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Containing A History of the County, its Townships, Towns, 
Villages, Schools, Churches, Industries, etc.; Portraits of 
Early Settlers and Prominent Men; Biographies; 
History of the Northwest Territory: His- 
tory OF Ohio; Statistical and Mis- 
cellaneous Matter, Etc., Etc. 










AFTER surmounting many unlocked for obstacles and overcoming un 
expected difficulties, we are enabled to present to our patrons the 
History of Hancock County, which has been in course of preparation for 
more than a year past. A desire has long existed for a work that would 
faithfully [ -osent a correct, concise and clear record of events, beginning 
with the Mound-Builders and Indian tribes that once inhabited Ohio, thence 
tracing the history of this portion of the State down to the present period. 
That such an undertaking is attended with no little difficulty none will deny, 
and to procure the material for the compilation of the work, every avenue of 
reliable information has been diligently and carefully explored. The data 
have been culled, item by item, from books, pamphlets, periodicals, newspa- 
per files and manuscripts, from State, county and private records, charters, 
manuals, letters and diaries, as well as from the testimony of living wit- 
nesses to many of the events related. 

The general history of the county, including its townships and villages, 
was compiled by Mi'. R. C. Brown, of Chicago, 111. , whose many years of 
experience in the field of historical research have competently fitted him for 
the work. His efPort was more to give a plain and con-ect statement of facts 
than to indulge in polished sentences or to attempt a literary tone, for 
which, it is needless to add, there is little opportunity in a book of this kind. 
Dviring his labors in Hancock County, Mr. Brown received generous assist- 
ance from scores of citizens whose names it is impossible to mention here, biit 
to whom we return our sincere thanks for the interest which they manifested 
in the progress of the history. VCe, however, desire to specially acknowl- 
edge the valuable services rendered our historian by Messrs. Squire Carlin, 
Job Chamberlin and Henry Byal, Dr. Charles Oestei'len, Hon. James M. 
Coffinberry, of Cleveland, Hon. M. C. Whiteley, Heniy Brown, Esq., and 
Willis H. Whiteley, Esq., all of whom freely assisted him to the full ex- 
extent of their ability. 


June, 1886. 





freographical Position 

Early Explorations 

Discovery of the Ohio 

English Explorations and Settlements 

17 ' American Settlements 

17 i Division of the Northwest Territory 

26 ! Tecumseh and the War of 1812 

28 Black Hawk and the Black Hawk War.. 

PART 11. 


History of Ohio 

French History 

Ordinance of 17S7,No.32 .••• 

Comments upon the Ordinance ol 1787, from the 
Statutes of Ohio. Edited by Salmon l^ 
Chase, and Published in the year 18.33 

The War of 1812 


The Canal System 

Ohio Land Tracts 


State Boundaries 

Organization of Counties 12^ 

Description of Counties l^ 

Early Events |2- 

Governors of Ohio l** 

Ancient Works |57 

Some General Characteristics InO 

Outline Geology of Ohio 162 

Ohio's Rank During the War of the Rebellion... 16.-) 
A Brief Mention of Prominent Ohio Generals... 172 

Some Discussed Subjects 177 

Conclusion 1°^ 



CHAPTER I.— .Vrch.wjlogy— Indians 187 201 

The Mound-Builders— Their Great An- 
tiquity — Character of Their Works— The 
Wonderful Monuments which Attest their 
Occupation of this State— Some Evidences of 
their Presence in Hancock County— The 
North American Indians,and their Supposed 
Origin— Brief Sketch of Them— The Ohiu 
Tribes —Purchase of Their Lands by the 
United States— Ohio Reservations.and Final 
Extinction of the Indian Title— Indian Vil- 
lages in this County — Extracts from the 
"Personal Reminiscences" of Job Chamber- 
lin— His Recollections of the Indians Who 
Frequented this Portion of the State— Their 
Social Relations with the First Settlers. 

CHAPTER II.— Pioneers 2ol-22(i 

The Pioneers of Hancock County— Their 
Sacrifices and Heroic Perseverance — 
Blanchard, the French Exile— Erection and 
Occupation of Fort Findlay— Thorp, the Sut- 

ler— First Permanent White Settlers— Birth 
of the First White Child in Hancock County 
—Pioneers of the County Prior to 1830— 
Immigration to Northwestern Ohio and Its 
Accompanying Hardships — Beginning 
Work in the Unbroken Forest— The Pioneer 
Cabin and Its Furniture— Table Ware, Food 
and Medicine of the Pioneers— Habits, La- 
bor and Dress— Early Manners and Customs 
—Social Gatherings- First Marriage in the 
County— The (irater and Hominy Block- 
Pioneer Mills of Hancock County— DitHcul- 
ties of (ioing to Mill— Prices of Store Goods, 
Produce and Furs During Early Days- 
Mode of Living— The Pioneer Church and 
School— Rapid Growth and Material Prog- 
ress of the Countv After Its Organization 
—The Hancock County Pioneer and Histor- 
ical Association. 

HAPTER III. — Occupation and Settle- 
ment 221- 



The Claims of Virginia, Connecticut, Mas- 
sachusetts and New York to the Northwest 
Territory— Purchase of the Lands from the 
Indian Tribes — Indian Reservations and 
Their Final Purchase by the United States 
—Civil fiovernment Established by the Ordi- 
nance of 1787 — Successive Erections of 
Wayne, Greene, Champaign and Logan 
Counties — Survey of Northwestern Ohio and 
Its Division into Counties — Organization 
and First Election in Wood County — 
Waynesfield Township — Erection and First 
Elections in Findlay Township — Selection 
of Findlay as the Seat of Justice— Organiza- 
tion of Hancock County— County Elections 
of 1828 and Lists of Electors— Oflicers Chosen 
in April and October, 1828— Derivation of 
Name— Brief Sketch of John Hancock- 
Original and Present Areas and Boundaries 
of the County— Dates of Township Erections 
— Population of County, Townships and 
Towns — Present Condition of the Countv 
Compared With What it was One Hundred 
Years Ago. 

CHAPTER IV.— Topography 235-247 

Original Appearance of Hancock County 
—Its Forest and Fruit-Bearing Trees and 
Vines— The Wild Animals, Birds, Reptiles 
and Fish Found in this Portion of the State, 
and Their Gradual Extermination — The 
Wild Honey Bee— General Topography of 
the County— Its Streams and Water Privi- 
leges—Marsh and Prairie Lands— The Wild 
Cat Thicket, Swamp and Fallen Timber 
Tracts— Diversity of Soil —The Sand and 
Limestone Ridges— Agriculture in Hancock 
County— Implements used by the Early Set- 
tlers, and the Introduction of Better Ma- 
chinery—Pioneer Stock Compared with that 
of the Present— Number of Horses and Cat- 
tle Assessed in the County in 1824 and 1829 
—Stock and Crop Statistics— The Hancock 
County Agricultural Society— Its Small Be- 
ginning, Steady Growth and Present Pros- 

CHAPTER v.— Organic 248-262 

Public Officials — Members of Congress — 
State Senators — State Representatives — 
Presidential Electors, and Members of Con- 
stitutional Conventions — Commissioners — 
Auditors— Treasurers— Recorders— Clerks— 
Sheriflfs — Surveyors — Coroners — Probate 
Judges — Public Buildings— Court Houses, 
Jails and Infirmary— Political Statistics. 

CHAPTER VI.— Judiciary 26.5 286 

The Judiciary— Organization of the Court 
of Common Pleas in Ohio and Its Subsequent 
Changes— Pioneer Courts of Hancock Coun- 
ty—Sessions Held at Findlay in 1828, 1829 
and 1830- The Juries Impaneled and Princi- 
pal Business Transacted During Those 
Years— Items of Interest (Tathered from the 
Court Journals— The Bench and Bar— Com- 
mon Pleas Judges— Associate Judges— Pros- 
ecuting Attorneys— Pioneer Visiting Law- 
yers— Reminiscences of Pioneer Practice in 
Northwestern Ohio— Incidents of the Cir- 
cuit Riding Period— First Lawyers Who Lo- 
cated in Findlay— Brief Sketches of Resi- 
dent Attorneys Who Practiced in Hancock 
County Prior to 1860— Present Bar of the 

CHAPTER VII.— Educationai 287 2!in 

Education in Ohio— Lands Originally 
Granted for Educational Purposes— Com- 
missioners of Schools and School Lands in 
1822— The School Lands Sold and a School 
Fund Established— Annual Distribution of 
School Money— Pioneer Schools, School- 
houses and Books in Hancock County— 


Character of the Early Teacliers—" Barring 
Out" the Master— How Pioneer Teachers 
were Usually Paid— (Growth of Education- 
Government and Progress of Schools Prior 
to 18.51— Schools for Colored Youth Estab- 
lished — Reorganization of Schools Under 
the Laws of 185.3— Their Present Govern- 
ment and the Educational Advantages They 

CHAPTER VIII.— Internal Improvements 


Internal Improvements— Hull's Trace— 
I Opening of the Perrysburg & Bellefontaine 

and Other State Roads through Hancock 
County— Pioneer County Roads — First 
j Bridge Built Across the Blanchard at Find- 

I lay, and its Successors— Early Navigation on 

I the Blanchard— First Mail Route Established 

Through the County— Joseph Gordon, the 
Veteran Mail Carrier— History of the Rail- 
roads—The Proposed Bellefontaine & 
Perrysburg Railroad— Findlay Branch of 
the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western- 
Lake Erie & Western— Baltimore & Ohio— 
MeComb, Deshler & Toledo— New York, 
Chicago & St. Louis— Cleveland, Delphos & 
St. Louis Narrow (iuage — Toledo, Columbus 
& Southern- Proposed Railroad Enterprises 
that have Failed During the Past Forty- 
seven Years. 

CHAPTER IX.— Military 319-346 

Military History of Hancock County- 
War of 1812— March of Hull's Army from 
Urbana to the Maumee River^Site of Fort 
Necessity, and Line of Hull's Trace— Fort 
Findlay Erected and ( Garrisoned- Descrip- 
tion of the Fort — Gen. Tupper's Campaign — 
Indians Pursue Capt. Oliver from Fort 
Meigs to Fort Findlay- Evacuation of the 
Fort by Capt. Thomas, and His Murder by 
the Indians — Pioneer Reminiscences of Fort 
Findlay audits Final Destruction — Mexican 
War— The Great Rebellion— Sublime Pati-i- 
otism of the People — Enthusiastic Demon- 
strations in Findlay at the Outbreak of the 
War— Stirring Scenes of Preparation for the 
Conflict— Enrollment and Organization of 
Volunteers and their Subsequent Departure 
for Cleveland— Brief Sketches of the Com- 
mands Wherein the Soldiers of Hancock 
Served, also the Names and Promotions of 
Commissioned Officers in each from this 
County— Number of Volunteers from each ' 
Township up to September 1, 1862, and Total 
Estimated Number of Soldiers from the 
Whole County During the War— Relief Af- 
forded by the County to Soldiers' Families — 
Good Work of the Military Committees and 
Aid Societies— Closing Scenes of the Rebell- 
ion—Celebration at Findlay over the Capt- 
ure of Richmond and the Surrender of 
Lee's Army — Joy Turned to Grief by the 
Assassination of Lincoln — Conclusion. 

CHAPTER X.— Allen Township 347 .355 

Erection, Name, Area, Population and 
Boundaries — Wildcat Thicket — Streams, 
Topography and Soil — Pioneers — First Mar- 
riage and Death — The Burman and Ensmin- 
fer Mills — Killing of John Gilchrist and 
on— First Electors— Justices— Early Schools 
—Churches— Villages— Van Buren and Stu- 

CHAPTER XL— Amanda Township 3.5.5-367 

Formation, Taxable Lands in 1829, and 
Changes in Territory— Area, Boundaries and 
Population — Physical Features — Soil — 
Streams and Big Spring — Pioneers — Justices 
of the Peace— Schools— Churches— Early 
Mills— Postoffices and Villages— The Pro- 
posed Town of Capernaum— Vanlue, its 



Postmasters, Early Business Men and Pres- 
ent Material and Social Interests. 

CHAPTER XII.— Big Lick Township 368-377 

Events leading to the Erection of this 
Township— Subsequent Changes in its Ter- 
ritory, and Present Area — Boundaries and 
Derivation of Name — A Hunters' Resort — 
Topography and Streams — Prairie Marsh, 
Soil and Original Appearance— First Elec- 
tion and Population by Decades — First 
Settlers — Justices of the Peace — Schools — 
Churches — Villages and Postotfices. 

CHAPTER XIII.— Blanchard Township-..377-389 
Its Historic Name — Erection, Area, Loca- 
tion and Population by Decades— Streams 
and Runs— Destruction of the Timber— Soil 
and Topography— Tile Factory and what it 
has Accomplished — Pioneers — First Deaths 
and Marriage — Samuel Edwards, the Noted 
Hunter and Subsequent Author — Justices — 
Churches— Education— Villages— < )ak Ridge 
Postoffice — Cemeteries. 

CHAPTER XIV.— Cass Township 389-396 

Erection, Organization, Changes in Terri- 
tory, Area, Boundaries and Population — 
Derivation of Name— Topography— Wild- 
cat Thicket — Soil and Water Privileges- 
First Land Entries and Pioneers — Mills- 
Schools — Religious Societies — Justices — Cass 
and Wineland Postoffices — Frankford. 

CHAPTER XV.— Delaware Township 397-406 

Erection. Subsequent Changes and Area- 
Location, Boundaries and Population— Tim- 
ber, Streams and Soil — Pioneers — A Noted 
Hunter — First Marriages and Births — Early 
Mills— Churches — Schools — Justices of the 
Peace— Mt. Blanchard— Its First Business 
Men— Postmasters— Mayors— Railroad and 
Telegraph Facilities — Present Material and 
Social Interests of the Village. 

CHAPTER XVI.— Eagle Township 407^16 

Erection, Name and Area — Location and 
Population by Decades— Topography and 
Water Privileges — Timber and Soil — Milk 
Sickness— Pioneers Prior to 1839 — Grist and 
Saw Mills — Early Education — Religious 
Societies— Justices— Towns and Postoffices 
—Railroad Facilities and Present Appear- 
ance of the Country. 

CHAPTER XVII.— Jackson Township 417-422 

Erection of the Township and Origin of 
its Name— Area, Boundaries and Population 
— Drainage and Soil — First Settlers — Going 
to Mill — Justices — Schools — Churches — 
Towns and Postoffices. 

CHAPTER XVIII.-LiBEKTY Township.. ..422-438 
Erection of Old Town and the Trouble 
Which Arose Therefrom — Liberty Erected, 
and First Election for Justice of the Peace 
Held in the Township— Changes in its Ter- 
ritory — Area, Boundaries and Population by 
Decades — Streams and Runs — Topography 
and Soil — Indian Green, Cemetery and Plum 
Orchard— First Settlers— First Marriage and 
Birth — Justices — Mills — Early Schools — Re- 
ligious Societies — Alba Postoffice — Ceme- 

CHAPTER XIX.— Madison Township 439-449 

First Attempt Made to Erect the Town- 

ship, and its Failure — Subsequent Erection 
—Derivation of Name, Area and Population 
— Surface Features and Streams — Forest and 
Soil — Milk Sickness — Pioneers— Justices — 
Grist-Mills — Schools— Religious Societies- 
Villages— Past and Present of Williamstown 
and Arlington. 

CHAPTER XX.— Marion Township 449-459 

j Erection, Area, Boundaries and Popula- 

tion—Timber—Streams and Deer Licks— 
I Soil— Pioneers— Early Elections and Elec- 

i tors — Justices of the Peace — Schools — 

I Churches— Crow Postoffice— Mills. 

CHAPTER XXI. -Orange Township 459-468 

Formation, Choosing a Name, and First 
Election of Township Officers — Area, Boun- 
daries, and Population by Decades — Topog- 
raphy and Soil— Stream.s— Pioneers- I'irst 
Birth, Death and Marriage in the Township 
— Religious Societies — Early Schools — Jus- 
tices—Hassan and Cordelia Postoffices- An 
Embryo Village— Railroad Facilities. 

CHAPTER XXII.— Pleasant Township.. ..468-178 
Erection, Area, Early Election and List of 
Voters — Boundaries, and Population by Dec- 
ades — Primitive Appearance, Topographv, 
Soil and Streams— First Land Entries and 
Early Settlers— Justices— Religious Societies 
— Schools — Mills — Towns and Villages — A 
Paper Town — McComb, Its First 
Men, Postmasteri and Mayors— Railroads, 
JNIaterial Progress and Present Business and 
Educational Interests of McComb — Its Secret 
Societies and Fire Department — McComb 
fferald—Stendy Growth of the Town— Dew- 
eyville—Shawtown— North Ridgeville Post- 

CH AFTER XXIII.— Portage Township 478-485 

Territory from which it was Formed— 
Erection and Subsequent Changes — Area, 
Boundaries and Population — General Topog- 
raphy, Soil and Streams— First Settlers— 
Schools— Churches— Lafayette and Portage 
Center Postoffice — Justices. 

(CHAPTER XXIV.— Union Township 485-497 

Erection, First Election of Township Offi- 
cers, Area, Boundaries, and Population by 
Decades — Physical Features — Streams and 
Soil — Pioneers — First Marriage in the Town- 
ship — Justices — CJrist-Mills — Religious Soci- 
eties — Schools — Villages — Cannonsburg, 
Rawson and Cory. 

CHAPTER XXV.— Van Buren Township 


Location, Erection, Name, Subsequent 
Changes in Territory, Area and Population 
—Streams, Wells, Topography and Soil- 
First Settlers — Their Characteristics — Jus- 
tices — Schools — Churches — Villages and 

CHAPTER XXVI.— Washington Township 


Derivation of Name, Erection, Area, 
Boundaries and Population— Disappearance 
of the Forest, and Wildcat Thicket— Soil 
and Topography — Streams — Early Settlers — 
First Birth in the Township — Churches— 
Education— Early Election and Justices— 
Risdon and Arcadia— Their Past and Pres- 




CHAPTER XXVII.— FiNDLAY Township....512-529 
Erection of the Township, and Derivation 
of Name — Subsequent Change.s in its Terri- 
tory, and Present Area — Boundaries, Streams 
and Water Privileges — Topography and 
Soil— Pioneers— Coming of Benjamin J. Cox 
to Fort Findlay — First White ( hild Born in 
the Township— Sketches of the Shirleys, 
Morelands, Simpsons, Chamberlins, Hamil- 
tons, Slights, Gardners, Hedgeses, and all of 
the Earliest Settlers of the Township Out- 
■ side of the Village — Suspicious Disappear- 
ance of Dr. Wolverton from Whitlock's 
Tavern — First Elections and Township Of- 
ficers, and List of .) ustices — Churches and 
Schools— Roads and Population— Factories. 

CII.'VPTER XXVIII.— Village op Findlay. .530-5.59 
Beginning of the Town — Site of the Orig- 
inal Plat Entered, and Coming of Wilson 
Vance— Survey of the Town Plat— Selection 
of Findlay as the Seat of .Justice of Han- 
cock County — Derivation of its Name, and 
Correct Orthography of the Word — Brief 
Sketch of Col. James Findlay— The Plat as 
Acknowledged and Recorded— Ambiguity 
in the Acknowledgment Regarding the 
Public Square Cleared Up — Lots Donated 
by the Proprietors to Erect ('ounty Build- 
ings, and First Public Sale of the Same- 
Business Men of Findlay in 1829-30, and 
Appearance of the Village at that Period- 
Names of Those Who Have Laid Out Addi- 
tions to the Original Plat, and Dates of Sur- 
veys— The Present Streets of the Town- 
Sketches of its Pioneer Business Men — First 
White Male Child Born on the Site of Find- 
lay — Early Physicians of the Village, and 
the Difficulties of Medical Practice During 
Pioneer Days. 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Village of Findlay 

(Continued) 569-.576 

Progress of the Village — Postoffice Estab- 
lished — List of Postmasters— Incorporation 
of Findlay, and its Subsequent Mayors and 
Clerks— The Old Graveyard on Eagle Creek 
—Maple Grove Cemetery— California Move- 
ment of 1849 — Underground Railroad — First 
Fire Engines, and Organization of the First 
Fire Company— The Fire Department Or- 
ganized— Roster of Chief Engineers— Devel- 
opment and Present Efficiency of the De- 
partment—Town Buildings— AdVent of Rail- 
roads, Express, Telegraph and Telephone 
Lines — Findlay's Sewerage System and its 
Benefits— Mon umental Park — Organization 
of the Hancock Monumental Association 
— Brief History and Description of the Sol- 
diers' Monument — The Old Findlay Gas 
Light Company — Erection of the Gas Works 
and First Lighting of the Town With-Gas- 
The Works Closed Upon the Development of 
Natural Gas — Growth of Findlay Since 1831 
— Her Present Appearance and Business In- 
terests, and Future Prospects. 

( IIAPTER XXX.— Village of Findlay (Con- 
tinued) 576-.59.5 

Schools and Newspapers — First School 
Opened In the Village— The Old Log School- 
house and its Successor — Pioneer Schools 
and Teachers of Findlay— Progress of Edu- 
cation — Past and Present Schools of District 
No. 9, and Their Superintendents Since 1864 
— Organization of the Union School District 
— Its First Teachers and Schools— Early 

Members of the Board of Education— Super- 
intendents of the Union Schools Since 1854 
—Growth of the Schools and Their Present 
Efficiency— Findlay Academical Institute— 
. Hancock Wesleyan Seminary— Findlay Col- 
lege—History of the Newspapers of Findlay— 
The Hancock Courier— Hancock Republican 
—Hancock Farmer— Western Herald— Han- 
cock Whig and Journal — Home Companion, 
and Findlay Weekly Jeffersonian— Daily 
Jefersonian—The Reporter— Findlay Weekly 
Republican — Findlay Daily Star — Improve- 
ment in the Press Within the Past Thirtv 

CHAPTER XXXI. -Village of Findlay 

(Continued) 59G-612 

Churches and Societies— First Religious 
Services Held in Findlay ,'and Names of its 
Pioneer Preachers— Methodist Episcopal 
Church— First Presbyterian Church— Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church— St. Michael's 
Catholic Church and School — United 
Brethren Church— German Reformed Con- 
gregation—German Evangelical Lutheran— 
St. John's Congregation— First Regular 
Baptist Church— "Church of God"— First 
Congregational Church— St. Paul's Church 
of the Evangelical Association— Trinity 
Mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church— 
"Church of Christ "—Secret and Other 
Societies— Odd Fellows— Masons— Knights 
of Pythias— Knights of Honor— Royal Ar- 
canum — American Legion of Honor — Grand 
Army of the Republic— National Union- 
Good Templars. 

CHAPTER XXXIL— Village of Findlay 

(Continued) 612-631 

Hotels Manufactories, Banks and Public 
Places of Amusement — Pioneer Taverns and 
Present Hotels of Findlay— Leading Manu- 
facturing Establishments of the and 
Present— History of the Successive Banking 
Institutions of the Town — Building and 
Loan Associations— Early Amusements and 
Public Halls of the Village— Brass Bands. 

CHAPTER XXXIII.— Village of Findlay 

(Concluded) 631-647 

Natural Gas in Hancock County— Its 
Discovery in 1836— First Natural Gas Found 
and Used in Findlay— Numerous Evidences 
of its Presence— Dr. Osterleu's Belief in its 
Plentiful Existence, and His Early Investi- 
gations of the Subject — The Gas on the Fos- 
ter Lot Utilized by Jacob Carr — Oil Excite- 
ment in Findlay— Attempts to Find Oil and 
Their Failure— Dr. 0.sterlen's Persistent 
Advocacy of a Great Natural Gas Deposit- 
Organization of the Findlay Natural Gas 
Company— The Men Who First Risked 
Their Money in the Enterprise— The First 
Well Drilled, and Gas Developed in Paying 
Quantities — To Whom the Credit is Due — 
Mains Laid and Gas Piped Into Findlay — 
Other Wells Put Down— Consolidation of 
the Old and New Companies— Subsequent 
Enterprises, and Number of Wells Now 
Drilled— Their Capacity, Product and Per- 
manency—Later Companies in the Field- 
Description of the Great Karg Well— Abun- 
dant Supply of Gas, its Superiority as Fuel 
and <'omparative Safety — Cost to the Con- 
sumer—A Few Cases Illustrating Its Won- 
derful Cheapness— What Natural Gas Hus 
Accomplished for Findlay. 




Allen Township 

Amanda Township , 

Big Lick Township 

Blanchard Township 

Cass Township 

Delaware Township 

Eagle Township 

Findlay Township and Village- 
Jackson Township 

.... 651 

.... 657 
.... 671 
.... 682 


I Liberty Township 792 

j Madison Township 798 

j Marion Township 802 

j Orange Township 806 

! Pleasant Township 822 

j Portage Township 848 

I Union Township 853 

Van Buren Township 873 

788 I Washington Township '.'.'.'.'.".".'.'.'.'.!'.'.'.'.'.".".'.'.".""'.*.'.'. 876 


Baldwin, Dr. W. H., Findlay Township 203 " 

Barnhill, Robert, Liberty Township 503 I ■ 

Brown. Henry, Findlay Township 313 ,• 

Byal, Hon. A. P., Findlay Township 303 ^ 

Chamberlin, Job, Findlay Township 47 : ' 

Chase Justus, Liberty Township 413 '■ 

Colfinberry. Judge,J. M., Cleveland, Ohio 273 t 

Coleman, Thomas, Union Township 663 [' 

- Cory, Judge D. J.. Findlay Township 263 . 

Cummins, E. T., Pleasant Township 423 j 

Deter, James, Portage Township 493 • 

Dewese, Flavins J, Orange Township 523 

Dukes, Lewis, Sr., Blanchard Township 81 ' 

Dulin, S.F., Portage Township 403 

Feller, Daniel, Eagle Township 453 ( 

Feller, Jacob, Findlay Township 149 f 

Firmin, Dr. F. W., Findlay Township 293 ■ 

Fry, Henry, Liberty Township 623 \ 

Ghaster, Solomon, Union Township 633 [' 

' Glessner, Lewis, Findlay Township 323 \ 

Hamlin, M. S., Delaware Township 363 • 

Huber, Benjamin, Findlay Township 253 i 

Hard, Hon. Anson. M. D., Findlay Township.... 283 ' 

Hyatt, A. H., Findlay Township 233 

Keel, Samuel, Blanchard Township 383 ' 

Luneack, Louis, Van Buren Township 573 '■ 

. McClish, N. B., Blanchard Township 483 I 

McKinley, Wm. M., Orange Township 513 

McKinnis, Thomas, Blanchard Township 373 

Marshall, Wm. M., Orange Township 563 

Miller, Wm. B., Marion Township 433 

Moore, John, Big Lick Township 443 

Nigh, Andrew, Portage Township 543 

Oesterlen, Dr. Chas., Findlay Township 243 

Oman, Joseph, Eagle Township 553 

O'Neal, Chas. \V., Findlay Township 213 

Parker, Jonathan, Findlay Township 193 

Pennington, Henrv, Pleasant Township 643 

Phillips, Eli P., Findlay Township 343 

Powell, B. B., Blanchard Township 673 

Powell, Geo. W., Findlay Township 353 

Rawson Dr. Bass, Findlay Township 183 

Sheets, Hon. Henry, Washington Township 603 

Shoop, Samuel, Pleasant Township 613 

Showalter, Levi, Union Township 533 

Snyder, W. E., Findlay Township 333 

Spitler, Samuel, Allen Township 583 

Stough, George, Allen Township 653 

Strother, Judge Robt. L., Findlay Township 115 

Turner, Dr. G. L., Pleasant Township 593 

Ward, N. H., Big Lick Township 463 

Weisel, Lloyd, Allen Township 473 

Wilson, J. H.. Findlay Township 223 

Wiseley, Allen, Marion Township 393 


Map of Hancock County 12-13 

Population of the UnitedStates 69 

Area of the United States 69 

Area of the Principal Countries in the World... 69 

Population of Principal Countries in the World. 69 

Population of Ohio by Counties 70 

List of Ohio's Governors 72 

Population of Hancock County by Townships.... 232 






The JSTorthwest Territory. 


When the Norihwestern Territory was ceded to the United States 
l)y Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying between the 
Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
ot Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
Slates itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River ; but by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Noiihern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
(Uimain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
" New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old '' Northwestern 

In comparison with the old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States,, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of 18,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one-third of 
the entire population of the United States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
flow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial valleys and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of wliich are arable and productive of tlie 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

For the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
west has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 


In the year 1541, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetrated no farther north than the 35th parallel 


of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his armjs the remainder of whom found their way to Cuba, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded no 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of tlie red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of these discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims " moored their bark on the 
wild New England shore," Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iroquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run into Lake Huron ; and in 1634, two Jesuit missionaries founded the 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred years from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1541) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest at the Falls of St. Mary, 
below the outlet of Lake Superior. This visit, led to no permanent 
result ; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, who perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built the earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Northwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
years afterward, Nicholas Perrot, as agent for M. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a 
gland council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Ignatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 

During M. Talon's explorations and Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied — 
as all others did then — that upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's 
children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 
lequest of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or tlie Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joliet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared for the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, the explorers, accompanied by five assist- 


ant French Canadians, set out from Mackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gathered to witness their departure, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from their purpose by representing the tribes on the Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their canoes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town, ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, 
which these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank him for the pity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving them an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
which Dablon and AUouez had extended their missionary labors the 
year previous. Here Marquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root which cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
Joliet, said : " My friend is an envoy of France, to discover new coun- 
tries, and I am an ambassador from God to enlighten them with the truths 
of the Gospel." Two Miami guides were here furnished to conduct them 
to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from the Lidian village on 
the 10th of June, amidst a great crowd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that they were 
now upon the bosom of the Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that delightful seventeenth of June, must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 
Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold bluffs on either hand 
" reminded them of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
France." By-and-by, as they drifted along, great herds of buffalo 
appeared on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could 
see a country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of 


inhabitants, yet preseutiug the appearance of extensive manors, under 
the fastidious cultivation of lordly proprietors. 

On June 25, they went asliore and found some fresh traces of men 
upon the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in 
the boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered a 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, within a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few days they re-embarked and descended the river to 
about latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their couise 
up the river, and ascending the stream to the mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source and procured guides from tliat point 
to the lakes. " Nowhere on this journey," says Marquette, " did we see 
such grounds, meadows, woods, stags, buffaloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even beavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The party, without loss or* injury, reached Green Bay in September, and 
reported their discovery — one of the most important of the age, but of 
which no record was preserved save Marquette's, Joliet losing ^his by 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Quebec. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois Indians by their request, and ministered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake Michigan — he asked 
to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefully passed away while at 
prayer. He wal buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found the waters had retreated from the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace. The river has since been 
called Marquette. 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, difi'ering widely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by him. These were Robert de LaSalle and Louis Hennepin. 

After LaSalle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages — a short way to China and the East, and was busily planning an 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from liis and his companions' stories the idea that by fol- 


lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the object could easily be gained. He applied to 
Frontenac, Governor General of Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great lakes by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestly hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made him a Chevalier. He also received 
from all the noblemen the warmest wishes for his success. The Chev- 
alier returned to Canada, and busily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenac and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the 7th of August, 1679, having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Grififiu up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some time at Michillimackinac, where LaSalle founded a fort, and passed 
on to Green Bay, the " Bale des Puans " of the French, where he found 
a large quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded the Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors, 
started her on her return voyage. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts until early in the Winter, when, hear- 
ing nothing from the Griffin, he collected all the men — thirty working 
men and three monks — and started again upon his great undertaking. 

By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, called by 
the Indians, " Theakeke," wolf^ because of the tribes of Indians called 
by that name, commonly known as the Mahingans, dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it Kiakiki, which became corrupted to Kankakee. 
"Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December they reached a village of the Illi- 
nois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 
no inhabitants. The Sieur de LaSalle being in want of some breadstuffs, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of which he found concealed in holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. The corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward evening, 
on the 4th day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which must have 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called by the Indians Pim-i-te-u'i, that 
is, a place where there are many fat beasts. Here the natives were met 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 


some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
place, for he had heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes were 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the travel. 
He called this fort " Creveeoeur " (broken-heart), a name expressive of the 
very natural sorrow and anxiety which the pretty certain loss of his ship. 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on the 
part of the Indians, and of mutiny among his own men, might well cause, 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the Winter wore away, the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to explore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his joui- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfully made, though over an almost unknown route, and in a 
bad season of the year. He safely reached Canada, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Creveeoeur on the last of February^ 
1680. When LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven days after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up the 
icy stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by the 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
band of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and "saw some charming prairies." 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May when 
tlie}'^ reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Falls of St. Anthony 
in honor of his patron saint. Here they took the land, and traveling 
nearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to their villages* 
Here they were kept about three months, were treated kindly by their 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenchmen, 
headed by one Sieur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pene- 
trated thus far by the route of Lake Superior ; and with these fellow- 
countrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680^ just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after went 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 


The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precious gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May, died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue and disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue them- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, called brig- 
antines, in which they embarked, and descending the river, supposing it 
would lead them to the sea, in July they came to the sea (Gulf of 
Mexico), and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi ; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the country, 
and hardly had an intelligent idea of what they had passed through. 

To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving the 
first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1682, he and his band of 
explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
the Portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6th of February 
reached the banks of the Mississippi. 

On the 13th they commenced their downward course, which they 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the 6th of March they dis- 
covered the three great passages by which the river discharges its waters 
into the gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event : 

" We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de La Salle 
went to reconnoiter the shore of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
meanwhile examined the great middle channel. They found the main 
outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the eighth, we reascended the 
river, a little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond 
the reach of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole was here 
about twenty-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, 
and to the column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription : 

"Louis Le Grand, Roi de France et de Navarre, regne ; Le neuvieme April, 1682." 

The whole party, under arms, chanted the Te Deum^ and then, after 
a salute and cries of " Vive le Moi,'^ the column was erected by M. de 
La Salle, who, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the authority 
of the King of France. La Salle returned and laid the foundations of the 
Mississippi settlements in Illinois ; thence he proceeded to France, where 
another expedition was fitted out, of which he was commander, and in 
two succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing 


along the shore of the gulf. On the third voyage he was killed, through 
the treachery of his followers, and the object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until 1699, when D'Iberville, under the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on the second of March, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was called by the natives 
" Malbouchia,'" and by the Spaniards, '' la Palissade,^^ from the great 
number of trees about its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade was now opened out which was fully improved. lu 
1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some European colonists. In 
1762, tlie colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by France under 
the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased by the United 
States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory of Louisiana 
and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the charge of the 
United States. Although La Salle's labors ended in defeat and death, 
he had not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown open to France 
and the world an immense and most valuable country ; had established 
several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one settlement there. 
" Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monuments of LaSalle's 
labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them (unless Peoria, 
which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecoeur,) it was by those 
whom he led into the West that these places were peopled and civilized. 
H;.' was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of the Mississippi Valley, 
and as such deserves to be known and honored." 

The French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this Avas merely a missionary 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
lages, the other two being Cahokia and Peoria. What is known of these 
missions is learned from a letter written by Father Gabriel Marest, dated 
'" Aux Cascaskias, autrementdit de I'lmmaculate Conception de la Sainte 
Vierge, le 9 Novembre, 1712." Soon after the founding of Kaskaskia, 
the missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia, while Peoria arose 
near the ruins of Fort Crevecoeur. This must have been about the year 
1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, (pronounced Wa-ba, 
meaning summer cloud moving swiftly,') was established in 1702, according 
to the best authorities.* It is altogether probable that on LaSalle's last 

* There is considerable dispute about tliis date, some asserting it was founded as late as 1T42. When the 
new court house at Vincennes was erected, all authorities on the subject were carefully examined, and 1702 fixed 
upon as the correct date. It was accordingly engraved on the comer-stone of the court house. 


trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia and Cahokia. In July, 
1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartrain were laid by De la Motte 
Cadillac on the Detroit River. These stations, with those established 
further north, were the earliest attempts to occupy the Northwest Terri- 
tory. At the same time efforts were being made to occupy the Southwest, 
which finally culminated in the settlement and founding of the City of New 
Orleans by a colony from England in 1718. This was mainly accom- 
plished through the efforts of the famous Mississippi Company, established 
by the notorious John Law, who so quickly arose into prominence in 
France, and who with his scheme so quickly and so ignominiously passed 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed with the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the war with the Chickasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 
injuries, cut off the entire colony at Natchez. Although the company 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it was not until this time that the 
attention of the English was called to the occupation of this portion of the 
New World, which they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from '' Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says: "We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages, are perhaps, eleven hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
~told. Most of the French till the soil ; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed ; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans." This city was now the seaport town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the country found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says : " For fifteen leagues above the 
mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, the ground being too low 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and red, not. more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all the lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 


and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty-five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, hower, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 
work them as they deserve." Father Marest, writing from the post at 
Vincennes in 1812, makes the same observation. Vivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this country, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams. 

At the close of the year 1750, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Maumee in the country of the Miamas, and one at Sandusky in what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River at Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams 
of LaSalle were now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country, 
and hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, namely, the 


This " Beautiful " river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet 
and Marquette. 


,0 travel -|^ -£ ae"™l\ o^: e^^^^^^ expedition, 
soon occurred which deuaea mm i learned of a river called the 

distance that it lequued ei i considered as one stream. 

„,ei,t the Mississippi and '»; "";" J^.^^ ,;„, did, that the great 

conduct them to the Ohio, but in this they were ^^W^"'^^' 

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise LaSaUe suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their n.inds ''f-" P'^'^j^ ,^^^ 

heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. Arriving 
::ng the t,„ois, they met with a «endly recep^.n an^l«u.ed 

fromaShawanee prisoner that they could '^'^'^h the Ohio in sk weeks. 

Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made -f^y to resume 

theii iournev but just as they were about to start they heaid ot the 
'; -^fof ::o'Frenchmen in a ifeig.iboring village One of tliem P--^ 

to be Louis JoUet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. 


had been sent by the Canadian Government to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following June 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a. 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
mous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley upon another ground. When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : " We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of securing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, by that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to this unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, hergrallts 
to the colonies extended " from sea to sea." This was not all her claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord H oward, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. These were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1741, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which the Indians received .£200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desire the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In. 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the Alleghenies. This was granted, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. All this time the Frencli 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in the 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling upon it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of the whole country. Upon the 10th of May, 1747, Vaud- 
reuil, Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
consequences that must arise from allowing the English to build trading 
posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which 
were inscribed the claims of France. These were heard of in 1752, and 
within the memory of residents now living along the " Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called by the French. One of these plates was found 
with the inscription partly defaced. It bears date August 16, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was only a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
Company to examine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. He 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of the Eng- 
lish post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned. This 
fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
tory between the Ohio and the Wabash. The name is probably some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones 

* The following is a translation of the inscription on the plate: "In the year 1749, reign of Louis XV., 
King of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment by Monsieur the Marquis of Gallisoniere, com- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate at the confluence of the Toradakoin, this twenty- ninth of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise 
Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken of the said river, and all its 
tributaries; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maialaiued it by their arms and 
treaties; especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix La Chapelle." 


This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and 
occurred near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point abou': 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation became now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. The English deter- 
mined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to 
occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June, 
these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on thj 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Indians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in theij 
favor. This he did, and upon the loth of June they all united in signing 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the firsi 
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to out-manoeuvre 
€ach other, and were professing to be at peace. The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in many instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by failing to provide them with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758 : '' The Indians on the Ohio 
left you because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our affections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us." 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expecte(? blow. The Eng- 
lish made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. They had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete the chain of forts 
already begun, and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction beiny- obtained from the Ohio recjard- 


ing the positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddle of 
Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from 
them, if possible, their intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, who then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as his guide, the two, accompanied 
by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. From there they went to 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the French, and 
also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on ta 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Fort Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothing 
of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
he delivered Governor Dinwiddle's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet 
they reached home In safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwiddle, it was learned that the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French 
finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

The Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center of great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the neighboring 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were 


working away in hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest. 

'' The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swift 
river rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the' melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand ; and all was so quiet, 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Monongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river ; and upon the morning 
of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight that made his lieart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores. * * * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoeur, 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the Monongahela." 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they had so easily captured, 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the " Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he surprised and captured a force of 
French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in his fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the 
morning of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns ; one 
against Fort DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755-6, 
and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions. 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat. This 
occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war continued with 
A arious vicissitudes through the years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secre- 
tary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the war. Three expeditions were planned for this year : one, 
under General Amherst, against Louisburg ; another, under Abercrombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British. Abercrombie 
captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point without a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
Tlie Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the war, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
Avere signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
in the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre, refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the 



French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 28d 
under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety.* Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the EngUsh in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. This answer conciliated the savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
month on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town" on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named 
Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnac. Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure saiety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and the English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them ; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carohna, 
were united in this feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 


upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Pontiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares 
and Mingoes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unit© 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 1768. 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian 
chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions ; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a severe 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764, 
continued to harass and besiege the fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. At 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many yeass among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his country and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was, however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 
Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speech the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said: 
"• Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered us ! We are not your slaves I These lakes, these woods, 
these mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for us upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
the English took possession of their country. These feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French arms might prevail. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half century, from the building of the Fort of Crevecoeur by 
LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set- 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract 
of rich alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. 


By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country with their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen. 
It was shortly after the occupancy of the West by the British that the 
war with Pontiac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain. By it many a Briton lost his hfe, and many a frontier settle- 


ment in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the year 
1764, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
(Tacy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom, 
he afterward lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. This, 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford 
and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
burgh to the mouth of the Kanawha ; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixty-five resident families, and at Cahokia only 
forty-five dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
jit Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
flour found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769 : " In the 
course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 
extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 
themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother 
country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow." 

In accordance with this policy. Gov. Gage issued a proclamation, 
ill 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
tlements and join some of the Eastern English colonies. To this they 


strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and were allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on June 2, 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Vallc} , gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies 
and the perseverance of individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling 
themselves the " Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on 
the east side of the Mississippi River south of the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes 
as the agent of the association called the " Wabash Land Company." On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37,497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th ot 
April, 1780, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the 
" United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." They afterward made 


Strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
signally failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unor- 
ganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at that time 
" Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were 
east of the Mississippi River, about* the year 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

" Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve families in a small village at la 
Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until 
ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 
1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more 
than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated — the people being engaged 
in the Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1778, it comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house 
(near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by 'the Detroit River. It was surrounded by 
oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first three of these 


gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six- 
pounder. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a 
parallel direction with the block houses. There were four streets running 
east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufficient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 1778, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. They were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid appearance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British. There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
the other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty-four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock. Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the day, who p jr- 
formed strict duty. Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset , 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the keys were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians were 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantly. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present "new " 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in the West. Kentucky was formed as a component part of 
Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


Lzid recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in 
.his part of the New World, held steadily to their purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway, 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived 
ill August, was made the commander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented 
her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
iniequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan. Ht 
caw it was through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and soucn, ana annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality ; and by spies sent for the purpose, 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on 
November 5th. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, 
Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Vii-ginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three 
months from their arrival in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. Wc B. Smith to Hoi- 


stou for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. The settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the proposed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be found. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced lo 
the men their real destination. Having completed his arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the isl&nd, and on the 
24th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen band, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to march directly to the Mississij)pi River and cross it into the 
Spanish country. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States ; and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by the British that the " Long Knives" or Virginians, were the 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe. With 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the town reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or by killing any of the enemy. After sufficiently 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- 
fect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of tlie 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlocked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through their influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 


the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain possession 
of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians within its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the " Oubache " had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word" to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr. Rocheblave, who 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the County of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Governor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Detroit and moved down 
the Wabash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky and drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, with an attend- 
ant named Henry, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
the entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of the 
fort. ' Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the British General, who could scarcely believe his eyes when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio» 

fAM^tiuS '^Ac<M^ 


and to annoy the Americans in all ways, and sat quietly down to pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of January, 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined by his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title " Hair-buyer General/' 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessary force. Governor Henry being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

" But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, the 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial army, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendjence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier, Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian 
conflicts. These laws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges). After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four*Virginians westward to attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three ^thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, who 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United St*ates 
to be rejected. The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this year that the first seminary of learning was established in the 
West in this young and enterprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look upon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to the Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appeared in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, yet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always referred to it as the 
*' Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolting- 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of tlie 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that they weie 
compelled to abandon the contest. They also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste. 

About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 



^^^^ ^V^t'Cu^yy^y^-^'^jXt^^ 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of that State in Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. This law was laid before Congress 
during the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6tli, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those legislative 
measures which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important post., the only unconquered one in the 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson, and the act establishing the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the year in which occurred Arnold's treason to the 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
anything farther done until 1783. During all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother country, and in 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the western settlements. 
Upon the 4th of July, 1773, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of John L. Roth, son of John 
Roth, one of the Moravian missionaries, whose band of Christian Indians 
suifered in after years a horrible massacre by the hands of the frontier 
settlers, who had been exasperated by the murder of several of their 
neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, a 
deed which forever afterward cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the part of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

During the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravian Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the captives, 
many of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 


frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with them were several engagements in Kentucky^ 
in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts Irom cruel destruc- 
tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the American 
banner, and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
querable colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th of 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 
proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on the M of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows: Ou the north the line was to extend along the center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River ; down its center to the 31st parallel of latitude, then on that line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River ; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Detroit, still in the hands of the enemy. Numerous engagements 
with the Indians throughout Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had* been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil. Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the settle- 
ment of the territory uutil this could be done. Before the close of the 
jiear another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. Tliis was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where north of the 
Ohio wherever they choose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dilapidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
son ville, Indiana. 


While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate, alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring^ 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian, 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being^ 
brought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 
delphia and Baltimore. They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
money. There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beginning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
land office was opened at Louisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians, who were yet, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries were recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. They 
held large tracts of land, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
iidopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided for the 
surveys of the lands gained thereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. 

On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made with the Wabash Indians. 
The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made in 1784. That at Fort Mc- 
intosh in 1785, and through these much land was gained. The Wabash 
Indians, however, afterward refused to comply with the provisions of the 
treaty made with them, and in order to compel their adherence to it* 
provisions, force was used. 

During the year 1786, the free navigation of the Mississippi came up 
in Congress, and caused various discussions, which resulted in no definite 
action, only serving to excite speculation in regard to the western lands. 
Congress had promised bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, 
but owing to the unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi 
respecting its navigation, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, 
in 1783, declared its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could 
be concluded between the two Governments. 

Before the close of the year 1786, however, it was able, through the 
treaties with the Indians, to allow some grants and the settlement • 


thereon, and on the 14th of September, Connecticut ceded to the General 
Government tlie tract of hind known as the "■ Connecticut Reserve," 
and before the close of the following year a large tract of land north 
of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once took measures to 
settle it. 

By the provisions of this grant, the company were to pay the United 
States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction of one-third for bad 
lands and other contingencies. They received 750,000 acres, bounded 
on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the seventh range of townships, 
on the west by the sixteenth range, and on the north by a line so drawn 
as to make the grant complete without the reservations. In addi- 
tion to this. Congress afterward granted 100,000 acres to actual set- 
tlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the resolutions of 1789 
and 1790. 

While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressing 
its claims before Congress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 1784, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition, the Territory was to have been divided into states 
by parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus,Assenisipia, Metropotamia, lUenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
potamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names, — the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in October, 1780, which fixed the boundaries 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles 
square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts, they desired a change, and in July, 1786, tlie 
subject was taken up in Congress, and changed to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. 

The subject of the Government was again taken up by Congress in 
1786, and discussed throughout that year and until July, 1787, when the 
famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, and the foundation of the gov- 
ernment of the Northwest laid. This compact is fully discussed and 
explained in the history of Ohio in this book, and to it the reader is re- 


The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentleman had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 1786, and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to 
the New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following 

During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were preparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
23d of November made arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January the sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the 3d of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
St. Clair Governor of the Territory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com- 
plete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on the Youghiogheny, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim that honor. 

Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the Northwest, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and published by 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Washington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under such 
favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. I know 


many of its settlers personally, and there never were men better calculated 
to promote the welfare of such a community." 

On the 2d of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held on 
the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new-born 
city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the " Mus- 
kingum,'' but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette, The square upon which the block-houses stood 
was called " Campus Martius ; " square number 19, " Capitolium ; " 
square number 61, " Cecilia;'''' and the great road through the covert 
way, " Sacra Via.'" Two days after, an oration was delivered by James 
M. Varnum, who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been 
appointed to the judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of October, 
1787. On July 9, Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume 
form. The act of 1787 provided two district grades of government for 
the Northwest, under the first of which the whole power was invested in 
the hands of a governor and three district judges. This was immediately 
formed upon the Governor's arrival, and the first laws of the colony 
passed on the 25th of July. These provided for the organization of 
the militia, and on the next day appeared the Governor's proclamation, 
erecting all that country that had been ceded by the Indians east of the 
Scioto River into the County of Washington. From that time forward^ 
notwithstanding the doubts yet existing as to the Indians, all Marietta 
prospered, and on the 2d of September the first court of the territory was 
held with imposing ceremonies. 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. The com- 
mander at Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Muskingum, reported four 
thousand five hundred persons as having passed that post between Feb- 
ruary and June, 1788 — many of whom would have purchased of the 
" Associates," as the New England Company was called, had they been 
ready to receive them. 

On the 26th of November, 1787, Symmes issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his contract and the plan of sale he intended to adopt. In 
January, 1788, Matthias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest 
in Symmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one-third of this locality, he 
sold the other two-thirds to Robert Patterson and John Filson, and the 
three, about August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
was designated as being opposite Licking River, to the mouth of which 
they proposed to have a road cut from Lexington. The naming of the 
town is thus narrated in the " Western Annals" : — " Mr. Filson, who had 
been a schoolmaster, was appointed to name the town, and, in respect to 
its situation, and as if with a prophetic perception of the mixed race that 


were to inhabit it in after days, he named it Losantiville, which, being 
interpreted, means : ville, the town ; anti^ against or opposite to ; os^ the 
mouth ; L. of Licking." 

Meanwhile, in July, Sjynmes got thirty persons and eight four-horse 
teams under way from the West. These reached Limestone (now Mays- 
ville) in September, where were several persons from Redstone. Here 
Mr. Symmes tried to found a settlement, but the great freshet of 1789 
caused the " Point," as it was and is yet called, to be fifteen feet under 
water, and the settlement to be abandoned. The little band of settlers 
removed to the mouth of the Miami. Before Symmes and his colony left 
the " Point," two settlements had been made on his purchase. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the original projector of the whole plan, who, with a 
colony of Redstone people, had located at the mouth of the Miami, 
whither Symmes went with his Maysville colony. Here a clearing had 
been made by the Indians owing to the great fertility of the soil. Mr. 
Stiltes with his colony came to this place on the 18th of November, 1788, 
with twenty-six persons, and, building a block-house, prepared to remain 
through the Winter. They named the settlement Columbia. Here they 
were kindly treated by the Indians, but suffered greatly from the flood 
of 1789. 

On the 4th of March, 1789, the Constitution of the United States 
went into operation, and on April 30, George Washington was inau- 
gurated President of the American people, and during the next Summer, 
•an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north of the Ohio. The 
President at first used pacific means ; but these failing, he sent General 
Harmer against the hostile tribes. He destroyed several villages, but 
was defeated in two battles, near the present City of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events were 
the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, General St. Claii- 
was appointed in command, and marched against the Indians; but while 
lie was encamped on a stream, the St. Mary, a branch of the Maumee, 
he was attacked and defeated with the loss of six hundred men. 

General Wayne was now sent against the savages. In August, 1794, 
he met them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a complete 
victory. This success, followed by vigorous measures, compelled the 
Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, the following year, the 
treaty of Greenville was signed by the principal chiefs, by which a large 
tract of country was ceded to the United States. 

Before proceeding in our narrative, we will pause to notice Fort 
Washington, erected in the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. 
Nearly all of the great cities of the Northwest, and indeed of the 


whole country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourishing cities east and west 
of the Mississippi. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were a story and a half high, while those composing the officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it was erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present city (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, which was then a narrow alley, and the eastern boundary of 
of the town as it was originally laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the: 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contiguous buildings, occupied by workshops and quarters of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame house, 
familiarly called the '' Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many years this was the best finished, 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen City. Fort Washington was 
for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military governmentt^ 
of the Northwestern Territory. 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into by different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treaty of 1795 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour rapidly into the West. The great event of the year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. The United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
wild other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
railed to give them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne, who 
iiau done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened und died near Erie, transferred his head- 



quarters to the neighborhood of the lakes, where a county named after 
liim was formed, which included the northwest of Ohio, all of Michigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
i'onned at the present City of Chillicothe, along the Miami from Middle- 
luwn to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill" — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken place, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with 
a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henry Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vance ville. On the 16th 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 24th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gen. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and approved by 
the Governor, were thirty -seven — eleven others were passed, but received 
his veto. The most important of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of December this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Bryd to the 
oflBce of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Northwest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinary operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that : 

" In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
in such society. The extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * x^j 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territory into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division be made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

"• That from and after July 4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory," 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides : 

" That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


was passed accepting this' cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October that the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From the earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the "compact of 1787" provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they should be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Ohio, 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
with the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next year is 
memorable in the history of the West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
France by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the early 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were obtained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year, Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
grants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and the present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that post : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in the time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two hundred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by the town 
and Fort Lenault. The remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. * * * A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. The 
pickets, as well as the public houses, are in a state of gradual decay. The 
streets are narrow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. The houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During this year, Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in these 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of Michigan began to 
nil rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
u law was passed organizing the Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wm. Hull was appointed governor, with headquarters at Detroit, the 
change to take effect on June 30. On the 11th of that month, a fiie 
occurred at Detroit, which destroyed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this was being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assembly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Thames, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and his connection with this conflict. 



This famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present city of Springfield, Ohio. His father, Puekeshiinva, 
was ;i member of the Kisopok tribe of the Swanoese nation, and his 
mother, Methontaske, was a member of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. They removed from Florida about the middle of the last century 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to bo 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 1795 he was 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when ho 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River, Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos. From this date the chief 
comes into prominence. He was now about thirty-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutly built, and possessed of 
enormous powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
dential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
land made by the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the north, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, by watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced that a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseh "s 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to the cunuhig 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the year 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year. Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averriag 


as one principal reason that he did not want the Indians to give up any 
lauds north and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited the General at Vincennes and 
held a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly 
angry at this conference he was dismissed from the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chief's headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Fort Harrison. From this place he went to the 
Prophet's town, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, provided they were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
up. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatly exasperated at his 
brother, the Prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly precipitating 
the war, and foiling his (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent word to Gen. Harrison that he was now returned 
from the South, and was ready to visit the President as had at one time 
previously been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not 
go as a chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 
made. In June of the following year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general remarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council house, and departed for Fort Mai- 
den, in Upper Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

In the Summer of 1813, Perry's victory on Lake Erie occurred, and 
shortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mai- 
den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the Valley of 
the Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen. 
McArthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 

The pursuit of Proctor began October 2. He was overtaken on the 
5th at the Thames. Tecumseh fell * in that battle and British power 
was forever broken, Canada alone being left them, as the Americans had 
no orders to follow up their victory eastward. Burr's inaipient 
insurrection of 1805 was quelled, and the murderer of the eloquent 
Hamilton driven from his beautiful island fortress in the Ohio River. 

* Supposed at the hands of Col. R. M. Johnson of Kentucky. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Territory, made a 
treaty with the Indians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States, Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also during this year that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the compact of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Territory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory. 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of goYernment being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then began the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the West went on witji 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
" monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of January, 1812, it arrived at Natchez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake which occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stipulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 2-4th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout the West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty-three thousand inhabitants. Th« first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, and 
on December 11, the State was formally admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Corydon, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was laid out January 1, 1825. > 


On the 28th of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish branches 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not bring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were subsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territory north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1826 that 
the trade was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships began to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War, 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which, especially the Michigan 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The people were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, the 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or Black Hawk, was born in the principal 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783, he 
wentofi an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 


■of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered the Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred lowas, he waged 
war against the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly to 
the Americans. When on a visit to St. Louis to see his " Spanish, 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason^ 
he did not want two fathers. 

The treaty at St. Louis was consummated in 1804. The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort was 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. The difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812^ 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and ammunition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
had a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
Government but little is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not 
sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804. From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the bi-eaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this War, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the lowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk was leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and was induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inhabited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them, 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
lowas. Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the military, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A large force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seaboard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, with 200 warriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock River toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band, 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action. Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the whole crossed the 


Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the 
Mississippi. They were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
which followed the power of the Indian chief was completely broken. He 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 1832, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
cluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
peaceable with the whites. For the faithful performance of the provi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
"there to remain until the conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at liberty." They were retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. Everj^where they were observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next day after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge. His wife was yet living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of liis days. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now-passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholy had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times Avhen he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received many tokens of esteem. 
In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in n fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried iu 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 


body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side, the cane, given him 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's trophies were placed in the grave, and some 
Indian garments, together with his favorite weapons." 

No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Michigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, when the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

Tlie main attraction to that portion of the Northwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, was its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found about Lake Superior. For some time this 
region was attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 183() was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, Wisconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it was a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstanceH 
compelled its present division. 







California , 





















New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina... 




























R. R. 



8o2, 0.^6 










1,6.36,93/ 4,2&3 












Pennsylvania ... 
Rhode Island.... 
South Carolina. 





West Virginia... 

Total States . 





District of Columbia 



New Mexico 




Total Territories, 







Aggregate of U. S... 2,915,203 38,555,983 50,155,783 









1,258,520 1,542,359! 1,9' 

818,579; 1,591,749 5,344 

330,551' 332,286j 915 
1,225,163| 1,512,5651 2,193 

442,014] 618,457 711 
1,054,670 1,315,497 3,441 





39 864 




























































1,700,211 ■ 

























743,948 ! 

3,287,963 j 

















United States— with Alaska 

German Empire 


France .!... 

Great Britain and Ireland 

s^n .:::::""::::::"""::":::::::::::;:::::" 







350 000 



246 .343 



Dominion of Canada 







La Paz 



27 000 





Argentine Confederation 





Hayti -... 






Costa Rica 

San Jo'ie 


The State 





Auglaize . 

r Belmont 

J Brown 

) Butler 

) Carroll 

I Champaign . 


i Clermont . . . 


) Columbiana 

! Coshocton . . 

r Crawford . . . 

S Cuyahoga . . . 

I Darke 

) Defiance 

I Delaware . . . 

> Erie 

i Fairfield 

I Fayette 

) Franklin . . . . 


Zi Gallia 

28 Geauga , 

'<!9 Greene 

30 Guernsey . . . . 

31 Hamilton ... 

32 Hancock .... 

33 Hardin 

34 Harrison 

36i Highland • 
37[ Hocking . 
38|Holmes .. 

39 Huron ... 

40 Jackson . . 
41 1 Jefferson. 






Lawrence . . 










Mercer , 






Muskingum . 





Pickaway . . . 







Sandusky .... 






Trumbull .... 
Tuscarawas . 


Van Wert . . . . 



Washington . . 


























2821 H 




From the organization of the first civil government in the Northwest Territory, of which the State of Ohio 
•was a part, until the year 1884. 

Term, Two Years. 





Arthur St. Clair (1) 

Charles W. Byrd (2) 

Edward Tiffin (3) 

Thomas Kirker (4) 

Samuel Huntington 

Return Jonathan Meigs (5).. 

Othniel Looker* 

Thomas Worthington 

Ethan Allen Brown (6) 

Allen Trimble* 

Jeremiah Morrow 

Allen Trimble 

Duncan McArthur 

Robert Lucas 

Joseph Vance 

Wilson Shannon 

Thomas Corwin [Warren.. 

Wilson Shannon (7) Belmont. 

Thomas W. Bartley* Richland 

Highland .... 























Butler , 



Mordecai Bartley 

William Bebb 

Seabury Ford (8) 

Reuben Wood (9) 

William Medill (10).. 

Salmon P. Chase Hamilton 

William Dennison Franklin 

David Tod Mahoning,.... 

John Brough (11) .Cuyahoga 

Charles Andersont iMontgomery., 

Jacob D. Cox jTrumbull 

Rutherford B. Hayes Hamilton 

Edward F. Noyes Hamilton 

William Allen Ross 

Rutherford B. Hayes (12).... 'Sandusky 

Thomas L. Youngf Hamilton 

Richard M. Bishop Hamilton 

Charles Foster [Seneca 

George Hoadly [Hamilton 


(1) Arthur St. Clair, of Pennsylvania, was Governor of the Northwest Territory, of which Ohio was a part, 
from July 13, 1788, when the first civil government was established in the Territory, until about the close of 
the year 1802, when he was removed by the President. 

(2) Secretary of the Territory, and was acting Governor of the Territory after the removal of Gov. St. 

(3) Resigned March 3, 1807, to accept the office of United States Senator. 

(4) Return Jonathan Meigs was elected Governor on the second Tuesday of October, 1807, over Nathaniel 
Massie, who contested the election of Meigs on the ground "that he had not been a resident of this State for 
four years next preceding the election as required by the Constitution," and the General Assembly, in joint 
convention, decided that he was not eligible. The office was not given to Massie, nor does it appear from the 
records that he claimed it, but Thomas Kirker, Acting Governor, continued to discharge the duties of the office 
until December 12, 1808, when Samuel Huntington was inaugurated, he having been elected on the second 
Tuesday of October in that year. 

(5) Resigned March 25, 1814, to accept the office of Postmaster-General of the United States. 

(6) Resigned January 4, 1822, to accept the office of United States Senator. 

(7) Resigned April 13, 1844, to accept the office of Minister to Mexico. 

(8) The result of the election in 1848 was not finally determined in joint convention of the two houses of 
the (ieneral Assembly until January 19, 1849, and the inauguration did not take plac3 until the 22d of that 

(9) Resigned July 15, 1853, to accept the office of Consul to Valparaiso. 

(10) Elected in October, 1853, for the regular term, to commence on the second Monday of January, 1854. 

(11) Died August 29, 1865. 

(12) Resigned March 2, 1877, to accept the office of President of the United States. 
* Acting Governor. Succeeded to office, being the Speaker of the Senate. 

•f Acting Governor. Succeeded to office, being the Lieutenant-Governor. 



IT is not our province in a volume of this description, to delineate the chronol- 
ogy of prehistoric epochs, or to dwell at length upon those topics pertaining 
to the scientific causes which tended to the formation of a continent, undiscov- 
ered for centuries, by. the wisdom and energy of those making a history of the 
Old World, by the advancement of enlightenment in the Eastern Hemisphere. 

Naturally, the geological formation of the State of Ohio cannot be entirely 
separated from facts relative to the strata, which, in remote ages accumulated 
one layer above the other, and finally constituted a "built-up" America, from 
a vast sea. The action of this huge body of water washed sediment and what- 
ever came in its way upon primitive rocks, which were subjected to frequent 
and repeated submersions, emerging as the water subsided, thus leaving a 
stratum or layer to solidify and mark its number in the series — a system of 
growth repeated in trees of the forest — in those descernible rings that count so 
many years. The southeastern part of North America emerging a second 
time from the Silurian Sea, which extended west to the Rocky Mountains and 
north to the primitive hills of British America, a succession of rock -bound, 
salt-water lakes remained. These covered a large portion of the continent, and 
their water evaporating, organic and mineral matter remained to solidify. This 
thick stratum has been designated by geologists as the water-lime layer. This 
constitutes the upper layer of rock in the larger portion of the west half of 
Ohio. In other sections it forms the bed rock. 

Following the lime-rock deposit, must have been more frequent sweeps of 
the great sea, since the layers are comparatively thin, proving a more speedy 
change. During this scientific rising and falling of the sea, other actions were 
taking place, such as volcanic and other influences w^hich displaced the regular- 
ity of the strata, and occasionally came out in an upheaval or a regular perpen- 
dicular dip. A disturbance of this character formed the low mountain range 
extending from the highlands of Canada to the southern boundary of Tennes- 
see. This "bulge" is supposed to be the consequence of the cooling of the 
earth and the pressure of the oceans on either side of the continent. Geolo- 
gists designate this as the Cincinnati arch. This forms a separation between 
the coal fields of the Alleghanies and those of Illinois. 

Passing over several periods, we reach the glacial, during which the topog- 
raphy of the continent was considerably modified, and which is among the 
latest epochs of geology, though exceedingly remote as compared with human 



history. Previously, a torrid beat prevailed the entire Northern hemisphere. 
Now the temperature of the frigid zone crept southward until it reached Cincin- 
nati. A vast field of ice, perhaps hundreds of feet thick, extended from the 
north pole to this point. As this glacial rigor came southward, the flow of 
the St. Lawrence River was stopped, and the surplus water of the great lake 
basin was turned into the Ohio and Mississippi. This glacial sea was by no 
means stationary even after its southern limit had been reached. It possessed 
the properties of a solid and a fluid. Its action was slow but powerful, grind- 
ing mountains to powder and forming great valleys and basins. Separating 
into two glacial portions, one moved toward the watershed north of the Ohio 
River ; and, continuing westerly, it hollowed out the basin of Lake Erie and 
crushed the apex of the Cincinnati arch. From this point, it turned south- 
ward and swept with a regular course through the Maumee and Miami Valleys 
to the Ohio River. The southern border constantly melting, and flowing toward 
the Gulf of Mexico, the great field was pressed forward by the accumulation^ 
of ice in the northern latitudes. Thus for ages, this powerful force was fitting 
the earth for the habitation of man. The surface was leveled, huge rocks 
broken and reduced to pebbles, sand, clay, etc., other soil and surface-material — 
while the debris was embedded at the bottom. In some sections, as the ice 
melted and freed the bowlders and rocks, the lighter material was swept away. 
The glacier moving forward, and the forces proving an " equilibrium," the 
«dge of this ice-field was held in a solid stronghold, and the material thus de- 
posited forms a ridge, called by geologists "terminal moraine," first exemplified 
in Ohio by the "Black Swamp," in the Maumee Valley. 

The most extreme rigor of this period beginning to wane, the ice of the 
Maumee and Miami Valleys began to move slowly forward, toward the north, 
reaching the points now termed Hudson, Mich.; Fort Wayne, Ind., and Kenton, 
Ohio — reaching somewhat further south than Lima and Van Wert. The edge of 
the glacier was defined in outline by the present western border of Lake Erie, and 
parallel with it. Climatic influences " acting and counteracting," the glacial 
force was concentrated, the Maumee Valley being subjected to a grinding proc- 
ess, and a deposit of material going on, which now forms the boundary of the 
" Black Swamp." As our readers are aware, the waters of the St. Joseph and 
St. Mary's meet at Fort Wayne, and their united waters form the Maumee; 
thence the turn is northwest, and, wearing an outlet through the ridge, it 
reaches the head of Lake Erie. 

The torrid zone yet gaining the ascendency, the ice-fields continuing their 
reverse motion, and retreating toward the north, the basin of the great lakes 
was formed ; and the blocks of ice melting therein, a vast sea of fresh water was 
formed, which gradually overflowed a portion of Canada and Michigan, But 
the St. Lawrence, that important outlet, was under the restraint of an ice 
blockade, and the surplus water of the fresh sea was turned into the Ohio and 
and Mississippi. 


Later, mountains of ice-float were drifted from the north by winds and cur- 
rents, into temperate latitudes, and melting, deposited rocks, stones and general 
debris. Following the iceberg-drift, came the permanent elevation above the ocean- 
level. The St. Lawrence outlet was formed. The inland sea was assuming its 
division into lakes. The united waters of Erie and Huron flowed through the 
Wabash Valley and into the Ohio, until, through some agency, that section was 
dry, and the lakes drained in another direction. The action of the glacial 
period in the Erie basin vicinity created what is known as the " Niagara lime- 
stone," by grinding upper strata and drifting the debris elsewhere. This seems 
to have occurred at intervals, exposures being made in Seneca, Sandusky and 
Wood Counties, and beneath the axis of the Cincinnati arch. Oriskany lime- 
stone is also available in another stratum, which has been brought to the surface. 
Again, there is a carboniferous stratum of limestone, and along the Maumee is 
a thin exposure of the Hamilton limestone and shale. 

A glacier having both fluid and solid properties, it will readily be compre- 
hended that obdurate projections of rock resisted its action, and created currents 
in other directions, for its forces. When this specified epoch had ceased to be, 
Ohio was a rough, irregular and crude mixture of ridges and knobs and pinnacles, 
which were " leveled up " and finished by iceberg-drift and inland-sea deposits. 
This settled and accumulated, and the work of hundreds of years produced a 
beautiful surface, its inequalities overcome, the water having receded and " terra 
firma" remaining. A deep bed of clay, sufficiently compact to hold the germs 
of organic matter, and sufficiently porous to absorb moisture, was especially 
adapted to encourage the growth of vegetation. These seeds had been brought 
by the winds and waves and natural agencies, and now began to produce plants 
and shrubs, which withered to enrich the soil, after scattering broadcast seeds 
that would again perpetuate verdure. Worms, land crabs and burrowing ani- 
mals assisted in the creation of soil, while the buffalo, deer and bear followed, 
as soon as forestry appeared. Decomposed foliage and fallen timber aided in 
the great work of preparing the present State of Ohio for the habitation of man, 
Prairie, marsh, forest, rivers and lakes were formed, which, in turn, were modi- 
fied and prepared for a grand destiny by other influences. 

In glancing over the compiled histories of Ohio, those containing details of 
her early struggles, afflictions and triumphs, we are especially impressed with 
its near and sympathetic relation with the great Northwest, and the republic of 
the United States of America. From the early years when white men built 
their rude cabins in the then tangled wilderness, to the opulent and magnificent 
present of this united nation, Ohio has been stanch, loyal and earnest, botli 
in action and principle. 

We shall endeavor to trace the history of the State concisely and accurately, 
according to the data given by the most reliable historians. We are obliged to 
glean the prominent events only, our space being limited, compared with the 
multitudinous interests connected with this important part of the United States. 



All through early French history, is the fact especially prominent, that in 
their explorations and expeditions, they united piety and business. They were 
zealous in sending out their missionaries, but they were always attended by 
traders and those who were as skilled in the world's profit and loss, as their 
companions were in propagating Christianity. 

Prior to the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers upon Plymouth Rock, the 
Upper Lakes were visited by the French, and records prove that during the first 
half of the seventeenth century, a vagabondish set, working in the interests of 
the fur company of New France, understood the geographical position of the 
lakes and their tributary streams. M. Perrot, an intelligent explorer, made 
overtures of peace to the Indian tribes around these bodies of water, and 
effected a treaty, which, it is claimed, established the right for the French, in 
the name of their king, to hold the place near St. Mary's Falls. They further 
assert that the Mississippi was discovered by the French from Lake Superior, 
but this is not authenticated, and Father ^larquette and M. Joliet are accepted 
as the first who found this large stream, in 1763. The good missionary won 
his way with his patient and sympathetic nature. 

Ohio was, like the other portions of the West, originally in the possession 
of aborigines or Indians. Of their origin, many suppositions are advanced, 
but no certainties sustained. From practical evidences, the Mound-Builders 
were active in Ohio, and here as elsewhere, their work marked retrogression 
rather than advancement. The territory of Ohio was claimed by the French, 
and included in that wide tract between the Alleghauies and the Rockies, held 
by them under the name of Louisiana. Before the year 1750, a French trad- 
ing-post was established at the mouth of the Wabash, and communication was 
established between that point and the Maumee, and Canada. Between the 
years 1678 and 1682, the intrepid La Salle and Father Hennepin, assisted by 
Fondi, an Italian, with a small band of followers, inaugurated a series of 
explorations about the great lakes and the Mississippi, building forts on their 
way and planting the French priority. In 1680, La Salle erected a stockade at 
the foot of the rapids of the Maumee, which Avas a general rendezvous for mission- 
aries, traders and explorers, besides constituting a primitive "stock exchange." 

The English colonies were at this time east of the Alleghanies, while the 
French were establishing themselves west of this range, gaining an entrance 
north and south, the two portions separated by hostile and barbarous foes. 
La Salle's spirit of adventure led him into new fields, but Father Hennepin 
was detailed to investigate that part of the world now known as the State of 
Ohio. The records assert that he published a volume containing an account of 
his observations "in the country between New Mexico and the frozen ocean," 
in 1684, together with maps of Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan, and a plat 
of the larger streams in Ohio. 


Apparently, the French more speedily comprehended the value of their 
advantages in the New World than]the English, and vigorously inaugurated and 
sustained commercial and religious projects. They were essentially benefited 
by the mediation of the Catholic priests between settlers and Indians, this 
really earnest class everywhere ingratiating themselves with the savages. The 
Order of Jesuits were very vigorous, and representatives w"ere stationed at every 
trading-post, village and settlement. The English colonists engaged mostly in 
agriculture, while the French took a lively interest in the fur trade with the 
natives, probably from their former settlement in Quebec and thereabouts, where 
the climate is advantageous for this business. This added to the influence of 
the priests, and the natural assimilation of French and the Indians, through 
the tact and amiability of the former, the French possessions gained more 
rapidly than the English or Spanish. They courted their daughters and 
married them. They engaged in feasts and trades, and took advantage of 
those unimpeded times to extend their dominion with surprising celerity. A 
chain of trading, missionary and military posts extended from New Orleans tyo 
Quebec, by way of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, thence via Mackinaw and 
Detroit to Lakes Erie and Ontario. This route was shortened thereafter by 
following the Ohio River to the Wabash, following the latter upward, and 
■down the Maumee to Lake Erie. 

About the same time, and to check the advancement of the French, the 
Ohio Company was formed by the English. This was an outgrowth of the 
contest between these two nations for the ascendency, whether empire, settle- 
ment or individual. After thirty years' peace between these two nations, 
•'King George's War" opened the campaign in 1744, but terminated in 1748, 
the treaty at Aix-la-Chapelle unfortunately omitting a settlement of any division 
of claims in America. The English, French and Spanish were the first to 
enter America, and the right of possession by each monarch or empire was 
held by right of a first discover}'. The only right that England could advance 
regarding Ohio was that the portion of the Six Nations found in the Ohio 
Valley had placed some of their lands under British jurisdiction, and that other 
portions had been purchased at Lancaster, Penn., by means of a treaty with 
the same nations. All this was strenuously denied and ignored by the French. 
Thus several conflicting influences swept carnage over fair Ohio. The Indians were 
allied to one side and the other, and were against each other. The Indians and 
French would advance against the English, and they, in retaliation, would 
make a raid into the Indian territory and overcome a French settlement. 
Whenever they could as well, Indians would take the cause in their own keep- 
ing and fight each other. The wide, verdant fields of Ohio were drenohed 
ghastly red under a glowing sun, and the great forests echoed moans from the 
dying and distressed. The English colonists had partially overcome their 
deprivation, caused by a struggle for subsistence, and means to guard against 
the savages — this distress augmented by campaigns against Canada — by their 


increased numbers and wealth, but were now alarmed by the French rule in- 
America, which gained so rapidly, unmolested as it was by Indian raids and 
other devastating circumstances. A constant conflict was going on between 
Lake Erie and the Upper Ohio. Atrocities and massacres were committc<l 
indiscriminately, which opened the way for a desperate class of marauders antl 
villains from the colonies and European States. These people enlisted with 
the Indians on either side for the purpose of leadership and plunder. Every 
fortification, trading-post and settlement was garrisoned or deserted, and the 
ground between the Alleghanies and the Maumee became a conflict field, rife 
with thrilling deeds, • sacrifice and adventures, the half never having been 
chronicled, and many heroes falling uncrowned by even a lasting memory, since 
during these times the people kept few annals, and cared less for historical 
memories than anything on earth. They were living, and dying, and struggling, 
and that was more than they could carry through safely. The French formed 
a road from the Ohio River to Detroit, via the foot of the Lower Rapids of the 
Maumee, and the foot of the Lower Rapids of the Sandusky. 

The Ohio Company obtained a charter under English views, from the 
British Government, with a grant of 6,000 acres of land on the Ohio. Tlie 
English now reverted to the times of the Cabots, and protested that by right 
they held the entire country between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, bounded 
by those parallels of latitude defining their Atlantic coast settlements. France 
claimed the region drained by the Mississippi and tributaries, the great lakes 
and their tributaries, the area being west of the Alleghanies. Ohio was thus 
included in the disputed tract. 

The Ohio Company was formed in 1748, by a number of A^irginians and 
Londoners, two brothers of George Washington taking conspicuous parts in the 
movement ; Thomas Lee was especially active. When the surveys were begun, 
the Governor of Canada entered vigorous protests, and indicated his displeasure 
by a prompt line of posts from Erie to Pittsburgh, named respectively, Presque 
Isle, Le Boeuf, Vedango, Kittaning and Du Quesne. The latter was begun 
by the English, captured by the French, and by them completed. 

The first English settlement of which we can find traces was a block-house 
at Piqua, about the year 1752. It was attacked, and a bitter struggle ensued, 
resulting in the death of fourteen of the assailants. Those within the garrison 
sufiered severely, many being burned, and the remainder captured and dis- 
patched to Canada. 

In 1753, the French and Indian war actively began. It did not extend 
beyond the American continent until 1756, when the home governments took 
an interest in its progress beyond encouraging their respective colonists to pur- 
sue the war-path to a direful finale for their adversaries. For four years, the 
French captured and conquered, spreading terror wherever they went, and 
they followed every Englishman that set his foot on Ohio soil to the death. 
We may state that these people had not retained their civilized habits, and 


constant association with savages had embued them with barbarous methods of 
warfare which were sickening and revolting to the English, and to which they 
could not resort. It is highly probable that French success was vastly brought 
about by these means, together with the assistance of their Indian allies. In 
1758, when the English hope was almost exterminated, the elder Pitt being 
placed at the head of the administration, a new and energetic system was 
inaugurated, wise measures instituted, and military science triumphed over 
savage cunning and French intrigue. The first brilliant English achievement 
was the conquest of Canada. When the home governments interfered, the 
war assumed the character of a French and English conflict, regardless of 
Indian right, yet the tribes continued to participate in the carnage. 

A certain Christian, Frederick Post, a Moravian missionary, located upon 
the Muskingum, near Beavertown. Heckewelder consented to become his 
associate. The Indians receiving them kindly, under conditions that Post 
should serve as tutor, this missionary began clearing a field for the purpose of 
planting corn for sustenance. This did not accord with Indian logic. They 
had stipulated that he teach and he was planting corn, which to them was a 
signal of the coming of other whites, the building of a fort and encroachments 
upon the Indians. They referred to the French priests, who were in good 
physical condition, did not till land, but were in charge of the Great Spirit 
who provided for them, a conclusive proof to them that when divine work was 
acceptable to the Great Spirit, priests were somehow sustained by other than 
the plans ^ which disturbed their great hunting-grounds. However, they 
allowed him a small space, and he remained with them, preaching and teaching 
during the summer of 1762, when, accompanied by one of the principal chiefs, 
he returned to Lancaster, Penn., where a treaty was concluded. On his return 
to his post, he was met by Heckewelder, who imparted the tidings that friendly 
Indians had warned him that the war was about to sweep over their section, 
and destruction awaited them if they remained. The mission was accordingly 
abandoned. This failure was not so bitter as the English effort to sustain their 
trading-post in 1749, on the Great Miami, afterward called Laramie's store. 
It pursued a feeble existence until 1752, when a French raid upon the Twig- 
twees and English colonists proved fatal. 

A European treaty now excluded the French from any rights to make 
treaties with the Indians, and the English, in their flush of victory after Pitt's 
succession, assumed the authority over Indians and lands. The savages did 
not accept the situation with anything resembling the gentle spirit of resigna- 
tion, and the Ottawa chief, Pontiac, led the several tribes into a general war 
against the intruders. It was no longer French and English, but Indian and 
English, the former being instigated and assisted many times by the French, 
now desperate and unscrupulous in a mad spirit for revenge. 

The intention of the Indians was to drive the whites east of the mountains, 
destroying their numerous strongholds in Pennsylvania and Virginia, if they 


failed in their hope of utterly exterminating them. Pontiac had eftected a 
consolidation of the tribes ranging from Mackinaw to North Carolina, thus 
being enabled to swoop down upon all the settlements simultaneously. A 
deadly beginning was made in the Ohio Valley, and only two or three English 
traders escaped out of the one hundred and twenty located in that vicinity. 
The forts at Presque Isle, St. Joseph and Mackinaw, were captured amid scenes 
of slaughter too terrible to perpetuate in description. The years 1763 and 
1764 were literally drenched in human carnage and anguish. Ohio was a 
great field of crime, murder, pain and horror. The expeditions of Bradstreet 
and Bouquet crushed the war in 1764, and Pontiac with his Ottawas removed 
to the Maumee and settled. English settlement now progressed with great 
rapidity, but this was destined to be disturbed in 1774, by the action of Lord 
Dunmore, who led an expedition against the tribes of the Ohio country, termi- 
nated by his treaty on the Scioto plains. At this period, the colonists were not 
in strict harmony with England, and the spirit of revolution was spreading 
every day. 

When Lord Dunmore made his treaty, the affirmation was made and gained 
ground that he, being a thorough loyalist, had compromised under such terms 
as held the Indians British allies against the settlers. Directly following this 
treaty, was the deliberate murder of a number of Indians, near Wheeling, 
including the family of the great chief, Logan — which inaugurated retaliating 

In the year 1773, July 4, the first white child was born within the 
present limits of Ohio, and was christened John L. Roth, son of a Mora- 
vian missionary. All the settlers of these Moravian towns on the Muskingum 
were made prisoners in September of the same year. Heckwelder was trans-: 
ported to Detroit, but English tyranny failed to find any evidence against him 
or his colaborers, and they were reluctantly released, and returned to their fam- 
ilies in Sandusky. Poverty added to their sufferings, and in the forlorn 
hope of finding a remnant of their property at the old settlements, which might 
assist in mitigating their necessities, they wearily went thitherward. They 
began gathering their grain, but the Wyandots attacked them, and many lives 
were lost. Frontiersmen had also grown jealous of them, and a body of about 
ninety marched out together, for the fiendish purpose of pillaging, slaughtering 
and laying waste all Moravian towns and posts. With the wily insidiousness of 
savages, they went about their diabolical plan. The Moravians were cordial and 
bade this band welcome, when they reached their towns in the guise of friend- 
ship. Williamson, the leader, and the gleaners, were called from the fields, 
when, to the dismay of these trusting and frank people, they were all bound, 
and only fifteen out of the marauding band of ninety were in favor of even 
sparing the lives of these hapless men, women and children. Forty men, 
twenty-two women and thirty-four children were then cruelly and heartlessly 
murdered, their sufferings laughed to scorn, and the last sound that fell on their 




^L^^^<^ ^.x^JlfiS 



ears was exultant derision. Succeeding this tragic event was the expedition 
against the Indian towns upon the Sandusky. The hostile Indians had been 
making frequent incursions upon the settlements of Western Pennsylvania and 
Virginia, destroying both life and property. There seemed to be no bounds 
to their bloody work, and it became necessary, for the peace and safety of the 
settlers, to take some measures to prevent their outrages. Accordingly, in 
May, 1782, Gen. William Ii-vine, who was then commander of the Western 
Military Department, with headquarters at Fort Pitt, called a council of the 
officers of his department to meet at Fort Pitt. At this meeting it was de- 
cided to form and equip a body of men, and make an expedition into the 
Indian country. Upper Sandusky, then the rendezvous of the hostile Wyan- 
dots, Delawares, Shawanese and Mingoes, was to be the point of attack. 

Col. William Crawford led the expedition, which counted 480 men. Warn- 
ing had in some manner reached the towns, and the troops found them de- 
serted. But the Indians were incensed, and their wrath had not driven them 
to hiding-places, but to a preparation to meet their foes. They fought desper- 
ately, and Crawford's troops were defeated and scattered, many being capt- 
ured, and among them Col. Crawford himself. It is hardly probable that 
Crawford could justly expect much mercy at the hands of his captors. Ac- 
counts state that Crawford implored the aid of Girty, and at last secured a 
promise to use his power to obtain the Colonel's pardon. However, this was of 
no avail, and it is doubtful whether Girty was disposed to intercede. The 
prisoners were tortured and put to death, and Crawford's agonies were pro- 
tracted as long as possible. Dr. Knight managed to disable the Indian who 
had him in charge, and made his escape to the settlements, where he related 
the result of the expedition and the tortures of the captured. 

On October 27, 1784, a treaty was concluded at Fort Stanwix, with the 
sachems and warriors of the Mohawks, Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, Onei- 
das and Tuscaroras, and the Six Nations then ceded to the Colonial Govern- 
ment all claims to the country west of a line defined by the western boundary 
to the Ohio — thus rendering the Indian claim to a large portion of Ohio lands 
practically extinct. 

Although the French and Indian war was a series of heart-rending events, 
it was a serious and remarkable school of discipline for the untrained troops 
which soon engaged in the Revolutionary struggle. On the fields of Ohio, many 
valuable officers, who earned distinction in the war of independence, learned 
their first lessons in intrepid valor. 

During the Revolution, the colonial troops were engaged east of the mount- 
ains, and western settlements and frontier people were left alone to defend 
themselves and their property against encroachments and attacks. 

The Indian tribes again became belligerent, and united with the English 
against the " Americans." The latter held a line of posts along the Upper 
Ohio, while the British were stationed in the old French strongholds on the 
lakes and the Mississippi. The unscrupulous whites and Indians ranged at ran- 
dom between this boundary and the Cuyahoga, thence southerly to the Ohio, 


thus including the Scioto and Miami Valleys. Southeastern Ohio constituted 
" the neutral ground." 

Gen. Clarke's expedition, although chiefly confined to Indiana and Illinois, 
greatly influenced the settlement of Ohio. His exploits and the resolution of 
his troops were chiefly instrumental in holding the country west of the Alle- 
ghanies, and insuring its possession by the United States during the Kevolution. 
The British had been emphatic, in the Paris treaty, at the time of the settlement 
of the French and English diflSculties, in demanding the Ohio River as the 
northern boundary of the United States. The American Commissioners relied 
upon Gen. Clarke's valor and energy in holding the country west of the AUe- 
ghanies, which he had conquered, and the British Commissioners were compelled 
to give their consent, under civil and military measures. In 1783, by the 
treaty of Paris, at the close of the Revolutionary war, the English relinquisher! 
all rights to the fertile territory between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi, 
and the United States lield undisputed possession. 

January 10, 1786, Gens. Rufus Putnam and Benjamin Tupper circulated a 
pamphlet, proposing the formation of a company for the purpose of settling the 
Ohio lands, and soliciting the attention and consideration of all those desiring a 
future home and prosperity. A meeting was also called, to assemble during the 
following February, and select delegates to represent each county in Massachu- 
setts. These dignitaries should convene during the month of March, at the 
" Bunch of Grapes " tavern, in Boston, for the purpose of definitely forming the 
association, and adopting such measures as would benefit all directly interested. 
The meeting and " convention " followed, and the subscription books were opened. 
One million dollars, chiefly represented by Continental certificates, was the 
price of the land. The shares were valued at $1,000 each, and there was a 
division of a thousand shares. The first payment was to be $10 per share, this 
money to be set aside for such expenses as might accrue. A year's interest was 
to be devoted to the establishment of the settlement, and those families who 
were unable to incur the expense of moving were to be assisted. Those who 
purchased shares to the number of twenty were entitled to a representation bj 
an agent, who was permitted to vote for Directors. This plan matured and was 
acted upon during the following year. It may be that the action of Connecti- 
cut, in ceding her^ territorial claims to the General Government, with few excep- 
tions, greatly encouraged this new undertaking. That tract was, until recently, 
designated the " Western Reserve " — an extent 170 miles from the western 
boundary of Pennsylvania, and parallel thereto, being reserved. 

On October 27, 1787, a contract was made between the Board of the Treas- 
ury, for the United States, a^-'i Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent, agents 
for the Directors of the New England Ohio Company, for the purchase of a tract 
of land, bounded by the Ohio, and from the mouth of the Scioto to the inter- 
section of the western boundary of the seventh townships, then surveying ; 
thence by said boundary to the northern boundary of the tenth township from 


the Ohio : thence, by a due west line, to the Scioto ; thence, by the Scioto, to 
the beginning. 

However fertile and attractive Ohio was known to have been, settlement did 
not gain rapidly after the close of the war with England, although the United 
States has gained her freedom. It was more than six years after Cornwallis 
laid down his sword, before a white settlement was formed on the Ohio side of the 
river. The French and Indian war had incited the English to be jealous of her 
colonial conquests, and mistrusting their loyalty, they had, so soon as the French 
claims were annulled, taken measures to crush all colonial claims also, and a 
royal proclamation rescinded all colonial land grants and charters, holding all 
the country west of the sources of the Atlantic rivers under the protection and 
sovereignty of tlie king of Great Britain, for the use of the Indians. All white 
persons were forbidden to remain or settle within the prescribed limits. Parlia- 
ment then attached this tract to Quebec, and the English Government felt assured 
that the thirteen colonies were restricted and held secure east of the Alleghanies. 

The result of the war between the colonies and England did not constitute 
an Indian treaty. Although England signed over her title and right, the sava- 
ges held the land and ignored all white agreements, one way or the other. 
Wlienever an attempt at settlement was undertaken, Indian depredations proved 
disastrous. The tribes were encouraged by the English fur traders, and the 
English commandant at Detroit incited them to destroy all Americans who 
attempted to usurp the rights of red men. 

Added to this serious difficulty was the unsettled debate regarding Stat© 
claims, which rendered a title precarious. A treaty, signed at Fort Mcintosh, 
previous to the war, and authenticated, shows that during the conflict the Dela- 
wares and Wyandots occupied the Indian and British frontier, on the southern 
shore of Lake Erie, from the Cuyahoga to the Maumee, and from the lake to 
the sources of its tributaries. Later, these two tribes ceded to the United 
States "the neutral ground," by warranty deed, and by quit-claim, the terri- 
tory south and west of the described tract, set apart for their use. 

By special measures, the grant of Congress in the matter of the Ohio Com- 
pany extended to nearly 5,000,000 acres, valued at $3,500,000. The original 
Ohio Company obtained 1,500,000 acres, the remaining being reserved by indi- 
viduals, for private speculation. 

The same year. Congress appointed Arthur St. Clair, Governor, and Win- 
throp Sargent, Secretary, of the Territory. 

Fort Harmar had previously been built, at the mouth of the Muskingum, 
and in 1788, a New England colony attempted the "Muskingum settlement," 
on the opposite side, which was afterward named Marietta. In July, 1788, the 
Territorial officers were received in this village, and there established the first 
form of civil government, as set forth in the Ordinance of 1787. Three United 
States Judges were appointed, and Courts of Common Pleas, Probate and 
Justice were established. 


If tlje stormy times were supposed to be of the past, that composure was 
rudely broken by the utter disregard of the Shawnee and other Indian tribes, 
who soon induced the Delawares and Wyandots to repudiate their consent in the 
matter of settlement. The miseries of frontier horrors were repeated. The 
British commandant at Detroit instigated many of these hostilities, yet the 
American Government took honorable action in assuring the English represent- 
ative that American military preparations in the West was not an expedition 
against Detroit, or other British possessions, although the possession of Detroit 
by that nation was in direct opposition to the treaty of 1783. Gov. St. Clair, 
to avert the direful consequences of a border war, dispatched a Frenchman, 
Gameline, to the principal Indian towns of the Wabash and Maumee countries, 
to request them to meet the United States agents, and make a compromise for 
the benefit of both parties, at the same time reiterating the desire of the General 
Government to adhere to the Fort Harmar treaty. The Miamis, Shawnees, 
Ottawas, Kickapoos and Delawares received this representative kindly, but 
declined the wampum sent by the Governor, and deferred giving an answer 
until they had considered the subject with the " father at Detroit." 

Blue Jacket, chief of the Shawnees, informed the Frenchman that the Indi- 
ans doubted the sincerity of the Americans. The new settlement on the Ohio 
was a proof that the whites intended to crowd further and further, until the 
Indians were again and again robbed of their just right. He then emphatically 
asserted that unless the north side of the river was kept free from these inroads 
there could be no terms of peace with the Shawnees, and many other tribes. 

Blue Jacket was unusually intelligent and sagacious, and expressed himself 
eloquently. He was persistent in his determination to engage in the war of 
extermination, should the white settlements continue north of the Ohio. 

These overtures were continued, but they failed in producing any arrange- 
ment that permitted the whites to locate north of the Ohio. 

Congress called upon Kentucky and Pennsylvania to lend the aid of their 
militia. Gen. Harmar was instructed to destroy the Miami villages at the 
head of the Maumee. Late in the fall of 1790, he executed this order. 

The Indians had stored a large quantity of provisions, in expectation of a 
campaign, and this dependence was devastated. Without authority, and with 
undue carelessness, he divided his arm^y and attempted to achieve other victo 
ries. He more than lost what he had gained. Two raids upon the Wabash In- 
dians, thereafter, proved successful, but the campaign under Gov. St. Clair was 
not calculated to establish peace or obtain power, and was deemed but little less 
than a failure. 

The year 1792 was a series of skirmishes, so far as a settlement was con- 
cerned, but 1793 succeeded well enough to convene a meeting of United States 
Commissioners and representatives of the hostile tribes, at the rapids of the 
Maumee. It is highly probable that a satisfactory treaty might have been 
arranged, had it not been for the intervention and malicious influence of the 

ill^^TOKY «)F THE ^TATE OF OHIO. 87 

British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Col. McKee, his assistant Capt. 
Elliott, and the notorious Capt. Simon Girty, who instigated the savages to 
deeds more horrible than their own barbarisms. 

It was evident that a severe struggle must ensue, and Capt. Wayne, in 
1792, appointed to the command of the Western army, was called upon to con- 
duct the campaign. He exhibited his wisdom in the beginning, by preparing 
his men in military discipline and fully equipping them before marching to meet 
a savage foe in a wilderness. Various causes detained the army, and it was not 
until the fall of 1793, that the force marched from Fort Washington (Cincin- 
nati) to begin the battle. 

It was already late in the season, and, before any progress had been made, 
the army went into winter quarters at Greenville, on a branch of the Big 

In the mean time, the Ohio Company had not matured its practical ''settle- 
ment plan," although a generous grant had been obtained. In 1792, they 
received a clear title to 750,000 acres of land, for which the full price had pre- 
viously been paid, in Continental currency. Congress set aside 214,285 acres 
as army bounties, and 100,000 acres to actual settlers. The two latter appro- 
priations joined that of the Ohio Company. 

There had been numerous conventions, discussions and other fruitless 
attempts to somehoAv form a plan for the government of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, but it was not until July 13, 1787, that an ordinance was passed, and that 
was the result of Dr. Cutler's efforts. Every State sustained its measures. 

This ordinance was the foundation of the constitution of the future State of 
Ohio, and indeed, permeates the entire Northwestern creed. 

ORDINANCE OF 1787.— No. 32. 
An .Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, Northwest of 
THE Ohio River. 

Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, That the said Territoiy , for the pur- 
pose of government, be one district; subject, however, to be divided into two districts, as future cir- 
cumstances may, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the estates of both resident and non-resident 
proprietors in the said Territory, dying intestate, shall descend to and be distributed among their 
children and the descendants of a deceased child, in equal parts; the descendants of a deceased 
child or grandchild to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them. And 
when there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin in equal 
degree ; and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of the intestate shall 
have, in equal parts among them, their deceased parent's share; and there shall in no case be a 
distribution between kindred of the whole and half blood, saving in all cases to the widow of 
intestate, her third part of the real estate, for life, and one-third part of the personal estate ; and 
this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until altered by the Legis- 
lature of the district. And until the Governor and Judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter 
mentioned, estates in said Territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in writing, signed 
and sealed by him or her in whom the estate may be (being of full age), and attested by three 
witnesses ; and real estate may be conveyed by lease and release, or bargain and sale, signed and 
sealed, and delivered by the person (being in full age) in whom the estate may be, and attested 


by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, anU such conveyances be acknowledged, or 
the execution thereof duly proved and be recorded within one year after proper magistrates, 
courts and registers shall be appointed for that purpose. And personal property may be trans- 
ferred by delivery, saving, however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of 
the Kaskaskias, St. Vincent's and the neighboring villages, who have heretofore professed them- 
selves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force among them, relative to the 
descent and conveyance of property. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be appointed from time to time, by 
Congress, a Governor whose commission shall continue in force for a term of three years, unless 
sooner revoked by Congress. He shall reside in the district and have a freehold estate therein, 
of a thousand acres of land while in the exercise of his office. 

There shall be appointed from time to time by Congress, a Secretary whose commission shall 
continue in foi-ce for two years, unless sooner revoked. He shall reside in the district, and shall 
have a freehold estate therein in 500 acres of land, while in the exercise of his office. It shall be 
his duty to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the Legislature, and the public records 
of the district, and the proceedings of the Governor in his executive department, and transmit 
authentic copies of such acts and proceedings every six months, to the Secretary of Congress. 
There shall also be appointed a court to consist of three Judges, any two of whom to form a 
court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction and shall reside in the district and have each 
therein a freehold estate in 500 acres of land, while in the exercise of their office, and their 
commissions shall continue in force during good behavior. 

The Governor and Judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and publish in the district 
such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary -and best suited to the 
circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress from time to time, which laws shall be 
in force in the district until the organization of the General Assembly therein, unless disapproval 
by Congress. But afterward, the Legislature shall have authority to alter them, as they shall 
think fit. 

The Governor, for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, appoint and 
commission all officers in the same, below the rank of general officers. All general officers shall 
be appointed and commissioned by Congress. 

Previous to the organization of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint such mag- 
istrates and other civil officers in each county or township, as he shall find necessary for the 
preservation of the peace and good order in the same. After the General Assembly shall be 
organized, the powers and duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and 
defined by the said Assembly, but all magistrates and other civil officers not herein otherwise 
directed, shall, during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the 

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made shall have force 
in all parts of the district, and for the execution of process, criminal or civil, the Governor shall 
make proper divisions thereof, and he shall proceed from time to time as circumstances may 
require, to lay out the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extin- 
guished, into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as may thereafter be 
made by the Legislature. So soon as there shall be 5,000 free male inhabitants of full age in the 
district, upon giving proof thereof to the Governor, they shall receive authority with time and 
place, to elect representatives from their counties or townships, to represent them in the General 
Assembly. Provided, That for every 500 free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative, 
and so on progressively with the number of free male inhabitants, shall the right of representa- 
tion increase, until the number of representatives shall amount to twenty-five. After which, the 
number shall be regulated by the Legislature. Provided, That no person be eligible or qualified 
to act as a representative unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three 
years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three 
years, and in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right in fee simple 200 acres of land 
within the same. 


Provided, Also, that a freehold in 50 acres of land in the district, having been a citizen of 
■one of the States, and being a resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years' resi- 
dence in the district, shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative. 

The representatives thus elected, shall serve for the term of two years. And in case of the 
death of a representative or removal from office, the Governor shall issue a writ to the county or 
lownship for which he was a member, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the 

The General Assembly or Legislature shall consist of the Governor, Legislative Council, and 
a House of Representatives. The Legislative Council shall consist of five members, to continue 
in office five years, unless sooner removed by Congress ; any three of whom to be a quorum. 
And the members of the Council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit : 
As soon as representatives shall be elected, the Governor shall appoint a time and place for 
them to meet together, and when met, they shall nominate ten persons, residents in the district, 
and each person in a freehold in 500 acres of land, and return their names to Congress, five of 
whom Congress shall appoint and commission as aforesaid. And whenever a vacancy shall hap- 
pen in the Council by death or removal from office, the House of Representatives shall nominate 
two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return their names to Congress, one of 
■whom Congress shall appoint and commission for the residue of the term. And everj- five years, 
four months at least before the expiration of the time of service of the members of the Council, 
the said House shall nominate ten persons qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to 
Congress, five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the 
Council five years, unless sooner removed. And the Governor, Legislative Council and House 
of Representatives shall have authority to make laws in all cases, for the good government 
■of the district, not repugnant to the principles and articles in this Ordinance, established and 

And all bills having passed by a majority in the House, and by a majority in the Council, 
shall be referred to the Governor for his assent. But no bill or legislative act whatever, shall J>e 
of any force without his assent. The Governor shall have power to convene, prorogue and dis- 
solve the General Assembly, when in his opinion it shall be expedient. 

The Governor, Judges, Legislative Council, Secretary, and such other officers as Congrea* 
shall appoint in the district, shall take an oath or affirmation of fidelity and of office. The Gov^- 
ernor before the President of Congress, and all other officers before the Governor. 

As soon as a Legislature shall be formed in the district, the Council and House assembled 
in one room, shall have authority by joint ballot to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall: 
have a seat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting, during this temporary gov- 

And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, which forms 
the basis whereon these republics, their laws .and constitutions, are created ; to fix and establish 
those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions and governments, which forever hereafter 
shall be formed in said Territory. To provide for the establishment of States, and permanent 
governments therein, and for their admission to a share in the Federal Council on an equal footing 
with the original States, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general interest. 

It is hereby ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, Tliai the following articles shall- 
be considered as articles of compact between the original States and the jieople, and States in 
said Territory, and forever remain unaltered unless by common consent, to wit : 

Article II. The inhabitants of said Territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of the 
writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury; of a proportionate representation of the people 
in the Legislature, and of judicial procedure according to the course of common law. All per- 
sons shall be bailable, except for capital offenses, where the proof shall be evident or the pre- 
sumption great. All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unreasonable punishment shall be 
inflicted. No man shall be deprived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers 
or the law of the land. And should the public exigencies make it necessary for the common 
preservation, to take any person's property, or to demand liis particular services, full cnnipensatiott 


ehall be made for the same. And in the just preservation of rights and property, it is umler- 
«tood and declared that no law aught ever to be made or have force in the said Territory, 
that shall in any manner whatever interfere with or effect private contracts or engagements bona 
fide and without fraud, previously formed. 

Art. III. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The 
utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the Indians; their lands and property shall 
never be taken from them without their consent; aqd in their property, rights and liberty they 
shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress. But 
laws founded in justice and humanity, shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs 
being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them. 

Art. IV. The said Territory and the States which may be formed therein, shall ever remain 
a part of the confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the articles of confedera- 
tion, and to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made, and to all the acts and 
ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled conformable thereto. The inhabitants and 
settlers in said Territory shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts contracted or to be 
contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses of the Government, to be apportioned on 
them by Congress, according to tlie same common rule and measure by which apportionments 
thereof shall be made on the other States, and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be laid 
and levied by the authority and directions of the Legislature of the district or districts or new 
States, within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. The Legisla- 
tures of those districts or new States, shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil 
by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find neces- 
sary for securing the title in such soil to the bona-fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on 
lands the property of the United States, and in no case, shall non-residents be taxed higher than 
residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St Lawrence, and the carry- 
jhg places between the same, shall be common highways, and forever free as well to the inhabi- 
tants of the said Territory as to the citizens of the United States and those of any otlier States 
that may be admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost or duty therefor. 

Art. V. There shall be formed in said Territory not less than three, nor more than five, 
States, and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession and 
consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit : The western State in 
the said Territory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, the Wabash Rivers ; a direct 
line drawn from the Wabash and Post St. Vincent, due north to the Territorial line between the 
United States and Canada ; and by the said Territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Missis- 
sippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post St. Vin- 
cent to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line di-awn due north from the mouth of the Great 
Miami to the said Territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned 
direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania and said territorial line. Provided, however, and it is further 
understood and declared, that the boundaries of those three States shall be subject so far to be 
altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one 
or two States in that part of the said Territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn 
through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the said States 
shall have 60,000 free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted by its delegates into the 
Congress of the United States on an equal footing with the original States in all respects what- 
ever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government. Provided, 
The constitution and government so to be formed, shall be represented, and in conformity to the 
principles contained in these articles ; and so far as it can be consistent with the general interest 
of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be 
a less number of free inhabitants than 60,000. 

Art. VI. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said Territory, 
otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. 
Provided always, That any person escaping into the same from whom labor or service is lawfully 


claimed in one of the original States, each fugitive may be lawfully claimed and conveyed to the 
person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid. That the resolutions of the 23d of April, 1784, 
relative to the subject of this ordinance, be and the same are hereby repealed and declared null 
and void. 


It would be difficult to find a more comprehensive review of the founda- 
tions of our system of laws than is given in the " Preliminary Sketch of the 
History of Ohio," by this distinguished representative of the bench and the 
bar of America. The work is now out of print, and is not easily obtained; 
besides, its great author has passed away; so these extracts are made more 
with a view of preserving old historical literature, than of introducing new ; 
furthermore, the masses of the people have never had convenient access to the 
volumes, which, for the most part, have been in the hands of professional men 
only. The publication of the work first brought its compiler before the public, 
and marked the beginning of that career which, during its course, shaped the 
financial system of our country, and ended upon the Supreme Bench of the 

"By the ordinance of 1785, Congress had executed in part the great national 
trust confided to it, by providing for the disposal of the public lands for the 
common good, and by prescribing the manner and terms of sale. By that of 
1787, provision was made for successive forms of Territorial government, 
adapted to successive steps of advancement in the settlement of the Western 
country. It comprehended an intelligible system of law on the descent and 
conveyance of real property, and the transfer of personal goods. It also con- 
tained five articles of compact between the original States, and the people and 
States of the Territory, establishing certain great fundamental principles of 
governmental duty and private right, as the basis of all future constitutions and 
legislation, unalterable and indestructible, except by that final and common 
ruin, which, as it has overtaken aH former systems of human polity, may yet 
overwhelm our American union. Never, probably, in the history of the world, 
did a measure of legislation so accurately fulfill, and yet so mightily exceed 
the anticipations of the legislators. The ordinance has been well described, as 
having been a pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night, in the settlement and 
government of the Northwestern States. When the settlers went into the 
wilderness, they found the law already there. It was impressed upon the soil 
itself, while it yet bore up nothing but the forest. The purchaser of land 
became, by that act, a party to the compact, and bound by its perpetual cove- 
nants, so far as its conditions did not conflict with the terms of the cessions of 

the States. ' 


This remarkable instrument was the last gift of the Congress of the old 
confederation to the country, and it was a fit consummation of their glorious 


labors. At the time of its promulgation, the Federal Constitution was under 
discussion in the convention ; and in a few months, upon the organization of 
the new national government, that Congress was dissolved, never again to re-as- 
semble. Some, and indeed most of the principles established by the articles of 
compact are to be found in the plan of 1784, and in the various English and 
American bills of rights. Others, however, ahd these not the least important, 
are original. Of this number are the clauses in relation to contracts, to slavery 
and to Indians. On the whole, these articles contain what they profess to con- 
tain, the true theory of American liberty. The great principles promulgated 
by it are wholly and purely American. They are indeed the genuine princi- 
ples of freedom, unadulterated by that compromise with circumstances, the 
effects of which are visible in the constitution and history of the Union. 

The first form of civil government, provided by the ordinance, was now 
formally established within the Territory. Under this form, the people had no 
concern in the business of government. The Governor and Judges derived 
their appointments at first from Congress, and after the adoption of the Fed- 
eral Constitution, from the President. The commission of the former officer 
was for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked ; those of the latter 
were during good behavior. It was required that the Governor should reside 
within the Territory, and possess a freehold estate there, in one thousand acres 
of land. He had authority to appoint all officers of militia, below the rank of 
Generals, and all magistrates and civil officers, except the Judges and the Sec- 
retary of the Territory ; to establish convenient divisions of the whole district 
for the execution of progress, to lay out those parts to which the Indian 
titles might be extinguished into counties and townships. The Judges, or any 
two of them, constituted a court with common law jurisdiction. It was neces- 
sary that each Judge should possess a freehold estate in the territory of five 
hundred acres. The whole legislative power which, however, extended only to 
the adoption of such laws of the original States as might be suited to the cir- 
cumstances of the country, was vested in the Governor and Judges. The laws 
adopted were to continue in force, unless disapproved by Congress, until re- 
pealed by the Legislature, which was afterward to be organized. It was the 
duty of the Secretary to preserve all acts and laws, public records and executive 
proceedings, and to transmit authentic copies to the Secretary of Congress 
every six months. 

Such was the first government devised for the Northwestern Territory. It 
is obvious that its character, as beneficent or oppressive, depended entirely upon 
the temper and disposition of those who administrated it. All power, legisla- 
tive, judicial and executive, was concentrated in the Governor and Judges, and 
in its exercise they were responsible only to the distant Federal head. The 
expenses of the Government were defrayed in part by the United States, but 
were principally drawn from the pockets of the people in the shape of fees. 


This temporary system, however unfriendly as it seems to liberty, was, 
perhaps, so established upon sufficient reasons. The Federal Constitution had 
not then been adopted, and there were strong apprehensions that the people of 
the Territory might not be disposed to organize States and apply for admission 
into the Union. It was, therefore, a matter of policy so to frame the Territorial 
system as to create some strong motives to draw them into the Union, as States, 
in due time. 

The first acts of Territorial legislation were passed at Marietta, then the 
only American settlement northwest of the Ohio. The Governor and Judges 
did not strictly confine themselves within the limits of their legislative author 
ity, as prescribed by the ordinance. When they could not find laws of the 
original States suited to the condition of the country, they supplied the want 
by enactments of their own. The earliest laws, from 1788 to 1795, were all 
thus enacted. The laws of 1788 provided for the organization of the militia; 
for the establishment of inferior courts ; for the punishment of crimes, and for 
the limitations of actions; prescribed the duties of ministerial oflBcers ; regu- 
lated marriages, and appointed oaths of office. That the Governor and Judges 
in the enactment of these laws, exceeded their authority, without the slightest 
disposition to abuse it, may be inferred from the fact that except two, which 
had been previously repealed, they were all confirmed by the first Territorial 

* ** * :fc * * * * 

At this period there was no seat of government, properly called. The 
Governor resided at Cincinnati, .but laws were passed whenever they seemed to 
be needed, and promulgated at any place where the Territorial legislators hap- 
pened to be assembled. Before the year of 1795, no laws were, strictly speak- 
ing, adopted. Most of them were framed by the Governor and Judges to 
answer particular public ends ; while in the enactment of others, including all 
the laws of 1792, the Secretary of the Territory discharged, under the author- 
ity of an act of Congress, the functions of the Governor. The earliest laws, 
as has been already stated, were published at Marietta. Of the remainder, a 
few were published at Vincennes, and the rest at Cincinnati. 

In the year 1789, the first Congress passed an act recognizing the binding 
force of the ordinance of 1787, and adapting its provisions to the Federal Con- 
stitution. This act provided that the communications directed in the ordinance 
to be made to Congress or its officers, by the Governor, should thenceforth be 
made to the President, and that the authority to appoint with the consent of 
the Senate, and commission officers, before that time appointed and commis- 
sioned by Congress, should likewise be vested in that officer. It also gave the 
Territorial Secretary the power already mentioned, of acting in certain cases, 
in the place of the Governor. In 1792, Congress passed another act giving to 
the Governor and Judges authority to repeal, at their discretion, the laws by 


them made ; and enabling a single Judge of the general court, in the absence 
of his brethren, to hold the terms. 

At this time the Judges appointed by the National Executive constituted the 
Supreme Court of the Territory. They were commissioned during good 
behavior; and their judicial jurisdiction extended over the whole region north- 
west of the Ohio. The court, thus constituted, was fixed at no certain place, 
and its process, civil and criminal, was returnable wheresoever it might be in 
the Territory. Inferior to this court were the County Courts of Common Pleas, 
and the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace. The former consisted of any 
number of Judges, not less than three nor more than seven, and had a general 
common-law jurisdiction, concurrent, in the respective counties, with that of 
the Supreme Court ; the latter consisted of a number of Justices for each 
county, to be determined by the Governor, Avho were required to hold three 
terms in every year, and had a limited criminal jurisdiction. Single Judges of 
the Common Pleas, and single Justices of the Quarter Sessions were also 
clothed with certain civil and criminal powers to be exercised out of court. 
Besides these courts, each county had a Judge of Probate, clothed with the 
ordinary jurisdiction of a Probate Court. 

Such was the original constitution of courts and distribution of judicial 
power in the Northwestern Territory. The expenses of the system were 
defrayed in part by the National Government, and in part by assessments upon 
the counties, but principally by fees, which were payable to every officer con- 
cerned in the administration of justice, from the Judges of the General Court 

In 1795 the Governor and Judges undertook to revise the Territorial laws, 
and to establish a complete system of statutory jurisprudence, by adoptions 
from the laws of the original States, in strict conformity to the provisions of 
the ordinance. For this purpose they assembled at Cincinnati in June, and 
continued in session until the latter part of August. The judiciary system 
underwent some changes. The General Court was fixed at Cincinnati and Mari- 
etta, and a Circuit Court was established with power to try in the several coun- 
ties, issues in fact depending before the superior tribunal, where alone causes 
could be finally decided. Orphans' Courts, too, were established, with jurisdic- 
tion analogous to but more extensive than that of a Judge of Probate. Laws were 
also adopted to regulate judgments and executions, for limitation of actions, 
for the distribution of intestate estates, and for many other general purposes. 
Finally, as if with a view to create some great reservoir, from whic^i, whatever 
principles and powers had been omitted in the particular acts, might be drawn 
according to the exigency of circumstances, the Governor and Judges adopted 
a law, providing that the common law of England and all general statutes in 
aid of the common law, prior to the fourth year of James I, should be in full 
force within the Territory. The law thus adopted was an act of the Virginia 
Legislature, passed before the Declaration of Independence, when Virginia was 


yet a British colony, and at the time of its adoption had been repealed so far as 
it related to the English statutes. 

The other laws of 1795 were principally derived from the statute book of 
Pennsylvania. The system thus adopted was not without many imperfections 
and blemishes, but it may be doubted whether any colony, at so early a period 
after its first establishment, ever had one so good. 


And how gratifying is the retrospect, how cheering the prospect which even 
this sketch, brief and partial as it is, presents ! On a sur-face covered less 
than half a century ago by the trees of the primeval forest, a State has grown 
up from Colonial infancy to freedom, independence and strength. But thirty 
years have elapsed since that State, with hardly sixty thousand inhabitants, was 
admitted into the American Union. Of the twenty-four States which form 
that Union, she is now the fourth in respect to population. In other respects 
her rank is even higher. Already her resources have been adequate, not on-ly 
to the expense of government and instruction, but to the construction of long 
lines of canals. Her enterprise has realized the startling prediction of the 
poet, who, in 1787, when Ohio was yet a wilderness, foretold the future connec- 
tion of the Hudson with the Ohio. 

And these results are attributable mainly to her institutions. The spirit of 
the ordinance of 1787 pervades them all. Who can estimate the benefits 
which have flowed from the interdiction by that instrument of slavery and of 
legislative interference with private contracts? One consequence is, that the 
soil of Ohio bears up none but freemen ; another, that a stern and honorable 
regard to private rights and public morals characterizes her legislation. There 
is hardly a page in the statute book of which her sons need be ashamed. The 
great doctrine of equal rights is 'everywhere recognized in her constitution and 
her laws. Almost every father of a family in this State has a freehold interest 
in the soil, but this interest is not necessary to entitle him to a voice in the 
concerns of government. Every man'may vote ; every man is eligible to any 
office. And this unlimited extension of the elective franchise, so far from pro- 
ducing any evil, has ever constituted a safe and sufficient check upon injurious 
legislation. Other causes of her prosperity may be found in her fertile soil, in 
her felicitous position, and especially in her connection with the union of the 
States. All these springs of growth and advancement are permanent, and 
upon a most gratifying prospect of the future. They promise an advance in 
population, wealth, intelligence and moral worth as permanent as the existence 
of the State itself They promise to the future citizens of Ohio the blessings 
of good government, wise legislation and universal instruction. More than all, 
they are pledges that in all future, as in all past circumstances, Ohio will cleave 
fast to the national constitution and the .national Union, and that her growing 
energies will on no occasion, be more willingly or powerfully put forth, than in 
the support and maintenance of both in unimpaired vigor and strength." 



The passage of this ordinance, since known as the '' Ordinance of 1787/' 
was immediately followed by an application to the Government, by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, in behalf of the country, between the Miamis, and a 
contract was concluded the following year. The Ohio Company were exceed- 
ingly energetic in inaugurating settlements. Gen. Putman, with a party of 
forty-seven men, set out on an exploring expedition, accompanied by six boat 
builders. On the 1st of January, 1788, twenty-six surveyors followed, from 
Hartford, Conn. They arrived in Ohio on the 7th of April, 1788, and their 
active energy founded the permanent beginning of this great Western State- 
When we review the dangerous experiments that have been made, in this land 
west of the Alleghanies, the horrors which had overwhelmed every attempt, we 
can faintly realize the stalwart courage that sent these men on their way, and 
sustained them in their pioneer hardships. With characteristic vigor, they 
began their little town. Enthusiastic and happy, they did not rest from their 
toilsome march over the old Indian roads, but kept busily at work to estab- 
lish an oasis in this wide expanse of wilderness, before they should take nec- 
essary ease to recuperate their strength. 

The wise men met on the 2d of May, and the little town was named 
Marietta. Situated as it was, in the midst of danger, they had used precaution 
to build and equip a fortified square, which was designated Campus Martius ; 
Square No. 19 was Capitolium, and Square No. 61 was Cecelia, and the main 
street was Sacra Via. 

Marietta was especially fortunate in her actual "first families." Ten of the 
forty-eight men had received a thorough college education ; the remaining were 
individuals of sterling merit, honorable, and several had already attained reputations 
for superior excellence of abilities. Patriotic and brave, the settlement certainly 
possessed a foundation that promised well for the future. The following 4th of 
July was an auspicious event, and the Hon. James M. Varnum was the eloquent 
orator of the occason. 

The opening of the court, on the 2d of September, was a solemn ceremonial, 
the High Sheriff leading with drawn sword, followed by citizens, with an escort 
of officers from Fort Harmar, the members of the bar, the Governor and Clergy- 
men, the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas — Gen. Rufus Putman and 
Benjamin Tupper — all these constituted an imposing spectacle, as they pro- 
gressed over a path which had been cut through the forest to Campus Martius 
Hall, the edifice of law and order. 

The Judges took their seats, a prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. Cutler, 
and immediately the Sheriff, Col. Ebenezer Sprout, proclaimed the response, 
and the court of impartial justice was convened. 


This ceremonial was, perhaps, made all the more impressive by the presence 
of several powerful Indian chiefs, who had journeyed to Marietta for the pur- 
pose of making a treaty. 

The settlement now increased rapidly, new cabins were erected constantly. 
On the 17th of December, a society event occurred, in the form of a grand ball, 
fifteen ladies being present. 

John Cleves Symmes had contracted for 2,000,000 acres of land, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining his grant, but circumstances prevented him from meeting 
his part of the obligations, and the specification was reduced to 1,000,000. 
After vain attempt to make his payments, a settlement was finally effected for 
248,540 acres, and Symmes was prepared to dispose of clear titles to new-com- 
ers. In 1788, a town Avas established within the boundaries of his grant, at the 
mouth of the little Miami, known as Columbia, and in the early part of 1787 
another was formed opposite the mouth of the Licking River, by name Losanti- 
ville, analyzed by a frontier scholar — ville, the town ; anti, opposite to ; os, the 
mouth of; i, Licking. 

Judge Symmes had projected building his main town at North Bend. This 
plan was frustrated by reason of Ensign Luce — who had been commissioned by 
Gen. Harmar to erect a fort — deciding that North Bend was not suitable for the 
purpose. He selected Losantiville for the purpose, and Fort Washington was 
the result. In 1790, Gov. St. Clair was called to inspect the settlement, and 
proceeded to organize Hamilton County, at the same time calling the town 

It will be remembered that Connecticut ceded most of her western lands to 
General Government, retaining, however, a minor portion. As the settlements 
began to increase on the "Virginia Reserve" and between the Scioto and Miami 
Rivers, all those holding claims were not disposed to part with them, while 
others were anxious to secure grants for the purpose of speculation, rather than 
the advancement of civilization. The Scioto Company was a questionable ad- 
herent of the Ohio Company, and began operations, which resulted well, what- 
ever their purpose may have been. 

Gen. Putnam cleared the land and directed the building of 100 dwellings and 
six block-houses. During 1791, the colony arrived, consisting of 500 persons. 
Only ten of these were tillers of the soil. Viscount Malartie ventured into the 
wilderness, but instead of settling, joined Gen. St. Clair's army, and was ulti- 
mately his aid-de-camp. Indian conquests were not to his taste, and he soon 
returned to France. This new colony was essentially French, and its location 
was Gallia County. The name " Gallipolis " was selected. 

These settlers, being unaccustomed to severe toil, and disinclined to learn 
its hard lesson, soon became demoralized, through deprivation and absolute 
want. Congress came to their aid with a land grant of 24,000 acres, but few 
of them cared to enter claims, and soon all traces of the old town were lost, and 
its inhabitants scattered. 


Gen. St. Clair having become unpopular, through repeated failures in Indian 
campaigns, and Gen. Anthony Wayne having wintered at Fort Washington, 
the spring of 1793 was opened by a march of the army, well disciplined and 
led by " Mad Anthony," on a campaign that must crush the rapidly increasing 
depredations of the Indians, notwithstanding which these new settlements had 
been made. All winter, Gen. Wayne had dispatched scouts, spies and hardy 
frontiersmen on errands of discovery^ and his plans were, therefore, practically 
matured. His army cut its way through the forests, gathering horses, provis- 
ions, etc., as they marched, and finally came nearly up to the enemy before dis- 
covery. They again returned to Fort Washington, as the Commander-in-Chief, 
under the order of the Executive, had proclaimed inaction until the Northern 
or British Commissioners and Indians should convene and discuss the situation 
and prospects. Gen. Wayne, meantime, drilled his men at " Hobson's Choice," 
a place near Fort Washington. 

The Commissioners came from Detroit, and assembled at Capt. Matthew 
Elliot's house, at the mouth of the Detroit River. 

A meeting was called at Sandusky, and twenty Indian representatives were 
present, to argue the grounds of a treaty. Simon Girty acted as interpreter, 
and has been vehemently accused of unfaithfulness in this trust, since he did 
not advocate the adjustment of matters on any grounds. The Indians reiterated 
their rights and wrongs, and offered to receive the half of the purchase money, 
provided the actual settlers would accept it as the price of the land, move away, 
and leave the original owners the proud possessors of their lands. The Govern- 
ment would then expend less money than they would have done in a full Indian 
purchase, or a long and cruel war. This being out of the question and rejected, 
a decided specification was made that the Ohio boundary was to be obliterated, 
and a new one adopted, that encompassed a mere fraction of territory. This 
was also rejected. The Indians indignantly bade the Americans to go back to 
their father, and they would return to their tribes. 

The council was terminated in confusion. It is highly probable that some 
settlement might have been made, had it not been for English influence which 
instigated the savages, in the hope of ultimately making conquests for them- 
selves. The commander at Detroit evinced great uneasiness whenever there 
was a shadow of an opportunity for a peaceful understanding. 

On Christmas Day, 1793, a detachment of the army encamped on the 
identical ground made memorable by St. Clair's horrible defeat. A reward was 
offered for every human skull that was found, and 600 were gathered. The 
bones of the victims were removed from the spot where they built Fort Recovery. 
This, point was left in charge of Alexander Gibson. 

Early in the year 1794, Lord Dorchester addressed the Commissioners in 
behalf of the English. Even at this time, Gen. ^ Wayne, to avoid the terrors of 
a great war, again made overtures of peace, dispatching Freeman, Trueman and 
Hardin, all initiated in savage tactics, on errands of mercy — and the three men 


were inhumanly murdered. The English went so far as to order Gov. Simcoe 
to erect a fort, in April, 1794, on the Rapids of the Maumee, thus rousing the 
Indians by a bold proof that they had espoused their cause. In May, the 
Spanish, who were ever jealous of colonial encroachments, were willing to aid 
in a general raid against the Americans. 

In June, a scouting party from Fort Recovery, fell into an Indian ambush 
and suffered severely, their foes following them to the very entrance. The siege 
continued for two days. It was plainly evident that white men augmented the 
Indian force ; ounce balls and buck-shot surely came from their rifles. Again, 
the Indians immediately began a search beneath the logs where pieces of artillery 
were hidden during the great battle of St. Clair, but fortunately. Fort Recovery 
had the use of them and they accomplished much. 

On July 26, Scott joined Wayne at Greenville, with 1,600 mounted 
Kentuckians, and on the 28th, the legion took up its line of deadly march. 
Halting at Girty's Town, they built Fort Mary's, later on Fort Adams. Throw- 
ing the enemy off their guard by feints and counter-marching, the troops surprised 
the Indians, and without the slightest resistance took possession of their villages 
at the confluence of the Auglaize and Maumee. They found provision in 
abundance, and tarried a week building Fort Defiance. 

Again Gen. Wayne would have made terms of peace, on the principle of the 
Government to arrest bloodshed, but the Indians were rendered cruelly intent 
on war by an addition of a body of British militia from Detroit, and by regulars 
stationed at a fort they had built on the left bank of the river, below the rapids, 
called Fort Miami. The "Fallen Timber" ground was selected as the field 
for a battle by the savages, in the expectation that the trees cast down by a 
tornado and there remaining, would seriously impede American progress. 

August 15th, Wayne marched down the river, and at Roche de Boeuf, erected 
a fortification for their stores and luggage, naming it " Fort Deposit." On the 
20th, the American army began the attack. Maj. Price and Maj. Gen. Scott 
were heroic in their assistance, and after a sharp, deadly conflict, the enemy 
was routed, fleeing in confusion, and leaving their dead and wounded strewn 
thickly over the field. The savages were pressed to the front always, and when 
the carnage was painful, the British troops not engaged looked on coolly from the 
fort and ofiered no assistance, aiding their own, however, when possible. Gen. 
Wayne being an ardent soldier, was apt tc forget his position, and impetuously 
place himself constantly in danger. Lieut. Harrison is reported to have 
requested the General not to forget to give him field orders, in his own partici- 
pation in the battle, and to have received the reply that the standing order ivas 
ahvays to charge hayonets. 

Notwithstanding the treaty of 1783, and the fact that the British were tres- 
passing, they encroached upon the Ohio soil, and essayed to vindicate their 
action by discarding American claims and recognizing the Indian rights, whereby 
thev might seek their own colonization and make treaties. 


Maj. Campbell was in command at Fort Miami, and when he saw the sava- 
ges being cut down almost mercilessly, he not only refrained from offering aid, 
but when, in their desperate retreat, they attempted to enter the fort for pro- 
tection, he ordered the doors closed in their faces. 

On the following day, Campbell sent a message to Wayne, demanding a 
reason for hostile action, adding that Great Britain was not now at war with the 
United States. He received a characteristic reply. 

During the Revolution, Detroit w^as an important British point, and the 
Maumee was its outlet. Therefore, the English clung tenaciously to this pos- 
session, giving, as it did, the advantage of the great fur trade. The English 
Government evidently regretted ceding so much of her territory in the AVest, 
and were searching for an excuse to quarrel and attempt to regain at least a part 
of what they had lost. Their policy was to sustain the bitter hatred between 
the Indians and the Americans. 

The settlement of the Maumee Valley had been rapid, but the very name 
was an agony of remembrance of frightful massacres and atrocities. Col, 
McKee, the British Indian agent, and his assistant, Capt. Elliott, were from 
Pennsylvania, but being Tories, they had assimilated with the Indians. They 
joined the Shawnee tribe and married Indian wives, and made their, fortunes 
thereby, through British appointments to secure the savage interests. The 
Indians were directly served by McKee and Elliott, with ammunition and sup- 
plies, during the Wayne conflict. 

Several skirmishes ensued, but severe weather approaching, the troops 
moved for quarters, and on the 14th day of September, they attacked the Miami 
villages, captured them with provisions and stores, and erected a fort, leaving 
it in charge of Lieut. Col. Hamtramck. With cheers and rifle-shooting, this post 
was named Fort Wayne. The main army marched into Greenville and went into 
winter quarters. 

Wayne had achieved a brilliant victory, but his success did not overcome his 
practical reasoning, and he was unwilling to subject his men to a severe winter's 
campaign unless necessity was peremptory. 

Gov. Simcoe, Col. McKee and a few of the most savage Indian chiefs 
attempted to rally the Indians for a new attack. Gov. Simcoe, of Detroit, was 
aware that the mounted volunteers under Wayne had been allowed to return 
home, and that the term of service of a portion of the " Legion " was about to 

The British and Indians held a conference, but the latter were weary with 
fighting for the glory of the Great Father at Detroit, and did not enter into the 
plan. The winter proved most poverty stricken to them, the English failing to 
supply them, and their crops and sustenance having been destroyed by Wayne. 
They were then fully prepared to listen to the faintest signal from Wayne to 
conciliate affairs, and the Wyandots and Delawares were the first to confer with 
him on the subject. Their position was exposed and they had suffered severely. 


They soon influenced other tribes to consider the question. As a mass, they 
were convinced of their inability to overcome the Americans, and had become 
impatient and disgusted with the duplicity of their British friends, who had not 
hesitated to sacrifice them in every instance, and who deserted them in their 
hour of distress. United, they sued for peace. Terms were made, and about 
the 1st of August, the famous Greenville treaty was ratified and established, 
and the old Indian war in Ohio terminated. 

The Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, 
Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias were thus 
conciliated. The old Indian boundary line, settled upon at the Fort Mcintosh 
treaty, was retained, and the southwestern line was prolonged from old Fort 
Recovery, southwest of the Ohio River. 

" The general boundary lines between the lands of the United States and 
the lands of the said Indian tribes shall begin at the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River, and thence run up the same to the portage between that and the Tus- 
carawas Branch of the Muskingum ; thence down that branch to the crossing- 
place above Fort Laurens ; thence westerly to a fork of that branch of the 
Great Miami River (running into the Ohio), at or near which fork stood Lar- 
amie's store — Mary's River, which is a branch of the Miami that runs into Lake 
Erie ; thence a westerly course to Fort Recovery, which stands on a branch of 
the Wabash ; thence southwesterly on a direct line to the Ohio, so as to inter- 
sect that river opposite the mouth of the Kentucky or Cuttawa River." 

This boundary line has, ever since this memorable treaty, been a prominent 
landmark, and may now be traced as the southern boundary line of Stark, Ash- 
land, Richland and Marion Counties, and the northern. line, in part, of Tuscar- 
awas and Knox. Old Fort Recovery was located in Mercer, near the Indiana 
line. Laramie's store was in Shelby. 

Within the Indian Reservation, the United States held sixteen distinct sec- 
tions of land, for the purpose of military posts, so arranged that the Govern- 
ment had full right of way north and west. 

The "Joy treaty " between England and the United States was ratified early 
in 1796, and the British were obliged to vacate Detroit and Fort Miami, and recall 
the fact that they had no claim or right to either points. Gen. Wayne received 
them, and accompanied by Gov. St. Clair, "proceeded to Detroit. Here the lat- 
ter laid out a county, calling it Wayne, and designated Detroit as it's seat of 
justice. This was the fifth county in the Northwest Territory, north of the 
Ohio River. Washington County, with Marietta as a seat of justice, was first 
established ; next Hamilton, with Cincinnati as a county seat. Wayne County 
was organized in 1796, and included about twenty-six of the present counties, 
in the northwest part of the State, covering about a quarter of its area, besides 
parts of Indiana and Michigan. 

In other parts of the State, the population was rapidly increasing. In May, 
1795, the Legislature authorized a committee to institute measures for the 


disposal of their "Western lands. The Virginia and Connecticut Reservations 
required some action on the part of Government, inasmuch as ceding a portion 
and re-selling had in a measure disturbed free titles. Fifty-six persons negoti- 
ated and purchased lands, receiving (;[uit-claim titles and entire rights. Thej 
re-sold to John Morgan and John Caldwell and Jonathan Bruce, in trust. Thus 
3,000,000 acres were prepared for settlement. Upon the quit-claim deeds of 
these representatives, the full title of lands included within the old Western 
Reserve rests. 

Judge Symmes began his active operations in 1796, and by the close of 
1797 all lands east of the Cuyahoga were laid out in townships, five miles square. 
The agent of the Connecticut Land Company was Gen. Moses Cleveland, and in 
his honor the leading city in the Reserve was named. Some townships were 
retained for private sale, and others were disposed of by lottery, in 1798. 

Wayne's treaty led to the formation of Dayton, and the peopling of that 
section, A difficulty arose regarding the original Symmes grant and its modifi- 
cation. Symmes had sold land titles, in good faith, beyond his vested power, 
and Congress was now called upon to adjust these claims and titles. Seventeen 
days after the Wayne or Greenville treaty, St. Clair, Wilkinson, Dayton and 
Ludlow contracted with Symmes for seven and eight ranges, between the Mad 
and Little Miami Rivers. November 4, 1795, Mr. Ludlow laid out Dayton. 

During the years 1790 and 1795, the Governor and Supreme Judges of the 
Northwest Territory had published sixty-four statutes. Thirty-four of these 
were ratified at Cincinnati, for the purpose of forming a complete statutory. It 
was termed the " Maxwell Code." 

Mr. Nathaniel Massie founded a town on the Scioto, which was called 
Chillicothe. The Iroquois treaty had previously invited settlement, and embryo 
towns had begun as early as 1769, under the protection of the Connecticut 
Company. A land company was organized in Hartford, Conn., in 1795, sending 
out forty-three surveyors to divide the townships of that part of the Western 
Reserve, east of the Cuyahoga, five miles square. The first resident of the town 
of Cleveland was Mr. Job Stiles and family, and Mrs. Stiles was the mother of 
the first white child born on the Reserve. Some other parts of the territory 
progressed more rapidly in population. 

Along the Muskingum, Scioto and Miami, towns began to spring up, which 
might perhaps better be termed farming settlements. 

Cincinnati was increasing, and in 1796, had reached 100 cabins, 15 frame 
houses and 600 persons, with prospects for a firm future. 

The Virginia Military Land District was between the Little Miami and 
Scioto, and was rapidly increasing in population. 

Mr. Massie was unceasing in his eiforts to advance the West, and laid out 
Manchester, offering inducements that could not fail to attract settlers. 

Ebenezer Zane procured a grant in consideration of opening a bridle path 
from the Ohio River at Wheeling, over the country via Chillicothe, to Limestone, 


in Kentucky. The year following, the United States mail was taken over 
this route. 

The comparatively tranquil condition of the country and the inducements it 
had to offer encouraged a rapid settlement of the Territory. A prominent 
feature of the early growth of Ohio was the general prevalence of reliable, 
stanch principle. The people were of the good colonial stock. 

In 1800, Chillicothe was denominated the seat of the Territorial govern- 
ment, and the first stone edifice in the State was begun in this town, soon after 
this appointment. About this time, a serious diflBculty suddenly occurred to 
those individuals who had taken lands on the Western Reserve of Connecticut. 
That Eastern power had, it is true, ceded a part of her claim to the General 
Government, and had stipulated for the sale of certain other tracts. At the 
same time, the State had not signed away her jurisdiction over some sections of 
her claim, and those unfortunate people in and about Dayton found themselves 
without any government upon Avhich they might depend in a case of emergency. 
The matter Avas, accordingly, presented to the Territorial government, which 
interceded with the Eastern State, and, sanctioned by the Assembly at Congress, 
Connecticut relinquished her jurisdiction in 1800. 

Cleveland was an important point, and was growing in the mean time. How- 
ever, it had suffered exceedingly from the ravages of fever and ague. For a 
period of two months, there was not an individual, but a boy thirteen years 
of age, able to procure food for the others. Flour was out of all rational con- 
sideration, and the meal upon which they lived was pounded by hand. In 
1799, Williams and Myatt erected a grist-mill at the falls, near Newbury. 

A startling agitation occurred in 1801, which in these days would cause but a 
ripple in the political sea, but happening during a time when legislative dignity 
and state authority were regarded with reverential awe, it created the most 
intense feeling. Great indignation was openly expressed. 

The Governor and several legislators felt that they had been insulted in 
the performance of their respective duties, at Chillicothe, while the Assembly 
was in session in 1801. No measures being taken by the authorities at the 
capital to protect the Executive, a law was passed removing the seat of govern- 
ment to Cincinnati. 

This circumstance led to a general consideration of the advantages of a 
State government, and a popular desire Avas expressed for a change in this 
respect. Gov. St. Clair had fallen into disfavor through his failure as a military 
leader and his failures in the Indian campaigns, and from his assuming powers 
which were not vested in him, especially the subdivision of counties. He was 
also identified with the Federal party, which was not popular in Ohio. The 
opposition was strong in the Assembly, but was in the minority in the House of 
Representatives. The boundary question was agitated at the same time. The 
intention was to thus effect the limits of Ohio that a State government would 
necessarily have to be postponed. Against this measure. Tiffin, Worthington, 


Langham, Darlington, Massie, Dunlavy and Morrow strenuously objected. After 
considerable discussion, Thomas Worthington obtained leave of absence from 
the session, and journeyed to Washington in behalf of a State government. It 
was obvious that the Territory, under the ordinance, was not entitled to a 
change. Massie suggested the feasibility of appointing a committee to address 
Congress on the subject. This the House refused to pass. 

An effort was then made to take a census, but any action on this subject 
was postponed until the next session. 

During all this ineffectual struggle, Worthington was doing his best in Wash- 
ington, and succeeded so well that on March 4, a report was made to the House 
in favor of the State government. This report was made on a basis that the 
census, in 1800, summed up over 45,000 for Ohio. 

April 30, Congress passed a law carrying into effect the views expressed on 
this subject. A convention met on November 1. Its members were generally 
Jeffersonian in their views. Gov. St. Clair proposed to address them as their 
chief executive magistrate. Several members resolutely opposed this action, 
insisting upon a vote, which, through courtesy and not a sense of right, resulted 
in permitting him to address them. He advised the postponement of the State 
government until the original eastern portion of the State was sufficiently pop- 
ulated to demand this right. Only one, out of thirty-three, voted to sustain 
the Governor in these views. 

The convention agreed to the views of Congress. November 29, the agree- 
ment was ratified and signed, as was the constitution of the State of Ohio. 
The General Assembly was ordered to convene the first Tuesday of March, 1803. 

This was carried into effect. A constitution was framed for the new State, 
adhering to the Ordinance of 1787. The rights and duties of citizens were 
plainly set forth, and general business was transacted. The new State consti- 
tution was signed by : 

Edward Tiffin, President and Representative from Ross County. 

Adams County — Joseph Darlington, Israel Donalson, Thomas Vinker. 

Belmont County — James Caldwell and Elijah Woods. 

Clermont County — Philip Gatch and James Sargent. 

Fairfield County — Henry Abrams and Emanuel Carpenter. 

Hamilton County — John W. Brown, Charles Willing Byrd, Francis Dun- 
lavy, William Goforth, John Gitchel, Jeremiah Morrow, John Paul, John Riley, 
John Smith and John Wilson. 

Jefferson County — Rudolph Blair, George Humphry, John Milligan, Nathan 
Updegraff and Bezaleel Wells. 

Ross County — Michael Baldwin, James Grubb, Nathaniel Massie and F. 

Washington County — Ephraim Cutler, Benjamin Ives Gilman, John Mc- 
Intyre and Rufus Putnam. 

Thomas Scott, Secretary. 


The first Legislature of the State, under the new constitution, created eight 
new counties, viz., Gallia, Scioto, Franklin, Columbiana, Butler, Warren, 
Greene and Montgomery. 

The first State officers were : Michael Baldwin, Speaker of the House ; Na- 
thaniel Massie, President of the Senate ; William Creighton, Secretary of 
State ; Col. Thomas Gibson, Auditor ; William McFarland, Treasurer ; Return 
J. Meigs, Jr., Samuel Huntington and William Sprigg, Judges of the Supreme 
Court ; Francis Dunlavy, Willis Silliman and Calvin Pease, Judges of the Dist- 
rict Court. 

The General Assembly held a second session in December, at which time 
the militia law was revised, also giving aliens equal proprietary rights with native 
citizens. The revenue system was modified and improved. Acts authorizing 
the incorporation of townships were passed, and for the establishment of coun- 
ties. Furthermore, Jacob White, Jeremiah Morrow and William Ludlow were 
authorized to locate a township for collegiate purposes, according to previous 
specified terms of Congress. The Symmes grant and the college specification 
collided materially, but the irregularity of the former was not to create any 
inconvenience for the latter. Mr. Symmes had in good faith marked oiF this 
township, but circumstances preventing the perfection of his plans, that lapsed 
with the others, and the original township was now entered by settlers. 

Accordingly, thirty-six sections, west of the Great Miami, were selected, 
and are now held by the Miami University. 

Gov. St. Clair, notwithstanding his unpopularity, was re-appointed. 

Ohio was under a system of government which guaranteed the best improve- 
ments ; her Legislature being composed of her best statesmen, and the laws 
passed having the general interest of the people embodied in them. 

A bill was passed, appropriating the net proceeds of the land lying within 
said State, sold by Congress after the 20th day of June, 1802, after deducting 
all expenses incident to the same, to be applied to the laying-out of roads, 
leading from the navigable waters emptying into the Atlantic to the Ohio,- to 
the said State, and through the same ; such roads to be laid out under the 
authority of Congress, with the consent of the several States through which the 
road shall pass. In conformity with these provisions, steps were taken, in 1805, 
which resulted in the making of the Cumberland or National road. 

Burr, at this time, began an organization for the ostensible purpose of 
making a settlement on the Wachita, but his party being armed and his plans 
not being frankly disclosed, an investigation proved that his real design was a 
mutinous revolt against Governmental powers, and to gratify his ambition by 
founding his own kingdom in Mexico, and defeating the Spanish. If success 
crowned his efibrts, his ultimate victory was to rupture the Union by forcing the 
Western States to withdraw from their allegiance. By gaining an influence 
over the noble but misguided Blennerhasset, he established his headquarters on 
his island in the Ohio. The history of Burr's expedition is already well known. 


The final capture by Gov. Tiffin, of ten boats loaded with stores, on the Mus- 
kingum, and four near Marietta, decided the fate of this scheme, and Burr was 
finally arrested and put on trial May 22, 1807. 

The advancement of the settlement of the State was in no manner impeded, 
and towns sprang up, farms were laid out, and all other improvements inaugu- 
rated which tended to a permanent prosperity. 

In 1808, Tecumseh left Greenville to join the Prophet on the banks of the 
Tippecanoe, a tributary of the Upper Wabash, on a tract of land granted herein 
by the Pottawatomies. 

The Indians were virtually by treaty allowed but a small proportion of land 
within the boundaries of the State, and were maintaining peaceful attitudes 
toward the whites, with exceptional border depredations, which were settled by 
mutual understanding. 

Although the United States had gained independence, and was treating with 
England as with other foreign powers, the British persisted in violating the 
national rights of the United States, impressing American seamen into the 
British service, seizing American vessels engaged with France in trade, and 
otherwise violating the rights of an independent nation, at peace with the Brit- 
ish power. 

The mission upon which Henry was sent by the British, to create disturb- 
ance between the States, and thus broken, to weaken the strength of the Gen- 
eral Government, added fuel to the fire, and united indignation cried for war. 

British agents again bargained with the Indians of the Wabash and Maumee 
Valleys, desiring them to inaugurate another war upon the western sections and 
to make a desperate attack upon the settlements south of the lakes. The Brit- 
ish agent at Maiden negotiated in rifles, powder, ball, merchandise, lead, blank- 
ets and shirts. The Indians were inspired again with the hope that the whites 
would be driven back, and that all the country north of the Ohio w^ould again 
revert to them. 

The Canadians in league with the English, gave the savages unlimited 
quantities of whisky, -which naturally aroused their fierce natures to acts of 
violence and blood. It is highly probable that the use of liquor was the main 
cause of the deterioration of the best traits of the Indian character, after the 
Revolution. Again, many unscrupulous men upon the frontier did not hesi- 
tate to commit the most merciless crimes against the Indians, such was the 
prejudice against them, and the courts invariably failed to indict them for these 
atrocities. This error on the part of the Americans served to influence the 
savages against them. 

At this time, the seats of justice were distant over a hundred miles each 
from the other, uninhabited tracts frequently extending between them which were 
absolute wildernesses. The routes were in many cases difficult and circuitous. 

As early as 1808, there was a mail communication for the people on the 
Lower Maumee, many days elapsing between the arrivals and departures of 


the same, however. Horace Gunn was the carrier. Benoni Adams brought 
the news from Cleveland to the same point, his trip requiring a fortnight. It 
must be remembered that this journey was mostly made on foot. The Black 
Swamp could not be traversed in any other manner. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 

The war of 1812 can be called a continuation of the Revolution, with all 
justice. Although rumors had reached Ohio, that active preparations were 
being made for general action, no official tidings had been sent to Hull, com- 
mand^-in-chief of the Western forces. 

The Secretary of War, instead of sending a special messenger directly to 
Hull, communicated with the' post adjacent, depending upon a continuation of 
the news from that point. At the same time, advices were sent the British 
post at Maiden and Detroit. Hull sent out a packet with official papers, stores, 
etc., the day previous to that on which the official intelligence arrived that an 
open rupture existed between the two powers, and this was of course captured. 

The Western forces marched to Detroit and crossed over to Sandwich, pre- 
paratory to attacking Maiden, a post most favorable for the transportation of 
stores, troops, etc. which was therefore considered valuable. 

Peter Minard first gave the news to the settlers of the Maumee. He had 
heard from a Delaware chief, who assured him a general massacre was to take 
place in the valley. Maj. Spaffiard paid no heed to this "idle fear," until a 
few days thereafter a messenger came to his quarters, reporting a band of fifty 
Pottawatomies on the march to join the hostile tribes near Maiden. They had 
plundered and burned Monclova, and had nearly reached the rapids. 

The Major, with his family and settlers, immediately launched a barge on 
the river and were able to reach old Fort Miami just as the savages reached 
Maumee City. They could plainly witness the flames that devoured their old 
homes. They kept on their way in their miserable craft, until they reached 
Milan, where they learned that the entire country was in danger. 

Although the Indians were defeated in the battle of Tippecanoe in the fall 
of 1811, they plotted vigorously with the English for the invasion of Ohio. 

Gen. William Hull marched from the southwestern part of the State 
directly north, crossing the counties of Champaign, Logan, Hardin, Hancock 
and Wood, establishing military posts along the route and cutting a way 
through the wilderness of the unsettled portions. He crossed the Maumee on 
the 1st of July, and marched to Detroit. 

Hull was evidently actuated in his succeeding disgraceful failures by two 
fears — ^lack of confidence in the ability of his troops, and the belief that they 
might desert him in action. He proclaimed freedom, and a necessity of sub- 
mitting to the Canadians under existing circumstances. He held out induce- 
ments to the British regulars to desert their cause and essayed to pacify the 
savages, but he accomplished nothing beyond jeopardizing the American cause 


and disgracing his army. His men became restless. Col. Miller and Col. 
Cass were delighted when detailed on scouting expeditions, and did not hesi- 
tate to attack advancing squads of the enemy. At last, an attack was made on 
the Niagara frontier, and Hull speedily abandoned his project and collected his 
forces at Detroit. 

Meantime, Col. Proctor had reached Maiden, and quickly perceiving the 
advantage of a post at that point, whereby he could cut off supplies and starve 
Hull into subjection, he massed his forces about this section, captured Van 
Horn and his two hundred men, and withstood the attack of Miller, although 
he gained nothing by so doing. Again Hull displayed his weakness by recall- 
ing his forces from further molestations. 

Gen. Brock, however, reached Maiden on the 13th of August, 1812, and 
began war preparations. 

Gen. Dearborn placed a force on the Niagara frontier, but an armistice was 
made with the British. Hull dispatched a third party under McArthur, to 
open communications to the Raisin River. 

Gen. Brock appeared at Sandwich and began to erect batteries, which Hull 
would not allow to be molested. The result was, that on the 26th of August 
Detroit was surrendered to the enemy, and not a blow had been struck in its 

By this dastardly act, 1,400 brave men who had not been permitted to 
make a single effort to sustain the American cause, were surrendered to 300 
English regulars, 400 Canadians and their Indian allies. Gen. Hull was, in 
consequence of this series of "mistakes," accused of treason and cowardice, 
and convicted of the latter. By the middle of August, the British had gained 
the control over most of the Northwestern Territory. 

The appointment of William Henry Harrison to the position of com- 
mander in chief of the Western forces, was most opportune. He speedily 
raised a vigorous army, and advanced by three routes to the foot of the rapids. 

Gen. Harrison commanded the right wing, and marched by the way of Upper 
Sandusky, where he located his depot of supplies. Gen. Tupper commanded 
the center, Fort McArthur, in Hardin County, being his base, while Gen. Win- 
chester marched from Fort Defiance down the Maumee to the foot of the rapids. 

A large force of British and Indians moved up the left bank of the Mau- 
mee toward Fort Wayne, and Gen. Harrison, to intercept them, marched to 
the confluence of the Auglaize with the Maumee. 

Harrison was aware that the enemy would be also hemmed in by Win- 
chester. The weather was rainy, and the prospects were that a most unfortun- 
ate season was to follow the expected engagements. Harrison heard that 
Winchester had reached Fort Defiance, and that the Indians and British were 
retreating down the Maumee. He followed, and marched to Winchester's 
camp, where he arrived in season to quell a mutiny under command of Col. 
Allen, of the Kentucky troops. 


In January, 1813, Winchester had reached the rapids, where he received 
tidings that Frenchtown was menaced and exposed. Without orders, he sent a 
party to the rescue, which defeated the enemy. The weather was intensely 
cold, and the company lay within eighteen miles of Maiden, where the enemy 
was collected in full force, consequently re-enforcements must be dispatched 
immediately or the town again left to its fate. 

Winchester then marched with a force of 259 men, and upon arriving at 
nightfall, insisted upon remaining on open ground, although warned repeatedly 
that this would be a most dangerous experiment. 

In the morning, he was surprised by the enemy, massed directly before 
him, with a battery within three hundred yards of his camp, and a shower of 
bombs, balls and grape-shot falling among his exposed troops, and the yells of 
Indians reminding him of his fatal error. Lewis, who led the party out in the 
beginning and had apprehended the danger, bravely defended himself behind 
garden pickets. Winchester was defeated on the 22d of January, 1813, and 
the Indians Avere permitted to massacre the prisoners and the settlers. 

Harrison fell back to the foot of the rapids. On the 1st of February, he 
began the construction of Fort Meigs. On the 27th of April, Proctor and 
Tecumseh attacked this fort, and laid siege with the full expectation of success. 
The stipulation was that Gen. Harrison was to be delivered to Tecumseh. 
While the balls and bombs were making havoc with the fort, the Indians were 
climbing trees and pouring a galling fire down upon the troops. Gen. Proctor 
invited Harrison to surrender, which was politely declined, with the assurance 
that the British General would have the opportunity to distinguish himself as a 
soldier before such a proceeding was enacted, 

Gen. Clay was descending the Maumee with 1,200 Kentuckians in flat 
boats. Orders went from Harrison that 800 men should land on the left bank, 
take and spike the British cannon, and then to enter the fort, from which 
soldiers were to issue to assist the re-enforcements. 

Capt. Hamilton was to pilot Gen. Clay to the fort, cutting their way 
through. All succeeded, Col. Dudley taking the batteries and spiking the 
cannon. But his men, too much elated by their success, against orders, and 
against the repeated expostulations of Col. Dudley, insisted on pursuing the 
Indians. Col. Dudley would not desert them. This act proved their ruin. 
By a decoy, they were led into a defile which proved an ambush, and the men 
found themselves surrounded by savages, without means of escape. 

A most frightful massacre began, and every man would have fallen had not 
Tecumseh sternly forbidden the cowardly carnage. One of his principal chiefs 
ignored this order, and the next instant the great warrior buried his hatchet in 
his head. The brave Col. Dudley was, however, tomahawked and scalped. 

There were no immediate signs that the fort would be surrendered, and the 
siege was raised on the 9th of May. It was renewed on the 20th of July, and 
abandoned a few days later. The enemy decided this stronghold was invulnerable. 


On the 1st of August, the enemy proceeded to Fort Stevenson, at Lower 
Sandusky, garrisoned by 150 men under Maj. Croghan. The fort had the 
use of but one piece of cannon. The enemy with Tecumseh's Indians num- 
bered 3,300 strong, with six pieces of cannon. 

Gen. Proctor again tendered the offer to surrender, adding that a refusal 
would only bring about a useless resistance, and a massacre by the Indians. 
The reply was, that before the fort went over to the British, not an American 
would be left to be massacred, as they should hold out to the last man. Proc- 
tor opened fire. The first movement was an assault upon the northwest angle 
of the fort, as if to make a breach and thus carry the works. The command- 
ant strengthened that point by bags of sand, and during the night stealthily 
placing his one cannon in a concealed position, he filled it with slugs. 

The following day, the fire again swept the northwest corner, and, evening 
approaching, a column of 350 men swept up within twenty yards of the walls. 
They were met by the musketry, which had little effect, and the ditch was soon 
filled with men. The next instant the hidden cannon, so placed as to sweep 
the ditch, suddenly began action, and the surprised assailants quickly recoiled, 
and the fort was saved, with the loss of only one man. 

The next morning, the enemy had disappeared, evidently in haste, as guns, 
clothing and stores were left behind. They had lost over one hundred and 
fifty men by this useless attempt. Croghan had previously received orders to 
evacuate the fort from Gen. Harrison, and his determination to hold the position 
merited Harrison's reprimand and remand of commission. Such was the sev- 
erity of military law. However, the rank of Colonel was immediately conferred 
upon him by the President, for his gallantry. The ladies of Chillicothe pre- 
sented him with an elegant testimonial in the shape of a sword. 

It was decided to make a naval warfare effectual in the recovery of the 
Northwestern Territory, and accordingly vessel-building began under Commo- 
dore Perry's supervision. 

The British looked upon this proceeding with derision, fully intending to 
use these boats for their own purpose. They publicly proclaimed their intention. 

By the 1st of August, 1813, Commodore Perry set sail a flotilla, the Law- 
rence and the Niagara, of twenty guns each, with smaller vessels following. 
Some difficulty was encountered in launching the larger vessels, on account of 
the shallowness of the water. 

Perry's first destination Avas Put-in-Bay, thirty miles from Maiden, where 
the British fleet lay under the guns of the fort. On the 10th of September, 
the British fleet — exceeding the American by ten guns — under Commodore 
Barclay, appeared off Put-in-Bay, distant about ten miles. Perry immediately 
set sail. The wind shifting, the Americans had the advantage. 

Perry hoisted his battle-flag and a general preparation was made for the 
conflict. An ominous silence settled over all as the fleets approached. A 
bugle sounded on the enemy's ship Detroit, and a furious fire was opened upon 


the Lawrence. The frightful and desperate battle that ensued is so familiar 
that it is not necessary for us to repeat its details. It forever remains in his- 
tory as a prominent, desperate struggle that turned the tide most decisively in 
favor of the Americans. Hand to hand, for three hours, this furious struggle 
surged, resulting in a pronounced victory for the Americans. 

Commodore Perry immediately requested parole for his severely wounded 
antagonist, Commodore Barclay. Capt. Elliott was at this engagement highly 
commended by Perry for his bravery. 

Gen. Harrison now made preparations to follow Proctor, and reached Mai- 
den on the 27th of September. 

Proctor had retreated to Sandwich, and thence Harrison followed him, 
overtaking the enemy on the 9th of October, on the bank of the Thames. An 
engagement ensued, which was not particularly marked in its events, but which 
practically terminated the war in the Northwest. 

Tecumseh fell during this battle, and his death disheartened the savages to 
such an extent that they were willing to make terms of peace. Accordingly 
a treaty was concluded on the 22d of July, 1814, with the Wyandots, Dela- 
wares, Shawnees, Senecas and Miamis, the tribes engaged in hostilities. 

Again Ohio was able to turn her attention to the improvements within her 
own boundaries. Weary and disabled though she was, her ambition and 
energy were unimpaired. The struggle had been severe, but a grand reward 
had been won, and peace and independence belonged to these sturdy, earnest, 

In 1815, a town was founded near Fort Meigs, and, in 1816, Gen. John 
E. Hunt and Judge Robert A. Forsythe located at Maumee. 


Up to the year 1817, Ohio had no banking system, and on the 28th of 
January of that year, the United States Bank opened a branch at Cincinnati, 
and yet another during the following October at Chillicothe. These branches 
found a large amount of business to transact, and while being of assistance in 
various ways to the State, also received a fine revenue themselves. The State 
therefore resolved upon a tax levy, and, in 1819, the branches were to pay 
$50,000 each, and the State Auditor was authorized to issue his warrant for 
the collection of the same. 

The bank branches demurred, but the State was decided, and the banks 
accordingly filed a bill in chancery, in the United States Circuit Court, setting 
forth reasons whereby their prayer that Ralph Osborn, State Auditor, should 
be restrained from making such collection, should be seriously considered. 

Osborn being counseled not to appear on the day designated in the writ, an 
injunction was obtained, with the security given in the shape of bonds from the 
bank, to the amount of $100,000. On the 14th of September, the bank sent a 
commissioner to Columbus, who served upon the Auditor a copy of tlie petition 


for the injunction, and a subpoena to make an appearance before the court 
on the first Monday in the following January. Osborn submitted both the 
petition and the injunction to the Secretary of State, with his warrant for col- 
lecting the tax. Legally, the matter was somewhat complicated. 

The Auditor desired the Secretary of State to take legal advice, and if the 
papers did not actually amount to an injunction, to give orders for the execu- 
tion of the warrant. 

The decision Avas that the papers did not equal a valid injunction. The State 
writ for collection was therefore given over to John L. Harper, with directions 
to enter the banking-house and demand the payment of the tax. In case of a 
refiisal, the vaults Avas to be entered and a levy made upon the amount required. 
No violence was to be used, and if force was used to deter the act, the 
sAme was to be reported to a proper magistrate and an affidavit made to that 

On September IT, Mr. Harper went about his errand, taking with him T. 
Orr and J. MacCollister. After securing access to the vault, a demand was 
made for the payment of the tax. This was promptly refused, and a notice 
given of the granting of the injunction. This was disregarded, and the officer 
seized ^98,000 in gold, silver and notes. This was placed in charge of the 
State Treasurer, Mr. H. M. Curry. 

The officers were arrested and imprisoned by the United States Circuit 
Court, and the money returned to the bank. The case was reviewed by 
the Supreme Court, and the measures of the Circuit Court were sustained. The 
State, therefore, submitted. In the mean time, the Legislature had prepared 
and passed a resolution, as follows : 

Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That in respect to the powers of the 
Governments of the several States that compose the American Union, and the powers of the Fed- 
eral Government, this General Assembly do recognize and approve the doctrines asserted by the 
Legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia in their resolutions of November and December, 1798, 
and January, 1800, and do consider their principles have been recognized and adopted by a 
majority of the American people. 

Resolved further. That this General Assembly do assert and will maintain by all legal and 
constitutional means, the rights of States to tax the business and property of any private corpo- 
ration of trade, incorporated by the Congress of the United States, and located to transact its 
corporate business within any State. 

Resolved further. That the bank of the United States is a private corporation of trade, the 
capital and business of which may be legally taxed in any State where they may be found. 

Resolved further. That the General Assembly do protest against the doctrines that the politi- 
cal rights of the separate States that compose the American Union and their powers as sovereign 
States, may be settled and determined in the Supreme Court of the United States, so as to con- 
clude and bind them in cases contrived between individuals, and where they are, no one of them, 
parties direct. 

The bank was thus debarred from the aid of State laws in the collection of 
its dues and in the protection of its rights. An attempt was made to effect a 
change in the Federal constitution, which would take the case out of the 
United States Courts. This, however, proved ineffectual. 


The banking system in Ohio has, by reason of State surveillance, not been 
subjected to those whirlwind speculations and questionable failures which have 
marked many Western States, in the establishment of a firm basis upon which 
a banking law could be sustained, with mutual benefit to the institution and the 


In the first part of 1817, the Legislature considered a resolution relating 
to a canal between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. No action was taken and 
the subject was not again agitated until 1819. Gov. Brown appointed three 
commissioners in 1820, for the purpose of employing an efiicient engineer and 
such assistants as he deemed necessary, for the purpose of surveying a practical 
route for this canal. The commissioners were restricted in their actions until 
Congress should accept a proposition in behalf of the State, for a donation and 
sale of the public lands lying upon and near the route of the proposed canal. 
A delay was thus occasioned for two years. 

In 1822, the matter was referred to a committee of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. This committee approved and recommended the employment of the 
engineer. They furthermore added illustrations to prove the feasibility of the 

James Geddes, a skillful engineer of New York, was in due time appointed 
to the position and instructed to make the necessary examinations and sur- 

The surveys were made, and estimates given of the expenses, which docu- 
ments were laid before the Legislature at several sessions. 

In 1825, an act was passed providing for the internal improvement of the 
State by navigable canals. Directly thereafter, the State set vigorously about 
the work of constructing two canals, one leading from the Ohio to Lake Erie, 
by way of the valleys of the Scioto and Muskingum, the other from Cincinnati 
to Dayton. 

The first canal-boat from Cincinnati to Dayton, reached her destination in 
1829, on the 25th of January. This outlet of communication was extended 
to Lake Erie, and was completed in 1845. The largest artificial lake now 
known is on the elevation between the Ohio and the lake, in Mercer County, 
and supplies the St. Mary's feeder of the Miami Canal, about three miles dis- 
tant, eastwardly. This reservoir is about nine miles long, and from two to 
four broad. 

Two walls of earth, from ten to twenty feet high, were formed, on the east 
and west, which united with the elevations north and south, surrounded this 
basin. When the water was admitted, whole farms were submerged, and the 
"neighbors" complained lest this overflow should tempt miasma. So great 
was the excitement, that over one hundred and fifty residents of the county 
united, and with shovels and spades, made a breach in the embankment. 
Many holding prominent positions in the county were engaged in this work, 


and all laid themselves liable to the State laws, which made the despoiling of 
public works a penitentiary offense. 

The matter was taken up by the courts, but a grand jury could not be 
found in Mercer County to find a bill of indictment. 

The officers who had charge of the work, ignored the law requiring the cut- 
ing and saving of the timber on lands appropriated, for canal reservoirs. The 
trees were ruthlessly girdled, and thousands of acres of valuable timber that 
might have been highly desirable in the building of bridges, etc., were 
destroyed. However, an adjustment was finally effected, and the work was 
prosecuted with the entire approbation of the people, who were convinced that 
convenient transportation was to be desired. 


After the Indians relinquished all claims against the lands of those States 
west of the Alleghanies, as they had been obtained by conquest, the United 
States, as a government, owned the soil. When Ohio was admitted into the 
Union, a stipulation was made that the fee simple to all the lands within its 
boundaries, with the exception of those previously sold or granted, should vest 
in the General Government. At the present writing, but few tracts remain 
that can be called " public lands." In this, as in other States, tracts are des- 
ignated by their pioneer signification or the purpose to which they were origi- 
nally devoted. In Ohio, these tracts are known as : 


Congress Lands. 


Symmes' Purchase. 


Maumee Road. 


United States Military. 


Refugee Tract. 


School Lands. 


Virginia Military. 


French Grant. 


College Lands. 


Western Reserve. 


Dohrman's Gi'ant. 


Ministerial Lands. 


Fire Lands. 


Zane's Grant. 


Moravian Lands. 


Ohio Company's Purchase. 


Canal Lands. 


Salt Sections. 


Donation Tract. 


Turnpike Lands. , 

The lands sold by the direct officers of the Government, under the direc- 
tion of Congress, according to the laws, are known as Congress lands. They 
are properly surveyed, and laid out in townships six miles square, under the 
direction of the Government, and the expense incurred settled by Congress. 
These townships are subdivided into sections, containing 640 acres. One sec- 
tion is reserved, in every township, for educational purposes, to be utilized in 
any manner approved by the State as being the best to aid the cause for which 
they are assigned. 

The Western Reserve will be remembered as the tract originally belonging to 
Connecticut. It lies in the northeast quarter of the State. A half-million acres 
were donated by the old Eastern State, when her claim was in force, to sufferers 
from fire during the Revolutionary war, which created the name, " fire lands." 
Many settled here whose homes were destroyed by the British during the war. 

It will be remembered, that on account of discoveries by subjects of empires, 
in the New World, the " Old World " kings laid claim to different portions 



of the young continent. At that period, European knowledge of American 
geographical positions and limits was exceedingly meager, which occasioned 
several wars and more discussions. These Old- World sovereigns also assumed 
the authority to sell or present tracts of land to their subjects, in those terri- 
tories they deemed their own. 

King Charles II of England granted to his loyal subjects the colony of 
Connecticut, in 1662, placing with them a charter of right to all lands within 
certain prescribed boundaries. But these " boundaries " frequently conflicted 
with those of others, and sometimes extended to the Pacific Ocean, or " South 
Sea," as it was then termed. Connecticut, by her original charter rights, held 
all lands between the forty-first and forty-second parallels of north latitude, and 
from Providence Plantation on the east, to Pacific Ocean on the west, except- 
ing the New York and Pennsylvania colonies. As late as the establishment of 
the Edited States as an independent government, those colliding claims fre- 
quently engendered confusion and warm discussion between the nation and 
Connecticut, regarding the original colony claim. This was compromised by 
the national claims being relinquished in regard to the territorial claim in Ohio, 
and Connecticut holding the 3,800,000 acres described as the " Western Reser- 
vation." The Government held the right of jurisdiction. 

In 1796, Congress set aside a certain division of land, to satisfy the claims 
of officers and soldiers of the Revolutionary war. It includes the 2,500,000 
acres between the Greenville treaty line and the Congress and refugee lands, 
and " VII ranges of townships," on the east, and the Scioto River, west. This 
constitutes the '' Military Tract. " The " Virginia Military Tract " lies between 
the Scioto and Little Miami Rivers, and extends south to the Ohio. 

James I, in his authorized charter to the Virginia colony, in the year 
1609, made rather visionary boundary lines, sweeping over the continent, west 
of the Ohio River, " of the north and south breadth of Virginia." Virginia 
reconciled the matter by relinquishing all her claims northwest of the Ohio 
River, with the exception of a tract for the purpose of donating the same to her 
troops of the Revolution — their claims demanding such a return in some section. 
Unfortunately, this tract was not regularly surveyed, and conflicting " lines " 
have given rise to litigation ever since that stipulation was made. 

The Ohio Company's Purchase has already been described — as has the 
Symmes Purchase. 

The Refugee Tract covers an area of 100,000 acres, extending eastwardly 
from the Scioto River forty-eight miles, in a strip of country four and one-half 
miles broad, north to south. Columbus, the capital of the State, is situated in 
the western portion. This land was donated by Congress to those individuals 
who left the British dominions and rule, during the Revolution, and espoused 
the American cause. 

The French Tract borders on the Ohio River, in the southeastern quarter 
of Scioto County. It includes 24,000 acres, and was ceded to those French 


families that lost their claims at Gallipolis, through invalid titles ; 1,200 acres 
were added, after the above grant of 1795. 

Dohrman's Grant includes a section, six miles square, in the southeastern 
portion of Tuscarawas County. It was granted to Arnold Henry Dohrman, a 
Portuguese merchant, as a token of appreciation of the aid and shelter he ren- 
dered American cruisers and vessels of war, during the Revolution. 

The Moravian Lands were originally grants by the old Continental Con- 
gress, in 1787, and confirmed by the act of the Government Congress, in 1796, 
to the Moravian Brethren, of Bethlehem, Penn., in sacred trust, and for the 
use of those Indians who embraced Christianity and civilization, desiring to live 
and settle thereon. These three tracts include 4,000 acres each, and are situ- 
ated in Tuscarawas County. In 1823, the Indians relinquished their rights to 
the 12,000 acres in this county, for 24,000 acres, in a territory designated by^ 
the United States, together with an annuity of $400. 

Zane's Tracts included a portion of land on the Muskingum, whereon Zanes- 
ville was built ; another at the crossing of the Hocking, on which Lancaster i» 
located ; and yet another on the left bank of the Scioto River, opposite Chilli- 
cothe. These grants were made to Ebenezer Zane, by Congress, in 1796, as a 
reward for opening a road from Wheeling, Va., to Maysville, Ky. In 1802, 
Mr. Zane received three additional tracts, one square mile each, in considera- 
tion of being captured and held a prisoner, during the Revolutionary war, 
when a boy, by the Indians. He lived with these people most of his life, secur- 
ing many benefits for the Americans. These tracts are located in Champaign 

The Maumee Road Lands extend the length of the road, from the Maumee 
River, at Perrysburg, to the western limits of the Western Reserve, a distance 
of forty-six miles — in a strip two miles wide. This includes about 60,000 
acres. These lands were ceded by the Indians, at the treaty of Brownstown, in 
1808. The original intention of Congress was to mark a highway through this 
strip, but no definite action was taken until 1823, whe j the land was ceded to 
the State of Ohio, under an obligation that the State make and sustain the pro- 
jected road, within four years after the transfer. 

The Turnpike Lands extended over 31,360 acres along the western side of 
the Columbus & Sandusky Turnpike, in the eastern parts of Seneca, Craw- 
ford and Marion Counties. They were designed for the transportation of mail 
stages, troops and other United States property, free from toll. The grant was 
made in 1827. 

" The Ohio Canal Lands " comprise about 1,000,000 acres, set aside for the 
purpose of canal construction. 

When Ohio was admitted to the Union, a guarantee was given that the State 
should not tax Government lands until they should have been sold for five years. 
That the thirty-sixth part of all territory within the State limits should be de- 
voted to educational purposes, for the general benefit of the population. In. 


order to secure tracts which would prove available, and thus insure returns, 
they were selected in small lots. No. 16 was designated as the sectional portion, 
in each township of Congress lands, the Ohio Company's and Symmes Pur- 
chases, the United States Military Lands, the Connecticut Reserve, and a num- 
ber of quarter townships. These school lands were selected by the Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

The college townships are thirty-six miles square. A section, thirty-six 
miles square, in the center of Jackson County, in the vicinity and containing 
the Scioto Salt Licks, was also reserved by Congress, together with a quarter- 
mile township in Delaware County. This swept over 27,040 acres. In 1824, 
Congress authorized the State to sell these lands. The proceeds were to be 
devoted to literary requirements, such as might be specified by Congress. 


We have heretofore briefly alluded to the canal system of Ohio, which in 
the beginning caused considerable anxiety to settlers directly in the course of 
its survey. The Legislature passed the " Internal Improvement by Navigable 
Canals " act, in 1825, and the work was immediately inaugurated and hastened. 
The " Ohio Canal " extends from the lake to the Ohio, and the " Miami " con- 
nects Cincinnati with Dayton. The latter was completed to Toledo in 1844, a 
length of 493 miles. Its total cost, including reservoir cutting and feeders, was 
$7,500,000. The Ohio Canal was finished in 1833. 

During the construction of these canals, the curiosities which have attracted 
antiquarians and scientists, in the State of Ohio, were found in various places. 
Relics were discovered that must have belonged to a giant race. Nearly 3,000 
graves were found, of the " mound type." 

A third canal was begun in 1836, reaching from Walhonding, in Coshocton 
County, to Roscoe, its length being twenty-five miles, involving an expense of 
$610,000. This was completed in 1842. The Hocking Canal, between Car- 
roll, in Fairfield County, and Athens, in Athens County, a distance of fifty- 
six miles, was also cut, about the same time, at a cost of nearly $1,000,000. 

The Muskingum improvements were also being carried forward. Locks and 
dams were requisite for the perfection of navigation in this water-course, from 
Dresden to Marietta, a distance of ninety-one miles. This added an expense 
of $1,630,000 to the call for improvement appropriations. To the Miami Canal 
was added a feeder, known as the Warren County Canal — extending from 
Franklin to Lebanon, which was not completed, although over $250,000 were 
expended in its construction as far as it went. 

Railway transportation was a subject which engrossed the attention of those in- 
terested in State perpetuity and general prosperity. About the year 1831, the Leg- 
islature received applications for railway charters. The first one granted was the 
'' Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland Railroad," on June 5, 1832. The " Sandusky, 
Mansfield & Newark Railroad " obtained a charter in 1836, March 11, followed. 

120 iiiSToiiv OF thl: state of ohio. 

three days thereafter, by the " Cleveland, Columbus k Cincinnati Railroad." 
The " Little Miami " was begun in 1837. Notwithstanding these chartered 
rights, but 129 miles were completed in 1847, and in operation. In 1878, 
the mileage had increased to 6,264. The valuation of the operating roads 
was estimated the same year, at $76,113,500. Their taxation summed up 

No State in the Union has been more zealous in her educational interests than 
Ohio. Public lands were generously granted by Congress, and the State added 
her affirmation. However, no practical and eifectual system Avas adopted until 

An act was then passed to tax all real property one-half mill per dollar for 
the establishment of schools in each township, and the support of the same. 
An act of 1829, increased the tax to three-fourths of a mill. Trustees of 
townships were instructed to make divisions and locate convenient school dis- 
tricts. Householders were to elect three school directors, a clerk and treasurer 
annually. Privileges and restrictions were enjoined in all cases. The house- 
holders were allowed their discretion, governed accordingly, in imposing taxes 
for the erection of school buildings. The Courts of the Common Pleas 
appointed a committee to examine the qualifications of those individuals mak- 
ing application for the position of teachers. The school extended equal privi- 
leges to all white children. Those of colored parentage were excluded, and no 
tax was levied for school purposes upon colored parents. An amendment has 
admitted the children of colored parents. The system has continued the same, 
with a few amendments. A State Commissioner of Common Schools is elected 
every third year, who has general charge of the interests of public schools. A 
State Board of Examiners, composed of three persons, appointed by the State 
Commissioner, for two years' term, is authorized to issue life certificates of high 
qualifications, to such teachers as it may find to possess the requisite scholarship, 
character, experience and ability. These certificates, signed by the Commis- 
sioner, are valid throughout the State. A County Board of Examiners, of 
three members, is formed in each county. Boards of education, for cities, are 
made up of one or two members from each ward. City Boards of Examiners 
are also appointed. Section 4 of the law of 1873, was amended in 1877, which 
made the territory annexed to an incorporated village, at the option of the 
voters of the village and tributary section, whether it be included with the vil- 
lage as one school district, or left as two school districts. Section 56 of the law was 
amended, in its bearing upon cities of 30,000 to 75,000 inhabitants, by limiting 
to five mills on the dollar of taxable property, the levies in such cities for con- 
tinuing schools, for purchasing sites for schoolhouses, for leasing, purchasing, 
erecting and furnishing school houses, and for all school expenses. The public 
funds are subject to the discretion of voters, and boards are authorized, under 
instructions, to make the best use of such funds. Taxation is subject to the 
discretion of the State, certain limits being prescribed. 


In 1878, the number of youth of the school age numbered 1,041,963. 
On the rolls, 740,194 names were recorded. In the year 1878, 23,391 teach- 
ers were employed, receiving $4,956,514.46 for their services. 

Ohio not only sustains her public schools on a broad, liberal basis, but she 
encourages educational pursuits in superior universities and colleges throughout 
the State. These institutions are not aided by State funds, but are sustained by 
society influence, added to their self-supporting resources. Ohio alsc 
a large number of normal schools, academies, seminaries and busiiless colleges. 
These are not entitled to the privileges of the school fund. ScieKtific^ profes- 
sional, theological, legal and medical instructions are in no in3»jj:^ limited in 
their facilities. Industrial and reformatory school§.-«rg^espmally thorough. 
Institutions for the instruction of the deaf ahdclumb, arva blind, and feeble- 
minded, are under the best discipline. 

We may add, many female seminaries have been estal5lished which are entirely 
sustained by other than State aid. Ohio has, from its inception, been solid and 
vigorous in whatever tended toward improvement and enlightenment. 

We have also referred to the banking system of this State, as being first 
established on a basis through a contest between the State and the General 
Government. Authorities differ regarding the exact date and location of the 
very first house established in the State for the purpose of transacting banking 
business. It is highly probable that Marietta is more directly associated with 
that event than any other town. There are at present over one hundred and 
sixty-seven national banks, with an aggregate capital of $27,794,468. It also 
has eighteen banks of deposit, incorporated under the State banking laws of 
1845, representing an aggregate capital of $539,904. Twenty-three savings 
banks, incorporated under the State act of 1875, with an aggregate capital of 
$1,277,500. Of private banks it has 192, with an aggregate capital of 
$5,663,898. The State represents in her banking capital over $36,275,770. 
The First National of Cincinnati has a capital stock of over $1,000,000. 
The others fall below that sum, their capital diminishing from 10,000 shares of 
$100 each. The valuation for taxation is $850,000 — Merchant's National of 
Cincinnati — to the valuation of a tax of $5,000 on the First National of 


We must not omit the subject of the State boundaries. Ohio was especially 
the field for most animated discussions, relative not only to State limits but 
county lines and township rights. In 1817, a severe controversy arose, which 
was settled only after violent demonstrations and Government interference. 

In primitive times, the geographical position, extent and surface diversities 
were but meagerly comprehended. In truth, it may be asserted they could not 
' have been more at variance with actual facts had they been laid out " hap- 
hazard." The ordinance of 1787 represented Lake Michigan far north of its 
real position, and even as late as 1812, its size and location had not been 


definitely ascertained. During that year, Amos Spafford addressed a clear, com- 
{)rehensive letter to the Governor of Ohio, on this subject, relative to the 
boundary lines of Ohio. Several lines of survey were laid out as the first 
course, but either Michigan or Ohio expressed disapproval in every case. This 
culminated in 1835, when the party beginning a '"pern^anent" survey began 
at the northwest corner of the State, and was attacked by a force of Michigan 
settlers who sent them away badly routed and beaten. No effort was made to 
return to the work until the State and various parties had weighed the subject, 
and finally the interposition of the Government became necessary. 

A settlement resulted in Ohio being bounded on the north by Lake Erie 
and the State of Michigan, on the east by Pennsylvania and West Virginia, on 
the south by the Ohio River, and on the west by Indiana. 

It is situated between the 38° 25' and 42° north latitude, and 84° 50' 
west longitude from Greenwich, or 3° 30' and 7° 50' west from Washington. 
From north to south, it extends over 210 miles, and from east to west 220 
miles — comprising 89,964 square miles. 

The State is generally higher than the Ohio River. In tlie southern 
counties, the surface is greatly diversified by the inequalities produced by the 
excavating power of the Ohio River and its tributaries. The greater portion 
of the State was originally covered with timber, although in the central and 
northwestern sections some prairies were found. The crest or watershed 
between the waters of Lake Erie and those of the Ohio is less elevated than 
in New York or Pennsylvania. Sailing upon the Ohio the country appears 
to be mountainous, bluffs rising to the height of two hundred and fifty to six 
hundred feet above the valleys. Ascending the tributaries of the Ohio, these 
precipitous hills gradually lessen until they are resolved into gentle undulations, 
and toward the sources of the river the land is low and marshy. 

Although Ohio has no inland lakes of importance, she possesses a favorable 
river system, which, aided by her canals, gives her prestige of a convenient 
water transportation. The lake on her northern boundary, and the Ohio 
River on her southern limit, afford most convenient outlets by water to impor- 
tant points. Her means of communication and transportation are superior in 
every respect, and are constantly being increased. 


Adams County was named in honor of John Adams, second President of 
the United States. Gov. St. Clair proclaimed it a county on July 10, 1797. 
The Virginia Military Tract included this section, and the first settlement made 
withinits boundaries was in this county in 1790-91, between the Scioto and Little 
Miami, at Manchester, by Gen. Nathaniel Massie. In this town was held the 
first court of the county. 

West Union, the present county seat, was laid out by the Hon. Thomas 
Kirker. It occupies the summit of a high ridge. The surface of this county is 


ihilly and broken, and the eastern part is not fertile. It produces corn, wheat, oats 
and pork. Beds of iron are found in the eastern part. Its hills are composed of 
aluminous shale. The barren hills afford a range for- cattle and hogs. A sort 
of vagrant class derive a support by collecting stones, hoop-poles and tanners' 
barks from these hills. 

Ashland County is one of the finest agricultural sections. It was formed 
February 26, 1846. Wheat comprises its principal crop, although large quan- 
tities of oats, corn, potatoes, grass and fruit are raised. Ashland is its county 
.seat, and was laid out by William Montgomery in 1816. It was called Union- 
town for several years. Daniel Carter raised the first cabin within the county 
limits in 1811. 

Auglaize County was formed in February, 1848, from Allen and Mercer 
Counties. Wapakoneta is its county seat. 

Allen County was formed from the Indian Territory April 1, 1820. Lima 
is its county seat. 

Ashtabula County was formed June 7, 1807, and was organized January 
22, 1811. The surface is level near the lake, while the remainder is undulat- 
ing. The soil is mostly clay. Very little wheat is raised, but considerable- 
corn and oats. Butter and cheese are the main marketable productions. This 
was the first county settled on the Western Reserve, and also the earliest in 
Northern Ohio. On the 4th of July, 1796, the first surveying party arrived 
at the mouth of Conneaut Creek. Judge James Kingsbury was the first who 
wintered there with his family. He was the first man to use a sickle in the 
first wheat-field in the Western Reserve. Their child was the first born on the 
Western Reserve, and was starved to death. The first regular settlement was 
at Harpersfield, in 1798. 

Jefferson is the county seat. Ashtabula is pleasantly situated on the river, 
with a fine harbor two and a half miles from the village. 

The first church on the Western Reserve was founded at Austinburg in 

Athens County was formed from Washington March 1, 1805. It producer 
wheat, corn, oats and tobacco. The surface is hilly and broken, with rich bot- 
tom lands between. Coal, iron ore and salt add materially to its commercial 
value. It has the advantage of the canal, as well as other transportation. 
Athens, its county seat, is situated on the Hocking River. The Ohio Uni- 
versity, the first college founded in the State, is located here. We have 
mentioned the ancient mounds found in this county, heretofore. Yellow pine is 
abundant in the lower part of the Hocking Valley. 

Brown County was formed March 1, 1818, from Adams and Clermont. It 
produces wheat, corn, rye, oats and pork. The southern part is prolific in 
grain, while the northern is adapted to grazing purposes. The surface is undu- 
lating, with the exception of the Ohio River hills. Over this county Tecumseh 
^nce held sway 


Georgetown is the county seat, and was laid out in 1819. Ripley is the larg- 
est business town in the county. 

Belmont County was announced by Gov. St. Clair September 7, 1801. It 
produces large crops of wheat, oats, corn and tobacco, an annual crop of over 
2,000,000 pounds of the latter being the average. It also trades largely in 
wool and coal. It is a picturesque tract of country, and was one of the 
pioneers in the early settled portions. 

In 1790, Fort Dillie was erected on the west side of the Ohio. Baker's 
Fort was a mile below the mouth of the Captina. Many desperate Indian bat- 
tles were fought within the limits of this county, and the famous Indian scout, 
Lewis Wetzel, roamed over the region. 

St. Clairsville is the county seat, situated on the elevation of land, in a fer- 
tile district. Capt. Kirkwood and Elizabeth Zane, of historic fame, were early 
pioneers here. 

Butler County was formed in 1803, from Hamilton. It is within the blue 
limestone formation, and one of the most fertile sections of Ohio. It produces 
more corn than any other, county in the State, besides fine crops of whesit, 
oats and large quantities of pork. Hamilton, the county seat, is situated on the 
Great Miami. Its hydraulic works furnish superior water-power. Rossville, 
on the opposite side of the Miami, is a large mercantile town. 

St. Clair passed through this county on his Indian campaigns in 1791, 
building Fort Hamilton on the Miami. 

Champaign County was formed March 1, 1805, from Greene and Franklin. 
It is drained by Mad River and its tributaries, which furnishes extensive mill 
privileges. Nearly a half is undulating, a quarter rolling, a fifth hilly, and 
6 per cent wet prairie. The soil is fertile, and produces wheat, corn, oats, 
barley, hay, while beef and wool add to the general wealth. Urbana, the- 
county seat, was laid out in 1805, by Col. William Ward. He was chief owner 
of the land and donated many lots to the county, under condition that their 
proceeds be devoted to public improvements. Joseph Vance and George 
Fithian were the first settlers. The Methodists built the first church in 1807. 
The main army of Hull concentrated at this point before setting out for Detroit. 
Many Indian councils were called here, and Tecumseh was located for a time 
near Deer Creek. 

Carroll County was formed from Columbiana in 1832-33. It produces 
wheat, oats and corn, and valuable coal and iron. The surface is hilly. Car- 
rollton is its county seat. At Harlem is a celebrated chalybeate spring. 

Clark County Avas formed March 1, 1817, from Champaign, Madison and 
Greene. Its second settlement was at Kreb's Station, in 1796. It is highly culti- 
vated, well watered and very fertile. The Mad River, Buck and Beaver Creeks 
furnish abundant water-power. It produces principally wheat, corn and oats. 

Tecumseh, the old Indian warrior, was born at the ancient Indian vil- 
lage of Piqua, on the Mad River, on the site of New Boston. Piqua was 


destroyed by Gen. George Rogers Clarke. Skeletons, beads, gun barrels, 
tomahawks, kettles, etc., have been found in the vicinity. 

Springfield, the county seat, is situated on the National road. It has con- 
venient transportation facilities, is handsomely laid out, and is noted for its 
cultured citizens. It is near Mad River, and Buck Creek runs through it. 

Clinton County was formed in 1810. It produces chiefly wheat, oats, 
wool and pork. Its surface is undulating, in some parts hilly, and the soil fer- 
tile. Its streams furnish desirable water-power. The county was settled in 
1798-99. Wilmington is the county seat, and was laid out in 1810. The first 
log house was built by William Hobsin. 

Clermont County was the eighth formed in the Northwest Territory, by 
proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, December 9, 1800. The soil is exceedingly 
rich, and the surface is broken and, near the Ohio, hilly. Wheat, corn, oats, 
hay, potatoes, tobacco, barley, buckwheat and rye form the main crops, while 
beef, pork, flour, hay and whisky constitute its main exports. Its streams 
furnish good water-power. Batavia, its county seat, is situated on the Little 
Miami River, and was laid out in 1820, by George Ely, 

Columbiana County was formed March 25, 1803, from Jefferson and Wash- 
ington. Its soil is very fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. It 
is wealthy in mineral deposits, coal, iron ore, lime and freestone being abun- 
dant. Its water-lime stone is of superior quality. Salt water is found on Yel- 
low and Beaver Creeks. This is also the great wool-producing county of 
the State. It was settled in 1797. New Lisbon, its county seat, is well 

The first paper-mill in Ohio was erected in this county, on Little Beaver 
Creek, by John Coulter and John Bever. 

Coshocton County Avas organized April 1, 1811. Its principal products are 
wheat, corn, oats and wool. Hills and valleys alternate along the Muskingum 
River. Abrupt changes are strongly marked — a rich alluvum being overhung 
by a red-bush hill, while directly beside it may be seen the poplar and sugar 
tree. Coal and iron ore add to its general importance, while salt wells have 
proven remunerative. 

Coshocton, the county seat, is built on four wide, natural terraces, at the 
junction of the Tuscarawas with the Walhonding. 

Cuyahoga County was formed June 7, 1807, from Geauga. Near the lake, 
the soil is sandy, while a clayey loam may be found elsewhere. The valleys 
near the streams produce wheat, barley and hay. Fruit is successfully grown, 
and cheese, butter, beef and wool are largely exported. Bog iron is found in 
the western part, and fine grindstone quarries are in operation. The sandstone 
from these quarries is now an important article of commerce. As early as 
1775, there was a French settlement within the boundaries of Cuyahoga. In 
1786, a Moravian missionary came to the present site of Cleveland, and set- 
tled in an abandoned village of the Ottawas. Circumstances prevented a 


permanent settlement, and the British tacitly took possession, even remaining 
upon the lake shores after the Revolution. 

The first permanent settlement was made at Cleveland in 1796. Mr. Job 
V. Stiles and family and Edward Paine passed the first winter there, their log 
cabin standing where the Commercial Bank is now located. Rodolphus 
Edwards and Nathaniel Doane settled here. The town was, in 1813, a depot 
of supplies and a rendezvous for troops engaged in the war. 

Cleveland, the county seat, is situated at the northern termination of the 
Ohio Canal, on the lake shore. In 1814, it was incorporated as a village, and 
in 1836, as n city. Its elevation is about a hundred feet above the lake. It 
is a lovely city, and has one of the best harbors on Lake Erie. 

Ohio City is another important town, nearly opposite Cleveland, on the 
Cuyahoga. It was incorporated in 1836. 

Crawford County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. " 
The entire county is adapted to grazing. The soil is generally composed of 
rich vegetable loam, and in some parts the subsoil is clay mixed with lime. 
Rich beds of shell marl have been discovered. It produces wheat, corn, oats, 
clover, timothy seed, wool and cattle. Fine limestone quarries are worked with 

Bucyrus is the county seat, and was laid out February 11, 1822, by Samuel 
Norton and James Kilbourn, original owners of the land. The first settler in 
the town proper was Samuel Norton. A gas well has been dug in Bucyrus, 
on the land of R. W. Musgrove, which burns in a brilliant light when con- 
ducted to the surface by means of pipes. Crawford's Sulphur Springs are 
located nine miles from Bucyrus. The water is impregnated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen. It deposits a reddish-purple sediment. In its nature the water is a 
cathartic, and is diuretic and diaphoretic in its efiects. A few rods away is a 
burning spring. The Annapolis Sulphur Spring is clear and has gained consid- 
erable fame by its curative qualities. Opposite Bucyrus is a chalybeate spring 
of tonic qualities. 

There are some beds of peat in the county, the most extensive one being a 
wet prairie called Cranberry Marsh, containing nearly 2,000 acres. 

Darke County was organized in March, 1817, from Miami County. It is 
abundantly timbered with poplar, walnut, blue ash, hickory, beech and sugar 
maple. It yields superior wheat, and is well adapted to grazing. In this 
county occurred the lamentable defeat of St. Clair, and the treaty of Greenville. 

Greenville is the county seat, and was laid out August 10, 1808, by Robert 
Gray and John Dover. In December, 1793, Wayne built Fort Greenville on 
this spot, which covered about the same extent as the present town. 

Delaware County was formed February 10, 1808, from Franklin. It pro- 
duces mainly wheat, corn, oats, pork and wool. ♦ 

Delaware is the county seat, and was laid out in the spring of 1808, by 
Moses Byxbe. The Delaware Spring in the village is of the white sulphur or 


cold hydro-sulphurous nature, valuable for medicinal qualities in cases of bilious 
derangements, dyspepsia, scrofulous aftections, etc. 

Defiance County was inaugurated March 4, 1845, from Williams, Henry 
and Paulding. The Maumee, Tifiin and Auglaize flow through it. The Black 
Swamp covers much of its area. 

Defiance, the county seat, is situated on the Maumee. It was laid out in 
1822, by B. Level and H. Phillips. A large Indian settlement occupied its 
gite in very early times. Wayne arrived here August 8, 1794, captured the 
place, finding about one thousand acres of corn, peach and apple orchards, and 
vegetables of all varieties. Here he built Fort Defiance. 

