) counties, by which the west- 
ern line of Hamilton was laid down as follows : 

The western boundary of the county of Hamilton shall begin at the/ 
spot on the bank of the Ohio river where the general boundary line 
between the lands of tlie United States and the Indian tribes, estab- 
lished at Greenville the third day of August, 1795, intersects the bank 
of that river, and run with the general boundary line to Fort Recovery, 



and from thence by a line to be drawn due north from Fort Recovery 
until it intersects the south boundary line of the county of Wayne;- 
and the said line from the Ohio to Fort Recovery, and from thence to 
the southern boundary line of the county of Wayne, shall also be the 
eastern boundary of the county of Knox. 

Fort Recovery was a stockade upon a bend of the 
Wabash, very near the present western boundary of 
Ohio, and also near the line dividing Darke and Mercer 
counties. The mouth of the Kentucky river is at Car- 
roUton, fifty miles in a direct line southwest of Cincinnati, 
though much further by the winding river. The treaty 
of Greenville defined the "general boundary line" men- 
tioned above, as to run thence (from Fort Recovery) 
southwesterly in a direct line to the Ohio, so as to inter- 
sect the river opposite the mouth of Kentucke or Cut- 
tawa river. Hamilton county, then, by this time, com- 
prised a considerable triangular tract in the southeastern 
part of what is now the State of Indiana. It was a very 
large county that was enclosed between the east and west 
lines above described, the Ohio, and the southern boun- 
dary of Wayne county. It is estimated to have included 
five thousand square miles, or over three millions of 
acres, and to have been equal to about one-eighth part 
of the tract that became the State of Ohio. 

Just before the creation of a number of new coun- 
ties from its territory, by one of the first acts of the first 
State legislature, the county is said, somewhat vaguely, to 
have stretched from the Ohio one hundred miles north- 
ward to the headwaters of the Great Miami, and west- 
ward from a meridian line drawn from the eastern sour- 
ces of the Little Miami to the Ohio, to a meridian from 
the mouth of the Great Miami to the parallel drawn 
from the headwaters of that stream. These boundaries, 
if correctly stated, represent a vast enlargement of the 
original county, and included the present counties of 
Hamilton, Clermont, Warren, Butler, Montgomery, 
Preble, Darke, Miami, Champaign, Clark, Clinton, and 
Greene. The Western Annals, third edition, says that 
the county "comprehended the whole country contigu- 
ous to the Ohio, from the Hocking river to the Great 

A gubernatorial proclamation, dated September 20, 
1798, attached a part of Hamilton to Adams county — 

To begin on the bank of the Ohio, where Elk river, or Eagle creek, 
empties into the same, and run from thence due north until it intersects 
the boundary of the county of Ross, and all and singular the lands ly- 
ing between said north line and Elk river, or Eagle creek, shall, after 
the said twentieth day of September next, be separated from the 
county of Hamilton and added to the county of Adams. 

From the great county of Hamilton, or from coun- 
ties carved out of it, there are said to have been organ- 
ized, by -1 8 1 5, the counties of Clermont, Warren, Butler, 
Preble, Montgomery, Greene, Clinton, Champaign, 
Miami, and Darke. St. Clair undertook to erect Bel- 
mont, Fairfield, and Clermont sometime before his 
resignation in 1802, but Congress refused to recog- 
nize his action, holding him "not endowed with such 
power, in view of the existence of the territorial legis- 
lature. Early in 1802 the inhabitants of Hamilton 
residing north of the south boundary of the third or 
Military Range, petitioned Mr. Charles Willing Bird, 
then secretary of the territory and acting governor in the 

absence of General St. Clair, for a division of the county. 
He replied in a respectful letter, of the fifteenth of May, 
1802, saying that he could not grant the petition, but 
promising that it should be laid before the territorial 
legislature and recominended to their serious consider- 
ation — which was undoubtedly the proper course in the 

The people in all the northern parts of Hamilton 
county, above a line pretty nearly the same as the present 
north boundary of the county, had their wishes promptly 
gratified. Part of the Northwest Territory became the 
State of Ohio in the winter of 1802-3; ^^^ '^^^ ^^ '^'^^ 
first acts passed by the new legislature, in session at 
Chillicothe, was that of March 24, 1803, erecting from 
Hamilton the counties of Warren (named from General 
Joseph Warren, the Revolutionary hero), and Butler 
(named from General Richard Butler, also a distinguished 
Revolutionary and Indian fighter, who fell in St. Clair's 
defeat); and from Hamilton and Ross the counties of 
Montgomery (named from General Richard Montgomery, 
who fell in the attack on Quebec December 31, 1775), 
and Greene (named from General Nathaniel Greene, 
still another hero of the Revolution). The act was to 
take effect May i, 1803, which is therefore the proper 
natal day of these counties. In the separation of the 
new counties it was made lawful for the coroners, 
sheriffs, constables, and collectors of Hamilton and Ross 
counties "to make distress for all dues and officers' fees 
unpaid by the inhabitants within the bounds of any of 
the said new counties, at the time such division shall take 
place, and they shall be accountable in like manner as if 
this act had not been passed." The courts of Hamilton 
and Ross were to maintain jurisdiction in all actions 
pending at the time of the separation, try and determine 
them, issue process, and otherwise conclude the pending 
matters. Temporary seats of justice were established 
for the new counties: For Warren, at the house of 
Ephraim Hathaway, on Turtle creek; for Butler, at the 
house of John Warrener, in Hamilton; for Montgomery, 
the house of George Newcum, in Dayton; and for 
Greene, the house of Owen Davies, on Beaver creek. 

The boundaries of Butler county, that one of the new 
erections which is Hamilton's next neighbor on the north, 
were defined as follows: "Beginning at the southwest 
corner of the county of Warren, running thence west to 
the State line; thence with the same north to a point 
due west from the middle of the fifth range of townships 
in the Miami Purchase ; thence east to the northwest 
corner of the aforesaid county of Warren; thence 
bounded by the west line of the said county of Warren 
to the place of beginning." The south line thus de- 
scribed, being the boundary between the counties of 
Hamilton and Butler, appears not to have been satis- 
factory, no doubt owing to the irregularity in the early 
surveys, and the consequent cutting across many sections 
or parts of sections by a straight east and west line, and 
an act was passed by the legislature February 20, 1808, 
re-establishing the boundary line thus: "Beginning at 
the southwest corner of the county of Warren and at the 
southwest corner of section numbered seven, in the 



third township of the second entire range of townships, 
in the Miami Purchasej thence westwardly along thehne 
of said tier of sections to the Great Miami river; thence 
down the Miami river to the point where the line of the 
next original surveyed township strikes the same; thence 
along the said line to the west boundary of the State. " 
This act allowed Hamilton county to retain the irregular 
north line to be seen upon the later as well as earlier 


&6me of the townships of Hamilton county at or near 
>its beginnings can hardly be identified now. JH*e*e^s 
not much trouble in recognizing Cincinnati^ Columbia, 
Miami, Anderson, Colerain, and Springfield. "^South 
Bend" included the tract which afterwards became Delhi 
and the major part of Green; and Dayton, Fairfield, 
Franklin, Ohio, Deerfield, Washington, and St. Clair, were 
no doubt on territory now belonging to other counties. 

The erection of townships in the early day is among the 
most difficult topics for the local historian. Prior to the 
formation of the State constitution they were created in 
the several counties by order of the courts of general 
quarter sessions of the peace; after that by the county 
commissioners and the associate judges of the court of 
common pleas, acting with concurrent jurisdiction, until 
the act of the legislature of February 19, rSio, which gave 
the county commissioners the exclusive jurisdiction in the 
matter they have since retained. Sources of information 
are thus, in an old county, widely dispersed through the 
offices and records, and full and satisfactory data are ex- 
ceedingly difficult, and in this instance probably impossi- 
ble to reach. So long ago as 1839, near the middle year 
of the county's history, when it would seem to have been 
much easier to prosecute the inquiry than now, Mr. H. 
McDougal, then county auditor for Hamilton, in answer 
to a circular from the Hon. John Brough, State auditor, 
issued in pursuance of a legislative requirement of that 
year, reported as follows: "I find it almost impossible, 
from the data in my possession, to give ;ill the required 
information. Most of the townships within the lines of 
this county were organized under the Territorial Gov- 
ernment. ... I cannot tell when they 
were organized." He was able to furnish only the dates 
of the organization of Fulton and Storrs, respectively, as 
1830 and 1835; and in regard to the former of these he 
was clearly mistaken, as Fulton appears in the list of 
townships so early as 1826, and it was created, as was 
also the township of Symmes, at some time between 1820 
and that year. The other township he mentions disap- 
peared some years ago, through the growth of the city- to 
the westward, which absorbed it; and Fulton was pre- 
viously absorbed by its extension to the eastward; so that 
these two of the "second growth" townships are al- 
ready wiped out. 

The original townships in the old Hamilton county 
were only Cincinnati, Columbia, and Miami, the three 
representing the three settlements on the Ohio in the 
Purchase, and together extending the whole distance be- 
tween the rivers, their north boundaries being at the 
Military Range, on a line six miles north of the present 

Springdale. The townships named in the records, down 
to 1796-7, were, in the order of their mention: Cincin- 
nati, Columbia, Miami, Anderson, Fairfield, Deerfield, 
Dayton, Iron Ridge (taken into Adams county in 1797), 
South Bend, Colerain, and Springfield. 

Iron Ridge township was created on the application of 
Nathaniel Massie to the quarter-sessions court in 1793, 
to be received among the townships of the Hamilton 
county group. The request was granted, and ofScers for 
it duly appointed; but the township soon disappeared 
from Hamilton county history. It lay north of the Ohio 
river, east of White Oak creek, around the town of 
Manchester, in what is now Adams county. 

Washington township is found mentioned in 1798, 
also Ohio and St. Clair; and Franklin township was rec- 
ognized in 1797. 

The following table of 1799 (which, of course, omits 
Iron Ridge, but includes all the others), representing the 
assessment for taxation on the several duplicates of the 
townships and their acting constables at that time, has 
some interest just here : 


Columbia $66056 James Spears. 

Cincinnati 723 3° John Bailey. 

South Bend 55 69 Robert Levy. 

Miami 192 88 John Willdnson. 

Anderson 32662 Josiah Crossly. 

Colerain 106 81 Allan Shaw. 

Springfield 281 15 John Patterson. 

Fairfield 26048 Darius Orcutt. 

Dayton 23372 Samuel Thompson. 

Franklin 282 83 Enos Potter. 

Deerfield 37174 William Sears. 

Washington ; 339 61 William Laycock. 

Ohio 10988 Isaac Miller. 

^'- Clair 134 72 John Newcomer. 

Total $4,079 99 

Fairfield township was laid off by the quarter-sessions 
in 1795. It began at the northwest corner of Spring- 
field township, thence north along the then Colerain six 
miles to its northeast corner; thence west to the Miami; 
thence up that stream to a meridian which is the eastern 
boundary of township numbered three, in the first entire 
range; thence south to Springfield; thence west six miles 
to the place of beginning. The brand of its cattle 
was ordered to be "H." Its first officers in 1795 were: 
John Greer, town clerk; William B. Brawnes, constable; 
Patrick Moore, overseer of the poor; Darius Orcutt 
supervisor of highways; Charles Bruin, Patrick Moore 
and William B. Brawnes, viewers of enclosures and ap- 
praisers of damages. Fairfield is, of course, now in But- 
ler county. Dayton, of the present county of Mont- 
gomery, was also established by the Hamilton County 
court in 1795. Benjamin Van Cleve says in his memor- 
anda, published in McBride's Pioneer Biography, in a 
volume of the Ohio Valley Historical Series, that Day- 
ton township included all the Miami country from the 
fifth range of townships upward. He took the returns 
of taxable property for it in 1801, and found three hun- 
dred and eighty-two free male persons over the age of 
twenty-one between the two Miamis, from- the south line 
of the township to the heads of Mad river and the Great 
Miami. West of the latter stream there were twenty- 



eight such inhabitants in the township, and east of the 
Little Miami less than twenty. He received less than 
five dollars in fees for his immense toil and exposure in 
rendering this public service. 

The names of some of the constables previous to this 
date have been preserved: Cincinnati township, Abraham 
Gary, 1797; Levi McLean, 1798; Columbia, Amos Mun- 
son, 1796; James Spears, 1797-8; Miami, Andrew Hill, 
1797-8; Anderson, Josiah Crossly, 1797-8; Fairfield, 
George Codd, 1797; Darius Orcutt, 1798; Deerfield, 
Isaac Lindly, 1797; Joshua Drake; Dayton, Cyrus Os- 
born, 1797; James Thompson, 1798; Iron Ridge, Damon 
McKinsey, 1796; "South Bend, Isaac Wilson, 1797; 
William Cullum, 1798; Colerain, Allan Shaw, 1797; 
Springfield, James Lowes, 1797; Washington, Jacob 
Williams, 1798; FrankUn, Jos. Henry, 1798. 

Colerain township was created in 1794, and Springfield 
in 1803. Cincinnati, Miami, and Springfield townships had 
important changes made in their boundaries in 1809, by 
the creation of Mill Creek and Green townships iri that 
year. In 1800 Sycamore township appears to have been 
in existence. Whitewater township was erected in 
1803, to include all the territory of Hamilton county 
west of the Great Miami river. Its boundaries were 
more elaborately defined the next year, when Crosby town- 
ship was also mentioned, and probably erected at that 
time. This is about the sum of the knowledge possessed 
in this year of grace 1881, concerning the old townships 
of Hamilton county. But more may appear in the 
township histories. 



Sweet clime of my kindred, blest land of my birth — 
The fairest, the dearest, the brightest on earth ! 
Where'er I may roam,_howe'er blest I may be, 
My spirit instinctively turns mito thee. 

— Anonymous. 


About two thousand people were in the Miami coun- 
try, which may be considered as practically identical with 
Hamilton county at this time, by 1790, although the first 
settler had pitched his camp at Columbia but thirteen 
months before. It was a very humble and modest 
beginning that the infant county had, except in reach of 
fertile territory and the possibilities of the future. Had 
a census qualification been required for the erection of a 
county in that day, as nowfor the admission of a State to 
the Federal Union, it must needs have been a very mod- 
erate one, or the Northwest Territory would have waited 
longer for the birth of the county which has since be- 
come as great in wealth and population, in arts and arms, 
and in the higher arts of civilization, as it was then great 
in ar:ea and resources waiting to be developed. In a very 

few years, however — as soon as the peace of Greenville 
gave assurance of safety to the immigrant against Indian 
massacre or the plunder of his property — the country 
began to fill up with some rapidity. The census of 1800, 
the first taken in the county, although its enumerators 
probably missed many of the settlers in so wide and 
sparsely settled a tract, exhibited the goodly number of 
fourteen thousand six hundred and ninety-one persons as 
the white population of Hamilton county. It is interest- 
ing to note, in this early day, when the conditions of 
life were so different from those prevailing in the older 
communities, how this number was divided between the 
sexes, and also between the different ages of which the 
census makes record. There were, of children under ten 
years of age, three thousand two hundred and seventy- 
three males, three thousand and ninety females; young 
persons between ten and sixteen years, one thousand three 
hundred and thirty-five males, one thousand and sixty-five 
females; between sixteen and twenty-six, one thousand 
five hundred and two males, one thousand two hundred 
and ninety-seven females; adults between twenty-six and 
forty-five years, one thousand two hundred and fifty-one 
males, nine hundred and fifty-four females; over forty- 
five, four hundred and eighty males, three hundred and 
forty-four females; — total, fourteen thousand six hundred 
and ninety-one, of whom seven thousand eight hundred 
and forty-one were males, and six thousand eight hun- 
dred and fifty females. 

The noticeable facts in this brief statement are ; 

1. The disparity of the sexes, which was particularly 
marked in this country when new. Usually, in a long- 
settled community, notably in the State of Massachusetts, 
as the censqs shows, the gentler sex is somewhat in the 
majority, and sometimes very^much so ; but here we find, 
at the end of the first eleven to twelve years of coloniza- 
tion, that the males led by very nearly one thousand in 
less than fifteen thousand, or by about six and eight- 
tenths per cent, of the whole. Or, to make the differ- 
ence appear more striking, there were nearly one-sixth 
more males than females, or about fifteen per cent. — a 
considerable and important difference. Even with young 
children, and through all the ages noted, the disparity is 
marked; but particularly so in the more vigorous working 
ages, from sixteen to twenty-six, and thence to forty-five, 
where the percentages of difference are over sixteen and 
nearly thirty-one, respectively. Still more striking is the 
inequality of numbers where we should least expect it, 
among adults over forty-five years of age, where it 
amounts, in this case, to forty per cent, advantage in 
point of numbers, in favor of the men. These facts ar- 
gue well for the ma'terial foundations in Hamilton county, 
in the laying of which the male mind, in its maturity and 
strength, as well as the muscle of the man in his prime, 
were imperatively needed. 

2. The comparative paucity of old persons, or of men 
and women distantly approaching old age, is to be noted. 
Of really aged persons there were probably very few; but 
as to this we have no exact data. The census figures 
show that, reckoning all down to the age of forty-five, 
there were but eight hundred and twenty-four, or only 



five and six-tenths per cent, of the whole; while of those 
in the hardier laboring ages there were over nineteen and 
fifteen per cent, respectively, leaving for the youngest 
children and the younger youth sixty per cent, of the 

3. The last statement offers a fact of considerable in- 
terest. Three of every five in the total population were 
c hildren under sixteen years of age. This demonstrates 
how large a share of the early settlers brought their fam- 
ilies with them, apparently coming to stay and aid in lay- 
ing the foundations of stable communities, in which law 
and order should ever abide. Contrast with this the im- 
migration at mining camps and settlements, which usually 
consists, with almost absolute exclusiveness, of men only. 
The beginnings were certainly well made in Hamilton 


In 18 10 the census exhibited a population for the 
county of but little more than the enumeration of 1800 
had shown — fifteen thousand two hundred and four, or 
but five hundred and thirteen more than were in the 
county ten years before. It must be borne in mind, how- 
ever, that the Hamilton county of 1800 was still, for the 
most part, the great county of Governor St. Clair's second 
creation — that it might be said, indeed, in a general way, 
to be pretty nearly coterminous with the broad and long 
"Miami country," since that was estimated to contain 
fifteen thousand white people at the beginning of the 
century, while the county itself was shown by official 
count to have fourteen thousand six hundred and 
ninety-one. Ten years later Hamilton had been shorn 
of its fair proportions, and reduced to be', as it is now, 
one of the smallest counties in the State in territorial 
dimensions, having, as we have seen, less than four 
hundred square miles. A population of fifteen thou- 
sand two hundred and four, or forty to the square 
mile, represented a very creditable growth for a county 
just coming of age in its twenty-first year. It is also 
noteworthy, when placed against the figures of 1800, 
which showed scarcely three white persons to the section 
in the vast county. In 1810 the Miami tract, formerly 
almost identical with Hamilton county, was estimated to 
contain seventy thousand civilized inhabitants, or about 
one fourth of the entire white and colored population of 
the State, indicating that growth of settlement through- 
out this region was by no means confined to the Ohio 
valley, but extended far up the Miami valleys as well. 

Within this decade were founded three of the oldest 
villages in the county — Reading, in 1804; Montgomery, 
in 1805; and Springfield, in 1806. 


The map prefixed to Dr. Drake's Picture of Cincin- 
nati, pubhshed in 1815, shows the towns and villages of 
the county at that time to have been Cincinnati (three 
miles east of Mill Creek), Columbia, Cleves, Colerain, 
Crosby, Springfield, Reading, Montgomery, and New- 
town, with roads running from Cincinnati to each of 
these points, and one other road making into Indiana. 
Four years later Cincinnati had become a chartered city, 

and Carthage and Miami were added to the list of vil- 
lages. Nearly all places in the county were considered 
worthy of mention in the State Gazetteer of that year 
only as "post towns," with their respective locations and 
distances from Cincinnati. The county had now twelve 
townships — Cincinnati, Crosby, Colerain, Springfield, 
Sycamore, Anderson, Columbia, Mill Creek, Delhi, 
Green, Miami, and Whitewater. The aggregate valua- 
tion of property in the county, for purposes of taxation, 
was five million six hundred and four thousand nine 
hundred and fifty-foiir dollars. 

By 1815 the beginnings of the Miami and Erie canal 
had been projected, so far as an artificial water-way up 
the valley of Mill creek to Hamilton would go. The 
text of Dr. Drake's Picture notes the mills on this stream 
as "numerous, but the loose and unstable composition 
of its bed renders the erection of permanent dams as 
difficult and expensive, in proportion to its width, as on 
the Miamis." Prices of land had greatly appreciated 
throughout the county. Judge Symmes and his asso- 
ciates, twenty-seven years before, had bought the Pur- 
chase for sixty-six and two-thirds cents per acre (really for 
sixteen and two-third cents per acre, in specie), and sold 
most of it at a uniform price of two dollars, except at 
auction, when it often commanded higher rates. The 
reserved sections also formed an exception: they were at 
one time fiixed to be sold at eight dollars per acre, but 
afterwards sold at four. In 1815, Dr. Drake observes: 

Within tliree miles of Cincinnati, at tliis time, tlie prices of good 
unimproved land are between fifty dollars and one hundred and fifty- 
dollars per acre, varying according to the distance. From this point to 
the extent of twelve miles, they decline from thirty dollars to ten dol- 
lars. Near the principal villages of the Miami country, it commands- 
from twenty dollars to forty dollars: in the remaining situations it is 
from four to eight dollars — improvements in all cases advancing the 
price from twenty-five to four hundred per cent. An average of the 
settled parts of the Miami country, still supposing the land fertile and 
uncultivated, may be stated at eight dollars; if cultivated, at twelve 
dollar's. . . These were not the prices in 1812, the war, by 
promoting immigration, having advanced the nominal value of land 
from twenty-five to fifty per cent. 

Mr. Burnet (not the judge), a traveller through this 
region two years afterwards, ina published account of his 
journeyings, supplies the following interesting note : 

The land round Cincinnati is good. Price, a mile or two from the 
city, fifty, eighty, and one hundred dollars per acre, according to qual- 
ity and other advantages. This same land, a few years ago, was 
bought for two and five dollars per acre. Farms with improvements 
ten miles from the town, sell for thirty and forty dollars per acre. Fifty 
si.xty, and one hundred miles up the country, good uncleared land may 
be bought for from two dollars to five dollars per acre. The farms are 
generally worked by the farmer and his family. Labor is dear, and 
not to be had under fourteen or sixteen dollars per month and board. 
They have but little machinery and no plaster or compost, but what 
is made by the farmer is used for manure. Taxes, in the country, are 
a mere nothing. Farmers, in any part of the State of Ohio, who have 
one hundred acres of their own, well stocked, do not pay above 
five to ten dollars per annum. 

The population of Hamilton county, in 1820, footed 
up thirty-one thousand seven hundred and sixty-four, 
divided among the townships as follows: Cincinnati, 
nine thousand six hundred and forty-two ; Columbia, two 
thousand eight hundred and fourteen; Mill Creek, two 
thousand one hundred and ninety-eight; Springfield, two 
thousand one hundred and ninety-seven (Springfield vil- 



lagetwo hundred and twenty); Sycamore three thousand 
four hundred and sixty-three; Whitewater, one thousand 
six hundred and sixty-one ; Anderson, two thousand one 
hundred and twenty-two; Colerain, one thousand nine 
hundred and six; Crosby, one thousand seven hundred 
and twenty-one; Delhi, one thousand one hundred and 
fifty-eight; Green, one thousand four hundred and fifty- 
six; Miami, one thousand four hundred and twenty-six. 
The population of Springfield and Sycamore townships 
this year, each appears larger than their respective popu- 
lations by the census of 1830; but the formation of new 
townships from them sufficiently accounts for that, since 
they had then to part with a portion of their people, 
thenceforth to be enumerated in the new divisions. 

This decade was signalized by the laying-off (or at 
least recording the plats) of an extraordinary number, 
for the period, of town and village sites. In 1813, by 
the date of record, Harrison was founded; in 1815, 
Carthage; 1816, New Burlington and Miamistown; 1817, 
Elizabeth town and "Symmestown"; 18 18, New Haven, 
Cheviot, Sharon, and "Clevestown"; and, in 1819, New 
Baltimore. Most of these have survived, at least as local 
post offices and hamlets; but others, several in number, 
have made little more figure in history or in actual ex- 
istence than the countless "paper towns" that studded 
the prairies and the banks of western rivers (in imagina- 
tion and speculative description and platting) twenty 
years later. 


The Ohio State Gazetteer of 182 1 notes: "There has 
been an uncommonly rapid increase of emigrants from 
other States into this county during several years past; 
and, the land being of a peculiarly good quality for the 
production of grain, one of the principal articles neces- 
sary for subsistence, this county has, therefore, become 
an important section of the State." 

The thickening of population in parts of the county 
made the size of some of the old townships incon- 
venient for a part of the voters and residents therein ; 
and the new townships of Fulton and Symmes were 
presently created. There were fourteen townships iry 
1826; Georgetown, Lockland, Lewistown, Madison, 
Nassau, and Prospect Hill, were added during the decade 
to the list of villages whose plats were recorded; and the 
suburb of "Eastern Liberties" was laid off adjacent to 
the city of Cincinnati. The population of the county 
was estimated that year at forty-four thousand, about one- 
eighteenth of all the inhabitants of the State, while the 
year before the aggregate value of taxable property in the 
county, assessed on the ad valorem system, was six mil- 
lion eight hundred and forty-eight thousand four hun- 
dred and thirty-three dollars, or more than one-eighth of 
the entire valuation of the State. A very satisfactory and 
rather remarkable increase in the wealth of the county, 
both absolute and relatively to population, as compared 
with other parts of the State, is thus shown. 

The convictions for crime in Hamilton county during 
1826 were: Murder in the first degree, one; rape, one; 
perjury, one; assault with intent to murder, one; assault 
with intent to commit mayhem, two; stabbing with in- 

tent to kill, one; burglary, two; uttering counterfeit 
money, three; horse-stealing, three; grand larceny, four; 
petit larceny, four; total convictions, twenty-three. So 
the county was making progress, unhappily, in the accu- 
mulation of a crime record, as well as in more reputable 
and honorable affairs. 

The census of 1830 exhibited the handsome total of 
fifty-two thousand three hundred and eighty, an increase 
of twenty-one thousand six hundred and sixteen, or 
sixty-six per cent., upon the count of ten years before. 
Much of this increase, of course, was in the city, which 
had jumped from nine thousand six hundred and forty- 
two to twenty-four thousand eight hundred and thirty-one 
increasing fifteen thousand one hundred and eighty-nine 
people during the decade, or one hundred and fifty-seven 
per cent. The remaining townships of the county had 
now population as follows : Anderson, two thousand 
four hundred and ten; Colerain, one thousand nine hun- 
dred and twenty-eight; Columbia, three thousand and 
fifty-one; Crosby, one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-five; Delhi, one thousand five hundred and twen- 
ty-seven; Fulton, one thousand and eighty-nine; Green, 
one thousand nine hundred and eighty-five; Miami, one 
thousand five hundred and forty-nine; Mill Creek, three 
thousand three hundred and fifty-six; Springfield, three 
thousand and twenty-five; Sycamore, two thousand seven 
hundred and seventy-nine; Symmes, one thousand one 
hundred and fifty-eight; Whitewater, one thousand seven 
hundred and thirty-four; total in the townships, twenty- 
seven thousand four hundred and eighty-six. This was 
the last of the Federal censuses in Hamilton county in 
which the country population outnumbered the city, as 
it now did, but by only two thousand six hundred and 
fifty-five. At the next census Cincinnati was nearly 
thirteen thousand in advance of all the county besides. 
It had this year twenty-four thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-one inhabitants. The total for the county was 
fifty-two thousand three hundred and seventeen. 


The enumeration of 1830 showed the population of 
each of four of the townships — Columbia, Crosby, Delhi, 
and Symmes — to be somewhat greater than it proved to 
be at the next census — a falling off to be accounted for in 
one case by the erection of a new township (Storrs), which 
took place in this decade. The county's growth in most 
parts continued hopefully and satisfactorily; and when the 
count of 1840 was made, it displayed an increase of 
twenty-seven thousand seven hundred and eighty- five, or 
nearly fifty per cent, within ten years. Cincinnati had, 
as ever in this county since 1810, the lion's share of the 
spoils, all the new immigration and natural increase, so 
far as represented by the figures upon their face, going to 
the city, except six thousand three hundred and twenty- 
one. About three-fourths of the total growth of the 
county in population was claimed by the city, which now 
had forty-six thousand three hundred and thirty-eight 
people. The townships were assigned the following 
numbers: Anderson, two thousand three hundred and 
eleven ; Colerain, two thousand two hundred and seventy 



two; Sycamore, three thousand two hundred and seven; 
Columbia, three thousand and forty-three; Fulton, one 
thousand five hundred and six; Mill Creek, six thousand 
two hundred and forty-nine; Crosby, one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-six; Symmes, one thousand and 
thirty-four;. Delhi, one thousand four hundred and sixty- 
six; Storrs, one thousand and thirty-four; Green, two 
thousand nine hundred and thirty-nine; Miami, two 
thousand one hundred and eighty-nine; Springfield, three 
thousand and ninety-two; Whitewater, one thousand 
eight hundred and eighty-two. Nearly two-fifths of the 
increase in the county during this decade belongs to Mill 
Creek township, about one-sixth to Green, one-tenth to 
Miami, and the rest is pretty nearly divided between the 
townships which show any increase. Mill Creek, being 
very favorably situated next the'city, had, and retains, so 
much of it as is left from the annexations, special advan- 
tages for growth. It nearly doubled its population, as 
may be seen by comparison of previous sunnnaries of 
the census, between 1820 and 1830, and again in the de- 
cade 1830-40. The entire population of the county was 
now eighty thousand one hundred and forty-five — an 
average of a little over two hundred and five to the 
square mile, or, leaving out the city's area and popula- 
tion, an average of nearly eighty-nine to the mile. 

The assessed valuation of property in the county in 
1836, as exhibited by the tax duplicate, was nine million, 
seven hundred and one thousand, three hundred and 
eighty-seven dollars, an increase of nearly fifty per cent 
since 1825. The tax paid the former year was one hun. 
dred and fifty-nine thousand six hundred and seventy- 
eight dollars. 

During this decade were founded, according to record- 
ed plats, the villages of Carrsville and Walnut Hills, Ver- 
non Village, and the suburb of "Northern Liberties." 


The increase in valuation during this period was very 
rapid. In 1S41 the valuation of the county was ten mil- 
lion, seven hundred and sixty thousand, four hundred 
and ninety-four dollars, but one million and fifty-nine 
thousand, one hundred and seven dollars more than it 
had been for years before. For Cincinnati, however, 
now set in an era of great prosperity and growth in man- 
ufactures, trade, and commerce; and the valuation in- 
creased forty-five millions in nine years. In 1850 it was 
fifty-five million, six hundred and seventy thousand, six 
hundred and thirty-one dollars; and we may anticipate 
the course of this narrative a little by saying just here, 
while surprising figures are in hand, that the valuation of 
1855 was one hundred and twelve million, nine hundred 
and forty-five thousand, four hundred and forty-five dol- 
lars; that of 1S60 was one hundred and nineteen million, 
five hundred and eight thousand, one hundred and 
seventy dollars; that of 1868, one hundred and sixty-six 
million, nine hundred and forty-five thousand, four hun- 
dred and ninety-seven. The increase in nine years 
(1841-50) was over four-fold, and was three-fold in the 
nineteen years 1850-69. From i860 to '69 the increase 
was thirty-two per cent. 

The increase of population in the city of Cincinnati 
was not less surprising. In the ten years 1840-50 the 
number of its inhabitants had jumped from forty-six 
thousand three hundred and thirty-eight to one hundred 
and fifteen thousand four hundred and thirty-eight — an 
absolute increase of sixty-nine thousand one hundred, or 
very nearly one hundred and fifty per cent. — an average 
of fifteen per cent, or six thousand nine hundred and 
ten persons every year. Nineteen immigrants, on an 
average, arrived in this city every day, Sundays and all, 
during the ten years. The country, however — the town- 
ships — increased but four thousand six hundred and five, 
or less than fourteen per cent, during the decade. The 
population of the city, by the canvass of 1850, was one 
hundred and fifteen thousand four hundred and thirty- 
eight; of the townships, forty-one thousand four hundred 
and twelve; — total, one hundred and fifty-six thousand 
eight hundred and fifty. 

The Mexican war, which occurred during this decade, 
had no appreciable effect in retarding the growth and 
prosperity of Hamilton county. 


At the expiration of this (in i860) the population of 
the county had mounted to the high figure of two hundred 
and fifteen thousand six hundred and seventy-seven, of 
which Cincinnati, with its now seventeen wards, had 
nearly three-fourths, or one hundred and sixty-one thou- 
sand and forty-four. The remainder of the population 
was dispersed as follows: Columbia township, two 
thousand nine hundred and thirty-one; Sycamore, three 
thousand four hundred and twenty-seven; Anderson, 
three thousand four hundred and thirty-nine; Green, 
four thousand four hundred and twenty-six; Mill Creek, 
thirteen thousand eight hundred and forty-four; Spring- 
field, four thousand eight hundred and forty; .Cole- 
rain, three thousand nine hundred and thirty-three; Delhi, 
two thousand seven hundred; Miami, one thousand six 
hundred and eighty-three; Crosby, one thousand one 
hundred and eighty-two; (Reading village, one thousand 
two hundred and thirty); Whitewater, one thousand four 
hundred and twenty-one; Harrison, one thousand three 
hundred and fort)'-three; Symmes, one thousand one 
hundred and seven; Storrs, three thousand eight hun- 
dred and sixty-two; Spencer, two thousand five hundred 
and fifty-two. Total, fifty-four thousand six hundred and 

In this decade the village of College Hill was incor- 
porated, and several other towns were surveyed and their 
plats recorded. The township of Harrison was also 


In 1870 the |3opulation of the county was two hun- 
dred and sixty thousand three hundred and seventy. 
The chief productions of the year, according to the cen- 
sus, were one hundred and sixty-two thousand six 
hundred and seven bushels of wheat, one million two 
hundred and twenty-six thousand seven hundred and 
twenty-six of Indian corn, two hundred and sixty-eight 
thousand and eighty-nine of oats, ninety-six thousand 



nine hundred and seventy-nine of barley, five hundred 
and sixty-two thousand five hundred and thirty-seven of 
potatoes, seven hundred and seventy-three thousand 
three hundred and eighty-seven pounds of butter, one 
hundred and twenty-six thousand four hundred of cheese, 
and twenty-five thousand three hundred and four tons of 
hay. The county possessed eight thousand five hundred 
and thirty-one horses, twelve thousand four hundred and 
thirteen milch cows, three thousand two hundred and 
fifty-four other cattle, three thousand six hundred and 
forty-seven sheep, and twenty-one thousand one hundred 
and sixty-five swine. The manufactories of all kinds 
numbered two thousand four hundred and sixty-nine, 
with a total capital of forty-two million six hundred and 
forty-six thousand one hundred and fifty-two dollars, and 
an annual product of seventy-eight million nine hundred 
and five thousand nine hundred and eighty dollars. The 
value of real and personal property in the county in 
1870 was three hundred and forty-one million two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars. 

Notwithstanding the great civil war during nearly half 
of this decade, the growth of the county was very satis- 
factory. Lockland, Mt. Airy, Cumminsville, Woodburn, 
Avondale, Riverside, Mt. Washington, and Carthage, were 
incorporated and the foundations of other flourishing 
villages were laid. 


The earlier part of this was marked by numerous 

annexations to the city, which rapidly grew from seven to 
twenty-four square miles, and corresponding losses to 
the townships. The census of 1880, in consequence of 
the financial crisis and industrial prostration which 
characterized nearly all the years of this decade, did not 
exhibit surprising growths of'population for either city or 
county. Still, the increase was healthy, and on the 
whole satisfactory, being fourteen thousand one hundred 
and thirty-one for the townships, or about thirty-two per 
cent, for the decade; and in the city thirty-nine thousand 
three hundred and sixty-nine, or about eighteen per cent. 
The totals of population for the townships were fifty- 
eight thousand two hundred and sixty-two; for the city, 
two hundred and fifty-five thousand six hundred and 
eight; aggregate for the county, three hundred and thir- 
teen thousand eight hundred and seventy. Most of the 
townships showed a good increase, and Columbia had 
nearly trebled its population. 


A comparative statement or table of the censuses taken 
by the Federal officers since the first enumeration of the 
county was made, will help to the -rapid comprehension 
of its growth from year to year. For those of 1800 and 
1810 we have the total footings for the county, from 
which the aggregate population of the townships is ob- 
tained by subtracting the known population of Cincinnati 
at the respective periods : 








v Harrison.. 


Mill Creek 









Total for the county. 





















1. 107 







260, 372 










The indebtedness of Hamilton county July, 1879, was 
but four hundred and two thousand five hundred and 
ninety-eight dollars, principally in court-house building 

• The valuations of personal property in Hamilton county 
for 1879 and 1880, exclusive of Cincinnati, which will be 
found hereafter, as returned for taxation to the county 
auditor's office last June are as follows: 


Anderson Tp., Northern Pt.* 

Anderson Tp. , Central Pt 

Anderson Tp. , Southern Pt 

Mt. Washington Cor.,* Anderson Tp, 

Colerain Tp. , Northeastern Pt 

Colerain Tp., Southwestern Pt 

Columbia Tp., Eastern Pt 

Columbia Tp., Western Pt 

Columbia Tp., Central Pt 

Columbia, Oakley Pt 

Madisonville Cor., Columbia Tp 

Crosby Tp 

Delhi Tp., Eastern Pt 

Delhi Tp., Western Pt 

Riverside Cor., Delhi Tp 

Home City, Delhi Tp 

Green Tp., Northeastern Pt 

Green Tp., Northwestern Pt 

Green Tp. , Southeastern Pt a. 

Green Tp. , Southwestern Pt 

Mt. Airy Cor., Green Tp 

Westwood Cor. , Green Tp 

Harrison Tp 

Harrison Cor. , Harrison Tp 

Miami Tp 

Cleves Cor. , Miami Tp 

North Bend Cor., Miami Tp 

Millcreek Tp., Bond Hill Pt 

Millcreek Tp. Northeastern Pt 

Millcieek Tp., St. Bernard Pt 

Millcreek Tp., Winton Pt 

Avondale Cor. , Millcreek Tp 

Carthage Cor. , Millcreek Tp 

Clifton Cor., Millcreek Tp 

College Hill Cor., Millcreek Tp 

Mt. Airy Cor., Millcreek Tp 

St. Bernard Cor., Millcreek Tp 

Western Pt., Millcreek Tp 

College Hill Pt., Millcreek Tp 

Soencer Tp. , Southern Pt 

Linwood Cor. , Spencer Tp 

Springfield Tp. , Eastern Pt 

Springfield Tp., Western Pt 

Springfield, Northeastern Pt 

Springfield, Southeastern Pt 

Carthage Cor. , Springfield Tp 

Glendale Cor., Springfield Tp 

Hartwell Cor., Springfield Tp 

Lockland Cor., Springfield Tp 

Wyoming Cor., Springfield Tp 

Sycamore Tp., Eastern Pt 

Sycamore Tp. , Sharon^^lle Pt 

Sycamore Tp. , Reading Pt 

Lockland Cor., Sycamore Tp 

Reading Cor., Sycamore Tp 

Symmes Tp., Northern Pt 

Symmes Tp., Camp Dennison Pt. . . . 

Loveland Cor., Symmes Tp 

West Loveland Pt., Symmes Tp 

Riverside, Storrs Tp 

Whitewater Tp., Northern Pt 

Whitewater Tp. , Southern Pt 












































1. 195 








57, 806 









































































































70, 146 



69. 137 




26, 107 

























The comparative statement for 1879-80 of the taxable 
value of new structures erected during those years, in all 
parts of the county, except Cincinnati, is as follows. 
The figures are presumed to represent the actual value 
added to the property by the improvements of those years : 

Precinct — Corporation. 


Anderson Township, Northern Precinct 

Anderson Township, Central Precinct 

Anderson Township, Southern Precinct . . 

Mt. Washington Corporation, Anderson Township 

Colerain Township, Northeastern Precinct 

Colerain Township, Southwestern Precinct 

Columbia Township, Eastern Precinct 

Columbia Township, Western Precinct 

Columbia Township, Central Precinct 

Columbia, Oakley Precinct 

Madisonville Corporation, Columbia Township.. . . 

Crosby Township 

Delhi Township, Eastern Precinct 

Delhi Township, Western Precinct 

Riverside Corporation, Delhi Township 

Home City Delhi Township 

Green Township, Northeastern Precinct 

Green Township, Northwestern Precinct 

Green Township, Southeastern Precinct 

Green Township, Southwestern Precinct 

Mt. Airy Corporation, Green Township 

Westwood Corporation Green Township 

Harrison Township 

Harrison Corporation, Harrison Township 

Miami Township 

Cleves Corporation, Miami Township 

North Bend Corporation, Miami Township 

Millcreek Township, Bond Hill Precinct. 

Millcreek Township, Northeastern Precinct 

Millcreek Township, St. Bernard Precinct 

Millcreek Township, Winton Precinct 

Avondale Corporation, Millcreek Township 

Carthage Corporation, Millcreek township 

Chfton Corporation, Millcreek township 

College Hill Corporation, Millcreek Township. . . . 

Mt. Airy Corporation, Millcreek Township 

St. Bernard Corporation, Millcreek Township 

Western Precinct, Millcreek Township 

Spencer Township, Southern Pr;cinct 

Linwood Corporation Spencer Township 

Springfield Township, Eastern Precinct 

Springfild Township, Western Precinct 

Springfield Township Northeastern Precinct 

Springfield Township, Southeastern Precinct 

Carthage Corporation, Springfield Township 

Glendale Corporation, Springfield Township 

Hartwell Corporation, Springfield Township 

Lockland Corporation, Springfield Township 

Wyoming Corporation, Springfield Township 

Sycamore Township, Eastern Precinct 

Sycamore Township, Sharonville Precinct 

Sycamore Township, Reading Precinct 

Lockland Corporation, Sycamore Township 

Reading Corporation, .Sycamore Township. 

Symmes Township, Northern Precinct 

Symmes Township, Camp Dennison Precinct 

Loveland Corporation, Symmes Township 

Riverside, Storrs Township 

Whitewater Township, Northern Precinct 

Whitewater Township, Southern Precinct ■. 







$ 2,850 



































6, goo 









1. 575 























































As a sort of a foot-note or appendix to these notes 
of progress, we here more appropriately, perhaps, than 
anywhere else in this division of the History, make men- 
tion of 


The first church built in Hamilton county was that at 
Columbia, for the Baptist society, organized in that set- 
tlement March 24, 1790. It was, further, the first meet- 
ing-house erected in the territory now covered by the 
state of Ohio, except the church building of the Mora- 
vian missionaries at Schonebrunn and Gnadenhutten, in 
the valley of the Tuscarawas. 

The first ordination of a clergyman in the Miami coun- 
try was that of the Rev. Daniel Clark, a young Baptist 
minister at Columbia, by the Rev. Messrs. Gano and Smith, 
in a grove of elms near that place, September 23, 1793. 



The first school in the county was opened July 21, 
1790, also in Columbia, by John Reily, afterwards a 
distinguished citizen of Butler and Hamilton counties. 
The next year Francis Dunlavy was joined in the. in- 
struction of the school, taking a classical department, 
while Mr. Reily confined his labors to the English stu- 
dies. The first regular school-house was probably there. 

The first ferry from the front of Hamilton county on 
the river to the Kentucky shore at the present site of Cov- 
ington was run in 1790 by Robert and Thomas Kennedy, 
one of whom lived at each end of the line. The first to 
Newport was run by Captain Robert Benham, under a 
license from the Territorial government, granted Septem- 
ber 24, 1792, from Cincinnati to the opposite bank, the 
present Newport, on the east side of the Licking. 

The first mill run in Hamilton county was started by 
Mr. Neaiad Coleman, a citizen of Columbia, soon after the 
planting of the colony. It was a very simple affair, quite 
like that known at Marietta in the early day, and figured 
in Dr. S. P. Hildreth's Pioneer History. The flat- 
boats were moored side by side near the shore, but in the 
current, and with sufficient space between them for the 
movement of a water-wheel. The grindstones, with the 
grain and flour or meal handled, were in one boat, and 
the machin'ery in another. This rude mill, kept going 
by the cultivation 'of the rich soil at or near Colum- 
bia, was the chief source of supply for the soldiers of 
Fort Washington and the citizens of Cincinnati for one 
or two years. Without it, there would at one time, at least, 
have been danger of abandonment of the fort, if not of 
the settlements. Before its construction, settlers who had 
no access to hand-mills or who wished to economize their 
labor, went far into Kentucky to get their grinding done. 
At one time Noah Badgeley and three other Cincinnati 
settlers went up the Licking to Paris, for a supply of 
breadstuff, and on their return were caught in a flood, 
their boat overturned, Badgeley drowned, and the others 
exposed to peril and privation upon branches of trees in 
the raging waters for two or three days. It is possible 
that Coleman's mill is identical with that mentioned in 
early annals as the property of one Wickerslham (Wicker- 
ham he is called in Spencer's Indian Captivity, probably 
by error of the types), which is sometimes referred to as 
the first mill, and was situated at a rapid of the Little 
Miami, a little below the Union bridge, where Philip Tur- 
pin's mill was afterwards erected. 

Soon after Coleman started his grist-mill, another, but 
of different character, was built on Mill creek, near Cin- 
cinnati. A horse-mill existed in that town at a very early 
day, near the site of the First Presbyterian church, and 
some of the meetings of that society were held in it. 

The first cases of capital punishment in the county 
occurred at the southeast end of Fort Washington in 
1789 — the execution of two soldiers, John Ayers and 
Matthew Ratn:iore, for desertion. The first execution by 
the civil authorities was that of John May, in Cincinnati, 
near the close of the century, by hanging, under sentence 
for the murder of his friend, Wat Sullivan, whom he stab- 
bed with a hunting-knife during a drunken brawl at a 
party given in a log cabin then standing near the corner 

of Sixth and Main streets. He was hanged by Sheriff 
Ludlow, at the spot on the south side of Fifth street, east 
of Walnut, where B. Cavagna now has his grocery store, 
and where the first jail stood. The country for fifty 
miles around turned out its population to see the execu- 

Other "first things" will be recorded in connection 
with the special histories of Cincinnati and other parts of 
the county, where full notes will be made of these to 
which we have given rapid mention. 



The landis holy where they fouglu, 

And holy where they fell ; 
For by their blood that land was bought, 

The land they loved so well. 
Then glory to that valiant band, 

The honored saviors of the land ! 

The God of battles heard their cry, 
And sent to them the victory. 

They left the plowshare in the mould, 

Their flocks and herds without a fold. 

The sickle in the unshorn grain. 

The corn, half garnered, on the plain; 

And mustered, in their simple dress. 

For wrongs to seek a stern redress. 

To right their wrongs, come weal, come woe. 

To perish, or o'ercome their foe. 


Probably no county in the United States — certainly 
none in the States that date their origin since the war of 
the Revolution — has a more brilliant military record than 
Hamilton county. In the Indian period, during the last 
war with Great Britain, the skirmish with Mexico, and 
the great civil war, the men of Cincinnati, and of Hamil- 
ton county at large, bore full and honorable part. Their 
patriotism from the beginning has been clear and un- 
doubted; their readiness to serve the country in any hour 
of its peril has been equally manifest, whenever the occa- 
sion for its exhibition has come. From Fort Washington, 
near the old Cincinnati, marched the troops ofHarmar, of 
St. Clair, and of Wayne, in their several campaigns 
against the savages of the north country; and hence, 
much later, moved gaily out, likewise on the Hamilton 
road, and one bright May morning, the Fourth regiment 
of infantry in the Federal army, which formed the main 
stay of the beleaguered force at the battle of Tippecanoe. 
From Hamilton county went large and gallant contin- 
gents in the War of 181 2-15 and the war with Mexico; 
and her contingent in the war of the Rebellion was num- 
bered by many thousands — a very large percentage, in- 
deed, of the entire force (three hundred and ten thou- 
sand six hundred and fifty-four men) recruited in the 
State of Ohio during the struggle. It is doubtful whether 
any city in the Union furnished more men to the Federal 
cause, in proportion to its population, than Cincinnati. 



The record of the entire county, in this regard, is greatly 
to its honor. Of one hundred thousand two hundred 
and twenty-four men raised for the Union army in Ohio 
in 1861, eight thousand one hundred and ninety-two, or 
very nearly one-twelfth, were from this one county. It 
had at any time, considering its numerous population, 
but an exceedingly light requisition upon it for drafted 
militia. The total quota assigned it for draft during the 
war was but two thousand one hundred and forty-eight, 
of which one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine were 
furnished in voluntary recruits, and the actual entire 
draft from Hamilton county, in the four years of war, 
was but a paltry one hundred and seventy-eight. Through 
some accident, neglect, or failure of calculation — for it 
cannot have been through inability to procure the men, 
or other necessity — this still left the trifling deficit of 
ninety-five men. But there were only twenty-three coun- 
ties in all the State that were not deficient in the filling 
of their quotas; and six of the counties in which there 
was a shortage exhibit on their military record, notwith- 
standing the immense disparity of population, greater de- 
ficits than does Hamilton county. The general work and 
record of the county during the bloody years are better 
shown by the statistical history of 1862. Upon the first 
of September of that year, the number of enrolled militia 
in the county was thirty-nine thousand nine hundred and 
twenty-six, of whom the volunteers in the armies of the 
Union numbered fourteen thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-five. The number then ordered to be drafted was 
one thousand one hundred and seventy-five; but so rapid 
were the enlistments, and so many errors were demon- 
strated in the figuring of the enrolling, recruiting, and 
mustering officers that the number was more than made 
good (credits of one thousand five hundred and twenty- 
nine men being obtained through volunteers and errors 
shown), and there was consequently no draft. 


In almost the earliest days of Cincinnati and Colum- 
bia, as we have seen in chapter IX., and shall see more 
fully hereafter, provision was made for an organized mili- 
tia. One of the first acts of Governor St. Clair, after the 
erection of Hamilton county, was the appointment of 
officers at these two places for a battalion of militia; and 
the protection and defence of the settlements, and the 
punishment of the marauding and murdering savages, 
which had before proceeded in an irregular though 
effective way, was thenceforth under the eye of the Terri- 
torial government. Some of the officers and men of the 
early companies greatly distinguished themselves after- 
wards in the battles of Indian warfare and the War of 
1812, and not a few laid down their lives upon the bloody 
fields. Since the date of their enrollment, ninety years 
ago, Hamilton county has never been without an organ- 
ized military force of her own. 

harmar's campaign and defeat. 
About the middle of the year 1790, Governor St. 
Clair, upon his return to Fort Washington from a pro- 
tracted tour of official duty in the more distant parts of 
the Territory, beginning with the creation of Hamilton 

county at Cincinnati the previous January, had a pro- 
longed consultation with General Harmar, who had 
shortly before, in April, led an unsuccessful expedition 
against the Indians of the Scioto valley. As a result of 
the council, it was determined to send a force against the 
Indians of the Maumee, whose depredations upon the 
settlements along the Ohio had become persistent and 
exceedingly annoying. St. Clair accordingly issued cir- 
cular letters to the militia commanders in Kentucky, Vir- 
ginia, and western Pennsylvania, calling out their troops 
to reinforce the regular army for this campaign. The lat- 
ter formed but two small battalions, commanded by 
Majors Wyllys and Doughty, with an artillery company of 
three field-guns. The Pennsylvania and Virginia militia 
formed another battalion, under Colonel John Hardin; 
and the Kentuckians mustered three battalions, com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Trotter. Virginia seems 
not to have sent enough troops to form a separate organ- 
ization, and the whole force for the expedition consisted 
of but one thousand four hundred and fifty-three men, of 
whom only three hundred and twenty were regular sol- 
diers. They were very poorly equipped, having few of 
the necessaries of military life,. as camp kettles and axes; 
and their arms were generally in bad condition, many of 
them absolutely unfit for service. Some of the Pennsyl- 
vanians had no arms whatever. Not a few old and in- 
firm men and mere boys also appeared among the mili- 
tia. The temper of the volunteers, too, was by no means 
good. They were averse to act with the regular troops, 
and manifested considerable jealousy of them, giving the 
commander of the expedition. General Harmar, a deal 
of trouble. There were also unfortunate quarrels for 
precedence among the principal officers of the volun- 
teers, in which they were stubbornly backed by the men 
of their respective commands. 

On the twenty-second of September, Major Wyllys 
arrived with his detachment of regulars from the garrison 
at the falls of the Ohio; on the twenty-fifth came Major 
Doughty with part of the Fort Harmar garrison, and 
Lieutenant Frothingham followed soon after with the 
remainder. The last of the Pennsylvanians came on the 
twenty-fifth. The Kentuckians had not all arrived when 
the march began; but, as the tardy volunteers were dra- 
goons and mounted riflemen, they were able to overtake 
the moving column, which they did on the fifth of Oc- 

About the thirtieth of the previous month, General 
Harmar moved his force from Fort Washington by a 
route represented to him by his guides as the shortest 
and best to the objective points of his campaign, and en- 
camped about ten miles from the fort. Had he been able 
here, as Wayne afterwards was, in the Mill creek valley, 
to halt for better organization and equipment of his mot- 
ley command, and for drill and other necessary prepara- 
tion for the field, a happier story might be told of the 
result. He decided to go on at once, however; and on 
the thirteenth of October the little army neared the 
Maumee villages. Colonel Hardin was detached with a 
company of regulars and six hundred militia, as an ad- 
vance party to find the enemy and keep them engaged 



until the main body could get up. He found the towns 
abandoned; and when the remainder of the column 
arrived, on the morning of the seventeenth, they were 
destroyed, with a large quantity of corn, estimated at 
twenty thousand bushels, standing in the fields. This 
was the only real damage inflicted upon the savages by 
the campaign, and alone redeemed the movement from 
absolute failure. Colonel Trotter was then sent with 
three hundred men to scout in the woods, but to no 
effect; and Colonel Hardin, on the nineteenth, led an- 
other reconnoisance in force. Falling in with a much 
smaller party of the enemy and being fired upon, the 
whites, without even stopping to form line of battle, dis- 
gracefully retreated in disorder, losing nine militiamen 
and twenty-four regulars killed. Two days afterwards, 
the whole army began to retire; but on the night of that 
day, the twenty-first, Hardin obtained permission to lead 
another detachment the next morning back to the site of 
the Indian villages in hopes of finding and punishing 
the enemy. He did so, and was again defeated with 
much loss ; when further aggressive operations were sus- 
pended. The scene of these disasters was near Keki- 
onga, an Indian village opposite the subsequent site of 
Fort Wayne. The army returned in an orderly way, by 
slow and easy marches, to Fort Washington, pursued 
cautiously by the red men, who did no serious injury. 
Arrived at the fort, the militia were disbanded and dis- 
missed, and the regulars sent again to their garrisons. 
Harmar hastened to Washington, resigned his commis- 
sion, and demanded a court of inquiry, which was 
ordered. Its finding substantially vindicated him, and 
put the blame of the failure of the expedition mainly 
upon the inefficiency of the militia force and the insuffi- 
ciency of their equipment. 

Wilkinson's expedition. 

In July following, at Governor St. Clair's suggestion, 
the Kentucky board of war — a body of leading citizens 
and militia officers authorized by Congress — determined 
upon an expedition against the Elk River Indian towns, 
in the present Indiana country. It was to rendezvous at 
Fort Washington, and be under command of Colonel 
Wilkinson, of that post. On the twentieth of July the 
Kentuckians duly arrived and mounted, and provis- 
ioned for thirty days, began to assemble at the fort, and 
on the first of the next month a column of five hundred 
and twenty-five men began the movement. It marched 
first upon the Maumee villages, but without provoking an 
engagement, Wilkinson intending merely to feint in this 
direction, and on the sixth, after some skirmishing, 
reached an extensive Ouiatenon village called L'Anguille, 
on Eel river, near its debouchure into the Wabash. It 
was captured and destroyed, together with two hundred 
acres of corn in the milk, a number of Indians being 
killed and others taken prisoners. Among the latter were 
the son and sisters of the Ouiatenon chief or "King," as 
Wilkinson calls him in the official report. Advancing to 
the prairies of western Indiana a small Kickapoo town 
was burned and the standing corn destroyed, and on the 
twenty-first of the month, after a march of four hundred 

and fifty-one miles from Fort Washington, he reached 
safely the falls of the Ohio, where the expedition was dis- 


The Indians derived great encouragement from the 
retreat of General Harmar, although exceedingly exasper- 
ated by the destruction of their villages and crops, and 
they harried the frontier settlements worse than before. 
Another expedition became necessary to punish them, and 
also to establish a military post at an important strategic 
point, near the junction of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's 
rivers, at the head of the Maumee. Governor St. Clair, 
having been made a major-general in the regular army 
and commander in chief of the forces in the northwest, 
was entrusted with the command in this campaign, with 
General Richard Butler second in authority. They 
began preparations early in 1791, and by the middle of 
July the first regiment of the Federal troops, numbering 
two hundred and sixty-nine men, reached Fort Washing- 
ton. Two thousand and three hundred militia and 
regulars, most of whom were raw recruits, were soon 
gathered there, and after encamping for a season at Lud- 
low's Station (now Cumminsville), six miles from the 
fort, along which is now "Mad Anthony" street, the 
army marched, September 17th, to the Great Miami, 
where the city of Hamilton now stands, and where Fort 
Hamilton — named, like this county, from the then Secre- 
tary of the Treasury — was built by St. Clair's men, a 
strong, well-constructed work, about one thousand feet in 
circuit. Leaving a sufficient garrison and resuming the 
march forty-four miles further, the troops halted again 
for twelve days, to buiUi Fort Jefferson, six miles south 
of the present site of Greenville. October 24th the 
final advance into the Indian country began, but under 
many difficulties. St. Clair was seriously ill with the 
gout, having to be carried on a litter; the men were 
deserting singly and in large parties; the trails were ex- 
ceedingly difficult for artillery and wagons; provisions 
were scant, and the march proceeded very slowly and 
toilsomely. Only about fourteen hundred men and 
eighty-six officers remained when the scene of action 
was reached, on the third of November. This was upon 
a branch of the Wabash river, just south of the head- 
waters of the St. Mary of the Maumee, which was the 
stream to which St. Clair supposed he had arrived. 
Fort Recovery was afterward built upon the battlefield, 
and a town of the same name still perpetuates its mem- 

The very next morning, at daylight, the Indians at- 
tacked in great force. The first pressure came upon the 
militia, who, as in Harmar's defeat, speedily gave way, 
and in their retreat threw two of the regular battalions 
into much disorder. The enemy were, however, checked 
and temporarily driven back, but their fire was heavy 
and very deadly, particularly among the officers, and the 
raw troops were soon in precipitate flight, abandoning 
the camp and artillery, and strewing the line of retreat with 
their arms and accoutrements. Major Clark's battalion 
courageously covered the retreat, and prevented the 
absolute destruction of the columns. The race to the 



rear was maintained without Halt until Fort Jefferson, 
twenty-nine miles distant, was reached about sunset of the 
same day. Eight hundred and ninety men and sixteen 
officers, more than sixteen per cent, of the whole number 
engaged — were left dead or wounded in this engagement.- 
It is accounted the most terrible reverse the American 
arms ever suffered from, the Indians — even more disas- 
trous than Braddock's defeat. * It was but a feeble rem- 
nant of the expedition that finally, four days after the 
defeat, found rest and shelter within the walls of Fort 

Among the killed were General Butler, the heio of 
the Fort Finney treaty, and second in command of the 
expedition. Lieutenant Colonel ©Idham, and other 
prominent officers. The wounded included Colonel 
Winthrop Sargent, of Cincinnati, secretary of the North- 
west Territory, and the Viscount Malartie, a foreigner of 
distinction, serving as a volunteer aid upon St. Clair's 
staff. He had been a captain in the guard of Louis 
XVI, but left it to join the Gallipolis colony, and volun- 
teered as an aid-de-camp to St. Clair when his expedition 
reached that point on its way down the river. After the 
defeat and his wound, which was severe, he had no 
stomach for more Indian fighting, and soon made his 
way to Philadelphia, and thence back to France. 

Colonel Wilkinson succeeded St. Clair as commandant 
at Fort Washington; and in the following January, the 
troops being idle, he called for volunteers from the sur- 
rounding county to reinforce his two hundred regulars 
for an expedition to the scene of defeat, to bury the 
dead, and bring off the cannon and other public property- 
that might have been left by the Indians upon the field. 
The yeomanry of ^Hamilton county, and some of the 
neighboring Kentuckians, promptly responded, and 
rendezvoused at the fort. The snow lay two feet'deep 
upon the ground, deeper than had been known since the 
white -man's occupancy of that region; and the ice was 
so thick in the Ohio that the Kentucky volunteers.£ould 
not ferry their horses over, and had to cross them upon a 
still stronger tract of ice above the mouth of the Little 
Miami. On the twenty-fifth of the month Wilkinson 
moved out, upon the trace opened by St. Clair, and en- 
camped the first night upon the hill south of Mount 
Pleasant, afterwards occupied by Cary's academy, and 
the second night at Fort Hamilton. By the time he 
reached Fort Jefferson the difficulties and hardships of 
the march were telling severely upon the detachment, 
and he determined to send back the regulars, retaining 
the mounted volunteers and the public sleds whereon to 
bring off the guns. With these he reached the theatre 
of St. Clair's disaster on the first of February, finding 
the snow there also deep, but not completely concealing 
the remains of the dead. As many of these as could 
be conveniently found under the circumstances were 
collected and buried in pits; but so many remained un- 
buried that persons with Wayne's expedition eighteen 
months afterwards reported, doubtless with exaggeration 
(since the Indians carry off their dead), that six hundred 

*Western Annals, third edition, 585. 

skulls were found upon the field, and that it was neces- 
sary to clear the tents of bones before beds could be 
spread upon the surface. Three gun-carriages were 
found and brought away, with some small arms; five 
others had been so damaged as to be useless. The can- 
non had disappeared; but as the adjacent creek was 
covered with thick ice and snow, a thorough search in it, 
where it was believed they had been thrown, was not 
practicable. They were subsequently found, however, 
and mounted on Fort Recovery, where they were used 
M'ith effect during Wayne's occupancy of the battle- 
ground. Evidences were observed of great cruelties in- 
flicted by the savages upon the unfortunates of St. Clair's 
expedition who had been left wounded upon the field. 
Wilkinson was not disturbed by the enemy during his 
brief campaign of humanity, and he returned quietly to 
Fort Washington when its object was accomplished. 
Wayne's campaign and victory. 

The most vigorous measures on the part of the Gen- 
eral Government were now necessary to preserve the 
frontier settlements in the northwest from destruction 
and to prevent the early reflux of the advancing wave of 
civilization. A competent leader was first in demand. 
From a number of able officers of the army, most of them 
Revolutionary heroes, whose names were submitted to 
President Washington, he selected the hero of the storm- 
ing of Stony Point, the brave "Mad Anthony Wayne" — 
he who showed so much method, withal, in his madness. 
In June, 1792, Wayne reached Pittsburgh, with ample 
powers, and set about the slow, yet, as the sad experience 
of Harmar and St. Clair had proved, the indispensable 
preparations necessary to success. He addressed him- 
self at once to the recruiting and drill of the new "Le- 
gion of the United States," which was presently, by a 
bloody victory, to pacificate the savages of the northwest. 

Establishing a camp on the Ohio, twenty-two miles be- 
low Pittsburgh — called "Legionville," from the title of 
his army — he gathered, by December, a considerable 
force there. About the last of April, 1793, he moved it 
down the river to Fort Washington, and thence, as it was 
too numerous to occupy that work, out to a camp he 
formed in the Mill Creek valley, near the village of Cin- 
cinnati, about the spot upon which the gas-works were 
long afterwards erected. This camp was designated by 
him as "Hobson's Choice," since it was the only one in 
the vicinity which the high water of that spring made eli- 
gible for the purpose. 

The following is Judge Burnet's interesting note upon 
the selection of this camp: 

On tlie arrival of General Wayne, at Cincinnati, witli the troops 
from Legionville, late in 1793, he ordered the quartermaster, with two 
or three of his officers, to make a careful examination of the grounds 
adjoining the town, and select the most eligible spot for the construc- 
tion of an encampment. After a careful execution of the order, they 
reported that there was no situation near the town, on which the army 
could be conveniently encamped, and that tlie only ground which was 
in any degree calculated for the purpose was on the river bank, between 
the village and Mill creek. The general replied, "if that be so, we 
have Hobson's choice, and must take it." From that expression the 
place selected was immediately called "Hobson's Choice," and ha.s 
been known by that name ever since. The general was evidently a 
reader of the Spectator, or was at least familiar with the term which 
has its origin in a notable chapter of that work. 



Here the work of organizing and drilling the soldiers 
went steadily on through the summer. Washington 
wrote to Wayne: "Train and discipline them for the 
service they are meant for; and do not spare powder and 
lead, so the men be made marksmen." One of Wayne's 
sentinels at this time was posted upon the lofty ancient 
mound which stood until 1841 at the intersection of 
Mound and Fifth streets. The force suffered much from 
fevers and influenza and by desertion. Wayne also found 
it difficult to obtain the mounted volunteers he wanted 
from Kentucky, as the militia of that State retained the 
old prejudices, and disliked to serve with regulars. All 
obstacles were, however, gradually overcome; and on the 
seventh of October, the faithful and well directed efforts 
of the Government to secure peace by diplomacy having 
so far failed, the army began an aggressive campaign. 
It numbered two thousand si.x hundred regular troops, 
three hundred and sixty mounted militia, and thirty-six 
guides and scouts. One thousand Kentucky volunteers, 
under General Charles Scott, joined it, soon after, at Fort 
Jefferson. A strong position six miles in front of this work 
was occupied on the thirteenth, and held for several 
months, while the "peace talks" with the Indians were 
renewed by the commissioners of the Government. On 
the sixth of November the Kentucky mounted infantry 
had a sharp affair with the Indians not far from Fort St. 
Clair, a work constructed near the present site of Eaton, 
Preble county, in which the whites lost some men and 
nearly all their horses. 

Wayne's army, now called the "Northwestern," win- 
tered at the new camp on the Stillwater branch of the 
Miami. It was fortified, and many cabins put up during 
the season. Wayne gave the group of huts and fort the 
name of Greenville, which was retained for the flourish- 
ing town that now covers its site. Here he awaited the 
arrival of the convoys with provisions, and continued 
his preparations for the struggle. About the last of De- 
cember a detachment was sent forward to the field of 
St. Clair's defeat, which built and garrisoned Foit Recov- 
ery there. Under the walls of that work an escort of 
one hundred and fifty men, commanded by Major Mc- 
Mahon, was attacked by a thousand Indians, led by Lit- 
tle Turtle, the noted Miami chief; but they were beaten 
off, after a severe action, with great slaughter. The next 
month Wayne was joined by sixteen hundred mounted 
volunteers from Kentucky, and on the twenty-eighth of 
July, 1794, he began his first movement against the 
enemy. August 8th, the army reached Grand Glaize, 
near the union of the Auglaise and Maumee, where Fort 
Defiance was built, and Wayne despatched a firm but 
conciliatory message to the Indians. In reply they gent 
word that if he would wait ten days longer at Grand 
Glaize, they would decide for peace or war; but he 
would not wait, and continued his movement until the 
eighteenth of August, when he reached a place forty-one 
miles from Grand Glaize, where, ascertaining that he was 
almost in the presence of the enemy, he began to throw 
up a light work called Fort Deposit, to cover the trains 
and heavy baggage of the army. On the morning of 
the twentieth, moving cautiously down the north bank of 

the Maumee about five miles, the advance guard was 
ambuscaded by the Indians, and received so severe a 
fire that it was driven back upon the main body. The 
enemy was very favorably posted in high grass and 
among trees felled bv a tornado — which gave the action 
the name of "the Battle of the Fallen Timbers." Among 
these it was impossible for the cavalry to operate with 
effect on a considerable part of the line of battle. They 
were promptly moved against the enemy's flanks, how- 
ever, while the front line of infantry charged the savages, 
which it did with such impetuosity as to oust them 
speedily from their coverts, and in less than an hour to 
drive them more than two miles and disperse them so 
thoroughly that the battle was not renewed. 

The brunt of this gallant affair was borne by less than 
nine hundred of Wayne's men, opposed to more than 
twice their number, representing the Miami, Delaware, 
Ottawa, Shawnee, and Wyandot tribes, and led by sev- 
eral of their bravest chiefs. A number of Canadian 
militia and British regulars, with their officers, were also 
on the field as auxiliaries to the savages; and some of 
them were killed in the fight. In the spring of this year 
a fortification had been constructed by the British in the 
neighborhood of the battle ground, upon the territory of 
the United States. To the vicinity of this (Fort Miami) 
Wayne now moved, and while engaged in a spirited cor- 
respondence with its commander, in regard to the intru- 
sion of the British upon Federal territory, occupied his 
army with the devastation of the Indian villages and 
cornfields above and below the British post. Included 
in the destruction were the buildings and other property 
of Colonel McKee, the British Indian agent and "prin- 
cipal stimulator," as Wayne calls him, of the war on the 
side of the savages, having been personally present on 
the field of the Fallen Timbers. 

Having laid waste the country for miles about the fort, 
Wayne returned to Fort Defiance, and on the fourteenth 
of September moved toward the junction of the St. Jo- 
seph's and the St. Mary's, where the Government had for 
years desired to plant a military work, and where he 
built one whose name is perpetuated by the city of Fort 
Wayne, at the same place. About the middle of Octo- 
ber the Kentucky contingent, which had become muti- 
nous and troublesome, was marched back to Fort Wash- 
ington and mustered out of service. On the twenty- 
eighth the remainder, except a sufficient garrison for the 
new fortification, moved to Fort Greenville, where it win- 
tered. The several tribes, notwithstanding constant 
British instigation to the contrary, one after another de- 
cided to sue for peace. Messages to that effect were 
received in December and January by the commanders 
at Forts Wayne and Greenville; prisoners were ex- 
changed; and in the summer of 1795 a great gathering 
of the leading men of the tribes at the latter place re- 
sulted in the treaty of Greenville, bearing final date 
August 3d, of that year. It was ratified by the Senate 
of the United States in December; and so, through 
Wayne's carefulness and foresight in preparation, his 
masterly strategy in the construction and occupancy of 
a chain of military posts into the hostile country, and 


the bravery of his "Legion," the terrible Indian wars 
of the eighteenth century in this country were closed. 
A peace lasting until the temporary outbreak sixteen 
years afterwards, under Tecumseh and the "Prophet," 
was secured by the great convention of Greenville. 


In the spring of 1794, while General Wayne was for a 
time in or near Fort Washington, he was directed by 
President Washington to despatch a force to Fort Massac, 
on the Mississippi, to intercept an irregular, filibustering 
army, understood to be in preparation in Kentucky, and 
expected to invade Louisiana for the conquest of that 
province, then under Spanish domination. Wayne de- 
tached Major Doyle, with a company of infantry and 
artillery, to perform the service, which, with other ener- 
getic measures undertaken by Washington, effectually 
broke up the schemes and intrigues mainly instigated, in 
Kentucky and elsewhere, by the agents of M. Genet, 
then the French Minister to this country. The "French 
party" had enlisted the sympathies of the governor and 
other prominent men in Kentucky, and arranged for 
the rendezvous of two thousand men at the Falls of the 
Ohio (Louisville) to constitute an army of invasion ; so 
that the movement thus checked, in part from Fort 
Washington, was really somewhat formidable. 


seemed to be made necessary in southwestern Ohio at 
one time during the latter part of the first decade of this 
century, by the suspected hostile conspiracies of Tecum- 
seh ■ and his brother, the Prophet, who resided at Green- 
ville from 1805 to 1809. They were visited there by 
many Indians of influence and martial prowess; who 
were roused almost to frenzy by the intrigues of the 
Prophet and the eloquent appeals of Tecumseh. So 
strong became the signs of hostility at last that war was 
confidently expected. The militia of this region were 
called out and rendezvoused at Dayton, supplies gathered, 
wagon- and pack-trains organized, and other preparations 
made. The scare was shortly 'over, however ; and the 
troops, after about a fortnight's service, were disbanded. 
One regiment was out from Hamilton county, command- 
ed by Colonel John S. Wallace, of which Dr. John Black- 
burn, of Cincinnati, was surgeon. 


It is probable that many other men of Hamilton 
county, besides the gallant commander, General William 
Henry Harrison, were out with him in the campaign of 
181 1, against the Indians of the Indian country; but 
their names are not now ascertainable. The sole note of 
.the history of the campaign, connecting Cincinnati and 
the county with it, which we find, is in Mr. E. D. Mans- 
field's Personal Memories. He was then a little boy, 
residing with his father at Ludlow's Station, on the Ham- 
ilton road, upon which he remembered seeing the Fourth 
regiment of infantry march from Cincinnati on a pleasant 
morning in May, on their way to the ultimate victory of 
the campaign at Tippecanoe the following November, 
where they found the main body and chief hope of the 
American army. The renown won by General Harrison 

in the campaign also reflects from it honor upon Hamil- 
ton county, although he was then residing at Vincennes 
as governor of Indiana territory. 

THE WAR OF 1812-15. 

Early in the spring of i8i 2, before this struggle had 
been fully enlisted; the President made a requisition upon 
the State of Ohio for one thousand two hundred mihtia. 
More than enough to fill the quota were soon raised, 
many of them from Hamilton county. They were ordered 
by Governor Meigs to rendezvous at Dayton, on the 
twenty-ninth day of April. By the fourth of May one 
thousand four hundred troops, mostly volunteers, were 
encamped at Camp Meigs, three miles above that place, 
and one hundred more were added within a week. Gen- 
erals Cass and Gano, the latter a Cincinnatian, were in 
command, under the governor, who was commander-in- 
chief The force was divided into three regiments, led, 
respectively, by Lewis Cass, Duncan McArthur, and 
another Cincinnati soldier, James S. Findlay, who, al- 
though a general in the militia, consented to take a col- 
onel's place. May 25th, the equipment of the troops 
being measurably complete. Governor Meigs formally 
surrendered the command of the Ohio contingent to 
General Hull, of the United States army, who was to lead 
it away to the disgraceful surrender at Detroit. 

Upon the outbreak of the contest, Governor Meigs 
had called out the First division of Ohio militia, which, 
rendezvoused in Hamilton county, at Hutchinson's 
tavern (later Jacob Hoffner's, in Curaminsville), on the 
road from Cincinnati through Colerain. Mr. Mansfield 
says the volunteers presented a motley appearance, 
dressed as they were in a great variety of apparel, some 
with hunting-shirts, some with butternut jackets, and 
others in more fantastic costumes. Many of the men 
had rifles or other arms; but most of them drilled with 
sticks and cornstalks in place of firelocks. When the 
governor's call was made, the response was generous 
from this county, as from other parts of the State. Two 
companies volunteered at once in Cincinnati. One was 
of mounted infantrjf, commanded by Captain John F. 
Mansfield, a nephew of Jared Mansfield, the surveyor- 

He was in the Hull surrender with his command, but 
was presently released. He was extremely mortified by 
the terrible disgrace, and also taking a fever while cross- 
ing Lake Erie, he died soon after his return to Cincin- 
nati — "of fever and a broken heart," says his cousin, Mr. 
Mansfield, in his Personal Memories. Captain Mans- 
field is thus further eulogized by his distinguished rela- 
tive, Hon. E. D. Mansfield, in his Memories of Dr. 
Drake : 

He was a most extraordinary young man, whose character produced 
a more intense and enduring impression upon those who knew him 
than did any one of whom I have ever heard. The impression made 
upon others — an impression deep and durable — is the highest testimony 
to the reality of a great and noble character. The fleeting effect of 
brilliant genius, or the doubtful applause given to talent without virtue, 
may be possessed by many ; but it is seldom we find that perfection of 
character which demands a praise which never wavers and which no 
time destroys. Still more seldom do we find in it such kindly affection 
as draws within its embrace the hearts of both strangers and friends. 
Such was the character of Captain Mansfield ; and 1 judge it only by 


the concurrent testimony of a large number of persons, from the pass- 
ing citizen to tlie near relatives, from the soldier who served with him 
to the officer who commanded. 

Returning after Hull's suirender, in an open boat on the lake and 
river, he was seized with an autumnal fever. Enfeebled by disease, he 
was not less broken in spirit; and his sensitive mind seemed to have 
sunk under the stain of disgrace and disappointiuent. In this state 
Dr. Drake found him, when returned to Cincinnati. No power of 
medicine or care of friend availed against his deep-seated malady of 
mind and body. He was already delirious, and soon sank to the grave. 
He was only in his twenty-fifth year; and one so young, so unassum- 
ing, and so full of worth, was never so much lamented by so many 
who knew what worth was. The public honors paid to his memory — 
not a few — were small compared to the tribute of sorrows poured out 
by hearts bound to him by no tie of nature, but endeared by strong af- 

Neither the roll of Captain Mansfield's company (the 
Cincinnati Light infantry), nor of Captain J. W. Sloan's 
dragoons (the Cincinnati troop), nor of any other com- 
pany known to have been from Hamilton county, is in 
the office of the adjutant-general of the State ; and we 
have been unable to recover any such roll from private 
hands. The rules of the adjutant-general's office at 
Washington do not permit the copying of military rosters 
there, through fear of frauds in the procurement of 
bounty lands and otherwise. Another company that 
went out from Cincinnati during the war was that of Cap- 
tain Carpenter, and Captains McFarland and Hugh 
Glenn are said to have had Hamilton county companies 
in this service, but we are likewise unable to present a 
copy of their rolls of honor. The entire regiment com- 
manded by General Findlay was from the Miami coun- 
try. The two companies first enlisting marched to join 
Hull's army with the Fourth United States infantry, 
which had crossed from Newport Barracks to take the 
road northward; and a sermon was preached to them be- 
fore starting, on the fourth of May, 1812, by the Rev. 
Dr. Wilson. Mr. Mansfield thus related the incident, at 
a pioneer celebration in 1874: 

Just before they set out they were called into the First Presbyterian 
church, corner of Main and Fourth streets, to hear an address from 
Dr. Joshua L. Wilson. The text was, in substance: "Cursed be he 
that goeth not forth to battle, and cursed be he that keepeth back his 
hand from blood." The brave, earnest, patriotic Wilson never hesi- 
tated to speak his mind, and speak it freely. That noble army was 
surrendered without a cause; and none who did not know those men, 
can know with what anguish and sorrow and indignation that surren- 
der was received. 

August 5, I Si 2, orders were sent by Governor Meigs 
to General John S. Gano, at Cincinnati, to march imme- 
diately with three hundred men of his division to Ur- 
bana, in charge of Captain Sutton. They were to be "un- 
der the command of a major," and furnished with a 
blanket and knapsack, arms and ammunition. "Volun- 
teers under the law of Ohio will be preferred," wrote the 
governor. No pubhc money was in hand for the pur- 
pose of recruiting or equipment; the credit of the Gov- 
ernment was low; and many of the military and naval 
operations of the war were conducted only under pledges 
or pecuniary obligations for which private persons be- 
came responsible. This order gave General Gano a 
similar opportunity. Fifteen days after the order was 
despatched he wrote : 

I had to get Major Barr to join me to put our note in bank for three 
thousand five hundred dollars, payable in ten days, which is all we 

could raise, and the bills on Government will not command the cash 
here — there are so many drawn they cannot be accommodated. 

I have six as good companies as I have seen in the State ; 
four have marched from here yesterday to join two others at Lebanon, 
where they will elect their major. . . . The detatchment 

is as follows; Captain Jenkinson with his company of artillery, fitted 
completely with muskets, etc., etc.: Lebanon Light infantry, inexactly 
the same uniform as Mansfield's company; four companies of riflemen 
completely equipt, one company one hundred strong. All can instantly 
fix bayonets to their rifles; the others every man a tomahawk and knife. 
The whole are volunteers, except the light infantry of Lebanon. 

