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Full text of "History of Hancock County, Illinois, together with an outline history of the State, and a digest of State laws"

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'An outline history of the state, 












John Buntan, in his " Apology" for writing a Book, says : 

For having now my method by the end, 

Still as I pull'd it came ; and "so I penn'd 

It down, until at last it came to be, 

For length and breadth, the bigness which you see. 

And then, when it was written, and on submitting the question 
of its publication to friends : 

Some said, John, print it; others said, Not so. 
Some said, it might do good ; others said, No. 

And after hearing their counsel : 

At last I thought, since you are thus divided, 
I print it will, and so the case decided. 

The undersigned has about the same apology for writing this 
book, which he styles a History of Hancock County. There is this 
difference, however, that instead of '' having his method by the 
end," he found it to have neither end nor middle; and that though 
the work " came to the bigness that you see," he could have found 
enough material to have made a book of twice its size. From the 
beginning it has been a work from which he has expected more 
pleasure than profit; and if he has succeeded in making it credita- 
ble as a contribution to the great volume of Illinois history, he is 
amply satisfied. 

And now at the close, no one can see and regret its imperfections 
more than himself. He can see errors of omission and commis- 
sion, and realize that many important r.hings have been left unnoticed, 
while less important ones have found place. Yet he urges that, 
to a certain extent, this is unavoidable in a work compiled from 
so many div'erse materials. If one cannot describe with exactness 
what has happened under his own observation, he cannot be ex- 
pected to state with absolute certainty events which transpired 
through a period of half a century, facts obtained through a thou- 
sand sources. He leaves the work in the hands of an appreciating 


and generous public, — not hoping by the mention ot these things, 
to avert or disarm criticism. 

It would be wrong to close without acknowledging his indebted- 
ness to his publishers, whose timely and efficient aid has contributed 
so greatly to its value and success. He has also been placed under 
obligations by numerous friends all over the county, who have 
cheered him and aided him in various ways. He has been espe- 
cially aided by the gentlemen of the Hancock press — all of them, — 
and by the kind and courteous county officials and assistants; and 
he hereby extends to them and to all others his grateful thanks. 

Th. Geegg. 




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The niimerous and well-authenticated accounts of antiquities 
found ia various parts of our country, clearly demonstrate that a 
people civilized, and even highly cultivated, occupied the broad 
surface of our continent before its possession by the present In- 
dians; but the date of their rule of the Western World is so re- 
mote that all traces of their history, their progress and decay, lie 
buried in deepest obscurity. Nature, at the time the first Euro- 
peans came, had asserted her original dominion over the earth; the 
forests were all in their full luxuriance, the growth of many cen- 
turies; and naught existed to point out who and what they were 
who formerly lived, and loved, and labored, and died, on the conti- 
nent of America. This pre-historic race is known as the Mound- 
Builders, from the numerous large mounds of earth-works left by 
them. The remains of the works of this people form the most in- 
teresting class of antiquities discovered in the United States. Their 
character can be but partially gleaned from the internal evidences 
and the peculiarities of the only remains left, — the mounds. They 
consist of remains of what were apparently villages, altars, temples, 
idols, cemeteries, monuments, camps, fortifications, pleasure 
grounds, etc., etc. Their habitations must have been tents, struc- 
tures of wood, or other perishable material; otherwise their remains 
would be numerous. If tlie Mound-Builders were not the ancestors 
of the Indians, who were they? The oblivion which has closed over 
them is so complete that only conjecture can be given in answer to 
the question. Those who do not believe in the common parentage 
of mankind contend that they were an indigenous race of the West- 
ern hemisphere; others, with more plausibility, think they came 
from the East, and imagine they can see coincidences in tlie religion 
of the Hindoos and Southern Tartars and the supposed theology of 


the Mound-Builders. They were, no doubt, idolaters, and it has 
been conjectured that the sun was the object of their adoration. The 
mounds were generally built iu a situation affording a view of the 
rising sun: when enclosed in walls their gateways were toward the 
east; the caves in which their dead were occasionally buried always 
opened in the same direction; whenever a mound was partially en- 
closed by a semi-circular pavement, it was on the east side; when 
bodies were buried in graves, as was frequently the case, they were 
laid in a direction east and west; and, finally, medals have been 
found representing the sun and his rays of light. 

At what period they came to this country, is likewise a matter of 
speculation. From the comparatively rude state of the arts among 
them, it has been inferred that the time was very remote. Their 
axes were of stone. Their raiment, judging from fragments which 
have been discovered, consisted of the bark of trees, interwoven 
with feathers; and their military works were such as a people 
would erect who had just passed to the pastoral state of society 
from that dependent alone upon hunting and fishing. 

The mounds and other ancient earth-works constructed by this 
people are far more abundant than generally supposed, from the fact 
that while some are quite large, the greater part of them are small 
and inconspicuous. Along nearly all our water courses that are 
large enough to be navigated with a canoe, the mounds are almost 
invariably found, covering the base points and headlands of the 
bluffs which border the narrower valleys ; so that when one finds him- 
self in such positions as to command the grandest views for river 
scenery, he may almost always discover that he is standing upon, 
or in close proximity to, some one or more of these traces of the 
labors of an ancient people. 


On the top of the high bluffs that skirt the west bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, about two and a half miles from Galena, are a number of 
these silent monuments of a pre-historic age. The spot is one of 
surpassing beauty. From that point may be obtained a view of a 
portion of three States,— Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin. A hundred 
feet below, at the foot of the perpendicular cliffs, the trains of the 
Illinois Central Eailroad thunder around the curve, the portage is 
in full view, and the '• Father of Waters," with its numerous bayous 


and islands, sketches a grand pamorama for miles above and below. 
Here, probably thousands of years ago, a race of men now extinct, 
and unknown even in the traditions of the Indians who inhabited 
that section for centuries before the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, built these strangely wonderful and enigmatical mounds. At 
this point these mounds are circular and conical in form. The larg- 
est one is at least forty feet in diameter at the base, and not less 
than fifteen feet high, even yet, after it has been beaten by the 
storms of many centuries. On its top stands the large stump of an 
oak tree that was cut down about fifty years ago, and its annual 
rings indicate a growth of at least 200 years. 

One of the most singular earth-works in the State was found on 
the top of a ridge near the east bank of the Sinsinawa creek in the 
lead region. It resembled some huge animal, the head, ears, nose, 
legs and tail, and general outline of which being as perfect as 
if made by men versed in modern art. The ridge on which it was 
situated stands on the prairie, 300 yards wide, 100 feet in height, 
and rounded on the top by a deep deposit of- clay. Centrally, 
along the line of its summit, and thrown up in the form of an 
embankment three feet high, extended the outline of a quadruped 
measuring 250 feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the 
tail, and having a width of 18 feet at the center of the body. The 
head was 35 feet in length, the ears 10 feet, legs 60 and tail 75. The 
curvature in both the fore and hind legs was natural to an animal 
lying on its side. The general outline of the figure most nearly 
resembled the extinct animal known to geologists as the Megathe- 
rium. The question naturally arises. By whom and for what pur- 
pose was this earth figure raised? Some have conjectured that 
numbers of this now extinct animal lived and roamed over the prai- 
ries of Illinois when the Mound-Builders first made their appearance 
on the upper part of the Mississippi Valley, and that their wonder 
and admiration, excited by the colossal dimensions of these liuge 
creatures, found some expression in the erection of this figure. 
The bones of some similar gigantic animals were exhumed on this 
etreani about three miles from the same place. 


Mr. Breckeuridge, who examined the antiquities of the "Western 
country in 1817, sj^eaking of the mounds in the American Bottom, 
says: "The great number and extremely large size of some of 


them may be regarded as furnishing, with other circumstances, 
evidences of their antiquity. 1 have soraetiiues been induced to 
thinli that at the period when they were constructed there was a 
population here as numerous as that which once animated the 
borders of tlie Nile or Euphrates, or of Mexico. The most num- 
erous, as well as considerable, of these remains are found in pre- 
cisely those parts of the country where the traces of a numerous 
population might be looked for, namely, from the mouth of the 
Ohio on the east side of the Mississippi, to the Illinois river, and 
on the west from the St. Francis to the Missouri. I am perfectly 
satisfied that cities similar to those of ancient Mexico, of several 
hundred thousand souls, have existed in this country." 

It must be admitted that whatever the uses of these mounds — 
whether as dwellings or burial places — these silent monuments 
were built, and the race who built them vanished from the face 
of the earth, ages before the Indians occupied the land, but their 
date must probably forever baffle human skill and ingenuit3^ 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the places of sepulture 
raised by the Mound-Builders from the more modern graves of the 
Indians. The tombs of the former were in general larger than 
those of the latter, and were used as receptacles for a greater number 
of bodies, and contained relics of art, evincing a higher degree of civ- 
ilization than that attained by the Indians. The ancient earth- 
works of the Mound-Builders have occasionally been appropriated 
as burial places by the Indians, but the skeletons of the latter may 
be distinguished from the osteological remains of the former by 
their greater stature. 

What finally became of the Mound-Builders is another query 
which has been extensively discussed. The fact that their works 
extend into Mexico and Peru has induced the belief that it was 
their posterity that dwelt in these countries when they were first 
visited by the Spaniards. The Mexican and Peruvian works, with 
the exception of their greater magnitude, are similar. Pelics com- 
mon to all of them have been occasionally found, and it is believed 
that the religious uses which they subserved were the same. If, 
indeed, the Mexicans and Peruvians were the progeny of the 
more ancient Mound-Builders, Spanish rapacity for gold was the 
cause of their overthrow and final extermination. 

A thousand other queries naturally arise respecting these nations 


which now repose under the ground, but the most searching investi- 
gation can give us only vagae speculations for answers. No histo- 
rian has preserved the names of their mighty chieftains, or given an 
account of their exploits, and even tradition is silent respecting 


Following the Mound-Builders as inhabitants of North America, 
were, as it is supposed, the people who reared the magnificent 
cities the ruins of which are found in Central America. This peo- 
ple was far more civilized and advanced in the arts than were the 
Mound-Builders. The cities built by them, judging from the ruins 
of broken columns, fallen arches and crumbling walls of temples, 
palaces and pyramids, which in some places for miles bestrew the 
ground, must have been of great extent, magnificent and very pop- 
ulous. When we consider the vast period of time necessary to erect 
such colossal structures, and, again, the time required to reduce 
them to their present ruined state, we can conceive something of 
their antiquity. These cities must have been old when many of 
the ancient cities of the Orient were being built. 

The third race inhabiting North America, distinct from the 
former two in every particular, is the present Indians. They 
were, when visited by the early discoverers, without cultivation, 
refinement or literature, and far behind the Mound-Builders in 
the knowledge of the arts. The question of their origin has long 
interested archteologists, and is the most difficult they have been 
called upon to answer. Of their predecessors the Indian ti"ibes 
knew nothing; they even had no traditions respecting them. It is 
quite certain that they were the successors of a race which had 
entirely passed away ages before the discovery of the New "World. 
One hypothesis is that the American Indians are an original race 
indigenous to the Western hemisphere. Those who entertain this 
view think their peculiarities of physical structure preclude the 
possibility of a common parentage with the rest of mankind. 
Prominent among those distinctive traits is the hair, which in the 
red man is round, in the white man oval, and in the black man flat. 
A more common supposition, however, is that they are a derivative 
race, and sprang from one or more of the ancient peoples of Asia. 
In the absence of all authentic history, and when even tradition is 


wanting, any attempt to point out the particular location of their 
origin must prove unsatisfactory. Though the exact place ot origin 
may never be known, yet the striking coincidence of physical 
organization between the Oriental type of mankind and the Indians 
point unmistakably to some part of Asia as the place whence they 
emigrated, which was originally peopled to a great extent by the 
children of Shem. In this connection it has been claimed that the 
meeting of the Europeans, Indians and Africans on the continent 
of America, is the fulfillment of a prophecy as recorded in Gen- 
esis ix. 27: "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the 
tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant." Assuming the 
theory to be true that the Indian tribes are of Shemitic origin, 
they were met on this continent in the fifteenth century by the 
Japhetic race, after the two stocks had passed around the globe by 
directly different routes. A few years afterward the Hamitic 
bi'anch of the human fiimily were brought from the coast of Africa. 
During the occupancy of the continent by the three distinct races, 
the children of Japheth have grown and prospered, while the called 
and not voluntary sons of Ham have endured a servitude in the 
wider stretching valleys of the tents of Shem. 

When Christopher Columbus had finally succeeded in demon- 
strating the truth of his theory that by sailing westward from Eu- 
rope land would be discovered, landing on the Island of Bermuda 
he supposed he had reached the East Indies. This was an error, 
but it led to the adoption of the name of " Indians " for the inhab- 
itants of the Island and the main land of America, by which name 
the red men of America have ever since been known. 

Of the several great branches of N'orth American Indians the 
only ones entitled to consideration in Illinois history are the Algon- 
quins and Iroquois. At the time of the discovery of America the 
former occupied the Atlantic seaboard, while the home of the 
Iroquois was as an island in this vast area of Algonquin popula- 
tion. The latter great nation spread over a vast territory, and various 
tribes of Algonquin lineage sprung up over the country, adopting, 
in time, distinct tribal customs and laws. An almost continuous 
warfare was carried on between tribes; but later, on the entrance of 
the white man into their beloved homes, every foot of territory 
was fiercely disputed by the confederacy of many neighboring tribes. 
The Algonquins formed the most extensive alliance to resist the 
encroachment of tlie whites, especially the EngHsIi. Such was the 


nature of Kii\^ Philip's war. This King, with his Algonquin 
braves, spread terror and desolation throughout New England.With 
the Algonquins as the controlling spirit, a confederacj of conti- 
nental pi-oportions was the result, embracing in its alliance the tribes 
of every name and lineage from the Northern lakes to the gulf. 
Pontiac, having breathed into them his implacable hate of the 
English intruders, ordered the conflict to commence, and all the 
British colonies trembled before the desolating fury of Indian 


The Illinois confederacy, the various tribes of which comprised 
most of the Indians of Illinois at one time, was composed of five 
tribes: the Tamaroas, Michigans, Kaskaskias, Cahokas, and Peorias. 
The Illinois, Miamis and Delawares were of the same stock. As 
early as 1670 the priest Father Marquette mentions frequent visits 
made by individuals of this confederacy to the missionary station at 
St. Esprit, near the western extremity of Lake Superior. At that 
time they lived west of the Mississippi, in eight villages, whither 
they had been driven from the shores of Lake Michigan by the 
Iroquois. Shortly afterward they began to return to their old 
hunting ground, and most of them finally settled in Illinois. 
Joliet and Marquette, in 1673, met with a band of them on their 
famous voyage of discovery down the Mississippi. They werp 
treated with the greatest hospitality by the principal chief. On their 
return voyage up the Illinois river they stopped at the jDrincipal 
town of the confederacy, situated on the banks of the river seven 
miles below the present town of Ottawa. It was then called Kas- 
kaskia. Marquette returned to the village in 1675 and established 
the mission of the Immaculate Conception, the oldest in Illinois. 
When, in 1679, LaSalle visited the town, it had greatly increased 
numbering 460 lodges, and at the annual assembly of the different 
tribes, from 6,000 to 8,000 souls. In common with other western 
tribes, they became involved in the conspiracy of Pontiac, although 
displaying no ver}' great warlike spirit. Pontiac lost his life by 
the hands of one of the braves of the Illinois tribe, which so enraged 
the nations that had followed him as their leader that they fell upon 
the Illinois to avenge his death, and almost annihilated them, 


Tradition states that a band of this tribe, in order to escape the 
general slaughter, took refuge upon the high rock on the Illinois 


river since known as Starved Rock. Nature has made this one of 
the most formidable military fortresses in the world. From the 
waters which wash its base it rises to an altitude of 125 feet. Three 
of its sides it is impossible to scale, while the one next to the land 
may be climbed with difficulty. From its summit, almost as inac- 
cessible as an eagle's nest, the valley of the Illinois is seen as 
a landscape of exquisite beauty. The river near by struggles 
between a number of wooded islands, while further below it quietly 
meanders through vast meadows till it disappears like a thread of 
light in the dim distance. On the summit of this rock the Illinois 
were besieged by a superior force of the Pottawatomies whom the 
great strength of their natural fortress enabled them to keep at bay. 
Hunger and thirst, however, soon accomplished what the enemy 
was unable to eliect. Surrounded by a relentless foe, without food 
or water, they took a last look at their beautiful hunting grounds, 
and with true Indian fortitude lay down and died from starvation. 
Years afterward their bones were seen whitening in that place. 

At the beginning of the present century the remnants of this 
once powerful confederacy were forced into a small compass around 
Kaskaskia. A few years later they emigrated to the Southwest, 
and in 1850 they were in Indian Territory, and numbered but Si 


The Sacs and Foxes, who figured most conspicuously in the later 
history of Illinois, inhabited the northwestern portion of the State, 
By long residence together and intermarriage they had substan- 
tially become one people. Drake, in his "Life of' Black Hawk," 
speaks of these tribes as follows: " The Sacs and Foxes fought their 
way from the waters of the St. Lawrence to Green Bay, Tnd after 
J-eaching that place, not only sustained themselves against hostile 
tribes, but were the most active and courageous in the subjugation, 
or rather the extermination, of the numerous and powerful fllinois 
confederacy. They had many wars, offensive- and defensive, with 
the Sioux, the Pawnees, the Osages, and other tribes, some of which 
are ranked among the most fierce and ferocious warriors of the 
whole continent; and it does not appear that in these conflicts run- 
ning through a long period of years, they were found vvantin-. in 
Uiis, the greatest of all savage virtues. In the late war with o'reat 
Britain, a party of the Sacs and Foxes fought under the British 


standard as a matter of choice; and in the recent contest between a 
fragment of these tribes and the United States, although defeated 
and literally cut to pieces by an overwhelming force, it is very 
questionable whether tlieir reputation as braves would suifer by a 
comparison with that of their victors. It is believed that a careful 
feview of their history, from the period when they tirst established 
themselves on the waters of the Mississippi down to the present 
time, will lead the inquirer to the conclusion that the Sacs and 
. Foxes were truly a courageous people, shrewd, politic, and enter- 
prising, with no more ferocity and treachery of character than is 
common among the tribes by whom they were surrounded." These 
tribes at the time of the Black Hawk War were divided into twenty 
families, twelve of which were Sacs and eight Foxes. The follow- 
ing were other prominent tribes occupying Illinois: the Kickapoos, 
Shawnees, Mascoulins, Piaukishaws, Pottawatomies, Chippewas, 
and Ottawas. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing large quadrupeds 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 
sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 


speaker, and each individual, notwitlistanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted, it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whifl'. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
'patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 
glory and delight,— war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letie games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remamed in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them; and this vacancy 


imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 


The most desperate single-handed combat with Indians ever 
fought on the soil of Illinois was that of Tom Higgins, August 21, 
1814. Higgins was 25 years old, of a muscular and compact 
build, not tall, but strong and active. In danger he possessed a 
q"uick and discerning judgment, and was without fear. He was a 
member of Journey's rangers, consisting of eleven men, stationed 
at Hill's Fort, eight miles southwest of the present Greenville, Put- 
nam county. Discovering Indian signs near the fort, the company, 
early the following morning, started on the trail. They had not 
gone far before they were in an ambuscade of a larger party. At 
the first fire their commander. Journey, and three men fell, and 
six reti'eated to the fort; but Higgins stopped to "have another 
pull at the red-skins," and, taking deliberate aim at a straggling 
savage, shot him down. Higgins' horse had been wounded at the 
first fire, as he supposed, mortally. Coming to, he was about to 
effect his escape, when the familiar voice of Burgess hailed him 
from the long grass, "Tom, don't leave me." Higgins told him to 
come along, but Burgess replied that his leg was smashed. ' Hig- 
gins attempted to raise him on his horse, but the animal took fright 
and ran away. Higgins then directed Burgess to limp off as well 
as he could ; and by crawling through the grass he reached the fort 
while the former loaded his gun and remained behind to protect 
him against the pursuing enemy. When Burgess was well out of 
the way, Higgins took another route, which led by a small thicket, 
to throw any wandering enemy off the trail. Here he was con- 
fronted by three savages approaching. He ran to a little ravine 
near for shelter, but in the effort discovered for the first time that 


he was badly wounded in the leg. He was closely pressed by the 
largest, a powerful Indian, who lodged a ball in his thigh. He fell, 
but instantly rose again, only, however, to draw the fire of the other 
two, and again fell wounded. The Indians now advanced upon him 
with their tomahawks and scalping knives; but as he presented his 
gun first at one, then at another, from his place in the ravine, each 
wavered in his purpose. Neither party had time to load, and the 
large Indian, supposing iiually that Higgins' gun was empty, rushed 
forward with uplifted tomahawk and a yell; but as he came near 
enough, was shot down. At this the others raised the war-whoop, 
and rushed upon the wounded Higgins, and now a hand-to-hand 
conflict ensued. They darted at him with their knives time and 
again, inflicting many ghastly flesh-wounds, which bled profusely. 
One of the assailants threw his tomahawk at him with such pre- 
cision as to sever his ear and lay bare his skull, knocking him down. 
They now rushed in on him, but he kicked them oft', and grasping 
one of their spears thrust at him, was raised up by it. He quickly 
seized his gun, and by a powerful blow crushed in the skull of one, 
but broke his rifle. His remaining antagonist still kept up the con- 
test, making thrusts' with his knife at the bleeding and exhausted 
Higgins, which he parried with his broken gun as well as he could. 
Most of this desperate engagement was in plain view of the fort; 
but the rangers, having been in one ambuscade, saw in this fight 
only a ruse to draw out the balance of the garrison. But a Mrs. 
Pursely, residing at the fort, no longer able to see so brave a man 
contend for his life unaided, seized a gun, mounted a horse, and 
started to his rescue. At this the men took courage and hastened 
along. The Indian, seeing aid coming, fled. Higgins, being near- 
ly hacked to pieces, fainted from loss of blood. He was carried to 
the fort. There being no surgeon, his comrades cut two balls from 
his flesh; others remained in. For days his life was despaired of; 
but by tender nursing he ultimately regained his health, although 
badly crippled. He resided in Fayette county for many years after, 
and died in 1829. 




The first white man who ever set foot on the soil embraced within 
the boundary of the present populous State of Illinois was Nich- 
olas Perrot, a Frenchman, lie was sent to Chicago in the year 1671 
by M. Talon, Intendant of Canada, for the purpose of inviting the 
Western Indians to a great peace convention to be held at Green 
Bay. This convention had for its chief object the promulgation of 
a plan for the discoveiy of the Mississippi river. This great river 
had been discovered b}' De Soto, the Spanish explorer, nearly one 
hundred and fifty 3'ears pi-evioush', but his nation left the country 
a wilderness, without farther exploration or settlement within its 
borders, in which condition it remained until the river was dis- 
covered by Joliet and Marquette in 1673. It was deemed a wise 
policy to secure, as far as possible, the friendship and co-operation 
of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon an enterprise 
which their hostility might render disastrous. Thus the great con- 
vention was called. 


Although Perrot was the first European to visit Illinois, he was 
not the first to make any important discoveries. This was left for 
Joliet and Marquette, which they accomplished two years tiiereafter. 
The former, Louis Joliet, was born at Quebec in 161:5. He was 
educated for the clerical profession, but he abandoned it to 
engage in the fur trade. His companion. Father Jacques Mar- 
quette, was a native of France, born in 1637. He was a Jesuit 
priest by education, and a man of simple faith and great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the In- 
dians. He was sent to America in 1666 as a missionary. To con- 
vert the Indians he penetrated the wilderness a thousand miles 
in advance of civilization, and by liis kind attention in their afHic- 
tions he won their affections and made them his lasting friends. 
There were others, however, who visited Illinois even prior to the 
famous exploration of Joliet and Marquette. In 1672 the Jesuit 


missionaries, Fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, bore the 
standard of the Cross from their mission at Green Bay through 
western "Wisconsin and northern Illinois. 

According to the pre-arranged plan referred to above, at the Jes- 
uit mission on the Strait of Mackinaw, Joliet joined Marquette, 
and with five, other Frenchmen and a simple outfit the daring ex- 
plorers on the 17th of Maj', 1673, set out on their perilous voyage 
to discover the Mississippi. Coasting along the northern shore of 
Lake Michigan, they entered Green Bay, and passed thence up Fox 
river and Lake Winnebago to a village of the Muscatines and 
Miamis, where great interest was taken in the expedition by the 
natives. With guides they proceeded down the river. Arriving 
at the portage, they soon carried their light canoes and scanty bag- 
gage to the Wisconsin, about three miles distant. Their guides 
now refused to accompany them further, and endeavored, by re- 
citing the dangers incident to the voyage, to induce them to return. 
They stated that huge demons dwelt in the great river, whose voices 
could be heard a long distance, and who engulfed in the raging 
waters all who came within their reach. They also represented that 
if any of them should escape the dangers of the river, fierce tribes of 
Indians dwelt upon its banks ready to complete the work of de- 
struction. They proceeded on their journey, however, and on the 
17th of June pushed their frail barks on the bosom of the stately 
Mississippi, down which they smoothly glided for nearly a hundred 
miles. Here Joliet and Marquette, leaving their canoes in charge 
of their men, went on the western shore, where they discovered an 
Indian village, and were kindly treated. They journeyed on down 
the unknown river, passing the mouth of the Illinois, then run- 
ning into the current of the muddy Missouri, and afterward the 
waters of the Ohio joined with them on their journey southward. 
Near the mouth of the Arkansas they discovered Indians who 
showed signs of hostility; but when Marquette's mission of peace 
was made kn'own to them, they were kindly received. After pro- 
ceeding up the Arkansas a short distance, at the advice of the 
natives they turned their faces northward to retrace their steps. Af- 
ter several weeks of hard toil they readied the Illinois, up which 
stream they proceeded to Lake Michigan. Following the western 
shore of the lake, they entered Green Bay the latter part of Sep- 
tember, having traveled a distance of 2,500 miles. 


On his way np the Illinois, Marquette visited the Kaskaskias, 
near what is now Utica, in LaSalle county. The following year 
he returned and established among them the mission of the Im- 
maculate Yirgin Mary. This was the last act of his life. He died 
in Michigan, Ma^' IS, 1675. 

lasalle's explokations. 
The tirst French occupation of Illinois was eflFecte-d by LaSalle, 
■ in 16S0. Having constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," above the 
falls of Niagara, he sailed to Green Bay, and passed thence in 
canoe to the nioutli of the St. Joseph river, by which and the Kan- 
kakee he reached the Illinois in January, 1680; and on the 3d he 
entered the expansion of the river now called Peoria lake. Here, 
at the lower end of the lake, on its eastern bank, now in Tazewell 
county, he erected Fort Crevecceur. The place where this ancient 
fort stood may still be seen just below the outlet of Peoria lake. It 
had, however, but a temporary existence. From this point LaSalle 
determined, at that time, to descend the Mississippi to its mouth. 
This lie did not do, however, until two years later. Returning to 
Fort Frontenac for the purpose of getting material with which to 
rig his vessel, he left the fort at Peoria in charge of his lieutenant, 
Henri Tonti, an Italian, who had lost one of his hands by the 
explosion of a grenade in the Sicilian wars. Tonti had with him 
fifteen men, most of whom disliked LaSalle, and were ripe for a 
revolt the first opportunity. Two men who had, previous to LaSalle's 
departure, been sent to look for the " Griffin " now returned and 
reported that the vessel was lost and that Fort Frontenac was in 
the hands of LaSalle's creditors. This disheartening intelligence 
had the efiect to enkindle a spirit of mutiny among the garrison. 
Tonti had no sooner left the fort, with a few men, to fortify what 
was afterward known as Starved Hock, than the garrison at the 
fort refused longer to submit to authority. They destroyed the 
fort, seized the ammunition, provisions, and other portables of value, 
and fied. Only two of their number remained true. These hast- 
ened to apprise Tonti of what had occurred. He thereupon sent 
four of the men with him to inform LaSalle. Thus was Tonti in 
the midst of treacherous savages, with only five men, two of whom 
were the friars Ribourde and Membre. With these he immediately 
returned to the fort, collected what tools had not been destroyed, 
and conveyed thein to the great town of the Illinois Indians. 


By this voluntary display of confidence he hoped to remove the 
jealousy created in the minds of the Illinois by the enemies of La- 
Salle. Here he awaited, unmolested, the return of LaSalle. 


Neither Tonti nor his wild associates suspected that hordes of Iro- 
quois were gathering preparatory to rushing down upon their 
country and reducing it to an uninhabited waste. Already these 
hell-hounds of the wilderness had destroyed the Hurons, Eries, and 
other natives on the lakes, and were now directing their attention 
to the Illinois for new victims. Five hundred Iroquois warriors 
set out for the home of the Illinois. All was fencied security and 
idle repose in the great town oi this tribe, as the enemy stealthily 
approached. Suddenly as a clap of thunder from a cloudless sky 
the listless inhabitants were awakened from their lethargy. A 
Shawnee Indian, on his return home after a visit to tlie Illinois, 
first discovered the invaders. To save his friends from the im- 
pending danger, he hurriedly returned and apprised them of the 
coming enemy. This intelligence spread with lightning rapidity 
over the town, and each wigwam disgorged its boisterous and as- 
toniided inmates. Women snatched their children, and in a delirium 
of flight wandered aimlessly about, rending the air with their 
screams. The men, more self-possessed, seized their arms ready 
for the coming fray. Tonti, long an object of suspicion, was soon 
surrounded by an angry crowd of warriors, who accused him of be- 
ing an emissary of the enemy. His inability to defend himself 
properly, in consequence of not fully understanding their language 
left them still inclined to believe him guilty, and they seized his 
efi'ects from the fort and threw them into the river. The women 
and children were sent down the river for safety, and the warriors, 
not exceeding four hundred, as most of their young men were off 
hunting, returned to the village. Along the shores of the river 
they kindled huge bonfires, and spent the entire night in greasing 
their bodies, painting their faces, and performing the war-dance, 
to prepare for the approaching enemy. At early dawn the scouts 
who had been sent out returned, closely followed by the Iroquois. 
The scouts had seen a chief arrayed in French costume, and re- 
ported their suspicions that LaSalle was in the camp of the enemy, 
and Tonti again became an object of jealousy. A concourse of 
wildly gesticulating savages immediately gathered about him, 'de- 



inanding his life, and notliing saved him from their uplifted weap- 
ons but a promise that he and his men would go with them to meet 
the enemy. With their suspicions partly lulled, they hurriedly 
crossed the river and met the foe, when both commenced tiring. 
Touti, seeing that the Illinois were outnumbered and likely to 
be defeated, determined, at the imminent risk of his life, to stay 
the light by an attempt at mediation. Presuming on the treaty of 
peace then existing between the French and Iroquois, he exchanged 
his gun for a belt of wampum and advanced to meet the savage 
multitude, attended by three companions, who, being unnecessarily 
exposed to danger, were dismissed, and he proceeded alone. A 
sliort walk brought him in the midst of a pack of yelping devils, 
writhing and distorted with fiendish rage, and impatient to shed 
his blood. As the result of his swarthy Italian complexion and 
half-savage costume, he was at first taken for an Indian, and before 
the mistake was discovered a young warrior approached and stabbed 
at his heart. Fortunately the blade was turned aside by coming 
in contact with a rib, yet a large flesh wound was inflicted, which 
bled profusely. At tliis juncture a chief discovered his true char- 
acter, and he was led to the rear and efforts were made to staunch 
his wound. When sufficiently recovered, he declared the Illinois 
were under the protection of the French, and demanded, in consid- 
eration of the treaty between the latter and the Iroquois, that they 
should be suff'ered to remain without further molestation. Durino' 
this conference a young warrior snatched Tonti's hat, and, fleeino- 
with it to the front, held it aloft on the end of his gun in view of 
the Illinois. The latter, judging that Tonti had been killed, 
renewed the fight with great vigor. Simultaneously, intellio'ence 
was brought to the Iroquois that Frenchmen were assisting their 
enemies in the fight, when the contest over Tonti was renewed 
with redoubled fury. Some declared that he should be immediately 
put to death, while others, friendly to LaSalle, with equal earnest- 
ness demanded that he should be set at liberty. During tlieir 
clamorous debate, his hair was several times lifted by a huo-e sav- 
age who stood at his back with a scalping knife ready for execution. 
Tonti at length turned the current of the angry controversy in his 
favor, by stating that the Illinois were 1,200 strong, and that there 
were 60 Frenchmen at the village ready to assist them. This state- 
ment obtained at least a partial credence, and his tormentors now 


determined to use him as an instrument to delude the Illinois with a 
pretended truce. The old warriors, therefore, advanced to the front 
and ordered the firing to cease, while Tonti, dizzy from the loss of 
blood, was furnished with an emblem of peace and sent staggering 
across the plain to rejoin the Illinois. The two friars who had just 
returned from a distant hut, whither they had repaired for prayer 
and meditation, were the first to meet him and bless God for what 
they regarded as a miraculous deliverance. With the assurance 
brought by Tonti, the Illinois re-orossed the river to their lodges, 
followed by the enemy as far as the opposite bank. Not long after, 
large numbers of the latter, under the pretext of hunting, also crossed 
the river and hung in threatening groups about the town. These 
hostile indications, and the well-known disregard which the Iroquois 
had always evinced for their pledges, soon convinced the Illinois 
that their only safety was in flight. With this conviction they set 
tire to their village, and while the vast volume of flames and smoke 
diverted the attention of the enemy, they quietly dropped down the 
river to join their women and children. As soon as the flames would 
permit, the Iroquois entrenched themselves on the site of the vil- 
lage. Tonti and his men were ordered by the suspicious savages 
to leave their hut and take up their abode in the fort. 

At first the Iroquois were much elated at the discomfiture of the 
Illinois, but when two days afterward they discovered them recon- 
noitering their intrenchments, their courage greatly subsided. 
With fear they recalled the exaggerations of Tonti respecting their 
numbers, and concluded to send him with a hostage to make over- 
tures of peace. He and his hostage were received with delight by 
the Illinois, who readily assented to the proposal which he brought, 
and in turn sent back with him a hostage to the Iroquois. On his 
return to the fort his life was again placed in jeopardy, and the 
treaty was with great difliculty ratified. The young and inexpe- 
rienced Illinois hostage betrayed to his crafty interviewers the nu- 
merical weakness of his tribe, and the savages immediately rushed 
upon Tonti, and charged him with having deprived them of the spoils 
and honors of victory. It now required all the tact of which he was 
master to escape. After much difficulty however, the treaty was con- 
cluded, but the savages, to show their contempt for it, immediately 
commenced constructing canoes in which to descend the river and 
attack the Illinois. 





Tonti managed to apprise the latter of their designs, and he and 
Membre were soon after summoned to attend a council of the Iro- 
quois, who still labored under a wholesome fear of Count Frontenac, 
and disliking to attack the Illinois in the presence of the French, 
they thought to try to induce them to leave the country. At the 
assembling of the council, six packages of beaver skins were intro- 
duced, and the savage orator, presenting them separately to Tonti, 
explained the nature of each. "The first two," said he, "were to de- 
clare that the children of Count Frontenac, that is, the Illinois, 
should not be eaten; the next was a plaster to heal the wounds of 
Tonti; the next was oil wherewith to anoint him and Membre, 
that they might not be fatigued in traveling; the next proclaimed 
that the sun was bright; and the sixth and last required them to 
decamp and go home." 

At the mention of going home, Tonti demanded of them when 
they intended to set the example by leaving the Illinois in the 
peaceable possession of their country, which they had so unjustly in- 
vaded. The council grew boisterous and angry at the idea that 
they should be demanded to do what they required of the French, 
and some of its members, forgetting their previous pledge, declared 
that they would "eat Illinois flesh before they departed." Tonti, in 
imitation of the Indians' manner of expressing scorn, indignantly 
kicked away itlie presents of fur, saying, since they intended to de- 
vour the children of Frontenac with cannibal ferocity, he would not 
accept their gifts. This stern rebuke resulted in the expulsion of 
Tonti and his companion from the council, and the next day the 
chiefs ordered them to leave the country. 

Tonti had now, at the great peril of his life, tried every expedient 
to prevent the slaughter of the Illinois. There was little to be ac- 
complished by longer remaining in the country, and as longer delay 
might imperil the lives of his own men, he determined to depart, not 
knowing where or when he would be able to rejoin LaSalle. With 
this object in view, the party, consisting of six persons, embarked in 
canoes, which soon proved leaky, and they were compelled to land 
for the purpose of making repairs. While thus employed, Father Ri- 
bourde, attracted by the beauty of the surrounding landscape, wan- 
dered forth among the groves for meditation and prayer. Not return- 
ing in due time, Tonti became alarmed, and started with a compan- 


ion to ascertain the cause of the long delay. They soon discovered 
tracks of Indians, by whom it was supposed he had been seized, and 
guns were fired to direct his return, in case he was alive. Seeing 
nothing of him during the day, at night they built fires along the 
bank of the river and retired to the opposite side, to see who might 
approach them. Near midnight a number of Indians were seen 
flitting about the light, by whom, no doubt, had been made the tracks 
seen the previous day. It was afterward learned that they were a 
band of Kickapoos, "who had for several days been hovering about 
the camp of the Iroquois in quest of scalps. They had fell in 
with the inoffensive old friar and scalped him. Thus, in the 65tli 
year of his age, the only heir to a wealthy Burgundian house per- 
ished under the war-club of the savages for whose salvation he had 
renounced ease and affluence. 