Erie County was formed in 1838, from Huron and Sandusky. The soil is 
alluvial, and yields large crops of wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. It possesses 
inexhaustable quarries of limestone and freestone. Immense quantities of bog 
iron are also found. The Erie tribe is said to have once occupied the land, and 
were extirpated by the Iroquois. As early as 1754, the French had built set- 
tlements. In 1764, the county was besieged. Pontiac came here with warlike 
demonstrations, but made peace with the whites. Erie was included in the 
"■fire lands"' of the Western Reserve. 

Sandusky City is the county seat, and was laid out in 1817, then termed 
Portland. At that time it contained two log huts. The town is finely situated, 
and is based upon an inexhaustible quarry of the finest limestone. In the 
"patriot war" with the Canadians, this city was the rendezvous for the 

Franklin County was formed April 30, 1803, from Ross. It contains 
much low wet land, and is better adapted to grazing than agricultural purposes. 
It was in early times occupied by the Wyandot Indians. Its first white set- 
tlement was made in 1797, by Robert Armstrong and others. Franklinton 
was laid out in 1797, by Lucas Sullivan. Worthington was settled by the 
Scioto Company in 1801. Col. Kilbourn, who was interested in the work, 
constructed the first map of Ohio during his explorations, by uniting sectional 

Columbus, the capital of the State of Ohio, is also the county seat of 
Franklin County. After the organization of a State government, the capital 
was "portable" until 1816, In 1810, the sessions were held at Chillicothe, 
in 1811 and 1812 at Zanesville, removing again to Chillicothe, and, in 1816, 
being located at Columbus. The town was laid out during the spring of 1812. 
A penitentiary was erected in 1813, and the State House was built in 1814. 
It was incorporated as "the borough of Columbus," February 10, 1816. The 
city charter was granted March 3, 1834. 

It is beautifully located on the east bank of the Scioto, The Columbus 
Institute is a classical institution. A female and a theological seminary also 
add to its educational advantages. The Ohio Lunatic Asylum is also located 
here — also the Ohio Institution for the Education of the Blind. East of the 


State House is the Ohio Institution for the Education of the Deaf and 

Fairfield County was formed by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, December 
9, 1800. 

The soil is varied, being in some parts exceedingly rich, and in others very 
sterile. It produces principally wheat, corn, rye, oats, buckwheat, barley, 
potatoes and tobacco. 

Lancaster is the county seat, laid out by Ebenezer Zane in 1800, In 1797, 
he opened the road known as "Zane's Trace," from Wheeling to Limestone — 
now Maysville. It passed through Lancaster, at a fording about three hundred 
yards below the present turnpike bridge. Near the turn stands an imposing 
eminance called " Standing Stone. ' ' Parties of pleasure frequently visit this spot. 

Fayette County was formed from Ross and Highland in 1810. Wheat, 
corn, cattle, hogs, sheep and wool comprise its main productions. " The bar- 
rens" are situated in the northeastern part. This tract is covered by a growth 
of grass. 

Washington is its county seat, laid out in 1810. 

Col. Stewart was active in the interests of this section, and his memory is 
sacredly revered. Jesse Milliken was prominent in public affairs. 

Fulton County, bordering on Michigan, was organized in 1850, It is 
drained by Bean Creek and other small affluents of the Maumee River. The 
surface is nearly level, and a large part of it is covered with forests of ash, 
beech, elm, hickory, white oak, black walnut, etc., furnishing excellent timber. 
The soil is fertile. Wheat, corn, oats and hay are the staple products. Wau- 
seon is the county seat. 

Guernsey County was organized in March, 1810. Wool is a staple prod- 
uct, together with beef, horses and swine. It produces wheat, corn and oats. 

Cambridge is the county seat and was laid out in June, 1806. Mr. 
Graham was the first settler on the site of the town, and his Avas the only 
dwelling between Lancaster and Wheeling. 

The first cannel coal found in the county was discovered near Mill's Creek. 

Greene County was formed May 1, 1803, from Hamilton and Ross. It 
produces wheat, corn, rye, grass-seed, oats, barley, sheep and swine. The 
streams furnish good water-power. There are five limestone quarries, and a 
marble quarry of variegated colors. The Shawnee town was on the Little 
Miami, and was visited by Capt. Thomas Bullit in 1773. When Daniel Boone 
was captured in 1778, he was brought to this town, and escaped the following 
year. Gen. Clarke invaded this county and the Indians reduced the town to ashes. 
Xenia, the county seat, was laid off in the forest in 1803, by Joseph C. 
Vance. The first cabin was erected in April, 1804, by John Marshall. The 
Rev. James Fowler built the first hewed-log cabin. David A. Sanders built 
the first frame house. Nine miles north of the town, on the Little Miami 
River, are the Yellow Springs, which are impregnated with sulphur. 


Geauga County was formed in 1805 from Trumbull. It exports sheep, 
cattle, butter and cheese. It is situated at the head of Chargrine, Cuyahoga and 
a part of Grand Rivers, on high ground, and is subjected to snowstorms more 
frequently than any other part of the Reserve. Its first settlement was made 
in 1798, at Burton. Chardon is fourteen miles from Lake Erie, and is 600 
feet above it. It was laid out as the county seat in 1808. 

Gallia County was fonued April 30, 1803, from Washington. Its princi- 
pal crops are wheat, corn, oats and beans. The surface is generally broken. 
Its first settlement was made in 1791, by a French colony, at Gallipolis. This 
colony was sent out under the auspices of the Scioto Company. This town is 
noAV the county seat. 

Hamilton County was the second established in the Northwestern Territory 
by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, January 2, 1790. Its surface is gen- 
erally rolling. It produces the ordinary farm products, and a great variety 
of fruits and vegetables for the Cincinnati market. Vineyards thrive well 
within its limits, and the manufacture of wine is carried on to a considerable 

This county was the second settled in Ohio, and the first within the Symmes 
purchase. Settlers arrived at the spot now occupied by Cincinnati, and three 
or four log cabins were erected. Gen. Arthur St. Clair arrived here in Janu- 
ary, 1790. The army of Wayne encamped here later, at Fort Washington. 
Mr. Maxwell established in 1793 the Sentinel of the Northwestern Territory, 
the first newspaper printed north of the Ohio River. In 1796, Edward Free- 
man became its proprietor, and changed the name to Freeman s Journal. 
January 11, 1794, two keel-boats sailed from Cincinnati to Pittsburgh, making 
regular trips every four weeks. In 1801, the first sea vessel built at Mari- 
etta came down the Ohio. 

Cincinnati, the county seat, was incorporated January 2, 1802. It was char- 
tered as a city in 1819. The city is beautifully laid out and delightfully situ- 
ated. Its public buildings are elegant and substantial, including the court 
house and many literary and charitable institutions. 

The Cincinnati College was founded in 1819. It stands in the center of 
the city. It is built in Grecian-Doric style, with pilaster fronts and facade of 
Dayton marble. Woodward College is also popular. 

The Catholics have founded the St. Xavier's College. Lane Seminary, a 
theological institution, is at Walnut Hills, two miles from the center of the city. 
It has over 10,000 volumes in its libraries. No charge is made for tuition. 
Rooms are provided and furnished at $5 per year, and board ranges from 62|- 
cents to 90 cents a week. The Cincinnati Law School is connected with Cin- 
cinnati College. The Mechanics' Institute was chartered in 1828, and is in all 
respects well supplied with apparatus. A college for teachers was established in 
1831, its object being to perfect those contemplating entering that profession in 
their studies and system. 


The Cincinnati Orphan Asylum is an elegant building, and has a library 
and well-organized school attached. The Catholics of the city have one male 
and female orphan asylum. The Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of 
Ohio was incorporated in 1821. 

Cincinnati is a large manufacturing city, and possesses fine water-power 
facilities. It communicates with the world by means of its canal, river, turnpikes, 
and railways. North Bend is another prominent town in this county, having 
been the residence of Gen. William H. Harrison, and the site of his burial 
place. The town was of considerable importance in the early settlement of the 
State. About thirty yards from Harrison's tomb is the grave of Judge 

Hancock County was formed April 1, 1820. It produces wheat, oats, corn, 
pork and maple sugar. The surface is level and its soil is fertile. Blanchard's 
Fork waters the central and southern part of the county. Findlay, the county 
seat, was laid out by ex-Gov. Joseph Vance and Elnathan Corry, in 1821. It 
was relaid in 1829. Wilson Vance settled there in the fall of 1821. Located 
in Findlay are the greatest gas wells of Ohio, the city being lighted and heated 
by natural gas, which has been known for over 40 years to exist at Findlay. 

Hardin County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian Territory. 
It produces, principally, wheat, corn and swine. A portion of the surface is 
level, and the remainder undulating. Fort McArthur was built on the Scioto 
River, but proved a weak stockade. Kenton is the county seat,, situated on the 
Scioto River. 

Harrison County was formed from Jefierson and Tuscarawas January 1» 
1814. The surface is hilly, abounding in coal and limestone. Its soil is clayey. 
It is one of the important wool-growing counties in Ohio. It produces large 
quantities of wheat, corn, oats and hay, besides a considerable number of horses, 
cattle and swine. 

In April, 1799, Alexander Henderson and family settled in this county, and 
at the same .time, Daniel Peterson and his family resided at the forks of Short 
Creek. The early settlers were much annoyed by Indians and wild beasts. 
Cadiz is the county seat, and was laid out in 1803 and 1804, by Messrs. Briggs 
and Beatty. 

Henry County was formed from the old Indian Territory, April 1, 1820. 
Indian corn, oats, potatoes, and maple sugar constitute the main products. 
The county is well supplied with running streams, and the soil is unusually rich. 

The greater portion of this county is covered by the "Black Swamp." 
Throughout this swamp are ridges of limestone, covered with black walnut, re<i 
elm, butternut and maple. The soil is superior for grain. Fruit thrives and 
all varieties of vegetables are produced in large quantities. Simon Girty, noto- 
rious for his wicked career, resided in this county. Girty led the attack on 
Fort Henry, in September, 1777. He demanded the surrender of the fort, 
and menaced its inmates with an Indian massacre, in case of refusal. The 


action began, but the fort gained the victory. He led a ferocious band of Indi- 
ans, and committed the most fiendish atrocities. 

Napoleon, the county seat, is situated on the Maumee River. 

Highland County was formed in May, 1805, from Ross, Adams and Cler- 
mont. It is a wealthy, productive county. Its wheat commands a high mar- 
ket price. The crops consist of wheat, corn, oats, maple sugar, wool, swine 
and cattle. Its first settlement began in 1801, at New Market, by Oliver Ross, 
Robert Keeston, George W. Barrere, Bernard Weyer and others. Simon Ken- 
ton made a trace through this county in early times. Hillsboro is the 
county seat, and was laid out in 1807, by David Hays, on the land of Benja- 
min Ellicott. It is situated on the dividing ridge, between the Miami and Sci- 
oto. The Hillsboro Academy was founded in 1827. 

Hocking County was formed March 1, 1818, from Ross, Athens and Fair- 
field. Its principal products are corn, wheat, tobacco and maple sugar. Its 
surface is broken and hilly, but is level and fertile beside the streams. 

The Wyandots once occupied this tract, and built a large town herein. In 
1798, a few white families ventured to settle. Logan is its county seat, and is 
situated on the Hocking River. 

Holmes County was formed from Coshocton, Tuscarawas and Wayne, Janu- 
ary 20, 1824. It produces wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, maple sugar, swine, 
sheep and cattle. The southwestern portion is broken. Thomas Butler was 
the first settler, in 1810. Millersburg is the county seat, and was laid out in 

Huron County was organized in 1815. It produces hay, wheat, corn, oats, 
barley, buckwheat, flaxseed, potatoes, butter, cheese, wool and swine. Nor- 
walk is the county seat. 

Jackson County was organized March, 1816. The country is rich in min- 
erals and abounds in coal and iron ore. The exports are cattle, wool, swine, 
horses, lumber, millstones, tobacco and iron. Jackson, the county seat, was 
laid out in 1817. The old Scioto salt-works were among the first worked in 
Ohio by the whites. Prior to this period, the Indians came some distance to 
this section to make salt. When Daniel Boone was a prisoner, he spent some 
time at these works. 

Jefferson County was proclaimed by Gov. St. Clair July 29, 1797, and 
was the fifth county established in Ohio. It is one of the most important 
manufacturing counties in the State. Its resources in coal are also extended. 
The surface is hilly and the soil fertile, producing wheat, corn and oats. The 
old "Mingo" town was on the present farms of Jeremiah Hallock and Mr. 
Daniel Potter. The troops of Col. Williamson rendezvoused at this point, 
when they set out in their cruel Moravian campaign, and also the troops of 
Col. Qrawford, when they started on the campaign against the Sandusky 
Indians. Here Logan, the powerful and manly chief of the Mingo nation, 
once resided. He took no active part in the old French war, which closed in 


1760, except that of a peacemaker. He was a stanch friend of the whites 
until the abominable and unprovoked murder of his father, brother and sister, 
which occurred in 1774, near the Yellow 'Creek. He then raised the battle 
cry and sought revenge. 

However, Logan was remarkably magnanimous toward prisoners who fell 
into his hands. The year 1793 was the last spent in Indian warfare in Jeffer- 
son County. 

Fort Steuben was erected on the present site of Steubenville, the county seat, 
in 1789. It was constructed of block-houses, with palisade fences, and was dis- 
mantled during Wayne's campaign. Bezaleel Wells and Hon. James Ross laid 
the town out in 1798. It was incorporated February 14, 1805. It is situated 
upon an elevated plain. In 1814, Messrs. Wells and Dickerson built a woolen 
manufactory, and introduced merino sheep to the county. 

Knox County was formed March 1, 1808, from Fairfield. It is drained by 
the Vernon River. It produces wheat, corn, oats, tobacco, maple sugar, pota- 
toes and wool. Mount Vernon was laid out in 1805. The early settlers found 
two wells on the Vernon River, built of hammered stone, neatly laid, and near 
by was a salt-lick. Their direct origin remains a mystery. Gilman Bryant, 
in 1807, opened the first store in Mount Vernon. The court house was built 
in 1810. The Indians came to Mount Vernon in large numbers for the pur- 
pose of trading in furs and cranberries. Each Saturday, the settlers worked 
on the streets, extracting stumps and improving the highway. The first settler 
north of the place was N. M. Young, who built his cabin in 1803. Mount 
Vernon is now the county seat, beautifully situated on Vernon River. Kenyon 
College is located at Gambler. It is richly endowed with 8,000 acres, and is 
valued at $100,000. This institution was established under the auspices of 
Bishop Chase, in July, 1826, in the center of a 4,000-acre tract belonging to 
Kenyon College. It was chartered as a theological seminary. 

Lucas County is of comparatively recent origin. A large portion is covered 
by the "Black Swamp." It produces corn, wheat, potatoes and oats. This 
county is situated in the Maumee Valley, which was the great arena of histori- 
cal events. The frightful battle of Wayne's campaign, where the Indians found 
the British to be traitors, was fought near Fort Miami, in this county. Maumee 
City, once the county seat, was laid out in 1817, as Maumee, by Maj. Wm. Oliver 
and others. It is situated on the Maumee, at the head of navigation. The 
surface is 100 feet above the water level. This town, with Perrysburg, its neighbor, 
is exceedingly picturesque, and was in early times frequented by the Indians. 
The French had a trading station at this point, in 1680, and in 1794, the Brit- 
ish Fort — Miami — was built. Toledo is on the left bank of the Maumee, and 
covers the site of a stockade fort, known as Fort Industry, erected in 1800. 
An Indian treaty was held here July 4, 1805, by which the Indians relinquished 
all rights to the " fire lands." In 1832, Capt. Samuel Allen gave an impetus 
to the place, and Maj. Stickney also became interested in its advancement. 


Speculation in lots began in 1834. The Wabash & Erie Canal interest arose in 
1836. Mr. Mason and Edward Bissel added their energies to assist the growth 
of the town. It was incorporated as a city in 1836. It was the center of the 
military operations in the " Ohio and Michigan war," known as the "boundary 

The Ordinance of 1787 provided for the division of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory into three or five States. The three southern were to be divided from the 
two northern by a line drawn east and west through the southern point of Lake 
Michigan, extending eastward to the Territorial line in Lake Erie. The consti- 
tutior. of Ohio adds a provision that if the line should not go so far north as the 
north cape of Maumee Bay, then the northern boundary of Ohio should be a 
line drawn from the southerly part of Lake Michigan to the north cape of the 
!Maumee Bay. 

The line of the ordinance was impossible, according to its instructions and 
the geography of the country. 

When Michigan became a Territory, the people living between the " Fulton " 
and '• Harris " lines found it more to their wishes to be attached to Michigan. 
They occupied disputed ground, and were thus beyond the limits of absolute 
law. In 1835, the subject was greatly agitated, and J. Q. Adams made a warm 
speech before Congress against the Ohio claim. The Legislature of Ohio dis- 
cussed the matter, and an act was passed to attach the disputed section to Ohio, 
according to the constitutional decree. An active campaign opened between 
Michigan and Ohio. Gov. Lucas came out with the Ohio troops, in the spring 
of 1835, and Gov. Mason, of Michigan, followed the example. He marched 
into Toledo, robbed melon-patches and chicken-houses, crushed in the front 
door of Maj, Stickney's house, and carried him away prisoner of war. Embas- 
sadors were sent from Washington to negotiate matters — Richard Rush, of Penn- 
sylvania and Col. Howard, of Maryland. At the next session of Congress, the 
matter was settled. Samuel Vinton argued for Ohio, in the House, and Thomas 
Ewing in the Senate. Michigan received an equivalent of the large peninsula 
between Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior. Ohio received the disputed 
strip, averaging eight miles in width. Manhattan, Waterville and Providence 
are all flourishing towns. 

Lorain County was formed from Huron, Cuyahoga and Medina, on Decem- 
ber 26, 1822. The soil is generally fertile, and the surface level. Wheat, 
grass, oats, corn, rye and potatoes constitute the principal crops. Bog-iron ore 
is found in large quantities. A curious relic has been found in this county, bear- 
ing the date of 1533. Elyria is the county seat, and was laid out in 1817. 
The first settler was Mr. Heman Ely. Oberlin is situated about eight miles 
.southwest of Elyria. The Oberlin Collegiate Institute has attained a wide 

Logan County was formed March 1, 1817. The surface is broken and hilly 
;iear the Mad River, but is generally level. The soil is fertile, producing 


wheat, corn, rye, oats, clover, flax and timothy seed. The Shawnee Indians 
were located here, and built several villages on the Mad River. These towns 
were destroyed in 1786, by a body of Kentuckians, under Gen. Benjamin 
Logan. The whites surprised the towns. However, they returned after the 
work of destruction had been completed, and for many years frequented the 
section. On the site of Zanes field was a Wyandot village. By the treaty of 
September 29, 1817, the Senecas and Shawnees held a reservation around 
Lewistown. April 6, 1832, they vacated this right and removed west. Isaac 
Zane was born about the year 1753, and was, while a boy, captured and after- 
ward adopted by the Wyandots. Attaining the age of manhood, he had no 
desire to return to his people. He married a Wyandot woman, who was half 
French. After the treaty of Greenville, he bought 1,800 acres on the site of 
Zanesville, where he lived until the year 1816, when he died, lamented by all 
his friends. 

Logan County was settled about the year 1806. During the war of 1812, 
it was a rendezvous for friendly Indians. Bellefontaine, the county seat, was 
laid out March 18, 1820, on land owned by John Tulles and William Powell. 
Joseph Gordon built a cabin, and Anthony Ballard erected the first frame 

Gen. Simon Kenton is buried at the head of Mad River, five miles from 
Bellefontaine. He died April 29, 1836, aged eighty-one years and twenty-six 
days. This remarkable man came West, to Kentucky, in 1771. He probably 
encountered more thrilling escapes than any other man of his time. In 1778, 
he was captured and suffered extreme cruelties, and was ransomed by the British. 
He soon recovered his robust health, and escaped from Detroit the following 
spring. He settled in Urbana in 1802. He was elected Brigadier General of 
the militia, and in the war of 1812, joined Gen. Harrison's army. In the year 
1820, he removed to Mad River. Gen. Vance and Judge Burnet secured him 
a pension, of $20 per month 

Licking County was formed from Fairfield March 1, 1808. The surface is 
generally level, diversified by slight hills in the eastern portion. The soil is 
fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and grass. Coal and iron ore of good 
quality add to the wealth of the county. Wool and dairy productions are also 
staples. Newark is the county seat, and is situated at the confluence of the 
three principal branches of the Licking. It was laid out by Gen. William C. 
Schenk, George W. Burnet and John M. Cummings, who owned this military 
section of 4,000 acres, in 1801. In 1802, Samuel Elliott and Samuel Parr 
built hewed-log houses. The picturesque "Narrows of the Licking " are in 
the eastern part of the county, which have elicited general praise from scenic 

Lawrence County was organized March 1, 1816. There are many high 
and abrupt hills in this section, which abound in sand or freestone. It is rich 
in minerals, and the most important section of Ohio for iron manufacture. 


Coal is abundant, and white clay exists in the western part suitable for pot- 
tery purposes. Agricultural productions are not extensive. 

The county was settled in 1797 by the Dutch and Irish. The iron region 
extends through the west part of this county. Lawrence County produces a 
superior quality of iron, highly esteeme^i for castings, and is equal to Scotch 
pig for furnace purposes. Burlington is the county seat. 

Lake County was formed from Geauga and Cuyahoga March 6, 18-40. The 
soil is good and the surface rolling. It produces wheat, corn, oats, buckwheat, 
barley, hay and potatoes. Dairy products, cattle and wool are also staples. 
Its fruits — apples, peaches, pears, plums and grapes are highly prized. As 
early as 1799, a settlement was formed at Mentor. Painesville, the county 
seat, is situated on Grand River, in a beautiful valley. The Painesville Acad- 
emy is a classical institution for the education of both sexes. Near the town 
is the Geauga furnace. Painesville was laid out by Henry Champion in 1805. 
At Fairport, the first warehouse in this section, and probably the first on the 
lake, was built by Abraham Skinner in 1803. This town has a fine harbor, 
and has a light-house and beacon. Kirtland, southwest from Painesville, was, 
in 1834, the headquarters of the Mormons. At that time, they numbered 
about three thousand. The old Mormon temple is of rough stone, plastered 
over, colored blue, and marked to imitate regular courses of masonry. As is 
well known, the Mormons derive their name from the book of Mormon, said to 
have been translated from gold plates found in a hill in Palmyra, N. Y. 

Madison County was organized in March, 1810. The surface is generally 
level. It produces grass, corn, oats and cattle — the latter forming a chief 
staple, while wool and pork add to the general wealth. 

Jonathan Alder was much interested in the settlement of the county. He, 
like some other whites, had lived with the Indians many years, and had formed, 
a lasting affection for them, and had married a squaw, with whom he became 
dissatisfied, which caused him to desire finding his own family. He suc- 
ceeded in this through the assistance of John Moore. He left his wife and 
joined his people. 

This county was first settled in 1795. Benjamin Springer made a clearing 
and built a cabin. He settled near Alder, and taught him the English lan- 
guage. Mr. Joshua Ewing brought four sheep to this place, and the Indians 
exhibited great astonishment over these strange animals. When the hostilities 
of 1812 began, the British offered inducements to the Indians to join them, and 
they consulted Alder regarding the best policy to adopt. He advised them to 
preserve neutrality until a later period, which they did, and eventually became 
firm friends of the Americans. 

London is the county seat, and was laid out in 1810-11, by Patrick McLene. 

Marion County was organized March 1, 1824. The soil is fertile, and pro- 
duces extensive farm crops. The Delaware Indians once held a reservation 
here, and conceded their claims in 1829, August 3, and removed west of the- 


Mississippi. Marion, the county seat, was laid out in 1821, by Eber Baker 
and Alexander Holmes. Gen. Harrison marched through this section during 
his campaign. 

Mahoning County was formed in 1846, from Trumbull and Columbiana. 
The surface is rolling and the soil generally fertile. The finer qualities of wood 
are produced here. Bituminous coal and iron are found in large quantities. 
Col. James Hillman came to the Western Reserve in 1786. The settlement 
of the county went forward. Canfield is the county seat. 

Medina County was formed from the Western Reserve February 12, 1812. 
The surface is rolling and the soil is fertile, producing fine agricultural prod- 
ucts. The first trail made through the county was made by George Poe, 
Joseph H. Larwell and Roswell M. Mason. The first settlement was made 
by Joseph Harris in 1811. He was soon joined by the Burr brothers. Me- 
dina is the county seat. 

Meigs County was formed from Gallia and Athens April 1, 1819. The 
general character of the soil is clayey, producing large quantities of wheat, oats, 
corn, hay and potatoes. Yast quantities of salt are made and exported. Pom- 
eroy, the county seat, is situated under a lofty hill, surrounded by picturesque 
scenery. Mr. Nathaniel Clark was the first settler of the county. He arrived in 
1816. The first coal mine opened in Pomeroy was in 1819, by David Bradshaw. 

Mercer County was formed from the Indian Territory in 1820. The sur- 
face is generally flat, and while covered with forests, inclined to be wet ; but, 
being cleared, it is very fertile, and adapted to producing farm crops. St. 
Clair's Battle was fought on the boundary line between this and Darke County. 
The Hon. Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur made a treaty at St. Mary's with 
the Wyandots, Shawnees and Ottawas, in 1818. The odious Simon Girty lived 
at one time at St. Mary's. Wayne built St. Mary's Fort, on the west bank of 
the river. John Whistler was the last commander of the fort. The largest 
artificial lake in the world, so it is asserted, is formed by the reservoir sup- 
plying the St. Mary's feeder of the Miami Extension Canal. It is about nine 
miles long, and from two to four broad. Celina is the county seat. 

Miami County was formed January 16, 1807, from Montgomery. It abounds 
in excellent limestone, and possesses remarkable water-power facilities. Its agri- 
cultural products rank highly in quality and quantity. John Knoop came into this 
section about the year 1797, and its first settlement began about this time. Troy, 
the county seat, is situated upon the Great Miami. Piqua is another lovely 
town. The Miami River affords delightful scenery at this point. 

Monroe County was formed January 29, 1813, from Belmont, Washington, 
and Guernsey. A portion of its surface is abrupt and hilly. Large quantities 
of tobacco are raised, and much pork is exported. Wheat and corn grow well 
in the western portion. Iron ore and coal abound. The valleys of the streams 
are very narrow, bounded by rough hills. In some places are natural rock 
o;rottoes. The first settlement was made in 1799, near the mouth of the Sunfish. 


At this time, wolves were numerous, and caused much alarm. Volney entered 
this county, but was not prepossessed in its favor. One township is settled by 
the Swiss, who are educated and refined. Woodsfield is the county seat. 

Montgomery County was formed from Ross and Hamilton May 1, 1803. 
The soil is fertile, and its agricultural products are most excellent. Quarries of 
grayish-white limestone are found east of the Miami. 

Dayton is the county seat, situated on the Great Miami, at the mouth of Mad 
River. A company was formed in 1788, but Indian wars prevented settlement. 
After Wayne's treaty, in 1795, a new company was formed. It advanced 
rapidly between the years 1812 and 1820. The beginning of the Miami Canal 
renewed its prosperity, in 1827. The first canal-boat from Cincinnati arrived 
at Dayton on the 25th of January, 1829. The first one arrived from Lake 
Erie in June, 1845. Col. Robert Patterson came to Dayton in 1804. At one 
time, he owned Lexington, Ky., and about one third of Cincinnati. 

Morgan County was organized in 1818, March 1. The surface is hilly and 
the soil strong and fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and tobacco. Pork is a 
prolific product, and considerable salt is made. The first settlement was made 
in 1790, on the Muskingum. McConnelsville is the county seat. Mr. Ayres 
made the first attempt to produce salt, in 1817. This has developed into a 
large industry. 

Morrow County was organized in 1848. It is drained by the Vernon 
River, which rises in it, by the East Branch of the Olontangy or Whetstone 
River, and by Walnut Creek. The surface is undulating, the soil fertile. 
The staple products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, wool and butter. The sugar 
maple abounds in the forests, and sandstone or freestone in the quarries. 
Mount Gilead, the county seat, is situated on the East Branch of the Olen- 
tangy River. 

Muskingum County was formed from Washington and Fairfield. The sur- 
face is rolling or hilly. It produces wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, tobacco, wool 
and pork. Large quantities of bituminous coal are found. Pipe clay, buhr- 
stone or cellular quartz are also in some portions of the State. Salt is made in 
large quantities— the fine being obtained from a stratum of whitish sandstone. 
The Wyandots, Delawares, Senecas and Shawanoese Indians once inhabited this 
section. An Indian town occupied the site of Duncan's Falls. A large Shawan- 
oese town was located near Dresden. 

Zanesville is the county seat, situated opposite the mouth of the Licking. 
It was laid out in 1799, by Mr. Zane and Mr. Mclntire. This is one of the 
principal towns in the State, and is surrounded by charming scenery. 

Noble County, organized in 1851, is drained by Seneca, Duck and Wills 
Creeks. The surface is undulating, and a large part of it is covered with for- 
ests. The soil is fertile. Its staples are corn, tobacco, wheat, hay, oats and 
wool. Among its mineral resources are limestone, coal and petroleum. Near 
Caldwell, the county seat, are found iron ore, coal and salt. 


Ottawa County was formed from Erie, Sandusky and Lucas, March 6, 1840, 
It is mostly within the Black Swamp, and considerable of its land is prairie and 
marsh. It was very thinly settled befere 1830. Extensive plaster beds exist 
on the peninsula, which extends into Lake Erie. It has also large limestone 
quarries, which are extensively worked. The very first trial at arms upon the 
soil of Ohio, during the war of 1812, occurred upon this peninsula. Port Clin- 
ton, the county seat, was laid out in 1827. 

Perry County was formed from Washington, Fairfield and Muskingum, 
March 1, 1817. Fine tobacco is raised in large quantities. Wheat, corn, oats, 
hay, cattle, pork and wool add to the general wealth. This county was first set- 
tled in 1801. First settler was Christian Binckley, who built the first cabin in 
the county, about five miles west of Somerset, near the present county line. 
New Lexington is now the county seat. 

Paulding County was formed from old Indian territory August 1, 1820. 
It produces corn, wheat and oats. Paulding is the county seat. 

Pickaway County was formed from Fairfield, Ross and Franklin, January 
12, 1810. The county has woodland, barren, plain and prairie. The barrens 
were covered by shrub oaks, and when cleared are adapted to the raising of corn 
and oats. The Pickaway plains are three and a half miles west of Circleville, 
and this tract is said to contain the richest land in Ohio. Here, in the olden 
times, burned the great council fires of the red man. Here the allied tribes met 
Gen. Lewis, who fought the battle of Point Pleasant. Dunmore's campaign 
was terminated on these plains. It was at the Chillicothe towns, after Dun- 
more's treaty, that Logan delivered his famous speech. Circleville, the county 
seat, is situated on the Scioto River and the Ohio Canal. It was laid out in 
1810, by Daniel Dresbach. It is situated on the site of ancient fortifications. 

Portage County was formed June 7, 1807, from Trumbull. It is a wealthy, 
thriving section. Over a thousand tons of cheese are annually produced. It 
also produces wheat, corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, rye, butter and wool. 
Ravenna is the county seat, and was originally settled by the Hon. Benjamin 
Tappen in June, 1799. In 1806, an unpleasant difficulty arose between the 
settlers and a camp of Indians in Deerfield, caused by a horse trade between a 
white man and an Indian. David Daniels settled on the site of Palmyra in 1799. 

Pike County was organized in 1815. The surface is generally hilly, which 
abound with freestone, which is exported in large quantities for building pur- 
poses. Rich bottom lands extend along the Scioto and its tributaries. John 
Noland and the three Chenoweth brothers settled on the Pee Pee prairie about 
1796. Piketown, the former county seat, was laid out about 1814. Waverly, 
the present county seat, is situated on the Scioto River. 

Preble County was formed March 1, 1808, from Montgomery and Butler. 
The soil is varied. Excellent water-power facilities are furnished. 

Eaton, the county seat, was laid out in 1806, by William Bruce, who owned 
the land. An overflowing well of strong sulphur water is near the town, while 
directly beside it is a limestone quarry. Holderman's quarry is about two 


miles distant, from which is obtained a beautifully clouded gray stone. Fort St. 
Clair was built near Eaton, in the winter of 1791-92. Gen. Harrison was an En- 
sign at the time, and commanded a guard every other night for three weeks, during 
the building. The severe battle of November 6, 1792, was fought under its very 
guns. Little Turtle, a distinguished chief of the Miamis, roamed over this county 
for a time. He was witty, brave and earnest, and, although engaged in several 
severe contests with the whites, he was inclined toward peace. But when his 
warriors cried for war he led them bravely. 

Putnam County was formed April 1, 1820, from old Indian territory. The 
soil is fertile, its principal productions being wheat, corn, potatoes and oats. 
Large quantities of pork are exported. Kalida, once the county seat, was laid 
out in 1834. Ottawa is the county seat. 

Ross County was formed August 20, 1798, by the proclamation of Gov. St. 
Clair, and was the sixth county formed in the Northwestern Territory. The 
Scioto River and Paint Creek run through it, bordered with fertile lands. 
Much water-power is obtained from the many streams watering it. The main 
crops are wheat, corn and oats. It exports cattle and hogs. 

The Rev. Robert W. Finley, in 1794, addressed a letter of inquiry to CoL 
Nathaniel Massie, as many of his associates had designed settling in the new 
State. This resulted in packing their several effects and setting out. A triv- 
ial Indian encounter was the only interruption they m t with on their way. 
After Wayne's treaty, Col. Massie and many of these early explorers met 
again and formed a settlement — in 1796 — at the mouth of Paint Creek. In. 
August of this year, Chillicothe was laid out by Col. Massie, in a dense forest. 
He donated lots to the early settlers. A ferry was established over the Scioto, 
and the opening of Zane's trace assisted the progress of settlement. 

Chillicothe, the county seat, is situated on the Scioto. Its site is thirty 
feet above the river. In 1800, it was the seat of the Northwestern Territorial 
Government. It was incorporated as a city in January, 1802. During the war 
of 1812, the city was a rendezvous for the United States troops. A large num- 
ber of British were at one time guarded here. Adena is a beautiful place, and 
the seat of Gov. Worthington's mansion, which was built in 1806. Near this 
is Fruit Hill, the residence of the late Gen. Mc Arthur, and latterly the home 
of his son-in-law, the Hon. William Allen. Eleven miles from Chillicothe, on. 
the road to Portsmouth, is the home of the hermit of the Scioto. 

Richland was organized March 1, 1813. It produces wheat, corn, oats, hay, 
potatoes, rye, hemp and barley. It was settled about 1809, on branches of the 
Mohican. Two block-houses were built in 1812. Mansfield, the county seat, 
is charmingly situated, and was laid out in 1808, by Jacob Newman, James 
Hedges and Joseph H. Larwell. The county was at that period a vast wilder- 
ness, destitute of roads. From this year, the settlement progressed rapidly. 

Sandusky County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian Territory. 
The soil is fertile, and country generally level. It mainly produces corn, wheat, 


oats, potatoes and pork. The Indians were especially delighted with this tract. 
Near Lower Sandusky lived a band of Wyandots, called the Neutral Nation. 
These two cities never failed to render refuge to any who sought their protec- 
tion. They preserved their peacemaking attributes through the Iroquois 
conflicts. Fremont, formerly called Lower Sandusky, the county seat, is 
situated at the head of navigation, on the Sandusky, on the site of the old 
reservation grant to the Indians, at the Greenville treaty council. Fort 
Stephenson was erected in August, 1813, and was gallantly defended by Col. 

Summit County was formed March 3, 1840, from Medina, Portage and 
Stark. The soil is fertile and produces excellent fruit, besides large crops of 
corn, wheat, hay, oats and potatoes. Cheese and butter may be added as 

The first settlement made in the county was at Hudson, in 1800. The old 
Indian portage-path, extending through this county, between the Cuyahoga, and 
Tuscarawas Branch of the Muskingum. This was a part of the ancient boundary 
between the Six Nations and the Western Indians. Akron, the county seat, is 
situated on the portage summit. It was laid out in 1825. In 1811, Paul 
Williams and Amos and Minor Spicer settled in this vicinity. Middlebury was 
laid out in 1818, by Norton & Hart. 

Stark County was formed February 13, 1808. It is a rich agricultural 
county. It has large quantities of mineral coal, iron ore, flocks of the finest 
sheep and great water-power. Limestone and extensive beds of lime-marl exist. 
The manufacture of silk has been extensively carried on. Frederick Post, the 
first Moravian missionary in Ohio, settled here in 1761. 

Canton is the county seat, situated in the forks of the Nimishillen, a tribu- 
tary of the Muskingum. It was laid out in 1806, by Bezaleel Wells, who 
owned the land. Massillon was laid out in March, 1826, by John Duncan. 

Shelby County was formed in 1819, from Miami. The southern portion is 
undulating, arising in some places to hills. Through the north, it is a flat table- 
land. It produces wheat, corn, oats and grass. The first point of English set- 
tlement in Ohio was at the mouth of Laramie's Creek, in this county, as early 
as 1752. Fort Laramie was built in 1794, by Wayne. The first white family 
that settled in this county was that of James Thatcher, in 1804. Sidney, the 
county seat, was laid out in 1819, on the farm of Charles Starrett. 

Seneca County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. 
Its principal products are corn, wheat, grass, oats, potatoes and pork. 

Fort Seneca was built during the war of 1812. The Senecas owned 
40,000 acres of land on the Sandusky River, mostly in Seneca County. 
Thirty thousand acres of this land Avas granted to them in 1817, at the treaty 
held at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. The remaining 10,000 was granted 
the following year. These Indians ceded this tract, hoAvever, to the Govern- 
ment in 1831. It was asserted by an old chief, that this band was the remnant 


of Logan's tribe. Tiffin, the county seat, was laid out by Josiah Hedges in 
"the year 1821. 

Scioto County was formed May 1, 1803. It is a good agricultural section, 
besides producing iron ore, coal and freestone. It is said that a French fort 
stood at the mouth of the old Scioto, as early as 1740. In 1785, four families 
settled where Portsmouth now stands. Thomas McDonald built the first cabin in 
the county. The "French grant" was located in this section — a tract com- 
prising 24,000 acres. The grant was made in March, 1795. Portsmouth, the 
county seat, is located upon the Ohio. 

Trumbull County was formed in 1800. The original Connecticut Western 
Reserve was within its limits. The county is well cultivated and very wealthy. 
Coal is found in its northern portion. We have, in our previous outline, given 
a history of this section, and it is not, therefore, necessary to repeat its details. 
Warren, the county seat, is situated on the Mahoning River. It was laid out 
by Ephraim Quinby in 1801. Mr. Quinby owned the soil. His cabin was built 
here in 1799. In August, 1800, while Mr. McMahon was away from home, 
a party of drunken Indians called at the house, abused the family, struck a 
child a severe blow with a tomahawk and threatened to kill the family. Mrs. 
McMahon could not send tidings which could reach her husband before noon 
the following day. The following Sunday morning, fourteen men and two 
boys armed themselves and went to the Indian camp to settle the difficulty. 
Quinby advanced alone, leaving the remainder in concealment, as he was better 
acquainted with these people, to make inquiries and ascertain their intentions. 
He did not return at once, and the party set out, marched into camp, and found 
Quinby arguing with Capt. George, the chief Capt. George snatched his 
tomahaAvk and declared war, rushing forward to kill McMahon. But a bullet 
from the frontierman's gun killed him instantly, while Storey shot " Spotted 
John" at the same time. The Indians then fled. They joined the council at 
Sandusky. Quinby garrisoned his house. Fourteen days thereafter, the 
Indians returned with overtures of peace, which were, that McMahon and 
Storey be taken to Sandusky, tried by Indian laws, and if found guilty, pun- 
ished by them. This could not be done. McMahon was tried by Gen. St. 
Clair, and the matter was settled. The first missionary on the Reserve was the 
Rev. Joseph Badger. 

Tuscarawas County was formed February 15, 1808, from Muskingum. It 
is well cultivated with abundant supplies of coal and iron. 

The first white settlers were Moravian missionaries, their first visits dating 
back to 1761. The first permanent settlement was made in 1798. Miss Mary 
Heckewelder, the daughter of a missionary, was born in this county April 16, 
1781. Fort Laurens was built during the Revolution. It was the scene of a 
fearful carnage. It was established in the fall of 1778, and placed under the 
command of Gen. Mcintosh. New Philadelphia is the county seat, situated on 
the Tuscarawas. It was laid out in 1804 by John Knisely. A German 


colony settled in this county in 1817, driven from their native land by religious 
dictation they could not espouse. They called themselves Separatists. They 
are a simple-minded people, strictly moral and honest. 

Union County was formed from Franklin, Delaware, Logan and Madison in 
1^20. It produces corn, grass, wheat, oats, potatoes, butter and cheese. 
Extensive limestone quarries are also valuable. The Ewing brothers made the 
first white settlement in 1798. Col. James Curry, a member of the State Leg- 
islature, was the chief instigator in the progress of this section. He located 
within its limits and remained until his death, which occurred in 1831. Marys- 
ville is the county seat. 

Van Wert County was formed from the old Indian territory April 1, 1820. 
A great deal of timber is within the limits of this county, but the soil is so 
tenacious that water will not sink through it, and crops are poor during wet 
seasons. The main product is corn. Van Wert, the county seat, was founded 
by James W. Riley in 1837. An Indian town had formerly occupied its site. 
Capt. Riley was the first white man who settled in the county, arriving in 1821. 
He founded Willshire in 1822. 

Vinton County was organized in 1 850. It is drained by Raccoon and Salt 
Creeks. The surface is undulating or hilly, and is extensively covered with 
forests in which the oak, buckeye and sugar maple are found. Corn, hay, but- 
ter and wool are staple products. Bituminous coal and iron ore are found. 
McArthur is the county seat. 

Washington County was formed by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair July 27, 
1788, and was the first county founded within the limits of Ohio. The surface 
is broken with extensive tracts of level, fertile land. It was the first county 
settled in the State under the auspices of the Ohio Company. A detachment 
of United States troops, under command of Maj. John Doughty, built Fort 
Harmar in 1785, and it was the first military post established in Ohio by 
Americans, with the exception of Fort Laurens, which was erected in 1778. 
It was occupied by United States troops until 1790, when they were ordered 
to Connecticut. A company under Capt. Haskell remained. In 1785, the 
Directors of the Ohio Company began practical operations, and settlement 
went forward rapidly. Campus Martins, a stockade fort, was completed in 
1791. This formed a sturdy stronghold during the war. During the Indian 
war there was much suffering in the county. Many settlers were killed and 

Marietta is the county seat, and the oldest town in Ohio. Marietta College 
was chartered in 1835. Herman Blannerhassett, whose unfortunate association 
with Aaron Burr proved fatal to himself, was a resident of Marietta in 1796. 
About the year 1798, he began to beautify and improve his island. 

Warren County was formed May 1, 1803, from Hamilton. The soil is 
very fertile, and considerable water-power is furnished by its streams. Mr. 
Bedell made the first settlement in 1795. Lebanon is the county seat. Henry 


Taylor settled in this vicinity in 1796. Union Village is a settlement of 
Shakers. They came here about 1805. 

Wayne County was proclaimed by Gov. St. Clair August 15, 1796, and 
was the third county in the Northwest Territory. The settlement of this sec- 
tion has already been briefly delineated. Wooster is the county seat. It was 
laid out during the fall of 1808, by John Beaver, William Henry and Joseph 
H. Larwell, owners of the land. Its site is 337 feet above Lake Erie. The 
first mill was built by Joseph Stibbs, in 1809, on Apple Creek. In 1812, a 
block- house was erected in Wooster. 

Wood County was formed from the old Indian territory in 1820. The soil 
is rich, and large crops are produced. The county is situated within the Mau- 
mee Valley. It was the arena of brilliant military exploits during early times. 
Bowling Green is the county seat. 

Williams County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. 
Bryan is the county seat. It was laid out in 1840. 

Wyandot County was formed February 3, 1845, from Marion, Hardin, Han- 
cock and Crawford. The surface is level, and the soil exceedingly fertile. 
The Wyandot Indians occupied this section, especially the reservation, from 
time immemorial until 1843. The treaty of 1817, by Hon. Lewis Cass and 
Hon. Duncan McArthur, United States Commissioners, granted to the Indians 
a reservation twelve miles square, the central point being Fort Ferree, now 
within the corporate limits of Upper Sandusky. The Delaware Reserve was 
ceded to the United States in 1829. The Wyandots ceded theirs March 17, 
1842. Col. John Johnston, the United States Commissioner, conducted the 
negotiations, and thus made the Indian treaty in Ohio. It was the scene of 
Col. Crawford's defeat and tragic death, June 11, 1782. The Wyandots were 
exceedingly brave, and several of their chiefs were distinguished orators and 
men of exalted moral principles. 

Upper Sandusky is the county seat, and was laid out in 1843. Gen. Har- 
rison had built Fort Ferree on this spot during the war of 1812. Gov. Meigs, 
in 1813, encamped on this river with several thousand of the Ohio militia. 

The Indian village of Crane Town was originally called Upper Sandusky. 
The Indians, after the death of Tarhe, or " the Crane," transferred their town 
to Upper Sandusky. 


The Territorial Governors we have already mentioned in the course of our 
brief review of the prominent events of the State of Ohio. After the Terri- 
tory was admitted as a State, in 1802, Edward Tiffin was elected to that posi- 
tion, and again received the same honor in 1804 and 1806. In 1807, circum- 
stances led him to resign, and Thomas Kirker, Speaker of the Senate, acted as 
Governor until the close of the term. 

Edward Tiffin was born in Carlisle, England, coming to this country in 
1784, at the age of eighteen. He entered the University of Pennsylvania, and 
applied himself to the study of medicine, graduating and beginning his practice 
at the age of twenty, in the State of Virginia. In 1789, he married Mary, 


daughter of Col. Worthington, and sister of Thomas Worthingtoii, who subse- 
quently became Governor of Ohio. In his profession, Gov. Tiffin was highly 
esteemed, and his public labors were carried forward with a zealous earnestness 
which marked his career as one of usefulness. He settled in Chillicothe, Ohio, 
in 1796, where he died, in 1829. 

Samuel Huntington, the recipient of the honor of third Governor, was 
inaugurated in 1808. He was an American by birth, Norwich, Conn.^ 
being his native place. He was a diligent student in Yale College, graduating 
in 1785. He removed to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1801. He attained a reputation 
for integrity, ability and rare discretion. As a scholar, he Avas eminently supe- 
rior. He resided in Cleveland at the time of his death, in 1817. 

Return Jonathan Meigs followed Gov. Huntington. He was born in Mid- 
dletown, Conn., in 1765. He was also a student in Yale College, graduating 
in 1785, with the highest honors. He immediately entered the study of law, 
and was admitted to practice in his twenty-third year. He married Miss Sophia 
Wright, and settled in Marietta, Ohio, in 1788. He took his seat as Gover- 
nor in 1810, and was re-elected in 1812. In 1813, President Madison appointed 
him to the position of Postmaster General, which occasioned his resignation as 
Governor. Othniel Looker, Speaker of the Senate, acted as Governor during 
the remainder of the term. Mr. Meigs died in 1825, leaving as a memento of 
his usefulness, a revered memory. 

Thomas Worthington, the sixth Governor, was born in Jefferson County, 
Va., in 1769. He gained an education in William and Mary's College. 
In 1788, he located at Chillicothe, and was the first Senator from the new 
State. He was also the first man to erect the first saw-mill in Ohio. He 
served two terms as Senator, from 1803 to 1815, resigning in 1814, to take his 
position as Governor. In 1816, he was re-elected. He was exceedingly active 
in paving the way for the future prosperity of Ohio. His measures were famous 
for practical worth and honesty. Chief Justice Chase designated him as '' a 
gentleman of distinguished ability and great influence." He died in 1827. 

Ethan Allen Brown followed Mr. Worthington. His birthplace was on the 
shore of Long Island Sound, in Fairfield County, Conn., July 4, 1766. His 
education was derived under the most judicious instruction of a private tutor. 
In classics, he became proficient. Directly he had reached the required stand- 
ard in general education, he began the study of law% at home. After becoming 
conversant with preliminary requirements, he entered the law office of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, who at that time was a national pride, as a scholar, lawyer and 
statesman. Opportunities coming in his way, which promised a fortune, he 
abandoned the law, and achieved success and a fortune. He then decided to 
return to his study, and was admitted to practice in 1802. Thereafter, he was 
• seized with an exploring enthusiasm, and with his cousin as a companion, set 
out upon a horseback tour, following the Indian trails from east to west, through 
Pennsylvania, until they reached Brownsville, on the Monongahela River. Here 


they purchased two flatboats, and fully stocking them with provisions and 
obtaining efficient crews, started for New Orleans. Reaching that city, they 
found they could not dispose of their (cargoes to any advantage, and shipped the 
flour to Liverpool, England, taking passage in the same vessel. They succeeded 
in obtaining good prices for their stock, and set sail for America, arriving in Bal- 
timore nine months after first leaving " home," on this adventure. Mr. Brown's 
father decided to secure a large and valuable tract of Western land, as a per- 
manent home, and authorized his son to select and purchase the same for him. 
He found what he desired, near Rising Sun, Ind. After this, he settled in 
Cincinnati, and engaged in the practice of law, speedily achieving prominency 
and distinction. Financially, he was most fortunate. In 1810, he was elected 
Judge of the Supreme Court, Avhich position he filled with honor, until he was 
chosen Governor, in 1818. He was re-elected in 1820. In 1821, he received 
the honor of Senator, and served one term. Allen Trimble, Speaker of the 
Senate, acted as Governor the remainder of the term. In 1830 he was 
appointed Minister to Brazil. He remained there four years, and returning, 
was appointed Commissioner of Public Lands, by President Jackson, holding 
this position two years. At this time, he decided to retire from public life. 
Since he never married, he was much with his relatives, at Rising Sun, Ind., 
during the latter part of his life. His death was sudden and unexpected, occur- 
ring in February, 1852, while attending a Democratic Convention, at Indianap- 
olis, Ind. He was interred near his father, at Rising Sun. 

Jeremiah Morrow, the ninth Governor of Ohio, was born at Gettysburg, 
Penn., in October, 1771. His people were of the " Scotch-Irish " class, and his 
early life was one of manual labor upon his father's farm. During the winter, 
he had the privilege of a private school. With a view of establishing himself 
and securing a competency, he bade the old home farewell, in 1795, and set out 
for the " Far West." A flatboat carried him to a little cluster of cabins, known 
by the name of Columbia, six miles from Fort Washington — Cincinnati, He 
devoted himself to whatever came in his way, that seemed best and most worthy 
— teaching school, surveying and working on farms between times. Having 
accumulated a small capital, he ascended the Little Miami, as far as Warren 
County, and there purchased an extensive farm, and erected an excellent log 
house. In the spring of 1799, he married Miss Mary Packtrell, of Columbia. 
The young couple set out upon pioneer farming. Gaining popularity as well as 
a desirable property, he was deputized to the Territorial Legislature, which met 
at Chillicothe, at which time measures were inaugurated to call a Constitutional 
Convention, during the following year, to organize the State of Ohio. Mr. 
Morrow was one of the Delegates to this convention, and steadfastly worked in the 
interests of those who sent him, until its close in 1802. The following year, 
he was elected to the Senate of Ohio,, and in June of the same year, he was 
appointed the first Representative to the United States Congress from the new 


Ohio was then entitled to but one Representative in Congress, and could not 
add to that number for ten years thereafter. During these years, Mr. Morrow 
represented the State. In 1813, he was sent to the United States Senate, and 
in 1822, was elected Governor of Ohio, almost unanimously, being re-elected in 
1824. It was during his administration that work was begun on the Ohio 
Canal. Mr. Morrow received the national guest. La Fayette, with an earnest 
and touching emotion, which affected the emotions of the generous Frenchman 
more profoundly than any of the elaborate receptions which paved his way 
through America. On the 4th of July, 1839, Gov. Morrow was appointed to 
lay the corner stone of the new State capitol, at Columbus, and to deliver the 
address on this occasion. Again, in 1840, he was in the House of Representa- 
tives, filling the vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. Thomas Corwin. 
He was elected for the following term also. He died at his own honlestead, in 
Warren County, March 22, 1853. 

Allen Trimble was a native of Augusta County, Va. The date of his birth 
was November 24, 1783. His ancestors were of Scotch-Irish origin, and were 
among the early settlers of Virginia. His father moved to Ohio in 1804, pur- 
chasing a tract of land in Highland County. His cabin was remarkably spa- 
cious, and elicited the admiration of his neighbors. He cleared six acres of 
land for an orchard, and brought the trees on horseback, from Kentucky. Be- 
fore this new home was completed, Allen, then a young man of twenty, took 
possession. This was in the year 1805. Four years thereafter, he occupied 
the position of Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas and Recorder of High- 
land County. He was serving in the latter capacity at the breaking out of the 
war of 1812. Naturally enthusiastic and patriotic, he engaged a competent 
person to perform his civil duties, while he went into active service as Colonel 
of a regiment he had summoned and enlisted. He was always eager to be in 
the front, and led his men with such valor that they were termed soldiers who 
did not know the art of flinching. His commanding General lavished praises 
upon him. In 1816, he was in the State Senate, representing Highland 
County. He occupied the same position for four terms, two years each. In 
1818, he was Speaker of the Senate, over Gen. Robert Lucas. He remained 
in this office until elected to the United States Senate, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of his brother. Col. William A. Trimble. When Governor Brown 
resigned to accept the office of United States Senator in 1822, he succeeded to 
the office, acting as Governor the remainder of the term. In October, 1826, 
he was elected Governor of Ohio, by an astonishing majority. The united vote 
of his three competitors was but one-sixth of the vote polled. Gov. Trimble 
was an earnest Henry Clay Whig. In 1828 he was re-elected. Gov. Trimble 
was married in 1806 to Miss Margaret McDowell. Three years thereafter 
she died, leaving two children. He was united in marriage to Miss Rachel 
Woodrow, and they lived together sixty years, when he died, at home, in Hills- 
boro. Highland County, Feb. 3, 1870. His wife survived him but a few months. 


Duncan McArthur, the tenth Governor of Ohio, was born in Dutchess 
County, N. Y., in 1772. While yet a child, his parents removed to the west- 
ern part of Pennsylvania, where they entered upon the hard life of pioneers. 
While there, young Duncan had the meager advantages of a backwoods school. 
His life was a general routine -until his eighteenth year, when he enlisted under 
Gen. Harmer for the Indian campaign. His conduct and bravery won worthy 
laurels, and upon the death of the commander of his company, he was elected 
to that position, although the youngest man in the company. When his days 
of service had expired, he found employment at salt-making in Maysville, Ky., 
until he was engaged as chain-bearer in Gen. Massie's survey of the Scioto 
Valley. At this time, Indian atrocities alarmed the settlers occasionally, and 
his reputation for bravery caused him to be appointed one of the three patrols 
of the Kentucky side of the Ohio, to give the alarm to scattered cabins in case 
of danger. This was during the summer of 1793. Gen. Massie again secured 
his services, this time as assistant surveyor. He was thus engaged for several 
years, during which time he assisted in platting Chillicothe. He purchased a 
large tract of land just north of town, and under his vigorous and practical 
management, it became one of the finest estates of Ohio, which reputation it 
sustains at the present time. He amassed wealth rapidly, his investments 
always being judicious. In 1805, he was elected to the State Legislature. 
He was a Colonel of an Ohio regiment, and accompanied Gen. Hull to Detroit 
in 1813. At Hull's surrender he was a prisoner, but released on parole, 
returned to Ohio in a state of indignation over his commander's stupidity. 
Soon thereafter he was sent to Congress on the Democratic ticket. Soon there- 
after he was released from parole by exchange, and, greatly rejoiced, he 
resigned his seat, entered the army as a Brigadier General under Gen. Harri- 
son, and the following year succeeded him as commander of the Northwestern 
forces. At the termination of the war, he was immediately returned to the 
State Legislature. He occupied State offices until 1822, when he was again 
sent to Congress. Serving one term, he declined re-election. In 1830, he 
was elected Governor of Ohio. When his term expired, he decided to enjoy 
life as a citizen on his farm, "Fruit Hill," and lived there in contentment until 
1840, when he died. 

Robert Lucas was another Virginian, having been born in 1781, in Jeffer- 
son County of that State. While a boy, his father liberated his slaves, movinc^ 
to Chillicothe as one of the early settlers. He procured a proficient tutor for 
his children. Robert became an expert in mathematics and surveying. Before 
he reached his majority, he was employed as surveyor, earning liberal compen- 
sation. At the age of twenty-three, he was appointed Surveyor of Scioto 
County. At twenty-five, he was Justice of the Peace for Union Township, 
Scioto County. He married Miss Elizabeth Brown in 1810, who died two 
years thereafter, leaving a young daughter. In 1816, he married Miss Sum- 
ner. The same year he was elected a member of the Ohio Legislature. Tor 


nineteen consecutive years he served in the House or Senate. In 1820 and 
1828, he was chosen one of the Presidential electors of Ohio. In 1832, 
he was Chairman of the National Convention at Baltimore, which nom- 
inated Gen. Jackson as President of the United States. In 1832, he 
became Governor of Ohio, and was re-elected in 1834. He declined a third 
nomination, and was appointed by President Van Buren Territorial Governor 
of Iowa and Superintendent of Indian Affairs. On the 16th of August, 
1838, he reached Burlington, the seat of government. He remained in Iowa 
until his death, in 1853. 

Joseph Vance, the twelfth Governor of Ohio, was born in Washington 
County, Penn., March 21, 1781. He was of Scotch-Irish descent, and his 
father emigrated to the new Territory when Joseph was two years of age. He 
located on the southern bank of the Ohio, building a solid block house. This 
formed a stronghold for his neighbors in case of danger. In 1801, this pioneer 
decided to remove north of the Ohio River, and eventually settled in Urbana. 
Joseph had the primitive advantages of the common schools, and became pro- 
ficient in handling those useful implements — the plow, ax and rifle. The first 
money he earned he invested in a yoke of oxen. He obtained several barrels 
of salt, and set out on a speculative tour through the settlements. He traveled" 
through a wilderness, over swamps, and surmounted serious difficulties. At 
night he built a huge fire to terrify the wolves and panthers, and laid down to 
sleep beside his oxen, frequently being obliged to stand guard to protect 
them from these ferocious creatures. Occasionally he found a stream so swol- 
len that necessarily he waited hours and even days in the tangled forest, before 
he could cross. He often suffered from hunger, yet he sturdily persevered and 
sold his salt, though a lad of only fifteen years. When he attained his major- 
ity, he married Miss Mary Lemen, of Urbana. At twenty-three, he was 
elected Captain of a rifle company, and frequently led his men to the front to 
fight the Indians prior to the war of 1812. During that year, he and his 
brother piloted Hull's army through the dense forests to Fort Meigs. In 1817, 
with Samuel McCullough and Henry Van Meter, he made a contract to supply 
the Northwestern army with provisions. They drove their cattle and hogs 
many miles, dead weight being transported on sleds and in wagons. He 
engaged in mercantile business at Urbana and Fort Meigs — now Perrysburg. 

While thus employed, he was elected to the Legislature, and there remained 
four years. He then purchased a large tract of land on Blanchard's Fork, 
and laid out the town of Findlay. He was sent to Congress in 1821, and was 
a member of that body for fifteen years. In 1836, he was chosen Governor of 
Ohio. Again he was sent to Congress in 1842. While attending the Consti- 
tutional Convention in 1850, he was stricken with paralysis, and suffered 
extremely until 1852, when he died at his home in Urbana. 

Wilson Shannon was a native of Belmont County, Ohio. He was born 
during 1803. At the age of fifteen, he was sent to the university at Athens, 

f '^ m.'' 




where he remained a year, and then changed to the Transylvania University, 
at Lexington, Ky. He continued his studies two years, then returning home 
and entering upon reading law. He completed his course at St. Clairsville, 
Belmont County, and was admitted to practice. He was engaged in the courts 
of the county for eight years. In 1832, the Democrats nominated him to Con- 
gress, but he was not elected. He received the position of Prosecuting Attor- 
ney in 1834, in which position his abilities were so marked that in 1838 he was 
elected Governor by a majority of 3,600. He was re-nominated in 1840, but 
Tom Corwin won the ticket. Two years thereafter he was again nominated and 
elected. In 1843 he was appointed Minister to Mexico, Thomas W. Bartley, 
Speaker of the Senate, acting as Governor the remainder of the term. When 
Texas was admitted as a State, Mexico renounced all diplomatic relations with the 
United States. Mr. Shannon returned horn and resumed the practice of law. He 
was sent to Congress in 1852. President Pierce conferred upon him the posi- 
tion of Territorial Governor of Kansas, which duty he did not perform satis- 
factorily, and was superseded after fourteen months of service. He settled in 
Lecompton, Kan., and there practiced law until his death, which occurred in 

Thomas Corwin, the fourteenth Governor of Ohio, was born in Bourbon 
County, Ky., July 29, 1794. His father settled at Lebanon in 1798. The 
country was crude, and advantages meager. When Thomas was seventeen 
years of age, the war of 1812 was inaugurated, and this young man was 
engaged to drive a wagon through the wilderness, loaded with provisions, to 
Gen. Harrison's headquarters. In 1816, he began the study of law, and 
achieved knowledge so rapidly that in 1817 he passed examination and was 
admitted to practice. He was elected Prosecuting Attorney of his county, in 
1818, which position he held until 1830. He was elected to the Legislature of 
Ohio in 1822, Again, in 1829, he was a member of the same body. He was 
sent to Congress in 1830, and continued to be re-elected for the space of ten 
years. He became Governor of Ohio in 1840. In 1845, he was elected to 
the LTnited States Senate, where he remained until called to the cabinet of Mr. 
Fillmore, as Secretary of the Treasury. He was again sent to Congress in 
1858, and re-elected in 1860. He was appointed Minister to Mexico, by Pres- 
ident Lincoln. After his return, he practiced law in Washington, D. '0 , 
where he died in 1866. 

Mordecai Bartley was born in 1783, in Fayette County, Penn. There he 
remained, on his father's farm, until he was twenty -one years of age. He mar- 
ried Miss Wells in 1804, and removed to Jefferson County, Ohio, where he 
purchased a farm, near Cross Creek. At the opening of the war of 1812, he 
enlisted in a company, and was elected its Captain. He entered the field under 
Harrison. At the close of the war, he removed to Richland County, and opened 
a clearing and set up a cabin, a short distance from Mansfield. He remained 
on his farm twenty years, then removing to Mansfield, entered the mercantile 



business. In 1817, he was elected to the State Senate. He was sent to Con- 
gress in 1823, and served four terms. In 1844, he became Governor of Ohio, 
on the Whig ticket. He declined a re-nomination, preferring to retire to his 
home in Mansfield, where he died in 1870. 

William Bebb, the seventeenth Governor, was from Hamilton County, Ohio. 
He was born in 1804. His early instructions were limited, but thorough. He 
opened a school himself, when he was twenty years of age, at North Bend, 
residing in the house of Gen. Harrison. He remained thus employed a year, 
during which time he married Shuck. He very soon began the study of law, 
continuing his school. He was successful in his undertakings, and many pupils 
were sent him from the best families in Cincinnati. In 1831, he was admitted 
to practice, and opened an office in Hamilton, Butler County, remaining thus 
engaged for fourteen years. In 1845, he was elected Governor of Ohio. In 
1847, he purchased 5,000 acres of land in the Rock River country. 111., and 
removed there three years later. On the inauguration of President Lincoln, he 
was appointed Pension Examiner, at Washington, and remained in that position 
until 1866, when he returned to his Illinois farm. He died at Rockford, 111., 
in 1873. 

Seabury Ford, the eighteenth Governor of Ohio, was born in the year 1802, 
at Cheshire, Conn. His parents settled in Burton Township. He attended 
the common schools, prepared for college at an- academy in Burton, and entered 
Yale College, in 1821, graduating in 1825. He then began the study of law, 
in the law office of Samuel W. Phelps, of Painesville, completing his course 
with Judge Hitchcock. He began practice in 1827, in Burton. He married 
Miss Harriet E. Cook, of Burton, in 1828. He was elected by the Whigs to 
the Legislature, in 1835, and served six sessions, during one of which he was 
Speaker of the House. He entered the State Senate in 1841, and there 
remained until 1844, when he was again elected Representative. In 1846, he 
was appointed to the Senate, and in 1848, he became Governor of Ohio. On 
the first Sunday after his retirement, he was stricken with paralysis, from which 
he never recovered. He died at his home in Burton in 1855. 

Reuben Wood, the nineteenth Governor, was a Vermonter. Born in 1792, 
in Middleton, Rutland County, he was a sturdy son of the Green Mountain 
State. He was a thorough scholar, and obtained a classical education in L^pper 
Canada. In 1812, he was drafted by the Canadian authorities to serve against 
the Americans, but being determined not to oppose his own land, he escaped 
one stormy night, accompanied by Bill Johnson, who was afterward an Ameri- 
can spy. In a birchbark canoe they attempted to cross Lake Ontario. A 
heavy storm of wind and rain set in. The night was intensely dark, and they 
were in great danger. They fortunately found refuge on a small island, where 
they were storm-bound three days, suffering from hunger and exposure. They 
reached Socket's Harbor at last, in a deplorable condition. Here they were 
arrested as spies by the patrol boats of the American fleet. They were prisoners 


four days, when an uncle of Mr. Wood's, residing not far distant, came ta 
their rescue, vouched for their loyalty, and they were released. Mr. Wood 
then went to Woodville, N. Y., where he raised a company, of which he was 
elected Captain. They marched to the northern frontier. The battles of 
riattsburg and Lake Champlain were fought, the enemy defeated, and the com- 
pany returned to Woodville and was disbanded. 

Young Wood then entered the law office of Gen. Jonas Clark, at Middle- 
bury, Vt. He was married in 1816, and two years later, settled in Cleveland, 
Ohio. When he first established himself in the village, he possessed his wife, 
infant daughter and a silver quarter of a dollar. He was elected to the State 
Senate in 1825, and filled the office three consecutive terms. He was appointed 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He was promoted to the Bench of the 
Supreme Court, serving there fourteen years, the latter portion of the term as 
Chief Justice. He was termed the "Cayuga Chief," from his tall form and 
courtly bearing. He was elected Governor in 1850, by a majority of 11,000. 
The new-constitution, which went into effect in March, 1851, vacated the office 
of Governor, and he was re-elected by a majority of 26,000. The Democrats 
holding a national convention in Baltimore in 1852, party division caused fifty 
unavailing votes. The Virginia delegation offered the entire vote to Gov. 
Wood, if Ohio would bring him forward. The opposition of one man pre- 
vented this. The offer was accepted by New Hampshire, and Frank Pierce 
became President. Mr. Wood was appointed Consul to Valparaiso, South 
America, and resigned his office of Governor. He resigned his consulship and 
returned to his fine farm near Cleveland, called "Evergreen Place." He 
expected to address a Union meeting on the 5th of October, 1864, but on the 
1st he died, mourned by all who knew him. 

William Medill, the twentieth Governor, was born in New Castle County, 
Del., in 1801. He was a graduate of Delaware College in 1825. He began 
the study of law under Judge Black, of New Castle, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1832. He removed to Lancaster, Ohio, in 1830. He was elected Rep- 
resentative from Fairfield County in 1835. He was elected to Congress in 
1838, and was re-elected in 1840. He was appointed Assistant Postmaster 
General by President Polk. During the same year, he was appointed Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs. In 1851, he was elected Lieutenant Governor, and, 
in 1853, he became Governor. He occupied the position of First Comptroller 
of the United States Treasury in 1857, under President Buchanan, retaining the 
office until 1861, when he retired from public life. His death occurred in 

Salmon P. Chase was a native of Cornish, N. H. He was born in 1803. 
He entered Dartmouth College in 1822, graduating in 1826. He was there- 
after successful in establishing a classical school in Washington, but finan- 
cially it did not succeed. He continued to teach the sons of Henry Clay, 
William Wirt and S. L. Southard, at the same time reading law when not busy 

154 IILSTuilV ()!•• THE STATE UF OlliO. 

as tutor. He was admitted to practice in 1829, and opened a law oflEice in Cin- 
cinnati. He succeeded but moderately, and during his leisure hours prepared 
a new edition of the "Statutes of Ohio." He added annotations and a well- 
written sketch of the early history of the State. This was a thorough success, 
:and gave the earnest worker popularity and a stepping-stone for the future. 
He was solicitor for the banks of the United States in 1834, and soon there- 
rafter, for the city banks. He achieved considerable distinction in 1837, in the 
case of a colored woman brought into the State by her master, and escaping 
his possession. He was thus brought out as an Abolitionist, which was further 
sustained by his defense of James G. Birney, who had suffered indictment for 
harborina: a fugitive slave. In 1846, associated with William H. Seward, he 
defended Van Zandt before the Supreme Court of the United States. His 
thrilling denunciations and startling conjectures alarmed the slaveholding 
States, and subsequently led to the enactment of the fugitive-slave law of 1850. 
Mr. Chase was a member of the United States Senate in 1849, through the 
coalition of the Democrats and Free-Soilers. In 1855, he was elected Gover- 
nor of Ohio by the opponents of Pierce's administration. He was re-elected 
in 1859. President Lincoln, in 1861, tendered him the position of Secretary 
■of the Treasury. To his ability and official management we are indebted for 
the present national bank system. In 1864, he was appointed Chief Justice of 
the United States. He died in the city of New York in 1873, after a useful 

William Dennison was born in Cincinnati in 1815. He gained an educa- 
tion at Miami University, graduating in 1835. He began the study of law in 
the office of the father of George H. Pendleton, and was qualified and admitted 
to the bar in 1840. The same year, he married a daughter of William Neil, 
of Columbus. The Whigs of the Franklin and Delaware District sent him to 
the State Senate, in 1848. He was President of the Exchange Bank in Cin- 
cinnati, in 1852, and was also President of Columbus k Xenia Railway. He was 
elected the twenty-second Governor of Ohio in 1859. By his promptness and 
activity at the beginning of the rebellion, Ohio was placed in the front rank of 
loyalty. At the beginning of Lincoln's second term, he was appointed Post- 
master General, retiring upon the accession of Johnson. He then made his 
home at Columbus. 

David Tod, twenty-third Governor of Ohio, was born at Youngstown, Ohio, 
in 1805. His education was principally obtained through his own exertions. 
He set about the study of law most vigorously, and was admitted to practice in 
1827. He soon acquired popularity through his ability, and consequently was 
financially successful. He purchased the Briar Hill homestead. Under Jack- 
son's administration, he was Postmaster at Warren, and held the position until 
1838, when he was elected State Senator by the Whigs of Trumbull District, by 
the Democrats. In 1844, he retired to Briar Hill, and opened the Briar Hill 
Coal Mines. He was a pioneer in the coal business of Ohio. In the Cleveland 


& Mahoning Railroad, he was largely interested, and was its President, after the 
death of Mr. Perkins. He was nominated, in 1844, for Governor, by the Dem- 
ocrats, but was defeated. In 1847, he went to Brazil as Minister, where he 
resided for four and a half years. The Emperor presented him with a special 
commendation to the President, as a testimonial of his esteem. He was also the 
recipient of an elegant silver tray, as a memorial from the resident citizens of' 
Rio Janeiro. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention, whicb 
met at Charleston in 1860. He was Vice President of this Convention. He 
was an earnest advocate for Stephen A. Douglas. When the Southern members 
withdrew, the President, Caleb Cushing, going with them, the convention 
adjourned to Baltimore, when Mr. Tod assumed the chair and Douglas was nom- 
nated. He was an earnest worker in the cause, but not disheartened by its 
defeat. When Fort Sumter was fired upon, he was one of the most vigorous^ 
prosecutors of the war, not relaxing his active earnestness until its close. He^ 
donated full uniforms to Company B, of the Nineteenth Regiment, and contrib- 
uted largely to the war fund of his township. Fifty-five thousand majority 
elected him Governor in 1861. His term was burdened with war duties,, 
and he carried them so bravely as Governor that the President said of him :: 
" Governor Tod of Ohio aids me more and troubles me less than any other Gov- 
ernor," His death occurred at Briar Hill during the year 1868. 

John Brough was a native of Marietta, Ohio. He was born in 1811. The death 
of his father left him in precarious circumstances, which may have been a discipline 
for future usefulness. He entered a printing office, at the age of fourteen, in 
Marietta, and after serving a few months, began his studies in the Ohio Uni- 
versity, setting type mornings and evenings, to earn sufficient for support. He 
occupied the leading position in classes, and at the same time excelled as a> 
type-setter. He was also admired for his athletic feats in field amusements. 
He completed his studies and began reading law, which pursuit was interrupted 
by an opportunity to edit a paper in Petersburg, Va. He returned to Marietta 
in 1831, and became editor and proprietor of a leading Democratic newspaper 
— the Washington County Republican. He achieved distinction rapidly, 
and in 1833, sold his interest, for the purpose of entering a more extended field 
of journalism. He purchased the Ohio Eagle, at Lancaster, and as its editor,, 
held a deep influence over local and State politics. He occupied the position 
of Clerk of the Ohio Senate, between the years 1835 and 1838, and relinquished his 
paper. He then represented the counties of Fairfield and Hocking in the Leg- 
islature. He was then appointed Auditor of State by the General Assembly, 
in which position he served six years. He then purchased the Phcenix news- 
paper in Cincinnati, changed its name to the Enquirer, placing it in the care 
of his brother, Charles, while he opened a law office in the city. His editorials 
in the Enquirer, and his activity in political affairs, were brilliant and strong- 
He retired from politics in 1848, sold a half-interest in the Enquirer and carried 
on a prosperous business, but was brought forward again by leaders of both 


political parties in 1863, through the Yallandigham contest, and was elected 
Governor the same year, by a majority of 101,099 votes in a total of 471,643. 
He was three times married. His death occurred in 1865 — Charles Anderson 
serving out his term. 

Jacob Dolson Cox, the twenty-sixth Governor, was born in 1828, in Mon- 
treal, Canada, where his parents were temporarily. He became a student of 
Oberlin College, Ohio, in 1846, graduating in 1851, and beginning the practice 
of law in Warren in 1852. He was a member of the State Senate in 1859, 
from the Trumbull and Mahoning Districts. He was termed a radical. He 
•was a commissioned Brigadier General of Ohio in 1861, and, in 1862, was pro- 
moted to Major General for gallantry in battle. While in the service he was 
nominated for Governor, and took that position in 1865. He was a member of 
Grant's Cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, but resigned. He went to Con- 
gress in 1875, from the Toledo District. 

Rutherford B. Hayes, the nineteenth President of the United States, and 
the twenty-seventh Governor of Ohio, was born at Delaware, Ohio, in 1822. He 
was a graduate of Kenyon College in 1842. He began the study of law, and, 
in 1843, pursued that course in the Cambridge University, graduating in 1845. 
He began his practice at Fremont. He was married to Miss Lucy Webb in 
1852, in Cincinnati. He was Major of the Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry in 1861, and in 1862, was promoted to Colonel on account of bravery 
in the field, and eventually became Major General. In 1864, he was elected to 
Congress, and retired from the service. He remained in Congress tAvo terms, 
and was Governor of Ohio in 1867, being re-elected in 1869. He was again 
elected in 1875, but resigned in 1877, to accept the oflBce of President of the 
United States, Thomas L. Young acting as Governor the remander of the term. 
Edward F. Noyes was born in Haverhill, Mass., in 1832. While a lad of 
fourteen, he entered the office of the Morning Star, published at Dover, N. H., 
in order to learn the business of printing. At the age of eighteen, he entered 
the academy at Kingston, N. H. He prepared for college, and entered 
Dartmouth in 1853, graduating with high honors in 1857. He had begun the 
.study of law, and continued the course in the Cincinnati Law School, and began 
to practice in 1858. He was an enthusiast at the opening of the rebellion and 
was interested in raising the Twentieth Regiment, of which he was made Major. 
He was promoted to Colonel in 1862. At the conflict at Ruff's Mills, in 
Georgia, in 1864, he was so unfortunate as to lose a leg. At the time, amputa- 
tion was necessary, but was unskillfuUy performed. He was brought to Cincin- 
nati, and the operation was repeated, which nearly cost him his life. He reported 
three months later, to Gen. Hooker for duty, on crutches. He was assigned to 
command of Camp Dennison. He was promoted to the full rank of Brigadier 
General, and while in discharge of his duty at that place, he was elected City 
Solicitor of Cincinnati. He occupied the position until 1871, when he was 
elected Governor, by a majority of 20,000. 


William Allen, the twenty-ninth Governor of Ohio, was born in 1807, in 
Chowan County, N. C. While an infant, he was left an orphan, and his sister 
superintended his education. He was placed in a private school at Lynchburg, 
Va., at the age of fourteen. Two years later he joined his family at Chilli- 
cothe, and attended the academy a year, when he entered the law office of 
Edward King. Before he was twenty-five he was sent to Congress by a strong 
Whig district. He was elected United States Senator in 1837 and served 
until 1849. In 1845 he married Effie Mc Arthur, who died soon after the 
birth of their daughter. In 1873 he was elected Governor. His administra- 
tion gave general satisfaction. He died at his home at " Fruit Hill," in 1879. 

Richard M. Bishop, the thirty-first Governor of Ohio, was born November 
4, 1812, in Fleming County, Ky. For several years he devoted himself to 
mercantile business in his native State. In 1848 he engaged in the wholesale 
grocery business at Cincinnati, and subsequently admitted his three sons part- 
ners, under the firm name of R. M. Bishop & Sons. He was a member of the 
Council of Cincinnati, and in 1859 was its Mayor, holding that office until 1861. 
In 1877 he was nominated by the Democrats and elected Governor of Ohio. 

Charles Foster, the thirty-second Governor of Ohio, was born in Seneca 
County, Ohio, April 12, 1828. He was educated at the common schools and 
the academy at Norwalk, Ohio. Engaged in mercantile and banking business 
at Fostoria, and never held any public office until he was elected to the Forty- 
second Congress ; was re-elected to the Forty-third Congress, and again to the 
Forty-fourth Congress as a Republican. In 1879 he was nominated by the 
Republicans and elected Governor of the State, was re-elected in 1881, and 
served through both terms winning the esteem of all political parties. 

George Hoadly, the thirty-third Governor of Ohio, was born at New 
Haven, Conn., July 31, 1826. His parents, George and Mary Ann (Woolsey) 
Hoadly, names well known in the educational circles of Connecticut, were inti- 
mately connected with the commercial and social progress of that State. Gov. 
Hoadly completed his education at what is now known as Adelbert College, of 
which he is a LL. D., while in 1884 he received the same honor from Yale. In 
1844 he entered the law school of Cambridge, Mass.; in 1846 entered the 
office of Chase & Ball, Cincinnati, Ohio ; was admitted to the bar in August 
following ; elected Judge of the Cincinnati Superior Court in 1851, succeeded 
Judge Gholson on the bench of the present Superior Court in 1859, and was 
re-elected in 1864 ; refused a seat on the Supreme bench in 1856 and again in 
1862; was elected a member of the Constitutional Convention 1873-74. He 
was nominated by the Democrats for Governor in 1883 and elected. 


Ohio has furnished a prolific field for antiquarians and those interested in 
scientific explorations, either for their own amusement and knowledge, or for 
the records of " facts and formations." 


It is well known that the " ]\loun(l Builders " had a wide sweep through this 
continent, but absolute facts regarding their era have been most difficult to 
obtain. Numerous theories and suppositions have been advanced, yet they are 
emphatic evidences that they have traced the origin and time of this primeval race. 

However, they have left their works behind them, and no exercise of faith 
is necessary to have confidence in that part of the story. That these works are 
of human origin is self-evident. Temples and military works have been found 
which required a considerable degree of scientific skill on the part of those early 
architects and builders. 

Evidently the Indians had no knowledge of these works of predecessors, 
which difiered in all respects from those of the red men. An ancient cemetery 
has been found, covering an area of four acres, which had evidently been laid 
out into lots, from north to south. Nearly 3,000 graves have been discovered, 
containing bones which at some time must have constituted the framework of 
veritable giants, while others are of no unusual size. In 1815, a jaw-bone was 
exhumed, containing an artificial tooth of silver. 

Mounds and fortifications are plentiful in Athens County, some of them 
being of solid stone. One, difiering in the quality of stone from the others, is 
supposed to be a dam across the Hocking. Over a thousand pieces of stone 
were used in its construction. Copper rings, bracelets and ornaments are 
numerous. It is also evident that these people possessed the knowledge of 
hardening copper arid giving it an edge equal to our steel of to-day. 

In the branch formed by a branch of the Licking River and Raccoon Creek, 
in Licking County, ancient works extend over an area of several miles. Again, 
three miles northwest of this locality, near the road between Newark and Gran- 
ville, another field of these relics may be found. On the summit of a high hill 
is a fortification, formed to represent an alligator. The head and neck includes 
32 feet ; the length of the body is 73 feet ; the tail was 105 feet ; from the termini of 
the fore feet, over the shoulders, the width is 100 feet ; from the termini of 
the hind feet, over the hips, is 92 feet ; its highest point is 7 feet. It is composed 
of clay, which must have been conveyed hither, as it is not similar to the clay 
found in the vicinity. 

Near Miamisburg, Montgomery County, are other specimens. Near the 
village is a mound, equaled in size by very few of these antiquities. It meas- 
ures 800 feet around the base, and rises to a height of sixty-seven feet. Others 
are found in Miami County, while at Circleville, Pickaway County, no traces 

Two forts have been discovered, one forming an exact square, and the other 
describing a circle. The square is flanked by two walls, on all sides, these 
being divided by a deep ditch. The circle has one wall and no ditch. This is 
sixty-nine rods in diameter, its walls being twenty feet high. The square fort 
measures fifty-five rods across, with walls twelve feet high. Twelve gateways 
lead into the square fort, while the circle has but one, which led to the other, at 


the point -wlierc the walls of the two came together. Before each of these 
entrances were mounds of earth, from four to five feet high and nearly forty 
feet in diameter. Evidently these were designed for defenses for the openings, 
in cases of emergency. 

A short distance from Piketon, the turnpike runs, for several hundred feet, 
between two parallel artificial walls of earth, fifteen feet high, and six rods 
apart. In Scioto County, on both sides of the Ohio, are extensive ancient 

" Fort Ancient " is near Lebanon in Warren County. Its direct measure- 
ment is a mile, but in tracing its angles, retreating and salient, its length would 
be nearly six miles. Its site is a level plain, 240 feet above the level of the 
river. The interior wall varies in height to conform with the nature of the 
ground without — ranging from 8 to 10 feet. On the plain it reaches 100 feet. 
This fort has 58 gateways, through one of which the State road runs, passing 
between two mounds 12 feet high. Northeast from these mounds, situated on 
the plain, are two roads, about a rod wide each, made upon an elevation about 
three feet high. They run parallel to each other about a quarter of a mile, 
when they each form a semicircle around a mound, joining in the circle. It is 
probable this was at some time a military defense, or, on the contrary, it may 
have been a general rendezvous for games and high holiday festivities. 

Near Marietta, are the celebrated Muskingum River works, being a half- 
mile from its juncture with the Ohio. They consist of mounds and walls of 
earth in circular and square forms, also tracing direct lines. 

The largest square fort covers an area of 40 acres, and is inclosed by a wall 
of earth, 6 to 10 feet in height, and from 25 to 30 feet at its base. On each 
side are three gateways. The center gateways exceed the others in size, more 
especially on the side toward the Muskingum. From this outlet runs a covered 
means of egress, between two parallel walls of earth, 231 feet distant from each 
other, measuring from the centers. The walls in the interior are 21 feet high 
at the most elevated points, measuring 42 feet at the base, grading on the exte- 
rior to about five feet in heigth. This passage-way is 360 feet in length, lead- 
ing to the low grounds, which, at the period of its construction, probably reached 
the river. 

At the northwest corner, within the inclosure, is a plateau 188 feet long, 
132 feet broad and 9 feet high. Its sides are perpendicular and its surface 
level. At the center of each side is a graded pathway leading to the top, six 
feet wide. Another elevated square is near the south wall, 150x120 feet square, 
and 8 feet high, similar to the other, with the exception of the graded walk. 
Outside and next the wall to ascend to the top, it has central hollow ways, 10 
feet wide, leading 20 feet toward the center, then arising with a gradual slope to 
the top. A third elevated square is situated at the southeast corner, 108x54 
feet square, with ascents at the ends. This is neither as high or as perfect as 
the others. 

160 liiriTOKY OF THE STATE OF OiliU. 

Another ancient work is found to the southeast, covering an area of 20 acres 
with a gateway in the center of each side, and others at the corners — each of 
these having the mound defense. 

On the outside of the smaller fort, a mound resembling a sugar loaf was 
formed in the shape of a circle 115 feet in diameter, its height being 30 feet. 
A ditch surrounds it, 15 feet wide and 4 feet deep. These earthworks have 
contributed greatly to the satisfactory results of scientific researches. Their 
builders were evidently composed of large bands that have succumbed to the 
advance of enlightened humanity. The relics found consists of ornaments, 
utensils and implements of war. The bones left in the numerous graves convey 
an idea of a stalwart, vigorous people, and the conquests which swept them away 
from the face of the country must have been fierce and cruel. 

Other mounds and fortifications are found in different parts of the State, of 
which our limited space will not permit a description. 

Many sculptured rocks are found, and others with plainly discernible 
tracery in emblematical designs upon their surface. The rock on which the 
inscriptions occur is the grindstone grit of the Ohio exports — a stratum found 
in Northern Ohio. Arrow-points of flint or chert have been frequently found. 
From all investigations, it is evident that an extensive flint bed existed in Lick- 
ing County, near Newark. The old pits can now be recognized. They 
extended over a hundred acres. They are partially filled with water, and sur- 
rounded by piles of broken and rejected fragments. The flint is a grayish- 
white, with cavities of a brilliant quartz crystal. Evidently these stones were 
chipped into shape and the material sorted on the ground. Only clear, homo- 
genous pieces can be wrought into arrow-heads and spear-points. Flint chips 
extend over many acres of ground in this vicinity. Flint beds are also found 
in Stark and Tuscarawas Counties. In color it varies, being red, white, black 
and mottled. The black is found in Coshocton County. 


Ohio, as a State, is renowned as an agricultural section. Its variety, quality 
and quantity of productions cannot be surpassed by any State in the Union. Its 
commercial importance ranks proudly in the galaxy of opulent and industrious 
States composing this Union. Her natural resources are prolific, and all improve- 
ments which could be instituted by the ingenuity of mankind have been added. 

From a quarter to a third of its area is hilly and broken. About the head- 
waters of the Muskingum and Scioto, and between the Scioto and the two 
Miami Rivers, are wide prairies ; some of them are elevated and dry, with fertile 
soil, although they are frequently termed "barrens." In other parts, they are 
low and marshy, producing coarse, rank grass, which grows to a height of five 
feet in some places. 

The State is most fortunate in timber wealth, having large quantities of 
black walnut, oak of different varieties, maple, hickory, birch, several kinds of 


beech, poplar, sycamore, papaw, several kinds of ash, cherry, whitewood and 

The summers are usually warm, and the winters are mild, considering the 
latitude of the State. Near Lake Erie, the winters are severe, corresponding 
with sections in a line with that locality. Snow falls in sufficient quantities 
in the northern part to afford several weeks of fine sleighing. In the southern 
portion, the snowstorms are not frequent, and the fall rarely remains long on 
the ground. 

The climate is generally healthy, with the exception of small tracts lying 
near the marshes and stagnant waters. 

The Ohio River washes the southern border of the State, and is navigable 
for steamboats of a large size, the entire length of its course. From Pitts- 
burgh to its mouth, measuring it meanderings, it is 908 miles long. Its current 
is gentle, having no falls except at Louisville, Ky., where the descent is twenty- 
two and a half feet in two miles. A canal obviates this obstruction. 

The Muskingum is the largest river that flows entirely within the State. It 
is formed by the junction of the Tuscarawas and Walhonding Rivers, and enters 
the Ohio at Marietta One hundred miles of its length is navigable. 

The Scioto is the second river in magnitude, is about 200 miles long, and 
flows into the Ohio at Portsmouth. It affords navigation 130 miles of its length. 
The Great Miami is a rapid river, in the western part of the State, and is 100 
miles long. The Little Miami is seventy miles in length, and enters the Ohio 
seven miles from Cincinnati. 

The Maumee rises in Indiana, flows through the northwestern part of the 
State, and enters Lake Erie at Maumee Bay. It affords navigation as far as 
Perrysburg, eighteen miles from the lake, and above the rapids, it is again nav- 

The Sandusky rises in the northern part of the State, is eighty miles long, 
and flows into Lake Erie, via Sandusky Bay. 

Lake Erie washes 150 miles of the northern boundary. The State has sev- 
eral fine harbors, the Maumee and Sandusky Bays being the largest. 

We have, in tracing the record of the earlier counties, given the educational inter- 
ests as exemplified by different institutions. We have also given the canal system 
of the State, in previous pages. The Governor is elected every two years, by 
the people. The Senators are chosen biennially, and are apportioned according 
to the male population over twenty-one years of age. The Judges of the 
Supreme and other courts are elected by the joint ballot of the Legislature, for 
the term of seven years. 

During the early settlement of Ohio, perfect social equality existed among the 
settlers. The line of demarkation that was drawn was a separation of the good 
from the bad. Log-rollings and cabin-raisings were mutual affairs. Their 
sport usually consisted of shooting, rowing and hunting. Hunting shirts and 
buckskin pants were in the fashion, while the women dressed in coarse material, 


woven by their own hands. A common American cotton check was con- 
sidered a magnificent addition to one's toilet. In those times, however, the 
material was $1 per yard, instead of the shilling of to-day. But five yards 
was then a large "pattern," instead of the twenty-five of 1880. In cooking 
utensils, the pot, pan and frying-pan constituted an elegant outfit. A few plain 
dishes were added for table use. Stools and benches were the rule, although a 
few wealthy families indulged in splint-bottom chairs. The cabin floors were 
rough, and in many cases the green sward formed the carpet. Goods were very 
expensive, and flour was considered a great luxury. Goods were brought by 
horses and mules from Detroit, or by wagon from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, 
and then down the Ohio. Coarse calicoes were $1 per yard ; tea $2 to ^3 per 
pound ; coffee 75 cents ; whisky, from $1 to $2 per gallon, and salt, $5 to $6 
per barrel. In those towns where Indian trade constituted a desirable interest, 
a bottle was set at each end of the counter — a gratuitous offering to their red 


Should we group the rocks of Ohio, according to their lithological characters, 
we should give five distinct divisions. They are marked by difference in appear- 
ance, hardness, color and composition : 

1 — Limestone. 

2— Black shale. 

3 — Fine-grained sandstone. 

4 — Conglomerate. 

5 — Coal series. 

They are all stratified and sedimentary. They are nearly horizontal. The 
lowest one visible, in a physical as well as a geological sense, is "blue lime- 

The bed of the Ohio River near Cincinnati is 133 feet below the level of 
Lake Erie. The strata incline in all directions from the southwestern angle of 
the State. In Scioto County may be seen the outcropping edges of all these 
rocks. They sink at this point in the direction south 80|° east ; easterly at the 
rate of 37^ feet per mile. The cliff limestone, the upper stratum of the lime- 
stone deposit, is 600 feet above the river at Cincinnati ; at West Union, in 
Adams County, it is only 350 feet above the same level. 

The finely grained sandstone found on the summit of the hills east of Brush 
Creek and west of the Scioto sinks to the base of the hills, and appears beneath 
the conglomerate, near the Little Scioto. Although the rock formations are the 
same in all parts of the State, in the same order, their thickness, mass and dip, 
are quite different. 

Chillicothe, Reynoldsburg, Mansfield, Newburg, Waverly and Rockville, are 
situated near the western border of the " fine-grained limestone." Its outcrop 
forms a continuous and crooked line from the Ohio River to Lake Erie. In the 
southwest portion of the State is the "blue limestone," occupying a circular 


space from West Union via Dayton, to the State line. The conglomerate is to 
the east of the given towns, bending around from Cuyahoga Falls to Burton, in 
Geauga County, and then eastward into Pennsylvania. Near this outcrop are 
the coal-bearing rocks which occupy the east and southeastern portions of Ohio. 
From Rockville to Chillicothe, the course is north, about 10° east, and nearly 
corresponds with the line of outcrop of the fine-grained sandstone for an equal 
distance. The dip at Rockville, given by Charles Whittlesey, is 801°, almost 
at a right angle, and at the rate of 37 feet per mile. 

At Chillicothe, the other end of the line, the general dip is south 70° east, 
30 feet to the mile, the line curving eastward and the dip line to the southward. 
This is the universal law. 

The northern boundary of the great coal fields passes through Meadville, in 
Pennsylvania, and turning south arrives at Portage Summit, on the summit of 
the Alleghanies, 2,500 feet above the ocean level. It then plunges rapidly to 
the westward. From the Alleghanies to the southwest, through Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Tennessee, sweeps this great coal basin. 

Much of the county of Medina is conglomerate upon the surface, but the 
streams, especially the South Branch of the Rocky River, set through this sur- 
face stratum, and reach the fine-grained sandstone. This is the case with 
Rocky, Chagrin, Cuyahoga and Grand Rivers — also Conneaut and Ashtabula 
Creeks. This sandstone and the shale extend up the narrow valleys of these 
streams and their tributaries. Between these strata is a mass of coarse-grained 
sandstone, without pebbles, which furnishes the grindstones for which Ohio is 
noted. In Lorain County, the coarse sandstone grit nearly displaces the fine- 
grained sandstone and red shale, thickening at Elyria to the black shale. South 
of this point, the grindstone grit, red shale and ash-colored shale vary in thick- 
ness. The town of Chillicothe, the village of Newburg, and a point in the west 
line of Crawford County, are all situated on the "black shale." 

Dr. Locke gives the dip, at Montgomery and Miami Counties, at north 14°, 
east, six feet to the mile ; at Columbus, Whitelesey gives it, 81° 52' east, 22y'^% 
feet to the mile. The fine-grained sandstone at Newburg is not over eighty 
feet in thickness ; at Jacktown and Reynoldsburg, 500 ; at Waverly 250 to 
300 feet, and at Brush Creek, Adams County, 348 feet. The black shale is 
251 feet thick at Brush Creek ; at Alum Creek, 250 to 300 feet thick ; in Craw- 
ford County, about 250 feet thick. The conglomerate in Jackson County is 
200 feet thick : at Cuyahoga Falls, 100 to 120 feet ; at Burton, Geauga County, 
300 feet. The great limestone formation is divided into several numbers. At 
Cincinnati, at the bed of the river, there is : 

1 — A blue limestone and slaty marlite. 

2 — Dun-colored marl and layers of lime rock. 

3 — Blue marl and layers of blue limestone. 

4 — Marl and bands of limestone, with immense numbers of shells at the 


In Adams County, the detailed section is thus : 

1 — Blue limestone and marl. 

2 — Blue marl. 

3 — Flinty limestone. 

4 — Blue marl. . 

5 — Cliif limestone. 