On the sixth of September, 1813, when the events of 
the war were rapidly thickening. Colonel Henry Zumalt, 
of Cincinnati, was ordered by General Gano to march 
his regiment of militia, near eight hundred strong, "this 
evening, if possible," to Daytoij, thence to Franklinton, 
the present western division of Columbus. He was to 
be joined on his way by two companies from Hamilton 
and two from Lebanon. Extra pay was offered if the 
troops should be called into actual service. He was in- 
structed to procure musicians, if possible; and an order 
was given on Major Morton for fifty stand of arms and 

The story of the war need not be recounted here. It 
will be sufficient if some mention of the deeds of Hamil- 
ton county's sons is made. This was admirably done by 
General Harrison, in an after-dinner speech at the cele- 
bration of the forty-fifth anniversary of the settlement of 
Cincinnati and the Miami country, held in Cincinnati on 
the twenty-sixth of December, 1833, ^Y natives of Ohio. 
We extract in full that portion of his address referring to 
their exploits: 

Your young orator [Joseph Longworth, esq.] has mentioned the per- 
formances of our own Buckeye population in the late war, in terms as 
elocjuent as they were just. I could not think of trespassing upon the 
patience of the company by recounting the merits of all who distin- 
guished tiiemselves ; but I cannot resist the gratification of informing 
the citizens of Cincinnati that they have amongst their number some 
who were as conspicuous for their gallantry as any from Ohio or else- 

As those who are truly brave are always backward and retiring, I 
think it probable that the anecdotes I shall relate are unknown to the 
greater portion of the inhabitants of this city. To do full justice to my 
gallant friend whom I perceive at some distance on my right [Major 
Gwynne], I must necessarily recount the circumstances which afforded 
the opportunity for distinguishing himself to which I have referred. 
The siege of Fort Meigs had continued some days, when the enemy, 
despairing of making an impression upon our works from their position 
in front, took possession of one on our right flank, on which, in the 
night, they erected two batteries, with the view of enfilading our lines. 
It became necessary to dislodge them, and a sortie for that purpose was 
ordered. I had no means of ascertaining the force by which these bat- 
teries were defended. But it was impossible to suppose it very small, 
and allow their commander the possession of any military knowledge, 
as a large river separated them from his main body- It became neces- 
sary, therefore, to make the detachment ordered on this duty as strong 
as circumstances would permit. It was composed of the com- 
panies of the Seventeenth and Nineteenth regiments of the line 
then in the fort ; the former raised in Kentucky, the latter in Ohio. 
The whole rank and file of .both regiments was about three hundred and 
fifty. To these were added the battalion of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
and Petersburgh, Virginia, volunteers of about one hundred, and a 
small company of Boone county, Kentucky, militia, for flankers. The 
aggregate of the detachment being about five hundred rank and file, 
were put under the command of Colonel John Miller, of Ohio, the com- 
mandant of the Nineteenth regiment. These troops were drawn up in 
a deep ravine which flanked the fort, to prevent, if possible, the enemy 
from knowing the object they were intended to accomplish. Before the 
advance was ordered the troops were addressed, and the necessity of 
their succeeding and the motives for every one to perform his duty 
pointed out. They were ordered to advance witli trailed arms, to pre- 



vent their fire from being expended before they reached the enemy, and 
the most positive directions given to put to death any man who should 
fire before orders were given to do so. 

The advance was made in hne, the regular troops on the left, their 
centre directly opposite the batteries of the enemy, on their right the 
Pittsburgh and Petersburgh volunteers, and the Kentucky company of 
militia still farther on that flank. From the shape of the ravine from 
which the advance was made, the regular troops had reached the sum- 
mit before the volunteers, and the latter were in some measure masked 
by the hill, when the whole of the enemy's fire was poured upon the 
regulars. The meditated attack was discovered by the enemy, who 
looked into the ravine by climbing trees, and were of course prepared 
to receive it. The effect of the fire was dreadful, as may well be sup- 
posed, from a thousand Northwestern Indians and upwards of two 
hundred British troops in position, delivered from the corner of a wood 
upon troops in line marching through an open plain. I have always 
been of opinion that the loss was greater for the numbers engaged, and 
for the period that the firing lasted, than has ever occurred before or 
since in America. A moment's halt was necessary to close the ranks 
and to disencumber them of the killed and wounded. This was done 
with the precision and coolness of a parade exercise. In another 
moment the "march! march!" was given by the gallant commander, 
and the whole line, regulars and volunteers, rushed upon the enemy. 
They did not remain to receive the shock, although still possessing the 
advantage of position, and then outnumbering the assailants by three 
to one. With the exception of the extreme left flank of Indians, 
their whole line, British and Indians, and Tecumseh, the commander 
of the latter, 'fled; the British to their boats and the Indians to the 
swamps. The company to which your fellow-citizen. Major Gwynne, 
then a lieutenant of the Nineteenth infantry, was attached, was on the 
right of the line of regulars. The battle being over in front, he dis- 
covered that on the right the Kentuckians were still engaged with the 
Indians who had composed the enemy's extreme left, and that they had 
cut them off from our line. Seeing that the danger was pressing, with- 
out waiting for orders he changed the front of his company, charged 
the Indians on the rear, relieved the brave Kentuckians, and, with their 
assistance, completely routed them. That Major Gwynne by this bold 
and prompt movement saved many valuable lives, there can be no 
doubt. The highest reward bestowed upon a Roman soldier was given 
to him who saved the life of a Roman in battle. 

But I perceive that there is another Buckeye at the table who merited 
well of his country under my command in the late war. I am per- 
suaded that a relation of the circumstances will not be unacceptable to 
the company. When the enemy were first discovered advancing on 
Fort Meigs, and their Indians had already encircled the fort, it became 
necessary to send orders to Brigadier-General Green Clay, who was, as 
I knew, advancmg with a brigade of Kentucky militia to join me. As 
it would have been improper to send a written order, when there were 
so many chances of its falling into the hands of the enemy, a person 
was wanted who, to the quahties of sagacity, bravery, fortitude, and 
perseverance, united unquestionable patriotism. For a service of that 
character it is not usual to command its performance by an officer. 
Your fellow-citizen. Major Oliver, at that time an officer of the commis- 
sariat, proffered his services. They were accepted, and he performed 
the duty to my entire satisfaction. The hazard of the undertaking was 
very great, and it was of that kind that even the bravest men would dis- 
like to encounter. The fame which is acquired by such a death, is one 
of the strongest motives to distinguished actions in the field. If Major 
Oliver had perished on this occasion, and the chances were greatly 
against him, he certainly would have been "wept" by his numerous 
friends, but to requote what has been already given, he would have been 
"unhonored and unsung." What have been the rewards of Major 
Gwynne and Major Oliver from their country for the services they 
rendered, I cannot say. Indeed, it appears that the Buckeyes have 
been rather unfortunate in that respect, although always in the hour of 
danger and on the day of battle, they appear to have been frequently 
'overlooked in the division of the spoil. 

A glance at the president of the day [Major Daniel Gano] reminds 
me of the important services rendered by his father; and as he is the 
proper representative of that father, it is within the rules that I should 
mention them. When I first saw the late Major-General John S. 
Gano, it was in the hard winter of 1791-2, at the head of some forty or 
fifty volunteers, united with a body of regular troops, on an excursion 
to the scene of the disastrous battle-ground of the preceding fourth of 
November. An uncommon fall of snow made it necessary for General 
(then Colonel) Wilkinson, who commanded the detachment, to leave 
the infantry and proceed with the mounted volunteers. The great 

depth of snow prevented the accomplishment of the pious purpose of 
burying the dead, for which the enterprise was undertaken. In a few 
weeks from this time. Captain Gano again joined us on the hazardous 
expedition to erect the fort which was named St. Clair. With similar 
small bodies he was ever on the alert— ever ready to afford any assist- 
ance in his power toward the protection of the frontiers, until the gen- 
eral peace with the Indians in r795. In the last war he served under 
my command as major-general at the head of the Ohio quota of mihtia, 
and during my absence on th northern frontier he commanded the 
Ninth Military district, as general-in-chief I can state with confi- 
dence that in all of these situations, whether at the head of forty men 01 
of some thousands, he discharged his duty with the strictest fidelity, 
usefulness, and honor. 

It is unnecessary for me to speak of the military services of my long 
tried and valued friend immediately on my right [General Findlay]. It 
is well known that at the head of a gallant regiment of volunteers, dis- 
ciplined by himself, he sen-ed on the first northwestern campaign of the 
late war. It is equally wefl known that, if his advice and that of his 
gallant compeers (the other colonels of the army) had been adopted, 
the campaign would have had a different result, and the honor of our 
arms would not have been tarnished by an inglorious surrender. 


"Upon the requisition of the President under an act of 
Congress approved May 13, 1S46, Ohio was called upon 
to furnish three regiments of infantry to the army being 
prepared for the invasion of Mexico. They were promptly 
raised and forwarded, notwithstanding many citizens of 
the State were opposed to the war, and one of them had 
said, upon the floor of Congress, that, were he a Mexi- 
can, he would welcome the Americans "with bloody 
hands to hospitable graves." Colonel Curtis, George W. 
Morgan, and A. M. Mitchell commanded the first regi- 
ments despatched. The next year a fourth regiment was 
called out, and sent to the field in command of Colonel 
Charles H. Brough, who died some years after in Cin- 

Of the entire Ohio contingent, however, the roll of 
but one company is on file in the adjutant-general's office 
at Columbus. It is that of Captain Otto Zirckel's com- 
mand, in the Fourth regiment of Ohio volunteers, com- 
manded by Colonel Brough. The regiment was mustered 
into service at Cincinnati, May 2.7, 1847, by Colonel 
Ewing, United States army, and mustered out at the 
same place July 18, 1848. The following names are re- 
corded upon the roll of Captain Zirckel's company as , 
those of Hamilton county men : 

Musician Henry Snyder. 


Christopher Kastner, Charles Hantzsche, Benedict Diesterweig, John 
Gobler, George Schatzman. 

The rendezvous at Cincinnati was at Camp "Washing- 
ton," established for the purpose of this war in a conve- 
nient locality near Mill creek, upon ground now covered, 
in part, by the city workhouse and the house of refuge. 
The headquarters of the camp are still shown, in a long, 
low building, now used for residence and saloon keeping, 
not far south of the workhouse. The district yet bears 
the old name, though not in a corporate capacity, it now 
and for many years past being a part of the city. 


It would require a huge volume to write, in full detail, 
the honarable record made by this county during the 
great civil war. Special chapters will be given in this 
work to "Cincinnati in the War," "The Siege of Cincin- 


nati,"and "The Morgan Raid Through Ohio;" and due 
notices of patriotism and patriotic efforts will be made in 
the histories of the townships. These will allow us to be 
very brief in this introduction to what is, after all, the 
best exhibit of good deeds during the fearful struggle — a 
roster of the immense contingent furnished by Hamilton 
county to the Federal armies. 

The number of camps of rendezvous and equipment 
established in the county would, of itself, furnish evidence 
of the activity of her people in the maintenance of the 
war. The following minor encampments may be enu- 

Camp Harrison, north of Cincinnati; established by 
order of Governor Dennison, and named from ex-Presi- 
dent Harrison. 

Camp Clay, at Pendleton, in the then eastern suburbs 
of Cincinnati. 

Camp John McLean, near Cincinnati; named from 
Justice McLean, of the United States Supreme court. 
The Twenty-fifth Ohio infantry, commanded by Colonel 
N. E. McLean, a son of the judge, was quartered here. 

.Camp Gurley; named from the Hon. John A. Gurley, 
one of the members of Congress from Cincinnati. 

Camp Dick Corwine, also near the city; named from 
Major Richard M. Corwine. 

Camp Colerain, near the place of that name, ten miles 
north of Cincinnati. 

Mention is also made of a Camp Wheeler, near Union 
Ridge, in this county, where "Tod's Independent Scouts" 
made their headquarters in July, 1863. 

In September, 1861, the Thirty-first Ohio infantry ren- 
dezvoused at the orphan asylum in Cincinnati; and many 
other public buildings in and about the city were tempo- 
rarily used for quarters at various times during the war. 

The great camp, however, one of the most famous 
cantonments in the county at the time, was Camp Denni- 
son, near Madisonville, in the eastern part of the county, 
on the Little Miami railroad, seventeen miles from the 
then limits of Cincinnati. It was named from Hon. Wil- 
liam Dennison, governor of the State at the outbreak of 
the war, at whose request a site for such camp was se- 
lected in the latter part of April, 1861, by General Rose- 
crans, then a retired army officer in business in Cincinnati. 
One of the prime objects in establishing a large encamp- 
ment in this region was to give a feeling of security to 
the people of the city, in view of the doubtful position of 
Kentucky at this early stage of the war. Captain George 
B. McClellan, president of the Ohio & Mississippi rail- 
road, also a young officer of the regular army, who had 
resigned to engage in civil pursuits, had been appointed 
by Governor Dennison major-general of the Ohio mili- 
tia; and by his invitation Rosecrans accepted the post of 
topographical engineer upon his staff, and proceeded to 
select the camp. The site chosen was a stretch of level 
land, not very broad or long, but sufficient for most pur- 
poses of the camp. The ground was necessarily leased 
at the high rates put ujjon it by the owners ; and the gov- 
ernor was much blamed for what was deemed an extrav- 
agant outlay. It was named from him by General Mc- 
Clellan, who was put in command of the camp, but soon 

left it to assume his new duties as a major-general in the 
regular army. At first it was in charge of the State, and 
gave the governnor and other Ohio officers infinite 
trouble through complaints of bad treatment, insufficient 
food, clothing, tents, arms, etc., and other ills. It was 
early turned over to the General Government, however; 
and was one of the two great camps (the other being 
Camp Chase) maintained by the United States in Ohio 
during and for some time after the Rebellion. Scores of 
regiments were recruited or rendezvoused, equipped, and 
drilled here. Countless thousands of "boys in blue'' 
passed its gates going into or out of the service, or re- 
turning from rebel prison pens to refit for the field. Little 
of it now remains, save a glorious memory, the cemetery 
where rest its hero dead, and the old sign at the entrance. 
The very name of the post office maintained there, sad 
to say, has been changed. The old camp, however, with 
all its bustle, in the pomp and circumstance of war, will 
long live in the recollections of the myriad citizen-soldiers 
who from time to time inhabited it. 

The military committee of Hamilton county should not 
pass without a notice. Its intelligent activity and patriotic 
zeal, in aiding the recruitment of troops and otherwise for- 
warding the Federal cause, were eminently serviceable to 
our armies, and were gratefully acknowledged by the au- 
thorities of the State and the Union. It was originally ap- 
pointed by Governor Dennison, and was mantained, with 
some changes in its personnel, until the close of the war. 
At the end of 1863 it was composed as follows: General 
Joshua H. Bates, chairman; W. H. Davis, secretary; Hon. 
N. W. Thomas, Colonel A. E. Jones, W. W. Lodwick, 
John W. Ellis, Francis Weisnewski, Thomas Sherlock, Eli 
Mushmore, Amzi Magill. Its headquarters were of course 
in Cincinnati. 

It may here also be observed that, besides the long list 
of general officers in the service, who reflected honor upon 
Cincinnati, and who will be enumerated hereafter, the 
county elsewhere furnished to the Northren armies dis- 
tinguished soldiers in the persons of Brigadier-General 
Jacob Am men, of Lockland, and brevet Brigadiers Thom- 
as Kirby Smith, of Colerain, E. Barrett Langdon, of Lin- 
wood, and Benjamin C. Ludlow, of Cumminsville, a 
native of the old Ludlow's Station, at the same place; be- 
sides many of lesser rank. 

We now come to 


of the Hamilton county contingent in the late war. If 
has been compiled from the rolls in the bureau of the 
Adjutant-General of the State, where every courtesy and 
convenience have been kindly afforded for the work. 
Happily, few RebeUion rolls are missing from this great 
collection, except in some cases of three-months regi- 
ments or companies; and fortunately, too, for twenty-nine 
regiments of infantry, eight regiments of cavalry, and 
seven batteries, at the time this compilation was made, 
the records had been reduced to such system and shape 
that it was possible to present a full roster of each of 
these commands. For the others, the muster-in rolls 
must in general suffice, as is usual in histories of this 



kind. The writer has been embarrassed, not only by the 
magnitude of the Ust, but by the difficulty, in many 
cases, of identifying officers or men as belonging to 
Hamilton county. No means exist in the adjutant- 
general's office, apart from the rolls, for such identifica- 
tion; and these are not always reliable. Entire com- 
panies, raised in other parts of the State, were re-enrolled 
at Cincinnati or Camp Dennison, and appear accordingly 
upon the rolls, and large numbers of men from other 
parts of the State and country went to these places for 
their original enlistment; while many Hamilton county 
citizens were enrolled at points outside of the county or 
"in the field," particularly for veteran services, and can- 
not now be recognized, except by those who personally 
know the facts, as Hamilton county volunteers. Not- 
withstanding the faithful use of Mr. Raid's invaluable 
book, Ohio in the War, and other available sources of in- 
formation as to the locale of companies, regiments, and 
individual enlistments, it is probable that some hundreds, 
at least, are herein accredited to this county that belong 
to other counties, and that quite as many whose names 
should appear upon this roster, have been omitted, be- 
cause the rolls do not furnish the data by which they can 
be recognized as of the Hamilton "Grand Army." But 
every effort has been made to secure as full and nearly 
accurate a roster as possible under the circumstances. 

In general, it has been thought safest to include in this 
roll of honor all who were recruited in Cincinnati or the 
townships of Hamilton county, so far as shown by the 
records; and to omit those enrolled at Camp Dennison, 
unless some other evidence has been found that they be- 
long to the county. Many names, it will be observed, 
are duplicated, and some, perhaps, triplicated, by re-en- 
listments, transfers, or promotions. In all cases, if the 
period of service is not specified in the history or roll of 
the regiment, it will be understood that the muster-in was 
"for three years, or during the war." The orthography 
of the rolls has'been followed; but discrepancies of spell- 
ing to be found in them make it reasonably certain that 
many whose names appear herein will experience that 
peculiar sort of fame of which Byron speaks — having 
their names spelt wrongly in print. 


A number of companies recruited in this county, which 
could not be received for the three-months' service, ren- 
dezvoused spontaneously at the Methodist camp-meeting 
ground, on the Colerain pike, eleven miles from the city 
(Camp Colerain). Among these were the Valley guards,, 
recruited in and about Clifton, Cumminsville, and Carth- 
age, of which the following named were officers : 


Captain Flamen Ball, jr. 

First Lieutenant W. H. Hiclcock. 

Second Lieutenant Fredericlc Cook. 


^ First Sergeant John Joyce, 
Sergeant Henry Hayward. 
Sergeant William Scanlan. 
Sergeant S. J. Lawrence. 
Corporal John Shaw. 
Corporal C. Drier. 
Corporal Henry Jessan. 

Colonel P. J. Sullivan was recruiting a regiment in Cin- 
cinnati, and finding it could not be received at Camp 
Harrison, marched a number of his companies, about 
eight hundred men in all, to the camp-meeting ground. 
They included the Rough and Ready guards, Captain 
Spellmyer; the Miami guards. Captain Boyer; the 
Zouave cadets, Captain Joseph A. Stacy; the Beck 
guards. Captain Beck; the Fulton Continentals, Captain 
David Johns; and the Union artillery. Captain Joseph 
Whittlesey. The several companies subsequently went 
to Camp Clay, where they were joined by a company 
from Louisville, for which no provision was made in 
Kentucky, the governor of that State having declined 
to furnish the men asked from that State. Patriotic 
Ohio, however, supplied the deficiency in great part; and 
President Lincoln, upon the solicitations of Judge Chase 
and other Ohioans, consented to receive as the First and 
Second Kentucky regiments the organizations effected at 
Camp Clay. They were equipped and prepared for the 
field at the expense of this State, but >vere in time lecog- . 
nized by the authorities of Kentucky, who issued com- 
missions to their officers. They were as follows : 


Colonel James N. Guthrie. 
Lieutenant Colonel D. H. Enyart. 
Major Bartholomew Loper. 
Quartermaster Captain Gilbert Clemmens. 



Colonel William E. Woodruff. 
Lieutenant Colonel George W. Neff. 
Major Thomas G. Sedgwick. 
Quartermaster Captain Joseph Blundell. 

By far the larger part of these, like the men of the regi- 
ments, were Hamilton county citizens — Cincinnatians. 
The commands saw their first service in the brigade of 
General Jacob D. Cox, in the army of West Virginia. 
They served a longer term than the period of original 
enlistment, and made very creditable records in the field. 


For the material of the following introductionary his- 
tories, recourse has been had almost exclusively to that 
unrivalled repository of information concerning Ohio in 
the war — Mr. Whitelaw Reid's great work bearing that 


(Three months' service.) 



John Bischansen, Nicholas Kirchhimer, Charles Kneip, John Link, 

Robert Visel, Martin Ritter, Henry Speier, Nicholas Schmid, William 

Schubert, Albert Voelkle. 

(Three years' service.) 


Sergeant Major Charles H, Winner. 



Charles A. Stine. 



Corporal Alfred Smift. 
Teamster Daniel Groves. 




Matthew Asken, Jacob Effinger, .Abraham Busch, Samuel S. Dean, 
Richard Gregory, Hugh Gray, William A. Huddard, George Jamison, 
Chester C. Logan, Cornelius Lowe, Franlilin Moon, John Phillips, 
William A. Withrop, Benjamin Young, Lewis Young. 


This was enlisted at first for three months, under the 
call of President Lincoln for seventy-five thousand men. 
It was mustered into service at Columbus, April 17, 
1 86 1, only three days after Fort Sumter was evacuated. 
It was at the first battle of Bull Run, and bore honorable 
part in the service around Washington until July, when it 
was mustered out at the expiration of its term, and re- 
organized at Camp Denison as a three-years' regiment in 
August and September. A majority of the field, line, 
and staff officers had already seen service with the three- 
months' men. The regiment moved into eastern Ken- 
tucky in September, 1861, and by its good behavior did 
much to ingratiate itself and the Union cause in that 
region. Its subsequent service was with General Buell's 
army, Generals Rosecrans, Thomas and Sherman. It 
was in the battle of Stone River and Chickamauga, in 
those of the Atlanta campaign, and in several minor 
actions. The nucleus of the regiment, like that of the 
Sixth and others raised iri Cincinnati, was formed in one of 
the peace organizations of the city. It was commanded 
during part of its career by Colonel Leonard A. Harris, 
ex-mayor of Cincinnati, and a native of that city. Most 
of the field, staff and band, two companies, and some 
recruits scattered through other companies, were from 
Hamilton county. 


Colonel Anson G. McCoolc. 
Colonel Leonard A. Harris. 
Lieutenant Colonel John Kell. 
Lieutenant Colonel Obediah C. Maxwell. 
Major William T. Beatty. 
Surgeon Daniel E. Wade. 
Surgeon Benjamin F. Miller. 
Assistant Surgeon Thomas J. Shannon. 
Assistant Surgeon William A. Carmichael. 
Quartermaster Ira H. Bird. 
Adjutant George Vandegriff. 
Adjutant John W. Thomas. 
Chaplain Ma.vwell P. Gaddis. 


Sergeant-Major Horace R. Abbott. 

Quartermaster Sergeant Albert F. Fisher. 

Commissary Sergeant Jacob Hogue. 

Principal Musician Charles Seibold. 

Prisoner of War.^oseph C. Ault, Hospital Steward. 

Died. — Marion A. Ross, Jacob Thompson, Sergeant-Majors ; Samuel 
Price, of the band. 

Transferred. — George Cochran, Quartermaster Sergeant ; William 
Dodge, Principal Musician. 

Discharged. — George H. Hollister, Julius F. Williams, Aaron W. 
McCune, Sergeant Majors ; Enoch P. Hoover, Hospital Steward ; 
George Thayer, Ordnance Sergeant. 


Burton C. McCoy, Leader; First class musicians, John W. Bates, 
Charles Bates, John Clinton, Cyprian H. Winget ; Second class, 
Hiram Cooli, Franlilin Steven, David Shatter, Ransford R. Whitehead, 
Thomas Witmore ; Third class, John Busby, George Brant, John H. 
Brown, Jason M. Case, George W. Owens, Rosoloo Smith, Benjamin 
F. Tufts. 


Captain William A. Smith. 

Captain James Warnock. 

First Lieutenant George W. Landrum. 
Second Lieutenan, John F. Davis. 


First Sergeant Anthony W. Henry. 
Sergeant Henry E. Ross. 
Sergeant Ezekiel A. Howard. 
Sergeant James Purden. 
Sergeant Geoige W. Briggs. 
Corporal John H. Quigley. 
Corporal Isaac W. Craig. 
Corporal Albert Jenkins. 
Corporal John C. Wones. 
Corporal George Rust. 
Wagoner James Cowan. 


William Allen, George Ansfaugh, Joseph Binkley, Joseph N. Cutler, 
Thomas Clark, Francis M. Cox, John H. Dressing, Henry Gilson, 
Michael Gallivan, John B. Hunston, Theodore Hughes, John Huddle- 
ston, Alfred Jones, Alexander Johnson, Michael Lynch, John Ludrick, 
Lewis Mangum, George Mollitor, William Menke, George W. Mitch- 
ell, Joseph McAfee, Thomas O'Connor, Marcus O'Connor, Philip 
Reilly, David W. Slusser, William Simpson, Michael Tovey, Amos 
Westfall, William A. Williams, James Welsh, Richard Benson, 
Walter B. Bell, John Clifford, Samuel Graham, John Kennedy, 
David S. Long, Michael Mclneray, John McCune, Bernard 
O'Meally, William Porter, Charles A. Proctor, Hugh Redmon, Julius 

Prisoners of War. — Albert E. Thatcher, James Peese, John Darragh, 
Walter S. McHugh, James McNally, William Patton, Peter Reenan, 
Jonathan Simpson. 

Killed in Battle. — Corporal William H. Jones. Privates Michael 
Bausch, Henry Demeling, James Doyle, Harry Harle, James Henry, 
John Meade, Thomas Traccy. 

Missing. — Corporal William Cunningham. 

Died. — Sergeant Thomas J. Moore, Corporal John C. Elliott, Pri- 
vates Daniel Bannon, Charles H. Beal, Frederick Ropp, Thomas 
Stack, John E. Weaver. 

Discharged. — First Sergeants George N. Gates and John F. Davis, 
Privates Michael Costegan, Murty Gallevan, Augustus Wood, William 
Harvey, Marion Julian, James Matthews, William McCarter, Archibald 
McAfee, Michael Newman, William Pitman, George W. Ross, Henry 
Straddhng, William J. Weist, Hannibal Wilson. 

Transferred. — Sergeant Julius F. Williams, Musician William Dodge, 
Privates Marcus L. Brown, Lawrence Coen, Jacob A. Hogue, George 
Moore, Abraham Smith. 



Frank Nolte harles McGurn, William M. Tatman (both discharged). 


Captain John Henell. 

Captain Jacob Totrell. 

First Lieutenant Jerome A. Fisher. 

Second Lieutenant Henry Purlier. 


Sergeant Alfred Lafore. 
Sergeant Augustus Crawford. 
Corporal James McLaughlin. 
Corporal Charles E. Brown. 
Corporal Isaac Wilson, 
Corporal James C. Norton. 
Corporal John Keifer. 


Charles H. Abbott, Jonas Boggs, James Duncan, Michael Doherty, 
George Epke, William Gold, John R. Hallam, Jeremiah Hogan, Rob- 
ert L, Lind, Theodore Spinner, John Striker, John Whistler, Thomas 
Wiggins, Ernest Beerbaum, John Battles, George Cook, William T. 
Gray, Halford H. Heick, John Norvasky, James Rice. ^ 

Prisoners of War. — Sergeants George M. Hall and Benjamin John- 
son: Corporal Philip Lipps; Privates Robert Baggott, Charles W. 
Chard, John Dumas, William Egan, John Hillstrip, Bernard Hester, 
Henry Lanfersiek, John Miner. 

Killed in Battle. — Corporal Samuel Hall; Privates George Capp and 
Patrick O'Donnell. 



Died. — Privates George W. Hacliwalder and James L. Shell. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Henry Purlier; Privates William Camer, 
Lawrence Fagan, John Gold, Ezra Mock, Patrick McCarty, Joseph 
Nealy, Thomas H. Orr, Frederick Quamby, George Thayei, William 
H. Walker. 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Aaron W. McCune; Sergeant James A. 
Suter; Privates Timothy Brannon, James Crouch, Joshua Dunkley, 
Charles F. English, James Kirby, John Mageer, Richard N. Ross, Jo- 
seph Wellington, Jesse C. Young. 

On muster-in but not on muster-out roll. — Musician Kendall Edson. 

Private John Kramer, transferred 


This regiment was raised for the three months' service, 
and was re-enlisted for three years. It was first mustered 
into service April 27, r86r. Its earliest duty was in the 
preparation of Camp Dennison, a few miles from Cincin- 
nati, and it did not take the field until after its re-organ- 
ization in June. Its most notable service was as mounted 
infantry in Colonel Streight's expedition into northern 
Georgia, in early April, 1863, when almost the entire 
command was captured. One company of the three 
years' regiment was from Cincinnati, and the other com- 
panies from the city were in the three months' service. 

(For three months). 


Colonel Lewis Wilson. 

Fife Major Jerome F. Dandelet. 



Captain George M. Finch. 
First Lieutenant Edwin D. Saunders. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick S. Wallace. 
Lieutenant Stephen M. Athearn. 


First Sergeant Charles Swift. 
Sergeant Roswell G. Feltus. 
Sergeant William Buchman. 
Sergeant William Suckles. 
Corporal William Young. 
Corporal James M. Walker. 
Corporal Joseph L. Flenner. 
Corporal Milton H. Lydick. 
Musician E. Vanpelt. 
Musician George T. Suter. 


W. H. H. Taylor, jr., Charles L. Feltus, Henry Hofkanip, William 
Kiefer, Edwin C. Saunders, J. Martin, M. B. Chamberlain, C. D. 
Griggs, A. B, Benton, Charles Hulvershorn, James Vanpelt, J.J. Beahr, 
Frank A. Armstrong, E. S. Cooke, George W. Johnson, J. Frank Mil- 
ler, William W. Miller, William C. Mudge, Thomas L. Wentworth 
George L. Pendery, John Davis, George F. Walters, J. B. Holman, 
John C. Martin, Enoch C. Jacobs, D. S. Pearce, J. L. Hann, Charles 
B. Schondt, A. J. Noble, William Scott, Charles M. Stout, R. C. Steen, 
O. Taxis, Edmond H. Davis, A. King, John L. McElhaney, Joseph 
A. Clark, W. H. Speed, S. A. Harrison, William Weye, D. W. Sny- 
der, Joseph Foss, Robert Cameron, F. McGrew, Thomas Colgan, A. 
Alexander, Charles Guiss, Charles L. Shannon, A. Stevens, Samue. 
Warwick, T. P. Cavanaugh, W. H. McDevitt, P. Bohl, Urath B 
Jones, N. B. Holman, John Holtzwiger, John M. Hubbell, William A. 
Koon, William Torrey, Joseph Ryan, John Nealy, Henry L. Williams. 
George C. Kithchen, Andrew Reuss, Henry De Bus, William Sterritt, 
William Stewart, J. N. Kuntz, W. K. Perrine, Lewis Roderige, James 
R. Smith, Frank Thieman. 



Captain J. E. Baldwin. 
First Lieutenant J. E. Riggs. 
Second Lieutenant G. H. Aiken. 
Lieutenant George Vandergriff. 

Lieutenant C. A. Newman. 
Lieutenant Eugene C. Wilson. 


First Sergeant W. E. Oakley. 
Sergeant C. S. Bums. 
Sergeant Charles Mendenhall. 
Sergeant W. G. Ross. 
Corporal B. T. Wright. 
Corporal D. W. Pierson. 
Corporal P. R. Mitchell. 
Corporal L. V. Horton. 
Bugler J. F. Dandelet. 


E. R. Davidson, J. Calhoun Wright, M. Strohraeier, C. W. Miner, 
David S. French, Jacob S. Burnett, A. E. Doisey, C. F. McKenzie, 
W. H. Childs, George H. Hull, W. P. Egan, Charles Faulman, Thomas 
Jones, O. T. Gunn, E. J. Lukens, George McCammon, J. T. Piggott, 
jr., Ira Athearn, E. E. C. Swift, W. W. Wilmot, Charles B, Ellis, 
Thomas T. Wheeler, B. H. Parsons, S. H. Bascom, Thomas Coen 
J. W. Johnston, George H. Palmer, J. W. Craven, P. Bucher, George 
W. Ward, T. Brickham, J. Small, C. H. Phelps, Isaac West, B. H. 
Snyder, R. W. McComas, Thomxs Webb, J. H. Simpson, Nathan 
Guilford, Alfred Koste, L. H. Hill, E. H. Hussey, M. B. Bailey, A. H. 
Russell, William Mitchell, G. Rudolph, H. P. Radcliff, T. Deming, 
E. E. Isabel, B. B. Fearing, T. Wilton, R. R. Martin, H. Tilden, 
Benjamin Harbison, John Snosey, jr., F. S. Taylor, jr., Henry Schultz, 
W. C. Williams, Ogden Mender, John A. Wright, J. A. Arthur, Frank 


Captain Leonard A. Harris. 

First Lieutenant William J. Smith. 

Second Lieutenant John Herrel. 


. First Sergeant Axe.xander Campbell. 
Sergeant Francis N. Gibson. 
Sergeant John Anthony. 
Sergeant Charles C. Martin. 
Corporal Timothy Crannon. 
Corporal Jerome A. Fisher. 
Corporal F. Rickey. 
Corporal John Davis. 


Herman Act, Patrick Burk, John Barrett, Victor Burnham, John H. 
Burnham, Joshua Bailey, Henry Bleaker, Edward Brady, Marshall 
Bruce, Frederick Brodey, Edward Blackburn, Edward Clyde, John 
Cosgrove, Frederick Carson, William I. Campbell, George Curtis, 
John Davis, James Disberry, Irwin C. Darling, John Dixon, William 
Dorley, Simon P. Elliott, Christopher Ellis, John Ernest, John Ford, 
Martin Foltz, John Feber, Benjamin Gylle, Jasper Holman, Adam 
Hass, Henry Hosmanger, Jere Hogan, Thomas Hartless, James Ho- 
ban, Herman Kopper, WiUiam- Johnson, Frederick Johnson, John 
Johnson, Norris JaUison, Henry Kokenbrink, Thomas Kenneday, 
Timothy Lawton, Martin Leopold, Valentine Lenhart, James Lozier, 
Henry McCren, George N. McCabe, John McGovern, George Miller, 
John Mitchell, Patrick Morrisey, James Manshot, Henry M. Nichols, 
Sames N. Nutt, Alfred G. Norissey, Charles Newman, Paul Newmiller, 
James O'Conner, John O'Connell, John Penny, Thomas Powers, 
Thomas Payne, Thomas Reynold, Fjancis Rhody, Anthony Schwagart, 
William Stager, Henry Sanders, Thomas Simons, William Schafer, 
John Sailman, William Swift, John Stewart, David Thayer, Henry 
Vanfield, Christopher Whaking, William Walfeck, Charles Young, 
Herman Bartlett, Charles Cary, Paul M. Farnsworth, Charles Kent, 
Peter N. Smidth. 

(For three years.) 



Captain Philip Fithian. 
Captain Edward M. DriscoU. 
First Lieutenant John Richey. 
First Lieutenant WiUiam A. Curry. 
Second Lieutenant Charles Trownsell. 


First Sergeant Henry D. Bander. 
Sergeant Thomas W. Kruse. 


Sergeant Gilbert B. McWhick. 
Corporal Philip Stegner. 
Corporal Jesse Bronson. 
Corporal Thomas B. Teetor. 
Wagoner William Stoul. 


Rudolph Baehr, August Brewer, James Curry, William Dooley, Cal- 
lahill Dooley, Edward English, Benjamin Holmes, Harry Hamilton, 
George W. Howell, Lewis Klingler, William Lawler, Frank Metz, 
Albert Musser, Edwin McMillen, John McClamthan, Frank O'Connor, 
Robert Potts, Henry Phillips, Albert Stimson, John Stanferman, Charles 
Schwab, August Schwager, Andrew Schneller, Fred Vanlieu, Herman 
D. Willman, Joseph Weber, Manasses Brown, George Bellville, Caspar 
Davis, Calvin Bills, Fred Eichenlaub, Parker Ernst, David Finch, James 
Frank, Frank Gallagher, Richard Howe, Harrison Kipp, James King, 
William Linch, John D. Moore, William McMillen, Daniel O'Keef, 
Charles Phillips, John Pohlman, Jacob Smith, Daniel Spencer, Michael 
Str.aber, Frank Stanferman, Thomas Tydings, John Wellman, Conrad 
Webber, John T. Welsh. . 

Killed in Battle. — Sergeant William V. McCoabrie, Corporal Joseph 
Bahlman. Privates Louis Whitmore, Henry Barney, Henry Loche- 
mey, John B. Naylor. 

Died. — Sergeant Charles Cannon. Private Charles Hart. 

Discharged.— First Sergeants William A. Curry, David J. Krule ; 
privates John Atkins, Michael Black, John Baird, Benjamin Bonner, 
Henry C. Bliner, Benjamin Crawford, William Cartman, William Chase, 
John F. Droste, George A. Henry, John Knapp, James Lawrence, 
Arthur Lyle, George Richey, James Smith, Cincinnatus Stinson, James 
Vaulien, Edward Wessel. 

Transferred. — Sergeant Sebastian E. Francis, Musician Richard De- 
Butts ; privates August Birnbriger, John Coste, Alexander Driscoll, 
Frank Dick, Charles Graham, Joan Hartley, WiUiam N. Keys, John 
Lanch, John Lawrence, Emil Miller, William Mills, William H. Mc- 
Graw, Edward Massey, James O'Conner, Charles T. Palmer, Nathan 
Reed, George F. Say, Yeustace Smith, Martin Smith, Joseph Schweder. 
Daniel Shaw, Sylvan'us Stewart, Joseph Shries, Thomas Thackeray, , 
Copple Tippanhauer, James Vermilyea. 

On muster-in, but not on muster-out roll. — Privates James Cottle, 
Charles French, Richard Linch, James Linton, Joseph D. Murry, Wil- 
liam Vandine. 

On muster-in roll March 31, 1864, but not on muster-out roll. — Private 
Cornelius Driscoll. 

Mustered into service April 4 and May 5, 1861. 

Private George Wilson. 


This was also originally one of the three-months' 
organizations, and was made up of young men from Cin- 
cinnati and the vicinity. It went into Camp Harrison, 
near that city, April 20, 1861; was mustered into the 
Federal service May 3d; was transferred to Camp Den- 
nison May 23d; re-enlisted in a body for three years the 
next month, and was re-mustered June 20th, and started 
for the , field in western Virginia, July loth. Its first 
service here was under Brigadier General Charles W. 
Hill, under whom a very toilsome march was taken over 
the spurs of the Alleghanies, in a vain effort to intercept 
the retreating troops of the rebel General Garnet. It 
then engaged in guard duty and drill at Parkersburgh 
until August 5th, when it moved to Buckhannon, and lay 
there until November 3d. Near this point companies A, 
B, and C had a sharp fight with a party of rebels, losing 
one man and killing several of the enemy. Thence the 
regiment marched to New Creek on the Baltimore & 
Ohio railroad, and presently to Romney, where it had 
hard service, entire companies being sent out daily on 
scouts, and supplying very large details for picket duty, 
some of whom had their posts six or seven miles from 
camp. Colonel Dunning, of the Fifth, here took com- 

mand of the forces in and about Romney, in place of 
General Kelly, who was disabled by a wound. Hearing 
of a rebel force of fifteen hundred at Blue's Gap, sixteen 
miles out, he moved a detachment against it during a 
driving snow storm on the night of January 6, 1862, 
surprised the enemy, killing twenty of them, capturing a 
number, with two cannon, and destroying the mill and 
other property of the rebel Colonel Blue, at that point. 
This was the beginning of the Fifth Ohio's reputation for 
bravery and thorough-going dealing with the rebels. 
The confederate papers soundly anathematized the regi- 
ment led "by a butcher," and advised their commanders 
to show its metnbers no quarter. Within fifteen hours 
from the time of starting the regiment was back at Rom- 
ney, having in that short space of time marched thirty- 
four miles and fought a spirited and successful action. 

General Lander took command of the forces shortly 
after, and the regiment was moved in rapid succession 
to a number of places, marching and countermarching 
for more than a month, and suffering much from the 
inclement season. February 13th, with the Eighth Ohio 
and a cavalry force, it made a reconnoisance in force on 
Bloomney Furnace, during which the cavalry engaged 
the enemy and won a victory. March 18th, under Gen- 
eral Shields, it participated in another reconnoisance to 
Strasburgh, the enemy being pushed several miles 
beyond Mt. Jackson, but without bringing on an action. 
On the twenty-second, from Winchester the regiment 
was moved out hastily and the next- day reached Kerns- 
town and took a position to support a battery, where it 
was attacked, with other forces in the battle, about nine 
A. M. It held its place until afternoon, when five com- 
panies were detached and moved alone against an over- 
whelming force, whose fire they sustained alone in an 
open field for some time, returning it with interest, until 
reinforcements came, when the united commands ad- 
vanced and soon routed the enemy. Five color-bearers 
of the regiment were successively shot down in this short 
but sharp fight, among them Captain George B. Whit- 
com, of Cincinnati. The Fifth is believed to have saved 
the day, at least on this part of the field. Not long 
after the rout here the enemy began his retreat, getting 
off without further disaster in the darkness of the night. , 
The Fifth lost forty-seven killed and wounded in the bat- 
tle of Winchester. The regimental colors received 
forty-eight bullet holes in this .action, and the State flag ten. 
A movement was soon after begun beyond , Strasburgh, 
through Woodstock, and to the Shenandoah, where a 
destroyed bridge and Ashby's cavalry on the other side 
checked their advance. A dash was made by the Fifth 
and some cavalry into Mt. Jackson, but the enemy fled 
before their arrival. The regiment then encamped at 
Newmarket, Colonel Dunning commanding the brigade. 
In a fortnight it advanced to Harrisonburgh, where. May 
7th, a beautiful stand of colors was presented by a depu- 
tation from the city council of Cincinnati, as a token of 
appreciation at home of the regiment's bravery and 
efficiency in the late battle. 

May 1 2th another march was begun, which continued 
to Falmouth, one hundred and fifty miles distant. May 


25th it moved to Front Royal, and June 3d reached the 
Shenandoah again, having marched in three weeks two 
hundred and eighty-five miles through mud and rain 
without meeting an enemy and with scarcely half rations. 
June 9th, however, at Port Republic, it became hotly 
engaged, and behaved with its usual courage and dash. 
After some firing by volley, it charged two rebel regi- 
ments covered by a fence and drove them into the woods, 
where they were again charged and one field gun cap- 
tured. Moving to the left, it repelled a charge upon one 
of our batteries, but had presently to cover a retreat, in 
which it lost one hundred and eighty-five men taken cap- 
tive. Its total loss in this affair — killed, wounded, and 
prisoners — was two hundred and forty-four. Many inci- 
dents of personal valor and cunning occurred to the Fifth 
here. Lieutenant Kirkup, of Cincinnati, after being 
taken, escaped his guard and went but a little way, when 
he met two rebels and claimed them as prisoners. They 
gave up, and under their guidance he got out of the 
mountains and rejoined his command. The colors were 
saved on the retreat by color corporals Brinkman and 
Shaw wrapping them about their bodies and swimming 
the Shenandoah, whence they made their way to General 
Fremont's command four days after. The retreat was 
kept up to Luray, where rest was had till June 24th, 
when the regiment moved through Thoroughfare Gap to 
Bristow's Station, and was thenceforth on daily march for 
five weeks, over more than five hundred miles, compelled 
thereto by the rapid and obscure movements of Stonewall 
Jackson in the valley. When at last halted at Alexan- 
dria, the men o'" the Fifth were completely fagged out, 
were shelterless, and nearly naked. After rest and re- 
equipment on the twenty-fifth of July it went by rail to 
Warrenton, remaining there some days, and thence march- 
ing to Little Washington. Here General Tyler, com- 
manding the brigade, took leave of it, and particularly of 
the Fifth, which was specially endeared to him. Gen- 
eral Geary, afterwards governor of Pennsylvania, suc- 
ceeded him. August 9th, from Culpeper Court-House, 
the regiment made a forced march to the battle-field of 
Cedar Mountain, in which it took full part. Colonel Pat- 
rick commanding. The Union forces were pressed back 
by overwhelming numbers, and the Fifth lost eighteen 
killed, thirteen officers and eighty-nine men wounded, 
and two missing, out of two hundred and seventy-five in 
the action. Among the badly wounded was Lieutenant 
Colonel Armstrong, who was obliged to retire from field 

The Fifth participated in the retrograde movements of 
Pope's army and the terrible battles on the plains of Man- 
assas. After brief respite it joined the forces pursuing 
the rebels, passing through Frederick City and other 
points, and reaching the field of Antietam September 
i6th. Here it was closely engaged the next day, under 
command of Major Collins, once in a hand-to-hand con- 
flict, in which many of the men used the butts of their 
guns, until the enemy slowly and slubbornly gave way. 
At another point the brigade to which it belonged, reduced 
to five hundred men, held its ground against a much 
larger force, and was so poorly supported that it had to 

fall back to avoid being outflanked. In this battle the 
Fifth emptied its cartridge boxes three times, firing about 
one hundred shots per man, and marking the front of its 
positions by rows of dead rebels. It lost fifty-four men 
killed and wounded, of one hundred and eighty engaged. 
Its next camp was at Dumfries, in December, where the 
garrison was attacked on the twenty-seventh by Stuart's 
cavalry, the action lasting through an entire afternoon, 
when the rebels retreated. Lieutenants Walker and Le- 
Force, of company G, were killed, three of the regiment 
wounded, and five taken. The Fifth then rested at 
Dumfries till April 24, 1863, when it joined the advance 
of Hooker across the Rappahannock, and was engaged 
throughout at Chancellorsville, performing a distinguished 
part in that bloody action. It was also in the great bat- 
tle of Gettysburgh, July 3d, and in the fruitless pursuit 
that followed. Lieutenant Brinkman, one of the heroes of 
Port Republic, was killed at Gettysburgh. In August, 
the regiment was sent to New York city to quell the 
draft riots, and remained there till September 8th, when 
it returned to Alexandria, and after sundry marches was 
taken by rail to Murfreesborough, Tennessee, receiving 
many tokens of regard as it passed through Ohio, but not 
being allowed to visit Cincinnati, where many of the 
men had not been for two and a half years. October 3, 
1863, they reached the intrenchments at Murfreesborough, 
and finding the enemy in the vicinity, whom they assisted 
in repelling. Rejoining the Potomac troops, the Elev- 
enth and Twelfth corps, which had been transported to 
Lookout valley, the Fifth took part in the famous "battle 
above the clouds;" afterwards did post duty at Bridge- 
port, Alabama, was in the advance on Atlanta and some 
of the battles of that campaign, in one of the first of 
which Colonel Patrick lost his life. The time of the reg- 
iment expired during this movement, and it was moved 
to the rear in charge of prisoners. Many of the men, 
notwithstanding their hard service, decided to re-enlist, 
and had the privilege of a short furlough. They soon 
rejoined the conquering host pressing upon Atlanta, and 
were in the march to the sea and through the Carolinas 
and the great reviews at Washington, from which they 
returned to Cincinnati. They were mustered out at 
Louisville, July 26, 1865, and finally paid and discharged 
at Camp Dennison. 

Scarcely any Ohio regiment has a more remarkable 
history. It took part in twenty-eight engagements, in- 
cluding six pitched battles, with many reconnoissances 
and skirmishes, marched on foot one thousand three hun- 
dred and seventy-five miles, travelled nine hundred and 
ninety-three miles by rail, and sustained a total loss of 
five hundred men, killed, wounded, and prisoners. 

(Three Months' Service). 
Colonel Samuel H. Dunning 
Lieutenant Colonel John H. Patrick. 
Major William Gaskill. 
Adjutant Harry G. Armstrong. 
Quartermaster Caleb C. Whetson. 
Surgeon Alfred Ball. 
Assistant Surgeon Curtis J. Bellows. 
Chaplain Samuel L. Youstice. 
Sergeant Major James W. Miller. 



Quartermaster Sergeant William P. Jackson. 

Commissary Sergeant William F. Sheffield. 

Hospital Steward William F. Tibbals. 

Principal Musician William JVIcAUister. 

Principal Musician Thomas Davis. 

Principal Musician Edward White. 

Band Leader William J. Jewess. 

Band— Henry W. Scherer, Edward Schellhorn, Peter Spryer, Wil- 
liam C. Lynn, Andrew Mather, Alexander H. Bierman, James A. 
Campbell, Alexander H. Hatcher, Thomas C. Sheppard, James D. 
Fuller, James H. Rider, James M. Heyl, Thomas Marlatt, Robert 

(All Other rolls of this regiment, for the three-months' 
service, are missing froin the adjutant general's office). 

(Si.x Months' Service). 


Colonel Samuel H. Dunning. 

Colonel John H. Patrick. 

Lieutenant Colonel Harry G. Armstrong. 

Lieutenant Colonel Robert L. Kilpatrick. 

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Kirkup. 

Major William Gaskill. 
, Major John Collins. 

Major Henry E. Symmes. 

Major Krewson Yerkes. 

Surgeon Alfred Ball. 

Surgeon Alexander E. Jenner. 

Assistant Surgeon Charles Greenleaf. 

Assistant Surgeon Curtis J. Bellins. 

Assistant Surgeon Orestes L. Fields. 

Assistant Surgeon William F. Tibbals. 

Assistant Surgeon Jairies G. Jenkin. 

Chaplain Samuel L. Yousteer. 

Adjutant Thomas Hefferman. 

Adjutant Charles Smith. 

Adjutant William H. Thomas. 

Adjutant Henry A. Tortman. 

Adjutant Henry C. Koogle. 

Quartermaster John M. Paver. 

Quartermaster Caleb C. Whitson. 

Sergeant Major James Richey. 

Quartermaster Sergeant Michael Ward. 

Commissary Sergeant Andrew J. Barr. 

Hospital Steward Robert S. McClure. 

Fife Major Edward White. 

Drum Major James Lyons. 

Died. — Sergeant Major Robert Graham. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Majors Herman Belmer, Stephen Codding- 
ton, James Clark, Joseph Miller, Augustus Moovert; Quartermaster 
Sergeants Williani Calter, Peter A. Cozine, George P. Humphreys, 
- William P. Jackson, Matthias Schwab, William Tomlinson; Commis- 
sary Sergeants Edward R. Anthony, Charles Baldwin, Joseph L. 
Gaul; Drum Majors George W. Bennett, William McAllister; Fife 
Majors Thomas Davis, Henry Kent. 

Transferred. — Sergeant Major Thomas Hussey; Quartermaster Ser- 
geant William Daum; Commissary Sergeants Alfred G. Swain and 
William Sheffield; Hospital Stewards Francis McNaily and Edward 


Leader, William J. Jervis; first-class, Henry W. Scherer, Edward 
Schellhorn, Peter Schreger; second-class, W. C. Lynn, A. H. Bier- 
man, Andrew Mather, J. A. Campbell; third-class, A. H. Hatcher, 
Thomas C. Sheppard, James D. Fuller, James W. Heyl, Robert Davis, 
James H. Rider, Thomas Marlatt. 



Captain Jacob A. Remley. 
Captain Frederick W. Moore. 
Captain Charles Friedshurn. 
Captain Thomas W. Scott. 
First Lieutenant George H. Whiteamp. 
First Lieutenant Thomas Hussey. 
First Lieutenant Austin T. Shirer. 
First Lieutenant Caleb C. Whitson. 

First Lieutenant Edward R. Anthony. 
First Lieutenant William B. Neal. 
Second Lieutenant Peter A. Cozine. 
Second Lieutenant Robert H. Barret. 
Second Lieutenant Joseph W. Miller. 


First Sergeant George Heinzenberg. 
Sergeant Christian Krauft. 
Sergeant George Beinhart. 
Sergeant Jacob Rice. 
Sergeant George Spinger. 
Corporal Daniel O'Leary. 
Corporal Anton Brightman. 
Corporal Christian Duer. 
Corporal James McFarland. 
Corporal Jacob Fuchs. 
Corporal Frederick Helwig. 


Robert Barbour, John Birgler, Henry Boy, Cornelius Collins, Robert 
H. Crook, David Casner, David Fitzgerald, Henry Griese, George 
Hamm, Adam Heintz, Nicholas Hernet, Noah Harris, Stephen H. 
Keegan, Conrad Machback, Patrick Malone, Charles H. Miller, 
George W. Moore, William T. Patterson, Archibald Robbins, Kil- 
lian Stranbert, Ralph Sutherland, Henry Yeager, Allen H. Leonard. 
Frederick Best, Charles Backley, Frederick Bojison, Paul Bein- 
hart, Charles B. Baab, Charles Burgman, John Baker, William 
Deter, St. Clair French, Thomas Ferguson, Henry Earwig, David E. 
Harper, Stephen Instner, Philip Myers, James Marshall, Jeremiah 
Pendergrass, Henry Polk, Levi Reischeimer, William Retteger, James 
M. Reed, Charles Trible, Morgan Wade, David Watkins, Patrick 
Walsh, Henry Winters, Michael Welch, John Young. 

Killed in Battle.— Corporals William Craft, Jacob Direling, Martin 
Benneger, William Sharp; Color Corporal William Wessling; Privates, 
Pleasant A. Brown, Conrad Brown, Jacob Gutzter, Edwin Lockwood, 
Christian MetzkeJ, Jesse Riffle, John Snatzer. 

Died. — Privates Adam Backman, Winfield S. Cook, Marcus D. Cald- 
well, Frank Ebbler, John R. McKinley.'^John Sanning, John Thorn- 

Discharged. — Sergeants Wesley Crouch, Frederick Fuchs, George 
Kleister, Hess Vincent, Thomas W. Scott; Corporals John Geyer, 
Matthew McFarland, Jacob Ries, William Swinburne; Privates Wil- 
liam H. Avery, Byron Andrews, James Burns, Robert G. Bell, John H. 
Bowser, Daniel Brady, Andrew W. Barber, Thomas B. Beal, Frederick 
Boch, George W. Butler, Leander W. Butz, Charles Bausch, Charles 
Burckhart, Edward Baird, Andrew Bowman, Patrick Birmingham, 
Henry Brant, James Blakesley, William T. Barrett, Edward Burkhart, 
Joseph Burkhart, William Baehr, Nicholas Becker, Frank Betz, Joseph 
B. Channel, Mortimer Cole, Peter H. Coffman, David C. Cross, Pat- 
rick Carroll, Jacob Christ, Hugh Coleman, Oliver C. Donnelly, Fran- 
cis Daum, James Dwyer, Charles Evans' Henry Enye, Francis Engal. 
Charles Ewighause, August Evans, George Fletcher, Joseph Fleming, 
Harmon Foelkin, Caleb Glazier, Frank Hotchkiss, Patrick H. I'viggins, 
George Hochsoilder, James Hastle, William H. Justice, Seth James 
Peter Keifert, Jacob Kunst, Frederick Keirchgreber, Frederich Kohr, 
Robert H. Kind, John H. Lindenwood, .'\lonzo Leavitt, Martin Marsh, 
Francis M. Meek, William Meyer, Henry Menke, William Mullerhause, 
Antone Muller, Truman McMaster, Patrick Maloney, George Munjar, 
Benjamin Meyers, Willis I. Mills, Joseph Noyes, Christian Asteroth, 
Joseph A. Patterson, David Ross, Daniel C. Roderick, Lawrence N. 
Shorts, Peter Sell, John SuUivan, Frederick Sleiter, Christopher Sny- 
der, Joseph Seifert, Lawrence Seifert, John Stofful, Frank Stortz, Peter 
Shyrer, James Thrasher, Ludwig Thobaben, Edward Welch, Richard 

Transferred. — Musicians, James D. Fuller, James M. Hoyle, William 
T. Jervess. 

On muster-in but not on muster-out rolls. — Javer Stewart, Frederick 
Geyer, Robert Kind, Henry Megers, Michael Batch, John Booker, 
Samuel Bolser, Henry Bateman, Edward Cahill, Ignatius Cannon, 
Frederick Daum, John S. Dale, William Doolsy, William Darrel, John 
F. Drosty, Daniel W. Dewitt, John Ellick, Lawrence Ferncoast, Jacob 
Fuchs, William Fotts, Charles Hoffman, Michael Hite, John W. Jew- 
ett, Lewis Klingler. Frank Kebbler, George Lambertson, John Miller, 
Peter Marks, William Morris, Thomas Miller, Philip Marshofer, John 
Pritchard, William Phillips, George Strubert, George Smith, August 
Shyltheise, Albert Stimpson, Charles Schwabe, Austin F. Sherir, Syl- 
vanus Stuart, James L. Thomson, Joseph Cordeman. 




Captain Robert L. Kilpatrick. 
Captain James L. Tliompson. 
First Lieutenant John C. A'IcDonald. 
First Lieutenant Hugh Marshall. 
First Lieutenant George A, Thorpe. 
Second Lieutenant Robert Graham. 


Sergeant George Haig. 
Sergeant Charles Hamilton. 


Hugh Breen, George Baner, John Cook, David C. Custard, William 
Foster, James Hughs, George Haines, Isaac Hillyer, Eldridge Lemoin, 
William MothersiU, John D. Miller, Donald Macdongal, James Ma- 
hood, John Pigman, Dennis Reardin (No. 2), John Roth, Cooney 
Roth, Charles Riter, Joseph Schlick, Jaines Swinson, Frank Stall, 
August Seifert, Casper Webert, 

Discharged. — Sergeants George Dalzell, Albert Fuhrman, Thomas F. 
Soden ; Corporals Edwin Booth, Henry M. Gastiell, Hugh Liddy, 
William Muirson, Leo Pistner, J9hn Ridnian, Henry Teal, Frank 
Burns, James Bowrie, James Craig, Henry Cunningham, James Davis, 
Robert E. Davis, Henry Dopke, William IJ. Dunlap, Daniel Dooley, 
Alloy Emeru, John C. Edwards, David Ford, John Feidler, John 
Gray, Joseph Grau, William B. Goodling, Edward Garrett, Fred Hoff, 
Joseph Hopkinson, William G. Howell, John G. Hoyhicht, Henry 
Hove, Levi Jackson, William Kelley, James Kelley, George Koyer 
James Lyons, John Lee, Henry Lotze, Charles Lapp, James Moore, 
Charles Meyers, Edward O'Mallay, Peter Philips, Martin Richardson, 
Michael Roth, Thomas Southwait, Michael Sherer, Peter Spreyer, 
George Thomson, George Turpin, Henry Weaving, Thomas Watson, 
Michael Walsh, Daniel Carroll, George C. M. Heglin, Timothy 
Keeshaw, Lewis Koehan, Andrew Manning, John C. Peterson, Dennis 
Reardin (No. i), Jacob Schutt, Thomas Virtue, Robert H. White, 

Killed in Battle. — Corporals Thomas Hozs and Patrick Sullivan ; 
Private George H. Neihaus. 

Died. — Private George Howard. 

Transferred. — Michael Collins, Thomas Davies, Porter Dennin, 
Clemens Rozeman. 



Captain Henry E. Symmes. 

Captain Morgan S. Shaw. 

Captain Charles B. Jacobs. 

First Lieutenant Theodore A. Startsman. 

First Lieutenant Fred Fairfax. 

First Lieutenant Wilson B. Gaither. 

First Lieutenant Herman Strieker. 

First Lieutenant John M. Paver. 

Second Lieutenant Charles Friedeborn. 

First Sergeant James H. Cline. 
Sergeant Peter Schneider. 
Sergeant Frank Millen. 
Sergeant William G. Rafferty. 
Corporal Charles S. Horn. 
Corporal Robert Kind. 
Corporal Harrison Goddard. 
Corporal William W. Watkins. - 
Corporal Aaron H. Templeton. 
Corporal Francis H. Defiie. 
Corporal James Crawford. 
Musician James Dwyre. 

William F. Black, Charles E. Burr, James Browsley, George S. 
Bostler, George M. Clayton, Luther Conklin, Alfred Craig, Mathew 
Clyne, John Carroll, John H. Donaldson, Charles A. Etzler, Orlando 
Fox, James Fox, John Fries, Jacob Frietze, John Feldner, Matthew 
Flemming, Charles Gord, William Geaniard, Leonard Hessnold, 
William Haunsz, Charles Johnston, John Kern, James A. Morrow, 
Ludwig Mauhlig, Christian Querner, Benjamin Roasker, Andrew J. 
Sellers, John F. Spriggs, Frederick Sommers, Xavier Switzer, Peter 
Smith, Cyrus E. Watkins, Benjamin Yeates, John Myers, Herman 
Brown, John Casey, George B. Campbell, William Egner, Theodore 
Fox, James Jones, Thomas Kennedy, John Loback, John McDonald, 

Philip A. McConnel, Sylvester P. Maxon, James O'Connor, Richard 
Reeves, John Stotsman, Jacob Wright, Charles Wier, Thomas Wilch. 

Killed in battle.— Corporals John W. Clayton, Parker S. Robinson, 
Charles Talbott, George W. Young ; Privates William Bogart, Wil- 
liam H. Bogart, Charles Gill, Henry C. Jacobs, Charles L. Perkins, 
William H. Arbor. 
• Died. — Corporal Richard Bussey ; Privates John Brumry, Daniel W. 
Beck, Joseph Coleman, John F. Coverdale, George Case, Bonkratz 
Deinline, Peter Gisswood, Hezekiah Smith, Frederick Lousing, Silas 
C. Woolsten. 

Discharged,— Charles Fairfax, Henry P. McKenzie, James A. Mc- 
Collough, Herman Strieker, George W. Stone, William P. Sands, Paul 
CroUey, George W. Gough, Samuel Hall, John Stallcup, Henry A. 
Wetsell, Charles S. Howard, Agustus Querner, Henry Albers, Cornelius 
L. Andrews, James Bogart, Charles Bascom, Moses Bray, Thomas 
Bradley, David Crolley, William Cotter, James S. Cross, John Clucos, 
David A. Casstellen, Daniel K. Charles, Michael Cassiday, Daniel 
Cook, Wyatt Cordell, William Clark, Emery B. Day, William Doug- 
lass, John C. Doudney, Bartholomew Ehlenbest, Frederick Easton, 
Reuben T. Everhard, Henry Foot, Frederick Foot, Frederick Faulkin- 
burg, Joseph Fettevar, George Fiestone, Leonard Griggs, John Good- 
hue, John Gardner, David Goodrich, George Gardner, Henry Hess, 
Thomas Hudson, James S. Hayden, Joseph Horton, George Hazen, 
Reuben Knox, James Leonard, David McDaniel, Thomas G. Morrow, 
William Miller, James Morrow, William McCormick, Frederick Miller, 
Edward Newman, Samuel E. Palmer, Samuel E. Pierpoint, Charles 
Querner, Michael Swier, Charles Sanders, Henry Stuffrigen, George 
W. Shipley, John Story, William J. Skimball, Charles S. Swaine, 
Edward Shellhorn, Robert Shipps, George Shane, John C. Stebbins, 
Joseph Tonacliff, Grafton M. Thrasher, Jacob Troy, Frederick Vocht, 
Henry Walters, Harvey Woodard, William Wiedeman, Nicholas 
Walters, Richard B. Wright, Joseph Wippragtiger. 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Joseph L. Gaul; Sergeant Andrew J. 
Barr; Privates William D. Bloom, Thomas H. Turner, Henry Hill, 
Francis W. McNally, Augustus Moonert. 

On muster-in, but not on muster-out roll. — Corporal Henry S. 



Captain Robert Hays. 

Captain Robert Kirkup. 

Captain Jere Robinson. 

First Lieutenant Robert Logan. 

First Lieutenant James Clark. 

First Lieutenant Herman Belmer. 

Second Lieutenant Krewson Yerkes. 


Sergeant Donald McLeod. 

Sergeant John Lee. 

Sergeant Thomas Gorman. 

Corporal Henry Huber. 

Corporal David C. Harrison. 


Archibald Bowie, Paul Bealer, James Craig, Flenry S. Cohn, 
Andrew C. Chamberland, William H. Dunlap, Charles Dubois, Rich- 
ard Evans, John Fords, John Fisk, John Farleigh, Benjamin Fry, 
Henry Fulman, Gottheb Fiedel, Christopher Gable, Henry B. House- 
man, James Hopkinson, Peter Huber, Francis Henskie, James H. 
Jacobs, George W. Lively, Henry Longa, Henry Myers, James H. 
Mahon, Malcolm McMillen, Joseph Morean, James O'Connor, Martin 
Pistner, Martin Richardson, Henry Rist, Joseph Roth, Charles Robin- 
son, Joseph Steinbecker, Jacob Schillenburg, Lucas Sebastian, 
Michael Shirer, John Shumate, Oliver Sturgis, Charles Smith, 
WiUiam Swigart, Frank Thomas, John M. Taylor, Daniel Winters, 
WilUam Wright, Noah Anderson, William Bingham, William J. 
Bradford, ."Uexander Bradford, James Bains, Marion M. Black, Daniel 
Blankman, Dennis Berry, William Conger, William Cox, Milton Car- 
lile, Daniel Corigan, Jere Cronin, Samson Delworth, Samuel W. Down- 
ing, Martin Enderidan, Patrick Fitzgerald, Michael Fitzgerald, Peter 
Gremmell, William Garber, James Graham, John Hannah, James H. 
Howard, William Henderson, John Harris, Nicholas Haust, William 
J. Hastings, Peter Jordon, William Johnson, Henry Johns, Levi Jack- 
son, William Keene, William Kelley, John Kirby, Matthew Kenney, 
William Lister, Daniel McGlinn, Joseph Myers, Charles B. Martin, 
Burnett Moran, Patrick Maloney, Robert Miller, Charles Murphy, 
Joseph Lipphart, Frank Long, Emerson Horton, John Nelson, Josiah 



Paris, William Patterson, Edward Rice, Henry Riese, Archibald Rob- 
bins, James Ryan, James Roecamp, Charles Scott, John Smith, 
Modest Urbine, James Vaughan, Newman Whitney, James Wilson, 
Samuel Winston. 

Killed in battle. —Sergeant David Johnson; Corporals Charles E, 
Gray, Hugh Liddy; Privates Daniel Bowie, Peter Gewton, Martin 
Healy, Albert C. Harrison, Henry Hill, John HoUihan, Charles 
Hausel, Henry Lippen, Henry Myers, James Roberts, Frederick 
Shoemaker, Henry Shaw, Peter Strassell. 

Died. — Frederick Morey, Albert Buchart, John Buike, James Davis, 
John Logan, John Lenhart, John Nolan. 

Discharged. — First Sergeant Wilson B. Gaither; Sergeants Patrick 
Conway, Joseph Doak, Tobias Hattle, John McElhaney, Jere B. 
Roscoe; Corporals Thomas Aitkin, William T. Darlington, Charles 
Dillon, Richard E. Forger, George Gates, George Granger, Michael H. 
Garry, Joseph Morgan, George Peare, Ferdinand W. Schulties; 
Teamster John Solomon; Musician George W. Foster; Privates Wil- 
liam Alexander, Sebastian Butz, Frederick Bruning, Henry A. Bier- 
man, Samuel Balby, Joseph' Bradford, Benjamin Clyne, James Cul- 
bertson, Robert Dow, William Dow, Henry Doner, Baltizer Ernest, 
Marshal H. Folger, William Franks, Adam Felix, Trimble Ford, Wil- 
liam Fortney, John Farrington, Valentine Gibb, William J. Gordon, 
Eddy Goin, John Gibney, William B. Gooding, Peter Griffin, Joseph 
Hollinger, Richard Hassett, Abraham Hening, Thomas Humphreys, 
Thomas Hussey, Robert Hoendorf, Charles Harris, Franklin C. Harvey, 
Edwin Hughes, Philip Hockindhammer, Thomas G. Hooper, Lemuel 
Hisson, Benton Jones, John Kuster, Peter Kummer, Jacob Kummer, 
John Knosp, Thomas Lewis, Philip Lippert, Simon Marienthal, Mat- 
thew McCracken, Jonathan Mitchell, Peter A. Mark, Josiah Mc- 
. Knight, Andrew Noidheim, John O'Neil, Bruman Osmers, Alex- 
ander Patten, John Rentz, Andrew Ryan, Michael Richett, Andrew 
Simons, James Steward, George W. Schmidt, William .Spearing, 
Xavier Stoll, James Trooborn, John Troy, Orlando Van Skiver, James 

Transferred. — Sergeants Eli Delzell, James Clark; Corporal John 
McGregor; Privates James Deamon, Owen Healy, William McAllister, 
Thomas Mountjoy, Henry Williams, Ulysses Cox, Leopold Ahlenfeld, 
John Laken, George Lanehart, William Schmitte. 

Mustered out with company D, but not on company rolls. — Private 
Emmet Goddard. 



Captain George B. Whitcom. 
Captain Louis C. Robinson 
Captain William U. Dick. 
Captain Krewson Yerkes. 
Captain Joseph Plaisted. 
First Lieutenant George A. Thorpe. 
First Lieutenant Heniy Brinkman. 
First Lieutenant Stephen Coddington. 


First Sergeant Charles Williams. 
Sergeant Martin Ruffley. 
Sergeant Christian Kroog. 
Sergeant Samuel McCormack. 
Corporal William Miller. 
Corporal James Smith. 


Harry Bloomer, John BaskerviUe, George Beercis, Thomas Bruner, 
James Cavenaugh, Jolin D. Craddick, John Carney, George F. Dun- 
can, Joseph Dupee, Francis G. Davis, John W. Free, William Gal- 
breath, Marcellus Gray, Gustavus Hirsch, Joseph Hughes, James Jack- 
son, William Ketcham, Lawrence King, George Kellogg, John Line, 
James Moorehead, Christian Millingcr, .Aaron Miller, JohnW. Morgan, 
John Manch, Henry McGiven, Joseph Nedderman, Jere Simpson, Al- 
exander Tilton, Samuel Tapping, Henry Weismiller, William Wyatt, 
Gottleib Winkelman, James Anderson, Daniel Burns, John Barrett, 
Thomas H. Burgess, William Crouse, Henry Carr, James Duckworth, 
Andrew L. Dohavant, John Dalton, Cornelius Donohue, Francis Gaff- 
ney, Theophius G. Hammond, William Hefferman, Patrick Kennedy, 
Henry E, Miller, Charles Muegga, Patrick Martin, Micafah T. Nor- 
dyke, James Riley, John Reinhart, Arnold Stuttleberg, Patrick Shea, 
William Vaughn, Edward R. Wood. 

Killed in Battle. — Sergeant Edward Swain; Coiporals George W. 
Gentle and Ingersoll B. Sheridan; Privates John W. Armstrong, 
Thomas Burns, Alonzo Carnahan, John Fortune, John Garner, Peter 

Hassel, Joseph Hunter, Franklin Huntly, Jacob Kalcoff, William B. 
Mayjers, Robert Spellman, William .Spellman. 

Died. — Sergeant Lawrence Vial; Privates John G. Hudson, Freder- 
ick Lanfersiek, James Pollock, Perry Wright. 

Discharged.— First Sergeants Charles A. Thorpe and Joseph Plais- 
ted; Sergeant Charles A. Walker, Morgan S. Shaw, William H. Wil- 
liams; Corporals Simson H. Cottle, Emery A. Hurlbut, Benjamin F. 
Kephart, Randolph Minnick, Benton R. Noble; Musician Philip C. 
Maddocks; Teamster Thomas R. Folger; Pri\ates George W. Aldridge 
William Anderson, John Anderson, William L. Anginbaugh, Joseph 
E. Asper, Robert BaskerviUe, Patrick Brady, Charles M. Brown, John 
Brinkman, Alfred Coleman, Charles Cobb, Joseph Corderman, Thomas 
Dale, James Dillon, Joseph Derwoet, Alva H. Doan, Abraham Egger, 
William Enyart, Francis Enyart, Charles A. Fisher, William Fisher, 
Frederick Funk, Cyrus C. Foote, William Foley, John A. Fenner, 
William Gould, Louis Gegan, Joseph Goodall, John J. Gold, Joseph 
Huff, Edwin Hindley, Michael Huber, Perry Hallan, Henry Huene- 
man, Edward H. Hardin, Jonas Heaton, Joseph Hell, John Heyer, 
Eli Heifner, Thomas Hudson, William G. Hanley, Jonas Hale, Fred- 
erick Hauck, Shelton Ingram, John Inquire, James F.Jones, Peter J. 
Jennings, Peter Kraning, John Know, William L. Kee, Adam Long, 
Henry Lawson, John Lewis, Joseph Lansihger, Isaac Listen, John R. 
Lamb, Edward Myers, Robert Morse, James May, John Martin, Peter 
A. Miller, Thomas Poland, George Petzer, George Peet, Michael Phe- 
lan, Elmer S. Rosebrough,*Jacob B. Rahn, Thomas Rice, John Rice, 
Alfred G. Swain, Lewis C. Smith, Edward Stoner, Henry Strock, Eli 
Tarbutton, Robert H. Thrush, Henry Tealbozle, Charles A. Thorpe, 
Henry Wisselman, John W. Wright, Nathan Williams, Theodore 
Wright, Alfred Winter, A. Wilson, Albert Wo'.f, Robert Young, Jacob 
Yeager, Henry Yeager, William Brown. 

Transferred.— First Sergeants Herman Belmer and James Richey; 
Sergeants Henry A. Trotman and Henry C. Koogle; Musician Wash- 
ington G. Bennett; Privates John Collins, George Gates, Franklin 
Morrell, Gersham D. Miller, Andrew Seary, James Woods. 



Captain Theopilus Gaines. 

Captain James Kincaid. 

Captain Benjamin Jelleff, jr. 

Captain Stephen Coddington. 

Captain Henry C. Koogle. 

First Lieutenant Robert Brumwell. 

First Lieutenant Alexander A. Littell. 

First Lieutenant Lewis S. Stevens. 

First Lieutenant Joseph Grunkemeyer. 

First Lieutenant Jere Robinson. 


First .Sergeant Spillman Jones. 

Sergeant Vansant Morris. 

Sergeant Charles Henke. 

Sergeant George Enocke. 

Corporal Frederick Hoff. 

Corj^oral John Lemon. 

Corporal William Parker. 

Musician William Lister. 


Ferdinand Axtell, Edwin Booth, Henry Dowka, William Foley, John 
Gray, Henry Lotze, Herman Pieper, Henry Wellman, Abner C. Wil- 
son, Christian Behring, George W. Belcher, John P. Burns, John 
Brace, Windsor M. Buck, Philip Bolther, John Dillon, Gideon Hyde, 
Mich.ael Laducer, John Lottmair, John Leonhard, David McNally, 
Charles W. McFarlin, Cornelius Morris, John Tompkins, John 
Thompson, William Umstead, Jeremiah Kennedy, Lewis Landers, 
Francis Malloy, William McDonald, Da\id McOllister, Jacob Minet, 
Frank Miller, Nicholas Nernsgen, Henry Ohr, Nicholas D. Patry, Pat- 
rick Varley, Cornelius Welsch. 

Killed in Battle. — Sergeant Charles VanHautan; Corporals Valen- 
tine Helde and John McCabe; Privates Frederick W. Drexelions, 
Richard Heringer, Charles Hinck, John H. Haner, William Huchnen- 
koch, John Miller, Frederick Preismyer, Horace Squires, Michael Vo- 

Died. — Corporal John F. Behrens; Privates Isaac A. Baum, Richard 
Carston, Thomas McCune, John McClintock, George W. Noggle, Wil- 
liam H. Nash, George W. Westerman. 

Discharged. — First Sergeants Jeremiah Robinson and Charles D. 
Moore; Sergeants William H. Lee, George W. Helde, James Kelley, 



Joseph W. Miller, James Fitch; Corporals Joseph Grunkemeyer, Jesse 
McLane, John Baker, Joseph Smoozka, John Stevens, Francisco 
Leach; Privates Wilham T. Aichles, Daniel Belsher, Joseph Brogle, 
Carston Bode, William B. Bennemyer, George Brown, James Britt, 
Henry Brokarap, Michael Boyle, John W. Carr, Daniel L. Carson, An- 
drew Crawford, John Coleman, William F. Cain, Patrick Claffy, 
Charles T. Doney, Reuben Daily, James Emerson, Frederick Evers, 
James Farrell, Jacob Folhorbst, Charles Goble, Thomas Render, 
Moses Harmon, Edward Hemstreal, Henry Hanker, Ferdinand Hab- 
enicht, John Ingle, John Jungciaus. Peter Kunkel, Frederick Knost, 
Francis Kroger, David Ketcham, Francis Ludlow, John Loughner, 
Jonas Lantz, Andrew Myers, Michael Moran, Frederick Mohus, Jacob 
Mumford, Christian Myers, James McFaiiand, Patrick McDonald, 
William McGafifick, William S. Moore, James McKnery, John Martin, 
David W. Merrell, John Messersmith, August Minning, John Myer, 
John McGrork, Isaac N. Moses, Henry Myers, Edward McLean, Bar- 
ney New, Andrew Nesselhof, George Oswalt, Daniel Oswalt, John L. 
Oswalt, Loyd Pardee, John Patterson, Pleasant W. Randall, James 
Robinson, Lewis H. Stevens, Joseph B. Stevens, John Slopner, Jacob 
Stube, James F. Schuier, Adam Fritsch, John H. Wellerman, Cornelius 
Welsch, William A. Hinch, Charles Lapp, Charles Viner; Corporals 
James Reynolds, jr. and John Lally, Teamster John B. Maddocks. 

Transferred. — Corporal Charles Lillelt; Privates Henry Carr, John 
Craddick, Barney Fledderman, Seth James, Jesse McLean, Martin 
Madder, John Springmyer, George Tyce, James Trasher, G. Winkel- 



Captain Alonzo C. Horton. 
Captain Waldo C. Booth. 
Captain Theodore A. Startzman. 
Captain Austin T. Shirer. 
First Lieutenant PYederick W. Moore. 
First Lieutenant Colin F. McKinzie. 
First Lieutenant Alexander Lytell. 
First Lieutenant Morgan S. Shaw. 
Second Lieutenant Patrick McCann. 
Second Lieutenant Augustus Moonert. 
Second Lieutenant Charles Walker. 
Second Lieutenant Charles S. Jessup. 


First Sergeant Philip Nunn. 
Sergeant George B. Annawault. 
Sergeant Herbert L. Sheppard. 
Sergeant John T. Callander. 
Corporal David P. Bell. 
Corporal Thomas K. Ross. 
Corporal Andrew M. Morris. 
Corporal Wilham Soller. 
Corporal Henry Eichler. 
Corporal Frank Horst. 
Corporal William Kruse. 
Musician Henry R. Haywood. 


Henry Adams, Jason Atterholt, D. Barton, James Blake, 
Frank Bush, Thomas Carroll, Patrick Carroll, John F. Collins, William 
Eichler, Henry Eifert, Jacob Fry, George Geisendorf, Anthony Gerst 
Samuel G. Hyndman, Samuel Jenkins, John Julien, John P. Julien' 
Andrew Lister, Francis Murphy, James McMillen, William H. Ran- 
som, Thomas Trustman, August Worthmiller, William C. Wilson, Nel- 
son Barrett, AlexanderM. Gates, Mallam, John Madden, Michael Quim 

Killed in battle. — Corporals Wilson Gregg, AUonzo Myers, George 
H. Thompson; Privates Andrew Coleman, Anthony LaForce, Thomas 
Nolan, Thomas Mundy. 