During this tragedy a far more revolting one was being enacted 
in the great town of Illinois. The Iroquois were tearing open the 
graves of the dead, and wreaking their vengeance upon the bodies 
made hideous by putrefaction. At this desecration, it is said, they 
even ate portions of the dead bodies, while subjecting them to every 
indignity that brutal hate could inflict. Still unsated by their hell- 
ish brutalities, and now unrestrained by the presence of the French, 
they started in pursuit of the retreating Illinois. Day after day 
they and the opposing forces moved in compact array down the 
river, neither being able to gain any advantage over the other. At 
length the Iroquois obtained by falsehood that which number and 
prowess denied them. They gave out that their object was to pos- 
sess the country, not by destroying, but by driving out its present 
inhabitants. Deceived by this false statement, the Illinois separa- 
ted, some descending the Mississippi and others crossing to the 
western shore. The Tamaroas, more credulous than the rest, re- 
mained near the mouth of the Illinois, and were suddenly attacked 
by an overwhelming force of the enem}'. The men fled in dismay, 
and the women and children, to the number of 700, fell into the 
hands of the ferocious enemy. Then followed the tortures, butch- 
eries and burnings which only the infuriated and iinbruted Iroquois 
could perpetrate. LaSalle on his return discovered the half-charred 
bodies of women and children still bound to the stakes where they 
had sufl"ered all the torments hellish hate could devise. In addition 


to those who had been burnt, the mangled bodies of women and 
children thickly covered the ground, many of which bore marks of 
brutality too horrid for record. 

After the ravenous horde had sufficiently glutted their greed for 
carnage, they retired from the country. The Illinois returned and 
rebuilt their town. 


After the death of Ribourde, Tonti and his men again resumed 
their journey. Soon again their craft became disabled, when they 
abandoned it and started on foot for Lake Michigan. Their 
supply of provisions soon became exhausted, and they were 
compelled to subsist in a great measure on roots and herbs. 
One of their companions wandered off in search of game, and lost 
his way, and several days elapsed before he rejoined them. In his 
absence he was without flints and bullets, yet contrived to shoot 
some turkeys by using slugs cut from a pewter porringer and a fire- 
brand to discharge his gun. Tonti fell sick of a fever and greatly 
retarded the progress of the march. Nearing Green Ba}-, the cold 
increased and the means of subsistence decreased and the party would 
have perished had they not found a few ears of corn and some froz- 
en squashes in the fields of a deserted village. Near the close of 
November they had reached the Pottawatomies, who warmly greet- 
ed them. Their chief was an ardent admirer of the French, and 
was accustomed to saj': " There were but three great captains in the 
world, — himself, Tonti and LaSalle." For the above account of 
Tonti's encounter with the Iroquois, we are indebted to Davidson 
and Stuve's History of Illinois. 

lasalle's return. 

LaSalle returned to Peoria only to meet the hideous picture of 
devastation. Tonti had escaped, but LaSalle knew not whither. Pass- 
ing down the lake in search of him and his men, LaSalle discov- 
ered that the fort had been destroyed; but the vessel which he had 
partly constructed was still on the stocks, and but slightly injured. 
After further fruitless search he fastened to a tree a jsainting repre- 
senting himself and party sitting in a canoe and bearing a pipe of 
peace, and to the painting attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

LaSalle was born in France in 1643, of wealthy parentage, and edu- 
cated in a college of the Jesuits, from which he separated and came 
to Canada, a poor man, in 1666. He was a man of daring genius, 


and outstripped all bis competitors in exploits of travel and com- 
merce with the Indians. He was granted a large tract of land at 
LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. In 1669 
he visited the headquarters of the great Iroquois confederacv, at 
Onondaga, New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio 
river to the falls at Louisville. For many years previous, it must 
be remembered, missionaries and traders were obliged to make their 
way to the Northwest through Canada on account of the fierce 
hostility of the Iroquois along the lower lakes and Niagara river, 
which entirely closed this latter route to the upper lakes. They 
carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, paddling them through 
Ottawa river to Lake Nipissing. carrying them across the portage 
to French river, and descending that to Lake Huron. This being 
the route by which they reached the Northwest, we have an explana- 
tion of the fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established 
in the neighborhood of the upper lakes. LaSalle conceived the 
grand idea of opening the route by Niagara river and the lower 
lakes to Canada commerce by sail vessels, connecting it with the 
navigation of the Mississippi, and thus opening a magnificent water 
communication from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. This truly grand and comprehensive purpose seems to have 
animated him in his wonderful achievements, and the matchless 
difficulties and hardships he surmounted. As the first step in the 
accomplishment of this object he established himself on Lake 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the 
present city of Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of 
land from the French crown, and a body of troops, by which he 
repulsed the Iroquois and opened passage to Niagara Falls. Hav- 
ing by this masterly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto 
untried expedition, his next step, as we have seen, was to build a 
ship with which to sail the lakes. He was successful in this under- 
taking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a strange com- 
bination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently hated 
LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and united with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his success in opening new channels of commerce. While they were 
plodding with their bark canoes through the Ottawa, he was con- 
structing sailing vessels to command the trade of the lakes and the 
Mississippi. These great plans excited the jealousy and envy of 


small traders, introduced treason and revolt into the ranks of bis 
men, and finally led to the fonl assassination by which bis great 
achievements were permanently ended. 

lasalle's assassination. 
Again visiting the Illinois in the year 1682, LaSalle de- 
scended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. He erected a 
standard upon which he inscribed the arms of Fi-ance, and took 
formal possession of the whole valley of this mighty river in the 
name of Louis XIV., then reigning, and in honor of whom be named 
the country Louisiana. LaSalle then returned to France, was 
appointed Governor, and returned with a fleet of immigrants for the 
purpose of planting a colony in Illinois. They arrived in due time 
in the Gulf of Me.xico, but failing to find the month of the Missis- 
sippi, up which they intended to sail, bis supply ship, with the 
immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on Matagorda Bay. 
With the fragments of the vessel be constructed rude huts and 
stockades on the shore for the protection of bis followers, calling 
the post Fort St. Louis. He then made a trip into New Mexico 
in search of silver mines, but, meeting with disappointment, 
returned to find bis colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved 
to travel on foot to Illinois. With some twenty of his men they 
filed out of their fort on the 12th of January, 16S7, and after the part- 
ing, — which was one of sighs, of tears, and of embraces, all seeming 
intuitively to know that they should see each other no more, — they 
started on their disastrous journey. Two of the party, Du Haut 
and Leotot, when on a bunting expedition in company with a 
nephew of LaSalle, assassinated liim while asleep. The long 
absence of bis nephew caused LaSalle to go in search of bim. On 
approaching the murderers of his nephew, they fired upon bim, kill- 
ing bim instantly. They then despoiled the body of its clothing, 
and left it to be devoured by the wild beasts of the forest. Thus, 
at the age of 43, perished one whose exploits have so greatly 
enriched the history of the New World. To estimate aright the 
marvels of bis patient fortitude, one must follow on bis track 
through the vast scene of his interminable journeyings, those thou- 
sands of weary miles of forest, marsh and river, where, again and 
again, in the bitterness of bafiled striving, the untiring pilgrim 
pushed onward toward the goal he never was to attain. America 
owes him an enduring memory; for in this masculine figure, cas/ 


in iron, she sees the heroic pioneer who guided her to the possession 
of her richest heritage. 

Tonti, who had been stationed at the fort on the Illinois, learning 
of LaSalle's unsuccessful voyage, immediately started down the 
Mississippi to his relief. Beaching the Gulf, he found no traces of 
the colony. He then returned, leaving some of his men at the 
mouth of the Arkansas. These were discovered by the remnant of 
LaSalle's followers, who guided them to the fort on the Illinois, 
where they reported that LaSalle was in Mexico. The little band 
left at Fort St. Louis were finally destroyed by the Indians, and the 
murderers of LaSalle were shot. Thus ends the sad chapter of 
Kobert Cavalier de LaSalle's exploration. 



The first mission in" Illinois, as we have already seen, was com- 
menced by Marquette in April, 1675. He called the religious 
society which he established the " Mission of the Immaculate Con- 
ception," and the town Kaskaskia. The first military occupation of 
the country was at Fort Crevecceur, erected in 1680; but there is no 
evidence that a settlement was commenced there, or at Peoria, on 
the lake above, at that early date. The first settlement of which there 
is any authentic account was commenced with the building of Fort 
St. Louis on the Illinois river in 1682; but this was soon abandoned. 
The oldest permanent settlement, not only in Illinois, but in the val- 
ley of the Mississippi, is at Kaskaskia, situated six miles above the 
mouth of the Kaskaskia river. This was settled in 1690 by the 
removal of the mission from old Kaskaskia, or Ft. St. Louis, on the 
Illinois river. Cahokia was settled about the same time. The 
reason for the removal of the old Kaskaskia settlement and mission, 
was probably because the dangerous and difficult route by Lake 
Michigan and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and 
travelers and traders traveled down and up the Mississippi by the 
Fox and Wisconsin rivers. It was removed to the vicinity of the 
Mississippi in order to be in the line of travel from Canada to 
Louisiana, that is, the lower part of it, for it was all Louisiana then 
soutli of the lakes. Illinois came into possession of the French in 
168'2, and was a dependency of Canada and a part of Louisiana. 
During the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population 


probably never exceeded ten thousand. To tlie year 1730 the fol- 
lowing live distinct settlements were made in the territory of 
Illinois, numbering, in population, 140 French families, about 600 
''converted '' Indians, and many traders; Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Cahokia creek and about live miles below the present city of 
St. Louis; St. Philip, about forty-five miles below Cahokia; Fort 
Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia; Kaskaskia, situated on the 
Kaskaskia river six miles above its continence with the Mississippi, 
and Prairie du Rocher, near Fort Chartres. Fort Chartres was 
built under the direction of the Mississippi Company in 1718, and 
was for a time the headquarters of the military commandants of 
the district of Illinois, and the most impregnable fortress in JNorth 
America. It was also the center of wealth and fashion in the West. 
For about eighty years the French retained peaceable possession 
of Illinois. Their amiable disposition and tact of ingratiating them- 
selves with the Indians enabled them to escape almost entirely the 
broils which weakened and destroyed other colonies. Whether 
exploring remote rivers or traversing hunting grounds in pursuit 
of game, in the social circle or as participants in the religious exer- 
cises of the church, the red men became their associates and were 
treated with the kindness and consideration of brothers. For more 
than a hundred years peace between the white man and the red was 
unbroken, and when at last this reign of harmony terminated it 
was not caused by the conciliatory Frenchman, but by the blunt 
and sturdy Anglo-Saxon. During this century, or until the coun- 
try was occupied by the English, no regular court was ever held. 
When, in 1765, the country passed into the hands of the English, 
many of the French, rather than submit to a change in their insti- 
tutions, preferred to leave their homes and seek a new abode. 
There are, however, at the present time a few remnants of the old 
French stock in the State, who still retain to a great extent the 
ancient habits and customs of their fathers. 


During the earliest period of French occupation of this country, 
M. Tonti, LaSalle's attendant, was commander-in-chief of all the 
territory embraced between Canada and the Gulf of Mexico, and 
extending east and west of the Mississippi as far as his ambition or 
imagination pleased to allow. He spent twentj'-one years in estab- 
lishing forts and organizing the first settlements of Illinois. Sep- 


teniber 14, 1712, the French government granted a monopoly of all 
the trade and commerce of the country to K. Crozat, a wealthy 
merchant of Paris, who established a trading company in Illinois, 
and it was by this means that the early settlements became perma- 
nent and others established. Crozat surrendered his charter in 
1717, and the Company of the West, better known as the Missis- 
sippi Company, was organized, to aid and assist the banking system 
of John Law," the most famous speculator of modern times, and 
perhaps at one time the wealthiest private individual the world 
has ever known; but his treasure was transitory. Under the 
Company of the West a branch was organized called the Company 
of St. Philip's, for the purpose of working the rich silver mines sup- 
posed to be in Illinois, and Philip Ptenault was appointed as its 
ao-ent. In 1719 he sailed from France with two hundred miners, 
laborers and mechanics. During 1719 the Company of the West 
was by royal order united with the Royal Company of the Indies, 
and had the influence and support of the crown, who was deluded 
by the belief that immense wealth would flow into the empty treas- 
ury of France. This gigantic scheme, one of the most extensive 
and wonderful bubbles ever blown up to astonish, deceive and ruin 
thousands of people, was set in operation by the fertile brain of 
John Law. Law was born in Scotland in 1671, and so rapid had 
been his career that at the age of twenty-three he was a " bankrupt, 
an adulterer, a murderer and an exiled outlaw." But he possessed 
great financial ability, and by his agreeable and attractive manners, 
and his enthusiastic advocacy of his schemes, he succeeded in 
inflaming the imagination of the mercurial Frenchmen, whose greed 
for gain led them to adopt any plans for obtaining wealth. 

Law arrived in Paris with two and a half millions of francs, 
which he had gained at the gambling table, just at the right time. 
Louis XIV. had just died and left as a legacy empty cofiers and an 
immense public debt. Every thing and everybody was taxed to 
the last penny to pay even the interest. All the sources of in- 
dustry were dried up; the very wind which wafted the barks of 
commerce seemed to have died away under the pressui-e of the 
time; trade stood still; the merchant, the trader, the artificer, once 
flourishing in affluence, were transformed into clamorous beggars. 
The life-blood that animated the kingdom was stagnated in all 
its arteries, and the danger of an awful crisis became such that 


the nation was on the verge of bankruptcy. At this critical junc- 
ture John Law arrived and proposed liis grand scheme of the 
Mississippi Company; 200,000 shares of stoclc at 500 livres each were 
at tirst issued. This sold readily and great profits were realized. 
More stock was issued, speculation becutue -rife, the fever seized 
everybody, and the wildest speculating frenzy pervaded the whole 
nation. Illinois was thought to contain vast and rich mines of 
minerals. Kaskaskia, then scarcely more than the settlement of a 
few savages, was spoken of as an euiporium of the most extensive 
tralRc, and as rivaling some of the cities of Europe in refinement, 
fashion and religious culture. Law was in the zenith of his glory, and 
the people in the zenith of their infatuation. The high and the low, 
the rich and the poor, were at once filled with visions of untold 
wealth, and every age, set, rank and condition were buying and selling 
stocks. Law issued stock again and again, and readily sold until 
2, 235,000,000 livres were in circulation, equaling about $450,000,000. 
While confidence lasted an impetus was given to trade never before 
known. An illusory policy everywhere prevailed, and so dazzled 
the eye that none could see in the liorizon the dark cloud announc- 
ing the approaching storm. Law at the time was the most influ- 
ential man in Europe. His house was beset from morning till 
night with eager applicants for stock. Dukes, marquises and 
counts, with their wives and daughters, waited for hours in the 
street below his door. Finding his residence too small, he changed 
it for the Place Vendorae, whither the crowd followed him, and the 
spacious square had the appearance of a public market. The boule- 
vards and public gardens were forsaken, and the Place Vendome 
became the most fashionable place in Paris; and he was unable to 
wait upon even one-tenth part of his applicants. The bubl)le burst 
after a few years, scattering ruin and distress in every direction. 
Law, a short time previous the most popular man in Europe, fled 
to Brussels, and in 1729 died in Venice, in obscurity and poverty. 


As early as 1750 there could be perceived the flrst throes of the 
revolution, which gave a new master and new institutions to Illi- 
nois. France claimed the whole valley of the Mississippi, and Eng- 
land the right to extend her possessions westward as far as she 
might desire. Through colonial controversies the two mother 


countries were precipitated into a bloody war within the ISTorth- 
western Territory, George Wasliingtou firing the first gun of the 
military struggle which resulted in the overthrow of the French 
not only in Illinois but in JSTorth America. The French evinced a 
determination to retain control of the territory bordering the Ohio 
and Mississippi from Canada to the Gulf, and so long as the En- 
glish colonies were confined to the sea-coast there was little reason 
for controversy. As the English, however, became acquainted 
with this beautiful and fertile portion of our country, they not only 
learned the value of the vast territory, but also resolved to set up a 
counter claim to the .:-oii. The French established numerous mili- 
tary and trading posts from the frontiers of Canada to New Or- 
leans, and in order to establish also their claims to jurisdiction over 
the country they carved the lilies of France on the forest trees, or 
sunk plates of metal in the ground. These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations; 
and though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was 
gathering, and it was only a question of time when the storm 
should burst upon the frontier settlement. The French based 
their claims upon discoveries, the English on grants of territory 
extending from ocean to ocean, but neither party paid the least 
attention to the prior claims of the Indians. From this posi- 
tion of affairs, it was evident that actual collision between the 
contending parties would not much longer be deferred. The En- 
glish Government, in anticipation of a war, urged the Governor 
of Virginia to lose no time in building two forts, which were 
equipped by arms from England. The French anticipated the 
English and gathered a considerable force to defend their possessions. 
The Governor determined to send a messenger to the nearest; 
French post and demand an explanation. This resolution of the 
Governor brought into the history of our country for the first time 
the man of all others whom America most loves to'Jionor, namely, 
George Washington. He was chosen, although not yet twenty-one 
years of age, as the one to perforin this delicate and difiicult mission. 
"With five companions he set out on Nov. 10, 1753, and after a per- 
ilous journey returned Jan. 6, 1754. The struggle commenced and 
continued long, and was bloody and fierce; but on the 10th of Octo- 
ber, 1765, the ensign of France was replaced on the ramparts of 
Fort Chartres by the flag of Great Britain. This fort was the 



depot of supplies and the place of rendezvous for the united forces 
of the Frencli. At this time the colonies of the Atlantic seaboard 
were assembled in preliminary congress at New York, dreaming of 
liberty and independence for the continent; and Washington, who 
led the expedition against the French for the English king, in less 
than ten years was commanding the forces opposed to the English 
tyrant. Illinois, besides being constructively a part of Florida for 
over one hundred years, during which time no Spaniard set foot 
upon her soil or rested his eyes upon her beautiful plains, for nearly 
ninety years had been in the actual occupation of the French, their 
puny settlements slumbering quietly in colonial dependence on the 
distant waters of the Kaskaskia, Illinois and "Wabash. 

GEN. glare's exploits. 

The Northwest TeiTitory was now entirely under English rule, 
and on the breaking out of the Revolutionary war the British held 
every post of importance in the West. While the colonists of the 
East were maintaining a fierce struggle with the armies of England, 
their western frontiers were ravaged by merciless butcheries of In- 
dian warfare. The jealousy of the savage was aroused to action by 
the rapid extension of American settlement westward and the im- 
proper influence exerted by a number of military posts garrisoned by 
British troops. To prevent indiscriminate slaughters arising from 
these causes, Illinois became the theater of some of the most daring 
exploits connected with American history. The hero of the achieve- 
ments by which this beautiful land was snatched as a gem fi'om 
the British Crown, was George Rogers Clark, of Virginia. He had 
closely watched the movements of the British throughout the 
Northwest, and understood their v.-liole plan; he also knew the 
Indians were not unanimously in accord with the English, and 
therefore was convinced that if the British could be defeated and 
expelled from the Northwest, the natives might be easily awed into 
neutralit3^ Having convinced himself that the enterprise against 
the Illinois settlement might easily succeed, he repaired to the cap- 
ital of Virginia, arriving Nov. 5, 1777. While he was on his way, 
fortunately, Burgoyne was defeated (Oct. 17), and the spirits of the 
colonists were thereby greatly encouraged. Patrick Henry was 
Governor of Virginia, and at once entered heartily into Clark's 
plans. After satisfying the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of 
bis project, he received two sets of instructions, — one secret, the 


Other open. The latter authorized him to enlist seven companies 
to go to Kentucky, and serve three months after their arrival m 
the West. The secret order authorized him to arm these troops, 
to procure his powder and lead of General Hand at Pittsburg, and 
to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 


With these instructions Col. Clark repaired to Pittsburg, choos- 
ing rather to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew 
all were needed in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. 
W. B. Smith to Holstein and Captains Helm and Bowman to 
other localities to enlist men; but none of them succeeded in rais- 
ing the required number. The settlers in these parts were afraid 
to leave their own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few 
could be induced to join the expedition. With these companies 
and several private volunteers Clark commenced his descent of the 
Ohio, which he navigated as far as the falls, where he took posses- 
sion of and fortified Corn Island, a small island between the present 
cities of Louisville, Ky., and New Albany, Ind. Here, after having 
completed his arrangements and announced to the men their real 
destination, he left a small garrison; and on the 2-ith of June, dur- 
ing a total eclipse of the sun, which to tliem augured no good, they 
floated down the river. His plan was to go by water as far as Fort 
Massac, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. Here he intended to 
surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to Cahokia, then to 
Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he intended to 
march directly to the Mississippi river and cross it into the Spanish 
country. Before his start he received good items of information: 
one that an alliance had been formed between France and the United 
States, and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants at the various frontier posts had been led 
by the British to believe that the " Long Knives," or Virginians, 
were the most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped 
a foe. With this impression on their minds, Clark saw that 
proper management would cause them to submit at once from fear, 
if surprised, and then from gratitude would become friendly, if 
treated with unexpected lenity. The march to Kaskaskia was 
made through a hot July sun, they arriving on the evening of the 
4th of July, 1778. They captured the fort near the village and 
Boon after the village itself, by surprise, and without the loss of 


a single man and without killing any of the enemy. After suffi- 
ciently working on the fears of the natives, Clark told them they 
were at perfect liberty to worship as tiiey pleased, and to take 
whichever side of the great conflict they would; also lie would pro- 
tect them against any barbarity from British or Indian foe. This 
had the desired effect; and the inhabitants, so unexpectedly and so 
gratefully surprised hy the unlooked-for turn of affairs, at once 
swore allegiance to the American arms; and when Clark desired 
to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accompanied him, and 
through their influence the inhabitants of the place surrendered 
and gladly placed themselves under liis protection. 

In the person of M. Gibault, priest of Kaskaskia, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain pos- 
eession of the ISTorthwest and treat successfully with the Indians, he 
must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. St. Yin- 
cent, the post ne.\t in im]iortance to Detroit, remained yet to be 
taken before the Mississippi valley was conquered. M. Gibault 
told him that he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to 
throw off its connection with England. Clark gladly accepted this 
offer, and July 14th, in company with a fellow-townsman, Gibault 
started on his mission of peace. On the 1st of August he returned 
with the cheerful intelligence that everything was peaceably ad- 
justed at Yincennes in favor of the Americans. During the inter- 
val, Col. Clark established his courts, placed garrisons at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his men, and sent word to 
have a fort (which proved the germ of Louisville) erected at the 
falls of the Ohio. 

While the American commander was thus negotiating with the 
Indians, Hamilton, the British Governor of Detroit, heard of Clark's 
invasion, and was greatly incensed because the country which he 
had in charge should be wrested from him by a few ragged militia. 
He therefore hurriedly collected a force, inarched by way of the 
Wabash, and appeared before the fort at Yincennes. The inhabi- 
tants made an effort to defend the town, and when Hamilton's 
forces arrived. Captain Helm and a man named Henry were the 
only Americans in the fort. These men had been sent by Clark. 
The latter charged a cannon and placed it in the open gateway, and 
the Captain stood by it with a lighted match and cried out, as Ham- 
ilton came in hailing distance, "Halt!" The British officer, not 


knowing the strength of the garrison, stopped, and demanded the 
surrender of the fort. Helm exclaimed, " No man shall enter here 
till I know the terms." Hamilton responded, " You shall have the 
honors of war." The entire garrison consisted of one officer and one 


On taking Kaskaskia, Clark made a prisoner of Eocheblave, 
commander of the place, and got possession of all his written 
instructions for the conduct of the war. From these papers he 
received important information respecting the plans of Col. Plam- 
ilton, Governor at Detroit, who was intending to make a vigorous 
and concerted attack upon the frontier. After arriving at Vin- 
cennes, however, he gave up liis intended campaign for the winter, 
and trusting to his distance from danger and to the difficulty of 
approaching him, sent otf his Indian warriors to prevent troops from 
coming down the Ohio, and to annoy the Americans in all ways. Thus 
he sat quietly down to pass the winter with only about eighty soldiers, 
but secure, as he thought, from molestation. But he evidently did 
not realize the character of the men with whom he was contending. 
Clark, although he could muster only one hundred and thirty men, 
determined to take advantage of Hamilton's weakness and security, 
and attack him as the only means of saving himself; for unless he 
captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Accordingly, 
about the beginning of February, 1779, he dispatched a small galley 
which he had fitted out, mounted with two four-pounders and four 
swivels and manned with a company of soldiers, and carrying stores 
for his men, with orders to force her way up the Wabash, to take 
her station a few miles below Vincennes, and to allow no person to 
pass her. He himself marched with his little band, and spent six- 
teen days in traversing the country from Kaskaskia to Vincennes, 
passing with incredible fatigue through woods and marshes. He 
was five days in crossing the bottom lands of the "Wabash; and for 
five miles was frequently up to the breast in water. After over- 
coming difficulties which had been thought insurmountable, he 
appeared before the place and completely surprised it. The inhab- 
itants readily submitted, but Hamilton at first defended himself in 
the fort. Next day, however, he surrendered himself and his gar- 
rison prisoners-of-war. By his activity in encouraging the hostili- 
ties of the Indians and by the revolting enormities perpetrated by 


tliose savages, Hamilton had rendered himself so obnoxious that he 
was thrown in prison and put in irons. During his command of 
the British frontier posts he ofiered prizes to the Indians for all the 
scalps of the Americans they would bring him, and earned in con- 
sequence thereof the title, "Hair-Bujer General," by which he was 
ever afterward known. 

The services of Clark proved of essential advantage to his coun- 
trymen. They disconcerted the plans of Hamilton, and not only saved 
the western frontier from depredations by the savages, but also 
greatly cooled the ardor of the Indians for carrying on a contest in 
which they were not likely to be the gainers. Had it not been for 
this small army, a union of all the tribes from Maine to Georgia 
against the colonies might have been effected, and the whole current 
of our history changed. 



In October, 1778, after the successful campaign of Col. Clark, the 
assembly of Yirginia erected the conquered country, embracing all 
the territory northwest of the Ohio river, into the County of Illi- 
nois, which was doubtless the largest county in the world, exceeding 
in its dimensions the whole of Great Britian and Ireland. To speak 
more definitely, it contained the territory now embraced in the great 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. On the 
12th of December, 177S, John Todd was appointed Lieutenant- 
Commandant of this bounty by Patrick Henry, then Governor of 
Virginia, and accordingly, also, the first of Illinois County. 


Illinois continued to form a part of Virginia until March 1, 1784, 
when that State ceded all the territory north of the Ohio to the 
United States. Immediately the general Government proceeded to 
establish a form of government for the settlers in the territories 
thus ceded. This form continued until the passage of the ordi- 
nance of 1787, for the government of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory. No man can study the secret history of this ordinance and 
not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye the des- 


tinies of these unborn States. American legislation has never 
achieved anything more admirable, as an internal government, 
than this comprehensive ordinance. Its provisions concerning the 
distribution of property, the principles of civil and religious liberty 
which it laid at the foundation of the communities since established, 
and the efficient and simple organization by which it created the 
first machinery of civil society, are worthy of all the praise that has 
ever been given them. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Kufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and tlieir tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 1784. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern Territory. He was an einaucipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern Territory. Everything 
seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the 
public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his 
mission, his personal character, all combined to complete one of 
those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 


once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like 
the breath of the Ahiiighty. 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, 
a man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, ai:d Jeflerson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was' 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral- 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constituents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 


the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 
Beit forever remembered that this compact declared that "re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free- 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 


With all this timely aid it was, however, a most desperate and 
protracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. 
It was the natural battle-field for the irrepressible conflict. In the 
southern end of the State slavery preceded the compact. It ex- 
isted among the old French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. 
That portion was also settled from the slave States, and this popu- 
lation brought their laws, customs, and institutions with them. A 
stream of population from the North poured into the northern part 
of the State. These sections misunderstood and hated each other 
perfectly. The Southerners regarded the Yankees as a skinning, 
tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the country with tinware, 
brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The Northerner thought of the 
Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing in a hut, and 
rioting in whisky, dirt, and ignorance. These causes aided in 
making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of 
the deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French set- 
tlers to retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States might 


bring tlieir slaves if tliey would give tliem an opportunity to choose 
freedom or years of service and bondage for their cliildren till they 
should become thirty years of age. If they chose freedom they 
must leave the State within sixty days, or be sold as fugitives. 
Servants were whipped for offenses for which white men were fined. 
Each lash paid forty cents of the fine. A negro ten miles from 
home without a pass was whipped. These famous laws were im- 
ported from the slave States, just as the laws for the inspection of 
flax and wool were imported when there was neither in the State. 


On October 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair was, by Congress, 
elected Governor of this vast territory. St. Clair was born in Scot- 
land and emigrated to America in 1755. He served in the French 
and English war, and was major general in the Revolution. In 
1786 he was elected to Congress and chosen President of that body. 


After the division of the Northwestern Territory Illinois became 
one of the counties of the Territoiw of Indiana, from which it was 
separated by an act of Congress Feb. 3, 1809, forming the Territory 
of Illinois, with a population estimated at 9,000, and then included 
the present State of Wisconsin. It was divided, at the time, into 
two counties, — St. Clair and Randolph. John Boyle, of Ken- 
tucky, was appointed Governor, by the President, James Madison, 
but declining, Ninian Edwards, of the same State, was then 
appointed and served with distinction; and after the organization 
of Illinois as a State he served in the same capacity, being its third 


For some years previous to the war between the United States 
and England in 1812, considerable trouble was experienced with the 
Indians. Marauding bands of savages would attack small settle- 
ments and inhumanly butcher all the inhabitants, and mutilate 
their dead bodies. To protect themselves, the settlers organized 
companies of rangers, and erected block houses and stockades in 
every settlement. The largest, strongest and best one of these waa 
Fort Russell, near the present village of Edwardsville. This stockade 


was made the main rendezvous for troops and military stores, and 
Gov. Edwards, who during the perilous times of 1812, when Indian 
hostilities threatened on every hand, assumed command of the Illi- 
nois forces, established his headquarters at this place. The Indians 
were incited to many of these depredations by English emissaries, 
who for years continued their dastardly work of "setting the red 
men, like dogs, upon the whites." 

In the summer of 1811 a peace convention was held with the 
Pottawatomies at Peoria, when they promised that peace should 
prevail; but their promises were soon broken. Tecumseh, the great 
warrior, and fit successor of Pontiac, started in the spring of 1811, 
to arouse the Southern Indians to war against the whites. The pur- 
pose of this chieftain was well known to Gov. Harrison, of Indiana 
Territory, who determined during Tecumseh's absence to strike and 
disperse the hostile forces collected at Tippecanoe. This he success- 
fully did on Nov. 7, winning the sobriquet of " Tippecanoe," by 
which he was afterwards commonly known. Several peace councils 
were held, at which the Indians promised good behavior, but only 
to deceive the whites. Almost all the savages of the Northwest 
were thoroughly stirred up and did not desire peace. The British 
agents at various points, in anticipation of a war with the United ' 
States, sought to enlist the favor of the savages by distributing to 
them large supplies of arms, ammunition and other goods. 

The English continued their insults to our flag upon the high 
seas, and their government refusing to relinquish its otfensive course, 
all hopes of peace and safe commercial relations, were abandoned, 
and Congress, on the 19th of June, 1813, formally declared war 
against Great Britain. In Illinois the threatened Indian troubles 
had already caused a more thorough organization of the militia and 
greater protection by the erection of forts. As intimated, the In- 
dians took the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities 
between the two civilized nations, committing great depredations, 
the most atrocious of which was the 


During the war of 1812 between the United States and England, 
the greatest, as well as the most revolting, massacre of whites that 
ever occurred in Illinois, was perpetrated by the Pottawatomie In- 
dians, at Fort Dearborn. This fort was built by the Government, 
in ISOi, on the south side of the Chicago river, and was garrisoned 



by 54 men under command of Capt. Nathan Heald, assisted by 
Lieutenant Kehn and Ensign Konan; Dr. Voorhees, surgeon. The 
residents at the post at that time were the wives of officers Heald 
and Hehn and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadians. The soldiers and Mr. Kinzie were on the most 
friendly terms with the Pottawatomies and Winnebagoes, the prin- 
cipal tribes around them. 

On the Yth of August, 1812, arrived the order from Gen. Hull, at 
Detroit, to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and distribute all United States 
property to the Indians. Chicago was so deep in the wilderness 


that this was the first intimation the garrison received of the dec- 
laration of war made on the 19th of June. The Indian chief who 
brought the dispatch advised Capt. Heald not to evacuate, and 
that if he should decide to do so, it be done immediately, and by 
forced marches elude the concentration of the savages before the 
news could be circulated among them. To this most excellent ad- 
vice the Captain gave no heed, but on the 12th held a council with 


the Indians, apprising them of the orders received, and offering a 
liberal reward for an escort of Pottawatomies to Fort Wayne. The 
Indians, with many professions of friendship, assented to all he 
proposed, and promised all he required. The remaining ofBcers re- 
fused to join in the council, for they had been informed that treach- 
ery was designed, — that the Indians intended to murder those in 
the council, and then destroy those in the fort. The port holes were 
open, displaying cannons pointing directly upon the council. This 
action, it is supposed, prevented a massacre at that time. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Capt. Heald 
not to confide in their promises, or distribute the arms and ammu- 
nitions among them, for it would only put power in their hands to 
destroy the whites. This argument, true and excellent in itself, 
■was now certainly inopportune, and would only incense the treach- 
erous foe. But the Captain resolved to fullow it, and accordingly on 
the night of the 13th, after the distribution of the other property, the 
arms were broken, and the barrels of whisky, of which there was a 
large quantity, were rolled quietly through the sally-port, their 
heads knocked in and their contents emptied into the river. On that 
night the lurking red-skins crept near the fort and discovered the 
destruction of the promised booty going on within. The next morn- 
ing the powder was seen floating on the surface of the river, and 
the Indians asserted that such an abundance of " fire-water" had 
been emptied into the rivec as to make it taste " groggy." Many 
of them drank of it freely. 

On the 14th the desponding garrison was somewhat cheered by 
the arrival of Capt. Wells, with 15 friendly Miamis. Capt. Wells 
heard at Fort Wayne of the order to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and 
knowing the hostile intentions of the Indians, made a rapid march 
through the wilderness to protect, if possible, his niece, Mrs. Heald, 
and the ofiicers and the garrison from certain destruction. But 
he came too late. Every means for its defense had been destroyed 
the night before, and arrangements were made for leaving the fort 
on the following morning. 

The fatal morning of tlie 16th at length dawned brightly on the 
world. The sun shone in unclouded splendor upon the glassy waters 
of Lake Michigan. At 9 a. m., the party moved out of the south- 
ern gate of the fort, in military array. The band, feeling the solem- 
nity of the occasion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. Capt. 


Wells, with Lis face blackened, after the manner of the Indians, led 
the advance guard at the head of his friendly Miainis, the garrison 
with loaded arms, the baggage wagons with the sick, and the women 
and children following, while the Pottawatomie Indians, about 600 
in number, who had pledged their honor to escort the whites in 
safety to Fort Wayne, brought up the rear. The party took the 
road along the lake shore. On reaching the range of sand-hills 
separating the beach from the prairie, about one mile and a half- 
from the fort, the Indians defiled to the right into the prairie, brrng 
ing the sand-hills between them and the whites. This divergence 
was scarcely effected when Capt. Wells, who had kept in advance 
with his Indians, rode furiously back and exclaimed, "They are 
about to attack us. Form instantly and charge upon them!" 
These words were scarcely uttered before a volley of balls from 
Indian muskets was poured, in upon them. The troops were hastily 
formed into line, and chai-ged up the bank. One veteran of 70 fell 
as they ascended. The Indians were driven back to the prairie, and 
then the battle was waged by 54 soldiers, 12 civilians, andS^ree or 
four women — the cowardly Miamis having fled at the outset — 
against 500 Indian warriors. The whites behaved gallantly, and 
sold their lives dearly. They fought desperately until two-thirds 
of their number were slain; the remaining 27 surrendered. And 
now the most sickening and heart-rending butchery of this calam- 
itous day was committed by a young savage, who assailed one of 
the baggage wagons containing 12 children, every one of which fell 
beneath his murderous tomahawk. When Capt. Wells, who with 
the others had become prisoner, beheld this scene at a distance, he 
exclaimed in a tone loud enough to be heard by the savages, " If 
this be your game, I can kill too;" and turning his horse, started 
for the place where the Indians had left their squaws and children. 
The Indians hotly pursued, but he avoided their deadly bullets for 
a time. Soon his horse was killed and he severely wounded. With 
a yell the young braves rushed to make him their prisoner and re- 
serve him for torture. But an enraged warrior stabbed him in the 
back, and he fell dead. His heart was afterwards taken out, cut in 
pieces and distributed among the tribes. Billy Caldwell, a half- 
breed Wyandot, well-known in Chicago long afterward, buried his 
remains the next day. Wells street in Chicago, perpetuates his 


Iq this fearful combat women bore a couspicuous part. A wife 
of one of the soldiers, who had frequently heard that the Indians 
subjected their prisoners to tortures worse than death, resolved not 
to be taken alive, and continued fighting until she was literally cut 
to pieces. Mrs. Heald was an excellent equestrian, and an expert 
in the use of the rifle. She fought bravely, receiving several wounds. 
Though faint from loss of blood, she managed to keep in her saddle. 
A savage raised his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked hira full 
in the lice, and with a sweet smile and gentle voice said, in his 
own language, " Surely you will not kill a squaw." The arm of 
of the savage fell, and the life of this heroic woman was saved. 
Mrs. Helm had an encounter with a stalwart Indian, who attempted 
to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, she received the glancing 
blow on her shoulder, and at the same time she seized the savage 
round the neck and endeavored to get his scalping-knife which 
hung in a sheath at his breast. While she was thus struggling, she 
was dragged from his grasp by another and an older Indian. The 
latter bore her, struggling and resisting, to the lake and plunged 
her in. She soon perceived it was not his intention to drown her, 
because he held her in such a position as to keep her head out of 
the water. She recognized him to be a celebrated chief called 
Black Partridge. When the firing ceased she was conducted up 
the sand-bank. 