The coal-fields of Ohio are composed of alternate beds of coarse-grained 
sandstone, clay shales, layer? of ironstone, thin beds of limestone and numer- 
ous strata of coal. The coal region abounds in iron. From Jacktown to Con- 
cord, in Muskingum County, there are eight beds of coal, and seven strata of 
limestone. The distance between these two points is forty-two miles. From 
Freedom, in Portage County, to Poland, in' Trumbull County, a distance of 
thirty-five miles, there are five distinct strata. Among them are distributed 
thin beds of limestone, and many beds of iron ore. The greater mass of coal 
and iron measures is composed of sandstone and shale. The beds of sandstone 
are from ten to twenty or eighty feet thick. Of shale, five to fifty feet thick. 
The strata of coal and iron are comparatively thin. A stratum of coal three 
feet thick can be worked to advantage. One four feet thick is called a good 
mine, few of them averaging five. Coal strata are found from six to ten and 
eleven feet. There are four beds of coal, and three of limestone, in Lawrence 
and Scioto Counties. There are also eight beds of ore, and new ones are con- 
stantly being discovered. The ,ore is from four to twelve inches thick, occasion- 
ally being two feet. The calcareous ore rests upon the second bed of limestone, 
from the bottom, and is very rich. 

The most prominent fossils are trees, plants and stems of the coal-bearing 
rocks, shells and corals and crustaceae of the limestone, and the timber, leaves 
and dirt-beds of the "drift" — the earthy covering of the rocks, which varies 
from nothing to 200 feet. Bowlders, or " lost rocks," are strewn over the State. 
They are evidently transported from some remote section, being fragments of 
primitive rock, granite, gneiss and hornblende rock, which do not exist in 
Ohio, nor within 400 miles of the State, in any direction. In the Lake Supe- 
rior region we find similar specimens. 

The superficial deposits of Ohio are arranged into four geological formations : 

1 — The ancient drift, resting upon the rocks of the State. 

2 — The Lake Erie marl and sand deposits. 

3 — The drift occupying the valleys of large streams, such as the Great Miami, 
the Ohio and Scioto. 

4 — The bowlders. 

The ancient drift of Ohio is meager in shell deposits. It is not, therefore, 
decided whether it be of salt-water origin or fresh water. 

It has, at the bottom, blue clay, with gravel-stones of primitive or sedimen- 
tary rocks, containing carbonate of lime. The yellow clay is found second. 
Above that, sand and gravel, less stratified, containing more pebbles of the 


sedimentary rocks, such as limestone and stone, iron ore, coal and shale. The 
lower layer contains logs, trees, leaves, sticks and vines. 

The Lake Erie section, or "Lake Erie deposits," may be classed in the 
following order : 

1 — From the lake level upward, fine, blue, marly sand — forty-five to sixty 

2 — Coarse, gray, water-washed sand — ten to twenty feet. 

3 — Coarse sand and gravel, not well stratified, to surface — twenty to fifty feet. 

Stratum first dissolves in water. It contains carbonate of lime, magnesia, 
iron, alumina, silex, sulphur, and some decomposed leaves, plants and sticks. 
Some pebbles are found. In contact with the water, quicksand is formed. 

The Hickory Plains, at the forks of the Great Miami and White Water, and 
also between Kilgore's Mill and New Richmond, are the results of heavy dilu- 
vial currents. 

In presenting these formations of the State, we have quoted from the experi- 
ence and conclusions of Charles Whittlesey, eminent as a geologist, ai^d who 
was a member of the Ohio Geological Corps. 


The patriotism of this State has been stanch, unswerving and bold, ever 
since a first settlement laid its corner-stone in the great Western wilder- 
ness. Its decisive measures, its earnest action, its noble constancy, have earned 
the laurels that designate it "a watchword for the nation." In the year 1860, 
Ohio had a population of 2,343,739. Its contribution of soldiers to the great 
conflict that was soon to surge over the land in scarlet terror, was apportioned 
310,000 men. In less than twenty-four hours after the President's proclama- 
tion and call for troops, the Senate had matured and carried a bill through, 
appropriating $1,000,000 for the purpose of placing the State on a war footing. 
The influences of party sentiments were forgotten, and united, the State 
unfurled the flag of patriotism. Before the bombardment of old Fort Sumter 
has fairly ceased its echoes, twenty companies were offered the Governor for 
immediate service. When the surrender was verified, the excitement was 
tumultuous. Militia officers telegraphed their willingness to receive prompt 
orders, all over the State. The President of Kenyon College — President 
Andrews — tendered his services by enlisting in the ranks. Indeed, three 
months before the outbreak of the war, he had expressed his readiness to the 
Governor to engage in service should there be occasion. He was the first citi- 
zen to make this offer. 

The Cleveland Grays, the Rover Guards, the State Fencibles, the Dayton 
Light Guards, the Governor's Guards, the Columbus Videttes and the Guthrie 
Grays — the best drilled and celebrated militia in the State — telegraphed to 
Columbus for orders. Chillicothe, Portsmouth and Circleville offered money 
and troops. Canton, Xenia, Lebanon, Lancaster, Springfield, Cincinnati, 


Dayton, Cleveland, Toledo and other towns urged their assistance upon the State. 
Columbus began to look like a great army field. The troops were stationed 
wherever they could find quarters, and food in sufficient quantities was hard to 
procure. The Governor soon established a camp at Miamiville, convenient to 
Cincinnati. He intended to appoint Irvin McDowell, of the stafi" of Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, to the leading command, but the friends of Capt. McClellan became 
enthusiastic and appealed to the Governor, who decided to investigate his case. 
Being satisfied, he desired Capt. McClellan to come up to Columbus. But that 
officer was busy and sent Capt. Pope, of the regular army, in his stead. This 
gentleman did not suit Gov. Dennison. The friends of McClellan again set 
forth the high qualities of this officer, and Gov. Dennison sent an earnest 
request for an interview, which was granted, and resulted in the appointment 
of the officer as Major General of the Ohio militia. Directly thereafter, he 
received an invitation to take command of the Pennsylvania troops, but Ohio 
could not spare so valuable a leader. 

For three-years troops were soon called out, and their Generals were to be 
appointed by the President. Gov. Dennison advised at once with the War 
Department at Washington, and McClellan received his appointment as Major 
General in the regular army. 

Cincinnati and Louisville became alarmed lest Kentucky should espouse the 
Confederate cause, and those cities thus be left insecure against the inroads of a 
cruel foe. Four hundred and thirty-six miles of Ohio bordered Slave States. 
Kentucky and West Virginia were to be kept in check, but the Governor pro- 
claimed that not only should the border of Ohio be protected, but even beyond 
that would the State press the enemy. Marietta was garrisoned, and other river 
points rendered impregnable. On the 20th of May, 1861, official dispatches 
affirmed that troops were approaching Wheeling under the proclamation of 
Letcher. Their intention was to route the convention at Wheeling. 

Military orders were instantly given. Col. Steedman and his troops crossed 
at Marietta and crushed the disturbance at Parkersburg — swept into the country 
along the railroad, built bridges, etc. Col. Irvine crossed at Wheeling and 
united with a regiment of loyal Virginians. At the juncture of the two tracks 
at Grafton, the columns met, but the rebels had retreated in mad haste. The 
loyal troops followed, and, at Philippi, fought the first little skirmish of the war. 
The great railway lines were secured, and the Wheeling convention protected, 
and West Virginia partially secured for the Union. 

After preliminary arrangements, McClellan's forces moved in two columns 
upon the enemy at Laurel Hill. One remained in front, under Gen. Morris, 
while the other, under his own command, pushed around to Huttonsville, in 
their rear. Gen. Morris carried his orders through promptly, but McClellan 
was late. Rosecrans was left with McClellan's advance to fight the battle of 
Rich Mountain, unaided. Garnett being alarmed at the defeat of his outpost, 
retreated. McClellan was not in time to intercept him, but Morris continued 


the chase. Steedman overtook the rear-guard of Garnett's army at Carrick's 
Ford, where a sharp skirmish ensued, Garnett himself falling. The scattered 
portions of the rebel army escaped, and West Virginia was again free from 
armed rebels — and was the gift of Ohio through her State militia to the nation 
at the beginning of the war. 

At this period. Gen. McClellan was called to Washington. Gen. Rose- 
crans succeeded him, and the three-years troops left in the field after the dis- 
banding of the three-months men, barely sufficed to hold the country. He 
telegraphed Gov. Dennison to supply him immediately with re-enforcements, the 
request being made on the 8th of August. Already had the Confederate lead- 
ers realized the loss they had sustained in Western Virginia, and had dispatched 
their most valued General, Robert E. Lee, to regain the territory. Rosecrans 
again wrote : " If you. Governor of Indiana and Governor of Michigan, will 
lend your efforts to get me quickly 50,000 men, in addition to my present 
force, I think a blow can be struck which will save fighting the rifled-cannon 
batteries at Manassas. Lee is certainly at Cheat Mountain. Send all troops 
you can to Grafton." Five days thereafter, all the available troops in the 
West were dispatched to Fremont, Mo., and the plans of Rosecrans were 

Heavy re-enforcements had been sent to the column in Kanawha Valley 
under Gen. Cox. He became alarmed, and telegraphed to Gov. Dennison. 
Rosecrans again appealed to Gov. Dennison, that he might be aided in march- 
ing across the country against Floyd and Wise to Cox's relief, "I want to 
catch Floyd while Cox holds him in front." 

The response was immediate and effective. He was enabled to employ 
twenty-three Ohio regiments in clearing his department from rebels, securing 
the country and guarding the exposed railroads. With this achievement, the 
direct relation of the State administrations with the conduct and methods of 
campaigns terminated. The General Government had settled down to a sys- 
tem. Ohio was busy organizing and equipping regiments, caring for the sick 
and wounded, and sustaining her home strength. 

Gov. Dennison 's staff officers were tendered better positions in the national 
service. Camps Dennison and Chase, one at Cincinnati and the other at 
Columbus, were controlled by the United States authorities. A laboratory was 
established at Columbus for the supply of ammunition. During the fall and 
early winter, the Ohio troops suffered in Western Virginia. The people of 
their native State responded with blankets, clothing and other supplies. 

In January, 1862, David A. Tod entered upon the duties of Governor. 
The first feature of his administration was to care for the wounded at home, 
sent from Pittsburg Landing. A regular system was inaugurated to supply 
stores and clothing to the suffering at home and in the field. Agencies were 
established, and the great and good work was found to be most efficacious in 
alleviating the wretchedness consequent upon fearful battles. A. B. Lyman 


had charge of aflFairs in Cincinnati, and Royal Taylor held the same position 
in Louisville. J. C. Wetmore was stationed at Washington, F. W. Bingham 
at Memphis, Weston Flint at Cairo and St. Louis. Thus the care which Ohio 
extended over her troops at home and in the battle-field, furnished a practical 
example to other States, and was the foundation of that commendable system 
all over the Union. Stonewall Jackson's sudden advent in the valley created 
the greatest consternation lest the safety of the capital be jeopardized, and the 
War Department called for more troops. Gov. Tod immediately issued a 
proclamation, and the people, never shrinking, responded heartily. At Cleve- 
land a large meeting was held, and 250 men enlisted, including 27 out of 32 
students attending the law school. Fire bells rang out the alarm at Zanesville, 
a meeting was convened at 10 in the morning, and by 3 in the afternoon, 300 
men had enlisted. Court was adjourned sine die, and the Judge announced 
that he and the lawyers were about to enter into military ranks. Only three 
unmarried men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three were left in the 
town of Putnam. Five thousand volunteers reported at Camp Chase within 
two days after the proclamation. 

Again in June, the President called for troops, followed by yet another call. 
Under these calls, Ohio was to raise 74,000 men. The draft system was 
advised to hasten and facilitate filling regiments. It has always been a repul- 
sive measure. To save sections from this proceeding, enormous sums were 
offered to induce men to volunteer, and thus fill the quota. 

Counties, townships, towns and individuals, all made bids and urged the 
Tapid enlistment of troops. The result was, that the regiments were filled rap- 
idly, but not in sufficient numbers to prevent the draft. Twenty thousand four 
hundred and twenty-seven men were yet lacking, and the draft was ordered^ 
September 15. At the close of the year, Ohio was ahead of her calls. Late 
in the fall, the prospect was disheartening. The peninsula campaign had failed. 
The Army of Northern Virginia had been hurled back nearly to Washington. 
The rebels had invaded Maryland ; Cincinnati and Louisville were threatened, 
and the President had declared his intention to abolish slavery, as a war meas- 
ure. During the first part of 1862, artillery, stores and supplies were carried 
away mysteriously, from the Ohio border ; then little squads ventured over the 
river to plunder more openly, or to burn a bridge or two. The rebel bands 
came swooping down upon isolated supply trains, sending insolent roundabout 
messages regarding their next day's intentions. Then came invasions of our 
lines near Nashville, capture of squads of guards within sight of camp, the seizure 
of Gallatin. After Mitchell had entered Northern Alabama, all manner of depre- 
dations were committed before his very eyes. These were attributed to John 
Morgan's Kentucky cavalry. He and his men, by the middle of 1862, were 
as active and dangerous as Lee or Beauregard and their troops. Morgan was a 
native of Alabama, but had lived in Kentucky since boyhood. His father was 
large slave-owner, who lived in the center of the "Blue Grass Country." His 


life had been one of wild dissipation, adventure and recklessness, although in 
his own family he had the name of being most considerate. The men who fol- 
lowed him were ajccustomed to a dare-devil life. They formed and independent 
band, and dashed madly into the conflict, wherever and whenever inclination 
prompted. Ohio had just raised troops to send East, to assist in the overthrow 
of Stonewell Jackson. She had overcome her discouragements over failures, 
for the prospects were brightening. Beauregard had evacuated Corinth ; Mem- 
phis had fallen ; Buell was moving toward Chattanooga ; Mitchell's troops held 
Northern Tennessee and Northern Alabama ; Kentucky was virtually in the 
keeping of the home guards and State military board. And now, here was 
Morgan, creating confusion in Kentucky by his furious raids ! On the 11th of 
July, the little post of Tompkinsville fell. He issued a call for the Kentuckians 
to rise in a body. He marched toward Lexington, and the southern border of 
Ohio was again in danger. Cincinnati was greatly excited. Aid was sent to 
Lexington and home guards were ready for duty. Morgan was not prominent 
for a day or so, but he was not idle. By the 9th of July, he held possession of 
Tompkinsville and Glasgow ; by the 11th, of Lebanon. On the 13th, he 
entered Harraldsburg ; Monday morning he was within fifteen miles of Frank- 
fort. He had marched nearly 400 miles in eight days. Going on, toward 
Lexington, he captured the telegraph operator at Midway, and his messages 
also I He was now aware of the plans of the Union armies at Lexington, 
Louisville, Cincinnati and Frankfort. In the name of the operator, he sent 
word that Morgan was driving in the pickets at Frankfort ! Now. that he 
had thrown his foes off guard, he rested his men a couple of days. He 
decided to let Lexington alone, and swept down on Cynthiana, routing a few 
hundred loyal Kentucky cavalrymen, capturing the gun and 420 prisoners, and 
nearly 300 horses. Then he was off to Paris ; he marched through Winchester, 
Richmond, Crab Orchard and Somerset, and again crossed the Cumberland River, 
He started with 900 men and returned with 1,200, having captured and paroled 
nearly as many, besides destroying all the Government arms and stores in seven- 
teen towns. The excitement continued in Cincinnati. Two regiments were 
hastily formed, for emergencies,* known as Cincinnati Reserves. Morgan's raid 
did not reach the city, but it demonstrated to the rebel forces what might be 
accomplished in the " Blue Grass " region. July and August were passed in 
gloom. Bragg and Buell were both watchful, and Chattanooga had not been 
taken. Lexington was again menaced, a battle fought, and was finally deserted 
because it could not be held. 

Louisville was now in danger. The banks sent their specie away. Railroad 
companies added new guards. 

September 1, Gen. Kirby Smith entered Lexington, and dispatched Heath 
with about six thousand men against Cincinnati and Covington. John Morgan 
joined him. The rebels rushed upon the borders of Ohio. The failure at Rich- 
mond only added deeper apprehension. Soon Kirby Smith and his regiments 


occupied a position where only a few unmanned siege guns and the Ohio 
prevented his entrance through Covington into the Queen City. The city was 
fully armed, and Lew. Wallace's arrival to take command inspired all with 
fresh courage. And before the people were hardly aware that danger was so 
near, the city was proclaimed under strict martial law. " Citizens for labor, 
soldiers for battle. 

There was no panic, because the leaders were confident. Back of Newport 
and Covington breastworks, riflepits and redoubts had been hastily thrown up, 
and pickets were thrown out. From Cincinnati to Covington extended a pon- 
ton bridge. Volunteers marched into the city and those already in service 
were sent to the rescue. Strict military law was now modified, and the city 
being secured, some inconsiderate ones expressed themselves as being outraged 
with " much ado about nothing." But Gen. Wallace did not cease his vigilance. 
And Smith's force began to move up. One or two skirmishes ensued. The 
city was again excited. September 11 was one of intense suspense. But 
Smith did not attack in force. He was ordered to join Bragg. On the Mon- 
day following, the citizens of Cincinnati returned to their avocations. In the 
spring of 1863, the State was a trifle discouraged. Her burdens had been 
heavy, and she was weary. Vicksburg was yet in the hands of the enemy. 
Rosecrans had not moved since his victory at Stone River. There had been 
fearful slaughter about Fredericksburg. 

But during July, 1863, Ohio was aroused again by Bragg's command to 
Morgan, to raid Kentucky and capture Louisville. On the 3d of July, he was 
in a position to invade Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky. He continued his depre- 
dations, bewildering the militia with his movements. His avowed intention 
was to burn Indianapolis and " take Cincinnati alive." Morgan's purposes 
were never clear. It was his audacious and sudden dashes, here and there, 
which gave him success. Before Cincinnati was aware, he was at Harrison — 
13th of July. He expected to meet the forces of Burnside and Judah, and to 
cut his way through. His plans here, as everywhere, were indefinable, and he 
succeeded in deceiving everybody. While printers in Cincinnati were setting 
up " reports " as to his whereabouts, he was actually marching through the sub- 
urbs, near troops enough to devour them, and yet not encountered by a single 
picket ! They fed their horses within sight of Camp Dennison. At 4 
o'clock that day, they were within twenty-eight miles of Cincinnati — having 
marched more than ninety miles in thirty-five hours. 

The greatest chagrin was expressed, that Morgan had so easily eluded the 
great military forces. A sudden dash was made to follow him. There was a 
universal bolting of doors, burying of valuables, hiding of horses, etc., all along 
the route of the mad cavalryman and his 2,000 mounted men. They plundered 
beyond all comparison. They made a principle of it. On the 14th of July, 
he was feeding his horses near Dennison ; he reached the ford at Buflington 
Island on the evening of the 18th ; he had encountered several little skirmishes, 


but he had marched through at his own will, mostly ; all the troops of Kentucky 
had been outwitted. The Indiana forces had been laughed to scorn. The 
50,000 Ohio militia had been as straws in his way. The intrepid band would 
soon be upon friendly soil, leaving a blackened trail behind. But Judah was 
up and marching after him, Hobson followed and Col. Runkle was north of 
him. The local militia in his advance began to impede the way. Near Pome- 
roy, a stand was made. Morgan found militia posted everywhere, but he suc- 
ceeded in running the gantlet, so far as to reach Chester. He should have 
hastened to cross the ford. Fortunately, he paused to breathe his horses and 
secure a guide. The hour and a half thus lost was the first mistake Morgan is 
known to have made in his military career. They reached Portland, and only 
a little earthwork, guarded by about 300 men, stood between him and safety. 
His men were exhausted, and he feared to lead them to a night attack upon a 
position not understood perfectly ; he would not abandon his wagon train, nor 
his wounded ; he would save or lose all. As Morgan was preparing next 
morning, having found the earthworks deserted through the night, Judah came 
up. He repulsed the attack at first, capturing Judah's Adjutant General, and 
ordering him to hold the force on his front in check. He was not able to join 
his own company, until it was in full retreat. Here Lieut. O'Neil, of the Fifth 
Indiana, made an impulsive charge, the lines were reformed, and up the Chester 
road were Hobson's gallant cavalrymen, who had been galloping over three 
States to capture this very Morgan ! And now the tin-clad gunboats steamed 
up and opened fire. The route was complete, but Morgan escaped with 1,200 
men! Seven hundred men were taken prisoners, among them Morgan's brother, 
Cols. Ward, Duke and Huffman. The prisoners were brought to Cincinnati, 
while the troops went after the fugitive. He was surrounded by dangers ; his 
men were exhausted, hunted down ; skirmishes and thrilling escapes marked a 
series of methods to escape — his wonderful sagacity absolutely brilliant to the 
very last — which was his capture, on the 26th, with 346 prisoners and 
400 horses and arms. It may be added, that after several months of con- 
finement, Morgan and six prisoners escaped, on the 27th of November. Again 
was he free to raid in the " Blue Grass " country.. 

John Brough succeeded Gov. Tod January 11, 1864. His first prominent 
work was with the Sanitary Commission. In February, of the same year, the 
President called for more troops. The quota of Ohio was 51,465 men. The 
call of March added 20,995. And in July was a third demand for 50,792. In 
December, the State was ordered to raise 26,027. The critical period of the 
war was evidently approaching. Gov. Brough instituted a reformation in the 
" promotion system " of the Ohio troops. He was, in many cases, severe in his 
measures. He ignored " local great men " and refused distinction as a bribe. 
The consequence was that he had many friends and some enemies. The acute- 
ness of his policy was so strong, and his policy so just, that, after all his severe 
administration, he was second to no statesman in the nation during the struggle. 


Ohio during the war was most active in her relief and aid societies. The most 
noted and extensive organization was the Cincinnati Branch of the United 
States Sanitary Commission. The most efficient organization was the Soldiers' 
Aid Society of Northern Ohio. 

When the happy tidings swept over the land that peace was proclaimed, an 
echo of thanksgiving followed the proclamation. The brave sons of Ohio 
returned to their own soil — those who escaped the carnage. But 'mid the 
rejoicing there was deepest sadness, for a fragment only remained of that brave 
army which had set out sturdily inspired with patriotism. 


George Briton McClellan, the first General appointed in Ohio, was born 
December 3, 1826, in Philadelphia. His father was a physician of high stand- 
ing and Scottish descent. Young George was in school in Philadelphia, and 
entered West Point at the age of sixteen. At the age of twenty, he was a bre- 
vet Second Lieutenant, tracing lines of investment before Vera Cruz, under the 
supervision of Capt. R. E. Lee, First Lieut. P. G. T. Beauregard, Second Lieut. 
G. W. Smith. At the close of the Mexican war, old Col. Totten reported in 
favor of them all to Winfield Scott. He had charge of an exploring expedition 
to the mountains of Oregon and Washington, beginning with the Cascade Range. 
This was one of a series of Pacific Railway explorations. Returning to Wash- 
ington, he was detailed to visit the West Indies and secretly select a coaling sta- 
tion for the United States Navy. He was dispatched by Jefferson Davis, 
Secretary of War, to Europe, with instructions to take full reports of the organ- 
ization of military forces connected with the Crimean war. This work elicited 
entire satisfaction. He returned in January, 1857, resigned as regular army 
officer, and was soon installed as engineer of Illinois Central Railroad. In 1860, 
he was President of the Ohio k Mississippi. He removed to Cincinnati, where 
he was at the opening of the war. 

William Starke Rosecrans was born September 6, 1819, in Delaware County, 
Ohio. His people were from Amsterdam. He was educated at West Point. 
When the war opened, he espoused the cause of the Union with enthusiastic 
zeal, and was appointed by McClellan on his staff as Engineer. June 9, he 
was Chief Engineer of the State under special law. Soon thereafter, he was 
Colonel of the Twenty-third Ohio, and assigned to the command of Camp 
Chase, Columbus, On May 16, his commission was out as Brigadier General 
in the United States Army. This reached him and he was speedily sum- 
moned to active service, under Gen. McClellan. After the battle of Rich Moun- 
tain, he was promoted to the head of the department. 

In April, 1862, he was succeeded by Fremont, and ordered to Wash- 
ington to engage in immediate service for the Secretary of War. About the 
15th of May, he was ordered to Gen. Halleck, before Corinth. He was 
relieved from his command December 9, 1864. 


Ulysses S. Grant, whose history we cannot attempt to give in these pages, 
was born on the banks of the Ohio, at Point Pleasant, Clermont Co., Ohio, 
April 27, 1822. He entered West Point in 1839. 

" That the son of a tanner, poor and unpretending, without influential friends 
until his performance had won them, ill-used to the world and its ways, should 
rise — not suddenly, in the first blind worship of helpless ignorance which made 
any one who understood regimental tactics illustrious in advance for what he 
was going to do, not at all for what he had done — but slowly, grade by grade^ 
through all the vicissitudes of constant service and mingled blunders and suc- 
cess, till, at the end of four years' war he stood at the head of our armies, 
crowned by popular acclaim our greatest soldier, is a satisfactory answer to 
criticism and a sufficient vindication of greatness. Success succeeds." 

" We may reason on the man's career ; we may prove that at few stages has 
he shown personal evidence of marked ability ; we may demonstrate his mis- 
takes ; we may swell the praises of his subordinates. But after all, the career 
stands wonderful, unique, worthy of study so long as the nation honors her 
benefactors, or the State cherishes the good fame of the sons who contributed 
most to her honor." 

Lieut. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman was another Ohio contribution to 
the great Union war. He was born at Lancaster February 8, 1820. He 
entered West Point in June, 1836. His " march to the sea " has fully brought 
out the details of his life, since they were rendered interesting to all, and we. 
refrain from repeating the well-known story. 

Philip H. Sheridan was born on the 6th of March, 1831, in Somerset, 
Perry Co., Ohio. He entered West Point in 1848. During the war, his 
career was brilliant. His presence meant victory. Troops fighting under hia 
command were inspired. Gen. Rosecrans said of him, " He fights, he fights." 
A stafi" officer once said, "He is an emphatic human syllable." 

Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson was born in Sandusky County, town of 
Clyde, November 14, 1828. 

Maj. Gen. Q. A. Gillmore was born February 28, 1825, at Black River, 
Lorain Co., Ohio. 

Maj. Gen, Irvin McDowell was born at Franklinton, Ohio, October 15, 

Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell was born near Marietta on the 23d of March, 
1818. His grandfather on the maternal side was one of the first settlers of 

Maj. Gen. 0. M. Mitchell was a ijative of Kentucky, but a resident of 
Ohio from the age of four years. 

Maj. Gen. Robert C. Schenck was born October 4, 1809, in Franklin, 
Warren Co., Ohio. 

Maj. Gen. James A. Garfield, was born in Orange, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 
mvember 19, 1831. 


Maj. Gen. Jacob D. Cox was born in Canada in 1828, and removed to 
Ohio in 1846. 

Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman was born in Pennsylvania July 30, 1818, 
and removed to Toledo in 1861. 

Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley was born in Wayne County, Ohio, June 1, 

Maj. Gen. George Crook was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 8, 1828. 

Maj. Gen. Mortimer D. Leggett was born in New York April 19, 1831, 
and emigrated to Ohio, in 1847. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. John C. Tidball was born in Virginia, but removed while 
a mere lad to Ohio with his parents. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. John W. Fuller was born in England in 1827. He 
removed to Toledo in 1858. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. Manning F. Force was born in Washington, D. C, on 
the 17th of December, 1824. He became a citizen of Cincinnati. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. Henry B. Banning was born in Knox County, Ohio, 
November 10, 1834. 

We add the names of Brevet Maj. Gens. Erastus B. Tyler, Thomas H. 
Ewing, Charles R. Woods, August V. Kautz, Rutherford B. Hayes, Charles 
C. Walcutt, Kenner Garrard, Hugh Ewing, Samuel Beatty, James S. Robinson, 
Joseph W. Keifer, Eli Long, William B. Woods, John W. Sprague, Benjamin 
P. Runkle, August Willich, Charles Griffin, Henry J. Hunt, B. W. Brice. 

Brig. Gens. Robert L. McCook, William H. Lytle, William Leroy 
Smith, C. P. Buckingham, Ferdinand Van Derveer, George P. Este, Joel A. 
Dewey, Benjamin F. Potts, Jacob Ammen, Daniel McCook, J. W, Forsyth, 
Ralph P. Buckland, William H. Powell, John G. Mitchell, Eliakim P. Scam- 
mon, Charles G Harker, J. W. Reilly, Joshua W. Sill, N. C. McLean, Will- 
iam T. H. Brooks, George W. Morgan, John Beatty, William W. Burns, John 
S. Mason, S. S. Carroll, Henry B. Carrington, M. S. Wade, John P. Slough, 
T. K. Smith. 

Brevet Brig. Gens. C. B. Ludlow, Andrew Hickenlooper, B. D. 
Fearing, Henry F. Devol, Israel Garrard, Daniel McCoy, W. P. Richardson, 
G. F. Wiles, Thomas M. Vincent, J. S. Jones, Stephen B. Yeoman, F. W. 
Moore, Thomas F. Wilder, Isaac Sherwood, C. H. Grosvenor, Moses E. 
Walker, R. N. Adams, E. B. Eggleston, I. M. Kirby. 

We find numerous other names of Brevet Brigadier Generals, mostly of late 
appointments, and not exercising commands in accordance with their brevet 
rank, which we omit quoting through lack of space. They are the names of 
men of rare abilities, and in many cases of brilliant achievements. 

In looking over the "War Record of Ohio," we find the State a great 
leader in men of valor and heroic deeds. It was the prolific field of military 


Ohio was draped with the garb of mourning at the close of the war. Her 
human sacrifice in behalf of the nation had been bitter. There were tears and 
heart-aches all over the land. Her ranks were swept by a murderous fire, from 
which they never flinched, and many officers fell. 

Col. John H. Patrick will be remembered as opening the battle of Lookout 
Mountain. He fell mortally wounded, during the Atlanta campaign, May 
15, 1862, while actively engaged. He was struck by a canister shot, and 
expired half a hour thereafter. 

Col. John T. Toland, in July, 1863, was placed in command of a mounted 
brigade, including his regiment, and was instructed to destroy the Virginia & 
Tennessee Railroad. He reached Wytheville, Va., on the afternoon of the 
18th of July. The rebels were safely intrenched in the house, and poured a 
galling fire into the national troops. Col. Toland was on horseback, at the 
head of his command. A sharpshooter sent a bullet with fatal certainty, and 
he fell on the neck of his horse, but was instantly caught by his Orderly 
Sergeant, who heard the fervent words : " My horse and my sword to my 

Lieut. Col. Barton S. Kyle accompanied his regiment to the battle of Pitts- 
burg Landing. The regiment was forced back, though resisting bravely. 
Lieut. Col. Kyle was at his post of duty, encouraging his men, when he received 
a bullet in his right breast. He survived five hours. 

Col. William G. Jones was engaged m the battle of Chickamauga, June, 
1863. His regiment, the Thirty-sixth Ohio, was included in Turchin's Brigade 
of the Fourteenth Corps. He wrote in his pocket memoranda : " Oflf to the 
left ; merciful Father, have mercy on me and my regiment, and protect us from 
injury and death " — at 12 o'clock. At 5 that afternoon, he was fatally wounded 
and expired at 7 that same evening, on the battle-field His remains were 
taken by the rebels, but in December, 1863, they were exhumed and interred 
in Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati. 

Col. Fred. C. Jones held command of the Tenth Brigade, in October, 1862, 
marching from Wild Cat, Ky., to Nashville, through a perpetual skirmish, 
During the battle of Stone River, Col. Jones' regiment, the Twenty-fourth, was 
on the front and left of the line. During the afternoon, when the rebel assault 
upon the left became furious. Col. Jones ordered his men to lie down and hold 
fire, which was obeyed. They rose to pour a deadly volley into the rebel ranks, 
and rush forward in a fierce charge. The capture of an entire rebel regiment was 
thus effected, but Col. Jones was shot in the right side. He was carried to the 
rear. " I know it ; I am dying now ; pay no attention to me, but look after 
my wounded men." He survived about ten hours. His remains are buried in 
Spring Grove, Cincinnati. 

Col. Lorin Andrews went with his command to Western Virginia, where 
he succumbed to exposure and severe duty. He was removed to his home, 
G^ambier, Ohio, where he died surrounded by friends September 18, 1861. 


Col. Minor Milliken was sent to repel the attacks of the rebels at the rear. 
He led a superb cavalry charge against the enemy, vastly superior in numbers, 
and was cut off with a small portion of his regiment. He disdained to sur 
render, and ordered his men to cut their way out. A hand-to-hand conflict 
ensued. Col. Milliken, being an expert swordsman, was able to protect himself 
with his saber. While parrying the strokes of his assailant, another shot him. 
The regiment, again charging, recovered his body, stripped of sword, purse and 

Col. George P. Webster, with his regiment, the Ninety-eighth, left Steu- 
benville for Covington, Ky., August 23, 1862, marching from that point to Lex- 
ington and Louisville. He was placed at the command of the Thirty-fourth 
Brigade, Jackson's division, Cooke's corps. He fell in the battle of Perryville, 
and died on the field of battle. 

Col. Leander Stem was appointed Colonel of the One Hundred and First 
Ohio Infantry August 30, 1862. His premonitions that he should fall during 
his first regular engagement proved too true. As the army was advancing on 
Murfreesboro, the engagement of Knob Gap occurred, when Col. Stem's regi- 
ment charged and took a rebel battery, with several prisoners. The army 
closed around Murfreesboro, and on the evening of the 30th, the One Hun- 
dred and First was engaged in demonstrations against the enemy. Next 
morning, the battle of Stone River began in earnest. When Col. Stem's regi- 
ment began to waver, he called out: "Stand by the flag now, for the good 
old State of Ohio ! " and instantly fell, fatally wounded. 

Lieut. Col. Jonas D. Elliott held his position in May, 1863. During the 
summer of 1864, he commanded the left wing of the regiment at Dodsonville, 
Ala.; in September, he was sent after Wheeler, and was ordered into camp at 
Decatur. On the 23d, he was dispatched to Athens, to participate in the attack 
of Gen. Forrest, of the rebels. Col. Elliott was sent out, with 300 men, and 
being surrounded by Gen. Forrest, with vastly superior numbers, a forced resist- 
ance enabled them to sustain their own ground, until a fresh brigade of rebels 
arrived, under Gen. Warren. This officer instructed one of his men to shoot 
Lieut. Col. Elliott, and a moment later he fell. He lingered nineteen days. 

Col. Joseph L. Kirby Smith took command of the Forty-third Ohio Regi- 
ment. He fell at the battle of Corinth, under Rosecrans. 

Lieut. Col. James W. Shane fell, June 27, 1864, in an assault upon the 
enemy's works at Kenesaw. He survived but forty minutes. 

Col. Augustus H. Coleman displayed the abilities of a successful commander. 
He was in the first charge on the bridge across Antietan Creek. He was 
fatally wounded. His last words were inquiries regarding his men. 

Col. J. W. Lowe commanded the Twelfth Ohio, and was ordered to assise 
the Tenth in the battle of Carnifex Ferry. Cheering his men, in the thickest 
of the fight, a rifle ball pierced his forehead, and he fell dead — the first field 
officer from Ohio killed in battle in the war for the Union. 


Lieut. Col. Moses F. Wooster was engaged with his regiment, the One Hun- 
dred and First Ohio, at Perryville. He was mortally wounded on the 31st 
of December, 1862, in the grand effort to stem the tide of defeat at Stone 

The list of staff officers we refrain from giving, through lack of space. 

At the opening of the war, William Dennison was Governor of Ohio. David 
Tod succeeded him. John Brough was the third War Governor. 

Secretary Edwin M. Stanton was one of the most popular war Ministers. 
He was born in Steubenville, Ohio, in 1815 ; he was engaged in the United 
States Circuit Court, in 1860, in a leading law suit, at Cincinnati, known as the 
Manny and McCormick reaper trial ; on the 20th of January, 1862, he was 
appointed Secretary of War by Mr. Lincoln. 

Ex-Secretary Salmon P. Chase's public services in Ohio have already been 
mentioned in these pages. In 1861, he was appointed Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, in Mr. Lincoln's cabinet. 

United States Senator B. F. Wade made his reputation in Ohio. This 
Senator of the State stood at the head of the Committee on the Conduct of the 
War throughout its duration. 

United States Senator John Sherman was a leading member of the Finance 
Committee, during the war. For some time he was its Chairman. 

Jay Cooke was the financial agent of the Government, furnishing money for 
the payment of the troops. He was born in Portland, Huron Co., Ohio. 

In our brief review of the war record of Ohio, we have omitted a vast 
amount of detail information that would prove interesting to our readers. We 
believe we have been accurate in whatever we have given, taking as our authority, 
that accepted " encyclopedia " of Ohio war facts — Whitelaw Reid, who has pub- 
lished a valuable volume on the subject. 


It may be well in glancing over the achievements of Ohio, her momentous 
labors and grand successes, to refer to the Ordinance of 1787, more minutely 
than we have done, in relation to many events, since its inherent principles are 
not only perpetuated in the laws of the entire Northwest, but have since been 
woven into the general Constitution of the United States. It made permanent 
the standard and character of immigration, social culture and political and edu- 
cational institutions. It was thoroughly antislavery and denounced involuntary 
servitude, which was sanctioned in every other State at that time, with the 
exception of Massachusetts. It protected religion and property. As late as 
1862, Gen. William Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana, called a convention 
for the purpose of considering the slavery question, and the feasibility of intro- 
ducing the system in the new States and Territories being formed. There 
was at this time a spirited contest, and Illinois, Indiana and possibly Ohio, 
barely escaped a decision that a full support should be given its introduction 


into these States. Its adoption was based upon certain specifications and 
limits of time, which upon a deeper consideration was deemed perplexing and 

An animated discussion arose not long since, regarding the correct author- 
ship of this important ordinance, and its chief worker in gaining its sanction 
by Congress. 

Mr, Webster ascribed its authorship to Mathew Dane, of Massachusetts, 
which statement was immediately refuted by Mr. Benton, of Mississippi, who 
laid claim to it as the birthright of Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia. 

It has been almost impossible to obtain accurate reports of the actions of the 
old Continental Congress, from the fact that its meetings were held in secret, 
and any reports either narrated or shown in schedules or lists, were deemed a 
striking lack of trust on the part of the person who furnished the information. 
It was sufficient that its acts and conclusions be proclaimed without any prelude 
cir reasoning process. Hence it has been difficult to obtain early Congressional 
documents. But it has been conclusively proven that the great motive power 
in gaining the approbation of the Ordinance of 1787, was neither Dane nor 
Jefferson, but Dr. Cutler. 

He arrived at New York, July 5 of that year, after a journey from Ipswich, 
Mass., in his sulky. He obtained lodgings at the "Plow and Harrow," and 
saw that his good horse was properly cared for and fed at the same place. 
Congress was then in session, and he had come on a mission for the Ohio Com- 
pany, to negotiate their grant and its privileges in the ncAV Territory of Ohio. 
He remained in New York three weeks, constantly engaged in the work vital to 
the interests of the future great State. But he secured the installment of the 
principles deemed the corner-stone of a future powerful State constitution. Mr. 
Poole, Librarian of the Chicago Public Library, searched assiduously for con- 
clusive proof of Dr. Cutler's right to this honor, and in the North American 
Review, Vol. 122, this is emphatically set forth with substantiating proof under 
his signature. 

Other facts have been discussed and proven at a very recent date, relative 
to the State of Ohio, which heretofore have been omitted, and nearly lost from 
the historic thread which unites the present with the past. 

The first settlement of the lands of the Northwest is necessarily surrounded 
with interest. But those were exciting, troublesome times, and a few links 
were passed over lightly. However, the years are not so far removed in the 
past but the line may be traced. 

Mr. Francis W. Miller, of Cincinnati, has supplied some missing chapters. 
The earliest documentary trace extant, regarding the southern settlement at 
Cincinnati, is an agreement of partnership between Denman, Filson and Pat- 
terson, in the fractional section of land to which the city of Cincinnati was 
originally limited. It bears the date August 25, 1788. This was entered on 
the records of Hamilton County, Ohio, October 6, 1803. 


A letter from Jonathan Dayton to the Hon. Judge Symmes, dated Septem- 
ber 26, 1789, says: "You have been selling your lands, I am told, for two 
shillings specie, the acre. The price at this moment is, and seems to be, and 
undoubtedly is, a good one ; but as much cannot be said of it when you find 
hereafter that in consequence of the rise of certificates, another acre, in another 
payment, may cost you in specie two shillings and sixpence." 

A letter from John C. Symmes to Capt. Dayton, dated April 30, 1790, 
says: "The land in the reserved township is held at much too high a price. 
Not a foot of land beyond the five-acre lots will sell. Five shillings, specie, 
or two dollars in certificates, is the utmost they will bring, and they will rarely 
sell at that." 

This state of affairs was in a large degree brought about by the breaking-up 
of North Bend and a removal of the town to Fort Washington, or Cincinnati, 
later. A search through the old letters and other preserved documents prove 
that North Bend was at one time the beginning of the great city on the Ohio, 
rather than Cincinnati. Judge Symmes wrote. May 18, 1789 : " I have not as 
yet been able to make a decisive choice of a plat for the city, though I have 
found two pieces of ground, both eligible, but not upon the present plan of a 
regular square. It is a question of no little moment and difficulty to deter- 
mine which of these spots is preferable, in point of local situation. I know 
that at first thought men will decide in favor of that on the Ohio, from the 
supposition that the Ohio will command more trade and business than the 
Miami. * * * But if it were built on the Miami, the settlers 
throughout the purchase would find it very convenient." 

Another of the earliest selections of town sites was adjacent to the most 
southerly point of what is now Delhi Township. To this the name of South 
Bend was given. Judge Symmes reports November 4, 1790, of this place, 
over forty framed and hewed-log two-story houses, since the preceding spring. 
Ensign Luce is said to have taken his troops to North Bend, but decided to 
remove to Cincinnati, on account of the object of his affections having settled 
there — the wife of a settler. But this story is refuted by contradictory evi- 
dence from Judge Symmes' letters, which illustrate the fact that the post of 
North Bend was abandoned by Ensign Luce and his men in consequence of a 
panic, caused by Indian attacks. The removal of the troops caused a general 
decline of the town. Again, history and letters from the same eminent Judge, 
assert that Fort Washington was completed and garrisoned by Maj. Doughty 
before the close of that same year, and was begun by him during the summer, 
that Ensign Luce must have still been at his post at the bend at that time. It 
has been, therefore, recently accepted that the traditional "black eyes" and 
the "Indian panic," had nothing to do with the founding of Cincinnati, and 
that the advantages of the position gained the victory. 

Cincinnati has advanced, not only in prosperity and culture, but in national 
significance. Our readers must have observed, in perusing these pages, that 


from this city and the State which it represents, have emanated some of the 
superior intellects which have used their wise faculties and talents, tempered by 
a wise judgment, in behalf of the American Union. 

The originality of the Senecas and Wyandots have been debated at some 
length, while others have called the tribes the same, having two branches. We 
have searched the earlier records and have found an authenticated account of 
these two tribes. 

The Indian tribes of Ohio were originally bold, fierce and stalwart. The 
country watered by the Sandusky and its tributaries was frequented by the 
Wyandot tribe, who came from the north side of the St. Lawrence River. The 
Senecas were blood relatives of this tribe. Both tribes were numbered by the 
thousands. A war originated between them, in this manner: A Wyandot 
chief desired to wed the object of his affections, who laughed him to scorn, 
because he had taken no scalps, and was no warrior " to speak of" To change 
her opinion, he led out a party, and falling upon a number of Senecas, slaugh- 
tered them mercilessly, that he might hasten to the side of his dusky belle, with 
his trophies. This act inaugurated hostilities, which extended through a century. 
The Wyandots began to fear extermination, and, gathering their entire effects^ 
the natives escaped to Green Bay, and settled in several villages. But the Sen- 
ecas made up a war party and followed them, killing many Wyandots and burn- 
ing some of their villages. They then returned to Canada. Soon thereafter, 
they secured fire-arms from the French. Again they followed the Wyandots, 
firing their guns into their huts, and frightening thepa severely. They did not 
succeed as well as they expected. But the third party nearly exterminated the 
villages, because the young warriors were nearly all gone to war with the Foxes. 
The few at home escaping, promised to return with the Senecas, but desired 
two days for preparation. The Wyandots sent word to the two villages left 
undisturbed, and held a consultation. They decided to go as near the Senecas 
as possible, unobserved, and discover their real motive. They found them feast- 
ing on two roasted Wyandots, shouting over their victory. They danced nearly 
all night, and then fell asleep. A little before daylight, the Wyandots fell on 
them, leaving not one to carry back the news. 

The Wyandots then procured guns, and began to grow formidable. They 
set out to return to their own country, and proceeded on their way as far as 
Detroit, where they met a party of Senecas, on the lake. A fierce conflict 
ensued, and the Wyandots beheld the Senecas fall, to the last man, suffering 
fearful carnage themselves. They soon settled in this part of the world, their 
principal village being on the Sandusky. Northwestern Ohio was particularly 
dangerous with new Indian tribes, and the Wyandots were cruelly aggressive. 
The death of their chief, and their total defeat by Harrison, destroyed their 
power forever. 

On the 29th of September, 1817, a treaty was held, at the foot of the rapids 
of the Miami of Lake Erie, between Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, 


Commissioners of the United States, and the sachems, chiefs and warriors of the 
Wyandot, Seneca, Delaware, Shawnee, Potawattomie, Ottawa and Chippewa 
nations. All their lands in Ohio were ceded to the United States forever. 

There was really not a Seneca in the Seneca nation. They were chiefly 
Cayugas, Mohawks, Onondagas, Tuscarawas, Wyandots and Oneidas. But the 
Mingoes were originally Cayugas, and their chief was the celebrated Logan. 
After the murder of his family by the whites, the Mingoes were scattered over 
the territory northwest of the Ohio. 

The notorious Simon Girty was adopted by the Senecas. Girty's name was 
a terror and fiendish horror for many years. He not only led the Indians in 
their atrocities, but he added barbarism to their native wickedness. 


When peace was proclaimed, after the surrender of Gen. Robert E.^2ee to 
Gen. U. S. Grant, the volunteer troops disbanded, and a return to home indus- 
tries instituted, Ohio, like many other States, gave direct attention to the inter- 
ests of returned soldiers. The thrift of the State was augmented by a spasmodic, 
and thereafter recognized as a fictitious, demand for products, commercial and 
industrial pursuits redoubled their forces. But the great wave of stagnation 
swept over this fair land — the re-action of a war excitement. Laborers were 
many, but wages were inadequate. Deeper and deeper settled this lethargy — 
called by many " hard times" — until the wheels of commercial life revolved 
slowly, and from the workshops and the factories went up the echoes of priva- 
tion and distress. There was no famine, no fever, no epidemic, it was simply 
exhaustion. In the larger cities there was much suffering. Idle people loitered 
about, barely seeking employment, the task seeming worse than hopeless. 

During the years 1870, 1871 and 1872, the stringent measures brought 
about by the depressed state of business retarded any material advancement in 
general matters. The years 1873-74 were marked by a preceptible improve- 
ment, and a few factories were established, while larger numbers were employed 
in those already founded. The year 1875 was under the direction of a Demo- 
cratic Legislature. It was marked in many respects by a " reverse motion " in 
many laws and regulations. 

The Legislature which convened in 1876, January 3, was Republican in the 
main. It repealed the " Geghan Law " passed by the preceding body. At 
the time of its adoption, there was the most intense feeling throughout the State, 
the charge being made that it was in the interests of the Catholics. Among 
the general enactments were laws re-organizing the government of the State insti- 
tutions, which the previous Legislature had ordered according to their own belief 
to follow new doctrines. The ofiice of Comptroller of the Treasury was abolished. 
The powers of municipal corporations to levy taxes was limited, and their 
authority to incur debts was limited. Furthermore, this body prohibited any 
municipal appropriations, unless the actual money was in the Treasury to meet 


the same in full. A law was passed for the protection of children under fourteen 
years of age, exhibited in public shows. 

The temperance cause received more vigorous and solid support than was 
ever rendered by the State previously. A common-sense, highly moral and 
exalted platform was formed and supported by many leading men. 

This year witnessed the serious "strikes" among the miners in Stark and 
Wayne Counties. The consequences were painful — distress, riots and distruc- 
tion of property. 

The State Mine Inspector reported 300 coal mines in the State, with only 
twenty-five in operation. Not oyer 3,000,000 tons of coal were raised during 
the year, owing to the dullness of the times. 

The State charities reported the aggregate number under public care to be 
29,508. The taxation for the maintenance of these classes was one and one 
six-hundredth of a mill on each dollar of taxable property. 

The reports given of the year 1877 indicated a revival of business interests 
and prosperity. The State produced of wheat, 27,306,566 bushels ; rye, 
914,106 bushels; buckwheat, 225,822 bushels; oats, 29,325,611; barley, 
1,629,817 bushels ; corn, 101,884,305 bushels ; timothy, tons of hay, 2,160,334 ; 
clover, tons of hay, 286,265; flax, pounds of fiber, 7,343,294; potatoes, 
10,504,278 bushels; sweet potatoes, 126,354| bushels; tobacco, 24,214,950 
pounds ; sorghum, sugar, 7,507| pounds ; syrup, 1,180,255 gallons ; maple 
sugar, 1,625,215 pounds; maple syrup, 324,036 gallons; honey, 1,534,902 

The growth of manufacturing industries, the remarkable annual increase 
in stock and in agricultural products since 1877, leave no room to doubt the 
rapid advancement of Ohio in general wealth. 




^"2" :r. o. :b:ro^jvi<t. 


int. oiATii iHEiK Social Relations with the First Settlers. 

nf ,u f • •,. n ^"^ ^'^ ^^e dust 

Of these fair solitudes once stir with life 

And burn with passion? Let the mighty mounds 

That overlook the rivers, or that rise 

In the dim forests crowded witli old oaks 

Answer. A race that Ions; has passed aw'ay 

Built them; a disciplined and populous race 

Heaped with lon^toil the earth, while yet the Greek 

Was hewing the Pentelicus to forms 

Of symmetry, and rearing on its rock 

The glittering Parthenon.— 5r^ani5. 

TT is now generally believed that a very numerous race of people occupied 

North T^' ?''*'r.-^^ ^^'' '°^'^^^^* ^°^g ^^t^"«^- ^« the^coming o?the 
North American Indians, but there is no authentic history regarding them 
further than can be gleaned from the multiplicity of massive works stretcT 
mg from the great lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. These works all bear the 
same general chai-acteristics, and are either mounds, effigies, or defensive 
indosures some of which are of a very marked and extraordinary character 
This long forgotten race, called Mound-Builders, in lieu of a more accurate 
designation, evidently possessed a distinctive civilization, and from JheTe 
cuhar hieroglyphic characters sometimes found upon heir sW Ymp^e" 
Thoul there' is'm^"^^' P-bable^they may have Ld a written Tangufge," 
bevond iCw 1 ! ^"^'"^^^.^l on which to found such a conclusion.^ But 
vaTnforafurthl?''1 ^P^^^f^^ inonuments, the arch^ologist seeks in 
vam foi a further solution of the grand problem of the comin|, subsequent 


life and disappearance of this pre-historic race. On opening a mound he 
finds only moldering skeletons, scattered remnants of earthenware, rude 
weapons of warfare, axes of stone, flint drills, spear-heads, pestles, badges, 
and many other specimens of stone ornaments cut and polished from mate- 
rial rarely indigenous to the place where found, showing their owners to 
have been a migratory people or a conquering nation. 

A thousand interesting queries arise respecting them, but the most 
searching investigations only give us vague and unsatisfactory specula- 
tions as an answer. If we knock at their tombs, no spirit reposing within 
responds to the summons, but a sepulchral echo comes ringing down the 
ages, reminding us how fruitless the search into that inscrutable past, over 
which the curtain of oblivion seems to have been irrevocably drawn. 
Whence came these people; who and what were they, and whither did they 
go? Some writers have discovered evidences, oonvincing, apparently, to 
themselves, that this pre-historic race came from the other side of the 
globe, and that their advent was made at different times and fi-om different 
points of a general hive in the supposed cradle of humanity — Central Asia. 
Others think them to have been the forgotten ancestors of the degen- 
erate and now decaying American Indians, from whom, they having no preser- 
vative written language, the memory of their ancestors has gradually slipped. 
Still others fancy them to have been the original indigenous, sponta- 
neous product of the soil. Regardless, however, of the origin, progress 
and destiny of this curious people, the fact of their having been here is cer- 
tain; therefore the best that can be done by the archaeologist is to examine 
their works and draw from them the conclusions that seem the most proba- 

The mounds vary in height from about five to thirty feet, with several 
notable exceptions, when they reach an altitude of eighty to ninety feet. 
The inclosures contain villages, altars, temples, idols, cemeteries, monu- 
ments, camps, fortifications and pleasure gi'ouuds. They are chiefly of 
some symmetrical figure, as circle, ellipse, rectangular parallelogram, or 
regular polygon, and inclose from one or two acres to as high as fifty acres. 
The circumvallations generally contain the mounds, although there are 
many of the latter to be found standing isolated on the banks of a stream 
or in the midst of a broad plateau, being evidently thus placed as outposts 
of offense or defense, for the fact that they were a very warlike, and even 
conquering race, is fully attested by the numerous fortifications to be met 
with wherever any trace of them is found. 

The works of the Mound-Builders in the United States are divided into 
three groups: The first group extends from the upper sources of the Alle- 
gheny River to the headwaters of the IVIissoui'i; the second occupies the 
Ohio and Mississippi Valleys, and the third stretches across the country, 
with very little interrviption, from South Carolina to the western limits of 
Texas. These groups are subdivided into three varieties of elevations — 
mounds, inclosures and elfigies — which are designated as mounds of sepul- 
ture, sacrifice, worship, observation, commemoration and defense. Mounds 
of sepulture are more numerous than the others, and conical in shape. 
They usually contain the bones of one or more skeletons, accompanied by 
ornaments and implements of stone, mica, slate, shell or obsidian; besides 
pottery, whole and fi-agmentary, bone and copper beads, and the bones of 
animals. Mounds of sacrifice are recognized by their stratification, being 


convex and constructed of clay and sand on the normal level of the soil, on 
top of which can be found a layer of ashes, charcoal and calcined bones, 
which in turn has a layer of clay and sand, followed by more ashes, char- 
coal, etc. , till the gradual upbuilding resulted in the manner we now see. 
These mounds also often contain beads, stone implements, pottery and rude 
sculptui'e, and occasionally a skeleton, showing that they may have been 
used as burial places. Mounds of worship, which are comparatively few, 
have generally a large base and low elevation, and are in some instances 
terraced with inclined ways to the top. Their size and character have 
led to the inference that these flat-topped mounds originally were crowned 
with temples of wood, for had they been stone, traces of that raaterial 
would be found. Mounds of observation, or beacon or signal mounds, are 
generally found upon elevated positions, and apparently could have sub- 
served no other purpose than as "look-out" stations, or beacon points, and 
as confirmatory of the latter purpose, ashes and charcoal have been found 
imbedded in their summits. These mounds occur on the line of what are 
considered the outposts of these pre-historic conquerors. Mounds in com- 
memoration of some important event or character are here and there to be 
found, and they are thus classed because, from their composition, position 
and character, they are neither sepulchral, sacrificial, temple, defensive nor 
observation mounds. They are generally constructed of earth, but in some 
instances in Ohio, where they are stone erections, they are considered to be 
monumental. Mounds of defense, however, with the exception, possibly, of 
one or two effigies in Ohio, are the most remarkable. These mormds in 
some instances give evidence that then* builders were acquainted with all 
the peculiarities in the construction of the best defensive earth and stone 
works. They are always upon high ground and precipitous bluffs, and in 
positions that would now be selected by the accomplished strategist. The 
gateways to these forts are narrow and defended by the usual wall in 
front of them, whilst the double angle at the corners and projecting walls 
along the sides for enfilading attack show a knowledge of warfare that is 
phenomenal in so rude a people as their implements would indicate. Moats 
are often noticed around these fortifications, and cisterns or wells are to be 
found within the inclosures. 

When the first settlers arrived at the sites of Marietta and Circloville, 
Ohio, a number of these earthworks were discovered, some of which yet 
exist; and at Newark when the circumvallation, known as the "fort," was 
first seen by those who settled there in the early years of the century, a 
large tree, whose age was possibly not less than six hundi-ed years, stood 
upon one of the embankments over twenty feet above the general level, thus 
giving great antiquity to the erection. Ohio contains many curious forms 
of these works, two of the most singular being in Licking County and 
known respectively as the ' 'Eagle' ' and ' 'Alligator' ' effigies. The first is a 
bird with outstretched wings raised about three or foirr feet above the 
ground in the same manner as a bas-relief of the sculptors; the other is an 
animal closely i-esembling an alligator. They are supposed to have been 
idols, or in some way connected with the religion of the people who built 

In Ross County a defensive inclosure occupies the summit of a lofty, 
detached hill, twelve miles west of Chillicothe. This hill is not far from 
400 feet in perpendicular height, and some of its sides are actually inaccessi- 


ble, all of them being abrupt. The defenses consisted originally of a stone 
wall carried around Ihe hill a little below the brow, the remains of this 
wall existing now only in a line of detached stones, but showing plainly 
their evident purpose and position. The area inclosed embraced about 140 
acres, and the wall itself was two and one-quarter miles in length. Trees 
of the largest size now grow upon the ruins of this fortification. About six 
miles east of Lebanon, Warren County, on the Little Miami River, is an- 
other extensive fortification, called ' ' Fort Ancient. ' ' It stands on a plain, 
nearly horizontal, about 236 feet above the level of the river, between two 
branches with very steep banks. The extreme length of these works in a 
direct line is nearly a mile, although following their angles, retreating and 
salient, they probably reach a distance of six miles. Another of these in- 
closures is located in the southeastern part of Highland County, on an emi- 
nence 500 feet above the level of Brush Creek, which washes its base. The 
walls of the fortifications are over half a mile long, and the works are locally 
called ' ' Fort Hill. ' ' The remains of an inclosure may yet be seen near 
Carrollton, a few miles south of Dayton, Montgomery County. All of these 
inclosures were evidently constructed for defensive purposes, and give sig- 
nal proofs of the military knowledge of their builders. 

Burial mounds dre very numerous in this State, and there are few coun- 
ties that have not a greater or less number of these tumuli. The most re- 
markable of this class was a mound opened by John S. B. Matson, in Har- 
din County, in which over 300 human skeletons were found. Some antiqua- 
rians, however, entertain the belief that they were not all the remains of 
Mound-Builders, but many of them Indian remains, as it is well known that 
the latter often interred their dead in those monuments of their predeces- 
sors. When the first band of pioneers to the Western Reserve arrived at 
the mouth of Conneaut Creek, July 4, 1796, they discovered several mounds, 
and could easily trace the outline of a large cemetery then overgrown with 
forest. Explorations were subsequently made, and some gigantic skeletons 
exhumed from mounds which stood on the site of Conneaut, Ashtabula 
County. The frames and jaw-bones wei-e those of giants, and could not 
have belonged to the race of Indians then inhabiting any portion of this 
country. Several years ago a burial mound was opened in Logan County, 
from which three skeletons were taken. The frame of one was in an excel- 
lent state of preservation, and measured nearly seven feet from the top of 
the skull to the lower part of the heel. In 1850 a mound lying on the north 
bank of Big Darby, about one mile northwest of Plain City, in Union 
County, was opened and several massive skeletons taken therefrom. The 
lower jaw-bones, like those found at Conneaut, could be easily fitted over 
the jaw of a very large man, outside the flesh. These bones — and they are 
usually large wherever found — indicate that the Mound-Builders were a 
gigantic race of beings, fully according in s^ze with the colossal remains 
they have left behind them. 

The largest mound in Ohio, called the ' 'Great Mound, ' ' is located on the 
east bank of the Miami River, a short distance southeast of Miamisburg, 
Montgomery County. The surface elevation at this point is more than 150 
feet above the level of the stream. The mound measures 800 feet around the 
base, and about sixty-five feet in height, though archaeologists claim that it 
was originally more than eighty feet high. Explorations and the wear and 
tear of the elements have worn oflF the summit about fifteen feet. At the 


time the pioneers first came to the Miami Valley this mound was covered 
with trees, a large maple crowning the top, from which, it is said, the few 
cabins then constituting Dayton were plainly visible. In 1869 a shaft was 
sunk from the top of the mound to a distance of two feet below the base, and 
about eight feet fi'om the surface a human skeleton was found in a sitting 
posture, facing due east. A deposit of vegetable matter, bones of small ani- 
mals, also wood and stone surrounded the skeleton, while a cover of clay, 
ashes and chax'coal seems to have been the^ mode of burial. 

Few traces of the Mound-Builders are now left in Hancock County, al- 
though it has been stated by several intelligent pioneers that many 
small mounds were found by the first settlers, who regarded them as "Indian 
graveyards." All of the tumuli in this portion of the State were each 
about five feet high and thirty feet in diameter, and on being opened ex- 
hibited the same evidences of construction as those previously mentioned. 
Three of these mounds were located northeast of Cannonsburg, in Union 
Township; two on Section 11, and one on Section 13, Orange Township; 
one on the old John Povenmire farm in Section 21, Liberty Township, and 
one about a mile south of Mount Blanchard, on the farm of Isaac Elder. 
Those in Orange and Union Townships were opened by William M. McKin- 
ley and Fayette Ballard, who found human remains in each mound, also 
flint arrow heads and other implements of stone, some of which Mr. McKinley 
has now in his possession. Most, if not all of these tumuli have been 
nearly obliterated by cultivation, as no effort was ever made toward pre- 
serving them fi'om the iconoclastic wantonness of the agricultiirist. No 
doubt many more small mounds once existed in other townships of Hancock 
County, which the plow has long since obliterated. Numerous evidences of 
this strange people cannot be looked for here, but that they once inhabited 
the valley of the Blanchard is beyond all reasonable doubt. 

"The red man came — 
The roaming hunter tribes, warlike and fierce. 
And the Mound-Builders vanished from the earth." 

The question of the origin of the North American Indian has long inter- 
ested archaeologists, and is one of the most difficult they have been called 
upon to answer. The commonly accepted opinion is that they are a deriva- 
tive race, and sprang fi'om one or more of the ancient peoples of Asia. 
Some writers have put forward the theory that the Indians, from their tribal 
organization, faint similarity of language and religion, and the high cheek- 
bone in the well developed specimen of the race, are the descendants of the 
two lost tribes of Israel. Others contend that they descended from the Hin- 
doos, and that the Brahmin idea, which uses the sun to symbolize the 
Creator, has its counterpart in the sun-worship of some Indian tribes. They 
have lived for centuries without much apparent progress — purely a hunter 
race — while the Caucasian, under the transforming power of Christianity — 
the parent of art, science and civil government — has made the most rapid 
advancement. Under the influences of the church, however, the Indian has 
often shown a commendable capability for accepting the teachings of civili- 
zation; but the earnest efforts of her devoted missionaries have often been 
nullified or totally destroyed by the unwise policy pursued by the governing 
power, or the dishonesty and selfishness of the officials in charge. Stung 
to madness at our injustice and usurpation of his hunting grounds, he has 
remained a savage, and his career in the upward march of man is forever 


stunted. The Indian race is in the position of a half-grown giant cut down 
before reaching manhood. There never has been a savage people who 
could compare with them in their best estate. Splendid in physique, with 
intense shrewdness and common sense, and possessed of a bravery unex- 
celled, there never was a race of uncivilized people who had within them so 
much to make them great, as the red man. Whatever he has been or is, he was 
never charged with being a coward or a fool, and as compared to the barbarians 
of other portions of the globe, he js as " Hyperion to a satyr. ' ' 

The advent of the whites iipon the shores of the Western continent engen- 
dered in the bosoms of the aborigines a spark of jealousy, which, by the im- 
politic course of the former, was soon fanned into a blaze, and a contest was 
thereby inaugurated that sooner or later must end in the extermination of 
the latter. The struggle has been long and bitter; many a campaign has 
been planned by warriors worthy and able to command armies for the de- 
struction of the pale-faced invaders. When Philip struck the blow which 
he hoped would forever crush the growing power of the white man, both 
recognized the supreme importance of the contest, and the courage and re- 
sources of the New England colonists were taxed to the utmost to avoid 
a defeat, which meant final destruction. The fierce resistance of later days, 
as the Indians were driven farther and farther toward the setting sun, are 
historic facts with which the student is already familiar. The conspiracy 
of Pontiac, the famous Ottawa chieftain, in 1763, failed in its object of ex- 
termination, and the bravery and sagacity of the celebrated Indian leaders, 
Brandt, Red Jacket, Cornplanter, Cornstalk, Logan, Black Hoof, Tarhe, 
Little Turtle and Blue Jacket, could not prevail against the heroes of the 
Revolution, and the triumph of Wayne in 1794 closed a long series of 
bloody Indian wars, A few years passed by when Tecumseh flashed out 
like a brilliant meteor in the firmament of great Indian leaders, and or- 
ganized the Western tribes for a last desperate effort to hold their own 
against the advancing tide of civilization. But he too went down in defeat 
and death before the prowess of Harrison's legions. W^hen the Creeks, in 
1813, through the intrigue of Tecumseh, challenged the people of the South 
to mortal combat, it re({uired the genius of a Jackson, and soldiers worthy 
of such a chief, to avert a serious calamity. But since the decisive battle 
of Tohopeka, March 27, 1814, there has been but one Indian war of any 
considerable magnitude, viz. : the Seminole war in Florida. The Black 
Hawk outbreak in Illinois, in 1832, required but a few weeks' service of raw 
militia to quell, but the Seminoles of Florida, led by the indomitable 
Osceola, a half-breed of great talents, carried on a bitter struggle from 
1835 to 1839, when their power was completely crushed, and they were 
soon after removed beyond the Mississippi, Since then campaigns have 
dwindled into mere raids, and battles into skirmishes. The massacre of 
Custer's command in Montana must be regarded as an accident of no per- 
manent importance, and a dozen such melancholy events would not in the 
least alarm the country. Indian fighting, though not free from peril, now 
serves a useful purpose for the army graduates of West Point, who might 
otherwise go to their graves without ever having smelled hostile gunpowder. 
Two hundi'ed years ago the white man lived in America only by the red 
man's consent, and within that period the combined strength of the red 
man might have driven the white into the sea. Along the Atlantic coast are 
still to be seen the remains of the rude fortifications which the early settlers 




^k. K^^^y 




built to protect themselves from the host of enemies around ; but to find the 
need of such j^rotection " now one must go beyond the Mississippi, to a few 
widely scattered points in Arizona, New Mexico and Oregon. The enemy 
that once camped in sight of the Atlantic has retreated toward the slope of 
the Pacific, and from that long retreat there can be no returning. East of 
the stream which he called the Father of Waters, nothing is left of the 
Indian except the beautiful names he gave and the graves of his dead, save 
here and there the remnants of once powerful tribes, living on reservations 
by the sufferance of their conqueror^. The Indian has resisted and will 
continue to resist every effort to civilize him by coercion, every attempt to 
force at the point of the bayonet the white man's ideas into his brain. He 
does not want and will not have our manners or our code of morals forced 
upon him. The greatest redeeming feature in the Indian character and 
career is that he has always preferred the worst sort of freedom to the best 
sort of slavery. Whether his choice was a wise one or not the reader can 
determine; but it is impossible not to feel some admiration for the indomit- 
able spirit that has never bowed to the yoke, never called any man ' 'master. ' ' 
The Indian is a savage, but he never was, never will be, a "slave. We have 
treated him like a dog and are surprised that he bites. In a speech in New 
York City, not long before his death, Gen. Samuel Houston, indisputable 
authority on such matters, declared with solemn emphasis that "there never 
was an Indian war in which the white man was not the aggressor. " Ag- 
gression leading to war is not our heaviest sin against the Indian. He has 
been deceived, cheated and robbed to such an extent that he looks upon most 
of the white race as villains to whom he should show no quarter. A very 
decided feeling of justice to the abused red man is gaining ground of late 
years, and numerous able writers have been engaged in defending him, among 
whom are Joaquin Miller, the poet, and Hon. A. B. Meacham. But we can 
well afford, after getting all his land and nearly exterminating him, to ex- 
tend to him a little cheap sympathy. 

The Indians of this continent were never so numerous as has generally 
been supposed, although they were spread over a vast extent of country. 
Continual wars prevented any great increase, and their mode of life was not 
calculated to promote longevity or numbers. The great body of them origi- 
nally were along the Atlantic seaboard, and most of the Indian tribes had 
traditions that their forefathers lived in splendid hunting grounds far to the 
westward. The best authorities affirm that, on the discovery of this country, 
the number of the scattered aborigines of the territory now forming the 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and Michigan could not have ex- 
ceeded 18.000. 

The earliest date of any authentic knowledge of the Indian in this section 
is 1650, when the Eries held possession of the northern portion of what is 
now Ohio. They lived along the southern borders of the lake which bears 
their name, but when their domains were invaded by the Iroquois, about 
1655, most of them fell before their relentless foes, whilst the remainder 
became incorporated with other tribes, were di'iven farther southward, or 
adopted into those of their conquerors. During the first half of the seven- 
teenth century the Shawnees were living along the valley of the Ohio, but 
they, too, were dispersed by the Five Nations, or Iroquois, and dispossessed 
of their lands, though they subsequently returned to their early hunting 
grounds. For many years before and after 1700 this entire territory was 


occupied by the remnants of defeated tribes, who were permitted to remain 
by sufferance of their conquerors, the latter exacting a tribute', collected at 
will from the wandering and unsettled tribes. In 1750, however, some- 
thing like permanent occupation had again taken place, and we find in what 
is now Ohio the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Miamis, Miinsees, 
Ottawas, Senecas, Cayugas, Mohawks, Oneidas and Onondagas, the last five 
being known in history as the Mingoes of Ohio. 

The Wyandots then inhabited the valleys of the Sandusky Eiver and its 
tributaries, and also dwelt around Sandusky Bay, and along a few other 
streams flowing into Lake Erie. The Delawares and Munsees occupied the 
Muskingum Valley. The Shawnees lived along the Scioto fi'om the Ohio to 
the Scioto Marsh, and also had a few towns on the Miami and Mad Rivers. 
The Miamis occupied the country drained by the headwaters of the Mau- 
mee, Wabash and Great Miami Rivers, from the Loramie portage across to 
Fort Wayne and down the Maumee Valley. The Ottawas were scattered 
along the Lower Blanchard, Auglaize and Maumee Rivers, and around the 
western end of the lake ; while the Mingoes, composed of Senecas, Cayugas, 
Mohawks, Oneidas and Onondagas, were settled in the eastern and north- 
eastern portions of the State, but, like the other tribes, were gradually 
pushed westward. 

By the Greenville treaty, ratified August 3, 1795, the United States ac- 
quired from the Indians about two-thirds of the present territory of Ohio. 
The boundary line began at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River; thence up 
that stream to the portage leading to the Tuscarawas River; thence along 
the portage and down the Tuscarawas to the forks (the town of Bolivar) ; 
thence in a southwesterly direction to Loramie' s store, on the Great Miami 
River (in Shelby County); thence to Fort Recovery (in Mercer County); 
thence southwest to the Ohio, opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River. 
All of the lands east and south of this line were ceded by the Indians to the 
Government. The previous treaties of Fort Mcintosh, in 1785, Fort Fin- 
ney, in 1786, and Fort Harmar, in 1789, had a similar object in view, but 
failed in accomplishing a peace of sufficient permanence for the whites to 
obtain possession of the coveted territory. The Indians also ceded to the 
Government, by the treaty of Greenville, several tracts within the territory 
still retained by them, for the establishment of trading posts or settlements. 
Those in Ohio were located at gr near Loramie' s store, and on the St. 
Mary's, Auglaize, Maumee and Sandusky Rivers, and Sandusky Bay. The 
tribes likewise guaranteed to the people of the United States free passage 
by land and water between said posts. By a treaty made at Fort Industry 
(Toledo), July 4, 1805, all of the Western Reserve west of the Cuyahoga 
River was secured. In November, 1807, the lands north of the Maumee 
were purchased by treaty at Detroit, Mich. , fi-om the Ottawas, Wyandots, 
Pottawatomies and Chippewas; and in November, 1808, the same tribes, 
with the Shawnees, by a treaty at Brownstown, Mich. , granted a tract two 
miles wide for a road through the Black Swamp, from the Maumee Rapids 
to the east line of the Western Reserve. On the 29th of September, 1817, a 
treaty was made at the foot of the Maumee Rapids, with the W^yandots, Ot- 
tawas, Shawnees, Delawares, Senecas, Pottawatomies and Chippewas, and 
all of the lands in this State then remaining in possession of the Indians 
were ceded to the United States. 

Certain reservations were set aside by this treaty for the uses of the sev- 


eral Indian tribes, to which large additions were made by a treaty con- 
cluded at St. Mary' s, Ohio, with the Wyandots, Senecas, Shawnees and Ot- 
tawas, September 17, 1818. The Wyandot Eeservations embraced a tract of 
twelve miles square around Upper Sandusky, one mile square on Broken 
Sword Creek, 55,080 acres lying on the north and east of the Upper San- 
dusky Reserve, and 16,000 acres surrounding the Big Spring at the east 
end of the marsh (in what is now the southwest corner of Seneca County, 
and extending across the line into Big Lick Township, Hancock County), 
the last mentioned tract being ' ' for the use of the Wyandots residing at 
Solomon' s Town and on Blanchard' s Fork. " The Delawares had a reserve 
of three miles square immediately south of the Wyandots, extending into 
Marion County. The Ottawas had three tracts set aside for their residence, 
viz. : five miles square on the Blanchard River around the village of Ottawa 
(Putnam County), three miles square on the Little Auglaize around 
Oquanoxa's Town, and thirty -foiu- square miles on the south side of the 
Maumee, including the village of the Indian chief McCarty. The Shawnees 
had reserved ten miles square around their village of Wapakoneta (Auglaize 
County), twenty square miles adjoining it on the east, twenty-five square 
miles on Hog Creek, also adjoining the first mentioned tract, and forty-eight 
square miles surrounding the Indian village of Lewistown (Logan County). 
Another tract containing 8,960 acres, lying west of the Lewistown Reserva- 
tion, was set aside for mixed bands of Shawnees and Senecas. The "Sene- 
cas of Sandusky" were given 40,000 acres on Sandusky River, lying in what 
is now Seneca and Sandusky Counties. Besides the foregoing reservations, 
numerous smaller tracts were granted at different points to individual chiefs, 
half-breeds and adopted whites then living with the Indians. In 1818 the 
Miamis, whose reservation included lands on St. Mary's River, near the west 
line of the State, ceded the same to the United States. In 1829 the Dela- 
ware Reserve was purchased, and, in 1831, the reservations located in 
Logan, Auglaize, Seneca, Hancock and Sandusky Counties, were like- 
wise obtained, and those of the Ottawas in 1838. In March, 1842, the 
Wyandots ceded their lands to the Government, and in July of the following 
year the last Indian left Ohio for the far West. Thus, after a struggle of 
more than three-quarters of a century, the red man was at last forced^to suc- 
cumb to the strength and prowess of a superior race, and his bloodthirsty 
efforts were futile to stem the onward march of American civilization. 

The territory embraced in Hancock County lay between the Indian 
towns in what is now Wyandot and Seneca Counties and those located on 
the Blanchard, Auglaize and Maumee Rivers. It was a portion of the 
hunting grounds of the Wyandots and Ottawas, who within the period of 
American history roamed at will through its unbroken forests. The Wyan- 
dots had a small village on the site of Findlay, and cultivated corn along 
the river within the present limits of the city. Howe, in his ' 'Historical 
Collections, " speaking of the settlement of Wilson Vance at Fort Findlay, 
in 1821, says: "There were then some ten or fifteen Wyandot families in 
the place, who had made improvements. They were a temperate, fine-look- 
ing people, and friendly to the first settlers. ' ' Howe was, probably, mis- 
taken, as under the treaty of 1817 the Indians gave up all claims to' these 
lands and removed to certain reservations set aside for their benefit, one of 
which was "reserved for the use of the Wyandots residing at Solomon's 
Town and on Blanchard' s Fork." This plainly indicates that there were 


settlements of Wyandots on the Blauchard, and we believe Findlay was the 
site of one of these villages. 

The writer called upon Mrs. Elizabeth Eberly, a daughter of Benjamin J. 
Cox, who now resides near Portage, Wood County, and in reply to his questions 
she gave the following information: "When my father settled at Fort Find- 
lay, in 1815, there were eight or ten families of friendly Wyandots living 
around and in the block-houses of the fort. They tilled two fields, one 
above and the other below Fort Findlay, on the south bank of the Blanch- 
ard. Kuqua was the chief, and one of his sons, Tree-Top-in-The- Water, 
died in a cabin west of the fort before the Indians removed to Big Spring 
Reservation. New Bearskin, another of Kuqua' s sons, lived in one of the 
block-houses, and the old chief also occupied one of the same buildings. 
Six or seven miles down the river the Wyandots had another village, which 
my father sometimes visited. Solomon, who once lived in Logan County, 
dwelt at the latter village, and often came to our house. We never had 
any trouble with the Indians who lived upon the Blanchard, and when they 
removed to Big Spring, Kuqua offered my father a tract of land near the 
spring if he would go and live with them, but he did not care to go, and 
refused the kind offer. ' ' The foregoing may be regarded as indubitable proof 
that the Wyandots had two villages on the Blanchard, in what is now Han- 
cock County, and also that the sites of these towns were at Findlay and 
' ' Indian Green, ' ' in Liberty Township. 

As further evidence of the existence of an Indian village on the site of 
Findlay, an excerpt is here given from the work of Squire Carlin, who is 
recognized as a reliable authority on local pioneer history: "When I settled 
at Findlay, in the fall of 1826," says Mr. Carlin, "several small cabins stood 
west of the old fort, and others southwest of the residence of Wilson Vance, 
in the rear of the Sherman House site. There were no Indians living here 
at that time, but I understood these cabins were built by the Indians, and 
that they also had raised corn on the river bottoms above the fort. It has 
always been my impression that an Indian village once existed at this point, 
though I believe the occupants moved away soon after the treaty of 1818 
and before the erection of Hancock County in 1820." 

In the history of Liberty Township, the Indian village that once stood 
on the north bank of the Blanchard, in Section 7, is spoken of. It is gen- 
erally believed that the Wyandots had a settlement here up to the treaty 
of 1818, when all these lands having been ceded to the Government, this 
band removed to their reservation at the Big Spring. Further down the 
river, in Putnam County, the Ottawas had, up to the time of their removal 
to the West, two villages, one on the site of Ottawa, and another two miles 
above that point. These towns were known as Upper and Lower 'Tawa, 
the latter being on the site of Ottawa, and the former between that and 
Gilboa. The Wyandot village in Liberty Township was surrounded by a 
clearing of some twelve acres, whereon the Indians had a graveyard, and a 
plum orchard. It has been claimed that an earth fortification once ran along 
the brow of the hill overlooking the river. Careful examination of what is 
said to be the remains of this defensive work leads the writer to believe the cut 
back of the elevation was made by the washings of the surface di-ainage into 
the river. There is nothing here to sustain the theory of an artificial earth- 
work, and no reasonable grounds iipon which to base such a conclusion. 
The site of this village was deserted prior to the coming of any white set- 


tiers to its vicinity, and was subsequently owned by Robert McKinnis. A 
man named Ellison settled upon this tract and began opening the graves 
for the purpose of obtaining the ornaments or, valuables usually interred 
with the Indian dead. The Indians, learning of the desecration, visited 
Ellison, and so thoroughly scared him that he soon afterward left the county. 
Some of the pioneers tell us it was the general belief that Ellison stole about 
a half bushel of jewelry from these graves, but this is, no doubt, an exagger- 
ation. There is scarcely a township in the county where Indian remains have 
not been discovered, as they buried their dead in any spot which fancy dic- 
tated. Ornaments of gold, silver or copper were usually found in each grave. 
Some of the pioneers have claimed that Mount Blanchard is also the site of 
an Indian village, and, from the large number of relics found there by early 
settlers, it is highly probable that a band of Wyandots once dwelt at that 

The character of the Indians who frequented this ''county cannot be more 
appropriately illustrated than by giving a few extracts from the " Personal 
Reminiscences" of Job ChamlDerlin, Esq., of Findlay, written in 1874: 
' ' The county, ' ' says Mr. Chamberliu (speaking of the early years of set- 
tlement beginning with 1822), "was full of Indians, chiefly Wyandots. 
Those that we became the best acquainted with were Solomon, Bigpan, 
Bearskin, Kuqua, Johnnycake, Half John, Isaac Hill and Armstrong. Sol- 
omon had been a chief in the war of 1812, and he had the temerity to boast, 
to some of his white fi'iends here, of his barbarous feats and inhuman treat- 
ment of his captives. He said at one time he cut his prisoners' tongues off. 
He compelled them to put their tongues out, and as he could not hold them 
with his bare hand, he would take a piece of flannel in his hand and catch 
hold of the tongue with that, then he could hold it and pull it out as far as 
possible to cut it ofl'. He would make a gurgling noise down his throat to 
mimic the victims of his cruelty in their efforts to talk. He also boasted of 
having killed twenty women at one time. He and another Indian went to a 
house where twenty women were collected together for safety, when he broke 
open the door and went in, whilst his companion stood at the door to prevent 
their escape. He said there was one woman who fought him with a chair, 
and came very near overpowering him, while the others crawled under the 
beds. But he finally killed the one who gave him battle, and then had 
nothing to do but di-ag out the others and tomahawk them. 

' ' Kuqua was their doctor, and practiced divination. To cure the patient 
he would pow-wow aroimd the sick bed, and thump around the room until 
the demons, which were supposed to be the cause of the disease, would be 
driven away, and the patient restored to health. * * * ijij^p 

Indians possessed the same fanatical belief in witchcraft that was so dis- 
graceful to the Pilgrim Fathers, and like them would inflict capital punish- 
ment on the victims of their suspicion. Just after we came here, there was 
a squaw living in the eastern part of the county, whom the Indians decided 
had lived to such an extreme old age as to have outlived all usefulness, and 
must therefore be a witch. So they appointed two of their braves to execute 
the death sentence previously passed upon her for the crime of witchcraft. 
They took her into the woods, and each taking hold of an arm raised it up 
and thrust his knife into her side, which soon terminated her life. They 
very indifferently bui-ied her, and the hogs were afterward seen feasting 
upon the remains. ********* 


' ' The Indians were generally peaceable, but sometimes there would be a * 
difficulty between them and the white settlers, usually as to the ownership 
of stock. Their hogs ran wild in the woods, and occasionally a reckless 
white man would kill some of them, and then the innocent would be blamed. 
My father had a yearling heifer stray away to town, and when he went after 
it the Indians had caught and fastened it with a cord, and refused to sur- 
render the animal. My father, somewhat incensed, commenced untying the 
cord, when Bigpan came up and took hold of his hand, saying, ' No! no! no!' 
but father persisted, and untied it, and let the calf fi-ee. The Indian said, 
'Now you steal my cow, and maybe you steal hog. ' 

"There were a few drunken Indians came into my father's cabin one 
day. My sister was sitting in a chair in front of the fire, when one of them 
came up behind her and flourished his big knife over her head, making 
murderous demonstrations ; but the squaws quickly came f orwai'd and took 
the knife away fi'om him. They also took the weapons from the other In- 
dians and carried them to a safe distance, and the band soon departed with- 
out further trouble. But the Indians were a fruitful source of wealth to 
traders and dealers in furs and deer skins. ***** 

"I have seen some of the Indians with their ears cut from the ear-lap 
about half-way around, close to the rim, but not cut loose at either end. The 
flesh would heal and hang in a cord, on which they would place their rings. 
They would wear moccasins on their feet, made of well-dressed deer skin, hand- 
somely ornamented with colored beads cut from porcupine quills, and beau- 
tifully arranged around the ankle and over the top of the moccasin. Some 
would wear a silver tube, three or four inches long and about one inch in 
diameter, on top of the head, which was held in place by drawing the hair 
firmly through it. The warriors occasionally Would paint their cheeks red, 
put a red stripe over each eye-brow, one down the bridge of the nose and one 
on the chin. The whites thought these marks significant of war, and that 
the Indians thus marked were the allies of some warring tribe of the West. 
Some of the whites were fearful they would be victims, but they were never 
molested, except in a few personal encounters, one of which took place on 
the premises of John P. Hamilton, Esq. Asa Lake had called to stay over 
night, and the Indian, Armstrong, who had been drinking too much whisky, 
also came there for the same purpose. They went to the stable to feed their 
horses, and when Mr. Hamilton went up in the mow to throw down hay, 
Lake thought he would have some sport with the Indian, and taunted him 
about decorating his face, until the redskin got mad, drew his knife, and 
thrust it at Lake's breast with all his might, but missed his aim, the knife 
passing under Lake' s arm and cutting a long slit in his coat. Lake sprang 
for a club, knocked the Indian down, and perhaps would have killed him 
had not Mr. Hamilton interfered and pacified Lake, by reminding him that 
he had provoked the trouble and should not blame the drunken Indian. 
Mr. Hamilton took the Indian into the house and kept him all night, which 
kind act made Armstrong his fi'iend ever afterward. * * * 

' 'But the Indians, like the wild animals, were 'under cow' to the white 
man, as the following instance will fully illustrate: Mr. Hamilton set a 
trap to catch wolves, and one morning on going to where his trap had been 
set, found that it had disappeared. He concluded it had been stolen, and 
accused Half John with taking it, but the Indian declared positively that 
he was innocent. Mr. Hamilton, however, was so sure he was the thief 


that he told the Indian he would shoot him unless he returned the trap. 
Half John, thoroughly frightened, hunted all day for the missing trap, and 
in the evening came to Hamilton and requested the latter to go with him, 
that he had found the trap. Hamilton went, and was considerably chagrined 
to find his trap on the leg of a big hog. ' ' 

Prior to the departure of the Wyandots for the far West, in July, 1843, 
the pioneers of Hancock County were greatly annoyed by the numerous 
bands of Indian hunters, who roamed the forest in search of game. Many 
of these Indians regarded the produce of the whites as a part of their legiti 
mate spoils, and would bring venison and other game to the isolated cabins 
to exchange for other commodities, and always managed to get what they 
were most in need of. The struggling settler very often had to share his 
scanty meal with any Indian who called at his cabin, and they were always 
ready to eat. The Indians were, as a rule, goui'mands, and we can easily 
imagine the feelings of the needy family upon whom one or more of these 
lazy fellows would call for food. It is true they sometimes repaid such 
hospitality, nevertheless their frequent coming was often a heavy drain upon 
the meager resources of the pioneers, who were not sorry when they finally 
left the country. It was a part of the inevitable that the red man should 
depart and the white man take his place, and no thoughtful, civilized 
person would prefer a land covered with forests and ranged by semi-savages, 
to a great State embellished with all the improvements that art can devise 
or industry execute. 


The Pioneers of Hancock County— Their Sacrifices and Heroic Per- 
severance— Blanchard. THE French Exile— Erection and Occupa- 
tion OF Fort Findlay— Thorp, the Sutler — First Permanent 
White Settlers — Birth of the First White Child in Hancock 
County— Pioneers of the County Prior to 1830— Immigration to 
Northwestern Ohio and Its Accompanying Hardships— Beginning 
Work in the Unbroken Forest— The Pioneer Cabin and Its Fur- 
niture— Table Ware, Food and Medicine of the Pioneers — Habits, 
Labor and Dress— Early- Manners and Customs — Social Gather- 
ings—First Marriage in the County— The Grater and Hominy 
Block — Pioneer Mills of Hancock County— Difficulties of Going 
to Mill— Prices of Store Goods, Produce and Furs During Early 
Days — Mode of Living— The Pioneer Church and School- Rapid 
Growth and Material Progress of the County After Its Organ- 
ization—The Hancock County Pioneer and Historical Associa- 

"What heroism, what perils, then ! 
How true of heart and strong of hand, 
How earnest, resolute, those pioneer men!" 

IN every country there is but one generation of i^ioneers. The history of 
that generation possesses a value and an interest which belong to no sub- 
sequent period. Leaving behind them the comforts and influences of a civil- 
ized community, the pioneers came to a new country, densely forested, 
and applied their stui'dy and earnest energies to the destruction of the 


towering timber, and the rearing upon its ruins of a new civilization, 
similar to that fi'om which they migrated. The struggles and dangers they 
must undergo, the habits and customs which their new environment engen- 
dered, the gradual ajjproach of their institutions from the inadequacy at 
their inception to the present stage of efficiency, and the self-denying mode 
of life they were obliged to adopt, present a phase of life that has now de- 
parted from this State forever. 

Less than one hundred years ago there was not a single white settlement 
throughout the length and breadth of Ohio, and seventy- five years ago not 
a single white family living in Hancock County. Could those who have 
seen this county only as it now is, borrow the eyes of the sturdy pioneers 
who helped to make the transformation, in place of the now smiling fields 
and comfortable homes, naught but a vast wilderness, filled with savage 
beasts, would greet their sight. The present generation can form no just 
conception of the trials, endless labors, sacrifices and privations to which the 
first settlers heroically submitted. They were not seeking fortunes nor 
fame; they were intent only on making a home for their childi'en, and from 
that laudable impelling motive has arisen the splendid structure of Western 
civilization we see all around us. 

"These Western pioneers an impulse felt, 
Wliich their less hardy sons scarce understand." 

Their industry, enterprise and perseverance wrought from out nature's wilds 
the great prosperity which in the sunlight of to-day, fi'om every hillside and 
glen, looks up to smile u.pon us. The pioneers of Hancock County, with 
few exceptions, have passed to their final account, and it remains for their 
descendants to keep bright the recollections of such names and events as have 
come down to them, for the memory of their deeds deserves to be " written 
in characters of living light upon the firmament, there to endure as radiant 
as if every letter was traced in shining stars. " 

Prior to the coming of the real pioneers, a few wandering whites had 
found their way into the territory drained by the Blanchard River. On the 
authority of Col. John Johnston, long the government agent of the Shawnee 
Indians, Howe, in his "Historical Collections," speaking of Blanchard, 
after whom the stream was named, says: "He was a native of France and 
a man of intelligence, but no part of his history could be obtained from him. 
He doubtless fled his country for some offense against its laws, intermarried 
with a Shawnee woman, and after living here thirty years died in 1802, at 
or near the site of Fort Findlay. When the Shawnees immigrated to the 
West seven of his children were living, one of whom was a chief. ' ' There 
is no doubt that this portion of the State was traversed by French traders 
many years before and after the planting of the first permanent American 
settlement northwest of the Ohio. Many of these men married squaws and 
lived with the Indians as one of themselves. It is therefore probable that 
Blanchard, who, it is said, was a tailor, may have dwelt at intervals and 
worked at his trade in the several Indian villages located on the stream 
which bears his name; and as there was a village on the site of Mount 
Blanchard, another on the site of Findlay, and a third farther down the 
river in Liberty Township, one of these was doubtless the place to which 
Col. Johnston had reference. 

The following account of Blanchard, prepared and read before the 




' ' Hancock County Pioneer and Historical Association, ' ' by W. H. White- 
ley, of Findlay, in 1877, is worthy of a place in this chapter: 

' 'There is, perhaps, no character that presents itself in the whole his- 
tory of the Northwest, about whom there clings so much of interest and 
mystery as that of Jean Jacques Blanchard. The personal history of this 
strange man is vague and indefinite, but in the occasional glimpses which we 
get of it through the long lapse of years, we see a life of adventurous wan- 
derings and vicissitudes — a life that seems to have forgotten the dreams of 
its childhood, and thrown aside and abandoned as worthless the purer in- 
stincts of nature, and in their stead embraced a wild and semi-savage exist- 
ence. A man of education, culture and refinement, he left the home of his 
birth, and all that the human heart holds near and dear, and plunging into 
the wilderness he dwelt with a strange people, who spoke a strange language, 
and who worshiped a strange God. From the best information that can be 
obtained it appears that Blanchard was born in France, about the year 
1720. The immediate place of his birth, or who or what his parents were, 
is, and probaby will be forever, unknown. That he had received a liberal 
education there can be no reasonable doubt; he was well versed in mathe- 
matics, and from an account of him given by an ofiicer of the American 
army, who met him in 1799 near the present site of the town of Mc Arthur, 
Ohio, the supposition is that he at one time possessed an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the Latin and Greek languages. He spoke his native language 
fluently and with that peculiar accent known as the ' Paris dialect. ' The 
theory long held in reference to Blanchard is that he was a Frenchman, 
who, either to escape the penalty of some crime, or for the love of adventure, 
had taken up his residence among* the Indians. In the meager account of 
himself which Blanchard gave to Capt. Forth, the officer before referred to, 
he says that he emigrated fi*om France to Louisiana in the year 1760. 
Here he remained until a few months after the cession of that teiTitory to 
Spain, inihe year 1762. What his employments were during the two years 
he remained in Louisiana has never been ascertained. For the next seven 
years nothing whatever is known of him. The presumption in the mind of 
the historian, Elliot, was that Blanchard had joined a band of Spanish 
freebooters, and with them engaged in plundering small vessels in the AVest 
India waters.* 

"In the autumn of 1769, or the spring of 1770, Blanchard made his 
appearance among a band of Shawnee Indians, who resided about twenty- 
two miles south of the place where Dayton now stands. How or from 
whence he came no one knew, nor did he ever explain it. It is supposed 
that, becoming tired of being a pirate, he had returned to Louisiana and 
joined a party of traders, and after visiting several Indian tribes became 
weary of his mercenary companions and plunged into the wilderness alone, 
and coming to the village of the Shawnees he determined to take up his 
abode with them. He was kindly received by the tribe, and it was not long 
until he was regarded as one of their number. When he came into the 
Shawnee tribe he had with him an elaborate case of curiously wrought 
tools. These he used in making ornaments for the Indians fi'om the small 
coins and shells which they furnished him for that purpose. So skilled was 
he in manufacturing ornaments, with which the savages were wont to adorn 
themselves, that his fame spread abroad among other tribes, and they came 

*Elliot's Algonquins. 


from far and near to bring him material, out of which he formed wonderful 
devices that delighted the hearts of the Indian braves. The natural conclu- 
sion to be drawn from this circumstance is that he was at some period of 
his life a skilled artisan. Another accoiant of Blanchard, given in one of 
the earlier histories of Ohio, states that he was a tailor, 'or one who sewed 
garments, ' and fi'om this fact the Shawnees gave to the river, now called after 
the old Frenchman, the name of Sha-po-qua-te-sepe, or Tailor's River. 

"In 1774 Blanchard married a Shawnee woman, by whom he had seven 
children — five sons and two daughters. At the time the tribe went West 
the second son was a sub-chief.* . In 1857 there were several Indians in 
the tribe who claimed to be descendants of Blanchard. The stream now 
known as Blanchard' s Fork of the Auglaize River, was named in his honor. 
Previous to 1812 the stream was simply known as Blanchard' s River, but 
on the completion of certain government surveys the name of the river was 
changed to Blanchard' s Fork of the Auglaize. About the year 1786 a part 
of the tribe with which Blanchard lived moved to a point near the head of 
the river. Here it was that they were visited by traders, and so skilled was 
the band in obtaining furs that the village soon became the resort of the 
agents of the Canadian Fur Company. It was they who gave the name to 
the river. There is no evidence that Blanchard ever resided permanently 
in Hancock County, and the only visits he ever made within its present 
boundaries were to the villages along the river. There was nothing striking 
in the personal appearance of the man. He was a little below the medium 
height, and his features were regular and expressive of some strength of 
character. He was quiet in his demeanor, and at times morose. He sel- 
dom talked of his early life, in fact he never spoke of it unless pressed to 
do so, or when he heard Indians or whites boasting of things they had 
heard or seen. Blanchard died about the year 1802. The place of his 
death is unknown, though it is said to be at or near the site of Findlay. ' ' 

Fort Findlay was built in the summer of 1812, on the south bank of the 
Blanchard, immediately west of Main Street, Findlay, by a detachment of 
Gen. Hull's army under the command of Col. James Findlay, of Cincin- 
nati. A small force was kept on duty at this fort until the spring of 1815, 
when the presence of soldiers being no longer necessary in this portion of 
the State, it was evacuated. 