Died. — Privates James Estelle, Symond Kohn, Anthony Murville, 
William Papner, Richard P. Ryan. 

Discharged. — Sergeants Benjamin Ford, William Hallam, Charles S. 
Jessup, James Leeke, Patrick McCann, John A. Mohr, William Winter. 
Corporals Henry K. Horton, Charles A. Sperment, Wilham H.Webber' 
Musicians Edwin Lockwood, John L. McDougall; Privates Edward R.An.! 
thony, George Bahn, Noah Brake, Edward Barrett, Richard ConoUy, Wil- 
liam Dorum, Andrew Donovan, Samuel Edgar, Lewis Fries, James Farm- 
er, John C. Foener, William Galbreth, Christopher Google, Oscar 
Gunranet, Marion Hargrave, Samuel Hatcher, George Kerr, Lewis Lee. 
son, Andrew Mather, George Morris, David Pickett, James H. Rider, Mer- 

edith H. Surrener, Frank Schaffer, John Speck, William Ubert, John 
A. Van, Frederick Wolschlager, William P. Worth. 

Transferred. — Corporal Charles Baldwin; Musician James S. Cross; 
Privates Charles Ambruster, William H, Harton, Francis M. Neil, 
George W. Shipley, Henry Webb. 

On muster-in, but not on muster-out roll. — Sergeant Edward D. 
Spooner; Privates Joseph Burkhardt, Charles Evans, John Sullivan, 
John Snatse, Charles Tribbe. 



Captain John F. Fletcher. 
Captain William V. Neely. 
Captain Joseph M. Jackaway. 
Captain Alexander Mott. 
First Lieutenant George Frazier. 
First Lieutenant Joseph L. Gaul. 
First Lieutenant Henry C. Koogle. 


First Sergeant George W. Tyrrell. 

Sergeant Eugene Jacobs. 

Sergeant Herman Annegam. 

Sergeant Patrick Healy. 

Corporal Conrad Baker. 

Corporal Henry Kane. 

Corporal William C. Powell. 

Corporal Martin Van Hughes. 

Corporal William Barnum. 

Corporal Joseph S. Miller. ^ 

Corporal Michael Varner. 

Wagoner William Myers. 


John Carey, William Cooper, Joseph M. Evans, Terrence Earle, 
Christopher Farlan, Martin Gillum, Timothy Grady, John Lanten- 
schlager, John Michael, John McDermott, WiUiam Kenney, John Rob- 
inson, Frederick Sunderman, George Simpson, Miles Stansifer, John 
J. Wilson, Hugh Best, Oscar Brown, John Dyer, Thomas Dunn, Mar- 
tin Earson, Richard Farrell, Patrick Flanney, Frederick Oilman, Michael 
Kilkarry, Natus Legg, William Moran, Martin Moore, John Madden, 
John Neil, Charles Peterson, Phineas Piatt, Richard Price, David 
Quick, Jacob Snyder, Alfred Wagoner. 

Killed in battle. — Privates Herman Drentler, Jeremiah Hanley, John 
McGoverney, Michael Pennyfeaiher, John Tigur, John Uplicher, Wil- 
liam Washman, Frederick Wermsing. 

Died. — Sergeant William Boyd, Corporal Martin Hoare ; Privates 
John G. Johnte, Leander H. Fisher, Thomas Kelley, William Tyler, 
Moritz Wenalestein, Alexander Weichell. 

Discharged. — First Sergeant Alexander Mott; Sergeants James B. 
Russell, Henry Surls, Joseph M. Jackaway, Charles B. Jacobs ; Corpor- 
als James Card, John Crawley, Daniel Salmon, Jeremiah Osterhaus ; 
Musicians Frank Henlan, George B. Ray ; Bugler William Davis ; 
Wagoner Joseph D. Murray; Privates Adam Alexander, Jesse Alexan- 
der, Joseph Branjanbey, James Belleville, Augustus A. Bond, Robert 
Bussemeyer, Belthazer Clauer, David Clark, Alfred B. Chognill, John 
W. Day, Elijah Dix, James B. Davis, John G. Engler, Samuel Frank 
Michael Freund, George H. Frazier, William Goddard, Lafayette 
Hughes, Alberto Harley, James Jones, Joseph Kaufman, Michael 
Kaufman, Joseph Kerler, Michael J. Kelley, George Limmerie, James 
Linton, Peter Morling, Thomas Manning, Joseph Mantz, James Mc- 
Innes, Joseph McConnaughey, William Mahoney, George Murray, 
Joseph A. Miller, Christian Meuller, David D. Millnime, Segfried Mack, 
John H. Porter, George Peppard, Lawrence Price, Jesse Parker, Wil- 
liam T. Phillips, William Partee, Charles Ponce, William H. Pritchard, 
William Ray, Henry Richper, Samuel Robbins, David Ricketts, John 
Roetgerman, Joseph Raddiger, John Ryder, Simon Rousch, William 
Ray, John A. Sherman, Isaac R. Snyder, Abraham Schnell, Isaac Steffe, 
Benjamin J. Scott, Joel Straub, George Steffe, Joseph Snyder, John 
Schlatter, John Scott, Clinton F. Taggert, William Warnafeldt, George 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Michael Ward ; Privates George Bridg- 
nian, James Lyons, James Murray, John V. Smith, Edward White. 



Captain John Collins. 

Captain Thomas W. Hefferman. 



Captain John C. McDonald. 
Captain Edward R. Anthony. 
First Lieutenant Joseph Rudolph. 
First Lieutenant James Timmons. 
First Lieutenant Charles S. Jessup. 
First Lieutenant Henry C. Koogle. 
Second Lieutenant William H. Thomas. 
Second Lieutenant Hiram R. Treher. 


First Sergeant John Ross. 

Sergeant Joseph H. Christy. 
. Sergeant John Griysinger. 
■ Sergeant Joseph B. Bailey, 

Sergeant Victor H. Felix. 

Corporal Henry J. Heckrotte. 

Musician Joseph Ranl^in. 

Teamster Frederick Farmer. 


Manuel Benetes, Cliarles R. Barkley, James Conway, William David- 
son, William Doyle, Delos Hills, Kneelan Hills, George J^. Johnson 
George R. Jones, Henry Miller, James McClellan, Daniel J. O'Con- 
nell, Austin Parrotte, James W. Stephens, Thomas Watts, John Weber, 
WiUiaiTiZurfas. James J. Atkins, Michael CoUing, J oshuaDavidson, Ed- 
ward Martin, Paul C. Preston, William Riley, Smith Richardson, Elihu 
Rising, John Smith, Henry Sullivan, John Zimmerman. 

Killed in battle. — Sergeant George Kent ; Corporals Thomas B, 
Isdell, Frank Luchte; Privates Albert C. Day, George E.xall, Pete^ 
Gillion, Charles H. Helfred, Andrew Zurfas. 

Died. — Corporal Patrick Fitzgibbons ; Privates William B. S. Ander- 
son, Henry A. Balser, William Bragg, John A. Cowan, Alexander S. 
Rower, Leverette H. S. Whitcom. 

Discharged. — First Sergeants Martin Baninger, William H. Thomas, 
James Trumons, Hiram R. Treher; Sergeant Frederick W. Savin ! 
Corporals Henry Wilson, Frank S. Wallace ; Musician H. C. R. Ru. 
dolph ; Privates Mintonville Aokley, John Butler, Francis M. Bates, 
Cassius N. Bentz, John Conway, George W. Chambers, Henry 
Domaille, Stephen D. Evans, John Evans, John R. Gray, Henry P. 
Hewitt, John B. Huffman, Robert B. Isdell, Samuel Jones, Benjamin 
F. Knight, Albert H. Lewis, William H. Mantz, Thomas McLaugh- 
lin, Orlando Moon, Samuel Remley, Jacob Schmucker, William 
Sheffield, James Wilson, James A. Wftrring, William F. Wallace. 

Transferred. — Corporal Joseph B. Hedrick; Musician Henry Kent; 
Privates Thomas Finan, Wesley C. Hickman, William H. H. Hubbell, 
Samuel J. Knof, WiUiam C. Tomlinson. 

On muster-in, not on muster-out roll. — First .Sergeant Harry G. 
Armstrong; Privates Henry Hayward, Thomas Marlatt, Samuel Robin- 
son, Frank Seaman. 



Captain Charles H. Jackson. 
Captain James Kinkead. 
Captain Rolandes E. Fisher. 
Captain Martin Barringer. 
First Lieutenant Thomas W. Hefferman. 
First Lieutenant Stephen Coddington. 
First Lieutenant Matthias Schwab. 
Second Lieutenant Charles W. Smith. 
Second Lieutenant Morgan S. Shaw. 
Second Lieutenant William P. Jackson. 

First Sergeant Benjamin E. Ford. 
Sergeant Meredith H. Surriner. 
Sergeant Samuel T. Wolf. 
Sergeant William H. Harrison. 
Corporal Frederick Wulschlager. 
Corporal George Crystal. 
Corporal Frank Shafer. 
Teamster Alexander Patton. 


M. Ackley, Richard Barton, Edward Cecilious, Henry Durr, John 
Evans, William J. Hastings, Jeremiah Hirsch, Thomas Higgins, Willis 

J. Mills, Horace Marsh, Charles Querner, Henry C. R. Rudolph, Mar- 
tin Rice, John Speck, Henry Schraff, Tim Shay, Daniel Sullivan, James 
Thompson, Jacob Van Pelt,_ William Wetdeman, Thomas J. Blair, 

John Butler, Antoine Buckley, Charles Bowman, Charles Cronin, Ale.x- 

ander Chatman, William B. Davidson, James H. Dow, Frank Davis, 
William B. Duncan, Peter Derbey, Charles Edwards, Robert Gill, Wil- 
liam Hughes, John Henderson, George Martin, James Ryan, John 
Summer, John N. Smith, John Shewbridge, William J. Scott, Henry 
Tick, John Williams, Thomas White, Milo Wiley, John Williams. 

Killed in Battle. — Sergeant James J. Kelley ; Privates George H. 
Bahn, William Givens, Alfred J. Jones, Lorenzo Kendall, John H. Sass. 

Died. — Sergeant Oscar S. Kincaid ; Privates Charles H. Lyon, Con- 
rad Schmuch. 

Discharged. — First Sergeant R. E. Fisher, Sergeants Edwin F. Arm- 
stead, Walter Elliott, Edward L. Quinton, Matthias Schwab, Cadwalla- 
der J. Collins, William Bowman, Andrew Brownell, Thomas Collins, 
Charles EUick, Lycurgus C. Earhavt, Daniel Hudson, Thomas Lukens, 
Roderick Maguire, Samuel Morehead, Charles Pendry, William Trindle, 
James Wheeler, Joseph Westendorf, William C. Wright, Henry C. 
Campbell, John Gray, William Asbury, William Boggs, George Bascom, 
George W. JJailey, Mark A. Bairs, Joseph H. Baldwin, Frederick B. 
Barney, John Craft, Lewis Copp, Cubbertson Collins, Frank Cuppin, 
John Crippin, George C. Cloud, Jeremiah Calden, Jacob S. Crane, 
Herman Clousing, John Cruger, Samuel Craig, Richard Calhoun, 
Charles Connelly, James Doyle, Thomas P. Davis, Charles Dimmick, 
Peter M. Drum, William Evans, JobEsline, John Finley, Jacob Fritch, 
Joseph Ferguson, David J. Gibbon, Lewis C. Gill, Frederick Greenr 
field, Edgar F. Howell, Peter Hemmer, Hiram H. Huntley, Thomas 
Hastings, William R. Hille, William Hodwell, John A. Jamison, James 
Kamboll, William G. Keeley, William H. Knight, Howard H. King, 
James Lamb, John Mason, William Mayan, James Minnis, Cleon Mc- 
Donald, Peter Mettler, John P. Medaris, John M. McClennan, John 
P. Murphy, Charles C. McKinsey, James W. Maddo.x, George Phillips, 
Hiram Preston, William K. Rodgers, John E. Rosser, Clinton J. Riley 
William H. Rungle, Philip Riggs, William C. Ramsdell, Charles Rose! 
burgh, George E. Shoney, Andrew Settle, Daniel Smith, John Swee- 
ney, Cephas Shull, James Sproul, Christopher Silk, Samuel H. Smith, 
Truman B. Sloan, John G. Selig, Samuel Trindle, Frank Taylor, 
George Wilhelm, Henry Wamsley, Thomas Welstead, Andrew White,- 
John Weisner, William D. Ware, Herman Weichert, Levi Withrow, 
William Weaver, Robert Webster, . Oscar Wright, Samuel Walton, 
Samuel Wise, George Williams, Frank Wilder. 

Transferred. — Sergeant Stephen Coddington, John T. Callender, Pe- 
ter A. Cozine, John Ross; Privates Henry Bloomer, Thomas F. Camp- 
bell, George P. Humphries, William P. Jackson, William Siebert, Al- 
fred Spencer, Edward White, Charles Williams. 

On muster in, but not muster out roll. — Private George Scott. 

On muster-in rolls of recruits, but not accounted for on muster-out 
rolls of regiment. — Privates Frank Anthony, Thomas Byrnes, Barney 
Burns, Edward Barrett, David Breedloor, George Curtis, Frank Dorst, 
Charles Druning, Patrick Donahue, John Duffey, James Dorsey, Leon- 
ard Gungel, James Gillen, John Govert, Sidney Haggarty, Charles 
Hassett, Edward Hawthorne, William Jackson, Carl Kray, David F. 
Lewis, Robert S. McClure, John F. Mealy, John Mahony, Jasper N. 
Meeks, Henry Moore, Henry G. Miller, James McFarland, Henry Mc- 
Grew, John Payne, William Roberts, Thomas W. Scott, John Tucker, 
Edwin R. Trenner, William Thompson, Albert Wood, Charles Wil- 
liams, John Williams, Robert T. Wilson, John Wilson, Patrick Wal- 
ters, James Wood, August C. Buckley. 

Drafted men and substitutes for Hamilton county assigned to this 
regiment, but not accounted for on its muster out rolls. — Lewis Burke, 
John Britton, James Campbell, James Stevens, John Williams. 


The nucleus of the Sixth was an independent organiza- 
tion in Cincinnati — the Guthrie Gray battalion. It was 
recruited in April, 1861, for three months, and mustered 
April 1 8th, at Camp Harrison, by Major (afterwards 
Major General) Gordon Granger. It reorganized in June 
for three years, and mustered June iSth, with one thou- 
sand and sixteen officers and men.' It arrived at Grafton, 
West Virginia, June 30th, marched to Philippi Indepen- 
dence day, and thence to Laurel Hill, where it took part 
against Garret's rebels and in their pursuit, ending in the 
action at Carrick's Ford July loth. On the twentieth it 
moved to Beverly, where Colonel Bosley took command 
of the post, and in August reached Cheat mountain, 



where it lost Captain Bense, Lieutenants Scheiffer and 
Oilman, and forty men of company I, taken prisoners 
while on picket. In November the regiment was trans- 
ported to Louisville to join Buell's Army of the Ohio, 
and placed in the Fourth division under General Nelson, 
and Fifteenth brigade, Colonel Hascall, commanding. 
It remained in camp of instruction at Camp Wickliffe, 
sixty miles- south of Louisville, till the middle of Feb- 
ruary, 1862, when it was taken up the Cumberland river 
to Nashville, just after the surrender of Fort Donelson. 
It was the first of the Army of the Ohio to reach that 
city, and its regimental flag was the first national color 
hoisted on the State house. Here the Sixth was changed 
to the Tenth brigade. March 27th the army pushed, 
southward, and the Sixth was in the advance of Buell's 
forces that came up to relieve the distressed combatants 
at the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, reaching the line just 
in time to repel the last charge made by the rebels upon 
the left that day. It was not very actively engaged the 
next morning, but supported a battery gallantly, under 
heavy artillery fire. After the battle it was encamped 
upon the field until May 24th, when it joined the advance 
on Corinth, took full part in the operations there and in the 
pursuit for sixty miles southward, returning through luka, 
Tuscumbia, and Florence to Athens, Alabama, and there 
staid in camp till July 17th, when the whole division was 
removed to Murfreesborough, and then to McMinnville. 
The Sixth was here quartered in the village, and did duty 
as provost guards. August 17th the retrograde move- 
ment of General Buell to the Ohio began; the Sixth 
moved with its division to Louisville, and was there 
brigaded with the Third brigade, Second division, Four- 
teenth Army corps. It engaged in the chase of Bragg's re- 
treating forces, until near Cumberland gap, and again en- 
camped near Nashville November 23rd. In the advance 
of Rosecrans' army upon Murfreesborough the last of 
December, it did full share of skirmishing and picket 
duty, and was very heavily engaged on the thirty-first, 
losing one hundred and fifty-two by various casualties — 
but only six prisoners — of three hundred and eighty-three 
on the field. Other but smaller losses were sustained 
shortly after. It went into camp for several months, eight 
miles east of Murfreesborough, and while here, received 
from the ladies of Cincinnati a beautiful stand of colors, 
and from the city council a regimental banner, \yhich 
were thenceforth proudly borne by the Sixth to the close 
of its service. ' 

While at Cripple creek, it made several reconnois- 
sances to the front, marched with the army against TuUa- 
homa June 24, 1863, and remained encamped at Man- 
chester from July 7th to August i6th, when the campaign 
against Chattanooga began. It was in the battle of 
Chickamauga, and lost one hundred and twenty-five of- 
ficers and men of three hundred and eighty-four engaged. 
Colonel Anderson was wounded in the first day's fight, 
and Major Erwin commanded the regiment till the return 
of Lieutenant Colonel Christopher from recruiting ser- 
vice. At Chattanooga, after the battle, the Sixth went 
into the Second brigade, Third division. Fourth corps. 
It shared fully the privations of the starvation period 

there, and a number of picked men from it were in the 
action at Brown's Ferry October 25th, which relieved the 
partial blockade. It was with its corps in the advance 
on Orchard Knob, near Chattanooga, November 23rd, 
and in the charge up Mission Ridge two days after. 
Major Erwin was killed in the preliminary skirmish of 
that day. On the twenty-eighth it moved to the relief of 
Knoxville, then menaced by Longstreet, and encamped 
near it December 7th. The winter and part of the 
spring were spent in East Tennessee, in the severest ser- 
vice the regiment had, marching much, living in shelter 
tents, and subsisting scantily. April 12, 1864, it rested 
near Cleveland, and did garrison duty till May 17th, 
when it left to join the Atlanta campaign, and guarded 
the railroad bridge at Resaca till June 6, when it was 
ordered home to be mustered out, which was done at 
Camp Dennison on the twenty-third. It had marched 
three thousand two hundred and fifty miles, and other- 
wise travelled two thousand six hundred and fifty, making 
in all five thousand nine hundred miles. It was in four 
pitched battles, losing three hundred and twenty-five 
killed, wounded and missing, and in several minor ac- 
tions. It had but sixteen deaths by disease, and at least 
two hundred of its officers and men never lost a day's 
duty. Thirty officers and four hundred and ninety-five 
enlisted men were at the muster-out. 


Colonel William K. Bosley. 

Colonel Nicholas L. Anderson. 

Lieutenant Colonel Alexander C. Christopher. 

Major Anthony C. Russell. 

Major Samuel C. Erwin. 

Major James Bensc. 

Surgeon Starling Loving. 

Surgeon Alfred H. Stephens. 

First Assistajit Surgeon Fisher W. Ames. 

First Assistant Surgeon Israel Bedell. 

Second Assistant Surgeon William W. Fountain. 

Adjutant Charles H. Heron. 

Adjutant Albert G. Williams. 

Adjutant Everett S. Throop. 

Quartermaster Edward M. Shoemaker. 

Quartermaster Josiah W. Slanksr. 

Sergeant Major Frank H. Mellon. 

Quartermaster Sergeant Edwin A. Hannaford. 

Commissary Sergeant Julius L. Stewart. 

Hospital Steward Charles E. Lewis. 

Principal Musician George W. Pyne. 

Principal Musician John H. Bueltel. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Majors, William E. Sheridan, Henry Gee, 
Albert G. Wihiams, James E. Irwin, James E. Graham; Quartermaster 
Sergeants, Charles C. Peck, William R. Goodnough; Commissary Ser- 
geant Josiah W. Slanker; principal musicians, Joe A. Fifer, Benjamin 
F. Phillips. 

Transferred. — Quartermaster Sergeant Robert W. Wise. 



Captain Marcus A. WestroU. ""-— VVvJ C'C^S iCU 

Captain Charles Gilman. 

Captain Frank S. -Schieffer. 

First Lieutenant Henry McAlpin. 

First Lieutenant Jonathan B. Holmes. 

First Lieutenant James R. Reynolds. 

Second Lieutenant James M. Donavan. 

Second Lieutenant Charles H. Foster. 

Second Lieutenant George T. Lewis. 

Second Lieutenant William P. Anderson. 

Second Lieutenant William R. Goodnough. 



First Sergeant Henry A. Petty. 

Sergeant John W. Moore. 

Sergeant Edwin Edwards. » 

Sergeant Robert Delaney. 

Sergeant Brian P. Critchell. 

Corporal John A. Cashing. 


William P. Babbett, Theodore Creager, Henry Coon, William De 
Charmes, . Charles F. Dressel, Alexander Drennen, John A. Forbes, 
Darius H. Gates, John W. Hussey, George C. James, Michael J. 
Kelley. Charles D. Martindale, Charles Messerchmidt, Isaac Newman, 
Christopher Roth, Clement Schivarte, Theodore W. Leib, Oliver H. P. 
Tracy, James Valentine. John A. West, Henry W. Wilson; Under- 
cook (colored), James Malone. 

Killed in battle. — Sergeant James F. Canady; Corporals Kirkland 
W. Caving, James M. Newman, Frank B. Brown, Henry Daggett, 
Frank H. Halliday, William Kromer, Edward B. O'Brien. 

Corporal Joseph Kell; Wagoner George W. Kelly; privates, Sam- 
uel N. CoUings, Henry M. Lewis, Charles D. Murdock, Clement H. 
Marzeretta, Edwin L. Smith. 

Discharged. — First Sergeants Thomas H. Hunt, Jonathan B. 
Holmes; Sergeants William P. Anderson, Albert De Villa, Charles D. 
Jones, Everett Throop; Corporals Joseph A. Culbertson, Frank R. 
Jones, Israel Ludlow, Charles Loomis, Channing Richards; Drummer 
Alfred West; Privates William Bradford, Henry M. Cist, Josiah A. 
Christinan, George De Charmes, Isaac H. Delong, Frank R, Davis, 
Charles M. Evans, Wood Fosdick, Spencer Franklin, James B. Fair- 
child, Louis A. Foot, Thomas Fitzgibbon. Theodore C. Fitch, Lee M. 
Fitzburgh, William M. L. Gwynne, Dudley S. Gregory, Welcome L. 
F. Gates, John W. Gamble, Henry F. Hawkes, Henry Hook, George 
Hadel, WiUiam H. Jenkins, John Krucker, Charles Kensey, David 
Love, Edward Manser, Elias R. Marifort, John E. Miner, James Moore, 
Robert P. Moore, Levi Newkirk, Samuel H. Perry, Walter W. Pad- 
dock, Edward S. Richards, James R. Reynolds, Herman Rodell, Edwin 
F. Smith, Thomas M. Selby, Peter Shaw, John R. Stewart, Charles N. 
Thompson, Thomas D. Vetach, Byron D. West. 

Transferred.— First Sergeant Frederick N. Mellen; drum-major, 
Jacob A. Fifer; Chief Musician Benjamin F. Phillips; Bugler George 
W. Pyne; Privates Henry Herman, J; 
Peck, Josiah W. Slanker, Julius L. Stewart. 

On muster-in, but not no 

Henahan, Charles C. 

nuster-out roll. — Private Herman F. 



Captain Joseph A. Andrews. 
Captain Henry McAlpin. 
Captain Jules J. Montagnier. 
First Lieutenant Charles B. Russell. 
First Lieutenant James K. Reynolds. 
First Lieutenant Henry C. Choate. 
First Lieutenant Jonathan B. Holmes. 
Second Lieutenant Thomas S. Royse. 
Second Lieutenant Albert G. Williams. 
Second Lieutenant Wesley B. McLane. 


First Sergeant George B. Young. 
Sergeant Thomas M. Carr. 
Sergeant Frederick J. Miller. 
Sergeant GuyC. Nearing. 
Sergeant Henry M. Palm. 
Corporal John Harvey. 
Corporal Louis N. Kibby. 
Corporal David Schreiber. 
Corporal Frederick Rodenberg. 
Corporal Henry W. Kahle. 
Wagoner Michael Coleman. 


John Alver, William R. Bartlett, Christian Behrens, Alonzo Burgoyne, 
John C. Bagott, William Barnes, Thomas M. Cleveland, John Cline, 
Carlton C. Cable, Rush Drake, John Duffey, William E. Doherty 
Charles Fitzwater, Emil Fitz, Albert Goetle, HoraceGates, John Keiss, 
Sebastian Lerg, James Mitchell, Daniel T. Miles, Hiram Marsh, 
Henry Miller, William M. Owen, Robert Rippon, Robert Rowell, 

Louis N. Ries, Adam Rohe, Josiah H. Stratton, Samuel F. Smith, 
Andrew Schuttenhelm, Moses Thaunhauser, James Warren, Edward 
Wells, James B. Watkins, Richafd J. Williamson, John A. Zeigler, 
Undercooks (African), Daniel Jennings, Pink Beagler. 

Killed In battle. — Corporals Philip B. Helfenbein, David H. Medary, 
Edwin H. Rowe; privates, Richard R. Allen, John Boerst, Albert 

Missing in action.— John Logan, Benjamin Lewis. 

Died. — Privates, John Aufderheide, Michael Behrman. 

Deserted, — Corporal Charles W. Tolle; Privates Squier D. Gray, 
Ellis E. Lloyd, Jacob Houck, William A. Mallance, Noah H. Phillips, 
Edwin Stace, Joseph Scholer, John Wilson. 

Discharged. — First Sergeants George W. Cormany, Chailes H. Fos- 
ter, James Y. SeLUple; Sergeants Hibbard H. Hendricks, Stephen A. 
Thayer, Edward B. Warren; corporals, Edward Brettman, John R. 
Taylor; musician, Gustavus Franke; privates, Edwin H. Andrews, 
John Collins, Theophilus Davis, Edward F. Gettier, John Helfenbein, 
Jacob Hannanum, Hugo Hochstedter, Henry P. Jones, Henry Keiss, 
Joseph Loeser, William J. Souther, Paul Merker, John P. Marvin, 
Arthur Parker, Henry E. Roberts, Samuel D. Schroley, Frederick H. 
Smithorst. William H. Windeler, Samuel Winram. 

Transferred. — Sergeant William J. Thorp; Corporals Ebenezer 
Hannaford, William Rowell; Privates Robert Andrews, Charles Burk- 
hardt, Anson Clapper, Edwin A. Hannaford. 



Captain J . W. Wilmington. 
Captain Richard Smithgate, 
First Lieutenant Francis H. Ehrman. 
First Lieutenant John R. Kestner. 
Second Lieutenant Charles Oilman. 
Second Lieutenant Leonard Boice. 


First Sergeant Matthew H. Hamilton. 
Sergeant John C. Pope. 
Sergeant Francis H. Thieman. 
Sergeant William Boyd. 
Corporal Edward P. Thome. 
Corporal James Jordan. 
Corporal Mervvin Crowe. 
Corporal John Sykes. 
Corporal John Hefferman. 


Frederick Arberdale, William Bente, Anton Brown, John Callahan, 
John Collins, Henry F. Engals, James Estell, David Fitzgibbon, Joseph 
T. Fo.\, Hugh P. Gaddis, William J. Hadskeys, Henry Hane. David 
Henson, Kayran Horan, Casper Keller, John Lurch, William Leick- 
hardt, William Lidell, George Lind, Francis Ludwey, Edward Luthey, 
Mitchell S. Morsbeck, Bernard C. Myers, Thomas J. Ryan, George 
Santhoff, Ernest Schrieber, Francis Scott, Augustus Seiver, William L. 
Smith, Henry Stocklin, Jacob Stocklin, Alfred H. Sulser, Lawrence 
Swartz, Bernard Uhling. Under-cook Nathaniel Burnett. 

Sergeant Bernard O'Farrel; Privates Gustave Bettge, John Burke, 
Joseph Davis, Clements Dulle, Joseph M. Donohue, John Farmer, 
William H. Holder, Joseph W. Haslen, James W. Kitchens, Charles 
Keever, John B. McGee, James B. Meehan, Herman Mosler, George 
Moore, George Mackley, Gustave Rhein, Frederick Smith, Joseph 
Trickier, William H. Van Pelt, George Walters. 

Killed in battle. — Corporal AK'es Kaelin. 

Died. — Drummer William Schock, Corporal Hibbard P. Ward, 
Privates Francis Kelley, William Taaffe, Herman Volkers. 

Dicharged. — John R. Kestner, John Crotly, William Brown, August 
Peters, Francis R. Fresch, Ezekiel Craven, Francis Farley, Thomas 
Kerwin, J. H. Achtermeyer, George M. Backus, Rufus E. Byam, Wil- 
liam A. Baldwin, Dennis Collins, James Collins, Charles Gauckler, 
Frederick B. King, Joseph Kunkle, Horace A. Kelley, Henry W. 
Kruse, William Kochler, Herman Kluffler, William L. Mackenzie, 
Martin Meehan, Francis M. Murphy, Thomas Oliver, Michael Roger, 
Simon B. Rice, John K. Smith, James W. Sharp, Andrew Schube, 
John Saquens, Theodore Wager, Edward Williams, Joseph Weisbrod. 

Transferred. — Privates, Edwin Ayres, Adolph Imaus. James M, Peak, 
William Whiteside. 

On muster-in but not on muster-out roll. — Privates John R. .Auch- 
tumyer, William Burt, Jasper Kelley. 



Captain Ezekiel H. Tatem. 
Captain Cliarles B. Russell. 
First Lieutenant John C. ParlvCr. 
First Lieutenant George W. Morris. 
Second Lieutenant Tliomas H. Boylan. 
Second Lieutenant Harry Gee. 
Second Lieutenant Joseph L. Antram. 
Second Lieutenant William R. Glisan. 


First Sergeant William F. Bohning. 
Sergeant William Bowers. 
Sergeant Evel West. 
Sergeant Amos Willoughby. 
Sergeant Dennis O'Brien. 
Corporal William A. Clockenburg. 
Corporal William A. Yates. 
Corporal William Drips. 
Corporal John Turner. 
Musician William A. Cormany. 
Musician Oliver D. Blakeslee. 


Joseph Anter, George W. Brown, August Bristol, John Butcher, 
Herman Brockman, Frederick Bastian, Charles H. Bansley, Luther 
Carpenter, William F. Dill, Frank Dellar, William Darby, Joseph 
Desar, Hugo Edier, William F. Failor, John Farrell, Alexander K. 
Green, Conrad Herring, Thomas Herring, Reinhold Hoffman, Antone 
Imer, Frank Korte, John J. Lodge, Thomas J. Moyan, A. W. H. 
Martheus, John Metchley, Frank A. Manus, Thomas H. B. McNeil, 
George F. Mosher, William C. Rees, Thomas J. Rice, George Rich- 
arter, Andrew Remlinger, Michael Renner, Frederick Speck, William 
Saxon, Frederick Soghan, George G. Sabin, Thomas Scannell, William 
Vont, William H. Weeks, Stephen H. Weeks, Martin Weiderrecht, 
John L. Williams, John Wakemann. 

Killed in battle. — Sergeant James F. McGregor; Privates Joseph 
Imm, George Kopp, Augustus G. Young. 

Died — Anthony Canell, Adam Hugel, Joseph Post, Samuel W. 
Stephenson, Charles Van Way, Simon Week. 

Thomas Daniels, Edward Chatlin, Joseph Livesley, James H. 
Mahon, Adam Roberts. 

Discharged — First Sergeants James H. Cocknower, George F. 
Marshall, James W. Moyan; Corporals Hume Wallace, William Haw- 
kins, James Johnson, Giles D. Richards; Privates John Birmbaum, 
John C. Bender, Christopher C. Cones, Albert Drips, Charles DeLeon, 
Jacob Gross, Samuel Keller, Henry H. Lanius, Frederick Lancaster, 
Charles Mitchell, John E. Rees, John F. Wolfik, Thomas Wolcott, 
George W. Weise, William W. Williams, William R. Glisan. 

Transferred. — Corporal Liberty H. Jinks; Privates Frederick H. 
Alms, William F. Doepke, George W. Lawrence, Levy L. Pritzel, 
Killian Strassher, Edwin D. Smith, Nicholas Stumppf, Edward Ulm. 

On muster-in but not on muster-out roll. — Privates, Levi L. O'Brien, 
Jacob Speck. 


Captain Samuel C. Erwin. 
Captain William E. Shenden. 
First Lieutenant John F. Hoy. 
First Lieutenant James M. Donovan. 
First Lieutenant James F. Graham. 
First Lieutenant Frank S. Schieffer. 
Second Lieutenant George W. Morris. 
Second Lieutenant Henry C. Choate. 


First Sergeant Abram R. Lemnion. 
Sergeant James Lawler. 
Sergeant William Fisher. 
Sergeant Joseph Turley. 
Sergeant William Lieke. 
Corporal Pulaski W. Fuller. 
Corporal Alex. Rigler. 
Corporal Peter Ma'ois. 
Corporal George Hewson. 


Joseph Ade, George W. Adams, Israel Arnold, George W. Bowen, 
Christopher C. Bowen, Anthony W. Bowen, John Benedick, Miles 
Blake, Reuben D. Burgess, Henry A. Brown, Mannie D. Brown, 
James Carr, Patrick Corcoran, Eugene Diserms, Andrew Deilman, 
Charles Eckhart, Adam Emmert, George W. Fisher, John Fisher, 
Adam Hess, John Hoban, John G. Jager, John Kincella, Wilbarforce 
Knott, John Kauflin, Joseph Longanback, Jofin E. Long, Abiel Lea- 
ver, James H. Lyons, Richard Lambert, Andrew Miser, Robert Porter, 
John P. Robenstein, Benjamin F. Snell, John H. Simmons, John B. 
Sampson, Joseph Sommers, Samuel Schroder, William Schroder, Oli- 
ver Saffin, George T. Seeley, John C. Spiedel, Abram A. Truesdale, 
Horatio Tucker, Enoch West; Robert Wise, William Wise, William 
Betts, Valentine Cummings, John Climer, Jasper Graham, Charles Ire- 
land, John Jounghaus, Henry Morgan, Hugh O'Donnell, John O'Neil, 
Joseph O'Conner, John Quinn, Albert S. Ritchie, Henry Stanley, Dan- 
iel Wilguss. 

Killed in Battle. — Privates Robert Davis, Charles Davis, Charles 
Deekmyer, Simeon Shattuck, Michael Schaub, Robert E. Truxworth. 

Died. — Corporal Benjamin F. Terry, Privates Edward H. Hall, Aga- 
thon Otto. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Earl W. Stimson, Corporals Charles Wil- 
liams, Robert Howden, Privates Charles H. Baldwin, Oliver Chamber- 
lain, John E. Craig, Herman Fastrom, Joseph L. Ferdon, Matthew 
Grogan, Thomas Greenwood, Carl Korner, Samuel J. Lawrence, Sam- 
uel Pierson, Nicholas Rudolph, Joseph Rebel, Samuel Skelton, John 
Harrison, Matthew Smith, James L. Terry, Ulrich Wahrenburger, 
Benjamin V. Williams. 

Transferred. — Sergeants Joseph L. Antram, Leonard Boice, James 
F. Graham, Corporal Peter H. Britt, Privates Nelson A. Britt, George 
Benn, John HoUister, Peter Kreps, Archibald Mangan, Fairfax W. 
Nelson, Sherwin S. Perkins, Henry B. Stites. 

On muster-in but not muster-out roll. — Privates James H. Clymer, 
Matthew Gwinn, Junius E. Long, Junius H. Lyons. 

Captain Charles H. Brutton. 
Captain Justin M. Thatcher. 
First Lieutenant Charles H. Herron. 
First Lieutenant James F. Irwin. 
First Lieutenant Jesse C. La Bille. 
Second Lieutenant Frank S. Schaeffer. 

First Sergeant William H. Read. 
Sergeant Otto Brewer. 
Sergeant Wilham E. Jackson. 
Sergeant John A. Seigle. 
Sergeant John E. Hewite. 
Corporal John B. Miller. 
Corporal Edward Lawrence. 
Corporal August Nearman. 
Corporal William R. Wood. 
Corporal Frederick Linnubrink. 
Corporal Milton Lunbaeh. 
Corporal James Wood. 
Corporal Thomas Manning. 
Musician Joseph Lefeber. 
Teamster John McClung. 


Harry Blake, Edward Beady, John Battell, Lewis Desbordes, David 
Downey, Henry Eons, Michael Enright, James R. Irwin, Frederick 
Finer, George Hoffman, Bernard Klotte, William Keisemeier, Ernst 
Lawrence, John Lawrence, Henry Leonard, John Linciman, Peter 
Lagaly, Herman Linnis, Franklin Lefeber, James Lefeber, Au- 
gustin Martin, Milton McCuUy, Perry McAdams, Joseph T. Nep- 
per, Seth G. Perkins, Jonathan Reams, Joseph Ruff, Henry Rohl- 
man, Gustave Slube. Levi Sommers, Henry Smith, Anthony Schaeffer, 
Frederick Terpborn, Clement Thusing, Stuart Terwilliger, Daniel 
Toomire, William Witte, Peter West, William Wolf, Charles Young, 
James Yost, William Young, Michael Carrigan, William Gloeb, Louis 
Kolp, Michael Miller, William Overund, George W. Plummer, Irvina 
Rollins, John R. Ramsey, Larkin Smith, David J.' Decamp, Jesse C. 
La Bille, Daniel A. Griffin, Vere W. Royse, John R. Faukeberger, 
Edward P. Perkins, Jacob Crites, Casper N. Gunther, George Hearth, 
Thomas Noble, Henry Nearman, Henry Peters, Charles Rocap, 
George W. M. Vandegrift. 


Killed in Battle.— Privates Thomas Brown, James H. Draus, Lewis 
Evers, Joseph Hooth, Joseph Toomire. 

Died. — Privates Christopher Ark, William Brocksmith, Ed^vin Craw- 
ford,' Gottfried Heileman, Andrew Overthal, John Q. Root, Henry 

Under-cooks (African).— Carter Hughes, William Pope. 

Transferred. — First Sergeants William E. Sheridan, Albert G. Wil- 
liams ; Corporal Fredeack Hipp ; Privates Joseph Arumar Ambruster, 
Frank Butsch, Joseph Furst, Charles Hottendorf, Thomas Neald, 
John Ruff, William Simpson, Toby Sayler, Jacob Weaver. 

On muster-in, but not on muster-out roll. — James H. Deans, Herman 
Placke, Seth G. Perkins, George Stube, Robert Wood. 



Captain A. O. Russell. 

Captain William S. Getty. 

First I^ieutenant Jules J. Montaginer. 

First Lieutenant Henry C. Choate. 

First Lieutenant George W. Cormany. 

Second Lieutenant James F. Irwin, 

First Sergeant Abraham J. Price. 
Sergeant John W. Easley. 
Sergeant Herbert Sullivan. 
Sergeant Henry F. Howe. 
Sergeant John Peer. 
Corporal Dewitt C. Hayes. 
Corporal Charles S. Dunn. 
Corporal Harry Simmons, 
Corporal Charles A. Hucker. 
Corporal John Sullivan. 
Corporal Thomas Burnett. 
Corporal William Lotze. 
Corporal George W. Miller. 
Drummer Jacob Brauns. 


Joseph Burkhardt, Peter Balser, Walter Baldwin, Hainer Bradburj', 
William Bodie, Charles Boutwell, Thomas Cranwell, William E. Col- 
lins, Joshua Cain, Andrew M. Dunn, Daniel A, Eagan, Atlas B. 
Fisher, Horace Fisher, Andy Fenhoff, John S. Gilson, William Ganard, 
Peter Hofsase, Nicholas Kehr, Andrew Keller, John H. Lookam, 
Rudolph iWackzum, Robert C. Nelson, William C. Perkins, Albert G. 
Parent, Benjamin Post, John Richards, George Rhynearson, George 
W. Knob, William B. Rowe, Isaac H. Sturgis, William H, Sturgis, 
Anson W. Schenck, William F. Sullivan, John R. Sullivan, William H. 
Servise, John Singer, James A. Taylor, James H. Willis, Peter 
Walton, Henry Zwibrick, Alexander Barclay. Henry Berrutter, Ebon 
R. R. Biles, H. W. H. Dickman, Thomas Fennell, James J. Geldea, 
Isaac Huff, William Morrington, Charles McDoughtin, Robert Nolan, 
Michael P. Way. 

Under-cooks (African). — ^John Jennings. George Washington. 
Killed in battle. — Private John Huddleston. 

Died. — First Sergeant George W. Ridenour, Sergeant William H. 
Loyd, Corporal Oliver P. Rockenfield, Privates Jeremiah A. Colwell, 
Samuel P. Stallcup, Robert Taulman. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Louis Schram ; Corporals William A. Clark, 
Walter Lawrence, Julius C. Schenck ; Privates Alfred Burnett, Joseph 
Biggers, Augustus Clements, William H. Eberle, William J. Graham. 
Gottlie Heirtsbruner, Charles Hebel, William R. Joyce, Joseph 
Metzler, Ambrose A. Philips, Alexander Schenk, August Schraitman, 
William H. Sloan, James J, Wagner, Joseph McMurmes. 

Transferred. — First Lieutenant James F. Irwin, Privates Gustave 
Binder, Silas S. Dunn, John Fenhoff, William R. Goodnough, 
Frederick Haha, Joseph Katching, Joseph Long, Maley Lemings, 
Frank Parsnip, Milton Parvin, Michael G. Ryan. 



Captain Henry H. Tinker. 
First Lieutenant John W. Morgan. 
First Lieutenant William E. Sheridan. 
First Lieutenant Joseph L. Antram. 
First Lieutenunt James F. Meline. 
Second Lieutenant Solomon Bidwell. 


First Sergeant Benjamin F, Hopkins. 
Sergeant Joseph H. McClintock. 

Sergeant Charles A. Haller. 
Sergeant Joseph S. Wehrle. 
Sergeant Joseph Gang. 
Corporal Albert Speece. 
Corporal Benjamin D. Hall. 
Corporal Joseph R. Northcraft. 
Corporal Frank P. Winstell. 
Corporal Frank D. Wentworth. 
Corporal John A. Bonner. 
Corporal Henry Shaffer. 
Bugler William Schmitt. 
Musician John F, Dressel. 
Wagoner George Harrison. 
Corporal Ashmad Charles. 


Thomas Armstrong, James F. Attee, William E. Allen, John Cro- 
nin, Joseph O. Clark, Joseph Chloe, John W. Douglass, Henry Du- 
vall, William C. Ellis, August Friday, Henry Frazier, Henry Frillman, 
George Greenfield, Lewis Hahn, Herman Hinkley, John F. Hanley, 
Hannibal M. Hopkins, Thomas Kennedy, Henry Keith, Patrick 
Logue, Robert Menah, Daniel McGillicudy, John Meier, Absalom 
Maxwell, Joseph Nevill, James O'Malley, Cannville Peyrot, Hiram C. 
Page, Stephen Ross, Joseph Kohler, Charles Schuster, Killian Stros- 
ser, Richard Thomson, James B. Willets, George W. Whippy,. George 
Whistler, Robert Andrews, William Carrington, Henry Cahlenburg, 
John Maley, John D. Newman, Nicholas Stumpf, Antonia Smith, 
Henry C. Thatcher, John Wilson. 

Killed in Battle. — Privates, Valentine Merdian, Charles Waltermut. 
Missing in Action. — Michael Munly. 

Died. — Privates, John Christ, Henry Rusher, Martin Seebaur, Ben- 
jamin Worrell. 

Discharged. — Sergeant William H. Pierce, John Mitter, Samuel 
Walker, William A, Ream. Joseph Sandheiger, Levi Thompson, Levi 
H. Banker, John J. Bozle, William Boingard, Deloraine Brown, Eugene 
Brown, Bryan C. Eager, John M. Gay, Lawrence Gay, Max Hen- 
dricks, John Hollister, John G. King, Joseph Legrand, Owen Mur- 
phy, Levi L. Pritzel, John Riley, David Singer, Andrew Sullivan, Ed- 
ward Ulm, Anthony Walsh. . 

Transferred — Privates, Joseph Hahn, Samuel Lawrence, Maley Lem- 
ing, Ferdinand Shvenpedder. Edward M. Shoemaker. 

On muster in, not on muster out roll. — Privates, W. A. Bouregard, 
Levi H. Barchus, Robert Davis, Lawrence Guise, George Hoffman, 
Arthur Inier, John Jager, George Willason, John O'Neil, Joseph 
Reilly, Avoni Rollins, William H. H. Stout, Henry WiUiams, Constan- 
tine Zimmerman. 



Captain James Bense. 

Captain Benjamin F. West. 

First Lieutenant Richard Southgate. 

First Lieutenant George T. Lewis. 

Second Lieutenant Walter Lawrence. 

Second Lieutenant Josiah W. Stanker. 


First Sergeant William S. Woolverton. 
Sergeant John Hanley. 
Sergeant Ferdinand McDonough. 
Corporal William Langenheim. 
Corporal William Crawford. 
Corporal Charles Fahlbush. 
Corporal Richard Garwood. 
Corporal Henry Harmeyer. 
Corporal Frederick Larkcom. 
Musician Edward Frike. 
Teamster Frederick Shoenck. 


Otto Anner, Newton Burknell, Henry Buddenbaum, Frank Brahni, 
George Bruner, Adolph Bruner, Edward P. Catlin, Benjamin Clark, Jo- 
seph Drehr, Antone Frave, Joseph Gutzweiler, Edwin Green, August 
Grass, Adolph Hof, Jacob Hauser, Gottlieb Heller^ James V. Hirlez, 
David Hummel, Roland O.Jones, WiUiam Jurgans, Dennis H. Kenedy, 
Christopher Kohli, John C. Lynch, Jacob Liese, Jacob Landis, Eli 
Miller, Hiram Mosier, William L. May, John McGlone, James Mar- 
tin, August Nischan, Timothy Ryan, John L. Rea, Matthias Seibert, 
Christopher Schweitzer, William C. Webber, Sylvester Webber, Wil- 



Ham Yager, John Zimmerman. Under-cook (African) George Wash- 
ington. Peter Bruner, Frederick Beck, John Biickhart. Michael Con- 
nell, Samuel Erumiger, Robert Fenley, William Geisel, John Little, 
Jacob Litzel, Thomas Marshall, John Oysterbag, Robert H. Pence, 
Michael S. Witmer, Meritz Zink. 

Killed in Battle.— Privates Daniel E. McCarty, Heinrich Nortman, 
Samuel Pulver, Jacob Rappellee, Frederick Springmeyer, Gasquire 

Missing in Action. — Privates James Carson, William Maygaffoy- 

Died.— Privates Ma.x Essinger, Jacob Hillfecker, William Wenzel, 

Discharged. — Privates George T. Lewis, Wesley B. McClane, 
Henry C. Choate, Henry Gibson, George S. La Rue, Thomas Long, 
Edward Roderija, John Williams, Frederick Bender, Thomas Cart- 
wright, Frederick Elerman, William Fenistall, Frank Gerhardt, Ed- 
ward Hof, Otto Hof, Frederick Heckert, John Jackson, John Muhler, 
John Storker, Orlando M. Smith, William T. Swift, William Z. Thor- 
burn, James Wilson. 

On muster in, not on muster out roll. — Privates, Cornelius Collins, 
John Brauns, William Lyons, Joseph Fetz, Linck Morris. 


Captain Charles M. Clark. 

Captain James M. Donovan. 

First Lieutenant August B. D. Merback. 

First Lieutenant Charles C. Beck. 

Second Lieutenant Justin M. Thatcher. 

Second Lieutenant Edward F. Getlier. 

Second Lieutenant Josiah W. Stanker. 


First Sergeant George B. Nicholson. 
Sergeant Jethro F. Hill. 
■ Sergeant William S. Squires. 
Sergeant William Gaines. 
Corporal Albert Kimble. 
Corporal Joseph H. Cohagan. 
Corporal Nehemiah V. Pennington. 
Musician Lewis Halt. 


Christopher Albert, George W. Bowlby, John H. Bowlby, John A. 
Barth, Louis C. Brehm, George Buskirk, Henry Beckman, Robert S. 
Culbertson, Francis I. CuUom, Charles Cunningham, Henry Elsing, 
Frederick Eggerman, Constantine Fecker, William Goodwin, Joseph 
Grau, John Hailing, Isaac B. Hart, Daniel Henria? Peter Hoffman, Ja- 
cob Hoffnagle, Lorenz Huber, John A. Roo, August Kreyenhagen, 
Jphn C. Leistner, William A. Lohu, Theodore B. McDonald, Frank 
Meier, Pedro Montaldo, John Moorhouse, Theodore Ostman, Thomas 
Parker, Reason Regin, Clark C. Saunders, Henry E. SchoUe, John 
Leitz, Henry Shelton, George W. G. Shipman, Henry Shockman, 
Joshua Tomson, Samuel Walker, Charles Warner, Frederick Wehking 
George W. Yeager, Gerhard Jumweilde, Frank Christman, Clements 
Dulle, Wesley W. Long, Charles Weideman, George K. Wilder. 

Killed in Battle. — Sergeants Thomas G. Drake, John H. Oshng ; 
Corporal Henry F. Fauk ; Privates Louis F. Fautz, Theodore Wessel- 

Died. — Corporals Henry G. Kreyenhagen, Joseph Martin ; Privates 
Henry L. Ford, Frank Guhra, George Kelsch, David Klein, Jacob 
Nikel, Alexander Schidtman, Rairaond Welling. 

Discharged. — First Sergeant James F. Meline ; Sergeant H. E. W. 
Backus, Henry N. Conden ; Corporals James F. Bargulow, Charles 
Donnelly. Privates George Andrews, Theodore Austin, Frank Crests, 
David D. Davis, Henry C. Davis, Henry Gauckstadt, Joseph Haddock, 
Christopher H. Kuhn, Jefferson McClure, William A. Roebuck, Mor- 
timer Singer, James F. Smith, Freeman C. Tryon, Harrison' Waltz, 
Thomas S. Witherell. 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Henry Gee, Sergeant WiUiam Paper- 
brook, Musicianjohn H. Buchtel, Privates John M. Darke, Charies E. 
Lewis, Alexander Love, William McBride, Andrew Murphy. 

On muster in, but not on muster out roll. — Privates Thomas Braun, 
Frederick A. Bemis, John J. Cordry, William Camp, Carneal Conger, 
Henry C. Fowler, Stephen Grove, Joseph L. Gibson, Charles Heine, 
Thomas Johnson, F. H. Lancaster, Frederick Martin, Peter Molloy, 
John Rut, Frank Ross, Luke Rapplee, James W. Roe, Thomas F. 
Ricker, Francis Sutchs, Edwin Thomas, Diedrick Evers, John Fagru, 
Barnard Klenberg, William Lamont, Frederick Madeke, George Mc- 
Laughlin, Conrad Milcher, Albert Malloy, Michael Nolan, Jacob Schaff- 

ner, Julius Winer, Engelhart Wolfer, Jacob Weiber, Frederick Krause, 
Louis Stahl, Martin Erhardt. 

Transferred. — Sergeant Newton McKee, Corporal George B. Crist, 
Privates Frederick Bottles, Victor Liest, Jacob Mattern, Darius Cros- 
line, Rinhard Crist, Samuel Doatwart, Sandy Smith (under-cook, Af- 


Upon receipt of the thrilling news of the fall of Sum- 
ter, the Germans of Cincinnati promptly held a meeting 
at Turner hall, which was addressed by Judge Stallo, 
Colonel R. L. McCook, and other prominent citizens. 
The issue of this gathering was the raising of a German 
regiment, for which two hundred men enrolled at once, 
and within three days fifteen hundred were offered. 
The Ninth was mustered for three months April 2 2d, at 
Camp Harrison, and moved to Camp Dennison May 
1 8th, where it was soon after mustered in for the long 
term, the first three years' regiment from the State, in 
consideration of which the Columbus ladies sent it a 
superb bass drum. It numbered one thousand and 
thirty-five officers and men, with a band of twenty-four. 
On the twentieth of June it took the field in West- 
ern Virginia, made a rapid march from Webster to 
PhiHppi, fifteen miles in three hours, and thence to 
Buckhannon, meeting the enemy at Little Fork bridge, 
but not in force. The Ninth was engaged at Rich 
Mountain directly after, and sustained a small loss. 
From the advance to Cheat Mountain it was ordered 
back to Beverly, and thence to New Creek, on the Po- 
tomac, arriving July 27th. Uncommonly severe guard 
duty awaited it here and continued about a month, 
when the regiment moved to the interior and was as- 
signed to the Second brigade. September 7th the Ninth 
was engaged near Carnifex Ferry, losing two killed and 
eight wounded. For two months and half it was en- 
camped on New river, having frequent skirmishes with 
the enemy, in which a few men were lost. Ordered west, 
it left "Camp Anderson" November 24th, and arrived at 
Louisville December 2d, going from there to Lebanon, 
where it was assigned to the Third brigade. First division, 
Army of the Ohio. January i, 1862, the division moved 
on Columbia, and from there to meet ZoUicoffer. The 
Ninth was in the action at Mill Springs, and made the 
decisive charge of the day. Upon the return to Louis- 
ville in February, the Union ladies of the city presented 
it, and three other regiments, each with a stand of colors, 
for their bravery in this battle. The regiment was then 
transported by water to Nashville, reaching it March 2d, 
and leaving a fortnight after for Pittsburgh Landing, 
where it arrived too late to join in the battle. It was in 
the advance on Corinth, and for some way in the pursuit 
beyond; but was marched to Tuscumbia, Alabama, June 
2 2d. While in camp there the Ninth received an ele- 
gant regimental flag, presented by the city of Cincinnati. 
July 27th it moved toward Decherd, Tennessee, and on 
this march its colonel, Robert L. Cook, commanding the 
brigade, fell ill, and riding in an ambulance ahead of the 
column, was overtaken and cruelly murdered by gue- 
rillas. From Decherd the regiment moved with the 
Army of the Ohio in its toilsome and painful retreat to 
Louisville, which was reached September 27th. October 


3d it was marched out toward Perryville, and was in ac- 
tion, with small loss, near the close of the battle on the 
8th. After pursuing Bragg to Crab Orchard, it was 
posted at South Tunnel, to clean out the tunnel and 
re-open the railway from Louisville to Nashville. This 
was done by hard, energetic work, between November 8th 
and 26th. The next guard duty was at Pilot Knob, and 
during the battle of Murfreesborough it guarded fords on 
the Cumberland. January 14th to March 6, 1863, the 
Ninth was on duty about Nashville, scouting and recon- 
noitering, when it was ordered to Triune and engaged 
in drilling, building fortifications, etc. It was here 
equipped with Springfield rifles, and also welcomed cordi- 
ally a new regimental band. Marched again June 24th, 
through heavy rains, for seventeen days, to TuUahoma, 
and thence over Lookout Mountain, reaching McLemore's 
cove September loth. On the 17th it moved toward the 
battle-field of Chickamauga, marching all night through 
lanes of burning fences, and was in the thick of the fight 
the next day. It recaptured a lost battery, aided in the 
repulse of Longstreet, and on the second day took part 
in the famous bayonet charge of Van Dervour's brigade. 
In the battle the Ninth sustained one-third of the entire 
loss of its brigade, losing eleven officers and two hundred 
and thirty-seven men, almost exactly half of its whole 
number in action. It then suffered with the rest of the 
army for a season at Chattanooga. When General 
Thomas took command, the regiment entered the Sec- 
ond brigade. Third division. Army of the Cumberland. 
It was in the assault on Mission Ridge, and, with one 
other regiment repulsed, a charge by a greatly superior 
force. December 30th it escorted a battery and train to 
Calhoun; and, February 25, 1864, took part in a sharp 
skirmish at Crow's Valley. In March and April it was 
encamped at Ringgold, and May 5th it started on the 
Atlanta campaign. It was in the battle of Resaca May 
15th, moving thence to the Etowah river, where it re- 
mained on active duty until its terra expired. May 27th. 
Up to the last moment it stood within range of the ene- 
my's guns, and was finally relieved by General Thomas in 
person from the outer picket line. Their fellow-soldiers 
lined the road and gave it enthusiastic cheers by way of fare- 
well. It was received with great enthusiam at Cincinnati, 
and mustered out at Camp Dennison June 7, 1864. The 
attachment of the members of this regiment to its memor- 
ies and to each other is so great that they hold reunions 
every Sunday, at some convenient place in the city, where 
they fight their battles o'er again. 


Colonel Robert L. McCook. 
Colonel Gustave Kammerling. 
Lieutenant Colonel Charles Sandeshoff. 
Lieutenant Colonel Charles Joseph. 
Lieutenant Colonel Fritz Schweder. 
Major August Willich. 
Major Bartholemevv Benzswig. 
Major Charles E. Boyle. 
Major Conrad Sottheim. 
Assistant Surgeon Rudolph Werth. 
Assistant Surgeon Adam M. Beers. 
Assistant Surgeon James Davenport. 
Adjutant George H. Harris. 
Adjutant Herman Ponitz. 

Quartermaster Joseph Graeff. 

Chaplain William Stacugel. 

Chaplain Joseph A. Fuchshuber. 

Sergeant-Major Robert Gronan. 

Commissary Sergeant Samuel Landaner. 

Quartermaster Sergeant Gustave Brockhous. 

Hospital Steward Louis Zahn. 

Principal Musician Dominie Emrninger. 

Principal Musician Richard Schwenger. 

Discharged. — Hospital Steward William Schmidt, Principal Musi- 
cian Guenther Leidenstrucker, Quartermaster Sergeant Emanuel 
Rodde, musicians, Leopold Praeger, Ernst F, Blum, Albin Studer, 
Richard Meinhardt, Anson Hofichser, Joseph Kilian, Louis Strebel, 
Charles Vogt, John Cochler, George Wolf, Charles Hammel, Theodore 
Niemann, Louis Dorst, Ernst Meinhardt, .Adolph Schenck, Anson 

Quartermaster Sergeant Frederick Busse, Christopher Schendler. 

Transferred. — Sergeant-Major Raymond Hermann. 

Regimental band. — Principal Musician Richard Sclrvvenzer; musicians, 
Jacob Bauer, John Dietrich, Charles Harvy, Theodore Herth, Charles 
Jutzi, Michael Koch, John Koch, Lorenz Mages, Michael Meiser, 
Leopold Praeger, Andrew Reusing, Herman Weber, Otto Zink, Wil- 
liam Hawk. 



Captain Joseph Charles B. Gentsch. 
First Lieutenant Louis Henser. 
First Lieutenant Adam Schuhmacher. 
Second Lieutenant Gustavus Tafel. 
Second Lieutenant Herman Pomitz. 


First Sergeant Louis Mark. 
Sergeant Charles Teichmann. 
Sergeant Adolph Mueller. 
Corporal August Griess. 
Wagoner William Wittinger. 


Charles Albrecht, Louis Ambrecht, George Ambsler, Hermann Bey- 
land, Julius Bertsch, Albert Booklet, Franz Brawninger, Albert Franke, 
Henry Glyckherr, Henry Gnucklack, Joseph Goessler, John G. 
Himmber, Peter Hahn, Frederick Heyer, Franz Hohendorf, Frederick 
Handel, Joseph Heck, Otto Hack, Philip Hartmann, Theodore Jacker, 
Louis Killer, Charles Klinthworth, Adam Klingel, Ernst Koegal, John 
Loge, Adolph Luethy, August Mathies, William Meyer, Charles Mad- 
dler, Louis Atting, George Popp, Uriah Panzer, Ferdinand Pfister, 
Frederick Kumpf, Henry Rieger, Joseph Ruettinger, George Seihrt, 
Philip Seibert, Gustavus Schultz, Theodore Schatgle, John Schmidt, 
Edward Stremmel, Frederick Wendel. 

Privates, Albert Ahlers, Rudolph Burgmann, Frank Daum, Otto 
Schultz, Andrew Schmidt, William Wachs. 

Joined since organization of company. — Sergeant August Ernst, 
Signer; Corporals Herman Waldenmayer, Thomas Lorenz Mages; 
paivates, Emil Gerhardt, Martin Koch, Louis Lissett, Charles Schatt- 
gen, Adolph Wagoner. 

Killed in battle. — Sergeant William Drewey; Corporals Hugo Tafel, 
Godfrey Krichfuss; Privates August Reyland, Philip Herzog, William 
Dake, Ferdinand Hildebrand, Sadislaw Settler. 

Died. — First Sergeant Frederick Sturbe, Corporal Ferdinand Borz; 
privates, George Wittman, Ferdinand Ludwig, Peter Schraffenbeger, 
Philip Fueller, 

Discharged. — Sergeants, Adam Schumacher, Gustavus Tafel, Her- 
mann Poenitz, Charles Feltan; Corporals Nicholas Peters, Henry 
Baer; musician, Michael Koch; Privates Charles Berkheimer, Gustavus 
Baner, Michael Beyer, Gustave Beigmann, Hermann Franke, Henry 
Hubert, Ma.\ Hupfauf, Louis Hartleb, Adam Hermansderfer, Fred- 
erick Kuchne, Frederick Mueller, Louis Neubacher, Franz Pfeffet, 
George Pfaffinger, John Raepple, Philip Riehl, George Roehrig, Joseph 

Prisoners of War. — Sergeant Ernst Riedel; Private Ernst Schultz. 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Robert Gronan; Sergeant Herman 
Reinstanz, Corporal Peter Becker, Musician Richard Schwenzer; Fifer, 
Richard Meinhardt; Drummer Frederick Poschner; Privates Adolph 
Begmann, Charles Haebbe, Bernhard Grieschop. 

On muster-in but not on muster-out roll, — Charles Vadler. 


Captain I'erdinand Mueller. 
First Lieutenant Jacob Mueller. 
First Lieutenant Nicholas Willich. 
First Lieutenant Frederick Bertsch. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Blandowski. 
Second Lieutenant Theodore Rauck. 


First Sergeant Frederick Maerthesheimer. 

Sergeant George F. Trautner. 

Sergeant John Earth. 

Sergeant Casper Decker. - 

Sergeant Charles Schutz. 

Corporal John Schmidt. 

Corporal Jacob Boehler. 

Corporal Henry Schenk. 

Corporal Augustus Kiefe. 

Corporal Albin Arand. 

Musician Charles Jutze. 

Wagoner John Roos. 


Jacob Baron, Clemens Breitenbach, Lewis Buchtman, Julius Burk- 
hardt, Arthur Dreifus, Lewis Ehrlich, John Engel, John Engelhardt, 
Frederick Freers, Lewis Freers, Michael Gierten, Augustus Genther, 
Maurice Emery, Gotleib Hauser, Frederick Heine, Otis Howard, Jost 
Hoesh, Frederick Huminan, Henry Jend, August Jungfelass, Theodore 
Klunke, Anton Kutzleb, John Kraes, Charles Macule, George Maeir, 
William May, John Orion, Joseph Piesche, George Rohland, John 
Ruop, John Schaefer, Thomas Schaefer, Henry Schaeringhaus, George 
Scheer, Edward Scheneser, Jacob Schlosser, Peter Schmiegel, John 
Schwarz, Henry Schwessinger, Ferdinand C. Schneeman, Joseph 
Schweler, Augustus Stoeckle, George Tenn, Adolph Thedbold, Henry 
Wahle, Nicholas Wedesty, George Wolpold, John Wuesthop, Charles 

Privates Gustavus Buehl, Moritz Gross, Jacob Maurer. 

Killed in battle.— Corporals Henry Miller, Henry Wight; Privates 
Jacob Bauer, Joseph Hipp, Andrew Keller, Frederick Lecker, Adam 

Died. — First Sergeant Adolph Spaeth; Corporals Eugene Huser, 
Charles Pacher; Privates Conrad Hosbach, Casper Mueller, Francis 
Schapf, Henry J. Theobold, John Troester, Joseph Floise. 

Discharged. — First Sergeant Theodore Bauck; Wagoner Philip 
Maenninger; Privates John Bauer, Lewis Benz, Lewis Bluttermann, 
John Boss, Philip Bottler, John Deiters, Emanuel Honeck, Robert 
Kaulig, John Kurhule, George Lauber, Michael Bracker, Julius Lessig, 
Peter Maithic, Charles Rusckert, Joseph Scherer, Francis Schmidt, 
Casper Semmber, John Wirzbricker, Conrad Ulmer, Melchior Wiget, 
Benedict Wiesz, Christopher Fleddermann, Jacob Winzler. 

Transferred. — Gustave Brockhause. 

Prisoner of War. — ^John Pfeifer. 



Captain Henry Broderson. 
Captain William Straengel. 
Captain Morris Pohlman. 
First Lieutenant George H. Harris. 
First Lieutenant Henry Liedke. 
First Lieutenant Joseph Haider. 
First Lieutenant Henry Spaeth. 


First Sergeant Charles Abel. 
Sergeant George Ess. 
Sergeant William Brinkman. 
Sergeant Matthias Huett. 
Sergeant Joseph Mueller. 
Corporal Francis Reinfurt. 
Corporal Henry Elever. 
Corporal Peter Batz. 
Corporal Jacob Schweitzer. 
Corporal Charles N. Nelson. 


Leoiiard Banen, Christopher Bleiler, Leopold Busam, Coustantine 
Boshardt, August Bunsch, John Bmemmelkamp, George Brueker, 

Jacob Bihl, Albert Denerlich, Martin Eckerle, Henry Gausman, Louis 
Guenther, John Goetz, August Grothe, William Gerhardt, Phillipp 
Guerteth, Louis Gorman, Herman Gerhardt, George Hyde, Martin 
Hankes, Stephen Huber, Phillip Holzmann, Frederick Hafner, Wil- 
liam Hayne, Charles Hoffner, Henry Krauger, Henry Krite, William 
Keiterborn, Joseph Kissiwelter, August Kraeger, Frank Kaiser, Michael 
Lorenz, Nathan Loewenstein, Julius Lentz, Christian Mueller, Peter 
Miller, John Mueller, Louis Mayer, Matthias Meister, Henry Remmin- 
ger, Frederick Rapp, William Stettleberg, Nicholas Schneider, George 
Schneider, Carl Steiner, Christian Lickemeyer, Lorenz Spaeth, Anton 
Schmidt, Christian Thaussen, Herman Upsing, Phillipp Ulrich, Stanis- 
laus, VoUmen, Herman Wiltenberg, Jacob Wenz, Michael Zier, John 
Steek, William Ott, Nicholas Birkman. 

Killed in Battle. — Fred Waltenspeil, William Kaiser. 

Missing in Action. — Fred Frost, Charles Groespel. 

Died. — Corporal Herdia Kilian; Privates Frederick Gimble, Frede- 
rick Shafer, William Hartig, John Rosselit, Sebastian Wipfler, Jacob 

Discharged. — First Sergeant George Schneider; Sergeant Anton 
Miller; Privates Henry Byersderfer, Clemens Bonke, Frederick Buse, 
Bernhardt Bruggemaur, Xavier Fahrubel, Isaac Hessbirg, Joseph Hill, 
Charles Hoerst, Magnus Heyl, Adolph Jost, Jean Joab, Frederick 
Koeffler, Henry Kramer, Henry Lotz, Theodore Pape, William Poppe, 
William Rosenfeld, Charles Schottmueller, John Schulz, Anton Steifes- 
ter, Theodore Steiner, Frederick Vail, Louis Witzell. 

Transferred. — Sergeants Lewis Groos, Louis Kuster, Louis Zahn, Ed- 
lief Thomson, Samuel Lundaner, Frederick Bupe, Frederick Dister, 
Charles Stalder. 

On muster-in but not on'muster-out roll. — John Goob. 



Captain Frederick Schroeder. 
Captain Gustave F. Kepper. 
First Lieutenant Ernst Reubeum. 
First Lieutenant Richard Schneider. 
Second Lieutenant Daniel Wagoner. 
Second Lieutenant Raymond Herman. 


First Sergeant Gustave Grims. 
Sergeant August Witte. 
Sergeant William Minning. 
Sergeant Casper Weger. 
Corporal Adolph Gumelman. 
Corporal Ferdinand Zimmerer. 
Corporal Phillipp Arnold. 
Corporal Gotlieb Strohm. 
Wagoner Louis Nordmann. 


Charles Abraham, Peter Blinn, George Borntrager, Louis Bosch, 
Jacob Buegler, Thomas Burger, Henry Cordes, Bernhardt Dorn, John 
Eberhardt, Martin Eberhardt, Martin Path, Henry Faubel, Rudolph 
Frischkueht, Henry Frederich, William Galle, Henry Gerding, James 
Gerthot, Peter Guerther, Henry Hahn, Jacob Hermann, Peter Hugger, 
Herman J ohanning, Michael Kosh, Andrew Langeubahn, Hermann C. 
W. Suelbert, Francis Massner, Charles Mandell, Bartholomew Malt, 
Frederick Meyer, Henry Meyer, William Meyer, Henry Minning, Wil- 
liam Nenn, Louis Roesler, George Roesoh, Adam Reising, Louis Sand- 
man, Adam Sandrack, John Sauser, Herman Schaf, Hugo Schassner, 
Matthew Schleuker, Herman Schmidt, Christian Schmidt, Michaei 
Schranck, Charles Schnebel, Jabob Schwarztrauber, Charles Seeger, 
William Stagg, William Steinkamp, Christian Strademeyer, Rudolph 
Strademeyer, Francis Studer, Frederick Turbez, Christian Vaneda 
Charles Wirming, Jacob Betzold, George Koch, John Kierz, Henry 
Weyminger, Alexander Pflueger, Joseph Walton. 

Killed in Battle. —Corporal Louis Fohmann; Privates Henry Speller- 
berg, August Waldenspiel, Charles Funke, Frederick Conrade, Anthony 
Mueller, Ernst Kuechler. 

Prisoner of War. — Private John Blessing. 

Died. — Corporal Christian Luchrmann; Privates Gustave Begemann, 
August Engelebrecht, Henry Large, John Luchbrechler. 

Discharged. — First Sergeant Charles Dolezrich; Sergeant August 
Hampe; Privates John Beck, August Begemann, Jerome Helreigel, Wil- 
liam Knichhaus, Joseph Ligner, Gebhardt Meyer, Herman Otten, 
William Voesti, Bernhardt Weikerte, Henry Winter, William Zerer, 
Henry Spaeth. 

Transferred.— Privates Valentine Fleitz, Dominie Einminger. 




Captain Bartholomew Benz. 
Captain George H. Harries. 
First Lieutenant Gustavus F, Nepper. 
First Lieutenant Martin Bruner. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick Steimer. 


First Sergeant George H. Lippert. 
Sergeant Jolin Eigner. 
Sergeant Frederick Saeger. 
Sergeant Henry S. Scheuer. 
Sergeant J olin Kochler. 
Corporal Jolm Mueller, No. i. 
Corporal Frank M. Smith. 
Corporal George S. Starm. 
Corporal John Schular. 
Corporal Louis Mossman. 
Corporal Harry E. Bayer. Henry Feieatag. 
Wagoner August Broadeaberger. 


Henry Behrens, Balthasar Baeche, Theodore Basch, Richard Baes- 
chia'', Frederick Biedeker, Martin Baabender, Dietrich Dorst, Louis 
Eckelman, Diebold Eschenbrauer, Simon Ernst, John Fauke, Frederick 
Feirp, Charles Fortacbacher, George Fisher, Adam Fath, James G. 
Froever, Frederick Hoffman, Joseph H. Hagelai, John Hoeltzer, John 
Houck, Casper Keller, Christian Laedeke, Henry Mowbrey, Andrew- 
Mayer, John Mueller, No. 2, Frank Natsch, George Obermeyer, James 
Papaner, George Reiger, Christian Rapp, Frank Rarke, George Reip- 
ler, John Rost, Joseph Rein, Jacob Straab. William Schalmeyer, Jacob 
Seebach, William Schraitzer, John Sehatte, ■ Frank Steimer, Frank 
Schick, lohn Schmidt, Phillipp Sommer, Frank Tobergete, John Trick, 
Louis Waltz, Frank Wedericke, Frederick Eberhardt, Sebastian Hen- 
rich, Charles Hoffacher, William Hesse, George Kollae, Andrew 
Schwartz, Herman Whening. 

Killed in Battle. — Corporal John Ruoff ; Privates Fidel Edelman, 
Christopher Hornang, Frederick Noeka. 

Died. — Corporal Henry Seimers, Martin Dumbacher, George Gaul, 
Herman Jarger. 

Discharged.— Sergeant Phillip Spangler ; First Sergeant Henry W. 
Sanders; Sergeants John Limberger, Frederick Steiner ; Drummer Fred- 
erick Blamerthal; Pri^■ates Frederick Bruner, Jacob Arnold, Henry 
Barwig, Frederick Gross, Charles Guilharme, Christopher Halbrider, 
William E. Hagedon, John Hellwig, Joseph Kirlack, Charles Kelb, 
John Keiahardt, Adam Mayer, Frederick Meyers, Henry Pfisterer, Da- 
vid Ross, August Scharck. 

Prisoners of War. — Privates Leo Wippel, Frederick Walker. 

Transferred. — Musician Weber Herman, Charles Benninger, Daniel 
Eyser, Joseph Kelderich, Henry J. Kock, Thomas Streiff, Jacob Wed- 



Captain Gustav Kammerling. 

Captain Louis Henser. 

First Lieutenant Herman Luetkenhaus. 

Second Lieutenant Alexis Hilbrun. 

Second Lieutenant John Baumgartner. 


First Sergeant Frank Hinman. 

Sergeant Christian Etzell. 

Sergeant John B. Hoenemann. 

Sergeant George F. Feir. 

Corporal Julius Geram. 

Corporal Gerhardt Ferber. 

Corporal Alovis Maver. 

Corporal Joseph Lehman. 

Corporal John Prichtel. 

Corporal Joseph Becker. 

Wagoner Henry Steffens. 


Henry Arnold, Matthew Altinger, William Appenfenfelder, Christian 
Bay, Conrad Dahloff, Frederick Engelay, Charles Fenderonich, John 
Gueiither, Frederick Habenicht, William Hunskahl, Henry Hoer, Wil- 

liam Kimberly, Conrad Kramer, Charles Messner, Charles May, Julius 
Nordhoff, Henry Nickel, Henry Neulman, Henry Rume, Andrew Rohr, 
Charles Rothfuss, Phillipp Steuber William Stern, Ernst Straup, Vin- 
cent Schott, August Schoenfeld, William Schoenfeld, John SchmuUing, 
John Schmidt, Christian Schnell, Henry Sander, Anthony Siebelder, 
Lawrence Steuber, Charles Schaefer, Frederick Schroeder, Frank Traw, 
Andrew Vollett, Conrad Vassler, William Wahlbrink, Adolph Brew- 
erer, John Brachle, Jacob Korii, Charles Merroth, Phillip Mella, Wil- 
liam Schroer, Henry L. Weber. 

Killed in Battle. — Privates Gottlieb Hirschmann, George Hirsbrun- 
ner, Anton Knittell, Frederick Mueller, Herman Schmidt, Frederick 
Miefert, Frederick Werth, Christian Gerstaller ; Corporal Charles 

Died. — Privates Matthew Buehl, Charles Roller, John B. Stieff, John 

Discharged. — Sergeants Frederick Oberkline, John Obervahn, Wil- 
liam Kiliam ; Privates Jacob Arnold, Nicholas Braun, Charles Berger, 
Charles Brill, Prosper Binghard, Christopher Hornickle, Charles Hal- 
ler, Paul Jessing, Martin Kern, Charles Kern, Conrad Kauffman, 
Henry Karp, Henry Moore, George Mietsch, August Nolte, Edward 
Schenkel, Gotlieb Schaffner, Herman Stahl, Casper Rung. 

Prisoners of War. — Sergeant V. Hummell, Charles Corp, Charles 
Daubenmerkel, Henry Pappenberg, Leonard Hermann ; Corporal Jo- 
seph Becker. 

Recruits and Prisoners of War. — Privates John B. Baumgartner, An- 
drew Dietz, Bernhardt Klineberg, Otto Zink. 

Not on Muster Roll. — Private John Trarbauch. 



Captain Gustavus Richter. 
Captain Adam Schumacker. 
First Lieutenant Charles Zahn. 
■ First Lieutenant Tlieodore Lammer. 
First Lieutenant Alexander Hillbrum. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick Oberkline. 
Second Lieutenant George Hartung. 


First Sergeant Charles Golde. 
Sergeant August Gebhardt. 
Sergeant Frederick Emmert. 
Sergeant Charles Kaschule. 
-Corporal Christian Herman. 
Corporal Henry Nagel. 
Corporal Franz Winter. 
Corporal Charles Schronckhart. 
Corporal Edward Rapp. 
Corporal Herman Schutz. 
Corporal Franz Spahn. 


Adam Wenzel, George Appelman, Ernst Buerkle, Joseph Bleible, 
Frederick Cramer, Charles Doolharte, Charles Dutchman, William 
Diehlmier, Frank Denkinger, Henry Dirkson, Justus Enter, Louis 
Gschwind, Herman Howard, Daniel Hess, Raymond HoU, William 
Heiderman, Henry Hinneche, August Kimple, Jacob Kreiss, John 
Loffler, Frederick Leuke, William Leipnitz, Frederick Maeir, John 
Mueller, Lewis Plattin, Otto Roggenbricker, Philip R. Rack, Bernhaid 
Sextro, Henry Stoddick, Christian Schetler, Joseph Schneider, Peter 
Schneider, Henry Stamm, August Schroppe, Herman Spaemberg, 
Joseph Schander, Christian Schmidt, August Seigmund, John Schmidt, 
Frederick Strick, Louis Schmolze, George Wiedeworth, Peter Wet- 
terick, William Zarsk,e Peter Brummer, Christopher Dammier, John 
Greberstein, Anthony Otto, Casper Oberdries, John Rudel, Henry 
Rupprehct, Jacob Schifferdecker, Conrad Stein, Anthony Zeke. 

Killed in Battle. — Corporal Herman Lutz; Privates Frederick Gor- 
dike, William Huth, Otto Kutter, George Kuhne. 

Died. — Sergeant George Honold; Privates Rudolph Arnold, Franz 
Baechle, William Baelser, William Federlin, Frederick Fisch, Henry 
Racke, William Newman, William Trimemeyer. 

Missing in Action. — Private John Ganer. 

Discharged. — First Sergeant Ferdinand Seyper; Corporal Andreas 
Hosfeld; Privates Ehrhart Buettner, Charles Biedenbender, John 
Friker, George Harting, Lucas Haettig, Simon Kaerling, George Lim- 
berger, WiUliam Meir, Henry Mayer, Joshua Mueller, August Pert, 
William Schnellman, Henry Schubrook, Otto Spankuch, Valentine 



Transferred. — Private Charles Barker; Musicians John Deiterich, 
Michael Meiser. 

On muster-in, but not on muster-out roll. — First Lieutenant Charles 



Captain Jacob Glonchovvski. 
First Lieutenant Morris Pohlman. 
First Liuetenant Herman Groskordt. 
Second Lieutenant Adolphus Kuhn. 
Second Lieutenant Louis Kuster. 


First Sergeant Robert Haile. 

Sergeant Peter Heischauer. 

Sergeant Frederick Brand. 

Sergeant Wilhelm Besseeke. 

Corporal Carl Kommandera. 

Corporal Charles Stuchle. 

Corporal August Stoeppel. 

Corporal Peter Stoltz. 

Corporal William Meinking. 