The prisoners were taken back to the Indian camp, when a new 
scene of horror was enacted. The wounded not being included in 
the terms of the surrender, as it was interpreted by the Indians, 
and the British general, Proctor, having offered a liberal bounty for 
American scalps, nearly all the wounded were killed and scalped, 
and the price of the trophies was afterwards paid by the British 
general. In the stipulation of surrender, Capt. Heald had not 
particularly mentioned the wounded. These helpless sufferers, on 
reaching the Indian camp, were therefore regarded by the brutal 
savages as fit subjects upon which to display their cruelty and satisfy 
their desire for blood. Referring to the terrible butchery of the 
prisoners, in an account given by Mrs. Helm, she says: "An old 
squaw, infuriated by the loss of friends or excited by the sanguin- 
ary scenes around her, seemed possessed of demoniac fury. She 
seized a stable-fork and assaulted one miserable victim, who lay 



groaning and writhing in the agonies of his wounds, aggravated by 
the scorching beams of the sun. With a delicacy of feeling, scarcely 
to have been expected under such circumstances. Wan-bee-nee- wan 
stretched a mat across two poles, between me and this dreadful scene. 
I was thus spared, in some degree, a view of its horrors, although I 
could not entirely close my ears to the cries of the sufferer. The 
following night live more of the wounded prisoners were toma- 


That evening, about sundown, a council of chiefs was held to 
decide the fate of the prisoners, and it was agreed to deliver them 


to the British commander at Detroit. After dark, many warriors 
from a distance came into camp, who were thirsting for blood, and 
were determined to murder the prisoners regardless of the terms of 
surrender. Black Partridge, with a few of his friends, surrounded 
Kinzie's house to protect the inmates from the tomahawks of the 
bloodthirsty savages. Soon a band of hostile warriors rushed by 
them into the house, and stood with tomahawks and scalping-knives, 
awaiting the signal from their chief to commence the work of death. 


Black Partridge said to Mrs. Kinzie: "We are doing everything 
in our power to save yon, but all is now lost; you and your friends, 
tof-etlier with all the prisoners of the camp, will now be slain." At 
that moment a canoe was heard approaching the shore, when Black 
Partridge ran down to the river, trying in the darkness to make out 
the new comers, and at the same time shouted, "Who are you?" 
In the bow of the approaching canoe stood a tall, manly personage, 
with a rifle in his hand. He jumped ashore exclaiming, " I am 
Sau-ga-nash." " Then make all speed to the house; our friends are 
in danger, and you only can save them." It was Billy Caldwell, 
the half-breed Wyandot. He hurried forward, entered the house 
with a resolute step, deliberately removed his accouternients, placed 
his rifle behind the door, and saluted the Indians: " How now, my 
friends! a good day to you. I was told there were enemies here, 
but am glad to find only friends." Diverted by the coolness of his 
manner, they were ashamed to avow their murderous purpose, and 
simply asked for some cotton goods to wrap their dead, for burial. 
And thus, by his presence of mind, Caldwell averted the murder of 
the Kinzie family and the prisoners. The latter, with their wives 
and children, were dispersed among the Pottawatomie tribes along 
the Illinois, Rock and Wabash rivers, and some to Milwaukee. 
The most of them were ransomed at Detroit the following spring. 
A part of them, however, remained in captivity another year. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession of 
the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their successes, 
penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great depre- 
dations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the people 
to a realization of the great danger their homes and families were 
in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp Russell, 
and Capt. Russell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. Being 
officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of October 
on horseback, carrying with them 20 days' rations, to Peoria. Capt. 
Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with provisions 
and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to Peoria 
Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They arrived late 


at night, witliin a few miles of *tlie village, without their presence 
being known to the Indians. Four men were sent out that night 
to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four brave men who 
volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas Carlin (after- 
ward Governor), and liobert, Stephen and Davis Whiteside. They 
proceeded to the village, and explored it and the approaches to it 
thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking the bark of a 
dog. The low lands between the Indian village and the troops were 
covered with a rank growth of tall grass, eo highjand dense as to 
readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within a few feet of 
him. The ground had become still more yielding by recent rains, 
rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To prevent de- 
tection, the soldiers had camped without lighting the usual camp- 
fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless camp, with 
many misgivings. They well remembered how the skulking sav- 
ages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during the night. To 
add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier was carelessly 
discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 


Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he "did not leave home to take 
prisoners,"' and instantly shot one of them. With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony "singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired. Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterwards restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 


provisions, which was taken, and tjieir town burned. Some Indian 
children were found who had been left in Ihe hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

About the time Gov. Edwards started with his little band against 
the Indians, Gen. Hopkins, with 2,000 Kentucky riflemen, left 
Vincennes to cross the prairies of Illinois and destroy the Indian 
villages along the Illinois river. Edwards, with his rangers, ex- 
pected to act in concert with Gen. Hopkins' riflemen. After 
marching 80 or 90 miles into the enemy's country, Gen. Hopkins' 
men became dissatisfied, and on Oct. 20 the entire army turned 
and retreated homeward befoi-e even a foe had been met. After the 
victory of the Illinois rangers they heard nothing of Gen. Hopkins 
and his 2,000 mounted Kentucky riflemen; and apprehensive that a 
large force of warriors would be speedily collected, it was.<^eemed 
prudent not to protract their stay, and accordingly the retrograde 
inarch was commenced the veiy day of the attack. 


The force of Capt. Craig, in charge of the provision boats, was 
not idle during this time. They proceeded to Peoria, where they 
were fired on by ten Indians during the night, who immediately 
fled. Capt. Craig discovered, at daylight, their tracks leading up 
into the French town. He inquired of the French their where- 
abouts, who denied all knowledge of them, and said they " had 
heard or seen nothing; " but he took the entire number prisoners, 
burned and destroyed Peoria, and bore the captured inhabitants 
away on his boats to a point below the present city of Alton, where 
he landed and left them in the woods, — men, women, and children, — 
in the inclement month of November, without shelter, and without 
food other than the slender stores they had themselves gathered up 
before their departure. They found their way to St. Louis in an 
almost starving condition. The burning of Peoria and taking its 
inhabitants prisoners, on the mere suspicion that .they sympathized 
with the Indians, was generally regarded as a needless, if not 
wanton, act of military power. 




In the early part of 1813, the country was put in as good defense 
as the sparse population admitted. In spite of the precaution taken, 
numerous depredations and murders were committed by the In- 
dians, which again aroused the whites, and another expedition was 
sent against the foe, who had collected in large numbers in and 
around Peoria. This army was composed of about 900 men, collect- 
ed from both Illinois and Missouri, and under command of Gen. 
Howard. They inarched across the broad prairies of Illinois to 
Peoria, where there was a small stockade in charge of United States 
troops. Two days previously the Indians made an attack on the 
fort, but were repulsed. Being in the enemy's country, knowing 
their stealthy habits, and the troops at no time observing a high de- 
gree of discipline, many unnecessary night alarms occurred, yet the 
enemy were far away. The army marched up the lake to Chili- 
cothe, burning on its way two deserted villages. At the present 
site of Peoria the troops remained in camp several weeks. While 
there they built a fort, which they named in honor of Gen. George 
Rogers Clark, who with his brave Virginians wrested Illinois from 
the English during the Revolutionary struggle. This fort was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1818. It gave a name to Peoria which it wore for 
several years. After the building of Fort CreveccBur, in 1680, Peo- 
ria lake was very familiar to Western travel and history; but there 
is no authentic account of a permanent European settlement there 
until 1778, when Laville de Meillet, named after its founder, was 
started. Owing to the quality of the water and its greater salu- 
brity, the location was changed to the present site of Peoria, and by 
1796 the old had been entirely abandoned for the new village. 
After its destruction in 1812 it was not settled again until 1819, 
and then by American pioneers, though in 1813 Fort Clark was 
built there. 


The second campaign against the Indians at Peoria closed with- 
out an engagement, or even a sight of the enemy, yet great was the 
benefit derived from it. It showed to the Indians the power and 
resources of his white foe. Still the calendar of the horrible deeds 
of butchery of the following year is long and blood}'. A joint ex- 
pedition again moved against the Indians in 1814, under Gov. 


Clark of Missouri. This time they went up the Mississippi in 
barges, Prairie du Cliieu being tlie point of destination. There they 
found a small garrison of British troops, which, however, soon fled, 
as did the inhabitants, leaving Clark in full possession. He im- 
mediately set to work and erected Fort Shelby. The Governor 
returned to St. Louis, leaving his men in peaceable possession of 
the place, but a large force of British and Indians came down upon 
them, and the entire garrison surrendered. In the mean time Gen. 
Howard sent 108 men to strengthen the garrison. Of this number , 
66 were Illinois rangers, under Capts. Eector and Kiggs, who oc- 
cupied two boats. The remainder were with Lieut. Campbell. 


At Rock Island Campbell was warned to turn back, as an attack 
was contemplated. The other boats passed on up the river and 
were some two miles ahead when Campbell's barge was struck by a 
strong gale which forced it against a small island near the Illinois 
shore. Thinking it best to lie to till the wind abated, sentinels 
were stationed while the men went ashore to cook breakfast. At 
this time a large number of Indians on the main shore under 
Black Hawk commenced an attack. The savages in canoes passed 
rapidly to the island, and with a war-whoop rushed upon the men, 
who retreated and sought refuge in the barge. A battle of brisk 
musketry now ensued between the few regulars aboard t!ie stranded 
barge and the hordes of Indians under cover of trees on the island, 
with severe loss to the former. Meanwhile Capt. Rector and Riggs, 
ahead with their barges, seeing the smoke of battle, attempted to 
return; but in the strong gale Riggs' boat became unmanageable 
and was stranded on the rapids. Rector, to avoid a similar disaster, 
let go his anchor. The rangers, however, opened with good aim 
and telling effect upon the savages. The unequal combat having 
raged for some time and about closing, the commander's barge, 
with many wounded and several dead on board, — among the former 
of whom, very badly, was Campbell himself, — was discovered to be 
on fire. Now Rector and his brave Illinois rangers, comprehending 
the horrid situation, performed, without delay, as cool and heroic a 
deed— and did it well— as ever imperiled the life of mortal man. 
In the howling gale, in full view of hundreds of infuriated savages, 
and within range of their rifles, they deliberately raised anchor, 


lightened their barge by casting overboard quantities of provisions, 
and guided it with the utmost labor down the swift current, to the 
windward of the burning barge, and under the galling fire of the 
enemy rescued all the survivors, and removed the wounded and 
dying to their vessel. This was a deed of noble daring and as 
heroic as any performed during the war in the West. Rector hur- 
ried with his over-crowded vessel to St. Louis. 

It was now feared that Kiggs and his company were captured 
and sacrificed by the savages. His vessel, which was strong and well 
armed, was for a time surrounded by the Indians, but the whites 
on the inside were well sheltered. The wind becoming allayed in 
the evening, the boat, under cover of the night, glided safely down 
the river without the loss of a single man. 


Notwithstanding the disastrous termination of the two expedi- 
tions already sent out, during the year 1814, still another was pro- 
jected. It was under Maj. Zachary Taylor, afterward President. 
Hector and Whiteside, with the Illinoisan, were in command of 
boats. The expedition passed Hock Island unmolested, when it 
was learned the country was not only swarming with Indians, but 
that the English were therein command with a detachment of regu- 
lars and artillery. The advanced boats in command of Rector, White- 
side and Hempstead, turned about and began to descend the rapids, 
fighting with great gallantry the hordes of the enemy, who were 
pouring their fire into them from the shore at every step. 

Near the mouth of Rock river Maj. Taylor anchored his fleet out 
in the Mississippi. During the night the English planted a battery 
of six pieces down at the water's edge, to sink or disable the boats, 
and filled the islands with red-skins to butcher the whites, who 
might, unarmed, seek refuge there. But in this scheme they were 
frustrated. In the morning Taylor ordered all the force, except 20 
boatmen on each vessel, to the upper island to dislodge the enemy. 
The order was executed with great gallantry, the island scoured, 
many of the savages killed, and the rest driven to the lower island. 
In the meantime the British cannon told with eflTect upon the fleet. 
The men rushed back and the boats were dropped down the stream 
out of range of the cannon. Capt. Rector was now ordered with 
Lis company to make a sortie on the lower island, which he did, 


driving the Indians back among the willows; but they being re-in- 
forced, in turn hurled Kector back upon the sand-beach. 

A council of officers called by Taylor had by this time decided 
that their force was too small to contend with the enemy, who 
outnumbered them three to one, and the boats were in full retreat 
down the river. As Kector attempted to get under way his boat 
grounded, and the savages, with demoniac yells, surrounded it, 
when a most desperate hand-to-hand conflict ensued. The gallant 
ranger, Samuel Whiteside, observing the imminent peril of his 
brave Illinois comrade, went immediately to his rescue, who but for 
his timely aid would undoubtedly have been overpowered, with all 
his force, and murdered. 

Thus ended the last, like the two previous expeditions up the 
Mississippi during the war of 1S12, in defeat and disaster. The 
enemy was in undisputed posession of all the country north of the 
Illinois river, and the prospects respecting those territories boded 
nothing but gloom. With the approach of winter, however, Indian . 
depredations ceased to be committed, and the peace of Ghent, Dec. 
24, 1814, closed the war. 



In January of 1818 the Territorial Legislature forwarded to 
Nathaniel Pope, delegate in Congress from Illinois, a petition pray- 
ing for admission into the national Union as a State. On April 
18th of the same year Congress passed the enabling act, and Dec. 
3, after the State government had been organized and Gov. Bond 
had signed the Constitution, Congress by a i-esolution declared Illi- 
nois to be "one of the United States of America, and admitted into 
the Union on an equal footing with the original States in all 

The ordinance of 1787 declared that there should beat least three 
States carved out of the Northwestern Territory. The boundaries 
of the three, Oliio, Indiana and Illinois, were fi.xed by this law. 
Congress reserved the power, however, of forming two other States 
out of the territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn 
through the southern boundary of Lake Michigan. It was generally 
conceded that this line would be the northern boundary of Illinois ; 


but as this would give the State no coast on Lake Michigan ; and 
rob her of the port of Chicago and the northern terminus of the 
Illinois & Michigan canal which was then contemplated, Judge 
Pope had the northern boundary moved fifty miles further north. 


Not only is Illinois indebted to Nathaniel Pope for the port where 
now enter and depart more vessels during the year than in any 
other port in the world, for the northern terminus of the IllinoiB 
& Michigan canal, and for the lead mines at Galena, but the nation, 
the undivided Union, is largely indebted to him for its perpetuity. 
It was he, — his foresight, statesmanship and energy, — that bound 
our confederated Union with bands of iron that can never be broken. 
The geographical position of Illinois, with her hundreds of miles 
of water-courses, is such as to make her the key to the grand arch 
of Northern and Southern States. Extending from the great chain 
of lakes on the north, with snow and ice of the arctic region, to the 
cotton-fields of Tennessee ; peopled, as it is, by almost all races, 
classes and conditions of the human family ; guided by the various 
and diversified political, agricultural, religious and educational 
teachings common to both North and South, — Illinois can control, 
and has controlled, the destinies of our united and beloved republic. 
Pope seemingl}^ foresaw that a struggle to dissolve tlie Union would 
be made. With a prophetic eye he looked down the stream of time 
for a half century and saw the great conflict between the South and 
North, caused by a determination to dissolve the confederation of 
States; and to preserve the Union, he gave to Illinois a lake coast. 

Gov. Ford, in his History of Illinois, wi'itten in 1847, while 
speaking of this change of boundary and its influence upon our 
nation, says: 

"What, then, was the duty of the national Government? Illinois 
was certain to be a great State, with any boundaries which that 
Government could give. Its great extent of territory, its unrivaled 
fertility of soil and capacity for sustaining a dense population, 
together with its commanding position, would in course of time 
give the new State a very controlling influence with her sister 
States situated upon the Western rivers, either in sustaining the 
federal Union as it is, or in dissolving it and establishing new gov- 
ernments. If left entirely upon the waters of these great rivers, it 


was plain that, in case of threatened disruption, the interest of the 
new State would be to join a Southern and Western confederacy; 
but if a large portion of it could be made dependent upon the com- 
merce and navigation of the great northern lakes, connected as they 
are with the Eastern States, a ri^al interest would be created to 
check the wish for a "Western and Southern confederacy. 

" It therefore became the duty of the national Government not 
only to make Illinois strong, but to raise an interest inclining and 
binding her to the Eastern and Northern portions of the Union. 
This could be done only through an interest in the lakes. At that 
time the commerce on the lakes was small, but its increase was con- 
fidently expected, and, indeed, it has exceeded all anticipations, 
and is yet only in its infancy. To accomplish this object eflectually, 
it was not only necessary to give to Illinois the port of Chicago and 
a route for the canal, but a considerable coast on Lake Michigan, 
with a country back of it suiBciently extensive to contain a popu- 
lation capable of exerting a decided influence upon the councils of 
the State. 

" There would, therefore, be a large commerce of the north, west- 
ern and central portion of the State afloat on the lakes, for it was 
then foreseen that the canal would be made; and this alone would 
be like turning one of the many mouths of the Mississippi into 
Lake Michigan at Chicago. A very large commerce of the center 
and south would be found both upon the lakes and rivers. Asso- 
ciations in business, in interest, and of friendship would be formed, 
both with the North and the South. A State thus situated, having 
such a decided interest in the commerce, and in the preservation of 
the whole confederacy, can never consent to disunion; for the Union 
cannot be dissolved without a division and disruption of tlie State 
itself. These views, urged by Judge Pope, obtained the unquali- 
fied assent of the statesmen of 1818. 

" These facts and views are worthy to be recorded in history as 
a standing and perpetual call upon Ulinoisans of every age to 
remember the great trust which has been reposed in them, as the 
peculiar champions and guardians of the Union by the great men 
and patriot sages who adorned and governed this country in the 
earlier and better days of the Republic." 

During the dark and trying days of the Eebellion, well did she 
remember this sacred trust, to protect which two hundred thousand 


of her sons went to tlie bloody field of battle, crowning their arms 
with the laurels of war, and keeping inviolate the solemn obliga- 
tions bequeathed to them by their fathers. 


In July and August of 181S a convention was held at Kaskaskia 
for the purpose of drafting a constitution. This constitution was 
not submitted to a vote of the people for their approval or rejection, 
it being well known that they would approve it. It was about the 
first organic law of any State in the Union to abolish imprisonment 
for debt. The first election under the constitution was held on the 
third Thursday and the two succeeding days in September, 1818. 
Shadrach Bond was elected Governor, and Pierre Menard Lieuten- 
ant Governor. Their term of office extended four years. At this 
time che State was divided into fifteen counties, the population being 
about 40,000. Of this number by far the larger portion were from 
the Southern States. The salary of the Governor was $1,000, while 
that of the Treasurer was $500. The Legislature re-enacted, ver- 
batim, the Territorial Code, the penalties of which were unneces- 
sarily severe. Whipping, stocks and pillory were used for minor 
offenses, and for arson, rape, horse-stealing, etc., death by hanging 
was the penalty. These laws, however, were modified in 1821. 

The Legislature first convened at Kaskaskia, the ancient seat of 
empire for more than one hundred and fifty years, both for the 
French and Americans. Provisions were made, however, for the 
removal of the seat of government by this Legislature. A place in the 
wilderness on the Kaskaskia river was selected and named Vandalia. 
From Vandalia it was removed to Springfield in the year 1837. 


The name of this beautiful "Prairie State" is derived from 
mini, an Indian word signifying superior men. It has a French 
termination, and is a symbol of the manner in which the two races, 
the French and Indians, were intermixed during the early history 
of the country. The appellation was no doubt well applied to the 
primitive inhabitants of the soil, whose prowess in savage warfare 
long withstood the combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the 
one side, and the no less savage and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the 
other. Tlie Illinois were once a powerful confederacy, occupying 
the most beautiful and fertile region in the great valley of the 


Mississippi, which their enemies coveted and struggled long and 
hard to wrest from them. By the fortunes of war they were dimin- 
ished in number and finally destroyed. " Starved Rock," on the 
Illinois river, according to tradition, commemorates their last trag- 
edy, where, it is said, the entire tribe starved rather than surrender. 

The low cognomen of " Sucker," as applied to Illinoisaus, is said 
to have had its origin at the Galena lead mines. In an early day, 
when these extensive mines were being worked, men would run up 
the Mississippi river in steamboats in the spring, work the lead 
mines, and in the fall return, thus establishing, as was supposed, a sim- 
ilitude between their migratory habits and those of the fishy tribe 
called "Suckers." For this reason the lUinoisans have ever since 
been distinguished by the epithet " Suckers." Those who stayed 
at the mines over winter were mostly from Wisconsin, and were 
called " Badgers." One spring the Missourians poured into the 
mines in such numbers that the State was said to have taken a puke, 
and the offensive appellation of " Pukes " was afterward applied to 
all Missourians. 

The southern part of the State, known as " Egypt," received this 
appellation because, being older, better settled and cultivated, grain 
was had in greater abundance than in the central and northern por- 
tion, and the immigrants of this region, after the manner of the 
children of Israel, went "thither to buy and to bring from thence 
that they might live and not die." 


The Legislature, during the latter years of territorial existence, 
granted charters to several banks. The result was that paper money 
became very abundant, times flush, and credit unlimited; and every- 
body invested to the utmost limit of his credit, with confident 
expectation of realizing a handsome advance before the expiration 
of his credit, from the throng of immigrants tlieu pouring into the 
country. By 1819 it became apparent that a day of reckoning 
would approach before their dreams of fortune could be realized. 
Banks everywhere began to waver, paper money became depreci- 
ated, and gold and silver driven out of the country. The Legisla- 
ture sought to bolster up the times by incorporating the " Bank 
of Illinois," which, with several branches, was created by the ses- 
sion of 1821. This bank, being wholly supported by the credit of 
the State, was to issue one, two, three, five, ten and twenty-dollar 


notes. It was the duty of the bank to advance, upon personal i)rop- 
erty, money to the amount of $100, and a hirger amount upon real 
estate. All taxes and public salaries could be paid in such bills; 
and if a creditor refused to take them, he had to wait three years 
longer before he could collect his debt. The people imagined that 
simply because the government had issued the notes, they would 
remain at par; and although this evidently could not be the case, 
they were yet so infatuated with their ])roject as actually to request 
the United States government to receive them in payment for their 
public lands! Although there were not wanting men who, like 
John McLean, the Speaker of the House of Kepresentatives, fore- 
saw the dangers and evils likely to arise from the creation of such 
a bank, by far the greater part of the people were in favor of it. 
The new bank was therefore started. The new issue of bills by the 
bank of course only aggravated the evil, heretofore so grievously 
felt, of the absence of specie, so that the people were soon com- 
pelled to cut their bills in halves and quarters, in order to make 
small change in trade. Finally the paper currency so rapidly depre- 
ciated that three dollars in these bills were considered worth only 
one in specie, and the State not only did not increase its revenue, 
but lost full two-thirds of it, and expended three times the amount 
required to pay the expenses of tlie State government. 
Lafayette's visit. 
In the spring of 1825 the brave and generous LaFayette visited 
Illinois, accepting the earnest invitation of the General Assenably, 
and an affectionately written letter of Gov. Cole's, who had formed 
his personal acquaintance in France in 1817. The General in reply 
said: " It has been my eager desire, and it is now my earnest inten- 
tion, to visit the Western States, and particularly the State of Illi- 
nois. The feelings which your distant welcome could not fail to 
excite have increased that patriotic eagerness to admire on that 
blessed spot the happy and rapid results of republican institutions, 
public and domestic virtues. I shall, after the 22d of February 
(anniversary da}'), leave here for a journey to the Southern States, 
and from New Orleans to the Western States, so as to return to 
Boston on the llth of June, when the corner-stone of the Bunker 
Hill monument is to bo laid, — a ceremony sacred to the whole Union 
and in which I have been engaged to act a peculiar and honorable 


General LaFayette and suite, attended by a large delegation of 
prominent citizens of Missouri, made a visit by the steamer Natch- 
ez to the ancient town of Kaskaskia. No military parade was 
attempted, but a multitude of patriotic citizens made him welcome. 
A reception was held. Gov. Cole delivering a glowing address of 
welcome. Dui-ing the progress of a grand ball held that night, a 
very interesting interview took place between the honored General 
and an Indian squaw whose father had served under him in the 
Revolutionary war. The squaw, learning that the great white chief 
was to be at Kaskaskia on that night, had ridden all day, from early 
dawn till sometime in the night, from her distant home, to see 
the man whose name had been so often on her father's tongue, and 
with which she was so familiar. In identification of her claim to 
his distinguished acquaintance, she brought with her an old, worn 
letter which the General had written to her father, and which the 
Indian chief had preserved with great care, and finally bequeathed 
on his death-bed to his daughter as the most precious legacy he had 
to leave her. 

By 12 o'clock at night Gen. LaFayette returned to his boat and 
started South, The boat was chartered by the State. 


In the year 1822 the term of ofiice of the first Governor, Shadrach 
Bond, expired. Two parties sprung up at this time, — one favorable, 
the other hostile, to the introduction of slavery, each proposing a 
candidate of its own for Governor. Both parties worked hard to 
secure the election of their respective candidates; but the people at 
large decided, as they ever have been at heart, in favor of a free 
State. Edward Coles, an anti-slavery man, was elected, although a 
majority of the Legislature were opposed to him. The subject of 
principal interest during his administration was to make Illinois a 
slave State. The greatest effort was made in 182i, and the propo- 
sition was defeated at the polls by a majority of 1,800. The aggre- 
gate vote polled was 11,612, being about 6,000 larger than at the 
previous State election. African slaves were first introduced into 
Illinois in 1720 by Eenault, a Frenchman. 

Senator Duncan, afterward Governor, presented to the Legisla- 
ture of 1824-5 a bill for the support of schools by a public tax ; and 
William S.. Hamilton presented another bill requirino- a tax to be 


used for the purpose of constructing and repairing the roads, — both 
of which bills passed and became laws. But although these laws 
conferred an incalculable beuetit upon the public, the very name of 
a tax was so odious to the people that, rather than pay a tax of the 
smallest possible amount, they preferred working as they formerly 
did, five days during the year on the roads, and would allow their 
children to grow up without any instruction at all. Consequently 
both laws were abolished in 1826. 

In the year 1826 the office of Governor became again vacant. 
Ninian Edwards, Adolphus F. Hubbard and Thomas C. Sloe were 
■candidates. Edwards, though the successful candidate, had made 
himself many enemies by urging strict inquiries to be made into 
the corruption of the State bank, so that liad it not been for his 
talents and noble personal appearance, he would most probably not 
have been elected. Hubbard was a man of but little personal merit. 
Of him tradition has preserved, among other curious sayings, a 
speech on a bill granting a bounty on wolf-scalps. This speech, 
delivered before the Legislature, is as follows: "Mr. Speaker, I rise 
before the question is put on this bill, to say a word for my constit- 
uents. Mr. Speaker, I have never seen a wolf. I cannot say that 
I am very well acquainted with the nature and habits of wolves. 
Mr. Speaker, I have said that I had never seen a wolf; but now I 
remember that once on a time, as Judge Brown and I were riding 
across the Bonpas prairie, we looked over the prairie about three 
miles, and Judge Brown said, ' Hubbard, look! there goes a wolf; ' 
and I looked, and I looked, and I looked, and I said, ' Judge, where?' 
and he said, 'There!' And I looked again, and this time in the 
edge of a hazel thicket, about three miles across the prairie, I think 
I saw the wolf's tail. Mr. Speaker, if I did not see a wolf that 
time, I think I neVer saw one; but I have heard much, and read 
more, about this animal. I have studied his natural history. 

"By the bye, history is divided into two parts. There is first 
the history of the fabulous; and secondly, of the non-fabulous, or 
unknown age. Mr. Speaker, from all these sources of information 
I learn that the wolf is a very noxious animal; that he goes prowl- 
ing about, seeking something to devour; that he rises up in the 
dead and secret hours of night, when all nature reposes in silent 
oblivion, and then commits the most terrible devastation upon the 
rising generation of hogs and sheep. 


" Mr. Speaker, I have done; and I return my thanks to the house 
for their kind attention to my remarks." 

Gov. Edwards was a large and v/ell-made man, with a noble, 
princely appearance. Of him Gov. Ford says: "He never con- 
descended to the common low art of electioneering. Whenever he 
■went out among the people he arraj'ed himself in the style of a 
gentleman of the olden time, dressed in fine broadcloth, with short 
breeches, long stockings, and high, fair-topped boots; was drawn in 
a fine carriage driven by a negro; and for success he relied upon his 
speeches, which were delivered in great pomp and in style of dift'use 
and florid eloquence. When he was inaugurated in 1S26, he 
appeared before the General Assembly wearing a golden-laced cloak, 
and with great pomp pronounced his first message to the houses 
of the Legislature." 


Deraagogism had an early development. One John Grammar, 
who was elected to the Territorial Legislature in 1816, and held the 
position for about twenty years, invented the policy of opposing 
every new thing, saying, " If it succeeds, no one will ask who 
voted against it: if it proves a failure, he could quote its record." 
When first honored with a seat in the Assembly, it is said that 
be lacked the apparel necessary- for a member of the Legislature, 
and in order to procure them he and his sons gathered a large 
quantity of hazel-nuts, which were taken to the Ohio Saline and 
sold for cloth to make a coat and pantaloons. The cloth was the 
blue strouding commonly used by the Indians. 

The neighboring women assembled to make up the garments; the 
cloth was measured every way, — across, lengthwise, and from corner 
to corner, — and still was fonnd to be scant. • It was at last con- 
cluded to make a very short, bob-tailed coat and a long pair of leg- 
gins, which being finished, Mr. Grammar started for the State 
capital. In sharp contrast with Grammar was the character of D. 
P. Cook, in honor of whom Cook county was named. Such was 
his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that his will was 
almost the law of the State. In Congress, a young man and from 
a poor State, he was made Chairman of the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee. He was pre-eminent for standing by his committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 



Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1824, 
Jackson, Clay, Crawford and Adams. There being no choice by 
the people, the election was thrown into the House. It was so bal- 
anced that it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, elect- 
ing him. He then came home to face the wrath of the Jackson 
party in Illinois. 

The first mail route in the State was established in 1805. This 
was from Vincennes to Cahokia. In 1824 there was a direct mail 
route from Vandalia to Springfield. The first route irom the central ■ 
part of the State to Chicago was established in 1S32, from Shelby- 
ville. The difficulties and dangers encountered by the early mail 
carriers, in time of Indian troubles, were very serious. The bravery 
and ingenious devices of Harry Milton are mentioned with special 
commendation. When a boy, in 1812, he conveyed the mail on a 
wild French pony from Shawneetown to St. Louis, over swollen 
streams and through the enemy's country. So infrequent and 
irregular were the communications by mail a great part of the time, 
that to-day, even the remotest part of the United States is unable to 
appreciate it by examjjle. 

The first newspaper published in Illinois was the Illinois Herald^ 
established at Kaskaskia by Mathew Duncan. There is some va- 
riance as to the exact time of its establishment. Gov. Keynolds 
claimed it was started in 1809. Wm. H. Brown, afterwards its 
editor, gives the date as 1814. 

In 1S31 the criminal code was first adapted to penitentiary pun- 
ishment, ever since which time the old system of whipping and 
pillory for the punishment of criminals has been disused. 

There was no legal rate of interest till 1830. Previously the rate 
often reached as high as 150 per cent., but was usually 50 per cent. 
Then it was reduced to 12, then to 10, and lastly to 8 per cent. 



The Indians, who for some years were on peaceful terms with 
the whites, became troublesome in 1827. The "Winnebagoes, Sacs 
and Foxes aud other tribes had been at war for more than a hun- 
dred years. In the summer of 1827 a war party of the Winnebagoes 
surprised a party of Chippewas aud killed eight of them. Four 


of the murderers were arrested and delivered to the Chippewas, 
by whom they were immediately shot. This was the first irritation 
of the Winnebagoes. Red Bird, a chief of this tribe, in order to 
avenge the execution of the four warriors of his own people, attacked 
the Chippewas, but was defeated; and being determined to satisfy 
his thirst for revenge by some means, surprised and killed several 
white men. Upon receiving intelligence of these murders, the 
whites who were working the lead mines in the vicinity of Galena 
formed a body of volunteers, and, re-inforced by a company of United 
States troops, marched into the country of the "Winnebagoes. To 
save their nation from the miseries of war, Hed Bird and six other 
men of his nation voluntarily surrendered themselves. Some of 
the number were executed, some of them imprisoned and destined, 
like Red Bird, ingloriously to pine away within the narrow confines 
of a jail, when formerly the vast forests had proven too limited for 


In August, 1830, another gubernatorial election was held. The 
candidates were William Kinney, then Lieutenant Governor, and 
John Reynolds, formerly an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 
both Jackson Democrats. The opposition brought forward no can- 
didate, as they were in a helpless minority. Reynolds was the 
successful candidate, and under his administration was the famous 


In the year of 1801 a treaty was concluded between the United 
States and the chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations. One old chief of 
the Sacs, however, called Black Hawk, who had fought with great 
bravery in the service of Great Britain during the war of 1812, had 
always taken exceptions to this treaty, pronouncing it void. In 1831 
he established himself, with a chosen band of warriors, upon the dis- 
puted territory, ordering the whites to leave the country at once. The 
settlers complaining. Gov. Reynolds dispatched Gen. Gaines, with a 
company of regulars and 1,500 volunteers, to the scene of action. 
Taking the Indians by surprise, the troops burnt their villages and 
forced them to conclude a treaty, by which they ceded all lands east 
of the Mississippi, and agreed to remain on the western side of the 
river. Necessity forced the proud spirit of Black Hawk into 
submission, which made him more than ever determined to be 






avenged upoi: his enemies. Having rallied around liiin the warlike 
braves of the Saii and Fox nations, he crossed the Mississippi in the 
spring of 1832. Upon hearing of the invasion, Gov. Reynolds 
hastily collectP'' a body of 1,800 volunteers, placing thein under the 
command oi l5iig-Gen. Samuel "Whiteside. 

stillman's kun. 

The army marched to the Mississippi, and having reduced to 
ashes the Indian village known as '■ Prophet's Town,'' proceeded 
for several miles up the river to Dixon, to join the regular forces 
under Gen. Atkinson. They found at Dixon two companies of 
volunteers, who, sighing for glory, were dispatched to reconnoiter 
the enemy. Tliey advanced under command of Maj. Stillman, to a 
creek afterwards called "Stillman's run;" and while encamping 
there saw a party of mounted Indians at the distance of a mile. 
Several of Stillman's party mounted their horses and charged the 
Indians, killing three of them; but, attacked by the main body 
under Black Hawk, they were routed, and by their precipitate 
flight spread such a panic through the camp that the wliole company 
ran off to Dixon as fast as their legs could carry them. On their 
arrival it was found that there had been eleven killed. The party 
came straggling into camp all night long, four or five at a time, 
each squad positive that all who were left behind were massacred. 

It is said that a big, tall Iventuckian, with a loud voice, who 
was a colonel of the militia but a private with Stillman, upon his 
arrival in camn gave to Gen. Whiteside and the wondering multi- 
tude the following glowing and bombastic account of the battle: 
"Sirs," said he, "our detachment was encamped among some scat- 
tering timber on the north side of Old Man's creek, with the prairie 
from the north gently sloping down to our encampment. It was 
just after twilight, in the gloaming of the evening, when we dis- 
covered Black Hawk's army coming down upon us in solid column ; 
they displayed in the form of a crescent upon the brow of the prai- 
rie, and such accuracy and precision of military movements were 
never witnessed ^y man; they were equal to the best troops of 
Wellington in Spain, j. have said that the Indians came down in 
solid columns, and displayed in the form of a crescent; and what was 
most wonderful, there were large squares of cavalry resting upon 
the points of the curve, which squares were supported again by 


other columns fifteen deep, extending back through the woods and 
over a swamp three-quarters of a mile, which again rested on the 
main body of Black Hawk's army bivouacked upon the banks of the 
Kishwakee. It was a terrible and a glorious sight to see the tawny 
warriors as they rode along our flanks attempting to outflank us, 
with the glittering moonbeams glistening from their polished blades 
and burnished spears. It was a sight well calculated to strike con- 
sternation in the stoutest and boldest heart; and accordingly our 
men soon began to break in small squads, for tall timber. In a 
very little time the rout became general, the Indians were soon 
upon our flanks and threatened the destruction of our entire detach- 
* raent. About this time Maj. Stillman, Col. Stephenson, Maj. 
Perkins, Capt. Adams, Mr. Hackelton, and myself, with some 
others, threw ourselves into the rear to rally the fugitives and pro- 
tect the retreat. But in a short time all my companions fell 
bravely fighting hand-to-hand with the savage enemy, and I alone 
was left upon the field of battle. About this time I discovered not 
far to the left a corps of horsemen which seemed to be in tolerable 
order. I immediately deployed to the left, when, leaning down and 
placing my body in a recumbent posture upon the mane of my 
horse so as to bring the heads of the horsemen between my eye 
and the horizon, I discovered by the light of the moon that they 
were gentlemen who did not wear hats, by which token I knew they 
were no friends of mine. I therefore made a retrogade movement 
and recovered my position, where I remained some time meditating 
what further I could do in the service of my country, when a ran- 
dom ball came whistling by my ear and plainly whispered to me, 
' Stranger, you have no further business here.' Upon hearing this I 
followed the example of my companions in arras, and l)roke for 
tall timber, and the way I ran was not a little.'' 

For a long time afterward Maj. Stillnan and his men were sub- 
jects of ridicule and merriment, which was as undeserving as their 
expedition was disastrous. Stillman's defeat spread coi^ternation 
throughout the State and nation. The number of Indians was 
greatly exaggerated, and the name of Black Hawk carried with it 
associations of great military talent, savage cunning and cruelty. 


A regiment sent to spy out the country between Galena and Rock 
Island was surprised b}' a party of seventy Indians, a^d was on the 


point of being thrown into disorder when Gen. Whiteside, then 
serving as a private, shouted out that he would slioot the lirst man 
who should turn his back to the enemy. Order being restored, the 
battle began. At its very outset Gen. Whiteside shot the leader of 
the Indians, who thereupon commenced a hasty retreat. 

In June, 1832, Black Hawk, with a band of 150 warriors, attack- 
ed the Apple Eiver Fort, near Galena, defended by 25 men. This 
fort, a mere palisade of logs, was erected to afford protection to the 
miners. For fifteen consecutive hours the garrison had to sustain 
the assault of the savage enemy; but knowing very well that no 
quarter would be given them, they fought with such fury and des- 
peration that the Indians, after losing many of their best warriors, ' 
were compelled to retreat. 