Soon after the completion of Fort Findlay a man named Thorp came 
here from Dayton, Ohio, and with the assistance of the garrison erected a 
story and a half hewed-log house immediately east of the fort. He acted as 
baker and sutler for the garrison, and upon the close of the war removed to 
the Maumee. "In the spring of 1814," says Squire Carlin, "I accom- 
panied my father from IJrbana to the Maumee. We stayed over night 
at Fort Findlay, and I well remember that a man named Thorp kept a small 
bakery and sutler shop in a hewed-log house which stood a little east of the 
fort. During the evening I visited Thorp' s store, where he was living alone 
and selling goods to the soldiers. In the spring of 1815 we again passed 
Fort Findlay, but found both the fort and Thorp's house deserted. Thorp 
had removed to the Maumee, where I afterward knew him. He settled on 
an island in the bay about six miles northeast of Toledo, and I think he 
died there. Thorp was a man of considerable culture, but very eccentric, 
and seemed to avoid the associations of his fellowmen as much as possible. " 

•Narrative of Col. John Johnston. 


Benjamin J. Cox was the first permanent white settler of Hancock 
County. In 1815 he left Logan County, Ohio, and traveling northward on 
the military road cut out by Gen. Hull three years before, located with 
his family in the hewed-log house erected by Thorp on the site of Findlay. 
One year afterward a daughter, Lydia, was born in this cabin, which stood 
on the south bank of the Blanchard, where the two-story brick erected by 
Wilson Vance now stands, and to her belongs whatever honor is attached to 
being the first white child born in the territory embraced in Hancock 
County. The Cox family were for about six years the only white inhabi- 
tants of this portion of the State. They cultivated a small patch of 
ground near their cabin, and also kept a sort of fj-ontier tavern for the ac- 
commodation of traders, drovers and land prospectors who sometimes 
visited this region. But early in the spring of 1821 Kobert Shirley, Will- 
iam Moreland and a Mr. Beaver, of Boss County, Ohio, who the previous 
fall had visited the conntry along the Blanchard, sent out their sons, in all 
a party of six men, with three teams, to make a settlement in the vicinity of 
Fort Findlay. On arriving they began the work of underbrushing, and 
soon had planted small crops of corn and potatoes above Fort Findlay. 
Three of the partj then went back to Boss County, leaving the others to 
gather the crops and fatten and butcher some hogs they had brought out 
with them. When this was accomplished they left all in care of Mr. Cox 
and returned to their homes. Of these families, only one, that of Mr. 
Moreland, settled permanently ; the latter, with his sons William and Jacob, 
locating on the Blanchard near the old fort, Jacob erecting his cabin in the 
spring of 1821 on the farm now owned by Aaron Baker, and his father on 
the site of North Findlay, in the fall of the same year. 

Wilson Vance was the next settler, coming in November, 1821, and tak- 
ing possession of the house previously occupied by Mr. Cox. The latter re- 
moved to an old Indian cabin which stood a little southeast of his former 
residence. John Simpson and son, John, located on ' 'Chamberlin' s Hill" 
the same autumn. Other settlers soon came, and prior to 1830 the follow- 
ing pioneers, most of whom had families, located in what is now Findlay 
Township: Job Chamberlin, John P. and Bleuford Hamilton, Matthew 
Keighly, Thomas and Joseph Slight and John Gardner, Sr., in 1822; 
Joshua Hedges, in 1824; David Gitchel, in 1825; Squire Carlin and Joseph 
White, in 1826; Joseph DeWitt, Thomas Simpson, George W. Simpson, 
Reuben Hale, John Boyd, John C. Wickham, Minor T. Wickham, Isaac 
Johnson, Joseph Johnson, John Jones, Thomas Chester, John Taylor and 
Edwin S. Jones all came in 1827 ; Parlee Carlin, William Taylor, Joshua 
Powell, James Peltier, James B. Moore, David Foster and Jacob Foster in 
1828; and William L. Henderson, Robert L. Stroth^er, Thomas F. Johnston, 
Henry and Peter Shaw, John Bashore and John George Flenner, in 1829. ' 

There were, perhaps, a few others who came in during this period, but if 
so their names are "lost 'mid the rubbish of forgotten things. " Some of 
those given as pioneers of Findlay Township afterward removed into other 
parts of the county. 

Delaware was the second township to receive the impress of civilization, 
Asa Lake and son, Asa M., locating near the site of Mount Blanchard late 
in the fall of 1821, or early the following year, as the family were living 
there in February, 1822, when Job Chamberlin, Sr. , settled on the hill south 
of Findlay. Michael Bui'ke was the second settler of Delaware, coming in 


1823, followed in 1824 by Daniel Hamlin, whose son, Don Alonzo, was the 
first sheriff of Hancock County. In 1825 the families of William J. Greer, 
St., Keuben W. Hamlin, Godfi'ey Wolford and Robert Elder joined the 
Blanchard settlement. Two of Mr. Elder's sons — Ephraim and John — 
were married before coming to the county, and other members of the Greer 
and Elder families had reached manhood and womanhood. The families of 
John Wolford, John Rose, Nathan Williams, Warren and Van R. Hancock and 
Harvey Smith came in 1828, and those of Michael Casner, Chauncy Fuller, 
William Davis and Ayers Stradley in 1829. 'None others are believed to 
have settled in that subdivision prior to 1830. 

In the spring of 1822 Robert McKinnis and sons, Charles, Philip, James 
and John, all well remembered pioneers, settled on the Blanchard about six 
miles northwest of Findlay, in what is now Liberty Township. His son-in- 
law, Jacob Poe, came the following December, and John Gardner and 
Joseph White in 1823. Thomas and Ebenezer Wilson, John Gardner, Jr. , 
and Robert McCullough settled in Liberty in 1826; William Wade, Joshua 
Jones and John Travis in 1827; John Fishel and sons, John, Michael and 
Daniel, Jeremiah Pressor and Addison Hampton in 1828, and Alfred Hamp- 
ton and Johnson Bonham in 1829. 

Blanchard Township comes next in the order of settlement, John Hunter 
and Benjamin Chandler building their cabins south of the river, on Section 
15, in the spring of 1823. George Shaw, Lewis Dukes, Sr. , and William 
Powell came into the township in 1827, followed in 1828 by Richard and 
John Dukes, Thomas Groves and Jeremiah Colclo and son, William; and in 
1829 by George Epley and Joseph Bowen. 

Amanda and Big Lick each received its first settler in 1823, Thomas 
Thompson locating on Section 3 of the former sub-division, and Hemy Mc- 
Whorter on Section 34 of the latter township, some time that year. Abra- 
ham Huff came into Amanda in 1825; John Huff, John Shoemaker, Will- 
iam Hackney, James Beard, John J. Hendi-icks and Thomas Huff in 1826; 
Henry George and several sons, John Beard and six sons, and Jesse and 
John Hewitt in 1827; and in 1828 and 1829, Aquilla Gilbert, Thomas Cole, 
David Hagerman, Joseph Whiteman, Andrew Robb, William Ebright, 
Hemy Keel, Samuel Gordon, David Egbert, Justin Smith and James Gib- 
son, all settled in the township. Samuel Sargent was the second settler of 
Big Lick, locating on Limestone Ridge in 1827, though John Long and 
son, Robert, came in from Amanda the same year, having settled in the 
latter subdivision in 1826. Levi Poulson came into the township in 1828; 
John Huff moved in from Amanda in 1828, and John Shoemaker in 1829. 
Thus some of the first settlers of Amanda Township were also pioneers of 
Big Lick. 

The lands lying on Eagle Creek, in Madison Township, were among the 
earliest settled in the county. Here Simeon Ransbottom built his cabin in 
1825, Abel Tanner in the spring of 1826, and Abner Hill and John Tullis 
in 1826-27. In 1828 Thomas Ransbottom and John Diller settled on the 
same stream, and the following year Aaron Kinion, Nathaniel Hill and James 
West joined the settlement. 

East of Findlay, in Marion Township, we find settlements made by 
Joseph A. Sargent and Asher Wickham in 1827, Othniel Wells in 1828, 
and Joshua Powell and Willis Wai'd in 1829. 

Mordecai Hammond, who settled on the Blanchard, in the southeast 


corner of Jackson Township, in the fall of 1827, was the only settler of the 
territory now constituting that subdivision prior to 1830. Several others 
located on the Blanchard, north of Mr. Hammond, before 1830, but the 
lands on which they built their cabins, although formerly in Jackson, have 
been attached to Amanda Township. 

The territory embraced in Allen Township received four families prior 
to 1830, viz. : Nathan Frakes in 1827, Isaac Miller in 1828, and Elias L. 
Bryan and John Trout in 1829. 

Eagle is the only remaining township in which a settlement was~ made 
before 1830, John Woodruff and sons, Adam, Elijah and William Y. , locating 
on Eagle Creek in the summer of 1829. 

All of the foregoing pioneers, as well as those who came into the county 
for several years afterward, receive generous mention in the chapters spe- 
cially devoted to the respective townships in which they settled, and it is 
therefore unnecessary to repeat what is here related. Most of the early 
settlers came with all their worldly possessions packed in a two or four- 
horse wagon, in which only the very aged or very young were allowed 
to ride ; the others trudged uncomplainingly behind or went in advance to 
clear the path. Some came with ox teams, some on horse-back, while 
others performed the journey afoot. Streams had to be forded frequently, 
roads had often to be cut through the forest as the newer settled country 
was reached, and occasionally a team would give out or the wagon mire in 
one of the many intervening marshes or "swales" which then abounded in 
Northwestern Ohio. Many days, and oftentimes a month or more, were 
consumed in completing the tedious journey, and it was with deep sighs of 
relief or exclamations of joy that the weary settlers at last reached their 
destination, though their labors had then only begun. 

The first settlers of Hancock County came not to enjoy a life of lotus- 
eating and ease. They could, doubtless, admire the pristine beauty of the 
scenes that unveiled before them, the vernal green of the forest, and the 
loveliness of all the works of nature ; they could look forward with happy 
anticipation to the lives they were to lead in the midst of all this beauty, 
and to the rich reward that would be theirs from the cultivation of the mel- 
low, fertile soil; but they had first to work. The dangers they were exposed 
to were serious ones. The Indians could not be fully trusted, and the 
many stories of their depredations in the earlier Eastern settlements made 
the pioneers of Ohio apprehensive of trouble. The larger wild beasts were 
a cause of much dread, and the smaller ones a source of great annoyance. 
Added to this was the liability to sickness which always exists in a new 
country. In the midst of the loveliness of the surroundings, there was a 
sense of loneliness that could not be dispelled, and this was a far greater 
trial to the men and women who first dwelt in the Western country than is 
generally imagined. The deep-seated, constantly reciirring feeling of isola- 
tion made many stout hearts turn back to the older settlements and the 
abodes of comfort, the companionship and sociability they had abandoned 
in their early homes to take up a new life in the wilderness. 

The pioneers, making the tedious journey from the East and South by 
the rude trails, arrived at their places of destination with but very little 
with which to begin the battle of life. They had brave hearts and strong 
arms, however, and they were possessed of invincible determination. Fre- 
quently they came on without their families to make a beginning, and this 


having been accomplished, would return to their old homes for their wives 
and children. The first thing done, after a temporary shelter from the rain 
had been provided, was to prepare a little spot of ground for some crop, 
usually corn. This was done by girdling the trees, clearing away the 
underbrush, if there chanced to be any, and sweeping the surface with fire. 
Five, ten, or even fifteen acres of land might thus be prepared and planted 
the first season. In the autumn the crop would be carefully gathered and 
garnered with the least possible waste, for it was the food supply of the 
pioneer and his family, and life itself depended, in part, upon its safe pres- 
ervation. AVhile the first crop was growing the pioneer had busied himself 
with the building of his cabin, which must answer as a shelter from the 
storms of the coming winter and a protection from the ravages of wild ani- 

If a pioneer was completely isolated from his fellow-men, his position 
was certainly a hard one; for without assistance he could constrl^ct only a 
poor habitation. In such cases the cabin was generally made of light logs or 
poles, and was laid up roughly, only to answer the temj)orary purpose of 
shelter, until other settlers had come into the vicinity, by whose help a 
more solid structure could be built. Usually a number of men came into 
the country together, and located within such distance of each other as en- 
abled them to perform many friendly and neighborly offices. Assistance 
was always readily given each pioneer by all the scattered residents of the 
forest within a radius of several miles. The commonly followed plan of 
erecting a log- cabin was through a union of labor. The site of the cabin 
home was generally selected with reference to a good water supply, often 
by a never-failing spring of pure water, or, if such could not be found, it 
was not uncommon to first dig a well. When the cabin was to be built the 
few neighbors gathered at the site, and first cut down, within as close 
proximity as possible, a number of trees as nearly of a size as could be 
found, but ranging from a foot to twenty inches in diameter. Logs were 
chopped from these and rolled to a common center. This work, and that 
of preparing the foundation, would consume the greater part of the day, in 
most cases, and the entire labor would most commonly occupy two or three 
days — sometimes four. The logs were raised to their places with hand- 
spikes and "skid poles," and men standing at the corners with axes notched 
them as fast as they were laid in position. Soon the cabin would be built 
several logs high, and the work would become more difficult. The gables 
were formed by beveling the logs, and making them shorter and shorter, as 
each additional one was laid in place. These logs in the gables were held 
in place by poles, which extended across the cabin from end to end, and 
which served also as rafters upon which to lay the rived ' 'clapboard' ' roof. 
The so-called "clapboards" were five or six feet in length, and were split 
from oak or ash logs, and made as smooth and flat as possible. They were 
laid side by side, and other pieces of split stuff laid over the cracks so as to 
effectually keep out the rain. Upon these logs were laid to hold them in 
place, and the logs were held by blocks of wood placed between them. 

• The chimney was an important part of the structure, and taxed the 
builders, with their poor tools, to their utmost. In rare cases it was made 
of stone, but most commonly of logs and sticks laid up in a manner similar 
to those which formed the cabin. It was, in nearly all cases, built outside 
of the cabin, and at its base a huge opening was cut through the wall to 


answer as a fire-place. The sticks in the chimney were kept in place and 
protected from fire by mortar, formed by kneading and working clay and 
straw. Flat stones were procured for back and jambs of the fire-place. 

An opening was chopped or sawed in the logs on one side of the cabin 
for a doorway. Pieces of hewed timber, three or four inches thick, were 
fastened on each side by wooden pins to the end of the logs, and the door 
(if there was any) was fastened to one of these by wooden hinges. The 
door itself was a clumsy piece of wood-work. It was made of boards rived 
from an oak log, and held together by heavy cross-pieces. There was a 
wooden latch upon the inside, raised by a string which passed through a gim- 
let-hole, and hung upon the outside. From this mode of construction arose the 
old and well-known hospitable saying: "You will find the latch-string al- 
ways out." It was pulled in only at night, and the door was thus fastened. 
Very many of the cabins of the pioneers had no doors of the kind here 
described, and the entrance was protected only by a blanket or skin of some 
wild beast suspended above it. 

The window was a small opening, often devoid of anything resembling 
a sash, and very seldom having glass. Greased paper was sometimes used 
in lieu of the latter, but more commonly some old garment constituted a 
cui'tain, which was the only protection fi-om sun, rain or snow. 

The floor of the cabin was made of pu.ncheons — pieces of timber split 
fi'om trees about eighteen inches in diameter, and hewed smooth with the 
bi*oad-ax. They were half the length of the floor. Many of the cabins 
first erected in this part of the country had nothing but the earthen floor. 
Sometimes the cabins had cellars, which were simply small excavations in 
the ground for the storage of a few articles of food, or perhaps cooking 
utensils. Access to the cellar was readily gained by lifting a loose punch- 
eon. There was sometimes a loft used for various purposes, amouj]^ others 
as the "guest chamber" of the house. It was reached by a ladder, the 
sides of which were split pieces of a sapling, put together, like everything 
else in the house, without nails. 

The furniture of the log-cabin was as simple and primitive as the struc- 
ture itself. A forked stick set in the floor and supporting two poles, the 
other ends of which were allowed to rest upon the logs at the end and side 
of the cabin, formed a bedstead. A common form of table was a split slab 
supported by four rustic legs set in auger holes. Three-legged stools were 
made in a similar simple manner. Pegs driven in auger holes into the logs 
of the wall supported shelves, and others displayed the limited wardrobe of 
the family not in use. A few other pegs, or perhaps a pair of deer horns, 
formed a rack where hung the rifle and powder horn, which no cabin was 
withou.t. These, and perhaps a few other simple articles brought fi'om the 
' 'old home' ' formed the furniture and f m-nishings of the pioneer cabin. 

The utensils for cooking and the dishes for table use were few. The 
best were of pewter, which the careful housewife of the olden time kept 
shining as brightly as the most pretentious plate of our later-day fine 
houses. It was by no means uncommon that wooden vessels, either coop- 
ered or turned, were used upon the table. Knives and forks were few, 
crockery very scarce, and tinware not abundant. Food was simply cooked 
and served, but it was of the best and most wholesome kind. The hunter 
kept the larder supplied with venison, bear meat, squirrels, fish, wild tur- 
keys, and the many varieties of smaller game. Plain corn bread baked in 


a kettle, in the ashes, or upon a board in front of the great open fireplace, 
answered the purpose of all kinds of pastry. The corn was, among the 
earlier pioneers, pounded or grated, there being no mills for grinding it for 
some time, and then only small ones at a considerable distance away. The 
wild fi-uits in their season were made use of, and afforded a pleasant variety. 
Sometimes especial effort was made to prepare a delicacy, as, for instance, 
when a woman experimented in mince pies by pounding wheat for the flour 
to make the crust, and used crab-apples for fi-uit. In the lofts of the cab- 
ins was usually to be found a collection of articles that made up the pio- 
neer's materia medica — the herb medicines and sj^ices, catnip, sage, tansy, 
fennel, boneset, pennyroyal and wormwood, each gathered in its season; 
and there were also stores of nuts, and strings of dried pumpkin, with bags 
of bei'ries and fruit. 

The habits of the pioneers were of a simplicity and piirity in conform- 
ance to their surroundings and belongings. The men were engaged in the 
herculean labor, day after day, of enlarging the little patch of sunshine 
about their homes, cutting away the forest, burning oft' the brush and de- 
bris, preparing the soil, planting, tending, harvesting, caring for the few 
animals which they brought with them or soon procured, and in hunting. 
While they were engaged in the heavy labor of the field and forest, follow- 
ing the deer or seeking other game, their helpmeets were busied with their 
household duties, providing for the day and for the winter coming on, cook- 
ing, making clothes, spinning and weaving. They were fitted by nature 
and experience to be the consorts of the brave men who first came into the 
Western wilderness. They were heroic in their endurance of hardship and 
privation and loneliness. Their industry was well directed and unceasing. 
Woman's work then, like man's, was performed under disadvantages which 
have been removed in later years. She had not only the common household 
duties to perform, but many others. She not only made the clothing, but 
the fabric for it. That old, old occupation of spinning and of weaving, 
with which woman's name has been associated in all history, and of which 
the modern world knows nothing, except through the stories of those who 
are grandmothers now — that old occupation of spinning and of weaving, 
which seems suiTounded with a glamour of romance as we look back to it 
through tradition and poetry, and which always conjures up thoughts of the 
graces and virtues of the dames and damsels of a generation that is gone — 
that old, old occupation of spinning and of weaving, was the chief industry 
of the pioneer woman. Every cabin sounded with the softly whirring 
wheel and the rythmic thud of the loom. The woman of pioneer times was 
like the woman described by Solomon: "She seeketh wool and flax, and 
worketh willingly with her hands; she layeth her hands to the spindle, and 
her hands hold the distaff. ' ' 

Almost every article of clothing, all of the cloth in use in the old log- 
cabins, was the product of the patient woman-weaver's toil. She spun the 
flax and wove the cloth for shirts, pantaloons, fi'ocks, sheets and blankets. 
The linen and wool, the ' 'linsey-woolsey' ' woven by the housewife, formed 
all of the material for the clothing of both men and women, except such 
articles as were made of skins. The men commonly wore the hunting- 
shirt, a kind of loose frock reaching half way down the figure, open before, 
and so wide as to lap over a foot or more upon the chest. This generally 
had a cape, which was often fringed with a raveled piece of cloth of a dif- 



ferent color from that which composed the garment. The bosom of the 
hunting-shirt answered as a pouch, in which could be carried the various 
articles that the hunter or woodsman would need. It was always worn 
belted and made out of coarse linen or linsey, or of dressed deer skin, 
according to the fancy of the wearer. Breeches were made of heavj" cloth 
or of deer-skin, and were often worn with leggings of the same material, 
or of some kind of leather, while the feet were most usually encased in 
moccasins, which were easily and quickly made, though they needed fre- 
quent mending. The deer- skin breeches or di'awers were very comfortable 
when dry, but when they became wet were very cold to the limbs, and the 
next time they were put on were almost as stiff as if made of wood. Hats 
or caps were made of the various native furs. The women were clothed in 
linsey petticoats, coarse shoes and stockings, and wore buckskin gloves or 
mittens when any protection was required for the hands. All of the wear- 
ing apparel, like that of the men, was made with a view to being serviceable 
and comfortable, and all was of home manufacture. Other articles and 
finer ones were sometimes worn, but they had been brought fi'om former 
homes, and were usually relics handed down from parents to children. 
Jewelry was not common, but occasionally some ornament was displayed. 
In the cabins of the more cultivated pioneers were usually a few books, and 
the long winter evenings were spent in poring over these well-thumbed vol- 
umes by the light of the great log- fire, in knitting, mending, curing furs, 
or some similar occupation. 

Hospitality was simple, unaffected, hearty, unbounded. Whisky was in 
common use, and was furnished on all occasions of sociality. Nearly every 
settler had his jug stored away. It was the universal drink at merry-mak- 
ings, bees, house-warmings, weddings, and was always set before the 
traveler who chanced to spend the night or take a meal in the log-cabin. It 
was the good old-fashioned whisky,, "clear as amber, sweet as musk, smooth 
as oil," that the few octogenarians and nonagenarians of to-day recall to 
memory with an unctuous gusto and a suggestive smack of the lips. The 
whisky came fi'om the older settlement, and was boated up the streams 
or hauled in wagons across the country. A few years later stills began to 
make their appearance in adjoining counties, and an article of peach brandy 
and rye whisky manufactured; the latter was not held in such high esteem 
as the peach brandy, though used in greater quantities. 

As the settlement increased, the sense of loneliness and isolation was dis- 
pelled, the asperities of life were softened and its amenities multiplied; 
social gatherings became more numerous and more enjoyable. The log- 
rollings, harvestings and husking bees for the men, and the apple-butter 
making and the quilting parties for the women, furnished frequent occa- 
sions for social intercourse. The early settlers took much pleasure and 
pride in rifle shooting, and as they were accustomed to the use of the gun, 
frequently as a means of obtaining a subsistence, and relied upon it as a 
weapon of defense, they exhibited considerable skill. 

A wedding was the event of most importance in the sparsely settled new 
country. The young people had every inducement to marry, and generally 
did so as soon as able to provide for themselves. When a marriage was to 
be celebrated all the neighborhood turned out. It was customary to have 
the ceremony performed before dinner, and in order to be in time the groom 
and his attendants usually started from his father' s house in the morning, for 


that of the bride. All went on horseback, riding in single file along the 
narrow trail. Arriving at the cabin of the bride' s parents the ceremony 
would be performed, and after that, dinner served. This would be a sub- 
stantial backwoods feast of beef, pork, fowls, and bear or deer meat, with 
such vegetables as could be procured. The greatest hilarity prevailed dur- 
ing the meal. After it was over the dancing began, and was usually kept 
up till the next morning, though the newly made husband and wife were 
as a general thing put to bed in the most approved fashion, and with con- 
siderable formality, in the middle of the evening' s hilarity. The tall young 
men, when they went upon the floor to dance, had to take their places with 
care between the logs that supported the loft floor, or they were in danger of 
bumping their heads. The figures of the dances were three and four hand 
reels, or square sets and jigs. The commencement was always a square 
four, which was followed by "jigging it off,'' ov what is sometimes called a 
"cut-out jig." The "settlement" of a young couple was thought to be 
thoroughly and generously made when the neighbors assembled and raised 
a cabin for them. 

The first marriage in Hancock County was contracted September 2, 1824, 
Samuel Kepler and Rachel McKinnis being the happy couple. Mr. Kepler 
settled on the Maumee in 1822, and ere his death in the fall of 1872, gave 
the following account of his marriage to Miss McKinnis, while on a visit to 
her father's home, in what is now Liberty Township: "I sent for my 
license by mail, to Robert Forsyth, clerk of the court of Wood County. 
Not knowing me he refused to grant it, so that my future father-in-law had 
to go to Porrysburg to procure it. We were married in Mr. McKinnis' 
house by Wilson Vance, Esq., being the 'first couple married in Hancock 
County. Aftk- making a canoe, which took five or six days, my wife 
packed her little outfit of household goods into it, and we literally 'paddled 
our own canoe ' to where I now live. ' ' 

During all the early years of the settlement, varied with occasional 
pleasures and excitements, the great work of increasing the tillable ground 
went slowly on. The implements and tools were few and of the most prim- 
itive kinds, but the soil that had long held in reserve the accumulated rich- 
ness of centuries produced splendid harvests, and the husbandman was 
well rewarded for his labor. The soil was warmer then than now, and the 
season earlier. The wheat was occasionally pastured in the spring to keep 
it from growing up so fast as to become lodged. The harvest came eaijly, 
and the yield was often from twenty to thirty bushels per acre. Corn grew 
fast, and roasting ears were to be had by the 1st of August in most seasons. 

When the corn grew too hard for roasting ears, and was yet too soft to 
grind in the mill, it was reduced to meal by a grater. Next to the grater 
came the hominy block, an article in common use among the pioneers. It 
consisted simply of a block of wood — a section of a tree, perhaps — with a 
hole burned or dug into it a foot deep, in which 'corn was pulverized with a 
pestle. Sometimes this block was inside the cabin, where it served as a 
seat for the bashful young backwoodsman while "sparking" his girl; some- 
times a convenient stump in fi'ont of the cabin door was prepared for and 
made one of the best of hominy blocks. These blocks did not last long, 
for mills came quite early and superseded them, yet these mills were so far 
apart that in stormy weather or for want of transportation the pioneer was 
often compelled to resort to his hominy block pr go without bread. 


Grist-mills soon made their appearance in every settlement, but they 
were usually very primitive affairs — mere "corn-crackers" — yet they were a 
big improvement on the hominy-block. They ground the corn, and the pio- 
neer had to do his own bolting. The meal was sifted through a wire sieve 
by hand, and the finest used for bread. Some of these mills were run by 
horse-power, and, therefore, commonly called "horse-mills." In 1832 
Heniy Shaw built one of those horse-mills in Findlay, which was a great 
convenience to the early settlers. Water-mills were erected upon the 
Blanchard and other streams at quite an early day. In 1824 a small log 
grist-mill was built by Joseph Vance and Elnathan Cory on the north bank 
of the river, opposite Fort Findlay, where Carlin's mill now stands. God- 
frey Wolford built a grist-mill on the Blanchard, in Section 11, Delaware 
Township, in 1829-30. Some two or three years afterward Felix Miller put 
up 'a mill in Section 23, in the same township, the Blanchard also furnish- 
ing the motive power. John D. Bishop erected the fourth water-mill, in 
1833, on Eagle Creek, in Section 24, Eagle Township; and in 1834, another 
was built by John Byall, on the south bank of the Blanchard in Section 10, 
Liberty Township, which has been in operation ever since. Michael Misa- 
more built the next mill, in 1835, on the Blanchard, in Section 13, Amanda 
Township. William Marvin erected a water-mill on the Blanchard in Sec- 
tion 22, Marion Township, in 1835-3(3, and subsequently a steam mill far- 
ther up the river in the same township. A small grist-mill was put up on 
Portage Creek, in Section 17, Allen Township, about the same time by 
John Burman. In 1838 Martin Funk built a grist-mill on Eagle Creek, in 
Section 11, Madison Township; and two years aft,erward a steam-mill was 
erected in Section 2, Cass Township, by James Anderson. In 1844 the 
Eagle Mills in East Findlay were built i3y Martin Huber, John Engleman 
and John Julien. They were then and have since continued to be the larg- 
est flouring-mills in the county, and having always had steam-power, they 
have undergone none of the dil3icu.lties that water-mills had to contend with. 
Edson Goit, of Findlay, put up a mill on Ottawa Creek, in Section 11, 
Union Township, in 1845, which was subsequently purchased by James 
Teatsorth, and widely known as the "Teatsorth Mill." Those mentioned 
may be called the pioneer mills of Hancock County, and were more or less 
patronized by the majority of the first settlers. 

In winter the mills were sometimes frozen up, and the water was often 
so low in the summer season that they could not run. These mills were 
frequently thronged with pioneers, each with his sack of corn or wheat, 
some of whom were often compelled to camp out near the mill and wait sev- 
eral days for their turn. When the grist was ground they started for their 
cabin home happy. It was not unusual to go from ten to thirty miles to mill 
through the pathless, unbroken forest, and to be benighted on the journey and 
followed by wolves. Many of the first settlers went to Belief ontaine. North 
Liberty, Bucyrus, Tiffin, Fremont, and even as far as Urbana, Sandusky City 
and the Maumee to do their milling and exchange the produce of their farms 
for salt and other scarce necessaries, the round trip usually taking a week, 
and often a much longer time. A road cut through the forest to the mill 
and a wagon for hauling the grist, were great advantages. The latter es- 
pecially was often a seven days' wonder to the childi'en of a settlement, and 
the happy owner of one sometimes did the milling of a whole neighbor- 
hood. About once a month this useful neighbor, who was in exceptionally 


good circumstances because able to own a wagon, would go around through 
the settlement, gather up the grists and take them to mill, often spend- 
ing several days in the operation, and never thinking of charging for his 
time and trouble. 

Only the commonest goods were brought into the country, and they sold 
at very high prices, as the fi-eightage of merchandise from the East was 
high. Most of the people were in moderate circumstances, and were con- 
tent to live in a very cheap way. A majority had to depend mainly on the 
produce of their little clearings, which consisted, to a large extent, of pota- 
toes and corn. Mush, corn bread and potatoes were the principal food, and 
though wild meat and pork were plentiful, they often had to be eaten without 
saltjwhich, during the early years of settlement, was a very scarce commodity. 
From 182(3 to 1880 tea retailed in Findlay at $3 a pound; coffee, 31 cents; 
chocolate, 25 cents; loaf sugar, 25 cents; plug-twist tobacco, 20 cents; 
homespun linen, 37^ cents per yard; calico, 37| cents, and six yards was the 
usual dress pattern; a colored cotton handkerchief, 75 cents; shoes, $2.50; 
boots, $5, and moccasins 25 cents per pair. Wheat sold at 40 cents per 
bushel; corn, 20 cents; oats, 12| cents; potatoes, 10 cents; flour, 1 1. 50 per 
100, and salt $4 per 100 pounds. Wild turkeys sold at 10 cents each, and 
dressed pork $2. 25 per 100, while a ham of venison, weighing from fifteen 
to twenty pounds, could be purchased for 10 cents. To judge from the 
daily consumption of whisky, it was pre-eminently the " stafP of life." It 
retailed at 25 cents a gallon, and was drank by most of the whites and all 
of the Indians who patronized the pioneer stores of Findlay. In 1828 live 
hogs brought 12 per 100, and cattle $1.75. A good horse could be pur- 
Qhased for $40, and a yoke of oxen sold at the same figure. The Indians 
usually paid their bills in peltry, and many of the whites did likewise. A bear 
skin brought from $2 to $5 ; otter, $3. 50 ; deer, 40 to 75 cents ; gray fox, 25 cents ; 
red fox, $1; muski-at, 37| cents; raccoon, 33^ cents; wild cat, 25 cents, and 
mink 25 cents. Wolf skins were not purchased by the dealers, but a bounty 
was paid by the commissioners for each wolf scalp produced at the auditor's 
ofiice. Squire Carlin, William Taylor and Vance & Baldwin were the 
principal dealers in furs, though Mr. Carlin carried on the most extensive 
business in that line. He traveled all over the country buying from hunters 
and other dealers, purchasing in one winter 4,600 deer skins and 7,000 rac- 
coon skins. 

Long joui'neys upon foot were often made by the pioneers to obtain the 
necessaries of life, or some article, then a luxury, for the sick. Hardships 
were cheerfully borne, privations stoutly endured; the best was made of what 
they had by the pioneers and their families, and they toiled patiently on, 
industrious and frugal, simple in their tastes and pleasures, happy in an in- 
dependence however hardly gained, and looking forward hopefully to a future 
of plenty which should reward them for the toils of these earliest years, and 
a rest from the struggle amidst the benefits gained by it. Without an iron 
will and indomitable resolution they could never have accomplished what 
they did. Their heroism deserves the highest tribute of praise that can be 

All the cooking and warming in town as well as the country was done 
by the aid of a tire kindled on the brick hearth or in the brick ovens. Pine 
knots or tallow candles furnished the light for the long winter nights, and 
sanded floors supplied the place of rugs and carpets. The water used for 


household purposes was drawn from wells by the creaking sweep. No form 
of pump was used in this county, so far as we can learn, for many years 
after the first settlements were made. There were no friction matches in 
those early days, by the aid of which a fire can be easily kindled, and if 
the fire went out upon the hearth overnight, and the tinder was damp, so 
that the spark would not catch, the alternative remained of wading through 
the snow a mile or so to borrow a brand from a neighbor. Only one room 
in any house was warm, unless some member of the family was ill; in all 
the rest the temperature was at zero during many nights in winter. The 
men and women undressed and went to their beds in a temperatui'e colder 
than our barns and woodsheds, and they never complained. 

Churches and schoolhouses were sparsely scattered, and of the most 
primitive character. One pastor served a number of congregations, and sal- 
aries were so low that the preachers had to take part in working their farms 
to procure support for their families. The people went to religious service 
on foot or horseback; and the children often walked two or three miles 
through the woods to school. There were no fires in the churches for a 
number of years. The seats in both church and school were of unsmoothed 
slabs, the ends and centers of which were laid upon blocks, and the pulpits 
were little better. Worship was held once or twice a month, consisting usu- 
ally of two services, one in the forenoon and one immediately after noon, the 
people remaining during the interval and spending the time in social inter- 
course. It is much to be feared that if religious worship were attended with 
the same discomforts now as it was fifty to sixty years ago, the excuses for 
keeping away fi'om the house of God would be many times multiplied. Taken 
altogether, while they had to endure many privations and hardships, it is doubt- 
ful whether the pioneers of any part of America were more fortunate in their 
selection than those of Hancock County. All of the settlers agree in saying 
that they had no trouble in accommodating themselves to the situation, and 
were, as a rule, both men and women, healthy, contented and happy. 

The pioneers were necessarily exposed to many dangers and privations, 
yet, as a rule, they had no fears of starvation, for the forest was alive with 
game, the streams abounded in fish, and the virgin soil yielded bountifully. 
Upon the organization of the county in 1828, a new motive was given to im- 
migration, and during the succeeding ten years the country rapidly filled up 
with settlers. Progress was slowly, surely made; the log houses became 
more numerous in the clearings; the forest shrank away before the woods- 
man's ax; frame houses began to appear. The pioneers, now assured of 
prosperity, laid better plans for the future, resorted to new industries, en- 
lai'ged their possessions, and improved the means of cultivation. Stock was 
brought in from the South and East. Every settler had his horses, oxen, 
cattle, sheep and hogs. More commodious structures took the place of the 
old ones ; the large double log-cabin of hewed logs, and the still handsomer 
frame dwelling, took the place of the smaller hut ; log and frame barns were 
built for the protection of stock and the housing of the crops. Then society 
began to form itself; the schoolhouse and the church appeared in every set- 
tlement, and the advancement was noticeable in a score of ways. Still there 
remained a vast work to perform, for as yet only a beginning had been made 
in the Western woods. The brunt of the struggle, however, was past, and 
the way made in the wilderness for the army that was to come. 

In 1874 the Hancock County Pioneer and Historical Association was 


organized. The principal objects of the association were to gather and pre- 
serve the history of the county, and at the same time give the surviving 
early settlers an opportunity of renewing their acquaintance with each other, 
and to engage in siich social intercourse as would recall and transmit to the 
care of the society the leading incidents, pleasures, hardships and sufferings 
of pioneer days. The hrst meeting for the purpose of organizing said asso- 
ciation was held at the Court House June 20, 1874. A goodly number of 
the early settlers was present, and the meeting was organized by the elec- 
tion of Squire Carlin, a pioneer of 1826, as chairman, and Lewis Glessner, 
of the Courier, secretary. On taking the chair Mr. Carlin briefly stated the 
objects and need of such an association as contemplated, after which a com- 
mittee consisting of M. S. Hamlin, Allen Wiseley, James Robinson, George 
Todd and George Treece were appointed to prepare a constitution and by- 
laws for the government of the society. When these preliminaries were 
disposed of, short speeches were made and incidents of pioneer life related 
by Squire Carlin, Richard Dukes, Allen Wiseley, Dr. William Wilson, Abra- 
ham Grable, George Treece, M. S. Hamlin, Benjamin Todd, Jonathan 
Parker, William Swindler, James L. Henry, James Robinson and D. B. 

The next meeting was held at the Court House July 4, 1874, with Squire 
Carlin in the chair, and D. B. Beardsley, secretary. The committee 
appointed at the previous meeting reported the constitution and by-laws, 
which were read and adopted, and the following permanent of&cers elected: 
Squire Carlin, president; Peter George, James Robinson, Richard Dukes, 
Allen Wiseley, Jonathan Parker and James Hartman, vice-presidents; D. 
B. Beardsley, recording and corresponding secretary; Levi Taylor, treas- 
urer; M. S. Hamlin, George Todd, Aaron Baker, Joseph Johnson, Henry 
Lamb, William Taylor, George Treece, Sanfi-ed F. Dulin, Charles E. Jor- 
dan and Adam Cramer, executive committee. The association was now 
fairly started, and the following September held its first social gathering on 
the fair grounds, which was largely attended by the pioneers and their 
descendants. Under the constitution, as first adopted, any person who came 
to Hancock County on or before July 4, 1840, was admitted to membership 
by paying the sum of 50 cents, and a resolution was subsequently carried 
admitting ladies free. Sixty-nine members joined the association during 
the first year of its existence, and considerable enthusiasm was manifested 
in its success. This feeling, however, gradually died out, and many of the 
pioneers neglected to attend the meetings of the society or take any interest 
'therein. The constitution was changed so as to admit any person who came 
to the county prior to July, 1845, but this had no apparent effect, and after 
three or four years' existence the association became extinct, and has never 
been revived. 



The Claims of Virginia, Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Yokk 


Indian Tribes— Indian Reservations and Their Final Purchase by 
THE United States— Civil Government Established by the Ordi- 
nance OF 1787— Successive J:rections of Wayne, Greene, Champaign 
AND Logan Counties— Survey of Northwestern Ohio and Its Divis- 
ion into Counties— Organization and First Election in Wood 
County— WAynesfield Township— Erection and First Elections in 
Findlay Township— Selection of Findlay as the Seat of Justice 
—Organization of Hancock County— County Elections of 1828 and 
Lists of Electors— Officers Chosen in April and October, 1828— 
Derivation of Name— Brief Sketch of John Hancock— Original 
AND Present Areas and Boundaries of the County— Dates of 
Township Erections— Population of County, Townships and Towns 
—Present Condition of the County Compared With What it was 
One Hundred Years Ago. 

THE first authentic record we find of the white man' s claim to this por- 
tion of the red man' s domain is the Virginia title to the great Northwest 
Territory, acquired through its several charters granted by James I in 1606, 
1609 and 1611, without any recognition of the original owners and occu- 
pants of the soil. That colony first attempted to exercise authority over its 
extensive dominions lying northwest of the Ohio River, when, in 1769, the 
House of Burgesses passed the following act: 

Whereas, The people situated on the Mississippi, in the said county of Botetourt, 
will be very remote from the court house and must necessarily become a separate 
county as soon as their numbers are sufficient, which probably will happen in a short 
time, "be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the inhabitants of that 
part of the said county of Botetourt which lies on the said water shall be exempted 
from the payment of any levies to be laid by the said county court for the purpose of 
building a court house and prison for said county. 

Civil government between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers existed only 
in name until 1778, when, after the conquest of the country by Gen. George 
Rogers Clark, the Virginia Legislatui'e organized the county of Hlinois, 
embracing within its limits all of the lands lying northwest of the Ohio 
River to which Virginia had any claim. Col. John Todd received appoint- 
ment from the governor of Virginia as civil commandant and lieutenant of 
the county. He served until his death at the battle of Blue Licks in 1782, 
and Timothy de Montbrun was his successor. In 1783 the General Assem- 
bly of Virginia passed an act authorizing her delegates in Congress to con- 
vey to the United States all the rights of Virginia to the territory northwest 
of the Ohio River. Pursuant to this act, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, 
Arthur Lee and James Monroe, the Virginia delegates, ceded to the General 
Government, on the 1st of March, 1784, all right, title and claim of soil 
and jurisdiction to said territory previously held by Virginia. The deed of 
cession was accepted by Congress on the same day, and the United States 
thus secured the title of that State to the soil of Ohio. 


Anotlier claim, however, still remained to be satisfied, which was more 
closely connected with northern Ohio than the preceding one. This claim 
reaches back to the founding of Connecticut, the original charter of which 
was granted by Charles II in 1662. It defined the limits of the grant to be 
"from the south line of Massachusetts on the north to Long Island Sound 
on the south, and fi'om the Narragansett River on the east to the Pacific 
Ocean on the west," which embraced all the country lying between the 41st 
and 42d degrees north latitude. These boundaries included not only what 
is now Connecticut, but also portions of New York and New Jersey, nearly 
half of Pennsylvania, the northern parts of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and 
a strip off the southern part of Michigan, besides portions of Iowa, Nebraska, 
Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada and California. The north half of Han- 
cock County was embraced in the territory claimed by Connecticut under 
its charter, which is the principal reason for mentioning it in this connection. 

A dispute soon arose between New York and Connecticut as to their 
boundaries, when the King, in 1664, appointed commissioners to settle it. 
They decided that the Maronee River should be the western boundary of 
Connecticut. With this decision against her, Connecticut neglected for nearly 
a centuiy to assert her claim to any territory west of New York. In 1681 
a chai-ter was granted to William Penn of the territory embraced in the 
limits of Pennsylvania. This, of course, embraced a large part of the ter- 
ritory included in the charter of Connecticut, and bitter quarrels now sprung 
up between the two colonies as to their respective rights. In 1753 a com- 
pany was formed in Connecticut to plant a colony on the Susquehanna 
River, on lands they claimed as included in her charter. A purchase was 
made of the sachems of the Six Nations by this company in 1754, at Wyom- 
ing, and in 1774 a township was formed there, called Westmoreland, which 
sent a representative to the Legislature of Connecticut. Pennsylvania and 
Connecticut both sold the same lands, and both agreed to give possession, 
which caused constant quarrels, and resort was often had to arms to expel 
those in possession. In 1770 the Legislature of Connecticut sent to 
England certain questions respecting her title to the lands west of New 
York. The answers were favorable to her claims, and she determined to 
enforce them, but the Revolutionary war coming on suspended the controversy. 

In 1781 the two States appointed commissioners to determine the dis- 
pute, and an act of Congress was passed granting to these commissioners 
full power to act in the final settlement of the conflicting claims. The com- 
missioners met at Trenton, N. J., in 1782, and after a full hearing decided 
that Connecticut had no right to the lands in dispute, but that they belonged 
to Pennsylvania. The State of Connecticut acquiesced in the decision, but 
still claimed all the lands west of Pennsylvania lying between the 41st and 
42d degrees of latitude. To avoid all future trouble, Connecticut, in 1786, 
renounced her claim to said lands excepting those lying within a line di'awn 
north and south 120 miles west of Pennsylvania. This proposition was 
accepted by Congress, and the controversy finally settled, the United States, 
however, retaining full legal jurisdiction over said territory. The strip of 
country thus confirmed to Connecticut has since been known as the Western 
Reserve. Massachusetts and New York also laid claim to a portion of Ohio, 
but they too ceded their rights to the General Government about the same 
time as Virginia and Connecticut. 

Before the Government, howevei*. could take possession of the lands 

■''J'''^ SC-miliavu ^ero-^' 

[ / 

/■ I 






lying northwest of the Ohio River, a title from the Indians was necessary, 
and this too was finally obtained, though many bloody campaigns intervened 
ere a peaceable settlement could be effected on the lands purchased by the 
first two treaties. Through the treaty of Fort Sfcanwix, consummated with 
the Six Nations October 22, 1784, the indefinite claim of that confederacy to 
the soil of Ohio was extinguished. This was followed January 21, 1785, 
by the treaty of Fort Mcintosh, by which the Delawares, Wyandots, Otta- 
was and Chippewas relinquished all claim to the territory lying east of the 
Cuyahoga River, Portage Path and Tuscarawas River, and south of a line 
running southwest from Fort Laurens, on the Tuscarawas (the town of Boli- 
var), to Fort Loramie, located on the portage between the Big Miami and the 
headwaters of the Maumee; thence along said portage to the latter river; 
thence down the Maumee to its mouth, and thence along the south shore of 
Lake Erie to the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. By the treaty of Fort 
Finney, consummated January 31, 1786, the claim of the Shawnees to the cov- 
eted territory was extinguished. The treaty of Fort Harmar, January 9, 
1789, had a similar object in view; but it was not until August 3, 1795, that 
anything like a permanent peace was established. By the treaty of Green- 
ville, ratified on that date, the several Indian tribes recognized the line 
established by former treaties, the only change occurring upon reaching 
Fort Loramie (Shelby County), whence it ran to Fort Recovery, in the south- 
west corner of Mercer County, and thence southwest to the Ohio opposite 
the mouth of the Kentucky River. All of the Western Reserve lying west 
of the Cuyahoga River was secured from the Indians by a treaty made at 
Fort Industry (Toledo), July 4, 1805. By the treaties of 1807, 1808 and 
1817, what is now known as Northwestern Ohio was purchased fi'om the 
Indians, and certain reservations, described in Chapter I, set aside for theh- 
uses. In 1818 the Miamis ceded their claims to the United States, and in 
1829 the Delaware Reservation was purchased by the Government; in 1831 
those belonging to the Shawnees, Senecas and remnants of other tribes; 
in 1838 the lands of the Ottawas were obtained, and in 1842 the Wyandots 
sold to the Government the last acre owned by them within the limits of this 
State. Thus every vestige of Indian title to the soil of Ohio was forever 
extinguished, and in July, 1843, the last remnant of the once powerful 
Indian tribes of the Ohio Valley removed to the far West. 

When the United States had obtained possession of the country north 
and west of the Ohio River, Congress took the gi'eat step which resiilted in 
the establishment of a wise and salutary civil government. On the 13th of 
July, 1787, after a prolonged discussion of the principles and issues 
involved, ' 'An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United 
States Northwest of the River Ohio, ' ' which has since been known as ' ' the 
Ordinance of 1787," or the "Ordinance of Freedom,"' was adopted. By this 
great and statesmanlike ordinance, provision was made for successive forms 
of territorial government, adapted to successive steps of advancement in the 
settlement and development of the Western country. ' ' This remarkable 
instrument," says Chief Justice Chase, '"was the last gift of the Congress 
of the old confederation to the country, and it was a fit consummation of 
their glorious. labors." Up to this time the Govej-nment, to avoid infringe- 
ments upon the rights of the Indians, had discouraged and prevented the 
settlement of the lands northwest of the Ohio, but on the passage of the 
ordinance emigration was fostered and encouraged in every way, and when 



the settlers went into tlie wilderness they found the law already there. ' ' It 
was impressed upon the soil itself, while it yet bore up nothing but the 
forest. ' ' 

On the 15th of August, 1796, Wayne County was erected by the procla- 
mation of Gov. St. Clair. It was the third county formed in the Northwest 
Territory, and embraced the following immense scope of country : ' ' Begin- 
ning at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, upon Lake Erie, and with the 
said river to the portage between it and the Tuscarawas branch of the 
Muskingum ; thence down the said branch to the forks at the carrying place 
above Fort Laurens ; thence by a west line to the east boundary of Hamilton 
County (which is a due north line from the lower Shawnee town upon the 
Scioto River); thence by a line west northerly to the southern part of the 
portage between the Miami of the Ohio and St. Mary's River; thence by a 
line also west northerly to the southwestern part of the portage between 
the Wabash and the Miami of Lake Erie (the Maumee), where Fort 
Wayne now stands; thence by a line west northerly to the southern part of 
Lake Michigan; thence along the western shores of the same to the north- 
west part thereof (including the lands upon the streams emptying into said 
lakes); thence by a due north line to the territorial boundary in Lake Supe- 
rior, and with the said boundary through Lakes Huron, St. Clair and Erie 
to the mouth of Cuyahoga Rivel', the place of beginning. ' ' These bound- 
aries include all of Michigan and portions of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin. The cities of Chicago, Milwaukee and Detroit, as well as every 
town in northern Indiana, and northern Ohio, west of the Cuyahoga River, 
were within the original limits of Wayne Coimty. Of course Northwestern 
Ohio, though yet an Indian territory, formed a portion of said county. 

Upon the erection of Greene County, March 24, 1803, the State line 
between Ohio and Michigan was designated as its northern boundary, and 
this portion of Northwestern Ohio was under the nominal jurisdiction of 
Greene until 1805, when Champaign was erected. The latter county also 
extended to the northern line of Ohio, and the scattering settlers between 
Springfield and the Maumee were subject to the jurisdiction of Champaign. 
Squire Carlin says he remembers well a case of debt where a man was taken 
from the Maumee to the jail in Urbana, Mr. Carlin' s father being the officer 
who had charge of the prisoner. In 1817 Logan County was cut ofP Cham- 
paign, and, though the line established by the Greenville Treaty was the 
northern boundary of said county, it also had jiu-isdiction over the United 
States Reservation along the Maumee Rapids, which was designated, by the 
act of erection, as a part of Logan County. 

We have already seen that the Government, by the treaties of 1807, 
1808 and 1817, obtained all the lands embraced in Northwestern Ohio. In 
the spring of 1819 surveyors were sent into the new purchase to divide it 
into townships six miles square, and others soon followed to subdivide said 
townships into sections one mile squai'e. The first survey was completed 
in 1819, and ere the close of 1820 all of the townships had been section- 

On the 12th of February, 1820, an act was passed by the General As- 
sembly erecting the newly acquired territory into foui'teen counties, viz. : 
Van Wert, Mercer, Putnam, Allen, Hancock, Hardin, Crawford, Marion, 
Seneca, Sandusky, Wood, Henry, Paulding and Williams. By this act, 
which went into effect April 1, 1820, Hancock, Henry, Putnam, Paulding 


and Williams were attached to Wood County, wliich was organized under 
the same act, with the temporary seat of justice at the town of Maumee, and 
the first election held the first Monday in April, 1820. The territory erected 
as Hancock County embraced Townships 1 and 2 south, and 1 and 2 north 
of the base line in Ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12 east of the first principal meri- 
dian. The base line runs east and west on the 41st degree of latitude, 
which passes through the center of this county, while the first meridian is 
the boundary line between Ohio and Indiana. At the time of the organiza- 
tion of AVood County the family of Benjamin J. Cox were the only white in- 
habitants of Hancock, and it is hardly probable that Mr. Cox traveled to 
Maumee to cast his vote at the first election. 

Upon the organization of Wood County the commissioners erected all of 
the territory under its jurisdiction into one township, named Waynesfield, 
in honor of Gen. Anthony Wayne, whose brilliant deeds are so closely 
associated with the Maumee Valley. No changes occurred until the 4th of 
March, 1822, when the commissioners ordered "that the township of 
Waynesfield, within the jurisdiction of the county of Wood, be co-extensive 
with the boundaries of the counties of Wood and Hancock, and to include 
the same. " Perrysburg was then the seat of justice of Wood County, and 
also the voting place of Waynesfield Township. 

On the 28th of May, 1823, the same board ordered "that so much of the 
town of Waynesfield as is included in the unorganized county of Hancock 
be set ofP and organized, and the same is hereby organized into a township 
by the name of Findlay, and that the election for township ofiicers be held 
on the 1st of July, A. D. 1823, at the house of Wilson Vance, in the said 
township. " The tally sheet on record at Bowling Green shows that thirteen 
votes were cast at the election, and that Robert McKinnis and Wilson 
Vance were elected justices of the new township. Job Chamberlin, Sr., 
William Moreland and Benjamin Chandler were the judges of election, and 
Wilson Vance and Matthew Reighly, clerks. The second election took 
place April 5, 1824, when eighteen votes were cast. Job Chamberlin, Sr. , 
William Moreland and Jacob Poe were the judges, and Matthew Reighly 
and Wilson Vance, clerks of election. Job Chamberlin, Sr. , Wilson 
Vance and Jacob Poe were chosen trustees; Matthew Reighly, clerk; Job 
Chamberlin, Sr., treasurer; Wilson Vance, lister; Philip McKinnis, con- 
stable; John Hunter and John Gardner, fence viewers, and Robert McKin- 
nis and William Moreland, overseers of the poor. All of these men were 
pioneers of Hancock County, and are fully mentioned in the history of the 
respective townships to which their homes subsequently belonged. It is 
unnecessary to follow up in like manner the elections held in Findlay Town- 
ship in 1825, 1826 and 1827, for, though many new names appear among 
the electors of those years, nearly all will be found in the lists of voters who 
took part in the April and October elections of 1828, the names of whom are 
given in this chapter. 

On the 2d of February, 1824, the General Assembly passed the follow- 
ing act i-elative to this county: 

Resolved, By the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, that John Owens, of the 
county of Champaign; Alexander Long, of the county of Logan, and Forest Meeker, 
of the county of Delaware, be and they are hereby appointed Commissioners to locate 
and fix the seat of justice in and for the county of Hancock. 

In compliance with this act said commissioners, after examining several 


sites in Hancock County, made their report to the court of common pleas 
of Wood County at its October session of .1824, the following record of 
which appears on the jouraal in the minutes of that term: 

The Commissioners, appointed to establish the seat of iustice in the county of 
Hancock, in the State of Ohio, report that tiiey have selected the town of Findlay, in 
said county of Hancock, as tiie most suitable site for the seat of justice of said county, 
as per their report on lile in the ofBce of the Clerk of this Court. 

By the close of 1827 Hancock contained a sufficient population to en- 
title her to home rule, and on the 21st of January, 1828, the General 
Assembly passed the following act for the separate organization of the 

1. Be, it enacted, etc.. That the county of Hancock, as heretofore laid off, shall be 
and the same is hereby, organized into a separate and distinct county; and all suits and 
prosecutions which shall be pending, and all crimes which siiall liave been committed 
within said county of Hancock, previous to its organization, shall be prosecuted to final 
judgment and execution within the county of Wood, in tlie same manner they would 
have been had the county of Hancock not been organized; and the Sheriff, Coroner 
and Constables of Wood County shall execute, within the county of Hancock, such 
process as shall be necessary to carry into effect such suits, prosecutions and judg- 
ments; and the Treasurer of the county of Wood shall collect all such taxes as shall 
have been levied and imposed within the county of Hancock previous to the taking 
effect of this act. 

3. That all Justices of the Peace and Constables within the county of Hancock 
shall continue to exercise the duties of their respective offices until their term of service 
expires, in the same manner as if the county of Hancock had remained attached to the 
county of Wood. 

3. That on the first Monday of April next the legal voters within the said county 
of Hancock shall assemble within their respective townships, at the place of holding 
elections, and elect their several county offlfers, who shall hold their offices until the 
next annual election. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after the 1st 
dayof March next. 

Findlay Township then embraced the whole county, and in compliance 
with the third section of this act an election was held on the 7th of April, 
1828, the polling place being at the old log schoolhouse in the village of 
Findlay, now the site of the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Rail- 
road depot. The poll book on record in the Clerk' s office shows that seventy- 
four electors voted at that election, the following list of whom, together with 
the present names of the townships wherein their homes were then located, 
will fairly illustrate the sparsely settled condition of the county fifty-eight 
years ago: 

Ephraim Elder, Delaware. Thomas Wingate, . 

Asher Wickham, Marion. Wilson Vance, Findlay. 

Samuel Sargent, Big Lick. Joseph Jolinson, Findlay. 

Thomas Slight, Findlay. Thomas Chester, Findlay. 

William Hackney, Amanda. William Wade, Liberty. 

John P. Hamilton, Findlay. John C. Wickham, Findlay. 

. Henry George, Amanda. Josiah Elder, Delaware. 

Thomas Thompson, Amanda. John Huff, Amanda. 

Joseph A. Sargent, Marion. Jesse Hewitt, Amanda. 

Abraham Huff, Amanda. John Long, Ridge Tp., Wyandot Co. 

Peter George, Amanda. Daniel Hamlin, Delaware. 

Amos Beard, Amanda. Sampson Dildine, Ridge Tp., Wyandot Co. 

Mordecai Hammond. Jackson. Asa M. Lake. Delaware. 

Bleuford Hamilton, Findlay. Reuben W. Hamlin, Delaware 

Don Alonzo Hamlin, Delaware. George Swigart, Hardin County, 

John Elder, Delaware. John Jones, Findlay. 

Joseph flight, Findlay. William Moreland, Jr., Findlay. 

George W. Simpson, Findlay. John Taylor, Findlay. 

Minor T. Wickham, Findlay. John Fishel, Jr., Liberty. 

Nathan Frakes, Allen. James Beard, Amanda. 


Godfrey Wolford, Delaware. Asa Lake.'Delaware. 

Edwin S. Jones, Findlay. William J. Greer, Delaware. 

Selden Blodget, Blanchard. Squire Carlin, Findlay. 

Job Chamberlin. Sr., Findlay. Simeon Rnnsbottom, Madison. 

John Gardner, Findlay. Benjamin Chandler, Blanchard. 

Robert McCullough, Liberty. John Tullis, Madison. 

Jacob Poe, Liberty. James McKinnis, Liberty. 

Ebenezer Wilson, Liberty. William Moreland, Findlay. 
Charles D. Smith, Ridge Tp., Wyandot Co. David Gitchel, Findlay. 

Robert McKinnis, Liberty. John Simpson, Findlay. 

John Shoemaker. Amanda. John Travis, Liberty 

John Boyd, Findlay. Joseph De Witt, Findlay. 

Charles McKinnis. Liberty. Philip McKinnis, Liberty. 

John J. Hendricks, Amanda. Matthew Reighly, Findlay. 

Abel Tanner, Madison. Joshua Hedges, Findlay. 

Jacob Moreland. Findlay. Reuben Hale, Findlay. 

George Shaw, Blanchard. Isaac Johnson, Findlay. 

Several of the foregoing pioneers subsequently removed into other town- 
ships; and of the whole number, Squire Carlin, of Findlay, and Joseph 
Johnson, of Portage Township, are the only survivors now residents of this 
county. After the election it was discovered that George Swigart's cabin 
stood just across the line in Hardin County, and his vote was therefore il- 
legal. John Long, Charles D. Smith and Sampson Dildine lived in the 
territory cut off Hancock in the erection of Wyandot, but the remaining 
seventy voters resided within the present limits of the county. Abraham 
Huff, Wilson Vance and Mordecai Hammond were the judges of election, 
and John C. Wickham and Edwin S. Jones, clerks; while the several can- 
didates for the respective offices, together with the number of votes each re- 
ceived, are as follows: 

Commissioners. — Job Chamberlin, 31; Charles McKinnis, 35; Godfrey 
Wolford, 74; John P. Hamilton, 41; and John Long, 39. Godfrey Wol- 
ford, John Long and John P. Hamilton were elected. 

Sheriff. — Keuben Hale, 34; and Don Alonzo Hamlin, 39; the latter be- 
ing therefore the successful candidate. 

Auditor. — Matthew Reighly was the only candidate for this office, and 
received 59 votes. 

Treasurer. — Joshua Hedges was the only candidate for treasurer, and 
received 57 votes. 

Coroner. — Isaac Johnson, 34; Thomas Slight, 37; and John Boyd, 3. 
Mr. Slight having a plurality of three votes was declared elected. 

Assessor. — John Long, 35; and William Hackney, 39; the latter having 
a majority of four. 

These officials served until the succeeding general election, held October 
14, 1828. The county then contained three townships, viz. : Findlay, 
Amanda and Welfare, the name of the last mentioned being subsequently 
changed to Delaware. The voters of Findlay Township at that election 
were as follows: 

John C. Wickham, Wilson Vance, Squire Carlin, Bleuford Hamilton, 
David Foster, Asher Wickham, John Jones, Job Chamberlin, Edwin S. 
Jones, Thomas Chester, John Boyd, John Simpson, James McKinnis, 
Charles McKinnis, Reuben Hale, William Moreland, Jr., Joseph Johnson, 
John Travis, Ebenezer Wilson, Minor T. Wickham, Jacob Poe, Joseph 
A. Sargent, George W. Simpson, John P. Hamilton, James B. Moore, 
Robert McCullough, Joseph DeWitt, Matthew Reighly, William Wade, 


Joshua Jones, William Moreland, William DeWitt, Simeon Ransbottom, 
Joshua Hedges, John Hunter, Robert McKinnis, William Taylor, Thomas 
Slight, John Tullis, James Peltier. 

The electors of Amanda Township as then constituted, were as follows: 

Sampson Dildine, William Hackney, James Beard, John HuflP, John 
Long, Sr., John Long, Jr., John Shoemaker, Samuel Sargent, Jesse Hew- 
itt, Levi Poulson, Robert Long, John Beard, Abraham Huff, Jr., Peter 
Geoi-ge, Abraham Huff, Sr., John J. Hendricks, Thomas Huff, Thomas 
Cole, David Hagerman, Adam Beard, Andrew Robb, Thomas Thompson. 

Nineteen votes were cast in Welfare Township in the following order: 

John Wolford, William J. Greer, Mordecai Hammond, Don Alonzo 
Hamlin, Joseph B. Hamlin, Nathan Williams, Daniel Hamlin, Absalom 
Wolford, Asa M. Lake, Van R. Hancock, Josiah Elder, Aquilla Gilbert, 
Asa Lake, Warren Hancock, Reuben W. Hamlin, Robert Elder, Godfrey 
Wolford, Harvey Smith, James Thomas. 

This makes a grand total of eighty-one votes polled at that election, or 
seven more than were cast the previous spring, though several pioneers did not 
vote. The townships of Amanda and Welfare (now Delaware) then em- 
braced the whole of the southeast quarter of the county south of the base 
line and east of the Bellefontaine road (including the lands cut off in the 
erection of Wyandot County), also the territory now constituting Big Lick; 
while all the balance of the county was yet within the bounds and under the 
jurisdiction of Findlay Township. At that election John Long, John P. 
Hamilton and Charles McKinnis were elected commissioners, their oppo- 
nents being William J. Greer, Mordecai Hammond and Godfrey Wolford. 
Squire Carlin and John C. W^icldaam were the candidates for sheriff, and 
the latter was elected. Matthew Reighly was again a candidate for auditor, 
but was defeated by William Hackney. Edwin S. Jones was elected treas- 
urer over Joshua Hedges. Thomas Slight beat Reuben W. Hamlin for 
coroner; and Edwin S. Jones was defeated by Don Alonzo Hamlin for the 
assessorship. There was no great strife for the offices in those days, as the 
remuneration was so very small that few cared to spend their time in such a 
poor paying business. Yet some one had to discharge the duties of the 
respective positions, and it is highly creditable to the pioneers that good 
men were usually chosen. 

Hancock County was named in honor of John Hancock, one of the 
leading spirits of 1776 who sent forth the immortal Declaration of Indepen- 
dence — an instrument whose clarion notes rang throughout every nation, 
causing the spark of freedom to burn with renewed hope in the hearts of 
oppressed humanity. Bearing the relation to this distinguished patriot that 
the people of Hancock County do, and associated as his memory is with their 
homes, it is not inappropriate here to give a short biographical sketch of 
one who contributed so much to the establishment of our free govern- 

John Hancock was born at Braintree, Mass., January 23, 1737. He 
graduated at Harvard College in 1754, and then entered his uncle's count- 
ing-house, in Boston. When in his twenty- seventh year his uncle died, and 
he inherited his business and much of his property. The position of 
an enterprising and successful merchant, in those days, was one of consider- 
able importance, and gave him a pi'ominent place in society. He was "easy 
and engaging in his manners, liberal in the employment of his wealth, turn- 


ing his influence to good account, apt and ready to serve the public. " In 
the commencement of the difficulties with England he was among the fore- 
most of the band of patriots who announced their determination to con- 
secrate both their wealth and lives to the cause of liberty, and in the discus- 
sion of the best method of expelling the British troops from Boston, he ex- 
claimed: "Burn Boston, and make John Hancock a beggar, if the public 
good requires it!" In 1774: he was elected to the first Provincial Congress, 
at Concord, and was chosen its president. Ill health prevented his being 
sent to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia that year, but the follow- 
ing season he was added to the Massachusetts delegation. At this time Gov. 
Gage, the British commandant at Boston, issued a proclamation, offering 
pardon to all rebels, save and except John Hancock and Samuel Adams, the 
ofPences of whom, in the language of the proclamation, were "of too flagitious 
a nature to admit of any other consideration than that of condign punish- 
ment." This denunciation, which was regarded as a mark of distinction 
by the patriots, gave Hancock a capital introduction to the Continental Con- 
gress, which body, on the resignation of Peyton Randolph, chose him its 
president, and in this capacity he affixed his bold signature to the Declara- 
tion of Independence. In 1779 Hancock, impelled by ill health, resigned 
his seat in Congress, and the same year served as a niember of the Massa- 
chusetts Convention, at Cambridge, for the formation of a State constitu- 
tion. Upon the adoption of that instrument he was chosen Governor, and 
was annually thereafter elected to that office, with the exception of the term 
of George Bowdoin, in 1786, during the remainder of his life. He retained 
his popularity to the last, and died in office as Governor of Massachusetts, 
October 8, 1793, in his fifty-seventh year. 

Hancock County originally was about twenty-four miles square, and 
covered an area of 585 square miles of territory. No change occurred in 
its boundary lines until the erection of Wyandot County, February 3, 1845, 
when forty-five square miles were taken off the southeast corner in the 
formation of the new county, leaving Hancock with its present area of 540 
sqnare miles, or 345,600 acres. It is one of the central counties of North- 
western Ohio, and is bounded on the north by Wood County, on the east 
by Seneca and Wyandot, on the south by Wyandot and Hardin, and on the 
west by Allen and Putnam. 

The county is divided into eighteen townships, erected in the following 
order: Findlay, May 28, 1823; Amanda and Delaware, in April, 1828; 
Jackson, December 7, 1829; Liberty and Marion, December 6, 183 0; Big 
Lick, Blanchard and Van Buren, March 7, 1831; Washington, March 5, 
1832; Union, June 4, 1832; Eagle, Decembers, 1832; Cass and Portage, 
March 4, 1833; Pleasant, March 2, 1835; Orange, December 5, 1836; 
Madison, June 1, 1840, and Allen, in June, 1850. 

The first official census of Hancock County was taken in 1830, when it 
contained a population of 813. The growth of the county by decades since 
that time has been as follows: 1840, 9,986; 1850, 16,751; 1860, 22,886; 
1870, 23,847, and 1880, 27,784. 

The following table presents in detail the population of the several town- 
ships and towns by decades since 1840, so far as the same is given in the 
United States census reports: 



Allen Township (including Van Buren) 

Van Buren Village 

Amanda Township (including Vanlue) 

Vanlue Village 

Big Lick Townsliip 

Blanchard Township (including Benton) 

Benten Ridge Village 

Cass Township 

Delaware Township (including Mount Blanchard) 

Mount Blanchard Village 

Eagle Township 

Findlay Township (including Findhu') 

City of Findlay 

Jackson Township (including Houcktown) 

Houcktown Village 

Liberty Township 

Madison Township (including Williamstown and 


Williamstown Village 

Arlingi on Village 

Marion Township 

Orange Township 

Pleasant Township (including McComb) 

McComb Village 

Portage Township 

Union Township (including Cannonsburg, Rawson 

and Cory) 

Cannonsl)urg Village 

Rawson Village 

Cory Village •• 

Van Buren Township 

Washington Township (including Arcadia and West 

Fost oria) 

Arcadia Village 

West Fostoria 

1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 

















950 1,371 

2,032 3,346 

1,256| 2,467 

830 1,272 



675 614 
637 1,150 










































Comparing the present condition of Hancock County with what it was 
100 years ago, the wonderful transformation that has taken place is truly 
amazing. Civilization had not yet come to disturb the equanimity of the 
red man as he smoked the pipe of peace at the council lire. Where now 
are towns and hamlets filled with busy populations intent upon the accumu- 
lation of wealth, the mastery of knowledge and the pursuits of pleasure, the 
wolf, bear and panther roamed in search of prey, the deer browsed and the 
pheasant drummed his monotonous note. Where now stands the glowing 
furnace from which tongues of flame are bursting, and where the busy 
water-wheel once furnished power for numerous mills, half-naked, dusky 
warriors fashioned their spears with rude implements of stone, and made 
themselves hooks out of the bones of animals for alhiring the finny tribe. 
Where now are fertile fields, upon which the thrifty farmer turns the fur- 
row, which his neighbor takes up and runs on till it reaches from one end 
of this broad State to the other, and where are flocks and herds rejoicing in 
rich meadows, gladdened by abundant streams and springs, or reposing at 
the heated noon-tide beneath ample shade, not a blow had been struck 
against the giants of the forest, the soil rested in virgin purity, the streams 
glided on in majesty, unvexed by wheel and unobstructed by device of 

Where now the long train rushes on with the speed of the wind over 



plain and glen, across brook and river, awakening the echoes of the 
hills the long day through, and at the midnight hour screaming out its 
shrill whistle in fiery defiance, the wild native, issuing from his rude hut, 
trotted on in his forest path, pointed his bark canoe across the deep stream, 
knowing the progress of time only by the rising and setting sun, troubled 
by no meridians for its index, starting on his way when his nap was ended, 
and stopping for rest when a spot was reached that pleased his fancy; and 
of the wonderful gas resources which, fi-om deep down in the bowels of the 
earth, furnish fuel and light for numerous stores and factories, and give 
genial warmth to the poor man's happy home, and to the rich as they chat 
merrily in the luxurious drawing-room, not the faintest imagination existed. 
This vast lake of fuel rested unknown or unthought of for a generation 
after the white man came, beneath the superincumbent strata where it had 
been fashioned by the Creator's hand. 


Original AppEARANcii of Hancock County— Its Forest and Fruit-Bear- 
ing Trees and Vines— The AVild Animals, Birds. Reptiles and Fish 
Found in this Portion of the State, and Their Gradual Extermina- 
tion—The Wild Honey Bee— General Topoghaphy of the County- 
Its Streams and Water Privileges— Marsh and Prairie Lands— The 
Wild (-at Thicket, Swamp and Fallen Timber Tracts -Diversity of 
Soil— The Sand and Limestone Ridges— Agriculture in Hancock 
County— Implements used by the Early Settlers, and the Intro- 
duction OF Better Machinery— Pioneer Stock Compared with that 
of the" Present— Number of Horses and Cattle Assessed in the 
County in 1824 and 1829— Stock and Crop Statistics— The Hancock 
County Agricultural Society— Its Small Beginning, Steady 
Growth and Present Prosperity. 

"X'TT'HEN the pioneers came into the territory now embraced in Hancock 
VV County, it was, excepting the marsh lands, one vast, unbroken for- 
est. The soil was deep and fertile, and bore up an abundant growth of 
vegetation, while the trees stood close and were of gigantic size. Beauty 
and variety marked the plants which grew and bloomed beneath the leafy- 

"Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 

Hill, dale and streamlet, with all the families of plants, from the lofty 
forest tree to the creeping ivy, gave to the landscape variety and pictur- 
esque beauty. From time immemorial an unchanged progression of period- 
ical decay had been forming a I'ich vegetable soil in preparation for the era 
when civilized man should take possession and become its cultivator. Oak, 
elm, ash and hickory in their several varieties, red and white beech, maple, 
or sugar tree, walnut, butternut, cottonwood, linden, or basswood, poplar, 
cherry, sycamore, hackberry, soft maple, buckeye, mulberry, sumach, cucumber, 
ironwood, locust, dogwood, willow, boxwood and sassafras were the princi- 
pal kinds of timber found in this county. Nearly all of the more valuable 


timber has long ago disappeared before the sturdy blows of the woodsman's 
ax. If the forest that once grew upon many tracts of land in this county 
now stood thereon, it would be worth much more than the land. But the 
pioneers little imagined such a day would ever come, yet many of them 
lived to regret the destruction of the giant walnut and poplar trees once so 
plentiful in Hancock Coimty. There was also a varying undergrowth of 
fruit-bearing trees and vines, such as the plum, crab-apple, grape, white, 
red and black haw, alder, whoi-tleberry, blackberry, raspberry, serviceberry, 
huckleberry, gooseberry, cranberry and strawberry, also nuts of several va- 
rieties, and hops, ginseng, snakeroot, bloodroot, chocolate root, and innu- 
merable species of other roots and herbage having valuable medicinal prop- 
erties, all the spontaneous growt.h of Northwestern Ohio. 

Wild animals roamed at will throughout the earlier years of the county' s 
history, and some of the pioneers could tell of dangers and hair- breadth es- 
capes from an enraged or wounded bear, a pack of ravenous wolves or a 
treacherous wild cat, at that time more numerous in this county than cattle, 
sheep or hogs. The deer, panther, wolf, bear, wild cat, fox, marten, otter, 
polecat, beaver, groundhog or woodchuck, opossum, raccoon, hare, rabbit, 
the black, grey, red or pine, flying and ground or striped squirrel, muskrat, 
mink, weasel, porcupine, field-mouse, deer-mouse, common rat and mouse, 
once abounded in this portion of the State. Of these the panther, bear, 
wolf, wild cat, beaver, marten, deer and porcupine are now extinct in Han- 
cock County. To rid the country of the more dangerous wild beasts was the 
self-imposed duty of every pioneer, and the fight was waged with such un- 
relenting vigor that by 1840 few of them remained. The demand for furs 
was also an incentive to the hunter, as well as the premiums paid on the 
scalps of wolves, panthers and bears ; so that great quantities of game were 
slaughtered for the purpose of replenishing the scanty pocketbooks of the 
struggling settlers, who usually found this an easy mode of earning a few 

' ' The wolf, ' ' says Job Chamberlin in his ' ' Personal Reminiscences, " 
*'was the most troublesome of all the wild animals. It was almost impossi- 
ble to raise sheep on account of them, and we had to put our sheep in high 
pens at night to save them from these dangerous pests. We could hear 
the wolves howling nearly every night, and frequently two or three gangs 
at a time, one gang would howl, and the others would answer them. My 
father took great pains to destroy them, and killed forty-nine in all. He 
took the scalps to Perrysburg, which was the county seat of this district at 
that time, and at first got $1.25 bounty for each scalp, but it was soon 
raised to $3.25. He had to take them within thirty days after killing, and 
make oath that he killed them. To save going himself he sometimes would 
bring the wolves to his house alive, and get Joseph Gordon, the mail car- 
rier, to kill them and get the bounty. * * * * 

" Porcupines were plenty, but we did not find them so remarkable an 
animal as they were represented. They were said to be able to throw their 
quills quite a distance, and some people were at first afraid to approach them 
for fear they would 'shoot' their quills into them; but they had no such power. 
They were full of quills from the top of the head to the tip of the tail, and 
if anything touched one on the back in an unfriendly way it would strike 
upward with its tail with great force, and if it hit an enemy it stuck it full 
of quills; if it hit a stick, as was often the case, the quills would fly a con- 


siderable distance, wWcli, perhaps, gave rise to the belief that they could 
throw them. Our cattle frequently came home with their noses full of 
quills, which were bearded at the point, and, like a bee-sting, would keep 
working in. They were found in different parts of hogs, cattle and dogs, 
and would work through them if the quill did not come in contact with a 
bone or some substance that they could not penetrate. " 

Among the birds which are natives .of this county, or visit it annually, 
either to build or touching it in their migration to a more northerly region, 
are the bald and gray eagle, rarely if ever seen; the hen hawk, fish hawk, 
pigeon hawk, raven, crow, shrike or butcher-bird, the cat and screech owl, 
the swan, wild goose, black duck, mallard, wood duck, shelldrake, teal, 
butterbolt, loon, dipper, water hen or coot, plover, jacksnipe, sandsnipe, 
kingfisher, turkey, pheasant, partridge or quail, woodcock, rail, pigeon, 
dove, whip-poor-will, robin, thrush, catbird, cuckoo, lark, oriole, bluejay, 
fieldfare or red breasted grossbeak, martin, the barn swallow, bank swallow, 
oven swallow, bluebird, wren, cow bird, bobolink or reedbird, yellow-bird, 
redbird, blackbird, redwing, starling, black or large woodpecker, red-headed 
woodpecker, gray woodpecker, flicker, cedar bird or toppy, crookbill, green- 
bird, humming bird, and a variety of small birds with whose species the 
wi-iter is not familiar. ' ' When we came to the hill, " says Mr. Chamber- 
lin, "we found the woods full of birds. Those of a carnivorous disposition 
gave us much trouble for many years. The hawks, of which there were 
four or five kinds, were constantly on the alert to pounce upon our chickens; 
the owl came in for his share, and the raven was also on the lookout for 
chickens and eggs. I once saw a raven attack a sheep. It was winter time, 
and a deep snow covered the ground. While I was sitting in the house .1 
happened to look across an adjoining field and saw a raven busily engaged 
at something, and soon discovered that it was trying to kill a sheep. It 
would fly on the sheep's back and work away as hard as it could. The 
sheep would lie down, but it was then no better off, and could not get rid 
of its enemy. I ran there as quick as I could, aud found that a dog had 
bitten aud crippled the sheep so badly that in could not get away from the 
raven, which had torn the wool off its back just over the kidney, and was 
feasting off the savory meat. " Some of the birds enumerated in the fore- 
going list have become very rare or altogether extinct, while others have 
come' into the county. The white-breasted swallow is one of the later in- 
habitants, as is also the hardy, pugnacious Eaglish sparrow, which since 
his coming has driven many of the most beautiful songsters from the towns 
now inhabited by those little fellows in great numbers. 

Among the snakes found in this locality were the black and yellow rat- 
tlesnakes,° the former known as the massassauga. It was very vicious, 
and rarely grew more than two and one-half feet in length. The yellow rat- 
tlesnakes were not so plentiful in this portion of Ohio, existing principally on 
the limestone ridge. The blue racer, which attained a length of six and one- 
half feet; the water snake, a large black reptile, often growing four to five feet 
in length; the small black snake or white ringed viper, the spotted or house 
snake, the garter snake and the green snake were all very plentiful. But 
of those mentioned none were poisonous except the rattlesnake and white 
ringed viper, aad these are, fortunately, nearly or altogether extinct in 
Hancock County. 

The Blanchard and smaller streams swarmed with fish of many varieties. 


and some of the stories we have heard of their abundance and size would 
almost paralyze the less fortunate modern angler. Mr. Chamberlin speak- 
ing on this subject says: "Fish were very plentiful in the streams. White 
and black suckers, 'red horse,' sturgeon, white and black bass, pike, pick- 
erel, catheads, gars and catfish were caught in great numbers. The smaller 
kinds were easily caught with seine, dip-net, hook and line or fish rack, 
while the large fish were generally gigged. My father once undertook to 
secure a sturgeon which he found in the ripple just below the mill-dam, in 
Findlay. He struck his gig into it and attempted to press it to the bottom, 
but the fish instantly darted from under the gig, which precipitated my 
father full length into the river. He hastily got up, and seeing the 'fish 
struggling in shallow water and trying to escape, he ran and overtook it, 
and again gigged and secured it. The fish weighed forty-nine pounds. 
Another of the same kind, caught afterward, weighed seventy pounds. ' ' 

The wild honey bee was the advance courier of civilization, and the well 
filled bee tree was found in every part of the forest simultaneous with the 
pioneer log-cabin. Indeed there were few of the pioneers who had not discov- 
ered and cut down his bee-tree, and the larder was often well stocked with the 
delicious product of these indefatigable workers. 

The first settlers of Hancock found a slightly rolling, well watered 
country. The summit of the Blanchard in this county is 489 feet above 
Lake Erie, or 1,064 feet above ocean level. There is a general sameness in 
the topography of the county, with a marked dip northward, noticeable in 
the course of the streams, most of which flow in that direction. Blanchard 
River, according to Col. John Johnston, who spent the greater portion of his 
life as a government Indian agent, was called by the Wyandots Qitegh-tu-iva, 
or "claws in the water," while the Shawnees named it Sha-po-qua-te-sepe, 
meaning "one who sewed garments" or "Tailor's River." His story was that 
one Blanchard, a French tailor, settled among the Shawnees, married a 
squaw, reared a family of seven children, and lived and died upon this 
stream long prior to the cession of the territory, which it drains, to the 
United States. The early surveyors of Ohio named the stream Blanchard' s 
Fork of the Auglaize, and thus perpetuated the memory of Blanchard. In 
Chapter II is told all that is positively known of this wandering Frenchman, 
and the reader is referred to that chapter for further information on the 
subject. The Blanchard rises near Kenton, the county seat of Hardin 
County, on the north slope of the dividing ridge between the Ohio River 
and Lake Erie. Flowing northward it enters Hancock County, and passing 
onward through the townships of Delaware, Jackson and Amanda to the 
northeast corner of Section 23, Marion Township, turns abruptly westward, 
and with a slight northerly bearing reaches Findlay; thence meandering in 
the same general direction across Findlay, Liberty and Blanchard Town- 
ships into Putnam Coiinty, forms a jvinction with the Auglaize River in the 
western part of that county. The banks of the Blanchard, though in places 
somewhat hilly and broken, generally stretch away into level bottoms, which 
are subject to overflows during the spring fi'eshets. The stream has fiu'- 
nished in the past water-power for seven grist-mills and numerous saw-mills 
in this county, and has been of incalculable benefit to the country through 
which it flows. Its principal tributaries are fi"om the south. Eagle, Ottawa, 
Riley and Lye Creeks, all of which are fully spoken of in the histories of 
the townships watered by them, being the most important. The north part 


of the county is drained northward by several branches of Portage River 
and Beaver Creek, and taken altogether the water privileges and natural 
drainage facilities of the county are ample and sufficient. Though many 
small springs are found along the streams and runs, Big Spring, m the 
northeast corner of Amanda Township, is the only one of any particular 
note in this county, having fui-nished power many years ago for a small 
carding machine and grist-mill. Good drinking water is, however, readily 
found St various depths in any part of the county, but it is generally im^ 
preo-nated with lime, and sometimes possesses a strong sulphuric taste and 
smell, the latter being the result of the great natural gas deposits m this 
portion of the State, which from time immemorial has been forcing itself 
through the rock fissures to the sui-face. -, ^i , 

Fiom the east part of Marion Township a flat marsh extends southeast- 
ward across Big Lick Township into Seneca County. It covers from 1, 5UU 
to 2 000 acres, and fi'om the fact that it bore up no forest it became known 
as '''the prairie." Cranberry Marsh is a narrow strip of land originally low 
and wet lying principally in the southwest part of Union Township, and 
extendino- across the line into Orange. A small portion of this tract was 
prairie but nearly all the balance was once so thickly covered with the swamp 
willow 'as to render it almost impenetrable. Another small wet prairie con- 
taining about 400 acres, covered a portion of Sections 23 and Z4r, Union 
Townfhip But nearly all of these marsh and prairie lands have been 
brouo-ht under cultivation by judicious drainage, and are among the most 
valuable farming lands in the county. With the exception of the foregoing 
named tracts, the territory embraced in Hancock County originally bore up 
one of the grandest forests of Northwestern Ohio. 

Wild Cat Thicket was one of the noted forest scenes of pioneer days. 
It was fi'om one to two miles in width, and beginning in the west part of 
Portage Township, extended across Portage, Allen and Cass, and terminated 
near the center of Washington Township. From its appearance the first 
settlers concluded the forest had been blown down years before by a hiirri- 
cane coming from the west, as all the tree tops pointed eastward. Over- 
grown with small timber and forest vegetation, it formed a dense thicket 
where wild game found a safe retreat from the vigilant hunter. Hundreds 
of wildcats inhabited this locality, whence they sallied forth to forage upon 
the surrounding farms, and the place finally became known as Wildcat 

Thicket." ,, -, ,,^-, „ n .■ 

Two tracts in Amanda Township— "the swamp and the fallen tim- 
ber"— were once covered by forest, but the timber was thinned out or under- 
mined by the surface peat taking fire and burning the roots of the trees, thus 
bringino- them to the ground. These lands in their wild state were generally 
quite wet, partly caused no doubt by the fallen timber blocking the siirface 
drainage, but since cleared up and drained they are highly prized by the 

^^' The^^reat majority of the lands in this county are composed of a black 
loam, mixed with sand, gravel or clay, according to location, and underlaid 
with limestone. In the more elevated sections there are patches of clay and 
gravel, and sometimes we find a combination of several kinds of soil. Much 
of the soil in the flat or wet lands is known as "muck," and is very suscep- 
tible to drought. -, . , i. J +1, 
A narrow sand ridge, upon which the Benton road is located, runs soutn- 


west from Findlay through the village of Benton Kidge to the Putnam 
County line. Two sand and gravel ridges enter the northeast corner of the 
county, and passing westward unite as one ridge on Section 5, Washington 
Township; thence runs in a southwest direction across Cass, Allen, Portage 
and Pleasant Townships, where it is known as ' 'Sugar Ridge, ' ' because of 
the large number of sugar trees that once grew upon it. Fostoria, Van 
Buren and McComb are located on this ridge. Another of these narrow 
belts enters the northeast corner of Portage Township from Wood County, 
and runs southwest parallel with and about two miles north of Sugar Ridge. 
In the geological reports of the State these ridges are called the ' 'ancient 
beaches" of Lake Erie. Limestone Ridge is an elevated belt of sand and 
clay, underlaid with limestone, lying south of the prairie in Big Lick 
Township. It was so named on account of the numerous flakes of lime- 
stone found scattered over its surface, j^robably the result of a great natural 
upheaval during the first stages of the earth' s formation. Good limestone 
is quarried in abundance along the streams, and in several other parts of 
the county away from the water courses. It is used principally in the manu- 
facture of lime, foundations of buildings and the construction of macadamized 
streets and roads. Taking them as a whole, Hancock may be justly proud 
of her lands, for they are not only rich, inexhaustible and highly productive, 
but there is scarcely a foot of her large area which is not susceptible of cul- 

Every sort of crop indigenous to this portion of Ohio is successfully cul- 
tivated in Hancock County. Wheat is perhaps the greatest crop raised here, 
Hancock standing near the head of Ohio counties in the production of this 
cereal ; Indian corn and oats are raised in large quantities, while barley, rye, 
buckwheat, flax, hay and clover are also cultivated to a considerable extent; 
Irish potatoes yield large crops, and nearly every other kind of vegetable 
grown in this latitude produces abundantly. In the horticultural statistics 
of the State the apple product of Hancock compares favorably with her 
sister counties of Northwestern Ohio. Peaches are not a success in this 
county, and though the smaller fruits often yield bountifully they are now 
regarded as a very uncertain crop. The fi-uit exhibited at the Fair of 1885 
was indeed very creditable to the county, and is an indication of what its 
orchards are capable of under proper care and with judicious cultivation. 
Horticulture is generally neglected, and looked upon by many farmers as an 
almost useless expenditure of t'me and money. Hence scores of orchards 
throughout the county bear a general appearance of decay. 

The agricultural implements used by the early settlers were very simple 
and rude. The plow was made entirely of wood except the share, clevis 
and draft-rods, which were of iron, and for many years had to be transported 
from Buffalo, New York or Cleveland, as there were no iron works in the 
county where the plow shares could be forged. The wooden plow was a very 
awkward implement, difficult to hold and hard for the team to draw. It 
was. however, very generally used until about 1830, when the cast iron plow, 
patented by Jethro Wood, was first brought into the county, though it did 
not gain popular favor very rapidly. The farmer looked at it and was sure 
it would break the first time it struck a stone or root, and then how should he 
replace it ? The wooden mold-board would not break, and when it wore 
out he could take his ax and hew another out of a piece of a tree. In no 
one agricultural implement has there been more marked improvement than 


in the plow — now made of beautifully polished cast-steel, except the beam 
and handles, while in Canada and some portions of the United States these 
too are manufactured of iron. The cast- steel plow of the present manu- 
facture, in its several sizes, styles and adaptations to the various soils and forms 
of land, including the sulky or riding plow, is, among agricultural imple- 
ments, the most perfect in use. 

The pioneer harrow was simply the fork of a tree, with the branches on 
one side cut close and on the other left about a foot long to serve the pur- 
pose of teeth. In some instances a number of holes were bored through 
the beams and dry wooden pins di-iven into them. It was not for some 
years after the first settlement that iron or steel harrow teeth were intro- 
duced in Hancock County. 

The axes, hoes, shovels and picks were rude and clumsy, and of inferior 
utility. The sickle and scythe were at first used to harvest the grain and hay, 
but the former gave way early to the cradle, with which better results could 
be attained with less labor. The scythe and cradle have been replaced by 
the mower and reaper to a great extent, though both are still used in this 

The ordinary wooden flail was used to thresh grain until about 1840, when 
the horse power thresher was largely substituted. The method of cleaning 
the chafP from the grain by the early settlers, was by a blanket handled by 
two persons. The grain and the chafP were placed on the blanket, which 
was then tossed up and down, the wind separating a certain amount of the 
chaff fi-om the grain during the operation. Fanning-mills were introduced 
quite early, but the first of these were very rude and little better than the 
primitive blanket. Improvements have been made from time to time until 
an almost perfect separator is now connected with every threshing machine, 
and the work of ten men for a whole season is done more completely by 
two or three men, as many horses, and a patent separator, in one day. In 
fact it is difficult to fix limitations upon improvements in agricultural 
machinery within the last fifty years. It is, however, safe to say that they 
have enabled the farmer to accomplish more than triple the amount of 
work with the same force in the same time, and do his work better than be- 
fore. It has been stated on competent authority that the saving effected by 
new and improved implements within the last twenty years has been not less 
than one-half on all kinds of farm labor. 

The greatest triumphs of mechanical skill in its application to agricult- 
ure are witnessed in the plow, planter, reaper and separator, as well as in 
many other implements adapted to the tillage, harvesting and subsequent 
handling of the immense crops of the country. The rude and cumbrous 
implements of the pioneers have been superseded by improved and appar- 
ently perfect machinery of all classes, so that the calling of the farmer is 
no longer synonymous with laborious toil, but is, in many ways, pleasant 

The farmers of Hancock County are not behind the balance of the State 
in the employment of improved methods and in the use of the best machin- 
ery. It is true that in many cases they were slow to change, but much 
allowance should be made for surrounding circumstances. The pioneers had 
to contend against innumerable obstacles — with the wildness of natiu-e, the 
immense growth of timber, the depredations of wild beasts and the annoy- 
ance of the swarming insect life, and the great difficulty and expense of 


procuring seeds and farming implements. These various difficulties were 
quite sufficient to explain the slow progress made in the first years of settle- 
ment. Improvements were not encouraged, while the pioneers generally 
rejected ' 'book farming' ' as unimportant and useless, and knew little of the 
chemistry of agriculture. The farmer who ventured to make experiments, 
to stake out new paths of practice, or to adopt new modes of cultui-e, sub- 
jected himself to the ridicule of the whole neighborhood. For many years 
the same methods of farming were observed ; the son planted as many acres 
of corn or wheat as his father did, and in the same phases of the moon. 
All their practices were merely traditional ; but within the last thirty years 
most remarkable changes have occurred in all the conditions of agriculture 
in this country. 

The natural adaptation of the soil to grass, and the abundant supply of 
good water, early attracted the attention of many progressive farmers to 
the advantages of stock raising. Horses, cattle, sheep and hogs were 
brought into the county by the first settlers, though they were usually of 
an ordinary breed, and very little was done toward the improvement of 
stock for many years after the organization of the county. The advent of 
the Agricultural Society awakened an active and lasting interest in the 
growth and development of fine stock; and we now find in every township 
of the county some splendid specimens of Norman, Clydesdale and Hamble- 
tonian horses; Durham, Devon, Holstein and Jersey cattle; Merino and 
Cotswold sheep, and Poland -China, Berkshire and Chester White hogs. 
In fact nearly every live farmer takes pride in breeding and exhibiting a 
few good animals. 

The swine of the early settlers, compared with those they now possess, 
present a very wide contrast, for whatever the breed may have been called, 
running wild, as was customary, the special breed was soon lost in the 
mixed swine of the country. They were long and slim, long-snouted and 
long-legged, with an arched back, and bristles erect from the back of the 
head to the tail, slab-sided, active and healthy; the "sapling-splitter" or 
' 'razor back, " as he was called, was ever in search of food, and quick to 
take alarm. He was capable of making a heavy hog, but required two or 
three years to matui'e, and until a short time before butchering or market- 
ing was suffered to run at large, subsisting mainly as a forager, and in the 
fall fattening on the ' 'mast' ' of the forest. Yet this was the hog for a new 
country, whose nearest and best market was Detroit, to which point they 
were di'iven on foot. Almost every farmer raised a few hogs for market, 
which were gathered up by drovers and dealers during the fall and winter 
seasons. In no stock of the farm have greater changes been effected than 
in the hog. From the long-legged, long-snouted, slab-sided, roach-backed, 
tall, long, active, wild, fierce and muscular, it has been bred to be almost 
as square as a store box and quiet as a sheep, taking on 250 pounds of flesh 
in ten months. 

In 1824 there were assessed by Wilson Vance, inside of Hancock 
County, 22 horses and 105 head of cattle over three years old. In 1829 
there were returned for taxation 93 horses and 279 head of cattle. These 
were the beginnings of the present flourishing stock interests of tlie county, 
and the following table, compiled from the State reports, will serve to illus- 
trate the growth and progress of this important feature of agriculture dur- 
ing the past thirty-three years : 



-CA^^ '^^r^-^u^ 



Cattle . 
Hogs . , 



4,116 9,073 

9,710 32.835 

9,502; 28,995 

14,877 31,562 

1867 1870 


9,635 9,313 10,523 

18,757 19, 750 ! 23,216 

35,3111 28.299 34,121 

84,735 56,622l 46,111 



10,533 9,774 

23.478 22 139 

43,677 38,192 

43,942 52,045 

From the same source is gathered the following table of crop statistics 
since 1859, giving the number of bushels of each crop produced annually 
for six years selected from that period : 







Irish Potatoes. 



















































Though the several agricultural products of Hancock County have been 
usually successful, wheat and corn have always been its two greatest staples. 
The average annual wheat product of the county from 1869 to 1884, inclusive, 
was 14.86 bushels per acre, while the average corn yield for the same period 
was 34. 92 bushels per acre. The total annual average wheat product of 
the county from 1878 to 1882, inclusive, was 877,458 bushels, ranking sec- 
ond in the Maumee Valley and sixth in the State. Seneca, Stark, Wayne, 
Darke and Pickaway being the only counties of Ohio during that period 
whose total annual average wheat yield exceeded that of Hancock. The 
covmty's total annual average corn crop for the same five years was 1,701,- 
285 bushels, ranking seventeenth in that cereal and leading the remainin'o- 
seventy-one counties of Ohio in the growth of corn. Truly this is a grand 
testimonial to the fertility of her soil and the intelligence of her farmers. 