Corporal August Kettler. 

Wagoner Andrew Motrz. 


John Bachmann, Charles Brandt, Philip Blum, Louis Bode, Herman 
Buscher, Wilhelm Buscher, John Bulow, Henry DeVenkamp, William 
Doepke, Francis Feuerstein, Charles Fischer, John Frommel, John 
Grothen, John Hazeltein. Jacob Hatman, Nicholas Hanck, Frederick 
Hebenstreel, George Hesch, John Janson, Philip Jacob, Gustave Kaiser, 
Christian Kleinschmit, Henry Krumdick, John Kraus, Isador Kuhn, 
Theodore Koehn, Henry Lubbert, William Meier, Henrich Meinking, 
Frederick Munzer, Frederick Opitz, Bernhardt Ortmann, Frederick 
Poff, Bernhard Quinke, Lorenz Quinke, August Roese, Gustave Rulle, 
John Schaefer, John Schatzben, George Schatzmann, John Schiek, 
Emil Schudert, Albert Schmidt, Matthias Schaller, Jacob Schneider, 
George Seeger, George Severling, Theodore Skinner, Henry Struve, 
Christian Tolle, Christian Voeckel, Andrew Woessner, Joseph Wegner, 
Paul Dilley, Henry Pfaffenbauch, Theodore Hartz, Matthias Meier. 

Died. — Corporal Louis Weghurst; Privates John Blankenheim, George 
Belk, Louis Buscher, Joseph Danner, Andrew Haum, Henry Keifer, 
Theodore Sabin. 

Discharged. — Sergeants George Graff, Henry Marting; Privates Fred- 
erick Abel, George Beigel, Charles Dolletsbeek, Joseph Dietsch, Loyd 
Dixon, WiUiara Gehm, Charles Hillwein, Michael Rapp, Anton Wild. 

Transferred. — Sergeant John Lindner; Corporals Herman Fischer, 
August Wilsbacher; Musician Leopold Praeger; Privates Albert Bender, 
Frederick Brandt, Theodore Herth, Christopher Miller, John Ridder- 

Prisoners of War. — Sergeant Joseph Hochler; Privates Christian 
Ehlert, Joseph Hillinger, Bernhard Riddamann, Frederick Vehrenkamp, 
Henry Voss, Henry Foss. 



Captain John Ganson. 
First Lieutenant William Henbig. 
First Lieutenant Charles Dolezich. 
Second Lieutenant Joseph Graff. 
Second Lieutenant Andrew Jenny. 


Sergeant Ferdinand Opitz. 
Sergeant William Huttenmiller. 
Sergeant George Stenken. 
Corporal Herman Liman. 
Corporal Frederick Jant. 
Corporal John Steffel. 
Corporal Anton Greiner. 
Corporal Herman Warnke. 
Corporal John Schmidt. 
Musician Louis Hoendorf. 


William Bickmeyer, Jacob Boehler, Philip Burckhardt, Emil Becher, 
Christian Balks, William Bock, Joseph Comarth, Herman Demme, 
Leopold Dollen, Philip Fitz, Benjamin Foley, Christian Fleichman, 
Francis FiUan, Michael Graw, Louis Haack, Edward Hammel, Chris- 
tian Haffner, Ignatz Hoch, John Heine, Louis Hoerr, Rudolph Hoel- 

schen, Frederick Hoeller, Fedolin Kaffoden, Charles Leiser, Anton 
Meier, William Muerer, Philip Merty, Adolph Newbrick, Jolin Ort- 
wein, Charles Ohl, Henry Paul, Alexander Ruf, Peter Rohland, Joseph 
Shirm, August Stoecken, William Stoecken, John Schuman, Frederick 
Schmidt, Robert Schmidt, John Seifert, Charles Slants, Christian 
Soberer, Charles Slienle, Fabian Wiemer, Henry Westmeyer, Conrarth 
Wolf, Jacob Blattner, August Beisen, Gustav Becker, Charles Haack, 
Peter Hobstetter, Daniel Schmidt, Leo Schroeder, Christian Schott, 
Daniel Schneider, Joseph Wiclort. 

Killed in Battle. — Sergeant Michael Hamman, Corporal Gottlieb 
Reiber; Privates, Lee Bochler, Frederick Frill, John Kental, Charles 
Mueller, William Reichman, Gustav Stoecken, Conarth Springgard. 

Died. — Drummer Thornton Eberhardt; Privates Henry Blomeyer, 
Louis Runk, George Vanan. 

Discharged. — F,rederick Bauenmeister, Christian Constanz, Bern- 
hardt Hoelscher, Urban Keifenheim, George Kapp, Jacob Lava, 
Charles Mensing, John Adam Nay, Charles Taucher. 

Prisoners of War. — First Sergeant James Doll; Sergeant Casper 
Messemer; Corporal Charles Hoppest, Wagoner Jacob Schaeffer Pri- 
vates Daniel Grimm, Edward Uttendenfer. 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Richard Schneider; Privates Philip 
Bikel, Frederick Banemeister, Jacob Bauer, John Boccord, Lewis 



Captain George Sommer. 
Captain E. B. Thomson. 
First Lieutenant Theodore Hafner. 
First Lieutenant James Mangold. 
First Lieutenant Louis Grove, 
Second Lieutenant Louis Fricker. 


First Sergeant Jacob Mather. 

Sergeant Peter Kinzler. 

Sergeant Charles Kempf. 

Sergeant Lorenz Miller. 

Sergeant Jolui Kempfer. 

Corporal Julius Siegel. 

Corporal Joseph Frichs. 

Corporal Philip Marrer. 

Corporal John Radley. 

Corporal David Thaler. 

Teamster Leonard Wissmeier. 


Jacob August, Bernhard Axra, Ferdinand Baldinger, Martin Bassler, 
Henry Bauer, Jacob Beck, Sebastian Beringer, Thomas Buchta, Rein- 
hard Dalmon, Alexander Dalmon, Peter Erbacher, George Fellinger, 
August Fellsman, John Grether, Theodore Gubser, John Geiger, Con- 
stantine Geschwind, Frederick Hartmann, John Hartman, George Hof, 
August Halthof, John Hoch, Jacob Jetter, Joseph Knoble, Leonard 
Kirscher, Jacob Kirschbaum, Martin Kramer, William Lenzer, Anton 
Myer, Emanuel Marthi, George Meixner, Frederick Mueller, Georg 
Mutter, Jacob Mandeiy, John Obenauer, Michael Reutschler, Victor 
Ruedy, Jacob Sommer, John Scheverman, Frederick Schubert, Philip 
Schubert, Martin Seifert, Alpheus Sommerhalder, George J. Schenck, 
Henry Waechler, Jacob Zellweyer, Marcus Ziegenhard, Jacob Hotz, 
Adam Kuehn, George Sommer, Ferdinand Seyfried, John Seidel, Her- 
man Teichert. 

Killed in Battle. — Privates Godfrey Hauth, Gottfried Grosser. 

Missing in Action. — George Roller, Andrew Schuyeck. 

Died. — Privates, William Gerhard, Albert Homcger, Leopold Mar- 
rer, Solomon Schneider, John Schneider, John Seibold, Cyriack Vogt. 

Discharged. — Corporals William Mueller, Anthony Mohler; Pri- 
vates George Buettner, Lewis Bauer, Jacob Honppler, John Kuhn, 
John KuU, Christopher Kull, John Mueller, John Mickel, Henry 
Neuman, Louis Preissel, John Renner, Theodore Rehse, Martin Sel- 
ler, John Schenck, William Sauerwine, Marcus Wieser, Conrad Zie- 
gler, Frederick Zamp. 

Prisoners of War. — Privates William Berg, Charles Rauber. 

Transferred. — Corporal- Joseph Krebs; Privates Adolph Brandner, 
Julius Fischer, George Gruntee, Peter Keltenbach, Jacob Orth, Peter 
Schaus, William Hauck, Charles Henry, Frederick Lauch. 


This was one of the several regiments raised at once 
in Cincinnati upon the outbreak of the war. It mus- 



tered in May 7, 1861, and shortly after marched from 
Camp Harrison to Camp Dennison, seventeen miles, in 
less than four hours. Many officers and enlisted men 
had seen service in Mexico and Europe. It was inspected 
at Camp Dennison by General McClelian, and highly 
complimented by him. In the latter part of May the 
Tenth re-enlisted almost in a body for three years, and was 
again mustered in, June 3d, as a three-years' regiment, 
when the ladies of Cincinnati presented it a splendid 
stand of colors. June 24th it was reported to General Mc- 
Clelian at Grafton, and marched thence to Clarksburgh, 
whence it moved to the relief of a beleaguered force at 
Glenville, but found it relieved without a fight. Two 
months marching and scouting in the mountains followed, 
after which it led the advance of Rosecrans to Carnifex 
Ferry. Here the regiment was hotly engaged and com- 
pelled to fall back. In the subsequent movements the 
Tenth took an active share, serving in every skirmish 
and battle in that campaign, closing with the chase of 
Floyd from Cotton mountain. November 2d, the Tenth 
returned to Cincinnati on its way to Kentucky, and re- 
ceived a most enthusiastic greeting as the "heroes of Car- 
nifex." Some of the streets through which it moved were 
so thronged that space was scarcely left for the column. 
It formed in line on Broadway, opposite Colonel Lytle's 
home, where he was suffering from a wound, but arose 
and accompanied his regiment on its triumphal march. 
After a week in the city it went to Kentucky and was as- 
signed to the Thirteenth brigade. Third division of Buell's 
army. Through Kentucky and Tennessee it shared the 
splendid achievements of General Mitchel, its division 
commander, and upon reaching Huntsville, Alabama, it 
was put on provost guard duty, which it performed to the 
eminent satisfaction of the citizens. Colonel Lytle was 
now commanding the brigade, and led it on the long march 
back to the Ohio. October 2d, the regiment received 
sixty recruits, and the next day moved toward Perryville, 
where it was very sharply engaged, losing almost exactly 
one half the number with which it went into action. 
When General Rosecrans relieved Buell the Tenth was 
announced as headquarters and provost guard of the Ar- 
my of the Cumberland, relieving the Fifteenth United 
States infantry. During the battle of Stone River it pro- 
tected the communications, and was highly commended 
in the official report. Seven companies of the regiment 
saved a train which was being plundered by Wheeler's 
cavalry, besides turning back several thousand fugitives 
from the battle-field. At headquarters, some time after, 
Mrs. Rosecrans personally presented the members of the 
"Roll of Honor" in the regiment with their badges, and 
pinned them herself on the breasts of the veterans. A 
beautiful national flag was also received from the city of 
Cincinnati in appreciation of the gallantry and daring of 
the Tenth. The regiment was present with Rosecrans 
at Chickamauga, and with Thomas at Mission Ridge, 
Buzzard Roost, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, and in the 
Atlanta campaign to Kingston. When its term had near- 
ly expired it was formed in front of headquarters, where 
General Thomas, contrary to his custom, addressed it a 
few words of parting cheer and of compliment for its 

bearing on all occasions. General Whipple, chief of staff", 
sent a eulogistic letter expressing his deep regret that the 
army was about to lose the "glorious old Tenth Ohio." 
The boys gave "three times three" for General Thomas, 
and another for the Army of the Cumberland, and still 
another for the Union cause, and then filed off ho'me- 
ward bound. Its return was cordially welcomed in Cin- 
cinnati, and it was shortly afterward mustered out of ser- 


Colonel William H. Lytle. 
Colonel Joseph W. Burk. 
Lieutenant Colonel Herman J. Korff, 
Lieutenant Colonel Robert M. Moore. 
Lieutenant Colonel William M. Ward. 
Major John E. Hudson, 
Adjutant James A. Groves. 
Adjutant Daniel O'Connor. 
Adjutant Thomas A. Patterson, 
Quartermaster Francis Darr. 
Quartermaster Nicholas Lacy, 
Quartermaster Luke Murrin. 
Surgeon Charles S. Muscroft. 
Surgeon Homer C. Shaw, 
Assistant Surgeon John B. Rice. 
Assistant Surgeon Joseph H. Van Deman. 
Assistant Surgeon Francis £. Powers. 
Chaplain William T. O'Higgins. 
Sergeant Major Nicholas Knox. 
Sergeant Major Daniel Troohig. 
Sergeant Major Newton McKee. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Luke Murrin. 
Quartermaster Sergeant John Connolly. 
Commissary Sergeant Matthias Reiddinger. 
Commissary Sergeant John Heber. 
Hospital Steward John J. Memiinger. 
Chief Bugler Jacob Seibeck. 
Principal Musician John O'Grady. 


Principal Musician John W. Walter; Musicians John Breslau, Louis 
J. Blackner, William Bierman, Hugh Coyle, Charles Colgan, Daniel 
Finn, John W. Fischer, Hugh Hurley, Frederick C. Krull, John Man- 
oeue, Simon Moeller, William J. O'Neill, Charles A. Rademacher, 
Bernard Strusberger, Peter C. Schickle, Charles Schroth, George F. 
Wedemeyer, Charles Walter, 



Captain John O'Dowd. . 
Captain John Fanning. 
First Lieutenant John Crauley. 
First Lieutenant Daniel O'Neill. 
First Lieutenant Timothy D. McNeff. 
Second Lieutenant WiUiam Lambert. 
Second Lieutenant James Foley. 
Second Lieutenant Isaac Shideler, 


First Sergeant Luke Jones. 

Sergeant Thomas Burcell. 

Sergeant Manuel O'Ribe. 

Sergeant Michael O'Brien. 

Sergeant John P, Williams, 

Corporal Samuel Hickman, 

Corporal Patrick Norton. 

Corporal Patrick Troohig, 


James Brown, Thomas Barry, Michael Carey, Dennis Curran, Wil- 
liam Crumley, Patrick Conroy, Thomas Coleman, Thomas Dolan, 
John Deffley, John Fenn, John Gilligan, Patrick Giltman, Matthew 
Herbert, David Higgins, Edward Hanlon, Timothy Hartnett, Richard 
Jennings, James E. Jones, John Kenney, John Logan, Michael Lar- 
kins, Thomas McDonald, Patrick McGarry, James Maloney, John 
Muhan, John I. Murphy, Patrick Nealon, Francis Phillips, Thomas 



Ryan, Dennis Ryan, Michael Tydings, Timothy Umford, Michael 
Barry, Felix McHugh, James Smith, James Horan, Charles B. Davis, 
James Boyd, Thomas O'Brien, Michael I. Fatten, Michael Keenan, 
James Tulty, Hugh Dennedy, Henry A. Brown, James Clare, Timo- 
thy Doyle, Patricli J. Gillivan, Patrick Keenan, Patrick McCudgen, 
Samuel McMuUen, Charles Malloy, Robert Kittrich, James McAndre, 
William O'Brien, Patrick O'Neill, Thomas Bryan, John Reed, Patrick 
Stark, Jacob Sage, John Ehiffy, James Galligher, Thomas Dwyer. 

Killed in Battle. — Sergeants John Dowd and Patrick Kavanagh; 
t'rivates Thomas German, William Morehouse, Harry Rooney, Patrick 
Keeshaw, Daniel Diffley, James Harrison, James Haley, Bernard Ken- 
ney, Hamilton Keown, Tobias Real. 

Died. — Corporals Joseph Dume and James Fisher; Privates John 
Carey, James McCudley, Patrick Jourdan, Hubert Farrell. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Daniel O'Neill, Daniel Toohig, William Lam- 
bert, James Foley; Privates John Connelly, Charles Dennenhour, 
George Leonard, Charles McDermott, James Malone, Daniel O'Con- 

Transferred. — Privates Francis Carroll, James Christy, John Barrett, 
David Cullerton, Michael Cowan, John Gushing, Patrick Dowd, James 
Malone, John Fitzpatnck, Michael Ryan, John Harte, James B. Mar- 
tin, Thomas Mahoney, John Donohoe, Dennis Murphy, Edward Can- 
non, Michael Brophy. 



Captain Emil Seib. 

Captain C. F. Nickel. 

Captain Rudolph Seebaum. 

First Lieutenant George Schafanacker. 

First Lieutenant Charles Weber. 

Second Lieutenant Matthias Reidlinger. 

Second Lieutenant William Thede. 

First Sergeant William Grundkemeyer. 
Sergeant August Maak, 
Sergeant Charles Heok. 
Corporal John Keoh. 
Corporal John Dannenhauer. 
Corporal Fritz Tiemann, 
Corporal Henry Toppe. 
Corporal William Hblle. 


John Dicks, Henry Borchers, John Burns, Herman Bnigemann, 
William Caroteus, Abraham Creppel, John Dippel, Christian Drehs, 
Charles Dreyer, Frederick Gleisker, Lorenz Germann, Christian Gill, 
Joseph Hampiiing, Brenhardt Herbert, Ulrich Hepler, Henry Hofle, 
Charles Junket, PhiUip S. Kappes, Andreas Krogner, Fritz Kurz, 
Henry Leive, Charles Linsel. Jacob Manshardt, Henry Mainsen, Ernest 
Mathies, Henry Meyer, Henry Mueller, August Reinfield, George 
Reinfelder, Charles Rosenplanter, Casper Schiller, Henry Schmidt, 
Ernst Schmeisser, Frederick Schoeuben, John Schubert, Thomas 
Schuster, Simon Seiger, Thadeus Sonnentag, John Spery, Fritz 
Weckerlin, Alexander Westerkamra, Frederick Strew, Fritz Weiskopf, 
Wilhelm Westler, Jacob Ziegle, Charles Rukhardt, Clemens Eickhof, 
Conrad Fuchs, Martrias Hoff, August Kelding, Edward Marquardt, 
Jacob Mueller, Andreas Poppe, Peter Pfeifer. 

Killedin battle. — Corporal Moritz Kurz; Privates William Marquardt, 
Kermaux Schramm, William Wellman. 

Died. — Sergeant Theodore Murmann; First Sergeant Henry Gunkel; 
Privates Frederick Kensehler, Frederick Joerger, Anton Koffleer, 
Henry Rodenberg. 

Discharged. — Privates Henry Aul, Frederick Bub, Gotleib Brugmann, 
Joseph Erchenlohr, John Filgar, Franz Franzum, Charles Grau, 
Christian Heck, Franz Krumel, John Kurtz, Francis Kinerehm, Her- 
man Leffering, John Mueller, Frederick Meyer, Henry Nunhuser, 
Rudolph Ruppiller, Charles Sohiker, Lewis Schulze, MatthiesenSonker, 
Rudolph Wiltgenfield. 

Transferred. — Privates John Koller, Charles Hohmann., Michael, 
Hess, John Fuller, Felix Keifel, Folsche Conrad, William Thede, 
Charles Dicks. 



Captain John E. Hudson. 
Captain James T. Hickey. 
Captain Thomas J. Kelly. 

First Lieutenant Dominick J. Burk. 
Second Lieutenant Thomas Downey. 

First Sergeant Michael Logan. 
Sergeant Patrick McDonnell. 
Sergeant Patrick Menich, 
Sergeant Bernard Duane. 
Sergeant Samuel Backas. 
Corporal Patrick Murphy. 
Corporal Charles Madden. 
Corporal Phillip Baxter. 
Corporal Andrew Philan. 


Charles Allen, Edward Browne, Paul Burns, Lawrence Berry, 
Michael Carroll, Mathew Callahan, Michael Cashen, John Cassedy, 
Henry Clavin, Henry Cramer, William Costello, Michael Davey, James 
Green, WiUiam Hayes, Tim Harris, John Herrmann, Frederick John- 
son, James Kelly, John W. Kelly, Nicholas Kierman, WiUiam Kebblel, 
Mathew Lane, Joseph Langil, Thomas Lonard, Michael Loftus, 
Michael Lowe, Daniel Marble, James Miller, John McCormick, Samuel 
S. Mathews, Thomas B. Parr, Thomas Rooney, William Sellers, 
Michael Stokes, Michael H. Shannon, Michael Shannon, Daniel Shea, 
James Taylor, William Willis, Patrick Dwyer, Terrence Doherty, 
Joseph Guthrie, Charles R. Le Blanc, Corporals John S. Pierce, Peter 
Bruin, Patrick Callahan, John Cavanagh, William Callahan, Thomas 
Daly, Michael Delaney, Thomas Dyer, John Cum.mins, Michael Fitz- 
simmons, Luke Findley, Peter J. Galagher, James Johnson, Michael 
Lally, William Morrison, Cornelius Murphy, Bartholomew O'Donald, 
John Quinn. 

Killed in battle. — Corporals Patrick Brogan, William Spence; Pri- 
vates James Peters, John Reed, James Costello, Thomas Singleton, 
Henry Cohlmann. 

Died.— Sergeant James Smith; Privates John Rymer, John Kelly, 
Terrence Mahon, James M. Smith, Charles 'Cavanagh, Christopher 

Discharged. — First Sergeants William D. Harman, Thomas Downey, 
Thomas J. Kelly, Joseph Hoban; Sergeant Joseph Gibson; Musician 
Michael Griffin; Privates Charles S. Brown, Patrick Duffy, Alfred 
Green, Thomas Gillick, John M. Farwell, Patrick Fawley, Patrick 
Knight, John Meyers, Patrick Mahon, James Marion, Thomas Reiley, 
Benjamin Scott, Edward Wolf. 

Transferred. — Corporal Peter Moran; Musician John Keiser; Privates 
William Hickev, Edward McGarrahan, John I. McBride, WiUiam 
Johnson, John Johnson, John Nicholson, Malachi Bonghani, Michael 
Dillon, Daniel Cavanagh, Jonah R. Gregory, Patrick Gilmartin, 
Thomas Twan, Michael E. Joyce, Patrick Sweeney, Michael Lawless. 



Captain R. M. Moore. 
Captain Philip C. Marmion. 
First Lieutenant Eugene R. Eaton. 
First Lieutenant Joseph Donahue. 
First Lieutenant John S. Mulroy. 
Second Lieutenant Peter Gessner. 

First Sergeant Matthew J. Redmond. 
Sergeant James J. Quinn. 
Sergeant John Horn. 
Sergeant Michael Fernon. 
Sergeant Matthew Byarl. 
Corporal James Fitzsimmons. 
Corporal Thomas Hannon. 
Corporal Bernard M. Kinney. 
Corporal Bernard C. Corbett. 
Corporal Thomas O'Brien. 
Musician James A. Devine, 
Wagoner Lewis Lee. 


Robert Adamsf Frank Biggins, Daniel Callahan, Felix Devin, John 
Enright, Joseph Enfelder, Bernard Fitzimmons, Dennis Fitspatrick, 
William J. Gray, John H. Greene, John Gleason, James Hector, 
Michael Hill, Luke Kelly, Thomas Lawrence, Michael Meara, James 
Mullen, James Malia, Thomas McDonald, John McHugh, Louis J. 
Nadared, John O'Connel, Edward O'Neil, John Sonday, Richard A. 
Seymour, Thomas Huggins, George Shuck, George Underwood, 
Joseph A. Wise, John C. Wood. 



Killed in Battle. — Privates, George Aichenger, John Corcoran, Cor- 
nelius Haley, Bernard King, Louis Shuck. 

Died. — Corporal John T. Cunningham: Privates James Brannan, 
Patrick Hays, Daniel Higgins, Thomas Higgins, Christopher Jones, 
Conrad Kuich, James Murley, Andrew Reash, Dennis Shannon. 

Missing in Action. — Private Michael Kelly. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Joseph Donohue; Corporal John C. Quinn; 
Privates Lewis H. AuU, Maurice J. Bolger, Luke Brannon, James 
Birmingham, William Cody, Michael Costello, Patrick Devitt, John 
Ferguson, Thomas Hubbard, James Holland, Timothy Holland, Henry 
Heredan, Bryan Kennedy, John Lennon, James Mahoney, Daniel N. 
Mariner, John D. Myers, Thomas D. Munion, Edward O'Neill, Henry 
Witte, William Fitzgerald, James GiUen, John Greany. 

Corporals, Edward O'Connor, John C. Hays, Alfred Edwards, 
Michael Gavin; Privates Richard Busker, Dennis Forbes, James Farley, 
Patrick Hatton, Thomas Hanlin, Andrew Herbert, James Hines, Wil- 
liam A. Jones, Dennis Kennedy, John Lawley, James McMahon, 
Thomas Moore, William O'Connor, Michael O'Cushing, Timothy 
Ryan, Josepii Radle, Thomas Scott, Michael Russell, William Scully. 

Transferred. — Privates, George W. Beadle, Thomas Crow, Edward 
Crolty, William H. Devine, William Duwellen, John Dougherty, 
Thomas Fitzpatrick, James Finley, John Farrell, John Forrester, Jerry 
F. Halpin, Jacob Lubeck, John Lloyd, Michael Lane, William 
Murphy, William H. McElroy, James McGrath, William Noel, 
Thomas Redmund, Michael Reany, Richard A. Thomas, James 
Thompson, Robert Walsh, Patrick Collins. 



Captain James M. Fitzgerald. 
Captain Stephen J. McGroarty. 
Captain Luke H. Murdock. 
First Lieutenant James A. Grover. 
First Lieutenant Daniel Twohig. 
Second Lieutenant John Sullivan. 
Second Lieutenant Daniel O'Connor. 
Second Lieutenant Timothy McNeff. 


First Sergeant William Donevon. 
Sergeant Timothy Sullivan. 
Sergeant Andrew Cunningham. 
Sergeant John B. Filming. 
Corporal Thomas H. Corcoran. 
Corporal Austin Walsh. 
Corporal Thomas F. O'Shea. 
Musician Lawrence Callahan. 


David Butler, James Butler, William Brown, Peter Campbell, Patrick 
Cannon, John Conway, Patrick Connelly, Michael Caulfield, Michael 
Craig, William Fitzgerald, Daniel Fitzpatrick, Michael Flanagan, 
Patrick Flanagan, Patrick Fosner, James Goffney, Patrick Hen- 
nessy, Michael Hatton, Maurice Joyce, John Kehoe, John Keller, 
Patrick Kelly, John Lewrien, Michael Manian, James Mullen, 
Michael Meehan, Thomas Moken, William H. McKeown ; Pat- 
rick McGown, Michael O'Leary, Timothy Ryan, John Troy, 
Mathias Coughlin, Nicholas Butler, Richard Carroll, John Con- 
nelly, John Carey, James Christy, Patrick Conlier, William Dennis, 
Edward Hasty, Edward Hackett, Thomas Helm, Richard Kelly. 
Charles D. Lynch, Thomas McVey, James McGlinehy, James Makin, 
Patrick TcCabe, Patrick Malloy, John McGrea, Samuel Sullivan 
Michael Smith, William A. Smith, Dennis SchoUord, Dennis Sullivan, 
Patrick Schollord, George W. Truss. 

Killed in battle.— First Sergeant John Kennedy; Privates Michaej 
Fitzgibbon, George Fisher, Patrick Duffy, Patrick McGeven, James 
Robb, John McCostly. 

Died. — Privates John Anderson, John Cook, Daniel Cohill, William 
Dugan, Francis Foley, Robert King, George S. Murphy, James Mc- 
Hugh, Patrick O'Brien. 

Discharged. — Corporal Michael Sorigan; Privates Patrick Burk-, 
Robert Brown, Michael Donnelly, Michael Johnson, Patrick Kenny, 
Francis J. Kestings, Peter Haney, John Mahoney, Cornelius Moran 
Hugh Meriorty, Christopher McCasIin, James P. Rierdon, Richard 
Sweetman, Terrence Sweeney, Patrick Sullivan, John Walsh, William 

Transferred. — Sergeant, Patrick S. Kerney; privates, John Whalen, 
Michael Coogan, John Donovan, Dennis Ennis, Thomas Hoban, James 

Mokin, Thomas Wallace, William Cary, William Gillispie, Patrick W. 
Quinlin, Hamilton Keown, John Johnson, Henry Glass, John O.tbury, 
William H. Stein, George W. Green. 

Captain Christian Amis. 
First Lieutenant Conrad Frederick. 
First Lieutenant Alfred Pritle. 

First Lieutenant Luke Murrin. ' 

First Lieutenant Sebastian Eustachi. 
Second Lieutenant George C. MuUer. 
Second Lieutenant WiUhelm Otendorf. 
Second Lieutenant WiUhelm Thede. 


First Sergeant Frederick Ahlborn. 
Sergeant Valentine Cornelius. 
Sergeant John Schultz. 
Sergeant William Kaiser. 
Sergeant Wendelin Broedler. 
Corporal Charles Schmidt. 
Corporal Michael Kraus. 
Corporal John Meyer. 
Corporal Joseph Fullherbst. 
Corporal Joseph Stranbriger. 
Corporal Ferdinand Henencoart. 
Corporal Frank Betzer. 
Wagoner James Stengel. 


Heinrich -Andres, Henry Bolsinger, Jacob Breckle, George Boepple, 
Wilhelm Braseninger, Anton Bur, Charles Ehrlicker, Wilhelm Fei- 
tag, John Freck, Wilhelm Fischer, John Fritz, Frederick M. Fein, 
Martin Fussz, Charles Grether, Charles Greis, Lorenz Gremler, Henry 
Hetzel, Philip Hess, Christian Kumming, William Kruget, John Klein, 
Martin Kuhn, Jacob Kuhn, Dayobeith King, Fidel Kopp, Rudolph 
Kroeger, Joseph Mayer, John Mueller, Philip Muller, Friedoline Reum, 
John Reutschle, Andrew Schlachterager, Franz Seebach, Frank Sutor, 
Jacob Stroble, Wilhelm Seehaus, John Stalline, John Schaefer, Hein- 
rich Schneider, Edward Tourell, Peter Weber, Joseph Welter, Mein- 
rathZelmder, Joseph Zuleger, Drummer Wilhelm Connelly, Gotleib Eck- 
ert, Conrad Goetz, Henry Long, Richard Meier, John Sticksee, Henry 

Killed in Battle. — Privates Christian Heinrich, John Hanus, John 

Missing in Action. — Privates Heinrich Enghausen Edward Fischer. 

Died. — Privates John Berkemer, John Dusbus, Charles Koch, 
Charles Meckel, Ferdinand Rau, Wilhelm Reuzenlimk. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Adolphus Reichel; Corporals Ignatz Wil- 
helm, Friedrich Lutz, John Kleingries; Bugler Joseph H. Franz; Pri- 
vates. Frederick Buck, Charles Dark, Wiihelm Hemriiig, George Hoff, 
Charles P. Harring, Henry Jaeger, Cheistian Koehler, Jacob Kurtzer, 
Richard Lampe, Adam Ney, Adam Pfeifer, August-Sturm, John Steitz, 
Ernst 'Weber, John Winkler, John Zeiman. 

Transferred. — Privates Michael Feller, John Haab, Joseph Halick, 
Henry Kumming, George Rink, Henry Wolf, John Siepe. 



Captain James P. Sedam. 
Captain William H. Steele. 
Captain John Sullivan. 
Captain William C. Morgodent. 
First Lieutenant Thomas Burns. 
First Lieutenant Thomas N. Patterson. 
First Lieutenant Granville McSherry. 
Second Lieutenant Henry D. Page. 
Second Lieutenant James A. Grover. 

First Sergeant James Ennis. 
Sergeant David Kimble. 
Sergeant James Gilber. 
Sergeant William Fairlamb. 
Corporal-John Knur. 
Corporal Frederick Englehart. 
Corporal William Liebla. 
Corporal Clements Licking. 



Corporal David Grant. 
Wagoner George Seifart. 


Ross Ally, James Dilley, John Elvert, Edward Eikel, Samuel L. Fry, 
William Feeny, Charles Gutheins, Hiram Havelin, Clark Hiett, John 
Hum, Edward Johnson, Oliver Jordan, Henry Light, William Myers, 
Thompson Miller, Frank McGill, August Miller, Jacob Mayer, Thomas 
O'Neil, John Rape, John Rentz, Joseph Sindlebeck, Henry Switzer, 
August Van Horn, William Waring, Charles Anderson, Levine 
Church, Henry Crupper, James Cahill, John Clark, Alfred Hewitt, 
John Hogan, David Johnson, Benjamin Kavits, James Kelley, Wil- 
liam Matheson, Thomas Murry, Frank McCormick, Charles Naylor, 
George Nelson. 

Died. — Privates Conrad Cook, John M. Dowde, Joseph Hockhorn, 
Charles Hughes, John Krirsel, August Shulthouse, Frederick Shaefter, 
Louis Siegel, Louis Weisner. 

Discharged. — Sergeants William P. Martin, Sidney Milner, James 
M. Keefer; Privates Christopher Alexander, John Cox, August Croma, 
William C. Deters, John Donavan, Henry Elfres, John Hunt, Edward 
Hamilton, Stephen Mistbeck, Michael McGuire, Bernard Monagan, 
Walter Mains, John Murphy, Henry Nitchsky, James Nash, Philip 
Quintin, William Smith, Joseph Storer, Washington Seymour, Robert 
Wittemeyer, William Wilson. 

Veterans. — Privates Nelson Duval, James Reynolds, Thomas Sloan. 

Transferred — Sergeants Isaac Shidler and Peter Gifney; Privates Jo- 
seph Colter, Michael McCloskey, Jacob Maturn, John Miller, John 

Recruits. —Sergeant Anderson Camillens; Privates Ferdinand M. 
Dugan, Henry Garner, George McCleary, John McKeever, Louis 
Snyder, Charles Smith, Joseph Turner. 



Captain Thomas G. Tienion. 
Captain Charles C. Cramsey. 
First Lieutenant Thomas McMuUen. 
First Lieutenant John Sullivan. 
First Lieutenant Daniel O'Neil. 
Second Lieutenant Joseph Connelly. 
Second Lieutenant Alfred Pitle. 
Second Lieutenant Timothy D. McNeff. 
Second Lieutenant William D. Harmon. 


First Sergeant Patrick Doyle. _ 

Sergeant Patrick Daugherty. 
Sergeant Michael Murphy. 
Sergeant John H. Bartell. 
Sergeant Samuel Newell. 
Corporal James Early. 
Corporal Michael Cain. 
Corporal William Gleeson. 
Corporal Edward Ryan. 
Corporal Charles Carty. 
Corporal Peter Shannon. 
Corporal James Regan. 
Wagoner John Malone. 


Michael Brennan, Thomas Cavanaugh, Michael Cain, Cornelius 
Conway, James Currey, Michael Clifford, Peter Carney. William Clark, 
Francis Carroll, Thomas Donohue, James Dunn, Richard Doran, 
Dennis Fanning, Thomas Fitzsimmons, Patrick Farrell, Patrick Fingan, 
Michael Guilford, John Gannon, Patrick Heiferman, Patrick Hart, 
Dennis Haggerty, John Hogan, Charles Henry, Michael Kerwin, 
Lawrence Kerhoe, John Lillis, Philip Liddy, John Long, John Murry, 
William Murphy, John McCarty, John Moore, James McAuleff, 
Patrick McDonald, Patrick O'Brien, Patrick O'Connor, Wilham Roch- 
ford, Herman Remple, John Thomas, Robert Whiteside, Charles 
Herbert, Thomas Liddy, Henry Allen, George Fance, Peter Feeney, 
Patrick Gallagher, James Hoffman, Owen Haley, Terrence Hotten 
Frederick Hotter, Martin Kinney, Joseph Linch, Mathias McKeown, 
James McNicholas, James Quinlivan, Roger Quinn, George Reilly, 
John Rush, Thomas Regan, John Shields, Jacob Smith. 

Killed in Battle. — Privates Henry Crossen, John Doyle, Patrick 

Died. — Privates Dennis Burke, Michael Clancey, James Fitzgerald, 
William Houlihan, Patrick Gillaspie, Patrick Lillis, William Neylon 
James Kelley, John Rafferty. 

Discharged. — Privates James Able, Thomas Conway, John Donohue, 
John Fox, John Fitzgibbons, John Houlihan, John Lobb, Terrence Mc- 
Mannus, Patrick Mutagh, Patrick Murry, Marcellus Mitchell, Frederick 
Packhard, Patrick Sweeney. 

Transferred, etc. — I^irst Sergeant John Malloy; Musician, John Mc- 
Gready; Privates William Conklin, John Cogan, Michael Dill, Patrick 
Huland, John Joyce, Timothy Kavanaugh, Thomas Kelly, Thomas 
Liddy, John Tempsey. 

Not on company rolls.— Jesse T. Walters. 



Captain William M. Ward. 
Captain Thomas J. Kelly. 
First Lieutenant Charles C. Cramsey. 
First Lieutenant Luke H. Murdock. 
Second Lieutenant Nicholas Lacy. 
Second Lieutenant Dominick J. Burk. 
Second Lieutenant James Foley. 

First Sergeant James Linch. 
Sergeant Samuel E. Brown. 
Sergeant Roman Amerien. 
Sergeant Patrick Regan. 
Coiporaljohn Kester. 
Corporal St. Clair Baldwin. 
Corporal Andrew Amthauer. 
Corporal Peter Sanders. 
Corporal James Riley. 


Joseph Arbuthnot, John Butler, Thomas Crogan, Thomas Crotly> 
John Davis, Michael Doyle, Christopher Dupps, Charles Fagan, John 
Fey, Patrick Gilmartin, Peter Glabb, John Hirseh, Charles Harrison, 
Charles Jan tzen, Joseph Krail, James King, John Kuhn, Adolph Keit- 
man, Jacob Klimm, George Keadich, John Linder, Dennis NcAuliffe, 
Joseph Miller, Thomas Mailey, John Orr, Thomas Phalan, Louis Pohl- 
man, Amos F. Reynolds, Frederick Scheffler, Henry Smith, William 
Sullivan, Bernard Stewe, Julius Sommer, Thomas Secoan, Thomas 
Webb, Martin Whalan, Philip Zeagemauth, Patrick Cain, Daniel 
Cavanaugh, Peter Hoffman, Lawrence Hettinger, Gustavus Sie- 
del. Rarer C. Morrison, John Wittengel, Maurice P. O'SuUi- 
van, John H. Sanders, Henry Bauman, James Clark, Martin Gehardt, 
Josiah Gregory, Charles Hohmann, Joseph Heider, John Keon, 
Charles Keller, James Kelly, William Linglumier, James McKune, 
Michael Ryan, John Rods, Joseph Somrenberg, Perry Strasberger, 
Jacob Strom, Henry Taylor, Samuel Winchester, Henry Wince. 

Killed in Battle. — Augustus Hilgenaier, Charles Medary, William 

Died. — Privates James Cumberland, Andrew Christens, Patrick 
Duane, Peter Dolan, Thomas Kelly, William Louis, Valentine Manthi, 
Hubert Nillis, Anthony Quinn, Abraham Rosenberger, William Rosk- 
off, Charles Scherges, Edward Vaughn; Corporal Patrick H. White. 

Discharged. — Privates Xavier AUgaier, John Bickler, William Beck- 
man, Pierce Bergen, John Burmister, John Doyle, Francis GroU, Charles 
Gross, John Huigerther, John Kenny, Robert Middleton, Theodore 
Reiman, John Young, William Young. 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Luke H. Murdock; Sergeants Dom- 
inick J. Burke, Patrick Rainey; Privates Patrick Flanagan, Edward 
O'Donnnell, William Keating, Richard Doran, Patrick Gallagher, 
Patrick Gillispie, Jeremiah Long, Patrick McDonald, Samuel Newell, 
Patrick O'Brien, William S, O'Brien, James QuinUvan, George Schnek. 

Captain Henry Robinson. 
Captain John Bently. 
Captain Daniel O'Connor. 
First Lieutenant John J. Stites. 
First Lieutenant Eugene R. Eaton. 
Second Lieutenant Nicholas Knox. 
Second Lieutenant John Mallory. 


First Sergeant Andrew Hammond. 
Sergeant James Upperman. 
Sergeant James E. Lecount. 
Sergeant Charles Lickert. 



Sergeant Francis Marlatt. 
Corporal Patrick Griffin. 
Corporal Devvitt C. Belleville. 
Corporal Wesley Dragoo. 


Frederick Ansterly, Courtland W. Brunson, George Bealer, William 
H. Bennett, Andrew Burke, Valentine Busam, Steplien Bokenkoetter, 
Frederick Baum, Edward Brown, Goltleib Brightfield, Henry Chose- 
man, John Crotly, Richard Dooley, Dennis Daugherty, John Dobener, 
Christian Dymond, Louis Eckert, Frederick Fleesman, Joseph Fowler, 
John Fox, Edwin H. Folger, John Gorman, Matthew Gilfius, Florence 
Hindermock, Thomas Hishberger, Charles Hines, John Holtz, John 
Hay, Charles S. Johnson, Frederick Keonig, 1 awrence Kerry, Joseph 
Munter, John Miller, John Moser, Herman Maus, John Och, Charles 
Ortman, George Osterman, Christopher Petrie, Patrick Powers, Martin 
Raabe, John Renner, Adam Rohman, Paul Shoener, William Stander- 
man, William Shafer, HenryJ. Stein, William Troecher, John Van- 
fleet, 'Henry Wertz, John Winer, Thomas B. Ward, John Wagoner, 
Walter Curtis, Moses Nixon, Julius Austerhouse.J esse Cooper. 

Killed in Battle. — Private Albert Christ. 

Died.— Sergeant George G. Belleville; Corporal Aaron Bridsal, 
Privates Adolphus Beaman, Charles Leicht, George Miller, John 

Discharged. — Privates William Allen, William Baker, Henry Bitter, 
Lawrence Firnpoess, Charles Hine, P'rederick Kleiber, James Long, 
Christopher Roser, John W. Toskey. 


Only part of this regiment was raised in Hamilton 
county. It mustered in for three months April, 1861, 
and for three years June 20, i86r. Taking the field in 
July, it formed part of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
led by General J. D. Cox, and participated in all the 
movements of the division in West Virginia and else- 
where. At one time company K, principally mechanics, 
rebuilt a bridge across the Pocotaligo in less than a day, 
with no tools but some axes and augers. The same com- 
pany afterwards helped to build two boats, together form- 
ing a ferry-boat one hundred and forty feet long, with 
which communication was opened between the wings of 
the Kanawha army. The Eleventh was in the battle of 
South Mountain, and took part in the famous charge 
against the stone wall; fought also at Antietam, was re- 
moved to Tennessee in February, 1863, participated in 
the advance on Chattanooga, was in the battles of Chick- 
amauga and Mission Ridge, and some months after in a 
desperate charge up a steep declivity near Buzzard's 
Roost, when it lost one-sixth of its men. 

February 17, 1864, it was presented with a stand of 
colors by the ladies of Troy, Ohio. The regiment, after 
a hearty welcome in Cincinnati on its return, was mus- 
tered out June 21, 1864. Until the time of its disband- 
ment, from December, 1861, a regimental church was 
kept up, and the religious element was always prominent 
in the command. 

The Eleventh battalion of Ohio infantry was composed 
of two companies of this regiment whose time did not 
expire as soon as the others, and also of those who re- 
enlisted as veterans. They were commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Stubbs, who had been sergeant major of 
the original organization; accompanied Sherman in his 
last campaign; and were mustered out at the close of the 


Captain William L. Douglass. 
Captain Lewis G. Brown. 

First Lieutenant Silas Roney. 
First Lieutenant George E. Peck. 
Second Lieutenant James M. Elliott. 
First Lieutenant William Crubaugh. 
First Lieutenant William M. Culbertson. 
First Lieutenant Cyreneus Longly, 


First Sergeant Isaac McKenzie. 
Sergeant William N. Hathaway. 
Sergeant Thomas Clegg. 
Sergeant Francis M. Ogden. 
Sergeant William H. Aydman. 
Corporal John F. Silman. 
Corporal Phillip Behman. 
Corporal John Comer. 
Corporal Charles Abbott. 
Wagoner Richard Penny. 


John C. Bain, Lewis C. Bail, William Britton, William L. Bower, 
Charles Buehn, Joseph Brown, Stephen Burke, John Dennis, Hugh 
Davis, Peter Devine, Jacob Evans, John Fregate, Joseph W. Fren- 
zell, Harvey Fox, John Godfrey, James Humphrey, John C. HoUi- 
day, Charles Hauselman, Albert W. Heuntz, David Johnson, AUison 
Johnson, Jacob G. Lake, William Malloney, James Merville, William 
Maurath, John S. Morris, James Mallon, George D. Mayle, Isaac Me- 
riah, Lewis Penny, Ellis Penny, Lafayette Penny, William L. Pierson, 
Robert C. Silman, Emil Leitz, John B. Sutherland, George W. Schrei- 
ver, Jacob Schunk, Isaac Treker, Josliua Urten, William A. Utter, Au- 
gust Voltz, George Wasson, William Watson, John H. Webster, 
Charles H. Whittaker, James Williams, Virgil A. Williams, Edward 
Yocum, Benjamin Boyd, Thomas Brickel, Austheimel Byrket, Hiram 
Bryant, Thomas Brown, William Carpenter, Hezekiah Crampton, 
Charles Crayton, Obed Dennis, Joseph H. Doehrer, Thomas Dwyer, 
John Hastings, Robert Hall, Edward Jones, Charles Johnson, John 
Lowden, Benjamin Lowden, Phillip McKinney, Isaac Meguire, Charles 
Mortimer, James Minton, Alfred Miller, James Norris, Henry Nelson, 
Patrick J. Owen, Wilson Oblinger, Abram D. Philips, Robert Patterson, 
Jabez D. Raynor, George Reynolds, John Schmitt, Charles Sill, James 
S. Stillman, William Sherer, Joseph Tate, William A. Tarr, Henry 
Wear, Charles W. Worden, John W. White. 

Killed in Action. — Private John Baker. 

Died. — Sergeants John H. Peck, Marvin B. Wolf; Corporals Bos- 
well S. Wagoner, George G. L. Murphy; Privates John F. Colther, 
Henry C. Day, Charles M. Geusch, Frederick Heusey, Noah Sams, 
Simeon Shideler. 

Discharged. — Privates Ely W. Bennett, John L. Culbertson, James 
Daa, John Dyson, Robert N. Douglass, Samuel Fast, John Ferris, 
Frederick Feame, George Hamer, William Hiser, William H. Kelsey, 
Alfred H. Monroe, Snell Mansfield, Joseph E. Pierson, Floid L. Smith, 
Daniel R. P. Shoemaker, Late A. Stewart, James Sisson, James N. 
Sisson, Alexander Smith, Walter S. Stevens, Robert D. Robb. 

Transferred. — Privates Silas P. Ake, Charles H. Baker, Joseph 
Bower, Jerome Bro\vn, Albert Berry, Henry D. Culbertson, Henry 
Clickner, Michael Casey, Ellsberry G. Covault, Geoige K. Daily, Wat- 
son Baggot, Edward Dorsey, Cornelius Deeter, James Funk, William 
Gosnel, Daniel Hampton, David Helpman, Jacob Houser, Frank Ho- 
man, Daniel Hunt, Jacob H. Irwin, Nathan Keltner, William Kelly, 
Andrew Kin, Charles E. H. Kimball, Christopher Myers, James Mc- 
Donald, William L. McFall, Henry C. McNight, Jacob Marlett, Mar- 
tin Noran, Christopher Neisley, John Pritchard, Sylvester Penny, James 
Rouse, William Reiber, Jonathan Rollins, John Reese, Owen A. Reich, 
William Roney, Dennis Regan, Lerile E. Smith, Phillip Smith, John 
Sulliger, Walter Steinberger, L. A. Thomas, Joseph Wich, Jacob 
Wise, Levi W. Whittaker, Nathan Whittaker, George Williams, Mar- 
tin V. Williams, Jonathan Wilkins, James Westfall, Samuel Farr. 

Prisoner of War. — Private William H. Boyle. 

Discharged. — Sergeants Bailey Plumb, George D. Palmer, Samuel 
A. Collins. 



William M. Sampson, Abraham Toot, Perry Truden, James Veitch, 
Lucien Wissheng, Calvin Wolf, Thomas Stofer, Charles Redbing. 

Captain Philander A. Lane. 
Captain George Johnson. 



First Lieutenant George P. Darrow. 
First Lieutenant Charles J. Cottinhan. 
First Lieutenant Charles J. McCline. 
First Lieutenant Theodore Cox. 
Second Lieutenant Alfred L. Conklin. 
Second Lieutenant George Johnson. 
Second Lieutenant Robert C. Morris. 


First Sergeant Elliott McGowan, 
Sergeant Jeremiah Hardwick. 
Sergeant Jacob Myers. 
Corporal Simeon Hays. 


George Andrew, Thomas Anderson, Frederick W. Becker, Charles 
Bosworth, Michael Beechler, Samuel Brock, John C. DeButts, Edward 
Eaton, James Figfer, Henry Foil, George Germeyer, Richard Gilbert, 
Martin Hooker, Albert G. Hoole, Joseph Keller, Adam Neiberger, 
Andrew Rossler, Joseph Stinger, George Smith, No. i; George Smith, 
No. 2; Jarred Wallace, Charles Young. 

Sergeant David Baird; Corporals John T. Clark, Moses Redhead, 
John Mirslee; Privates George H. Armstrong, Edward Bateman, Rich- 
ard Bristol, Michael Casey, James M. Clark, Martin Comer, Daniel 
Diebold, Simon Detach, Henry Effing, James Flynn, Oscar B. Fowler, 
John Fuglin, John Gardner, Martin Goudling, John Goodrich, Charles 
H. Greenwood, Edward Hundley, John W. Hementlialer, Henry Kel- 
ler, Henry King, Peter Lowring, William H. Lynn, Joseph C. Lynn, 
Joseph M. Malone, Henry Marshall, Joseph Me.x, James Mosley, John 
Meir, Edward Myers, Reuben McKenney, Alexander McPherson, 
Charles Patterson, David G. Patton, Perry Wilson, Benjamin Wilhair. 

Killed in battle. — Corporal Charles H. Wright; Privates John Boos, 
Joseph Bunker, Michael Depretz, Michael Hoath, Marion Powell, 
John Scholsser, John Weiner. 

Died. — Teamsters William Allen, Rensdan Carson; Privates Engle- 
bert Dold, William A. Fowler, Jacob Reif, Benjamin Stevens, James 

Discharged. — First Sergeants Orlando Hudson, George S. Swayne; 
Sergeant Joseph Pearson; Corporals William Hays, Charles McCor- 
mick; Musician George Van Ausdale; Privates Lewis Ankle, Theobald 
S. Bransby, Benoni Dixon, John K. Di.Kon, Theodore English, Asa F. 
Flagg, George Granger, Michael Gigar, Lewis Grey, Henry Hunnach, 
John Hull, Hugh H. Humphrey, Victor Kennecht, David F. Lansing, 
Dumont Mills, Landrum Noel, Abel Pearson, Joseph Powers, Dennis 
Ragan, Ransalaer Richardson, Jackson Suibner, John W. H. Searles, 
Albert Sennett, Walter Stpinberger, Nathan W. Whitaker, Jonathan 

Transferred. — First Sergeant John Ginten; Privates Charles H. 
Carothers, Joshua Handen, Englebert, Kaupfer Schmidt, Philip Roach, 
William Carroll, William Christian, Frank M. Fowler, Joseph P. 
Morris, Samuel F. Myers, Charles R. Patrick, William H. Lee, George 
A. Stinger, Levi W. Whitaker. 



Captain D. Clinton Stubbs. 

First Lieutenant Fiancis M. Ogden. 

Second Lieutenant David W. Murrice. 


First Sergeant Charles Abbo t. 

Sergeant John Tilman. 

Sergeant Philip Betoman 

Sergeant John Connor 

Sergeant Jacob Schenck 

Corporal James Williams. 

Corporal John A. Webster. 

Corporals Joshua Urton Waymers. 

Corporal James R. Kinney, 

Corporal James F. O'Conner. 


Louis C. Baird, John W. Baine, WiUiam L. Bowen, Peter Presan, 
William L. Britton, Stephen Brik, Charles Buehn, Hugh Davis, John 
Dennis, Peter Devore, James G. Evans, Harvey Fox, Joseph W. Fent- 
zel, John Fugates, John Godfrey, Charles Hanselman, Raleigh D. Hat- 
field, Albert W. Hentz, John C. Holliday, James Humphreys, Daniel 
Hunt, Allison Johnson, David Johnson, Jacob H. La Rue, David K. 
Lonthan, James Mellon, William Maloney, William Manrath, G. D. 
Mazle, Isaac Moenah, James Merrill, John T. Morris, Ellis Penney, 

La Fayette Penney, Abraham Rozer, George W. Schreiver, Robert C. 
Silman, Emil Seitz, George W. Snively, Isaac Tuckey, William A. 
Utley, August Voltz, Harrison H. Wait, George Wassen, William 
Watson, Charlas W. Whittaeker, Virgil A. Williams, William H. 
Wydman, Edwin Yocum. 

Jacob G. Labe. 

Died. — Privates, William H. Harrison, John Smith. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Major D. Clinton Stubbs; First Sergeant 
Francis M. Ogden; Sergeant Thomas Clegg; Corporals Frederick 
Eberhart and Henry Burns; Privates James W. Campbell, John W. 
Clark, Isaac Flickinger, William Harvey, James McDonell, John R, 
Osborne, Louis Penney, Richard Penney, William Wiearson, James 
Rowe, Henry Timons. 

Prisoners of War. — Privates, Harvey Fox, Raleigh D. Hatfield. 

Mustered for Transfer, but Mustered out with Company. — Corpor- 
als William Crawford, August Herring; Privates, James G. Achuff, 
John Londin, John Mallee, Samuel A. McQuiston, James Morris, 
James Riley, Daniel Ross, Frederick Steirley, John H. Trump, Peter 
Walter, James Wallace, George Wintringham, James Salter, Joseph 
C. Brown. 



Corporal John W. Smith. 

Francis M. Fowler, William H. Lee, John W. Barry, Charles R. 
Patrick, William Carroll, George A. Stinger, Charles Redbrug. 

Mustered into service May 3, and June 28, 1861. 
Private James H. Pierson. 



Zachariah Crippen (killed in battle) Hugh McCabe, Josiah J. Higbee. 

Albert T. Boswell, William B. Carey, George M. D. Evans 



Jacob Bauman, Charles Graysoff, John Hymer, Lewis Green, Chris- 
tian C. White. 


Four companies of veterans of the Thirteenth Ohio infantry, organ- 
ized June, 1864. 



Captain Michael Hartenstein. 


Louis Brightfield, Frederick Harmon, Michael Reis, Andrew August 


Mustered into service May 18, and August, 1861. 



Andrew Landbury, George W. Lendberger, J. A. Laird, William 
Kleinsory, Ludwig Miller. 



Gustav Kelly (died) John Wagner. 

George R. Barnes, James Brennan, Daniel Conger, John Cook Jo- 
seph Fritche, Bennett H. Koka, Frank Winsell. 

Private James Gorrell. 



John C. Albrecht, Joseph Barkla, Conrad Dahoff, Carl Geyer, Wil- 
liam Hastig. 



August Bust, Alexander Hulbert, Daniel Erb, Thomas Kelly, Dennis 
Kelly, T. A. Laird. 


Mustered into service May and September, 1861. 



John Chrfstie, Peter Flick, 



George Dettmer, Joseph Doll, George Henzel, Charles H. Dinaman, 
lona Bleeholder, Henry Brackman, Samuel Bushmaster, Richard Cole- 
man, Christopher Detteling, Kasper D. Trussee, Leo W. Wale, John 
McFadden, Christopher Shrader. 


(Three Months' Service.) 



First Lieutenant William H. Wade. 


William B. Gibson, Simeon G. Jones, Hiram M. Lee, George L. 
McKeehan, Charles R. Wilder. 

Mustered into service April and September, 1861. 
Robert A. Quinn, John Ripler, Ferdinand Shaffer, George Walen- 
roth, Robert Schmidt, George H. Barrow. 
Private Philip Sheets. 



John Barnhart, George F. Ely, Gabriel P. Smith, Henry Schroder, 
Richard Stiver, Beldaser Schaub, John Scott, Landlin Swigler, John 
Thuler, Lewis C. Wright, Ernest Wehman, Frank Zimmerly. 


WiUiam Stelrenkamp, Joseph Schrommer, John Theurer. Patrick 
Ernwtight, Marthaus Guiner. 



John Cass, James M. Gallaher, John D. Kibbey, James W. Richard. 

Private Charles L. Wagenhals. 


This regiment was organized at Camps Wood and 
Dennison between August and November, 1861. Its 
service was with the Armies of the Ohio and the Cum- 
berland; it was in the battle of Chickamauga and other 
actions, and was honorably discharged November 9, 
1864. A second organization, bearing the same name, 
was formed from the veterans of several Ohio regiments, 
and fought in the battle of Nashville. It was retained in 
service until October 22, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Columbus. 


Adjutant Henry H. Welch. 
Musician Velosu A. Taylor. 
Hospital Steward John C. Cochran. 
Quartermaster Sergeant George P. Jarvis. 



Samuel D. Decker, Zachariah Garris, Joseph H. Royar, John Fitz- 



William Beeden, Granvill Toy, John Williams, John L. Cochran, 
George Stewenagle, George W. Holmes, Patrick Riley. 

Joseph Florentz. 



Corporal Asa Robbins. 
Corporal WiUiam Emery. 


John Boesser, John Battle, William Hanlin, Samuel Morched, 
Thomas J. Abbott, Timothy Brannan, John Calt; James Cnuck, Joshua 
Demkerly, Richard Duncan, Charles F. English, William Hoffue, John 
McGeer, William D. Tattman, Jecy C. Young. 

Augustus Shovaney, Paul Wilson, William Waters. 

Private Charles A. Stone. 



Corporal Joseph Williams. 


John Aylers, Joseph Anderson, Henry Abberdeing, Henry Altmeyre, 
Ernest Benedict, Charles B. Slotey. 

COMPANY I. (Veteran). 


First Sergeant James B. Boyer. 

Sergeant Elias Shaefer. 

Sergeant Martin V. Monday. 

Sergeant Brice Hayes. 

Corporal John E, Porter. 

Corporal Louis Landman. 

Corporal Henry Sebexen. 

Corporal Henry Demar. 


Junius B. W. Black, Milton Collins, Luther D. Dupoy, John Dear- 
don, Joshua Delaplane, Morris Foley, John Ferris, Philip C. Fearline, 
Louis Gruber, Christian Haber, John Hassing, William Halt, Charles 
M. Kimbrough, Patrick McCabe, John Mulcahy, Lorentz Miller, El- 
wood Madden, John A. Myer, Charles Nicholas, Leonides Price, George 
Peter, Patrick Ryan, John Smith, Ferdinand Schultz, George Showalter, 
John Snowden, Thomas B. Thayer, William Wyane, Henry Young, 
Wilhelm Zueker, Philip Zegerard, Thomas Burns, Simeon Culbertson, 
Henry Guthcamp, WiUiam J. O'Naherty, Joseph Hampton, Marcus 
Hathaway, John W. Holcomb, Frank Bernard, Ignatz Burtz, Jacob 
Cohn, Mathias P. Dingeman, George W. Machinaw, Albert MorreU, 
Samuel A. Brady, James Peck, John Ryan, William F. Smith, Samuel 
Snedegar, Peter Tigan, Peter Warren, Herman Kroog, John Kennedy, 
Charles W. Lewis. 

Died. — Privates Benjamin F. Buckbee, Herman H. Erpenstein; Ser- 
geant Benjamin F. Fox. 

COMPANY K. (Veteran). 


Sergeant Charles John. 


Peter Gabriel, Michael Bettinger, Lewis Book. 

Mustered into service May and November, i86r. 
Private Theodore Seivering. 



Heniy Minike, Peter Monroe, Henry Buckhouse, Michael Genshuger. 


James Stewart, Barney Brockman (Twentieth Ohio). 


COMPANY B. (Veteran). 


First Sergeant Godfrey B. Alexander. 


Henry Kepper, John Johnson (died), John Hall. 

Private Thomas Paliner. 



Second Lieutenant James B. Walker. 


Lewis Stillman, James B. Walker, .Albert Black. 

COMPANY E. (Veteran). 


Joseph Bradford, Lewis Webber. 

COMPANY G. (Veteran). 

Private Gottfried Schmidt. 

Private Albert G. Black. 

Private Herman Neetfelt. 

COMPANY I. (Veteran). 

Captain Francis M. Shaklee. 


Christopher Yerke, Thomas Wilson. 

Private William Shanen. 


The three months' regiment of this number was 
raised at once upon the outbreak of war. One company 
(B) was recruited at Oxford, Butler county, mainly from 
the students of Miami university. Among them were 
the following-named from Cincinnati : 

Captain Ozu Jennison Dodds. 


John R. Hunt, jr., Carter B. Harrison, Robert A. Leonard, James 
A. Leonard, Charles L. Seward. 

( Three Years' Service. ) 


Albert Black, Mason Harmon. 



Christopher Gehrke, James Lingen, Herman Neatfelt. 


Thomas Gleason, William Sharron. 


Assistant Surgeon Richard Gray, jr. 


Colonel Crafts J. Wright. 
Major Charles W. Anderson. 



First Lieutenant Edwin Smith. 


Corporal John Winright. 
Corporal William H. Sheir. 
Corporal James H. Stopher. 

Rudolph Betz, James Campbell, Joseph McGarten, John Sheridan 
Robert Wychler, William B. Arthur, William Green, Matthew Harren, 
Joseph Peters, Alfred Swing, Julius Shemer, James Farris. 



First Lieutenant Robert McGreggor. 

Private Philip W. Quentin. 


(Veterans and recruits of the Twenty-third Ohio infantry.) 



William Cummings, Lewis C. Miller, William Montgomery, John 
Probst, William H. Rogers. 

Corporal James P. Woods. 


John Williams, Alexander Bowers, Tilton Hall, Patrick Murray, 
Isaac B. Norris, John E. Wortman; Drummer Ebenezer Westwood. 


This was Colonel (afterwards General) Rosecrans' reg- 
iment. Among its field officers were also Rutherford B. 
Hayes, Stanley Matthews, James M. Conly, and E. Par- 
ker Scammon, three of whom became generals, and one 
of them President of the United States. It was organ- 
ized at Camp Chase, in June, 1861, for three years' ser- 
vice; served in West Virginia, and elsewhere in the east, 
was at the battle of Cedar Creek, and other famous ac- 
tions, and was finally mustered out July 26, 1865, at 


Sergeant Major William W. Stevens. 



William Lyons, Casper Plankuch, William Sullivan, James Brown, 
Thomas Burnes, Thomas Gillen, Alfred C. Harris, John Lanvercombe. 
John Fletcher. 



Joseph Fisher, Salathiel Roach, Thomas Cady, Daniel Dedy, Morti- 
mer S. Denwoody, Joseph Davis, Benjamin Evans, Henry Evans, Wil- 
liam Kilgore. 

COMPANY c. (Veteran). 


John Canedy, Hanson L, Gwynn, Gustavus Mason, James Pierson, 
Christopher C. White, John Gibernel, Alfred Grow, George W. Shell- 
cross, James Tinner. 

Died. — Charles O. Case, Zachariah Crippen, Hugh McCabe. 

Discharged. — Corporal Kellum Sanford; Privates John C. Coleman, 
John Deverming, JosiahJ. Higby. 



William Terrell, Lewis Hood, William White, 2d, Darman Williams, 
William Meade, Frederick Smithgall, William Hamilton (died), John 
L. Douglass (discharged). 



James Carl, James A. Kelly, Frantz Kaiser, John King, William 
R. Haliman, Hugh Kearney, John Keenan. 



Jacob Maguir, Edward Benker, Andrew Gigle, George Heddinger, 
Christopher Copier, Edward Lanson, Jeremiah Long, Joseph Lemare, 
John Ma.Kville, John O'Brian, John Reed. 




Harvey Buchanan, Patrick McGown, John McGee, John Ockley, 
Wilham Osterholt, Conrad Weitzel, WilUam B, Maples, James Presley 
(killed in battle), Hiram Anderson, William Bragg, John Dougherty, 
Richard Ellison, Levi Fuller, George Godsey, Henry Gedeman, 
Thomas Marfling, James O' Brian, John Rath. 

Discharged. — Calvin W. Hudson, Lewis Mayer, John Stander. 



Michael Sontag, John Somerton, Herman Smith, Charles Schmidt, 
Michael O'Brien (discharged). 



John Walker, William W. Stevens, Andrew J. Bolan, Daniel Smith, 

Andrew Schlochberger, Samuel Turner, Daniel Walsh. 



William Wickelhouse, James Donnelly, Jacob Van Long, John 
Morris, Albert G. Boswell, Isaac Wickley, William B. Gary (died), 
George M. D. Evans, Charles M. Rollings, John Riley, James Smith, 
Harry Wallace, Charles B. Wilson, William S. Warrick, Samuel W. 

Mustered into service in July, i86i. 
First Lieutenant Henry G. Graham. 

Assistant Surgeon Daniel Richards. 

Private Emanuel Brill. 



John S. Pryor, Adeu Richason (died). 


The organization of this regiment took place at Camp 
Chase in August, 1861. Before December they are heard 
of at St. Louis, St. Charles and Mexico, Missouri, Lex- 
ington, Kansas City, and Sadalia. During this month 
they shared in the capture of thirteen hundred recruits 
on their way to join the rebel General Price. In March 
this regiment was in the advance in the movement on Is- 
land No. 10, and May i, was with the army that 
moved on Corinth. On the nineteenth of September the 
Twenty-seventh was a part of the force sent to re- 
capture luka. October 3, at the battle of Corinth it lost 
heavily. A timely reinforcement of two hundred recruits 
arrived soon after. Early in November, the Ohio brigade, 
of which the Twenty-seventh formed a part, with Grant's 
army, marched to Oxford, Mississippi. They were next 
ordered to Jackson, Tennessee, to intercept Forrest, 
whom they met at Parker's cross roads, where an engage- 
ment took place, resulting in the capture of seven guns, 
three hundred and sixty prisoners, and four hundred 
horses. Shortly after re-enlistment, this brigade moved 
against and captured Decatur. At Dallas the rebels 
were driven before them. The regiment was also en- 
gaged with Hood's corps on the twenty-eighth of May, 
skirmished at Big Shanty in June, and fought at Kenesaw 
and Nicojack creek in July. 

Before Atlanta, on the twenty-second of July, the regi- 
ment was in one of its severest battles, and sustained its 

heaviest loss. In the pursuit of Hood to the northward , 
it had a part; it also marched with Sherman to the sea, 
and was in the campaign of the Carolinas. After Johns- 
ton's surrender, the Twenty-seventh moved to Washing- 
ton, and in July, 1865, at Camp Dennison, received its 
final payment and discharge. 

Sergeant Major Jacob C. Cohen. 
Sergeant Major Edward B. Temple. 
Quartermaster Sergeant John Jones. 



Captain Jacob S. Menken. 

Captain James Morgan. 

Second Lieutenant Jacob C. Cohen. 


First Sergeant Henry Tape. 

First Sergeant Thomas Morgan. 

Sergeant Robert C. Biggadike. 

Sergeant John Toms. 

Sergeant Edward B. Temple. 

Sergeant William Roberts. 

Sergeant Adolph Myers. 

Sergeant Robert Gardner. 

Sergeant Ferdinand Fagle. 

Corporal Benjamin F. Long. 

Corporal William E. Moore. 

Corporal Edward P. Toms. 

Corporal John Kerdoff. 

Corporal E. W. Hippie. 

Corporal James H. Jones. 

Corporal George Everett. 

Musician Charles Chiffer, 


John Atkins, George Barner, John Bryant, J. P. Bergman, Patrick 
Burk, Eugene Carroll, William H. Dobbins, Hugh Dunn, James Egan, 
Patrick Fox, Frederick Graff, Noah C. Groves, Edwin Gibson. William 
Gantz, Daniel Haggerty, William A. Jeffers, Adolph Krause, William 
King, Michael Knoffloch, William D. Lilly, John A. McCalmont, John 
McMillen, John Murphy, Edward Martz, Joseph Meising, Louis H. 
Mayer, John Miller, Dennis O'Brian, John O'Tool, Peter Pointers, 
Harmon H. Remmert, Thomas Ryan, John H. Steiweider, August 
Senmert, Joseph Sokup, Maurice Troy, Frederick Talaze, Arnold Zem- 
mert, Ernest Zeuchner, William F. Cole, William E. Cole. 

Joseph Black, Josiah Raines. 

Private Joseph McDaniels. 

Private John M. Moore (died). 

Private Christian North (died). 



Leopold Gardner, Enoch A. Hutchinson, O. E. Steward, James A. 
Sweet, John A.J oseph (died). 


This regiment was recruited largely among the Cin- 
cinnati Germans; and so much attached are those of its 
surviving members who yet reside in the city to its mem- 
ory, that they still hold monthly re-unions on Sundays, 
at some convenient rendezvous — a case not exactly par- 
alleled, we venture to say, anywhere in the world. It 
was mustered in July 6, 1861, for three years, and moved 
from Camp Dennison to Point Pleasant, Virginia, on the 
thirty-first. Colonel Merr, with four hundred picked 



men, presently relieved the home guards at Spencer, 
where they were besieged by the rebels. The regiment 
joined the force under General Rosecrans, and fought at 
Carnifex Ferry, where it lost three killed and twenty-seven 
wounded. October 21st, at New River, two of its com- 
panies had a sharp fight with the rebels on the Union 
picket line. The winter and part of the next spring were 
spent at Gauley, in thorough drill and instruction; and 
May 2, 1862, the Twenty-eighth marched to Fayetteville 
and took place in the Second brigade of the Kanawha 
division, under General Cox. At Wolf creek, near East 
River mountain, two companies defeated a rebel force, 
and destroyed a wagon train loaded with commissary 
stores. About half the regiment was in the next fight, 
near Wytheville, losing six dead and eleven wounded. 
Several other skirmishes occurred during the operations 
of the summer, but without much loss. On the march 
to Washington, begun at Flat Top mountain , August isth, 
the regiment had a skirmish with Stuart's cavalry at Fall- 
church, September 4th. The division was now attached 
to the Ninth army corps, under General Reno. Septem- 
ber 13th, Colonel Mori's brigade, in which was the Twenty- 
eighth, drove the rebels ost of Frederick City. At South 
Mountain the Kanawha division bore the brunt of the 
battle. At Antietam this regiment was the first to ford 
, the creek above the stone bridge, and remained on the 
skirmish line of the Ninth corps all night. It lost forty- 
two killed and hurt in this action. The next winter was 
passed in West Virginia, mainly at Buckhannon. About 
the middle of June the command was marched to Mary- 
land, and then back to Beverly, to repel a threatened in- 
vasion. At Droop mountain, July 6th, a rebel force was 
attacked and defeated, with heavy loss. The remainder 
of the summer, and the fall and winter, were spent in 
active operations, with much marching and other hard- 
ships, but no great amount of fighting. April 25, 1864, 
the Twenth-eighth was ordered to the army of the Shen- 
andoah, to "fight mit Siegel," who was then reorganizing 
the army at Bunker Hill. It aided to force Imboden from 
New Market, May i ith, and was in the batrie of New Mar- 
ket the next day, which was fought in a heavy thunder- 
storm. June sth it was in the attack upon the rebel General 
Jones near Piedmont, and was the only regiment of the 
force charging the works that did not fall back, holding 
its ground and preventing the rebels from making a cen- 
tre charge for three-fourths of an hour, when it was re- 
called and handsomely complimented by General Hunter. 
The third charge forced the enemy from his works, kill- 
ing General Jones, and deciding the battle. The Twenty- 
eighth lost thirty-three'killed and one hundred and five 
wounded, out of four hundred and eighty-four engaged. 
Two color-bearers were killed and three wounded; and 
the flag was torn by seventy- two balls and pieces of shell. 
After another month and a half of very active service, it 
was ordered home, greeted warmly by its multitudinous 
friends at Cincinnati, and mustered out July 23d. Its 
total losses in the field were two officers killed, seven 
wounded; ninety enlisted men killed, one hundred and 
sixty-two wounded, one hundred and seventy-three disa- 
bled by disease; in all four hundred and thirty-four. 

Clonel August Moore. 
Lieutenant Colonel Godfried Becker. 
Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Bohlender. 
Major Ernest Schochi. 
Major Rudolph Heintz. 
Surgeon Gerhard Saal. 
Surgeon Charles E. Deing. 
Assistant Surgeon Adolphus Schoenbein. 
Assistant Surgeon George P. Hackenberg. 
Assistant Surgeon A. E. Jenner. 
Chaplain Charles Beyschlag. 
Chaplain Frederick Goebel. 
Adjutant Leopold Markbreit. 
Adjutant John Lang. 
Quartermaster Herman Kaugsberger. 
Quartermaster Samuel Rosenshaf. 
Sergeant Major Louis Fass. 
Sergeant Major Albert Liamin. 
Sergeant Major Henry Acker. 
Sergeant Major Rudolph Gutenstein. 
Sergeant Major Charles Ludorff. 
Sergeant Major Abesevan Landberg. 
Commissary Sergeant Michael Schmidtheimer. 
Commissary Sergeant John Ruterieck. 
Commissary Sergeant Frank Salzmann. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Joseph Newbacher. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Louis Weitzel. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Charles Schmidt. 
Hospital Steward William Bauer. 
Hospital Steward Frederick Ries. 
Chief Musician Francis Schmitt. 
Chief Bugler Adolphus Schiller. 
Drum Major Joseph Brodbeck. 
Musician Otto Zink. 

Captain Ernest Schache. 
Captain Charles Drach. 
First Lieutenant Charles Meyer. 
First Lieutenant Frederick Weising. 
First Lieutenant Frederick Halzer. 
First Lieutenant Albert Livmin. 
Second Lieutenant Louis Faas. 
Second LieutenantTAugust Herman. 
Second Lieutenant Leopold Markbreit. 
Second Lieutenant William Althammer. 


First Sergeant August Hess. 

Sergeant Henry Kaling. 

Sergeant Charles Mueller. 

SergeantJWilliam Hansom. 

Sergeant Gottleib Lange. 

Corporal Jacob Mueller. 

Corporal Christian Stueve. 

Corporal William Streilberg. 

Corporal Herman Moeller. 

Corporal Charles Bertram. 


George Beokman, Nicholas Biedinger, Otto Briegel, John Dalbele, 
Lorenz Hinkeyer Frederick Feller, Joseph Heilmerer, Louis Haben- 
stadt, Antony Kayser, Frank Kemper, George Klett, John Peter Krouz, 
Andrew Shider, Frederick Linderman, Christian Luttman, William 
Mastin, Charles Mashnitz, Herman Meyer, Peter Nospacher, John 
Platfoot, Alexander Pansald, Henry Rodenberg, George Schein, Charles 
Sebold, Gustave Schmidt, Michael Schwabel, Christian Schwarzenhaet- 
zer, John Spaeth, Louis Straever, Joseph Udry, Ulrich Walt, Henry 
Wubbenherst, Bernhard Hoffman, Daniel Galtz, Charles Neiman, Frank 
Kauffman, Frederick Engleke, Frantz Lippart, Frederick Funk, Michael 
Gratz, Charles Merk, Charles Kuehn, August Walker, Frederick Kei- 
linger, Charles Heuke, Charles Wolf, Conrad Job, Joseph Duerr, Henry 
Harland, Maxwell Hug, Frederick Haatman, John Weber, Julius 

Killed in Battle. — Private John Helling, Corporal Conrad Meeker. 

Died. — Private Charles Yeiser, Simon Poettger, Philip Pieh, Henry 
Schadleman; Maxwell MeuUer. 



Sergeant Louis Steir; Privates Antony Mueller, John Henshman, 
Philip Stuckenberg, Henry Stuckenberg, George Small, Jacob Burk- 
hard, Frederick Langner, John Huber, Antony Pflanger, Frederick 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Samuel Rosenthal ; Sergeants Herman 
Guthard, Albert Liomin, IVIichael Schmittener ; Privates Louis Witzel, 
Joseph IVlark ; Corporal Frank Salzman. 

Recruits. — Privates Andrew Daniels, Frank Genter, Jacob Galtz. 

COMPANY A. (yeteran). 


Captain Edwin Fry. 

First Lieutenant Frederick Hagenbuch. 

Second Lieutenant Christopher Tenge. 

First Sergeant John Jones. 
Sergeant Ahvin Rademacher. 
Sergeant John Reimer, 
Sergeant Julius Frenzel. 
Sergeant Michael Trunk. 
Corporal Louis Reiher. 
Corporal Martin Hohmann. 
Corporal John Smith. 
Corporal Jacob Jung. 
Corporal George Winter. 


Charles Baumann, Conrad Bajer, Martin Bilber, Henry Braeskman, 
Frank Boland, Henry Correl, George Doell, Jacob Sellman, Ernest 
Dietz, Gabriel Diescher, Charles Forberg, Frank Griesler, Jacob Grue- 
ner, I. Glatt, George Grabuth, August Hunt, John Hagel, Joseph 
Hauser, Phillip Heintz, Henry Johanning, Daniel Jung, Edmund Kiel, 
Henry Kaffenberger, Charles Kempf, George Lang, Frederick Long- 
fritz, William Miller, Martin Miller, Peter Messingslacher, Joseph 
Moser, Frederick Newberger, Edmund Needs, Henry Aldach, Freder- 
ick Paul, Peter Peifer, Frank Puemple, George Raab, Julius Raab, 
Casper Rappinger, Michael Renz, Christopher Reppig, Frederick Runte, 
Dominic Ruhstaller, Charles Schinske, Frank Schneider, Oscar Seith, 
Henry Neal, John Staab, William Straub, Adalbert Schaefer, Ernest 
Schilling, Peter Streuber, Charles Vogt, John Waitzman, Henry Zim_ 
merman, Michael Zaal, Louis Zagar, Adam Giebe, Henry Rickers, 
Henry Lurenkamp. 

Transferred, etc.— Sergeants August Kramer, George Seining ; Cor- 
porals Sigmund Eicholz, William Geipnian, Thomas Hellieigel ; Pri- 
vates Charles Degan, Bernhard Duers, John Schwarz, Adam Scherer, 
Jacob Gallinger, Anton Brischler, Joseph Roth. 



Captain Albert Ritter. 
Captain William_Ewald. 
Captain John Armon. 
First Lieutenant Martin Wauser. 
First Lieutenant August Grieff. 
Second Lieutenant Albert Traub. 
Second Lieutenant Jacob Mark. 


First Sergeant Frederick Eberhardt. 

Sergeant Austin Dieckman. 

Sergeant Lorenz Hissehbeihler. 

Sergeant Peter Brinker. 

Corporal Lewis Kremer. 

Corporal William Reis. 

Corporal Peter Hoffman. 

Corporal Lorenz Staale. 

Corporal Peter Paulhummel. 

Corporal Martin Geier. 

Corporal Frederick Miller. 


Michael Arnold, John Agel, Anzelm Anhalt, William Bauer, Jacob 
Bayer, Eugene Bruhl, John Brauer, John Beckman, John Borg, Henry 
Cron, Henry Elliott, Michael Eplinger, Joseph Fisher, John Fisher, 
Valentine Franzsell, Frederick Hoffman, Lorenz Kenner, Peter Krau- 
sen, Peter Mattern, Joseph N. Martin, John Mehlheimer, George 
Mumme, Sebastian Meyer, Joseph Neithammer, Phillip Pfenning, Lo- 
renz Redinger, Frederick Sauer, Frederick Schmalzigang, John Schmitz, 
Victor Schneider, William Spengler, Moritz Stabler, John Schroeder, 

Jacob Volkneiss, Adam Zeigler, Joseph Zeigler, Leonard Dobmeyer, 
John Hark, Bernhard Schmidt, William Zeller, Jacob Stuber, Peter Alex- 
ander, John Alexander, John Batz, John Belmer, Gottlieb Beiler, John 
Erbe, Henry Hiser, Frederick Holl, Joseph Hummeler, Herman Kier- 
stein, John Krause, Bernhard Lohrer, Bernhard Lottberg, John Lam- 
meshirt, Casper Meyer, Carl Muller, Frederick Oppermann, Frederick 
Remler, Joseph Schmidt, Conrad Waspermann, Nicholas Wickermann, 
Phillip Wagner, George Zeltner, Charles Zwangauf, Phillip Zugelhart, 
Matthias Zartheit. 