Another party of eleven Indians murdered two men near Fort 
Hamilton. They were afterwards overtaken by a company of 
twenty men and every one of them was killed. 


A new regiment, under the command of Gen. Atkinson, assem- 
bled on the banks of the Illinois in the latter part of June. Maj. 
Dement, with a small party, was sent out to reconnoittr the move- 
ments of a large body of Indians, whose endeavors to surround him 
made it advisable for him to retire. Upon hearing of this engage- 
ment, Gen. Atkinson sent a detachment to intercept the Indians, 
while he with the main body of his army, moved north to meet the 
Indians under Black Hawk. They moved siowly and cautiously 
through the country, passed through Turtle village, and marched 
up along Eock river. On their arrival news was brought of the 
discovery of the main trail of the Indians. Considerable search 
was made, but they were unable to discover any vestige of Indians 
save two who had shot two soldiers the day previous. 

Hearing that Black Hawk was encamped on Eock river, at the 
Manitou village, they resolved at once to advance upon the enemy; 
but in the execution of their design they met with opposition from 
their officers and men. The officers of Gen. Henry handed to him 
a written protest; but he, a man equal to any emergency, ordered 
the officers to be arrested and escorted to Gen. Atkinson. Within 
a few minutes after the stern order was given, the officers all collected 
around the General's quarters, many of them with tears in their 


eyes, pledging themselves that if forgiven they would return to duty 
and never do the like again. The General rescinded the order, and 
they at once resumed duty. 


Gen. Henry marched on the loth of July in pursuit of the 
Indians, reaching Rock river after three days' journey, where he 
learned Black Hawk was encamped further up the river. On July 
19th the troops were ordered to commence their march. After 
having made fifty miles, they were overtaken by a terrible thunder- 
-storm which lasted all night. Notliing cooled, however, in their 
^courage and zeal, they marched again fifty miles the next day, 
encamping near the place where the Indians had encamped the 
night before. Hurrying along as fast as they could, the infantry 
keeping up an equal pace with the mounted force, the troops on the 
morning of the '21st crossed the river connecting two of the four 
lakes, by which the Indians had been endeavoring to escape. They 
found, on their way, the ground strewn with kettles and articles of 
baggage, which the haste of their retreat had obliged the Indians 
to throw away. The troops, inspired with new ardor, advanced so 
rapidly that at noon they fell in with the rear guard of the Indians. 
Those who closely pursued them were saluted with a sudden 
fire of musketry by a body of Indians who had concealed them- 
selves in the high grass of the prairie. A most desperate charge 
was made upon the Indians, who, unable to resist, retreated 
obliquely, in order to out-flank the volunteers on the right; but the 
latter charged the Indians in their ambush, and expelled tiiem 
from their thickets at the point of the bayonet, and dispersed them. 
Night set in and the battle ended, having cost the Indians 68 of 
their bravest men, while the loss of the Illinoisans amounted to but 
one killed and S wounded. 

Soon after this battle Gens. Atkinson and Henry joined their 
forces and pursued the Indians. Gen. Henry struck the main trail, 
left his liorses behind, formed an advance guard of eight men, 
and marched forward upon their trail. When these eight men 
came within sight of the river, they were suddenly. fired upon and 
five of them killed, the remaining three maintaining their ground 
till Gen. Henry came up. Then the Indians, charged upon with 
the bayonet, fell back upon their main force. The battle now 


beaamc crcneral; the Indians fought with desperate valor, but were 
furiously assailed by the volunteers with their bayonets, cutting 
many of the Indians to pieces and driving the rest into the river. 
Those who escaped from being drowned took refuge on an island. On 
hearing the frequent discharge of musketry, indicating a general 
engagement, Gen. Atkinson abandoned the pursuit of the twenty 
Indians under Black Hawk himself, and hurried to the scene of 
action, where he arrived too late to take part in the battle. He 
immediately forded the river with his troops, the water reaching 
wp to their necks, and landed on the island where the Indians had 
secreted themselves. The soldiers rushed upon the Indians, killed 
several 'of tliera, took others prisoner, and chased the rest into 
the river, where they were either drowned or shot before reaching 
the opposite shore. Thus ended the battle, the Indians losing 300 
besides 50 prisoners; the whites but 17 killed and 12 wounded. 


Many painful incidents occurred during this battle. A Sac 
woman, the sister of a warrior of some notoriety, found herself in 
the thickest of the fight, but at length succeeded in reaching the 
river, when, keeping her infanfchild safe in its blankets by means 
of her teeth, she plunged into the water, seized the tail of a horse 
with her hands whose rider was swimming the stream, and was 
drawn safely across. A young squaw during the battle was stand- 
ing in the grass a short distance from the American line, holding 
her child — a little girl of four years — in her arms. In this posi- 
tion a ball struck the right arm of the child, shattering the bone, 
and passed into the breast of the young mother, instantly killing 
her. She fell upon the child and confined it to the ground till the 
Indians were driven from that part of the field. Gen. Anderson, 
of the United States army, hearing its cries, went to the spot, took 
it from under the dead body and carried it to the surgeon to have 
its wound dressed. The arm was amputated, and during the oper- 
ation the half-starved child did not cry, but sat quietly eating a 
hard piece of biscuit. It was sent to Prairie du Chien, where it 
entirely recovered. 


Black Hawk, with his twenty braves, retreated up the "Wisconsin. 
river. The Winnebagoes, desirous of securing the friendship of 


the whites, went in pursuit and captured and delivered them to 
Gen. Street, the United States Indian agent. Among the prisoners 
were the son of Black Hawk and the prophet of the tribe. These 
with Black Hawk were taken to Washington, D. C, and soon con- 
signed as prisoners at Fortress Monroe. 

At the interview Black Hawk had with the President, he closed 
his speech delivered on the occasion in the following words: " We 
did not expect to conquer the whites. They have too many houses, 
too many men. I took np the hatchet, for my part, to revenge 
injuries which my people could no longer endure. Had I borne 
them longer witliout striking, my people would have said, ' Black 
Hawk is a woman; he is too old to be a chief; he is no Sac' These 
reflections caused me to raise the war-whoop. I say no more. It 
is known to you. Keokuk once was here; you took him by the 
hand, and when he wished to return to his home, you were willing. 
Black Hawk expects, like Keokuk, he shall be permitted to return 


Black Hawk, or Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, was born in the prin- 
cipal Sac village, near the junction of Rock river with tlie Missis- 
sippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa. Black 
Hawk early distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of 
fifteen was permitted to paint, and was ranked among the braves. 
About the year 1783 he went on an expedition against the enemies 
of his nation, the Osages, one of whom he killed and scalped ; and 
for this deed of Indian bravery he was permitted to join in the 
scalp dance. Three or four years afterward he, at the head of two 
hundred braves, went on another expedition against the Osages, to 
avenge the murder of some women and cliildreu belonging to his 
own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. 
The Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the 
Cherokees for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them near 
the present city of St. Louis his father was slain, and Black Hawk, 
taking possession of the " Medicine Bag," at once announced him- 
self chief of the Sac nation. He had now conquered the Cherokees, 
and about the year 1800, at the head of five hundred Sacs and 
Foxes and a hundred lowas, he waged war against the Osage 


nation, and subdued it. For two years lie battled successfully with 
other Indian tribes, all of which he con(|uercd. 

The year following the treaty at St. Louis, in ISOi, the United 
States Government erected a fort near the head of Des Moines 
Kapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, 
who at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the 
west side of the Mississippi, above the mouth of the Des Moines. 
The fort was garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. 
The difficulties with the British Government arose about this time, 
and the war of 1812 followed. That government, extending aid to 
the Western Indians, induced them to remain hostile to the Ameri- 
cans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing 
on his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn 
massacre had a few days before been perpetrated. Of his con- 
nection with the British but little is known. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indians west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace bad been declared between the United 
States and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black 
Hawk did not sign any treaty, however, until May of the following 
year. From the time of signing this treaty, in 1816, until the 
breaking out of the Black Hawk war, he and his band passed their 
time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and 
Fox Indians were urged to move to the west of the Mississippi. 
All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of which 
Black Hawk was leader. He strongly objected to the removal, and 
was induced to comply only after being threatened by the Govern- 
ment. This action, and various others on the part of the white 
settlers, provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture 
of his native village, now occupied by the whites. The war fol- 
lowed. He and his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and 
had his wishes been complied with at the beginning of the struggle, 
much bloodshed would have been prevented. 


By order of the President, Black Hawk and his companions, 
who were in confinement at Fortress Monroe, were set free on the 
4th day of June, 1833. Before leaving the fort Black Hawk 


made the following farewell speech to the commander, wliich is not 
only eloquent but shows that within his chest of steel there beat a 
heart keenly alive to the emotions of gratitude: 

" Brother, I have come on my own part, and in behalf of my 
companions, to bid you farewell. Our great father has at length 
been pleased to permit us to return to our hunting grounds. "We 
have buried the tomahawk, and the sound of the rifle hereafter will 
only bring death to the deer and the buffalo. Brothers, you have 
treated the red man very kindly. Your squaws have made them 
presents, and you have given them plenty to eat and drink. The 
memory of your friendship will remain till the Great Spirit says it 
is time for Black Hawk to sing his death song. Brother, your 
houses are as numerous as the leaves on the trees, and your young 
warriors like the sands upon the shore of the big lake that rolls 
befdre us. The red man has but few houses and few warriors, but 
the red man has a heart wliich throbs as warmly as the heart of his 
white brother. The Great Spirit has given us our hunting grounds, 
and the skin of the deer which we kill there is his favorite, for its 
color is white, and this is the emblem of peace. This hunting 
dress and these feathers of the eagle are white. Accept them, my 
brother. I have given one like this to the White Otter. Accept it as 
a memorial of Black Hawk. When he is far away this will serve 
to remind you of him. May the Great Spirit bless you and your 
children. Farewell." 

After their release from prison they were conducted, in charge 
of Major Garland, through some of the principal cities, that 
thev might witness the power of the United States and learn 
their own inability to cope with them in war. Great multitudes 
flocked to see them wherever they were taken, and the attention 
paid them rendered their progress through the country a triumphal 
procession, instead of the transportation of prisoners by an officer. 
At Bock Island the prisoners were given their liberty, amid great 
and impressive ceremony. In 1S3S Black Hawk built him a 
dwellino' near Des Moines, Iowa, and furnished it after the manner 
of the whites, and engaged in agricultural pursuits and hunting and 
fishing. Here, with his wife, to whom he was greatly attached, he 
passed the few remaining days of his life. To his credit, it may be 
said, that Black Hawk remained true to his wife, and served her 


with a devotion uncommon among Indians, living with her up- 
ward of forty years. 


At all times when Black Hawk visited the whites he was 
received with marked attention. lie was an honored guest at the 
old settlers' re-union in Lee county, Illinois, at some of their 
meetings and received many tokens of esteem. In September, 
183S, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his annuity from 
the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted in a 
fatal attack of bilious fever, and terminated his life October 3. 
After his death, he was dressed in the uniform presented to him by 
the President while in Washington. He was buried in a grave six 
feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. The body was 
placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture upon a seat 
constructed for the purpose. On his left side the cane given him 
by Henry Clay was placed upright, with his right hand resting 
upon it. Thus, after a long, adventurous and shifting life, Black 
Hawk was gathered to his fathers. 

FROM 1834 TO 1842. 


No sooner was the Black Hawk war conclndgd than settlers' 
began rapidly ^o pour into the northern part of Illinois, now free 
from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown into a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into 

At the general election in 1834 Joseph Duncan was chosen 
Governor, by a handsome majority. His principal opponent was 
ex-Lieutenant Governor Kinney. A reckless and uncontrollable 
desire for internal public improvements seized the minds of the 
people. In his message to the Legislature, in 1835, Gov. Duncan 
said: "When we look abroad and see the extensive lines of inter- 
communication penetrating almost every section of our sister States; 
when we see the canal boat and the locomotive bearing with seem- 
ing triumph the rich productions of the interior to the rivers, lakes 
and ocean, almost annihilating time, burthen and space, what 
patriot bosom does not beat high with a laudable ambition to give 
Illinois her full share of those advantages which are adorning her 


sister States, and which a magnificent Providence seems to invite 
by a wonderful adaptation of our whole country to such improve- 


The Legislature responded to the ardent words of the Governor, 
and enacted a system of internal improvements without a parallel 
in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the construction 
of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all directions. 
This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. There 
were a few counties not touched by railroad, or river or canal, and 
they were to be comforted and compensated by the free distribution 
of §200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon beyond credence, it 
was ordered that work should commence on both ends of each of these 
railroads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the same time. 
This provision, which has been called the crowning folly of the 
entire system, was the result of those jealous combinations ema- 
nating from the fear that advantages might accrue to one section 
over another in the commencement and completion of the works. 
We can appreciate better, perhaps, the magnitude of this grand 
system by reviewing a few figures. The debt authorized for these 
improvements in the first instance was §10,230,000. But this, as 
it was soon found, was based upon estimates at least too low by 
half. This, as we readily see, committed the State to a liability of 
over §20,000,000, equivalent to §200,000,000, at the present time, 
with over ten times the population and more than ten times the 

Such stupendous undertakings by the State naturally engendered 
the fever of speculation among individuals. That particular form 
known as the town-lot fever assumed the malignant type at first in 
Chicago, from whence it spead over the entire State and adjoining 
States. It was an epidemic. It cut up men's farms without regard 
to locality, and cut up the purses of the purchasers without regard 
to consequences. It was estimated that building lots enough were 
sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Chicago, which in 1S30 was a small trading-post, had within a 
few years grown into a city. This was the starting point of the 
wonderful and marvelous career of that city. Improvements, 


unsurpassed by individual efforts in the annals of the world, were 
then begun and have been maintained to this day. Though visited 
by the terrible fire tiend and the accumulations of years swept 
away in a night, yet she has arisen, and to-day is the best built city 
in the world. Reports of the rapid advance of property in Chicago 
spread to the East, and thousands poured into her borders, bringing 
money, enterprise and industry. Every ship that left her port 
carried with it maps of splendidly situated towns and additions, 
and every vessel that returned was laden with immigrants. It was 
said at the time that the staple articles of Illinois export were town 
plots, and that there was danger of crowding the State with towns 
to the exclusion of land for agriculture. 


The Illinois and Michigan canal again received attention. This 
enterprise is one of the most important in the early development 
of Illinois, on account of its magnitude and cost, and forming 
as it does the connecting link between the great chain of lakes and 
the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Gov. Bond, the first Governor, 
recommended in his first message the building of the canal. In 
1821 the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for surveying the route. 
This work was performed by two young men, who estimated the 
cost at $600,000 or $700,000. It cost, however, when completed, 
$8,000,000. In 1825 a law was passed to incorporate the Canal 
Company, but no stock was sold. In 1826, upon the solicitation of 
Daniel P. Cook, Congressman from this State, Congress gave 
800,000 acres of land on the line of the work. In 1828 commis- 
sioners were appointed, and work commenced with a new survey 
and new estimates. In 1834-5 the work was again pushed forward, 
and continued until 1848, when it was completed. 


Bonds of the State were recklessly disposed of both in the East 
and in Europe. Work was commenced on various lines of railroad, 
but none were ever completed. On the Northern Cross Railroad, 
from Meredosia east eight miles, the first locomotive that ever 
turned a wheel in the great valley of the Mississippi, was run. 
The date of this remarkable event was Nov. 8, 1838. Large suras 
of money were being expended with no assurance of a revenue. 


and consequently, in 1840, the Legislature repealed the improve- 
ment laws passed three years previously, not, however, until the 
State had accumulated a debt of nearly $15,000,000. Thus fell, 
after a short but eventful life, by the hands of its creator, the most 
stupendous, extravagant and almost ruinous folly of a grand sys- 
tem of internal improvements that any civil community, perhaps, 
ever engaged in. The State banks failed, specie was scarce, an 
enormous debt was accumulated, the interest of which could not 
be paid, people were disappointed in the accumulation of wealth, 
and real estate was worthless. All this had a tendency to create a 
desire to throw off the heavy burden of State debt by repudiation. 
This was boldly advocated by some leading men. The fair fame 
and name, however, of the State was not tarnished by repudiation. 
Men, true, honest, and able, were placed at the head of affairs; and 
though t*he hours were dark and gloomy, and the times most try- 
ing, yet our grand old State was brought through and prospered, 
until to-day, after the expenditure of millions for public improve- 
ments and for carrying on the late war, slie has, at present, a debt 
of only about $300,000. 


Tlie year 1837 is memorable for the death of the first martyr for 
liberty, and the abolishment of American slavery, in the State. 
Elijah P. Lovejoy was shot by a mob in Alton, on tlie night of the 
7th of November of that year. lie was at the time editor of the 
Alton Ohnerver, and advocated anti-slavery principles in its 
columns. For this practice three of his presses had been destroyed. 
On the arrival of the fourth the tragedy occurred which cost him 
his life. In anticipation of its arrival a series of meetings were 
held in which the friends of freedom and of slavery were represented. 
The object was to effect a compromise, but it was one in which 
liberty was to make concessions to oppression. In a speech made 
at one of these meetings, Lovejoy said : " Mr. Chairman, what 
have I to compromise? If freely to forgive those who have so greatly 
injured me; if to pray for their temporal and eternal happiness; if 
still to wish for the prosperity of your city and State, notwith- 
standing the indignities I have suffered in them, — if this be the 
compromise intended, then do I willingly make it. I do not admit 
that it is the business of any body of men to say whether I shall 





or shall not publish a paper in this city. That riglit was given to 
me b}' my Creator, and is solemnly guaranteed by the Constitution 
of the United States and of this State. But if by compromise is 
meant that 1 shall cease from that which duty requires of me, I 
cannot make it, and the reason is, that I fear God more than man. 
It is also a very different question, whether 1 shall, voluntarily or 
at the request of my friends, yield up my position, or whether 
I shall forsake it at the hands of a mob. The former I am ready at 
all times to do when circumstances require it, as I will never put 
my personal wishes or interests in competition with the cause of 
that Master whose minister I am. But the latter, be assured I 
never will do. Yoii have, as lawyers say, made a false issue. There 
are no two parties between whom there can be a compromise. I 
plant myself down on my unquestionable rights, and the ques- 
tion to be decided is, whether I shall be protected in those rights. 
You may hang me, as the mob hung the individuals at Yicksburg; 
you may burn me at the stake, as they did old Mcintosh at St. 
Louis; or, you may tar and feather me, or throw me into the Mis- 
sissippi as you have threatened to do; but you cannot disgrace me. 
I, and I alone, can disgrace myself, and the deepest of all disgrace 
would be at a time like this to deny my Maker by forsaking his 
cause. He died for me, and I were most unworthy to bear his 
name should I refuse, if need be, to die for himy Not long 
afterward Mr. Lovejoy was shot. His brother Owen, being pres- 
ent on the occasion, kneeled down on the spot beside the corpse, 
and sent up to God, in the hearing of that very mob, one of the 
most eloquent prayers ever listened to by mortal ear. He was bold 
enough to pray to God to take signal vengeance on the infernal 
institution of slavery, and he then and there dedicated his life to 
the work of overthrowing it, and hoped to see the day when slavery 
existed no more in this nation. He died, March 24, 1864, nearly 
three months after the Emancipation Proclamation of President 
Lincoln took effect. Thus he lived to see his most earnest and 
devout prayer answered. But few men in the nation rendered bet- 
ter service in overthrowing the institution of slavery than Elijah 
P. and Owen Lovejoy. 


Thomas Carlin, Democrat, was elected Governor in 1838, over 
Cyrus Edwards, "Whig. In 1842 Adam "W. Snyder was nominated 


for Governor on the Democratic ticket, but died before election. 
Thomas Ford was placed in nomination, and was elected, ex-Gov- 
ernor Duncan being his opponent. 


The northern part of the State also had its mob experiences, but 
of an entirely different nature from the one just recounted. There 
has always hovered around the frontier of civilization bold, desper- 
ate men, who prey upon the unprotected settlers rather than gain 
a livelihood by honest toil. Theft, robbery and murder were car- 
ried on by regularly organized bands in Ogle, Lee, Winnebago and 
DeKalb counties. The leaders of these gangs of cut-throats were 
among the first settlers of that portion of the State, and conse- 
quently had the choice of location. Among the most prominent of 
the leaders were John Driscoll, "William and David, his sons; John 
Brodie and three of his sons; Samuel Aikens and three of his sons; 
William K. Bridge and Norton B. Boyce. 

These were the representative characters, those who planned 
and controlled the movements of the combination, concealed them 
when danger threatened, nursed them when sick, rested them when 
worn by fatigue and forced marches, furnished hiding places for 
their stolen booty, shared in the spoils, and, under cover of darkness 
and intricate and devious ways of travel, known only. to themselves 
and subordinates, transferred stolen horses from station to station; 
for it came to be known as a well-established fact that they had 
stations, and agents, and watchmen scattered throughout the coun- 
try at convenient distances, and signals and pass-words to assist 
and govern them in all their nefarious transactions. 

Ogle county, particularly, seemed to be a favorite and chosen 
field for the operations of these outlaws, who could not be convicted 
for their crimes. By getting some of their number on the juries, 
by producing hosts of witnesses to sustain their defense by per- 
jured evidence, and by changing the venue from one county to 
another, and by continuances from term to term, they nearly always 
managed to be acquitted. At last these depredations became too 
common for longer endurance; patience ceased to be a virtue, and 
determined desperation seized the minds of honest men, and they 
resolved that if there were no statute laws that could protect them 


against the ravages of thieves, robbers and counterfeiters, they 
would protect themselves. It was a desperate resolve, and desper- 
ately and bloodily executed. 


At the Spring term of court, ISil, seven of the " Pirates of the 
Prairie," as they were called, were confined in the Ogle county jail 
to await trial. Preparatory to holding court, the judge and lawyers 
assembled at Oregon in their new court-house, which had just 
been completed. Near it stood the county jail in which were the 
prisoners. The "Pirates" assembled Sunday night and -set the 
court-house on fire, in the hope that as the prisoners would have to 
be removed from the jail, they might, in the hurry and confusion 
of the people in attending to the fire, make their escape. The 
whole population were awakened that dark and stormy night, to 
see their new court edifice enwrapped in flames. Although the 
building was entirely consumed, none of the prisoners escaped. 
Three of them were tried, convicted and sent to the penitentiary 
for a year. They had, however, contrived to get one of their num- 
ber on the jury, who would not agi-ee to a verdict until threatened 
to be lynched. The others obtained a change of venue and were 
not convicted, and finally they all broke jail and escaped. 

Thus it was that the law was inadequate to the protection of the 
people. The best citizens held a meeting and entered into a solemn 
compact with each other to rid the country of the desperadoes that 
infested it. They were regularly organized and known as " Regu- 
lators." They resolved to notify all suspected parties to leave the 
country within a given time; if they did not comply, they would 
be severely dealt with. Their first victim was a man named Hurl, 
who was suspected of having stolen his neighbor's horse. He was 
ordered to strip, his hands were tied, when thirty -six lashes of a 
raw-hide were applied to his bare back. The next was a man 
named Daggett, formerly a Baptist preacher. He was sentenced 
to receive five hundred lashes on his bare back. He was stripped, 
and all was ready, when his beautiful daughter rushed into the 
midst of the men, begging for mercy for her father. Her appeals, 
with Daggett's promise to leave the country immediately, secured 
his release. That night, new crimes having been discovered, he 
was taken out and whipped, after which he left the country, never 
again to be heard from. 


The friends and comrades of the men who had been whipped 
were fearfully enraged, and swore eternal and bloodj vengeance. 
Eighty of them assembled one night soon after, and laid plans to 
visit White Kock and murder every man, woman and child in that 
hamlet. They started on this bloody mission, but were prevailed 
upon by one of their number to disband. Their coming, however, 
had been anticipated, and every man and boy in the town was 
armed to protect himself and his family. 


John Campbell, Captain of the '• Kegulators," received a letter 
from William Driscoll, filled with most direful threats, — not only 
threatening Campbell's life, but the life of any one who should 
oppose their murderous, thieving operations. Soon after the re- 
ceipt of this letter, two hundred of the "Kegulators" marched to 
Driscoll's and ordered him to leave the county within twenty days, 
but he refused to comply with the order. One Sunday evening, 
just after this, Campbell was shot down in his own door-yard by 
David Driscoll. He fell in the arms of his wife, at which time 
Taylor Driscoll raised his rifle and pointed it toward her, but low- 
ered it without firing. 

News of this terrible crime spread like wild-fire. The very air 
was filled with threats and vengeance, and nothing but the lives of 
the murderous gang would pay the penalty. Old John Driscoll 
was arrested, was told to bid his family good-bye, and then with 
his son went out to his death. The "Regulators," numbering 111, 
formed a large circle, and gave the Driscolls a fair hearing. They 
were found guilty, and the "Eegulators" divided into two "death 
divisions," — one, consisting of fifty-six, with rifles dispatched the 
father, the other fifty-five riddled and shattered the body of the 
son with balls from as many guns. The measures thus inaugu- 
rated to free the country from the dominion of outlaws was a last 
desperate resort, and proved eflfectual. 

In April, 1840, the "Latter- Day Saints," or Mormons, came in 
large numbers to Illinois and purchased a tract of land on the east 
side of the Mississip])i river, about ten miles above Keokuk. Here 
they commenced building the city of Nauvoo. A more picturesque 
or eligible site for a city could not have been selected. 


The origin, rapid development aud prosperity of this religious 
sect are the most remarkable and instructive historical events of 
the present century. That an obscure individual, without money, 
education, or resi^ectability, should persuade hundreds of thousands 
of people to believe him inspired of God, and cause a book, con- 
temptible as a literary production, to be received as a continuation 
of the sacred revelation, appears almost incredible; yet in less than 
half a century, the disciples of this obscure individual have in- 
creased to hundreds of thousands; have founded a State in the dis- 
tant wilderness, and compelled the Government of the United 
States to practically recognize them as an independent people. 


The founder of Mormonism was Joseph Smith, a native of Ver- 
mont, who emigrated while quite young with his father's family to 
western New York. Here his youth was spent in idle, vagabond 
life, roaming the woods, dreaming of buried treasures, and in en- 
deavoring to learn the art of finding them b}' tlie twisting of a 
forked stick in his hands, or by looking through enchanted stones. 
Both he and his father became famous as " water wizards," always 
ready to point out the spot where wells might be dug and water 
found. Such was the character of the young profligate when he 
made the acquaintance of Sidney Rigdon, a person of considerable 
talent and information, who had conceived the design of founding 
a new religion. A religious romance, written by Mr. Spaulding-, a 
Presbyterian preacher of Ohio, then dead, suggested the idea, afld 
finding in Smith the requisite duplicity and cunning to reduce it 
to practice, it was agreed that he should act as prophet; and the 
two devised a story that gold plates had been found buried in the 
earth containing a record inscribed on them in unknown characters, 
which, when deciphered by the power of inspiration, gave the his- 
tor}' of the ten lost tribes of Israel. 


This sect had its origin near the village of Palmyra, N. Y., about 
the year 1830. It increased by slow degrees for a year or two, 
during which time the " Book of Mormon " was first printed. Smith, 
the leader and pretended Prophet, then by " revelation " induced 


his few followers to emigrate to Kirtland in Ohio,— which was to 
be the New Jerusalem, and where a temple was to be built. Here 
they increased considerably in numbers; and here a costly temple 
was begun, but never finished. Here, also, some manufacturing 
enterprises were entered into; and Smith and Rigdon, as president 
and cashier, established a bank, known as the " Kirtland Safety 
Bank." Believers flocked around them ; but their intercourse with 
their "Gentile" neighbors was not cordial; the bank broke; and 
another revelation conveniently came to Smith that the Zion 
should be built up in Northwestern Missouri. Emigration to the 
border was accordingly ordered, and three different settlements 
made there, one succeeding the others, and three " revealed " 
Zions began to be built. In Missouri, the troubles between them 
and their neighbors finally culminated in open hostilities; and 
after a series of conflicts with mobs, and with the State militia, the 
whole band of Mormons was expelled from the State. This was in 
the winter of 1838-9. 

They took the nearest route to Illinois, and landed at Quincy, 
after much suffering and in great destitution. In Illinois they 
were treated with great kindness and consideration — their story 
of "persecution for opinion's sake" being generously credited 
by the people. 

In the spring of 1844 Joe Smith announced himself as a candi- 
date for President of the United States. He caused himself to be 
anointed king and priest, instituted the " Danite band," and gave 
out that it was impossible for a woman to get to heaven except as 
the wife of a Mormon elder. Hence the elders might marry as 
many women as he pleased. This was the origin of polygamy. 

In Illinois they remained till the end of 1846 — a period of eight 
years; during which time the}' increased largely in numbers, and 
built up a city of 10 or 12 thousand inhabitants. But the same 
class of difficulties sprung up here between them and their neigh- 
bors as elsewhere; and after a series of troubles, during which a 
press was destroyed and the Prophet and his brother killed, they 
were again violently expelled. This time they decided to take a 
westward course, the purpose being to locate perhaps on the Pa- 
cific coast, or in some less remote region among the Hocky Moun- 




The fugitives pi'oceeded westward, taking tlie road throngh Mis- 
souri, but were forcibly ejected from that State and compelled to 
move indirectly throiigh Iowa. After innumerable hardships the 
advance guard reached the Missouri river at Council Bluffs, when 
a United States officer presented a requisition for 500 men to serve 
in the war with Mexico. Compliance with this order so diminished 
their number of effective men that tlie expedition was again delayed, 
and the remainder, consisting mostly of old men, women and chil- 
dren, hastily prepared habitations for winter. Their rudely con- 
structed tents were hardly completed before winter set in with great 
severity, the bleak prairies being incessantly swept by piercing 
■winds. While here, cholera, fever and other diseases, aggravated 
by the previous hardships, the want of comfortable quarters and 
medical treatment, hurried many of them to premature graves. 
Under the iniluence of religious fervor and fanaticism they looked 
death in the face with cheerfulness and resignation, and even exhib- 
ited a gayety which manifested itself in music and dancing during 
the saddest hours of this sad winter. 

At length welcome spring made its appearance, and by April they 
were again organized for the journey ; a pioneer party, consisting 
of Brigham Young and 140 others, was sent in advance to locate a 
home for the colonists. On the 21st of July, 1847, a day memora- 
ble in Mormon annals, the van-giiard reached the valley of the 
great Salt Lake, having been directed thither, according to their 
accounts, by the hand of the Almighty. Here, in a distant wilder- 
ness, midway between the East and the Pacific, and at that time a 
thousand miles from the utmost verge of civilization, they com- 
menced preparations for founding a colony which has since grown 
into a mighty empire. 

[For a complete history of this people during their sojourn in 
Illinois, the reader is referred to future chapters in this book, in its 
County History.] 



Few people are aware of the long continued and persistent 
efforts of the people of the Northwest Territory to introduce slavery. 
In point of fact, it was introduced, and for a long time existed, 
under both the Territorial and State governments. Renault, an ad- 
venturer from France, landed at St. Domingo and procured 500 
slaves, which he brought to Illinois and settled at St. Phillips, 
about the year 1720—43 years before the treaty ceding it to Great 
Britain. These slaves, with their progeny, were held by the French 
settlers until the country passed under British rule, and were 
secured to them by the terms of the treaty, and afterward con- 
firmed to them by the Colony of Virginia and by the ordinance of 
1787. The French monarch, by edict, regulated the trathc in negro 
slaves; and it is worthy of note that the provisions of these ordi- 
nances were more humane and merciful than many of the enact- 
ments of the slave States a hundred years later. They provided 
tliat the slaves should be baptized and instructed in the Roman 
Catholic religion; that infirm slaves sliall be maintained by the 
master; that they shall be treated kindly; that husband and wife 
and minor children shall not be separated. The ordinance of 1787 
provided that there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
tude in the said Territory, etc. In ISOO there were in Indiana and 
Illinois 133 slaves; in ISIO Illinois alone had 168; in 1820, 917, 
and in 1830, 7i6. t 

But a large portion of the leading spirits in the Territory were 
dissatisfied with the provision of the ordinance excluding slavery, 
and made many attempts to have it repealed. As early as 1796 
Congress vvas petitioned to repeal or suspend that provision of the 
ordinance. In 1802 Gov. Harrison and a convention of delegates 
memorialized Congress to the same effect. The subject was refer- 
red to a special committee, and in 1803 Mr. Randolph, of Virginia, 
reported adverse to the prayer of the petitioners. The subject 
came up again in 1804, and again in 1807, when it received its 
quietus, by a final report against the change. Several court de- 
cisions have settled the status of slavery undeii the ordinance. 

Failing in these efforts, resort was had to indenture, by which 
slaves held abroad could be brought to Illinois and indentured for 


99 years! Gov. Edwards was a pro-slavery man, and as Governor 
vetoed legislative acts repealing some of these slavery laws. 

So among the first questions to agitate the people of the new 
State after its admission into the Union, was the ever-present 
question of slavery. Failing to procure its introduction through 
the repeal of the ordinance of 17S7, a concerted and determined 
eftort was now resolved upon, to reach the desired end by an alter- 
ation of the Constitution in a sovereign State capacity. 

On August 20, 1S21, the Missouri compromise bill having passed 
Congress, Missouri was admitted into the Union as a slave State.* 
Immediately. a lai'ge emigration set in to that State from the slave 
States on the seaboard. The route lay chiefly through the southern 
end of Illinois. Many of these emigrants belonged to the richer 
and more intelligent class, and they passed through Illinois with 
their human chattels to seek homes in the new lands of Missouri, 
where they could hold them undisturbed. This was irritating to 
the slavery element of the State. They disliked to see the wealthy 
man pass through and carry his wealth to aid in building up 
another CDinmunity, while the poor man, who brought no riches 
with him, i-emained among them. This untoward state of affairs 
added increased desire for the introduction of slavery. They would 
adopt measures to make Illinois a slave State, notwithstanding the 
compact that was to stand forever unalterable. 

This sentiment gradually gained ground as the time approached 
for the election of members of the Legislature of 1S22-3. The 
plan was to call a convention to change the constitution, provision 
for which must be made by the Legislature. The election of mem- 
bers turned largely upon this question. The Legislature met, 
when it was found that the Senate had the requisite two-thirds in 
favor of a convention, but the other house had a majority less than 
two-thirds, and on a joint ballot the slavery men would lack one 
vote. But fortune favored the scheme. Our county of Pike was 
luckily in a condition to carry them through the difficulty. She 
had a contested seat in the lower branch. The contestants were 

*To the Illinois Senators, Messrs. Thomas and Edwards, belong the credit or 
discredit, whichever it may he, of originating that celebrated compromise meas- 
ure, it having been moved in the Senate by Mr. Thomas as a compromise between 
the two contending parties in that memorable contest. 

114 niSTOEr of Illinois. 

Nicholas Hanson and John Sha^. The slavery men desired to 
re-elect Jesse B. Thomas, a pro-slavery man, to the United States 
Senate. Hanson would vote for him, and the contested seat was 
given to him, and by his vote Thomas was returned to the Senate. 
But Hanson would vote against a convention ; so the contested seat 
question was re-considered, Hanson unseated, and with Shaw's 
vote the convention question was carried. It will thus be seen that • 
political trickery is not entirely an invention of the present day. 

But the people were yet to be heard from. In August, 1824, the 
election took place. The vote stood as given below: 

Total vote cast 11,764 

For a convention 4,965 

Against convention • •• • 6,799 

Majority against 1,834 

This was one of the most exciting and well fought political bat- 
tles in' which the people of Illinois were engaged. The writer of 
this, then a boy in a distant State, well remembers the intense 
feeling manifested throughout the Union in the result of the con- 
test. At the beginning, the prospect looked highly favorable for 
the success of the measure. The leading advocates of a convention 
were bold and defiant; and it cannot be denied that they num- 
bered in their ranks a majority of the most prominent men of the 
State. They counted both the United States Senators, ex-Gov. 
Ninian "Edwards — himself a host — and Judge Thomas, an active 
and able politician. They also had in their ranks Gov. Bond, 
Lieut. -Gov. Kinney, Elias K. Kane, formerly Member of Congress, 
and nearly all the Judges, State and Federal — Brown, Phillips, John 
and Thomas Reynolds, McKoberts and Smith. Governor Coles, 
Judge Lockwood, and Congressman Daniel P. Cook, headed the 
opposition. Coles was a Virginian, and had manumitted his slaves 
in Illinois. But one of the most untiring and eflective workers 
and organizers in tlieir ranks was Eev. John M. Peck, a Baptist 
minister from New England, afterward editor of the Watchman, 
at Pock Spring, and author of several valuable historical works. 

There were five newspapers then ia Illinois. Of these, three 
were in the interest of freedom, the Edwardsville Spectator, 
edited by Hooper "Warren; the Shawneetown Gazette, conducted 
by Henry Eddy, and one at Vandalia, conducted by Wm. H.Brown 


aud David Blackwell. The two advocatins; a convention were 
located at Kaskaskia and Edwardsville. 

Thus these repeated attempts to repeal, or annul the sixth sec- 
tion of the ordinance of 17S7, were frustrated — first, by the action 
of the nation's best statesmen in Congress ; and lastly, by the good 
sense of the people themselves. 

Hancock had a few voters at that day — August, 182i ; but 
probabl}' none two years before, when the contested election case 
occurred. It may be that the officers and soldiers stationed at 
Fort Edwards exercised the privilege of voting. If so, we find no 
record of it in Pike county. And if so, their vote may have had 
a greater weight than they knew, in determining that agitating 
question for the State. 


Among the most prominent literary men of the early daj's in 
Illinois, may be mentioned Judge James Hail, a Pliiladelphian, 
who came to the State in 1818. He settled at Shawneetown, and 
soon became associate editor with Heniy Eddy of the Gazette. He 
afterwards originated the Illinois Magazine at Vandalia, wliich 
he conducted with ability, and which he, about 1834, removed to 
Cincinnati, under the title of Western Monthly Magazine. Judge 
Hall was a voluminous writer, and contributed to the literature of 
the West many works of fiction and border histories, among 
which was a "Life of Gen. Harrison." 