The Hancock County Agricultural Society has, no doubt, done more 
toward building up and developing the agricultural interests of the county 
than all other social agencies combined. The annual fairs held at Findlay 
dui-ing the past thirty-four years have created a friendly rivalry among 
agriculturists in the breeding of fine stock, and brought about the introduc'- 
tion of better machineiy and more scientific modes of farming. The first active 
efi:'ort made to organize this society was through a call published in the 
Hancock Courier of August 21, 1851, and signed by Abner Evans, Henry 
Lamb, John Lafferty, Charles Eckels, Abner Leonard, C. O. Mann, Kobert 
L. Strother, Alexander Phillips, William Taylor, A. H. Fairchild, C. Folk, 
D. J. Cory and John Strother, for a meeting to be held at the Court House 
on Saturday, August 30, 1851, for the purpose of forming a county agri- 
cultural society, and "to organize and transact business necessary to the 
furtherance of the plow." Pursuant to this notice a goodly . number of 
citizens met on the day specified, and organized by appointing Aaron Hall, 
president, John Cooper and William Taylor, vice-presidents, and Robert 
Coulter, secretary of the meeting. Henry Brown then read, for the infor- 
mation of those interested, an "act for the encouragement of ao-riculture, " 


passed March 12, 1844. It was afterward decided to hold the next meet- 
ing at the Court House on the first Saturday of October follo\/ing, when 
permanent officers would be elected. A membership subscription paper 
was drafted and left with William Taylor for the procurement of names. 

On the 4th of October, 1851, the embryo society met according to ap- 
pointment, and organized by calling Robert L. Strother to the chair and 
appointing Henry Brown, secretary. A constitution previously prepared 
was read and adopted, and the following officers elected for the ensuing 
year: John Cooper, president; Robert L. Strother, vice-president; William 
Taylor, secretary; D. J. Cory, treasurer; Aaron Hall, John Dukes, AVill- 
iam Yates, Henry Lamb, John Moore, John Lafferty and Alexander Phil- 
lips, managers. After the disposal of a few other matters the society ad- 
joui'ned until November 13, 1851. During this year the following members 
were obtained, each of whom paid $1, except D. J. Cory, who gave $10 
toward the enterprise: Robert L. Strother, Henry Lamb, Alexander Phil- 
lips, William Taylor, John Cooper, David Dorsey, Jesse George, T. G. 
Pumre, Hiram Cox, John P. McNeaill, A. H. Fairchild, A. P. Byal, Jesse 
Ford, Paul Sours, Jonas Hartman, Edson Goit, William Yates, Aaron 
Hall, Robert Coulter, D. J. Cory, Peter George, Henry Davis, Samuel 
Spitler, Elijah Barnd, James Elsea, Ebenezer Mclntire, James H. Barr, 
L. G. Flenner, AVilliam Mungen, Samuel Howard, Moses McAnelly, John 
Moore, Miles Wilson, Jr., E. P. Coons & Co., Charles Osterlen, Joshua 
Hartman, E. B. Vail, Thomas Buckley, A. H. Bigelow, Abner Leonard, 
Thomas H. Taylor, David Patton. John Dukes, John LafPerty, Henry Folk, 
Alonzo Pangburn, Eli Detwiler, John Johnston, Edwin Parker and Brown 
& Blackford. 

The second election of officers took place at the Court House April 10, 
1852, and resulted as follows: John Cooper, president; Robert L. Strother, 
vice-president; Henry Brown, secretary; D. J. Cory, treasurer; Aaron 
Hall, Moses McAnelly, Jonas Hartman, John Dukes and Alexander Phillips, 
managers. Under this management the society held its first fair October 
15 and 16, 1852, on rented grounds west of Main Street in North Findlay, 
which were temporarily fitted up for the occasion. The secretary in his 
report says ''the attendance was very large," and, doubless, it was a very 
good fair, considering the circumstances under which it was given, but when 
he informs us that the total premiums awarded amounted to $99. 12 we can 
then easily realize what wonderfiil progress the society has made since it 
gave its first fair. The same grounds in North Findlay were annually rent- 
ed, and used up to and including the fair of 1858. The lack of permanent 
grounds and suitable buildings were the main drawbacks under which the 
society labored during those seven years. Nevertheless the fairs were 
usually successful, and at the close of the one of 1858 the society was out 
of debt and had about $100 in the treasury. 

In January, 1859, the subject of securing permanent grounds began to 
be agitated. The officers chosen on the 15th of this month were Israel 
Green, president; A. P. Byal, vice-president; Samuel F. Gray, secretary; 
A. M. Hollabaugh, treasiu-er; A. W. Strother, Ezra Karm, William Vance, 
William Martin, Abner Leonard, Abel F. Parker, Aaron Hall, John Moore, 
Daniel Alspach and Daniel Fox, board of managers. On the 5th of Feb- 
ruary a meeting of the society was convened, and the president, secretary, 
treasurer, and board of managers were appointed a committee to view 


sites and receive proposals for the purchase or lease of suitable grounds, and 
to^ report at the next meeting, February 9, 1859. On that date the com- 
mittee reported the selection of a tract of eight acres lying on the Mount 
Blanchard road, in East Findlay, which was purchased of James H. Wilson for 
the sum of $800. Measures were soon afterward taken to fence and tit up the 
ground for the succeeding annual fair, which was held thereon October 5,6 and 
7, 1859. Nine annual exhibitions were held on these grounds, and the inter- 
est and attendance had so increased that the society felt justified in seek- 
ing a larger tract. In October, 1867, a committee was appointed to sell 
the old grounds, but nothing definite was then accomplished. In July, 
1868, John Markel, A. W. Frederick and C. L. Turley were appointed a 
committee to dispose of the grounds, which were sold to Samuel Hoxter. 

In May, 1868, a tract of twenty and one-half acres on the Bellefontaine road 
immediately south of Findlay, were purchased of Timothy L. Russell for |3, - 
075. These grounds were fitted up and the first fair held upon them October 
15, 16 and 17, 1868. This fair was reported as the most successful held by 
the society up to that time. Five acres bought of John Powell at a cost of 
$1,000 were added to the grounds on the south in August, 1871, and in Au- 
gust, 1882, seven and two-filths acres adjoining the grounds on the west were 
purchasedof A.P.Byalforthe sum of $1,850. In May, 1884,the society bought 
a strip of half an acre running along the north part of the grounds for 
which they paid Francis Davis $200. The last addition made to the 
grounds was a tract of two acres on the west side and purchased of 
Morrison & Baker, in September, 1885, for the sum of $500. The grounds 
now contain thirty-five and two-fifths acres, which have cost the society 
$6,625. It is claimed by the secretary that about $4,000 have been expended 
in buildings and other improvements, making a total expenditure of over $10,- 
000. About one-third of the grounds is covered by the original forest, and their 
location is perhaps the most beautiful that could have been selected in the 
Blanchard Valley. For many years the annual exhibitions of this society have 
been recognized as among the most successful in Northwestern Ohio, and its offi- 
cers of the past and present deserve great credit for their indefatigable labors in 
building up an institution which every progressive citizen feels is an honor 
to Hancock County. The officers of the society for 1885 were as fol- 
lows: Samuel D. Frey, president; James A. Vickers, vice-president; D. 
B. Beardsley, secretary; J. M. Vanhorn, treasurer; David Downing, Jas- 
per Dukes, Josiah Fahl, Isaac N. Teatsorth, Calvin W. Brooks, Hiram 
HuflPman, J. W. Marshall, John Cusac, James A. Vickers, Joseph Foreman, 
James Cox and Samuel D. Frey, managers. 



Public Officials— Members or Congress— State Senators— State Repre- 
sentatives— Prksidential Electors, AND Members of Constitutional 
Conventions — Commissioners— Auditors— Treasurers — Recorders— 
Clerks— Sheriffs— Surveyors— Coroners— Probate Judges — Public 
Buildings— Court Houses, Jails and Infirmary— Political Statis- 

MANY unf oi-eseen obstacles were met with in the compilation of a reliable 
and authentic roster of public oflficials. Comparing the lists hereto- 
fore published with the records, it was soon discovered that, though most 
of the names are given, the dates of service are very erroneous, and re- 
liance had to be almost solely placed on the musty, age- dimmed election 
returns stowed away in the clerk' s office. The result derived fi"om a careful 
inspection of these returns fully repaid the time expended, and the lists are 
here given with confidence that they are correct and beyond dispute. The 
roster of members of Congress, State senators and representatives begins with 
the erection of the county in 1820, while the balance of the lists date fi-om 
its organization eight years later. The reader will therefore bear in mind 
that wherever Wood County appears as a part of the senatorial or legisla- 
tive district, prior to 1828, it also includes Hancock, which was under the 
jurisdiction of Wood till March, 1828.* 

Members of Congress. — Joseph Vance, of Champaign County, 1821 to 
1835; Samson Mason, of Clark County, 1835 to 1843; Hem-y St. John, of 
Seneca County, 1843 to 1847; Rodolphus Dickinson, of Sandusky County, 
1847, died in 1849; Amos E. Wood, of Sandusky County, vice Dickinson 
deceased, 1849, died in 1850; John Bell, of Sandusky County, 1850 to 1851; 
Alfred P. Edgerton, of Defiance County, 1851 to 1855; Richard Mott, of 
Lucas County, 1855 to 1859; James M. Ashley, of Lucas County, 1859 to 
1863f Francis C. Le Blond, of Mercer County, 1863 to 1867; William Mun- 
gen, of Hancock County, 1867 to 1871; Charles N. Lamison, of Allen County, 
1871 to 1873; Charles Foster, of Seneca County, 1873 to 1879; Frank H. 
Hurd, of Lucas County, 1879 to 1881: John B. Rice, of Sandusky County, 
1881 to 1883; George E. Seney, of Seneca County, 1883 to 1887. 

State Senators. — George Fithian, district Clark, Champaign Logan, 
and Wood, 1820-21; James Cooley, same district, 1821-23; George Fithian, 
same district, 1823-24; Robert Young, district Miami, Shelby, Logan and 
Wood, 1824-26; Daniel M. Workman, same district, 1826-28; David Camp- 
bell, district Hancock, Wood, Seneca, Sandusky and Huron, 1828-30; 
Samuel M. Lockwood, same district, 1830-32; Philip Lewis, district 
Hancock, Hardin, Logan, Union and Madison, 1832-34; Samuel Newell, 
same district, 1834-36; John E. Hunt, district Hancock, Wood, Hemy and 
Lucas, 1836-37; Curtis Bates, district Hancock, Hardin, Wood, Lucas, 
Henry, Williams, Paulding, Putnam, Allen, Van Wert and Shelby, 1837- 

*For Common Pleas, aad Associate Judges, and Prosecuting Attorneys see Cliapter VI. 


39; Jolin E. Hunt, same district, 1839-40; John Goodin, district Hancock, 
Wood, Seneca, Sandusky and Ottawa, 1840-42; Moses McAnelly, same dis- 
trict, 1842-44; Charies W. O'Neal, district Hancock, Wood, Lucas and 
Ottawa, 1S44-4G; Jesse Wheeler, same district, 1846-48; Joel W. Wilson, 
district Hancock, Seneca and Wyandot, 1848-50; Michael Brackley, same 
district, 1850-51. Under the constitution of 1851, the State was divided 
into fixed senatorial districts, and the counties of Hancock, Wood, Lucas, 
Fulton, Henry and Putnam, became the Thirty-third District. The senators 
since that time have been as follows : William Mimgen, 1852-54; Samuel 
H. Steedman, 1854-56; William S. Lunt, 1856-58; Josiah N. Westcott, 
1858-60; George Laskey, 1860-62; Charies M. Godfrey, 1862-64; James 
C. Hall, 1864-66; James C. Hall and Pariee Cariin, 1866-68 ; Abel M. Corey 
and James C. Hall, 1868. The latter died in 1868, and in December of 
that year Charles A. King was elected to fill vacancy, and with Mr. Corey 
served till 1870; Abel M. Corey, 1870-72; Dresam W. H. Howard and 
Hanks B. Gage, 1872-74; Wilham A. Tressler and Emery D. Potter, 1874- 
76; T. P. Brown and Charles J. Swan, 1876-78; James B. Steedman and 
David Joy, 1878-80; John A. Wilkins, 1880-82; Joseph H. Brigham and 
Jonathan D. Norton, 1882-84; William H. McLyman and Orlando B. 
Ramey, 1884-86; Ezra S. Dodd and Herman C. Groschner, 1886-88. 

State Representatives. — John Shelby, district Logan and Wood, 1820- 
28; Samuel M. Lockwood, district Hancock, Wood, Seneca and Sandusky, 
1828-30; Josiah Hedges, same district, 1830-31; Harvey J. Harmon, same 
district, 1831-32; Samuel Newell, district Hancock, Hardin,' Logan, Union 
and Madison, 1832-34; Nicholas Hathaway, same district, 1834-36; John 
Hollister, district Hancock, Wood, Lucas, Henry and Williams, 1836-37; 
Pariee Cariin, same district, 1837-38; William Taylor, same district, 1838- 
39; Moses McAnelly, same district, 1839-40; Amos E. Wood and Moses 
McAnelly, district Hancock. Wood, Seneca, Sandusky and Ottawa, 1840-41; 
Amos E. Wood and George W. Baird, same district, 1841-42; George W. 
Baird and Henry C. Brish, same district, 1842-43; William B. Craighill 
and Samuel Waggoner, same district, 1843-44; Elijah Huntington, district 
Hancock, AVood, Lucas and Ottawa, 1844-45; Lyman Parcher, same dis- 
trict, 1845-46; John McMahan, same district, 1846-47; Emery D. Potter, 
same district, 1847-48; Machias C. Whiteley, district Hancock and Wyan- 
dot, 1848-50; Henry Bishop, same district, 1850-51. Since the adoption of 
the constitution of 1851, Hancock County has formed a separate legislative 
district, and has been represented by the following citizens : Henry Bishop, 
1852-54; John F. Perkey, 1854-56; Pariee Cariin, 1856-58; John Westcott, 
1858-62; William Gribben, 1862-64; Gribben obtained certificate of re- 
election in 1863, but near the close of first session in 1864, the seat was 
given on contest to his opponent, Pariee Cariin, who served till 1866; Isaac 
Cusac, 1866-70; Aaron B. Shafer, 1870-72; Charies Osterien, 1872-1874; 
William M. McKinley, 1874-76; Alexander Phillips, 1876, died in office, 
same year; Henry Sheets, 1877-80; William H. Wheeler, 1880-84; Absalom 
P. Byal, 1884-88. 

Presidential Electors and Members of Constitutional Conventions. — John 
Dukes, of Blanchard Township, was the elector of this district on the 
Harrison and Tyler ticket in 1840; William Taylor of Findlay, was the Fre- 
mont and Dayton elector in 1856; and Jacob F. Burket, of Findlay, the Gar- 
field and Arthur elector in 1880. These were the only citizens of Han- 


cock County who ever filled that position in the district to which Hancock 
belonged. John Ewing, of Findlay, served in the Constitutional Convention 
of 1850; and Absalom P. Byal, of Findlay, in that of 1873. 

Commissioners. — Godfrev Wolford, from April, 1828, to October, 1828; 
John Long, April, 1828, to October, 1828; John P. Hamilton, April, 1828, 
to October, 1828; John Long (re-elected), October, 1828, to December, 1829; 
Charles McKinnis, October, 1828, to December, 1880; John P. Hamilton 
(re-elected), October, 1828, to December, 1831; Mordecai Hammond, Decem- 
ber, 1829, to December, 1832; Charles McKinnis (re-elected), December, 1830, 
to December, 1833; EobertL. Strother, December, 1831, to December, 1834; 
John Kose, December, 1832, to December, 1835; John Byal, December, 1833, 
to December, 1836; Jolm L. Carson, December, 1834, resigned in Decem- 
ber, 1835; William Taylor (of Findlay), December, 1835, to December, 1838; 
Darius Smith (to fill vacancy caused by Carson's resignation), December, 
1835, to December, 1837; John Byal (re-elected), December, 183G, to Decem- 
ber, 1839; Aquilla Gilbert, December, 1837, to December, 1840.; Daniel Fair- 
child, December, 1838, to December, 1841 ; George Shaw, December, 1839, to 
December, 1842; Aquilla Gilbert (re-elected), December 1840, to December, 
1843; Andrew Eicketts, December, 1841, to December, 1844; George Shaw, 
(re-elected), December, 1842, to December, 1845; Peter George, December, 
1843, to December, 1846; JohnLafferty, December, 1844, to December, 1847; 
William Taylor (of Findlay), December, 1845, to December, 1848; Peter 
George (re-elected), December, 1846, toDecember, 1849; William W. Hughes, 
December, 1847, toDecember, 1850; Thomas Kelley, December, 1848, toDe- 
cember, 1851; Elias Cole, December, 1849, toDecember, 1852; William W. 
Hughes (re-elected), December, 1850, to December, 1853; Thomas Kelley (re- 
elected), December, 1851, toDecember, 1854; Elias Cole (re-elected), Decem- 
ber, 1852, toDecember, 1855; Jacob Bushong, December, 1853, toDecember, 
1856; William Davis, December, 1854, to December, 1857; John McKinley, 
December, 1855, to December, 1858; Jacob Bushong (re-elected), December 
1856, to December, 1859; John Graham, December, 1857, to December, 1860; 
John McKinley (re-elected), December, 1858, to December, 1861 ; Isaac Cusac, 
December, 1859; resigned late in 1861, or early the following year; John 
Graham (re-elected), December, 1860, to December, 1863; Conrad Line, De- 
cember, 1861, to December, 1864; Jacob Bushong, appointed in February, 
1862, to serve the unexpired term of Isaac Cusac up to December, 1862; John 
Cooper, December, 1862, to December, 1865 ; William Taylor (of Washington 
Township), December, 1863, toDecember, 1866; David W. Engle, December, 
1864, to December, 1867; John Cooper (re-elected), Decembei', 1865, to De- 
cember, 1868; William Taylor (re-elected), December, 1866, to December, 
1869; David W. Engle (re-elected), December, 1867, to December, 1870; 
William M. Marshall, December, 1868, to December, 1871; Samuel Creigh- 
ton, December, 1869, to December, 1872 ; Joseph Saltzman, December, 1870, 
to December, 1873; William M. Marshall (re-elected), December, 1871, to 
December, 1874; John D. Bishop, December, 1872, to December, 1875; 
Joseph Saltzman (re-elected), December, 1873, resigned June 9, 1876; John 
Edgington, December, 1874, to December, 1877; JohnD. Bishop, Decem- 
ber, 1875, toDecember, 1878; Ross W. Moore appointed June 9, 1876, to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Joseph Saltzman, and elected 
as his own successor the following October, first regular term expiring in 
December, 1879; John Edgington (re-elected), December, 1877, toDecember, 


1880; Louis Liineack, December, 1878, to December, 1881; Boss W. Moore 
(re-elected), December, 1879, to December, 1882; Bateman B. Powell, De- 
cember, 1880, to December, 1883; Andrew S. Be^k, I^^cember 1881 to De- 
cember, 1884; Charles S. Kelley, December, 1882 to December, 1885; J. 
M. Moorliead, December, 1883, to December, 1880; Andrew S Beck (re- 
elected), December, 1881, to December, 1887 ; Charles S. Kelley (re-elected), 
December, 1885, to December, 1888. ,^^„ , ^ , , wn- 

Auditors.-^laiihew Reighly, April, 1828, to October, 1828; William 
Hackney, October, 1828, to March, 1831; Thomas F. Johnston, March, 
1831, resigned in June, 1832; Joseph C. Shannon, appoint^ed to fall vacancy 
in June 1832, and served till his death in May, 1836; Edson Goit, 
appointed May 23, 1836, to serve the unexpired term of Joseph C. Shannon, 
deceased, up to March, 1837; Charles W. O'Neal, March 1837, to March, 
1839; William L. Henderson, March, 1839, resigned September 29, 1842; 
James H. Barr, appointed to fill vacancy September 29 1842^ served to 
March, 1845; James S. Ballentine, March, 1845, to March, 184/; Wdliam 
Muncren, March. 1847, to March, 1851; Elijah Barnd, March, 1851, to 
March 1855; Henry Brown, March, 1855, to March, 1857; Aaron Howard, 
March, 1857, to March, 1861; Hemy Sheets, March, 1861, to March, 1865; 
Solomon Shafer, March, 1865, to March, 1869; John L. Hill, March, 1869, 
to November, 1873; George S. Mosher, November, 1873 to November, 
1877; Joseph R. Kagy, November, 1877, to November, 1883; \\ illiam i. 
Piatt', November, 1883, to November, 1886 -c.^ • a 

Treasurers.— Joshua Hedges, April, 1828, to October, 1828; Edwm S. 
Jones, October, 1828, to June, 1831; Squire Carlin, June, 1831, to June, 
1839- Edson Goit, June, 1839, to June, 1843; Levi Taylor, June, 1843, to 
June' 1845; Wilson Vance, June, 1845, to June, 1847; Mahlon Morris, 
June 1847, died August 5, 1849; Levi Taylor, appointed to fill vacancy, 
August 8 1849, to June, 1851; Samuel Howard, June, 1851, to June, 
1855; Benjamin Huber, June, 1855, to June, 1857; William Vanluc, June, 
1857 to September, 1861; Benjamin Huber, September, 1861, to Septem- 
ber 'l863; Samuel Spitler, September, 1863, to September, 1867; Henry 
B Wall September, 1867, absconded in September, 1870; Henry Sheets, 
appointed September 7, 1870, to serve Wall's unexpired term up to Sep- 
tember 1871; Benjamin Huber, September, 1871, to September, 18/5; 
Peter Hosier, September, 1875, to September, 1879; Samuel Howard, Sep- 
tember, 1879, to September, 1883; William J. Creighton, September, 1883, 

to September, 1887. -. . -r looc -n i 

Recorders —Wilson Vance, June 3, 1828, resigned m June, 1835; Parlee 
Carlin, appointed June 1, 1835, served till October, 1835; Wilson Vance, 
October 1835, to October, 1838; Jacob Barnd, October, 1838, to October, 
1844- John Adams, October, 1844, to October, 1847; Paul Sours, October, 
1847 to October, 1853; Isaac J. Baldwin, October, 1853, to January, 1860; 
Adam Steinman, January, 1860, to January, 1866; Luther B. Robinson, 
January, 1866, to January, 1872; Paul Kemerer, January, 1872 to Janu- 
ary, 1878; Joseph F. Gutzwiller, January, 1878, to January, 1884; John 
B. Foltz, January, 1884, to January, 1887. 

Clerks —Wilson Vance, March 14, 1828, to March, 1835; William H. 
Baldwin March, 1835, to October, 1842; William L. Henderson, October, 
1842 resigned July 27, 1848; Absalom P. Byal, July 28, 1848, to February, 
1855; William W. Siddall, February, 1855, to February, 1864; James Den- 


nison, February, 1864, died in office January 20, 1870; Peter Pifer was 
elected in the fall of 1869, and upon the death of Mr. Dennison he was ap- 
pointed to serve the few remaining days of the hitter's second term. His 
own began in February, 1870, and he held the office till February, 1876; 
Scott W. Preble, February, 1876, to Febrviary, 1879; Henry H. Louthan, 
February, 1879, to February, 1885; Presley E. Hay, February, 1885, to Feb- 
rurary, 1888. 

Sheriffs. — Don Alonzo Hamlin, April, 1828, to November, 1828; John C. 
Wickham, November, 1828, to November, 1830; Joseph Johnson, 
November, 1830, to November, 1834; Christian Barnd, November, 1834, 
to November, 1838; Jacob Rosenberg, November, 1838, to November, 
1842; Elisha Brown, November, 1842, to November, 1844; Alonzo D. Wing, 
November, 1844, to November, 1846; Absalom P. Byal, November, 1846, re- 
signed July 27, 1848, and the Coroner, Hiram Williams was acting sheriff 
till the following November; Thomas Buckley, November, 1848, to Novem- 
ber, 1852; James Robinson, November, 1852, to November, 1854; William W. 
Yates, November, 1854, died near the close of December, 1855, and D. D. 
McCahan, Coroner, was acting sheriff until November, 1856; James N. 
Neibling, November, 1856, to January, 1861 ; Cloys B. Wilson, January, 1861, 
to January, 1865; D. D. McCahan, January, 1865, resigned September 23, 
1867, and the Coroner, Abraham Yerger, filled the office till January, 1869; 
Samuel Myers, Jamiary, 1869, to January, 1873; James L. Henry, January, 
1873, to January, 1875; Samuel Myers, January, 1875, to Janiiary, 1877; 
ParleeC. Tritch, January, 1877, to January, 1881; Charles B. Hall, January, 
1881, to January, 1885; Lemuel McManness, January, 1885, to January, 

Surveyors.— \Yim(im Taylor, November, 19, 1828, to April, 1832; William 
L. Henderson, April, 1832, to October, 1838; Joel Pendleton, October, 1838, 
to October, 1854; George W. Powell, October, 1854, to October, 1857; Joel 
Pendleton, October, 1857, to January, 1876; Edwin Phifer, January, 1876, 
to January, 1885; W^. K. Stringfellow, January, 1885, to January, 1888. 

Coroners. — Thomas Slight, April, 1828, to November. 1830; Joseph De 
Witt, November, 1830, to November, 1832; Thomas Slight, November, 1832, 
to November, 1834; Richard Watson, November, 1834, to November, 1835; 
Thomas Slight, November, 1835, to November, 1836; Peter Byal, November, 
1836, to November, 1837; Henry Lamb, November, 1837, to November, 1839; 
Noah Wilson, Novembw", 1839, to November, 1840; Joshua Hedges, Novem- 
ber, 1840, to November, 1842; Allen McCahan, November, 1842, to November, 
1844; Norman Chamberlin, November, 1844, died in 1845. and the sheriff, 
Alonzo D. Wing, served the unexpired term to November, 1846; Hiram 
W^illiams, November, 1846, to November, 1850; Harmon Warrell, November, 
1850, to November, 1852; Garret D. Teatsorth, November, 1852. to Novem- 
ber, 1854; D. D. McCahan, November, 1854, to November, 1856; Edwin Par- 
ker, November, 1856, to January, 1861; ParleeC. Tritch, January, 1861, to 
January, 1865; Abraham Yerger, January, 1865, to January, 1869; ParleeC. 
Tritch, January, 1869, to January, 1 1873; Frank J. Karst, January, 1873, to 
January, 1875; Daniel F. Cline, January, 1875, to January, 1877; Tobias G. 
Barnhill, January, 1877, to January, 1881; John C. Tritch, January, 1881, 
to January, 1885; Tobias B. Barnhill, January, 1885. to January, 1887. 

Probate Judges. —James H. Barr, February, 1852, to February, 1855; 
Nathaniel E. Childs, February, 1855; to February, 1858; James H. Barr, 


'Ai ^. 


February, 1858, to February, 1861; Alfred W. Frederick, February, 1861, to 
February, 1867; Gamaliel C. Barnd, February, 1867, to February, 1873; 
Samuel B. Huffman, February, 1873, to February, 1879; Sylvester J. Sid- 
dall, February, 1879, to- February, 1885; George W. Myers, February, 
1885, to February, 1888. 

Public Buildings. — On the 2d of February, 1824, the General Assem- 
bly passed an act appointing three commissioners to select a seat of j astice 
for Hancock County, and the following October said commissioners re- 
ported to the Court of Common Pleas of Wood County, then in session at 
Perrysburg, that they had selected Findlay as the most suitable location for 
said county seat. Upon the organization of Hancock, in March, 1828, the 
old log school-house, erected the previous year on the site of the Indianapolis, 
Bloomington & Western Railroad depot, was utilized as a Court House, and 
all of the courts were held in that building until the completion of the first 
Court House in 1833. 

A Jail, it seems, was the first public building erected by the county. At 
a meeting of the commissioners held July 26, 1830, plans for a Jail were 
considered, and it was ordered that said Jail be a one- storied building, 
16x24 feet in size. It was built of hewed logs, and divided into two rooms 
by a partition through the center, one of which was the " debtors' prison, '* 
wherein those unfortunates imable to pay their debts had plenty of time to 
ponder over the inconvenience of honest poverty. There they remained 
without any hope of relief until Shylock relented or received his "pound of 
flesh." This was one of those obnoxious laws handed down fi'om colonial 
days, and still existing in some of the States. The contract for the erec- 
tion of this old Jail was let to Squire Carlin for $450, and called for " the 
timbers to be white oak twelve inches square. " Mr, Carlin employed Henry 
Shaw to do the work, who, though not a carpenter, was sufficiently capable 
to put up such a building as specified. It stood about twenty feet south of 
the Court House recently torn down, between the latter and the fence, its west 
end being on a line with the rear of that structure. The citizens of Findlay 
did not look upon this rude log prison with much favor, and in December, 
1830, a petition was presented to the commissioners praying for its removal 
from the public square, which the board refused to comply with. The 
building was never regarded as veiy safe, and any determined man could 
escape therefrom without much effort. It was therefore customary to guard 
the Jail whenever it contained a prisoner whom it was desired to hold safely, 
the guards to receive no pay in case the prisoner escaped. This old log 
structure was used as a Jail until burned down by a prisoner confined there- 
in in the winter of 1851-52. 

December 5, 1831, the commissioners took preliminary steps toward the 
erection of a "temporary Court House. " The auditor was instructed to ad- 
vertise for sealed proposals for erecting a two-storied frame building, 24x36 
feet in size, said proposals to be handed into the auditor's office on or before 
January 14, 1832, the commissioners to meet on Monday, January 16, 1832, for 
the purpose of considering said proposals. On the latter date the contract was 
let to Wilson Vance, Frederick Henderson and Jonathan Parker, for the sum 
of $700, and March 16, 1833, the commissioners accepted the building as 
finished. The contract of Vance, Henderson & Parker did not include 
plastering, and this was let to Parlee Carlin, June 29, 1833, to be completed 
by November 1, following. This building stood on the southwest -corner of 


Main and Crawford Streets, now the site of the First National Bank, and 
was used until the erection of the brick Court House, built by John McCurdy 
on the public square. It was sold, together with the lot upon which it stood, June 
3, 1840, for $034, to Jacob Rosenberg, who fitted it up and opened the American 
House. He ran this hotel till his death in 1844, and his widow continued 
the business until her man-iage to Jacob Carr. The latter changed its name 
to the Carr House, which he carried on till 1862, when he sold the lot and 
removed the building to its present site on Main Street, immediately north 
of the Presbyterian Church, and has since occupied it as a private resi- 

In a few years the old frame became inadequate to the wants of the 
county, and the subject of a new Court House began to be agitated. On the 
6th of June, 1837, the board of commissioners "Resolved that the com- 
missioners of this county will borrow $10,000 for the purpose of erecting 
public buildings in Findlay. ' ' The auditor was ordered to give notice in 
the Courier that proposals would be received on the 4th of July, 1837, to 
furnish the county 200,000 good bricks to erect county buildings, and he 
was also instructed to furnish the board with a draft of a Court House. The 
contract was finally given to John McCurdy, an Irishman, who came to 
Findlay about this time. During the process of erection McCurdy fell fi'om 
a scafPolding and had one of his legs badly shattered. The Court House was 
so far completed in the spring of 1840 that the officials took possession of 
their respective ofiices. But it seems from the records that it was more than 
two years afterward before the structui-e was accepted by the commissioners 
as finished. Considerable trouble arose between the board and the con- 
tractor, the former twice threatening to bring suit against McCurdy' s bonds- 
men unless the building was completed according to contract. The case was 
finally settled by arbitration in June, 1843, McCurdy being ordered to pay 
the county $30 and costs. In December, 1847, the commissioners ordered 
this money, with interest, returned to McCurdy, a fair evidence that the 
latter was wronged by the board with whom he had the disagreement. 
When the Coui't House was first occupied the auditor, recorder, clerk, sheriff 
and commissioners' offices were located in the second story, and the treas- 
urer's office on the first floor; but in December, 1842, the sherifp and 
treasurer exchanged offices. The court room always occupied the balance 
of the lower story. Upon the creation of the probate judgeship, that official 
was given an office in the second story, but in the spring of 1885 the pro- 
bate judge removed to a room on Main Cross Street in the Karst Block, and 
the treasurer occupied the vacated office. The old Court House was sold to 
Richard Hemiessey for $125, February 1, 1886, and soon afterward vacated 
and torn down to make room for a more elegant structure, the officials 
removing to the Glessner Block. It was a two-story brick building about 
50x70 feet in size, surmounted by a wooden cupola, and cost about $11,000. 
A $250 bell, purchased by Frederick Henderson, by order of the commis- 
sioners, was hung in the belfiy in the spring of 1846. Four round wooden 
pillars, upholding a slightly projecting gable, gave to the front a Gi-ecian 
temple appearance. The conveniences of the building, however, were far 
behind the age, and it was high time it gave way to a better one. 

As there has been considerable feeling lately manifested on the question 
of the ownership of the public square, and as one of the main arguments 
used by the advocates in favor of city ownership was based on the claim 


that the city had fenced, graded and otherwise improved said square, it will 
not be inappropriate to briefly demonstrate from the commissioners' records 
that such improvements have always been ordered and paid for by the county. 
In December, 1841, the commissioners ordered a panel board fence, four 
and a half feet high, built around the public square. In the spring of 1845 
the board ordered and paid for the grading of the square fronting Mam 
Street; and in October, 1847, they authorized the town council of Fmdlay 
to improve the street and sidewalk in front of the Court House, for which 
the auditor was ordered to pay the city out of the county treasuiy. In June, 
1856, the commissioners appropriated $400 for the purpose of fencing the 
public square, said money to be expended under the direction of the town 
council for said purpose only. Many similar items appear on record since 
the erection of the old Court House in 1840, up to the construction of the 
last fence and sidewalk, all of which were ordered and paid foe by the 
county. The fact that some of the work was done under the supervision of 
the town officials, has, doubtless, led to the erroneous belief that the town 
paid for the improvements. 

For many years before the burning of the old log Jail, it had become al- 
most iiseless as a prison, and it was only a question of time and money when 
a better one would take its place. On the 3d of December, 1851, the audi- 
tor was instructed to advertise in the Findlay papers for sealed proposals for 
the erection of a new Jail of certain specified dimensions and finish, the con- 
tract to be let January 9, 1852. Thomas McCrary was the successful bidder, 
he to furnish all material, and complete said Jail within eighteen months from 
January 13, 1852, for the sum of $4,743. On the 10th of February, 1852, 
the commissioners purchased of Abraham AV. Schwab, lot 58, on the west 
side of Monument Park, for the sum of $175, upon which the J_ail was 
erected. It was finished according to contract, in the summer of 1853, and 
is a plain two-story brick building of very modest pretensions, yet a great 
improvement on its predecessor and was used as a Jail and sheriff's residence 
till the completion of the present handsome structure on Main Cross Street, 
immediatlely south of the old Jail, which was subsequently sold to Elizabeth 
K. Carlin for $1,200, and is now used as a boarding house. 

Though the question of purchasing a County Farm came before the elec- 
tors of the county in April, 1858, and the project was defeated, it was not till 
April 1, 1867, that the people of Hancock decided, by a majority of 1,508, 
that a home for God's poor should be purchased. Prior to that time the 
townships took care of their own poor, the county afterward reimbursing 
them, or the parties who inciu-red the expense. On the 4th of April, 1867, 
the commissioners advertised for a suitable Farm for county purposes, and 
on the 2d of May, following, 225 acres lying in Sections 10 and 15, Lib- 
erty Township, were pui'chased of George Heck, for $17,000. The Farm 
was at once opened as a County Infirmary, Mr. Heck being appointed its 
first superintendent. On the 5th of February, 1868, plans for an Infirmary 
building, prepared by Jesse Guise, were approved and accepted by the 
board, and the auditor ordered to advertise for sealed proposals for the 
erection of the same. The contract was let to John Shull, March 7, 1868, 
for the sum of $12,393, the building to be finished on or before the 1st of 
November following. It is an imposing four-storied brick structure, in- 
cluding basement, 40x75 feet in dimensions, and stands about two miles 
northwest of Findlay on the south bank of the Blanchard. A contract was 


let toD. C. Fisher & Co., May 8, 1869, to erect a two-story brick biiilding 
22x40 foet in size close to the Infirmary, " for the use of insane persons." 
This building was completed the same fall, and cost $3, 370. 50. Outbuild- 
ings of diflFerent sorts have since been put up, and the property is now rec- 
ognized as one of the best Infirmary Farms in Northwestern Ohio. For the 
past nineteen years, the unfortunate poor of the county have found here a 
healthy, comfortable home, while the institution has long been self-support- 

The next public building erected by Hancock County, was the present 
elegant Jail on Main Cross Street. On the 24th of April, 1878, the Legisla- 
ture passed * ' an act to authorize the board of coianty commissioners of Han- 
cock County to levy a tax for the purpose of building a Jail." On the 4th 
of February, 1879, lots 29 and 30, with the buildings thereon, were pur- 
chased of B. F. Kimmons for $5,000, and. February 15, the plans of J. C. 
Johnson, the architect previously engaged to prepare a design for a Jail, 
were adopted, subject to changes suggested by the board. Mr. Johnson was, 
on the same date, appointed superintendent of construction. The old fi-ame 
house and fence which stood on the site, were sold for $247, and removed 
therefi-om. The contract was let April 10, 1879, to Jacob Karst, of Defi- 
ance, Ohio, for the sum of $17,264, the building to be finished on or before 
January 1, 1880. The Jail was completed according to contract, and ac- 
cepted by the board on the 2d of January, 1880. Extras on the build- 
ing amounted to $620, while the plans and architect's commissions came to 
$863.20, making a total for ground and building of $23,747.20. Mr. Karst 
was also paid $250 for filling lot, and sundry other work done around the 
Jail, which, however, was about offset by the amount received for the old 
fence and building that originally stood upon the lot. In May, 1880, con- 
tracts were given to the Champion Iron Fence Company, of Kenton, and 
M. Louthan & Co. , of Findlay, respectively, for an iron fence and stone 
sidewalk, which ran the total expense to about $25,000; and the property is 
fully worth all it cost. The front portion of the Jail is an elegant, two- 
story brick edifice, with stone trimmings, and graced by a handsome square 
tower. In the rear of this is the jail proper, a solid, substantial, one-story 
wing, the cells being constructed of stone and iron in such a manner as 
to be regarded as invulnerable. The sheriff' s residence will compare fa- 
vorably with the finer private homes of the city, while the whole premises 
reflect great credit on the architect, builder and board of commissioners 
who conceived and carried out the project to a successful completion. 

The General Assembly passed an act, April 17, 1885, authorizing the 
commissioners of Hancock County ' ' to erect a Court House in said county, at 
a cost not to exceed $100,000;" and on the 7th of November the contract for 
the erection and enclosure of the new building was awarded to W. H. Camp- 
field, of Lima, for the sum of $71,576, his work to be completed by Novem- 
ber 1, 1887. This contract does not include the completion of the structure, 
the total cost of which is expected to exceed the amount authorized by the 
act to be expended in its erection. In the fall of 1885 ground was broken 
on the p)ublic square, and other preliminary work begun, but that' s as far 
as the enterprise progressed till the spring of 1886. From the plans of the 
architects, Frank O. Weary and George W. Kramer, adopted by the building 
committee, is gathered the following description of the new Court House : The 
architecture, in the main, is classic, though the roof is pitched, and the an- 


noyance and inconvenience of a flat roof avoided. The outside finish of 
the building will be entirely of stone, vs^ith rock face work, and highly 
trimmed with cut stone. The front windows are to be large and showy, 
the smallest having a five-foot and the largest a seven-foot opening. Each 
window has about forty-four square feet of glass or more, and ample light 
will be fiirnished in every part of the building. No wood whatever to be 
used in the construction of the edifice, so that it will be thoroughly fire- 
proof. The tower will be 130 feet high from ground to top, and 107 feet 
to the center of the clock face. It is to be finished with a dome roof. The 
tower will be built entirely of iron, and will be twenty- four feet square. 
The edifice will be 142 feet long and 82 feet wide. 

Entrance into the first floor hall fiom the front, on the east, will be 
through a stone portico supported by four polished granite columns twenty 
inches in diameter. This portico is designed as a protection for the first 
flight of steps so often left uncovered. This idea is peculiar to Mr. 
Weary' 8 Court House plan and is a marked improvement over others. The 
portico, twelve feet high, is siu-mounted by an imposing entablature, ex- 
tending up into the roof. In this is a window, 12x26 feet in size, opening 
out upon the balcony, having an archway top and extending through two 
stories. The whole effect of this is similar to the grand triumphal arch at 
Paris, built by Napoleon, and called Ai'C de Triomphe. Two small, easy 
flights of stari-s, separated by a vestibule, lead through double doors into a 
spacious hallway running through the building, intercepted by a transverse 
hallway 18 feet wide and 75 feet long. In the center will be an octagon 
rotunda 20 feet square, with a gallery up through into the dome. To the 
right of the hall, near the entrance, a door opens into the treasurer's oflice 
for the reception of city taxes, and a door from that leads into the main 
office of the same official, where taxes will generally be received. Several 
spacious places of entrance will be provided, and the room will be 24 feet 
long by 28 feet wide, so that there will not be the inconvenience of a crowd- 
ed doorway and a crowded room. Adjoining will be the money vault and 
the ti-easurer's private office, 18x15 feet in dimensions. This is about the 
size of all the private offices. Immediately adjoining this office to the west 
will be the auditor's apartments, consisting of three rooms. The main of- 
fice will be 30x35 feet in size, and will have communication with the treas- 
urer's office by means of a happily arranged sliding window. Besides the 
private office and deputy' s work room, adjoining there will be a large fire- 
proof record vault 13x28 feet in dimensions, and containing a window. To 
the south of and adjoining the auditor's vault and office will be the com- 
missioners' room, 17x24 feet in size. On the left side at the fi'ont entrance 
will be the sheriff's office, 16x18 feet in dimensions. This is connected with 
the common pleas court room on the second floor by means of a private 
stairway. At the south end of the transverse hall will be the entrance to 
the probate court room, 24x30 feet in dimensions, which, like the auditor's 
office, is to be separated from the hall by a glass screen. Adjoining on the 
east side will be the probate judge's office, while in the southeast corner 
will be the deputy' s work room and the record vault. A retiring room com- 
pletes the probate judge's suite. The southwest portion of the first floor 
will be used by the recorder, who will have a private office and record vault, 
besides a spacious room in which to transact business with the public. 
This completes the description of the first floor. 


The second floor may be reached by climbing a grand double iron staircase 
at the rear of the main hall. It is designed to have mahogany railings and a 
midway landing, and a large window will look out in the rear. In the south- 
west part of this floor, away from the din and noise of the street, will be 
the common pleas court room, in dimensions 35x40 feet. It will be fur- 
nished with amphitheater tiers of seats, and the general public may gain en- 
trance through large double doors. Back of the bar railings will be several 
private entrances for officials and those having business with the court, so 
that they need not push their way through the crowds in the court room. 
The judge's bench will be in an archway in the partition dividing the court 
room from the judge's room and a room for the law library and for attorneys' 
consultation with clients. On this floor also will be conveniently located 
apartments for grand and petit juries and waiting witnesses. These will 
be handsomely furnished, and will have cloak and water closets attached. 
The clerk' s desk in the court room is to be connected directly with the clerk' s 
suite of three offices in the front part of the second floor. In the northeast 
corner the prosecuting attorney is' to have a good- sized office and convenient 
consultation room. To the west of this and at the north end of the trans- 
verse hall there will be an office for the county school examiners. In the 
northwest corner a room of ample size has been set apart as a circuit court 
room, and immediately joining this on the south is a large room for the cir- 
cuit judges. The county teachers' examinations will be held in the circuit 
court room. It is the design, we believe, to have an elevator for use from 
the basement to the first and second floors. 

The basement will have a spacious assembly hall for conventions and pub- 
lic gatherings, with an ante-room and committee room. Besides this, there 
will be the surveyor's office, a public library room, reading, janitor's, boiler 
and work rooms, most conveniently arranged. Judging from the foregoing 
description it may be safely concluded that the new Court House, when com- 
pleted, will not only be one of the most convenient, biit also one of the 
finest public buildings in Northwestern Ohio. The progressive people of 
Hancock County can then feel a pardonable pride in their elegant Court 
House, Jail and Infirmary, as few counties of the State will be able to boast 
of their equals in design, solidity, finish and the many conveniences neces- 
sary in such institutions. 

Political Statistics. — The political complexion of Hancock County, since 
its organization in 1828, can, it is conceded, be fairly illustrated by a com- 
parison of the vote cast for the several gubernatorial candidates at each elec- 
tion during the past fifty-seven years. In the compilation of the following 
table the vote given at a few of the presidential contests has been added 
thereto, which will, perhaps, assist the reader in tracing the growth and 
changes of the different political parties in this county. 

1828 — -Vote cast for governor: Allen Trimble (National Republican), 44; 
John AV. Campbell (Democrat), 30. Total, 74. 

1830 — Vote cast for governor: Duncan Mc Arthur (National Republican), 
43; Robert Lucas (Democrat), 94. Total, 137. 

1832 — Vote cast for governor: Robert Lucas (Democrat), 260; Darius 
Lyman (Whig and Anti-Mason), 34. Total, 294. 

1832 — Vote cast for president: Andrew Jackson (Democrat), 181; 
Henry Clay (Whig), 85; William Wirt (Anti-Mason), 0. Total, 266. 

1834 — Vote cast for governor: Robert Lucas (Democrat), 371; James 
Findlay (Whig), 102. Total, 473. 



1836-_Vote cast for governor: Eli Baldwin (Democrat), 525; Joseph 
Vance (Whig), 37G. Total, 901. 

1836— Vote cast for president: Martin Van Buren (Democrat), ^01; 
William Henry Harrison (Whig), 464. Total, 1,165. ,oof t u 

1838_Vote cast for governor: W'ilson Shannon (Democrat), 829; Joseph 
Vance (Whig), 505. Total, 1,334. 

1840— Vote cast for governor: Wilson Shannon (Democrat), i,UZ4:; 
Thomas Corwin (W'hig), 642. Total, 1,666. 

1842 Vote for governor: W^ilson Shannon (Democrat), 986; Thomas 

Corwin (Whig), 616; Leicester King (Abolition or Free Soil), 4. Total, 

1844— Vote cast for governor: David Tod (Democrat), 1,214; Mordecai 
Bartley (Whig), 870; Leicester King (Abolition or Free Soil), 3. Total, 
2 087 

1846— Vote cast for governor: David Tod (Democrat), 1,149; William 
Bebb (Whig), 751; Samuel Lewis (Abolition or Free Soil), 6. Total, 1,906. 

1848— Vote cast for governor: John B. Weller (Democrat), 1,320; Sea- 
bury Ford (W^hig), 868. Total, 2,188. 

1850— Vote cast for governor: Reuben Wood (Democrat), 1,299; Will- 
iam Johnston (Whig), 707 ; Edward Smith (Abolition or Free Soil) 0. Total, 

1851— Vote cast for governor: Reuben Wood (Democrat), 1,417; Sam- 
uel F. Vinton (Whig), 742; Samuel Lewis (Abolition or Free Soil), 7. 
Total, 2,166. 

1853— Vote cast for governor: William Medill (Democrat), 1,664; Nel- 
son BaiTere (W^hig), 576; Samuel Lewis (Abolition or Free Soil), 55. To- 

'1855— Vote cast for governor: William Medill (Democrat), 1,329; Sal- 
mon P. Chase (Republican), 1,238; Allen Trimble (American or Know- 
nothing), 30. Total, 2,597. x -, o«o 

1857— Vote cast for governor: Henry B. Payne (Democrat), 1,868; 
Salmon P. Chase (Republican), 1,611; Philip Van Trump (American or 
Know-nothing), 8. Total, 3,487. 

1859— Vote cast for governor: Rufus P. Ranney (Democrat), 1,79b; 
William Dennison (Republican), 1,674; total, 3,470. 

I860— Vote cast for president: Stephen A. Douglas (Regular Democrat), 
2,301; Abraham Lincoln (Republican), 2,135; John C. Breckinridge (Bolt- 
ing Democrat), 24; John Bell (American or Union), 16; total, 4,476. 

1861 — Vote cast for governor: Hugh J. Jewett (Democrat), 1,817; David 
Tod (Republican), 1,772. Total, 3,589. 

1863— Vote cast for governor: Clement L. Vallandigham (Democrat), 
2,277; JohnBrough (Republican), 2,296. Total, 4,573. 

1865— Vote cast for governor: George W. Morgan (Democrat), 2,228 
Jacob D. Cox (Republican), 2,120. Total, 4,348. 

1867— Vote cast for governor: Allen G. Thurman (Democrat), 2,509 
Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican), 2,172. Total, 4,681. 

1868— Vote cast for president: Horatio Seymour (Democrat), 2,528 
"Ulysses S. Grant (Republican), 2,279. Total, 4,807. 

1869— Vote cast for governor: George H. Pendleton (Democrat), 2,483 
Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican), 1,946. Total, 4,429. 

1871— Vote cast for governor: George W'. McCook (Democrat), 2,401 


Edward F. Noyes (Republican), 2,218; Gideon T. Stewart (Prohibition), 0. 
Total, 4,619. 

1872 — Vote cast for president: Horace Greeley (Liberal Republican and 
Democrat), 2,449; Ulysses S. Grant (Republican), 2,811; James Black 
(Greenback), 3; Charles O'Connor (Independent Democrat), 0. Total, 

1873 — Vote cast for governor: William Allen (Democrat), 2,259; Edward 
F. Noyes (Republican), 1,794; Gideon T. Stewart (Prohibition), 39; Isaac 
Collins (Liberal Republican), 53. Total, 4, 145. 

1875 — Vote cast for governor: William Allen (Democrat), 2,833; Ruth- 
erford B. Hayes (Republican), 2,559; Jay Odell (Prohibition), not given in 
State report. Total vote, 5,457. 

1876 — ^Vote cast for president: Samuel J. Tilden (Democrat), 3,215 
Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican), 2,811; G. Clay Smith (Prohibition), 8 
Peter Cooper (Greenback), 4. Total, 6,038. 

1877 — Vote cast for governor: Richard M. Bishop (Democrat), 2,854 
William H. West (Republican), 2,366; Henry A. Thompson (Prohibition) 
39; Stephen Johnson (Greenback), 14. Total, 5,273. 

1879 — Vote cast for governor: Thomas Ewing (Democrat), 3,308 
Charles Foster (Republican), 2,911; Gideon T. Stewart (Prohibition), 13 
A. Sanders Piatt (Greenback), 47. Total, 6,279. 

1880 — Vote cast for president: Winfield S. Hancock (Democrat), 3,350 
James A. Garfield (Republican), 3,124; James B. Weaver (Greenback), 33 
Neal Dow (Prohibition), 9. Total, 6,516. 

1881 — Vote cast for governor: John W. Bookwalter (Democrat), 2,985 
Charles Foster (Republican), 2,716; Abraham R. Ludlow (Prohibition) 
197; John Seitz (Greenback), 29. Total, 5,927. 

1883 — Vote cast for governor: George Hoadly (Democrat), 3,524 
Joseph B. Foraker (Republican), 3,098; Ferdinand Schumacher (Prohibi- 
tion), 42; Charles Jenkins (Greenback), 28. Total, 6,692. 

1884 — Vote cast for president: Grover Cleveland (Democrat), 3,497; 
James G. Blaine (Republican), 3,245; Benjamin F. Butler (Greenback 
Labor Reform), 32; John P. St. John (Prohibition), 84. Total, 6,858. 

1885 — Vote cast for governor: George Hoadly (Democrat), 3,283; 
Joseph B. Foraker (Republican), 2,800; Adna B. Leonard (Prohibition), 
388; John W. Northrop (Greenback Labor Reform), 24. Total, 6,495. 

The county has been carried by the Democratic party at "every presiden- 
tial and gubernatorial election since its organization, except those for gov- 
ernor in 1828 and 1863. It will thus be seen that Hancock County has 
always been a stronghold of Democracy, though the majorities given for the 
candidates of that party have often been quite small. 



The Judiciary— Organization of the Court of Common Pleas in Ohio 
AND Its Subsequent Changes— Pioneer Courts of Hancock County- 
Sessions Held at Findlay in 1828. 1829 and 1830— The Juries Impaneled 
AND Principal Business Transacted During Those Years— Items of 
Interest Gathered from the Court Journals— The Bench and Bar- 
Common Pleas Judges— Associate Judges— Prosecuting Attorneys 
—Pioneer Visiting Laavyers— Reminiscences of Pioneer Practice in 


Lawyers Who Located in Findlay— Brief Sketches of Resident 
Attorneys Who Practiced in Hancock County Prior to 1860— Pres- 
ent Bar of the County. 

AS people often fail to agree respecting their rights and duties, and as 
they sometimes violate their agreements, and even disobey those rules 
and regulations prescribed for their conduct, it is necessary that tribunals 
should be provided to administer justice, to determine and declare the rights 
of disagreeing parties, to investigate and decide whether the laws are 
observed or violated, and to pronounce judgment according to law and the 
just deserts of the citizen. These determinations are called judicial. Upon 
the organization of the Northwest Territory, courts were established and 
laws promulgated for its proper government. The court of common pleas 
was one of the first to take shape, being established by the governor and the 
three district judges of the Territory, August 23, 1788. This court was first 
composed of not less than three nor more than five justices, appointed by 
the governor in each county, and known as the ' 'County Court of Common 
Pleas;" but in 1790, the number of justices was increased to not less than 
three, and not more than seven in each county. The regular sessions of 
this court were, by the same act, increased from two to four terms annually. 
When Ohio was admitted into the Union, its judiciary was reorganized. 
The State was divided into circuits, for each of which a judge, who had to 
be a lawyer in good standing, was elected by the General Assembly for the 
term of seven years. Three associate judges were chosen in each county by 
the same body, and for the same length of service, who were intelligent citi- 
zens, usually farmers or business men, many of whom, however, knew very little 
about law. The president judge, with the associates, composed the court of 
common pleas of each county, and thus this court remained until the re-organ- 
ization of the judiciary under the constitution of 1851. That instrument 
provided for the division of the State into judicial districts, and each dis- 
trict into subdivisions. It abolished the office of associate judge, and di- 
rected that in each subdivision one judge of the court of common pleas, who 
had to be a resident thereof, should be elected every five years by the 
qualified electors in said subdivision, but the General Assembly reserved the 
power to increase the number of judges, and change the territory composing 
each subdivision whenever such a course became necessary. 

Prior to the organization of Hancock County, all of its judicial business, 
excepting that transacted by its justices of the peace, was done at the county 



seat of Wood County, to which Hancock was attached until Mai'ch 1, 1828. 
Hon. Ebenezer Lane was then the president judge of this circuit, and the 
same Legishiture that passed the act organizing this county also elected 
Abraham HufP, Robert McKinnis and Ebenezer Wilson, associate judges of 
said county. The first meeting of the court of common pleas of Hancock 
County was held, March 14, 1828, in the old log schoolhouse erected the 
previous year, near the site of the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western 
Railroad depot. The three associates were present and composed the court, 
its only business being the appointment of Wilson Vance as clerk pro tern, of 
said court. 

The first regular term of court was opened in the same building, which 
was used until the erection of the first Court House, June 8, 1828, Hons. 
Abraham Huff, Robert McKinnis and Ebenezer *Wilson on the bench ; Don 
Alonzo Hamlin, sheriff; Wilson Vance, clerk; and Anthony Casad, of Belle- 
fontaine, prosecuting attorney. The session lasted only a part of one day. 
Elijah T. Davis was appointed administrator of the estate of Thomas Wilson, 
deceased, with Joshua Hedges and Squire Carlin as securities in the sum 
of $400. Joshua Hedges, Jacob Poe and Charles McKinnis were appointed 
appraisers of said estate. Mr. Wilson was a pioneer of Liberty Township, 
and a brother of Judge Wilson, then upon the bench. The citizens of the 
newly erected townships of Amanda and Welfare (now Delaware), were 
ordered to elect a justice of the peace for their respective townships. The 
court then appointed Wilson Vance recorder of Hancock County for the 
term of seven years, after which it adjourned. 

The second term began November 19, 1828, the same judges and officers 
forming the personnel of the court as in the previous sessions. The follow- 
ing grand jury was impaneled: Joseph DeWitt, John P. Hamilton, Jacob 
Poe, Asa Lake, Charles McKinnis, Reuben Hale, Mordecai Hammond, Will- 
iam Wade, John Boyd, Henry George, William Moreland, James McKinnis, 
William Taylor, Edwin S. Jones and John C. Wickham. The court 
appointed "V\'illiam Taylor foreman of the panel. A venire for a petit jury 
was also retm-ned by the sheriflF at this session, but only eight of the panel 
answered to their names, viz. : John Beard, Joseph Johnson, John Huff, 
William Moreland, Jr., John Tullis, John J. Hendricks, Thomas Thomp- 
son and James Peltier; and it appearing that there was no business for a 
petit jury at this term the jui'ors present were discharged from further 
attendance. Rachel Wilson, widow of Thomas Wilson, was appointed 
guardian of her two childi-en, Rebecca and Jane, with Charles McKinnis 
and Jacob Poe as sureties in the sum of $800. The grand jury finding no 
business to transact was dismissed by the court. A license to ' ' vend mer- 
chandise" at his residence in Findlay until April 1, 1829, was granted to 
William Taylor upon the payment of $2. 25. The same gentleman was 
appointed surveyor of Hancock County, and William Hackney, William 
Taylor and Mordecai Hammond examiners of common schools. As an illus- 
tration of the remuneration county officers then received for their services, 
the following items fi-om the minutes of this term of court will suffice: 
"Ordered by the court that there be allowed to the sheriff of this county 
for extra services the sum of $15, to be paid one-half at each term of this 
court. Ordered by the court that there be allowed to Don Alonzo Hamlin 
the sum of $10 for his extra services as sheriff of this county for the pres- 
ent year. Ordered by the court that there be allowed to the clerk of this 


court the sum of $10 each year, to be paid one-half at each term of this 
court. ' ' This closed the business of the second regular session. 

A special term of court was commenced March 19, 1829, for the purpose 
of granting letters of administration on the estate of John Patterson 
(deceased), a brother of Mrs. William Taylor; all of the associates were on 
the bench, and William Taylor was appointed administrator of said estate, 
with Job Chamberlin and John Boyd as sui-eties in the sum of $1,400; 
Squire Carlin, William Hackney and Joshua Hedges were appointed by the 
court to appraise the property. 

The next session began April 24, 1829, and lasted two days. The same 
judges and officers of the preceding terms were present excej)t the sheriff; 
John C. Wickham having been chosen to succeed Don Alonzo Hamlin, at 
the previous October election. The following grand jurors were impaneled 
at this term: Robert Long, Amos Beard, Thomas Cole, John Shoemaker, 
Reuben W. Hamlin, Samuel Sager, William J. Greer, Robert Elder, John 
Hunter, Isaac Johnson, Nathan Frakes, Reuben Hale, Jacob Foster, William 
Moreland, Jr. , and Nathan Williams. William J, Greer was appointed foreman. 
The only indictment found at this term was against Thomas Slight, charging 
him with petit larceny. William Taylor was granted a license for one year 
to keep a tavern at his house in Findlay, for which he was charged $5. The 
court appointed Anthony Casad, prosecutor for one year, and agreed to pay 
him the sum of $40 for his services. What would our present prosecuting 
attorneys think of such a salary ? On the second day of the session, the follow- 
ing petit jury was impaneled: Van R. Hancock, Joshua Hedges, JohnElder^ 
Selden Blodget, Sampson Dildine, James McKinuis, William De Witt, 
Josiah Elder, Thomas F. Johnston, Asa M. Lake, Asa Lake and Matthew 
Reighly. Thomas Slight was tried by this jury, and found guilty of petit 
larceny as charged in the indictment. His counsel made a motion for a new 
trial, which was granted by the court. Bleuford Hamilton and Eli Powell 
were the principal prosecuting witnesses. In April, 1830, the case against 
Mr. Slight was dismissed by the court at the request of the prosecuting 
attorney, who claimed there was not sufficient evidence to sustain the charge.. 
This closed the business of the term, and "the court adjourned without 

On the 7th of November, 1829, the fourth regular term of the common 
pleas was held at Findlay, with the same judges and officers as the previous 
term. The grand jurors of this session were William Moreland, Jr. , George 
Flenner, Squire Carlin, Asa Lake, Jacob Foster, John Bashore, John Hun- 
ter, Edwin S. Jones, John Boyd, Don Alonzo Hamlin, Asher Wickham, 
Joshua Powell, Isaac Johnson, Joseph A. Sargent and Bass Rawson. This 
jury returned bills of indictment against Charles, Philip and James McKin- 
nis for assault and battery, after which it was discharged. Letters of 
administration were granted to Sarah Beard and John J. Hancock on the 
estate of John Beard, deceased, of Amanda Township, John P. Hamilton 
and Thomas F. Johnston being sureties in the sum of $300. Andrew Robb, 
David Egbert and Thomas Cole were appointed appraisers of said property. 
The assault and battery cases of Charles and Philip McKinnis were contin- 
ued till the next term of court; but that against their brother James was at 
once tried before the following jury : Andrew Robb, Warren Hancock, Peter 
George, Minor T. Wickham, Simeon Ransbottom, John Long, John J. Hen- 
dricks, Mordecai Hammond, Van R. Hancock, William De Witt, Job Cham- 


berlin and Thomas Slight. The jury failed to agree, and the case was then 
continued. The case in debt of Henry McWhorter vs. Samuel Sargent 
and Abraham Huff; the larceny suit of the State of Ohio vs. Thomas Slight; 
and the petition to sell land of William Taylor, administrator of the estate 
of John Patterson, deceased, vs. Eliza Patterson and heirs, were all con- 
tinued until the succeeding term of court. 

The next term was opened April 30, 183.0, with Hon. Ebenezer Lane, 
president judge, and Robert McKinnis and Ebenezer Wilson, associate 
judges, on the bench. This was the first session of court held in Hancock 
County at which the president judge was present. The following grand 
juiy was impaneled: Adam Woodruff, Joseph Johnson, Alfred Hampton, 
George Shaw, Joseph A. Sargent, Mordecai Hammond, Charles McKinnis, 
Simeon Ransbottom, Sampson Dildine, John George Flenner, Edwin S. J ones, 
Peter George, William J. Greer, Jacob Baker and John J. Hendi-icks. Mor- 
Sfecai Hammond was appointed foreman of the jmy, and Amos Beard, Na- 
than Williams, James Gibson, Reuben W. Hamlin and Peter Shaw, who 
had been summoned with the other jurors, were designated as talesmen. 
The pending petition to sell land of W^illiam Taylor, administrator of John 
Patterson, was granted at this term. The will of John W^olford, deceased, 
of Delaware Township, was admitted to probate, and Absalom W. W^olford, 
who was named in said will as executor thereof, recognized as such by the 
court. Letters of administration were granted to Elizabeth Miller and 
W^illiam McCloud, on the estate of Isaac Miller, deceased, whose cabin 
stood near the site of Van Buren. John P. Hamilton and Nathan Frakes 
were sureties for the administrators in the sum of $600; and William Tay- 
lor, Squire Carlin and Jacob Foster appraisers of said estate. 

The two damage suits of John P. Hamilton against Charles and Philip 
McKinnis, for assault and battery (which trouble resulted from the erection 
of Old Town Township, and is fully spoken of in the chapter on Liberty 
Township) were tried at this session. That of Charles came before the fol- 
lowing jury: Jacob Elder, Don Alonzo Hamlin, Robert L. Strother, Joseph 
Egbert, Joshua Powell, Nathan W^illiams, William J. Greer, John J. Hen- 
dricks, Mordecai Hammond, JPeterjGreorge, Thomas Thompson and William 
Moreland, who found the defendant guilty, and assessed the damages at 
$75 and plaintiff's costs of suit. The trial of his brother Philip came next, 
the following citizens composing the jury: Jacob Baker, Alfred Hampton, 
Thomas Slight, Absalom W. W^olford, Willis Ward, James Gibson, John 
Shoemaker, Matthew Reighly, H. B. Strother, Aquilla Gilbert, Joseph 
Johnson and Reuben W. Hamlin. He, too, was found guilty as charged, and 
the damages fixed at $30 and costs. When these suits were decided the in- 
dictment of the State still remained against the McKinnis brothers. Both 
pleaded guilty of assault and battery, asked for "the mercy of the court," 
and were each fined $1 and cost of prosecution. Thus ended one of the 
most prominent jDioneer events in the annals of the courts of Hancock 
County, the circumstances connected therewith being yet vividly remembered 
by many surviving early settlers. 

Squire Carlin was then carrying on a general store on the corner where 
he still resides, and was granted a grocery license at this term for one year, 
upon paying into the county treasury the sum of $10. An election was 
ordered to be held at the house of Aquilla Gilbert, in Jackson Township, on 
the last Saturday in June, 1830, for the piu'pose of electing two justices of 


the peace. The will of Eli Sargent, deceased, was admitted to probate, and 
Nancy Sargent recognized as executrix thereof. The case of Henry Mc- 
Whorter vs. Samuel Sargent and Abraham Huflf, was decided in favor of 
the plaintiff, who recovered $237.83, the amount of the debt, and damages 
assessed at one cent. The suit of Joshua Hedges and others vs. the Commis- 
sioners of Hancock County, brought to set aside the proceedings of that 
board in the erection of Old Town Township, was continued, and the court 
ordered an election for one justice of the peace for said township, to be 
held at the house of Ebenezer Wilson, on the last Saturday of June, 1830. 

The three associate judges held a special term of court, October 2, 1830, 
when the will of Andrew Kobb, a pioneer of Amanda Township, was ad- 
mitted to probate, and letters of administration granted to his widow, 
Margaret Eobb, and Aquilla Gilbert, the latter of whom is yet a resident of 
that township. 

The last term of the pioneer courts of which any special cognizance will 
be taken in this chapter, was held November 1, 1830, with Judge Lane and 
the three associates — Huff, McKinnis and Wilson being on the " wool- 
sack." The grand jurors of this session were as follows: William Hack- 
ney, John Dukes, John Fishel, Philip McKinnis, William Wolford, John 
Rose, Richard Dukes, Minor T. Wickham, Godfrey Wolford, Jacob Foster, 
William L. Henderson, Alfred Pm-cell, James McKinnis, Selden Blodget 
and Joseph Johnson. This jury indicted Nathan Frakes, one of the early- 
time " bruisers, " for assault and battery on Henry Shaw, a pioneer of 
Findlay, but the prosecuting witness not appearing in court when the case 
was called the indictment was quashed. The suit against the commission- 
ers by Joshua Hedges and others was decided at this sitting, the proceed- 
ings of the board in the erection and organization of Old Town Township 
being reversed and annulled. A grocery license for one year was granted 
to John Bashore, upon the payment of $10. These licenses were granted 
annually, and always included the sale of whisky — one of the principal 
commodities of pioneer groceries and taverns, and without the sale of which 
few of their proprietors could have accumulated the handsome competen- 
cies left at their decease. W^illiam Taylor, William L. Henderson, Bass 
Rawson, Thomas F. Johnston and Robert L. Strother were appointed ex- 
aminers of common schools for the term of two years. The court then 
ordered that the sheriiJ and clerk be allowed the sum of $10 each per an- 
num, for extra services, to be paid half yearly, after which the session was 
"adjourned without day." The first three years of the journal of the court 
of common pleas of Hancock County have now been run through, giving the 
court items and lists of grand and petit jurors at each term. The only im- 
portance attached thereto is because these events belong to pioneer days — 
that period about which so much genuine interest centers. The principal 
reason for giving the names of the jurors is that they were pioneers — a part 
of the brave vanguard who laid the foundation of the county's present pros- 
perity — and to perpetuate a record of the men who figured in the first judi- 
cial affairs of the county. 

The first judge of the court of common pleas in this circuit, after the or- 
ganization of Hancock County, was Hon. Ebenezer Lane, who served up to 
the close of 1830. His successors under the old constitution have been as 
follows: David Higgins, 1831-37; Ozias Bowen, 1838; Emerv D. Potter, 
1839-12; Myi-on H. Tilden, 1843-14; Patrick G. Goode, 1845-51. Since 


the adoption of the constitution of 1851, the common pleas judges of the 
subdivision to which Hancock County belonged have been as follows: Law- 
rence W. Hall, Februaiy, 1852. to February, 1857; Machias C. Whiteley, 
February, 1857, to February, 1867; George E. Seney (additional judge), 
February, 1858, to February, 1863; Chester R. Mott, February, 1867, to 
February, 1872; James Pillars (additional judge). May, 1868, to May, 1878; 
Abner M. Jackson (additional judge), February, 1872, resigned in the sum- 
mer of 1874, and Thomas Beer, appointed August 15, 1874, and elected in 
October, 1874, to serve the unexpired term of Judge Jackson up to Febru- 
ary, 1877 (Judge Beer was re-elected in October, 1876, for a full term, but 
the subdivision was soon afterward changed, Crawford County, wherein he 
lived, becoming a part of another subdivision); Henry H. Dodge, May, 
1878, second term expires in May, 1888; John McCauley (additional judge), 
February, 1880, resigned in April, 1883, to accept an appointment on the 
supreme court commission, and Luther M. Strong appointed to fill vacancy 
until the following October election, when George F. Pendleton was chosen 
to serve the unexpired term of Judge McCauley, up to February, 1885. 
Judge Pendleton waa re-elected as his own successor in October, 1884, and 
began his regular term in February, 1885, which expires in February, 
1890. Judges Dodge and Pendleton are now the judges of this subdivision. 

The associate judges of Hancock County fi'om its organization up to the 
abolition of the office were as follows: Abraham Huff, March, 1828, to 
March, 1835; Robert McKinnis, March, 1828, to March, 1835; Ebenezer 
Wilson, March, 1828, to March, 1842; Robert L. Strother, March, 1835, 
to March, 1842; John W. Baldwin, March, 1835, resigned in July, 1835; 
Major Bright, appointed in August, 1835, served till March, 1836; William 
Roller, March, 1836, to March, 1849; John Ewing, March, 1842, to March, 
1849; Michael Price, March, 1849, to 'March, 1851; John Cooper, March, 
1849, to March, 1852; Gamaliel C. Barnd, March, 1849, to March, 1852; 
Levi Sampson, March, 1851, to March, 1852. 

The prosecuting attorneys since the organization of the county have 
been as follows: Anthony Casad, of Bellefontaine, June, 1828, resigned in 
September, 1832; Edson Goit, appointed in September, 1832, served till 
May, 1836; Arnold F. Merriam, appointed in June, 1836, resigned April 4, 
1837; Edson Goit, appointed April 4, 1837, resigned October 2, 1838; Ja- 
cob Barnd, appointed October 2, 1838, served till January, 1839; Jude 
Hall, Janaary, 1839, to January, 1843; Abel F. Parker, January, 1843, to 
January, 1845; William M. Patterson, January, 1845, to January, 1847; 
Abel F. Parker, January, 1847, resigned April 5, 1849, while serving his 
third term; John E. Rosette, appointed April 5, 1849, and served by elec- 
tion to January, 1854; William Gribben, January, 1854, to Januaiy, 1858; 
Edson Goit, January, 1858, to January, 1862; James A. Bope, January, 
1862, went into the army and resigned in October, 1862; Henry Brown, 
appointed November 10, 1862, served by election to January, 1868; Will- 
iam H. Anderson, January, 1868, to January, 1872; George F. Pendleton, 
January, 1872, to January, 1876; Henry Brown, January, 1876, to Janu- 
ary, 1880; Aaron B. Shafer, January, 1880, to January, 1885; Henry 
Brown, January, 1885, term expires in Jamiary, 1888. 

The first visiting lawyers who practiced at this bar were Anthony Casad, 
of Bellefontaine, Andi-ew Coffinberry, of Mansfield, and afterward of Per- 
rysburg, Rodolphus Dickinson, of Lower Sandusky (now Fremont), James 


H. Godman, of Marion; Curtis Bates, of Maumee City and Defiance; Abel 
Rawson, of Tiffin; and John M. May, of Mansfield and Maumee City. 
Most of these attorneys attended court at Findlay before the village pos- 
sessed a single member of the profession, and for years afterward some of 
them were retained in nearly every important case. Those early practition- 
ers were generally men of marked ability in their profession, and belonged 
to that sound and thorough class of thinkers who have done so much to 
Duild up the jurisprudence of the State, and who, by reason of the limited 
facilities afforded by reports and precedents, were compelled to search out 
by their own thinking and investigation the true principles of the law. In 
the course of time, as the county advanced in population and wealth, the 
local practice of these itinerants fell into the possession of the few resident 
attorneys who had located in Findlay, and the visits of the circuit-riding 
lawyers became less frequent, as they only appeared occasionally in some im- 
portant lawsuit. 

As the race of hardy, adventurous, circuit-riding lawyers who organized 
the courts of Northwestern Ohio have passed away forever, it may be inter- 
esting to the younger members of the bar to contrast the hardships and per- 
ils of the past with the ease and secimty of the present. Fifty-five years 
ago Judge David Higgins held his first term of coiu-t in Findlay. Rain 
fell in torrents for several successive days. The bridgeless streams swelled 
over their banks, and it became impossible to proceed overland to Defiance 
to hold court at the appointed time. But the indomitable Judge Higgins, 
and the hard-headed old stagers who traveled his judicial district, were 
equal to the occasion. They hired a man to take their horses through the 
Black Swamp to Peri-ysbiu-g, purchased a pirogue, which they appropriately 
named the ' ' Jurisprudence, ' ' freighted it with their saddles, bridles and 
baggage, and floated down the Blanchard and Auglaize Rivers to Defiance, 
where they held the term, then re- embarked and floated down the Maumee 
to ' Perry sburg. From an account of the trip written by Judge Hii:gins in 
1872, for Knapp's "History of the Maumee Valley," we take the following 
extract: "Our company consisted of Rodolphus Dickinson, John C. Spink, 
Count Cofiinberry, myself and a countryman whose name I forget. The 
voyage was a dismal one to Defiance, through an unsettled wilderness of 
some sixty miles. Its loneliness was only broken by the intervening Indian 
settlement at Ottawa village, where we were hailed and cheered lustily by 
the ' Tawa Indians, as would be a foreign war-ship in the port of New York. 
From Defiance we descended the Maumee to Perrysburg, where we found 
all well. In descending the Maumee, we came near running into the rap- 
ids, where we should probably have been swamped had we not been hailed 
from the shore and warned of oiir danger. ' ' 

In a letter to the writer, Hon. James M. Cofiinberry, of Cleveland, 
gives the following reminiscences of pioneer law practice in Northwestern 
Ohio: "In May, 1840," says Judge Cofiinberry, "Judge Potter held his 
first term for Putnam County. The Judge, with two or three lawyers, 
came into Kalida, the then county seat, from Defiance, where he had been 
holding court. One or two lawyers came over from Lima and two fi'om 
Findlay. One of the Findlay attorneys, John H. Morrisson, a slender, 
one-armed man, combining the physical strength of a girl with the energy 
of a buzz-saw, was mounted on an unbroken three-year-old colt, having left 
his own horse disabled by the way. The other, Edson Groit, put in an ap- 


pearance on foot, carrying his saddle on his shoulders, his horse having- 
broken a leg in a floating corduroy bridge near the village. Every man had 
been compelled to swim one or more streams to reach the county seat, and 
all were thoroughly saturated with water and covered with mud. The only 
liotel— a good one for the time and place — was adequate for the accommo- 
dation of all who came. His honor, with three of the brethren of his 
choice, had one little room to themselves. The rest of us lawyers, grand 
and petit jurors, suitors, witnesses and spectators, slept well on the rude 
beds which covered the floors. The table groaned with its weight of wild 
turkey, venison, mutton, fish, wild honey and butter. Everybody washed 
in what was called 'the county wash-bowl,' and dried on the 'county 
towel. ' A barrel of new corn whisky on tap stood invitingly in one corner 
of the dining-room, with a tin cup under the faucet, so that whosoever 
would could drink without money and without price. And yet complaints 
were made of the exorbitant charge of $1 per day for all this luxury, the 
care and feed of oiu* horses included. " 

Edson Goit was the first resident lawyer of Findlay. He was a native 
of Oswego Co., N. Y., born October 17, 1808. When Edson was quite small 
his father died, but, through improving every opportunity during his boy- 
hood years, he managed to obtain a fair education, and taught school ere 
reaching his majority. In 1827 he left his early home and traveled across 
Ohio until arriving "at the village of Fremont. Here he halted, and subse- 
quently taught school in Fremont and Tiffin. During this period Mr. 
Goit read law under Rodolphus, Dickinson, of Fremont, and Abel Rawson,of 
Tiffin, and July 12, 1832, was admitted to practice. Learning that Find- 
lay, the then new county seat of Hancock County, had no lawyer, he at 
once concluded to cast his fortunes with that village. Traveling on foot 
from Tiffin, he reached Findlay on the third day of his journey, and went 
to reside in the home of Dr. L. Q. Rawson, a practicing physician of the 
village. This was in August, 1832, and in September he was appointed 
prosecuting attorney, which position he held until May, 1836. The office 
of prosecutor, however, paid a very small salary during this period of the 
county's history, and for several months after settling in Findlay, Mr. Goit 
patiently waited for clients that never came. Discouraged at the poor oiit- 
look he at last made up his mind to leave the town, but ere carrying out his 
intention the tide turned, he was engaged to teach a school, and was thus 
guaranteed sufficient to pay his board. Clients soon began to consult him, 
hope took the place of despondency, and he gave up the idea of leaving 
Findlay. While boarding at the tavern of William Taylor, in 1835, he 
married Miss Jane Patterson, a sister of Mrs. Taylor, with whom she was 
living. In May, 1836, Mr. Goit was appointed auditor, vice John C. Shan- 
non, deceased, and served till March, 1837. In AjDril, 1837, he was again 
appointed prosecuting attorney, but resigned the office in October, 1838. 
The same month he was elected treasurer, and filled that office two succes- 
sive terms. He was now on the high road to prosperity, and besides attend- 
ing to the duties of his profession launched out boldly into other pursuits. 
He accumulated a large amount of land, and engaged extensively in mer- 
cantile business in Hancock, Allen and Putnam Counties. He, however, 
got "too many irons in the fire;" his business was too complex for judicious 
management, and his large landed interests finally became an incumbrance 
and proved his financial downfall. From January, 1858, to January, 1862, 


u , 



he again filled the office of prosecuting attorney, and this closed his official 
career. Mr. Goit possessed unbounded energy, and though a fair lawj'^er 
did not devote sufficient attention to his profession to keep up with the 
times. He was a man of fine personal appearance and dignified carriage, 
and was regarded as a very strong jury lawyer. Though he finally lost the 
fruits of a lifetime of persevering industry, he did not, however, "fail, " a& 
that term is commonly understood, but paid his creditors to the last farth- 
ing, no man losing a cent by him, and his every promise being faithfully 
redeemed. Such was his sterling honesty, that his principal solace at the 
hour of death was the fact that he owed no man a dollar. His first wife died 
in the spring of 1863, leaving a family of three sons and one daughter. 
(One of the sons was subsequently killed in the Rebellion, the other two re- 
side in Wood County, and the daughter in Michigan. ) Mr. Goit was afterward 
married to Mrs. Sarah A. McConnell, of Van Buren, and in the fall of 1867 
removed to Bowling Green, Wood Co., Ohio, where he died May 29, 1880. 
Two daughters were born of the second marriage, both of whom are dead, 
but his widow is still a resident of Bowling Green. No man has ever lived 
in Findlay who is more kindly remembered than Edson Goit. He was 
charitable to a fault, and every worthy public enterprise found in him a 
warm fi'iend and generous supporter. 

Arnold F. Merriam was the second lawyer to locate in Findlay. He 
was born in Brandon, Rutland Co., Vt., December 17, 1811, and was there 
educated and began the study of law. In early manhood he removed to 
Zanesville, Ohio, where he completed his law studies and was admitted to 
practice. He soon afterward started for Vinton County, where he intended 
to locate, but during his journey met Wilson Vance, who induced him to 
change his mind and come to Findlay. He arrived here in the spring of 
1885, and entered into partnership with Edson Goit. In June, 1836, he 
was appointed prosecuting attorney, which office he filled till April, 1837, 
when he resigned. On the 27th of May, 1837, he married Miss Sarah A. 
Baldwin, sister of Dr. William Baldwin, who bore him one son and two 
daughters. In January, 1838, Mr. Merriam started the Hancock Repub- 
lican, the first Whig paper published in the county, which he published about 
a year. He then removed to Mansfield, Ohio, sold the press, and subse- 
quently went to Kentucky, where he died in July, 1844. His widow re- 
turned with her family to Findlay, subsequently married Judge Robert L. 
Strother, and is still a resident of Findlay. Though Mr. Merriam followed 
his profession about four years in this county, he left Findlay at such an 
early day that little is remembered of him except by his immediate fi-iends. 

John H. Morrison, the next resident lawyer, is one of the best known 
members of the pioneer bar. He was born in Uniontown, Penn. , in 1802, 
but removed when quite young, to Perry County, Ohio, where at the age of 
fifteen he lost his right arm by an accident. Young Morrison received a 
good common school education, read law in the office of Philemon Beecher, 
of Lancaster, Ohio, began practice in Biicyrus, and afterward filled the 
offices of prosecuting attorney and treasurer of Crawford County. In the 
fall of 1836 he located in Findlay, and soon became well known through- 
out Northwestern Ohio. Mr. Morrison was talented, blunt and fearless to a 
remarkable degree, possessed untiring energy, and was an indefatigable 
worker in the interests of his clients. He was very eccentric, and many 
amusing anecdotes are told by the older members of the bar to illustrate 


his marked peculiarities. Judge M. C. Whiteley says that during a certain 
term of court held by Judge Goode, at Findlay, Mr. Morrison had a case in 
which he manifested much interest, and after the evidence had closed he 
felt that the cause of his client was lost. Feeling somewhat irritated, he 
began his address to the court and jury in the following blunt manner: 
"May it please the court; by the perjury of witnesses, the ignorance of the 
jury and the corruption of the court, I expect to be beaten in this case." 
The Judge, very much surprised, turned to the counsel and sharply inquired: 
''What is that you say, Mr. Morrison?" Then the latter promptly replied, 
' 'That' s all I have to say on that point, ' ' and went on with his address. At 
another time, says the same authority, one of his clients made application to 
the court for a license, and Judge Goode announced that the application was 
refused. Considerably excited Mr. Morrison arose and addressed the 
associates as follows: "Judge Ewing, is that your decision?" "Yes." 
' 'Judge Roller, do you concur in that decision ?' ' ' 'Yes. ' ' He was about 
putting the same question to Judge Hammond, when Judge Goode, very 
much surprised at the proceeding said, "Mr. Morrison, what are you about ? 
What are you doing ?' ' ' 'Why, I' m polling the court, your honor. ' ' Mr. 
Morrison was married in Perry County, Ohio, to a Miss Henthorn, who died 
in Bucyrus without issue. He afterward married Miss Nancy Williams, who 
reared a family of five childi-en, four of whom with the mother are residents 
of Findlay. He died April 19, 1854, but he is as vividly remembered by 
the old members of the profession as if his death occurred only a year ago 
instead of thirty-two. 

Jacob Barnd was a bright, promising young lawyer, who died in 1845. 
He was a native of Perry County, Ohio, and a son of Christian Barnd, a 
pioneer of 1831, in which year he removed with his parents to this county. 
In 1832 the family moved from the farm into Findlay, where Jacob after- 
ward studied law under Edson Goit. He was admitted in 1837, and in 
October, 1838, was appointed prosecuting attorney, but served only till the 
following January. He filled the recorder's ofiice two terms, from October, 
1838, to October, 1844, and it is probable he did not practice much during 
that period. He left two sons, one of whom lives in Fostoria, and the 
other in Kansas. 

Jude Hall came to Findlay about 1836, where he followed the carpenter 
trade, and sometimes preached the gospel. He was a queer specimen of the 
genus homo and quite an eccentric character. He read law with Edson 
Goit, and soon after admission, in 1838, he was elected prosecuting attor- 
ney, and re-elected in 1840. In 1843 he removed to Defiance, and thence 
to Upper Sandusky, where further trace of him is lost in the fading twilight 
of tradition. 

Hon. Charles W. O'Neal comes next in the order of time. He was born 
in Middletown, Frederick Co. , Md., January 19, 1811, and in 1833 removed 
to Zanesville, Ohio, where the following year he was married to Miss Amy 
J. Baldwin. In July, 1835, he came to Findlay, and began the study of 
law in the office of Goit & Merriam, and in August, 1838, was admitted to 
practice. Mr. O' Neal was a practical surveyor, and did a great deal of sur- 
veying in this county. He was also one of the pioneer school teachers of 
Findlay. In 1836 he was elected auditor, serving one term, and also 
represented this district in the State Senate from 1844 to 1846. He prac- 
ticed his profession in Hancock County nearly forty years, retiring from 


active practice a few years prior to his death, and removing to Indiana, 
whence he retm-ned to and died in Findlay, December 20, 1879. Mr. O' Neal, 
though a safe counsellor, was not an advocate, and rarely appeared in that 
capacity in any impoi'tant case. He was very methodical and dignified in 
his practice, terse and forcible in argument, and always coui-teous to the 
opposing counsel. He was close and economical in his business habits, and 
very successful in the accumulation of wealth, leaving to his descendants a 
handsome fortune. 

Abel F. Parker was born in Cavendish, Windsor Co., Vt., May 11, 1800, 
and died in Findlay, May 31, 1881, in his eighty-second year. In early 
manhood he settled in Genesee County, N. Y. , where he was married in 
1823 to Miss Maria Strong. In December, 1836, he removed with his 
family to Blanchard Township, Hancock Co. , Ohio. , and two years after- 
ward located in Findlay. He read law xmder Edson Goit, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1842. The same year he was elected prosecuting attorney and 
served one term. In 1846 he was again elected prosecutor, and re-elected 
in 1848, but resigned the office in April, 1849. Mi'. Parker also filled the 
office of postmaster of Findlay. His first wife died in 1848, leaving a 
family of one son and two daughters. In 1852 Mr. Parker married Mrs. 
Sarah A. Robinson, who bore him two sons and one daughter. Five of the 
six children survive, and all were living at the time of their father's death, 
the eldest, Edwin, having since died. Though Mr. Parker lived to the 
ripe old age of more than four score years, he nevertheless continued in 
practice up to within a short period of his decease. He loved his profession 
and was highly respected by his associates of the bar. 

Ezra Brown is the oldest surviving member of the present bar of Find- 
lay, though not now in active practice. He was born in Lower Canada, 
August 4, 1814, and when about three years old removed with his parents 
to what is now the town of Albion, Orleans Co., N. Y., whore he resided 
till October, 1839, when he came to Findlay. He entered the law office of 
John H. Morrison, and was admitted to practice in July, 1 842. He formed 
a partnership with his preceptor, and continued in practice until February, 
1847, then removed to a farm in Wood County, near Fostoria. In the 
spring of 1852 Mr. Brown returned to Findlay and resumed the practice of 
his profession. He remained in practice till the fall of 1880, and then 
retired from the active duties thereof. In the spring of 1885 Mr. Brown 
was elected justice of the peace, which office he now holds. He has been 
mayor of Findlay, and also served in the town council. On the 11th of 
November, 1845, he was married to Miss Jane E. Bigelow, who* died Feb- 
ruary 4, 1873, leaving a family of two daughters. One son died at Mem- 
phis in 1863, while serving in the late Rebellion. 

Elijah Williams was also a student in the office of Mr. Morrison, and 
was admitted with Ezra Brown in July, 1842. He practiced in Findlay 
about eight years ere his removal to Oregon, and is remembered as a sharp, 
shrewd but diffident lawyer. Judge Coffinberry, in a recent letter to the 
writer, says: "I found Elijah Williams, one of the early lawyers of Find- 
lay, at Portland. He is seventy-six, well preserved jn mind and body, well 
heeled financially, and living as pleasantly as a widower can live, on one of 
his farms on the margin of East Portland. He feels that his life work is 
about done, but from the snap of his eyes when we talked finance, I judge 
that he still feels the inclination as well as the pecuniary ability to discount 
a good note for any reasonable amount. ' ' 


Hon. Machias C. Whiteley can be justly called the Nestor of the bar of 
Hancock County, as for nearly forty-three years he has been an active par- 
ticipant in the courts of this portion of the State. He comes of Scotch-Irish 
stock, and was born May 24, 1822, in East New Market, Dorchester Co. , 
Md. , on the eastern shore of that State. His paternal grandfather was a 
patriot of the Revolution, and his father served in the war of 1812 against 
the same old foe of American liberty. In 1832 his parents, Willis and 
Elizabeth Whiteley, removed with their family to Baltimore, Fairfield Co. , 
Ohio, where Machias worked on a farm and attended the common schools of 
the neighborhood. He subsequently learned the harness and saddler trade, 
which he followed until coming to Findlay in 1840. For two years he worked 
in the clerk's office, devoting his spare time in reading law with Goit & 
O'Neal, and then returned to Fairfield County, where he continued his law 
studies with Medill & Whitman, of Lancaster. On the 4th of July, 1843, 
he was admitted to the bar at Tiffin, and immediately opened a law office in 
Findlay, where he gradually grew into a lucrative practice. In 1847 Mr. 
Whiteley was married to Miss Sarah A. Henderson, a native of W^ayne 
County, Ohio, and daughter of William L. Henderson, a leading pioneer 
sm'veyor and official of Hancock County, and one of the early settlers of 
Findlay. Nine children were born to this union, the survivors being Willis 
H. and Frederick P., of Findlay; Mrs. George B. Stevenson, of Upper San- 
dusky, Ohio, and Mrs. F. B. Satterthwaite, of Ottawa, Ohio. In 1848 Mr. 
Whiteley was elected to the Legislature, and re-elected in 1849. While in 
the Legislature he took part in the election of Salmon P. Chase to the 
United States Senate, and secured the charter of the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne 
& Chicago Railroad. In 1856 he was a delegate to the Democratic National 
Convention, which nominated Buchanan and Breckinridge for President and 
Vice-president of the United States. The same fall he was elected judge of the 
court of common pleas for the third subdivision of the Ninth Judicial District, 
and re-elected inl861, serving on the bench ten years. In 1864 Judge Whiteley 
was nominated on the Democratic ticket for supreme judge, but with the balance 
of the ticket was defeated, the State going largely Republican that year. Upon 
retiring fi'om the bench in 1867, Judge Whiteley resumed practice in Find- 
lay, and has ever since devoted his attention to his professional duties, the 
firm of Whiteley & Bope being long recognized as one of the prominent 
legal firms of Northwestern Ohio. Judge Whiteley' s wife died July 27, 
1880, and the following year he married Mrs. Mary C. Hollinger, daughter 
of Dr. A. F. Burson, of Mt. Blanchard, who died February 1, 1886. 

William M. Patterson was admitted to the bar at Tiffin, July 4, 1843, 
on the same day as Machias C. Whiteley. He was born in Harrison County, 
Ohio, March 24, 1812, and in the spring of 1834 came to Findlay with his. 
parents. Major John and Elizabeth Patterson. He read law with Charles 
W. O'Neal, and upon his admission began practice in Findlay. In 1844 he 
was elected prosecuting attorney and served one term. He was married, in 
1834, to Susan Amspoker, and resided in Findlay till 1854, when, with his 
wife and four children, he removed to Kansas, and died in the spring of 
1858, from the effects of an accident caused by a boiler explosion in the fall 
of 1855, in a saw-mill which he was then operating. 

Hon. James M. Coffinberry became a member of the Findlay bar in the 
fall of 1845. He was born in Mansfield, Richland Co., Ohio, May 16, 
1818; whence in 3836 his father, Andrew Coffinberry, removed to Per- 


rysburg, Wood County. Here James M. read law in his father's office, 
and in 1840 was admitted to the bar. His father, widely known as "Count" 
Coffinberiy, was one of the leading attorneys of Northwestern Ohio, and 
practiced in this portion of the State throughout the earlier years of its his- 
tory. Soon after admission, James M. opened a law office in Maumee 
City, and subsequently served as prosecuting attorney of Lucas County. 
Late in the fall of 1845 he settled in Findlay, where he purchased an inter- 
est and took editorial charge of the Findlay Herald, the local organ of the 
Whig party. In the spring of 184G he became sole owner of the Herald, 
which he published about three years, then sold out to Dr. David Patton. 
From the date of his coming to Findlay, Judge CoffinbeiTy took and 
retained a leading position at the Hancock County bar; and in 1852 was a 
prime mover in the establishment of the Findlay Bank, the first financial in- 
stitution established in the county. Feeling the need of a larger field for 
the full exercise of his maturer powers, he concluded in 1855 to remove to 
Cleveland, where he at once assumed a high rank among the eminent law- 
yers of that city. In 1861 he was elected on the Union ticket, judge of 
the common pleas court, and served five years on the bench. IJpon the 
expiration of his judicial term, he resumed his professional duties, and con- 
tinued in the enjoyment of a large and kicrative practice till 1875 when he 
retired, and has since devoted his energies to the management of his private 
estate. Judge Coffinberry is a man of broad culture, a clear, vigorous and 
forcible writer, and has justly been recognized as a brilliant advocate, a log- 
ical and comprehensive reasoner, and an upright, unswerving and impartial 
judge. ' 'His charges to the jury, ' ' says one high authorily, "were models for 
clearness, directness and logical compactness, and it is complimentary to his 
judicial learning and professional ability, that no legal opinion pronounced 
by him was ever reversed on review by a higher court. ' ' Judge Coffinberry 
has always taken a deep and active interest in the social and material prog- 
ress of the beautiful city of his adoption. 

Charles S. Coffinberry, a younger brother of the Judge, practiced law in 
Findlay about three years. He was a native of Mansfield, Ohio, born Feb- 
ruary 1, 1824; read law with his father at Perrysburg, and came to Find- 
lay in the sj)ring of 1846, where he formed a partnership with John H. 
Morrison. In 1849, in company with many others from this portion of 
Ohio, he went to California, and was afterward appointed by President 
Fillmore to take the first census of that State. In the discharge of this 
laborious undertaking he was ably assisted by his father, who had followed 
him to California. He finally returned to Ohio, and for a few months was 
associated with his brother in the practice of the law in Cleveland; but fail- 
ing health compelled him to again relinquish his professional labors, and 
he went to Oregon and New Mexico, where he spent the latter years of his 
life, dying of consumption about thirty miles south of Pueblo, December 
17, 1873. 

Aaron H. Bigelow was a native of Vermont and a graduate of Middle- 
buiy College. He there read law and was admitted to practice. In July, 
1841, he located in Findlay, and for a few years was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. He then began the practice of the law, which he followed until 
1856, when he gave up the profession and subsequently removed to Indiana, 
where he died about ten years ago. Mr. Bigelow possessed a good educa- 
tion, and was a fair speaker, but never acquired much practice. 