Killed in Battle. — Corporal John Shranker; Privates Phillip Fanzell, 
John Schneider, Nicholas Weber. 

Died. — Privates William Beekman, David Spath. 

Transferred. — Privates Conrad Bozer, Anton Brichler, George Doell, 
John Glatt, Martin Miller, Frederick Paul, Casper Boppinger, Henry 
Reekers, Charles Voight, Edward Arnbruster, Frederick Bebel, Adam 
Gebb, Joseph Kuntsli, Peter Rossman, Frederick Radsluff, Adam Roth, 
John Schatz, Casper Schier, George Watther. 

COMPANY B. (Veteran). 


Captain Frank Birk. 

First Lieutenant Christopher Hildebrand. 

Second Lieutenant John Huser. 


First Sergeant August Kramer. 

Sergeant George Mayer. 

Sergeant August Gabe. 

Sergeant Herman Weigus. 

Sergeant Charles Studier. 

Corporal Gustave Haustein. 

Corporal Frantz Henbarger. 

Corporal Philip Hartin. 

Corporal Lorenz Rengel. 

Corporal George Weiss. 

Corporal John Valentine. 

Corporal August Brarin. 


Franklin Angel, Joseph Brodbeck, Frederick Branch, Joseph Burk- 
hard, Philip Bruck, Frederick Bene, Gotlieb Borgman, Lewis Beck, 
Christian Borchhard, Henry Burch, Christian Bohling, Lewis Bechman, 
Ignatz Bauer, Upton Demeemoss, John Dietz, August Fisher, Charles 
Fisher, Charles Herman, George Huber, Anton Harpbrecht, Nicholas 
Huber, Adam Herman, John Harter, Valentine Jungman, George 
Kratzberg, Frank Lorb, David Kelly, Felix Kistner, William Koehler, 
George Locehel, Herman Lehman, Frank Mayer, John Mayer, Christian 
Mild, Lewis Martin, John Moehler, Peter Mohn, Joseph Post, Lewis 
Plotow, George Pastre, Herman Reichow, Gottlieb Ruoff, Jacob 
Roesch, Albert Shultz, Lorenz Stehman, Ignatz Straub, August Smilder, 
Antony Seiger, Michael Schoeffer, John Sohvam, Henry Steffen, John 
Sutter, William Schmidt, Friederich Vogel, John Weinfelder, Andrew 
Wilzenbacher, William Wickenieyer, Jacob Walz, George Bauer, 
August Deppe, Englebert Benzinger, Eha Dominionons, Friederich 
Kanmerling, Vinvenz Kistner, Leopold Kranskopf, Frederick Mayer, 
Michael Reis, Frank Seiger, Joaquin Ruhstaller, Adam Soberer, Joseph 
Sohieber, Peter Strawbinger. 

Died. — Privates Charles Lipp, Jeremiah Guttbroett. 

Privates Frederick Groetsinger, John Muebler. 


Captain Matthias Reiching. 
Captain Albert Traub. 
First Lieutenant August Fix. 
First Lieutenant John Roedel. 
Second Lieutentant Carlo Piepho. 
Second Lieutenant John Lang. 
Second Lieutenant Lewis Weitzel. 
Second Lieutenant R. M. Gutenstein. 


First Sergeant Matthias Arnbruster. 
Sergeant Adam Benkert. 
Sergeant Ernst Rochwitz. 
Sergeant Peter Weibel. 
Corporal Martin Lippel. 
Corporal Sebastian Latscha. 
Corporal Frederick Brenner. 




Michael Barth, Christian Beery, Frederick Babel, Adam Berg, George 
Bolter, John Buhler, John Christ, Adam Delman, Henry Dryemgei, 
John Ergels, Fredericli Ertz, Adam Geht, Ludwig Gerhadl, Christian 
Hebstreath, Ferdinand Hock, Henry Heniminghaus, Henry Kinkier, 
Charles Kleppe, Henry Kull, Ludwig Laubert, Louis Lexan, Henry 
Lohmeyer, Fritz Loheide, John Meyer, Philip Meyer, Martin Meyer, 
George Mack, Franz Manning, Nicholas Rapp, John Schlatter, Chris- 
tian Schmidtbeyer, Jacob Schulde, Casper Squier, Frederick Stauffer, 
Philip Wrinmer, Ernst Zaeske, Christian Zehdter, Charles Kempt, 
William Geipman, Philip Hercher, Adolph Kuball, Henry Bruckmann, 
Charles Degan, Ernest Dietz, Jacob Gallinger, John Jones, Henry 
Kauffenbeyer, Fritz Neubeyer, Michael Rentz, Christian Reppig, Wil- 
William Straub. 

Killed in Battle. — Sergeant Mangus Bott; Private Fritzolin Gutswitler. 
Missing. — Private Ludwig Haaf. 

Died. — Privates Edward Ammon, Charles Dallhammer, Adolph Doer- 
ing, Peter Gengnager, Thomas Patton, Gottleib Schuhkraft, William 

Privates George Bottel, Adam Baucher, Joseph Klaus, Matthias Doll, 
meyer, Philip Doosman, Jacob Demmeyer, John EUenberger, Pankratz 
Eberlein, George Francois, Ceorge Hempser, George Hummel, Edward 
Huse, Peter Hammel, John Keller, Meinrich Kelling, Bernet Kattlord, 
Charles Kopp, Sebastian Letsch, Benjamin Lohrback, Peter Lyndecker, 
Charles A. Ludorff, Adam Miller, Matthias Niemeyer, Emil Ohlenroth 
John Oppenheimer, Ferdinand Renker, Jacob Sachs, Joseph Seibert, 
first, Joseph Seibert, second, August Shieb, Jacob Saarbach, Henry 
Surencamp, Martin Thorwalder, Fritz Tobias, Beruh Will, John Wink- 
ler, Sebastian Wisch, Adam Zeigler. 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Michael Kline, Privates August Ben. 
zinger, Andrew Doll, John Dienhardt, Fritz Engelke, Wendelin Fisher^ 
Charles Gern, Frederick Hagenbuck, Jacob Halbauer, Ludwig Kirch- 
hofer, Franz Ladisch, Henry Rath, Joseph Roth. 

Veterans. — Sergeant August Kramer ; Corporal Thomas Hellriegel' 
Martin Bilber, Jacob DoUman, Henry Saal, John Straab. 

COMPANY c. (Veteran Battalion). 


First Lieutenant George Lering. 


First Sergeant Philip Hercher. 
Sergeant Christian Hauer. • 
• Sergeant Frank Center. 

Corporal Jacob Goetz. 


Stephen Bueyer, Valentine Cornelius, Henry Dammeyer, Peter Doehm, 
John Goephard, Joseph Graf, William Geissman, John V. Hofman 
Nicholas Heinrich, Herman Kirchhof, Reinhard Kise, Rudolph Stu!. 
dor, John Burkhard, Frank Mund, George Hohenstein, Baptist 
Deutschle, Charles Werner, .George Kimmel, John Meikel, John Diem, 
Andrew Duerr, Frank Kuffner, Jacob Lattemer, Emanuel Seelos 
Adolph Kuball, Henry Hurst, Christian Dabbert. 

Transferred. — Sergeant George Rabb, Private Balthasar Mueller. 

Died. — Sergeant Peter Borg. 

Privates Jacob Bohmen, Ernest Roemler, Augustin Ringelein, Frank 
Schmidt, August Schwan. 


Captain Louis Fey. 

First Lieutenant Lanterbache Malte. 

First Lieutenant Samuel Rosenthal. 

First Lieutenant Deopold Markbreit. 

Second Lieutenant Heer Arnold. 

Second Lieutenant Gottlieb Hummell. 

Second Lieutenant Michael Klein. 

Second Lieutenant Michael Schmittheuner.. 


First Sergeant Jacob Deep. 
Sergeant Herman Steinauer. 
Sergeant Henry Weber. 
Sergeant Charles Wickenhauser. 
Sergeant Albert Jehle. 
Corporal John Frey. 
Corporal John Diep. 
Corporal Adam Lawn. 

Corporal Lewis Kuhriel, 
Corporal John Duck, 
Corporal Henry Elfers. 
Corporal William Techudi. 


John Bittner, Felician Brunner, George Beck, Jacob Blei, August 
Benziger, Peter Dimper, Frank A. Eberle, Joseph Fetz, Conrad Gasper, 
John Grass, Casper Hick, George Jacob, Adam Jutzi, David Isele, 
Jacob Koerkel, Christian Kripper, John G. Krichhofar, Ferdinand 
Lehmann, Jacob Lutzel, Christian Meinel, Christian Mair, Ferdinand 
MuUer, John Mar.\-, George Peter Oeirel, William Prestenbach, Andrew 
Zadenhauer, John Ruteneek, Peter Rossraan, William Rasch, William 
Stopburg, John Spaeth, ..Nicholas Schwartz, Ignatz Steinauer, Jacob 
Schumacher, Simon Schmidt, John Schuckel; Henry Terheide, John 
Weinsstein, Jolin Wohnhas, Peter Zius, Franz Flick, C. Renner, Wm. 
Eckerle, E. Erwig, Peter Frey, Michael Fleisch, Conrad Groth, Franz 
Graf, Andreas Gradel, Henry Heiser, John Hellwig, Henry Krenz- 
mann, Jpseph Lange, John Merig, John Neubacher, William Rhein- 
stadt, Frederick Otto Ross, Martin Seibert, Christian Welker, Frede- 
rick Wolzbacher, Frederick W. Tellhorster. 

Killed in Battle.— Privates Leopold Bauer, Ambrosius Fiedmann, 
Rudolf Hauserniann, Jacob Heitz, Philip Zeip. 

Died.— Sergeant Robert Simon; Privates Charles Graf, Martin, 
Kallin, Jacob Moreland, Philip Sauer, Lorenzo Schmidt. 

Discharged.— Corporals Frederick W. Alexander, Otto Mueller; 
Privates Rudolph Lrand, John Bruin, Adam Fauth, Jacob Hellwig, 
Valentine Jeggle, Joseph Kueenzli, George Matt, Joseph Molinari, 
Daniel Pfisler, Ferdinand Radeloff, William Seeger, Theodore Wagner, 
Frederick Wenz, Frederick W. Windscher, John Wilk. 

Transferred.— First Sergeants Ferdinand Holzer, Henry Raabe, 
John S. Schellenbaum ; Privates Joseph Brodbeck, John Deinhard, 
Jacob Diehl, George Ehret, Frederick Goetz, John Henle, Franz Fhck, 
Louis Koch, Joseph Kauffman, Herman Meyer, Sigmund Moasch, 
Joseph Molitor, John Molkmans, John Miller, Herman Roose, Adolph 
Schiller, Christian Volper, Frank A. Schneider, Frank Bohland, Bern- 
hart Durr, Joseph Hauser, John Hagel, George Lang, Joseph Moser, 
Henry Oldach, Peter Peifer, Ernst Roemler, August Ringelien, Domi- 
nick Ruhstaller, Henry Zimmerman. 

Captain Arthur Forbriger. 
Captain Edwin Frey. 
First Lieutenant Alexander Bohlander. 
First Lieutenant John Amrein. 
First Lieutenant Conrad Sleicher. 
First Lieutenant Michael Kline. 
Second Lieutenant Albert Lioman. 
Second Lieutenant Louis C. Fintz. 
Second Lieutenant Charles Woelfer. 

First Sergeant Conrad Bauer. 
Sergeant Maxwell Stedenford. 
Sergeant Joseph Huber. 
Sergeant Henry Schutz. 
Sergeant Charles Fuchs. 
Corporal John Brunler. 
Corporal Louis Metzler. 
Corporal Henry Schuchler. 
Corporal George P. Schmidt. 
Corporal John Hiller. 
Corporal Adam Wuest. 

Philip Bottler, Herman Bohne, Christian Bermith, John Baer, Ernst 
Brenligan, William Brunner, Ernst Goelen, Michael Griganius, Chris- 
tian Hohn, Frederick Helbring, Bernet Heintz, Joseph Haringer, 
George Henzel, Theater Heanker, Andreas Jageman, Herman Jaeger, 
Joseph Kauffman, John Killer, Christian Kiehl, Frederick Koeing, 
John Leonhart, Henry Meinken, Leopold Meyer, Victor Neubacher, 
Michael Offenbacher, Henry Pfeming, William Rudiger, Tobias 
Rolher, John Sattler, John Schneider, Frederick Schilling, George 
Schmidt, Rudolph Schmidt, Bonafantune Stoeckle, Jacob Schaebel, 
Reinhart Sohindeldaker, John Schram, Jacob Theis, Gusjave Utten- 

Killed in Battle. — First Sergeant Jacob Fintz; Corporaljoseph Gutz- 
willer; Privates Frank Klueber, Ferdinand Krause. 



Died. — Louis Beeker, Benedict Hernick, Frederick Schafer, Frede- 
rick Nieman, Charles Winter. 

Discharged. — Corporals Henry Conrady, William Hundermark; 
Privates Ferdinand Anschutz, Henry G. Benninger, Matthias Dall- 
meyer, Henry Eberly, Wendelin Fischer, Frank Geiler, John Kempt- 
ner, Charles Loebi.xger, Joseph Meyer, John Neau, Frank Ortman, 
Isaiah Roedel, Henry Schwabe, Joseph Schearer, Philip I. Theis, John 
Eppinger, Louis Faas, Louis Gerhart, Charles Cross, |ohn Kelch, 
Henry Dunk, Gabriel Drescher, Julius L. Frenzel, Charles Feiberg, 
Jacob Geuener, George Grabath, Philip Heintz, Frederick Langfritz, 
Franz Pumpel, Emanuel Seelas, Adelbert Schafer, Ernst Schilling, 
John Peter Struber, George Winter, John Weitzman, Michael Zaal, 
Christian Hauer. 



Captain Henry Sommer. 
First Lieutenant Henry Zimmerman. 
First Lieutenant Charles Alexander. 
First Lieutenant Franz Schmidt. 
First Lieutenant Lewis Weitzel, 
First Lieutenant Henry Ocker. 
Second Lieutenant Martin Hauser. 
Second Lieutenant Conrad Schleiher. 


Sergeant John Schueder. 
Sergeant Bernhart Svenker. 
Sergeant Michael Walluck. 
Corporal John Weber. 
Corporal August Dierker. 
Corporal Bernhart Vo'gel. 
Corporal Joseph Keller. 
Corporal Rudolph Renter. 
Corporal Frederick Leppe. 


John Buchler. Gottlieb Dehmeil, Henry Dick, Gottlieb Ebinger, 
Andreas Ehman, Herman FrandhoiT, Frederick Foelsch, Jacob Franz- 
man, Robert Genge, Lewis Hahn, George Held, George Hertwig, Lewis 
John, George Kautzman, Christian KaLser, Jacob Klein, Albert Loop, 
Triah Luethy, John L. Mueller, George Muenster, John J. Mueller, 
Ferdinand Riedel, Frank Ringer, Frederick Shaefer, Lewis Scharegge, 
Christian Schatzman, John Thomas, Michael Verheclig, George Wuen- 
ger, Adolphus Wolf, Lewis Woelfer, Matthias Zimmerman, John Zink. 

Killed in Battle. — Henry Bettsheider, Eberhard Kreuter, Andrew 
Lucas, Christian Loeffler. 

Died. — Privates George Bertram, Frederick Huppert, Andrew Her- 
hamer, Lewis Lump, Charles Leanian, Lewis Wenz, David Wickers- 

Discharged. — Privates Joseph Derhan, Nicholas Hoeple, Frank 
Hanzel, John Hottinger, August Woelfer, Jacob Mueller, William 
Holzhuch, Julius Swarzhoff, William Wuerker, Henry Jacoby, John 
Roth, Bernhart Lohe, George Rose, George Schaefer, Charles Mueller. 

Transferred. — Privates John Brockman, Herman Brunner, Michael 
Eslinger, Bernhart Horstman, Herman Zeiler, Adam Auentis, John 
Hildebrandt, Frederick Eyle, Franz Hemberger, John Jaegle, Nicholas 
Kloch, John Kramer, Christoper Kulhman, John Anton Mueller, John 
Rockendorf, John Mennnger. 



Captain Tobias Nagal. 
First Lieutenant Edwin Frey. 
First Lieutenant John Lang. 
First Lieutenant Albert Liomin. 
Second Lieutenant Emil Wilde. 
Second Lieutenant Ferdinand Holyer. 
Second Lieutenant George Benzing. 
Second Lieutenant Herman Raengsleyer. 


Sergeant Balthaser Strassal. 
Sergeant Frank Leophold. 
Sergeant Phillip Weichrich. 
Sergeant George Lehmeig. 


George Auker, Frederick Blackman, Langen Behringer, Peter 
Claude, Wilhelm Engel, John Forsbach, Gustave Frey, Charles Har- 

rold, Jacob Haag, John Halm, Wilhelm Jordon, Frederick Krebs, 
Theodore Keek, John Libbe, Henry Maassberg, Wilhelm Masser, 
Wilhelm Paulisch, John Rengel, Charles Reineald, Gerhardt Schlaffe, 
Valentine Schlasser, Joseph Strobel, Frederick Wolhile, Nicholas West- 

Killed in Battle. — Christian Eisenhardt, Michael Hildebrandt, John 
Kling, Joseph Lang, Frederick Maassberg, Jacob Stein, Charles Schroe- 

Died. — John Kramer, Frederick Kern, Charles Thiele. 

Discharged. — Privates Charles Bolkhardt, Charles Cross, Daniel 
Chautemp, John Depp, Charles Ensfeld, John Huger, Frederick 
Kraub, Henry Lorenz, John Mainhardt, Phillip Jacob Peter, Frederick 
Scharlack, Uriah Stahl, Ignatz Schneider, Nicholas Schwarzman, 
Christian Stumpf, Theodore Weigers, Phillip Wegler, Frank Wolf, 
Henry Witz. 

Transferred.— Privates Bernhard Insferd, Diedrich Hessecker, John 
Happel, Frederick Kaifer, Frederick Reip, Bernhart Schmidt, Adam 
Hamlin, John Huser, Jacob Bohmen, Christian Burkhardt, Baptiss 
Deutshele, George Huber, Felix Kistner, Christian Mild, Joseph G. 
Prose, Igmy Straub, August Schnider, Adam G. Scherer, Frank Seeger, 
Anton Seiger, John Winfelder. 

Captain Edith Bernhardt. 
Captain August Fix. 
First Lieutenant Charles Drach. 
First Lieutenant Herman Guthardt. 
Second Lieutenant Frank Schmidt. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Raabe. 
Second Lieutenant George Kappes. 


First Sergeant Charles Blittersdorf. 
Sergeant William Grossman. 
Sergeant Charles Falk. 
Sergeant Clemens Schimmel. 
Sergeant Ferdinand Erdman. 
Corporal Ferdinand Hilderbrandt. 
Corporal Alexander Arnold. 
Corporal Valentine Hauck. 
Corporal Christian Kahle. 
Corporal George Mohr. 
Corporal John Nenninger. 
Corporal Charles Gfroerer. 


Theodore Amett, Frederick Ahlers, Joseph Abath, Adam Anntius, 
Adrew Bracknuling, Joseph Baumler, Lorenz Bridenstein, Edward 
Britterle, Frederick Benneirtz, Andrew Byzrus, Adam Beck, Ernst 
Dienst, Michael Ergert, Frederick Flohr, Johji Graff, George Geier, 
Julius Grossman, John Gass, Adolph Guenther, Christian Hoffman, 
John Hardle. Henry Jacob, John Kissel, Charles Liebold, Phillip Lin- 
denfelser, Phillip Lipps, John Mueller, John A. Miller, Adam Mueller, 
Charles Perschmann, Gottlieb Rueff, Louis Seeger, John Schluter, John 
Schlup, Frederick Schmidtheuner, Jacob Schmelzle, George Stretz, 
John Seller, Jacob Sohittenhelm, Ferdinand Storr, Frederick Utrecht, 
Gregor Wolf, Henry Wilier. 

Killed in Battle. — Corporal Frederick Schneider; Privates Frederick 
Brandt, Louis Klapper, John Jacob, Frederick Noerthen. 

Died. — Corporal Christian Ballan; Privates William Feklenberg, 
Engelbert Winkler. 

Transferred. — First Sergeant Conrad Schleicher; Corporals R. 
Gurenstein, Ludwig Hohnstedt, Henry Oker; Privates Phillip Arnold, 
John Adel, Joseph Deyer, John Klein, Charles Kleppe, William Moser, 
Frederick Meyer, Edward Schombard, George Schulpraft, John 
Schnell, Reinhart Schindeldecker, Herman Angert, Stephen Bueger, 
Elias L. Bechman, Ignatz Bauer, Upton Demoss, Henry Dammier, 
Joseph Graf, John Geephart, Valentine J. Hoffman, Gustave Haustein, 
David Kelly, Henry C. Steffen, John Schramm, Charles Schwicke, 
Andrew Witzenbacher. 



Captain Maurice Wesolouski. 

Captain Frederick Weising. 

First Lieutenant Stanislaus Gumwald. 

First Lieutenant Arnold Heer. 

J. J. Schellenbaum. 



Second Lieutenant Anton Gradzike. 
Second Lieutenant Charles Miller. 
Second Lieutenant Edward Otto. 
Seeond Lieutenant Ernst Kudell. 


Sergeant Henry Mathews. 
Sergeant Lorenz Schelger. 
Sergeant Joseph Lippert. 
Corporal Joseph Spinner. 
Corporal John Fuzlien. 
Corporal John Scherer. 
Corporal John Frizlein. 
Corporal Louis Haas. 
Corporal Michael Goodling. 
Corporal Henry Bath. 


John Braun, Henry Brinkman, Rudolph Buhler, Federick Dieterlen 
Andreas Doll, George Enth, Frank Fieke, John Fisher, Herman Gott- 
berg, Charles Haack, William Hanenshild, Valentine Hanenstein, 
Henry Haming, Conrad Hillenbrand, Bernhart Horstman, August 
Klausmeier, Louis Link, Joseph Loth, John Luttman, Herman Meyer, 
Frederick Miller, John Molke, Frederick NoUkemfer, Herman Nienierg, 
Henry Numberger, Gottlieb Oberfall, Adam Roth, John Rudolph, John 
Schwartz, August Steinboills, Casper Stein, Frank Schmidt, John Scheu- 
rer, Charles Weise, John Zaigler. 

Killed in Battle. — Corporal Engleberth Bush. 

Died. — Privates Ernest Guenther, Charles Kern, George Walter, 
Joseph Haight, Anthony Uzouwski. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Ernst Heller; Privates Joseph Brewer, Henry 
Kohler, Frederick Brick, John Schmidt, Gustave Rosenberg, Frederick 
Allbraicht, Christian Voelpel, Joseph Molitor, Frank Meyer, Peter 
Buthner, Conrad Roth, Gustave Hennish, Jacob Diehl Herman EfBng, 
Henry Miller, Charles Kudell, Joseph Rupp, Henry Kaiser, Louis 

Transferred. — Privates Charles Dahlhammer, William Engel, John 
Huber, Louis Haaf, Frederick Herrman, John Haas, Frederick Napo- 
leon, Frederick Reuker, Moritz Stegle, Peter Claude, Ale.\ander Lands- 
berg, John Adel, Conrad Meller, Frank W. Argel, Valentine Cornehus, 
August Fisher, Frederick Groetzinger, Anton Harbrecht, Adam Herr- 
man, Leopold Kramphoff, Frank Kuffer, Charles Lipp, Louis Martin, 
John Miller, Louis Plotton, Joachim Ruhstaller. 


Captain George Sommers. 
Captain Lautarbach Matte. 
Captain J. A. Heer. 
First Lieutenant Phillip Wick, 
First Lieutenant Carlo Peipho. 
First Lieutenant Lewis C. Frintz. 
Second Lieutenant Likas Shwank. 
Second Lieutenant Joseph Neubacher. 
Second Lieutenant Louis Gehrhard. 
Second Lieutenant Herman Kreningsberger. 
Second Lieutenant John Eppinger. 


First Sergeant Robert Weusland. 

Sergeant John Goettler. 

Sergeant Conrad Belzing. 

Sergeant William Woehle. 

Sergeant Jacob Halbauer. 

Corporal Charles Bloessing. 

Corporal Louis Schwartz. 

Corporal Frank Reinhard. 

Corporal Christian Heldwin. '~ 

Corporal John Kuhule. 

Corporal Conrad Hoehn. 


Henry Anlfus, Jacob Baly, John Bauer, Frederick Bewerkellen, John 
Berlsch, Jacob Breitmeir, Bernhart Brush, Robert Slwert, Jacob Gerein- 
ten, Frederick Goetz, John Hildebrand, Casper Hoeffling, Anton Huber, 
Casper Jochin, Nicholas Klock, Frederick Kop, Christian Kuhlman, 
Frederick Kuhlman, John Muller, Sigismund Moasch, John Malkmus, 
Herman Rose, Jacob Selb, John Sieman, Bernhart Schmidt, Frederick 
Schmidt, Joseph Tlamsa, Frederick Trimernier, Casper Voight, Lotzias 
Vanderberge, Lucius Votz, George Welmer, George Weber, Frederick 
Wurstybother, Bernhart Yiseuis, Frederick Sckottmiller. 

Killed in Battle. — First Sergeant Frederick Kuhlmann; Corporal 
Frank Miller; Privates John Adam Keller, Joseph Leipier, John 
Schnell, August Zoeller. 

Died — Privates John Gottschalk, Herman Saltter, John Stukler, ' 
Joseph Schwetzer. 

Discharged. — Sergeant Louis Harnold ; Corporal Franz Dacker ; 
Phillip Arnold, John Arnold, William Kuchmstedt, Ferdinand Rich- 
mher, William Na.^el, Charles Fix, Charles Fontimier, Frederick Eych, 
Michael Slack, Jacob Stoll, John Roggendorf. 

Transferred. —Privates Peter Buttner, Englehardt Busch, Henry Bell- 
ing, August Klausmier, Henry Brinkman, Henry Jacob, Henry Diebel, 
Herman Effing, John Fisher, John Grossman, John Graf, Michael 
Gretting, Nicholas Hoepler, Joseph Hart, Bernhart Hoffman, Vuter Hoff- 
man, Nicholas K.auffman, Bernhart Lohrer, Frederick Muller, John 
Maier, John Molker, Frederick NoUkamper, Henry Rosenberg, August 
Steinboch, George Schneider, Charles Spoettle, fgnatz Steinman, Fred- 
erick Story, Nicholas Westraan, George Hohenstein, John Harter, 
Herman Kirhshop, Reinhard Kist, William Koehler, Jacob Salterman, 
Balthasar Muller, Peter Mohr, Englebert Penzinger, Jacob Roesch, 
John Suiter, William Schmidt, Frank Schmidt, William Wickemeyer, 
Frederick Schottmiller; Corporals John Meikel, Peter Doehn. 


This was raised in the summer of 1861, and received 
at first the name of "Piatt Zouaves," in compliment to its 
colonel, Abraham S. Piatt. Its first service was in West 
Virginia, where it fought a battle ten days after arrival, 
near Chapmanville, defeating a Virginia regiment. The 
rest of the autumn and winter it was on guard and scout- 
ing duty. In May, 1862, it took part in the battle of 
Princeton, losing several men. September loth, while 
holding an outpost at FayetteviUe, with the Thirty-sev- 
enth Ohio, it was attacked by a large rebel force, and 
beat them off, but with heavy loss. It was then on garri- 
son duty until May, 1863, when it was furnished with 
horses and became a regiment of "mounted rifles." It 
was in the cavalry expedition against Wytheville, in which 
it bore a distinguished part. Two-thirds of the regiment 
"veteraned," in January, 1864, and took full part in the 
movements of that year in the valley of the Shenandoah 
and elsewhere in Virginia. It was in Sheridan's famous 
batde of Winchester; and was captured at Beverly by 
General Rosser, January 11, 1865, a few weeks after 
which the remnant of the old Thirty-fourth was consoli- 
dated with the Thirty-sixth Ohio at Cumberland, Mary- 
land, taking the name of the latter, and losing its identity 


Captain Austin T. Miller. 
First Lieutenant John Grace. 
Second Lieutenant Thomas Lawler. 


First Sergeant James Shiels. 
Sergeant James Colter. 
Sergeant Patrick Cassidy. 
Sergeant James Burns. 
Sergeant William Fitzpatrick. 
Corporal William Robbins. 
Corporal James Ryan. 
Corporal John Cassidy. 
Corporal John Fritz. 
Corporal George Guy. 
Corporal John Gorman. 
Corporal Lawrence Powers. 
Corporal William Sloan. 


John J. Adams, Jesse H. Bloom, Willliam Burke, George W. Blair, 

James Burns, Barney Brenner, Daniel Barrett, Owen Bonner, Herbert 



Breman, William Campbell, Jasper Creekbaum, Michael Coleman, 
Hugh Callaghan, Charles Cope, Henry Crossman, Robert Carr, Peter 
Coney, David Coleman, Thomas Carr, Cornelius Desmond, Samuel M. 
Espy, Boyce Egan, James W. Evans, Patrick Flynn, Fenton Flanagan, 
John Fritz. James Farmington, William F. Fitzpatrick, Robert Finney, 
Sylvester Foy, John Gorman, George Guy, Joseph Grimes, Henry Gol- 
pen, Barney Harkins, Arthur Halpin, Michael Hines, Matthew Har- 
rington, Harvey Harris, Thomas Hackett, Josiah Jones, Gabriel Ken- 
nelly, Jacob Knoblow, Michael Long, Jonathan Lawrence, Joseph 
Maloney, Patrick Moore, William M. Martin. Patrick Mara, Patrick 
McGovern, James McKerne, Patrick McNaraara, John Murphy, 
Michael Lawler, John Laughlin, John Mason, James Mcintosh, Wil- 
liam McElfresh, Williarh T. Miller, James Nengle, Norvell Osborne, 
Michael O'Neal, William Price, Samuel Prather, Joseph Pierce, James 
A. Patten, Lawrence Powers, George Patterson, John S. Post, William 
Robbins, Patrick Ratliffe, Washington C. Reeves, James Ryan, John 
Reeves, Thomas Ryan, Benjamin Reeker, Henry W. Rockwell, Martin 
Rea, Daniel Robinson, Patrick Ryan, William H. Sutherland, Wesley 
Smitson, William Sloan, James Shafer, Patrick Sullivan, John Ste- 
phens, Washington Vennon, Robert Vance, George K. Weit, Robert 


This command dates from August, 1861. Its first 
colonel was Captain (afterward General) George Crook, 
of the regular army. Before he took command, six com- 
panies made a vigorous scout after guerillas in West Vir- 
ginia. During the winter, at Summerville, the regiment 
suffered greatly from sickness, having nearly fifty deaths 
by disease. May 23, 1862, it aided effectively in repell- 
ing an attack upon Lewisburgh. . In August, it was sent 
to join the army of the Potomac; was in the second 
battle of Bull Run, and the battles of South Mountain 
and Antietam. After the latter it was commanded, until 
his resignation in April, 1863, by Colonel E. B. Andrews, 
a prominent professor in Marietta college. In January, 
1863, it joined the army of the Cumberland at Nashville, 
and participated in the battles at and preceding Chicka- 
mauga, where it lost very heavily. It also won the right 
to inscribe "Mission Ridge" upon its banners. Returning 
to Virginia it participated in a number of minor actions, 
was in the severe engagement at Barryville, September, 
3d, in other actions on the 19th and 22d, and in the bat- 
tle of Winchester, October 19th. After the merging of 
the Thirty-fourth in it, the consolidated regiment served 
without much fighting in northern Virginia until July 22, 
1865, when it was mustered out of service and returned 
to Ohio. 


Corporal James K. Shaffer. 


William Brunaugh, Cornelius, Bonlevare Leonidas Bonlevare, Wilson 

Donhara, George Ewing, Albert Fagan, William Johnson, Henry Long, 

Samuel Medcalf, James Ryan, Thomas Thompson. 



Charles Taucher, Elias S. West. 



Thomas Flanagan, Martin Graves, Thomas Hayward, Lewis A. 
McKibben, Wesley McKibben, John Mack, John Walsh. 


Joseph Higginbotham, Abraham Miller. 

Frank M. Blessing, William H. Crooks, William Evans, Alvin Nei- 
dugor, Jacob Smith. 

Corporal Philip Rich, Private Martin Schwartz. 


Charles Crook, John Halley. 

Sergeant E. M. Smith. 

Private Manasseh Wood. 

Private George L. Achemor. 

Private Wendlin Hauselmann. 

Private Victor Frey. 


The Thirty-ninth rendezvoused at Camp Colerain in 
July, 1861, Seven companies were here mustered into 
the service, July 31st; three days after, the regiment 
marched to Camp Dennison, where the remainder were 
mustered in. It was the first Ohio regiment to join 
General Fremont's forces in Missouri, where it went on 
guard-duty in early September, along the North Missouri 
railroad. Five companies marched with General Sturge's 
to the relief of Lexington, but did not reach it in time, 
though moving rapidly and suffering severely. No- 
vember 9, it joined the army of General Hunter at 
Springfield, marched with it to Sedalia and Syracuse, 
where it remained through December and January. The 
next month, a long and peculiarly severe march was made 
to St. Louis, whence the regiment was taken to Com- 
merce, to join the army of General Pope. It took part 
in the operations by which New Madrid and Island 
Number 10 were captured, and in April joined General 
Halleck's army at Hamburgh Landing, on the Tennessee 
river. It was engaged in many skirmishes, losing con- 
siderably, until the evacuation of Corinth, which it was 
one of the first regiments to enter. A few weeks were 
then spent in guarding railroads. It took part in the 
battle of luka and in the pursuit of the enemy, returning 
to Corinth in time to engage in the battle of October 3 
and 4. In early November, it joined the army under 
General Grant, at Grand Junction, Tennessee, and was 
much engaged in skirmishes and reconnoissances. De. 
cember i8th, it moved by rail to Jackson, Tennessee, to 
check Forrest's movements in the rear of Grant. On 
the thirty-first, Forrest was met and defeated at Parker's 
cross roads, when the regiment moved back by very 
severe marching to Corinth. It remained there till April, 
1863, when it joined General Dodge's expedition to the 
Tuscumbia valley. In May it removed to Memphis, 
and in October to Prospect, Tennessee, where, Decem- 
ber 27th, five hundred and thirty-four of its men were re- 
mustered as veterans, receiving the usual furlough for 
thirty days. Again assembling at Camp Dennison, it 
received a reinforcement of one hundred and twelve re- 



emits. Its subsequent service was with the Fourth di- 
vision of the Sixteenth corps, under General Dodge, in 
northern Alabama and the campaigns through Georgia 
and the Carolinas. 

It was in the actions at Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Nicojack Creek, and Atlanta, and the pursuit of Hood as 
far as Galesville, Alabama, whence it returned to Marietta, 
where, in November, it was paid for the first time in nine 
months and thoroughly re-equipped. It 'did effective 
work destroying railroads during the march to the sea. 
At Pocotaligo, South Carolina, it received two hnndred 
and four recruits. During the march of Sherman's army 
northward, it was engaged at Rivers' bridge, on the 
Salkehatchie, at Cheraw, and at Bentonville. The march 
to Washington city and the grand review were passed 
without special incident. The regiment was mustered 
out of service at Louisville, July 9, 1865. Its record is 
considered highly honorable, in that it gave to the veteran 
organization more men than any other regiment from 
Ohio, and never once turned its back upon the enemy. 
Its chaplain, the first year of its service, was the famous 
Sunday-school missionary. Rev. B. W. Chidlaw, who did 
much to give the regiment character for religion and 
temperance. Bible readings and prayer regularly char- 
acterized the dress parade; and a "Christian Brother- 
hood" and temperance society were maintained by the 
regiment, including, it is said, almost every member of 
company K. 

Colonel John Groesbeck. 
Lieutenant Colonel Albert W. Gilbert. 
Major Edward Noyes. 
Chaplain B. W. C. Widlaw. 
Suigeon Oliver W. Nixon. 
-Assistant Surgeon Thomas W. McAethur. 
Sergeant Major Henry A. Babbitt. 

Captain Christian A. Moyan. 
First Lieutenant Willard P. Stoms. 


First Sergeant Daniel Weber. 
Sergeant John B. Ryan. 
Sgereant Frank Fortman. 
Sergeant Eli G. Vincent. 
Sergeant Horace G. Stoms. 
Corporal Joseph Pancoast. 
Corporal Benjamin Miller. 
Corporal Alfred Carle. 
Corporal Andrew Vincent. 
Corporal John Leach. 
Corporal Charles Richards. 
Corporal Palmer Holland. 
Corporal Edwin McCollough. 
Musician Jackson White. 
Musician John Whetstone. 


John W. Andrews, James Baker, Josiah Bartlett, Robert Bollman, 
Joseph Bowman, Frank Bowman, Patrick O'Brian, William H, Brown, 
George Benson, Oliver Brown, David Carle, Frank Clements, Spencer 
Cooper, Oliver G. Coffin, Algomah Cooley, George Close, Charles 
Emery, John German, Hamilton J. Gregg, Antone Gardner, Ludwig 
Griess, Thomas Hiiie, Thomas A. Hays, William Hobson, James 
Hunter, Jasper Keeler, Sohn Langsdon, John Lanyan, John Manser, 
Levi E. Marsh, John W. Masterson, William May, Thomas G. 
Mears' Joseph H. Menke, John W. Miller, George Miller, Nathan 
Netterfield, James O' Neil, Edmund Pancoast, Henry Peck, George W. 

Kyan, Andrew Robinson, David F. Silver, Florence D. Simpson, 
James Smith, Benjamin Smith, Jacob Spinning, James Tate, Isaac 
Taylor, Homer Turrell, Andrew Wachsteter, Oscar Warnick, Robert 
M. C. Watson, Andrew Wateman, John S. Willey, Frederick Hoes- 



First Lieutenant John S. Hooker. 


Sergeant John D, Holcomb. 
Sergeant William N. Chapman. 
Sergeant William G. Feybeyer. 
Corporal John S. Lowe. 
Corporal Jeremiah Hale. 
Corporal Uriel B. Chambers. 
Musician John Hall. 


William Armstrong, William W. Berry, Ale.xis Brown, David Beyert, 
George Bermond, William H. Carpenter, George Collins, Martin V. B. 
Clark, John Carter, George Crain, Patrick Downey, Frank Deitz, Wil- 
liam H. Ferrill, Martin Fleig, Charles Gautier, John Gorman, Flavius J. 
Gorling, David Hailgarder, Oscar Hotaling, William D. Harwood, 
Abram Hart, John Jones, Nathan Lynn, William L. Miller, John Mor- 
ton, William Mortimer, Andrew B. Mallott, George W. McKane, 
James Palmer, Nathan Purdy, James A. Quigley, John Rouscher, Jo- 
seph W. Rice, Joseph Rittenhouse, Charles Richardson, John Sweeny, 
William Sheets, Richard Snyder, John Winnings, Henry Westerman, 
Hewson Williams, William H. Williams, Joseph D. Weaver. 



First Lieutenant Ethan O, Hurd. 


Sergeant Henry Holland. 

Corporal Caspar Kraus. 

Corporal Charles Lindenstruth. 

Corporal Barney Schulze. 


Frederick Appeiius, John Augst, Fidel Baschnagel, Joseph Basch- 
nagel, Joseph Deschamp, Louis Dhorn, Christian Daniels, Joseph Daub, 
Louis Griep, Christian Geiges, John Hoy, William Hangs, Michael 
Rattler, Roman Heiberger, Matthias Isele, Joseph Miller, Anton Wein- 
shot, Charles Mavers, Parker D'OrviUe, August Simon, Theodore 
SchuUer, Jacob Storm, Theobald Schwem, Henry Schulthenry, Mat- 
thias Schmit, Jacob Spinner, Valentine Theabold, Henry Westman, 
Hewson Williams, June Weaver, Simon August, William H. Williams, 
Hubert Zeien. 


Captain James W. Pomeroy. 

First Lieutenant William H. Lathrop. 


First Sergeant William H. Williams. 
Sergeant Wuriahar Holfner. 
Sergeant George W. Staufford. 
Sergeant David Sypher. 
Sergeant William Auschute. 
Corporal William Haller. 
Corporal William R. Beebe. 
Corporal Nicholas Maringer. 
Corporal Paul Goudy. 
Corporal Aaron L. Hopper. 
Corporal Isaac N. Girlett. 
Corporal James A. Smith. 
Corporal William H. H. Yancey. 


Steven Aarnot, David Alston, Charles Brown, Peter Brown, John M. 
Butler; Frank Bruner, John C. Bellman, John H. Boekamp, John C. 
Coleman, Henry C. Copas, James Cuningan, Thomas L. C. Casey, 
Henry C. Covek, Thomas E. Dean, Noah Frazee, Matthias Fry, Solo- 
mon Foster, Edward Ferden, Peter Grover, Joseph Holland, John 
Idone, James W. Jones. Francis M. Kaebor, Edward Kavanan, Rein- 
hart Kleinheim, Matthias Kuhn, James Love, Thomas P. Lloyd, Pat- 
rick McGuire, Bernard McLaughlin, Charles R. Mayhew, Henry A. 


Matson, Richard Owens, Robert S. Pomeroy, Janies Priedville, James 
Palmer, Williams Panneal, Joseph Reinhart, Francis Rahshopf, Mich- 
ael Renty, Emil Schmidt, Isasa F. Seal, Nicholas Shean, Michael 
Schwab, William Schumtler, George W. Summerfield, Lemuel Stevens, 
John Sharp, Kasper Stang, Richard A. Taylor, Alexander D. Vaughn, 
Joseph Weaver, William Snyder, Lawrence Winters, Thomas Williams, 
John D. Witterbauld, John Wilking, Lewis Pfaff, Amborse Bickeil, 
John Rantz, George Weinnaman, Henry Baker, Philip Wilking, Chris- 
tian Menster, Frederick Every, Jacob Henry, Eepple Valentine, Henry 
Leinhard, Henry Lenige, Jacob Lancel, Henry Crooker, Lewis Shaw, 
John Shelley, William Seals, Henry Gableman, Abraham Hopper, 
John W. Johnston, Thomas Alfred, John Cooke, John Helfrich. 



First Lieutenant Charles Y, Sedani. 
Second Lieutenant Harlan A. Edwards. 


The formation of the companies of this regiment was 
begun very early; but the old rule of the regular army, 
that a full company must be raised before the men can 
be mustered, hindered its organization. Hon. Charles 
F. Wilstach, since mayor of Cincinnati, lent his energies 
to its formation, and it was known from him as the 
"Wilstach regiment." July 29th, companies A and B 
were mustered in, and the remainder, of the regiment, 
August 13th. It was a cosmopolitan command, thirteen 
nationalities being represented in it, though six compa- 
nies were composed mostly of Americans, and the re- 
maining four of Germans. Frederich Poschner, jr., an 
ex-Prussian officer and Hungarian revolutionist, became 
its colonel. It joined the little army of Rosecrans in 
West Virginia in August, and made an exhausting march 
of eighteen miles the first afternoon. At Bulltown the 
Forty-seventh was brigaded with the Ninth and Twenty- 
eighth Ohio, in Colonel R. L. McCook's "Bully Dutch 
brigade." All the regiment, except company B (left in 
garrison at Sutton), took part in the battle of Carnifex 
Ferry. An extremely exposed and inclement encamp- 
ment on Big Lewell mountain followed, but it was by 
and by in better quarters at New Market, where it sus- 
tained a ^severe bombardment, during four days, from 
Floyd's rebel batteries. The Forty-seventh was here 
almost continually engaged in skirmishing with the rebels. 
After Floyd's retreat it went into winter quarters on 
Gauley mountain. September 19th, three companies, in 
command of Lieutenant Colonel Elliott, moved to Cross 
Lanes and spent some months in breaking up guerilla 
bands. December 5th, the regiment was reunited at 
Gauley mountain, and passed the remainder of the win- 
ter building fortifications, except in January, when it took 
part in ajsuccessful expedition against the enemy at Lit- 
tle Lewell mountain. In May four companies, with 
some cavalry, made another very fortunate raid at Lewis- 
burgh. At Meadow Bluffs the Twenty-seventh with the 
Twenty-sixth and Forty-fourth Ohio, formed the third 
provisional brigade of the Kenawha division. June 23d 
it forced General Loring from Monroe county, Virginia, 
to retire to Salt Pond mountain, and captured large 
amounts of stores. This march of ninety miles in the 
heat of summer, occupied but three days, and was very 
hard on the force, many of which were prostrated with 
sunstroke and exhaustion. Various operations against the 
guerillas and for other purposes consumed the months 

till the retreat to Gauley bridge in September, when the 
regiment was largely instrumental in saving the Federal 
forces from capture. December 30th it was embarked 
for Memphis. Here it was placed in the Third brigade, 
Second division. Thirteenth corps, and joined the expedi- 
tion against Vicksburgh. May 19th and 22d it was in 
the impetuous assault on Cemetery Hill and lost heavily. 
During most of the siege its camp was only three hun- 
dred yards from the main line of the enemy, and the 
pickets were so close they could almost bayonet each 
other. After the city was taken the regiment aided in 
the pursuit of Johnson's force, in the capture of Jackson, 
and in the destruction of the fortifications and railways 
about that city. It returned with its corps to Memphis 
the latter part of September, and was started for Corinth 
October 9th, as train guard. Shortly thereafter it moved 
near Chattanooga, and was engaged upon the extreme 
left in the battle of Chickamauga. It then marched to 
the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, scantily clothed and 
fed, many marching shoeless over the frozen ground and 
leaving their blood in their tracks. January 30, 1864, 
it was sent in an expedition against Rome, Georgia, and 
had a spirited skirmish. At Larkin's Landing, the next 
month, three-fourths of the men re-enlisted, and it thus 
became a veteran regiment, was mustered as such March 
6th, and took its thirty days' furlough, arriving at Cincin- 
nati on the 2 2d. By May 3d it was again at the front, 
this time at Stevenson, Alabama, from which it moved in 
a few days to the Atlanta campaign. In this it partici- 
pated in the affairs at Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Kings- 
ton, Dallas, New Hope Church, Big Shanty, Kenesaw, 
and Ezra Church. It was in the pursuit of Hood to the 
rear of Atlanta, upon which it was joined by four hun- 
dred conscripts and substitutes ; was in the famous march 
to the sea, and at the capture of Fort McAlister, in which 
its colors were the first to be planted on the works; took 
part in the occupation of Savannah, the march through 
the Carolinas, and the great review at Washington. It 
was then ordered to Arkansas, and served till August 
nth, when it was mustered out, but not paid off and dis- 
charged until August 24, 1866, when it had served four 
years, two months, and nine days, and campaigned 
through all the Star States except Missouri, Florida and 


Colonel Frederick Poschner. 
Lieutenant Colonel Lyman S. Elliott. 
M.ajor Augustus C. Parry. 
Adjutant John G. Deerbeck. 



Captain Samuel L. Hunter. 
First Lieutenant Lewis D. Graves. 
Second Lieutenant John W. Duichemin. 


First Sergeant John H. Brown. 
Sergeant Hiram Durrell. 
Sergeant ElishaJ. Kneeland. 
Sergeant George W. Perphater. 
Sergeant John Turner. 
Corporal Alexander Nesmith. 
Corporal John W. A'laxfield. 
Corporal Claude Baker. 


Corporal Albert Lann. 

Corporal Jerry Miller. 

Corporal William Everson. 

Corporal Michael Haumer. 

Corporal George Wisbey. 

Drummer Enos Anderson. 

Fifer Cortland Rapp. 

Wagoner John Breckenridge. 


Frank Abbey, George Bower, John Bechler, Robert M. Burnard, 
Zachariah Bermann, Julius Jennetts, David G. Brookman, Ceorge H, 
Brown, James Clark, James Cope, John Cook, Morris Davis, Henry 
Duverge, Charles Dagner, Jacob Fiechle, Frederick Graanoyel, Joel 
Grimm, George Geiger, Louis Hener, Daniel Hessel, Charles W. Hos- 
ley, William Henderson, William Harrison, Samuel Johnston, Charles 
J. Jackson, Jacob Knecht, Daniel Kline, Clem Lawrence, Jacob Lep- 
pert, Joseph Levens, Michael Long, Alonzo Mateer, William McAllis- 
ter, James Melvine, Arthur McDonnell, Edward Morin, Lewis Miller, 
William Nocker, Charles Robinson, Alexander Ravie, Matthew Rhen- 
aker, Surfein Reif, August H. Seibel, Ezekiel Stewart, Henno Seidel, 
Louis Schottinger, Charles Stewart, Henry Schuske, Henry Schneider, 
Christopher Smith, Thomas W. Spencer, William Tucker, Joseph 
Foitch, Frank Vandame, Jacob Whitsel, Henry Weber, Henry Wed- 
dendorf, George Walters, George Wisler, Frank White, Benjamin F. 
Wallace, William H, Wright, John Walken, George Young. 

Captain Alexander Froelich. 
First Lieutenant John G. Dierbeck. 


First Sergeant Felix Wagner. 
Sergeant Louis C. Koehl. 
Sergeant August Hund. 
Sergeant Adolph Ahlers. 
Sergeant Jonas Meyer. 
Corporal Henry Schroeder, 
Corporal William Cross. 
Corporal John H. Stegmann. 
Corporal Ehrnard Kupfer. 
Corporal John Weil. 
Corporal Julius Foerster. 
Corporal Alfred Pels. 
Corporal Bantalion Nutischer. 
Fifer William Buckhaus. 
Drummer Frederick Schmidt. 
Wagoner Anton Rothers. 


Benjamin Avermaat, Hermann Ahlensdorf, Henry Asgelmeyer, 
Frederick Ackermann, Thomas Baer, John Bruckers, Theodore Binder, 
Alonzo Brown, Henry Braun, John Bohlinger, John Becker, Reinhold 
Berndt, Gottlieb Berndt, Martin Cross, John R. Craig, Frederick Ger- 
lack, Jacob Goebel, Louis Giranr, Carper Huber, L. Hammer, Mat- 
thias Hunninger, Casper Hoffling, Louis Hinke, Peter Helbriegel, 
Conrad Hering, Friedrich Hoffman, Btasius Hecht, Henry Jacke, 
Adam Jebeyahn, Peter Jenrivein, Charles Holb, William Maesemeyer, 
John Knapp, Charles Kohlbrandt, Victor Koeht, Anton Kern, Charles 
Luderig, Emil Lesker, Gustav Lellman, John Baptist Lieb, Friedrich 
Mesker, Frederick Mossman, Louis Muller, Hermann Morath, Louis 
Mund, Joseph Maus, Jacob Ottlieb, John Rattermann, Philip Roth, 
Joseph Rom, Samuel Stillmacher, Ernst Schuller, Charles Schmidt, 
Jacob Schneider, Frederick Schumacker, Jacob Sprengart, Louis 
Schmidt, George Stoly, Charles Schub, Bernhart Siener, Jacob Theil- 
maun, Robert Williams, William Wiggermann, Clem Willenberg. 

Private John Bowen. 



Captain Valentine Rapp. 
Lieutenant Isidore Wonns. 


First Sergeant William H. Kor. 
Sergeant Samuel F. Campbell. 
Sergeant Lewis Brown. 

Sergeant Ferdinand Schwecke. 
Sergeant Jacob Kamerer. 
Corporal George Wedemezer. 
Corporal Frederick Hoff. 
Corporal Valentine Camerer. 
Corporal Charles Jeckel. 
Corporal Nicholas Kraft. 
Corporal August Scheiss. 
Corporal James Archibald. 
Corporal William Simbruger. 
Drummer John Loth. 
Fifer Theodore Weegers. 
Wagoner Jacob Mitter. 


Joseph Berdell, Henry Brokers, Charles Bondits, August Beverman, 
John Blohm, Herrmann Bercker, Anthony Bechtolsheimer, William 
Cope, Albert Crest, Thomas Dangelmeier, Frederick Dechhaut, George 
Dorgens, John Denbler, Frank Englehart, Weldi Tidell, Adam Fres- 
bom, Henry W. Gott, Francis Gyler, John Gleason, William Hartig, 
Henry Hoffman, Jacob Hotzbiner, Henry Heitkamp, Peter Hahler, 
Barney Hopping, Henry Hoddle, Franklin B. Kline, Philip Kausler, 
Frederick Kerstuer, Ludwig Kemmer, Charles Kuhl, William King, 
Louis Remmerg, Henry Klapp, Charles F. Konig, John Lerhart, Jo- 
seph Long, Frederich Lepier, Caspar Lier, John Leopold, Hugh Mc- 
Cord, George Myer, Frank Mitter, George H. Mitter, Frederick 
Pfeiffer, Adam Rengler, Henry Rickway, Charles Rottman, Henry Rie- 
meyer,. Jacob Schram, Joseph Schmit, Adam Schneider, Joseph 
Schmidt, Louis Schoeffer, John Shassel, Adam Schwarr, Edward 
Schmidt, William Stener, John Simon, Charles Schock, George Thomp- 
son, David Tucker, Henry Tunemann, John Wymer, John Weidinger, 
Peter Wettschein, Henry Wendell, Henap Welch. 



Captain Charles Helmerich. 
Lieutenant William Ducebeck. 

First Sergeant George Zeigler. 
Sergeant Jacob Wetterer. 
Sergeant Henry Lettmann. 
Sergeant Gottfried Meyer. ^ 

Sergeant William Augstmann. 
Corporal Louis Schweigert. 
Corporal Charles Roth. 
Corporal Christopher Schifferling. 
Corporal Adolph Grimm. 
Corporal Andreses Koch. 
Corporal John Wagner. 
Corporal Frank Schaupp. 
Corporal John Rosier. 


Christopher Arnecht, John Howen, Albert Berblinger, George Bruns, 
Anton Breier, Anton Bechtolsheimer, Henry Brann, Charles Baier, 
John Conrad, Franz H. Centner, Rudolph Dutweiler, Charles Dan, 
Rudolph Etter, Leonhaid Eble, Franz Flamin, Jacob Frank, Ernst 
Graf, Henry Grenlich, Ulrich Grogg, George Grossman, Ernst Hener, 
Daniel Hesse, Jacob Herrmann, Herman Heller, Charles Heller, Fred- 
erick Hiltbracht, Benjamin Hoff, Jacob Horlacher, Christian Hesse, 
John Konig, Peter Krappe, William Kohlenberg, Samuel King, Franz 
John Leisie, George Luber, Christian Musbeck, Janney Muller, John 
Muneister, Theodore Ohle, Gottlieb, Pepper, George Pfeifer, Joseph 
Pressler, Sigismund Pfeffer, Anton RuUe, John Romhild, Henry Schuh- 
mann, Frederich Sanbarschwarl, Joseph Spener, John Schadler, Wil^ 
liam Schaperhlaus, John Schwanzel, Charles Schoch, Henry Stomberg, 
John Spahr, Albrecht Spahr, Frederick Schneider, Nicholas Volker, 
John Wellman, Matthias Weibel, Charles Weiland, Jacob Windstrig, 
Sidwell Woolery, Joseph Wagner, BonifazYudell, PhilippZinn, Michael 
H. Zeigler. 


First Lieutenant Charles Haltenhof. 

First Lieutenant Frederick Fischer.i 


Sergeant Frederick Seidel. 

Sergeant Henry Premfoerder. 

Sergeant George'Hoefer. 


Corporal Henry Beckman. 

Corporal John Bischhausen. 

Corporal Nicholas Joerns. 

Corporal Jacob Huleer. 

Corporal Henry Fass. 


John Adams, Henry Arnold, William Borch, Conrad Bezok, Henry 
Broeckerhoff, Barney Broeckerhoff, Ignatz Dall, John Dall, Andrew 

Dendertein, Sebastian Fe\ix, Goldschmidt, John Herrmann, 

Henry Herrman, Michael Huber, Anton Hornung, Michael Hare, Phil- 
lipp Joos, Nicolas Krichheiner, Charles Loeffler, John J. Martin, John 
J. Martin, 2d, John Adam Miller, Frank Moos, Charles Nieman, 
Charles Numberger, Henry Overmeyer, Henry Kojahn, Ulrich Kaidy, 
Frederick Rath, Adam Rade, Charles Sureck, Nicolas Schmidt, Udolph 
Scheven, Frederick Sturmes, Martin Van Damm, Albert Voelkle, Louis 
Walker, John Wild, George Wingerter, Adam Wenzel, Peter Zang. 


Organized at Camp Dennison, February 17, 1862, the 
Forty-eighth was soon dispatched to General W. T. Sher- 
man's command at Paducah, whence it was taken up the 
Tennessee river to Pittsburgh Landing. It was com- 
manded by Colonol W. H. Gibson, now adjutant gen- 
eral of the State. April 6th it was heavily engaged all 
day, and it is believed that a shot from its lines caused 
the death of General Albert Sydney Johnston, command- 
er of the rebel army in this battle. On the second day 
it was also in action, and suffered severely, losing about 
one-third of its men in the two-days' fight. Its subse- 
quent battles were at , Corinth, Vicksburgh, Arkansas 
Post, Magnolia Hills and Champion Hills, Vicksburgh 
again in two assaults under Grant, Jackson, the Bayou 
Teche, and Sabine Cross Roads. In the last action, the 
remnant of the Forty-eighth was captured, and not ex- 
changed until October, 1864, after which it took part in 
the capture of Mobile. A majority of the old regiment 
had re-enlisted as veterans, but only one hundred and 
sixty-five men remained in it at the close of the war. 
They were ordered on duty in Texas, and not mustered 
out of service until May, 1866. 



Edward Byer, Charles Burger, Samuel Ellis, Benjamin Gibbs, John 
J. Kane, Paul Jones, Patrick Keany, Crogin Lowry, Philip McGuire, 
Thomas O'Rouke, Rhody Ryan, Wentlen Shiels, William Wright, 
Alfred Nichols, Charles McHugh, Joseph Payne. 



John H. B. France, John Maladay. 



Frank Kingsley, Robert Wiley, James D. Wolf. 
Edward Byer, Paul Jones, John J. Kean, Charles M. Hugh, Wend- 
lin Sherlis. 



Captain Samuel G. W. Peterson. 
Second Lieutenant Cyrenneus P. Pratt. 


Corporal Francis M. Swaney. 


John W. Bolinger, James E. Bolinger, John Blake, Patrick Casey, 
William J. Helms, Thomas E. Hill, Charles L. Hill, Hiram H. Hill, 
Nicholas Irelan, Richard Jones, John Kean, Charles Keever, Edward 

Kinney, Frank A. Kingsly, Joshua Lee, Joseph M. Glashan, Micha el 
Mooney, Jacob O'Dee, James O'Donnell, John Riley, William H. H. 
Rilse, Henry C. Stewart, Robert Wiley, James D. Wolf, James Daily, 
Joseph Delaney, James Douglas, Joseph Enderly, Philip M. Everhard, 
Mark Erway, Peter Farland, Barney Galager, Patrick Conners, James 


This regiment was organized at Camp Dennison, and 
mustered into service August 27, 1862. It numbered an 
aggregate of nine hundred and sixty-four men, gathered 
from the State at large. 

The Fiftieth was assigned to the Thirty-fourth brigade. 
Tenth division, McCook's corps. On the first of Octo- 
ber it moved out of Louisville, and on the eighth went 
into the battle of Perryville. In this engagement, a loss 
was sustained of two officers killed and one mortally 
wounded, and one hundred and sixty-two men killed and 

During the army's advance on Nashville, the regiment 
was at Lebanon, then the base of supplies. We afterward 
hear of it in pursuit of John Morgan, and still further in 
the building of Forts Boyle, Sands, and McAllister. On 
Christmas day, 1863, it was ordered to Knoxville, Ten- 
nessee. The route lay eastward to Somerset, Kentucky, 
and thence southward, crossing the Cumberland river at 
Point Isabelle. 

On the first day of the year, 1864, movement began 
across the mountains. In the severest winter weather, 
the men dragged the artillery and wagons over the moun- 
tains by hand, slept on the frozen ground, in rain and 
snow, without shelter, and subsisted on parched corn. 
Soon after arriving at Knoxville, it received orders to 
join General Sherman's army at Kingston, Georgia. 

From the twenty-sixth of May till after the siege of 
Atlanta, the regiment was almost constantly in line of 
battle. It shared in all the movements of the campaign, 
and participated in the actions at Pumkinvine Creek, 
Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Pine Moun- 
tain, Kenesaw Mountain, Gulp's Farm, Nicojack Creek, 
Chattahoochie River, Howard House, Atlanta, and Jones- 
borough. During this campaign, the ranks of the regi- 
ment were sadly thinned. 

Following the battle of Jonesborough, in pursuit of 
Hood's army, the regiment passed through Marietta, 
Kingston, Rome, and at last halted for a few days on the 
Coosa river, at Cedar Bluffs. 

On the thirtieth of November it arrived at Franklin, 
Tennessee. It went into the battle that followed with 
two hundred and twenty-five men, and came out with one 
hundred and twelve. It fell back with the army to Nash- 
ville, and in the engagements that occurred there on the 
fifteenth and sixteenth of December, lost several more of 
its men. 

The regiment followed the retreating rebels as far as 
Columbia, Tennessee, where it was consolidated with the 
Ninety-ninth infantry, the name of the "Fiftieth" being 

We now hear of the newly consolidated regiment in 
Clifton, Tennessee, at Fort Fisher, Wilmington, Kings- 
ton, Goldsborough, Raleigh, Greensborough, and at last 
in Salisbury, North Carolina, where it was mustered 



out on the twenty-sixth of June, 1865. On the seven- 
teenth of July, the regiment reached Camp Dennison, 
Ohio, where the men were all paid and discharged. 

Musician Alexander Tittle. 



John Hall, William Herbert, Wesley I. Jeffries, John F. Riley, Wil- 
liam Stiles, George W. Garrinkton, John B. McCloud. 


Captain John Carr. 

First Lieutenant John S. Conahan, 


First Sergeant John McGovern. 

Sergeant John Arnold. 

Sergeant Jacob Metzger. 

Sergeant Charles C. Lees. 

Sergeant Henry Hensel. 

Corporal John W. Jearl. 

Corporal Henry Benstaker. 

Corporal Edward Davis. 

Corporal August Reis. 

Corporal William Whittaker. 

Corporal Richard Prestel. 

Corporal Jacob Weist. 

Corporal John Wing. 


John Ardis, Wesley Ackerman, Edward Bradley, Thomas Bradley, 
Joseph Boltman, Peter Berlin, John W. Black, William Bendingstock, 
Thomas Bannon, James Brennan, Patrick Burns, Joseph B. Bollinger, 
Charles Basone, Richard Bernhard, Charles A. Chappelear, George 
Coleman, William Cahill, Patrick Duffy, George C. Drake, John Engle- 
hard, Christopher Elliott, Patrick Fitzpatrick, Lawrence Finnegan, 
Michale Fortune, John Glascon, James Gray (musician), William Gib- 
son, Christopher Greate, Thomas Gallagher, John Gallagher, William 
Hefferman, Griffith Hemphill, Frederick Hooper, John Holled, John 
D. Jewell, Henry Kulper, Hamilton Kennett, Grotlob Keller, Law- 
rence King, William Kruger, Jacob Keifer, John Lemon, Louis F. 
Lowe, William Lunsford, James Mooney, Alexander McDonald, Hugh 
McCleavey, Bernard McGonigle, William Molliter, Hugh McClelland, 
John Maher, John V. Mozers, John Morris, John Mahoney, George 
Pollock (musician), Eugene Piquet, Crawford W. Rolf, James Red- 
mond, William Ludlow, Stephen Saberlie, Michael Scott, Michael A. 
Scolly, Hiram Taylor, Joseph Taylor, Henry Tenneymaker, James R. 
Vaughn, William F. Whittaker, Michael Welch, John Wilson, William 
Young, Charles Stillinger, Henry Sohreiver, James Wilson, William 
Gerhart, John Reifer, Richard William, William Worland. 

Second Lieutenant Robert R. Moore. 
David K. Anderson, Jesse W. Adams, Corodorn Cook, Israel P. Con- 
roy, Simon Footer, Peter Gorman, Robert H. Griffith, Alexander H. 
Gody, William Harrison, William Jackson, Charles Johnson, Levi 
Jones, Harry Jones, Samuel Jones, Peter Loman, Samuel Muraloch, 
Peter Murry, Nathan Parker, George Phers, Girard P. Riley, Alexan- 
der H. Reed, Jacob Rennet, Richard Slocum, Henry H. Speigg, An- 
drew Steele, Samuel Thompson, John H. Tyson, Phillip Wilson, Bar- 
nard White, Henry Wooster, Stephen Yates. 



Captain J. W. Cahill. 

Second Lieutenant Anthony Anderson. 


First Sergeant Martin V. B. Little. 
Sergeant Elias C. Stancliff. 
Sergeant Joseph H. Roche. 
Sergeant John L. Israel. 
Sergeant Charles I. Medbury. 
Corporal James Tolks, 

Corporal William Green. 
Corporal WiUiam R. Lindsey. 
Corporal Jacob Honance. 
Corporal Francis M. Tazin. 
Corporal Henry Helmering. 
Corporal Albert Day. 
Corporal George Connor. 
Musician Jasper H. Moss. 
Musician George Grover. 


William Behymer, Frederick Barnes, William Burhart, Benjamin 
Browning, Solomon Behymer, Robert Boyce, David Bupps, John Craw- 
ford, David B. Clem, George Clem, John Collins, Runyan Day, George 
Debins, Thomas B. Day, John Duncan, W. H. Denny, Solomon Denny, 
John Doty, Edwin Evenshire, William EUwell, Henry Frey, Benjamin 
Figgins, David Faden, J. W. Fonts, John Green, WiUiam Green, Middle- 
ton, Hume, E. L. House, William Hoforth, Phillip Hirgle, John Hirgle 
Phillip Haman, Levi Haman, Francis I. Jeffries, Charies Jeffries, Mor- 
ris John, Bennet John, George Johnson, Valentine Klump, Phillip 
Kaufman, William Kennedy, Charles Kruse, Charies Lillich, William 
Lillich, Edwin Lindsey, Haman Lewis, George Mahl, Sylvester Mo- 
Lean, John A. Meyers, John McMan, J. W. Porter, Albert R. Pierce, 
Elbridge Pierce, John Ryan, William Simon, Noah E. Sutton, Sylvanus 
Stroup, Frederick Snalor, Lanier Shaffer, Thomas Tice, Odler T. 
Thornun, Joseph J. Vanefessen, E. Winters, Ira W. White, James Wil- 
liams, Charies Willett, Williams White, John J, Wahl, James Woa- 
dock, Henry Ware, Frederick Whiteman, Charles W. Woaden, John 



Captain Lewis C. Simmons. 

First Lieutenant Columbus Cones. 

Second Lieutenant Frank A. Crippen. 


First Sergeant Charles Moore. 

Sergeant Edwin P. Edgely. 

Sergeant Andrew Vincent. 

Sergeant Edwin Yocum. 

Sergeant John Chigman. 

Corporal Lemuel Wiley. 

Corporal Bartlett Vincent. 

Corporal John N. Turner. 

Corporal Thomas Puttam. 

Corporal Joshua C. Clark. 

Corporal John Hailed. 

Corporal Tyler H. Vincent. 

Corporal Alfred Loyd. 

Musician George Saurs. 

Musician Charles Baser. 

Teamster Henry Macy. 


Joseph Atkinson, Andrew Arendolph, Joseph Bruce, James Bellen- 
stein, Isaac S. Bailey, Henry La Barbier, Barney Battle, Jacob Buck- 
man, Richard Bernard, Josiah Bell, Samuel Blitz, Robert Crandall, 
Levi T. Collins, William Carter, Maurice Clanter, Alexander Cum- 
mins, Andrew Crawford, .Alexander Campbell, Thomas Derrick, Patrick 
Daly, George H. Dobbins, Columbus Dale, Christopher Elliott, Charles 
E. Eaton, John F. Ferris, Lawrence Finnigan, Charles J. Fox, Wil- 
liam Green, Israel Gates, Michael Gilmore, George G. Garire, George 
Hartman, Francis C. Hills, John Hughes, John Hale, William Hunter, 
Nicholas Haffer, William Homer, Henry Jordan, George A. Johns, 
William Kelly, William Kinger, Jacob King, Christopher King, John 
Lovemark, James A. Murrain, Manville M. McDonald, Charies C. 
Murphy, Fabius C. Motlin, Nathaniel B. Meader, Theodore Morris. 
Arthur Mellen, John Morris, John B. Morgan, John Newmeyer, Louis 
Napoleon, Frank Nohn, Conrad Nortman, Michael O'Brien, Edward 
H. C. Phillips, Paul Russell, John T. Reily, William Reynolds, Joseph 
Robertson, Henry Schreiver, Edward Stanton, William Smith, Leonard 
Smith. Ebin Terwilliger. Henry Take, John C. Thayer. John Walker, 
George Wilier, WiUiam Wiley, Nathaniel Wilson, Adolph Webber, 
Martin Webber, Jacob Yast, Conrad Yugar. 
Captain Isaac J. Carter. 
First Lieutenant Frederick Buck. 



Second Lieutenant Joseph R. Key. 


First Sergeant Jerome Crowley. 

Sergeant William H. Reed. 

Sergeant George N. White. 

Sergeant Benjamin E. Styles. 

Sergeant Robert Cory. 

Corporal Jacob Steigleman. 

Corporal William Fangs. 

Corporal William W. Warner. 

Corporal George H. Reese. 

Corporal John Stillwell. 

Corporal Lewis Grooms. 

Corporal William McCanly. 

Corporal Mathew Moreney. 


Simeon Arthur, Isaac W. Adams, John A. Arthur, Andrew S. Bow- 
ling, Henry Benn, Frederick Blum, Orville H. Coal, Edward Corlett, 
Allen Cochran, Andrew Corruth, John Charles, Thomas Carroll, John 
T. Creighton, Eli Dusenbery, Servetus Dawson, William Davis, John 
Dennis, John Eubank, Charles Fallbush, Joseph W. Free, John J. 
Farroll, William Franklin, James O. Griffin, Daniel S. Gates, William 
Green, Christopher Hutt, Perry Holland, James Johnson, Thomas 
Johnson, Hiram H. Koon, Henry Killing, George W. Lilly, Frank B. 
Lamb, Zachary T. Lane, Daniel M. F. Lamb, Peter Lyon, George 
Lockwood, Thomas Lawson, Edward Murry, Thomas Magivin, 
Phillip Miller, David McKinney, Michael McDermot, Martin V. B. 
Niese, Charles B, Preston, John Quick, John Rockenfield, Lewis 
Rownd, Paul Roussell, William Slagle, Archibald B. Stewart, Jeffrey 
Sullivan, Thomas E. Shy, Josiah C. Searl, John Tompkins, John 
Turner, Benjamin Taylor, James Thompson, Hiram Taylor, Thomas 
Toohey, Peter Tiermon, James E. Thomas, John H. Van Hage, Wil- 
liam B, Witt, John B. Woodruff, John Williams, John W. Wilson, 
Robert Willoughby, David Williams, William Wood, James White, 
Asa M. Weston, James Wasmer. 



Captain Leonard A. Hendrich. 
First Lieutenant Oliver S. McCIure. 
Second Lieutenant Edward S. Price. 


First Sergeant Charles A. Van Dennon. 
Sergeant David Morris. 
Sergeant Henry Merrell. 
Sergeant William H. Childs. 
Sergeant James Kelso. 
Corporal Thomas S. Sheake. 
Corporal James Brown. 
Corporal William A. Baker. 
Corporal William L. Cottor. 
Corporal Joseph Chamberlain. 
Corporal Samuel Reddish. 
Corporal Samuel Losey. 
Corporal John Linsey. 

JeremiahAmmerman, Peter Alberts, Charles Adams, William Asbold, 
Simeon Arthur, John Arthur, Vincent Brieslaw, William Bates, Milton 
Blizzard, Stephen Blizzard, Christman Birman, John Bryant, John Ben- 
net, Joseph Carson, John Criver, Charles B. Crane, David H. Cowen, 
Jackson Culp, Bernard Cline, William Dean, George W. Dean, Thomas 
Dodge, David M. Deams, Thomas Easterling, John Fox, Frank Fo.x, 
Charles Goodwin, Henry Heath, John F. Heberlein, Christopher W. 
Hamel, Henry C. Hall, John Hahn, James Johnson, John Juliu, Joseph 
Keedler, Jacob Klineman, Albert Kigan, James Lacey, Henry Libe- 
rook, Robert Nanifold, Alexander McCready, Richard Marsh, David 
Noble, John Orton, Owen Osborne, Andrew Ponder, John Ponder, 
Peter Peckeny, Carleton Pans, James Pricket, Coleman Quinn, Lain 
Ready, John F. Reynolds, Luman W. Smith, Joseph Spencer^ Thomas 
Shrim, John G. Spahr, Peter Steffers, Thomas E. Shy, Peter Shilling, 
Joseph Stagmier, William Sparks, Gavett Van Kant, James H. Van 
Kant, Stephen K. Van Ausdel, Asa M. Weston, John Willy, Jackson 
Walters, David Weisenberger, James Weils, George W. Williams, 
Erastus Winters, James Primmill. 


This was raised with some difficulty in the spring and 
summer of 1862. A banner was presented to it by citi- 
zens of Cincinnati. It moved to Lexington August 25th, 
and was in the retreat to Louisville after the disastrous 
battle near Richmond, Kentucky. During the retreat it 
suffered greatly from heat and thirst. It took part in the 
battle of Perryville, doing its work like veterans. It was 
in the advance on Nashville, and did useful service, al- 
though not heavily engaged, in the battle of Stone River. 
In garrison at Nashville, Murfreesborough, and other 
points, it obtained high reputation for discipline and drill. 
It was in the opening skirmish of the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, and in the action the next day. Its subsequent 
history includes the relief of Knoxville, the Atlanta cam- 
paign, and the marches through Georgia and the Caroli- 
nas. After the great review it was mustered out at Wash- 
ington, Junes, 1865. 



Major Samuel Coplinger. 


Henry Buraw, Andrew Colter, John Cuseick, Charles Common 
(musician), John Graham, Christy Kerne, John Styner. 



First Sergeant Rudolph Gassier. 
Sergeant Isaac L. Mills. 
Sergeant Samuel Harper. 
Sergeant George K. Farrington. 
Sergeant James C. Milire. 
Corporal John Miller. 
Corporal John W. Steed. 
Corporal John W. Coleman. 
Corporal Edgar Flinn. 
Corporal Jacob Warner. 
Corporal John W. Bowen. 
Corporal William Nome. 
Corporal William J. Campbell. 


William J . Armstrong, Joseph Blundell, Daniel Byrne, John Bow- 
hat, David C. Clark, Thomas Coen, George Cartman, Charles Cor- 
nell, William Cox, John Cummings, WiUiam H. Delerty, John Dennie, 
John J. Farrell, Richard T. Tunnerean, Osarll Godson, Patrick Ham- 
ilton, Richard Harmes, Samuel Hardy, John Henry, George B. Hodg- 
son, Thomas W. Mayhew, John Martin, Jacob Mowry, Robert Mellen, 
Aaron B. Mills, Henry Midtendorf, Patrick Murphy, Barney Mucker, 
Robert M. Mullen, Daniel Owens, Thomas Payne, Henry Prinzel, 
Emos Reisch, Oliver Rice, William Riley, John A. Sellins, John S. 
Stokes, Isaac Stokes, Adam Story, William Struble, Edward T. 
Snyder, Digory Shall, John J. Truxall, Jacob Warner, Henry Chilley, 
Ernst Brady. 



Philip Boss, Theodore Bartel, William Green, Mathias Haffle, 
Michael Harbesmehl, John Keans, Adolph Newiger, Herman Pily, 
Theodore .Schneles, Phillip Schaaffer, Henry Webber. 

C0MP.A.Ny K. 


First Sergeant Horace A. Church. 
Sergeant William L. Moxall. 
Sergeant John Stammeijohn. 
Musician Charles Firman. 


Thomas Duke, Henry Eldridge, Francis Falters, George Kuevey, 
John Kunser, James Lineback, Frederick Rodgiver. 




The organization of this regiment was completed in 
January, 1862. In February it joined the Third brigade 
of General W. T. Sherman's division. Its services in- 
cluded the battles of Pittsburgh Landing, Mission Ridge, 
Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Nicojack Creek, 
Atlanta, Ezra Chapel, Jonesborough, and Ft. McAllister; 
the pursuit of Hood in the rear of Sherman, and the 
marches to Savannah and the north. Upon appearing 
before Columbia, South Carolina, it silenced a battery by 
its skilful and rapid fire, and assisted in the destruction 
wrought in that city, as also at Fayetteville, four days 
afterwards. Reaching Washington and pas.sing -in the 
grand review, it was taken to Arkansas, where it stayed 
until August II, 1865, when it was mustered out. It 
had been engaged in sixty-seven battles and skirmishes, 
and lost sixty killed, two hundred and sixty-four wounded, 
and fourteen missing. 

Second Lieutenant William Shay. 


Sergeant Joshua Bailey. 
Sergeant John Logan. 
Corporal Gelusia Howard. 
Corporal Jefferson Moor. 


John Bergert, Peter Conklin, Charles Cook, John Cawdy, James Da- 
vis, Patrick Downey, George Elder, John Fisher, Henry Gravel, John 
H. Garrison, Joseph Gerrich, Henry Holmes, Michael Hesselbruch, 
Charles Howes, William Howes, William Justus, Thomas Lowery, 
William Jordan, Louis Lerig, James Lyner, George Lindsay, John 
Loyd, Thomas Murry, Michael Maloy, Martin Mungivan, George 
Mozer, Peter Millingman, Peter McConnel, Adam Masser, John Schu- 
lemyer, Barney Smith, Louis Schurtis, John Loring, Charles Masher, 
Richard J. Voka, Louis Weber, Joseph Whitmore. 


Nine counties, of which Hamilton county was one, 
furnished the companies for this command. Recruiting 
for it was begun in the late summer of 1861, and it was 
organized and drilled during the next fall and winter, at 
Camp Dennison. February 17, 1862, it took the field 
with eight hundred and fifty men, and was assigned at 
Paducah to the brigade commanded by General W. T. 
Sherman. In March it was taken up the Tennessee, and 
was in both days' fighting at Pittsburgh Landing, losing 
one hundred and ninety-eight, all told. April 29th it 
moved upon Corinth, and was in the attack upon the 
works May 31st, being among the first troops to enter 
the town. Its commander was put in charge of the post, 
it was appointed to provost duty there, and its regimental 
colors were hoisted on the public buildings. It was en- 
gaged during the summer in several brief expeditions, 
was in the attack at Chickasaw Bayou on the 28th and 
29th, losing twenty men, and at the capture of Arkansas 
Post shortly after. It participated in the siege of Vicks- 
burgh, the battles of Champion Hills, and Big Black 
Bridge, the movements about Jackson, the subsequent 
operations of the Fifteenth army corps, to which it was 
attached, including the battle of Mission Ridge, the re- 
lief of Knoxville, and the Atlanta campaign. January 
2 2d it was mustered as a veteran organization, and at 

once started home on furlough, returning with two hun- 
dred recruits. In the Atlanta movement it was engaged 
at Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Nickojack Creek, Decatur, Ezra Chapel, and'Jones- 
borough. It participated in the pursuit of Hood, the 
marches to the sea, and northward to Richmond and 
Washington, and the grand reviews. It was also in the 
charge on Fort McAllister, the heavy skirmishing near 
Columbia, and the last battle of Sherman's army at Ben- 
tonville. North Carolina. June 2d it was transported 
to Louisville, and thence to Little Rock, where it did 
garrison duty until the middle of August, when it was 
mustered out. During its arduous service it marched 
three thousand six hundred and eighty-two miles, took 
part in four sieges, nine severe skirmishes, and fifteen 
pitched battles; and lost in all — killed, wounded, and 
missing — five hundred and six men. It had but twenty- 
four officers and two hundred and thirty-one men left on 
the day of muster-out. 