Gov. John Reynolds was a writer of considerable note in his 
time. He contributed many border sketches to. the literature of 
the day, and also an interesting volume of the history of his " Own 
Times," which abounds in incidents, reminiscences and character- 
istic sketches of tlie prominent men of the State. 

John Russell, of Bluffdale, was another literary man among the 
pioneers. He was a Yerinonter by birth; w-as a quiet and retired 
farmer on the blufts of the Illinois river, in Greene county. He 
was a frequent contributor to Hall's and other periodicals, and 
afterward edited a paper in Greene county. Mr. Russell devoted 
much attention to French literature and manners in the Missis- 
sippi valley, spending several years as a teacher among them in 
Louisiana. Some of his sketches have gone into the standard 
school books of the country. 


These three, with liev. John M. Peck, and tlie editors of the 
papers heretofore mentiued, may be ranked as the chief literary 
men in the State in its earlier days. There were others perhaps 
equally able, whose names do not now occur to us. 


The Constitution under wliich the State was admitted into the 
Union in ISIS, remained in force until 184S, when a new one was 
adopted, which did away with many of the most objectionable 
features of the former. This continued in force until August, 
1870, when the present one went into effect. 

Under these three Constitutions, and the laws enacted in accord- 
ance therewith, — some of them unsound, ill-digested and impolitic, 
— the State has in sixty-two years made unparalleled advancement 
in population and material and moral power. Note her popula- 

In 1800, its population was about 3,000. 

In 1810, it had increased to 12,283. 

On its admission into the Union in 1818, it was estimated at 

By the census of 1S30, it had gone above 157,000. 

In 1S40, it had advanced to 474,000. 

By the census of 1S70, it shows the enormous number of 2,529,- 
410 souls. 

It now contains an estimated population of over three millions 
of people. Three thousand in 1800; three millions in 1880 — less 
than eighty years! Such is American, such is Western progress; 
such the advance of free principles, guided by free thought on free 


During the month of May, 1S46, the President called for four 
regiments of volunteers from Illinois for the Mexican war. This 
was no sooner known in the State than nine regiments, numbering 
8,370 men, answered the call, though only four of them, amounting 
to 3,720 men, could be taken. Tliese regiments, as well as their 
officers, were everywhere foremost in the American ranks, and dis- 


tiiiguished themselves by their matchless valor in the bloodiest 
battles of the war. Veterans never fought more nobly and effect- 
ively than did the volunteers from Illinois. At the bloody battle of 
Buena Vista they crowned their lives — many their death — with the 
laurels of war. Xever did armies contend more bravely, determinedly 
and stubbornly than tlie American and Me.xican forces at this famous 
battle; and as Illinois troops were ever in the van and on the blood- 
iest portions of the field, we believe a short sketch of the part they 
took in the fierce contest is due them, and will be read with no lit- 
tle interest. 


General Santa Anna, with his army of 20,000, .poured into the 
valley of Aqua Nueva early on the morning of the 22d of February, 
hoping to surprise our army, consisting of about 5,000 men, under 
Gen. Taylor and which had retreated to the " Narrows." They 
were hotly pursued by the Mexicans who, before attacking, sent 
Gen. Taylor a flag of truce demanding a surrender, and assuring 
him that if he refused he would be cut to pieces; but the demand 
was promptly refused. At this the enemy opened fire, and the con- 
flict began. In honor of the day the watchword with our soldiers 
was, " The memory of Washington." An irregular fire was kept up 
all day, and at night both armies bivouacked on the field, resting on 
their arms. Santa Anna that night made a spirited address to his 
men, and the stirring strains of his own band till late in the night 
were distinctly heard by our troops; but at last silence fell over the 
hosts that were to contend unto death in that narrow pass on the 

Early on the following morning the battle was resumed, and con- 
tinued without intermission until nightfall. The solid columns of 
the enemy were hurled against our forces all day long, but were 
met and held in check by the unerring fire of our musketry and ar- 
tillery. A portion of Gen. Lane's division was driven back by the 
enemy under Gen. Lombardini, who, joined by Gen. Pacheco's divis- 
ion, poured upon the main plateau in so formidable numbers as 
to appear irresistible. 


At this time the 2d Illinois, under Col. Eissell, with a squadfon 
of cavalry and a few pieces of artillery came handsomely into action 


and gallantly received the concentrated fire of the enemy, which 
they returned with deliberate aim and terrible effect; every dis- 
charge of the artillery seemed to tear a bloody path through the 
heavy columns of enemy. Says a writer: "The rapid mus- 
ketry of the gallant troops from Illinois poured a storm of lead 
into their serried ranks, which literally strewed the ground with 
the dead and dying." But, notwithstanding his losses, the enemy 
steadily advanced until our gallant regiment received fire from 
three sides. Still they maintained their position for a time with 
unflinching firmness against that immense host. At length, per- 
ceivino- the danger of being entirely surrounded, it was determined 
to fall back to a ravine. Col. Bissel, with the coolness of ordinary 
drill, ordered the signal "cease firing" to be made; he then with 
the same deliberation gave the command, " Face to the rear, Bat- 
talion, about face; forward march," which was executed with the 
regularity of veterans to a point beyond the peril of being out- 
flanked. Again, in obedience to command these brave men halted- 
faced about, and under a murderous tempest of bullets from the fue, 
resumed their well-directed fire. The conduct of no troops could 
have been more admirable; and, too, until that day they had never 
been under fire, when, within less than half an hour eighty of their 
comrades dropped by their sides. How different fi-om tlie Arkansas 
regiment, which were ordered to the plateau, but after delivering 
their first volley gave way and dispersed. 


But now we have to relate the saddest, and, for Illinois, the most 
mournful, event of that battle-worn day. We take the account 
from Colton's History of the battle of Buena Vista. "As the enemy 
on our left was moving in retreat along the head of the Plateau, 
our artillery was advanced until within range, and opened a heavy 
fire upon him, while Cols. Hardin, Bissell and McKee, with their 
Illinois and Kentucky troops, dashed gallantly forward in hot pur- 
suit. A powerful reserve of the Mexican army was then just 
emerging from the ravine, where it had been organized, and 
advanced on the plateau, opposite the head of the southernmost 
gorge. Those who were giving way rallied quickly upon it; when 
the whole force, thus increased to over 12,000 men, came forward 
in a perfect blaze of fire. It was a single column, composed of the 
best soldiers of the republic, having for its advanced battalions the 

<ce:ne on fox riyeu. 


veteran regiments. The Kentucky and Illinois troops were soon 
obliged to give ground before it and seek the shelter of the second 
gorge. The enemy pressed on, arriving opposite the head of the 
second gorge. One-half of the column suddenly enveloped it, while 
the other half pressed on across the plateau, having for the moment 
nothing to resist them but the three guns in their front. The por- 
tion that was immediately opposed to the Kentucky and Illinois 
troops, ran down along each side of the gorge, in which they had 
sought shelter, and also circled around its head, leaving no possible 
way of escape for theun except by its mouth, which opened 
upon the road. Its sides, which were steep, — at least an angle of 
45 degrees, — were covered with loose pebbles and stones, and con- 
verged to a point at the bottom. Down there were our poor fel- 
lows, nearly three regiments of them (1st and 2d Illinois and 2d 
Kentucky), with but little opportunity to load or lire a gun, being 
hardly able to keep their feet. Above the whole edge of the 
gorge, all the way around, was darkened by the serried masses of 
the enemy, and was bristling with muskets directed on the crowd 
beneath. It was no time to pause. Those who were not immedi- 
ately shot down rushed on toward the road, their number growing 
less and less as they went, Kentuckians and Illinoisans, officers and 
men, all mixed up in confusion, and all pressing on over the loose 
pebbles and rolling stones of those shelving, precipitous banks, 
and having lines and lines of the enemy tiring down from each 
side and rear as they went. Just then the enemy's cavalry, which 
had gone to the left of the i-eserve, had come over the spur that 
divides the mouth of the second gorge from that of the third, and 
were now closing up the only door through which there was the 
least shadow of a chance for their lives. Many of those ahead 
endeavored to force their way out, but few succeeded. The lancers 
were fully six to one, and their long weapons were already reeking 
with blood. It was at this time that those who were still back in 
that dreadful gorge heard, above the din of the musketry and the 
shouts of the enemy around them, the roar of Washington's Bat- 
tery. No music could have been more gi-ateful to their ears. A 
moment only, and the whole opening, where the lancers were busy, 
rang with the repeated explosions of spherical-case shot. They 
gave way. The gate, as it were, was clear, and out upon the road 
a stream of our poor fellows issued. They ran panting down 


toward the battery, and directly under the fight of iron then pas- 
sing over their heads, into the rctreatina; cavah-y. Hardin, McKee, 
Clay, "Willis, Zabriskie, Houghton— but why go on? It would be 
a sad task indeed to name over all who fell during this twenty 
minutes' slaughter. The whole gorge, from the plateau to its 
mouth, was strewed with our dead. All dead! ISto wounded there 
— not a man; for the infantry had rushed down the sides and com- 
pleted the work with the bayonet." 


The artillery on the plateau stubbornly maintained its position, 
The remnants of the 1st and 2d Illinois regiments, after issuing 
from the fated gorge, were formed and again brought into action, 
the former, after the fall of the noble Hardin, under Lieut. Col. 
Weatherford, the latter under Bissell. The enemy brought forth 
reinforcements and a brisk artillery duel was kept up; but gradually, 
as the shades of night began to cover the earth, the rattle of mus- 
ketry slackened, and when the pall of night was thrown over that 
bloody field it ceased altogether. Each army, after the fierce and 
long struggle, occupied much the same position as it did in the 
morning. However, early on the following morning, the glad 
tidings were heralded amidst our army that the enemy had retreated, 
thus again crowning the American banners with victory. 


Other bright names from Illinois that shine as stars in thisi 
war are those of Shields, Baker, Harris and Coffee, which are 
indissolubly connected with the glorious capture of Vera Cruz 
and the not less famous storming of Cerro Gordo. In this latter 
action, when, after the valiant Gen. Shields had been placed hors 
de combat, the command of his force, consisting of three regiments, 
devoled upon Col. Baker. This ofiicer, with his men, stormed with 
unheard-of prowess the last stronghold of the Mexicans, sweeping 
everything before them. Sucli indeed were the intrepid valor and 
daring courage exhibited by Illinois volunteers during the Mexican 
war that their deeds should live in the memory of their countrymen 
until those latest times when the very name of America shall have 
been forgotten. 



On the fourth day of March, 1861, after the most exciting and 
momentous political campaign known in the history of this country, 
Abraham Lincoln — America's martyred President — was inaugu- 
rated Chief Magistrate of the United States. This fierce contest 
was principally sectional, and as the announcement was flashed over 
the telegraph wires that the Republican Presidential candidate had 
been elected, it was hailed by the South as a justifiable pretext for 
dissolving the Union. Said Jefferson Davis in a speech at Jackson, 
Miss., prior to the election, "If an abolitionist be chosen Presi- 
dent of the United States you will have presented to you the 
question whether you will permit the government to pass into 
the hands of your avowed and implacable enemies. Without 
pausing for an answer, I will state my own position to be that 
such a result would be a species of revolution by which the 
purpose of the Government would be destroyed, and the obser- 
vances of its mere forms entitled to no respect. In that event, 
in such manner as should be most expedient, I should deem it 
your duty to provide for your safety outside of the Union." Said 
another Southern politician, when speaking on the same sub- 
ject, " We shall fire the Southern heart, instruct the Southern 
mind, give courage to each, and at the proper moment, by one 
organized, concerted action, we can precipitate the Cotton States 
into a revolution." To disrupt the Union and form a government 
which recognized the absolute supremacy of the white population 
and the perpetual bondage of the black was what they deemed 
freedom from the galling yoke of a Republican administration. 


Hon. R. W. Miles, of Knox county, sat on the floor by the side 
of Abraham Lincoln in the Library-room of the Capitol, in Spring- 
field, at the secret caucus meeting, held in January, 1859, when 
Mr. Lincoln's name was first spoken of in caucus as candidate for 
President. When a gentleman, in making a short speech, said, 
" We are going to bring Abraham Lincoln out as a candidate for 
President," Mr. Lincoln at once arose to his feet, and exclaimed, 
"For God's sake, let me alone! I have suSered enough! " This 
was soon after he had been defeated in the Legislature for United 
States Senate by Stephen A. Douglas, and only those who are 


intimate with that important and unparalleled contest can appre- 
ciate the full force and meaning of these expressive words of the 
martyred President. They were spontaneous, and prove beyond a 
shadow of doubt that Abraham Lincoln did not seek the high posi- 
tion of President. Nor did he use any trickery or chicanery to 
obtain it. But his expressed wish was not to be complied with; 
our beloved country needed a savior and a martyr, and Fate had 
decreed that he should be the victim. After Mr. Lincoln was 
elected President, Mr. Miles sent him an eagle's quill, with which 
the chief magistrate wrote his first inaugural address. The letter 
•written by Mr. Miles to the President, and sent with the quill, 
•which was two feet in length, is such a jewel of eloquence and 
prophecy that it should be given a place in history: 

Persifer, December 21, 1860. 
Hon. a. LrNCOLN : 

Dear Sir :— Please accept the eagle quill I promised you, by the hand of our 
KepresentiUive, A. A. Smith. The bird from whose wing the quill was taken, was 
shot by John F. Dillon, in Persifer township, KuO-\ Co., Ills., in Feb., 1857 Hay- 
ing heard that James Buchanan was furnished with an eagle quill to write his 
Inaugural with, and believing that in 1860, a Republican would be elected to take 
Ms phxce, I determined to save this quill and present it to the fortunate man, wlio- 
cver he might be. Reports tell us tliat the bird which furnished Buchanan's quill 
■was a captured bird, — fit emblem of the man that used it ; but the bird from 
which this quill was taken, yielded the quill only with his life, — fit emblem of the 
man who is e.vpected to use it, for true Republicans believe that you would not 
think life wortli the keeping after the surrender of principle. Great difficulties 
surround you ; traitors to their country liave threatened your life ; and should 
you be called upon to surrender it at the post of duty, your memory will live for- 
ever in tlie heart of every freeman ; and that is a grander monument than can be 
built of brick or marble. 

"For if hearts may not our memories keep, 
Obli\ion haete each veetii^o sweep, 
And let our memories end." 

Yours Truly, 

R. W. Miles. 


At the time of President Lincoln's accession to power, several 
members of the Union claimed they had withdrawn from it, and 
styling themselves the " Confederate States of America," organ- 
ized a separate government. The house was indeed divided 
against itself, but it should not fall, nor should it long continue 
divided, was the hearty, determined response of every loyal heart 
in the nation. The accursed institution of human slavery was 
the primary cause for this dissolution of the American Union. 
Doubtless other agencies served to intensify the hostile feel- 
ings which existed between the Northern and Southern portions 


of our coiiutry, but their remote origin could be traced to this great 
national evil. Had Lincoln's predecessor put forth a timely, ener- 
getic effort, he might have prevented the bloody war our nation 
was called to pass through. On the other hand every aid was given 
the rebels; every advantage and all the power of the Government 
was placed at their disposal, and when Illinoi«' honest son took the 
reins of the Republic he found Buchanan had been a traitor to his 
trust, and given over to the South all available means of war. 


On the 12th day of April, 1861, the rebels, who for weeks had 
been erecting their batteries upon the shore, after demanding of 
Major Anderson a surrender, opened fire upon Fort Sumter. For 
thirty-four hours an incessant cannonading was continued; the fort 
was being seriously injured; provisions were almost gone, and Major 
Anderson was compelled to haul down the stars and stripes. That 
dear old flag which had seldom been lowered to a foreign foe by 
rebel hands was now trailed in the dust. The first blow of the 
terrible conflict which summoned vast armies into the field, and 
moistened the soil of a nation in fraternal blood and tears, had 
been struck. Tlie gauntlet thus thrown down by the attack on 
Sumter by the traitors of the South was accepted — not, however, 
in the spirit with which insolence meets insolence — but with a firm, 
determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. The duty of 
the President was plain under the constitution and the laws, and 
above and beyond all, the people from whom all political power is 
derived, demanded the suppression of the Rebellion, and stood ready 
to sustain the authority of their representative and executive 
officers. Promptly did the new President issue a proclamation 
calling for his countrymen to join with him to defend their homes 
and their country, and vindicate her honor. This call was made 
April li, two days after Sumter was first fired upon, and was for 
75,000 men. On the 15th, the same day he was notified, Gov. 
Yates issued his proclamation convening the Legislature. He also 
ordered the organization of six regiments. Troops were in abund- 
ance, and the call was no sooner made than filled. Patriotism 
thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, 
the workshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, 
the school-house, — every calling oftered its Ijest men, their lives and 
their fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. 


Bitter words spoken in moments of political heat were forgotten 
and forgiven, and joining hands in a common cause, they repeated 
'the oath of America's soldier-statesman : " By the G-reat Eternal, 
the Union must and shall he preserved.'' The honor, the very 
life and glory of the nation was committed to the stern arbitrament 
of the sword, and soon the tramp of armed men, the clash of 
musketry and the heavy boom of artillery reverberated throughout 
the continent; rivers of blood saddened by tears of mothers, wives, 
sisters, daughters and sweethearts flowed from the lakes to the 
gulf, but a nation was saved. The sacrifice was great, but the 
Union was preserved. 


Simultaneously with the call for troops by the President, enlist- 
ments commenced in this State, and within ten days 10,000 
volunteers offered service, and the sum of .$1,000,000 was tendered 
by patriotic citizens. Of the volunteers who offered their services, 
only six regiments could be accepted under the quota of the State. 
But the time soon came v,'hen there was a place and a musket for 
every man. The six regiments raised were designated by numbers 
commencing with seven, as a mark of respect for the six regiments 
which had served in the Mexican war. Another call was antici- 
pated, and the Legislature authorized ten additional regiments to 
be organized. Over two hundred companies were immediately 
raised from which were selected the required number. No sooner 
was this done than the President made another call for troops, six 
regiments were again our proportion, although by earnest solicita- 
tion the remaining four were accepted. There were a large number 
of men with a patriotic desire to enter the service who were denied 
this privilege. Many of them wept, while others joined regiments 
from other States. In May, June and July seventeen regiments 
of infantry and five of cavalry were raised, and in the latter month, 
when the President issued his first call for 500,000 volunteers, 
Illinois tendered thirteen regiments of infantry and three of cavalry, 
and so anxious were her sons to have the Eebellion crushed that 
the number could have been increased by thousands. At the 
close of 1861 Illinois had sent to the field nearly 50,000 men, and 
had 17,000 in camp awaiting marching orders, thus exceeding her 
full quota by 15,000. 



In July and August of 1SG2 the President called for 600,000 
men — our quota of which was 62,296 — and gave until August 18 as 
the limits in which the number might be raised by volunteering, 
after which a draft would be ordered. The State had already fur- 
nished 17,000 in excess of her quota, and it was first thought this 
number would be deducted from the present requisition, but that 
could not be done. But thirteen days were granted to enlist this 
vast army, which had to come from the farmers and mechanics. 
The former were in the midst of harvest, but, inspired by love of 
country, over 50,000 of them left their harvests ungathered, their 
tools and their benches, the plows in their furrows, turning their 
backs on their homes, and before eleven days had expired the 
demands of the Government were met and both quotas filled. 

The war went on, and call followed call, until it began to look as 
if there would not be men enough in all the Free States to crush 
out and subdue the monstrous war traitors had inaugurated. But 
to every call for either men or money there was a willing and ready 
response. And it is a boast of the people that, had the supply of 
men fallen short, there were women brave enough, daring enough, 
patriotic enough, to have oflered themselves as sacrifices on their 
country's altar. On the 21st of December, 1S61:, the last call for 
troops was made. It was for 300,000. In consequence of an im- 
perfect enrollment of the men subject to military duty, it became 
evident, ere this call was made, that Illinois was furnishing thous- 
ands of men more than what her quota would have been, had it 
been correct. So glaring had this disproportion become, that 
under this call the quota of some districts exceeded the number of 
able-bodied men in them. 


Following this sketch we give a schedule of all the volunteer 
troops organized from this State, from the commencement to the 
close of the war. It is taken from the Adjutant General's report. 
The number of the regiment, name of original Colonel, call under 
which recruited, date of organization and muster into the United 
States' service, place of muster, and aggregate strength of each 
organization, from which we find that Illinois put into her one hun- 
dred and eighty regiments 256,000 men, and into the United States 


armj, tlirougli other States, enough to swell the number to 290,000. 
This far exceeds all the soldiers of the Federal Government in all 
the war of the Revolution. Her total years of service were over 
600,000. She enrolled men from eighteen to forty-five years of age, 
when the law of Congress in 1S64 — the test time — only asked for 
those from twenty to forty-five. Her enrollments were otherwise 
excessive. Her people wanted to go, and did not take the pains to 
correct the enrollment; thus the basis of fixing the quota was too 
great, and the quota itself, at least in the trying time, was far above 
any other State. The demand on some counties, as Monroe, for 
example, took every able-bodied man in the county, and then did 
not have enough to fill the quota. Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 
men for one hundred days, for whom no credit was asked. She 
gave to the country 73,000 years of service above all calls. With 
one-thirteenth of the population of the loyal States, she sent regu- 
larly one-tenth of all the soldiers, and in the perils of the closing 
calls, when patriots were few and weary, she sent one-eighth of all 
that were called for by her loved and honored son in the Whita 
House. Of the brave boys Illinois sent to the front, there were 
killed in action, 5,888; died of wounds, 3,032; of disease, 19,496; 
in prison, 967; lost at sea, 205; aggregate, 29,588. As upon every 
field and upon every page of the history of this war, Illinois bore 
her part of the sufl^ering in the prison-pens of the South. More 
than 800 names make up the awful column of Illinois' brave sons 
who died in the rebel prison of Andersonville, Ga. Who can 
measure or imagine the atrocities which would be laid before the 
world were the panorama of sufferings and terrible trials of these 
gallant men but half unfolded to view? But this can never be 
done until new words of horror are invented, and new arts dis- 
covered by which demoniacal fiendishness can be portrayed, and 
the intensest anguish of the human soul in ten thousand forms be 

No troops ever fought more heroically, stubbornly, and with bet- 
ter effect, than did the boys from the " Prairie State." At Pea 
Ridge, Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, luka, Corinth, Stone River, 
Holly Springs, Jackson, Yicksburg, Chicamauga, Lookout Moun- 
tain, Murfreesboro, Atlanta, Franklin, Nashville, Chattanooga, and 
on every other field where the clash of arms was heard, her sons 
were foremost. 



Illinois was almost destitute of firearms at tlie beginning of the 
conflict, and none could be procured in the East. The traitorous 
Floyd had turned over to the South 300,000 arms, leaving most 
arsenals in the j^orth empty. Gov. Yates, however, received an 
order on the St. Louis arsenal for 10,000 muskets, which he put in 
the hands of Captain Stokes, of Chicago. Several unsuccessful 
attempts were made by the Captain to pass through the large crowd 
of rebels which had gathered around the arsenal, suspecting an 
attempt to move the arms would be made. He at last succeeded 
in gaining admission to the arsenal, but was informed by the com- 
mander that the slightest attempt to move the arms would be dis- 
covered and bring an infuriated mob upon the garrison. This fear 
was well founded, for the following day Gov. Jackson ordered 2,000 
armed men from Jefferson City down to capture the arsenal. Capt. 
Stokes telegraphed to Alton for a steamer to descend the river, and 
about midnight land opposite the arsenal, and proceeding to the 
same place with 700 men of the 7th Illinois, commenced loading 
the vessel. To divert attention from his real purpose, he had 500 
guns placed upon a different boat. As designed, this movement 
was discovered by the rabble, and the shouts and excitement upon 
their seizure drew most of the crowd from the arsenal. Capt. 
Stokes not only took all the guns his requisition called for, but 
emptied the arsenal. "When all was ready, and the signal given to 
start, it was found that the immense weight had bound the bow of 
the boat to a rock, but after a few moments' delay the boat fell away 
from the shore and floated into deep water. 

"Which way?" said Capt. Mitchell, of the steamer. "'Straight 
in the regular channel to Alton," replied Capt. Stokes. "What if 
we are attacked?" said Capt. Mitchell. " Then we will fight," was 
the reply of Capt. Stokes. "What if we are overpowered?" said 
Mitchell. " Run the boat to the deepest part of the river and sink 
her," replied Stokes. "I'll do it," was the heroic answer of 
Mitchell, and away they went past the secession battery, past the 
St. Louis levee, and in the regular channel on to Alton. When 
they touched the landing, Capt. Stokes, fearing pursuit, ran to the 
market house and rang the fire bell. The citizens came flocking 
pell-mell to the river, and soon men, women and children were 
tugging away at that vessel load of arms, which they soon had 
deposited in freight cars and off to Springfield. 



The people were liberal as well as patriotic; and while the men 
■were busy enlisting, organizing and equipping companies, the ladies 
were no less active, and the noble, generous work performed by 
their tender, loving hands deserves mention along with the bravery, 
devotion and patriotism of their brothers upon the Southern fields 
of carnage. 

The continued need of money to obtain the comforts and neces- 
saries for the sick and wounded of our army suggested to the loyal 
women of the North many and various devices for the raising of 
funds. Every city, town and village had its fair, festival, picnic, 
excursion, concert, which netted more or less to the cause of 
hospital relief, according to the population of the place and the 
amount of energy and patriotism displayed on such occasions. 
Especially was this characteristic of our own fair State, and scarcely 
a hamlet within its borders which did not send something from its 
stores to hospital or battlefield, and in the larger towns and cities 
were well-organized soldiei's' aid societies, working systematically 
and continuously from the beginning of the war till its close. The 
great State Fair held in Chicago in May, 1S65, netted $250,000. 
Homes for traveling soldiers were established all over the State, in 
which were furnished lodging for 600,000 men, and meals valued 
at $2,500,000. Food, clothing, medicine, hospital delicacies, 
reading matter, and thousands of other articles, were sent to the 
boys at the front. 


Letters, messages of love and encouragement, were sent by 
noble women from many counties of the State to encourage the 
brave sons and brothers in the South. Below we give a copy of a 
printed letter sent from Knox county to the "boys in blue," as 
showing the feelings of the women of the North. It was headed, 
" From the "Women of Knox County to Their Brothers in the 
Field." It was a noble, soul-inspiring message, and kindled anew 
the intensest love for home, country', and a determination to crown 
the stars and stripes with victory : 

"Tou have gone out from our homes, but not from our hearts. 
Never for one moment are you forgotten. Through weary march 
and deadly conflict our prayers have ever followed you; your 
sufierings are our sufferings, your victories our great joy. 


" If there be oue of you who knows not the dear home ties, for 
whom no mother prays, no sister watches, to him especially we 
speak. Let him feel that though he may not have one mother he 
has many; he is the adopted child and brother of all our hearts. 
Not one of you is beyoud the reach of our sympathies; no picket- 
station so lonely that it is not enveloped in the halo of our 

" During all the long, dark months since our country called you 
from us, your courage, your patient endurance, your fidelity, have 
awakened our keenest interest, and we have longed to give you an 
expression of tiiat interest. 

"By the alacrity with which you sprang to arms, by the valor 
with which those arms have been wielded, you have placed our 
State in the front ranks; you have made her worthy to be the home 
of our noble President. For thus sustaining the honor of our 
State, dear to us as life, we thank you. 

" Of your courage we need not speak. Fort Donelson, Pea 
Ridge, Shiloh, Stone River, Yicksburg, speak with blood-bathed 
lips of your heroism. The Army of the Southwest fights beneath 
no defeat-shadowed banner; to it, under God, the nation looks for 

"But we, as women, have otlier cause for thanks. We will not 
speak of the debt we owe the defenders of our Government; that 
blood-sealed bond no words can cancel. But wo are your debtors 
in a way not often recognized. You have aroused us from the 
aimlessness into which too many of our lives had drifted, and have 
infused into those lives a noble pathos. We could not dream our 
time away while our brothers were dying for us. Even your sufier- 
ings have worked together for our good, by inciting us to labor for 
their alleviation, tlius giving us a work worthy of our womanhood. 
Everything that we have been permitted to do for your comfort 
has filled our lives so much the fuller of all that makes life valua- 
ble. You have thus been the means of developing in us a nobler 
type of womanhood than without the example of your heroism we 
could ever have attained. For this our whole lives, made purer 
and nobler by the discipline, will thank you. 

"This war will leave none of us as it found us. We cannot 
buffet the raging wave and escape all trace of the salt sea's foam. 
Toward better or toward worse we are hurried with fearful 


haste. If we at home feel this, what must it be to jou! Our 
hearts throb with agony when we think of you wounded, suffering, 
dying; but the thought of no .physical pain touches us half so 
deeply as the thought of the temptations which surround you. 
We could better give you up to die on the battle-field, true to your 
God and to your country, than to have you return to us with 
blasted, blackened souls. "When temptations assail fiercely, you 
must let the tliought that your motliers are praying for strength 
enable you to overcome them. But fighting for a worthy cause 
worthily ennobles one; herein is our confidence that you will 
return better men than you went away. 

" By all that is noble in your manhood ; by all that is true in 
our womanhood; by all that is grand in patriotism; by all that is 
sacred in religion, we adjure you to be faithful to yourselves, to us, 
to your country, and to your God. Never were men permitted to 
fight in a cause more worthy of their blood. Were you fighting 
for mere conquest, or glory, we could not give you np; but to sus- 
tain a principle, the greatest to which human lips have ever given 
utterance, even your dear lives are not too costly a sacrifice. Let 
that principle, the corner-stone of our independence, be crushed, 
and we are all slaves. Like the Suliote mothers, we might well 
clasp our children in our arms and leap down to death. 

"To the stern arbitrament of the sword is now committed the 
honor, the very life of this nation. You fight not for yourselves 
alone; the e3'es of the whole world are on you; and if you fail our 
Nation's death-wail will echo tlirough all coming ages, moaning a 
requiem over the lost hopes of oppressed humanity. But you will 
not fail, so sure as there is a God in Heaven. He never meant 
this richest argosy of the nations, freighted with the fears of all 
the world's tj-rants, with the hopes of all its oppressed ones, to 
flounder in darkness and death. Disasters may come, as they have 
come, but tliey will only be, as they have been, ministers of good. 
Each one has led the nation upward to a higher plane, from whence 
it has seen with a clearer eye. Success could not attend us at the 
West so long as we scorned the help of the black hand, which 
alone had power to open the gate of redemption; the God of 
battles would not vouchsafe a victory at the East till the very foot- 
prints of a McClellan were washed out in blood. 

"But now all things seem ready; we have accepted the aid of 


that hand; those footsteps are obliterated. In liis own good time 
we feel that God will give us the victory. Till that hour comes we 
bid you fight on. Though we have not attained that lieroisni, or 
decision, which enables us to give you up without a struggle, which 
can prevent our giving tears for yowv Mood, though many of us 
must own our hearts desolate till you return, still we bid you stay 
and fight for our country, till from this fierce baptism of blood she 
shall be raised complete; the dust shaken from her garments puri- 
fied, a new Memnon singing in the great Godlight." 

sherman''s makch to the sea. 

On the 15th of November, 1864, after the destruction of Atlanta, 
and the railroads behind him, Sherman, witli his army, began his 
march to the sea-coast. The almost breathless anxiety with which 
his progress was watched by the loyal hearts of the nation, and the 
trembling apprehension with whicli it was regarded by all who 
hoped for rebel success, indicated this as one of the most remark- 
able events of the war; and so it proved. Of Sherman's array, 45 
regiments of infantry, three companies of artillery, and one of 
cavalry were from this State. Lincoln answered all rumors of 
Sherman's defeat with, " It is impossible; there is a mighty sight 
of fight in 100,000 Western men." Illinois soldiers brought home 
300 battle flags. The first United States flag that floated over 
Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and nurses to 
every field and hospital to care for her sick and wounded sons. 

Illinois gave the country the great general of the war, U. S. 


One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, embalmed 
In all hearts, that must have the supreme place in this sketch of 
our glory and of our nation's [honor: that name is Abraham 
Lincoln. The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difficult on 
account of its symmetry. In this age we look with admiration at 
his uncompromising honesty; and well we may, for this saved us. 
Thousands throughout the length and breadth of our country, who 
knew him only as "Honest Old Abe," voted for him on tliat 
account; and wisely did they choose, for no other man could have 
carried us through the fearful night of war. When his plans were 
too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause too sub- 


lime for our participation; when it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us; when not one 
ray shone upon our cause; when traitors were haughty and exult- 
ant at the South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North; when 
the loyal men seemed almost in the minority; when the stoutest 
heart quailed, the bravest cheek paled; when generals were defeat- 
ing each other for place, and contractois were leeching out the very 
heart's blood of the republic; when everything else had failed us, 
we looked at this calm, patient man standing like a rock in the 
storm, and said, " Mr. Lincoln is honest, and we can trust him still." 
Holding to this single point with the energy of faith and despair, 
we held together, and under God he brought us through to victory. 
His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With 
such certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate 
effects, that his foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 
He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory will shed 
a glory upon this age that will fill the eyes of men as they look 
into history. Other men have excelled him in some points; but, 
taken at all points, he stands head and shoulders above every other 
man of 6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the 
perils of unparalleled civil war; a statesman, he justified his 
measures by their success; a philanthropist, he gave liberty to one 
race and salvation to another; a moralist, he bowed from the sum- 
mit of human power to the foot of the cross; a mediator, he exer- 
cised mercy under the most absolute obedience to law; a leader, 
he was no partisan; a commander, he was untainted with blood; a 
ruler in despei'ate times, he was unsullied with crime; a man, he 
has left no word of passion, no thought of malice, no trick of craft, 
no act of jealousy, no purpose of selfish ambition. Thus perfected, 
without a model and without a peer, he was dropped into these 
troubled years to adorn and embellish all that is good and all that 
is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming time the 
representative of the divine idea of free government. It is not 
too much to say that away down in the future, when the republic 
has fallen from its niche in the wall of time; when the great war 
itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the 
horizon; when the Anglo-Saxon shall be spoken only by the tongue 
of the stranger, then the generations looking this way shall see 
the great President as the supreme figure in this vortex of history. 



The rebellion was ended with the surrender of Lee and his army, 
and Johnson and his command in April, 1S65. Our armies at the 
time were np to their maximum strength, never so formidable, 
never so invincible; and, until recruiting ceased by order of Sec- 
retary Stanton, were daily strengthening. The necessity, however, 


for so vast and formidable numbers ceased with the disbanding of 
the rebel forces, which had for more than four years disputed the 
supremacy of the Government over its domain. And now the 
joyful and welcome news was to be borne to the victorious legions 
that their work was ended in triumph, and they were to be per- 
mitted "to see homes and friends once more." 



SOTEpuLE— Showing; statement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and sent to the 
field, commenciug April, 1861, and ending December 31, 1865, with number of regiment, name 
"" auding officer, date of organization and mnster into United States' service, 
Dd the aggregate strength of each organization. 

of original 
place of mneter. 


Date of organization and 
muster into the United 
States service. 

Piace where mustered 
into the United States 

Julyii, 1861 'Cairo, Illinois 

7]Col. John Coolt 

Eichard J. Oglesby.. 

Eleazer A. Paine 

Jas. D, Morgan 

W. H. L. Wallace... 

John McArthur 

John B. Wyman IMay 2*. 1861 |Dix 

John M. Palmer JJ^y 25, 18dl |Jacks"onViiie. 

Tbos- J- Turtler May 24, 1861 Freeport. 

Robert F. Smith ■■ Ouincv 

Leonard F. Rose " . Peoria 

Michael K. Lawler May 28, 1861.....' .'.' "" \nna " 

" John B. Turchin. 

" Chas. C. Marsh 

" Ulysses S. Grant... 
' Henry Dougherty... 
' Jas. A. Mulligan. .. 
' Frederick Hecker. . 

' Wm. N. Coler 

' John M. Loomis 

' Nap. B. Buford.... 
' A. K. Johnson.. . . _ . 
' Jas. S. Rearden ... 
' Philip B.Fouke.... 
' John A. Logan. . . 
' John Logan 

Chas. E.Hovey 

Edward N. Kirk.... 

Gus. A. Smith 

Nich. Greilse! 

JuUuB White 

Wm. P. Carlin 

Austin Li?ut 

Staph. G. Hicks.... 

Isaac C. Pu^h. ... 

Wm.A. Webb 

Julius Raith 

Chas. Noblesdorff . . . 

John E. Smith 

John A. Davis 

John Bryuer 

Isham N. Haynie 

Wm. R.Morrison... 

Moses M. Bane 

G. W. Cumming 

June l:t, 1861.. 
June 15, 1861.. 
June 25, 1861.. 
June 18, 1861.. 
July 8, 1861.. 

Oct. 31, ]8r;i. 

Isaac G.Wilson'... 

W. H. W. Cushman 

Thos. W. Hams... 

David Stuart 

Robert Kirkham.... 

Silas D.Baldwin... 

Wm.P. Lvnch 

P. SidnevPost... 

Silas C. 'Toler .' ' 

Jacob Fry 

James M. Triie.. 

, Francis Mora 

64Lt C„,, D.D.Williams.. 
65|Col. Daniel Cameron 
■ck E.Burke 

Aug. 3, 1S61 . 
July 27, 1801. 
Sept. 30, 1861. 
Sept. 8, 1?01.. 
Dec. 31, 1861 
Aug. 15, 1861.. 
Sept. 7, 18 Jl.. 

Sept. 2% 1861 

Sept. 18,1361 

[Aug. li, 1831. .. 

December. 1861.. 

Aug. 10, I'^ei 

Aug, 9, 1S61 

Sept. 17, 1861 

Dec. 16,1861 

Sept. 13, 1861.... 

Dec. 26, 1061. . 

Dec. 2,^, 1861... 

Oct. 1. 1851 . .. 

Nov. 18, 1861 

Dec. 31, 1861 

Sept. 12, 1861 

Dec. '61, Feb. '62.. 