John E. Rosette first located in Mt. Blancliard, where he was mar- 
ried. In 1848 he removed to Findlay, and in April, 1849, was appoined 
prosecuting attorney, vice Abel F. Parker, resigned. He was twice elected 
to the same position, serving until January, 1854. He was a modest, quiet 
man, of studious habits, possessing good legal judgment, but diffident and 
lacking self reliance. Soon after the expiration of his last term as prose- 
cutor he removed to Springfield, 111. , where he rapidly secured recognition 
as a sound, reliable lawyer. He was appointed by President Johnson 
United States district attorney for the southern district of Illinois. For 
some years before his death he enjoyed a wide reputation as a criminal law- 
yer, and commanded the confidence of a bar embracing many distinguished 

Henry Brown, the present prosecuting attorney of Hancock County, is one 
of the oldest and best known members of the bar. He was born in Albion, 
Orleans Co., N. Y., November 5, 1826, and received a good literary and 
classical education at the Albion Academy. In May, 1844, he came to 
Ohio, and engaged in school teaching near Fostoria, which vocation he fol- 
lowed three years. During this period he commenced the study of law 
under Hon. Warren P. Noble, of Tiffin, and in the fall of 1848 was admitted 
to practice. In January, 1849, he located in Findlay, as a member of the 
law firm of Goit, Bigelow & Brown. In January, 1851, Mr. Brown became 
one of the editors and ^proprietors of the Hancock Courier, which he con- 
tinued to publish until January, 1854, when he sold his interest to his part- 
ner, Aaron Blackford, who had also been his law partner for the last two 
years. In January, 1855, he assumed entire editorial control of the Courier, 
and carried on the paper till December 20, 1856. He was elected auditor 
in October, 1854, and served till March, 1857. Mr. Brown was then com- 
pelled by ill health to retire from active business. After a period of need- 
ed recuperation he resumed the practice of his profession, and has ever 
since remained at the helm. In November, 1862, Mr. Brown was appoint- 
ed prosecuting attorney to serve the unexpired term of James A. Bope, re- 
signed; was elected as his own successor, and re-elected to the same posi- 
tion. In 1868 he was the Democratic senatorial candidate for election in 
this district, and made a splendid race, reducing the previous Eepublican 
majority 1,973 votes, being defeated by only 227. Mr. Brown was again 
elected prosecutor in 1875, and re-elected in 1877. In 1884 he was once 
more chosen to fill the same office, and is the present incumbent. Mr. 
Brown has hosts of friends, and no member of the bar stands higher in the 
esteem and confidence of the people of Hancock County. He is regarded 
as one of the county's safest and most honorable attorneys, and for many 
years has enjoyed a large and well paying practice, all of which he justly 

William Gribben is one of the present members of the bar, and might 
have been to-day one of its brightest ornaments if he had devoted his talents 
to his profession. He was born in Allegheny County, Penn. , March 11, 
1825, and the following autumn his parents removed to what is now Ash- 
land County, Ohio, where William grew to maturity and received a com- 
mon school education. He read law with Johnson & Sloan, of Ashland, 
and was admitted to the bar in the fall of 1850. The same autumn he lo- 
cated in Findlay, and formed a partnership with John H. Morrison, and 
subsequently with Judge Whiteley. In 1853 he was elected prosecuting 


attorney, and re-elected in 1855, serving two consecutive terms. He served 
in the Legislatiire from 1862 to 1864, and received the cei-tificate of re- 
election, but lost the seat on contest. This was during the most exciting 
period in the political history of the State, when Democrats were publicly 
branded as rebels, and political passion ran high. 

In 1851, Philip G. Galpin came to Findlay and entered into partner- 
ship with his brother-in-law, James M. Coffinberry, which was the beginning 
of his legal career. He was born in Buffalo, N. Y. , in 1830, reared in New 
Haven, Conn. , graduated from Yale College, read law in New Haven and 
was admitted to the bar at Columbus, Ohio, in 1851, whence he immediately 
removed to Findlay. After about two years' practice at this bar, Mr. Gal- 
pin went to Toledo, and subsequently to New York City, where he practiced 
his profession several years with flattering success. Frequent bleeding at 
the lungs warned him that he must find a more congenial climate, and he 
sought and found deliverance at San Francisco. In that great metropolis 
of the Pacific coast he soon won recognition as the peer of the many able 
members of his profession. He now stands at the head of the California 
bar as a real estate lawyer, and is in the full tide of a distinguished and 
useful career. 

Aaron Blackford is one of the oldest and most prominent members of 
the Hancock County bar, to which he has belonged for about thirty-four 
years. He was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, February 8, 1827, and 
removed to Findlay with his parents, Price and Abigail Blackford, in Octo- 
ber, 1834. He received his education in the public schools of Findlay and 
at Delaware College, Delaware, Ohio. He read law with Henry Brown, of 
Findlay, attended the Cincinnati Law School, and was admitted to the bar 
in May, 1852. In January, 1851, he became associated with Henry Brown 
in the publication of the Hancock Courier, which they jointly edited till 
Januaiy, 1854, when Mr. Blackford became sole editor. He conducted the 
paper about one year, and then disposed of his interest to his former part- 
ner. During this period Mr. Blackford also practiced law, and with the 
passing years has attained considerable local eminence in his profession. 
He is well known throughout this portion of the State, and his practice has 
kept pace with the growth in wealth and population of his adopted county. 

Andrew, familiarly known as "Count" Coffinberry, was conspicuous among 
the old time lawyers of the Maumee Valley, and though not a resident of 
Findlay until a few years prior to his death, he practiced at this bar before the 
county possessed a single attorney. He was born at Martinsburg, Berkley 
Co., Va., August 20, 1788, where his grandparents had emigrated from 
Germany in 1750. In 1794 his father, George L. Coffinberry, a Revolutionary 
patriot, removed with his family to Ohio County, Va., and in 1796 to Chil- 
licothe, Ohio. In 1807 the family settled at Lancaster, Ohio, where the 
father established a newspaper — the first published in that town. Andrew 
worked in the office, and subsequently, in partnership with John C. and 
James M. Gilkinson, succeeded his father in its publication, first at Lan- 
caster and afterward at St. Clairsville. Finding the business not veiy 
remunerative, Andi-ew went to Philadelphia and worked in a newspaper 
office and on a press formerly owned and conducted by Benjamin Franklin. 
From there he shipped on the United States fi'igate ' ' Constitution, " com- 
manded by Capt. Isaac Hull. After a naval service of two years he joined 
his parents, who had removed to the then embryo village of Mansfield, Ohio. 


It is said he used to read the one weekly paper which came to Mansfield as 
early as 18 LI, from a big log on the public square to the assembled citizens 
of the village. He read law in the office of John M. May, of Mansfield, 
and was admitted to practice in 1813. Mr. Coffinberry was the first law 
student, the first justice of the peace and the second lawyer in Mansfield, 
and one of the earliest, if not the first, common pleas clerk of Richland 
Oounty. Though residing at Mansfield his practice extended to the western 
boundary of the State. We find him in Findlay as early as 1831, and he 
may have been here prior to that date. In the spring of 1836 he removed 
with his family to Perrysburg, Wood County, where he resided till 1849-50. 
From Perrysburg he removed to Sidney, Shelby Co. , Ohio; there he left 
his family and went to California. Upon the death of his wife, which oc- 
curred during his absence, his son James M. brought the family to Findlay, 
where their father joined them on his return fiom California. Here he 
continued in practice until his death. May 11, 1856. Count Coffinberry 
was not only a lawyer of ability, but possessed considerable literary talent 
and gave some attention to the Muses. ' ' The Forest Rangers, " a descriptive 
poem on the battle of Fallen Timbers, is yet well remembered as one of his 
productions. " He was," says a recent biographer, " a man of rare endow- 
ments and marked characteristics, widely known and greatly esteemed for 
his pure and upright life, while his quaint wit and genial manners gave him 
ready access to the hearts of all classes. He was called the ' Good Count 
Coffinberry ' by the younger members of the profession (all of whom if 
living are now past middle life), in grateful recognition of services rendered 
and coiu-tesies shown them when they most needed direction and encourage- 
ment fi-om such veterans of the bar. His sobriquet of ' Count ' was first 
playfully given him by his professional associates, from some real or sup- 
posed resemblance to the illustrious German jurist and publicist Count Puf- 
fendorf. The title was recognized as being so appropriate to the man that 
it stuck to him for life, and thousands of those who knew him long and well 
never learned that it was not his real name. " 

Hon. William Mungen is a native of Baltimore, Md., born May 12, 1821, 
and removed to Carroll County, Ohio, in 1830. Here he received a common 
school education and subsequently studied Latin, German and the physical 
sciences. He came to Findlay in October, 1842; in February 1845, took 
possession of the old Hancock Farmer and changed the name to the Hancock 
Democrat, and on the 1st of July, 1845, became the editor and proprietor 
of the Hancock Courier, consolidating the two papers. Excepting one 
year that the office was rented to William M. Case and a short period 
to B. F. Rosenberg, Mr. Mungen published the Courier until January, 1851, 
when he sold the establishment to Henry Brown and Aaron Blackford, two 
leading members of the present bar. In 1846 Mr. Mungen was elected 
auditor of Hancock County and re-elected in 1848. In 1851' he was chosen 
to represent this district in the State Senate and declined a re-nomination, 
which was then equal to election. In the meantime he had been reading 
law during his spare moments, and in 1852 was admitted to the bar and 
began practice. When the Rebellion broke out in 1861, Mr. Mungen was 
foremost in recruiting the Fifty-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and was 
commissioned colonel of that gallant regiment, which he commanded until 
April, 1863, when he resigned his commission. Col. Mungen served as a 
Democrat two terms in Congress, from 1867 to 1871, and in recognition of 

J^,/M<^^ ^-^ 


his services in the army is now receiving a pension. During the active 
period of his career Col. Mungen was recognized as a clear, forcible and 
logical writer, a fair lawyer and a shrewd, vigorous politician. When not 
engaged in the duties of the several public offices he has filled, Col. Mungen 
devoted his attention to his profession, in which he was quite successful. 

John F. Caples came to Findlay from Fostoria (then Rome) in the fall 
of 1854, and practiced law here till the spring of 1858, when he removed to 
Warsaw, Ind. He subsequently went to Portland, Oreg. , where he is still 
engaged in the practice of his profession. ' 'John F. Caples, " says Judge 
Coffinberry, ' ' is one of the best known and most distinguished lawyers of 
his adopted State, and one of the most entertaining and eloquent forensic 
speakers on the Pacific coast. He is in good circumstances, has reared an 
interesting and accomplished family, is full of anecdote and bubbling over 
with fun. ' ' During his stay in Findlay he was recognized as a good speaker 
and a promising young lawyer. 

Daniel B. Beardsley, one of the older members of the present bar, 
was born in Licking County, Ohio, May 12, 1832, and was brought by his 
parents to Hancock County in 1834, where he has ever since resided. Mr. 
Beardsley was educated in the public schools of the county, and followed 
school teaching for some years. He read law under Walker & West, of 
Bellefontaine, and was there admitted to the bar in August, 1856. In March, 
1857, he located in practice in Findlay, since which date he has belonged to 
the bar of this county. In 1858 he was elected a justice of the peace of 
Findlay Township, and re-elected eight times, serving continuously fi-om 
the spring of 1858 to the spring of 1885, a period of twenty-seven years. 
Mr. Beardsley was prominent in the organization of ' ' The Hancock County 
Pioneer and Historical Association," and an active member during its exist- 
ence. His connection with this society prompted him to write a history of 
the county, which he published in 1881. Since retiring from the office of 
justice in the spring of 1885, he has devoted his attention to his profession. 

William C. Bunts located in Findlay in the spring of 1858, whither he 
removed from Youngstown, Mahoning Co. , Ohio, of which county he was a 
native. He graduated, in 1854, from Allegheny College, Meadville, Penn. , read 
law with Ridgley Powei's, of Youngstown, and upon admission began prac- 
tice with his preceptor. Mr. Bunts practiced law in Findlay till 1860, and 
then returned to Youngstown and resumed partnership with Mr. Powers. 
During the war he served for a time on the staff of Gen. Rosecrans, and 
then settled at Nashville, Tenn. He afterward came back to Youngstown; 
thence removed to Cleveland, where he filled the positions of Assistant United 
States District Attorney and city solicitor, dying January 16, 1874, while 
holding the latter office. 

Hon. John M. Palmer was born in Clinton County, N. Y., July 5, 1814, 
learned the cabinet-maker's trade in Rutland, Vt., and worked at 
his trade in that State. In 1837 he came to Ohio, and attended Granville 
Seminary. He studied law with Hon. Henry Stansberry, of Cincinnati, and 
was there admitted to practice in 1841. In 1843 he was married at Lancas- 
ter, Ohio, to Miss Ellen Weaver, and located in practice at Somerset. Perry 
County. In 1S4() he removed to Defiance, where he followed his profession 
till 1852, when he was elected judge of the coiu't of common pleas. While 
still on the bench Judge Palmer removed to Putnam County, in which county 
he had considerable landed interests, and a township of which was named 


in his honor. In June, 1858, he settled in Findlay, and resumed the prac- 
tice of law in partnership with John Maston. From 1861 to 1863 he was a 
commissary in the army with the rank of captain, but resigning the office 
remained in the South for some time. Returning to Findlay he again took 
up his practice and followed the profession up to the illness which I'esulted 
in his death, November 29, 1876. 

Col. James A. Bope, of the firm of Whiteley & Bope, is a native of Adams 
County, Ohio, born November 30, 1833. His parents removed to Fairfield 
County, where our subject grew to maturity and received the advantages of 
a public school education. He gi-aduated from Wittenberg College, Spring- 
field, Ohio, in 1855, and soon afterward entered the law office of Hunter & 
Dougherty, of Lancaster, Ohio. In the fall of 1857 he was admitted to 
practice, and the following year opened an office in Lancaster. Col. Bope 
came to Findlay in the fall of 1859, where he has ever since prosecuted his 
profession. In October, 1861, he was elected on the Democratic ticket pros- 
ecuting attorney of Hancock County; but he entered the army as captain of 
Company D, Ninety-ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, in July, 1862, and 
resigned the prosecutorship the following October. He served until the 
close of the war, and came out with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Resum- 
ing practice in Findlay he soon became recognized as one of the most prom- 
inent attorneys of this bar. Col. Bope is a careful, conscientious, scholarly 
lawyer, who believes thoroughly in the dignity of his profession, and is one 
of the most courteous, popular and successful members of the legal fra- 

A few other lawyers, besides those mentioned, practiced for a brief period 
in Findlay prior to 1860. Alonzo Moni-oe was here as early as 1847, and 
after a few years' limited practice left the county. Jacob Carr was admitted 
to the bar in 1848, but after a couple of years' trial abandoned the profes- 
sion and has since practiced dentistry. Charles C. Pomroy was practicing 
here in the spring of 1857, and in 1858 was elected mayor of Findlay, but 
he soon after removed from the town. S. F. Hull's name appears among 
the attorneys of this bar in June, 1856, but he remained only a couple of 
years. John Maston was a partner of Judge Palmer, in June, 1858, and 
he, too, soon left the county. Philip Ford, who came in October, 1859, and 
a few other names might be added to these, though none of them staid suf- 
ficiently long to acquire much practice, or to become fully identified with 
the interests of the Hancock County bar. 

Brief biographies of the principal resident attorneys of the county 
who practiced at this bar prior to 1860 having now been given, it only 
remains to add the following alphabetical list of the present bar : AVilliam H. 
Anderson, Oren A. Ballard, Frank Ballard, Daniel B. Beardsley, Jesse C. 
Bitler, Aaron Blackford, Jason Blackford, James A. Bope, Ezra Brown, 
Hemy Brown, Jacob F. Burket, William L. Carlin, Ira B. Conine, Elijah 
T. Dunn, Alfred Graber, William Gribben, John M. Hamlin, John H. 
Johnston, Samuel A. Kagy, R obert Morr is, William Mungen, George F. 
Pendleton, James M. Platt^ John Poe, Aaron B. Shafer, Morgan D. Shafer, 
John Sheridan, Theodore Totten, Machias C. Whiteley, Willis H. Whiteley 
and Albert Zugschwert. 



Education in Ohio— Lands Originally Granted for Educational Pur- 
poses—Commissioners OF Schools and School Lands in 1822— The 
School Lands Sold and a School Fund Established— Annual Distri- 
bution OF School Money— Pioneer Schools, School-houses and Books 
in Hancock County— Character of the Early Teachers— "Barring 
Out" the jNIaster- How Pioneer Teachers were Usually Paid- 
Growth OF Education— Government and Progress of Schools Prior 
to 1851— Schools for Colored Youth Established— Reorganization 
OF Schools Under the Laws of 1853— Their Present Government and 
THE Educational Advantages they Afford. 

THE most casiial observer cannot but have noticed, notwithstanding the 
privation and discomforts attending the lives of the early settlers, the 
zeal they manifested in education, and that, as soon as a sufficient number 
of pupils could be collected and a teacher secured, a house was erected for 
the purpose. The period just preceding the Revolution was characterized 
by its number of literaiy men, and the interest they gave to polite learning; 
and the patriots who where conspicuous in that struggle for human liberty 
were men not only of ability, but of no ordinary culture. We can readily 
understand that the influence of theii- example had its weight in molding 
public sentiment in other respects besides that of zeal for the patriot cause. 
To this may be added that, for the most part, the early pioneers were men 
of character, who endured the dangers and trials of a new country, not 
solely for then- own sakes, but for their children, and with a faith in what 
the future would bring forth, clearly saw the power and value of education. 
Then we find, from the beginning, this object kept steadily in view, and 
provision made for its successful prosecution; and the express declaration 
of the fundamental law of the State enjoins that "the principal of all fimds 
arising from the sale or other distribution of lands or other property granted 
or intrusted to the State for educational purposes, shall forever be preserved 
inviolate and imdiminished, and the income arising therefi'om shall 
be faithfully applied to the specific objects of the original grants or appro- 
priations, and the General Assembly shall make such provisions by taxation 
or otherwise as. fi'om the income arising from the school trust fund, shall 
secure a thorough and efficient system of common schools throughout the 

The act of Congress providing for the admission of Ohio into the Union 
oflFered certain educational propositions to the people. These were, first, 
that Section 16 in each township, or, in lieu thereof, other contiguous or 
equivalent lands, should be granted for the use of schools; second, that 
thirty- eight sections of land, where salt springs had been found, should be 
granted to the State, never to be sold, or leased for a longer term than ten 
years; and third, that one-twentieth of the proceeds from the sale of the 
public lands in the State should be applied toward the construction of roads 
from- the Atlantic to and through Ohio. Those propositions were offered on 
the condition that the public lands sold by the United States after the 30th 


of June, 1802, should be exempt from State taxation for five years after sale. 
The ordinance of 1787 had already provided for the appropriation of Section 
16 to the support of schools in every tovniship sold by the United States. 
This, therefore, could not, in 1802, be properly made the subject of a new bar- 
gain between the United States and Ohio; and by many it was thought that the 
salt reservations and one-twentieth of the proceeds of the sale of public 
lands were inadequately equivalent for the proposed surrender of a right to 
tax for five years. The convention, however, accepted the propositions of 
Congress, on their being so modified and enlarged as to vest in the State, 
for the use of schools. Section 10 in each township sold by the United States, 
and three other tracts of land, equal in quantity respectively to one thirty- 
sixth of the Virginia Military Reservation, of the United States Military 
Tract and of the Connecticut Western Reserve, and to give three per cent of 
the proceeds of the public lands sold within the State to the construction of 
roads in Ohio, under the direction of the Legislature. Congress agreed to 
the proposed modifications, and thus was established the basis of the com- 
mon school fund of Ohio. 

We have seen in the foregoing how Congress, by a compact with the peo- 
ple, gave them one thirty-sixth part of all of the lands northwest of the 
Ohio River for school pui'poses. The lands for this purpose set apart were, 
however, often appropriated by squatters, and, unwise, careless and 
sometimes corrupt legislation, these squatters were vested with proprietor- 
ship. Caleb Atwater, in his history of Ohio, in speaking on this subject 
says: "Members of the Legislature not unfrequently got acts passed and 
leases granted, either to themselves, their relatives or to their partisans. 
One senator contrived to get, by such acts, seven entire sections of land 
into either his, own or his children's possession." From 1803 to 1820 the 
General Assembly spent a considerable portion of every session in passing 
acts relating to these lands, without advancing the cause of education to any 

In 1821 the House of Representatives appointed five of its members, 
viz. , Caleb Atwater, Loyd Talbot, James Shields, Roswell Mills and Josiah 
Barber, a committee on schools and school lands. This committee subse- 
quently made a report, rehearsing the wi'ong management of the school land 
trust on behalf of the State, warmly advocated the establishment of a sys- 
tem of education and the adoption of measures which would secure for the 
people the rights which Congress intended they should possess. In com- 
pliance with the recommendation of the committee, the Governor of the 
State, in May, 1822, having been authorized by the Legislature, appointed 
seven commissioners of schools and school lands, viz. : Caleb Atwater, 
Rev. John Collins, Rev. James Hoge, N. Guilford, Ephraim Cutler, Josiah 
Barber and James M. Bell. The reason why seven persons were appointed 
was because there were seven different sorts of school lands in the State, 
viz. : Section 1 6 in every township of the Congress lands, the United States 
Military lands, the Virginia Military lands, Symmes' Purchase, the Ohio 
Company's Pm-chase, the Refugee lands and the Connecticut Western Re- 
serve. This commission of seven persons was reduced by various causes 
to one of three, Messrs. Atwater, Collins and Hoge, who performed the 
arduous duties incumbent upon them with but little remuneration and (at 
the time) but few thanks. 

The Legislature of 1822-23 broke up without having taken any definite 


action upon the report presented by the commission, but during the summer 
and autumn of 1824 the subject of the sale of the school lands was warmly- 
agitated, and the fi'iends of the measure triumphed over the opposition so 
far as to elect large majorities to both branches of the General Assembly in 
favor of its being made a law. The quantity of land set apart was ascer- 
tained in 1825 to be a little more than a half a million acres, and was valued 
at less than $1,000,000. The school lands were finally sold, the proceeds 
taken charge of by the State, the interest accruing from the moneys derived 
from the sale of the different classes of lands to be annually distributed 
among the counties in the respective land districts, according to the school 
enumeration of each county. It might be well to state here that the school 
age at this time was from four to sixteen, which was, however, changed 
whenever the General Assembly considered such a change necessary or 

From the time the school lands were sold up to the present, each county 
in the State has received annually its quota of the interest obtained fi'om 
this school fund. Nearly one-half the counties of Ohio pay more money 
into the common school fund of the State than they receive back again, the 
surplus thus raised going to poor or sparsely settled counties. Up to a recent 
date Hancock has been in the list of counties that receive more than they 
pay into the State fund. In 1875 she paid to the State $12, 150. 53, and 
received $14,334.40, or $2,183.87 more than paid in. In 1880 she paid 
$12, 190. 81, and received $13, 909. 50, or $1, 718. 69 more than paid in. The 
tide, however, has at least turned in her favor, for the duplicate of 1885 
shows that the State received from this county $14,730.88, and paid back 
to her $14,406.00, or a balance of $324.78 in favor of the county. This 
balance will be somewhat reduced by delinquencies and the treasurer' s fees, 
but there will be still a small amount in the county' s favor, which fact fairly 
illustrates the progress made in the past ten years. 

In the early development of Hancock County, a great variety of influen- 
ces was felt in the way of general education. The settlements were and 
for years continued to be sparse. The people, as the pioneers of all new 
counties are, were poor, and lacked the means of remunerating teachers. 
Their poverty compelled all who were able to labor, and the work of the 
females was as important and toilsome as that of the men. Added to these, 
both teachers and books were scarce. This condition of things continued 
perhaps for more than a quarter of a century. Taking these facts into con- 
sideration, it is surprising that they had any schools whatever. It was not 
uncommon for children to trudge through the snow-covered forest fi'om two 
to fovu- miles before reaching the little log schoolhouse. And though the 
great majority of the pioneers of Hancock County embraced every opportu- 
nity to educate their children, there were some who cared little for educa- 
tional matters — genuine backwoodsmen who reared their sons to shoot and 
trap successfully, and their daughters to spin and weave, but not to read or 

The interest awakened in literature and science immediately after the 
Revolution followed the pioneers to their Western homes ; but to make their 
efforts productive of useful results time became absolutely necessary. Just 
as soon as the settlements were prepared for the experiment, schools were 
opened; but at every step it was the acquisition of knowledge under diffi- 
culties. Everything connected with them was as simple and primitive as 


were their dwellings, food and clothing. Houses were built in the various 
neighborhoods as occasion made necessary, not by subscription in money, 
but by labor. On a given day the neighbors assembled at some place pre- 
viously agreed upon, and the work was done. Timber was abundant; they 
were skilled in the use of the ax, and having cut logs of the required 
length, the walls were soon raised. The roof was made of clapboards, kept 
in place by heavy poles reaching the length of the building. The door was 
of clapboards and creaked on wooden hinges; the latch of wood and raised 
by a string. The floor was ' ' puncheon, ' ' or trees split in the middle, toler- 
ably true, the edge and face being dressed with the ax. The crevices 
between the logs forming the walls were tilled with ' ' chinks, ' ' or split sticks 
of wood, and daubed with mud. The fire-place was equally rude, but of 
ample dimensions, built on the outside of the house, usually of stone to the 
throat of the flue, and the remainder of the chimney of split sticks of wood, 
daubed with puddled clay within and without. Light was admitted through 
the door and by means of an opening made by cutting out one of the logs, 
reaching almost the entire width of the building. This opening was high 
enough fi-om the floor to prevent the boys from looking out, and in winter 
was covered with paper saturated with grease, to keep out the cold, as well 
as to admit light. 

In the rural districts school ' ' kept ' ' only in winter. The furniture cor- 
responded with the simplicity of the hoiise. At a proper distance below the 
windows auger holes were bored in a slanting direction in one of the logs, 
and in these strong wooden pins were driven, and on the pins a huge slab 
or puncheon was placed, which served as a writing desk for the whole 
school. For seats, they used the puncheon, or more commonly the body of 
a smooth, straight tree, cut ten to twelve feet in length, and raised to a 
height of twelve to fifteen inches bj means of pins securely inserted. It 
has been said that not infrequently the pins were of unequal length, and 
the bench predisposed to ' ' wabble. ' ' Many of the pioneer teachers were 
natives of Ireland, who had left their homes for divers reasons, prior 
to and succeeding the struggle for Irish independence, in 1798, and 
here, in this land of fi-eedom, were putting to good use the education 
obtained in their native isle. Dr. Johnson's notion that most boys 
required learning to be thrashed into them was practically carried out in 
the pioneer schoolhouse. The pupils sat with their faces toward the wall, 
around the room, while the teacher occupied the middle space to superin- 
tend each pupil separately. In some rooms a separate bench was furnished 
for those too young to wi'ite. Classes, when reciting, sat on a bench pro- 
vided for this purpose. 

The books were as primitive as the surroundings. The New Testament 
was a common reading book; the "English Reader" was occasionally 
found, and sometimes the ' ' Columbian Orator. ' ' No one book was common 
in all the families. The reading class recited paragraphs alternately, and 
the book in use was made common property, passing from hand to hand 
during recitation. It was not unusual for the teacher to assist a pupil in 
one of his ' ' sums, ' ' discipline a refractory scholar, and hear the reading- 
class at one and the same time. Dabold's, Smiley' s and Pike's Arithmetics 
were commonly used, with the examples for practice almost exclusively in 
pounds, shillings and pence, and a marked absence of clear rules and defi- 
nitions for the solving of the different divisions. Webster's "American 


Speller ' ' was the ordinary spelling-book, which afterward made way for 
Webster's " Elementary Speller." This latter book maintained its popular- 
ity for half a century. The spelling class closed the labors of the day. All 
who could spell entered the ' ' big class, ' ' and the rivalry was sharp as to who 
should rank first as good spellers. The class was numbered in the order 
in which they stood in line, and retained the number until a miss sent some 
one above them. Spelling-matches were frequent, and contributed largely 
to make good spellers. Grammar was not often taught, partly for the rea- 
son that books were hard to get, and partly because some of the teachers 
were not proficient in this branch of learning. When the science was taught 
the text-book was Kirkham, which, though of little real merit, stimulated 
a taste for grammar. The boys and girls went to the same school, but sat 
on opposite benches. 

It occasionally happened that teachers were employed who had learned 
that an elephant may be led by a hair, or more probably were blessed with 
gentle natures, and won the hearts and life-long affection of their pupils by 
their pleasant and loving ways; but these were exceptions. The standard 
of excellence was often measured by the ability and swift readiness to thrash 
the scholars on any provocation. Disobedience and ignorance were equal 
causes for the use of the ' ' birch. " " Like master, like boy. ' ' The char- 
acteristics of the one tended to develop a corresponding spirit in the other, 
and the cruelty of the one, with the absence, too frequently, of all just dis- 
crimination in the use of the rod, excited animosities which lasted through 
life. There were few boys of that day who did not cherish the purpose to 
' ' whale the master ' ' on sight, at some future time. 

When Christmas came the teacher was expected to treat the school. If 
he ignored this custom, through stinginess or some other reason, he was 
' ' barred out ' ' by the offended pupils. Arriving at the schoolhonse early 
in the morning, they would fasten the windows securely, pile the benclies high 
against the door, «,nd when the unlucky pedagogue api:)eared a struggle for 
possession and mastery ensued, which generally resulted in the capitulation 
of the building, only after satisfactory arrangements were made for the treat. 
Exciting stories about ' ' barring out ' ' the teacher in nearly every township 
of Hancock County have been told, the relators, who were generally partici- 
pants in this backwoods revenge, being now gray-haired men. 

The schools were supported by subscription, the charge being from $1 to 
$3 per term of three months during the winter, to begin at 8 o'clock in the 
morning with an hour to an hour and a half recess at noon, and close at 5 
o'clock. One-half of Saturdays, or alternate Saturdays, made part of the 
term. Writing was taught to all the larger pupils, and the only pen used 
was the goose or turkey quill, made into a pen by the skillful hand of the 
teacher. Mending the pens was an essential part of the work. Copy-books 
were made of sheets of foolscap paper stitched together, and copies were 
"set" by the teacher during recess, which were commonly taken from the 
maxims in use from time immemorial. Sometimes the teacher was partly 
paid in produce or other commodities, which were the equivalent to him 
for money, while his support was often obtained by "boarding around." 

The introduction of schools in one settlement was an incentive to their 
speedy adoption in others, and the foregoing description applies to all of the 
earlier schools and schoolhouses of Hancock County. The erection of saw- 
mills, and the opening up of wagon roads, brought about a better order of 


things, and plank, ^Ceather-boarding and glass took the places of clapboards, 
puncheon floors and desks, log benches and greased paper windows. The 
pioneer schools opened in the different townships of this county will be 
found fully spoken of in the eighteen chapters specially devoted to the local 
history of said townships, to which the reader is referred for more definite 
information on the subject. 

The gradual development and progress of education in Ohio was en- 
couraged and fostered by State laws that were the germs from which came 
forth the present common school system; and, believing that a brief synopsis 
"of these enactments would be valuable in this connection, the following 
facts have been compiled from the Ohio statutes, which will enable the 
reader to understand more thoroughly the history of the public school 
system up to the adoption of the constitution of 1851. On the 2d of Jan- 
uary, 1806. three trustees and a treasiirer were authorized to be elected in 
each township for the purpose of taking charge of the school lands, or the 
moneys arising therefi'om, and applying the same to the benefit of the 
schools in said township. In 1810 this act was more fully defined, and in 
1814 every scholar was entitled to his or her share of said school funds, 
even when attending a school outside of their own township. In ^^815 those 
moneys were distributed according to the time of school attendance, an 
account of which each teacher was required to furnish to the trustees, and 
the apportionment made accordingly. No act of any importance was then 
passed vmtil January 22, 1821, when a vote was ordered to betaken in every 
township for the purpose of deciding for or against organizing the same into 
school districts ; also for the election of a school committee of three persons, 
and a collector, who was also treasurer in each district. The inhabitants 
were authorized to erect schoolhouses in their respective districts on land 
donated or purchased for that purpose, said schools to be paid for by dona- 
tions and subscriptions, together with the taxes raised for that object. This 
act authorized that all lands located in said districts liable to State or county 
taxation were also liable to taxation for erecting schoolhouses, and for edu- 
cating the childi-en of those unable to pay for schooling. Parents and 
guardians were assessed in proportion to the number of childi'en sent to 
school by them, but those unable to pay had their assessment remitted, and 
such deficiency was paid out of the fund raised by taxation. Of course, 
the .moneys accruing from the school lands went into the school fund held by 
the treasurer of each district. 

The first general school law was passed February 5, 1825, and it pro- 
vided that ' ' a fund shall hereafter be annually raised among the several 
counties in the State, in the manner pointed out by this act, for the use of 
common schools, for the instruction of youth of every class and grade with- 
out distinction, in reading, writing, arithmetic and other necessary branches 
of a common education." This was in harmony with the constitution, 
which asserted that schools and the means of instruction should forever be 
encouraged by legislative provision. This act provided for a general tax to 
be levied for the fostering of common schools throughout the State, which 
was to be collected annually and used for general educational purposes. 
Three school directors were to be elected annually in each district, to trans- 
act the business of said schools, erect buildings, employ teachers, receive 
and expend all moneys derived fi*om any source, etc. The court of common 
pleas in each county was authorized to appoint annually ' ' three suitable 



persons to be called examiners of common schools, ' ' whose duties were to 
examine teachers for qualification and grant certificates, also to visit and 
examine the schools throughout the county. If any district neglected to 
keep a school therein at any one time for the space of three years, its pro- 
portion of the school fund was divided among the other districts in said 
township that employed teachers. The school fund of each county was 
taken charge of by the auditor, who distributed the same between the sev- 
eral townships. In 1827, this act was amended. The directors were in- 
structed to appoint a treasiu'er for each school district. Fines imposed by 
any justice of the peace, for ofPenses committed in any given district, were 
to be paid to the treasurer, to be used for the support of education in said 
district. Taxes were levied to build new houses and repair old ones. Every 
householder, whose tax was less than |1, had to pay that amount or give 
two days' labor toward the building or repairing of schoolhouses. The num- 
ber of examiners was increased, but at no time was it to exceed that of town- 
ships in the county. 

In February, 1829, a law was enacted providing more fully for general 
education, but the children of black or mulatto persons were not permitted 
to attend these schools, nor were such persons compelled to pay taxes toward 
their support. The official term of examiners was designated as two years, 
and their number to be not less than five in each county, nor more than one 
in each township thereof. Whenever the regular school fund ran short, the 
teachers, if not paid by voluntary subscription, were to be paid by those 
sending scholars to said schools. Often the regular fund did not pay for 
more than three months' schooling annually, so that even then the schools, 
though slowly improving, were anything but flourishing. The act of 1830 
did not materially improve them, and in March, 1831, the following clause 
appears in a law relative to raising the school fund. It says a general fund 
shall be raised ' ' for the instruction of the white youth of every class and 
grade," so that, although Ohio was a free State, a black man was debarred 
from the educational advantages accorded to his white brother, and, though 
his body was not kept in slavery, his mind was kept in ignorance as far as 
the State laws had the power to do so. With all this injustice the property 
of negroes was extempt from taxation for school purposes, which was at 
least a small grain of justice to the despised race. The school age was 
changed so as to include those between four and twenty-one years, and the 
number of examiners read ' ' not less than five in each county, nor more than, 
two in each township. ' ' 

On the 2d of March, 1831, an act was passed authorizing the establish- 
ment of a fund to be designated ' ' The Common School Fund, ' ' the income 
to be used for the support of common schools. All moneys arising from 
the sale of school lands were to be put into this fund, and the State guaran- 
teed a certain interest on all such moneys paid into the State treasury. 
The county auditors were authorized to draw said interest and distribute it 
among the several districts in their respective counties, to which said lands 
originally belonged. Donations and bequests were also put into this fund 
and used for the same general purpose. These moneys, however, were to 
be funded annually, until January 1, 1835, after which date the interest was 
divided among the several counties in proportion to the number of white 
males over twenty-one years of age residing therein. 

Up to this time women were not eligible as school teachers, for we find 


that an act was passed December 23, 1831, allowing directors to employ 
female teachers, but the directors had to signify in writing to the school 
examiners that it was the desire of the inhabitants of said district to employ 
"a female teacher for instructing their children in spelling, reading and 
writing only. ' ' The examiners were then empowered to give the lady * ' a 
special certificate" to teach those branches. It is unnecessary for the 
writer to comment on this injustice; he takes it for granted that the most 
illiberal of men will agree with him that this discrimination against women 
was a grievous wrong and unworthy of this great Commonwealth. In 1833 
other provisions and amendments were made to the school laws, whose 
object was to increase their influences, but no material changes were made 
in former ones. 

The office of State Superintendent of schools was created March 7, 1837, 
and made permanent a year from that date. He was elected by the General 
Assembly for a term of five years, but on the 23d of March, 1840, the office 
was abolished, and the Secretary of State required to perform the duties 
thereof. In 1838 a fund of $200,000 was provided for, to be annually dis- 
tributed among the several counties, according to the number of white 
youth, unmarried, between the ages of four and twenty-one. It was known 
as the "State Common School Fund," was reduced March 7, 1812, to 
$150,000 and again raised to $300,000 on the 24th of March, 1851. By 
Article VI of the constitution of 1851, it is declared that the principal of 
all funds accruing fi-om school lands, donations or bequests, "shall foi'ever 
be preserved inviolate and undiminished. ' ' It was enacted by the law of 
1838 that the township clerk should be superintendent of schools within 
his township, and this law remained in force until the reorganization of 
the school laws, in 1853. By this same law the county auditor was en- 
dowed with the position of superintendent of schools throughout the 
county. The number of school examiners was reduced to three members 
for each county, who were appointed by the court of common pleas. 

On the l(3th of March, 1839, an act was passed providing for the estab- 
lishment of night schools in towns, wherein male youth over twelve years 
of age, who could not attend school in daytime, might be instructed. This 
law also enacted that scholars could attend German schools and yet receive 
their quota of school money. Subsequently the German language was in- 
troduced into the schools as a part of the regular studies. 

On the 24th of February, 1848, a law was passed authorizing the estab- 
lishment of separate schools for colored children. This law was amended 
in 1849, and was thought by many to be contrary to the spirit of the con- 
stitution, but the supreme court declared it constitutional. Separate school 
districts were authorized to be organized and managed by directors chosen 
by the adult male colored tax-payers, whose property was alone chargeable 
for the suppoi-t of said schools. Colored children were not really debarred 
under the constitution at that time from attending the schools provided for 
white children, but it amounted to about the same thing, as the objection of 
any parent or guardian whose children attended said school prevented the 
attendance of colored youth. Thus the law existed imtil 1853, when the 
schools for colored children were placed upon the same basis as those for 
white. By the law of 1853, boards of education were directed, whenever 
the colored youth in any school district numbered more than thirty, to estab- 
lish a school for them. This law was so amended in 1864 that two or more 


districts could unite for the same purpose. Much trouble has been caused 
in different towns by the colored people insisting on sending their children 
to the schools for whites. In some places little or no opposition has been 
manifested, while in others a bitter struggle resulted. In the country dis- 
tricts and smaller towns white and colored children usually attend the same 
schools, and, as far as the wi'iter has investigated the plan, it seems to work 

The school law of 1853 made ample provision for the education of eveiy 
class and grade of youth within the State. We have seen in the preceding 
pages that those who participated in the organization of the Northwest 
Territory, and subsequently the State, recognized religion, morality and 
knowledge as necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind. 
We have also seen the gradual development of education from its earliest 
inception in the State up to its present permanent foundation through the 
law of 1853. Under the present law the State is divided into school dis- 
tricts as follows: City districts of the first class, city districts of the second 
class, village districts, special districts and township districts. To admin- 
ister the affairs of the districts, and to look after and promote the educa- 
tional interests therein, the law has provided for the establishment of boards 
of education in each district. These boards may acquire real or personal 
property for the use of their districts, and are required to establish schools 
for free education of the youth of school age, and may establish schools of 
a higher grade than the primary schools. They are to determine the studies 
to be pursued and the text-books to be used in the schools under their con- 
trol ; to appoint superintendents of schools, teachers and other employes, 
and fix their salaries. They are authorized to make such rules and regu- 
lations as they may deem expedient and necessary for the government of 
the board, their appointees and pupils. 

The State Commissioner of common schools is elected by the people, and 
his official term is three years. He is required to superintend and encour- 
age teachers' institutes, confer with boards of education or other school 
officers, counsel teachers, visit schools and deliver lectures calculated to 
promote popular education. He is to have a supervision over the school 
funds, and has power by law to require proper returns to be made by the 
officers who have duties to perform pertaining to schools or school funds. 
It is his duty to give instruction for the organization and government of 
schools, and to distribute the school laws and other documents for the use 
of school officers. He is required by law to appoint a board of State Ex- 
aminers, consisting of three persons, who hold their office for two years. 
This board is authorized to issue life certificates to such teachers as may 
be found, upon examination, to have attained "eminent professional ex- 
perience and ability." These certificates are valid in any school district in 
the State, and supersede the necessity of all other examinations by the 
county or local boards of examiners. Each applicant for a State certificate 
is required to pay a fee of $3. 

There is in each county in the State a board of examiners appointed by 
the probate judge, their official term being three years. The law provides 
that "it shall be the duty of the examiners to fix upon the time of holding 
the meetings for the examination of teachers in such places in theii- respect- 
ive counties as will, in their opinion, best accommodate the greatest number 
of candidates for examination, notice of all such meetings being published 


in some newspaper of general circulation in their respective counties, and at 
such meetings any two of said board shall be competent to examine to 
applicants and grant certificates; and as a condition of examination each 
applicant for a certificate shall pay the board of examiners a fee of 50 
cents. ' ' The fees thus received are set apart as a fund for the support of 
teachers' institutes. 

In city districts of the first and second class, and village districts having 
a population of not less than 2,500, the examiners are appointed by the 
boards of education. The fees charged are the same as those of the county 
boards, and are appropriated for the same purpose. 

There are, in the different townships, subdistricts, in which the people 
elect, annually, a local director, whose term of ofiice continues for three 
years. From this it will be seen that each subdistrict has a board consist- 
ing of three directors. These directors choose one of their number as 
clerk, who presides at the meetings of local directors, and keeps a record 
thereof. He also keeps a record of the proceedings of the annual school 
meetings of the subdistrict. The board of education of each township 
district consists of the township clerk and the local directors, who have been 
appointed clerks of the subdistricts. 

The law provides that "in every district in the >State there shall be 
taken, between the first Monday in September and the first Monday in 
October in each year, an enumeration of all unmarried youth, noting race 
and sex between six and twenty-one years of age, resident within the 
district and not temporarily there, designating also the number between six- 
een and twenty-one years of age, the number residing in the Western Re- 
erve, the Virginia Military District, the United States Military District, 
and in any original surveyed township or fractional township to which 
belongs Section 16, or other land in lieu thereof, or any other lands for the 
use of schools or any interest in the proceeds of such land: Provided, that 
in addition to the classified return of all the youth residing in the district 
that the aggregate number of youth in the district resident of any adjoin- 
ing county shall be separately given, if any such there be, and the name of 
the county in which they reside. ' ' The clerk of each board of education is 
required to transmit annually to the county auditor an abstract of the re- 
turns of enumeration made to him on or before the second Monday of Oc- 

The county auditor is required to transmit to the State Commissioner, on 
or before the 5th day of November, a duly certified abstract of the enumer- 
ation returns made to him by clerks of school districts. The law provides 
that ' ' the Auditor of State shall, annually, apportion the common school 
funds among the different counties upon the enumeration and retiu'ns made 
to him by the State Commissioner of common schools, and certify the 
amount so apportioned to the county auditor of each county, stating fi-om 
what sources the same is derived, which said sum the several county treas- 
urers shall retain in their respective treasuries from the State funds ; and the 
county auditors shall, annually, and immediately after their annual settle- 
ment with the county treasurers, apportion the school funds for their 
respective counties according to the enumeration and returns in their 
respective offices." 

The law provides that the school year shall begin on the 1st day of Sep- 
tember of each year, and close on the 31st of August of the succeeding 


year. A school week shall consist of five days, and a school month of four 
school weeks. The law also provides, in relation to common schools, that 
they shall be " fi-ee to all youth between six and twenty-one years of age 
who are children, wards or apprentices of actual residents of the school 
district, and no pupil shall be suspended therefi'om except for siich time as 
may be necessary to convene the board of education of the district, or local 
director of the subdistrict, nor be expelled unless by a vote of two-thirds of 
said board of local directors, after the parent or guardian of the offending 
pupil shall have been notified of the proposed expulsion, and permitted to 
be heard against the same; and no scholar shall be suspended or expelled 
from the privilege of schools beyond the current term : Provided, that each 
board of education shall have powei- to admit other persons, not under six 
years of age, upon such terms or upon the payment of such tuition as they 
prescribe; and boards of education of city, village or special districts shall 
also have power to admit, without charge or tuition, persons within the school 
age who are members of the family of any freeholder whose residence is not 
within such district, if any part of such freeholder's homestead is within 
such district; and Provided, further, that the several boards of education 
shall make such assignments of the youth of their respective districts to the 
schools established by them, as will, in their opinion, best promote the 
interests of education in their districts; and Provided, further, that nothing 
contained in this section shall supersede or modify the provisions of Section 
31 of an act entitled ' an act for the reorganization, supervision and main- 
tenance of common schools, passed March 14, 1853, as amended March 18, 
1864.' " 

Provision is made by law for the establishment and maintenance of 
teachers' institutes, which are established for the professional improvement 
of teachers. *At each session competent instructors and lecturers are 
employed to assist the State Commissioner, who is required by law to super- 
intend and encourage such institutes. They are either county, city or joint 
institutes of two or more counties, and the examination fees paid by teachers 
to boards of examiners are devoted to the payment of the expenses incurred 
by these instructions. 

Every youth in Ohio under twenty-one years of age may have the benefit 
of a public school education, and since the system of graded and high 
schools has been adopted, may obtain a general knowledge fi'om the alpha- 
bet to the classics. The enumerated branches of study in the public schools 
of this State are about thirty-four, including mathematics and astronomy, 
French, German and the classics. Thus, Ohio, which was in the heart of 
the wilderness one hundred years ago, and has been a State only eighty- 
three years, now presents to the world not merely an umivaled development 
of material prosperity, but a very good system of popular education. 



Internal Improvements— Hull's Trace— Opening of the Perrysbukg 
& Bellefontaine and Other State Roads Through Hancock Coun- 
ty—Pioneer County Roads— First Bridge Built Across the Blanch- 


ARD— First Mail Route Established Through the County— Joseph 
Gordon, the Veteran Mail Carrier— History of the Railroads— The 
Proposed Bellefontaine & Perrysburg Railroad— Findlay Branch 
of the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western— Lake Erie & Western 
—Baltimore & Ohio— McComb, Deshler & Toledo— New York, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis— Cleveland, Delphos & St. Louis Narrow (jUAGe — 
Toledo, Columbus & Southern — Proposed Railroad Enterprises that 
HAVE Failed During the Past Forty-seven Years. 

DURING the earlier years of the county's history Hull's Trace was the 
principal highway through this portion of the State. It was opened in 
1812 by the army of Gen. William Hull on its march from Urbana to the 
Maumee Rapids, and passed northward from the Scioto River through the cen- 
ter of Hancock County, traversing in its route what is now Madison, Eagle, 
Findlay and Allen Townships. Hull' s Trace could scarcely be called a road, for 
only the underbrush and very small timber were cut out so as to allow the 
gun-carriages and baggage wagons of the army to pass between the larger 
trees; yet nearly all of the travel fi'om Bellefontaine to the Maumee passed 
along this rude trace until after the organization of Wood County in 1820. 
Though the preliminaiy work of opening a highway from the Maumee 
southward via Fort Findlay to Bellefontaine was soon afterward commenced, 
it was nevertheless many years before anything that could be called a road 
was constructed through this county, and wagon paths blazed through the 
forest were the only means of communication between the scattered settle- 

Many, even of the oldest citizens of the county, are under the impression 
that the Perrysburg & Bellefontaine road is located on the site of Hull's 
Trace, but such is not the fact. The trace struck the south line of Hancock 
County, about half a mile west of this road, thence, passing northward, ran 
down the west side of Eagle Creek to Fort Findlay, where it crossed the 
Blanchard; thence in a northerly direction, about half a mile east of the 
Perrysburg road, imtil reaching the highlands on the middle branch of the 
Portage River, a short distance south of Van Buren; thence took a north- 
west course along the southwest side of that stream into Wood County, and 
thence onward to the Maumee. The vanguard of Hull's army followed the 
dryest ground it could find, and avoided, wherever possible, the swales which 
then abounded in this region. 

Early in 1820 the General Assembly passed an act, ordering a State road 
to be laid out from the Maumee to Bellefontaine; and on the 27th of May, 
1820, the commissioners of Wood County appointed Peter G. Oliver, ' ' road 
commissioner for the county of Wood, to assist in laying out the State road 
from Bellefontaine to the foot of the rapids of the Miami of the Lake. ' ' 


This is familiarly known as the PeiTysbiU'g & Bellefontaine, but sometimes 
called'the Urbana, road, and is located on the range line between Ranges 10 
and 11. Oliver entered into bond to lay out and let the contracts for open- 
ing said road from Fort Meigs to Fort Findlay, but it seems he did not ful- 
fill the conditions laid down by the board, and December 12, 1820, the com- 
missioners intimated thgit they would sue his bondsmen, biit gave him till 
February 1, 1821, " to finish his road, provided that the logs should all be 
removed out of said road by the 1st of January, 1821." The road was cut 
out as far south as Fort Findlay by the time specified, and accepted by the com- 
missioners February 21, 1821. From Fort Findlay to Bellefontaine the 
road was partly opened by John Enochs, of Logan County, about the 
same time. Nothing further relating to the road in this county aj^pears 
on the Wood County records till June 6, 1826, when the commissioners 
ordered ' ' that the sum of $400 of the 3 per cent fund appropriated 
for Hancock County, be expended on the Urbana road in the said county. ' ' 
This road could not have been satisfactorily opened through to Bellefontaine 
under the act of 1820, for another act was passed by the Legislature February 
22, 1830, " to locate and establish a State road from Bellefontaine, in Logan 
County, to Fort Findlay, in Hancock County ; and thence on the range line be- 
tween Ranges 10 and ll,to the foot of the rapids of the Miami of Lake Erie. " 
Thomas F. Johnston, Thomas R. McKnight and James M. AVorkman, were 
appointed State Commissioners to lay out said road, and Walter Clement did 
the surveying. The survey was commenced at the public square in Belle- 
fontaine, May 20, 1830, and completed the following month, though the 
plat of the survey was not recorded in Wood County until about a year 
afterward. In Aiigust, 1830, the commissioners of Hancocli County agreed 
that the tax levied for the several State roads in this county be expended on 
the Bellefontaine & Perrysburg, the Upper Sandusky, Findlay & Defi- 
ance, and the State roads from Marion to Findlay, each of which were 
ordered to be cut out thirty-two feet wide, and the ground cleared of all 
timber. Thus it will be seen that ten years after the Perrysburg & Belle- 
fontaine road was first surveyed, it still remained comparatively unopened, 
but through the passing years it has been gradually improved, until it is 
to-day one of the best roads in the county. 

In the fall of 1828 the State road from Marion to Findlay was laid out 
by Don Alonzo Hamlin and George H. Busby, State Commissioners, and 
Samuel Holmes, surveyor. It unites with the Bellefontaine & Perrysburg 
road immediately south of the Eagle Creek bridge near the south line of 
Findlay Township, and passes southeastward through this county. In Au- 
gust, 1830, the county commissioners let the contract for cutting out this 
road thirty-two feet wide and removing the timber therefrom. 

The Upper Sandusky, Findlay & Defiance State road was surveyed 
early in 1830, and the contract for opening it let in August of that year. 
The survey of the State road fi-om Lower Sandusky (Fremont) to Findlay 
was commenced in November, 1830, by John Bell and Daniel Tindle, com- 
missioners, and David Camp, surveyor. Rome (now Fostoria), was after- 
wai'd laid out on this road. The Findlay & Port Clinton State road was 
surveyed in the fall of 1831 by David Camp, the State Commissioners being 
William L. Henderson, Joseph Hall and Ezekiel Price. This road runs in 
a northeast direction from Findlay to Port Clinton in Sandusky County. 
On the 6th of February, 1832, the Legislature passed an* act to establish 


State roads through several counties, Hancock being one of those named in. 
said act. Under this act, Squire Carlin, Samuel Jacobs and Picket Doughte, 
State Commissioners, with William L. Henderson as surveyor, laid out the 
Findlay, Lima & St. Mary's State road in the fall of 1832. The State 
road from Findlay to Tiffin was laid out the same year, but it was not 
opened as we find it re-established in 1842 from Findlay to the east line of 
Marion Township, by order of the county commissioners. The Findlay & 
New Haven State road was established in the spring of 1833, beginning at 
Sandusky Street in Findlay, and running due east to New Haven, Huron Co. 
Case Brown was the State Commissioner, and T. C. Sweney, surveyor of this 
road. The Tiffin and Defiance State road was also laid out in the spring of 
1833, by Jacob Foster, James Gordon and Christopher Sharp, commis- 
sioners, and William L. Henderson, surveyor. It passed westward through 
Kome and Risdon (now Fostoria), thence continued in a southwest course 
on the county ridge road surveyed in March, 1832, from the site of Risdon 
to the site of Van Buren; thence in the same general direction to the east 
line of Pleasant Township; thence inclined northwestwardly to the Putnam 
County line. In the spring of 1834, a State road was established from 
McCutcheaville, via Big Spring, in Seneca County, to Findlay. Joseph 
C. Shannon, John C. De Witt and Frederick Waggoner were the commis- 
sioners in charge, and Thomas C. Sweney, surveyor. In 1835, a State road 
was laid out from Bucyrus toward Fort Wayne, Ind., passing through 
Williamstown in its route; and the same year the Findlay & Kalida State 
road was established; Charles W. O'Neal surveyed the latter road, and 
Parlee Carlin and James Taylor were the road commissioners. Some of 
these highways were afterward changed in places, and parts vacated to 
accommodate the people living along their respective routes, while several 
years elapsed before they were fully opened and fit for travel. 

All of the earliest county roads, in Hancock County, were established 
under an act of the general assembly passed February 2(3, 1824, authorizing 
the opening and regulating of roads and highways within the State. The first 
road petition found on record, in this county, was presented to the commis- 
sioners June 1, 1829, for a public highway from the east line of the county 
to Findlay. The petitioners were John J. Hendi'icks, Justin Smith, Joseph 
Whiteman, James Beard, John Huff, John Beard, William Ebright, Sampson 
Dildine, John Williamson, Andrew Robb, Thomas Cole, David Hagerman, 
John Long, John Shoemaker and Mordecai Hammond. In September, 1829, 
the road was viewed by John HuflP, John J. Hendricks and William More- 
land, Jr., with William Taylor as surveyor; Peter George, James Beard, 
Joshua Powell and John Boyd, chainmen; and John Long, Philip Ebright 
and Norman Chamberlain, markers. The road was established by the com- 
missioners September 16, 1829. It began at Jacob Smith's on the county 
line (now in Wyandot County), and is the present road running westward 
through Vanlue to the Blanchard; thence passing down the northeast side 
of the river a few miles, when it crosses to the west side, and thence follows 
the meanders of the Blanchard into Findlay. 

The second petition was presented June 7, 1830, for a road commenc- 
ing on the line between Hancock and Hardin Counties, near the section 
line dividing sections 35 and 36, Delaware Township, thence down the west 
side of the Blanchard to Godfi-ey Wolford's mill in section 11, where it 
crossed the river, and continued down the east side of the stream through 



the site of Mt. Blanchard until it intersected the county road to Findlay, 
laid out the previous fall, near the house of John J. Hendricks in Section 
12, Amanda Township. The petition was signed by Aquilla Gilbert, Asa 
Lake, Jesse Gilbert, Chauncy Fuller, Reuben W. Hamlin, Godfrey Wolford, 
John Wolford, Josiah Elder, William J. Greer, William J. Greer, Jr.| 
John Rose, Asa M. Lake, George W. Wolford, John Elder, Ephrai'm El- 
der, Absalom Elder, Andrew Robb, Justin Smith, Amos Beard, William 
Ebright, Nathan Williams, James Gibson, David Egbert and Joseph W. 
Egbert. The commissioners appointed Thomas Thompson, James Beard 
and Peter G;e^rge, . viewers, and Wilson Vance, surveyor, to lay out said 
road; Elijah Beard and Charles Gibson were employed as chain carriers, 
and Godfi-ey Wolford, marker. All of the foregoing were pioneers of Del- 
aware and Amanda Townships. The road was surveyed in July, 1830, and 
established as a public highway April 18, 1831. 

In March, 1831, a county road was laid out, fi'om the Perrysburg & 
Belief ontaine State road, south of Chamberlin's Hill, up the west side of 
Eagle Creek to Section 14, Madison Township, where it crossed that stream, 
and upon reaching the center line of Section 23 turned southeastward and 
continued in that direction till it intersected the Perrysburg & Bellefon- 
taine road near the southern boimdary of the county. This road followed 
Hull's Trace from Chamberlin's Hill to section 23, Madison Township, but 
the north part of it was afterward vacated. The petition, as presented to 
the commissioners March 7, 1831, was signed by the following well-remem- 
bered pioneers: Benjamin O. Whitman, Jacol), Joseph, John and Jacob 
Helms, Jr., John, Adam and Elijah Woodi-ufP, Conrad Line, John Decker, 
Nathaniel Hill, Simeon and Thomas Ransbottom, John and Griffin Tullisi 
James West, Joshua Garrett, Abner Hill, Abel Tanner, Aaron Kinion| 
Alpheus Ralston, John Boyd, Leonard Tritch, Squire and Parlee Carlin, 
Henry Shaw, John C. Wickham, Major Bright, William Dulin and Isaac 
Johnson. Of these Squire Carlin and Alpheus Ralston are the only surviv- 
ors. The commissioners appointed William L. Henderson surveyor, and 
Jacob Foster, Peter George and John Bashore, viewers. John Tullis, Adam 
Woodi-uff and Elijah Woodruff acted as chainmen, and Abel Tanner, 
marker. The road was established June G, 1831, and was a little over four- 
teen miles in length. 

The Benton Ridge road was the next highway established by the com- 
missioners, in -compliance with a petition laid before the board in the fall of 
1831, and signed by Squire and Parlee Carlin, Thomas F. Johnston, Levi 
Williamson, James Taylor, John Boyd, Matthew Reighly, William Taylor, 
Wilson Vance, John Groves, Joseph A. Sargent, William Dulin, Joshua 
Jones, William Moreland, Samuel Gordon, Joseph Johnson, William Fow- 
ler, Henry Lamb, Isaac Baker, Thomas Cole. Minor T. Wiclcham, Richard 
Wade, Zebulon Lee, Philip Cramer, John Mullen, John Cramer, Jacob 
Powell, Solomon Foglesong, Jacob Fox, Simon Cramer, William Lytle and 
Philip Cramer, Jr. The viewers appointed to lay out said road were Peter 
George, Isaac Baker and Thomas F. Johnston; William L. Henderson, sur- 
veyor; Frederick Henderson, Jonathan Parker, Stephen Lee, Reuben 
Baker, John Cramer, Henry Smaltz and William Greenly, chainmen; Mi- 
nor T. Wickham, Henry Baker, Philip Cramer and Adam Cramer, markers. 
The survey was completed in December, 1831, and March 5, 1832, the road 
was established by the board of commissioners. It begins at the west end 


of Main Cross street, and runs northwest about a mile and a half to the 
Sand Eido-e; thence, turning abruptly southwestward, follows the ridge to 
the village of Benton, and thence in the same general direction to the Put- 
nam County line. Immediately west of Findlay was a low, wet piece of 
ground, and instead of running due west on a line with Main Cross Street, 
the viewers concluded to avoid this swale by deviating toward the north and 
following the higher ground. Throughout pioneer days the Benton Ridge 
road was one of the best public highways in the county, especially during 
wet seasons when many other roads became almost impassable. 

In February, 1832, William L. Henderson laid out a road, beginning at 
the house of Aquilla Gilbert, in Section 24, Amanda Township, thence run- 
ning northeast, till it intersected the State road from Upper Sandusky to 
Findlay, at the farm of Judge Jacob Smith, near the Crawford County line, 
but now in Wyandot County. Joseph Johnson, John Rose and Joshua 
Powell were the viewers; Henry Treese and Andrew Beck, chainmen, and 
Hemy George and Aquilla Gilbert, markers. The petitioners for this road 
were Adam Allspach, John Fenstemaker, Andi-ew Beck, Thomas Cole, 
Samuel Gordon, Thomas Thompson, Samuel Sargent, Elijah and James 
Beard, Joseph Egbert, Michael Misamore, Joseph Craig, Aquilla Gilbert, 
Isaac Litzenberger, John Condron, John Longwith, Asa M. Lake, William 
J. Greer, Henry Treese, William Ebright, W^illiam Taylor, Godfrey AVolford 
and Elisha Brown. The road was established in March, 1832, and is one of 
the principal highways traversing Amanda Township. 

A coimty road was laid out in March, 1832, on the ridge from Risdon 
(now Fostoria) to the site of Van Bui'en, and established by the commis- 
sioners as a public highway the following June. Christian Barnd, Jacob 
Foster and Thomas Slight were the viewers, and William L. Henderson, sur- 
veyor. The petition for this road was signed by John and Micajah Gor- 
such, David Heaston, Thomas Kelly, Michael Thomas, John Norris, James 
G. Wiseman, Elijah and John McRill, John Hiestand, John Burman, John 
Trout and Abraham Schoonover. In the spring of 1833 the Tiffin & De- 
fiance State road was established over the same route, and continued on 
westward into Putnam County. 

Another early county road was established in Union Township in the spring 
of 1833. The petition was presented to the commissioners Mqrch 4 of that 
year, with the following names appended thereto: Wenman Wade, William 
Fox, Jacob Burket, Hemy Smaltz, Philip, John. Simon and Philip Cramer, 
■Jr., William M. Colclo, Alexander Hardin, Solomon Foglesong, Jacob Fox, 
Sr., Jacob Fox, Jr., Isaac Comer, John and Thomas Mullen and Solomon 
and Stephen Lee. This road commences at the Findlay & Lima State 
Road, near the southwest corner of Section 27, Union Township, thence 
runs north nearly two miles to the southwest corner of Section 15; thence 
northeast down the northwest side of Ottawa Creek, crossing that stream 
below the mouth of Tiderishi Creek; thence up the northwest side of Tider- 
ishi about a mile; thence due north to the Benton Ridge road. It was sur- 
veyed by William L. Henderson; John Byal and Asher W^ickham, viewers; 
Philip Cramer and Peter Folk, chainmen, and Simon Cramer, marker. 
From this time forward roads were rapidly established in every part of the 
county. Whenever a few cabins made their appearance in any portion of 
the county, or a new township was organized, a petition was presented for 
a road, and always granted. For many years after the organization of the 


county one of the principal businesses of the commissioners was granting road 
petitions and establishing public highways. But even the best roads were 
at times almost impassable, and outside of Findlay Township very little 
stone piking has yet been done in this county, and mud roads are the rule 
instead of the exception. 

The lack of means with which to build bridges, was one of the great 
di*awbacks in this county, and during high water the Blanchard, and doubt- 
less some of the smaller streams, had to be crossed in canoes or rude boats 
improvised for the pui'pose. A few cheap bridges were built in some of the 
townships before the first one across the Blanchard at Findlay was con- 
structed, but they were usually temporary structures in danger of being 
swept away by the first freshet. In March, 1842, the commissioners resolved 
to receive proposals for building two bridges over the Blanchard; one at 
Findlay, and another on the Findlay & New Haven State road, in Marion 
Township. Aquilla Gilbert, one of the board, filed a protest against the 
proposed improvements, claiming that Findlay was getting more than her 
share of the public moneys, and naming bridges that had been built in other 
parts of the county by the townships wherein they were located, without any 
assistance from the county. The contract for constructing a bridge at Find- 
lay was let in April, 1842, to Squire Carlin and Horace Eaton for the sum 
of 11,600, and the bridge was completed and opened for traffic in the fall 
of 1843. It was an open, wooden bridge, supported by wooden abutments 
and trestles, and was used nearly seven years before being replaced by a 
better one. 

On the 19th of April, 1850, a contract for a new, wooden, covered "lat- 
tice bridge ' ' over the Blanchard at Findlay, was let to Jesse Wheeler, Will- 
iam Klamroth and Edwin B. Vail, to be completed on or before November 
15, 1850. This bridge was 180 feet long, and eighteen feet above low water 
mark, with stone abutments and one stone pier in the center of the river. It. 
was a very substantial structure, and cost about 13,000. Besides the wagon 
track there was a foot path on each side, and when the bridge was finished 
it was regarded with much pride by the citizens of Findlay. It did good 
service for nearly twenty-three years, but the day of its usefulness finally 
passed away, and it was succeeded in 1873-74 by the handsome iron bridge 
now spanning the stream. The old bridge was sold to Dr. D. W. Cass, for 
$105, while the stone in the abutments and pier brought about .|900. Some 
of the timbers of this bridge were utilized in the erection of the grand stand 
on the fair grounds. 

The sum of $940 was expended in the erection of bridges in Hancock 
County in 1845; and about the time the second bridge over the Blanchard at 
Findlay was built, many good bridges were constructed in different parts of 
the county. The time had come when the people could no longer afford to 
plod along in the old way. The previous temporary stru.ctures were replaced 
by substantial ones, and new bridges made their appearance in many places. 
With the growth in population and wealth, good bridges became a necessity, 
but years elapsed before all this was accomplished, and the work still goes 
on fi-om year to year. Nineteen wagon bridges now span the Blanchard 
within the limits of Hancock County, two of which are iron, while two more 
iron bridges cross the stream on the boundary lines between Hancock and 
Hardin, and Hancock and Putnam Counties, half the expense of which 
was borne by this county. Bridges have also been built wherever any of the 


main traveled roads cross the smaller streams; and within the last fifteen 
years many substantial iron bridges have replaced the old wooden ones over 
Eagle, Ottawa, Portage and perhaps other streams in difPerent parts of the 

As the present handsome iron bridge spanning the Blanchard at Find- 
lay is recognized as the finest in the county, it will not be inappropriate to 
mention it briefly in this connection. August 1, 1873, the commissioners 
entered into a contract with the Wrought Iron Bridge Company of Canton, 
Ohio, to erect a one span iron bridge over the river at Findlay, 164 feet 
long, with a roadway twenty feet wide in the clear, and a footway on each 
side six feet wide in the clear, for the sum of $10,889.60. On the same day 
the contract for the stone abutments was awarded to Louis Bruner at the 
rate of $7 per perch of twenty-five solid feet, which, when completed, to- 
gether with the east wing, came to $4. 008. 90. The bridge was finished and 
accepted by the commissioners March 27, 1874, and warranted by the com- 
pany for thirty years from that date. It is a substantial structure and a 
credit to the builders, as well as a lasting monument to the wisdom and pub- 
lic spirit of the board under whom it was built, and to the people whose 
generous liberality rendered such a fine public improvement possible. 

Before the era of roads and bridges in this portion of the State, much 
of the goods brought to Findlay came in pirogues from Perrysburg via the 
Maumee, Auglaize and Blanchard Rivers, while furs and other products of 
the then sparsely settled country were often shipped to the lake over the 
same route by the traders and merchants of the village. A Government 
survey made in 1816 pronounced the Blanchard navigable from Fort Find- 
lay to the Auglaize, and many of the pioneers who located along its banks 
once regarded it as a navigable stream. The only boats, however, that 
have ever been used in the transportation of goods upon the Blanchard, 
were the clumsy, old-fashioned pirogues, made fi-om the bodies of large trees, 
and much resembling a huge trough. A little later goods and products 
were wagoned to and from Sandusky City, and goods shipped at New York 
came via Buffalo and the lake to Sandusky, usually arriving at Findlay 
from two to four weeks afterward. 

The first mail route through Hancock County was established about 
sixty-six years ago, fi'om Bellefontaine via Fort McArthur and Findlay to 
Perrysburg, with Joseph Gordon as mail agent. Gordon was born in Alle- 
gheny County, Penn. , January 29, 1784, and in 1801, ere reaching man- 
hood, began his career as a horseback mail carrier in Kentucky. In 1804 
he carried his first mail into Ohio from Wheeling, W. Va. , some fifty miles, 
and his route was soon afterward extended to Chillicothe. via St. Clairsville, 
Zanesville and New Lancaster. He subsequently located in Bellefontaine, 
Ohio, and in 1820 commenced his horseback weekly mail service from that 
town to Perrysburg. The Findlay ofiice was established in February, 1823, 
and was then, and for years afterward, the only postofiice between Bellefon- 
taine and the Maumee — a distance of over eighty miles through a dense, 
unbroken forest, where the hum of civilization was yet unheard. Gordon 
was the only carrier over this route till the close of 1839, when a change 
occurred and his route ended at Findlay. He continued in the service from 
Bellefontaine to Findlay — some eight or ten years longer or until the route 
was abandoned. Gordon is remembered as a kind-hearted, generous, trust- 
worthy man, and was of incalculable benefit to the early settlers of Hancock 


County in doing errands for them at Perrysburg and Bellefontaine. It is a 
sad ciiticism on our nineteenth century civilization that this veteran of 
the mails was compelled by force of circumstances to spend the evening of 
his eventful life as a pauper in the infirmary of Logan County. 

The railroads are the next in order of time, and perhaps the most im- 
portant feature of the county's internal improvements. In March, 1839, 
the General Assembly passed an act "to authorize the commissioners of 
Wood and Hancock Counties to subscribe to the capital stock of the Belle- 
fontaine & Perrysbiu'g Railroad Company and to borrow money. ' ' Under 
the provisions of this act the commissioners of Hancock, at a special meet- 
ing held April 26, 1839, decided to subscribe 1,000 shares, amounting to 
$100,000, to the capital stock of said company, and delegated Parlee Carlin 
a special agent to negotiate a loan for said amount in the citj^ of New York 
or elsewhere, at a rate of interest not to exceed 6 per cent per annum, 
the bonds to be redeemed in not less than twenty nor more than thirty 
years. The loan was never negotiated, as the project vanished into air, and 
few of the present generation are aware that such an enterprise was ever 

The Findlay Branch of the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Rail- 
road was the first railroad built through Hancock County. On the 19th of 
February, 1845, the Legislature passed "an act to authorize the commis- 
sioners of Hancock County to subscribe to the capital stock of the Mad 
River & Lake Erie Railroad Company the sum of $60,000, or such sum as 
shall be sufficient to construct a railway or branch from the main track of 
said railroad to the town of Findlay. ' ' The following month, in compli- 
ance with a provision of said act, the commissioners ordered the proposed 
measui'e be submitted to a vote of the citizens of Hancock at the suc- 
ceeding April election. The people voted in favor of said subscription by 
1,055 to 764," a majority of 291. On the 11th of April, 1845, the board 
subscribed $60,000 to the capital stock of said railroad, and on the 22d 
the first installment of $30, 000 in county bonds was issued. The same 
month Wilson Vance, William Taylor, John Patterson and William L. Hen- 
derson were appointed by the commissioners as their special agents to look 
after the interests of the county in its dealings with the Mad River & Lake 
Erie Railroad Company. In June, 1845, John Ewing and Jacob Barnd 
were added to the list, but the latter dying soon afterward. Squire Carlin 
was appointed, September 11, 1845, to fill the vacancy. On the same date 
the commissioners added $15,000 to the former subscription, making a 
total of $75,000 subscribed by Hancock County toward the enterprise. 

On the 19th of August, 1846, the railroad company, at a meeting held 
in Kenton, agreed to accept said subscription, the county to retain and 
negotiate the bonds, and construct a branch railroad from Carey to Find- 
lay; "Provided that said commissioners will within four years fi'om this date, 
construct said branch railway as aforesaid, free of expense to this company, 
and will also pledge therefor to this company the stock by them subscribed 
as aforesaid, there to remain until said branch railway be completed; and 
Provided, further, that said branch railway shall be constructed as aforesaid, 
under and pursuant to the directions of this company, at a cost not exceed- 
ing the estimate of the engineer of the same, to-wit: $86,429.29, and when 
completed to be the property of this company; and Provided, further, that 
said commissioners fm-nish and convey to this company, ground, fi-ee of ex- 


pense (not less than two acres in quantity), at said Findlay for a depot, and 
of such shape as may be surveyed by said engineer therefor, and also, free of 
expense to this company, secure the permanent right of way for said branch 
railway." It will no doubt surprise many of our readers that such a one- 
sided proposition was acceptable to the county, which was actually building 
a railroad and giving it to the company; but the people were so anxious for 
the road to be built that the proposition was gladly accepted by the com- 
missioners. On the 22d of September, 1846, the board appointed John 
Patterson, John Ewing and Hiram Smith, railroad agents, to transact all 
business in the building and completion of said branch from Findlay to 
Carey. They were authorized to borrow money, obtain the right-of-way, 
put the work under contract, and carry oiit all other business necessary and 
expedient for the furtherance of the project. In March, 1847, Hiram Smith 
resigned, and Charles W. O'Neal and William L. Henderson were appointed 
addttional railroad agents, and, with Messrs. Patterson and Ewing, served 
till March, 1851, when the office was terminated by order of the commis- 

The road was completed in November, 1849, and trains began running ere 
the close of that month. It was one of those old-fashioned strap-iron roads, 
similar to those first built through this State. Upon the bed, sleepers were 
laid lengthwise, placed apart the width of the track, the ties being laid 
crosswise on top of said sleepers. Two strips of timber were then laid on 
top of the ties, also lengthwise, and let into the same immediately over the 
sleepers, and upon these strips the rails, made of five-eighths strap-iron, were 
fastened. When all was finished the county had expended only $45, 500 of 
the amount subscribed, leaving a balance of $29, 500 of the subscription yet 
unissued. In 1852-53, an eflPort was made to furnish the road with T 
rails, the company making- a proposition to the county for the latter to issue 
bonds to carry out the improvement, and the former to issue railroad stock 
to the county for said amount, and guarantee that the dividends on said 
stock would be sufficient to pay the interest on the bonds during their term 
of existence. The railway company further agreed to considerably reduce 
the rates of transportation. The board agreed to the proposition, but the 
project finally collapsed, and nothing was done at that time. 

Though the subject of T railing the branch was afterward often talked 
of, it was not till twenty years after the road was built that the work was 
accomplished. In the summer of 1868, the railway company made a prop- 
osition to the county that if the latter would contribute $12,000 toward 
the enterprise the company would T rail, ballast and put the branch in good 
condition. Upon examining the records it was discovered that $29, 500 of the 
original subscription remained unissued, and that the county was still liable 
for this amount, whenever the company complied with the original condi- 
tions, and constructed the road on a permanent basis. This was brought to 
the attention of the commissioners in October, 1868, who, after taking coun- 
sel, were satisfied the county was liable for said amount, and gladly issued 
the $12,000 in bonds to assist in carrying through the much needed im- 
provement, the company releasing the county from all further obligation in 
connection with the original subscription. The work of T railing com- 
menced in the spring of 1869, and October 21 of that year a dinner was 
given at the Crook House to the president of the road and board of directors 
on their visit to Findlay in honor of its completion. 


The large frame warehouse at the depot was built before the road was 
finished, and as soon as completed the latter was leased by E. P. Jones, 
who operated the road and warehouse for about nine years. The company 
then took charge of the road, and engaged J. S. Patterson as their agent in 
Findlay. During these years this branch line was of incalculable benefit to 
Findlay, far more indeed than the average citizen is willing to admit. It 
supplied the town with shipping facilities, and thus built up its trade and 
population, thereby greatly enhancing the value of real estate. The road 
originally extended west on Crawford Street nearly to Main. From Findlay 
it runs in a southeast direction across the townships of Findlay, Marion and 
Amanda to Carey in Wyandot County, also crossing the southwest corner of 
Big Lick Township in its route, Vanlue being the only town on the line in 
this county. Originally operated by the Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad 
Company, the name was changed by decree of the common pleas court of Erie 
County, February 23, 1858, to the Sandusky, Dayton & Cincinnati Railroad 
Company, and the branch went by that name. In January, 1806, the road 
was sold, and in July following i-eorganized as the Sandusky & Cincinnati 
Railroad Company. On the 11th of January, 1868, a decree of the common 
pleas court of Erie County again changed the name of the company to the 
Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland. This company operated the road over 
thirteen years, and March 8, 1881, leased its lines to the Indianapolis, 
Bloomington & Western Railroad Company for the term of ninety-nine 
years to go into effect on the 1st of May following. The branch fi-om Carey 
to Findlay is about fifteen miles in length, and is now known as the Findlay 
Branch of the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Railroad, which has 
become one of the great trunk lines of the West. 

The Lake Erie & Western was the second railway built through this 
county, and it is yet the most important road that enters Findlay. It had 
its inception early in 1853, and was first conceived and advocated hr Hemy 
Brown, of Findlay, then a young lawyer, and one of the editors of the Han- 
cock Courier. He published an editorial in the Courier advocating the con- 
struction of a railroad from Green Springs via Rome (now Fostoria), Find- 
lay, Lima and St. Mary's to the Indiana State line, and sent a number 
of the papers containing the article to leading men along the proposed route. 
Charles W. Foster received one of the papers, and at once seeing the feasi- 
bility of the project drove over to Findlay, and, after talking the matter 
over with some of the monied men of the town, took Mr. Brown in his buggy 
and talked up a railroad feeling along the line as far southwest as St. 
Mary's. On their return a delegation from Fremont met Mr. Foster 
at Rome, and he told them what had been done. Fremont did not want the 
road to go to Green Springs, and induced Mr. Foster to favor their town 
instead. On the 25th of April, 1853, the Fremont & Indiana Railroad 
Company was incorporated, with a capital of $200,000, by Charles W. Foster, 
L. Q. Rawson, Sardis Birchard, James Justice and John R. Pease. The 
charter called for "the construction of a railroad from the town of Fremont, 
in the county of Sandusky, through the counties of Sandusky and Seneca to 
the town of Rome, in said county of Seneca; thimce through the counties of 
Seneca and Hancock to the town of Findlay, in said county of Hancock; 
thence throucja the counties of Hancock, Allen. Auglaize, Mercer and Darke, 
to the west line of the State of Ohio, in said county of Darke. " 

The people of Hancock County, at an election held in the spring of 1853, 


voted to subscribe $100,000 to the capital stock of the Dayton & Michigan 
Raih-oad Company, if said road was built through this county. The Day- 
ton & Michigan and the Fremont & Indiana Companies entered into an 
arrangement for the latter company to take advantage of this vote, and get 
possession of the bonds voted for the pui'pose of building the Dayton & 
Michigan road, which was never really intended to be located through this 
county. In August, 1853, 100 bonds of $1,000 each were signed and de- 
livered by the commissioners to L. Q. Rawson, president of the Fremont & 
Indiana Railroad Company, though the transfer was bitterly opposed by 
some leading citizens of Findlay. The commissioners also turned over to 
the same company $51,150 of stock and bonds held by the county in the 
Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad. The opponents of this transfer at once 
notified all the money centers that the $100,000 in Hancock County bonds 
issued to the Fremont & Indiana Railroad Company were fradulent, and 
would not be paid by the county. The company were therefore unable to 
sell them and in 1856 returned to the county $91,000 of the amount, also 
the stock and bonds which they held in the Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad. 
The remaining $9,000 of county bonds had been negotiated, and the party 
into whose hands they fell afterward brought suit against the county and 
collected the full amount of their face. The loss of these bonds was a severe 
stroke to the Fremont & Indiana Railroad Company, but the principal cap- 
italists of the enterprise, L. Q. Rawson, James Moore, Charles W. Foster, 
D. J. Cory and Squire Carlin, were experiened business men, and deter- 
mined to go forward with the project. 

The enterprise, however, progressed slowly because of the financial de- 
pression of 1856-57, and the lack of pi'oper encoui'agement from the people 
of the country through which the line was located. In the spring of 1857 the 
company began an effort to raise money along the route by personal subscrip- 
tion to purchase iron for the road. The iron and rolling stock was finally con- 
tracted for in the summer of 1857, but financial diificidties soon afterward 
stopped all further progress. In 1858 work went forward slowly along the 
eastern portion of the road, and by January, 1859, the track was completed 
from Fremont to Fostoria, and ere the close of that month a daily train began 
running between those towns. The following June a daily hack line was 
established from Findlay to Fostoria, connecting with the trains to and 
from Fremont. In the summer of 1859 the railroad bridge spanning the 
Blanchard was commenced, and track laying between Findlay and Fostoria 
went forward during the summer and fall, reaching to within one mile of 
Findlay, and early in the winter of 1859-60, trains began running to that point. 
The track was completed to the Findlay depot, on Main Cross Street, in 
March, 1860, and a train arrived and departed daily from Findlay. In No- 
vember, 1859, the large elevator near the depot was completed and put in 
operation by George W. Myers, and when the road was finished to the de- 
pot it found the elevator ready for business. Here the enterprise collapsed 
and the road was finished no further for more than twelve years. 

In December, 1860, the road was sold, and, January 21, 1861, the pur- 
chasers organized a new corporation, under the name of the Fremont, Lima 
& Union Railroad Company. On the 4th of February, 1865, this company 
was consolidated with the Lake Erie & Pacific Railroad Company, of Indiana, 
as the Lake Erie & Louisville Railroad Company. In July, 1871, the road 
was again sold, and the following November that portion of the line located 


in Ohio, and extending from Fremont to Union City, was reorganized as the 
Fremont, Lima & Union Raih'oad Company, and that lying in Indiana as 
the Lake Erie & Lonisville Raih-oad Company. These companies were once 
more consolidated, April 12, 1872, as the Lake Erie & Louisville Railroad 

In the meantime considerable effort was made to complete the road to 
Lima. On the 10th of May, 1870, the company held a meeting at Fremont 
and made a proposition to complete the road by February 1, 1871, on con- 
dition that the people along the line would subscribe $100,000 toward the 
enterprise, to be paid as follows: $25,000 when the road was finished to 
Rawson; $25,000 on reaching Bluffton; $25,000 on getting to Beaver Dam, 
and the remaining $25,000 when the first train passed over the road to Lima. 
Meetings were held all along the line to stir up an interest in the subject, 
and raise the subscription asked for by the company. But it proved slow 
work, and the effort was ultimately a failure. In January, 1872, a condi- 
tional contract was made by the company with Perkins, Livingston & Post 
to furnish iron and equipments to put the road in running order whenever 
the company secured sufficient local aid to grade, bridge and tie the line, 
which it was thought would take about $100,000 to accomplish. During the 
spring the route from Findlay to St. Mary' s was resurveyed, and, in June, 
Findlay Township voted to subscribe $78,600; Liberty. $5,000; Eagle, $10,- 
000, and Union $20,000 toward the enterprise. Work began at once, and 
July 15, 1872 agreements were entered into between the railroad company 
and said townships, by which the former, in consideration of said subscrip- 
tions, promised to complete the road to Lima within one year from that date. 
L. Q. Rawson, Charles W. Foster, D. J. Cory and Squire Carlin represented 
the company in these agreements. 

Track-laying was now pushed forward rapidly, and early in September, 
1872, the first train reached Rawson. Before the close of the same month 
the road was finished to Bluff'ton, and the last rail connecting Findlay with 
Lima was laid November 21, 1872. On the 29th a dinner to celebrate the 
event was given at the City Hall in Lima by the citizens of that town, the 
officers of the road and many leading business men from Fremont, Fosto- 
ria, Findlay, and other towns on the road, being present at the celebration. 
Though the weather was very cold, every station along the line was crowded 
to witness and cheer the loaded train as it sped onward toward its destina- 
tion. Regular trains were put on soon afterward, and by the spring of 1873 
its business was booming. In September of that year the road was opened 
through to St. Mary' s. Thus, after long years of vexatious waiting the peo- 
ple of Hancock County had at last a good competing railroad, and were 
accordingly haj^py. In February, 1877, the road was sold, and the com- 
pany reorganized under the old name of the Lake Erie & Louisville. In 
August, 1879, it was consolidated with the Indianapolis & Sandusky Rail- 
road Company of Indiana, under the name of the Lake Erie & Western 
Railway Company, and the following December that corporation absorbed the 
Indianapolis, Lafayette & Muncie Railroad Company. The link between 
Fremont and Sandusky City was afterward built, and the company has now 
a continuous line from Sandusky, Ohio, to Bloomington, ly. , a distance of 
353 miles. It enters Hancock County near its northeast corner in the city 
of Fostoria, and taking a southwest direction through Arcadia, Findlay, 
Rawson and Cory, leaves the county near the northwest corner of Orange 


Township, its main line within this county being about thirty miles in 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was built through the northeast corner 
of Hancock County in 1873, and opened for business Januaiy 1, 1874. 
Though it is one of the greatest trunk lines of the United States, and trav- 
erses a few miles of Hancock County territoiy, it can scarcely be regarded as 
one of her roads; yet the Baltimore & Ohio is of great benefit to the north- 
ern portion of this county, crossing Wood County from east to west only a 
few miles north of Hancock, thus furnishing first-class shipping facilities for 
the people of that section. 

The McComb, Deshler & Toledo Railroad Company was incoi'porated June 
2, 1879, by a coterie of McComb citizens, with a capital of $20,000, for the 
purpose of building a railroad fi'om McComb, Hancock County, to Deshler, in 
Henry County. This company entered into an agreement with the Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton Railroad Company to furnish right of way, grade, 
bridge and tie the road, and the latter agreed to lay the track and operate 
the road perpetually as a branch of the main line. Grading was commenced 
in the spring of 1880, and on the 2-4th of November, following, the first con- 
struction train came into McComb. On the next day (Thanksgiving) the 
event was celebrated at McComb by a grand dinner and a flow of oratory, a 
large delegation coming over the road from Deshler, and a few from Find- 
lay to participate in the happy festivities, more than 1,000 outsiders being 
present on the occasion. Regular trains soon began running, and the road 
has since proved a great convenience to the northwestern portion of the 
county. It takes a noi-thwest course fi'pm McComb to Deshler, passing 
through the village of Deweyville in its route, and about five miles of the 
road is located in Hancock County, the whole distance being nearly nine 

Many years ago the Tifiin & Fort Wayne Air Line Railroad Company 
was chartered to build a road from Tiffin , Ohio, to Fort Wayne, Ind. A 
road bed was completed across the north part of Hancock County, but the 
project then collapsed. In June, 1872, the New York Western Railway 
Company and the Continental Railway Company of Pennsylvania were con- 
solidated and reorganized at Indianapolis as the Continental Railway Com- 
pany, to construct a great trunk line through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and 
Iowa. The old bed of the Tiffin & Fort Wayne in this county was selected 
and regraded in the fall of 1872 as the route of the Continental Railroad, 
but that is as far as the enterprise ever got. The New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railway Company was incorporated in 1880 to construct a line 
from New York to Chicago. Findlay made an effort to secui-e this road, 
but it was finally located over the old Continental route in this county, 
from Arcadia westward, but running northeast from Arcadia to Fostoria 
parallel with the Lake Erie & Western road. Work began on this section 
of the line in the spring of 1881, and early in July the road was finished 
through this county and construction trains were in full operation. The 
' "Nickel Plate, " as it is commonly called, is one of the leading trunk lines of 
the country, and supplies the north part of the county with excellent railroad 
accommodations. It runs southwest from Fostoria to Arcadia; thence due 
west through Cass, Allen, Portage and Pleasant Townships. Fostoria, Ar- 
cadia, Stuartville, McComb and Shawtown are the towns located on this 
road in Hancock, and twenty-five miles of the line are within the county 


The Cleveland, Delphos & St. Louis Narrow Gauge Railroad was char- 
tered March 9, 1881, and during the summer work was commenced along 
the line, which had previously been located through this county from Del- 
phos to Carey via Arlington and Mt. Blanchard. The road was finished 
from Bluffton to Arlington early in the fall of 1882, and in December the 
construction train reached Mt. Blanchard. January 1, 1883, the road 
was formally opened by an excursion fr'om Delphos to Mt. Blanchard, 
and the following summer the line was completed to Carey. From Bluffton, 
in Allen County, the road runs due east across the north parts of 
Orange, Van Buren, Madison and Delaware Townships to Mt. Blanchard; 
thence takes a northeast course through the south part of Amanda Town- 
ship to Carey, Wyandot County. Besides Mt. Blanchard and Arlington, 
two villages — Jenera and Cordelia — have since been laid out on this road in 
Van Buren and Orange Townships, respectively. About twenty-one miles 
of the road are within the boundaries of this county, and, though it is an ac- 
commodation to the people living along its route, it will always be of very 
limited utility for shipping pm-poses until changed to a standard gauge. 
It is now called the Delphos Division of the Air Line Railroad, and as there 
is some talk of making it a standard gauge, the name will doubtless be again 
changed before the publication of this work. 

The Toledo, Columbus & Southern Railroad, formerly the Toledo & In- 
dianapolis, was chartered in May, 1881, and, in the winter of 1881-82, the 
right of way was obtained between Toledo and Findlay. All of the towns 
on the proi)osed line subscribed liberally toward the project, Findlay sub- 
scribing $25,000. Hon. T. P. Brown, of Toledo, was the leading spirit of 
the enterprise, and Patrick Dowling had the general contract for building 
and equipping the line. Work was commenced in the summer of 1882, and 
pushed rapidly, as the subscriptions were based on the completion of the 
road before the close of January, 1883. The first rail was laid December 
15, and the first locomotive ran into Bowling Green from Toledo on Christ- 
mas day. Early in January, 1883, the track was built to within a couple 
of miles of Findlay, and soon afterward reached the northern part of that 
city. January 30, the connecting rail was laid some fifteen miles north of 
Findlay in Wood County, and on the following day the event was celebrated 
by a dinner at that point. Though the last rail was in position the road 
was not then by any means completed, the bed being still in a very crude 
condition. But it was vitally necessary for the company to thus fulfill, 
technically at least, the conditions under which the subscriptions were ob- 
tained. The first through train came over the road from Toledo to Findlay 
February 7, 1883, but regular traffic did not commence before spring, and 
by May 15 the road was in full operation. A temporary depot was fitted up 
near the track of the Lake Erie & Western Railroad, east of Main Street, 
in North Findlay, and the new road got no farther till the summer of 
1885. The right of way was then obtained southward to the track of 
the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Railroad; a bridge was built 
over the Blanchard and the road extended across the river to the track 
of the latter railroad, whence it runs into the depot of said road. Late 
in 1885 surveys were made southward toward Columbus, and it is claimed 
to be only a question of time when this railroad will be built to the capital 
of the State. It enters the county fe'om the north about a quarter of a mile 
east of the Perrysbiu'g & Bellefontaine Road, and runs due south through 


the villages of Van Buren and Stuartville to Findlay. The route south of 
Findlay most likely to be selected, is also parallel with and a little east of 
the Belief ontaine road, via Arlington, Williamstown and Dunkirk to Kenton, 
though a survey has also been made southeastward through Mt. Blanchard. 
Officers of the company state that the road will probably be extended to 
Kenton, and perhaps Columbus, in 1886; and though it is now of great ad- 
vantage to the county, it will then offer far better facilities to both travelers 
and shippei's. 

In closing the history of the railroads it only remains to notice briefly the 
several roads that have been surveyed through this county, but never built. 
Mention has been made of the proposed Bellefontaine & Perrysburg Rail- 
road,' also of the survey made by the Dayton & Michigan Company, which 
was never really intended to be located through Hancock, and the Tiffin & 
Fort Wayne and the Continental Roads, In 1870 the Ohio & Michigan 
Railroad Company surveyed a road from Sturgis, Mich., r/a Napoleon andMc- 
Comb, Ohio, to Findlay; but that is as far as the project ever got. In 1870-71 
considerable effort was made to get the Mansfield & Coldwater road located 
through Findlay, but Fostoria got the prize; yet though the road was grad- 
ed and some of the rails put down, it was never completed. The Toledo & 
Columbus Railroad Company was chartered, in 1872, to build a road be- 
tween the cities named, via Findlay. Liberal subscriptions were voted by 
the several townships of the county, through which the line was located, but 
the supreme court afterward declared the act unconstitutional under which 
the subscriptions were made, and the scheme fell through. In January, 
1880, the Columbus, Findlay & Northwestern Railroad Company was incor- 
porated, to construct a line from Columbus, Ohio, via Findlay to Coldwater, 
Mich. Meetings were held and the people living along the route apparently 
took a deep interest in the success of the measure, but after a brief period 
of enthusiasm the enterprise collapsed and nothing has since been heard of 
it. The foregoing comprises all of the proposed roads, and though some of 
them would doubtless have been an advantage, the county now possesses 
good railroad communications with every portion of the country. 



Military History of Hancock County— War of 1812— March of Hull's 
Army from Urbana to the Mai'^iee River— Site of Fort Necessity, 
AND Line of Hull's Trace — Fort Findlay Erected and Garrisoned — 
Description of the Fort — Gen. Titpper's Campaign — Indians Pursue 
Capt. Oliver from Fort Meigs to Fort Findlay— Evacuation of the 
Fort by Capt. Thomas, and his Murder by the Indians— Pioneer PiEm- 
iniscences of fort findlay, and its final destruction— mexican 
War— The Great Rebellion— Sublime Patriotism of the People — 
Enthusiastic Demonstrations in Findlay at the Outbreak of the 
War— Stirring Scenes of Preparation for the Conflict— Enroll- 
ment AND Organization of Volunteers, and their SuBSE(iUENT De- 
parture FOR Cleveland— Brief Sketches of the Com^iands Wherein 
THE Soldiers of Hancock Served, also the N'ames and Promotions of 
Commissioned Officers in each from tpiis County— Number of Volun- 
MATED Number of Soldiers from the Whole County During the War 
—Relief Afforded by the County to Soldiers' Families— Good Work 
OF THE Military Co:mmittees and Aid Societies— Closing Scenes of 
THE Rebellion— Celebration at Findlay over the Capture of Rich- 
mond AND THE Surrender of Lee's Army— Joy Turned to Grief by 
the Assassination of Lincoln— Conclusion. 

"^TEARLY three-quarters of a century have elapsed since the arrogance 
JJN of the English Government brought on the war of 1812, and though 
it ended five years before the erection of Hancock County, the territory 
embraced therein was very closely associated with the earliest stages of that 
struggle for the preservation of our national rights. On the 4th of June, 
1812, a resolution was passed by Congress declaring war against England; 
on the 17th of the same month the bill passed the Senate, and two days 
afterward President Madison sent forth the edict. Ohio had been prepar- 
ing for the conflict, and prior to the declaration of war troops began as- 
sembling at Dayton, Springfield, Urbana and other points in obedience to 
the call of Gov. Meigs, and Gen. William Hull was appointed to the 
chief command of these troops. On the 16th of June the army left 
Urbana on its march toward the Maumee Rapids, and Col. Duncan Mc- 
Arthur was ordered in advance to open a road through the forest from the 
Greenville Treaty line to the Scioto River, "where they built two block 
houses, which they named Fort McArthur, in honor of the ofiicer whose 
regiment had opened the road. To this fort the whole army came on the 
19th, and on the 21st Col. James Findlay was ordei;ed to open the road as 
far as Blanchard's Fork, whither the army, excepting a guard left at Fort 
McArthur, again followed on the 22d. Here, amid rain and mud, another 
block-house was erected, which was named Fort Necessity. From this 
point the army soon after moved to Blanchard's Fork, where Col. Find- 
lay had built a block-house, which was named in honor of that ofiicer, and 
thence marched northward to the Maumee."* From the Greenville Treaty 
line to the Maumee Rapids the route of the army was through an unbroken 

♦American State Papers. 


forest, and as there were a great many baggage wagons and also some artil- 
lery, it was necessary to partially open a road the whole distance. The 
weather continued wet, and some of the time men and horses had to travel 
middle deep in mud and water. Frequently the van of the army had to 
halt and wait for the rear guard, which was often detained in reliev- 
ing wagons and horses from the mire. The army arrived at the rapids 
June 30, 1812, whence it proceeded to Detroit, and there on the 16th of 
August the campaign came to a disastrous termination through Gen. Hull' s 
disgraceful and cowardly surrender to the enemy without firing a shot. 