Sergeant Major Miles W. Elliott. 



First Lieutenant Timothy J. Sullivan. 


First Sergeant Richard J. Burrill. 
Sergeant Francis J. Murphy. 
Sergeant Edgar H. Earnhart. 
Sergeant James Parke. 
Corporal Jacob Kitto. 
Corporal Joseph Kerr. 
Corporal Charles H. Nicol. 
Corporal John Barry, 
Corporal Fdward H, Moon, 
Musician Thomas Mullen. 
Musician John Bonta, 
Teamster John Strassell, 


Charles Albrecht, Lafayette Burton, Richard Burke, Matthias Baker, 
Jeremiah Brown, John Brady, George C, Crusoe, Michael Clifford, 
Thomas Callapy, Charles Desmond, Joseph Fiesens, Henry Frederic, 
Frederick Gyer, John Gardner, Samuel Hill, John Hemmingway, 
Charles Hobbs, Francis Herrick, Joseph Hubert, Michael Hammenn, 
James Jardine, John S, Kelley, Hugh Kennedy, John Kehoe, Valen- 
tine Kennett, August Kines, John C, Lockwood, August Marchmeyer, 
Martin McNamara, Edward McGinn, John McWain, Michael Ma- 
tague, Frank Overmeyer, Adam Ott, Caspine H, Riggs, John Rear- 
don, John D, Rehling, John Rodgers, Philip Schmitt, Balser Schmitt, 
John Sullivan, John Trimben, Henry Whetsell, Louis Wishonpt, Fred- 
erick Wildermann, 



First Sergeant Edward B. Moore. 

Corporal Joseph Fletcher. 

Corporal Thomas Gardner, 

Musician George H. Stanley. 

Teamster Abram Clegg. 


John Burns, William Brinkmeyer, Henry Buhrman, John Booth, .'\1- 
vin Dibble, Columbus Dale, John Donohue, Andrew Donley, Martin 
Ford, Godfred Gass, Henry Graves, James Hilt, John G, Hauck, An- 
drew Jackson, George Know, John Knapp, John Kilcliberger, Joseph 
H, Marar, Felix McCann, David Nealy, Michael Stephens, James Sher- 
low, Robert Sherer, John Tomson, Christian Wilmer, Hugh Williams, 
Augustus Yager. 



Michael Burns, James Burke, William Devine, Bernard McEvoy, 
John Quigly, Robert Simpson, William C. White. 




Corporal Robert Simpson. 


Alvis Chamberlain, Michael Burns. 



Sergeant Joseph Hickley. 
Corporal John Zimmerman. 
Musician Stephen Cann. 


Francis Sanders, William Myers, Joseph Kreble, Frank Burges, 
Stephen Buyr, George Brennan, Jacob Diehl, Patrick Debolt, Robert 
Fiegel, James Hammer, John Hiser, Jeremiah Miller, John Kessler, 
John Beckley, Michael Maharty, Jolm Ohler, Jacob Summer, Peter 
Giele, Eben Little, Francis Wood, William Smith, Edwin Smith, Con- 
rad Nie, Jacob Magg, Adam Fuffner. 


This was organized at Portsmouth in the fall of 1861, 
and suffered much from measles there during the early 
winter. It first saw the enemy in February, at Fort 
Donelson, and was on the field, but not engaged, at 
Pittsburgh Landing. Its subsequent campaigns were 
about Memphis, in Arkansas, at Vicksburgh with Grant, 
and in the Teche and Red River campaigns under 
Banks. At the battle of Sabine Cross Roads it lost forty 
killed, wounded, and missing. The veteran regiment 
was kept on duty in New^Orleans until March, 1866, 
when it was mustered out. 

Captain Levi M. Willett's company, organized in the fall of 1864, 
by General Order A. G. C. : 


Antone Coyman, Joseph Cook, Ganett Caldwell, James A. Devin, 
Perinnius Coans, John Frick, George W. Farrell, John Golsby, Aaron 
Guncle, Thomas Greyer, William Hahan, Patrick Hennessy, John G. 
Hammond, Bernard Jeckel, Robert H. King, Philemon B. McFadden, 
Jasper Mulford, Joseph Pholwine, John Reinke, Frederick Shrader, 
James Sands, William Stevens, John C. Peiman, William Woods, Wil- 
liam Wesley, Charles Walker, Robert Wilson, John Williams, Matthew 
Hemenis, John Atkinson, John Bates, Hiram C. Cochran, Michael 
Flanao-an, Albert Hoffman, William Henderson, George Leonard, 
William Madden, William Owens, James Walker, Albert Watson, 
James Ferris, Thomas Spence, William Smith, William Smith, 2d. 


One company, and part of another, were from Hamil- 
ton county. The regiment rendezvoused at Camp Vance, 
Findlay, but moved January 22, 1862, to Camp Chase. 
It was raised between SejJtember i6th and February 
loth, when it was mustered in, and started for the field 
February i8th. It reported at Paducah, and was as- 
signed to the Third brigade. Fifth division, army of the 
Tennessee. It was very heavily engaged at Pittsburgh 
Landing, losing in three days one hundred and eighty- 
seven killed, wounded, and captured. In November it 
joined the First brigade, First division, Fifteenth army 
corps. It shared the glories of its corps at Chickasaw 
Bayou, Snyder's Bluff, Raymond, Champion Hills, Black 
River, Vicksburgh, Jackson, Mission Ridge, and the re- 
lief of Knoxville; and then endured a terribly severe 
march, "hatless and shoeless, and half naked," to Belle- 
fonte, Alabama. Notwithstanding all this, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans on the following New Year's, being 
the first in the Fifteenth corjjs to do so. It took the al- 
lowed thirty days furlough, and returned in ample time, 

with twenty recruits, to join in the Atlanta campaign. 
It was hotly engaged at Resaca, holding its ground 
against three successive charges of an overwhelming 
force, and losing fifty-seven killed and wounded. It was 
also in the actions at Dallas, New Hope Church, Kene- 
saw (where it also lost just fifty-seven men), that on the 
left of Atlanta, sometimes called the battle of Decatur, 
where it lost ninety-two in a desperate struggle to hold 
its position, which was three times captured by the enemy, 
but finally held by the Fifty-seventh; at Ezra Church, on 
the extreme right of the line before Atlanta, where it lost 
sixty-seven, the enemy leaving four hundred and fifty- 
eight dead in front of its line, and at Jonesborough. It 
took part in the chase after Hood, in which it struck the 
rebels at Snake Creek gap, and Taylor's ridge; in the 
march to Savannah; the assault on Fort McAllister; in 
the march to Columbia, where it assisted in the destruc- 
tion of the railroad buildings; in the marching and skir- 
mishing through North Carolina to Raleigh; thence the 
walk-over to Wathington city, and the reviews there, after 
which it was ordered to Little Rock, Arkansas, but was 
mustered out soon after arriving there, August 6, 1865, 
and was paid and discharged at Camp Chase, August 
25th. It had been moved by rail, steam, and on foot 
over twenty-eight thousand miles; and of one thou- 
sand five hundred and ninety-four men borne on its mus- 
ter rolls, but four hundred and eighty-one are believed to 
have been alive at its muster-out. 


Captain Charles A. Junghauns. 
First Lieutenant Abner J. Sennett. 
Second Lieutenant lohn Stonemets. 


First Sergeant Robert W. Smith. 
Sergeant Jacob Michael. 
Sergeant William A. Armstrong. 
Sergeant Patrick Barry. 
Sergeant Andrew Diffenbacher. 
Corporal John Richter. 
Corporal Christian Weaver. 
Corporal Cornelius Sheehan. 
Corporal Christian Boost. 
Corporal Edward Hiperlo. 
Corporal John D. Spenbuk. 
Corporal Frederic Rauschart. 
Musician Samuel Hayden. 
Wagoner Ira Green. 


Henry Altnine, John Y. Armstrong, Gerhard Beker, Jacob Benedi.x, 
Franz Blank, Charles Butler, James Callahan, Alexander Camblen, 
Patrick Clark, John J. Collopy, Thomas Collopy, William Davis, 
George Dolch, Henry Dreyer, John Dunn, Henry Filers, Christian Ek- 
arett, Michael Evans, Nicholas Felix, Martin J. Genoe, Andreas Cra- 
dle, John Hofermos, William Hunter, Austin Joyce, Henry KHnk, 
John Lang, Lewis Liever, Edward McCormick, John Mahoney, John 
Martin, Charles Meltzer, James Moloney, Paul Mauber, John Windorff, 
Lorenzo Peterson, Charles Riemer, George Reitt, Phillip Rirch, Franz 
Scherer, Dietrich Schuette, Ernst Schwarze, George S. Seeley, Henry 
Sickman, Henry .Snider, John Strube, John Sullivan, John D. Tholen, 
Edward J. Tobin, Barney Twilling, James Walsh, Frederick Mearhert, 
Peter Weber, Lewis Weis, Joseph Witsch. 



George Henderson, Michael Nash. 




Sergeant Herman Retthorn. 


Jacob Arnold, Joseph Buerstinger, John Engler, Peter Grossman, 

Mich. Flanek, John George Fust, Edward Kronenburg, John Reinhardt, 

Wilhelm Rellhorn, John Schleisch, John Schneller, Jacob Waldmann. . 

Private William M. Applegate. 


The one year regiment of this number was specially 
intended to defend the border counties of Ohio, and for 
three months, in the late winter of 1861-62, and the 
spring of 1862, it guarded military stores at Gallipolis. 
In April it joined General Fremont's army in western 
Virginia, and had its first engagement at Strasburgh. It 
was soon after engaged at Port Republic, and then at 
Cross Keys, and shared in the disaster at Harper's Ferry 
in September. It was discharged October 10, 1862. 

The three-years' regiment was organized in the early 
spring of 1864. It was ordered to the field when six 
companies were ready, joined General Burnside's corps 
at Alexandria in April, and was afterwards filled up, but 
never to the maximum. It was in the actions of the 
Wilderness, at Mary's Bridge, Spottsylvania, and the sub- 
sequent battles of Grant's final campaign. It was mus- 
tered out July 25, 1865, having, in less than one year's 
active service, lost five hundred and five men, but seven- 
teen of whom were missing. 

(One Years' Service.) 


Quartermaster E. J. Blount. 

(Three Years' Service.) 
Quartermaster Sergeant James Everett. 
Hospital Steward Robert W. Pounds. 

Corporal John Stafford. 

John Branham, James Reynolds, Joseph T. Harris, James H. Har- 
per, David PoUonjar, Philetus Simon. 



Captain Phorion R. Way. 
Second Lieutenant Willis W. Cox. 


First Sergeant Reuben Sampsel. 

Sergeant William B. Yates. 

Sergeant Samuel W. Jones. 

Sergeant Frank Miller. 

Sergeant Francis Bowman. 

Corporal William Gillespie. 

Corporal John Hayden. 

Corporal Seth Sharp. 

Corporal Andrew Cunningham. 

Corporal James Buchanan. 

Corporal Henry Hafel. 

Corporal Otto Keck. 

Corporal Richard Omara. 


George Anderson, Henry Allen, William Bently, Charles Boyle, 
Henry Butts, Richard Butts, Charles Brown, William Brown, James 
Burke, Albert Bowers, Charles H. Bomer, William Brown, George W. 
Brayton, William H. Brally, Hiram Barnes, John Cave, Willis W. 
Cox, Samuel Chapman, Joseph Cook, John Conley, David C. Cus- 

tard, James M- Collins, Edward B. Demoss, Thomas Daun, James F. 
Donahoe, Calvin Deneen, Henry Day, John Ellis, Charles Fowler, Wil- 
liam Flinn, Georje Fox, John Farley, Robert Giffin, James Grodson, 
Jesse Huffman, Martin Haley, Patrick H. Haley, James F. Hall, Wil- 
liam Holerah, John Hughes, John Hite, Frederick Hahnes, Joseph 
Heartkoam, John Jackson, Columbus Jefferson, Horace B. Jones, 
Dennis Kelley, Cohn Koous, William King, William Larry, Thomas 
Lamon, William Lutterman, Charles E. Lewis, George Lough, Daniel 
Madden, George Morgan, Thomas Maloney, Frank H. Miller, George 
T. Mering, Robert Mallon, George Mitchell, John McCraff, Wesley 
McCoy, Thomas McCoy, Charles Parker, Robert Peterson, John 
Quigley, John Regley, Charles D. Reed, Solomon Richards, Frederick 
W. Schapmar, Thomas Smith, John Spalding, Edward H. Tappen- 
den, Samuel Tomlinson, Ferdinand Upperman, Isidor Wohlangant, 
John Williams, Henry Williams, William Walls, Theodore Wilson, 
John Willis, Richard Whitcomb, James D. Whaley, Franklin West- 
cott, Thomas Woods, Jerome B. Welsh, William Wilson, Ely Wil- 
liams, Joseph Baker, George Brown, Cyrus Phillips, Stephen Tilberry, 
OrloffD. Ramsey. 


This regiment contained recruits from nearly every 
county of Ohio. It left Camp Chase for western Vir- 
ginia May 17, 1862, joining General Fremont's army 
June 23d, at Strasburgh. It reached Cedar Mountain 
just too late for the battle there, but had its first fight 
shortly after, at Freeman's Ford, with a part of Long- 
street's corps, with which it had another battle in August, 
at Sulphur Springs. The next day it had a brisk skir- 
mish at Waterloo Bridge, and took part in the second 
Bull Run battle, losing twenty-five killed and wounded. 
September 2d, it was engaged at Chantilly, and there, for 
some weeks, formed a part of the reserve protecting 
Washington. The next May it was heavily engaged at 
Chancellorsville, and opened the battle at Gettysburgh, 
July ist, suffering severely in the action. In September it 
was removed with its corps to Chattanooga; was engaged 
at Wanhatchie and Mission Ridge; marched to the relief 
of Knoxville; wintered at Bridgeport, Tennessee; re-en- 
listed in March and took its veteran furlough, reaching 
the front again in time to participate fully in the dangers 
and glories of the Atlanta campaign. In the battle of 
Resaca it saved the Fifth Indiana battery, from which 
the support had retired. It was further engaged at Dal- 
las, Gulp's Farm, and Peach Tree Creek, in the latter of 
which were wounded five officers and over seventy men, 
and eighteen or twenty were killed. After the capture 
of A.tlanta it remained encamped there until November 
• 15th, when it started on the grand movement to the sea- 
board. During this march it exchanged shots with the 
enemy but once — at Sandersonville, Georgia. In Savan- 
nah, the Sixty-first served temporarily in a provisional 
brigade, for special duty in the city. About the middle 
of January, 1865, it moved up the Savannah river to 
Sister's Ferry, and soon rejoined its own command. In 
the march through the Carolinas, it was only engaged at 
Bentonville, the last battle of the campaign, and lost sev- 
eral men in the action. Reaching Goldsborough, it was 
consolidated with the Eighty-second Ohio infantry, the 
latter giving its name to the new organization. The con- 
solidated regiment joined in the march northward to 
Washington, and in the famous review, soon after which 
it was sent home and mustered out. Mr. Ried says of 
the Sixty-first: "It was always a reliable regiment, and 
was ever found where duty called it. Its losses by the 



casualties of the field were so numerous that, at the close 
of its service, a little band of only about sixty officers 
and men remained to answer to its last roll-call" 



First Sergeant Anthony Grodyicki. 

Sergeant John Troxell. 

Sergeant John Elbert. 

Sergeant Isaac Stokes. 

Corporal Jasper M. Holniann. 

Corporal Frederick Blumenthal. 

Corporal Charles Kyser. 

Musician Joseph Divine. 

Musician Antone Kern. 


Henry Bonn, John Blessing, Frederick Bremer, Timothy Buckley, 
Patrick Casey, Patrick Conner, Patrick Duffy, John Dunn, Matthew 
Demuth, George W. Foultz, Asa Flagg, Franz Gechrend, Frederick 
Gross, Thomas Heinrich, John Hacker, Frederick Herrencomt, Peter 
Heman, Charles McArty, John McLevie, Thomas F. Moore, Michael 
McCormick, Josiah Meyer, Jacob Michael, Charles Wiemann, Nicholas 
Pfister, Gustavus Rosenberg, Richard Schuh, Harry Stegemann, Henry 
Schneppering, John Simpson, John F. White, Samuel Zeboldt. 



Corporal Thomas McGrath. 


Joseph Allison, Patrick Brogan, Thomas Connors, James Donelly, 
James Delany, James Doolan, George Hood, Mathevv Johnson, 
Michael Kain, William Lydon, John Lavin, Michael Madden, John 
Mulligan, Daniel McNamara, Dennis McDonald, George McWilliams, 
Henry Reese, William Riley, Joseph Storey. 

Sergeant Peter Duffy. 

Sergeant Richard Ryan. 

Corporal Richard Hughes. 

Corporal William Kerwin. 


George Bodine, Henry Brooksmith, John Colbert, James Cunning- 
ham, Dennis Doyle, Edward Delany, Maladis Dugan, Hartley Dona- 
hue, John Dempsey, Thomas Dunn, Michael Dwyer, Thomas Daly, 
Daniel Fitzgerald, John Fulton, Francis Gardner, Thomas Gray, 
Thomas Gilleran, Peter Heevey, Patrick Horn, Michael Hifferan, 
Thomas Holmes, Barnard Kelley, Thomas King, William Lynch, 
Bernard McCarry, John McAndrew, Patrick McDonald, John Mc- 
Millan, Patrick MoUoy, John Mangan, Richard McCahey, Patrick 
O'Hearn, Patrick Ryan, John Ryan, Thomas Scott, Stephen Welsch. 



First Lieutenant Philip Jacob Theis. 
Second Lieutenant William Meyer. 


Sergeant J ohann M. Beck. 
Sergeant Emanuel Bien. 
Corporal Francis Henzel. 
Corporal Adam Bohner. 
Corporal Christian Schneeberger. 
Corporal Valentine Klein. 


Michael Arnold, John Bates, Hermann Bates, John Bates, jr., Con- 
rad Buchler, John G. Burge, Henry Bissinger, John Bramer, Michael 
Doherty, Christian Graber, Joseph Gerber, August Gaudalf, Michael 
Hehe, Jacob Hanhauser, Francis Harvey, Edward Kenedy, Frank 
Miller, Hermann Meyer, Joseph Oeshyer, Edward Rathey, Charles 
Senger, Lorenzo Senger, Jacob Schmidt, Andrew Strayer, John Schrau- 
der, Allen Schellaberger, Frederick Tierneier, William F. Frey, Philip 
Ulrich, Michael Vramer, Henry Wethurn, Albert Wetzstein. 


Private John Dwayer 

Sergeant John Egan. 


Michael Brown, Thomas Bradley, Edward Bradley, Thomas Coon, 
James Coen, Thomas Fleming, Daniel Fahey, Joseph Hagarty, Daniel 
Lane, Michael Moony, John McCabe, John McCarty, Cain Mahoney, 
Patrick Maloney, Robert Smith, Owen Sullivan, S. L. Sturet, Michael 



Peter D. French, Thomas B. Stur. 



Sergeant Alfred H. Van Zandt. 
Corporal John A. Compton. 


Paul B. Hueston; Andrew J. Hueston (drummer), Thomas A. Lane. 


Thurston C. Challen, Henry Stalle. 

Private William E. Leflar. 



Wilham S. Mead. 

Nine-months' men (drafted). — William C. Haddix, James Warren. 


When President Lincoln made his second call for 
great numbers of soldiers, Ohio, as ever, was equal to the 
occasion. By the twenty-fifth of December, iS6i, the 
Seventieth was nearly full. In February it became a 
part of the division of General W. T. Sherman, then or- 
ganizing at Paducah, Kentucky. Early in April it did 
excellent work in the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, re- 
ceiving especial praise from General Sherman for cour- 
age and persistence. In common with the rest of the 
army, this regiment took part in the advance on Corinth. 
After its fall, Sherman's division moved westward, and 
arriving in July at Memphis, remained there till the fol- 
lowing autumn. The army left that city in November, 
1862, and, concentrating upon the banks of the Talla- 
hatchie river, j^repared to invest Vicksburgh. After the 
fall of Vicksburgh, movement was made upon Jackson, 
the capital or the State, and, during the siege, the Seven- 
tieth are said to have behaved in a most gallant manner. 
A few days after the battle of Chickamauga, the Fifteenth 
army corps, to which it now belonged, moved up the 
river to Memphis, and thence through northern Missis- 
sippi, Alabama, and southern Tennessee, and was in the 
battle of Chattanooga on the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth 
of November. After going to Knoxville to reinforce 
General Burnside and returning, the Seventieth went 
into winter quarters at Scottsborough, Alabama. In Jan- 
uary, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as a veteran organ- 
ization. The following May, the entire army of General 
Sherman began the grand advance upon' Atlanta. Dur- 
ing this memorable march, this command participated in 
all the battles on the way and around Atlanta, and main- 
tained in all its high reputation. During the autumn and 
winter months occurred the march through Georgia to 
the sea. December 13, 1864, Fort McAllister was taken 



by storm, in which the Seventieth suffered severely. It 
was the first regiment to enter the work, through the 
abattis and ditch, without a halt. In the subsequent 
march through the Carolinas, it met with loss at Benton- 
ville. Passing through Richmond on to Washington, it 
had a part in the grand review, after which it was sent to 
Louisville, Kentucky, thence to LitUe Rock, Arkansas, 
where it was mustered out August 14, 1865. It is to be 
noted as a remarkable fact that every officer, who from 
first to last had a command in the regiment, was a mtm- 
ber of it in its original organization before it left its own 


Captain Charles Johnson. 

First Lieutenant Samuel M. Woodruff. 

Second Lieutenant Josiah W. Denhani. 


First Sergeant Walter S. Co.x. 
Sergeant Hugh C. Wilson. 
Sergeant George W. Buesart. 
Sergeant Elbert Bogart. 
Sergeant William Wilson. 
Sergeant Artemas D. Clark. 
Sergeant George F. Strasser. ■ 
Sergeant James A. Bridges. 
Sergeant Jacob Bogart. 
Sergeant William Smith. 
Sergeant John Kuder. 
Sergeant Jacob Kuhn. 
Sergeant Henry Becker. 
Musician Joseph T. Notter. 


Abram P. Bogart, John A. Bogart, John J. Bateman, William E. 
Brown, Joseph Brentstefer, James H. Bogart, Henry Blackman, John 
W. Campbell, John J. Cox, jr., Newton Corbly, James Conklin, John 
J. Cox, sr. , Samuel Conway, George Davis, Jesse Davis, Albert Davis, 
Otto Deitric, William Easton, Joseph Elfers, Thomas Fowler, William 
Hine, Christopher Haisch, John Howard, Jacob Harberdeur, Frederick 
Johnsman, William H. Johnson, Warton Jones, Walter Johnson, 
Frederick Kline, Thomas Kuhn, Samuel D. Killin, Jacob Lenaud, 
Benjamin Lowden, Morris Landieu, Evonimons Lohr, Andrew M. 
Mundell, Mathias Muhrer, Michael Murry, Joseph Moreland, Mathias 
Orr, Francis Prickett, John Page. John D. Perry, John M. Perry, John 
C. Patterson, Thomas Riley, Henry Rice, John Reed, Hamalin .Shinn, 
Thomas B. Stiles, John Smith, William E. Taylor, Frederick W. 
Thompson, Peter Wender, Charles L. Webb, Thomas H. Wells, John 



Captain Daniel B. Carter 
First Lieutenant Juinville Reif. 
Second Lieutenant George A. Foster. 


First Sergeant Andrew Urban. 
Sergeant John W. Krepp. 
Sergeant Charles H. Ebert. 
Sergeant John H. Hallam. 
Sergeant Frederick Antermeth. 
Corporal William Eythoff. 
Corporal George Postel. 
Corporal John H. Behrens. 
Corporal George Schaffner. 
Corporal Francis Prilhoff. 
Corporal William Phillips. 
Corporal Stephen A. Zind. 
Corporal Thomas B. Byron. 
Musician William Wolf. 
Musician Jacob Pastil. 
Wagoner John W. Wise. 


David Abbihl, George Bauer, Memrod Benziger, John Bolinger, 
Michael Barry, John Bryant, Dominick Branner, James Conner, Sam- 
uel Cuntzman, David Cuntzman, Isaac W. Dunn, Otto Dietrich, 
Thomas Davis, Joseph Eberhardt, James Flickinger, Frank Foot, 
Henry Gebhardt, Frederick Garland, Thomas Gaffney, Henry Har- 
brecht, George L. Hoffman, V. Hasselberger, James M. Halley, Jo- 
seph Haas, John Hagerty, John W. Jager, William Johnson, Henry 
Kemper, John Kafada, James L. Keys, Isaac Deeson, George Hinnin- 
ger, Frank Laker, Andrew Miller, Charles Metz, William Mentche, 
Henry Miller, George Messer, John Joseph Marath, John McCabe, 
George Marklem, John M. Mellen, Thomas Maloy, Peter McDonald, 
James Mcintosh, Barney McKeirnin, Henry Peters, John Papp, Adam 
Reif, John Rett, A. Schluter, Carlton Stewart, Louis Schlick, H. 
Schnittger, J. W. Spooner, Isaac Stokes, Peter Skatley, J. Heldman, 
Henry Westmyer, J. N. Williams, Frank Woodrough, Thomas Wright, 
William F. Wolff, jr., John B. Wilkins, Louis Writh, Jacob Zimmer. 


This completed its organization about the first of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. It received marching orders the tenth of 
the same month, and reported at once to General Sher- 
man at Paducah, with his command. It was among the 
first troops at Pittsburgh Landing. In this battle it lost 
one hundred and thirty men, killed and wounded. On 
the sixteenth of April the regiment was ordered to the 
Cumberland river, to hold the posts of Fort Donelson 
and Clarksville. On the eighteenth of August Clarksville 
was attacked by the combined forces of Colonels Wood- 
ward and A. R. Johnson. Colonel Mason, having less 
than two hundred effective men, a surrender was de- 
manded, and, after obtaining the advice of his counsel, 
he acceded to the proposition. A few days after the 
colonel and all the line officers were dismissed in 
disgrace, but, the facts becoming better known, they 
received an honorable discharge. After the regiment 
was exchanged it did valuable service the remainder 
of the year. In 1864 it took an effective part in the 
battle of Nashville, losing fully one-third of its men in 
killed and wounded. Through the summer of 1865 it 
was in Texas. It was finally mustered out in January, 

Captain Thomas W. Brown. 
First Lieutenant William H. McDavitt. 


First Sergeant Henry A. Brown. 
Sergeant AlexanderW . Hufford. 
Sergeant Alfred Brown. 
Sergeant James Hays. 
Sergeant James Woods. 
Corporal William M. Langdon. 
Corporal Alexander W. Roosa. 
Corporal Stephen Sands. 
Corporal Charles Drake. 
Corporal John Shaw. 
Corporal William Anton. 
Corporal Thomas H. Welts. 
Musician James Edgar. 


Hiram Astor, Peter Adams, Nicholas Becker, Solan A. Bevans, 
Charles W. Baeter, Stephen Bards, Philip Casner, Philip Clickenbard, 
John Drake, Alexander Edgar, George F. Fuller, Peter Gorman, Rich- 
ard Green, Matthew Henderson, James Johnson, Andiew Lytle, 
Thomas Lamb, John V. McDevitt, John McDonald, Henry Martin, 
Elijah Orr, Philip I. Owens, David Putnam, Martin Roosa, John Rob- 
inson, Frederick Ross, Charles Ross, David Rose, John Snook, George 
K. Stout, Benjamin M. Spahr, John Sidenberg, John J. Tro.xell, Fred- 
erick S, Wallace, Elijah Wilson, Thomas Webster, John Young. 




This regiment was organized at Fremont late in the 
year 1861. In February, 1862, it was ordered to report 
to General Sherman at Paducah, and was assigned to 
Colonel Buckland's brigade. On the third of April it 
exchanged its first shots with the rebel pickets at Pitts- 
burgh Landing. The regiment was to the front all 
through the battle that followed and participated in the 
final charge and pursuit as far as Monterey. Its loss in 
killed, wounded, and missing, was one hundred and 
thirty-three. In the siege of Corinth the Seventy-second 
bore a conspicuous part. Its losses were t-riffling in 
action, but terrible by disease. On the twenty-first of 
July Memphis was entered. After being at Fort Picker- 
ing and Moscow, marching by way of Bolivar and Purdy 
to Corinth, at White's Station, and again in Memphis, 
the regiment commenced the march for the rear of 
Vicksburgh the second of May, 1863. On the way it 
was in the battle of Jackson, on the fourteenth of that 
month. On the twenty-second of June it aided in inter- 
cepting General Johnston, who was attempting the relief 
of Vicksburgh. In September the Seventy-second was 
in a four days' scout to Mechanicsville, in which it ex- 
perienced some severe marching and lively skirmishing. 
On J:he second of January, 1864, the regiment re enlisted, 
and in February was in General Sherman's Meridian ex- 
pedition. After the veteran furlough it was ordered to 
Paducah, to assist in the defence of that place against 
Forrest. June ist the regiment formed part of an ex- 
pedition, consisting of twelve regiments of infantry and 
a division of cavalry, against Forrest. The tenth of 
June, at Brice's Cross Roads, an encounter with the 
rebels resulted most disastrously, eleven officers and two 
hundred and thirty-seven men being killed, wounded, or 
captured. Then followed an expedition in the direction 
of Tupelo, Mississippi, during which the regiment suf- 
fered not a little. Between the twenty-seventh of July 
and the sixteenth of November, by long marches, half 
rations, great heat and extreme cold, the men suffered 
intensely. On the thirtieth of November it joined forces 
under General Thomas, at Nashville. In February, 
1865, it moved to New Orleans and camped on the old 
battle-ground. Afterward it was in the attacks at Span- 
ish Fort and Fort Blakely; then Montgomery, Alabama, 
was reached; and in June it was placed along the railroad 
line west of Meridian. The last man was mustered out 
at Vicksburgh on the eleventh of September, 1865. 
The regiment at once embarked for Ohio, and at Camp 
Chase was paid and discharged. 



First Lieutenant Milton T. Williams. 


Augustus Affel, William Ball. John Devine, Dennis Delaney, Charles 
A. Davis, Michael F. Frederick, Lawrence Higgins, Jerry V. Higgins, 
Robert Kelington, Washington Lewis, Peter Smith, Thomas Smith, 
William H. Sharp, Charles W. Tearne, Reuben Wood, George War- 
ley, John Whitcomb. 



Lawrence Cremmering, Henry Cook, John Gullenbeck, Edward 
Handrohem, Isaac Kuffman, William Kirnin, Earnhardt Krenpelpe, 

Martin S. Lochner, Henry Mass, Robert W. Newkirk, James Stevens, 
Francis Yeager. 



First Lieutenant William Skenett. 


First Sergeant James H. Stewart. 
Sergeant Horatio B. Furrill. 
Sergeant Aleck Moore. 
Sergeant Francis Whitten. 
Corporal William Ronten. 
Corporal Michael Barden. 
Corporal John B. Emreking. 
Corporal John W. Jeffer. 
Corporal William Emming. 
Corporal John Toz. 
Musician William A. Payne. 
Wagoner Richard Webster. 


Louis Albershadzt, John A. Anderson, Thomas Alcoke, Henry 
Bocherding, James F. Barnwell, Michael Byrnes, William Baumgartner, 
Henry Brookshaw, Thomas "Cavanaugh, .Andrew H. Crawford, Henry 
Cook, Edward Cortell, George W. Cox, Jackson Co.\, William Dutton, 
John J. Dugans, Patrick Donahue, Thomas Eades, Peter Eagan, Pat- 
rick Farnan, Henry F. Franke, Jesse Flinn, James FaiTell, James Foley, 
John Graham, Peter F. Glardin, Samuel Green, John Harley, John 
Henry, Patrick Hanley, Henry Hokkman, Thomas D. Hamer, George 
W. Howell, Edward Ireland, Alexander Inloes, William Isdell, Charles 
Johnston, PhiUip King, William H. Kelley, Edward McMahan, Jacob 
Musser, Theodore Murry, John Miller, Peter Michels, Alexander Math- 
ews, William G. McMillen, James McNeal, Henry McCabe, Thomas 
Navil, John P. McConneli, Dennis O'Conner, Da\id O'Conner, John 
Ollendick, James Patton, Orlando P. Reice, Henry Pulse, William F. 
Smith, Edward St.Hellens, George M. Schlundt, John Sullivan, Henry 
Seiferd, John Stapleton, Michael Terry, Granville Toy, Peter Urich, 
William C. Wright, John Warner, Thomas Higens, Charles W. Bie- 
binger, Samuel F. Beeler, Leaput Goldsmith, Ephraim L. Grant, Joseph 
McMakin, William O'Donnell, Isaac Stern, Henry Schefer, Thomas J. 


This regiment with an aggregate of nine hundred and 
seventy-eight men, was ordered to the field the twentieth 
of April, 1862. Its first real service was on the march 
over the Cumberland mountains in June. During the 
blockade of Nashville, it was in several skirmishes in the 
vicinity of that city. The Seventy-fourth was with Gen- 
eral Rosecrans when he made his movement on Bragg's 
army at Murfieesborough. It went into the battle of 
Stone River December 29th, and remained until night- 
fall of January 3d, losing in all one hundred and fifty- 
five men. At Murfreesborough there was a general 
reorganization of the army, and consequently some 
changes occurred in this command. After this date, 
February, 1863, the Seventy-fourth was in the battles of 
Hoover's Gap, Dog Gap, Chickamauga, Lookout Moun- 
tain, and Mission Ridge. The last of January, 1864, a 
majority of the men re-enlisted and started for Ohio on 
the thirty days' furlough. On the seventh of the follow- 
ing May, it started with the army on the Atlanta cam- 
paign. With Sherman it passed through Georgia and 
reached Savannah, and on the twentieth of January was 
off again for the Carolina campaign. After the destruc- 
tion of rebel supplies at Fayetteville, the rebel capital 
was the point to be reached, and then Washington. 
Bentqnville, the last battle of the command, was fought 
March 22, 1865. On the eighteenth of July, at Camp 
Dennison, the men were paid and discharged. 




Colonel Granville Moody. 

Lieutenant Colonel Ale.xander Von Schroeder. 

Major Ale.xander M. Ballard. 

Adjutant Henry M. Cisl. 



First Lieutenant William F. Armstrong. 


Joel Perkins. James N. Rodgers, James A. Sheffield, 


George King, Philip Minhart, James S. Tropp. 

Private Samuel Rodgers. 



Corporal James Walley. 
Corporal Evan Morgan. 


Edward Ambros, Michael Brannon, James Carrigan, Timothy Cro- 
nin, John Creedon, James Farrell, Andiew Harrigan, Daniel Lane, 
John Morarity, Therance McLaughlin, Patrick Naughton, James 



First Lieutenant James H. Cochnower. 


Sergeant Charles Rambono. 
Corporal William J. Holmes. 
Corporal John W. Carson. 


Armstrong G. Warwick, Michael Brown, John Burke, James Beng, 
Joseph Decotell, Joseph Faber, John Garthaffner, John Morten, George 
King, William Lambert, Philip J. Munich, Alphonso C. Porter, An- 
drew Pheterson, Isaac C. Robert, Samuel Rodgers, Charles Sander, 
Walter Scull, Louis Sheil, Thomas Terry. 


The Seventy-fifth was organized near Cincinnati Dec- 
ember 18, 1 86 1. On the first day of March it joined 
General Milroy's brigade at Huttonsville, West Virginia, 
having made a long march over most wretched roads in 
most unpleasant weather. While halting at Monterey, 
Court House, the enemy made a spirited attack, which 
was gallantly met by this regiment leading the advance. 
May 8, 1862, in an engagement with Stonewall Jackson, 
additional laurels were gained under the immediate eye 
of General Milroy — "The Old War Eagle" — but nearly 
a hundred were killed add wounded. The next affair in 
which the Seventy-fifth faced the enemy was at Cedar 
Mountain in August, 1862. The loss here, however, was 
slight. For a week following engagements were frequent, 
and this regiment at Freeman's Ford again lost heavily. 
The last of August, i-n the second battle of Bull Run, 
so bloody was the fighting that in killed and wounded the 
Seventy-fifth alone lost one hundred and fifteen. During 
this fight not less than ninety shots took effect on the 
colors of this regiment. From this time to the second 
of May, 1863, nothing of importance occurred. The 
history of the battle of Chancellorsville need not here be 
told. Although receiving the enemy gallantly, the odds 
were too great, and, with the brigade, the Seventy-fifth 
fell back, losing in half an hour one hundred and fifty 
men. After this battle it returned to its old camp near 

Brook's Station, where it remained until the battle of 
Gettysburgh. The regiment was under fire every day of 
the battle, losing in all two hundred and seventeen officers 
and men. In August the Ohio brigade was sent to 
Charleston, South CaroHna, and remained on Morris 
Island till after the fall of Forts Wagner and Gregg. In 
February, 1864, the regiment was mounted, and from that 
time was designated as the Seventy-fifth mounted infantry, 
performing all the duties of a regular cavalry regiment. 
From this date to the twenty-sixth of September, 1864, 
the regiment was in the district of Florida, breaking up 
blockade-running, destroying rebel stores, conducting de- 
tachments of cattle, and performing other duties. It was 
then sent on a secret expedition to the headwaters of the 
St. John's river. In October and November six com- 
panies were mustered out of service, their term of enlist- 
ment having expired. After the fall of Savannah the 
Seventy-fifth was reorganized into a veteran detachment, 
and was afterward known as the veteran battalion. This 
command performed valuable and difficult service till 
August, 1865, when its members received an honorable 


Colonel Nathan C. McLean. 
Major Robert Reilly. 
Assistant Surgeon Charles L. Wilson. 
Chaplain John W. Weadly. 
Sergeant Major William S. Stewart. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Thomas F. Davenport. 
Commissary Sergeant Lyman Y. Stewart. 
Hospital Steward Martin V. Shader. 



Captain Charles W. Friend. 
First Lieutenant George B. Fox. 


First Sergeant Thomas Wheeler. 
Sergeant Joseph B. Alters. 
Sergeant Christian Schmetzer. 
Sergeant Rezin F. Hall. 
Sergeant H. H. Dumont. 
Corporal Elmore W. Dunn. 
Corporal Jacob Gaus. 
Corporal Ezra M. Ellsworth. 
Corporal Caleb Parrent. 
Corporal Richard Fishwick. 
Corporal Caleb O. Decamp. 
Corporal J osiah C. Hall. 
Corporal John P. Allen. 
Musician Thomas K. Sayer. 
Musician Hosea R. Felter. 
Wagoner John Schmetzer, sr. 


Robert Agnew, Frederick Aherns, Wilson Becount, James Becount, 
William Brooke, Michael Butler, Henry B. Burnett, Henry Breithoff, 
C. Brown, Michael Brady. John Cummings, William Critchfield, 
John Critchfield, George Cain, Peter Collins, James H. Coleman, Mat- 
thias Dwyre, James H. Erwin, Frederick Engle, James Fishwick, John 
H. Heer, Charles Francis, Simon P. Ferry, William H. Ginn, Andrew 
Gambriel, Anthony Graves, George Goetze, Gottlieb Harkell, Charles 
Howell, John G. Hallam, Peter Herklesmiller, Adam Habinstritt, James 
Jackson, Peter Jacobs, Patrick Kelly, Michael Liady, James McCor- 
mick, Gothold Markart, John Mills, Luke McClune, Michagl Mahar, 
John A. Mentel, WiUiam McGill, Joseph Meyers, James F. Miller, An- 
drew Martin, James Martin, Sylvester Nesbitt, James Naylor, Abram S. 
Pendery, William Parrent, William H. Palmer, George Pray, Andrew 
Pepprus, Alfred Patmore, Leopold Reame, James Riddle, Clinton W. 
Seward, William W, Stewart, John Stewart, William G. Sturgis, John 
Schmetzer, jr., Frederick Schmetzer, Ernst Schmetzer, Albert Stevens, 



James V. Stevens, Samuel Shuttleworth, Charles Smith, Henry Sheep, 
Isaac H. Spillman, Sampson Sutton, Stephen Skillman, James A, Skill- 
man, James F. Thurman, Hosea Tullis, Oliver Thayer, Philip Weiss, 
Robert Long, Leonard M. Kimmel, John Batzt. 



Corporal Henry Lour. 


Richard Cook, Louis Eckedy, Ernst Calces, Thomas Hcrmanson, 
John Mason, John Roth, Conrad Wilmer. 



Captain James A. Johnston. 

First Lieutenant Theodore K. Keckler, 

First Sergeant Phineas B. Haskell. 

Sergeant James A. Crozet. • 

Sergeant Mark A. Knowlden. 
Sergeant Richard Faulkner. 
Sergeant Moses Kennedy. 
Corporal John C. Delvitt. 
Corporal Thomas Moran. 
Corporal Oliver H. Hibben. 
Musician Edward F. Brown. 
Wagoner John Davis. 


John S. Allison, Felty Brightenbach, David G. Brookman, John J. 
Brown, Thomas W. Brown, John Carrigan, Thomas Coleman, Edward 
E. Denniss, William Dickinson, Bennett Dixon, Joseph Donohue. Peter 
Eiden, Samuel Green, Samuel H. Gump, James E. Hippie, James 
Jackson, Andres Monser, Thomas Mulligan, John M. Kenzie, Samuel 
Reeves, Andrew Rodgers, Patrick H. Riley, Charles H. Smith, William 
W. Smith, Robert Wallace, Conrad Waag, James Williams, Simon 
Davis, Edmund C. Hill, John Stanard, Martin V, Strader, Henry Neely, 
Thomas Riley, John Brannan, Melchor Myers. 

Surgeon James W. Warfield, 


Only one company was raised in Hamilton county. 
The entire command was rapidly recruited in the summer 
of 1862, though one company of sharpshooters, raised 
for it in Clermont county, did not join it till the next 
June. It received marching orders September 3d, and 
moved into Kentucky through Cincinnati, then menaced 
by the rebels. After a severe march against them, it 
went to Louisville and operated against Morgan and 
other rebel cavalry forces. December i to February 24, 
1864, it was mainly on guard duty in Tennessee. In 
March it reached Lookout valley and was assigned to 
the Eleventh corps, afterwards part of the Twentieth, in 
which the Seventy-ninth was in the First brigade. Third 
division. With its brigade it shared in the furious and 
bloody attack on the enemy's works near Resaca and a 
number of the severest actions of the Adanta campaign. 
At Peach Tree Creek, July 20th, it was on the first line and 
was the second Union regiment that became engaged. 
It here lost one-half its members in action. It began the 
campaign with six hundred men, and had but one hun- 
dred and eighty-two at the close. It was in the march 
through eastern Georgia, the siege of Savannah, the af- 
fairs at Laytonville and Columbia, and of Averysborough 
and Betitonville, in the grand advance of Sherman north 
ward. It was mustered out at Washington June 9, 1865, 
paid and discharged at Camp Dennison June 17 th. It 
had lost, from all causes, more than its original number, 
or about one thou,sand men, all told. 

Private Charles G. Hallam. 

Musician Algernon S. Cropsey. 



Captain John W. Kilbreth. 

First Lieutenant Benton Halstead. 

Second Lieutenant Henry C. Carlin. 


First Sergeant George F. Reed, 

Sergeant Henry M. Reading. 

Sergeant Charles WoodworLh. 

Sergeant Charles P. Wilson. 

Sergeant Charles C. Shannon. 

Corporal William Chapman. 

Corporal Daniel Sweatman. 

Corporal John Makinson. 

Corporal Dwight J. TiUinghast. Edmunds S. Hopkins. 

Corporal Samuel V. Wright. 

Corporal James Caffrey. 

Corporal James W, Power. 

Musician Thomas G. Crapsey. 

Musician Ebon A. Turpin. 

Wagoner John C. Bickham. 


-■^mos A. .^Uen, James M. Ayres, Daniel Adams, John E. Burton, 
Charles F. Bassett, Frederick Bremer, Phillip Behrman, Andrew Brohm, 
Charles Cook, John Conley, Hiram Crampton, Samuel G. Creswell, 
George E, Dyer, Edward Day, William J. Dodson, William Drope, 
Robert Duer, William Detzle, David Everly, Louis Etler, James Eng- 
lish, James Ferris, Joshua Francis, Joseph Fries, Thomas S. Ford, 
John H . Franklin, William Hobbs, Samuel Huen, John Hudson, 
Frederick Hunkmeier, Adam Heintz, Charles Huber, George F. 
Hawekatte, Albert Jeans; John W. King, Thomas Kelly, William 
Killoughy, Israel Kearney, Daniel Kelehan, John M. Glashan, Walter 
Miller, George M. Newy, Oliver Outcalt, Thomas Price, George 
Quigley, Noah Reed, George Smith, John H. Simons, Greenlief 
Smith, Benjamin Steinkamp, Benjamin Smead, Xavier Strausberger, 
William R. Snell, Jacob Schotzman, William Segirst, Michael 
Sheridan, William Sunderman, Nathaniel B. Thompson, George 
W. Totten, James Whitney, Alfred White, Jediah A. Whinney, John 
E. Wheeler, .Samuel Wright. 


•Private Leopold Goldsmith. 



Captain OzroJ. Dodds. 


Orien Clark, Walter Scott. 


Several companies of this regiment were from Hamilton 
county; the remainder from Butler. Before the regiment 
was fully organized, the exigencies of the situation in 
Kentucky, during the invasion- of Kirby Smith, became 
so great that the Hamilton county companies, then at 
Camp Dennison, were ordered into the field. On the 
night of the third of September, 1862, the day of leaving 
camp, they bivouacked in the streets of Covington. 
After various movements they marched across the Lick- 
ing river to support the Beechwood battery, on the Alex- 
andria turnpike, did heavy jDicket duty for several days, 
and were then withdrawn to Camp Orchard. Here the 
rest of the regiment joined them, and gave the Eighty- 
third in all one thousand and ten men. The regimental 
organization, however, dated from the twenty-second of 
August, when all the companies were full. September 



1 8th the command marched to Cynthiana with an expe- 
dition under General Q. A. Gihnore, but found no ene- 
my in force. October isth it reached Paris, Kentucky, 
and joined the First brigade, Tenth division, army of the 
Tennessee. A fortnight thereafter it was on its way to 
Louisville, stopping two weeks at Nicholasville, where it 
was presented with an elegant banner, by the Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton railroad company. The division 
(General A. J. Smith's) sailed for Memphis November 23d 
and thence further down the Mississippi December 20th. 
The Eighty-third engaged in some laborious and success- 
ful operations about Milliken's Bend, and had its first 
battles at Chickasaw Bayou and Arkansas Post. In the 
latter action it lost one-fifth of its number, but was the 
first to plant its flag upon the enemy's works, was honora- 
bly mentioned in the official reports, and specially thanked 
by unanimous vote of the Ohio legislature. In camp 
afterwards at Young's Point, the regiment lost heavily by 
disease. May 20th, after heavy skirmishing and some 
severe fighting, it reached the front at Vicksburgh, was 
in the assault on the twenty-second, where it lost eight 
per cent, of its men engaged, and took part in the subse- 
quent operations of the siege. After the surrender it 
moved with its division against Johnston, assisted in the 
affairs about Jackson and in the pursuit of the rebels to 
Brandon, returning thence to Vicksburgh, after an unusu- 
ally arduous campaign. ' August 24th it changed camp 
to Carrollton, Louisiana, and remained there, save for an 
expedition to Donaldsonville, till the third of October, 
when it formed a part of the force starting on the Teche 
campaign. November 3d, when in charge of a forage 
train, it had a sharp encounter, and lost fifty-six men, 
mostly captured. A few weeks afterwards it moved to 
Fort Jackson to quell a mutiny among colored troops; 
was then ordered to New Orleans, and thence to Madi- 
sonville, where it went into the Second brigade. Third di- 
vision. Thirteenth army corps. The fore part of March, 
1864, at Franklin, it was transferred to the First brigade 
of the Fourth division, same corps, and marched with it 
on the ill-fated Red River expedition. It was hotly en- 
gaged in the battle of Pleasant Hills, and gallantly main- 
tained its reputation. At the beginning of its share in 
the action, after marching ten miles in two hours, it occu- 
pied the extreme right of the Federal line, and came near 
being enveloped and destroyed by the rebel left, Vvhich 
extended far beyond it, but was extricated under a terri- 
ble cross fire, in perfect order. May 2d it was engaged 
in a sharp skirmish while on a foraging expedition, and 
at Alexandria furnished large details for work upon the 
dam which finally saved the army. On the twenty-eighth 
the regiment reached Baton Rouge, and remained there in 
camp till July 21st, when it left for Algiers, opposite New 
Orleans, moving thence to Morganza to repel an attack, 
and going into camp there for the remainder of the sum- 
mer. October ist it formed part of an expedition to 
sieze and hold Morgan's Ferry, on the Atchafalaya, and 
on the eighteenth, of another to the Atchafalaya at Simms- 
port. November ist it embarked for the mouth of 
White river, and in December was ordered to Nachez 
for consolidation with the Forty-eighth Ohio. The new 

regiment comprised six companies of the former and four 
from the latter, retaining the name Eighty-third. All the 
field officers were from the former command. It was as- 
signed to the Third brigade, Second division, Thirteenth 
corps, and, March 20th, started in the Mobile campaign-. 
It made the assault on Fort Blakely April 9th, and 
captured two posts, eight cannon, two mortars, eight hun- 
dred prisoners, two flags, etc., etc., losing thirty -six killed 
and wounded. It did provost duty in Selma till May 
1 2th; was in Mobile a month, and in Galveston on guard 
duty till July 26th, when it started for home, arriving at 
Cincinnati the fifth of August, and getting final payment 
and discharge at Camp Dennison on the tenth. 


Colonel Frederick W. Moore. 
Lieutenant Colonel William H. Baldwin. 
Major S. S. L'Hommedieu. 
Surgeon John S. McGrevv. 
Assistant Surgeon Marion Wilkinson. 
Assistant Surgeon George Cassiday. 
Adjutant Lawrence Waldo. 
Sergeant Major Joseph W. Rudolph, 
Quartermaster Sergeant Stacey Daniels. 
Commissary Sergeant Ceorge W. Carey. 



Captain Dewitt C. Shockley. 

First Lieutenant William R. McComas. 

Second Lieutenant Albert Fehrman. 


First Sergeant C. A. Burns. 
Sergeant Jacob Meyer. 
Sergeant George F. Hibben. 
Sergeant Edward C, Collins. 
Sergeant Charles H, Amos. 
Corporal Samuel Battsell. 
Corporal Charles Bodine. 
Corporal Thomas J. Thompson. 
Corporal John Snyder. 
Corporal Jacob Mosier. 
Corporal Homer Kendall. 
Corporal Bernard Jacobs. 
Corporal John Haller. 
Wagoner Sylvester Kriefer. 


James Anderson, Anthony Augerer, Elmore Bridges, Davis Bock, 
William Bird, Peter Brobest, Nathan Baltzell, Louis Benjamin, Michael 
Bohlinger, Robert Close, Conrad Castal, Isaac E. Crosly, William 
CanoU, Robert Co.\, Thomas Cox, Thomas Davis, Raphael Ceiphy, 
James Dodd, Samuel De France, Jacob Godow, Conrad Gurther, 
Henry Gedes, Michael Hughes, Peter Hoffman, Joseph S. Hewris, 
William Hogan, Simon Honreleman, Harry Hull, Frank Hildreth, 
Joseph H. Halton, David Hilton, John Jones, William Jones, Alfred 
P. James, Gustave Lippart, Ale.vander G. Leme, William A. Lernka, 
Nathan Lehman, Richard Milligan, David Milligan, John McAllister, 
George Mosier, William Murphy, Russel McKitrick, Isaac Mueters, 
.Andrew Moore, Elijah McLaughlin, Henry McLaughlin, Albert Martin, 
Charles H. Nichols, Thomas Owen, Adrian Pierson, John R. Pepper, 
Robert Porter, David Pierson, Annas Roseboom, Elijah Roll, William 
Reynolds, James Reynolds, John Rhodes, Joseph T. Rossa, Daniel 
Riker, William Sweaniger, Charles A. Short, James Stapleton, Arthur 
W. Salter, Aaron T. Sutton, Michael V. Smith, Ernest Schowe, 
Andrew Speath, Benjamin Shutts, William Turner, Christian Tonges, 
Joseph Twelins, .'\dam Volkert, Jacob Voegli, Thomas White, William 
Worstle, Emil Weggert, Thomas Wallace, Jacob R. Williams, James 
Dowis, Frederick Meyer, William Sloan, John Worstle, Ennis Riker. 



Captain James W. Craven. 
First Lieutenant Philip Bescher. 
Second Lieutenant John T. Talbott. 




First Sergeant James T. DeMarr. 

Sergeant Charles H. E. Cole. 

Sergeant Joseph R. Shannon. 

Sergeant Peter Shatsman. 

Sergeant James D. Campbell. 

Corporal Samuel Nash. 

Corporal Lemuel Vanzandt. 

Corporal James J. Shannon. 

Corporal Gustave Lcifer. 

Corporal Thomas Beetle. 

Corporal Lewis Williams. 

Corporal William Fisher. 

Corporal William Strohman. 

Musician Samuel C. Price. 

Musician William L. Primby. 

Wagoner Harry E. Breeding. 


H. Ausdenmoore, John S. Boake, George M. Brenling, Henry K. 
Bascom, John Behner, Ludvvig Berdel, Franz Bury, George J. Buckel, 
John W. Brudsall, Albert B. Carl, Dennis Coffey, Thomas Corcoran, 
William Codling, Samuel Corer, Taylor Conner, Andrew Conley, 
Charles W. Dean, James Dowd, Columbus Dale, Isaac F. DeMarr, 
Albert Findley, Anton Ferenter, Ale.\-ander Glaze, Solomon Gness, Bar- 
ney Goldschmidt, William Hazard, John G. Harrington, David Hall, 
George Holden, James W. Hudson, George H. Howe, Bernhardt 
Helda, George E. Harvey, Charles Henry, William R. Irwin, Joseph 
K. Irwin, John W. Jackson, jr., George W. Johns, Samuel S. Junkins, 
Christian Koerter, Joseph Kindle, George Leist, jr., George M. 
Labarre, Van Buren Littleton, Granville McDonnell, Casper Monig, 
William Meyere, James M. Matthews, Frank Noble, P'eli.K O'Neil, 
Levi Pettil, John R. Payne, Henry Romes, Lawrence Shaffer, David 
Swaney, Jacob Seifert, Charles Smith, Benjamin M. Wright, Charles 
W. White, Edwin D. Wosencraft, Francis M. Watt, Robert Work, 
John W. Wallace, William P. Work, James G. Work, Joseph Worsted, 
William Wilson, Andrew Wertheimer. 



Captain Edward Manser. 

First Lieutenant William H. Mindeler. 

Second Lieutenant Henry M. Gastrall. 


First Sergeant William A. Beasley. 
Sergeant George Kerr. 
Sergeant John Pritchard. 
Sergeant George W. Milam. 
Sergeant John Donnehen. 
Corporal George Snyder. 
Corporal Benjamin Cook. 
Corporal James Patton. 
Corporal William H. McLeaven. 
Corporal Herbert Winston. 
Corporal Richard E. Thompson. 
Corporal Colin R. Palmer. 
Corporal Lewis R. Washburne. 
Musician William Deford. 
Musician Charles Harrington. 
Wagoner Jonah Cook. 


Jerome B. Bainbridge, William Bell, Byron Bailey, Frank Balkiman, 
Alexander Berger, Richard Conkling, jr., James Close, Phaley Cun- 
ningham, George W. Carey, John Daniel, George W. De Lyon, 
Thomas Drumb, Stephen Demoss, David Danworth, Thomas Doherty, 
William R. Dederick, Andrew J. Deford, William Eaton, Daniel 
Flowers, William F. Fordyce, Charles H. Gould, Douglass Guy, Ben- 
jamin K. Helter, John A. Hoffman, Joseph Hoffman, John S. Hensler, 
Griffin Hemphill, Henry Hacker, Louis Henix, James Hefferman, 
Charles W. Horweg, John Holley, William Hemmernan, Henry Jones, 
Stephen D. Kite, James Kenley, Patrick Lavery, Joseph Laren, John 
Lenhoff, Mathias Lenhoff, James Lamb, Andrew H. McKee, Thomas 
H. M.ack, Henry Miller, Robert Middleton, Patrick B. McCabe, Pat- 
rick Murray, Frank Martin, Albinus J. Masters, Daniel Neiman, Henry 
Oeschlager, John Pheeney, Martin I/. Peabody, James Pharis, James 
Quinn, Andrew B. Rey, John Rhover, Oscar P. Richey, Edwin R. 
Ross, Thomas G. Robinson, Michael Riley, John Seabold, Stephen 

M. J. Smith, Henry H. Streuve, Frank Shields, William Stronberg, 
John R. Telfers, Samuel Tearne, Jefferson Terrv, Thomas Van Wise, 
John A. Wetmore, William Widdlefield, John C. Wilson, Josiah Wil-' 
liams, Henry Woods. 



Captain Albert W. Boser. 

First Lieutenant James Carlin. 

Second Lieutenant Gershom Tomlinson. 

First Sergeant Samuel A. Keen. • 

Sergeant Charles P. Sa.\ton. 
Sergeant Archie Young. 
Sergeant Martin 1,. Best. 
Sergeant Francis Crebs. 
Corporal William M. James. 
Corporal William Jager. 
Corporal William Buck. 
Corporal Henry Weston. 
Corporal William C. Carter. 
Corporal Joseph Festo. 
Corporal Joseph Loor. 
Corporal Eli H. Conway. 
Wagoner William F. MSgee. 
Musician Washington A. Bozer. 
Musician William Palmer. 


Joshua Ashley, Ira Atkins, William T. Ale.xander, Francis Bain, 
Wesley Breiman, David Barnes, Nimrod Bannister, John Burk, John 
N. Bates, William A. Benson, Richard H. Balb, Jeremiah Conger, 
George Cullum, John Campbell, Michael Connel, William A. Comic, 
James Creighton, James G. Clark, William Drake, John Danagh, King 
Dearmond, Lewis A. Davidson, Jamea Dorn, Silas Fragee, Lawrence 
Felenas, Jacob R. Flannagan, John Gunning, John M. Gibbs, Reuben 
Gardner, Oliver P. Glancy, John Haller, Samuel Hamilton, Turner 
Homer, William Hedges, Joseph Hopping, Milton Helmick, John 
Hevey, George C. Hartfence, Jacob Hinkelman, John Hooper, Isaac 
Jackson, William P. John, Henry B. John, John Kind, James T. 
Kelso, Henry Kilgour, James R. Lacey, Henry Luster, Edward Ma- 
har, Abraham Malson, Frank Malson, Jacob Myers, Jacob Moser, 
George W. Moriarity, Michael Martin, Hiram McMurry, William H. 
Morgan, William J. McMurry, John Magee, Datus E. Myers, Patrick 
McCabe, Allen W. Neese, John Newcomb, Michael C. Nugent, David 
1 . Osborn, John Peterson, Peter Pulse, George Rudicil, Noble Ross, 
Anderson Rudicil, Joseph Reeder, John Roney, Samuel F. Reed, James 
C. Ross, John Sapp, George W. Stewart, William E. Lears, DeLancey 
Lackel, Arthur Smith, Alfred Skidmore, Robert R. Thomas, John 
Teller, Edmund Talkington, John Vanasdale, Ephraim Williamson, 
Potter White, John White, Matthew Trever, James P. McMurry, Alex- 
ander H. Miller. 


Captain Pardon D. Connell. 

First Lieutenant Adam E. Billingsby. 

Second Lieutenant John R. Phillips. 


First Sergeant Lutellus Hussey. 
Sergeant Charles B. Palmer. 
Sergeant George McCormick. 
Sergeant John Dunn. 
Sergeant Clinton W. Gerrard. 
Corporal Alonzo Dunn. 
Corporal Robert G Rusk. 
Corporal John W. Bell. 
Corporal Eli Earhart. 
Corporal Francis McGregor. 
Corporal Isaiah Thompson. 
Corporal Truman Mosteller 
Corporal Parshall Cornelius. 
Musician Jacob Harper. 
Wagoner William H. Steward. 


James Agadine, Robert Burns, Jonah Buchanan, Jonas Baushman, 
Samuel Beeler, Joseph Burgoync, Peter Beeler, George Bailey, 
John Beeler, Joseph Bowen, Peter V. Bumhart, John H. Carter, 



John S. Cox, Lewis Cunan, Pollock Cobb, Daniel Doty, Isaac Doug- 
lass, Henry Drashell, James Faust, Peter Forney, Oliver H. Garrard, 
Thomas Gorman, James Gray, Alexander Grooms, William Harrison, 
Jacob Harper, John Hegrich, Thomas Hatter, James Huff, Adrian 
Hageman, Charles Kilgour, John M. Keeler, Jacob Klick, Charles W. 
Kratzer, Gu^tav Krauss, William C. A. Krauss, Edward M. Krauss, 
Thomas Love, Joseph Landenburgh, Martin McGinnis, James Miller, 
Gideon McGill, William Martin, Stephen Myers, Charles Metz, Hum- 
phrey Magnihan, William C. Newell, William Fryer, Francis R. 
Palmer, William Pitcher, Stephen M. Price, John Ritter. George Ritter, 
William C. Ritter, James D. Ross, Francis C. Ritter, Pengree Riker, 
Arthur C. Ritter, Edward Smith, Charles F. Smith, Noah Smith, John 
W. Short, Jonah Shuff, John W. Stewart, James Stevens, Joel Swihart, 
George Swihart, Eli Swihart, David Taylor, Michael Tragnor, Samuel 
Thompson, William Trewitt, Martin Williams, Peter C. Williamson, 
Ezra Wilvarren, Hammett Workman, Jacob Whaler, Elias Zickeforse, 
Henry Zickeforse. 



Captain John W. Ross. 

First Lieutenant Joseph O' Conner. 

Second Lieutenant John S. Taylor, jr. 


First Sergeant Joseph A. Savage. 
Sergeant David T. Woodruff. 
Sergeant Frederick Jeffey. 
Sergeant Ernest Warden. 
Sergeant William J. James. 
Corporal Joseph Richter. 
Corporal Edwin J. Ackerman. 
Corporal Benjamin Harbeson. 
Corporal Henry C. Davidson. 
Corporal Robert L. Boggs. 
Corporal Charles G. Hallam. 
Corporal David W. Jones. 
Corporal Joseph B. Leake, 
Musician Thomas Chard. 
Musician Andrew Johnson. 
Wagoner John Jancy. 


Robert Armstrong, Joseph Allbright, Charles Albee, John Benker, 
William Board, Ellis Bucknell, Michael Burke, Garrett Coonse, William 
Coughlin, Hamilton H. Conant, John Curtis, Peter Cromwell, Arthur 
L. Currie, William Crider, Albert Clark, Thomas Dickson, Joseph 
Dankworth, William H. Eleston, William F. Funk, Daniel H. Free- 
* man, Henry Fuchs, Gasper Gilford, Joseph Helmcamp, William Hud- 
son, Henry Hulsemyer, Clinton R. Harrison, Elliott Hewson, George 
Holford, Charles W. Honselle, Edw^ard Jordan, William Klinger, Sam- 
uel G. Kyle, George J. King, Michael Kenny, William Krammer, 
Henry E. Kaufman, Patrick Kinney, Edward M. Krause, John Koch, 
John Logan, William Lordsave, I.,eonidas Latta, Henry Linweber, 
Israel B. Malott, Lucas Maguire, Henry Mariliiis, John M. Querny, 
Jacob McKeon, Hugh O'Connor, Jacob Parker, Oliver B. Prophator, 
Oliver H. Phillips, William Rinal, James H. Rhyner, Jesse Smith, 
Charles L. Siewers, John Samora, George Sweeney, Daniel Sullivan, 
Henry Stafford, Albert Stevens George W. Stanly, Henry Vanderhair, 
Mathew Whilden, John ]. Weaver, La Grat C. Weldy, William F, 
Wershey, Jacob Yeakle, Henry Young, Andrew Connelly, William J. 
Hix, Perry Henderson, Devvitt C. Kindle, Frederick Hanneball, Ed- 
ward Backer, Charles Shaw. 


Private Samuel Lanhart. 



Captain Albert W. Thornton.. 
First Lieutenant William Phillips. 
Second Lieutenant Edward N. Clopper. 


First Sergeant James Neas. 
Sergeant James H. Wilson. 
Sergeant John B. Mitchel. 
Sergeant James B. Mitchel, 
Sergeant David B. Snow. 
Corporal John H. Beard. 

Corporal William A, Clark. 
Corpoial George C. Harwood. 
Corporal William H. Davis. 
Corporal Jacob B. Davenport. 
Corporal Thomas B. Marshall. 
Corporal Francis M, Hagaly. 
Corporal John B. Haner. 
Musician Elliott Stroup. 
Musician John W. Hearn. 


George R. Anderson, Frederick Bergdorf, Jacob S. Bacon, James A. 
Blair, Daniel Berm, Robert Campbell, John Coleman, John Dumler, 
Peter Decker, Francis Henry, Joseph A. Gribble, William H. Gray. 
William Gormly, Jacob Garbutt, Henry Griffith, Ephraim Griffith, Silas 
F. Hearn, John P. Hearn, Andy J. Hearn, William A. Hannon, Peter 
Holland, Douglass Hutchins, George C. Hildreth, Benedict Hoff, David 
Ireland, Thomas Ireland, John H. Jackson, Robert H. John, Frederick 
Ketcham, James Ketcham, Benjamin Ketcham, Peter Long, Jacob 
Long, Adam Long, John, Simon Latoszyuski, Thomas W. 
Leake, Jacob Mann, William Monroe, James Mayturn, Patrick McDer- 
mott, John McGlashon, Wm. McGlashon, Alexander Murray, Michael 
McHugh, George Millering, Samuel Moore, Charles Miller, Adam Noll, 
Andrew Poth, David Parshall, James J. Richardson, Perry Ringgold, 
Isaac L. Stevens, Wm. A, Sutton, Daniel Snyder, Wm. Snyder, Frede- 
rick W. Smith, Jacob H. Stathem, Martin Schumacker, Moses M. 
Trador, Louis Thonell, John Tyrell, Charles Webber, William Webber, 
David Wilson, Martin Wennel, Griffith White, Fayette M. Wood, 
David Yamell, Charles Blair, William Green, John B. Haner. 


This was organized for but three months service. June 
II, 1862, it started for Cumberland, Maryland, and from 
that point engaged in several expeditions against the reb- 
els. September 13th it held New Creek against a threat- 
ened attack by Generals Jackson and Imboden. It 
served about a month longer than its period of enlist- 
ment, and was mustered out at Camp Delaware in Oc- 



Captain William A. Powell. 


Sergeant James Huston. 
Sergeant Andrew Hoffman. 
Corporal Wesley Hentshorn. 
Corporal Edward Crandall. 
Musician George B. Chandler. 
Musician'James OlweUs. 


George J. Brightmore, George Bone, Richard G. Gray, Timothy D. 
Brown, William W. Conover, John W. Dobbins, Robert A. Edwards, 
Samuel L. Edwards, William B. Gamble, Frank Goodwin, Richard N. 
Hargrave, Lewis Hedder, Carroll W. Johnson, Ephraim Kram, David 
H. Levin, Jerry Litlon, John N. Lute, Wihiam H. ParshaU, John Pick- 
ering, Chatles Rose, Hiram Simonton, Alva B. Tichenor, Horace 
Wells, Charles J. Kullmer. 


Private William Stewart. 


Private William Martin. 

(Three Months' Service.) 
Private Edward H. Kleinschmidt. 

(Si-x Months' Service.) 
E. H. Kleinschmidt, Matthew Lawless. 


Henry Bode, Noah M. Stewart. 



First Lieutenant William G. Neilson ; Private John H. .^dams. 
Captain George W. Douglierty. 


Corporal Stephen Wadsworth. 
Corporal Lawson Bidwell, 
Corporal A. H. Wirl<nian. 
Musician C. L. Benton. 

Albert Converse, John O'Connor, Jacob Myers, James M. Pyors, 
James Tarpenning, Eliphus Tarpenning, John Williams, John Finley, 
Jonathan Bigelow, Hugh McClain, Emerson Holycross. 



John Crawford, Cyrus Faires, Benjamin Posey, Benjamin Sarver. 

This was one of the last German regiments raised in 
Ohio. Although other enterprises of the same kind 
were in the field before his, Lieutenant Tafel succeeded 
in recruiting and organizing, within a few weeks, eight 
companies, with an aggregate of seven hundred and 
thirty men. On the fourth day of September, 1862, 
orders came for the regiment to move to Covington, to 
be ready to repel the forces of Kirby Smith, then threat- 
ening Cincinnati. Here a litde skirmish with the enemy 
gave the men an introduction to their future work. The 
Austrian rifles with which they were armed proving 
nearly useless, the regiment was shifted from place to 
to place, and left incomplete as to number. It remained 
in the field as a battalion. At this time Morgan, the 
raider, was disturbing Kentucky, and the regiment par- 
ticipated in several expeditions against him. At Bowling 
Green, on the fourth of November, it came under the 
command of General Rosecrans. The Thirty-ninth bri- 
gade, in which the One Hundred and Sixth now belonged, 
moved to Glasgow, Kentucky, where some successful 
skirmishing followed, as also on the succeeding march to 
Hartsville. At this point Colonel Scott, who Jiad been 
commanding the brigade, was exchanged for a much 
inferior officer. Under this commander the disgraceful 
affair at Hartsville took jilace, December 7, 1862. One 
company only, absent as escort to the provision train at 
Gallatin, escaped captivity. After five days detention, the 
prisoners were paroled and sent to General Rosecrans at 
Nashville. This general, after receiving a full report 
from Lieutenant Colonel Tafel of the affair, expressed 
his entire satisfaction with the conduct of the regiment 
and its commander on that occasion. On the twelfth 
day of January, 1863, the regiment was declared ex- 
changed, and was ordered to Camp Dennison, to re-or- 
ganize. It soon moved on to Frankfort, Kentucky, to 
relieve the One Hundred and Third Ohio. Owen county 
was at that time infested with guerilla bands, and Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Tafel determined to stop their depreda- 
tions. Several desperate characters were soon after cap- 
tured, their bands dispersed, and the regiment, for the 
bravery and excellent conduct of officers and men, won 
praise from the citizens of the city and the authorities of 
the State. Receiving orders for Nashville, the regiment 

arrived at that city May 4, 1863, and was soon after put 
to guard the railroad from that city to the borders of 
Kentucky. So galling did the rigorous rule of this regi- 
ment become to the guerillas, that their leader. Captain 
Harper, offered a reward for the head of its commander. 
On the fourth of May, 1864, the regiment moved to 
Bridgeport, and formed part of the garrison. It was 
October, 1864, before the regiment was recruited to its 
maximum strength. During the impetuous raid of Gen- 
eral Hood, the One Hundred and Sixth held on to its 
posts along the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad, al- 
though for four weeks completely cut off from all com- 
munication with the main army at Nashville. It remained 
in camp in Alabama, performing valuable service until 
June, 1865, when it was ordered to Nashville for muster- 
out, which event was consummated June 29. 


Colonel George B. Wright. 
Lieutenant Colonel Gustavus T.afel. 
Major Lauritz von Barentzen. 
Adjutant John H. Stalle. 
Surgeon George A. Spies. 
Sergeant Major Oscar von Prabender. 
Sergeant Major Wolfgang Schoeule. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Julius C. Hintz. 
Commissary Sergeant Martin Hartmann. 
Hospital Steward Hermann Stiele. 



Captain William G. Glaolsen. 

First Lieutenant Julius Dexter. 

Second Lieutenant Frank Eiselein. ^ 


First Sergeant William Ittig. 

Sergeant Gqorge Lauber. 

Sergeant William Mener. 

Sergeant Frederick Waffenschmidt. 

Sergeant Edward Knauft. 

Corporal Moritz H. Schnieke. 

Corporal Thaddeus Fischer. 

Corporal Julius Ludke. 

Corporal Louis Brandt. 

Corporal Joseph L. Gampier. 

Corporal William Huber. 

Corporal Michael Daker. 

Corporal Anton Hallabach. 

Musician Henry Klemier. 

Musician William Baetz. 

Wagoner John Geiler. 


John Armbruster, Edward Brauer, Moses Bauermeistcr, Jacob Bene- 
dix, Charles B. Pertschinger, Rudolph Bieterhollz, William Bloecher, 
Frederick Bode, Valentine Bopp, Hem-y H, Boyert, Charles Bramkamp, 
Balthasar Brunner, John Buebel, Ludwig Bruchler, Frederick Dahl- 
strom, Conrad Das, Christian Diehm, Ernst Delbrugge, John B. Eiselc, 
Heinrich Ender, Michael Felix, Charles Fortman, Henry Frederick, 
George Grepel, George Groppenbecher, Jacob Groppenbecher, Fred- 
erick Haus, William Harting, Martin Hartmann, Julius C. Hentz, 
Henry C. Hug, Peter Haxel, Henry Kauffmann, Charles B. Kitterer, 
John Kirsh, Bernard Kohrmann, John Krebs, Ernst Langhismidt, 
Jacob Lehmkuhler, Richard Lichtenholdt, Adolph Lux, George Meyer, 
Ludwig Meyer, Henry C. W. Nebel, Carl Naumand, Louis Nicholas, 
Joseph Nichter, Gotleib Petersham, Hermann Petering, Louis Prep- 
ler, Frederick Rech, Adam Richel, William Reinhardt, Christian 
Schlechter, John Schoeneger, John G. Simon, Erastus H. Smith, 
Christian Smith, Frederick Spath, Baldwin Stanbach, Gerhard Strank- 
meier, George Tautsnelly, Albert Trieshman, Frederick Triechmann, 
Cornelius Van Briel, Nicholas Walter, Rudolph Wangermann, Joseph 
B. Weber, Matthias Weabel, George Wendel, Andreas Walber, Ernst 
Zenschnier, Henry Riese, Michael Schaurer, William Scheit, John Sud- 




Captain Frederick Seibel. 

First Lieutenant William Heydt. 


First Sergeant Joseph W. Potocki. 
Sergeant John Schuter. 
Sergeant Charles Luster. 
Sergeant Frederick E. Beyer. 
Sergeant Jacob Heimes. 
Corporal Ernst Arletti. 
Corporal George M. Wagner. 
Corporal Henry Leniing. 
Corporal Herrmann Angelbecke. 
Corporal Louis Wayer. 
Corporal Frank Wack. 
Corporal Jacob Brandmeyer. 
Corporal Henry Holscher. 
Musician Thompson Wooley. 
Musician James Van Horn. 
Wagoner Charles Wierts. 


Herman Averbecke, Frederick Bode, Louis Banscher, Charles Bock- 
meyer, George Brinck, Frederick Baumann. George Cornelius, Peter 
Daunn, Peter Durr, Frank Dietrich, Frederick Eitel, Frederick 
Eskel, Hermann Fahrenbruch, Louis Fahrbach, John Grendel, Philip 
Goring, George Greiner, Robert Gasinger, John Goring, John Go- 
dolph, Bernard Hansfield, Matthias Heinrich, William Harkemfer, 
Henry Hartmann, Joseph Heck, William Held, Joseph Hartniann, 
George Jeckel, Thomas Jeans, Sebastian Kaufenstien, Agedius Knopf, 
Gottleib Kaiser, Martin Krieg, Jacob Luckart, John Lieser, Christo- 
pher Mayer, John MuUer, Leopold Nesselhauf, Frederick Neuberger, 
John Oihion, John Oilier, John Probst, John Puhl, Charles Puseker, 
John Reuck, Christopher Rieger, Francis Ramish, Francis Rosenacker, 
John Rommel, John Schuhmann, Martin Sauer, William Schumacher 
Andrew Stenger, John Straub, Paul Secunde, Wolfgang Schoenle, 
Herman Stierk, Joseph Scherer, Peter Spannenberger, Jacob Ludwig, 
John Philip Spannenberger, Henry Stein, John Schmuck, John Tho— 
mann, John Frier, Frederick Wienert, Louis Wogall, Nichlaus Wag 
ner, John Weist, Gustavus Wolters, Conrad Winter. 



Captain Louis Kauffman. 


First Sergeant Edward Achenbach. 
Sergeant Charles Eshlich. 
Sergeant Carl Ebert. 
Sergeant Heinrich Schwarz. 
Sergeant Adam Bauer. 
Corporal Carl Meyer. 
Corporal George Ochlschlager. 
Corporal Friedrich Hennie.s. 
Corporal Anton Cochum. 
Corporal John Muller. 
Corporal Friedrich Hoffman. 
Corporal Frank AUmann. 
Corporal August Amberg. 
Musician Friedrich Hardmann. 
Musician Andreas Schaefer. 
Wagoner John Boesel. 


Heinrich Arzheimer, Albrecht August, Friedrich Augustus, Alois 
Berg, Heinrich Becker, Michael Bauer, Ernst Brius. George Broemar, 
Anton Braun, Gerhard Buck, Nicholas Conradi, George Dater, Adam 
Desch, Frederick Driesmaur, Carl Enslin, Heinrich Fischer, Christian 
Fricke, Wilhelm Gerhardt, Jacob Gilsdorf, Frederick Graw, John 
Hartmann, Christian Hasselman, Andreas Huber, John Junker, Adam 
Isler, Heinrich Karpp, Victor Kauffmann, Robert Krause, Frederick 
Klee, John Lauble, Christian Lauble, .\ugust Liermann, Carl Lier- 
mann, Simon Lind, Wilhelm Luckert, Henry Mensing, Wilhelm Mes- 
ser, Gerard Meyer, Daniel Miller, Jacob Nebel, George Nickel, George 
Numbruger, Jacob Ott, Jacob Rapp, Friedrich RoUkelter, Benjamin 
Ruh, Ferdinand Seipell, Jacob Schultheis, Adam Schmeider, Casper 
Stiernagel, Phillip Schneller, Jacob Schulz, Wilhelm Schnur, Heinrich 

Schmidt, Louis Sonntag. August Stahl, John Schuntzer, Peter Traut- 
mann, Carl Theiss, Daniel Theobald, Conrad Uhl, Jacob Voll, George 
Veil, John Wolf, Otto Zeil, Phillipp Zollner, Frederick Zimmerman. 



Captain Edward Lewis. 


First Sergeant Theodore Anteureith. 

Sergeant George Goas. 

Sergeant Louis Mark. 

Sergeant Louis Walter. 

Sergeant Joseph Strief. 

Corporal Otto Spankuch. 

Corporal George Bremer. 

Corporal Frederick W. Lanferseick. 

Corporal Thomas B. Kreider. 

Wagoner Bernard Hampshire. 


Jacob Bury, Peter Birding, Henry Bengle, August Dinkelmann, Wil- 
liam Fillmore. George J. Fried, Jacob Griemeneisen, Jacob Hahn, Au- 
gust Himmelsbach, John Jacob, Hermann Koepper, Samuel Kaesser- 
mann, John Kunsy, Frederick Menedier, Henry Reiring, Joseph Reif, 
John Roth, Lewis Repfeld, Henry Shuter, Jacob Schlaegenbecker, 
John C. Spanbuch, Henry Schmidt, Henry Sondermann, Andrew Strief, 
Martin Trautmann, Henry Voight, Christian Weishart, Frank A. Wet- 
zel, Christian Winnenger. 


Captain John Vertessy. 

First Lieutenant Ignatz Seabr. 

Second Lieutenant Jacob Gessert. 


First Sergeant Peter Weidener. 
Sergeant William Manter. 
Sergeant Frederick Salge. 
Sergeant Charles Schnell. 
Sergeant Henry Schneider. 
Corporal Nicholas Ritter. 
Corporal Michael Joachim. 
Corporal Philip Finger. 
Corporal Frederick Mohlendorff. 
Corporal John T. Grisler. 
Corporal Wolfgang Oedet. 
Corporal William Wolfrath. 
Corporal Robert Zahn. 
Musician Michael A. Long. 
Musician Michael Hempfner. 
Wagoner Conrad Deck. 