Nov. lu, 1861 

March. 1863 

Feb. 18. 1862 

Oct. 31, 1861 

Feb. 27, 1862 

Dec. 26, 1861... 

Dec. 24, 1861 

August, 1S61 

Feb. 17,1862 

March 7, 1852 . 
April 10, 1863 






Camp Butler.. 

Camp Bntler.. 
Camp Butler. . 
Camo Butler.. 
Camp Butler. . 
Camp Butler.. 
Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. . 



Camp Butler 




Camp Butler... 



Camp Bntler... 


Camp Butler... 

Camp Bntler. . 


Camp Douglas. 


Ottawa , 


Camp Dougias 
Shawneetown ,. . 
Camp Douglas. . 
Cami> Douglas . 
St. Louis, Mo.. . 

Anna ., 

Carrol Iton 


Camp Butler 

?S"''«'»' CampDouglas.: 

Rosen M. Hough... Y,Fni n ^Li St. Louio. Mo... 

Elias_ Stuart . .^ . ! ! " " ' ?,' °° ;^^, 862 camp Dou 

Jos^H'TTucke;.;..;;:-; .iZ??']?! |CampButl?r.... 

O.T.Reeves T w i^l Camp Douglas 912 






SrHKDtTLE— Showinc statement of volunteer troops organized within tlic State, and sent to the 

field commenciu" April, 1861, and cndins; December 31, 1805, with number of regiment, name 

of orieinnl commanding officer, date of oru-anization and muster into United States' service, 

place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization. 


a Commanding officer at organiza- 
° lion. 

Col. Frederick A. Starring.. 

Jas. F. Jaquess 

Jason Marsh 

George Kyan 

Alonzo W. Mack 

David P. Grier 

W. H. Bennison 

Lyman Guinnip 

Thos. G. Allen 

Jas. J. DoUins 

Frederick Uecker 

Abuer C. Harding 

Louis H. Waters 

Robert S. Moore 

David D. Irons 

John E. Whiting 

F. T. Sherman 

John Christopher 

Timothy O'.Mera 

Henry M. Day 

Smith D. AtKins 

Holden Putnam 

Wm. W.Orme 

Lawr'n S. Church 

Thos. E. Champion. .. 

F. S. Rutherford 

J.J. Funkhouser 

G. W. K. Bailey 

Fred. A. Bartleson 

Chas. H. Fox 


Amos C. Babcock 

Absalom B. Moore 

Daniel Dustin 

Roberts. Latham 

Thomas Snell 

John Warner 

Alex. J. >!immo- 

Thos. S. Casey 

James S.Martin , 

T. J. Henderson 

Geo. B. Ho<;e 

James W. Judy 

Jesse H. Moore 

Nathan H. Tapper. 

Risden M. Moore , 

John G.Fonda 

Thos. J. Kenney 

George W. McKeaig ... 

Never organized ■ 

Col. John I. Einaker 

James Moore 

Thomas J. Sloan 

Oscar F. Harmon 

Jonathan Richmond.. . 

John Van.^rman 

Robert M. Hudley 

George P. Smith 

Nathaniel Niles 

George W. Neeley 

Thomas C. Pickett 

Thad. Phillips 

\V. W McChesney 

John S.Wolfe 

Date of organization and 
muster into the United 
States service. 

Aug. 21,1862... 

Sept. 4. 1862... 
Sept. 2, 1862. . 
Aug. 22, 1862. 
•Sept. 3, 186J. 
Sept. 1, 1862... 
Aug. 2S, 1862.. 
Aug. 25, 1862... 
Aug. 26, 1862.. 

Aug. 21,1862.. 
Sept. 1,1862.. 
Aug. 27, 1862. 

Sept 22, 1862.. 
Aug. 27, 1862.. 
*Aug 25,186!. 
Nov 22, 1862.. 
Sept. 8, 18B2.. 
Sept. 4, 1862... 
Oct. 13,1862... 
Aug. 20, 1862.. 
Sept. 4,1862.. 
Sept. 6, 1862.. 
Sept. 8, 1862.. 
Sept. 3, 1>^6J . 
Aug. 26, 1S62. 

.\ag. 30, _.- 
Sept. 2, 1862... 

Oct, 2, 1862. . . . 
Aug. 27, 1862. . 
Sept. 2, 1862.. 
Sept. 17, 1862. , 
Sept. 4.1862... 
Ang. 28, 1862. . 
Sept. 11, 1861.. 

Sept. 18, 1862. 
Sept. 12,1862.. 
Oct. 1,1862.... 
Sept. 18, 1862.. 
Sept. 13, 1862.. 
Sept. 30. 1862.. 
Sept. 19, 1862.. 
Nov 29. 1S62. 
Oct. 7, 1862 .. 
Oct. 29, 1862... 

Sept. 4,1862... 
Sept. 6 1862 .. 
Sept. 10. 1862. 
Sept. 4, 1862... 

^Sept. 5. 1862. . 
Dec 18,1862... 
Sept. 8, 1862... 
Oct. 2.'). 1865... 
Nov. 13,1862... 
Junel, 1864... 
May 31,1864... 

June 6,1864.. 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Butler 









Camp Butler 



Peoria ■ 



Camp Douglas , 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Bntler 


Princeton and Chicago. 




Camp Butler 


Florence, Pike Co 






I hicago 


Camp Butler 






Camp Douglas 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 


Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 


Camp Butler 



Camp Butler... 



Camp Douglas. 
Camp Bntler... 


Camp Bnt'er... 
Camp Massac. 

Camp Fry 

Camp Butler. 

Camp Fry 




place of mnster, and the aggregate Btrenglh of each orgamzatiou. 



Commandiug ofBcer at organiza- 

Date of organization and 
muster into the United 
States service. 

Place where mustered 
into the United States 





^ , 






Camp Butler 



" Stephen Bronson 

" Eollin V. Anliney 

" Dudley C. Smith 

'• Cyrus Hall 

June 16 1864 







" Henry H. Dean 


Feh. 18, 1865 

Camp Butler - 



" Horace H. Wilaie 




Feb. 14, 1865 

Feb. 25, 1865 

Feb. 18, 1865 




*i Gt h ■RroTiflf Ti 



" McLeanF.Wood 

" GuBtavus A. Smith 

Feb. 22, 1865 



March 9 1865 



Dec.l, 1861 



Camp Bntler 




: Col. Thomas A. Marshall 

Silas Nob'.e 

Eugene A. Carr 

T. Lyle Dickey 

John J. Updegraff 

Thomas H. Cavanangh . 

Wm. Pitt Kellogg 

John F. Farnsworlh. . .. 

Albert G. Brackett 

James A. Barrett 

Robert G. IngersoU 

Joseph W.Bell." !!'.".!! 

Horace Capron 

Warren Stewart 

Christian Thielman 

John L. Beveridge 

December " 

Nov., '61, Jan., '6'J 

August, '61 

. Sept. 18, '61 

Oct. 26, '61 

, Nov. 2.5, '01 

Dec. 20,'61 

, Dec, '61, Feb., '62 

; Jan. 7, '63 

Organized Dec. 25, '63. . 

. Jan. and April, '63 

. Jan. 28, '64 

Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler... 


Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler... 
St. Charles.. .. 
Camp Douglas. 
Camp Bntler... 


, Camp Butler, . 
Camp Douglas. 


up Butler... 
Camp Butler... 
St. Charles 




I Field 
. Capt. 

and Staff. 

C. M. Willard 

Ezra Taylor 

C. Haughtaling — 
Edward McAllister 
A. C. Waterhouse. 
John T. Cheney . . 
Arthur O'Leary — 
Axel Silversparr... 
Edward Bonton... 

A. Franklin 

.Tohn Rourke 

John B.Miller 


Oct. 31,1861. 

Jan. 14, •62... 

Dec. 19, '61... 

Feb. 25, '63.. 

Feb. 28. '62 . . 
, Feb. 20. '62.. 
. Feb. 15, '62... 
. Jan. 9, '62.... 
. Feb. 22, '62.. 
. Aug. 12, '62 





. Chicago 

Camp Butler. 

. Cairo 

. Chicago 

. Chicago 

, Shawneetown 

. Chicago 

. Chicago 



ScnBDFLB— Showing statement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and eent to the 
field, commencipg April, 1861, and ending December 31, 1865, with number of regiment, name 
of original commanding officer, date of organization and mueter into United States service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate Btrcnglh of each organization. 


Date of organization and 
mueter into the United 
States service. 

Place where mustered 
into the United States 


. Peter Davidson , 

Riley Madison 

Caleb Hopkins 

Jasper M. Dresser 

Adolph Schwartz 

John W. Powell... . 
Charles J. Stolbrand. 
Andrew Steinbeck. . . 
Charles W. Keith. .. 
Benjamin F. Rogers. 
William H. Bolton... 

John C. Phillips 

Field and Staff 


Aug. 17,1861 iPeori 

June 20, '61 Springfield 

Aug. 5, '61 

Dec. 17, '61 

Feb. 1, '62. 

Dec. 11, '61 

Dec. 31, '61.. 

Feb. 28, '6-2., 
Jnne 6, '62. . 

Cairo . 
Cape Girardeau, Mo.. 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler. 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 




Board of Trade 
Springfield. . . . 


Henehaw's — 

Capt. James S. Stokes 

" Thomas F. Vaughn.. 

" Charles G. Cooley — 

" George W. Renwick. 

" William Coggswell . . 

" Ed. C. Henshaw 

" Lyman Bridges 

" John H. Colvin 

July 31, 1862. 
Aug. 81, '62... 
Aug. 29. '62.. 
Nov. If, '62.. 
Sept. 2.3, '61.. 
Oct. 15. '63... 
Jan. 1. '62.... 
Oct. 10, '63... 


Camp Butler. . . 



Camp Douglas. 






Infantry 185,941 

Cavalry 32,082 

Artillery 7,877 


The code of chivalry so common among Southern gentlemen 
and so frequently brought into nse in settling personal diiferences 
has also been called to settle the " affairs of honor " in our own 
State, however, bnt few times, and those in the earlier days. 
Several attempts at duels have occurred ; before the disputants met 
in mortal combat the differences wore amicably and satisfactorily 
settled; honor was maintained without the sacrifice of life. In 
1810 a law was adopted to suppress the practice of dueling. This 
law held the fatal result of dueling to be murder, and, as it was 
intended, had the effect of making it odious and dishonorable. 
Prior to the constitution of 1848, parties would evade the law by 


going beyond the jurisdiction of tlie State to engage ia their con- 
tests of honor. At that time they incorporated in tlie Constitution 
an oath of office, which was so broad as to cover the whole world. 
Any person who had ever fought a duel, ever sent or accepted a 
challenge or acted tlie part of second was disfranchised from holding 
office, even of minor importance. After this went into effect, no 
other duel or attempt at a duel has been engaged in within the 
State of Illinois, save those fouglit by parties living outside of 
the State, who came here to settle their personal diflerences. 


The first duel fought within the boundaries of this great State 
was between two young military officers, one of the French and 
the other of the English army, in the year 1765. It was at the 
time the British troops came to take possession of Fort Chartres, 
and a woman was the cause of it. The affair occurred early 
Sunday morning, near the old fort. They fought with swords, and 
in the combat one sacrificed his life. 


In 1S09 the next duel occurred and was bloodless of itself, but out 
of it grew a quarrel which resulted in the assassination of one of 
the contestants. The principals were Shadrach Bond, the first 
Governor, and Rice Jones, a bright young lawyer, who became quite 
a politician and the leader of his party. A personal difference arose 
between the two, which to settle, the parties met for mortal combat 
on an island in the Mississippi. The weapons selected were hair- 
trigger pistols. After taking their position Jones' weapon was 
prematurely discharged. Bond's second, Dunlap, now claimed that 
according to the code Bond had the right to the next fire. But 
Bond would not take so great advantage of his opponent, and said 
it was an accident and would not fire. Such noble conduct 
touched the generous nature of Jones, and the difficulty was at 
once amicably settled. Dunlap, however, bore a deadly hatred for 
Jones, and one day while he was standing in the street in Kaskaskia, 
conversing with a lady, he crept up behind him and shot him dead 
in his tracks. Dunlap successfully escaped to Texas. 


In 1812 the bloody code again brought two young men to the 
field of honor. They were Thomas Rector, a son of Capt. Stephen 

H ^'^ 


Eector who bore such a noble part in the war of 1812, and Joshua 
Barton. They had espoused the quarrel of older brothers. The 
affair occurred on Bloody Island, in the Mississippi, but in the 
limits of Illinois. This place was frequented so often by Missou- 
rians to settle personal difficulties, that it received the name of 
Bloody Island. Barton fell in this conflict. 


In 1819 occurred the first duel fought after the admission of the 
State into the Union. This took place in St. Clair county between 
Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett. It was intended to be a 
sham duel, to turn ridicule against Bennett, the challenging party- 
Stewart was in the secret but Bennett was left to believe it a 
reality. Their guns were loaded with blank cartridges. Bennett, 
suspecting a trick, put a ball into his gun without the knowledge 
of his seconds. The word " fire " was given, and Stewart fell 
mortally wounded. Bennett made his escape but was subsequently 
captured, convicted of murder and suffered the penalty of the law 
by hanging. 


In IS-IO a personal difference arose between two State Senators, 
Judge Pearson and E. D. Baker. The latter, smarting under the 
epithet of "falsehood," threatened to chastise Pearson in the public 
streets, by a " fist fight. " Pearson declined making a "blackguard'' 
of himself but intimated a readiness to fight as gentlemen, accord- 
ing to the code of honor. The affair, however, was carried no 


The exciting debates in the Legislature in 1840-'41 were often 
bitter in personal " slings," and threats of combats were not 
infrequent. During these debates, in one of the speeclies by the 
Hon. J. J. Hardin, Hon. A. P. Dodge thought he discovered a 
personal insult, took exceptions, and an " affair " seemed imminent. 
The controversy was referred to friends, however, and amicably 


Hon. John A. McClernand, a member of the House, in a speech 
delivered during the same session made charges against the Whig 
Judges of the Supreme Court. This brought a note from Judge 


T. W. Smith, by the hands of his " friend '" Dr. Merriman, to 
McClernand. This was construed as a challenge, and promptly 
accepted, naming the place of meeting to be Missouri; time, early; 
the weapons, rifles; and distance, 40 paces. At this critical junc- 
ture, the Attorney General had a warrant issued against the Jiadge, 
whereupon he was arrested and placed under bonds to keep the 
peace. Thus ended this attempt to vindicate injured honor. 


During the hard times subsequent to the failure of the State and 
other banks, in 1842, specie became scarce while State money was 
plentiful, but worthless. Tlie State officers thereupon demanded 
specie pajnnent for taxes. This was bitterly opposed, and so fiercely 
contested that the collection of taxes was suspended. 

During the period of the greatest indignation toward the State 
officials, under the nam de jpluine of " Rebecca," Abraham Lincoln 
had an article published in the Sangamo Journal, entitled " Lost 
Township." In this article, written in the form of a dialogue, the 
officers of the State were roughly handled, and especially Auditor 
Shields. The name of the author was demaded from the editor by 
Mr. Shields, who was very indignant over the manner in which he 
was treated. The name of Abraham Lincoln was given as the 
author. It is claimed by some of his biographers, however, that 
the article was prepared by a lady, and that when the name of the 
author was demanded, in a spirit of gallantry, Mr. Lincoln gave 
his name. In company with Gen. Whiteside, Gen. Shields pur- 
sued Lincoln to Tremont, Tazewell county, where he was in attend- 
ance upon the court, and immediately sent him a note "requiring 
a full, positive and absolute retraction of all offensive allusions " 
made to him in relation to his "private character and standing as 
a man, or an apology for the insult conveyed." Lincoln had been 
forewarned, however, for William Butler and Dr. Merriman, of 
Springfield, had become acquainted with Shields' intentions and by 
riding all night arrived at Tremont ahead of Shields and informed 
Lincoln what he might expect. Lincoln answered Shields' note, 
refusing to offer any explanation, on the grounds that Shields' note 
assumed the fact of his (Lincoln's) authorship of the article, and 
not pointing out what the offensive part was, and accompanying the 
same with threats as to consequences. Mr. Shields answered this, 
disavowing all intention to menace; inquired if lie was the author, 


asked a retraction of that portion relatiiinj to his private character. 
Mr. Lincoln, still technical, returned this note with the~ verbal 
statement " that there could be no further negotiations until the 
first note was withdrawn." At this Shields named Gen. White- 
side as his " friend," when Lincoln reported Dr. Merrimau as his 
"friend." These gentlemen secretly pledged themselves to agree 
upon some amicable terms, and compel their principals to accept 
thein. The four went to Springfield, when Lincoln left for Jack- 
sonville, leaving the following instructions to guide his friend, Dr. 

" In case Whiteside shall signify a wish to adjust this affair with- 
out further difficulty, let him know that if the present papers be 
withdrawn and a note from Mr. Shields, asking to know if I am the 
author of the articles of which he complains, and asking that I shall 
make him gentlemanly satisfaction, if I am the author, and this 
without menace or dictation as to what that satisfaction shall be, a 
pledge is made that the following answer shall be given: 

I did write the " Lost Township " letter which appeared ia the Journal of the 
2d inst., but had no participation, in any form, in any other article alluding to 
you. I wrote that wholly for political effect. I had no Intention of injuring 
your personal or private character or standing, as a man or gentleman ; and I did 
not then think, and do not now thick, that that article could produce or has pro- 
duced that effect against you ; and, had I anticipated such an effect, would have 
foreborne to write it. And I will add that your conduct toward me, so far as I 
know, had always been gentlemanly, and that I had no personal pique against 
you, and no cause for any. 

" If this should be done, I leave it to you to manage what shall 
and what shall not be published. If nothing like this is done, the 
preliminaries of the fight are to be: 

" 1st. Weapons. — Cavalry broad swords of the largest size, pre- 
cisely equal in all respects, and such as are now used by the cavalry 
company at Jacksonville. 

" 2d. Position. — A plank ten feet long and from nine to twelve 
inches broad, to be firmly fixed on edge, on the ground, as a line 
between us which neither is to pass his foot over on forfeit of his 
life. Next a line drawn on the ground on either side of said plank, 
and parallel with it, each at the distance of the whole length of the 
sword, and three feet additional from the plank; and the passing of 
his own such line by either party during the fight, shall be deemed 
a surrender of the contest. 


"3d. Time. — On ThursSay evening at 5 o'clock, if j^ou can get 
it so; but in no case to be at a greater distance of time than Friday 
evening at 5 o'clock. 

"4tli. Place. — "Within three miles of Alton, on the opposite 
side of the river, the particular spot to be agreed on by you. 

" Any preliminary details coming within the above rules, you are 
at liberty to make at your discretion, but you are in no case to 
swerve from these rules, or pass beyond their limits." 

The position of the contestants, as prescribed by Lincoln, seems 
to have been such as both would have been free from coming in 
contact with the sword of the other, and the first impression is that 
it is nothing more than one of Lincoln's jokes. He possessed very 
long arms, however, aud could reach his adversary at the stipulated 

Not being amicably arranged, all parties repaired to the field of 
combat in Missouri. Gen. Hardin and Dr. English, as mutual 
friends of both Lincoln and Shields, arrived in the meantime, and 
after much correspondence at their earnest solicitation the affair 
was satisfactorily arranged, Lincoln making a statement similar to 
the one above referred to. 


William Butler, one of Lincoln's seconds, was dissatisfied with 
the bloodless termination of the Lincoln-Shields affair, and wrote an 
account of it for the Sangamo Journal. This article reflected dis- 
creditably upon both the principals engaged in that controversy. 
Shields replied by the hands of his friend Gen. Whiteside, in a 
curt, menacing note, which was promptly accepted as a challenge 
by Butler, and the inevitable Dr. Merriman named as his friend, 
who submitted the following as preliminaries of the fight: 

Time. — Sunrise on the following morning. 

Place.— Qo\. Allen's farm (about one mile north of State House.) 

Weapo7is. — Rifles. 

Distance. — One hundred yards. 

The parties to stand with their right sides toward each other — 
the rifles to be held in both hands horizontally and cocked, arras 
extended downwards. Neither party to move his person or his 
rifle after being placed, before the word fire. The signal to be: 
"Are you ready? Fire! one— two— three!" about a second of 


time intervening between each word. Neither party to fire before 
the word " fire," nor after tlie word " three." 

Gen. Whiteside, in language curt and abrupt, addressed a note to 
Dr. Merriman declining to accept the terms. Gen. Shields, how- 
ever, addressed another note to Butler, explaining the feelings of 
his second, and offering to go out to a lonely place on the prairie to 
fight, where there would be no danger of being interrupted; or, if 
that did not suit, he would meet him on his own conditions, whea 
and wliere he pleased. Butler claimed the affair was closed and 
declined the proposition. 


Now Gen. "Whiteside and Dr. Merriman, who several times had 
acted in the capacity of friends or seconds, were to handle the 
deadly weapons as principals. Wiiile second in the Siiields-Butler 
^asco, Whiteside declined the terms proposed by Butl^er, in curt 
and abrufit language, stating that tlie place of combat could not be 
dictated to him, for it was as much his right as Merriman's, who, 
if he was a gentleman, would recognize and concede it. To this 
Merriman replied by the hands of Capt. Lincoln. It will be 
remembered that Merriman had acted in the same capacity for Lin- 
coln. Whiteside then wrote to Merriman, asking to meet him at 
St. Louis, wlien he would hear from him further. To this Merri- 
man replied, denying his right to name place, but offered to meet 
in Louisiana, Mo. This Whiteside would not agree to, but later 
signified his desire to meet him there, but the affair being closed, 
the doctor declined to re-open it. 


These two gentlemen were members of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of IS-iT, and both from Jo Davies county. A dispute arose 
which ended in a challenge to meet on the field of honor. They 
both repaired to St. Louis, but tlie authorities gaining knowledge 
of their bloody intentions, had both parties arrested, which ended 
this " affair." 


The dress, habits, etc., of a people throw so much light upon their 
conditions and limitations that in order better to show the circum- 
stances surrounding the people of the State, we will give a short 


exposition of the manner of life of our Illinois people at different 
epochs. The Indians themselves are credited by Charlevoix with 
being " very laborious," — raising poultry, spinning the wool of the 
buffalo and manufacturing garments therefrom. These must have 
been, however, more than usually favorable representatives of their 

" The working and voyaging dress of the French masses," says 
Kevnolds, " was simple and primitive. The French were like the 
lilies of the valley (the Old Ranger was not always exact in his 
quotations), — they neither spun nor wove any of their clothing, but 
purchased it from the merchants. The white blanket coat, known 
as the capot, was the universal and eternal coat for the winter with 
the masses. A cape was made of it that could be raised over the 
head in cold weather. 

" In the house, and in good weather, it hung behind, a cape to 
the blanket coat. The reason that I know these coats so well is, 
tliat I have worn many in my youth, and a working man never wore 
a better garment. Dressed deer-skins and blue cloth were worn 
commonly in the winter for pantaloons. The blue handkerchief 
and the deer-skin moccasins covered the head and feet generally of 
the French Creoles. In 1800, scarcely a man thought himself clothed 
unless he had a belt tied around his blanket coat, and on one side 
was hung the dressed skin of a pole cat, filled witli tobacco, pipe, 
flint and steel. On tlie other side was fastened, under the belt, the 
the butcher-knife. A Creole in this dress felt like Tarn O'Shanter 
filled with usquebaugh; he could face the devil. Checked calico 
shirts were then common, but in winter flannel was frequently 
worn. In the summer the laboring men and the voyagers often 
took their shirts off in hard work and hot weather, and turned out 
the naked back to the air and sun." 

" Among the Americans," he adds, " home-made wool hats were 
the common wear. Fur hats were not common, and scarcely a boot 
was seen.. The covering of the feet in winter was chiefly moccasins 
made of deer-skins, and shoe packs of tanned leather. Some wore 
shoes, but not common, in very early times. In the summer the 
greater portion of the young people, male and female, and many of 
the old, went barefoot. The substantial and universal outside wear 
was the blue linsey hunting-shirt. This is an excellent garment, 
and I have never felt so happy and healthy since I laid it off. It is 


made of wide sleeves, open before, with ample size so as to envelop 
the body almost twice around. Sometimes it had a large cape, 
which answers well to save the shoulders from the rain. A belt is 
mostly used to keep the garment close around the person, and, 
nevertheless, there is nothing tight about it to hamper the body. 
It is often fringed, and at times the fringe is composed of red, and 
other gay colors. The belt, frequently, is sewed to the hunting-shirt. 
The vest was mostly made of striped linsey. The colors v/ere made 
often with alum, copperas and madder, boiled with the bark of trees, 
in such a manner and proportions as the old ladies prescribed. The 
pantaloons of the masses were generally made of deer-skin and 
linsey. Course blue cloth was sometimes made into pantaloons. 

" Linsey, neat and iine, manufactured at home, composed generally 
the outside garments of the females as well as the males. The 
ladies had linsey colored and woven to suit their fancy. A bonnet, 
composed of calico, or some gay goods, was worn on the head when 
they were in the open air. Jewelry on the pioneer ladies was 
uncommon; a gold ring was an ornament not often seen." 

In 1820 a change of dress began to take place, and before 1830, 
according to Ford, most of the pioneer costume had disapjjeared. 
"The blue linsey hunting-shirt, with red or white fringe, had given 
place to the cloth coat. [Jeans would be more like the fact.] The 
raccoon cap, with the tail of the animal dangling down behind, had 
been thrown aside for hats of wool or fur. Boots and shoes had 
supplied the deer-skin moccasins; and the leather breeches, strapped 
tight around the ankle, had disappeared before unmentionables of a 
more modern material. The female sex had made still greater pro. 
gress in dress. The old sort of cotton or woolen frocks, spun, woven 
and made with their own fair hands, and striped and cross-barred 
with blue dye and turkey red, had given place to gowns of silk and 
calico. The feet, before in a state of nudity, now charmed in shoes 
of calf-skin or slippers of kid; and the head, formerly unbonneted, 
but covered with a cotto;i handkerchief, now displayed the charms 
of the female face under many forms of bonnets of straw, silk and 
leghorn. The young ladies, instead of walking a mile or two to 
church on Sunday, carrying their shoes and stockings in their hands 
until within a hundred yards of the place of worship, as formerly, 
now came forth arrayed complete in all the pride of dress, mounted 
on fine horses and attended by their male admirers." 


The last half century has doubtless witnessed changes quite as 
great as those set forth by our Illinois historian. The chronicler 
of today, looking back to the golden days of 1830 to ISiO, and 
comparing them with the present, must be struck with the tendency 
of an almost monotonous uniformity in dress and manners that 
comes from the easy inter- communication afforded by steamer, rail- 
way, telegraph and newspaper. Home manufacturers have been 
driven from the household by the lower-priced fabrics of distant 
mills. The Kentucky jeans, and the copperas-colored clothing of 
home manufacture, so familiar a few years ago, have given place to 
the cassimeres and cloths of noted factories. The ready-made- 
clothing stores, like a touch of nature, made the whole world kin- 
and may drape the charcoal man in a dress-coat and a stove-pipe 
hat. The prints and silks of England and France give a variety of 
choice, and an assortment of colors and shades such as the pioneer 
women could hardly have dreamed of. Godey, and Demorest, and 
Harper's Bazar are found in our modern farm-houses, and the latest 
fashions of Paris are not uncommon. 


In area the State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It is 
about 150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude 
from Maine to North Carolina. The climate varies from Portland 
to Richmond. It favors every product of the continent, including 
the tropics, with less than half a dozen exceptions. It produces 
every great food of the world except bananas and rice. It is hardly 
too much to say that it is the most productive spot known to civil- 
ization. With the soil full of bread and the earth full of minerals; 
with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel; with per- 
fect natural drainage, and abundant springs, and streams, and navi- 
gable rivers; half way between the forests of the North and the 
fruits of tlie South; within a day's ride of the great deposits of 
iron, coal, copper, lead and zinc; and containing and controlling 
the great grain, cattle, pork and lumber markets of the world, it is 
not strange that Illinois has the advantage of position. 

There are no mountains in Illinois; in the southern as well as in 
the northern part of the State there are a few hills; near the banks 
of the Illinois, Mississippi, and several other rivers, the ground is 


elevated, forming the so-called bluffs, on wliicli at tlie present day 
may be found, iinetfaced by the hand of Time, the marks and traces 
left by the water which was formerly much higher; whence it may 
De safe to conclude that, where now the fertile prairies of Illinois 
extend, and the rich soil of the country yields its golden harvests, 
must have been a vast sheet of water, the mud deposited by whicli 
formed the soil, thus accounting for the present great fertility of the 

Illinois is a garden 400 miles long and 150 miles wide. Its soil 
is chiefly a black, sandy loam, from 6 inches to 60 feet thick. About 
the old French towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half 
without rest or help. She leads all other States in the number 
of acres actually under plow. Her mineral wealth is scarcely 
second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron, lead, zinc, 
copper, many varieties of building stone, marble, fire clay, cuma 
clay, common brick clay, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint, — 
in fact, everything needed for a high civilization. 


If any State of the Union is adapted for agriculture, and the other 
branches of rural economy relating thereto, such as the raising of 
cattle and the culture of fruit trees, it is pre-eminently Illinois. 
Her extremely fertile prairies recompense the farmer at less 
trouble and expense than he would be obliged to incur elsewhere, in 
order to obtain the same results. Her rich soil, adapted by nature 
for immediate culture, only awaits the plow and the seed in order 
to mature, within a few months, a most bountiful harvest. A 
review of statistics will be quite interesting to the reader, as well as 
valuable, as showing the enormous quantities of the various cereals 
produced in our prairie State: 

In 1876 there was raised in the State 130,000,000 of bushels of 
corn, — twice as much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn 
raised in the United States. It would take 375,000 cars to transport 
this vast amount of corn 1o market, which would make 15,000 trains 
of 25 cars each. She harvested 2,747,000 tons of hay, nearly one- 
tenth of all the hay in the Republic. It is not generally appreciated, 
but it is true, that the hay crop of the country is worth more than 
the cotton crop. The hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana- 


Go to Charleston, S. C, aud see them peddling handfuls of hay or 
grass, almost as a curiosity, as we regard Chinese gods or the cryo- 
lite of Greenland; drink your coffee and condensed milk; and walk 
back from the coast for many a league through the sand and burs 
till you get up into the better atmosphere of the mountains, with- 
out seeing a waving meadow or a grazing herd; then you will begin 
to appreciate the meadows of tlie Prairie State. 

The value of her farm implements was, in 1876, $211,000,000, 
and the value of live stock was only second to New York. The 
same year she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,845, about 
one-half of all that were packed in the United States. She marketed 
$57,000,000 worth of slaughtered animals, — more than any other 
State, and a seventh of all the States. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles 
of postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the 
amount of lumber sold. 

Illinois was only second in many important matters, taking the 
reports of 1876. This sample list comprises a few of the more 
important: Permanent school fund; total income for educational 
purposes; number of publishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value 
of farm products and implements, and of live stock; in tons of coal 

The shipping of Illinois was only second to New York. Out of 
one port during the business hours of the season of navigation she 
sent forth a vessel every nine minutes. This did not include canal- 
boats, which went one every five minutes. 

No wonder she was only second in number of bankers or in phy- 
sicians and surgeons. 

She was third in colleges, teachers and schools; also in cattle, 
lead, hay, flax, sorghum and beeswax. 

She was fourth in population, in children enrolled in public 
schools, in law schools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She was fifth in value of real and personal property, in theologi- 
cal seminaries, and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, 
and iu boots and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

She was only seventh in the production of wood, while she was 
the twelfth in area. Surely that was well done for the Prairie State. 
She then had, in 1876, much more wood and growing timber than 
ehe had thirty years before. 


A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She manufactured 
$205,000,000 worth of goods, which phxced her well up toward 
New York and Pennsylvania. The number of her manufacturing 
establishments increased from 1860 to 1870, 300 per cent. ; capital 
emplo}'ed increased 350 per cent.; and the amount of product in- 
creased 400 per cent. She issued 5,500,000 copies of commercial 
and financial newspapers, being only second to New York. She had 
6,759 miles of railroad, then leading all other States, worth $636,- 
458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train long 
enough to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Her 
stations were only five miles apart. She carried, in 1876, 15,795,- 
000 passengers an average of 36J miles, or equal to taking her 
entire population twice across the State. More than two-thirds of 
her land was within five miles of a railroad, and less than two per 
cent, was more than fifteen miles away 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central 
railroad. The road was incorporated in 1850, and the State gave 
each alternate section for six miles on each side, and doubled the 
price of the remaining land, so keeping herself good. The road 
received 2,595,000 acres of land, and paid to the State one-seventh 
of the gross receipts. The State received in 1877, $350,000, and 
had received up to that year in all about $7,000,000. It was prac- 
tically the people's road, and it had a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to the above amount the annual receipts from 
the canal, $111,000, and a large per cent, of the State tax was pro- 
vided for. 


Shadrach Bond — Was the first Governor of Illinois. He was a 
native of Maryland and born in 1773; was raised on a farm; re- 
ceived a common English education, and came to Illinois in 1794. 
He served as a delegate in Congress from 1811 to 1815, where he 
procured the right of pre-emption of public land. He was elected 
Governor in 1818; was beaten for Congress in 1824 by Daniel P. 
Cook. He died at Kaskaskia, April 11, 1830. 

Edward Coles — Was born Dec. 15, 1786, in Virginia. His father 
was a slave-holder; gave his son a collegiate education, and left to 
him a large number of slaves. These he liberated, giving each 
head of a family 160 acres of land and a considerable sum of money. 


He was President Madison's private secretary. He came to Illinois 
in 1819, was elected Governor in 1822, on the anti-slaveiy ticket; 
moved to Philadelphia in 1833, and died in 1SC8. 

Ninian Fdwards.—ln 1809, on the formation of the Territory of 
Illinois, Mr. Edwards was appointed Governor, which position he 
retained until the organization of the State, wlien he was sent to 
the United States Senate. He was elected Governor in 1826. He 
was a native of Maryland and bora in 1775; received a collegiate 
education; was Chief Justice of Kentucky, and a Eepublican in 

Jolm Bei/7iolcIs—Wiis born in Pennsylvania in 1788, and came 
with his parents to Illinois in 1800, and in 1830 was elected Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, and afterwards served three terms 
in Congress. He received a classical education, yet was not polished. 
He was an ultra Democrat; attended the Charleston Convention in 
1860, and urged the seizure of United States arsenals by the 
South. He died in 1865 at Belleville, childless. 

Josep/i Duncan. — In 183i Joseph Duncan was elected Governor 
by the Whigs, although formerly a Democrat. lie had previously 
served four terms in Congress. He was born in Kentucky in 179-1; 
had but a limited education; served with distinction in the war of 
1812; conducted the campaign of 1832 against Black Hawk. He 
•came to Illinois when quite young. 

Thomas Carlin — "Was elected as a Democrat in 1S3S. He had 
but a meager education; held many minor offices, and was active 
both in the war of 1812 and the Black Hawk war. He was born in 
Kentucky in 1789; came to Illinois in 1812, and died at Carrolltou, 
Feb. 11, 1852. 

Thomas Ford — "Was born in Pennsylvania in the year 1800; was 
brought by his widowed mother to Missouri in 1801, and shortly 
afterwards to Illinois. He received a good education, studied law; 
was elected four times Judge, twice as Circuit Judge, Judge of 
Chicago and Judge of Supreme Court. He was elected Governor 
by the Democratic party in 1842; wrote his history of Illinois in 
1847 and died in 1850.' 

Augustus C. French — "Was born in New Hampshire in 1808; 
was admitted to the bar in 1831, and shortly afterwards moved to 
Illinois when in 1846 he was elected Governor. On the adoption 
of the Constitution of 1S48 he was again chosen, serving until 1853. 
He was a Democrat in politics. 


Joel A. Mntteson — Was born in Jefferson county, N. Y., in 1808. 
His father was a farmer, and gave his son only a common school 
education. He first entered upon active life as a small tradesman, 
but subsequently became a large contractor and manufacturer. He 
was a heavy contractor in building the Canal. He was elected Gov- 
ernor in 185:2 upon the Democratic ticket. 

William H. Blssell — Was elected by the Republican party in 
1856. He had previously served two terms in Congress; was 
colonel in the Mexican war and has held minor official positions. He 
was born in New York State in 1811; received a common educa- 
tion; came to Illinois early in life and engaged in the medical pro- 
fession. This he changed for the law and became a noted orator, 
and the standard bearer of the Kepublican party in Illinois. He 
died in 1860 while Governor. 

Richard Yates — "The war Governor of Illinois," was born in 
Warsaw, Ky., in 1818; came to Illinois in 1831: served two terms 
in Congress; in 1860 was elected Governor, and in 1865 United 
States Senator. He was a college graduate, and read law under J. J. 
Hardin. He rapidly rose in his chosen profession and charmed the 
people with oratory. He filled the gubernatorial chair during the 
trying days of the Rebellion, and by his energy and devotion won 
the title of " War Governor." He became addicted to strong drink, 
and died a drunkard. 

Richard J. Ogleshy — Was born in 1824, in Kentucky; an orphan 
at the age of eight, came to Illinois when only 12 years old. He 
was apprenticed to learn the carpenter's trade ; worked some at 
farming and read law occasionally. He enlisted in the Mexican 
War and was chosen First Lieutenant. After his return he again 
took up the law, but during the gold fever of 1849 went to Califor- 
ziia; soon returned, and, in 1852, entered upon his illustrious 
political career. He raised the second regiment in the State, to 
suppress the Rebellion, and for gallantry was promoted to Major 
General. In 1864 he was elected Governor, and re-elected in 1872, 
and resigned for a seat in the United States Senate. He is a staunch 
Hepublican and resides at Decatur. 

Shelhy M. Cullom — Was born in Kentucky in 1828; studied 
law, was admitted to the bar, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in 1848; was elected to the State Legislature in 1856, 
and again in 1860. Served ou the war commission at Cairo, 1862, 


and was a member of the 39th, 40th aud ilst Congress, in all of which 
he served with credit to his State. He was again elected to the 
State Legislature in 1S72, and re-elected in 1874, and was elected 
Governor of Illinois in 1876, which office he still holds, and has 
administered with marked ability. 