The quotation in the foregoing paragraph from the ' ' American State 
Papers ' ' might lead the reader to infer that Fort Necessity was located on 
the Blanchard River, but such is not the fact. Hull's Trace entered the 
southern boundary of Hancock County about half a mile west of the Perrys- 
burg & Bellefontaine State road, and Fort Necessity was constructed on 
the west side of the East Branch of Eagle Creek, in the southwest corner 
of what is now Madison Township. Several acres of forest were chopped 
down and a temporary fort erected, where the army encamped through 
necessity (hence the name) until Col. Findlay had the road opened to the 
Blanchard. Fort Necessity was never garrisoned, and Squire Carlin, Job 
Chamberlin, M. S. Hamlin, William Tanner, and many other pioneers, 
have told the writer that they never knew that a block-house was built at 
that point, as it was known throughout pioneer days as ' ' Mud Fort. ' ' The 
' ' American State Papers, ' ' however, mention the erection of a block-house, 
and, as it was not garrisoned, it may have been burned down by the Indians 
before the close of the war of 1812. From Fort Necessity the trace ran 
down the west bank of the East Branch of Eagle Creek to near its junction 
with the West Branch, crossing the latter and thence continuing down the 
west side of Eagle Creek to Fort Findlay. Here it crossed the river, and 
thence ran northward, a short distance east of the State road, till reaching 
the high lands south of the Middle Branch of Portage River; thence followed 
the meanders of that stream northwestward, into what is now Wood County; 
and thence to the Maumee Rapids. 

Gen. Hull left a small gan-ison imder Capt. Arthur Thomas, to complete 
and guard Fort Findlay. When finished, the fort consisted of a stockade 
about ten feet in height, with a two-story block-house, built of round logs, 
at each corner. The enclosure was fifty yards square, the entrance or 
gate being on the east side. A ditch surrounded the stockade, the earth 
■ from the excavation having been thrown up against the pickets to give them 
added strength. The outer walls of the block-houses projected a short dis- 
tance beyond the stockade, and the upper story of each extended a few feet 
over the lower one, thus commanding the approaches fi'om every direction. 
Each block-house was thoroughly loop-holed, and fiu'nished with one small 
piece of artillery. Within the enclosure a number of cabins for the use of 
the soldiers were built along the stockade, the open space in the center be- 
ing utilized by the garrison as a parade ground. To guard against surprise 
the forest was cleared off' for a considerable distance on the south, easi? and 
west of the fort, while the river on the north afforded a clear view in that 
direction. Though no attack was ever made on Fort Findlay, it was never- 
theless well calculated to successfully resist any ordinary force which the 
Indians could bring against it. The fort stood on the south bank of the 
Blanchard River, in Findlay, the southeast block-house being located on the 


site of Judge D. J. Cory's residence, on the northwest corner of Main and 
Front Streets. It was one of the many wooden fortifications, which were 
peculiarly adapted to Indian warfare, erected as depots for military stores, 
and to giTard the rear communications of the army. 

In July, 1812, Gen. Edward W. Tupper, of Gallia County, raised a 
force of 1,000 men for six months' service, principally from Gallia, Law- 
rence and Jackson Counties, who, under the orders of Gen. Winchester, 
rendezvoused at Urbana. From that village Gen. Tupper followed Hull' s 
Trace to Foi't McArthur, where he established his base of supplies, and 
then marched northward to Fort Findlay. After a much needed rest his 
command pushed on to the foot of the Maumee Rapids. The Indians appear- 
ing in force on the oj)posite bank of the Maumee, Tupper attempted to cross 
the river and attack the enemy, but the rapidity of the current, and the 
feeble, half starved condition of his men and horses, rendered the attempt 
a failure. The enemy soon after took the offensive, and, crossing the Mau- 
mee, attacked the American camp, but were defeated and driven back with 
considerable loss. This defeat caused them to retreat hastily to Detroit, 
and Tupper subsequently marched back to Fort Findlay, and thence to 
Fort McAiihur, where his siipplies were stored. 

The following anecdote, related in Howe's "Historical Collections," 
page 238, is so closely associated with Fort Findlay as to be worthy of a 
place in this chapter : ' ' About 9 o' clock one dark and windy night in the 
late war, Capt. William Oliver, in company with a Kentuckian, left Fort 
Meigs for Fort Findlay on an errand of importance, the distance being 
about 33 miles. They had scarcely started on their dreary and perilous jour- 
ney, when they unexpectedly came upon an Indian camp, around the fixes 
of which the Indians were busy cooking their suppers. Disturbed hy» the 
noise of their approach, the savages sprang up and ran toward them. At 
this they reined their horses into the branches of a fallen tree. Fortu- 
nately the horses, as if conscious of the danger, stood perfectly still, and the 
Indians passed around the tree without making any discovery in the thick 
darkness. At this junctiu'e Oliver and his companion put spurs to their 
horses and dashed forward into the woods, through which they passed all 
the way to their point of destination. They arrived safely, but with 
their clothes completely torn off by the brambles and bushes, and their 
bodies bruised all over by coming in contact with the trees. They had 
scarcely arrived at the fort when the Indians in pursuit made their appear- 
ance, but too late, for their prey had escaped. ' ' 

Fort Findlay was gan-isoned until the spring of 1815, and a man named 
Thorp kept a small sutler store immediately east of the fort during the 
period of its occupation. Soon after the war closed the fort was abandoned, 
and its garrison retm-ned to peaceful avocations. The Indians though sub- 
dued, still entertained very bitter feelings toward their conquerors, as the 
treacherous murder of Capt. Thomas and son will serve to illustrate. 
' ' Capt. Arthur Thomas, ' ' says Howe, ' ' lived on King' s Creek, three miles 
from Urbana. He was ordered, in the war of 1812, with his company to 
guard the public stores at Fort Findlay. On his return himself and son lost 
their horses, and separated from the rest of the company to hunt for them. 
They encamped at the Big Spring, near Solomon's Town, about five miles 
north of Bellefontaine, and the next morning were found killed and scalped. 
Theii- bodies were brought into Urbana by a deputation of citizens. ' ' 


There has been considerable difference of opinion among the pioneers of 
Hancock County as to the number of block-houses Fort Findlay originally 
contained, but it is apparent that it had one at each corner, though a 
couple of them had probably been torn down by the Indians before the erec- 
tion of the county in 1820. "When my father, Benjamin J. Cox," says 
Mrs. Elizabeth Eberly, of Portage, Wood County, ' ' located at Fort Findlay 
in 1815, there were three block-houses yet standing in a fair state of preser- 
vation, and another partly torn down. Many of the pickets enclosing the 
fort had been cut down by the Indians for fire wood. Very little remained 
of the block-house at the northwest corner of the enclosure, but the other 
three were occupied by some Wyandot Indian families, a settlement of whom 
we found around the fort. ' ' From several interviews held with the venerable 
Squire Carlin, of Findlay, the writer is of the opinion that some of the mater- 
ial in these historic buildings was utilized by Wilson Vance and others of 
the very earliest settlers for fire wood and to erect out-buildings, and later 
comers found but one block-house intact, which was used by Mr. Vance for 
a stable. This fact led many to believe that the fort originally contained 
but one block-house, which remained standing on the site of Judge Cory's 
residence for several years after the organization of Hancock County in 
1828. This too was finally torn down and removed, and with the passing 
years all traces of Fort Findlay were gradually obliterated. 

Mexican War. — The disputed territory lying between the Nueces and 
Kio Grande Rivers was the direct cause of the Mexican war. Texas, which 
had first won its independence and was afterward admitted into the Union, 
claimed the Rio Grande as the boundary line, while the Mexican authorities 
disputed this claim, asserting it was Nueces River. The United States 
Government proposed to settle the controversy by peaceful negotiation, but 
Mexico scornfully refused and made threats of occupying the territory in 
dispute. The Americans in the meantime had been preparing for war, which 
from the actions of the Mexican authorities seemed inevitable. In March, 
1846, Gen. Taylor was ox-dered to advance to the Rio Grande with a few 
thousand men, which he had organized at Corpus Christi, near the mouth of 
the river Neuces. He erected Fort Brown opposite Matamoras, which was 
accepted by Mexico as a declaration of war, and on the 26th of April, 1846, 
Gen. Arista, the Mexican commander on the Rio Grande, notified Gen. 
Taylor that hostilities had begun. On the same day a small force of Amer- 
ican cavalry was attacked by the Mexicans on the east side of the Rio 
Grande, and here occurred the first bloodshed of the war. Hancock County 
was then very sparsely settled, and when the call for troops reached this 
portion of Ohio the quota of the State was full. A company, however, 
was recruited from Hancock and Putnam Counties and offered to the 
Governor, who replied that their services were not needed. As far as known 
only four citizens went from this county into the Mexican war, viz. : 
Dr. William D. Carlin and Allen Royce, of Findlay, and Jeremiah Yates 
and Loami Farmer, of Eagle Township. But the progress of the victorious 
army from the Rio Grande to the City of Mexico was hailed with a patriotic 
enthusiasm all over the country. Some of the Whig leaders, however, 
affected to see in the war a scheme for the extension of slavery, and on this 
ground made many bitter speeches against it, but the patriotism of the nation 
was aroused and the Government was nobly sustained by the people in its 
triumphant appeal to arms. 

Cx^-c-tA^ CAyU)- 



The Great Rebellion. — Since the days of the Revohition, the people of 
this country were never so thoroughly aroused, as when the news flashed 
over the wires that Fort Sumter had fallen. From all sections of the Free 
States, there went up many voices, expressive of a tierce determination to 
sustain the Government and punish traitors. History furnishes few exam- 
ples of such patriotic devotion, and such unanimity of sentiment and feel- 
ing. Volunteer companies sprang into existence as if by magic; and large 
amounts were conti'ibuted by State Legislatures, private corporations and 
individuals to defray the expenses of the coming stiiiggle for national unity. 
Hancock County was fully in harmony with the patriotic sentiments of the 
nation, and enthusiastic expressions of loyalty to our time-honored flag fell 
from the lips of old and young alike. Findlay being the county seat, was 
the principal point where public sentiment found outward expression, and 
the action taken in that town will serve to illustrate the patriotism of the 
people throughout the county. 

Early on the morning of April 17, 1861, a few national flags were 
thrown to the breeze, the sight of which seemed to kindle a patriotic fire 
in every heart, and others followed in quick succession. Presently a large 
American banner was suspended across Main Street fi-om the Coui't House to 
Bead's Hotel. The town soon began to present a lively appearance, and 
when a band headed by the stars and stripes commenced promenading Main 
Street, the martial spirit in many loyal hearts broke forth in cheers. About 
10 o' clock A. M. , a cannon, owned by the local Democratic organization, 
was brought out, and, accompanied by several hundred citizens on foot and 
horseback, taken across the river and a salute of thirty-foui* guns fired in 
honor of the Union. The enthusiasm was unbounded, and party lines 
seemed to be entirely forgotten. Toward noon another large banner was 
suspended across Main Street, and flags of every size were floating from 
nearly every business house and many of the private residences. Two 
' ' liberty-poles ' ' were raised in the afternoon on the opposite corners of 
Main and Main Cross Streets, and the stars and stripes run up on each. A 
few days afterward four more flag-staffs were put up at different points on 
Main Street, ranging from fifty to eighty feet in height. The abundance 
of national bunting to be seen on every hand at this time gave to Findlay 
an appearance of a great military encampment. 

Pursuant to a call issued Wednesday, April 17, 1861, a large and enthu- 
siastic assemblage of citizens convened at the Court House on the following 
afternoon. Edson Goit was called to the chair, and Philip Ford and S. J. Mills 
appointed secretaries. Mr. Goit, on taking the chair, delivered a patriotic 
speech, which was frequently interrupted by outbursts of applause. He 
said the Government should be sustained at all hazards, and the man who, 
in this emergency, opposed the execution of the laws denounced as a 
traitor. On motion of J. M. Palmer a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Aaron Blackford, J. M. Palmer, A. P. Byal, W. W. Siddall and Israel 
Green, was appointed to draft resolutions expressing the sentiments of the 
meeting. During the absence of the committee the enthusiasm was kept 
at fever heat by patriotic, soul-stirring music and speeches. The band 
played ' ' Hail Columbia, ' ' and ' 'The Star Spangled Banner' ' was called for 
and sung by Messrs. N. Y. Mefford, Dwella M. Stoughton and William Mun- 
gen, the large audience rising and joining in the chorus. At the close of each 
verse cheer after cheer was given by the assembled hundreds, till the very 



building seemed to join in the enthusiastic patriotism of the people and 
echo back their sentiments. James A. Bope made a brief speech denounc- 
ing treason and secession, and calling upon all to rally around the flag. 
Amidst frequent applause William Mungen declared himself ' 'in favor of 
our country, right or wrong. ' ' The time, he said, was now past for party 
questions, and as a Democrat of the strictest school he asserted that in the 
present alarming condition of the country political questions should be for- 
gotten. William Gribben was the next speaker. He said that armed trait- 
ors had conspired together for the destruction of our Government; that our 
national flag had been insulted and trampled upon by the enemies of our 
coimtry; and declared the honor of the glorious old banner should be up- 
held. By this time the committee had retiu'ned, and the following pream- 
ble and resolutions were reported and adopted: 

Whereas, A band of armed traitors to the Government of the United States have 
leagued together for the avowed purpose of overturning the Constitution and laws of 
our beloved country, and to insult and strike down the ensign of our nation, which has 
given to the American citizen ample protection at home and abroad, and to our country 
consideration and dignity wherever its stars and stripes have been seen and known; 
and whereas, in pursuance of such treasonable intent, these traitors have once struck 
down that glorious flag, and now threaten with a myrmidon host in arms to seize our 
national capital, to trail our nation's honor in the dust and transform this free govern- 
ment into a cruel monarchy; Therefore, 

Besolced, That whatever differences of opinion have divided us in the past, to-day 
we are united, and are animated by one purpose, and that is an unyielding and undy- 
ing devotion to the Union and determination to stand by the Government and flag of 
our country. Living, we will stand shoulder to shoulder and fight in their defense; 
dying, we bequeath this purpose to our children. 

Resolved, That in the present civil war, so wantonly begun by traitors now in arms 
against our Government, the only issue presented to every American citizen is: Shall 
our constitional government stand against the rebel and revolutionary force that now 
threatens its destruction? Or shall it yield to treason for a despotism to be erected 
upon its ruins? "Be that is not loith us is against vs." 

Resolved, That as our Revolutionary fathers, with a firm reliance on the protection 
of Divine Providence, mutually pledged to each other their lives, their fortunes, and 
their sacred honor for the purchase of those civil and religious liberties by them trans- 
mitted to us, and that we have so long enjoyed; we, their descendants, with a firm re- 
liance upon the same Divine and all-protecting Power, mutually make the same sacred 
pledge to each other for the preservation and perpetuity of that inestimable inherit- 
ance by them bequeathed to us. 

Upon the adoption of the foregoing resolutions, Judge Palmer addressed 
the meeting in an eloquent speech full of patriotic devotion. James M. Neib- 
ling was then called for, and began by saying that fourteen years before, 
when only a boy, he shouldered his musket at the call of his country to as- 
sist in chastising Mexican arrogance, and he was ready to go again if his 
country' s cause demanded his services. This declaration was received with 
unbounded applause. After some fm-ther remarks on the necessity of 
united and immediate action, he presented the roll of enlistment for volun- 
teers, under the call of President Lincoln for 75,000 men, issued three 
days before. In a brief time seventy-two names were down upon the roll, 
and the meeting then adjourned with cheers and expressions of loyalty to 
the flag. The volunteers were formed into line by Colonel Neibling, and, 
' escorted by the band, marched down Main Street and disbanded, to meet 
for another rally on Tuesday, April 28, which had been announced before 
the adjournment of the meeting. 

The news went abroad for a grand rally at Findlay on that day, and 
never before were so many people seen in the town. They came from every 


part of the county, all seeming to be moved by the one pervading sentiment 
of loyalty. Nothing was talked of but the defense and preservation of the 
Government, and in this great cause none were more deeply enlisted than 
the old gi-ay-headed veterans who had so long enjoyed its blessings. Scores 
of pioneers publicly declared their readiness to shoulder a musket and 
march to the defense of their country. All seemed to be imbued with that 
same spirit of patriotic devotion and sacrifice which nerved the Revolution- 
aiy fathers to win that glorious boon of liberty we now enjoy. Party preju- 
dice was set aside, and all labored together, hand in hand, in that noble 
work of preserving the national honor. 

By this time three companies of volunteers had been raised in Hancock 
County, which were afterward mustered into the Twenty-first Regiment 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry as Companies A, F and G. The officers of Com- 
pany A were James Wilson, captain; Dwella M. Stoughton, first lieu- 
tenant; George Foreman, second lieutenant. Company F was officered 
by George F. Walker, captain; Morgan D. Shafer, first lieutenant; Joseph 
E. Stearns, second lieutenant. Company F was commanded by R. Heniy 
Lovell, captain; Joshua S. Preble, first lieutenant: J. J. A. Thrapp, sec- 
ond lieutenant. In the afternoon companies A and F were each presented 
by the ladies of Findlay with a handsome flag. The presentation took place 
in fi'ont of the Court House, in the presence of the large assemblage which had 
come together on that day to attest their unswerving loyalty. Mrs. James 
M. Neibling made the presentation speech, and the flags were respectively 
received by Captains Wilson and Walker on behalf of their companies. 

The volunteers rendezvoused at the fair ground, then located in East 
Findlay on the Mt. Blanchard road, which was dedicated as " Camp Neib- 
ling" in honor of the gallant Col. James M. Neibling, who was ever foremost in 
promoting the good cause, and who afterward commanded the Twenty-fiz'st 
Regiment on many a bloody field. On the 25th of April Mrs. Mary Mun- 
gen, on behalf of the ladies of Findlay, presented a flag to Company G; 
but on the following day a delegation of ladies fi'om McComb put in an ap- 
pearance at Camp Neibling and presented another flag to the same com- 
pany, most of which command were from the northwest part of the county. 
Miss Addie M. Price presented the beautiful banner, and Capt. Lovell re- 
ceived it and responded in appropriate terms. 

On Saturday, April 27, a mass meeting was held at the Court House for 
the purpose of arranging for a more thorough military organization of the 
county. James M. Neibling was elected chairman, and Daniel B. Beardsley, 
secretary. Speeches were made by Messrs. James M. Neibling, Aaron 
Blackford and Abel F. Parker, advocating the proposed measure; and com- 
mittees were appointed in each township to carry the project into effect. 
Meetings were soon afterward held in nearly every township, military compan- 
ies organized, and the patriotic ardor of the people was unabated. Several 
companies of home guards were also formed, consisting of men over forty- 
five years of age ; but these organizations subsequently disbanded, because the 
term ' 'Home Guard ' ' soon became one of reproach, and was flippantly used 
to designate stay-at-homes, or a class who were afraid to go into the army. 

Up to this period, $3,965 had been raised by private subscription as a 
" Volunteer Aid Fund " for the families of volunteers, and the good work 
was still going on. April 29, a ' 'Volunteer Relief Committee' ' was organized 
to distribute said fund, consisting of Messrs. William H. Wheeler, Israel 


Green, William C. Cox, B. B. Barney and Ezra Brown. This organization 
did efficient work during the first stages of the war, or until the ' ' Military- 
Committee" and "Soldiers' Aid Society" took its place. 

The three companies at Camp Neibling were finally notified to prepare 
for active duty, and Monday, May 6, Company A was ordered to Carey. It 
was escorted to the depot by Companies F and G, headed by the two fire 
companies in uniform and the Citizens' Band. A large crowd was at the 
depot to witness their departure. End the scenes enacted, are still vividly 
remembered. As the train moved slowly away, cheer after cheer was given 
by the assemblage for .the departing volunteers. Five days afterward Com- 
panies F and G left Findlay for Cleveland via the Fremont & Indiana Eail- 
road. They were escorted to the depot by the Citizens' Band, and accom- 
panied by nearly 2,000 people, who turned out en masse to bid them God 
speed. Company A left Carey for Cleveland on the same day. The three 
companies arrived at Camp Taylor the day of their departure, and were soon 
after mustered into the Twenty-first Regiment, which had been organized at 
CampTaylor April 27, and James M. Neibling, of Findlay, was elected lieuten- 
ant colonel. On the 22d of May, Companies A and F left Camp Taylor for 
Jackson County, Ohio, whither the balance of the regiment followed on the 
24th, and subsequently went into camp near Gallipolis. The regiment did 
some service in Western Virginia, part of it being engaged in the battle of 
Scarey Creek, but its experience in the field was limited, and only prepara- 
tory for what was coming. Cyrus Hemry, of Pleasant Township, who was 
drowned in the Ohio River, and Eli S. Reed, of Findlay, commissary of 
the regiment, who died at Cincinnati, were the only deaths which occurred 
in the companies from Hancock County during their three months' service. 
The regiment remained in the field till its term of service expired, and was 
mustered out at Columbus, Ohio, August 12, 1861. 

Toward the close of August a military rendezvous, named "Camp Vance," 
in honor of Wilson Vance, of Findlay, was established for the Twenty-first 
Regiment up the Blanchard River, on the Baker farm, and the companies 
recruiting for the three years' service went into camp at that point. Here the 
regiment was reorganized, and mustered in for three years September 19, 
1861. Lieut-Col. Neibling retained*the same rank in the new organization; 
and Robert S. Miingen, of Findlay, became quartermaster. Four com- 
panies from Hancock County were mustered into the Twenty-first, viz. : Com- 
pany A — captain, Dwella M. Stoughton; first lieutenant, John A. Williams; 
second lieutenant, George Foreman. Company B — captain, George F. Wal- 
ker; first lieutenant, William Vance; second lieutenant, Joseph E. Stearns. 
Company F — captain, Henry H. Alban; first lieutenant, John C. Martin; 
second lieutenant, Alexander A. Monroe. Company G — captain, Isaac 
Cusac; first lieutenant, James Porter; second lieutenant, Simon B. Web- 
ber. The regiment left Findlay for Camp Dennison September 26, where 
it was supplied with arms, and early in October marched into Kentucky. 
Its first engagement was at Ivy Mountain, where the Union troops were 
commanded by Gen. Nelson, soon after which the Federals returned 
to Louisville. The army was reorganized under Gen. Buell, and 
the Twenty-first pai'ticipated in the capture of Bowling Green, Ky., 
and Nashville, Murfi-eesboro and Huntsville, Tenn. During the reb- 
els' siege of Nashville, in the fall of 1862, the regiment did such 
gallant service that Gen. Rosecrans issyied a special order compliment- 


ing it for its efficiency on the grand guard around that city. From this 
time forward the Twenty-first followed the fortunes of Rosecrans' army 
around Murfi-eesboro and Chattanooga. It fought with great desperation 
and valor in the bloody battles of Stone River and Chickamauga, Lieut. -Col. 
Stoughton being so severely wounded in the latter fight that he died at 
Findlay, November 20, 1863, just two months after that battle took place. 
The regiment retired with the army to Chattanooga, and subsequently was 
present at the battle of Mission Ridge. In January, 1864, almost the entire 
command, then numbering only about 300 men, veteranized, and 160 of the 
survivors from Hancock County returned to their homes on a thirty days' 
furlough. After resting and recruiting the Twenty- first again took the 
field and participated in the celebated Atlanta campaign, and subsequently 
in Sherman's historic "march to the sea." Early in the Atlanta campaign, 
at New Hope Church, May 28, Col. Neibling had his right arm so badly 
shattered that it was afterward amputated, and he was honorably discharged 
fi'om the service. Upon the capture of Richmond and the surrender of the 
rebel armies under Lee and Johnston, the Union army returned to Washing- 
ton, where the Twenty-first was present at the grand review May 26, 1865. 
It was mustered out of service at Louisville, Ky. , July 25, 1865, and thence 
proceeded to Columbus, Ohio, where, on the 28th of July, it was paid off and 
discharged. Its unflinching bravery in battle won for the Twenty-fii'st the 
sobriquet of " The Fighting Regiment," and the survivors of this command 
are proud of its brilliant record. 

The following officers from Hancock County served in the Twent-First 
Regiment, from its reorganization for three years: James M. Neibling, mus- 
tered in as lieutenant-colonel September 19, 1861; promoted to colonel 
December 20, 1862; lost right arm at the battle of New Hope Church, and 
was honorably discharged December 6, 1864. In June, 1863, Col. Neibling 
was presented by his regiment with a magnificent sword and spurs, costing 
nearly $500, as a mark of their esteem and confidence in him as a com- 
mander. Robert Mungen, mustered in as quartermaster September 19, 
1861, subsequently became brigade quartermaster. Dwella M. Stough- 
ton, mustered in as captain September 19, 1861; promoted to major October 
3, 1862, and to lieutenant- colonel December 20, 1862; died at Findlay 
November 20, 1863, of wounds received in the battle of Chickamauga. 
George F. Walker, mustered in as captain September 19, 1861; j^romoted 
to major December 20, 1862; resigned June 14, 1863. Henry H. Alban, 
mustered in as captain September 19, 1861; honorably discharged March 
8, 1865. Isaac Cusac, mustered in as captain September 19, 1861; pro- 
moted to major February 29, 1864; mustered out with the regiment. John 
A. Williams, mustered in as first lieutenant September 19, 1861 ; resigned 
January 8, 1862. William Vance, mustered in as first lieutenant September 
19, 1861; resigned December 5, 1862. John C. Martin, mustered in as first 
lieutenant September 19, 1861; promoted to captain April 9, 1862; com- 
mission returned; again promoted to the same rank February 29, 1864, and 
to major July 12, 1865; mustered out with the regijnent. James Portei', 
mustered in as first lieutenant September 19, 1861, and mustered out Sep- 
tember 20, 1864. George Foreman, mustered in as second lieutenant Sep- 
tember 19, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant February 3, 1862; honorably 
discharged September 11, 1862, and reinstated November 18, 1862. Joseph 
E. Stearns, mustered in as second lieutenant September 19, 1861; promoted 


to first lieutenant February 3, 1862; commission revoked, and August 26, 
1862, lie was appointed by the President assistant adjutant-general, with 
the rank of captain. Alexander A. Monroe, ^mustered in as second lieuten- 
ant September 19, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant December 5, 1862; 
resigned May 21, 1868. Simon B. Webber, mustered in as second lieuten- 
ant September 19, 1861; resigned with same rank. Daniel Lewis, promoted 
to second lieutenant February 8, 1862; to first lieutenant November 18, 
1862; and to captain February 29, 1864, having also succeeded Robert S. 
Mungen, as quartermaster; killed July 21, 1864. Eobert S. Dillsworth, 
promoted to second lieutenant March 1, 1862, and to first lieutenant June 
18, 1868; killed June 27, 1864. Thomas B. Lamb, promoted to second 
lieutenant August 26, 1862, and to first lieutenant February 29, 1864; 
resio-ned January 8, 1865. Daniel Richards, promoted to second lieutenant 
November 18, 1862, and to first lieutenant February 29, 1864; discharged 
January 31, 1865. Jacob L. Keller, promoted to second lieutenant December 5, 
1862; to first lieutenant February 29, 1864, and to captain May 11,1865; mus- 
tered out with the regiment. Wilson J.Vance, promoted to second lieutenant 
May 2, 1863, and to first lieutenant December 30, 1863 ; resigned April 2, 1864. 
Wilson W. Brown, promoted to second lieutenant May. 18, 1863, and to 
first lieutenant January 20, 1865; discharged as an enlisted man. John R. 
Porter, promoted to second lieutenant June 13, 1868, and to first lieuten- 
ant January 28, 1865 ; declined last promotion, and was mustered out 
March 31, 1865. James Blakely, promoted to second lieutenant September 
14,1863; killed September 20, 1863, at Chickamauga. William Welker, pro- 
moted to second lieutenant February 29, 1864; to first lieutenant January 
28, 1865, and to captain May 18, 1865; mustered out as second lieutenant 
May 15, 1865. Christian B. Sholty, promoted to second lieutenant Febru- 
ary 29, 1864; to first lieutenant February 10, 1865, and to captain July 
12, 1865; mustered out with regiment. David McClintock, promoted to 
second lieutenant February 29, 1864; to first lieutenant February 10, 1865, 
and to captain July 12, 1865; mustered out as first lieutenant. John H. 
Bolton, promoted to first lieutenant May 18, 1865, and to captain July 12, 
1865; mustered out with regiment. Robert F. Bonham, Philip Wilch, 
Quincy A. Randall and Jeremiah E. Milhoof were all promoted to first, lieu- 
tenants July 12, 1865; mustered out with the regiment. Bonham declined 
promotion. Squire J. Carlin, promoted to captain July 12, 1865; mustered 
out with the regiment. 

The Thirty -first Ohio Volunteer Infantry comes next in the order of 
time, being organized at Camp Chase in August, 1861, with Moses B. Walker, 
of Findlay, as colonel of the regiment. The Thirty-first, however, 
had only a few men from Hancock County, and its history is not regarded 
with much interest by the people of this portion of the State. Besides Col. 
Walker, his nejohew, Capt. George F. Walker, of Findlay, formerly 
of the Twenty-first Regiment, was appointed to a captaincy in the Thirty- 
first January 11, 1864, and promoted to major June 20, 1865. The regi- 
ment made a good record, and its deeds of valor are fully mentioned in 
Reid's "Ohio in the War." Col. Walker was mustered oat with his reg- 
iment as brevet brigadier -general of volunteers July 20, 1865, and subse- 
quently retired with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the regular army. 

The Forty-ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry received one full company 
fi-om Hancock County, commanded by Albert Langworthy, captain; Samuel 


P. Gray, first lieutenant, and James W. Davidson, second lieutenant. 
The regiment was organized at Camp Noble, near Tiffin. Ohio, in August, 

1861, and besides the company raised at Findlay, it received a good many 
recruits into other companies. Captain Langwoi-thy' s command was mus- 
tered in as Company A, August 22, 1801, and left with the regiment for 
Camp Dennison September H), where the men were equipped. The Forty- 
ninth reported to Gen. Robert Anderson at Louisville, Ky. , September 22, 
and the same evening took cars for Lebanon Junction to join the forces then 
under Gen. W. T. Sherman. Its first skirmish with the rebels took place 
in December, on Green River, where the regiment went into camp and re- 
mained till the following Februaiy, when it marched to Bowling Green, 
Ky., and Nashville, Tenn. Here it went into camp till the IGth of March, 

1862, when it moved with Bueir s army to join Grant at Pittsburg Land- 
ing, and participated in the second day' s fight. It took part in the seige of 
Corinth, and was engaged in duty in that vicinity until the movement after 
Bragg' s army, which was then threatening Louisville and Cincinnati, was 
inaugurated. From Louisville the regiment moved with the army in pursuit 
of Bragg, and was with the advance that raised the seige of Nashville. The 
Foi*ty-ninth served under Rosecrans in his movements around Murfreesboro 
and Chattanooga, and lost many of its brave officers and men in that campaign. 
At the battle of Chickamauga the regiment was commanded by Maj. Sam- 
uel F. Gray, and did gallant service. The army under Rosecrans was then 
shut up in Chattanooga till the defeat of the rebels at Mission Ridge, where 
the Forty-ninth was conspicuous for its gallantry. Immediately after this 
battle the regiment moved with the corps sent to the relief of Knoxville; 
but ere reaching that point learned that the rebels were repulsed, and after 
a long, severe march, returned to Chattanooga. Here most of the regiment 
re-enlisted and returned to Ohio on furlough, the survivors of Company A 
arriving at Findlay February 11, 1864. On the expiration of tlioir fur- 
lough the brave boys of the Forty-ninth again took the field, the ro j^iment 
strengthened by hundreds of new recruits. The movement against Atlanta 
soon afterward began, the Forty-ninth taking an active part in that cam- 
paign, and suffering severe loss in the bloody battles fought around Atlanta. 
When Sherman commenced his "march to the sea, " the Army of the Cum- 
berland, to which the Forty-ninth belonged, was left to look after Hood, 
whom it defeated at Franklin and Nashville. Upon the close of this cam- 
paign the regiment was sent, via New Orleans, to Texas, mustered out at 
Victoria November 30, 1865, and subsequently discharged at Camp Chase, 

The following citizens fi'om Hancock County served in the Forty-ninth 
as commissioned officers: Albert Langworthy, elected captain August 22, 
1861; resigned June 22, 1862. Benjamin S. Porter, elected captain August 
24, 1861; promoted to major September 30, 1862, and to lieutenant-colonel 
January 1, 1863 ; appointed major in invalid corps July 2, 1863. Amos 
Keller, elected captain August 24, 1861; killed at Stone River January 1, 

1863, Samuel F. Gray, elected first lieutenant August 22, 1861; promoted to 
captain January 9, 1862; to major January 1, 1863, and to lieutenant-col- 
onel October 4, 1863 ; resigned October 4, 1864. James W. Davidson, 
elected second lieutenant August 22, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant Jan- 
uary 9, 1862; resigned July 27, 1863. Thomas J. Ray, promoted to second 
lieutenant June 30, 1862; to first lieutenant June 24, 1863, and to captain 


August 11, 18G4; mustered out with regiment. Charles Wallace, promoted 
to second lieutenant June 24, 18(33, and to first lieutenant May 9, 18G4; 
killed at Kenesaw June 21, 1864. George S. Crawford, promoted to second 
lieutenant July 27, 18G3; to first lieutenant May 9, 1864, and to captain 
December 21, 1864; mustered out with the i-egiment at Victoria, Tex. 

The Fifty -seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, like the Twenty-first, was 
largely recruited in Hancock County, and also partially organized at Camp 
Vance, near Findlay. William Mungen, of Findlay, was also the first colo- 
nel of the regiment, and largely instrumental in raising it; while Dr. Will- 
iam D. Carlin, of Findlay, was its second surgeon. Recruiting commenced 
September 16, 1861, and was pushed forward rapitlly. Companies F, G and 
H were raised in Hancock County and also a portion of Company B. The 
officers of Company F, when mustered into service, were captain, John B. 
May ; first lieutenant, Daniel Gilbert; second lieutenant, Edmund W. Firmin. 
Those of Company G were captain, James Wilson; first lieutenant, John W. 
Wheeler ; second lieutenant, John Adams. Of Company H were captain, Patrick 
Kilkenny (of Toledo); first lieutenant, Hiram E. Henderson; second lieutenant, 
Oliver Mungen. The regiment left Findlay for Camp Chase January 22, 
1862, where its organization was completed on the 10th of February. Eight 
days afterward the regiment left Camp Chase and reported at Paducah, Ky. , 
where it was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee. From Paducah the 
Fifty-seventh went to Fort Henry, thence to Savannah, Tenn. , and soon 
aftei'ward arrived at Pittsburg Landing. It did duty in that vicinity on 
several reconnoissances ; but its first appearance in battle was at Pittsburg 
Landing April 6 and 7, 1862, where its valor was fully tested and not found 
wanting. On the next day the Fifty-seventh Avas engaged with Forrest' s 
Cavalry at Pea Ridge, and came out victorious. From this time uji to Jan- 
uary, 1864, the regiment was engaged in the following battles and skir- 
mishes : Russell House, siege of Corinth, Morning Sun, Coldwater, Her- 
nando, Wolf Creek Bridge, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Clay Farm, 
Rolling Fork, Haines' Bluff, Snyder's Bluff, Champion Hill, Messenger's 
Ford, Raymond, Black River, Mechanicsburg, Vicksbxu-g, Jackson, Tus- 
cumbia, Mission Ridge and the relief of Knoxville. ' On the 1st of January, 
1864, the Fifty-seventh re-enlisted as veterans, and about a month afterward 
started for Ohio on furlough, those from Hancock County arriving at home 
on the 13th of February. After resting, the regiment rendezvoused at 
Camp Chase, where it received 207 recruits. It arrived at Nashville, March 
29, 1864, and the next month rejoined its brigade, at Larkinsville, Ala. 
The regiment participated in the Atlanta campaign, and was almost con- 
stantly engaged with the enemy in the many sanguinary battles fought in 
that vicinity. The regiment left Atlanta with Sherman's army on its 
"march to the sea," and shared in the glory of that achievement. After 
the surrender of Johnston, it marched from Petersburg and Richmond to 
Washington, and was present at the grand review May 26, 1865. On the 2d 
of June the Fifty-seventh was ordered to Louisville, Ky. , and subsequently 
proceeded from Louisville to Little Rock, Ark. It was mustered out of 
service at Little Rock August 14, and on the 25th was paid off and dis- 
charged at Tod Barracks, Columbus, Ohio, The names of 1, 594 men are 
on its muster rolls, but of that number only 243 were present to be mus- 
tered out at the close of the war. The remnants of its battle-torn flags at 
Columbus, faded in color, but bright in glorious suggestions of the scenes 
through which they passed, tell the history of this gallant command. 


The officers of the Fifty-seventh Regiment from Hancock County were as 
follows: AVilliam Mungen, appointed lieutenant-colonel September 27, 1861, 
and colonel December 16, 1861; resigned April 16, 1863. Dr. William D. 
Carlin, appointed surgeon May 26, 1862; died December 26, 1862. James 
Wilson, elected captain January 4, 1862; honorably discharged April L2, 
1865. John W. Wheeler, elected first lieutenant January 4, 1862; promoted 
to captain December 31, 1862; honorably discharged March 28, 1864. John 
Adams, elected second lieutenant January 4, 1862; resigned April 27, 1864. 
John B. May, elected captain January 10, 1862; resigned January 30, 1863. 
Daniel Gilbert, elected first lieutenant January 10, 1862; promoted to cap- 
tain January 30, 1863; honorably discharged November 18, 1863. Edmund 
W. Firmin, elected second lieutenant January 10, 1862; promoted to first 
lieutenant January 30, 1863, and. to captain August 16, 1864; declined cap- 
taincy, and was mustered out at expiration of service. Hiram E. Henderson, 
commissioned first lieutenant February 17, 1862; promoted to captain April 
22, 1862; honorably discharged August 31, 1863. Oliver Mungen, com- 
missioned second lieutenant February 17, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant 
April 22, 1862; resigned February 9, 1863. Squire Johnson, promoted to 
second lieutenant August 19, 1862; to first lieutenant May 9, 1864; to cap- 
tain February 10, 1865, and to major August 16, 1865; mustered out with 
regiment. John M. Jordan, promoted to second lieutenant November 27, 
1862, and to first lieutenant May 9, 1864; mustered out at expiration of 
service. Jacob R. Tussing, promoted to first lieutenant December 31, 1862, 
and to captain May 9, 1864; declined captaincy, and was mustered out at 
expiration of service. W. Cramer Good, promoted to second lieutenant 
January 30, 1863, and to first lieutenant May 9, 1864; declined latter pro- 
motion, and was mustered out at expiration of service. James McCauley, 
promoted to first lieutenant January 18, 1865, and to captain August 10, 
1865 ; mustered out with regiment. George Trichler, promoted to first lieu- 
tenant January 18, 1865, and to captain August 10, 1865; mustered out with 
regiment. Jasper T. Rickets, promoted to first lieutenant August 10, 1865; 
mustered out with regiment. Ezra Hipsher and Aaron Glottheart, pro- 
moted to second lieutenancies August 10, 1865, and mustered out with the 
regiment at Little Rock, Ark. All of the foregoing officers are well remem- 
bered, and some of them are yet living in the county. 

The Sixty-fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was one of the regiments in- 
cluded in the brigade raised at Mansfield. Ohio, by the Hon. John Sherman. 
It was organized at Camp Buckingham, near Mansfield, October 3, 1861, 
and mustered into service on the 1st of December following: One company 
was raised in Hancock County for this regiment, of which Joshua S. Preble 
was captain; Joseph M. Randall, first lieutenant, and John C. Matthias, 
second lieutenant. It was mustered in as Company K, with the foregoing^ 
officers in command. The Sixty-fifth left Mansfield, December 18, 1861, 
for Louisville, Ky. , and was on duty in that State till going to Nashville, 
Tenn., in March, 1862. From Nashville it marched to Savannah; thence by 
steamer to Pittsburg Landing, where it arrived on the afternoon of the 
second day' s fight, but did not become actively engaged. It was under fire 
almost constantly at the siege of Corinth; and upon the evacuation of that 
city by the rebels, was engaged in guarding the Tennessee River, until it 
marched northward in pui-suit of Bragg and the defense of Louisville. The 
regiment soon after returned to Nashville, where the army was reorganized 


under Gen. Rosecrans. In the advance on Murfreesboro the regiment was hotly- 
engaged at Stone River, losing many of its commissioned officers and men in 
that engagement. In June, 18(38, the Sixty-fifth moved from Murfreesboro to 
the vicinity of Chattanooga, and the following September participated in the 
terrible battle of Chickamauga. It was subsequently engaged in the battle 
of Mission Ridge. During the several battles of the Atlanta campaign 
the reoriment was almost constantly under fire until the evacuation of 
Atlanta, when it went into camp at that city. From Atlanta it moved in 
pursuit of Hood, was engaged at Spring Hill, and took part in the bloody 
battles of Franklin and Nashville, and the subsequent pursuit of the rebel 
army across the Tennessee. From Nashville the Sixty -fifth went to New 
Orleans, and thence to San Antonio, Tex., where it performed garrison duty 
till December 16, 1865, when it was mustered out. It was then ordered to 
Camp Chase, Ohio, where the men were paid off and discharged on the 2d 
of January, 1866. 

The commissioned officers from this county who served in the Sixty- 
fifth were as follows: Joshua S. Preble, elected captain November 17, 
1861 ; resigned April 14, 1862. Joseph M. Randall, elected first lieutenant 
November 17, 1861; promoted to captain October 7, 1862; mustered out 
January 19, 1865. John C. Matthias, elected second lieutenant November 
17, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant May 11, 1862, and to captain Febru- 
ary 20, 1863; resigned November 17, 1864. Christian M. Bush, promoted 
to second -lieutenant March 30, 1863; to first lieutenant June 14, 1864, and 
to captain December 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment. John Kanel, 
promoted to first lieutenant November 26, 1864, and mustered out with the 
regiment at Camp Chase. 

A Company of Independent Sharp-shooters was recruited principally 
from the southern part of Hancock County, in the fall of 1861, and subse- 
quently attached to the Sixty-sixth Illinois Infantry as Company H. It 
participated in the following engagements and skirmishes prior to the At- 
lanta campaign: Tuscumbia, Danville, Rienzi, Blackland, Jumpertown, 
Hatchie River, Boonville and Whiteside's farm. In December, 1863, they 
re-enlisted as veterans, and early in 1864 came home on furlough. They 
returned to the field in time for the Atlanta campaign, and took part in the 
many battles fought around that city. The Sharp-shooters also formed a 
pai-t of Sherman' s army on the ' ' march to the sea, ' ' and served in the cam- 
paign of the Carolinas. They were mustered out at Louisville, Ky. , July 
15, 1865, and paid and discharged at Camp Dennison, Ohio. James Wal- 
termire, John Pifer, James Cox and William N. Watson, of Hancock 
County, served as lieutenants in this command, which did much efficient 
service from the date of its organization until the close of the rebellion. 

The Eighty-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infayitry was a three-months organ- 
ization, recruited in the spring of 1862, with Columbus as its point of i-en- 
dezvous. Early in June a company of volunteers left Findlay for Camp 
Chase, and were mustered into the Eighty-seventh as Company D. Sam- 
uel Huber and Philip Ford, of Findlay, were respectively captain and 
first lieutenant, the second lieutenant, with a portion of the company, being 
from another county. The chaplain of the regiment. Rev. George D. 
Oviatt, was also from Hancock County. On the 12th of June the regiment 
was ordered to Baltimore, Md. , and went into camp near that city. Toward 
the close of July it repaired to Harper's Ferry, where it remained till the 


expiration of its term of service. In the meantime the rebels captured tlie 
national forces at this point, but on learning that the Eighty-seventh was 
no longer in the service, the men were released fi-om then- paroles, and the 
regiment sent home and mustered out at Camp Chase, September 20, 1862. 
The Ninety-nmth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Lima, 
Allen County, and mustered into service August 26, 1862. Albert Lang- 
worthy, of Findlay, formerly captain in the Forty-ninth Regiment, was 
commissioned as colonel of the Ninety-ninth. The sui-geon. Dr. J. T. 
Woods, was also fi'om this county. Two companies, D and G, were 
recruited in Hancock and mustered in with the following officers: Company 
D, captain, James A. Bope; first lieutenant, James Harsh; second lieutenant, 
William C. Kelley. Company Gr, captain, Oliver P. Capelle; first lieutenant, 
Charles G. Barnd; second lieutenant, Josiah Moorhead. Robert B. Drake, 
of Allen County, recruited quite a number of men fi'om the southwest part 
of this county, who were mustered into Company B. These companies 
began recruiting in July, 1862, and on the 16th of August left Findlay for 
Camp Lima. The regiment left Lima August 31, under orders for Ken- 
tucky, where it did service in the defense of Louisville and subsequent pur- 
suit of Bragg' s army. It then moved to Nashville, Tenn. , and took position 
near that city. The battle of Stone River was its first itevere engagement, 
and its next was Chickamauga. It participated in the capture of Lookout 
Mountain, and on the following day was engaged at Mission Ridge. In 
May, 1864, the Ninety-ninth started on the Atlanta campaign, in which it 
was under fire almost daily, and made a record for bravery and endurance 
highly creditable to its officers and men. On the 1st of October, 1864, the 
brigade to which the Ninety- ninth belonged started in pursuit of Hood on 
his Nashville campaign. For a few weeks it was cut off from communication 
with the main army under Thomas, but December 10 joined the army at 
Nashville and participated in the defeat and pui'suit of Hood. It pursued 
the retreating enemy as far as Columbia, Tenn., where it was consolidated 
with the Fiftieth Ohio Regiment, and the Ninety-ninth ceased to be an 
organization. The regimental colors were forwarded to Gov. Brough, who 
acknowledged their reception in a highly complimentary letter. The officers 
and men of the gallant Ninety -ninth felt deeply chagrined over the consol- 
idation and loss of their regimental^ number, the consolidated commands 
retaining the name of the Fiftieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. But there was 
no redi'ess, and the brave boys of the Ninety-ninth bore the change like 
soldiers — always obedient to the commands of their superior officers. The 
war, however, was now drawing to a close, and the regiment took part in no 
battles after the consolidation. It was mustered out of service at Salisbury, 
N. C. , June 26, 1865, and July 17 arrived at Camp Dennison, Ohio, where 
it was paid and discharged. At the soldiers' reunions held since the war, 
the Ninety- ninth has always appeared under its own regimental number, and 
its veterans do not care to be classed with the Fiftieth. 

The following commissioned officers from Hancock County served in 
these regiments: Albert Langworthy, commissioned colonel August 11, 
1862; dismissed fi'om the service by the Governor of Ohio in September on 
a false charge, and after two years' investigation was acquitted and honor- 
ably discharged, September 4, 1864. Dr. J. T. Woods, appointed surgeon 
August 19, 1862; mustered out with the Fiftieth. Oliver P. Capelle, 
elected captain July 12, 1862; died January 8, 1863, fi'om wounds received 


at Stone Kiver. James A. Bope, elected captain July 23, 1862; promoted 
to lieutenant-colonel of the Fiftieth April 10, 18(35, and mustered out with 
that regiment. Charles G. Barnd, elected first lieutenant July 10, 1862; 
promoted to captain December 25, 1862; resigned September 27, 1864. 
James Harsh, elected first lieutenant July 23, 1862; resigned November 16, 
1862. William C. Kelley, elected second lieutenant Jiily 23, 1862; 
resigned November 26, 1862. Josiah Moorhead, elected second lieutenant 
August' 7, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant January 8, 1863; mustered 
out with the Fiftieth Regiment. William B. Richards, promoted to second 
lieutenant November 16, 1862; to first lieutenant on the same date, and to 
captain November 3, 1864; transferred to the Fiftieth Regiment as first 
lieutenant and again promoted to captain April 10, 1865; mustered out with 
that regiment. William Zay, promoted to second lieutenant November 16, 
1862, and to first lieutenant November 3, 1864; mustered out with the 
Fiftieth Regiment. Daniel J. McConnell, promoted to second lieutenant 
January 5, 1863, and to first lieutenant November 3, 1864; mustered out 
December 31, 1864. David S. Blakeman, promoted to second lieutenant in 
the Fiftieth April 10, 1865; mustered out with that regiment June 26, 1865. 
The One Hundred and Eighteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized 
at Camp Lima, AHen County, in August and September, 1862. Here it 
was joined September 1 by a company from Hancock County, under the 
command of Capt. Samuel Howai-d; first lieutenant, Darius Pendleton; 
second lieutenant, Milton B. Patterson; was mustered into the regi- 
ment as Company G. Quite a number of men were also recruited in 
this county by Martin L. Higgins, who were mustered into Company K, 
with Higgins as first lieutenant. The regiment left Camp Lima in Septem- 
ber, 1862, for Cincinnati, then threatened by Kirby Smith, where it was 
mustered into the service. It soon afterward moved into central Kentucky, 
and performed much important patrol duty in that State up to the 20th of 
August, 1863, when it set out on the march for east Tennessee, reaching 
Kingston November 10. After the victories of Mission Ridge and Knox- 
ville, the regiment moved to Nashville. On the 29th of December it par- 
ticipated in a brief but stubborn engagement at Mossy Creek, where the 
regiment exhibited great gallantry, losing forty killed and wounded in two 
hours. From this to the beginning of the Atlanta campaign nothing of 
special interest occurred in the fortunes of the One Hundred and Eighteenth. 
Early in May, 1864, the movement on Atlanta commenced, and this regi- 
ment participated in the many victories and final triumphs of that brilliant 
campaign. Upon the fall of Atlanta the regiment joined in the pursuit of 
Hood toward Nashville, took a prominent part in the desperate battle of 
Franklin and was also engaged at Nashville, and in the subsequent pursuit 
of the defeated rebel army as far as Columbia, whence it went to Clifton. 
Here it received orders to proceed to North Carolina, and January 16, 1865, 
the brigade embarked on a steamer for Cincinnati, and there took cars for 
Washington, D. C. From Alexandria it took steamer to Smithville, landed 
and moved immediately on Fort Anderson, which was captured, the One 
Hundred and Eighteenth being the first regiment to plant its colors on the 
walls. It was next engaged at Town Creek, entered Wilmington February 
22, thence proceeded to Kingston and Goldsboro, where, on the 23d of 
March, the brigade joined Sherman's army. The regiment participated in 
the final movements against Johnston, and was mustered out at Salisbury, 


N. C, June 24, 1865. It arrived at Cleveland, Ohio, July 2, and seven 
days after the command received its final discharge and returned to their 

The following citizens of Hancock County served as commissioned offi- 
cers in the One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment: Samuel Howard, elected 
captain, August 16, 1862; resigned April 1, 1864. Darius Pendleton, 
elected first lieutenant, August 16, 1862; resigned April 19, 1863. Milton 
B. Patterson, elected second lieutenant, August 16, 1862, promoted to first 
lieutenant, April 17, 1863; honorably discharged, May 24, 1865. Martin L. 
Higgins, elected first lieutenant, July 23, 1862; resigned, March 24, 1863; 
John Eckels, promoted to second lieutenant, April 17, 1863; died, July 1, 
1864. Joel Eckels, promoted to second lieutenant, February 1, 1864, and 
to first lieutenant, October 12, 1864; mustered out with the regiment. 

In September, 1862, the threatened invasion of Cincinnati by the rebels 
under Gen. Kirby Smith, brought out a call fi'om the Governor of Ohio for 
the citizens of the State to come to the rescue. About 250 men from Han- 
cock County responded to the call. As these volunteers were equipped 
with all sorts of fire-arms, they became ofiicially known as the ' ' Squirrel 
Hunters. ' ' The timely arrival of these patriots from every portion of the 
State, doubtless averted the invasion and saved Cincinnati, and ere the 
thirty days for which they were called out had expired most of them had 
returned to their homes. ^ Theirs, it is true, was a bloodless victory, but the 
' ' Squirrel Hunters ' ' of Ohio nevertheless deserve credit for their prompt 
and patriotic response when danger threatened their State. 

The First Ohio Volunteer Heavy Artillery had one company (L ) from * 
this county, commanded by Capt. Joshua S. Preble; first lieutenant, Eben- 
ezer Wilson, and second lieutenant, John Foreman. The One Hundred and 
Seventeenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry formed the nucleus of this regiraent, 
being changed fi'om infantry to artillery by an order issued from the war 
department May 2, 1863. During its recruitment it was engaged in con- 
structing fortifications around Covington and Newport, Ky. , for the protec- 
tion of Cincinnati. The reorganization was completed August 12, 1863, 
and the regiment remained in Kentucky till early in 1864, when it was 
ordered to Knoxville, Tenn. Throughout the year 1864 and the winter of 
1864-65, the regiment was almost constantly engaged on expeditions against 
the rebel cavalry infesting east Tennessee and North Carolina. In the 
spring of 1865, the brigade to which this regiment then belonged moved 
toward Virginia and North Carolina, and continued to guard the mountain 
passes until the surrender of Lee and Johnston. It soon afterward returned 
to Greenville, Tenn., where the regiment camped till July 15. when it 
started homeward, and on the 25th of July was mustered out at Knoxville, 
Tenn. It was paid and discharged at Camp Dennison, Ohio, August 1, 
1865. All of the officers from this county served until the close of the war. 
The Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry was recruited during September and 
October, 1863, and mustered into the service at Camp Taylor, near Cleve- 
land, November 24, following. Most of Company G was raised in Hancock 
County, by Alexander A. Monroe and Eli N. Flaisig, who became respect- 
ively captain and second lieutenant of that company. In November one-half 
the regiment was sent to Johnson' s Island, where it was engaged in doing 
guard duty during the winter of 1863-64. In the spring of the latter year 
the reo-iment moved from Camp Dennison, where it was mounted, armed and 


equipped, to Louisville, Ky. ; thence to Lexington and Mt. Sterling. In 
May, 1864, it foi*med a portion of the command that started on the first Saltville. 
Tenn., raid, but eight days afterward the Twelfth retvu'ned in pursuit of 
Morgan, who was making a raid into Kentiicky. The rebels under Morgan 
were encountered at Mt. Sterling and Cynthiana, and scattered in every 
direction, the regiment pursuing the fleeing enemy for three days. It soon 
afterward came up with another guerrilla band at Lebanon, and completely 
routed it. In September the Twelfth started on a second raid to Salt- 
ville, where the regiment was engaged in some hard fighting. On the third 
raid to Saltville the rebels, after forty hours' fighting, were defeated at 
eveiy point, and the salt works and immense quantities of stores, etc. , sub- 
sequently captured and destroyed. In the spring of 1865 the regiment 
formed a part of Gen. Stoneman's raiding expedition into North Carolina, 
thence through South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, aiding in the capture 
of Jefferson Davis, and capturing the rebel generals, Bragg and Wheeler, 
\^ith their escorts. The regiment was then sent into Tennessee, the several 
companies being scattered over that State enforcing law and order, and 
finally rendezvousing at Nashville, where it was mustered out November 14, 
1865. Proceeding to Camp Chase, Ohio, it was there paid and discharged, 
after two years of incessant service. Capt. Mom'oe was promoted from this 
regiment as major of the One Hundred and Twenty-second Colored Infantry, 
and Lieut. Flaisig was discharged February 26, 1864. These were the only 
commissioned officers fi'om Hancock County who went out in the Twelfth 
Ohio Cavalry. 

The Ohio National Guards were called out for 100 days' service April 
24, 1864. There were four companies forming the Fifty-eighth Battalion 
in Hancock County, viz. : A, B, C and D, all of which reported at Camp 
Chase May 5, 1864. The following day they were mustered into three 
diff'erent regiments. Company A was taken into the One Hundi-ed and 
Sixty-first Regiment, George Foreman, captain; Henry B. Green, second 
lieutenant. Companies B and D were consolidated with the One Hundred 
and Thirty-third Regiment, James Waltermire, John Romick and Robert 
S. Boyles being mustered in as first lieutenants, and Jefferson H. Darrah 
and William H. Zarbaugh, second lieutenants. Company C was consoli- 
dated with the One Hundred and Thirty-fourth regiment, and its men dis- 
tributed among several companies of that command, its captain, Samuel 
Biggs, subsequently becoming first lieutenant through the resignation of 
another officer. The remaining officers of the Fifty-eighth Battalion, who 
were thus knocked out of their positions, either returned home or went into 
the ranks, except Rev. Jacob B. Dunn, who was api:>ointed chaplain of the 
regiment. Considerable feeling was manifested at the time, and much dis- 
satisfaction afterward existed among the companies from this county be- 
cause of their separation; but they were forced to submit to the orders of 
the higher authorities, and soon became reconciled to their position. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-third Regiment (O. N. G.) was mustered 
in at Camp Chase, May 6, 1864, and immediately ordered into West Vir- 
ginia, where it remained on duty till June 7, when it proceeded to Wash- 
ington, D. C, and thence to 'Bermuda Hundi-ed. On the 17th of July the 
regiment embarked for Fort Powhattan, on the James River. Here it was 
employed in various important duties until August 10, when it returned to 
Washington, and thence to Camp Chase, where it was mustered out of service 
August 20, 1864. 


The One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Regiment (O. N. G. ) was mustered 
into the service at Camp Chase, May 6, 1864, and the next day moved for 
Cumberland, Va. On the 0th of June it started to Washington, D. C, 
and thence proceeded to White House, on the Pamunkey River, but on its 
arrival was at once ordered to City Point. The regiment had its first and 
only engagement with the rebels at Port Walthall during the assault on 
Petersbui-g, where the men displayed admirable coolness under fire. For 
seventy days the regiment formed a portion of the advanced lines operating 
on Richmond, and was engaged in intrenching and picket duty. Its term 
of service having expired, it returned to Camp Chase, where it was mus- 
tered out August 81, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Sixty-first Regiment (O. N. G. ) was mustered 
into the service at Camp Chase, May 9, 1864, and left on the same day for 
Cumberland, Md. It soon afterward moved to Martinsbm-g, W. Va., and 
early in June a part of the regiment was sent up to the Shenandoah Valley 
with the supply train to Hunter' s army. After tiu-ning over the supplies 
the detachment returned to Martinsburg, bringing back safely a long 
wagon train, many sick and wounded from the army, and several hundred 
prisoners and contrabands, the entire distance marched being nearly 500 
miles. From Martinsburg the regiment fell back to Maryland Heights, 
where skirmishing with the enemy commenced and continued two days. It 
assisted in defending the Heights until the rebels were di'iven from the 
Shenandoah Valley. On the 25th of August, 1864, the regiment was 
ordered to Ohio, and mustered out at Camp Chase on the 2d of Septem- 
ber following. 

The One Hundred and Ninety-Second Ohio Volunteer Infantry was 
organized at Camp Chase, March 10, 1865. Moses Louthan and Jefferson 
H. Darrah, of Hancock County, having each recruited in this county nearly 
a company of men for the One Hundred and Ninety- second, were re- 
spectively elected caj^tain of Company H and I. On the 12th of March, 
1865, the regiment left for the front and were first stationed near Harper' s 
Ferry, Va. The regiment was engaged in picket duty near Harper's Ferry 
and on the Shenandoah River, subsequently moving to the vicinity of Win- 
chester, Va. Upon the surrender of Lee the regiment moved to Stevenson 
Station; thence to Jordan Springs, and afterward encamped at Reed's Hill 
above Winchester, until ordered to be mustered out, which occurred at 
Winchester, September 1, 1865. It arrived at Columbus, Ohio, two days 
afterward, and on the 6th of September was paid and discharged at Camp 
Chase. Though the end of the war, coming soon after this regiment took 
the field, cut it off from much active service, it nevertheless stood high for 
drill, discipline and efficiency, and many of its men were scaiTed veterans 
who had faced the enemy on many a well contested battle-field. 

The foregoing commands are those wherein the soldiers from Hancock 
County mainly served; but several additional regiments from Ohio and 
other States contained some Hancock County boys. In fact she was repre- 
sented in every arm of the service, and her gallant sons did honor to their 
country on many a bloody field. Among others from Hancock, who served 
as commissioned officers in commands not previously mentioned, were \he> 
following: Dr. Samuel S. Mills, surgeon of the Fourth Michigan Artillery; 
Lieut. John T. Carlin served in the Eighty-second Regiment, and also on 
Gen. Sigel's staff; Abraham F. McCurdy and. Nat W\ Filkin, each served 


as captain and major of the Tenth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, which also con- 
tained a few men from this county. But it is not the intention here to follow 
the fortunes of these outside commands, as the history of Hancock County 
in the war is set forth in the sketches of those regiments wherein the great 
majority of her soldiers fought — hundreds of them laying down their lives 
that a free and united nation might live. 

Up to September 1, 1862, the number of volunteers from this county by 
townships, as returned by the assessors, was as follows: Allen, 65; 
Amanda, 16; Big Lick, 47; Blanchard, 100; Cass, 46; Delaware, 74; Eagle, 
50; Findlay, 247; Jackson, 51; Liberty, 63; Madison. 59; Marion, 44; 
Orange, 61; Pleasant 70; Portage, 42; Union, 93; Van Buren, 31; Wash- 
ington, 101; total, 1,260. Under all of the subsequent calls each town- 
ship had to furnish a certain designated number of men, and the county 
always filled her quota, though the draft had finally to be resorted to dur- 
ing the later stages of the war, as men were then so scarce that even large 
bounties failed to fill up the quotas of the several townships. Including 
every branch of the service, Hancock County furnished to the Union cause 
nearly 3,000 as brave men as ever carried a musket, and about two-thirds of 
that number served throughout the greater portion of the war. Her sol- 
diers displayed a spirit of valor unsurpassed in history, while their courage, 
fortitude and self-sacrifice were worthy of the glorious cause for which they 

From 1861 to 1865 the local woi-k at home of encouraging enlistments 
and assisting the families of soldiers went steadily on. In June, 1862, the 
county commissioners passed an act allowing each dependent wife or parent 
of volunteers $8 per month, and each child under fifteen years of age $2 
per month. The following September the monthly allowance of wife or 
parent was fixed at $4. Relief was afforded only to the families of non- 
commissioned officers and privates, and then only in cases of actual neces- 
sity. In February, 1862, the General Assembly passed an act for the relief 
of families of volunteers, by which a tax was levied on all taxable property, 
and a larger, more thorough and systematic relief was afforded. Under this 
act $38,070 were expended by the county among the families of soldiers dur- 
ing the years 1862, 1863, 1864 and 1865; and fi-om that time until February, 
1868, when the last order was redeemed, $8,503 additional were paid out. 

In October, 1861, a "Military Committee" was appointed in this county, 
consisting of Edson Goit, James A. Bope, J. S. Patterson. J. B. Roth- 
child and J. F. Perkey. A thorough military organization of the county 
was effected, and sub-comniittees appointed in each township to aid and en- 
courage volunteering, and solicit contributions of underclothing, etc., for 
the "boys" in the field. The military committee appointed in this county in 
1862, was Edson Goit, James A. Bope, W. G. Baker and Joel Markle; and 
in 1864 it was Henry Brown, Edson Goit, J. B. Rothchild, J. S. Patterson 
and J. F. Perkey. In every county of the State these committees did a 
noble work, and for their untiring efforts to sustain the Government and 
comfort its brave soldiers during the darkest period of the war deserve the 
highest praise. The soldiers' aid societies were among the most popular 
and efficient local institutions of the covinty, and the ladies of these societies did 
a great deal of good in gathering and forwarding sanitary supplies to hos- 
pital and camp. In fact the patriotic women of the county did their full 
share toward crushing the. mightiest rebellion in the history of the 


'^t,^ (PiLJl:^ 


When the news that Richmond was captured spread over the county, it 
created the most intense excitement, but it was one of joy. Bell-ringing, 
hand-shaking and congratulations were the order of the day. The citizens 
turned out en masse ; bonfires were lighted in every town and village, and 
an undercurrent of deep thankfulness pervaded the entire community.' All 
hailed the good news as a harbinger of peace, and happiness filled every 
loyal heart. With the fall of the rebel capital the war was comparatively 
at an end; and, though Lee struggled bravely to save his army from the iron 
grasp of Grant, its fate was sealed. On the 9th of April, 1865, he surren- 
dered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, and nine days afterward John- 
ston gave up his army to Sherman. Throughout the North the news of these 
glorious successes of the Union arms was received with unbounded enthu- 
siasm, and heartfelt prayers were offered to the God of battles, who in His 
infinite mercy had vouchsafed such a brilliant ending to the long tiu-moil of 
civil strife. After four years of bloody war— after the sacrifice of hundreds 
of thousands of gallant men and millions of treasure, the great rebellion 
was at an end, the Government preserved, and freedom perpetuated 

The following poem, found by the writer, uncredited, in one of the local 
papers of Fmdlay, aptly illustrates the feeling of the people at the close of 
the war: 


When G(xl gave us Richmond, and victory o'er Lee 

The dark clouds of war, lilve a scroll, rolled away' 
Peace shed her bright halo o'er land and o'er sea 

And ushered the glory of freedom's glad day. 

Thrill the heart with such joy as the ransomed may feel' 

Fhng aloft the proud flag in its radiant light. 
From steeple and turret, from mountain top, peal 

The tidings of victory, the triumph of right. 

But there steals through the sound of thanksgiving and praise 

A low wail of anguish for brave hearts at rest; 
Their blood was the purchase that Liberty gave, 

That this may henceforth be the land of the blest. 

Lift the flag of the free to the azure above, 

Let the nation rejoice in the victory won; 
Bear the message, ye angels, on swift wings of love, 

A Republic redeemed by the blood of her sons. 

According to previous announcement a grand celebration was held at 
Findlay, April 14, 18()o, to rejoice over the dawn of a glorious peace. The 
day was bright and cheerful, and nature seemed to smile on the exalted 
happiness of the people. The exercises commenced at 6 o'clock in the morn- 
ing with the ringing of bells, and the firing of a salute of thirty-six guns. 
As the day wore on crowds of people came pouring into Findlay. At 10 
o'clock services were held in several of the churches, and shortly after noon 
a large audience gathered at the Court House where appropriate addresses 
were delivered by Revs. Rose and Wykes. In the evening there was a fine dis- 
play of fireworks, and every business house, as well as many of the private 
dwellings, was brilliantly illuminated. This jov, however, was destined to 
be short-lived, and suddenly changed to deep mourning. About 10 o'clock 
on the following morning the news of President Lincoln's assassination 
reached Findlay, and fell like a pall on the hearts of its citizens. Every 
one was horror-stricken at the awful deed, and never was there so much 


feeling manifested by the true and loyal hearts of Hancock County. In a 
short time all of the business houses were closed and draped in mourning, 
and the flags dressed in crape and raised at half mast. In the afternoon a 
public meeting was held at the Court House to express the sentiments of the 
people on the assassination of the President, and deep gloom filled every 
honest heart. The Jeffersonian fully expressed in the following poem the 
deep feeling of the people throughout the coiinty at that time: 

APEIL 15, 1805. 

Toll the slow bells ! fire the minute guns! 

Let rain-drenched flags at half-mast droop! 
This grief a nation's great heart stuns, 

Beneath this burden strong men stoop. 

Hang mourning emblems o'er the walls 

So lately winged with banners gay! 
He saved our flag from treason's thralls, 

"Who slain by traitors lies to-day. 

Let wailing fife and muflied drum 

Make moan as for a hero dead! 
But, oh! our deepest grief is dumb. 

Our bitterest tears congeal unshed. 

We loved him; and the traitors live 
Who forged the bolt that struck him down! 

"Tis not for us to say, "Forgive," 
When Lincoln's blood cries from the ground. 

Lincoln, who stood so far above 

These war-clouds that his great heart felt 
Even for the South a yearning love, 

Which must at least' e'en rebels melt. 

Oh! by the love he bore our land, 

By these four years of toil for us, 
By all he was, so good, so grand, 

Our hearts cry out for vengeance just. 

Soon after the war ended, the Union armies were discharged and re- 
turned to their homes, and once more joy reigned supreme around hundreds 
of firesides in Hancock County. Orators, joui'nalists and historians have re- 
corded the numerous well- contested battles, campaigns and marches of these 
great armies, and their wonderful achievements are enshrined upon the 
choicest pages of American poetry and eloquence. The spirit of patriotism 
that caused them to enlist, that sustained them through the trials and perils 
of the war, now pervades and radiates from all the institutions of the land, 
and is felt in every patriotic heart. To the survivors has been vouchsafed 
the blessing to witness the grand results of all their sacrifices, in a re- 
united country pursuing a common destiny under a government offering 
equal rights to all, while the name and fame of those who have fallen either 
on the battlefield or in the line of duty, have been commemorated through 
the pages of history and on the beautiful monuments of marble and bronze 
prominent in city, town and village all over this broad land. 




Erection, Name, Area, Population and Boundaries— Wildcat Thicket — 
Streams, Topography and Soil — Pioneers — First Marriage and 
Death— The Burman and Ensminger Mills— Killing of John Gilchrist 
AND Son— First Electors— Justices— Early Schools— Churches— Vil- 
lages— Van BUREN and STUARTVILLE. 

THIS township was the last one organized in Hancock County, being 
erected in Jnne. 1850, fi'om territory previously embraced in Cass and 
Portage Townships, taking twelve sections from each. It was named in 
honor of Gen. Ethan Allen, of revolutionary fame, and contains an area of 
twenty-four square miles, or 15,360 acres. The official census of 1850 
gave Allen a population of 869; 1860, 1,009; 1870, 969, and 1880, 1,025. 
The west half of the township lies in Township 2 north, Range 10, and the 
east half in Range 11. Allen is bounded on the north by Wood County, on 
the east by Cass Township, on the south by Findlay Township, and on the 
west by Portage Township. 

When the first settlers built their cabins in this portion of the county,, 
the original forest was unbroken by a single clearing, unless the almost im- 
penetrable tract called "Wildcat Thicket" could be so named. This was a 
strip of fallen timber extending across the township from west to east, and 
covered with a dense undergrowth, where wild animals of every sort took 
refuge. The forest had evidently been blown down by a hurricane from 
the west long prior to the coming of the whites, and bushes and vines of 
every sort covered the decaying timber like a perfect network of defense. 

The Middle Branch of Portage River flows in from Cass, and winds 
across the northwest portion of Allen Township; while the east fork of 
Ten Mile Creek di'ains the southwest corner westward into Portage. The 
southeast corner of the township is di'ained by a small branch of the Blanch- 
ard. Along the Middle Branch the surface is somewhat broken, and back 
from that stream may be termed elevated and rolling. The " Wildcat 
Thicket" was originally low and wet, but the removal of the fallen trees and 
judicious drainage has reclaimed the greater part of this tract. A sand and 
gravel belt, known as Sugar Ridge, crosses the north half of the town- 
ship in a southwest direction, Van Buren being on the summit of the ridge.' 
South of this ridge the soil is generally a mixture of sand and clay, while 
north of it a black, sandy loam prevails. 

Pioneers. — Nathan Frakes was the first settler in this township. In 
1827 he purchased of John Gardner the west half of the northeast quarter 
of Section 13, Township 2 north. Range 10 (entered by the latt^' in 1826), 
upon which he at once erected a small log-cabin. Frakes settled in Madi- 
son County, Ohio, prior to the organization of that county in 1810. He 
was there known as one of the ' 'fighting men' ' of the county, and his name 


figures in one or more assault and battery cases at nearly every term of 
court held during the first years of that county's history. He subsequently 
removed to Logan County, where he bore the same reputation, and kept it 
up after settling in Hancock, voting and fighting at the first county elec- 
tion, in April, 1828. As a good illustration of his character at this period, 
the following anecdote is told by one of the pioneers who knew him well: 
"A man named Enochs, who lived in Logan County, was one of the con- 
tractors in opening the Bellefontaine road, and Frakes worked for him. 
Enochs became afflicted with a strange and apparently incurable malady. 
He was not a good man by any means, and one night, believing his end 
was nigh, and possessing little of that religious spirit necessary on such oc- 
casions, requested Frakes to pray for him. Nathan swore he could not 
pray for himself, and roughly told Enochs to do his own praying. The lat- 
ter finally concluded to make the attempt, and in a self-important manner 
began: 'Oh! Lord, what have I done that Thou persecutest me so?' when 

Frakes, looking at him in unfeigned disgust, blurted out, 'That' s a d d 

nice way to pray! What the h — 11 is it that you haint done, I would like 
to know!' " 

Frakes sold his improvement in Section 13 to Isaac Miller December 
13, 1828, and in June, 1829, entered the west half of the southeast quarter 
of Section 12, upon which he had previously erected a cabin, with the in- 
tention of entering the land. On the 11th of June, 1830, he sold this 
tract to Elias L. Bryan, and removed to a farm of 115 acres in the south- 
east quarter of Section 10, Township 1 north. Range 10, now a part of the 
Infirmary Farm, which he had bought of Joseph Eversole, of Fairfield 
County, in January, 1830. Here he resided till his death, he dying about five 
years afterward, leaving a large family of children. His wife, Susannah, 
was an ardent Methodist, and constantly deplored her husband's combat- 
iveness. Finally Frakes met his match, being badly worsted in a rough- 
and-tumble fight with Josiah Elder, of Delaware Township. Going home 
considerably crestfallen over his defeat, he exclaimed: "Susy! Nathan has 
been whipped; I'll now join a temperance society, and also the church!" 
He kept his word, and ever afterward was a very peaceably inclined citizen. 
He was a large, muscular man, and bore the marks of many a savage en- 
counter, possessing not a perfect finger on either hand. 

Isaac Miller was the second pioneer of what is now Allen Township, 
coming in the fall of 1828. In December, 1828, he purchased the west 
half of the northeast quarter of Section 13, of Nathan Frakes, who had 
bought it of John Gardner. Miller died here early in 1830, and his family 
soon removed from the county. 

Elias L. Bryan came in 1829, and built his cabin on the east half of the 
southeast quarter of Section 12, which he entered November 9th, of 
. that year. In June, 1830, he bought out Nathan Frakes, who removed to 
his farm on the Blanchard, Bryan taking possession of the Frakes cabin. 
Bryan subsequently read medicine under Dr. Fisher, of Arcadia, and prac- 
ticed the healing art in this township. He finally left the county, but at 
what time or where he went is not remembered. The cabins of Frakes, 
Miller and Bryan stood but a short distance apart, and there are few now liv- 
ing who personally remember their locations. 

The sons of John Trout claim that he came to Hancock County in the 
summer of 1828, selected land and built a double-log cabin on the site of 


Van Buren, and then returned to Perry County for his family, whom he 
brought out in December, 1828. The book of entries shows that John Trout 
entered the east half of the northeast quarter of Section 13, Town 2 north, 
Kange 10, September 1, 1829, and the west half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 7, Town 2 north, Range 11, June 2, 1830. It is therefore 
opined that Mr. Trout did not settle on the site of Van Buren until 
December, 1829, as his first entry in this county was not made till Septem- 
ber of that year. He was a native of Pennsylvania, whence he removed to 
Perry County, Ohio, where he married Miss Eleanor Skinner. Leaving 
Somerset November 12th, the family did not reach the little settlement on 
the Middle Branch of Portage River till December 14, 1829, and on the fol- 
lowing day Mr. Trout took possession of his cabin. The trip was long and 
arduous, and well calculated to discourage the stoutest heart. Fording 
swamp, stream and river, and being compelled at times to cut their way 
through forest and thicket, the sturdy parents with their five children, Eliza, 
Ephraim, John S., George W. and Philip, trudged many a weary mile ere 
reaching their destination. Eliza afterward mari'ied Elisha Beeson, which 
was the first marriage in the settlement; while the first death was that of 
Cornelius, her youngest brother. Mr. Trout served in the war of 1812, and 
in early life followed the potter's trade. In 1833 he and George Ensminger 
laid out the village of Van Buren iipon their land. Both he and his wife died 
in this township, and of their children but two survive: Ephraim, the oldest 
living pioneer of Allen, and John S. , a resident of Liberty Township. 

John Burman settled in Section 17, in April, 1831, and there resided 
till his death April 7, 1864, his widow surviving him until February 4, 1871. 
Mr. Burman was born in Northampton County, Penn. , April 8, 1784. Re- 
moving to Fairfield County, Ohio, he was there married in 1813, to Miss 
Catherine Fisher, a native of Berks County, Penn., born November 16, 
1796. He served in the war of 1812, and followed the gunsmith trade until 
coming to this county. In 1835-36 he erected a grist-mill on Portage Creek, 
but on account of low water it ran only at intervals. Mr. Burman was a worthy 
citizen of the'county for thirty-three years, and left a family of seven sons and 
two daughters, only one of whom, Adam, resides in this county, he being 
now proprietor of the hotel at Van Buren. 

Christian and Rebecca (Skinner) Barnd, with four sons (Jacob, Adna F., 
Elijah and Gamaliel C.) and four daughters, came from Perry County, Ohio, 
in 1831, and took possession of the cabin in Section 13 previously occupied 
by Isaac Miller. Mr. Barnd was a native of Germany, and his wife of 
Pennsylvania. They were married in Somerset County, Penn. , and subse- 
quently removed to Perry County, Ohio, whence they came to this township. 
On the 27th of June, 1831, he entered the east half of the southeast quarter 
of Section 13, and the west half of the southwest quarter of Section 18, 
now mostly owned by his son, John. In 1832 Christian Barnd and family 
removed to Findlay, where he and his wife spent the balance of their lives. 
He was a saddler and tanner, and earned on a tannery in Findlay for many 
years. He also served as sheriff of Hancock County for two terms, and was 
one of the progressive men of his day. Three of his sons have filled county 
ofiices. Jacob was prosecuting attorney a short period, and recorder two terms ; 
Elijah was auditor two terms; while Gamaliel C. served three years as asso- 
ciate judge, and two terms as probate judge. The eldest son, John, has 
filled the office of justice of the peace in Allen Township for thirty years. 


It will thus be seen that this pioneer family has been pretty well honored 
by their adopted county. 

The year 1832 brought in quite a large number of settlers, among whom 
we find John Barnd, George Ensminger, Michael Ensminger, Charles 
Baker, Hugh Gilchrist and Peter Hockenberry. Mr. Barnd was born in 
Somerset County, Penn., December 30, 1808, removed to Perry Covinty, 
Ohio, with his parents, there grew to manhood and married Miss Sarah 
Garlinger, and in 1832 came to this township. He located on the east half 
of the southeast quarter of Section 13, where he has ever since resided. 
Mr. Barnd was the first justice elected for Allen Township, and served con- 
tinuously in that office fi'om 1850 to 1880. He reared a family of eleven 
childi'en, ten of whom are living. His wife died March 29, 1884, after a 
happy married life of more than half a century. Squire Barnd is one of 
the few living pioneers to whom the writer is indebted for mxich important 
information relating to early events in this portion of the State. 

George Ensminger settled on the east half of the southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 12, while his son, Michael, located on the northwest quarter of Section 7. 
They came from Wayne County, Ohio, in 1832, and the following year the 
former and John Trout laid out Van Buren. In 1836-37 George Ensmin- 
ger built a saw-mill on Portage Creek, which proved a useful appendage to 
the settlement. He reared a large family, and both he and his wife died 
upon the old homestead. None of the childi'en are residents of this county. 
Charles Baker, of Fairfield County, Ohio, built his cabin on the northeast 
quarter of Section "8, in 1832, where he died. The widow and family went 
back to Fairfield County, whence in after years one of the sons, George A. , 
returned and occupied the old farm. Hugh Gilchrist took up his residence 
the same year on the northwest quarter of Section 13, and there resided till 
his death. The family went West soon after this event. Peter Hocken- 
berry was a noted hunter, who located on the northwest quarter of Section 
19, in 1832. He subsequently removed into what is now Portage Township, 
thence to Hemy County, but afterward returned and died in Hancock. He, 
farmed very little, most of his time being devoted to the chase. 

In 1833 Isaac Weisel, David Dorsey, Peter Heller and Henry Rader 
located in the township. The first two mentioned were brothers-in-law, Mr. 
Weisel having married Jane Dorsey, and both were natives of Pennsylvania. 
Weisel settled on the southeast quarter of Section 2, where both he and his 
wife died in 1878 or 1879. They were the parents of ten childi-en, six of 
whom survive. David and Rosanna Dorsey came from Bedford County, 
Penn. , in October, 1833, and located near the site of Van Buren in Section 
18 in what was then Cass Township. Here Allen, now a resident of the 
township, was born in February, 1834, being one of the first births in the 
settlement. In 1835 David was elected justice of Cass Township, and re- 
elected to the same position. He reared a family of seven children, four of 
whom survive, Allen and Cordelia being residents of the township, where 
both the father and mother died. Peter Heller, of Wayne County, Ohio, 
settled on the southeast quarter of Section 25, in 1833, and the same year 
was elected justice of Portage Township, and re-elected in 1836. He finally 
sold his farm, and removed to Indiana. Henry Rader, a native of A'^irginia, 
settled in 1833 on Section 13, where his son, Adam, now lives. Both he 
and his wife died in this township. 

Daniel Warner, John Gilchrist, Christopher Ernsperger, William Dor- 


sey and Isaac Wolf are believed to have settled here in 1833-34. The first 
mentioned located in Section 14, in February, 1834, and there a son, Dan- 
iel C. , was born the following November. Mr. Warner died at the home of 
this son in Portage Township, in 1881. John Gilchrist located per- 
manently near his brother Hugh in 1834, though he was in the county and 
voted in October, 1831. Soon after coming the Gilchrists went out one 
night "coon" hunting, and treed a "coon" about a mile and a half northwest 
of Van Buren. It became necessary to fell the tree, which, in falling, brought 
down another, the latter striking and killing the twelve-year old son of 
John Gilchrist, and injuring the father so badly that he died two days after 
the unfortunate occurrence, leaving a wife and five small children! Chris- 
topher Ernsperger was a son-in-law of George Ensminger, and came about 
two years after the latter. He subsequently removed from the county. 
William Dorsey came to the county about the same time as his brother 
David, or soon afterward. He is still a resident of the township. Isaac 
Wolf settled in Section 25, where he resided until his death. Two of his 
sons, David and John, are living in the county, the former in Findlay. 

James Moorhead, of Stark County, Ohio, built his cabin on the southwest 
quarter of Section 26, in 1835. His wife, Agnes, died there, and he mar- 
ried again. He reared a large family, and now makes his home with his 
daughter in Eagle Township. John Raney settled in Section 23 in 1835, 
but soon moved away. Josiah Moorhead came in 1836, and settled in Sec- 
tion 36. Cyi-us Hart also located here in 1836, and Abraham Kempher, 
John Beeson and Samuel Huntington in 1837. John Hardy moved in from 
Cass Township in 1837, and resided here till his death, in 1860. He was 
one of the pioneer school teachers of the township, and for more than 
twenty-five years taught during the winter seasons. He was a member of 
the Methodist Church after his marriage with Martha Orr, in 1822, and set- 
tled in what is now Cass Township in 1833, whence he removed to Portage 
(now Allen) four years afterward. Mr. Hardy was the father of five chil- 
dren, two of whom are residents of the county. His widow died in 1866. 
Others may have come in i^rior to 1837, but if so, careful research has failed 
to discover their names. 

First Electors. — At the organization of Cass and Portage Townships in 
April, 1833, each embraced half of what is now Allen Township, and Squire 
John Barnd says that the following list includes all of the voters then liv- 
ing inside of the boundaries of the latter subdivision: Elias L. Bryan, John 
Trout, John Burman, John Barnd, Hugh Gilchrist, Charles Baker, Peter 
Hockenberry, George Ensminger, Michael Ensminger, James Wiley and 
James Howard. The last two mentioned never settled in the township, but 
were staying here temporarily at that time, and were allowed to vote. 

Justices.— John Barnd (fi'om 1850 to 1880), W. L. Heller, J. W. Mc- 
Caughey, Philip Burman, Robert Thornburg, G. W. Barnd, John H. Spit- 
ler and Thomas Briggs. The last two mentioned are the present incumbents 
of the office. 

Early Schools. — The first schoolhouse in this township was a small log 
structure built in 1836, on the section line immediately west of the present 
building on the farm of Peter Whetstone. It stood in the center of the 
road now occupying the section line between 13 and 14, and was built of 
round logs, covered with a clapboard roof, had greased paper windows and 
a huge fireplace in one end. The Bryans, Trouts, Burmans, Ensmingers, 


Barnds, Gilchrists, Warners and Raders attended this school, which was 
the only one in the settlement for several years, excepting one on the farm 
of James Moorhead. which was also opened at an early day. The pupils 
attending the latter, however, were principally from what is now Portage 
Township, and the pioneers of Allen scarcely remember it. With the 
growth of population more schoolhonses became a necessity, and from time 
to time districts were organized and schools opened. There are now nine 
good school buildings in Allen, that in Van Buren having two rooms. 

Churches. — The two Presbyterian societies — Pleasant Hill and Ebenezer 
— organized in Portage and Cass Townships, respectively, united Septem- 
ber 1, 1848, as West Union Church of Yan Buren, and put up a frame 
building in Van Buren, about 1855, which was the first church erected in 
the township. The Presbyterians of this vicinity have since generally at- 
tended services here. The old building has been replaced by a substantial 
brick one, more in harmony with the times. Rev. George Van Eman was the 
earliest pastor of this congregation, which embraced many of the pioneers 
previously spoken of in this chapter, besides those in Portage and Cass. 
The old fi-ame is now used as a dwelling. The Baptist Church in Van 
Buren is the lineal successor of the society organized at the cabin of Merri- 
man Price, on Ten Mile Creek, about 1836, though reorganized at Henry 
Rader's in 1855. Meetings were held at the houses of members until the 
erection of the present building in Van Buren, which has since been used. 
The United Brethren erected their church in Van Buren in 1868, while the 
German Lutheran and Reformed denominations purchased and fitted up 
the old frame schoolhouse in Van Buren. These are the only churches in 
the township, and most of them have good-sized congregations. 

Villages. — Van Buren was laid out December 28, 1833, by George Ens- 
minger and John Trout, on Sections 12 and 13, Range 10, and 7 and 18, 
Range 11, and originally comprised fifty-three lots surrounding a public 
square. It was named in honor of Martin Van Buren, who at that time was 
one of the eminent public men of the nation. Several buildings were put up 
at once, and for a time the little village became quite a busy point; but after 
a season of prosperity its growth came to a standstill, and it has never got 
further than a small country town. A postoflfice was established in the 
village in 1837, and the following postmasters have held the office: Dr. 
George Springer, John Zarbaugh, S. M. Heller, C. S. Wilkinson, Lewis 
Michaels, Dr. E. C. Wells, Daniel Friek, L. J. Hissoiig, Solomon Zar- 
baugh, H. C. Hartman, John Lee and Mrs. E. Wells. In June, 1866, 
Van Buren was incorporated, and Daniel Frick elected mayor. His suc- 
cessors have been C. S. Wilkinson, J. H. Loehr, Dr. E. C. Wells, Dr. Ed- 
ward George, Abraham Mummert, L. P. McCune and Abraham Mummert. 
The town lies seven miles north of Findlay, on the Toledo. Columbus & 
Southern Railroad, which was completed through Van Buren in the winter 
of 1882-83. Its business interests consist of two general dry goods and 
gi-ocery stores, a shoe shop, two blacksmith shops, a wagon shop, a steam 
saw-mill, a produce dealer, a hotel, a saloon and one physician — Dr. Ed- 
ward George. A steam grist-mill was built in Van Biu'en many years ago, 
but it has been abandoned about seven years, and the deserted building is 
all that is left of its past usefulness. In 1870 Van Buren had a population 
of 157, and in 1880, 130, a falling off of 27 in ten years. No apparent in- 
crease has since taken place, and the village wears an appearance of age 


xic^, //T" <y%u^e/0 


and general debility. The town, however, can boast of four churches and 
a good two-storied brick schoolhouse of two rooms. 

Silverwood, better known as Stuartville, -was laid out in March, 1883, 
by Addison J. Silverwood, Nancy A. Silverwood and Anthony Huntington. 
It lies in Sections 24 and 25, Range 10, and Section 19, Range 11, on 
both sides of the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad. The Toledo, 
Columbus & Southern Railroad passes north and south a short distance 
east of the village, which has therefore good railroad facilities. Two small 
stores, a blacksmith shoj:), a saloon and a grain elevator make up the busi- 
ness interests of Stuartville. In May, 1883, a postoffice named Mortimer 
was established here, with James Huntington as postmaster. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1885 by Mrs. A. V. Myers, the present incumbent. 



roRMATiON, Taxable Lands in 1829, and Changes in Territory— Area, 
Boundaries and Population— Physical Features-Soil— Streams and 
Big Spring— Pioneers— Justices of the Peace— Schools— Churches- 
Early Mills— PosTOFFicES and Villages— The Proposed Town of 
Capernaum— Vanlue, its Postmasters, Early Business Men, and Pres- 
ent Material and Social Interests. 

THIS subdivision dates its erection back to the spring of 1828, Amanda 
and Welfare (now Delaware) being formed from the southeast portion 
of Findlay Township, which since May 28, 1823, had embraced the whole 
county. The entire land tax of Amanda Township in 1829, was $4. 30, and 
only 252 acres were then subject to taxation under the existing law. On the 
7th of December, 1829, Jackson Township was formed from Amanda and Dela- 
ware, and December 6, 1830, a part of Amanda was taken in the erection of 
Marion. Big Lick was cut off fi'om Amanda March 7, 1831, and on the 
same date it was ordered by the commissioners that ' ' the township of 
Amanda shall hereafter consist of the original Township 1 south, in Range 
12, and Sections 34 and 35 in the original surveyed Township 1 noi'th in the 
12th Range." On the 3d of June, 1833, those two sections were attached 
to Big Lick. Upon the erection of Ridge Township, June 5, 1838, Sections 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13 and 14, Township 1 south, Range 12, were taken 
from Amanda in the formation of the new township, which existed till 
March 5, 1845, when the previous erection of AVyandot County took forty- 
five sections off the southeast part of Hancock, and made necessary a re- 
formation in the lines of Amanda, Big Lick and Delaware Townships. 
Sections 22, 23. 24, 25, 26. 27, 34, 35 and 36 were cut off the east side of 
Amanda, and became a part of Wyandot County. Ridge Township, as a sub- 
division of Hancock, was abandoned, and its territory remaining in this 
county, attached to Big Lick and Amanda Townships fi'om which it was 
originally formed, Amanda receiving Sections 3, 4, 5 and 6 in Township 1 


south, Range 12. By act of the commissioners (March 5, 1845), the east- 
ern tier of sections, from 1 to 36 inclusive, in Township 1 south. Range 11, 
previously belonging to Jackson, was attached to Amanda Township, and 
thus its territory has since remained. 

Amanda now contains twenty-seven sections, or an area of 17,280 acres. 
It is one of the southeast townships of the county, and is bounded as follows : 
On the north by Big Lick and Marion Townships, on the east by Wyandot 
County, on the south by Wyandot County and Delaware Township, and on 
the west by Jackson Township. In 1840 Amanda had a population of 490; 
1850, 1,162; 1860, 1,470; 1870, 1,469; 1880, 1,474— a total gain from 1860 
to 1880 of only four inhabitants. 

The surface of this township is generally very level, possessing a distinct 
characteristic sameness throughout its length and breadth. A very heavy for- 
est of the several kinds of timber found in this part of the State originally 
covered the soil. In the northeast portion of Amanda is a tract known as 
' ' the fallen timber, ' ' the forest having been undermined by the peat cover- 
ing the surface taking fire in the fall of 1828, and burning the roots of the 
trees. This tract embraces several hundred acres, which was originally cov- 
ered with water most of the year, the large trees lying upon the ground 
preventing the natural drainage of the surface. The "swamp" lies in the 
southeast part of the township, and is a strip of flat land extending from 
east to west nearly across the township. It also underwent the burning 
process, and was very thinly timbered. 

Along the Blanchard the soil is a rich alluvial deposit, but in the eastern 
section of the township, excepting in the "fallen timber" and " swamp" 
tracts, a clay soil with a sand and gravel mixture prevails. The ' ' fallen 
timber ' ' tract is a mixed soil composed of vegetable mold, derived from the 
rotting trees and decayed vegetation, and the sandy clay natural to the 
township. This combination is highly prized by the agriculturist. Cover- 
ing the "swamp" is a deep muck or loam and decayed vegetation, very light 
and susceptible to droughts. The first settlers regarded this tract as almost 
worthless and totally unfit for cu^ltivation, but judicious di'ainage has re- 
claimed most of these lands; and when the top muck is thoroughly mixed, 
by deep plowing, with the underlying clay a valuable soil is formed, the 
muck itself being too light to retain sufficient moisture for the growing crop 
during the hot season. 

Amanda is favored with plenty of good water and fair natural drainage facil- 
ities. The Blanchard River winds northward through the western tier of sec- 
tions, and thoroughly waters the country contiguous thereto. Buck Run is the 
only important local tributary. It flows northwestward fi-om the southeast 
corner of the township, and empties into the Blanchard on the northeast 
quarter of Section 12. Potato Creek crosses the southwest corner of 
Amanda and strikes the Blanchard just across the line in Jackson Township. 
Northeast of Vanlue, in Section 3, on the farm of William Smith, is the 
celebrated "Big Spring," thus named because it is the largest spring in 
Hancock County. The cool, pure spring water gushes forth in a torrent 
fi'om its sandy bed, and ripples onward in a clear stream, supplying water 
for the stock of the whole neighborhood. This spring furnished power at 
an early day for a carding machine and a small corn-mill, both of which did 
good survice during their existence. Big Spring is invaluable to the farmers 
of that locality, and many a wayfarer has here slaked his thirst and 
watched with delight its pure bubbling waters. 


Pioneers. — Thomas Thompson, a native of Virginia, was the first settler 
in this township. On the 25th of February, 1822, he entered the east half 
of the northwest quarter, and January 18, 1823, the west half of the north- 
west quarter of Section 3; and in the summer of 1823 built a cabin, cleared 
a patch of ground and planted a crop of potatoes. He remained on his 
land till the crop was gathered and stored, and then returned to Pickaway 
County, Ohio, for his family, which h© brought out early in 1824. In the 
first list of taxable property, taken by Wilson Vance in the spring of 1824, 
Mr. Thompson is assessed for one horse and five head of cattle, and 
marked opposite his name is the note "taken in from lady," a conclusive 
evidence that his wife and family were then here. Mr. Thompson was 
the first justice of Amanda, and a resident of the township imtil his death, 
which occurred at Vanlue, October 26, 1873. He removed from his farm, 
on Section 3, a few years prior to his decease, as increasing age and infirm- 
ities compelled him to retire from the busy cares of life. He was twice 
married, his first wife. Miss Anna Williamson, coming with him fi-om Pick- 
away County. She died in 1850, and in 1852 he married Mrs. Benjamin 
Nigh, nee Lake, who still survives him, and is residing in Findlay. His 
first wife bore him twelve children, six of whom reached maturity, but only 
one, William, is now living. One daughter, Mrs. James Moyer, of Findlay, 
is the fruit of his second mar