John Ashinger, Dietrich Brandt, Frederick Bartel, William Bell, John 
Bauer, Robert Benninghofen, John Conrad, William Conrad, William 
Decker, Jacob Friedman, Gustav Fickel, John F. Frist, John Feintel, 
Louis Geilfuss, Martin Griesheimer, Carl Graf, Anton Graf, Peter 
Goering, Benjamin Huber, Andrew Haas, Jacob Hoerath, Adam 
Heck, Xavier Heiberger, John Hengsler, Frederick Haberkotte, Henry 
Heidebring, Valentine Kaemmerer, George F. Konmann, John 
Krumm, Frederick Kranz, William Kaiser, Frederick Leiber. Henry 
Lokamp, Henry Lempke, Frederick Muth, John Mayer, Philip Mayer, 
Philip Muller, Eberhardt Muller, John Meirer, Henry Meyer, Henry 
Neiman, Charles Ofenloch, Henry Oeters, Louis Pingir, Henry Peter, 
William Reis, John Reichele, Peter Linz, Charles Stark, Henry Schop- 
bach, John Schneider, Jacob Schaefer, Franz Siegfried, John Schaefer, 
Frederick Schmidt, Fideli Schrank, Charles Selzer, Henry Schmidt, 
WiUiam Sondermann, Henry Schaefer, John Snekamp, Andrew Taylor, 
Henry Wolfrath, John Wartman, Charles Welch, Michael Winstel, 
John Winstel. 


Captain Theodore Biese. 

Second Lieutenant Gotfried Broderson. 


First Sergeant Julius George. 
Sergeant Frederick A. Anschutz. 



Sergeant William Meyer. 

Sergeant Christopher Waking, 

.Sergeant John Trimbux. 

Corporal Christopher Anter, 

Corporal August Johns. 

Musician William Mueller. 

Wagoner Henry Haberdink. 


Bernard Arnolds, Jacob Beck, George Baschong, Christopher 
Behrens, John Benck, Valentine Bieser, John Black, Frederick Corder, 
Henry Dust, Anton Ebert, Robert Corley, Christopher Epple, Aart 
Gondswaard, Ludwig Hartmann, John Heirich, Jacob Haax, Gustav 
Hauseler, Bernard Heyne, Adam Hortsembant, Ludwig Heinz, Charles 
Jackson. Christopher Kotlmeyer, Hermann Kloene, Adam Koehler, 
Jacob Kramer, Philip Loge, Jacob Linnenkamp, Frederick Marx, 
George Merkel, Henry A. Nichaus, George Ringeisen, William Rum- 
pier, Charles Roth, William Schacht, Jacob Steinchultz, Frederick 
Tellkamp, John Wigand, Henry Watz, Frederick Zimmerman, Charles 
Schleger, James Winterfield. 



Captain Hermann Rientang. 
First Lieutenant Philip Wich. 
Second Lieutenant James Winterfield. 


First Sergeant Henry S. Cohn. 
Sergeant Falkner Falk. 
Sergeant William Binsack. 
Sergeant Joseph Litterle. 
Sergeant Louis Krum. 
Corporal George Ade. 
Corporal Jacob Nieb. 
Corporal John Weiss. 
Corporal Balthasar Hosper. 
Corporal Conrad Maurer. 
Corporal Gottfried Bichler. 
Corporal George Kohl. 
Corporal Emil Maecke. 
Musician Frank Rohmann. 
Musician Herrmann Tieshmann. 


Gottlieb Ahrens, Martin Beigel, John Behrmann, Philip Bieser, 
August Beushauser, Daniel Burghard, Andrew Bachfalter, Adolph 
Bruderer, George Bauer, Jacob Deck, Wendelin Dressel, Heinrich H. 
Drosste, John Drechsler, Frederick Ernst, John Flaig, Henry Fossan- 
kemper, Adolph Fiesbeck, George Fahrenschon, Frederick Gausepohl, 
Julius Geisenhofer, Jacob Groh, Joseph Hill, Matthias Heinen, Philip 
Hanter, Frederick Kimmick, Fried. Krebs, Henry Kettler, Jacob J. 
Lampe, Hamrich Lampker, Fried. Lauble, Heinrich Lekamp, August 
Linder, Lorenzo Lutz, Heinrich E. Liebbert, Ludwig Legel, John 
Macht, Charles Munzer, Matthias Maier, Chrislian Molthop, George 
Metz, Conrad Quanz, Johann Ranneschan; Charles Rieb, Jacob Reich- 
hard, Peter Reipel, Jacob Reisinger, Henry Rosskoap, Andreas Som- 
mer, John Snecamp, Henry Schafer, William M. Schafer, Andreas 
Schurger, Heinrich Struve, Edward Sperber, Adam Stegner, Charles F. 
Schicker, Fried. Tiefenbach, Edward Vernezobre, Nicholaus Vole, Karl 
Weddig, Heinrich Weddig, Henry Wittenberg, Henry Witte, Peter 
Wolf, Valentine Wiest, Edward Waldenmaier, Martin Ziegler, Gus- 
tavus Bertholdt. 



Captain Matthias Lichtendahl. 
First Lieutenant Louis Auterureith. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Weilert. 


First Sergeant John H. Baumer. 
Sergeant Fried. Gieger. 
Sergeant Oscar V. Brabender. 
Sergeant Edward Otto. 
Sergeant Ernst Bermether. 
Corporal Jacob W. Dick. 
Corporal August Wehrs. 
Corporal Kasimer Usorowski. 
Corporal Joseph Ernst. 

Corporal George Haustien. 
Corporal John Effinger. 
Corporal John Long. 
Corporal William Deitz. 
Musician Alvord Lippardt. 
Musician Jacob Zink. 
Wagoner John Krumm. 


Henry Becker, August Beckman. Charles Bietzel, Joseph Black, 
Fried. Barger, Jacob Brandt, Ferdinand Bre\it, John Brech, William 
Brinkmeyer, James Corn, John Baptist Cornet, Lanienz Creitler, Frank 
Creitler, Adam Dorst, John D. Duft, Conrad Eiselein, John J. Eshinger, 
Simon Fisher, Joseph Frankle, George Fox, Fried. Goering, Fried 
Golsch, George Grosardt, Henry C. Hauenschild, Adam Hapmann, 
Michael Hettlich, Henry Heide, Jacob Heier, Laurenz Heilos, John 
Herzog, Fried Herzog, John Hohn, Charles Horn, John Kallfell, 
William Kiinper, George Kesel, Henry- Knapp, Henry Kohnen, 
Charles Krause, Conrad Lehmann, Fried. Licke, John Lohrer, John 
Maegley, George Meckel, Julius Meyer, John Miller, Jacob Miller, 
Wilhelm Minks, Adolph Molitor, George Mueller, Joseph Nichaus, 
John Nordheim, John Raw, Joseph Rosenberg, John Saalt, Henry 
Schmitke, Louis Schmaedicke, Anton Schoen, Theodore Schroeter, 
Jacob Schuan, Henry Schwarz, Michael Seibert, John Steneragel, I^ouis 
Strack, Albrecht Strickrolt, Henry Stumpf, Louis Teutsch. 

Captain Benjamin Ruh. 
First Lieutenant Herman Seeple. 
Second Lieutenant John Ortner. 


First Sergeant George Baum. 
Sergeant Frederick Alhorn. 
Sergeant Wendelin Braedler. 
Sergeant Leopold Bachmann. 
SergeantWilliam Mayer. 
Corporal William Giese. 
Corporal Christopher Schiedt. 
Corporal George Deinlein. 
Corporal Frederick Butscha. 
Corporal Nicholas Haush. 
Corporal Matthew Fruhwald. 
Corporal William Muhe. 
Musician Frederick Berg. 
Musician John Zehnder. 
Wagoner J. T. Kiefel. 


Jacob Aryst, John Buck, Charles Butler, Henry Bayer, Daniel Berud, 
v\ndrew Breunling, George Braun, George Brezler, Adolph Backhaus, 
Michael Branninger, Charles Brill, George Conrad, Jacob Deitrich, 
Robert Daniel, Henry Doell, Frederick Dorniger, Charles Fritz, Henry 
Fatler, Henry Fetpoeter, Melchion Feund, .Albert Flick, Vincent Prick- 
er, Franz Fallada, John Gardner, Jacob Gebhardt, Andrew Gebhardt, 
Xavier Gieb, Jacob Glunz, John Hugenschmidt, John Hauser, Stephen 
Havert, August Hogan, William Hilgemann, Conrad Hengetler, Au- 
gust Hugger, Edward Hadra, Jacob Irion, Charles Junker, John Kae- 
fer, John Kemptner, Conrad Keufmann, Jacob Klein, Casper Kreis, 
John Knauss, William Kalberer, Edmund Luetry, Henry Moester, An- 
ton Mayer, Christopher ALick, Henry Mussman, Franz Mikolajowsky, 
Frederick Noh, Conrad Ott, John Ott, George A. Reich, Charles Reich, 
John Rockel, John Rudolph, Franz Reichert, Charles Rauch, Anton 
Rasch, Victor Ready, Henry Simmer, Leonhard, Schmith, Herman 
Schmitz, Jacob Schafer, Henry Schmidt, Romig Stemmer, John Sprak- 
uly, Phillipp Sprakuly, Henry Sudbrack, Julius Schroeninger, Joseph 
Ulsenier, Bernhard Vogedis, Jacob Wilhelms, John Wick, John Wier- 
ling, Jacob Weislagel, Ignatz Woertz, John Weirsmann, Christopher 
J. Weisler, Frank Zoller, Herman Seifel.John Ortner. 



Captain Frederick Bauman. 

First Lieutenant Peter Kirschaner. 

Second Lieutenant Christopher Bauman. 


First Sergeant Charles B. Kelterer. 
Sergeant Nicholas Clements. 



Sergeant Henry Faubel. 
Sergeant Peter Stolz. 
Sergeant Louis Bode. 
Corporal John Kelly. 
Corporal John Kraus. 
Corporal Louis Saas. 
Corporal Peter Trautmann. 
Corporal Adam Metz. 
Corporal Louis Schmidt. 
Corporal Alozs Amreu. 
Corporal John Rosskoph. 
Musician Louis Speckmann. 
Wagoner Thomas Buchter. 


Theodore Arendt, Lally Anhotz, Nicholas Bachmann, Henry Backet, 
John Bezer, Charles Beisminger, Henry Bowman, Charles F. Branner, 
August Bramkamp, William Burckhardt, Joseph Collet, Louis Dhoma, 
Charles Durruff, Jacob Diehl, Gustav Disahnowsky. Frederick Finger- 
hut, John Findler, Charles Falter, Ferdinand Tassler, Henry Geling 
Louis Ganrich, Heinrich Gander, Matthias Gluns, Charles Geyer, Pat- 
rick Glenn, Peter Heil, John Hasselback, Charles Hahn, Raymond 
Hall, James Hill, Peter Hery, Henry Hammerschmidt, George Jacob 
Horner, John Hornberger, William Banning, Andrew Jenny, Freder- 
ick Joers, Jacob Jager, Jolin B. Johnson, John Koch, Adam Kraus, 
Christopher Lampert, Christopher Laser, Joseph Meyer, Charles Mul- 
ler, Frederick Muller, Heinrich G. Muller, Charles Meyer, Frank Mich- 
eler, Frederick Meinzer, Joseph Munter, Louis Northman, Louis Nay, 
Frederick Neiman, Adolphus Newbeck, Henry Artmann, Adolphus 
Reichert, Henry Stockhove, John Schick, Charles Spiess, William 
Sachs, George H. Sauer, Andrew Schmeller, Charles Sattler, Phillipp, 
Sommer, Charles Todtenbier, Edward Ulm, Anton Ulrich, George 
Vogelin, Henry Will, John Weber, Jacob Waldrich, Frederick Weber, 
John Weiler, Heinrich William, Frederick Wocker, Theodore Wlme- 
ler, Anton Zuleger, Frank Zost, Louis Ziegel, John Zink, Adam Zim- 
merman, Christopher Bauman, Peter Hirschauer. 


This command was composed mainly of the German 
element, and was recruited in Hamilton, Butler, and 
Franklin counties. When but partly organized in August, 
1862, four companies were hurried from Camp Dennison 
to Covington, by the alarm of invasion, and there wel- 
comed four companies more. After Kirby Smith re- 
treated, the regiment went to Louisville, and thence' to 
Frankfort, to put down Morgan's guerillas. It was there 
placed in General Dumont's division and marched to 
Bowling Green, where it was assigned to the Thirty-ninth 
brigade, Tweilfth division. Resuming its march the regi- 
ment, near Harts ville, Tennessee, was skilfully saved 
from an overwhelming force of Morgan's and other rebels, 
which had surrounded it; but a few days after, through 
the carelessness and cowardice of an Illinois officer, the 
brigade coinmander, it was surrendered to Morgan, with 
all the forces and stores at Hartsville. The One Hun- 
dred and Eighth, however, gave the enemy a courageous 
resistance for more than an hour, losing forty-six killed 
and one hundred and sixty-two wounded. Every officer 
of the regiment, except three, was captured. The con- 
duct of the command was especially commended in a 
letter from General Rosecrans. After exchange it was 
duly re-organized at Camp Dennison, receiving another 
company. It was assigned to duty in Frankfort, Ken- 
tucky, and won golden opinions for its discipline and 
good conduct, the order for its removal being thrice 
revoked at the request of General Robinson and other 
leading citizens. It was finally ordered to Louisville, and 
thence to Nashville, where it served for four months 
guarding railroads. September 6th it moved by rail to 

Stevenson, and in November reached the vicinity of 
Chattanooga, where it took post on Moccasin Point, at 
the foot of Lookout Mountain, supporting the Eighteenth 
Ohio battery. It was here made part of the Second 
brigade. Second division, Fourteenth corps, with which 
it served until the close of the war. November 2 2d 
it crossed the Tennessee and had a spirited skirmish 
with the rebels near Graysville. It was then hurried to 
the relief of Knoxville, but was turned back from 
Morgantown, on the Little Tennessee, to Chattanooga, 
which it reached after a very toilsome march, during 
which many of its men had trod the frozen ground bare- 
footed. It went into winter quarters near Rossville, and 
in February, 1864, moved to Lyne's Station, on the 
Knoxville railroad, whence it took part in the reconnois-' 
sance from Ringgold to Tunnel Hill, and on towards 
Dalton. Upon its return to Rossville it was joined by 
two new companies. May 3d it marched for Ringgold, 
on the Atlanta campaign, and for four months was 
engaged in almost continuous marching and fighting. It 
happened to be engaged especially in bayonent charges, 
in which it was uniformly successful, driving the rebels 
several times from strong positions. At Resaca it was in 
a storm of bullets for four hours, and lost heavily. It 
was in the side movement on Rome, and captured a large 
lot of chewing and smoking tobacco, which a German 
regiment knows how to enjoy. During the latter part of 
the campaign it did noble service as train guards between 
Chattanooga and Atlanta, in one case a sergeant and 
twenty men successfully defending, through a whole day, 
a train thrown from the track. In August a part of the 
regiment participated in the defence of Dalton against 
Wheeler's cavalry. It broke camp at that place in early 
November, and went to Atlanta to join in the march to 
the sea. During the last fight of Sherman's army at 
Bentonville, North Carolina, it was largely instrumental 
in saving the day by a most heroic resistance. Six times 
the rebels charged and were repulsed, and four times the 
men of the One Hundred and Eighth had to leap over 
their slight breastworks, to repel attacks from rear as well 
as front. When the last attack was repulsed the regiment 
had left but two cartridges per man. It was in the ad- 
vance of the movement April 10, 1865, from Golds- 
borough toward Smithfield, on the Neuse river, and was 
sharply engaged with the rebel cavalry for nine hours, 
driving it fourteen miles during that time. This was the 
last action of the war; and it is claimed that this reg- 
iment fired the last shots against the Rebellion, and that 
Captain Fleischman, of company H, who lost his life 
during the fight, was the last Federal officer who was 
killed on the field in the long struggle. The regiment 
rested a short time at Holly Springs, North Carolina, then 
marched from Raleigh to Richmond, one hundred and 
ninety-two miles, in six and a half days, without leaving 
a straggler; and thence to Washington, where it took 
part in the grand reviews, and was mustered out June 9, 
1865. Throughout its service it was held in the highest 
esteem by its brigade, division, and corps commanders, 
for its prompt action, its discipline, and fighting quali- 



Colonel George T. Limberg. 
Lieutenant Colonel Carlo Piephr. 
Major Frederick W. Elberg. 
Adjutant Henry Huhn. 
Surgeon Adolph Zipperlin. 
Assistant Surgeon Hubert Sohopp. 
Quartermaster Christian Dilg. 
Sergeant Major Hugo Elzner. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Titus Hyer. 
Commissary .Sergeant George Ackermann. 
Hospital Steward August-Noite. 



Captain Carlo Piephr. 

First Lieutenant Gustav Bauer. 

Second Lieutenant Louis Hebel. 

First Sergeant David Friedmann. 
Sergeant Franz Fleishman. 
Sergeant Henry Hollenkamp. 
Sergeant Joseph Nessler. 
Sergeant George Ackerman. 
Corporal Henry Rosenbush. 
Corporal Charles Kutt. 
Corporal John Simon. 
Corporal Charles Sness. 
Corporal Joseph Beyer. 
Corporal John Eberhard. 
Corporal M. Wassner. 
Corporal Henry Schwarz. 
Musician William Piephr. 


George Alter, Louis Aaron, Conrad Ahrens, Fredr Bagle, Henry Bes- 
seler, Bernard Baash, Leonhard Brunn, Charles Dallettschuk, Leopold 
Dritschen, Jacob Eberhart, August Freimerth, Niolaus Feth, Henry 
Fleck, George Feishman, Henry Gebeld, John Gerhausser, John Hof- 
fenger, Nicolaus Herfel, Jacob Haas, Henry Honebiller, William 
Hendre, Frank Howerboon, Frank Huber, Martin Henyer, Jacob 
Kommann, Simon Kommann, Jacob Kiefer, George W. Kezel, Jerst 
Knopf, Louis Klinegket, Franz Knuetter, August Leidner, John Mer- 
gifer, Matthias Noe, Frederick Ritter, Henry Ringhausen, Theodore 
Schaefer, Martin Schuter, George Sommer, Anton Sutter, George San- 
ger, Benedict Steinauer, Matthias Schafer, Henry Smith, Peter Smith, 
Henry Stack, Conrad Sebrak, Frederick Timms, Valentine Teichmann, 
Jacob Turelmeior, Phillip Ukele, Jacob Wasmer, Sebastine Walfer, 
Ferdinand Weing, Matthias Walerius. T. G. Wideman, Frederick 
Weber, Herman WeismuUert, George Weile, Reinhard Zink, George 
Zurck, Louis Cappe, Henry Mahlenceamp, Martin G. Weckler, Eber- 
hard Wessel, Charles Follen, Frederick Brassard, Louis Graff, John 
Heller, Henry Hernisher, Phillip Hauser, Phillip Lerm, Henry Moeht- 
ekamp, John Meiziger, Frederick Ringhausen. 



Captain Joseph Good. 

First Lieutenant Jacob Denald. 

Second Lieutenant Michael Stromneier. 


First Sergeant James H. Orr. 
Sergeant Henry Albershardt. 
Sergeant Daniel Christian. 
Sergeant Valentine Bertscher. 
Sergeant Henry Meyer. 
Corporal William Peter. 
Corporal Jacob Rodel, jr. 
Corporal Frank Huber. 
Corporal Stephen Whistler. 
Corporal Christian Stutzman. 
Corporal Bernard DuUe. 
Corporal John Rodel, 
Corporal Louis .Arnkhorst. 
Musician Barney M. Rolf. 
Musician Henry Korman. 
Wagoner Valentine Becker. 


Frederick Amslee, Peter Becker, William Brightman, Herbert Bra- 
bender, Conrade Brack, Herman Brademeier, Frederick Bessenkamp, 
Daniel Boltz, Michael Boltz, John Bohlinger, Frederick Decker, Fred- 
erick Dobbeling, August Diehl, Henry Dallinghaus, Adam Dilg, Fred- 
erick Dilg, George D. Dilg, William Dilg, Andrew Eckstine, Jacob 
Eselman, John G. Eshenbried, Leopold Flack, Edward Feldheim, 
Henry Frey, George Furtz, Bernard Glaser, John Hollenbeck, George 
Hoffman, William Kounz, William HoUeman, Michael Hamman, 
Martin Heisennan, Nicholas Kleeman,' Ernst Kleice, Bernhard Kruse, 
Michael Klohf, John Litteken, William Lightle, Jacob Meyer, jr. , Jo- 
seph Meyer, Adam Meyer, Charles Meltz, Adolph Motsdroft, Jacob 
Mueller, Anton Munlk, Gustav Mowry, Henry Nickols, Henry Nye, 
Louis Ponsolt, Christian Priest, John Pfaff, Jacob J. Rodel, sr., Fred- 
erick Reike, William Reake, Conrad Rost, Ezekiel Robinson, Joseph 
Renz, Henry Reake, Louis Schwab, John Schwartz, Henry Toulken, 
Conrad Transiger, James Thompson, Charles Visvohlt, Peter Wilson, 
John C. Wolf, Henry Zapf, Anthon Tewost. 

Captain William Ketteler. 

First Lieutenant George Klein. 

Second Lieutenant Edward Hagle. 


First Sergeant Charles Kuttenkamp. 
Sergeant Charles Burk. 
Sergeant Frederick Koch. 
Sergeant Herman Stahl. 
Sergeant William Attmann. 
Sergeant JohnVandenbergh. 
Sergeant Joseph Ruersbinger. 
Sergeant Phillip Snebel. 
Sergeant Louis Passaur. 
Sergeant John Beisser. 
Sergeant Francis Wiegand. 
Sergeant George Geikelberger. 
Sergeant Melchior Massoth. 
Musician Martin Eiden. 
Wagoner Charles Erfeul. 


James Ayers, Valentine Aureben, Henry Bergemann, Frederick Boob, 
John Brust, Jacob Preisch, Charles Backemeyer, Louis Berke, Joseph 
Dornius, Henry Diesmann, John Benzler, William Doegen, Hugo 
Elsher, Edward Fresene, Michael Fisher, John Faber, William Genest, 
Benjamin Graff, Louis Jacob, Theodore Hunger, John Hack, Nicolas 
Heinert, William Heusf, Gatlob Helfee, Louis Hornann, Phillip Hum- 
lick, John H. Hambrook, Marcus Indlekover, Henry Koch, Herman 
Kamphouse, Christian Kihnle, Rudolph Kunz, George Kupferla, John 
Kunzmann, Frederick Lehier, Herman Lehmann, George Marking, 
George Meinhart, Louis Millich, Joseph Mueller, Joseph Miller, 
Henry Naef, Ernest Otto, Matthias Oberfeld, Andrews Planz, Otto 
Russ, Marcus Runty, Peter Roth, Henry Risbel, Wilham Stoerig, 
Martin Schatt. Theodore Stegmann, George Schuman, Joseph Stein- 
kamp, Joseph Steinkamp, sr., Jacob Stoll, Frederick Schmidt, Henry 
Schlimme, Hugo Stahl. Constanz Syberg, Andrew Stubenach, Adam 
Schilling, John Turner, August Waldemeyer, Jacob Waldemeyer, 
August Walter, George Gegener. 



Captain Frederick E. Humbach. 
First Lieutenant John L. Lilberhorn. 
Second Lieutenant John Bruek. 


First Sergeant Christopher Schum. 
Sergeant Paul P. Farr. 
Sergeant Jacob B. KnofF. 
Sergeant Rudolph Luchsinger. 
Sergeant Michael Frenger. 
Corporal Stephen Flock. 
Corporal Conrad Bruck. 
Corporal George Heid. 
Corporal Marcus Grieser. 
Corporal George Schwenk. 
Corporal George Munsch. 
Corporal Julius Schuster. 
Corporal Christian Frey. 
Wagoner Simon Siegel. 




Johannes Angst, John Busing, John Bausch, Andrew Bood, John 
Bruck, Adolph Betze, Joseph Craeck, George Deager, Andrew Doeler, 
Frederick Dove, J ohn Drisner, Bernliart Deustock, Adam Dingeldein, 
Frederick Eilhaner, Conrad Geiger, Carl Grebe, Peter Germ, Andrew 
Grieser, Adam Guddorf, IMatthew Haller, Philip Haas, Carl Herman, 
John Hanner, Henry Heinner, Carl Hamerschlag, Joseph Hickenaner, 
John Hook, John Hoffenan, Henry Heriecher, Henry F, HoUmeyer, 
Edward Intlekofer, Jacob Jang, Ludwig Knauf, Bernhardt Kohler, 
John Kriesel, Valentine Keller, George Kirchenberger, Philip Logi, 
Bernhardt Lanmers, Henry Menche, Daniel Mazer, Jacob Moore, 
Frederick Metley, Philip Muller, August Nolte, Ernst Nenn, Henry 
Nenn, Michael Ott, JohnA. Peterson, Julius Pfeiffer, Christian Roesch, 
John Schaefer, Moritz Schneider, Philip Senn, Franz M. Schneider, 
Howard Stanton, Christian Stupp, John Stoch, Peter Strayer, Frank 
Strieker, Joseph Schonter, Adolph Scheurer, Michael Senger Henry B. 
Seabrecht, Theobald Saechting, Henry Tonnes, Anton Ternast, Johan- 
nes Weber; Federick Witteman, Herman Wilker, Herman Writh, 
Frederick Weigand, Joseph Whitmore. 



Captain John N. Kreidler. 

First Lieutenant Daniel Gersweiler. 

Second Lieutenant Max Mosler. 


First Sergeant James Skeeidler. 

Sergeant John G. Pfeifer. 

Sergeant George C. Blitz. 

Sergeant Frederick C. Herpel. 

Sergeant John Minrad. 

Corporal Henry Schmakert. 

Corporal George Trilgefort. 

Corporal Michael Steffen. 

Corporal JohnAicher. 

Corporal Henry Niesmiller. 

Corporal Edward Zeviesler. 

Corporal Jacob Hand. 

Corporal Joseph Schreck. 

Wagoner Charles Nerlitz. 


Peter Ageter, August G. Alberhart, John Berrham, Robert Biechoff, 
William Bra-xterman, William Bidlingmeir, Frederick Bohn, Herrmann 
Bick, Christopher Benzing, Peter Beckert, William Cary, Bernard 
Diestrock, John Denblain, Nichlaus Diater, Frederick Eichele, Max 
Eppel, Daniel Espensheit, Collier Forbes, Jacob Fried, Henry Ferned- 
ing, George Faitsch, Anthony Goetz, Joseph Grawe, George Grimme, 
Andrew Good, Antony Guddorf, Herrman Gensch, Jacob Heckel, 
Herrman Hildebrand, Peter Heck, Peter Heiser, John Hile, John 
Klorme, J oseph Kopszka, George Keamer, Anthony Rist, Anthony 
Kappler, Henry Kasterer, Hugo Keamer, Jacob Kiefer, August 
Keemig, Hillar Lang, Michael Lippart, William Luhrman, Mathias 
Lenz, Frederick Lohrman, John W. Mertz, John Myer, John Miller, 
William Osterday, John Ochs, Benjamin Parmelee, Louis Rossa, 
Christopher Rumff, Ludwig Streibig, Charles Signer, Jacob Srearist, 
Gottleib Schittewkelee, Rudolph Sehueble, Kilian Stravenbert, Jacob 
Schmidt, Adolph Sand, Peter Schug, Frederick Stairhaner, Ulrich 
Tholan, Henry Wilane, Henry Wilier, August Welsch. 



Captain William Battler. 

First Lieutenant Frederick Beck. 

Second Lieutenant Hermann Groentam. 


First Sergeant August Watermayer. 
Sergeant Theodore Herugor. 
Sergeant Jacob Watermayer. 
Corporal Henry Egalf. 
Corporal William Gessert. 


John Ankert, George Ackerman, George Althven, Joseph Bertram, 
George Baumann, John Budinger, Charles Bush, Henry Bosenir, Fred- 
erick Brossarthy, Louis Bek, Miles Carpenter, John Cline, Jacob 
Danges, Frank Deer, Charles Flek, Henry Flek, Thomas Gorman, 
Matple Geisenhafer, Henry Hernisher, Frederick Kammann, Frank 

Kreis, Henry Lath, Antson Lanewethr, Frederick Lang, Henry Muet- 
ter, Frederick Meyer, Charles Mostier, Henry Meier, Henry Niemann, 
Jacob Pfeifer, Frederick Petzinger, Leonhardt Pretz, John Rotter, 
Theodore Beimann, Louis Renkert, Anton Rolig, William Schnerking, 
Albert Simon, PhiUip Smith, David Schneider, Charles Schatt, John 
Smith, Edward Wild, William Wagner, Edward Watermayer, William 
Walter, Adam Wagner, Andrew Wuest. 



Captain Philip Londenlagers. 

First Lieutenant William Strohmeier. 

Second Lieutenant Herman Backhouse. 


First Sergeant Nicholaus Diefentach. 
Sergeant John Clauson. 
Sergeant John Metzler. 
Sergeant George Miller. 
Sergeant George Kunter. 
Corporal John Obersclahn. 
Corporal Jacob Heintze. 
Corporal Jacob Mauz. 
Corporal William Eglauf. 
Corparaljohn Wann. 
Corporal Herman I^uchlof 
Corporal Joseph Schoneberger. 
Corporal George Tromiter. 
Musician Ceorge Smith. 
Musician Anthony Peters. 
Wagoner Martin Reed. 


George Ackerman, John Auguss, Henry Broekmeier, Jacob Berbrick, 
John Bleiell, Joseph Brightoneger, Jacob Bentel, Frank Birkelein, 
George Beck, Harmond Boleman, Daniel Christman, Jacob Doneva- 
waith, George Dinkel, Ambrose Dell, Martin Essert, Martin Eiden, Wil- 
liam Essig, Frederick Gessel, John Grotch, Christian Gausert, Louis 
Gross, James Garrett, Michael Heintze, Joseph Heeke, Henry Hillen- 
stein, Conrad Hess, John Herkes, Charles Hetter, Valentine Hinkel, 
George Hoft', John Hiller, Frank Kuntzer, Thomas Keys, George 
Kern, Joseph Kensel, Oraman Mann, Frederick Miers, Henry Menke, 
John A. Miller, John Miller, John Mitter, John Rifner, Ferdinand 
Riner, Nicolaus Shaeiser, John Summelwein, John Schaich, George F. 
Scharold, John Shingle, Richard Slaup, John Streble, Louis .Trainer, 
Richard Teller, Matthias Weldeshofer, John Wittwoch, Cornelius 
Whippel, Louis Weglass, Martin Quick, T. S. Heyer, John Ots. 



Captain Carl Von Heintze. 

First Lieutenant Charles Landustein. 

Second Lieutenant Edmund Rodde. 


First Sergeant Carl Rallmann. 
Sergeant Jacob Keller. 
Sergeant John Meyer. 
Sergeant John Hass. 
Sergeant Wilham Guttmer. 
Corporal George Dietz. 
Corporal Anton Graeser. 
Musician Henry Menke. 
Wagoner Henry Husing. 


Joseph Baur, Henry Bergmann, Jacob Betzer, Frederick Bimstine, 
Peter Daum, William Essig, Henry Eichler, John Eberhardt, Andrew 
Fischer, Simon Falk, Adam Frank, Edward Frenberg, John Gibb, 
Frank Hamann, Heinrich Hempe, John Hauff, Michael Hausmann, 
Julius Jobst, Peter Jacob, John Kahl, Samuel 1. King, Charies Konep- 
ker, John Kormitz, John Kennon, Charles Kuhn, Charles Kashler, 
John Lauenslein, Wilhelm Lindermann, Philip Miller, Joseph Meier, 
George Minhardt, John Meiziger, Nicholas Miller, Frederick Meyer, 
Thomas Moors, Edward Neumann, Henry Niemeyei, Carl Nuss, Mar- 
tin Oberfeldt, Leonhard Pretz, John Reynolds, Joachim Richetaller, 
Jacob Schiffendecker, William Schale, Frederick Schevier, John Shil- 
ling, Adam Thomas, Drids Timme, Frank Nughofer, Louis Weglan, 
John Werner, Eberhard Wessel. 




Captain Rudolph Heintz. 
First Lieutenant Conrad Kress. 
Second Lieutenant Henrv Schwarz. 


First Sergeant Cliarles Conrad. 
Sergeant Jacob Theis. 
Sergeant Jacob Liebler. 
Sergeant John Thomson. 
Sergeant Paul Strimski. 
Corporal John Moll. 
Corporal Jacob Ott. 
Corporal Ferdinand Anshutz. 
Corporal Henry Spitzer. 
Musician August Dickmann. 
Musician William Humphries. 


James Allen, Conrad Assmann, George Barr, Wendel Becker, 
George Berry, Valentine Bock, Joseph A. Buchholz, Morand Claden, 
Ralph Conners, Alexander Cook, Henry Dietz, William Eisling, John 
Fischer, Joseph Gnaw, Rudolph Greenfelder, John N. Grol, Andrew 
Hearn, William Johnson, Joseph Jung, Jerry Kleppert, John King, 
Charles Leidner, Christian H. Linkenheid, George Loyd, George W. 
McNall, Thomas Marion, Anton Miller, Owen McCeen, Noel J. Mar- 
garidge, Leopold MuUer, Jacob Nachbrand, Henry Noll, John O'Brien, 
David Agle, Charles Reese, John Ries, August Roethig, Andreas 
Schad, Joseph Schaffer, Charles J. Schicker, Johann Schwartz, William 
Simpson, John Stepleton, Richard Stephens, William J. Stuart, Anton 
Volhner, John Wagenzeller, Matthias Weibel, Christian Woermer, 
Charles Woertz, Henry G. Ulmer. 



First Lieutenant F. H. Stumpf. 
Second Lieutenant F. Smetzer. 


First Sergeant Louis Herlinger. 

Sergeant John Wegener. 

Sergeant Peter Leik. 

Sergeant John Schulteis. 

Corporal Charles Reinhard. 

Corporal Albert Guenther. 

Corporal Adolph Graeser. 

Corporal Henry Mangold. 

Corporal Alvis Standniher. 

Musician Edward Intlehofer. 

Musician Charles Behli. 


Louis Assman, Clemens Becker, Theodore Beppler, George G. Bol- 
linger, Maurice Buckley, Eberhard Camerer, Charles Doermer, Adam 
Deppler, Jacob Esse.x, Anton Fischer, William Fischer, Daniel Fitz- 
maurice, John Frank, Charles Friedrichs, Joseph Fommet, Phillip 
Fuchs, G. C. Garrison, Markus Glasser, William C. Goff, William 
Goshorn, August Grending, Michael Hallschan, Henry Hiedebrenk, 
Edward Heinricke, Henry Kloenig, Jacob Knoen, John Linn, John 
Maertz, Isaac L. McGinnis, Henry Myer, Frederick Mueller, Jacob 
Napoleon, William Pollard, John Purdam, Joseph Riddle, Winfield S. 
Boyse, August Schmidt, John Schroeder, John Schulz, William Smith, 
Francis Snauffer; Andreas Spock, Henry Spielker, August Steinmann, 
Charles Thomson, Joseph Urban, Charles Westayer, Conrad Wegford, 
Louis Weylan, Mike Weiss, John Welsh, James Welsh, Lawrence 
Worr, Henry A. Wise, John Youngs, Peter Zink. 


This company was recruited and mustered in for the 
One Hundred and Ninth regiinent; but the organization 
of that command not being completed, the comjjany 
was assigned to the One Hundred and Thirteenth. 

Second Lieutenant Edward F. Haynes. 


Sergeant Francis F. Hendy. 

Sergeant Henry Bracke. 

Corporal William F. Johnson. 

Corporal Franklin Elliott. 


John Ambrose, Charles H. Bascomb, John Barry, Joseph A. Camp- 
bell, Lewis Collins, Francis Duffy, William Friley, James Hewitt, 
William Hunter, William Koltman, Henry King, Michael Kays, 
George Kelsey, Francis Leehey, Nicholas Martin, Henry Massman, 
Richard McCohey, Charles V. McCauUa, William M. Knight, Bern- 
hard D. Shuite, Henry Stone, Peter Spelley, Thaddeus S. Sprague, 
William H. Taylor, Charles Wilson, Thomas Williams, Henry Wil- 
burn, John Young. 

Assistant Surgeon John Q. A. Hudson. 

Adjutant Marshal B. Clasm. 
Sergeant Major Charles W. Erdman. 


Only one company ("I," from Cincinnati) was recruited 
in Hamilton county. The regiment was organized at 
Camp Taylor, near Cleveland, and started for the field 
New Year's day, 1863. Its first camp was made at Eliz- 
abethtown, Kentucky, and in February embarked at 
Louisville for Nashville, and marched thence to Franklin, 
where it encamped till June, building forts, drilling, and 
engaged in other duties. It was in the afifair of the fourth 
of March, at Thompson's Station, in which a Federal 
brigade was taken, but escaped the field in time to avoid 
capture, with the artillery and the ammunition train it 
was guarding. It suffered severely from disease during 
the rest of the stay at Franklin. June 2d it joined the 
forward movement of Rosecrans' army, and at Manches- 
ter was brigaded in the Second brigade. Second division, 
Twenty-first army corps. While in camp there, un- 
der better conditions of living, the health of the men 
greatly improved. August i6th the march over the Cum- 
berlands began, and September 9th the Tennessee was 
crossed in water reaching to the waists of the men. Sep- 
tember igth, at Chickamauga, the regiment was sharply 
engaged for the first time, and stood the ordeal bravely 
and well, losing one hundred men killed, wounded, or 
captured. The next day it was again engaged, losing 
forty men (including its colonel), and being compelled to 
fall back upon Chattanooga with the beaten forces, yet 
bearing itself handsomely throughout. The starvation 
period at and about Chattanooga followed, during which 
it was assigned to the Second brigade. Third division, 
Fourth corps, and engaged in building forts and other 
works. October 26th it was in the skilful and brave 
night attack by which Raccoon mountain was captured, 
and in the subsequent movements which enabled Hook- 
er's troops to cross the river and raise the siege. Novem- 
ber 23d it bore a distinguished part in the charge on 
Mission Ridge, capturing seven guns and eighty stand of 
arins, but losing fifty-six men, ainong whom was Captain 
Frost, of the Cincinnati company, mortally wounded at 
the moment the enemy's works were occupied. In No- 
vember it marched to relieve Knoxville. The next winter 
was spent in East Tennessee, in the endurance of many 



hardships. With its corps it shared the glories of the 
Atlanta campaign, and was in the flanking movement to 
Jonesborough, the pursuit of Hood, the battle of Nash- 
ville, and the final chase of Hood out of Tennessee. 
From Huntsville it went to Strawberry Plains, East Ten- 
nessee, and from there to Nashville, where it was mus- 
tered out July 9, 1865, and shortly afterwards paid off 
and discharged at Camp Taylor. 



Captain James H. Frost. 

First Lieutenant Anthony Caldwell. 


First Sergeant Albert Wetherell. 
Sergeant John J. Butts. 
Sergeant Samuel H. Gagus. 
Sergeant John M. David. 
Sergeant Thomas Dickson. 
Corporal Oscar Mead. 
Corporal Samuel Schock. 
Corporal John E. Murphy. 
Corporal James Gunnison. 
Corporal James Wykoff. 
Corporal Patrick Welsh. 
Corporal Barney Battle. 
Corporal James Carmel. 
Musician Charles Chippendale. 
Musician James C. White. 
Wagoner John Coyle. 


John Byrnes, William Boone, Charles Beecher, Samuel Bowlby, John 
Cordry, William Corcoran, Michael Conery, Patrick Cavanagh, John 
Cline, William Calvert, John Crisman, James Connelly, Columbus Dale, 
Dennis Dempsey, John Dailey, William Edwards, John Ervin, David 
Fouts, John Harmer, James Hedges, John Hall, Enoch Hallsey, James 
Harmer, Henry Howard, George W. Johns, William H. Jones, Enoch 
Johnson, John Jones, Solomon Johnson, William Jones, Samuel B. 
Johns, James Kelly, George Kongor, Jacob Kahn, Wesley Long, 
lames Leisure, Granville M. McDonal, George W. Mills, John McCune, 
William Montgomery, Patrick McLaughlin, Phillip McMahon, Henry 
Mertius, David Neeley, Thomas O'Brien, Joseph R. Price, Jackson V. 
Phillips, John Quigley, Erasmus Roberts, John G. Ripley, Michael 
Ryan, Michael Riley, George Reichert, James Ryan, James Stocton, 
John Sutter, Henry Stanley, Samuel Shaw, George P. Stanford, Charles 
Stiger, Joseph Stole, Thomas Toohey, Thomas Teverling, George Tre- 
hom, James Terry, Peter B. WilHam, August Weber, Valentine Weber, 
Edward Wren, Michael Wolf, Lewis R. Weeks, Charles E, Warner, 
Spence R. Woodworth, Leonidas Young, Henry Murphy, Peter Myers. 


This regiment was designated, under the Ohio militia 
law, as the "Seventh Ohio National Guard," and was 
organized for the hundred-days' service under the name 
above noted. The rank and file of the organization was 
composed wholly of citizens of Cincinnati, drawn from 
the mercantile and mechanic interests of the city, the 
latter largely predominating. It was considered the best 
drilled regiment in the State, and was to Cincinnati what 
the Seventh New York regiment is to the Empire City. 
On the publication of the governor's call for thirty thou- 
sand minute-men from. Ohio, there was not the least 
hesitation among the members of this fine organization. 
Every name was promptly represented in the ranks, not- 
withstanding there were scores of comrades who could 
well afford to purchase substitutes; but it was made a 
matter of pride that each and every member should re- 
port in person, unless his business absolutely forbade it. 

On the sixth of May, 1864, the regiment_^was^nustered 

into the United States service at Camp Dennison, and 
was put en route for Washington city on the twelfth of the 
same month. Upon arrival at Baltimore, it marched 
through the city, preceded by the far-famed Menter's 
band of musicians, and such was the evidence of its cor- 
rect drill and thorough discipline, that Major General 
Lew Wallace, then in command of the district, was 
prompted to retain it in his department. Orders to that 
effect were at once issued, and the regiment was assigned 
to duty at Fort McHenry, in the harbor below Baltimore, 
with detachments at Forts Federal Hill, Marshall, and 
Carroll, and at the various headquarters in Baltimore. 
The greater part of the hundred days was spent in that 
duty. On the first of August the regiment moved up to 
Fort Marshall, and there reinained until the fourteenth, 
when its time having expired, it was transported back to 
Camp Dennison, and mustered out of service on the 
twenty-first. Its losses were but five men, all told, three 
of whoin died of disease; the other two were killed on 
their way home by striking a bridge under which the 
train was passing. 

The commander of this regiment. Colonel Len A. 
Harris, had had the valuable experience, as colonel of the 
Second Ohio infantry of two year's service in the war. 


Colonel Len A. Harris. 
Lieutenant Colonel George M. Erich. 
Major George A. Van de Grift. 
.Surgeon William B. Davis. 
Adjutant George A. Middleton. 
Quartermaster Samuel D. Carey. 
Assistant Surgeon Charles Hunt. 
Assistant Surgeon James Culbertson. 
Sergeant Major Robert Gordon Ellis. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Peter H. Martin. 
Commanding Sergeant Jacob H. Hubbell. 
Hospital Steward George Schuesler. "i 

Captain James H. Sheldon. 
First Lieutenant James P. Lytle. 
Second Lieutenant George W. Ward. 


James Battiese, William Baird, jr., Solon M. Best, John R. Benson, 
Francis P. Bent, Joseph L. Burr, George W. Baldwin, Leonard H. 
Butler, Mathias H. Beavier, George Bates, James Brasheare, Samuel 
M. Chester, Ebenezer F. Clark, John M. Cherry, Richard H. Cragg, 
Frank Conrad, Charles H. Corneau, Adelbert Dorsy, W. F. De Camp, 
Judson A. Davis, William Dill, Edward Dodson, James H. Donke, 
Erwin De Peart, Edwin C. Ellis, Otto Felthouse, Henry Gunther, William 
H. Gibbs, Kirby S. Greene, Thomas J. Guthrie, Hubert Griggs, 
Edward Hobroyd, Albert B. Harduper, George F. Hayden, Jacob A. 
Hubbell, Charles H. Haclam, James G.Johnson, Adam C. Johnson, 
Ale.Kander Kinkaid, Aldom N. Kingsbury, Anthony H. King, Thomp- 
son N. Lupton, Henderson P. Lane, James H. Miller, John M. Macy, 
William D. McKeen, Ogden Meader, Justin Meader, Charles F. Moore, 
Charles S. Morrow, William P. Mellen, Walter J, Morris, Carrol A. 
O'Kane, John H. Pollock, John F. Porter, Charles Ritchie, James F. 
Richie, Sidney L. Rice, Leander E. Rogers, Albert E. Shaw, Joseph 
M. Scott, Charles J. Stedman, Frederick Singleton, Frank Sanford, 
William B. Sinclair, John P. Schwan, Henry Sheid, Frederick Sneider, 
Charles A. Town, Charles W. Taylor, William Taft, William H. 
Taylor, Henry Van Matre, Christopher Wilson, Frank E. Wilson, John 
T. White, David P. Wynne, Charles R. Wild, Levi Wild, Jonathan 
Wynee, Reuben Wood, Francis Armstrong, William N. Cordery, John 
Kidd, Mills Morris, Timothy Rardin, Joseph Stough. 


Captain Waldo C. Booth. 
First Lieutenant Adolph Wood. 



First Sergeant Ale.vander Johnson. 

Sergeant W. Whelpley. 

Sergeant Frank Churchill. 

Sergeant Engel H. Smith. 

Sergeant Robert H. Hosea. 

Corporal Charles W. Withenbury. 

Corporal John D. Pugh. 

Corporal Orion S. Chamberlain. 

Corporal John C. Thompson. 

Corporal William Resor, jr. 

Corporal William S. Sampson, jr. 

Corporal James H. Sibley. 

Corporal William W. Woodward. 


Charles A. Doran, Harry Agg, Nathan H. Allen, Samuel Anghin- 
baugh, William H. Barry, Enoch Blasdell, William Brumer, Joseph 
Bowers, Jacob Branson, William H. Boggs, Reuben B. Brooks, Henry 
W. Bryan, Benjamin Bell, Frank C. Carnahan, fames W. Cook, John 
Collins, George B. Chandler, William P. Clark, William J. Crosby, 
Frederick S. Calhoun, Milo P. Dodds, Clarence C. Dunarest, Hiram 
A. Dalton, Stephen D. Evans, William V. Eversole, Daniel H. Frazier, 
Oliver P. Gray, ."Alexander C. Graham, Henry G. Gustetter, Henry J. 
Hazard, WiUiam Jones, Charles B. Johnson, William B. Johnson, 
George W. Lilley, George H. Luckey, Wilkmson Lindsey, William 
Liethstone, jr., Richard T. McComas, George Moses, John B. Maihn, 
Edward Morrow, Wendel Maus, John P. Phares, Frederick Pfiester, 
Joseph S. Peebles, Clarence L. Power, Walter Palmer, Charles O. 
Reser, George W. Rice, John E. Roberts, Isaac N. Roop, Charles 
Raunnelsburg, Frederick Reinhardt, Samuel B. Reinley, Robert B. 
Sullivan, Charles B. Smith, Daniel P. Taber, Milton N. Taisey, 
Richard H. Turner, William C. Urner, Benjamin R. Van Arminger, 
Thomas W. Wittenburg, Edward Woesten, William E. Woodbridge, 
Sidney S. Williams, Asa K. Wilder, Dwight T. Williams, Frederick 
Wedder, Ambrose White, Reuben B. Brooks. 


Captain Alfred R. Russell. 

First Lieutenant Robert E. Dunlap. 

Second Lieutenant Benjamin E, Hopkins. 

William Anderson, Charles H. Bronson, John J. Brosen, Elliott 
Black, Edward Blondell, Edward H. Bendley, Jacob Bruckhart, Isaac 
N. Babcock, William J. Brentnall, George W. Buck, Thomas Carroll, 
Charles Churchill, John T. Collins, James A. Collins, Henry W. 
"Coolidge, Peter J. Deighan, Charles H. Damseh, William H. S. Elhott, 
William H. Edwards, William W. Frederick, Patrick G. Fisher, George 
S. Gilmore, Henry M. Guild, Frederick A. Gottleib, John Gorman, 
Jeremiah Gilbert, Thomas Griffiths, John G. Hopkins, Francis H. 
Horstman, Alexander Hill, William H. H. Hill, Dennis Holden, 
George C. Jones, Daniel Jobe, Robert M. Kaufman, Daniel F. Kelly, 
William H. Kemper, David J. Kinney, James A. Low, Joseph W. 
Lucky, William C. McLaughlin, John P. Murphy, Ashbel H. Merrill, 
Francis G.' Montagnier, Charles G. Marttens, Thomas S. Michil, 
Alexander Michil, Jerome P. Marvin, Arthur Mitchell, Alfred T. 
Moran, Frank Maaz, William F. Nolker, Ale.xander Ogden, Horace 
Phillips, Theodore Rinehart, William H. Renger, William H. Rogers, 
John Scott, William M. Smith, George W. Smith, Char'es G. S. 
Smith, Charles H. Smith, Herman Scheer, John S. Shean, John H 
Shobrook, George Simmons, George G. Stultz, George A. Schuster 
James J. Taylor, J osiah M, Turner, Henry- Ward, Alexander Wallace, 
Morgan Wallace, Charles S. Woodward, Henry L. Woodward, Daniel 
W. Woodward, Edward Woodruff, jr., George F. Walter, James G. 
Whitney, John T. Warter, William Wilson, Henry Alveston, Charles 
Walmars, Charles Young, James S. Young. 


Captain M. S. Lord. 

First Lieutenant William Young. 


First Sergeant James Van Pelt. 
Sergeant James S. Irwin 
Sergeant W. K. Sterrett. 
Sergeant C. W. Powell. 
Sergeant Charles Jelloff. 

Corporal Samuel H. Warwick. 
Corporal William McNeil. 
Corporal C. Belser. 
Corporal William Stewart, jr. 
Corporal Theodore G. Jones. 
Corporal George K. Stillman. 
Corporal Thomas Cullinan. 
Corporal J. J. Gibson. 


Louis Aries, H. P. Ashe, Henry Brown, John C. Brown, Charles E. 
Bonte, William Buchanan, Alfred Burdsall, L. P. Bentley, H. S. Baker, 
W. W. Bond, James A. Bowman, Philip Best, John J. Bryant, A. W. 
Craig, M. C. Cole, A. D, Campbell, T. A. Dougherty, J. J. Duhuse, 
John Drapers, Frank Deters, Edward Eymar, Frank S. Elliott, Charles 
J. Frank, Stephen Gibson, jr., John Greenless, Simon Goetz, W. H. 
Hall, T. J. Hirsch, William Hagerdon, Oliver P. Hunting, George W. 
Hopper, Benjamin F. Heath, Thomas Hamilton, L. A. Harden, John 
N. Huntz, F. A. Kingsley, Mahlon M. Kohl, Michael Louderback, W. 
H. Lovy, Frederick Leguire, Jonathan Lloyd, Patrick H. Martin, Rich- 
ard Miller, George Miller, Robert Morris, John Morris, Lafayette Martin, 
Henry Meier, Almon Menter, A. C. Menter, W. B. Newman, F. A. Phil- 
lips, J. A. Parker, Benjamin F. Phillips, Frank D. Russell, George Simon, 
Benjamin Sterett, jr., William M. Sterett, C.J. Seery, A.J. Seery.J. W. 
Sheppard, Frederick Schackleford, J.J. Shay, Conrad Schneider, Fred- 
erick H. Seward, D. A. Sullivan, Frederick Sanders, Daniel Strain, D. 
B. Strong, Thomas D. Taylor, W. H. Truman, Edward Timon, H. 
Urbaugh, William Vornholt, John Weirs, Frederick Wesler, James 
Wood, Charles I. Frank. 



Captain James G. Baldwin. 

First Lieutenant Reirson R. Mitchell. 

Second Lieutenant William R. Oakley. 


First Sergeant Nathan Guilford, 
Sergeant Harry K. Horton. 
Sergeant Frank H. Steins. 
Sergeant Charles A. Willard. 
Sergeant James B. Wilson. 
Corporal Joseph Wright. 
Corporal William C. Townsend. 
Corporal James F. Scott. 
Corporal George Keck. 
Corporal Richard A. Wilson. 
Corporal James H. Morris. 
Corporal Nathaniel Hazen, 
Corporal Edward Shillito. 


James W. Austin, James Allen, Frank Anthony, Charles H. Bowker 
David W. Brewer, Thomas Brown, Charles Black, John H. Brownley, 
G. A. Baron, Joseph R. Benton, L. W. Bosart, Thomas M. Boyd, T. 
W. Butts, Abner Brower, Quenton R. Corwin, Warren H. Childs, 
Thomas H. Carroll, Louis Diserens, Richard M. Dissey, Mansfield W. 
Davison, E. L. Davenport, M. H. Fagin, George C. Glasgow, Thomas 
J. Green, W. P. Grantham, Leroy Green, George S. Goodman, John 
Hughes, August Harmes, John W. Hammett, Edward S. Harrison, 
Alonzo O. Horton, J. F. Hobson, C. V. Holcombe, John Hyden, John 
Johnson, William T. King, Benjamin B. Law, D. B. Lott, J. M. Light, 
W. H. Loring, Richard L. Mulford, William P. McCurdy, Henry Mar- 
tin, William Meyers, Albert W. Moore, James E. Moore, S. L. Minor, 
Joseph M. Matthews, Daniel McKenne, Patrick McGeorge, Samuel 
M. Mullen, Charles K. Nash, Charles W. Overacker, Edward Petti- 
bone, Charles Pottsmith, Samuel Pugh, Richard B. Potter, George A. 
Palmer, Major Ross, Robert Smith, T. August Smith, Charles A. Reeder, 
jr., John H. Searls, William Sheppard, Joseph ShiUito, J. C. Symonds, 
Charles W. Taylor, John S. Taylor, jr., Charles Taulman, C. L. Wis- 
well, John Wiltz, James M. W. Neff, John G. Dearborn, George Hobbs, 
Simon Jones, August R. Strong, Benjamin Smith. 



Captain Alfred T. Goshorn. 

First Lieutenant Earl W. Stimson. 

Second Lieutenant William C. Chapman. 


Sergeant Orlando Avery. 
Sergeant John Hely. 



Sergeant Richard M. Johnson. 
Sergeant Sylvester O. Snyder. 
Corporal William P. Miles. 
Corporal Edward F, Gates. 
Corporal Sidney Phillips. 
Corporal William Owens, jr. 
Corporal Jabez Reynolds, jr. 
Corporal Thomas M. James. 
Corporal John L. Brannan. 
Corporal Archie G. Boggs. 
Musician Samuel Keepers. 


John Berhio, Sanford S. Bush, Chauncy S. Burr, Allison B. Brad- 
bury, Robert H. Brickley, Christian Brackmier, Henry Carroll, William 
T. Carley, Frank T. Chapman, Joseph B. Chapman, John L. Cilley, 
George L. Coffin, William K. Coldesser, Thomas Castello, J. T. Dal- 
ton, Alfred J. Ehrman, John A. Fifers, H.artson E. Fillmore, Charles 
L. Fisher, Edward H. Fallis, Alexander M. Greenwood, Benjamin Gess- 
ler, Parker Grace, David A. Gray, Edwin C. Goshorn, Edward S. 
Gault, Edward J. Hutchinson, William H. Hutchins, Douglas A. 
Hunt, Cole S. Haley, James C. Howland, Robert G. Johnson, 
Edward F. Jenkins, T. H. lames, William H. Kenneally, John B. 
Knapp, Michael S. Koehler, William Kepler, William F. Leherer, 
Charles .\. Lewis, John B. Lewis, William R. Locke, David Loder, 
Charles E. Malone, James McKenzie, James W. Montgomery, Wil- 
liam H. Montgomery, Robert R. Moore, Winfield S. Millis, W. H. 
Moyer, Byron C. Mitchell, David W. Moran, Alfred C. Marsh, Thomas 
H. McLean, William Neave, Edward C. Otte, Levi Preston, jr., 
Frank Rusch, Charles Reeves, John Rockfield, William H. Shober, 
Joseph H. Skinner, William Sullivan, Stephen W. Strabele, Edwin A. 
Swazsey, William F. Townsend, Drusin Wulsin, Henry Wilber, 
Stephen L. Woodruff, Isaac W. Woodruff, Cornelius Campbell, 
George W. Fry. 



Captain Ammi Baldwin. 

First Lieutenant C. Swan Walker. 

Second Lieutenant Benjamin F. Wright. 


Sergeant William .A. Bagley. 
Sergeant John H. Beattie. 
Sergeant Henry A. Lane. 
Sergeant William Mitchell. 
Sergeant William S. Munson. 
Corporal James B. Daniels. 
Morris B. DeCamp. 
Corporal John A. Johnston. 
Corporal William R. Marley. 
Corporal Edward M. Mooar. 
Corporal George E. Stevens. 
Corporal Robert i4. Sweet. 


Albert A. Allen, Edward Brown, Tliomas T. L. Brown, Norman 
Bird, Mark Brawley, Charles G. Berne, Eugene J. Barney, Charles P. 
Coates, George W. Carter, William Chisley, Elijah Cherry, Aaron F. 
Cowles, Paul Dimons, George W. B. Di,\on, Thomas C. Dyer, Edward 
Davis, Cyrus C. Douglass, William A, Fo.\, David S. Ferguson, James 
D. Foster, Thomas Gaston, Frederick Hughes, George W. Hall, 
Daniel Haskell, Dennis Howorth, Washington Haynes, Jacob Harth- 
ing, Samuel N. Hewston, George W. Howels, Willian Lyon, John A. 
Lawrence, John F. LeBlond, John W. Lagner, Anthony S. Ludlow, 
Albert H. Lewis, Thomas Mason, Homer K, McGibben, David W. 
Miller, John W. Munson, Archer McBrair, Aaron W. Neff, Theodore 
T. Nieman, Samuel Nieman, Joseph B. Nipgen, George J. Nappelger, 
Rufus Parsons, Charles P. Parcells, Charles M. Preston, Lewis A. Pat- 
tison, James L. Potter, James Patton, James Y. Rogers, Charles D. 
Reed, Alonzo G. Railling, Liester C. Robinson, Charles W. Radford, 
Frederick Rhimbold, Thomas Stokes, George T, Suter, Thomas L, 
Smith, Austin L. Smith, John S., P. Taylor, Edwin L. Thompson, 
Grafton M. Whenton, Charles Wheelwright, Edward Williams, Henry 
C. Williams, Charles S. Walker, Edward F. Worthington, Stanley B. 
White, Edward A, Earle, Andrew Spohr, Andrew Horst, Jas. F. Elliott. 


Captain H. H. Tatem. 

First Lieutenant Charles T. Trinstall. 

Second Lieutenant Henry Wayne. 


Lewis H. Allen, Frederick Appleing, Theodore Beal, George W. 
Bridge, Edward Bice, Thomas J. Bradford, James Berne, Theodore 
Broadwell, H. Clay Culbertson, Samuel Culbertson, John Carey, Wil- 
liam Carson, William Duchemin, Ale.xander Delorae, John D. Everett, 
George Evans, William B. Folger, Henry B. Forristall, William A. 
Forristall, Thomas Ferris, Woodward Fosdick, John M. Frost, J. L. 
Fairchough, David H. Griffith, Robert Hammond, Clarence M. Hull, 
Cornelius Hull, William E. Hutton, Edward R. Hall, Albert S. Hewes, 
Benjamin Higdon, William Hanna, John B. Hill, George W, Kaylor, 
Franz Kuhne, James Lindsey, Edward McCammon, Charles E. Mc- 
Cammon, Hugh McAfee, Edward McLean, James McGuire, James T. 
Manning, Isaac W. Marsh, John H. Magill, John M. Morehouse, 
Louis C. Miller, Thomas H, Mason, George C. Manhand, J. C. Mas- 
son, John F. Morris, John T. Nelson, David Palton, Charles Pfaff, W. 
R. Parrish, George H. Rennick, Isaac Robinson, Arthur Robinson, 
William J. RadUff, Christopher Rechel, George Rowe, William H. 
Randel, M. J. Robbin, Ceorge W. Reed, Charles B. Ross, Thomas C. 
Snellbaker, James G. Snyder, Henry Shernick, Samuel A. Skinner, 
Frederick Steinkamp, Isaac A. Smith, Calvin W. Starbuck, Edwin 
Stevens, William Schillinger, Thomas Verm, Charles L. Wittsee, 
James W. Winall, Clarkson S. Witson, George Williams, Charles S. 
Wilson, Edward Welty, John A. Wiltsee, M. W. Allen, Alexander 
Rernich, Henry Seisner, William H. Kyle. 



Captain William Disney. 
First Lieutenant .Alexis Keeler. 
Second Lieutenant John R. Selden. 


First Sergeant John T. Marion. 
Sergeant R. G. Armstrong. 
Sergeant Charles G. Martin. 
Sergeant William R. Rittweger. 
Sergeant John H. Sanders. 
Corporal S. P. Attwood. 
Corporal James D. McClintock. 
Corporal Benjamin Parker. 
Corporal William B. R. Wells. 
Corporal James Layton. 
Corporal Zachariah Whicher. 
Corporal Samuel Snyder. 
Musician John Adams. 


E. F. Armistead, Joseph M. Bate, Waller I. Bates, George W. Baker, 
Charles I. Banersfald, F. P. Becker, William Benanader, Manning Bo- 
gart, John L. Bowman, John L. Brady, John Callihan, Joseph J. Can- 
non, Henry Cordeman, Joseph E. Coleman, Robert Cresop, Wilham 
Dean, William Dengler, V. G. Diecoot, William H. Donaldson, J. K. 
Earl, Peter W. Early, Henry Emmerson, P. V. Fitzgerald, George W. 
Foster, William Francis, Thomas T. Fuller, John Griffith, John Gatley. 
J. F. Harrison, J. F. Hanbold, J. L. H. HoUinger, Albert Humphries, 
Joseph Herman, George W. Irwin, C. W. Johnson, Henry Krell, Ed- 
win A. Kershaw, Henry Korte, Charles Krease, George W. Lamb, 
Jesse Leach, John R. Leach, Thomas Lockwood, William A. McCor- 
mick, L. A. Marsh, James R. MaxwiU, Edward A. Morningstar, John 
B. Mosely, Albert Moore, H. R. Mathias, George W. Passell, James 
Patterson, George W. Prior, James Proctor, J. C. Ringer, S. W. Ross, 
R. G. Russell, H. Ruffner, Louis Reinhart, Samuel Smiley, J. C. Sny- 
der, Henry Stanley, James Scott, William Suter, A. C. Valette, F. C. 
Nohnecke, W. B. Wells, Theodore Wright, Joseph Woerner, F. A. 
Williamson, John Wheeler, James O. Wells, Henry Weil, Joseph 


Captain Joseph Kirkup. 

First Lieutenant Raper J. WiUiams. 

Second Lieutenant Ethelbert B. Norris. 


James A. Armstrong, Penrose S. Anderson, Marmaduke Anderson, 
James L. Anspaugh, John R. Bender, William H, Boehring, John M. 
Bennett, John M. Baker, Miles Burns, John W. Ball, George C. Cling- 
man, William S. Cotty, George Colburn, John Q. A. Conant, Charles 



Colmogan, James" H. Dickson, August Donnelly, John H. Dorman, 
Townsend Duncan, James Evans, George Floyd, August B. Frazier, 
William H. Ferree, Edward Fitch, Daniel Gibson, Patrick Henry, 
James A. Hughes, Harvey Howard, John H. Huston, William F. Hill, 
Robert B. Jones, James E. Jones, Michael Judg, Charles Kingsbury, 
David N.Lyon, Charles Ludwig, Joseph M. Lewis, William S. Moore, 
James Murdoch, jr., James R. Mathews, Albert MvMillen, John Mor- 
ley, Thomas McConibs, Charles Moffet, John McGuire, John Ortner, 
Lewis T. Purchase, Jacob Poth, Jacob Rupp, John Stafford, William 
W. Spencer, Henry Shopfell, Austin B. Shumand, John W. Stanley, 
Oliver P. Steward, Thomas J. Shannon, Joseph C. Sexton, Edwad B. 
Tromer, Albert Teft, Henry W. VanBehen, John Wright, Frederick 
Weibell, Richard Winn, Lewis Wetsell, Samuel Winder, Henry Quer- 
ner, William Zaller, Richard Evans, Thomas Evans, Edward Evans, 
Frank M. Fordice, Garrett J. Hyer, Alexander Heigh, Thomas B. 
Heis, John H. Haggerty, Morris Levi, John Mahl, Benjamin McGregor, 
Henry McGary, William G. Pickering, Daniel M. Pierpoint, Samuel J. 
Rogers. Quincy Reid, David K. Squires, Joseph B. Williams, James 
M. Williams, Samuel Williamson, David Whiting, Edward Gilligan, 
Henry C. Jones, George Lovitt, Edward J. Brewer, 


This regiment is said by Mr. Reid to have been com- 
posed of the Fifth Ohio national guard, of Licking county; 
the Thirty-second battalion of Hardin county; and one 
company of the Thirty-seventh battalion, of Lorain county. 
It seems, however, from the rolls, to have had a large 
number of Hamilton county soldiers in it. It was mus- 
tered into the United States service May 14, 1864, and 
was ordered immediately to Washington city. At North 
mountain information was received that the bridge at 
Harpers' Ferry was impassable; and the regiment, with 
other hundred-day commands, was delayed for a time, 
awaitmg the repair of the bridge. A picket was estab- 
lished, and every jDrecaution taken for defence. In a few 
days the troop* moved on, and the regiment arrived at 
Washington May 2 2d. It was placed in the defences 
south of the Potomac, with headquarters in Fort Albany, 
and detatchments in Forts Craig and Tillinghast The 
time was occupied in repairing and comjjleting these 
works and drilling in infantry and heavy artillery tactics. 
June 5th the regiment was ordered to White House 
Landing, where it was employed in picket duty and guard- 
ing rebel prisoners. On the sixteenth of June it was 
ordered to Bermuda Hundred, and proceeded on steam- 
er, via Fortress Monroe, up the James to Fort Powhattan, 
Here its progress was checked by the pontoon bridge, on 
which the army of the Potomac was crossing the James. 
The regiment debarked and marched to Bermuda Hun- 
dred, distant twenty-four miles. The march was made 
during two of the hottest days of summer, and the men 
suffered greatly from dust and the want of water. The 
command arrived at Fort Spring hill, on the eastern 
bank of the Appomattox, opposite Point of Rocks, on 
June 19th, and was engaged in picket and fatigue duty 
at the latter place and Broadway Landing. It next moved 
to Cherrystone inlet, on the eastern shore of Virginia. 
Headquarters were established at Eastville, 'the county 
town of Northamj5ton county; and the companies were 
distributed at various points to guard the telegraph from 
Cherrystone to Wilmington, to prevent raids from the 
ojjposite side of the bay, and to intercept blockade-run- 
ners and rebel mail-carriers. At the expiration of its 
term of service, the regiment returned to Ohio, and was 

mustered out at Camp Dennison on the first of Septem- 
ber, 1 86 1. 

(One Hundred Days). 


Colonel Samuel S. Fisher. 
Lieutenant Colonel Eri F. Jewell. 
Major Charles Gilpin. 
Adjutant Charles H. Hubbell. 
Quartermaster Aaron A. Cotter. 
Surgeon Charles P. Wilcox. 
Assistant Surgeon Hiram H. Russell. 
Assistant Surgeon Amos B. Fuller. 
Chaplain Charles H. Williams. 
Sergeant Major Robert B. Smith. 
Quartermaster Sergeant John F. Jewett. 
Commissary Sergeant William H. Gerrard. 
Hospital Steward Lewis Freeman. 



Captain William J. Torrence. 
First Lieutenant J. R. Maneely. 
Second Lieutenant Jacob Pfau, jr. 


First Sergeant John MuUer, jr. 
Sergeant Charles Reed. 
Sergeant James Taylor. 
Sergeant Charles P. Forbes. 
Sergeant John Good. 
Corporal Andrew' Kattenhorn. 
Corporal C. G. Kline. 
Corporal Edward Huser. 
Corporal Rudolph Hauche. 
Corporal C. A. Buchannon. 
Corporal Arthur Beckett. 
Corporal George Miller. 
Corporal Lawrence Hegner. 


John Armleder, Lucas Burgraf, J. A, Bertch, Truman Beck, Henry 
Bahlmann, Herman Budkey, Nicolaus Clemens, W. G. Conway, Patrick 
Datre, Emanuel Diecont, W. R. Ellis, C. B. Ford, Patrick Fox, Mathew 
Farrell, George Gerraudt, Edward Grupe, August Gaeper, ^Barney 
Grotz, William H. Hudson, William Huber, G. J. Hyer, John Hafner, 
H. F. Hokhalb, Henry Hopkins, Christopher Israel, Hugh Jones, 
James J. Lewis, C. Jacobs, Ferdinand Kipelbach, Edward Kingcaid, 
G. F. Kreutzer, Joel F. Kish, Ferdinand Langormann, Daniel Lewis, 
W. H. Lemmons, Theodore Miller, William Nelson, Theodore Mark, 
H. G. Menke, T. F. McBride, Jacob Meyer, William C. Preston, 
Albert Packer, James A. Smith, Henry Smith, C. L Spaeth, John Stei- 
ner, J. H. Stalkamp, Adolph Shultz, Charles Snyder, William .Swift, 
Andrew S.ahlender, William Stockeven. August Schmidt, William Sher- 
aton, William Thorne, Amasa Thatcher, Edward Wiss, Frederick 
Wachtendorf, Henry Webber, George Williams, Charles Witchger, 
Henry Werest, James H. White, Julius Wachs, F. Zilliveck, William 
Wershey, Frank Vetch, Henry Domarille, Henry Engelhardt, Daniel 
Fallan, James Laird. 



Captain C. S. Beltz. 

First Lieutenant John H. Hanna. 

Second Lieutenant Amos Tooker. 


First Sergeant A. C. Hueston. 
Sergeant E. A. Tucker. 
Sergeant F. J. Rork. 
Sergeant John Paulus. 
Sergeant David F. Lansing. 
Corporal Henry B. Moore. 
Corporal William MuUinger. 
Corporal William D. Freeman. 
Corporal David C. Evans. 
Corporal Charles Baggate. 
Corporal William Dudgeon. 
Corporal Charles Eversman. 



Corporal James L. Tafte. 
Musician Patrick Stapleton. 
Musician Cliarles W. Moore. 
Wagoner Henrj' C. Porter. 


G. W. Armstrong, George V. P,utz, John Binge, Cliarles Babst, A. 
B. Crary, Thomas Clement, R. B. Chamberlain, James Carrigan, Louis 
Chrissniann, John D. Davenport, William Delaney, William Duncan, 
Len N. Davis, Samuel Edgar, Thomas England, Joseph Enimert, Jolin 
Fassel, William C. Fithian, Hosea V. Ferrell, Henry Fieschnian, James 
Given, Daniel Griffith, James Gregson, Joseph Chadwick, James Hugle, 
George Hoath, William Large, Thomas Kriker, E. Hendrixon, Rich- 
ard Lawson, Thomas Lawson, John Lapp, James A. Lour, John Little, 
Joseph B. Morgan, J. J. Lynch, Neal McKaj', John McNichols, Wil- 
liam Moon, Thomas Morton, Daniel McShane, James J. McNally» 
Edward McCoy, Richgrd Pendergrast, James Pearson, Benjamin Reir- 
ing, William Reid, Harry Robinson, David Rose, David Rea, George 
W. Seaman, Henry R. Smith, C. L. Shannon, George W. Speer, John 
D. Shocky, William M. Shocky, George N. Shaw, Theodore Scheurrer, 
George Willis, Isaac Willis, William Wichering, Theodore H. Wil- 
liams, John B. Weaver, George Waxter, Americus Welsh, George B. 
Marshall, William Wright, Henry Heller, Samuel Dickson, James 



Captain Philip M. Everard. 

First Lieutenant Eli L. Muchmore. 

Second Lieutenant John T. McKitrick. 


First Sergeant Joshua L. Morrison. 
Sergeant John M. Ward. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Bicknell. 
Sergeant William M. Ferris. 
Sergeant Joseph B. Mann. 
Corporal James S. Reagle. 
Corporal Frank Kennedy. 
Corporal Edward B. Lukens. 
Corporal George Myers. 
Corporal Theodore A. Moore. 
Corporal David Morgan. 
Corporal Benjamin M. Stewart. 
Corporal Uriah Phillips. 
Musician William H. Lockvvood. 
Musician Alexander D. Williamson. 


Joseph Athurs, Edward Ansbury, William C. Ammons, George Am- 
memon, Charles Ammons, Enos Anderson, Jacob Brooks, John Brown, 
Commodore Bolin, Henry M. Chapman, Albert Crist, Joseph Cornish, 
William Davis, Noah L, Davis, David Diltz, George W. Demar, Fran- 
cis M. Fobes, Nathaniel Ferris, James Fehl, George C. Griffin, Oscar 
Guess, Amos T. Gorhani, Evans Harrie, John C. Hunter, John W, 
Haines, John W. Holmes, Wesley Hetzler, William K. Hainey, Wil- 
liam Hulton, John F. Jewett, Commodore Kemmator, Albert C. Knapp, 
Samuel Kennedy, Edward Leonard, Samuel McAdams, Joseph Morris, 
John W. Maxfield, Henry Mayer, Robert McConnell, John Mangnem, 
Samuel H. Miller, Solomon Niles, Erastus KT. Nash, Charles Otis, 
John P. Pfaff, Hezekiah W. Prince, John Pickering, Leopold Rupelot, 
William D. Silverthorn, John S. W. Smith, Leonard W. Smith, James 
N. Studer, Levert Stratton, Thomas A. Stevens, William R. Sprague, 
George Williamhouse, Charles A. Williams, William H. Wratton, 
John Wratton, Albert Wratton, Ayers B. Ward, George Whetzel, 
John W. Watson, Benjamin Wabright, Solomon Wabright, G. V. 
Butz, Rufus B. Chamberlain,- Thomas McCormick, George F. Smith, 
James Tice, George Griandt, M. Parrall. 



Captain Henry Gulich. 

First Lieutenant William C. Dorn. 

Second Lieutenant L. S. G. Tillsber.' 

First Sergeant L. S. Williamson. 
Sergeant A. V. Lane. 
Sergeant J. A. Smith. 
Sergeant John B. Aston. 

Sergeant Peter Pool. 
Corporal Lewis Willaj. 
Corporal Joseph Scull. 
Corporal August Strable. 
Corporal Arthur C. Bracket. 
Corporal G. G. Richards. 
Corporal Martin Pinney. 
Corporal Noah Hunt. 
Corporal David Gosling. 
Musician George F. Thomin. 
Musician A. L. Runyan. 


James W. Barton, Phillip Bellmeyer, John T. Burns, Joel Brown, 
W. W. Chadwick, D. J. Chadwick, Elmer Y. Carson, Parmenias Car- 
son, Lames Carson, Robert Conger, James Coates, William A. Craig, 
James Craig, William Craig, John Cramer, Freeman Crompton, John 
H, Cloud, John Criner, Parmenias Davis, Enoch Danford, D. C. 
Doran, B. P. Dorn, John Gates, William Gimpel, William Glaser, 
Thomas S. Green, J. H. Hunt, Henry H. Hunt, Clark Hoffner, 
Mathew Halt, J. D.Jamison, W. H.Johns, A. W. Keehng, J. P- 
Lawranch, G. S. La Bogtense, John Lybrook, A. A. Long, James 
Long, John Myers, George Miles, Anzi McGill, Andrew McCradie, 
Isaac Ogg, Minor Ogg, Thomas Ogg, George Ponder, Lemuel Ponder, 
Thomas Pottinger, William Pickins, John Remp, Conrad Remp, 
Wilson T. Rogers, W. H. Ruthers, James Sewell, A. A. Sewell, 
Patrick Seitz, W. P. Shipman, J. D. Stridle, C. B. Stout, George 
Stout, J, P. Waterhouse, Thomas Weston, David Wheaton, Hart 
Wilson, Adam Wilson, George Wike, Lewis Wike, Wingert Winings, 
Jacob Winings, Thomas Willy, Charles West, J. C. Wilkinson, Jacob 
Wilkinson, Daniel Wilkinson, Stephen Bell, A. Smith. 



Captain Edward J. Flint. 

First Lieutenant William Strunk. 

Second Lieutenant Samuel A. Butts. 


First Sergeant Charles F. Weliner. 
Sergeant Edward H. Prichard. 
Sergeant Samuel Harvey. 
Sergeant A. C. Reid. 
Sergeant W. A. Fillmore. 
Corporal B. O. M. De Beck. 
Corporal F. M. Peeale. 
Corporal H. H. Harvey. 
Corporal H. Ausperger. 
Corporal James C. Herwood. 
Corporal William H. Morgan. 
Corporal R. W. Murphy. 
Corporal W. H. Lanfusick. 


Richard M. Ayres, Daniel Ackley, Theodore Auge, F. B. Alley, T. 
J. Burke, Thomas Bowers, George Burgtorf, Peter Burgert, Thomas 
Boyd, William Butler, James W. Christie, Samuel Craft, P. A. Cham- 
bers, Arthur B. Crary, Darius Dodd, William Dengler, J. H. Dillman, 
James B. Fairley, Lew Freinary, James Grantham, M. J. Gattman, 
John F. Guilford, W. D. Gibson, D. M. Hammond, J. L. Hickman, 
Anson Harding, E. T. Harvey, Benjamin Holt, Morris Hamlin, John 
Hancock, Daniel Hornbrook, John A. Kamping, Adam Lichweiss, .A. 
A. Long, H. G. Luberherr, James Laird, O. Morehead, Christopher 
Mund, L. W. Mason, John J. Marvin, James Moore, Edward Martin, 
Charles Pauer, Mason D. Parker, A. N. Rorter, Andrew J. Rickoff, 
Frank Ritter, Luther M. Strafer, George W. Smith, J. B. Scheide- 
niauth, George F. Sands, J. B. Stuyvesant, A. C, Sigur, Adolph C. 
Speers, John Stilwell, M. Shorkey, Benjamin B. Stewart, Mark Steg- 
man, Isaac Simon, Anton Shevier, Albert E. Tripp, Milton Turner, 
John Theobald, Alexander Wilson, Casper Wickermyer, Frederick 
Zins, Jacob Zins, Charles Babbit, Nathaniel Leming, W. Large. 



Captain Edward C. Boyce. 

First Lieutenant James C. Timberman. 

Second Lieutenant Benjamin R. Noble. 


First Sergeant David B. Wooley. 
Sergeant John Mackey, jr. 



Sergeant Edward Horrocks, 

Sergeant John Rosemeyer. 

Sergeant Henry Staufer, jr, 

Corporal George H. Smith. 

Corporal George W. Bonsall. 

Corporal Frank Massang. 

Corporal WilUam M. Hiibbell. 

Corporal James Qiiinn. 

Corporal Charles A. Getz. 

Corporal Benjamin Sharpliss. 

Corporal Conrad A. Liner. 