Pierre Menard— Was the first Lieut. Gov. of Illinois. He was 
born in Quebec, Canada, in 1767. He came to Illinois in 1790 
where he engaged in the Indian trade and became wealthy. He 
died in 1844. Menard county was named in his honor. 

Adolphus F. RiMard—Was elected Lieut. Gov. in 1822. Four 

years later he ran for Governor against Edwards, but was beaten. 

William Kinney — "Was elected in 1826. He was a Baptist 

clergyman; was born in Kentucky in 1781 and came to Illinois in 


ZadocTc Casey — Although on the opposition ticket to Governor 
Keynolds, the successful Gubernatorial candidate, yet Casey wa8 
elected Lieut. Gov. in 1830. He subsequently served several terms 
in Congress. 

Alexander M. Jenkins — Was elected on ticket with Gov. Duncan 
in 1834 by a handsome majority. 

S. H. Anderson — Lieut. Gov. under Gov. Cariin, was chosen in 
1838. He was a native of Tennessee. 

John Moore — "Was born in England in 1793; came to Illinois in 
1830; was elected Lieut. Gov. in 1842. He won the name of 
" Honest John Moore." 

Joseph B. Wells — Was chosen with Gov. French at his first 
election iii 1846. 

William MoMurtry. — In 1848 when Gov. French was again 
chosen Governor, William McMurtry of Knox county, was elected 
Lieut. Governor. 

Gustavus P. Koerner — Was elected in 1852. He was born in 
Germany in 1809. At the age of 22 came to Illinois. In 1872 he 
was a candidate for Governor on Liberal ticket, but was defeated. 

John Wood — Was elected in 1856, and on the death of Gov. 
Bissell became Governor. 

Francis A. Eqfman—W&s chosen with Gov. Yates in 1860. 
He was born in Prussia in 1822, and came to Illinois in 1840. 



William Bross — "Was born in New Jersey, came to Illinois in 
1848, was elected to office in 1864. 

Jo?i7i Dougherty — Was elected in 1868. 

John L. Bevered(je — Was chosen Lieut. G-ov. in 1872. In 1873 
Oglesby was elected to the U. S. Senate when Beveridge became 

Andreio S human — Was elected Nov. 7, 1876, and is the present 


Ninian W. Edwards 1854-56 

W. H. Powell 1857-58 

Newton Batsman 1858-75 

Samuel M. Etter 1876 


Daniel P. Cook 1819 

William Mears 1820 

Samuel D. Lockwood 1821-32 

James Turney 1823-28 

George Forquer 1829-32 

James Scmple 1833-34 

Ninian E. Edwards 1834-35 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr 1835 

Walter B. Scales .1836 

Asher P. Linder 1837 

Geo. W. Olney 1838 

Wickliffe Kitchell 1839 

Josiah Lamborn 1841-43 

James A. McDougall 1843-46 

David B. Campbell 1846 

[Office abolished and re-created in 1867] 

Robert G. Ingcrsoll 1867-68 

Washington Bushnell 1869-72 

James K. Edsall 1873-79 


John Thomas 1818-19 

R. K. McLaughlin 1819-22 

Ebner Field 1823-26 

James Hall 1827-30 

John Dement 1831-36 

Charles Gregory 1836 

John D. Whiteside. 1837-40 

M. Carpenter 1841^8 

John Moore 1848-56 

James Miller 1857-60 

William Butler 1861-62 

Alexander Starne 1863-64 

James H. Beveridge 1865-66 

George W. Smith 1867-68 

Erastus N. Bates 1869-73 

Edward Rutz 1873-75 

Thomas S. Ridgeway 1876-77 

Edward Rutz 1878-79 


Elias K. Kane 1818-23 

Samuel D. Lockwood .1822-23 

David Blackwell 1823-24 

Morris Birkbeck 1824 

George Forquer 1825-28 

Alexander P. Field 1839-40 

Stephen A. Douglas 1840 

Lyman Trumbull 1841-42 

Thompson Campbell 1843-46 

Horace S. Cooley 1846-49 

David L. Gregg 1850-53 

Alexander Starne 1853-56 

Ozias M. Hatch 1857-60 

Sharon Tyndale 1865-68 

Edward Rummel 1869-73 

George H. Harlow 1873-79 



Elijah C. Berry 1818-31 Tliompson Campbell 1846 

I. T. B. Stapp 1831-35 Jesse K. Dubois 1857-64 

Levi Davis 1835-40 Orlin H. Miner 1865-68 

James Shields 1841-42 Charles E. Lippencott 1869-76 

W. L. D. Ewing 1843-45 Thompson B. Needles 1877-79 


Ninian Edwards. — On the organization of the State in 1818, 
Edwards, the popular Territorial Governor, was chosen Senator for 
the short terra, and in 1819 re-elected for full term. 

Jesse B. Thomas — One of the federal judges during the entire 
Territorial existence was chosen Senator on organization of the 
State, and re-elected in 1823, and served till 1829. 

John McLean — In 1824 Edwards resigned, and McLean was 
elected to fill his unexpired terra. He was born in North Carolina 
in 1791, and came to Illinois in 1815; served one term in Congress, 
and in 1829 was elected to the U. S. Senate, but the following year 
died. He is said to have been the most gifted man of his period in 

Elias Kent Kane — Was elected Nov. 30, 1824, for the term be- 
ginning March 4, 1825. In 1830 he was re-elected, but died before 
the expiration of his term. He was a native of New York, and in 
1814 came to Illinois. He was first Secretary of State, and after- 
wards State Senator. 

David Jewett Baker — Was appointed to fill the unexpired term 
of John McLean, in 1830, Nov. 12, but the Legislature refused to 
endorse the choice. Baker was a native of Connecticut, born in 
1792, and died in Alton in 1869. 

John M. Rohinson. — Instead of Baker, the Governor's appointee, 
the Legislature chose Robinson, and in 1834 lie was re-elected. In 
1843 was elected Supreme Judge of the State, but within two 
months died. He was a native of Kentucky, and came to Illinois 
while quite young. 

William L. D. Ewing — Was elected in 1835, to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Kane. He was a Kentuckian. 

Richard M. Young — Was elected in 1836, and held his seat 
from March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1843, a full term. He was a 


native of Kentucky; was Circuit Judge before his election to the 
Senate, and Supreme Judge in IS-tS. He died in an insane asylum 
at AVasliington. 

Saiiiuel McRoherts — The first native Illinoisian ever elevated to 
the high ofHce of U. S. Senator from this State, was born in 1799, 
and died in 1843 on his return home from "Washington. He was 
elected Circuit Judge in 1824, and March 4, 1841, took his seat iu 
the U. S. Senate. 

Sidney Breese — "Was elected to the U. S. Senate, Dec. 17, 1842, 
and served a full term. He was born in Oneida county, N. Y. 
He was Major in the Black Hawk war; Circuit Judge, and in 1841 
was elected Supreme Judge. He served a full term in the U. S. 
Senate, beginning March 4, 1843, after which he was elected to the 
Legislature, again Circuit Judge, and, in 1857, to the Supreme 
Court, which position he held until his death in 1878. 

James Seniple — "Was the successor of Samuel McRoberts, and 
was appointed by Gov. Ford in 1843. He was afterwards elected 
Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Stephen A. Douglas — "Was elected Dec. 14, 1846. He had pre- 
viously served thi-ee terms as Congressman. He became his own 
successor in 1853 and again in 1859. From his first entrance in the 
Senate he was acknowledged the peer of Clay, "Webster and Cal- 
houn, with whom he served his first term. His famous contest 
with Abraham Lincoln for the Senate in 1858 is the most memor- 
able in the annals of our country. It was called the battle of the 
giants, and resulted in Douglas' election to the Senate, and Lincoln 
to the Presidency. He was born in Brandon, Vermont, April 23, 
1813, and came to Illinois in 1833, and died in 1861. He was 
appointed Secretary of State by Gov. Carlin in 1840, and shortly 
afterward to the Supreme Bench. 

James Shields — "Was elected and assumed his seat in the U. S. 
Senate in 1849, March 4. He was born iu Ireland in 1810, came 
to the United States in 1827. He served in the Mexican army, was 
elected Senator from "Wisconsin, and in 1879 from Missouri for a 
short term. 

Lyman Trumbtill — Took his seat in the (J. S. Senate March 4, 
1855, and became his own successor in 1861. He had previously 
served one term in the Lower House of Congress, and served on 
the Supreme Bench. He was born in Connecticut; studied law 


and came to Illinois early in life, where for years he was actively 
engaged in politics. He resides in Chicago. 

Orvill H. Browning— 'Wa.s appointed U. S. Senator in 1861, to 
fill the seat made vacant by the death of Stephen A. Douglas, until 
a Senator could be regularly elected. Mr. Browning was born in 
Harrison county, Kentucky; was admitted to the bar in 1S31, and 
settled in Quincy, Illinois, where he engaged in the practice of law, 
and was instrumental, with his friend, Abraham Lincoln, in form- 
ing the Republican party of Illinois at tlie Bloomington Conven- 
tion. He entered Johnson's cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, 
and in March, 1868, was designated by the President to perform the 
duties of Attorney General, in addition to his own, as Secretary of 
the Interior Department. 

William A. Richardson — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 
1863, to fill the unexpired term of his friend, Stephen A Douglas. 
He was born in Fayette county, Ky., about 1810, studied law, 
and settled in Illinois; served as captain in the Mexican "War, and, 
on the battle-field of Buena Vista, was promoted for bravery, by a 
unanimous vote of his regiment. He served in the Lower House 
of Congress from 1847 to 1856, continually. 

Richard Yates — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1865, serv- 
ing a full term of six years. He died in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 27, 

John A. Logan — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1871. He 
was born in Jackson county. 111., Feb. 9, 1826, received a common 
school education, and enlisted as a private in the Mexican War, 
where he rose to the rank of Regimental Quartermaster. On 
returning home he studied law, and came to the bar in 1852; was 
elected in 1858 a Representative to the 36th Congress and re-elected 
to the 37th Congress, resigning in 1861 to take part in the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion; served as Colonel and subsequently as a 
Major General, and commanded, with distinction, the armies of 
the Tennessee. He was again elected to the U. S. Senate in 1879 
for six years. 

David Davis — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1877 for a term 
of six years. He was bora in Cecil county, Md., March 9, 1815, 
graduated at Kenyon College, Ohio, studied law, and removed to 
Illinois in 1835; was admitted to the bar and settled in Blooming- 
ton, where he has since resided and amassed a large fortune. He 


was for many years the intimate friend and associate of Abraham 
Lincobi, rode the circuit with him each year, and after Lincoln's 
election to the Presidency, was appointed by hira to fill the position 
of Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. 



John McLean 1818 Daniel P. Cook 1835-26 


Daniel P. Cook 1819-20 Joseph Duncan 1827-28 


DanielP. Cook...: 1831-23 Joseph Duncan 1839-30 


Daniel P. Cook 1823-34 Joseph Duncan 1831-32 


Joseph Duncan 1833-34 Zadock Casey 1833-34 


Zadock Casey 1835-36 William L. May 1835-36 

John Reynolds 1835-36 


Zadock Casey 1837-38 William L. May 1837-38 

John Reynolds 1837-38 


Zadock Casey 1839^0 John T. Stuart 1839-40 

John Reynolds 1839-40 


Zadock Casey 1841-43 John T. Stuart- 1841-42 

John Reynolds 1841-13 


Robert Smith 1843^4 Joseph P. Hoge 1843-44 

Orlando B. Finklin 1843-44 John J.Hardin 1843-44 

Stephen A. Douglas 184.3^4 John Wentworth 1843^4 

John A. McClernand 1843-14 


Robert Smith 1845-46 Joseph P. Hoge 1845-46 

Stephen A. Douglas 1845^6 John A. McClernand 1845-46 

Orlando B. Finklin 1845-40 John Wentworth 1845^6 

John J. Hardin 1845 


John Wentworth 1847-48 Orlando B. Finklin .1847-48 

Thomas J. Turner 1847 Robert Smith 1847-48 

Abraham Lincoln 1847-48 William A. Richardson 1847-48 

John A. McClernand 1847^8 



John A. McCIemand t849-.50 Edward D. Baker 1849-50 

John Wentworth 1849-50 William H. Bissell 1849-50 

Timothy R. Young 1849-50 Thomas L. Harris 1849 

William A. Richardson 1849-50 


William A. Richardson. 1851-52 Richard Yates 1851-52 

Thompson Campbell 1851-53 Richard S. Maloney 1851-52 

Orlando B. Finklin 1851-52 Willis 1851-53 

John Wentworth 1851-52 William H. Bissell 1851-52 


William H. Bissell 1853-54 Thompson Campbell 1853-54 

John C. Allen 1853-54 James Knox 1853-54 

Willis 1853-54 Jesse O. Norton 1853-54 

Elihu B. Washburne 1853-54 William A. Richardson 1863-54 

Richard Yates 1853- 54 


Elihu B. Washbume 1855-50 Samuel S. Marshall 1855-56 

Lyman Trumbull 1855-50 J. L. D. Morrison 1855-56 

James H. Woodworth 1855-56 John C. Allen 1855-56 

James Knox 1855-56 Jesse O. Norton 1855-56 

Thompson Campbell 1855-56 William A. Richardson 1855-56 


El ihu B. Washbume 1857-58 Samuel 8. Marshall 1857-58 

Charles D. Hodges 1857-58 Isaac N. Morris 1857-58 

William Kellogg 1857-58 Aaron Shaw 1857-58 

Thompson Campbell 1857-58 Robert Smith 1857-58 

John F. Farnsworth 1857-58 Thomas L. Harris 1857-58 

Owen Lovejoy 1857-58 


Elihu B. Washbume 1859-60 John F. Farnsworth 1859-60 

John A. Logan 1859-60 Philip B. Fouke 1859-60 

Owen Lovejoy 1859-60 Thomas L. Harris 1859-60 

John A. McClernand 1859-60 William Kellogg 1859-60 

Isaac N Morris 1859-60 James C. Robinson 1859-60 


Elihu B. Washburne 1861-62 Isaac N. Arnold 1861-62 

James C. Robinson 1861-63 Philip B. Fouke 1861-63 

John A. Logan 1861-63 William Kellogg 1861-62 

Owen Lovejoy 1861-63 Anthony L. Knapp 1861-63 

John A. McClernand 1861-63 William A. Richardson 1861-62 


Elihu B. Washbume 1863-64 William J. Allen 1863-64 

Jesse O. Norton 1863-64 Isaac N. Arnold 1863-64 

James C. Robinson 1863-64 John R. Eden 1863-64 





Lewis W. Ross 18<)3-64 

John T. Stuart 1863-64 

Owen Lovejoy 1803-64 

William R. Morrison 1863-64 

John C. Allen 1863-64 

John F. Farns worth 1863-64 

Charles W. Morris 1863-64 

Ebeu C. IngersoU 1863-64 

Antaony L. Knapp 1863-64 


Elihu B. "Washburne 1865-66 

Anthony B. Thornton 1865-66 

John Wentworth 1865-66 

Abner C. Hardin 1865-66 

Eben C. Ingprsoll 1865-66 

Barton C. Cook 1865-66 

Shelby M. Cullom 1865-66 

Jonn F. Famsworth 1865-66 

Jehu Baker 1865-66 

Henry P. H. Bromwell 1865-66 

Andrew Z. Kuykandall 1865-66 

Samuel S. Marshall 1865-66 

Samuel W. Moulton 1865-66 

Lewis W. Ross 1865-66 


Elihu B. Washburne 1867-68 

Abner C. Hardin 1867-68 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1867-68 

Norman B. Judd 1867-68 

Albert G. Burr 1867-68 

Burton C. Cook 1867-68 

Shelby M. Oullom 1867-68 

John F. Famsworth 1867-68 

Jehu Baker 1867-68 

Henry P. H. Bromwell 1867-68 

John A. Logan 1867-68 

Samuel S. Marshall 1867-68 

Green B. Raum 1867-68 

Lewis W. Ross 1867-68 


Norman B. Judd 1869-70 

John F. Famsworth 1869-70 

H. C. Burchard 1869-70 

John B. Hawley 1869-70 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1869-70 

Burton C. Cook 1869-70 

Jesse H. Moore 1869-70 

Shelby M. Cullom 1869-70 

Thomas W. McNeely 1869-70 

Albert G. Burr 1869-70 

Samuel S. Marshall 1800-70 

John B. Hay 1869-70 

John M. Crebs 1869-70 

John A, Logan 1869-70 


Charles B. llirwell 1871-72 

John F. Famsworth 1871-72 

Horatio C. Burchard 1871-72 

John B. Hawley 1871-72 

Bradford N. Stevens 1871-73 

Henry Snapp 1871-73 

Jesse H. Moore 1871-73 

James C. Robinson 1871-73 

Thomas W. McNeely 1871-73 

Edward Y. Rice 1871-73 

Samuel 8. Marshall 187 1-73 

John B. Hay 1871-73 

John M. Crebs 1871-73 

John S. Beveredge 1 871-73 


John B. Rice 1873-74 

Jasper D. Ward 1873-74 

Charles B. Farwell 1873-74 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1873-74 

Horatio C. Burchard 1873-74 

John B. Hawley 1873-74 

Franklin Corwin 187.3-74 

Robert M. Knapp. 1873-74 

James C. Robinson 1873-74 

John B. McNulta 1873-74 

Joseph G. Cannon 1873-74 

John R. Eden 1873-74 

James S. Martin 1873-74 

William R. Morrison 1873-74 



Greenbury L. Fort 1873-74 Isaac Clements 1873-74 

Granville Barrere 1873-74 Samuel S. Marshall 1873-74 

William H. Ray 1873-74 


Scott Wike 1875-76 

William M. Springer 1875-76 

AcUai E. Stevenson 187.5-76 

Joseph G. Cannon 1875-76 

John R. Eden 1875-76 

W. A.J. Sparks 1875-76 

Bernard G. Caulfield 1875-76 

Carter H. Harrison 1875-76 

Charles B. Farwell 1875-76 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1875-76 

Horatio C. Burcbard 1875-76 

Thomas J. Henderson 1875-76 

Alexander Campbell 1875-76 

Greenbury L. Fort 1875-76 

Richard H. Whiting 1875-76 

JohnC. Bagby 1875-76 


William R. Morrison 1875-76 

William Hartzell 1875-76 

William B. Anderson 1875-76 

William Aldrich 1877-78 

Carter H. Harrison 1877-78 

Lorenzo Brentano 1877-78 

William Lathrop 1877-78 

Horatio C. Burchard 1877-78 

Thomas J. Henderson 1877-78 

Philip C. Hayes 1877-78 

Greenbury L. Fort 1877-78 

Thomas A. Boyd 1877-78 

Benjamin F. Marsh 1877-78 


Robert M. Knapp 1877-78 

William M. Springer 1877-78 

Thomas F. Tipton 1877-78 

Joseph G. Cannon 1877-78 

John R. Eden 1877-78 

W. A. J. Sparks 1877-78 

William R. Morrison 1877-78 

William Hartzell 1877-78 

Richard W. Townshend 1877-78 

William Aldrich 1879-80 

George R. Davis 1879-80 

Hiram Barber 1879-80 

.Tohn C. Sherwin 1879-80 

R, M. A. Hawk 1879-80 

Thomas J. Henderson 1879-80 

Philip C. Hayes 1879-80 

Greenbury L. Fort 1879-80 

Thomas A. Boyd 1879-80 

Benjamin F. Marsh 1879-80 

James W. Singleton 1879-80 

William M. Springer 1879-80 

A. E. Stevenson 1879-80 

Joseph G. Cannon 1879-80 

Albert P. Forsythe 1879-80 

W.A.J. Sparks 1879-80 

William R. Morrison 1879-80 

John R. Thomas 1879-80 

R. W. Townshend 1879-80 


While we cannot, in the brief space we have, give more than a 
meager sketch of such a city as Chicago, yet we feel the history of 
the State would be incomplete without speaking of its metropolis, 
the most wonderful city on the globe. 

In comparing Chicago as it was a few years since with Chicago 
of to-dav. we behold a change whose veritable existence we should 


be inclined to doubt were it not a stern, indisputable fact. Rapid 
as is the customary development of places and things in the United 
States, the growth of Chicago and her trade stands without a parallel. 
The city is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan at the 
mouth of the Chicago river. It lies 14 feet above the lake, having 
been raised to that grade entirely by the energy of its citizens, its 
site having originally been on a dead level with the water of the 

The city extends north and south along the lake about ten miles, 
and westward on the prairie from the lake five or six miles, embrac- 
ing an area of over 40 square miles. It is divided by the river 
into three distinct parts, known as the North, West and South 
Divisions, or "Sides," by which they are popularly and commonly 
known. These are connected by 33 bridges and two tunnels. 

The first settlement of Chicago was made in 1804, during which 
year Fort Dearborn was built. At the close of 1830 Chicago con- 
tained 12 houses, with a population of about 100. The town was 
organized in 1833, and incorporated as a city in 1837. The first 
frame building was erected in 1832, and the first brick house in 
1833. The first vessel entered the harbor June 11, 1834; and at 
the first ofiicial census, taken July 1, 1837, the entire population 
was found to be 4,170. In 1850 the population had increased to 
29,963; in 1860, to 112,172; in 1870, 298,977; and, according to 
the customary mode of reckoning from the number of names in. 
the City Directory, the population of 1879 is over 500,000. 

Nicholas Perrot, a Frenchman, was the first white man to visit 
the site of Chicago. This he did_ in 1671, at the instigation of M. 
Toulon, Governor of Canada. He was sent to invite the Western 
Indians to a convention at Green Bay. It has been often remarked 
that the first white man who became a resident of Chicago was a 
negro. His name was Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from 
the West Indies. He settled there in 1796 and built a rude cabin on 
the north bank of the main river, and laid claim to a tract of lan(i 
surrounding it. He disappeared from the scene, and his claim was 
"jumped" by a Frenchman named Le Mai, who commenced trad- 
ing with the Indians. A few years later he sold out to John Kin- 
zie, who was then an Indian trader in the country about St. 
Joseph, Mich., and agent for the American Fur Company, whicK 
had traded at Chicago with the Indians for some time; and this 


fact had, probably more than any other, to do with the determina- 
tion of the Government to establish a fort there. The Indians 
were growing numerous in that region, being attracted by the 
facilities for selling their wares, as well as being pressed nortliward 
by the tide of emigration setting in from the south. It was judged 
necessary to have some force near that point to keep them in 
check, as well as to protect the trading interests. Mr. Kinzie 
moved his family there the same year Fort Dearborn was built^ 
and converted the Jean Baptiste cabin into a tasteful dwelling. 

For about eight years things moved along smoothly. The garri- 
son was quiet, and the traders prosperous. Then the United States 
became involved in trouble witli Great Britain. The Indians took 
the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities between the 
civilized nations, committing great depredations, the most atro- 
cious of which was the massacre of Fort Dearborn, an account of 
which may be found in this volume under the heading of " The 
War of 1812." 


From the year 1840 the onward march of the city of Cliicago 
to the date of the great fire is well known. To recount its marvel- 
ous growth in population, wealth, internal resources and improve- 
ments and everything else that goes to make up a mighty city, 
would consume more space than we could devote, however interest- 
ing it might be. Its progress astonisiied the world, and its citizens 
stood almost appalled at the work of their own hands. She was 
happy, prosperous and great when time brought that terrible Octo- 
ber night (Oct. 9, 1871) and with it the great fire, memorable as 
the greatest fire ever occurring on earth. The sensation conveyed 
to the spectator of this unparalleled event, either through tlie eye, 
the ear, or other senses or sympathies, cannot be adequately 
described, and any attempt to do it but shows the poverty of lan- 
guage. As a spectacle it was beyond doubt the grandest as well as 
the most appalling ever ofl'ered to mortal eyes. From any 
elevated standpoint the appearance was that of a vast ocean of 
flame, sweeping in mile-long billows and breakers over the doomed 

Added to the spectacular elements of the conflagration — the 
intense and lurid light, the sea of red and black, and the spires and 
pyramids of flame shooting into the heavens — was its constant and 


terrible roar, drowning even the voices of the shrieking multitude; 
and ever and anon — for a while as often as every half-minute — 
resounded far and wide the rapid detonations of explosions, or fall- 
ing walls. In short, all sights and sounds which terrify the weak 
and unnerve the strong abounded. But they were only the accom- 
paniment which the orchestra of nature were furnishing to the 
terrible tragedy there being enacted. 

The total area burned over, including streets, was three and a 
third square miles. The number of buildings destroyed was 
17,450; persons rendered homeless, 98,500; persons killed, about 
200. Not including depreciation of real estate, or loss of business, 
it is estimated that the total loss occasioned by the fire was 
$190,000,000, of which but $-44,000,000 was recovered on insur- 
ance. The business of the city was interrupted but a short time; 
and in a year after the fire a large part of the burned district was 
rebuilt, and at present there is scarcely a trace of the terrible dis- 
aster, save in the improved character of the new buildings over 
those destroyed, and the general better appearance of the city — 
now the finest, in an architectural sense, in the world. 

One of the features of this great city worthy of mention is the 
Exposition, held annually. The smouldering ruins were yet smok- 
ing when the Exposition Building was erected, only ninety days 
being consumed in its construction. The accompanying engrav- 
ing of the building, the main part of which is 1,000 feet long, 
will give an idea of its magnitude. 


The trade of Chicago is co-extensive with the world. Every- 
where, in every country and in every port, the trade-marks of her 
merchants are seen. Everywhere, Chicago stands prominently 
identified with the commerce of the continent. A few years ago, 
grain was carted to the place in wagons; now more than 10,000 
miles of railroad, with thousands of trains heavily ladened with the 
products of the land center there. The cash value of the produce 
handled during the year 1878 was $220,000,000, and its aggregate 
weight was 7,000,000 tons, or would make 700,000 car loads. 
Divided into trains, it would make 28,000 long, heavily ladened 
freight trains, wending their way from all parts of the United States 
toward our great metropolis. These trains, arranged in one con- 


tinuous line, would stretch from London across the broad Atlantic 
to New York and on across our continent to San Francisco. 

In regard to the grain, lumber and stock trade, Chicago has sur- 
passed all rivals, and, indeed, not only is without a peer but excels 
any tliree or four cities in the world in these branches. Of grain, 
the vast quantity of 134,851,193 bushels was received during the 
year 1878. This was about two-fifths more than ever received 
before in one year. It took 13,000 long freight trains to carry it 
from the fields of the Northwest to Chicago. This would make a 
■continuous train that would reach across the continent from New 
York to San Francisco. Speaking more iu detail, we have of the 
various cereals received during the year, 63,783,577 bushels of corn, 
20,901,220 bushels of wheat, 18,251,529 bushels of oats, 133,981,104 
pounds of seed. The last item alone would fill about 7,000 freight 

The lumber received during the year 1878 was, 1,171,364,000 feet, 
exceeded only in 1872, the year after the great fire. This vast 
amount of lumber would require 195,000 freight cars to transport 
it. It would build a fence, four boards high, four and one-half 
times around the globe. 

In the stock trade for the year 1878,- the figures assume propor- 
tions almost incredible. They are, however, from reliable and 
trustworthy sources, and must be accepted as authentic. There 
were received during the year, 6,339,650 hogs, being 2,000,000 more 
than ever received before in one year. It required 129,916 stock 
cars to transport this vast number of hogs from the farms of the 
"West and Northwest to the stock yards of Chicago. These hogs 
arranged in single file, would form a connecting link between 
Chicago and Pekin, China. 

Of tlie large number of hogs received, five millions of them were 
slaughtered in Chicago. The aggregate amount of product manu- 
factured from these hogs was 918,000,000 pounds. The capacity of 
the houses engaged in slaughtering operations in Chicago is 60,000 
hogs daily. The number of hands employed in these houses is 
from 6,000 to 8.000. The number of packages required in which 
to market the year's product is enormously large, aggregating 500,- 
OOO barrels, 800,000 tierces and 650,000 boxes. 

There has been within the stock yards of the city, during the 
year 1878, 1,036,066 cattle. These were gathered from the plains 


of Oregon, Wyoming and Utah, and the grazing regions of Texas, 
as well as from all the Southern, Western and JSTorthwestern States 
and Territories and from the East as far as Ohio. If these cattle 
were driven from Chicago sonthward, in single file, through the 
United States, Mexico, and the Central American States into South 
America, the foremost could graze on the plains of Brazil, ere the 
last one had passed the limits of the great city. 

Not only does Chicago attract to its great market the products of 
a continent, but from it is distributed throughout the world manu- 
factured goods. Every vessel and every train headed toward that 
city are heavily ladened with the crude products of the farm, of the 
forests, or of the bowels of the earth, and every ship that leaves her 
docks and every train that flies from her limits are filled with 
manufactured articles. These goods not only find their way all 
over our own country but into Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, 
South America, Mexico, and the Islands of the sea; indeed, every 
nook and corner of the globe, where there is a demand for her 
goods, her merchants are ready to supply. 

The wholesale trade for the year 1878 reached enormous figures, 
aggregating $280,000,000. Divided among the leading lines, we 
find there were sold of dry goods, $95,000,000 worth. The trade in 
groceries amounted to $66,000,000 ; hardware, $20,000,000; boots 
and shoes, $24,000,000; clothing, $17,000,000; carpets, $8,000,000; 
millinery, $7,000,000; hats and caps, $6,000,000; leather, $8,000,- 
000; drugs, $6,000,000; jewelry, $4,500,000; musical instruments, 
$2,300,000. Chicago sold over $5,000,000 worth of fruit during 
the year, and for the same time her fish trade amounted to $1,400,- 
000, and her oyster trade $4,500,000. The candy and other con- 
fectionery trade amounted to $1,534,900. This would fill all the 
Christmas stockings in the United States. 

In 1852, the commerce of the city reached the hopeful sum of 
$20,000,000; since then, the annual sales of one firm amount to 
that much. In 1870, it reached $400,000,000, and in 1878 it had 
grown so rapidly that the trade of the city amounted during that 
year to $650,000,000. Her manufacturing interests have likewise 
grown. In 187S, her manufactories employed in the neighborhood 
of 75,000 operators. The products manufactured during the year 
were valued at $230,000,000. In reviewing the shipping interests of 
Chicago, we find it equally enormous. So considerable, indeed, is the 


commercial navy of Chicago, that in the seasons of navigation, one 
vessel sails every nine minutes during the business hours; add to 
this the canal-boats that leave, one every five minutes during the 
same time, and you will see something of the magnitude of her 
shipping. More vessels arrive and depart from this port during the 
season than enter or leave any other port in the world. 

In 1831, the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who 
went on foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and broiight back 
what papers and news he could find. As late a,s 1846, there was 
often but one mail a week. A post-office was established in 
Chicago in 1833, and the postmaster nailed up old boot legs upon 
one side of his shop to serve as boxes. It has since grown to be 
the largest receiving office in the United States. 

In ISii, the quagmires in the streets were first pontooned by 
plank roads. The wooden-block pavement appeared in 1857. In 
IBiO, water was delivered by peddlers, in caris or by hand. Then 
a twenty -five liorse power engine pushed it through hollow or bored 
logs along the streets till 1S5-4, when it was introduced into the 
houses by new works. The first fire-engine was used in 1835, and 
the first steam fire-engine in 1859. Gas was utilized for lighting 
the city in 1850. The Young Men's Christian Association was 
organized in 1858. Street cars commenced running in 1854. The 
Museum was opened in 1863. The alarm telegraph adopted in 
1864. The opera-house built in 1S65. The telephone introduced 
in 1878. 

One of the most thoroughly interesting engineering exploits of 
the city is the tunnels and water-works system, the grandest and 
most unique of any in the world ; and the closest analysis fails to 
detect any impurities in the water furnished. The first tunnel is 
five feet two inches in diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 
50,000,000 gallons per day. The second tunnel Is seven feet in 
diameter and six miles long, running four miles under the city, and 
can deliver 100,000,000 gallons per day. This water is distributed 
through 410 miles of water mains. 

Chicago river is tunneled for the passage of pedestrians and vehi- 
cles from the South to the West and ISorth divisions. 

There is no grand scenery about Chicago except the two seas, one 
of water, the other of prairie. Nevertheless, there is a spirit about 
it, a push, a breadth, a power, that soon makes it a place never to 

//// / //iH\ 

infill; ,?i. 


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iiiipf' ^ii> 


be forsaken. Chicago is in the field ahnost alone, to handle the 
wealth of one-fourth of the territory of this great republic. The 
Atlantic sea-coast divides its margins between Portland, Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Savannah, but Chicago has 
a dozen empires casting their treasures into her lap. On a bed of 
coal that can run all the machinery of the world for 500 centuries; 
in a garden that can feed the race by the thousand years; at the 
head of the lakes that give iier a temperature as a summer resort 
equaled by no great city in the land; with a climate that insures 
the health of her citizens; surrounded by all the great deposits of 
natural wealth in mines and forests and herds, Chicago is the 
wonder of to-day, and will be the city of the future. 



Alabama. — This State was first explored by LaSalle in 16Si, and 
settled by the French at Mobile in 1711, and admitted as a State in 
1817. Its name is Indian, and means " Here we rest." Has no 
motto. Population in 1860,964,201; in 1870,996,992. Furnished 
2,576 soldiers for the Union army. Area 50,722 square miles. 
Montgomery is the capital. Has 8 Representatives and 10 Presi- 
dential electors. Rufus W. Cobb is Governor; salary, $3,000; 
politics. Democratic. Length of term, 2 years. 

Arkansas — Became a State in 1836. Population in 1860, 435,- 
450; in 1870, 484,471. Area 52,198 square miles. Little Rock, 
capital. Its motto is Regnant Populi — " The people rule." It has 
the Indian name of its principal river. Is called the "Bear State." 
Furnished 8,289 soldiers. She is entitled to 4 members in Congress> 
and 6 electoral votes. Governor, "W. R.Miller, Democrat; salary, 
$3,500; term, 2 years. 

California — Has a Greek motto. Eureka., which means " I have 
found it." It derived its name from the bay forming the peninsula 
of Lower California, and was first applied by Cortez. It was first 
visited by the Spaniav .s a 1542, and by the celebrated Enghsh 


navigator, Sir Francis Drake, in 1578. In 1846 Fremont took 
possession of it, defeating the Mexicans, in the name of the United 
States, and it was admitted as a State in 1850. Its gold mines 
from 1868 to 1878 produced over §800,000,000. Area 188,982 square 
miles. Fopuktiou in 1860, 379,994. In 1870, 560,247. She gave 
to defend the Union 15,225 soldiers. Sacramento is the capital. 
Has 4 Representatives in Congress. Is entitled to 6 Presidential 
electors. Present Governor is William Irwin, a Democrat; term, 
4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Colorado — Contains 106,475 square miles, and had a population 
in 1860 of 34,277, and in 1870, 39,864. She furnished 4,903 
soldiers. "Was admitted as a State in 1876. It has a Latin motto, 
I^il sine iV^wnime, which means, "Nothing can be done without 
divine aid." It was named from its river. Denver is the capital. 
Has 1 member in Congress, and 3 electors. T. "W". Pitkin is Gov- 
ernor; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years; politics, Kepublican. 

Connecticut — Qui transtulit sustinet, " He who brought us over 
sustains us," is her motto. It was named from the Indian Quon- 
ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long Eiver." It is called the "Nutmeg 
State." Area 4,674 square miles. Population 1860, 460,147; in 
1870, 537,454. Gave to the Union army 55,755 soldiers. Hart- 
ford is the capital. Has 4 Representatives in Congress, and is 
, entitled to 6 Presidential electors. Salary of Governor $2,000; 
term, 2 years. 

Delaware. — " Liberty and Independence," is the motto of this 
State. It was named after Lord De La Ware, an English states- 
man, and is called, " The Blue Hen," and the " Diamond State." It 
was first settled by the Swedes in 1638. It was one of the original 
thirteen States. Has an area of 2,120 square miles. Population in 
1860. 112,216; in 1870, 125,015. She sent to the front to defend 
the Union, 12,265 soldiers. Dover is the capital. Has but 1 mem- 
ber in Congress; entitled to 3 Presidential electors. John W. 
Hall, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $2,000; term, 2 years. 

Florida — Was discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512, on Easter 
Sunday, called by the Spaniards, Pascua Florida, which, with the 
variety and beauty of the flowers at this early season caused him to 
name it Florida — which means in Spanish, flowery. Its motto is, 
" In God we trust." It was admitted into the Union in 1845. It has 
an area of 59,268 square miles. Population in 1860, 140,424; in 


1870, 187,756. Its capital is Tallahassee. Has 2 members in Con- 
gress. Has 4 Presidential electors. George F. Drew, Democrat, 
Governor; term, 4 years; salary, $3,500. 

Georgia — Owes its name to George II., of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. Its motto is, " Wisdom, justice 
and moderation." It was one of the original States. Population 
in 1860, 1,057,286; 1870, 1,184,109. Capital, Atlanta. Area 58,- 
OuO square miles. Has 9 Representatives in Congress, and 11 
Presidential electors. Her Governor is A. H. Colquitt, Democrat; 
term, 4 years; salary, $4,000. 

Illinois — Motto, '• State Sovereignty, National Union." Name 
derived from the Indian word, Illini, meaning, superior men. It 
is called the ''Prairie State," and its inhabitants, "Suckers." 
Was first explored by the French in 1673, and admitted into tlie 
Union in 1818. Area 55,410 square miles. Population, in 1860 
1,711,951; in 1870, 2,539,871. She sent to the front to defend the 
Union, 258,162 soldiers. Capital, Springfield Has 19 members in 
Congress, and 21 Presidential electors. Shelby M. CuUom, Repiib. 
lican, is Governor; elected ibr 4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Indiana — Is called " Hoosier State." Was explored in 1682, 
and admitted as a State in 1816. Its name was suggested by its 
numerous Indian population. Area 33,809 square miles. Popu- 
lation in 1860, 1,350,428; in 1870, 1,680,637. She put into the 
Federal army, 194,363 men. Capital, Indianapolis. Has 13 mem- 
bers in Congress, and 15 Presidential electors. J. D. Williams, 
Governor, Democrat; salaiy, $3,000; term, 4 year. 