John Brinkmeyer, Horace A. Baker, Edward Bodman, Robert Bai- 
ley, August Cook, Edward Cook, James Corbit, Richard Carnahan, 
Joseph Campbell, Perry Carr, William Cunningham, Thomas Dart, 
Harrison Bearing, William Davis, Arthur Donaldson, Lewis Folger, 
Robert Ferguson, William Grant, Lewis B. Getz, Edwin J. Getz, Gus- 
tavus Gottschalk, Edward Gerby, Henry Garnell, James Gow, John 
Glascow, John Gordon, Henry C. Hill, Edward C. Hubbell, Alexander 
Hamilton, Robert A. Johnson, Chauncey Johnson, M. S. Kinkaid, 
Robert H. Kerr, Matthew Keogen, August F. King, Robert Lindring, 
Robert Murray, Wesley McCullough, Frederick Meyer, Oscar Meeker, 
John McBride, George Neely, John W. Parker, James Prichard, 
Charles L. Paris, Joseph C. Paris, Joseph B. Quimby, John L. Riley, 
George Rudd, Joseph Robson, William Robson, William Skardon, 
Henry Shingledecker, Charles Shoeftel, John Sugar, George H. Sower, 
James A . Skardon, James H. Spingman. Edward Shriever, Nathan 
Steinberg, Frederick Von Eye, Sheridan Williamson, Jordon Williams, 
Richard WooUey, James Downey ; Musicians George Estep, Charles 



Captain William B. Chenoweth. 
First Lieutenant David R. Gavin. 
Second Lieutenant Jacob Heldep. 


First Sergeant 1. W. Strehli. 

Sergeant Charles Kline. 

Sergeant Agulin Bieger. 

Sergeant Valentine Briederbach. 

Sergeant George Mader. 

Corporaljohn Poth. 

Corporal Valentine Martin. 

Corporal John Kastake. 

Corporal John C. Mistie. 

Corporal Joshua Weidman. 

Corporal Jacob A. Vogt. 

Corporal Frank A. Shaifer. 

Corporal John Spunagle. 


James C. Armstead, Christopher Braney, Henry Burkencamp, Frank 
A. Basford, Richard Bernard, Michael Bolan, Harman Doll, John 
Cope, Frederick Dorn, John Eck;prt, George Eillis, Mike Tagling, Ja- 
cob Franzerebe, John Gorman, Nicholas Gammiger, Henry Gobel, An- 
thony Garver, Joseph Gettler, Benjamin Hirkhouse, Thomas Hauey, 
George Hackerman, Steven Harcourt, Adam Hehnbock, Lorenzo D. 
Harrison, William Kiliani, John Kramer, Patrick Kramer, M. Kimer, 
Michael Kennedy, Henry Little, George Lynch, Gebhart Lock, Henry 
H. Landwehr, Charles Longshore, W. Lingeman, Frank Lake, Wil- 
liam W. Laughlin, Philip Meyer, Bernhard Mossman, Henry Miller, 
Gottlieb Mieth, John H. Mackey, Lewis McGraff, John Maloney, John 
H. Niehouse, Henry Niehouse, George W. Oldem, Joseph Ott, Heniy 
Pullman, George Redge, Albert Pepper, Philip Rahm, John Rank, 
August F. Schwab, Robert B. Smith, Frederick Seiving, William M. 
Shackelford, John Springmeyer, Christopher Sterling, Jacob Simmons, 
James Story, Andrew Tritch, Warren Tindall, Michael Teetors, John 
Vogelpohl, William Von Walde, Lerry Van Conay, John Walterman, 
Henry Whitecamp, Christopher Wolf. William H. Warner, William 
Wood, Leonard B. Wood, John Wampach, Frederick Westermann 
Frederick Remir, Henry Raur, John Rapp, T. Reddert, George S. 
Powers, A. McLilley. 



Captain Kline Bermeville. 

First Lieutenant Samuel Wardle. 

Second Lieutenant John C. Littler. 


First Sergeant David A. Ganett. 
Sergeant Lemuel M. Cox. 
Sergeant Sanford A. Johnson. 
Sergeant John B. Rose. 
Sergeant Henry J. Hine. 
Corporal William B. Shinn. 
Corporal Thomas R. Shinn. 
Corporal Samuel L. Bardsall. 
Corporal Thomas Todhunter. 
Corporal Joshua Dennison. 
Corporal Edward Dennison, 
Corporal John Cord. 
Corporal Charles S. Brown. 


Dallas Adkins, Morris Androit, James W. Asterbrun, Charles Arge, 
Francis M. Armstrong, John Bringa, William K. Brown, John C 
Beltz, William Bogert, George M. Burdsall, Samuel T. Burdsall, 
George Brooks, John C. Bridges, Samuel J. Corbley, Wilson H. Cor- 
bley, Newton Corbley, William Chambers, Josiah Crossley, John 
Christie, James Donally, Leonidas Dunham, William Davis, William 
Easton, Henry Easton, Albert Ebersole, James Fisher, Ezra Gorseline, 
William H. Gerard, [ohn Gray, Alonzo Hawkins, Hezekiah Hawkins, 
Samuel Hopple, Abram Hopple, Arnold Hibbur, George W. Hess, 
Aaron M. Hopper, Henry Hahn, John Jukes, Theodore Johnson, Ama- 
zie Johnson, William Johnson, John C. Johnson, James O. Johnson. 
John Kearsey, Abram Lewellen, Thomas Littleton, Adam Leichereiss, 
John C. Martin, William W. Mount; W. H. Markley, W. McKeely, 
John McAdams, Richard Maddox, John C. Maddy, Jacob M. Maddy, 
William Nicholson, James Parker, William Potter, Levi Parks, Jared 
Peese. James C. Prichard, Thomas Rose, William Reeder, Henry Ra- 
bens, Frederick Rabens, George Reese, A. Smith, John Shinn, Joseph 
Seinor, Thomas M. Seinor, Lorenzo Snell, George Sheldon, Ralph 
Thompson, Warren Tindall, Frank Wilson, Leonard A. Webb, Sam- 
uel H. Wardle, Leonard B. Wood. 



Captain James Huston, jr. 

First Lieutenant John H. Palmer. 

Second Lieutenant Adnan A. Robertson. 


First Sergeant John Bell. 
Sergeant James H. Irwin. 
Sergeant Alonzo M. Abbott. 
Sergeant Samuel F. Beeler. 
Sergeant George Apgar. 
Corporal David P. Logan. 
Corporal Joseph Sampson. 
Corporal John J. Price 
Corporal Charles Spellman. 
Corporal John S. Patmer. 
Corporal Frederick Kellner. 
Corporal Thomas J. Hoffner. 
Corporal Gamaliel Myers. 
Musician John Turner. 
Musician Arthur E. Wade. 
Wagoner Calvin Taulman. 


James Brown, Moses Brocount, John Buler, John W. Beaver, Oscar 
A. Barnhart, James Constable, William Conroy, James Conklin, Wil- 
liam H. Dumont, George Efferts. Thomas Edwards, John E. Elliott, 
James Gilbert, Richard P. Fo.x, Frederick Fix, Alexander D. Ginn, 
Charles Gray, Joseph Gray, Andrew Gambril, James Grismer, John 
Hunter, William Hurley, Frederick Harmes, Louis Hine, John C. 
Hunt, Joseph Hageman, Frederick Hoffner, Robert B. Isdell, John B. 
Jack, Justus Krouskoff, Leonidas Latta, William A. Lawrence, Henry 
Lilly, John Lane, Henry McGrew, John McKinney, Stephen Meek, 
Alexander McDonald, Jasper Miller, John B. Myers, David McLaren, 
John Piper, Harvey Pauley, Charles Pray, Luther R. Phillips, Harmon 
Riker, Paul Stickrod, Winfield S. Shrigley, Julius Schenck, Ernest Son- 
neman, Walter Sullivan, Edwin N. Shumard, Frederick Shaible, Wal- 
ter Scott, Isaac Spellman, Elihu Standish, Sylvester Thompson, Vesper 
Thompson, William Thomas, John Tullis, George Vetter, Ralph Voor- 
his, Thomas S. Vail, August Wickman, John Wool, Hugh Woten, 



John F. Wachendorff, Amos White, Frank Webb. William H, Hudson. 


Captain James Tod. 

First Lieutenant John Mahan. 

Second Lieutenant A. H. Gumming. 


First Sergeant I. N. Jones. 
Sergeant Lerry Bernard. 
Sergeant Minard McKinney. 
Sergeant Ambrose Voorhis. 
Sergeant A. Phillips. 
Corporal Cortlaud Bonnel. 
Corporal Charles Bonnel. 
Corporal James Meguire. 
Corporal John C. Riker. 
Corporal Josiah Harper. 
Corporal John Guthrie. 
Corporal Tile C. Snyder, 
Corporal Emmet Waller. 
Wagoner Isaac Todd. 
Musician James Mullen. 
Musician Richard Bodkin. 


Jonathan Addison, Sam.uel E. .Aiman, H. A. Alderman, Chesley Al- 
derman, William Anderson, P. M. Bovven, Jefferson Brand, William 
Baider, L. Bowen, Frederick Cruger, Frank Crain, Thomas Cameron, 
Thomas CuUum, John Culbertson, John Carnahan, Peter Cortelyar, 
Alexander Constable, Frank Druce, James Donelly, M. C. Denman, 
William Duff, William R. Davis, Joseph Dunnevan, John Dawson, 
Henry Easton, John Farrell, P. M. Finney, Thomas P. Finney, Fred- 
erick Finley, Charles Foster, Robert Fulton, S. M. Fleming, William 
Hunt, L. Hunt, Jonathan Harris, H. Huffman, Ambrose Kennedy, 
John Hunsman, Frank Lank, Thomas Long, Morris Meeks, Thomas 
Malsbary, Sanford Malsbary, Jasper Malsbary, William Mahan, 
George Marmott, Frank Neares, James Nortman, Samuel Pettit, 
George Riker, John Ralston, Wils Radabaugh, William Smethurst, 
Lloyd Smethurst, Bordman Swett, Henry Stall, John Seifert, P. J. 
Thompson, Theodore Todd, John Williamson, J. R. Widgeon, Wil- 
liam Wood, Joseph Wolf, George McGrew, Madison Downey, William 
Greenhow, James Norten, John Riker. 


This was one of the Cincinnati hundred day regi- 
ments, and its ranks were filled with recruits who had 
seen more or less service in organizations raised in 1861- 
2. Its first rendezvous was at Camp Dennison, where it 
lay for some ten days. It was then taken by rail to Camp 
Chase, where, on May ii, 1864, it was fully armed and 
equipped and mustered into the Federal service. Re- 
maining in camp here for a few days, in order that the 
regiment might be somewhat desciplined, it moved on 
May 20th, via the Central Ohio and the Baltimore & Ohio 
railroads, to Washington city, where it went into bar- 
racks. June ist, it was placed on duty at Point Lookout, 
Maryland, an important depot for the confinement of 
rebel prisoners. At the time the regiment took up its 
quarters at this place, there were twenty-two thousand 
prisoners confined there. The force to guard and look 
after this number of prisoners was only eighteen hundred 
men, all told. From this may be judged how arduous 
must have been the guard and other necessary duties 
performed by so inadequate a force. The details were 
necessarily so numerous and frequent as almost to pre- 
clude the idea of rest. This, added to the fact that 
there was little or no fresh water to be had on the dry 
and sandy beach, and that no inviting foraging ground 
presented itself, made the duties of the regiment unusual- 

ly severe. " Sibley s" were also denied to the men and 
officers; and all alike were compelled to sleep on the 
sandy beach under those aggravating little substitutes, 
"shelter-tents." Incessant duty, want of water, and the 
hot sun, had their effect on the troops, and fourteen good 
men were in a short time laid in their graves, while scores 
of others were on the sick list. August 2 2d, some days 
after the expiration of its time of service, the regiment 
was taken to Baltimore, thence to Camp Chase, where, 
on the twenty-sixth of August, 1864, it was paid off and 
mustered out of the service. 


Colonel J. L. Wayne. 
Major George S. Lein. 
Surgeon John Hill. 



Captain Nathan F. Hubbel. 
First Lieutenant Adam Horning. 
Second Lieutenant Jeremiah Kiersted. 


First Sergeant John C. Donivant. 

Sergeant John Wilson. 

Sergeant Henry Cutler. 

Sergeant Robert Meredith. 

Sergeant Richard Evans. 

Corporal Archie Bowie. 

Corporal George Slater. 

Corporal Thomas Davis. 

Corporal George Taylor. 

Corporal Joseph Frank. 

Corporal John C. Lewis. 

Corporal Edward Smith. 

Corporal Nicholas Deversey. 


John Borsch, Gustavus D. Baurer, Lamer Bryan, Adams Baker, 
Thomas Butler, Charles Bell, Samuel Black, Michael Dunn, John T. 
Christy, James Charter, Frederick W. Courtgardner, John A. Cline, 
Frederick B. Carney, John J. Clemens, George E. Dyer, Edward Don- 
ohue, Evan Evans, Evan J. Evans, Richard Fielding, Peter Fay, 
Michael Felter, Matthias Frahwald, Bartholomew Fanning, Frederick 
Foster, John Friscus, Peter Friger, John Genhnour, James Gerrals, 
George Gremmet, Frederick Heide, Samuel Hughes, George 
Hughes, John E. Hawthorn, Frederick Harrman, William F. Hansel- 
man, Europe M, Hamlin, John Harrison, E. H. Hutchinson, Andrew 
HoUenbach, John L. Jones, John A. Jones, William Johnson, James 
Keller, John W. Kelley, George Landing, George Miller, John A. 
Miller, Allen S. Morrison, Luke Murphy, Harvey Newel, John Nesper, 
Edward Nichols, John H. Olting, David Phinney, John Prichard, 
William Pfafflin, Frederick Paschin, Moses Phillips, Henry Sweeter- 
man, James Spencer, James P. Smith, John Simon, Jasper Titus, 
Henry Trimpe, John H. Trimpe, Henry Wilson, Patrick White, W. 
Wankleman, William Wilkins, G. E. Workman, James Klingle. 



Captain L. M. Rogers. 

First Lieutenant Edward Evans. 

Second Lieutenant James B. Doan. 


First Sergeant N. F. Salsberry. 
Sergeant L. H. Gregory. 
Sergeant David Tealen. 
Sergeant J. N. Edwards. 
Sergeant C. W. Drake. 
Corporal William Culver. 
Corporal L. R. Keck. 
Corporal. Leon Stone. 
Corporal J. S. Highland. 
Corporal W. H. Myers. 
Corporal Thomas Simpsons. 



Corporal George Geoking. 
Corporal L. W. Robinson. 


William Attig, John Anderson, Harry T. Anderson, L. A. Aldrich, 
John Barnent, Alfred Beam, A. K, Brookbank, George Black, John 
Black, Thomas Bingham, William Carringer, Charles Case. Norward 
Chamberlin, S. G. Dayton, Henry Fisher, B. W. Goble, George Gal- 
breath, William George, Thomas Galrant, F. Helmig, Manuel Hand- 
ley, Thomas Hemphill, John H. Hemphill, John E. Haughten, 
George H. High, George W. Henry, John T. Hambleton, John C. 
Hooker, James J. Hooker, Henry Helmig, Charles Hanimon, William 
B. Hollister, James Joyce, J. W. Jaynes, J. H. Johns, Thomas Kins- 
man, George King, Nelson Ludlum, Joseph Lamb, E. Lockwood, J. 
B. McDowell, W. W. Murray, W. G. Mahany, M. A. Malott, August 
Niles, Thurston C. Owens, Timothy Price, George Phillips, John Pro- 
phater, Samuel Plymesser, John Ringenberger, M. W. Reader, P. G. 
Ringer, John N. Ringer, H. Searls, John L. Steeler, C. F. Smith, John 
Shotzman, J. H. Sparks, Peter Steinmitz, D. B. Spicer, John Sincroft, 
Alison Stockmer, August Tremont, Andrew J. Tayne, Michael Ulmer, 
W. D. Vance, Amos Vance, H. Whitsell, Charles Willson, John Wea- 
ver, Henry Weaver, John Webster, William Fee, Robert I-Ioff, Samuel 
Levi, William McClintie, Darius Welch. 



Captain Burns W. Oliver. 

First Lieutenant Lewis Thatcher, jr. 

Second Lieutenant Truman B. Clement. 


First Sergeant Daniel B. Jordon. 
Sergeant Henry P. Badger. 
Sergeant Samuel W. Emerson. 
Sergeant Edwin C. Bodley. 
Sergeant William P. Worth. 
Corporal Henry W. Morris. 
Corporal James McDowell. 
Corporal Thomas Williams. 
Corporal Jacob Smith. 
Corporal Joseph A. Jones. 
Coiporal Thomas Tiernan. 
Corporal Henry Brand. 
Corporal Lewis Havicott. 
Musician Peter Duffey. 


John Andrew, Thomas H. Blacker, David H. Bronson, John Bri- 
denback, George W. Corderman, David B. Coleman, Lewis S. Carter, 
Charles Carpenter, John Colesphy, Jonas Curtis, Alexander Carson, 
Robert Campbell, Thomas W. Davis, William W. Dawson, William 
Daley, George Endress, John F. Eversman, John L. Frisbie, Henry 
Fonslamer, Isaac Fritz, James Gilbert, John Holinger, William Hill, 
Joseph Hoffman, George Hunter, William Hiller, David Jones, John 
Jackson, Thomas J. Jackson, Henry Krogman, John Lillie, James 
Mooney. Christian Mohlman, James McCammer, George Mahl, John 
McDonough, John Menton, John McNicholas, Alfred Mott, John H. 
Moore, Andrew Michael, King G. Nevers, George F. Nordman, John 
Parsell, John A. Pierpoint, William Pearce, Isaiah J. Rosnagel, Wil- 
liam Richards, John Richards, Joseph C. Russell, George H. Sand- 
brink, Charles H. Smith, John Smith, Daniel Shanon, John F. Upper- 
man, Herman Van Kooter, William Watson, Frank Wieman, Philip 
Wieman, Adam Webber, William D, Wrench, Charles Winkleman, 
Albert Moore, William Ehman, Milo N. Collins, Riley Morris, Mat- 
thew Fawcett, James Boytson, Napoleon Parlin, William Ryan, Hen- 
rich Sommer, Joseph F. Snyder, Charles Syler. 



Captain William Joseph Richards. 
First Lieutenant John Miller. 
Second Lieutenant John C. Buerkle. 


First Sergeant William Autenricht. 
Sergeant John C. Wood. 
Sergeant Frank Arand. 
Sergeant John A. Writhwine. 
Sergeant Joseph Hickle. 
Corporal G. W. Roltzer. 

Corporal Frederick Langsdorf. 

Corporal Frederick Ohier. 

Corporal J. P. Rupp. 

Corporal W. H. Stevenson. 

Corporal John Rider. 

Corporal William Ditlan. 

Corporal James W. Cooper. 


William Brockman, Herman J..indeman, A. G. Loze, Joseph Marger, 
Theodore Faulweather, Robert McConoly, John Baumgartner, A. 
Becker, Martin Schroeder, L. Becht, Henry Brockman, N. H. Delap, 
H. A. Berne, E. R. Dye, John Dobb, Ransom Kyle, Frank I, Zim- 
mer, H. J. Gerhardt, James Kittel, George F. Hauk, John Hoffman, 
Edwin Collin, Lewis Loss, George Crantz, Geoi*e Michael, D. B. 
Meyers, Jacob Mangua, William Paul, Frederick Rempke, William 
Rupp, Lewis Reinhardt, G. W. Smith, A. Spohr, I. M. Walker, Ed- 
win Wieser, Henry Kilsch, W. F. Wolfick, Michael Ashman, Andrew 
Horst, Bernhard Weiss, S. L. Scott, Edwin Wicklein, Anthony Holt- 
hause, D. D. Hardee, Frederick Arnold, M. L. Nye, George W. 
Brown, M. D. Smith, George W. Wilson, Charles Shrader, W. C. 
Sjillwell, William Brake, William Leonard, Jacob Loehr, Andrew 
Hener, John Wissa, John McLachan, John Holmeck, Frederick Bayer, 
Hermanii Harzman, George Cambis, Frank Hunter, Joseph Krum, 
Edwin Kelley, John Doran, Thomas Gleason, Joseph Kline, Henry 
Shroer, Henry C. Swayne, Lewis Wichgen, Frederick Waizenecker, 
Charles Black, Walter Stevens, John Hasler, John Shafer, George Bar- 
brines, W. T. McLachlin, Frederick Brendel. 

(One Hundred Days' Service.) 
Private A. E. Trumbull. 

(One Hundred Days' Service.) 


Assistant Surgeon Samuel Wolff. 
Chaplain G. R. Brown. 


This regiment (or rather battalion) consisted of but 
eight companies, raised in Cincinnati, and officered al- 
most altogether by Cincinnatians. It was raised for the 
hundred-days' service; was mustered in and put on duty 
at Camp Dennison until May 20, 1864, when it was 
transported to Johnson's Island, where it engaged in 
guarding rebel prisoners. June 25th it was ordered to 
Kentucky and remained on duty in that State until Au- 
gust 8th, when it started for Cumberland, Maryland. 
The remainder of its service was in that State and in 
Virginia, and was, like the rest of its history, compara- 
tively uneventful, its assignments being simply guard 
and general garrison duty. August 27th it began the re- 
turn movement to Camp Dennison, and was there mus- 
tered out at the expiration of its term. 


Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Bohlander. 
Major M. Reichings. 
Adjutant F. A. Walz. 

Quartermaster ■ ■ Kleinachle. 

Surgeon Harry Mallory. 
Assistant Surgeon Sidney Wolf. 



Captain William Rains. 

First Lieutenant Francis Daum. 

Second Lieutenant Frederick Stockhove. 


First Sergeant Henry Determan. 
Sergeant Frederick Nordman. 
Sergeant William Falk. 



Sergeant Charles Piepenbrink. 
Sergeant George Schwab. 
Corporal William Sylvester. 
Corporal John Kilian. 
Corporal Henry Smith. 
Corporal Louis Brinckman. 
Corporiil John Krohme. , 
Corporal Henry Linderman. 
Corporal Henry Brandt. 
Corporal August Morrell. 


Rudolph Barthold, Jacob Bander, Gerhard Bickman, Gerhard V. 
Becker, Henry Buck, Charles Bloebaum, Frederick Brans, Louis Cum- 
mings, Charles Droege, Lawrence Droege, Jacob Derne, Henry Delfen- 
dalil, John Dierkers, Sylvester Ernst, Henry Lickenhurst, Adolph Falk, 
Herman Fuerste, Henry Glentzman, Frederick Gellenbeck, August 
Huber, Henry Hanbrock, William Hanbrock, Frederick H. HuxhoU, 
Henry Hendersman, Joseph Hill, Frederick Hunsfeld, William Huns- 
feld, Henry Hunsfeld, William Kreyenhager, Theodore Krenzer, Peter 
Homberg, Christian Kallenhorn, L. Klein, Charles F. Kornell, Wil- 
liam Langenberg, Frederick Leppert. Henry Ma^'er, Henry Mittendorf, 
Henry J. Meyer, Henry iVIeyer, George Nagel, Frederick Nordman, 
August Neander, William Pattberg, Frederick H. Proese, Henry Renne- 
meyer, Frederick Rentzelman, Henry Rohenkamp, William Runte, 
George Rotheil, Henry Strabbe, Frederick H. Studt, Charles Stock- 
hoff, August Schultz, Louis Steinwart. Frederick Spreen, Henry Steil- 
borg, Thomas Soders, Henry Schulte, Louis Treting, Frederick Trinn- 
meyer, Edward Turner, Henry Tapke, Henry Wartman, Christian 
Williams, William Wietlhoff, Isaac C. Winans, Christian Winterstein, 
Matthias Zehntner, William Hartman, .Abraham Lapp, William Rosen- 



Captain Edwin Wendgassen. 
First Lieutenant William Stuebe. 
Second Lieutenant Ernest Hoese. 


Sergeant L. Oberhen. 
Sergeant Henry Baer. 
Sergeant Jacob Kiefer. 
Sergeant William Kreis. 
Sergeant Christopher Kurz. 
Corporal Fridolin Schuhman. 
Corporal Bernhard Froelich. 
Corporal George Bamberger. 
Corporal Frederick Lang. 
Corporal Louis Snessman. 
Corporal Albert Scider. 
Corporal George Meier. 
Corporal L. Stecktenoth. 
Musician Philip Lotz. 
Musician Edmund Schneider. 
Wagoner Nicholas Meyer. 


August Arens, Casper Albert, Charles Ahr, Charles Baumann, Peter 
Biedmeyer, John Boesherz, Casper Broman, Gottlieb Brenner, Joseph 
F. Berger, Miciiael Brenninger, John Bodemar, John Boebinger, Henry 
Dreher, Frederick H. Ehlerding, Julius Engelke, George Fleischner, 
John Frick, Leophold Fedweiss, Edward Gebhardt, Frederick Glemser, 
William Goetzei, George Hock, Christian Hemmerle, Jacob Hoese, 
Herman Haerle, Justus Kruckemeyer, L. Kruckemeyer, Henry 
Kruckemeyer, L. Klotter, John Kobmann, William Kattelinus, Emil 
Koch, Herman Lumpp, Rudolph Loheider, Richard Loheider, Richard 
Luttry, William Manus, Richard Meinhardt, Julius Moeser, George 
Mueller, John Naegeler, Ma.x Pickel, Charles Rotter. Frederick Reif, 
Jacob L. Schiess, Conrad Stehle, Leonhardt Schreiber, Carl Schmidt, 
August Spiecker, Carl Schwamm, Adolph Siemon, Carl Sieber, Carl 
Vogel, John T. Wrochole, George Wolf, Frederick A. Werner, Chris- 
tian Frey, Friederich Heinrich, Diedrich Herzel, Matthias Kriedler, 
Frederick Kessler, Adam Lueter, Ernst Jacobi, Franz Schmidt, L. 
Wiehlert, John Wohlenhoff. 



Captain Joseph Harder. 

First Lieutenant Lewis Nubacker. 
Second Lieutenant William Mayer. 


Sergeant Thomas Breener. 

Sergeant John Horn. 

Sergeant Lewis Reinwardt. 

Sergeant Charles Scheutt. 

Sergeant John G. Arnold, 

Corporal H. Murder. 

Corporal Joseph Gerhard. 

Corporal F. Lehmann. 

Corporal Conrad Menzel. 

Corporal Christian Frohmann. 

Corporal John Hammelbacher. 

Corporal B. Jungkind. 

Corporal William Voeste. 

Musician Conrad Heim. 

Musician Lewis Tow. 


William Althammer, L. Buhler, Lewis Boebinger, P. Bindhammer, 
Conrad Brodbeck, H. Bendel, Christian Butz, Charles Bachmann, 
Julius Beiker, Peter Burnet, Roman Blegle, Frederick Butscher, Henry 
Doell, Henry Druhme, F. H. Drantz, Henry Fibers, Henry Eppens, 
Henry Finkler, John Fries, Frederick Fortmann, Joseph Fries, Jacob 
Glaser, Lewis Gerhard, Sebastin Gast, Conrad Gehever, August Geider, 
William Hardmann, Christian Kraus, Christian Krentzer, Michael 
Klein, Christopher Kaiser, Thomas Kies, Paul Koob, John Lehmann, 
Peter Layne, H. Lindermann, Gottlieb Messner, John Mann, G. Man- 
ger, Herman Mueller, Peter Mueller, J. Menzler, Joseph Neubacher, 
John Orth, Henry Ollendorff, Hemy Oelschlaeger, J. Ploesser, Adam 
Pankner, Alexander Reis, Lewis Rapp, Alexander Rickert, John 
Schmidt, G. Schotterback, John Sprainly, Thomas Sprainly, Charles 
Saultetus, J. Sandhammer, John Schwatz, Christian Stoemer, Theo- 
dore Sander, Lewis Sass, Lewis Schaefer, Theodore Stengel, Christian 
Schilling, Frederick Trosky, John Worthwein, W. Neubacher, Charles 
Meyer, F. Martin, Bernhart Welterer, George Wengler, F. Weise, 
Leopold Wocher, Jol'in Walter, Gustave Woelffer, F. Lehman. 



Captain W. Ohmann. 

Fiist Lieutenant Adolph Frey. 

Second Lieutenant Adam Fauth. 


First Sergeant Louis Borhat. 
Sergeant Theodore Brueok. 
.Sergeant B. Rath. 
Sergeant C. Weidenreich. 
Sergeant O. Zeil. 
Corporal David Abrihl. 
Corporal Adolph Wenohan. 
Corporal John Halzig. 
Corporal Carl Kuenemund. 
Corporal P. Zimpelmann. 
Corporal H. Schuhmacher. 
Corporal H. Rise. 
Musician Daniel Koch. 
Musician Frank Guide. 
Wagoner H. Jacob. 


Valentine Adam, Gustavus Armstrong, Sebastian Aspenleiter, Henry 
Baumann, John Becker, I^ouis Blum, Christian Conrade, Henry 
Daiber, Henry Detert, Louis Deicke, Henry Denk, Valentine Dorst, 
Henry Deitz. Joseph F. Doelring, F. Frommel, Fried. H. Fachmann, 
Anton J. Goldstein, Ernst Giesler, Carl Goerich, iSIoritz Herfruth, 
Henry Hiel, G. Hoffmann, Joseph Haider, Henry Jaeger, J. Johnson, 
Gustavus Keck, Jacob Knickel, J. G. Keck, Rudolph Kerner, Louis 
Kurz, Carl Lanewig, Henry Lievei, Frank Mayer, Michael Mayer, 
Albert Marsch, H. Niemann, Herman Gieske, M. Keiss, Frank Oper, 
August Polster, Jacob Plaff, Christian Ruhl, George Reuner, Paul 
Rothfuss, August Roerig, Henry Schroer, Simon Stern, Henry Schmidt, 
Jacob Schmidt, Franz Suhr, Joseph Stubenrauth, Carl Tempel. Jacob 
Uhl, Jacob Weinmann, Joseph Wiegmann, Matthew Wernz, John 
Wells, John G. Wild, Frank Wolf, Leopold Wacher, Adolph Wiegar, 
Frederick Weisse, George Wenzler. 




Captain Martin Henser. 
First Lieutenant F. W. Rau. 
Second Lieutenant John Pfisterer. 


First Sergeant Matthias Wentzeh 

Sergeant George Rebhotz. 

Sergeant Anthony Schleich. 

Sergeant George Heihnan. * 

Sergeant Henry Weil. 

Corporal John Wall. 

Corporal Christian Niehouse. 

Corporal Frederick Ellerman. 

Corporal Henry Shuetze. 

Corporal Cristopher Gaibel. 

Corporal Conrad Urban. 

Corporal Henry Gepert. 

Corporal Albert Britzwein. 

Musician Charles Thielman. 

Musician Robert Bauer. 


Henry Hornburg, Charles Kenenet, Robert Naegel, August Dillman, 
William Miller, John Kleiber, Henry Bohling, John Schnell, Henry 
Hinderman, Peter Rink, Henry Rieke, Clements Traevig, Nicolaus 
Trasbuch, M. Singerbacher, William Allberger, William Bosse, Joseph 
Fisterer, Charles Browner, George Kimball, Gustavus Bauer, Ferdinand 
Bauer, Anthony Rumpler, Charles L. Schenbrenner, Jacob Moses, 
Henry Scherer, Christian Rech, Henry Silbert, Henry Garner, August 
Weisgerber, John Hartlinger, Jacob Groh, Pauli Meyer, Peter 
Sprinscweber, Henry Rosenbaum, Frederick Binder, Barney Borgman, 
John May, Adolph Reis, George Reis, Andreas Reck, John Monnahan, 
Jacob Diehl, Leonard Foster, Adam Scheurer, John Brown, Henry 
Bowman, John Hoerner, William Heinrich, Michael Meyer, G. F. 
Lauble, Louis Bremer, Theodore Landherr, Frederick Oeckole, 
Nicholas Roeder, Frank Geager, Christian Eggensberger, Daniel 
Fessler, Joseph Heidelmann, Jacob Irion, Henry Eckel, John Houser, 
George Fossler, John Born, Moritz Focke, Charles Shaefer, Cristopher 
Kessel, Joseph Jennewein, Peter Schwab, Henry Klipper, Antoni Ran- 
som, Christian Enkensbrecker, John Klaiber. 



Captain J. Hoffman. 

First Lieutenant John Zimmerman. 

Second Lieutenant Cornelius Nickel. 


First Sergeant Charles H. Bode. 
Sergeant Peter Wolf. 
Sergeant David Ringold. 
Sergeant Peter Johannes. 
Sergeant Matthew Mader. 
Corporal John Hills. 
Corporal John Frick. 
Corporal August Stable. 
Corporal Carl Wentzel. 
Corporal Xavier Reis. 
Corporal J. S. Sperk. 
Corporal Henri Lehman. 
Corporal W. Fricke. 
Musician A. Havmush. 
Musician A. Boos. 
Wagoner .Sebastian Bingel. 


Ernst Beutz, Adam Bochner, Matthias Burk, W. Baumgarten, Mat- 
thew Bach, Christian Boliar, Lon Dewald, Cornelius Doni, Franz 
Demmer, Louis Drepold, A. Enf, William Espenbier, Michael Ecker, 
William Friedrich, Adam Fuchs, Peter Geiber, Wilhelm Gevy, Peter 
Gundrum, Friedrich Geschwind, G. Hampfling, Christian Hoffman, 
M. Hochstahl, C. Henke, Christian Hanemann, Henry Ider, Valen- 
tine Kaeser, John Kohler, Peter Korn, Henry Knuffer, Philip Kantz, 
Herman Lehman, Joseph Langenbacher, Christian Loewe, Carl Lerch, 
Frank Lehmeyer, Christian Mansberger, George Markert, George 
M.xrtz, Frank Nemisgern, Heinrich Nagel, W. Pope, Heinrich F. M. 
Padenkop, Xavier Reis, L. Reutzenbrink, William Reutzenbrink, Hein- 

rich Rabanas, Charles Schilling, Herman Schumacher, Leon Schmidt, 
Heinrich Stradtman, Wilhelm Schultz, Carl Stenile, W. Sbrumpfle, 
Alexander Tucholke, Carl Treber, Jacob Ruger, W. Temohler, Joseph 
Shahbach, Ignatz Schander, Philip Wagner, Ma.x Weber, Gustave 
Wolfer, Bernhard Wetterer, John Watter, Louis Ziegler, W. Lemhuh- 




Captain Joseph Wolf. 

First Lieutenant John Grimm. 

Second Lieutenant George Meyer. 


First Sergeant Peter Le Saint. 
Sergeant Peter Bischard. 
Sergeant Frank Feldman. 
Sergeant Theodore Brinkman. 
Sergeant Justus Momsbeyer. 
Corporal John Derchler. 
Corporal Peter Wissel. 
Corporal Adolph Thill. 
Corporal Frank Diehl. 
Corporal Louis Lazarus. 
Corporal Gerhard Hempke. 
Corporal John AUeck. 
Corporal John Weizbachel. 
Musicia"h F. Fry. 
Musician Henry Brellemeier. 
Wagoner Jacob Thor. 


Matthias Alben, John Andersmin, Bernhard Ahrend, Martin Appel, 
Frank Buschle, Charles Brown, Peter Bihn, John Benner, Casinni 
Banman, Basilius Bohn, Cornelius Bashle, John Bruch, George Ber- 
ling, Edward Bradfish, Henry Branson, George Bauman, Frederick 
Boechle, John Berg, William Behrens, George Daunhauer, Frederick 
Detmering, August Deckurtz, John Dickman, Valentine Eichenlaub, 
Adam Felsch, Peter Gross, Nicholas Guenther, Martin Hochstahl, 
Frederick Hornig, Bernhard Hagebrook, Henry Helming, William 
Helming, Herman Gosterand. Joseph Korn, Joseph Knabe, John 
Kaufman, John Kraeble, August Klingler, F. W. Lauer, Charles Mar- 
tens, Frederick Miller, Anton Molter, Henry Niemeyer, Sellers Pell, 
Martin Roesel, John H. Rackel, Adolph Richard, Adam Steigerwald, 
Jacob Steinborn, David Stock, Henry Steinke, Henry Stallkamp, 
George Satzman, Edvvard Stern, George Thill, Gerhard Trometer, 
David Voltz, Jacob Walter, William Wickert, Anton Woell, Henry 
Weibel, George Wrigerber, Philip Young, John Zeigler, Joseph 
Klinger, George, John Eichenlaub, Henry Gilbert, Samuel 
Geisler, Charles Kimmel, Balthasar Koch, Christian Klang, George 
Leonhard, Lewis Nay, Charles Roller, Lewis Rahke, Michael Simon, 
Anton Schreeberger. 


(One Year's Service.) 



First Sergeant Stephen J. Lowell, jr. 


Isaac T. Downing, William J. B. Denning, John W. Hurd, George 
W. Harrison, Alexander M. Leedeur, John Melvey, Peter Pence, Jacob 
Pence, Nathaniel Tomblson. 


{One Year's Service,) 



Francis Hawthorn. Patrick O'Connell, John M. Colt, John B. Per- 
kins (Musician) 

Private Frank Dupill. 

This regiment was recruited in Cincinnati, for the one- 
year service, during the months of July, August and 
September, 1864, a period when troops were greatly 



needed to fill the depleted ranks of the National armies. 
The regiment was declared organized on October 15, 
1864. It was composed mostly of men who had seen 
service in "the Old Tenth," and in the ranks of the 
Fifth, Sixth, Ninth and other prominent Ohio regiments. 
Marching orders were received on the twenty-fourth of 
October, and on that day the regiment started for Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, and arrived at that place on the twenty- 
ninth. On its arrival a fight was in progress between the 
National forces, commanded by General R. S. Granger, 
and a portion of Hood's army on its way to Nashville. 
The left wing of the One Hundred and Eighty-first was 
immediately taken to the scene of action, and although 
not actually engaged, the men displayed the coolness of 
veteran troops. In November the regiment operated 
around Decatur, Alabama, meeting the enemy in several 
picket affairs. Evacuating Decatur, the regiment went 
by rail to Murfreesborough, Tennessee. On this trip an 
accident occurred to the train, by which one man was 
killed and three others were wounded. On December 
5th Major Hickey, with two hundred men, was for some 
time engaged in repairing the Chattanooga railroad. On 
a certain occasion the force was surrounded by the 
enemy, but by cool manoeuvring on the part of officers 
and men it succeeded in escaping safely into Murfrees- 
borough. On December 7th the regiment took part, 
with other troops, in repelling an attack on Murfrees- 
borough by the rebel General Forrest, and lost three or 
four men wounded. In following up their success, the 
National force came in contact with about eight thousand 
rebels, under General Bates, in position on Wilkinson's 
turnpike. A fierce fight ensued, in which the One Hun- 
dred and Eighty-first participated in a charge across an 
open field, mounted the rebel works, captured one hun- 
dred and fifty prisoners and two pieces of artillery. Its 
loss was five killed and thirty wounded, two mortally. 
The regiment was mentioned in special orders for its 
gallantry by General Rousseau. The most of December 
was consumed in foraging around Murfreesborough. In 
these expeditions the enemy was frequently met and en- 
gaged. In one of those affairs, on the fourteenth of 
December, the One Hundred and Eighty-first made 
several gallant charges, driving the enemy, and securing 
the success of the expedition. In this Captain William 
Ketteler, Captain L H. Pummill and First Sergeant 
Leonard, of company G, distinguished themselves 
in manceuvring different detachments of the regi- 
ment. On Saturday, December 24th, the regiment was 
assigned to the Third brigade. Second division, Twenty- 
third army corps, and after a fatiguing march joined its 
command at Columbia, Tennessee, on the twenty-ninth. 
With the Twenty-third army corps, on January 22, 1865, 
it was taken to Goldsborough, North Carolina, where it 
joined Sherman's grand army. Under orders the regi- 
ment joined the Wilmington expedition, and proceeding 
up Cape Fear river until within four miles of Wilming- 
ton, was met by the returning iron-clads, with decks 
crowded by enthusiastic crews, who shouted the glad 
news that the city was captured and occupied by the Na- 
tional troops. Landing at \Vilmington, the regiment was 

subjected to severe marching through the hot sands of 
that inhospitable country. In April the One Hundred 
and Eighty-first joined in the advance on Raleigh, North 
Carolina, and on the thirteenth was met with the happy 
inteUigence that General Lee and his whole army had 
surrendered to General Grant. On the twenty-sixth of 
April Johnston's army surrendered, and the war was 
ended. The regiment was, shortly after, sent to Balti- 
more, and thence to Camp Dennison, where, on the 
twenty-ninth of July, 1865, it was paid off and mustered 
out, having been in the service nine months and a half, 
and travelled and marched four thousand one hundred 
and sixty miles. 


Colonel John O'Dowd. 
Colonel John E. Hudson. 
Lieutenant Colonel James T. Hickey. 
Major William Ketteler. 
Surgeon Solomon B. Wolff. 
Assistant Surgeon Alfred Force. 
Assistant Surgeon Oliver McCarty. 
Adjutant Frederick Anderson. 
Quartermaster Hermam Remble. 
Quartermaster Frederick Hoeller, 
Chaplain James M. Brown. 
Sergeant Major Benjamin Heath. 
Sergeant Major John Leonard. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Richard Norton. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Thomas W. Wright. 
Quartermaster Sergeant David R. McCracken. 
Commissary Sergeant Lucien W. McKee. 
Commissary Sergeant David T. Snellbaker. 
Commissary Sergeant John Sheridan. 
Hospital Steward Charles Fehr. 
Hospital Steward John W. Toskey. 
Hospital Steward John W. Criswell. 
Principal Musician Henry Rohrkasse. 
Principal Musician William H. Webber. 
Chief Bugler George Auker. 



Captain Frederick McDonough. 

First Lieutenant Leonidas H. Pummill. 

Second Lieutenant Charles H. Weaver. 


First Sergeant Jacob P. Smith, 
Sergeant Eden B. Reeder. 
Sergeant John C. Morris. 
Sergeant John W. Durbin. 
Sergeant August Wrede. 
Corporal J. M. Brown. 
Corporal J. G. Brown. 
Corporal James Campbell. 
Corporal A. R. Murray. 
Corporal George Anchor. 
Corporal George W. Gale. 
Corporal Samuel C. Go.xon. 
Corporal James Dougherty. 
Musician Emil Schaeges. 
Musician Frederick Sowers. 
Wagoner William Sholand. 


Frank Anchler, Richard A. Bruason, Thomas Barron, Thomas 
Braekon, John Baldock, Joseph Bailey, Charles Bowman, Patrick Cha- 
hill, John W. Colvin, John Cinchorn, Albert Carson, Lewis Cotton, 
Robert E. G. Clewers, Samuel Chain, Thomas P-. Cropper, Andrew 
Caiar, William Collier, James Dalton, Henry Dixon, Frederick H. 
Eckbush, John Edmunds, Charles W. Elble, Frank Elble, Robert M. 
Fisher, George Freeborn, Charles W. Frazier, Altman W. Geades, 
Rollin C. Goodrich, Russell K. Kendall, George Holland, Henry Huff, 
Daniel Harris, Clay Johnston, Charles Johnson, Henry Jacobs, Edgar 
[ones, George Kirby, Amos Kelley, Thomas Kelley, Eli Koch, Loami 



Karshner, Zepli Kearns, Henry Lafner, Patrick Lee, James Larkly, 
Martin V. Myers, George W. McLurty, Henry Melcher, William I. 
McCoy, John McCarty, EnosW. McMillen, Robert W. Minturn, Isaac 
W. Patterson, Pease Plumb, Thomas R. Quigley, George F. Reddert, 
Chapman Roberts, William Ryan, Edward C. Reynolds, John Ratcliff, 
John T. Sliarp, Alonzo Swetne, Martin Spitznagle, William Seymour, 
Frederick H. Seward, Henry Whortman, Barney Williams, John 
Welch, Theodore Wiggins, Nathaniel F. M. Wlieeler, Henry Whet- 
zell, Henry G. Whiting, John L. Wliiteside, Michael Wisemantle, 
Charles H. Williams, Joseph Young, Henry Riehl, Charles H. Weaver, 
Samuel S. Stratton, John Scherer, John Wagner, Valentine P. Smith. 



Captain William Kettler. 

First Lieutenant Herman Reinpel. 

Second Lieutenant John Lang. 


First Sergeant Henry Meyling. 
Sergeant George Louis Licking. 
Sergeant Henry Ronig. 
Sergeant George Foster. 
Sergeant David B. Worley. 
Corporal John Roth. 
Corporal Conrad Greing. 
Corporal Christian Renter. 
Corporal Frederick Lutz. 
Corporal William Robinson. 
Corporal Uavid Snellbaker. 
Corporal Benjamin Sharpless. 
Corporal Edward Horracks. 
Musician Herman Ahlenstorff. 
Musician Henry Rohrkasse. 
Wagoner George H. Fein. 


William Arnold^ Isaac N. Babcock, John H. H. Babcock, John 1. 
Ba.\ter, Christian Baumgartner, John F. Becker, Henry L. Baker, Ar- 
mand Bouchon, Robert Baunfels, Patrick Code, Thomas Conley, Ed- 
ward Deveny, Harrison Daring, James Downey, James L. Dewab, 
Andrew Ewan, John Engart, Charles Fehr, Louis Fonguet, Joseph 
Finn, John A. Gartline, Lorenz German, Philip B. Habening, Henry 
Haaf, John I. Hauck, Joseph Hauck, John Huey, John Harvey, 
August Hoyng, Ludwig Huber, John D. Huff, Henry Hersch, Freder- 
ick Kaufiran, W. J. Kasper, Michael Kelley, Christian Knappka, 
Jacob Kutzer, John Kreutzberg, John Lang, Matthias Mannes, Charles 
C. Martin, Michael Mellan, Joseph Moore, Samuel Moss, W. J. Mc- 
Quigg, Henry Mohrman, Henry Mussaus, John Nunnenger, John 
William Page, A-Iichael Pauls, John Phelps, Peter Rappold, Joseph 
Rechtin, Louis Ritter, Joseph Roberts, Paul Rothfuss. Bernhard Lick- 
ing, Herman Schaff, William Stande, Theobold Scheib, Joseph Shath, 
Henry Sohn, Reinhard Steble, George Sterzenbach, John Smith, 
Charles Shmidt, William Schulze, Benjamin Trester, August Uhl, 
Christian Veit, Albert Vogel, Valentine Volmer, Martin Weiss, Charles 
Wetter, John Weimer, Thomas Wallecott, Sheridan Williamson, James 
Wilson, Thomas W. Wright, Zachariah Wrecker, Louis Zacheritz, 
John Lang, Louis Niskin, Alexander Hamilton. 



Captain John E. Hudson. 
First Lieutenant Charles Allen. 
Second Lieutenant Patrick Merrick. 


First Sergeant William Gibson. 
Sergeant Samuel S. Matthews. 
Sergeant William J. Haney. 
Sergeant John S. Pierce. 
Sergeant Henry Kemper. 
Corporal Thomas Mackin. 
Corporal Patrick Farmer. 
Corporal Thomas Granger. 
Corporal Moses D. Lovey. 
Corporal Thomas Collins. 
Corporal Richard Norton. 
Corporal William Butler. 
Corporal William Lamb. 

Musician John W. Ambrose. 
Musician Joseph Devine. 
Wagoner John McKeefer. 


Paul Burns, George H. Beckman, Wesley Burden, William Bolls, 
Matthias Bone, George W. Beech, Thomas Bowers, Michael Butler, 
Michael O'Brien, Michael Carley, John Conley, jr., William E. Cobb, 
David C. Cooper, WiUiam A. Doherty, James Diffley, August Dening, 
Martin Donnelly, Michael Doherty, John Davis, Michael Doyle, Moses 
P. Early, Dennis Fanning, Leopold Fice, Terrance Ferrell, Patrick 
Gil]#artin, Abraham Gross, Jasper Galentine, James Hundersurh, Ed- 
ward Hendrahan, WiUiam Hayes, Clark Heitt, Marion Heitt, Simon 
Holland, Anthony Harnold, Isaac Johnson, John W. Kallis, Bernhard 
Kretty, Harrison Kelly, James Keating, Owen Laning, Michael 
Lawrence, John Linderman, George W. Lee, William Murphy, Patrick 
Murry, John J. Meckling, Benjamin Marshall, Thomas Mulligan, 
David J. Mills, Jerry Mahony, William Moran, Dennis McCanleff. 
John McLear, James C. McWiUiams, Samuel Newell, John W. Oliver, 
Edward C. O'Donnell, John Orr, Joseph Piesche, George Pelcher, 
Patrick Parlin, Marion RusseU, William Roe, Joseph Roush, Chris- 
topher Sherer, Henry Shanagman, Valentine Spissinger, Martin 
Teoholdt, John Thomas, John Troy, Asa Walton, George Weber, 
Williams B. West, William Wilson, Thomas Wilson, Richard Wells, 
Edward Walsh, George W. Woods, George Wales, Thomas Walts, 
George Yeddah, Charles Allen, Patrick Merrick, Frank Smith, John 
McDonald, Robert Nichelson, Ceorge Sandbrink, Anthony Runk, 
William Andrews, Martin Dickhite, James Henderson, jr. 



Captaid John O'Dowd. 

First Lieutenant James Foley. 

Second Lieutenant Samuel W. McCaslin. 


First Sergeant Joseph Ahise. 
Sergeant John B. Sexton. 
Sergeant Patrick Grififin. 
Sergeant George W. Bogart. 
Sergeant James Brown. 
Corporal William H. Smith. 
Corporal Thomas Cleveland. 
Corporal George Gill. 
Corporal Thomas M. Edgely. 
Corporal Edward Williams. 
Corporal Moses H. Metcalf. 
Corporal James M. Hickman. 
Coi"poial James Dempsey. 
Musician William H. Weber. 
Musician Levi S. Mote. 
Wagoner Charles Fagan. 


Thomas Allen, John Battell, Westley Brewer, John M. Blair, Isaac 
S. Bailey, John Barber, Jesse Belcher, Lawrence Boyle, James Boyles- 
ton, Richard M. Bishop, Charles Boyd, Richard Burnett, Jeremiah 
Cregg, Cornelius Conway, James Carroll, John Conkling, Edward G. 
Clyde, Barney Duffy, Richard Dovan, James Dennis, Thomas David, 
Patrick Donohue, Lawson Drais, Thomas B. Fox, Patrick Fox, James 
Fay, Englelerz Faulk, Wilson K. Gaines, Robert Gould, John Heron, 
Francis Howard, Patrick Hart, John Hudson, John Hudnall, Austin 
Joice, Joseph E. King, Peter Klein, Lawrence Kehoe, George Kram- 
bert, Joseph Lewis, John Lantre, Joseph Mues, John Masters, Joseph 
Mattern, Patrick Morgan, James McGauley, Thomas M. McGrath, 
Thomas McBride, William McHenry, Patrick McCarty, James W. 
Nadand, Thomas Newcomb, Chambers Peyton, Thomas Ryan, John 
Reed, Albert F. Rusk, James Ryan, Richard Ross, George A. Reider, 
Thomas Smith, James Smith, No. i, James Smith, No. 2, Thomas 
Steiner, Daniel Sullivan, Henry Stafford, James Stillman, Ephriam 
Sellers, John M. Stowell, Samuel Schroeder, William Stewart, Nicholas 
A. Shotts, Howard A. Turner, John Thomas, Harvey Vanbryen, 
Thomas Weldon, William Waite, William H. Wilson, Joseph A. 
Witherby, Wallace W. Witherby, James B. Carney, James Folev, 
Samuel W. McCaslin. 

(Assigned to Company.) 


First Sergeant Edvvard Cannon. 
Sergeant Walcott R. Wetherby. 



Sergeant Edward Donevan, 
Sergeant Thomas Noonan. 
Corporal Horace Ryhran. 
Corporal Patrick McGarry. 
Corporal James Murray. 
Corporal Marion Hargrove. 
Musician Nicholas E. Dressell. 


Frederick Dressell, John Rennessy, John S. Kleine, James A. Klick, 

William A. Lewis, William Moesch, Christopher H. Maker, John 

Mayle, Patrick McCarthy, James Rooney, Thomas E. Rodgers, John 

Sheridan, William Truman, Samuel Wilson. 



Captain David Gordon. 

First Lieutenant Daniel K. Gordon. 

Second Lieutenant Robert S. Logan. 


First Sergeant Lucien W. McKee. 
Sergeant John Alexander. 
Sergeant Benjamin Durry. 
Sergeant Oliver R. Fazier. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Heath, 
Corporal Alfred B. Norris. 
Corporal Mathew O'Conner. 
Corporal John J. Weaver. 
Corporal Thomas F. Gleeson. 
Corporal Abraham Deffendefer. 
Corporal Frank M. Slyth. 
Corporal Jacob E. Keifer. 
Corporal Frederick Walton. 
Musician William Ross. 
Musician William W. Adams. 
Wagoner James Davis. 


Michael Arie, James M. Bradford, Eli Binkley, Aaron O. Boose, Wil- 
liam Butler, Simon Burtch, Lewis Beatel, Vincent C. Brown, William 
Barlow, Safron Bowman, John P. Bowlander, William Bakeman, Fred- 
erick Bowman, Absalom Brooks, Allen Brewer, George Bartlett, Sam- 
uel Bowen", Christopher Backhoff, Thomas Brown, Michael Constantine, 
Isaiah Clark, Thomas Campbell, George Curtiss, George A. Du- 
gan, John Dair, Glenville Eddington, Alonzo C. Earhart, John Forsyth, 
Thomas Fury, Charles Fry, Richard D. Gibson, Joseph Goell, John H. 
Heath, David Hanes, John Hicks, Emanuel Harlan, George W. Har- 
ker, James Hamilton, Wilson Jenkins, Albert Jacob, Harry H. Jones, 
Peter Kamph, James Kapp, James L. Laman, John Lucas, Joseph 
luckhart, Samuel J. Lorrins, John Leever, Herman Moore, John Ma- 
hony, John J. MiUigan, Branson McChristy, Frank Moeohn, Michacj 
McMahon, George Nappert, John Oliver, Ralph Peterson, William A. 
Parker, William Porter, Edward H. Powers, Andrew Putsie, William 
Rush, Peter Ristling, Proctor Ratcliff, William Stivers, Isaac Shaffer, 
Rinehart Shintledeker, Marsailes Shutcliff, Frank Schmidt, John Stans- 
berry, Edward Snyder, George Scott, Lewis Stahl, Charles Thomas, 
John W. Toskny, John Vogel, William Vandemark, John Williams, 
Clermont Wellerding, Jacob Worstell, James Wiley, Frederick Yeager, 
Robert L. Logan, Dennis McGroarty, Frank M. Slyh, Joseph Bruens, 
Frederick Dankhardt, Henry Riedel. 



Captain Gustav A. Grais. 
First Lieutenant Louis Kuster. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick Hoeller. 


First Sergeant Henry Elver. 
Sergeant John Steffel. 
Sergeant Henry Asbach. 
Sergeant John Walmsler. 
Sergeant John Siefert. 
Corporal John Reimer. 
Corporal Jacob Schroesizer. 
Corporal Henry Bauer. 
Corporal Henry Oliver. 
Corporal Peter Lichtfers. 
Corporal C. Geschwind. 

Corporal Theodore Koehn. 
Corporal Gottlieb Knabe. 
Musician Frank Mueller. 
Musician Clemens Aldendick. 
Wagoner William Ehrhavelt. 


William Amlingmeyer, Henry Barker, John Barthlem, Henry Bauer, 
Joseph Bauer, Robert Bettner, George Bichle, Louis Bienernan, Peter 
Blau, Peter Brann, William.Burkhardt, Christopher Busch, John Bink- 
man, Martin Clansman, Frederick Detmcring, Conrad Diemer, Charles 
Dickman, Hugo Edler, Andrew Egner, Theodore Feigler, Lawrence 
Fisher, Frederick Frey, Philip Geiber, William F. Gilpin, George Gro- 
nauer, John Gunterd. Andrew Guenther, John Hartman, Christian 
Herbstreith, Michael Herman, John Hittenbental, Benjamin Hillbert, 
Peter Hoffman, Adam Huber, Andrew Huber, John Jager, Loton 
Jones, Raymond Kattenback, John Kling, Valentine Kneer, Ludwig 
Kraucher, John Kroll,John P. Lanser, Charles Leishkow, Henry Lutz, 
Christian Meister, John Mueller, Jacob Mueller, Louis Nolte, Cornelius 
Oschwald, Herman Peters, Joseph Pick, Philip Pick, Frederick Probst, 
Johonas Raabe, Frank R. Ritter, John Roos, Augustus Roerig, John 
Rosenberger, David Roth, John E. Schabel, Jacob Schott, Henry W. 
Schroeder, William Schutte, Frank Senliff, John Sicking, William 
Smiers, Haver Smith, John E. Spaeth, Charles Spec, Gabriel Stadler, 
Henry Stahl, Haver Stauss, Frederick Strich, Christian Stritling, Louis 
White, Matthew Wehr, John Werner, Albert Wetstein, John B. Wink- 
ler, Frederick Winter, Paul Zimmerer, Louis Knester. 


Captain George Kounz. 

First Lieutenant Lawrence C. Carpenter. 

Second Lieutenant George W. Poling. 


First Sergeant James Callahan. 
Sergeant Columbus Thornton. 
Sergeant John Leonard. 
Sergeant Silas F. Hill. 
Sergeant Thomas G. Duncan. 
Corporal Herman T. Monougli. 
Corporal George S. Moore. 
Corporal Vincent Winings. 
Corporal John G. Moore. 
Corporal Henry Shackleford. 
Corporal Clark Galloway. 
Corporal James Fitzgerald. 
Corporal John C. Owens. 
Musician William H. Wilson. 
Musician Aaron Reedy. 
Wagoner James H. Duffy. 


George W. Abbott, Anderson Arnold, Francis M. Atwell, William 
H. Bowers, Solomon Beach, George W. Beach, Hugh Breen, Robert 
Bruce, Henry Bowman, Charles L. Bradford, Barnett W. Blakesley, 
George Boswell, William Cappell, Henry Cox, James W.Criswell, John 
Conard, John W. Campbell, John Cretes, William Congar, Jeremiah 
Cougar, George Chesnut, James Caplinger, Thomas Cooper, Bronell 
Cooper, James Curney, Henry Duly, Frederick Donbusch, Harrison 
Dean, Benjamin Dean, Edward P. Dickey, Peter Eierman, Samuel 
Ehrhart, Jacob Fredman, William R. Hazelbaker, Andrew J. Hazel- 
baker, Matthew R. Humphrey, Frederick Horsmeile, John Hilliard, 
Henry Hinsey, David Hardman, Ezra Her, Daniel Johnson, William 
Landmeier, Abraham Londan, Paul Londan, William Low, Enoch D. ■ 
Lamb, John Mansfield, Charles S. Marion, Frederick Mantell, Reuben 
W. Mason, Isaac L. Moore, George W. Moore, George Myers, Daniel 
Morrison, George W. Mann, John Martin, Samuel S. Martin, Peter 
McCabe, Daniel McDermit, Jacob Mersch, Charles Riohman, Williaiu 
Rolphing, Joseph Reedel, Samuel Robertson, William Robertson, 
Thomas Ratcliff, Shepherd Reedy, John Ryan, William C. Reynolds, 
Julius Renach, Enoch B. Stratton, John Thompson, Peter Warner, 
John Weeks, William H. Weyman, James Walker, John Williams, 
Richard Winn, Joseph Williams, William H. Blake, Wesley Buck, 
Marion Cline, Dillon I. Healey, Christian Miller. 



Captain George A. Boss. 

First Lieutenant Frederick Hoeller. 



First Lieutenant Louis Stuebing. 

Second Lieutenant August Ruddenbrook. 


First Sergeant Frank D. Russell. 
Sergeant Cliarles Werkenhausen. 
Sergeant George Better. 
Sergeant Rudolph Oberding. 
Sergeant John Hess. 
Corporal Frederick Ertz. 
Corporal Henry Hemminghaus. 
Corporal William Brunner. 
Corporal Peter Mattern. 
Corporal John Schneider. 
Corporal .August Loeser. 
Corporal Leboreous Weiss. 
Corporal Louis Christnian. 
Musician Alfred Herbolsheimer. 
Musician Joseph Hennesse. 
Wagoner John Leever. 


Benson Abby, Frederick Ahlheit, Conrad Ahr, Jacob Becker, Thomas 
Bolton, William Cox, John Clarson, Peter Decker, Valentine Deckert, 
Charles Daverl, Jacob Dierberger, John Dremnal, Samuel Dunham, 
Thomas Dearing, John Feldman, James Fitzpatrick, Henry Foster, 
Henry Friedel, Andrew GoUer, David Groves, Frederick Helbing, 
Julius Hauser, Jacob Hoffman, Bernhard Hoffman, John Hoffman, 
Henry Helmick, Anselm Huber, John B. Helmann, William Horst, 
Louis Jonese, John Klemm, James Kelly, Otto Kraft, Charles Keenan, 
Thomas Keenan, Michael Lebean, Frederick Linderking, Edward 
Lilly, Ernst Linne, Charles Marshall, Tobias Muller, Alexander Mc- 
Pherson, Thomas Manning, John Oeder, William Ortendorf, William 
Oberding, George Plettner, David Powell, Henry Reis, Charles Retze, 
Frank Reinold, John Renk, George Riffemarker, Henry Reiter, Frank 
Rork, Bernhard Reuss, John Roor, William Scheeben, John Stein- 
brecker, John Stevens, John Sickler, George Schwarts, James She- 
watter, Louis Schneider, Valentine Teschler, William Tech, Martin L 
Ulmer, Frederick Ulmer, Henry Verwold, Michael Veerherlig, George 
Vetter, John Wahl, Charles Wentzel, Frank Wolff, August Wolff, 
Edward Walkei, August Worst, Frederick Wehmann, William Zim- 
merman, John Phole, Louis Bower, Thomas Hurst. 



Captain John Becker. 

First Lieutenant Rudolph M. Gutenstein. 

Second Lieutenant John C. Stahel. 


First Sergeant Patrick Rath. 
Sergeant Adolphus Kuehn. 
Sergeant Peter Lesaint. 
Sergeant Patrick Kramer. 
Sergeant Philip Weihreich. 
Corporal Franz Serbter. 
Corporal George N, Davein. 
Corporal Christopher Leibrand. 
Corporal Charles Marschustz. 
Corporal Christopher Schimdberger. 
Corporal Kleinrich Werner. 
Corporal Jacob Kahn. 
Corporal Philip Loeffel. 
Musician David Stoffel. 
Musician Joseph Timhoff. 
Wagoner Conrad Zeigler. 


Joseph .Adams, George Asheimer, Frederick y^ppelius, Charles Arens, 
Emil Becker, Philip Jacob Becker, John Barger, David Beinhart, Joseph 
Brosemer, Emil Boscn, Joseph Blank, Louis Bohl, Frederick Dacker, 
Fritz Dehne, Philip Dornheger, Jacob Dietz, Jacob Dohna, George 
Endres, Casper Eisclein, Joseph Emminger, John Falk, Martin Fidler, 
Gustav Frauer, Franke Ficke, John Fox, Jacob Geiger, August Guss- 
man, Conrad Guthard, August Goepper, Adam Haab, August Haver- 
cost, Bernhard Harbth, John Heafner, John Herzig, Joseph Heitser, 
John Helt, Lorenz Hermann, John Heltmann, John Hauck, George 
Hoffman, Valentine Kenimereg, John Klein, Joseph Kaufman, William 
Krankburg, John Kahn, Valentine Korell, Cliristopher Lorenz, George 
Mallet, Joseph Meyer, Leopold Meyer, Henry Martin, Frank Meren- 

zer, John Meisterman, Philip Mueller, Adam Ney, Johan K. Oeder, 
Frank Olray, Philip Obergfeld, Edward Pfeff, Wilhelm RoUfing, John 
Roechli, Charles Ritter, George Richards, Adam Rechel, Louis Sturow, 
George Salzmann, John Schlesinger, Leonidas Schott, Jacob Schwartz, 
Anton Schwier, Frederick Schwier, William Strohman, Juling Sutton, 
Jacob Sommer, Patrick Stoffel, Frederick Tlrorman, George Weghorn, 
Henry Wiebel, Frederick Winner, George Wild, Joseph Welther, An- 
drew "^Vild. 



Captain James T. Hickey. 

First Lieutenant Charles Le Blanc. 

Second Lieutenant Timothy Cannon. 


First Sergeant Francis M. Engart. 
Sergeant Nicholas Kinnan. 
Sergeant James Miller. 
Sergeant John R. Lamb. 
Sergeant John Mara. 
Corporal James Tighe. 
Corporal David M. Merrill. 
Corporal Philip Baxter. 
Corporal Thomas H. Corcoran. 
Corporal Francis I. Cannon. 
Corporal Patrick Regan. 
Corporal Lewis L Nadend. 
Corporal Charles A. Nadend. 
Musician Albert Malloy. 
Musician John R. Whitrock. 
Wagoner John McCarthy. 


Henry Adams, J'rank Brooks, John Brannon, James H. Brown, 
Butch Coyle, William Cavanagh, John Crorrih, Charles Cochenhour, 
James Creedon, John Creedon, John Crawford, Daniel Corcoran, WiU 
liam Derlirhie, Dominick Demredy, Daniel Dume, James Day, Michael 
Dayre, William Eichler, Edgar Evans, Samuel Frost, James Foley, 
Daniel Fleming, John C. Flynn, Sanford Giay, Thomas Green, James _ 
Gallagher, David Hunter, William Henshaw, Samuel Henthorn, 
Thomas Hopkins, William Harley, Martin Holmes, John Holmes, Wil- 
liam Johnson, Samuel Johnston, William Jones, Patrick Kain, Thomas 
Lang, Thomas Lynch, Thomas James Lynch, James Lacey, James 
Morrison, Bryan Manning, John Mattor, James Moran, William Mar- 
ner, Edward Mason, Thomas Marmion, Henry W. Martin, Patrick 
MeVarney, Thomas McGraw, John McEUise, William McCrudy, Da- 
vid R. McLeracken, Robert Nicholson, Garrett Newman, Isaiah E. 
Newland, John Norvall, Bartholomew O'Donnell, John T. Peterson, 
Bernhard Rigney, Cornelius Ryan, Dennis Ryan, John Ryan, Henry 
Rucker, John Reynolds, William Reynolds, Peter Russell, James 
Spaulding, John Smith, .August Schwager, Charles L. Shannon, Martin 
Sheridan, Thomas Taylor, William Warner, James Wilson, John D. 
Sloan, Nicholas Trimble, William Murray, Roderick McCormick. 

Discharged. — Sergeants John Williams, William Haaren, James An- 
derson; Corporal Michael Moorey; Privates James Curry, James Fitz- 
patrick, Thomas Kennedy, Matthews McCarty, John MeGuire, John 
McNulty, Patrick O'Connell, John Rogers, Michael Tydengs. 


This was a one-year regiment. The regitnental or- 
ganization was completed October 28, 1864, at Camp 
Chase, near Columbus, and it moved at once to join 
General Sherman's command at Nashville. Hood's 
army appeared early in December, and this regiment 
■ took a prominent jjart in the battle that followed. After 
remaining in Nashville for guard and provost duty, it 
was sent to Camp Chase, where, July 13, 1S65, the men 
were mustered out and discharged. 

Private William H. Payne. 



Captain Alexander M. Lang. 
First Lieutenant Thomas Mitchell. 
Second Lieutenant Levi Conner. 




Allen S. Brownfield, Joseph Bradford, Henry Bradford, John l3unn, 
James W. Biinn, James Charles, Oliver E. Conner, Granville Cooper, 
William H. Cooley, Greenberry 1. Claxton. George A. Klinger, John 
A. FrankUn, Francis Fear, Caleb Flanigan, Thomas Graham, William ■ 
E. Howell, Josephus Bines, John E. Hicks, William Hall, Franklin 
Hall, Jonathan O. Bines, Henry Bines, James A. Hampton, William 
Hampton, William Boop, Sylvester Jobe, Samuel Jacob, William G. 
Kelley, William W. Killen, Charles W. Mittinger, John Neill, William 
Neville, James C. Pulmer, William H. Powers, John Powers, James 
Parker, Gilbert M. Paul, William Ruggles, Benjamin Schott, John A. 
Scott, Ale.xander Stewart, John M. Stewart, George W. Thompson, 
William Thompson, Uriah S. Thowman, George Warren, Harrison 
Warner, Daniel Anderson, Jacob Ashpach. 



John Love, Charles Love, Samuel S. Peggs. 


This regiment was organized at Camp Dennison be- 
tween the tenth of October and the eighteenth of Novem- 
ber, 1864. Eight companies were recruited princijDally in 
Cincinnati, and the other two were from Warren and 
Logan counties. About one-half of the men were Ger- 
mans by birth or descent. Many of the officers and men 
had been connected with other regiments, and had dis- 
tinguished themselves in numerous engagements by their 
gallantry and meritorious conduct. On the nineteenth 
of November, with seven hundred officers and men 
present, the regiment left Camp Dennison, and arrived 
at Columbia, Tennessee, on the twenty-eighth. It was at 
once assigned to the Third brigade. Second division, 
Twenty-third army corps, with which it remained during 
its entire term of service. When the army retired be- 
fore Hood's forces on the twenty-ninth, the regiment, 
with the Forty-fourth Missouri, was left at Spring hill, 
within eight hundred yards of the enemy's camp-fire, to 
protect the road leading to Franklin. Skirmishing was 
kept up all night, and early in the morning the regiment 
moved with the rear of the army to Franklin, closely 
pursued by the rebels. In the battle which ensued it 
acted a highly important part, and though but twelve 
days a regiment, it occupied a position near the center, 
and sustained itself well against every assault of the en- 
emy. Fifteen days later, in the battle of Nashville, the 
regiment showed a commendable determination to retain 
its early-won laurels, and was favorably mentioned in the 
official reports. The casualties in these two engage- 
ments amounted to over one hundred. The regiment 
afterwards moved with the corps to Clifton, on the Ten- 
nessee river, and thence by way of Cincinnati, Washing- 
ton city, and Fort Fisher, to Wilmington, North Carolina. 
Advancing by way of Kingston, it joined General Sher- 
man's army at Goldsborough and proceeded to Raleigh. 
After the surrender of Johnston the regiment moved to 
Salisbury, and during the month of June, 1865, received 
an addition of four officers and about two hundred men, 
who were transferred from the Fiftieth, One Hundredth, 
One Hundred and Third, One Hundred and Fourth, 
One Hundred and Eleventh, and One Hundred and 
Eighteenth Ohio regiments. The regiment was mus- 
tered out at Salisbury July 17th, and proceeding to Co- 
lumbus, it was paid and discharged on the twenty-ninth 

of July, 1865. It had served something less than a 
year, for which term, it was recruited. 


Colonel George W. Boge. 
Lieutenant Colonel Mervin Clark. 
Lieutenant Colonel Augustus G. Beitey. 
Major William F. Scott. - 
Surgeon Cyrus Basack. 
Assistant Surgeon Francis C. Plunkett. 
Assistant Surgeon Edward F. Baker. 
Adjutant Robert S. M. Bennett. 
Quartermaster William Beingst. 
Chaplain Jolin J. Geer. 
Sergeant Major Absalom Martin. 
Sergeant Major Charles B. Skinner. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Warner F. Jones. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Charles W. Schmidt. 
Commissary Sergeant Thomas Noris. 
Bospital Steward Adolph Bill. 
Bospital Steward Andrew Seymour. 

Captain Daniel Risser. 
First Lieutenant Albert Selbert. 
Second Lieutenant J. W. Durbin. 


First Sergeant Frederick Sayer. 
Second Sergeant Christopher Reichel. 
Sergeant John Kindel. 
Sergeant Joseph Eiklebeyer. 
Sergeant Gustav Meininger. 
Corporal Balthasar Burke. 
Corporal George Seger. 
Corporal William Schneiser. 
Corporal Charles Richter. 
Corporal John M. Harnish. 
Corporal ."Ashley D. Johnson. 
Corporal Phillip Marder. 
Corporal Henry W. Cordes. 
Musician Conrad Hein. 
Musician Alexander Bubart. 
Wagoner Frank Richter. 


Edward F. Armstead, Peter Argent, Jacob Bolman, Berman B. 
Brennstrop, Christopher Bremeng, William Bremeng, Frank B. Beck, 
John P. Bohlander, Martin Breedy, Martin Bruck, Charles Behringer, 
Henry Buck, Frederick Buttner, James BoUman, Benry Dera, An- 
drew^ Dehbacker. Julius Diemer, Jacob Deusch, William Lich, Benry 
Eckert, John Felt, John A. Finn, Benry Floteman, August Fieder- 
king, Charles Furst, Gottlieb GanzenmuUer, John B. Beke, Joseph 
Beldman, Jacob Boltzbauer, Benry Hendersman, Josiah Jobson, 
Clemens Joss, Joseph Kaich, Jacob Knapp, Peter Kaper, Frank B. 
Klein, Berman Koers, Joseph Kramer, Jacob Klein, Christian 
Jacob Loewe, Frank Linhoff, John A. Lindner, Benry Little, 
John E. Mueller, Frederick Meyer, Jonas Meyer, Joseph Meyer, Jo- 
seph MuUer, Nicholas Muller, Jonas Muller, Robert MulhoUand, Fred- 
erick Nordman, William N'enn, Benry Ott, Edward T. Perkins, 
Benry Rowe, Benry Richfer, Thomas Richardson, Gustavus Schaoe- 
fer, Lewis Schaefer, George F. Struebe, Benry Seulke, Charles 
Schwarz, Frank Sokup, George Sohn, Charles Schwembeyer, Joseph 
Saeger, Frederick Schiefer, Ignaz Stoefer, William Todd, Joseph Utz, 
William Vogel, Joseph Von Rohr, Julius Walker, William E. Wolfte, 
John Weber, Joseph Wagner, Christopher Wolff, August Wringer, 
Charles Walter, Andrew Young, Albert Selbert, Benry Brinkley, Wil- 
liam Caster, Abraham R. Cuphey, Perry Bolland, Benry Killing, 
Jonathan Linniger, John Lane, John Myron, Edward Murray, George 
Reedman, Charles W. Schmidt, Charles Young, John Young. 


Captain John Lang. 

First Lieutenant George Foester. 

Second Lieutenant Frederick Lutz. 



First Sergeant Herman Grosshoedt. 
Sergeant Michael Wallucli. 
Sergeant Frederick Blau. 
Sergeant Herman Bohne. 
Sergeant Ferdinand Schweclie. 
Corporal Lycurgus S. Edwards. 
Corporal John Schafer. 
Corporal John Siemen. 
Corporal Frederick Myelin. 
Corporal Christopher Myelin. 
Corporal Otto Driglestedt. 
Corporal Charles Driglestedt. 
Corporal Peter Ibold. 
Musician Jacob Helper. 
Musician John Miller. 
Wagoner Sigismimd Morsch. 


George Barvines, I. L. Brooks, Christopher Bernett, Jacob Buhler, 
Andrew Branderbreger, Christopher Balke, Joseph Bauer, Henry Beck, 
Joseph Beckman, Charles Becker, James Cope, Michael Conrad, John 
Convoy, Gottleib Dehmel, Frank Din, John Depont, Charles Deutsch- 
mann, Joseph Dumler, John Desscher, Peter Eibacher, Louis Fricker, 
William Fazer, Andrew Graff, Joseph Graff, Henry Gilbert, Theodore 
Gyss, Frank Guide, William Gotze, William Hauer, Joseph Hund, 
David Hunter, Christopher Junkert, Andrew Kiefer, Joseph Katterer, 
Henry Kull, Henry Kern, William Klaas, John I. Klappert, Clemens 
Kruger, John Knecht, Fritz Kuntze, Frederick Kammerling, John Lan- 
lenschlager, John A. Lellule, Franz Lohre, William Lenzer, Joseph 
Munnenburg, William Muller, George Mayce, Ferdinand Opertz, 
William Pillman, George Rebholtz, Peter Rohland, August Rotz, Fer- 
dinand Schwab, John Smith, No. i, John Smith, No. 2, Adam .Schnei- 
der, Daniel Schneider, John Stockman, August Sauker, Maxwell 
Schmidt, Peter Sauer, John Stoltz, Henry Scharenhaus, August 
Schleich, Michael Schumpf, George Thum, Henry Voht, Frank Weber, 
John Wonderlich, John Watson, Carl Werth, John Wisher, William 
Weber, William Westerman, Christopher Wieman, Jacob White, 
George Walters, Adam Zigler, George Kreckle, William Smith. Louis 
Asbach, Frederick Lippert. 



Captain Columbus Thornton. 
First Lieutenant Eden B. Reeder. 
Second Lieutenant Benjamin F. Durrv. 


First Sergeant James W. Driskel. 
Sergeant Alfred J. McCormick. 
Sergeant Joseph F. Turner. 
Sergeant Thomas Plumb. 
Sergeant John Marlow. 
Corporal Henry Snyder. 
Corporal James Patterson. 
Corporal J osiah Duffield. 
Corporal Edwaid Cooke. 
Corporal Joseph Sirtle. 
Corporal John Megrue. 
Corporal William M. Avery. 
Corporal Morton Frirch. 
Musician James Williams. 
Musician Thaddeus Simpson. 


William B. Ashley, John Anderson, John M. Alexander, Silas Bran- 
denberg, George Burnett, Henry Brinkman, Joh" G. Beatly, Byron 
Brier, James Burdett, Lewis A. Boswell, Edward Cassady, Patrick 
Carey, Thomas Conner, Noah Colcher, Charles W. Clark, James 
Dockroy, Jacob Duppe, William Daley, George Dunlap, William Dot, 
John Dot, Herman Erfman, Germanns Fecker, Michael Fitzgivens, 
Edward Ginis, John Gitterniaii, Benjamin F. Gilpin, Arthur Heet, 
Hiram B. Hawk, Henry M. Hilbrunt, Jacob Henk, Henry Heartzel, 
Isaac B. Hart, George W. Hampton, William D. Hall, John W. Jones, 
John W. Johnson, Joseph Kaney, John Ketter, Frank Kesler, Charles 
Long, John S. Lind, Francis Morris, David W. Miller, Americus Men- 
denhall, Michael Mularky, Uriah Massey, John A. McCarty, Hiram 
McDaniel, John McGail, Benjamin McGuin, Henry Norris, John 
Navin, Patrick O'Brien, Patrick O'Donnell, Aaron L. Ogden, John 

Pounstrain, John Pinkleton, Michael Rourke, Peter Rupp, Ebenezer S. 
Strong, Henry Shaw, Dennis Sullivan, Thomas Slattery, Freeman 
Stokes, Christian Strafer, Andrew J. Sanford, Samuel Sutton, John F. 
Smitli, Thomas Sutherland, Milton Tift, John Tucker, Simon Troy, 
William Thompson, Sidney Utley, August Wederkin, James Winlield, 
Peter Walker, Adam Wilchback, John A. West, William E. Wallace, 
Andrew Waldron, John McCue, Charles Millenburger, Philip Doll, 
Charles Dedson. 



Captain Christian Amis. 

First Lieutenant Valentine Rupp. 

Second Lieutenant Henry Erkel. 


First Sergeant George Schuck. 
Sergeant Anton Geiger. 
Sergeant Conrad Roth. 
Sergeant William Arkold. 
Sergeant Conrad Toppler. 
Corporal John N. Gebhardt. 
Corporal Herman Gottberg. 
Corporal John B. Krouse. 
Corporal George W. Taylor. 
Corporal Jacob Halbauer. 
Corporal Oregon Case. 
Corporal John Speath. 
Corporal John Fustbach, 
Musician William Hauck. 
Musician John Gunther. 
Wagoner Ludwig Roeder. 


William Arnold, Cornelius H. Bauman, John Bauer, William A. 
Bockringer, Henry Boll, John Braun, Henry A. Breede, Charles 
Caddy, Lodwicks Cammar, Jacob Daubinbis, John D. Davenport, 
Karl Frochlich, Frederick Fries, Jacob Fruuzvil, Jacob Goetz, Louis 
Golsch, John Griffey, John Haap, Julius Haap, Louis Haas, Jo