Iowa — Is an Indian name and means "This is the land." Its 
motto is, "Our liberties we prize, our rights we will maintain." 
It is called the " Hawk Eye State." It was first visited by 
Marquette and Joliet in 1673; settled by New Englanders in 
1833, and admitted into the Union in 1846. Des Moines is the 
capital. It has an area of 55,045, and a population in 1860 of 674,913, 
and in 1870 of 1,191,802. She sent to defend the Government, 
75,793 soldiers. Has 9 members in Congress; 11 Presidential 
electors. John H. Gear, Republican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; 
term, 2years. 

Kansas — Was admitted into the Union in 1861, making the 
thirty-fourth State. Its motto is Ad astra per aspera, " To the 
stars through difficulties." Its name means, " Smoky water," and 


is derived from one of her rivers. Area 78,841 square miles. 
Population in 1860, 107,209; in 1870 was 362,812. She furnished 
20,095 soldiers. Capital is Topeka. Has 3 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 5 Presidential electors. John P. St. John, Governor; 
politics. Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Kentucky— Is. the Indian name for "At the head of the rivers." 
Its motto is, " United we stand, divided we fall." The sobriquet 
of " dark and bloody ground " is applied to this State. It was first 
settled in 1769, and admitted in 1792 as the fifteenth State. Area 
37,680. Population in 1860, 1,155,684; in 1870, 1,321,000. She 
put into the Federal army 75,285 soldiers. Capital, Frankfort. 
Has 10 members in Congress ; 12 Electors. J. B. McCreary, 
Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Louisiana — Was called after Louis XIY., who at one time 
owned that section of the country. Its motto is " Union and Con- 
fidence." It is called " The Creole State." It was visited by La 
Salle in 1684, and admitted into the Union in 1812, making the 
eighteenth State. Population in 1860, 708.002; in 1870, 732,731. 
Area 46,431 square miles. She put into the Federal army 5,224 
soldiers. Capital, Xew Orleans. Has 6 Representatives and 8 
Electors. F. T. Nichols, Governor, Democrat; salary, $8,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Maine. — This State was called after the province of Maine in 
France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned 
that province. Its motto is Dirigo, meaning " I direct." It is 
called "The Pine Tree State." It was settled by the English in 
1625. It was admitted as a State in 1820. Area 31,766 square 
miles. Population in 1S60, 628,279; in 1870, 626,463; 69,738 sol- 
diers went from this State. Has 5 members in Congress, and 7 
Electors. Selden Conner, Republican, Governor; term, 1 year; 
salary, $2,500. 

Maryland— y^ && named after Henrietta Maria, Queen of 
Charles I. of England. It has a Latin motto, Crecite et multiplica- 
mini, meaning " Increase and Multiply." It was settled in 1634, 
and was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 11,- 
124 square miles. Population in 1860 was 687,049; in 1870, 780,- 
806. This State furnished 46,053 soldiers. Capital, Annapolis. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. J. H. Carroll, 
Democrat, Governor; salary, $4,500; term, 4 years. 


Massachusetts — Is the Indian for " The country around the great 
hills." It is called the "Bay State," from its numerous bays. Its 
motto is Ense petit i)lacidam sub libertate qxiietem, " By the sword 
she seeks placid rest in liberty." It was settled in 1620 at Plymouth 
by English Puritans. It was one of the original thirteen States, 
and was the first to take up arms against the English during the 
Kevolution. Area 7,800 square miles. Population in 1860, 1,231,- 
066; in 18T0, 1,457,351. She gave to the Union army 116,467 sol- 
diers. Boston is the capital. Has 11 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 13 Presidential electors. Thomas Talbot, Republican, is 
Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 1 year. 

Michigan — Latin motto, Luehor, and Si quoeris feninsulaTiL 
amcenam circumspice, '■'■ \ will defend" — " If you seek a pleasant 
peninsula, look around you." The name is a contraction of two 
Indian words meaning " Great Lake." It was early explored by 
Jesuit missionaries, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union. It 
is known as the " "Wolverine State." It contains 56,243 square 
miles. In 1860 it had a population of 749,173; in 1870, 1,184,059. 
She furnished 88,111 soldiers. Capital, Lansing. Has 9 Repre- 
sentatives and 11 Presidential electors. C. M. Croswell is Gov- 
ernor; politics. Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 2 years. 

Minnesota — Is an Indian name, meaning " Cloudy Water." It 
has ■A.'ErenGh.moiio, L'' Etoile du Nord — "The Star of the North." 
It was visited in 1680 by La Salle, settled in 1846, and admitted 
into the Union in 1858. It contains 83,531 square miles. In 1860 
had a population of 172,023; in 1870, 439,51L She gave to the 
Union army 24;002 soldiers. St. Paul is the capital. Has 3 mem- 
bers in Congress, 5 Presidential electors. Governor, J. S. Pills- 
bury, Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Mississippi — Is an Indian name, meaning " Long River," and the 
State is named from the " Father of Waters." The State was first 
explored by De Sota in 1541; settled by the French at Natchez in 
1716, and was admitted into the Union in 1817. It has an area of 
47,156 square miles. Population in 1860, 791,305; in 1870,827,- 
922. She gave to suppress the Rebellion 545 soldiers. Jackson is 
the capital. Has 6 representatives in Congress, and 8 Presidential 
electors. J. M. Stone is Governor, Democrat; salary, $4,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Missouri — Is derived from the Indian word "muddy," which 


more properly applies to the river that flows through it. Its motto 
is Salus pojauli suprema lex esto, " Let the welfare of the people 
be the supreme law." The State was first settled by the French 
near Jefferson City in 1719, and in 1821 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 67,380 square miles, equal to 43,123,200 
acres. It had a population in 1860 of 1,182,012; in 1870, 1,721,- 
000. She gave to defend the Union 108,162 soldiers. Capital, 
Jeflerson City. Its inhabitants are known by the offensive cogno- 
man of " Pukes." Has 13 representatives in Congress, and 15 
Presidential electors. J. S. Phelps is Governor; politics, Demo- 
cratic; salary, $.5,000; term, 4 years. 

Nebraska — Has f,r its motto, " Equality before the law." Its 
name is derived from one of its rivers, meaning " broad and shal- 
low, or low." It was admitted into the Union in 1367. Its capital 
is Lincoln. It had a population in 1860 of 28,841, and in 1870, 
123,998, and in 1875, 246,280. It has an area of 75,995 square 
miles. She furnished to defend the Union 3,157 soldiers. Has but 
1 Representative and 3 Presidential electors. A. Nance, Repub- 
lican, is Governor; salary, §2,500; term, 2 years. 

Nevada — " The Snowy Land " derived its name from the Span- 
ish. Its motto is Latin, Volens et jpotens, and means " willing 
and able." ' It was settled in 1850, and admitted into the Union in 
1864. Capital, Carson City. Its population in 1860 was 6,857; 
in 1870 it was 42,491. It has an area of 112,090 square miles. 
She furnished 1,080 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Has 1 Rep- 
resentative and 3 Electors. Governor, J. H. Kinkhead, Republican; 
salary, $6,000; term, 4 years. 

New Ramjislnre — "Was first settled at Dover by the English in 
1623. Was one of the original States. Has no motto. It is 
named from Hampshire county in England. It also bears the 
name of " The Old Granite State." It has an area of 9,280 miles, 
■which e'quals 9,239,200 acres. It had a population in ] 860 of S26,- 
073, and in 1870 of 318,300. She increased the Union army with 
33,913 soldiers. Concord is the capital. Has 3 Representatives 
and 5 Presidential electors. N. Head, Republican, Governor; 
salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

Neio Jet'sey—Wns named in honor of the Island of Jersey in the 
British channel. Its motto is " Liberty and Independence." It was 
first settled at Bergen by the Swedes in 1624. It is one of the orig- 


inal thirteen States. It has an area of 8,320 square miles, or 5,324,- 
800 acres. Population in 1860 was 672,035 ; in 1870 it was 906,096. 
She put into the Federal army 75,315 soldiers. Capital, Trenton. 
Has 7 Representatives and 9 Presidential electors. Governor, 
George B. McClelland, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 3 years. 

Neio York. — The " Empire State " was named by the Duke of 
York, afterward King James II. of England. It has a Latin motto. 
Excelsior, which means " Still Higher." It was first settled by the 
Dutch in 1614 at Manhattan. It has an area of 47,000 square 
miles, or 30,080,000 acres. The population in 1860 was 3,880,735; 
in 1870 it was 4,332,759. It is one of the original thirteen States. 
Capital is Albany. It gave to defend our Government 445,959 
men. Has 33 members in Congress, and 35 Presidential electors. 
Governor, L. Robinson, Democrat; salary, $10,000; term, 3 years. 

North Carolina — Was named after Charles IX., King of France. 
It is called " The Old North," or " The Turpentine State." It was 
first visited in 1524 by a Florentine navigator, sent out by Francis 
I., King of France. It was settled at Albemarle in 1663. It was 
one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 50,704 square 
miles, equal to 32,450,560 acres. It had in ISGO a population of 
992,622, and in 1S70, 1,071,361. Raleigh is the capital. She 
furnished 3,156 soldiers to put down the Rebellion. Has 8 mem- 
bers in Congress, and is entitled to 10 Presidential electors. Z. B. 
Vance, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Ohio — Took its name from the river on its Southern boundary, 
and means " Beautiful." Its motto is hnperiinn in Imperio — 
"An Empire in an Empire." It was first permanently settled in 
1788 at Marietta by New Englanders. It was admitted as a State 
in 1803. Its capital is Columbus. It contains 39,964 square 
miles, or 25,576, 960 acres. Population in 1860,2,339,511; in i870 
it had 2.665,260. She sent to the front during the Rebellion 310,- 
654 soldiers. Has 20 Representatives, and 22 Presidential electors. 
.Governor, R. M. Bishop, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Oregon — Owes its Indian name to its principal river. Its motto 
is Alis volat jyropriis — "She flies with her own wings." It was 
first visited by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century. It was set- 
tled by the English in 1813, and admitted into the Union in 1859. 
Its capital is Salem. It has an area of 95,274 square miles, equal 
to 60,975,360 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 52,465; in 


1870, 90,922. She furnished 1,810 soldiers. She is entitled to 1 
member in Congress, and 3 Presidential electors. W. W. Thayer, 
Kepublican, is Governor; salary, $1,500 ; term, 4 years. 

Pennsylvania. — This is the "Keystone State," and means "Penn's 
Woods," and was so called after William Penn, its original owner. 
Its motto is, " Virtue, liberty and independence." A colony was 
established by Penn in 1682. The State was one of the original 
thirteen. It has an area of 46,000 square miles, equaling 29,440,- 
000 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 2,906,215; and in 1870, 
3,515,993. She gave to suppress the Kebellion, 338,155. Harris- 
burg is the capital. Has 27 Representatives and 29 electors. H. 
M.Hoyt, is Governor; salary, $10,000; politics, Republican; term 
of office, 3 years. 

Rhode Island. — This, the smallest of the States, owes its name to 
the Island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said 
to greatly resemble. Its motto is " Hope," and it is familiarly 
called, "Little Rhody." It was settled by Roger Williams in 1636. 
It was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 1,306 
square miles, or 835,840 acres. Its population in 1860 numbered 
174,620; in 1870, 217,356. She gave to defend the Union, 23,248. 
Its capitals are Providence and Newport. Has 2 Representatives, 
and 4 Presidential electors. C. Vanzandt is Governor; politics, 
Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

South Carolina. — The Palmetto State wears the Latin name of 
Charles IX., of France (Carolus). Its motto is Latin, Aniniis 
opibusque parati, " Ready in will and deed." The first permanent 
settlement was made at Port Royal in 1670, where the French 
Huguenots had failed three-quarters of a century before to found a 
settlement. It is one of tlie original thirteen States. Its capital is 
Colutnbia. It has an area of 29,385 square miles, or 18,806,400 
acres, with a population in 1860 of 703,708; in 1870, 728,000. 
Has 5 Representatives in Congress, and is entitled to 7 Presidential 
electors. Salary of Governor, $3,500; term, 2 years. 

Tennessee — Is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e. 
the Mississippi, which forms its western boundary. She is called 
"The Big Bend State." Her motto is, " Agriculture, Commerce." 
It was settled in 1757, and admitted into the Union in 1796, mak- 
ing the sixteenth State, or the third admitted after the Revolution- 
ary War — Vermont being the first, and Kentucky the second. It 


has an area of •15,600 si^uare miles, or 29,lS-i,000 acres. In 1860 
its population numbered 1,109,801, and in 1870, 1,257,983. She 
furnished 31,092 soldiers to suppress the Eebellion. Nashville is 
the capital. Has 10 Kepresentatives, and 12 Presidential electors. 
Governor, A. S. Marks, Democrat; salary, $1,000; term, 2 years. 

Texas — Is the American word for the Mexican name by which 
all that section of the country was known before it was ceded to the 
United States. It is known as " The Lone Star State." The first set- 
tlement was made by LaSalle in 1685. After the independence of 
Mexico in 1822, it remained a Mexican Province until 1836, when 
it gained its independence, and in 1815 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 237,504: square miles, equal to 152,002|- 
560 acres. Its population in 1860 was 601,215; in 1870, 818,579. 
She gave to put down the Rebelion 1,965 soldiers. Capital, Austin. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. Governor, O, 
M. Roberts, Democrat; salary, 85,000; term, 2 years. 

Vermont — Bears the French name of her mountains Verde Mont 
"Green Mountains." Its motto is "Freedom and Unity." It 
was settled in 1731, and admitted into the Union in 1791. Area. 
10,212 square miles. Population in 1860, 315,098 ; in 1870, 330,551- 
She gave to defend the Government, 33,272 soldiers. Capital, Mont- 
pelier. Has 3 Representatives, and 5 electors. Governor, H. Fair- 
banks, Republican; term, 2 years; salary, $1,000. 

Virginia. — The Old Dominion, as this State is called, is the 
oldest of the States. It was named in honor of Queen Elizabeth, 
the " Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made his 
first attempt to colonize that region. Its motto is Sic semper 
tyrannis^ " So always with tyrants." It was first settled at James- 
town, in 1607, by the English, being the first settlement in the 
United States. It is one of original thirteen States, and had before 
its division in 1862, 61,352 square miles, but at present contains- 
but 38,352 square miles, equal to 24,515,280 acres. The population 
in 1860 amounted to 1,596,318, and in 1870 it was 1,224,830. Rich- 
mond is the capital. Has 9 Representatives, and 11 electors. Gov- 
ernor, F. W". M. Halliday, Democrat; salary, $5,500; term, 4 years. 

West Virginia. — Motto, Montani semper liheri, " Mountaineers 
are always free." This is the only State ever formed, under the 
Constitution, by the division of an organized State. This was done 
in 1862, and in 1863 was admitted into the Union. It has an area of 



23,000 square miles, or 14,720,000 acres. The population in 1860 
was 376,000; in 1870 it numbered 445,616. She furnished 32,003. 
Capital, Wheeling. Has 3 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 5 Presidential electors. The Governor is H. M. Mathews, 
Democrat; term, 4 years; salary, $2,700. 

Wisconsin — Is an Indian name, and means "Wild-rushing 
channel." Its motto, Clvitatas successit barbarum, "The civilized 
man succeeds the barbarous." It is called " The Badger State." 
The State was visited by the French explorers in 1665, and a settle- 
ment was made in 1669 at Green Bay. It was admitted into the 
Union in 1848. It has an area of 52,924 square miles, equal to 
34,511,360 acres. In 1860 its population numbered 775,881; in 
1870, 1,055,167. Madison is the capital. She furnished for the 
Union army 91,021 soldiers. Has 8 members in Congress, and is 
entitled to 10 Presidential electors. The Governor is W. E. Smith; 
politics, Republican; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years. 



The first class of unfortunates to attract the notice of the legis- 
lature were the deaf mutes. The act establishing the institution for 
the education of these unfortunates was approved by Gov. Carlin, 
Feb. 23, 1839, the asylum to be located at Jacksonville. The 
original building, afterward called the south wing, was begun in 
1843, and completed in 1849, at a cost of about $25,000. A small 
portion of the building was ready for occupancy in 1846, and on 
the 26tli day of Januaiy, of that year, the Institution was formall}'- 
opened, with Mr. Thomas Officer as principal. The first term 
opened with but four pupils, which has increased from year to year, 
until the average attendance at the present time is about 250. 


In response to an appeal from the eminent philanthropist. 
Miss D. L. Dix, an act establishing the Illinois Hospital 
for the Insane, was approved by Gov. French, March 1, 1847. 
Nine trustees were appointed, with power to select a site, 
purchase land, and erect buildings to accommodate 250 patients. 
On the 1st of May the board agreed upon a site, IJ miles 
from the court-house in Jacksonville. In 1851 two wards in 
the east wing were ready for occupancy, and the first patient 
was admitted Nov. 3, 1851. In 1869 the General Assembly passed 
two acts creating the northern asylum for the insane, and the 
southern asylum for the insane, which was approved by Gov. 
Palmer, April 16, 1869. Elgin was selected as a location for the 
former, and Anna for the latter. The estimated capacity of the 
three asylums is 1,200 patients. In addition to the State institu- 
tions for the insane, there are three other asylums for their benefit, 
one in Cook county, which will accommodate about 400 patients, 
and two private institutions, one at Batavia, and one at Jack- 


The experimental school for feeble-minded children, the first 
institution of its kind in the North-west, was created by an act 
approved, Feb. 15, 1865. It was an outgrowth of the institution 
for deaf and dumb, to which idiots are frequently sent, under a 
mistaken impression on the part of parents, that their silence 
results from inability to hear. Tlie selection of a site for the 


building was intrusted to seven commissioners, Avho, in July, 1875, 
agreed upon the town of Lincoln. The building was begun in 
1875, and completed three years later, at a cost of $154,209. The 
average attendance in 1878 was 224. 


The association for founding this institution was organized in 
May, 1858, and Pearson street, Chicago, selected for the erection 
of the building. In 1865 the legislature granted the institution 
a special charter, and two years later made an appropriation of 
$5,000 a year for its maintenance, and in 1871 received it into the 
circle of State institutions; thereupon the name was changed by 
the substitution of the word Illinois for Chicago. The building 
was swept away by the great fire of 1871, and three years later the 
present building was completed, at a cost of $42, 813. 


Is located at Carbondale. This University was opened in 1874, 
and occupies one of the finest school edifices in the United States. 
It includes, besides a normal department proper, a preparatory 
department and a model school. The model school is of an 
elementary grade; the preparatory department is of the grade of a 
high school, with a course of three years. The normal course of tour 
years embraces two courses, a classical and a scientific course; both 
make the study of the English language and literature quite 


Located at Urbana, was chartered in 1867. It has a corps of twen- 
ty-five instructors, including professors, lecturers and assistants, 
and has an attendance of over 400 pupils. It comprises four 
colleges (1) Agriculture, (2) Engineering, (3) Natural Science, 
(4) Literature and Science. These colleges embrace twelve subor- 
dinate schools and courses of instruction, in which are taught 
domestic science and art, commerce, military science, wood engrav- 
ing, printing, telegraphy, photographing and designing. Tins insti- 
tution is endowed with the national land grant, and the amount of 
its productive fund is about $320,000. The value of its grounds, 
buildings, etc., is about $640,000. It is well supplied with appara- 
tus, and has a library of over 10,000 volumes. 



Hancock County is situated about forty miles north of the center 
of the State, on its west line, and within what is known as the 
"Military Bounty Land Tract." It is bounded on the south by 
Adams county, to which it was attached from 1S25 to 1S29, east by 
McDonough and Schuyler, north by Henderson, and west by the 
Mississippi river, which separated it from Clarke county, Missouri, 
and Lee county, Iowa, and constitutes about two-fifths of its whole 
boundary. It lies between forty degrees and ten minutes and forty 
degrees and forty minutes north latitude; and between thirteen 
degrees and thirty-five minutes and fourteen degrees and five min- 
utes west longitude from Washington. It is thirty miles long froni 
north to south, and on an average of twenty-four miles wide from 
east to west — its northern line measuring just twelve miles to its 
intersection with the Mississippi, while its southern measures a 
little over thirty miles. Its western line, following the meander- 
ings of the river, measures about forty-five miles. 

The county includes sixteen whole congressional townships and 
eight fractional ones (the eight being about equal to five and a 
quarter whole ones), subdivided into 769 square miles, or sections, 
containing about 492,160 acres. 

The central portion of the county is composed of one grand prai- 
rie, bordered on the west by the wooded blufis of the Mississippi, 
and east and south by the timber lands skirting the margins of 
Crooked and Bear creeks, and their numerous tributaries. 

The Burlington branch of the C, B. &. Q. Railroad passing 
through the county from Dallas City to the southwest corner of 
section 35, three north, seven west, cuts it into two nearly equal 
parts ; while an east and west line, following the T. , W. & W. Railroad 
to Carthage, thence east through the center of Carthage and Han- 
cock townships, would divide it into nearly equal portions in the 
other direction. The east half of the county contains the most 
woodland, being intersected by the many streams tributary to 


Crooked creek. Most of the woodlands bordering on Bear creek 
and branches are in tlie west half. 

Of the four subdivisions above named, it would be very hard to 
tell which is the better portion. Each has some advantages, per- 
haps lacking in the others. The people of Augusta and St. Mary's 
have been in the habit of claiming superiority for their townships. 
The same may be said of La Harpe and Fountain Green. And, 
while it is true that no better soil and fairer country can be found 
than is contained in the townships named, we confess to have wit- 
nessed about JVauvoo, and in Sonora, Montebello, "Walker and other 
western townships, country not a whit behind them in fertility and 
beauty. The eastern tier of townships is better adapted to wheat; 
but tlie prairie portions will out-do them in the production of corn 
and hav. 

Professor Worthen's " Geology of Illinois," pages 327-349, vol. 
i. contains an exhaustive report on the geology of Hancock county. 
Applying to him for leave to make extracts therefrom for use in 
this history, he very generously forwarded the following, written 
expressly for our use, for which he has our thanks, and which the 
reader will find very instructive and interesting: 

The geological formations to be found in this county consist ot 
the usual surface deposits called drift, some sixty feet or more of 
the lower coal measures, and the St. Louis and Keokuk divisions of 
the lower carboniferous limestones. 

The lowest or fundamental rock outcropping in the country is the 
Keokuck limestone, which forms the main portion of the river 
bluffs from the south line ot Henderson county to Warsaw, and ap- 
pears also in occasional outcrops along the base of the bluffs from 
Warsaw to the south line of the county. It is also found on the 
lower courses of most of the small streams in the northwestern poi'- 
tion of the county, as well as on Crooked creek north and north- 
west of Plymouth. 

The Keokuk limestone may usually be recognized as forming two 
well marked divisions.- The upper portion, ranging in thickness 
from thirt}' to forty feet, consists of a bluish gray or ash-colored 
calcareo-argillaceous shale, passing locally into thin bedded lime- 
stone, and contains the globular silicious bodies known nnder the 
familiar name of geodes, and is hence called the geode bed. Many 
of these geodes are solid globes of quartz, with an outer crust of 
chalcedony, the interior being composed of crystalline qnartz. 
Others are hollow spheres, the outer crust consisting of crystalline 
quartz and chalcedony, while the internal cavitj' is coated with 
various crystallized minerals, of which quartz is by far the most 
common, and more rarely with calcite, dolomite, zinc-blende, iron 
pyrites, and aragonite, forming veiy beautiful and interesting 


cabinet specimens of these minerals. In the vicinity of Niota, 
geodes are occasional!}- found with the internal cavity filled with 
liquid petrolenm, or hardened asphaltum. 

As early as IS-tO or '4-1, a collection of sjeodes was made in the 
vicinity of Montebello, by Mr. Catlin of Philadelphia, and ship- 
ped to that city to enrich the cabinets of the Eastern States; and 
since that time hundreds of tons have been collected and shipped 
from this county, until choice specimens are now comparatively 
rare, and difficult to obtain. 

The lower division of the Keokuk formation consists of gray 
limestone, rather coarse grained and sub-crystalline, partly in heavy 
beds ranging from one to three feet in thickness, and partly in 
thinner shaly beds, with intercalated layers of chert, or impure flint. 
The latter is the prevailing character of the lower part of this 
division, and it forms the bed rock of the Mississippi river along 
the Des Moines rapids from Keokuk to Nauvoo. 

The thickness of the lower division of the Keokuk group is 
from sixty to seventy feet, and the entire thickness of the whole in 
this county is about one hundred feet. The lower division, to 
whicli the name Keokuk limestone more properly belongs, affords 
a very good building-stone for dry walls, and also a fair quality of 
stone for the lime-kiln, though for the latter purpose the compact 
fine grained limestone of the overlying St. Louis group is to be 
preferred. The Mormon temple at Nauvoo was built entirely of 
this limestone quarried in the vicinity of that cit}^ and the custom- 
houses at Dubuque, Iowa, and Galena, 111., and the postoffice build- 
ing in Springfield are all built of this limestone quarried in the 
vicinity of iS'auvoo and Hamilton. All the work in dressed and 
cut stone for the Morn:on temple, even to the carved oxen on whose 
backs the baptismal font rested, was furnished from the Nauvoo 

"When this limestone is exposed to the continued action of frost 
and moisture, it splits into irregular laj'ers along the lines of bed- 
ding, and hence is unfit for bridge abutments, culverts, and all 
similar purposes, where it would be constantly exposed to these 
adverse influences. 

The Keokuk limestone is entirely of marine origin, as is fully 
proven by the great numbers of marine fossils that it contains, and 
the solid limestone strata were once beds of calcareous sediment in 
the bed of the ocean, at a period so remote that we can now form 
no correct estimate of its probable date. Some of the strata are 
composed entirely of the remains of organic beings, with barely 
enough of inorganic matter to cement the mass into a solid rock, 
and to the paleontologist who desires to know something about the 
forms of life pertaining to the carboniferous age, it aftbrds an ex- 
ceedingly varied and interesting fleld. 

The fossils that abound in this limestone consist for the most 
part of crinoids, or lily-like animals, corals, bryozoans, mollusks, 
and the teeth and spines of fishes. The carboniferous fishes were 


mostly cartilawinons, like the shark and sturj^eon of the present 
day, and as flesh never petrifies, and they possessed no bony skele- 
ton, only their teeth and bony spines have been preserved as me- 
morials of their existence. The fish remains, although occasionally 
to be found throughout the whole extent of the limestone, are far 
more abundant in certain layers, where they are sometimes found 
in large numbers within a very limited space. Two of these "fish 
beds " occur in the vicinity of Warsaw and Hamilton, one just 
below the geode bed, and the other in the chert}^ limestones below 
the quarry rock, and in what has been called the division beds, 
which separate the Keokuk from the Burlington limestone below. 
The color of these fish remains is usually brown or sometimes 
nearly black, and the contrast they exhibit with the light gray color 
of the rock enables the collector to readily detect them without a 
close examination of their structure, which is also quite distinct 
from that of any other fossils to be found in this formation. 

Inter-stratified with the limestone beds, there are layers of clay 
or clay shale, varying in thickness from half an inch to two feet or 
more. These have resulted from the introduction of a muddy sed- 
iment into the ocean, which in some cases suddenly entombed the 
living animals that inhabited its waters, and in these clay partings, 
the crinoids and delicate bryozoans are found in their most perfect 
state of preservation. They secreted a calcareous skeleton like the 
coral, and occasionally these may be found in the soft shale or im- 
printed on the surfaces of the limestone in such a perfect state 
of preservation that the original form and structure of the animal 
can be readily determined. 

One of the most common forms of bryozoans in the Keokuk lime- 
stone is the screw-shaped fossil known as the Archimedes, and the 
frequency of its occurrence in this limestone gave it the name of 
Archimedes limestone, by which it was designated by Dr. D. D. 
Owen and some others of the earlier geologists. Subsequently it 
was found that similar forms were found in the Warsaw division of 
the St. Louis group as well as in the Chester limestones, another 
division of the lower carboniferous series, and hence the name of 
Archimedes limestone had to be abandoned, as applicable to any 
single division of the series. 

The crinoids were so abundant in the ocean sediments out of 
which these limestones have been formed, that some of the thickest 
of the limestone strata are composed almost entirely of their re- 
mains, and hence the name crinoidal, or encrinital limestone has 
been applied to it. The crinoidal layers usually have a crystalline 
structure, and some of them receive a high polish, and when varie- 
gated in color form a handsome and valuable marble. 

Overlying the geode bed we find the St. Louis limestone, which, 
like the Keokuk group, maj^ be separated into two well marked 
divisions, the lower consisting of magnesian limestone, overlaid by 
blue shales with thin and irregular beds of coarse gray limestone, 
the latter capped with a bed of calcareous sandstone, and an upper 


division composed of fine-grained, compact brecciated limestone. 
The lower division ranges from 30 to 40 feet in thickness, and the 
upper from 10 to 3(1. This group forms the upper portion of 
the river bluffs throughout the county, and is also found on nearly- 
all the small streams in the central and western portions, and the 
tributaries, as well as the main course of Crooked creek, in the 
northeastern part of the county. 

The brecciated division forms the base, or fundamental rock, on 
which the coal measures rest, and hence it forms a well marked 
horizontal limit, below which coal is never found. Isolated out- 
crops of coal are found resting upon it, however, in almost all parts 
of the county, even as far west as the bluffs of the Mississippi 
river at Kauvoo, on Waggoner's creek near Montebello, and at 
several other points to the westward of the present boundary of 
the Illinois coal field, but such outliers are of little or no value for 
coal-raining purposes. 

The magnesian limestone that is found at the base of the lower 
division of the St. Louis group ranges in thickness in this, county 
from six to ten feet, and affords the best material for foundation 
walls, bridge abutments and culverts that can be obtained in this 
portion of the State. The Sonora quarries furnished the foundation 
stone for the new capitol building at Springfield, as well as the ma- 
terial for the abutments of the bridge, and the locks on the canal at 
Keokuk, and the rock has given universal satisfaction where strength 
and durability were the main qualities demanded. It is not a hand- 
some stone for outside walls, not coloring evenlj' on exposure, and 
liable to be stained by the oxidation of the iron pyrites with which 
the rock is more or less impregnated. But it hardens on exposure 
and docs not split when subjected to the combined action of frost 
and water. Below "Warsaw the magnesian limestone is from ten to 
twelve feet thick, and is rather lighter colored and freer from pyrites 
than at the Sonora quarries. 

The blue shales and thin-bedded limestones above the magnesian 
bed abound in fossils in the vicinity of Warsaw, and hence the name 
of '' Warsaw beds " has been applied to the lower division of the 
St. Louis group. The largest species of Archimedes known, the A. 
Wort^eni, described and figured by Prof. Hall in the first report on 
the geology of Iowa, belongs to this geological horizon, and is found 
more abundantin the vicinity of Warsaw thaii elsewhere. Specimens 
have been found as much as eighteen inches in length, and when 
living, with its delicate, lace-like expansion extending from six to 
eight inches on either side of the screw-shaped axis, they must have 
formed living organisms of rare interest. This, with a half dozen 
or more of other species of br^'ozoans to be fjund in these shales at 
Warsaw, has made the locality quite noted with the amateur col- 
lectors of fossils, and the locality is now well nigh exhausted. 
Aljove these fossiliferous beds, there is a bed of calcareous sandstone 
at Warsaw about six feet in thickness, some of which lies in thin 
layers suitable for flags, and partly in strata from one foot to eigh- 


teen inches in thickness. This rock cuts freely and is au excellent 
stone for caps and sills. 

The upper division of the St. Louis group is a fine-grained brec- 
ciated limestone, concretionary in structure and a nearly pure car- 
bonate of lime in its composition, and hence furnishes the best ma- 
terial for the lime-kiln to be found in the county. It is from ten to 
thirty feet in thickness and forms the bed rock over a large portion 
of the county, though it was probably at one time covered by the 
shales and sandstones of the lower coal measures, which were sub- 
sequently removed by denuding agencies, leaving the solid lime- 
stone as a floor over which the drift clays were subsequently depos- 
ited. This limestone is characterized bj' three species of fossil 
corals, one of which, the Lithostrotion marnillare is usuall}' sili- 
cious, and weathers out of the limestone in considerable masses, 
and is called "petrified honeycomb," or "wasps' nests," by tliose 
who are unaware of its true character and origin. An excellent 
material for macadamizing roads as well as limestone for the lime- 
kiln is furnished by this division of the St. Louis group wherever 
its outcrop occurs. 

Coal Measures. — In the southeastern portion of the county, em- 
bracing au area of three or four townships, and extending north to 
the vicinity of Plymouth, the sandstone and shales of the coal- 
measures are found, embracing a thickness of fifty to sixty feet or 
more, and include the horizon of the two lower seams of coal. At 
the base of the coal measures there is usually a coarse sandstone 
which sometimes encloses pebbles and becomes a true conglomerate. 
It is variable in thickness, but usually i-anges from five to twenty 
feet in this portion of the State. Above the conglomerate there is 
either a few feet of sandy shale, or if this is absent, the fire clay of 
the lower coal seam, or coal No. 1, reckoning from the bottom of 
the formation upward. This seam is usually too thin where it has 
been found in this county, to be of any great value for the produc- 
tion of coal, yielding furthermore an article of inferior quality. In 
thickness it ranges from six to eighteeninches, but the coal is some- 
times replaced entirely with bituminous shale. 

Between this lower coal and the one above it, or No. % there is 
usually from ten to twentj' feet of shale, the lower part of which is 
bituminous, and forms the roof to the lower seam, while at the top 
it passes into the dark-colored fire clay of No. 2. This upper seam 
is about two feet in thickness, but it is not regularly developed, and 
like the lower seam, is liable to run into bituminous shale. It was 
worked at an early daj' on Williams creek, in the vicinity of Pu- 
laski, to supply the local demand for coal, but since the completion 
of the C, B. & Q. railroad through this portion of the count}', the 
mines have been generally abandoned. Above No. 2 there is a 
variable thickness of shale and sandstone, probably nowhere exceed- 
ing twenty-five or thirty feet, which forms the uppermost beds of 
the coal formation in this county. 


The surface deposits, or "drift," as the loose material that over- 
lies the bed rock of the countr}' is usually called, consists of a yel- 
lowish brown clay at the top, forming- the subsoil, then drab and 
ash-colored clays with gravel and boulders, passing downward into 
a compact blue clay or " hard pan," the whole ranging iVom forty 
to sixty feet or more in thickness. Below the "• hard pan." a black 
peaty soil is frequently met with containing leaves and branches, 
and sometimes the trunks of trees of considerable size. This has 
been named " the forest bed," and has been found to extend over a 
large area in this State, being frequently encountered in sinking 
wells, or in coal shafts, sometimes at a depth of more than a hun- 
dred feet below the surface. It probably represents the surface soil 
that existed anterior to what is called the "drift" or "glacial" 
period, and produced the trees whose trunks are so frequently en- 
countered in sinking wells through the drift clays. Below the 
"forest bed" there is usuallv a few feet in thickness of quick-sand 
or stratified clay, resting directly upon the bed rock of the country. 

The boulders of the drift are mostly of foreign origin, and have 
come from the metamorphic rocks of the Lake Superior region, 
the transporting agencies being floating ice, when the present sur- 
face of nearly the whole of the Northwestern States was submerged 
beneath the ocean. 

In the vicinity of the river bluffs, the drift deposits have been 
sifted and changed by the action of water currents, forming what 
is called " altered or modified " drift. In the cut on Main street 
in the city of Warsaw, the following section of modified drift may 
be seen, which will serve to show the general character of the drift 
deposits after they have been subjected to these modifying 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

1. Surfiice soil 1 5. Blue sandy clay 3 6 

2. Ash-colored and brown marly 6. Fine gravel and clay. .. . 2 6 

clay (loess) 9 7. Yellow sand 2 

3. Brown drift clay >. . 8 8. Gravel and boulders 8 

4. Brown sand partly stratified 8 9. Blue clay (exposed) 4 

The loess caps the river bluffs throughout the county, and gives 
character to the soil wherever it is found. The timbered lands 
skirting the river blufls are underlaid usually by the loess, and the 
soil is extremely well adapted to the cultivation of fruit, as well 
as wheat, oats and clover, and under a judicious system of rotation, 
will yield fair crops of corn. 

The soil upon the prairies is usual!}' a black, or chocolate-brown 
loamy clay, rather retentive of moisture from the cohesive char- 
acter of the subsoil, but when sufliciently rolling to give a free 
surface drainage, it is very productive. There is however a consid- 
erable area of flat prairie land in the county, that can only be made 
to produce the best results of cultivation by a systematic course 
of underdraining, which can be readily accomplished now, under 
the drainage law, recently enacted by the thirty-first General 


Below "Warsaw, and extending thence to the Adams county line, 
there is a belt of bottom land, from one to three miles in width, 
now being redeemed from the annual overflow of the river, and 
destined to become, under a proper system of levee improvement, 
the most productive corn land in the county. 

We copy the following from the " Geology of Illinois," by Mr 
Worthen : 

" The soil upon the prairie land is usually a deep black loam, 
with a brown clay subsoil. On the ridges that skirt the streams 
the soil is usually a chocolate- brown, loamy claj', becoming locally 
light brown or yellow, on the slopes of the hills, from the predom- 
inant character of the subsoil. The timber on these ridges consists 
for the most part of black and white oak and hickory, with an 
undergrowth of red-bud, sassafras and hazel. On the more level 
portions of the timbered uplands we find, in addition to these, elm, 
linden, wnld cherry and honey locust. The soil on the lands where 
the last named varieties of timber are found is fully equal, in its 
productive capacity, to that of the prairies, while that on the oak 
ridges is comparatively thin. In the southwest portion of the 
county there is a wide belt of alluvial bottom skirting the Missis- 
sippi river, commencing at the city of AVarsaw and extending to 
the south line of the county, with an average width of about three 
miles. A part of this bottom is prairie, and a part is covered with 
a heav}' growth of timber, consisting of Cottonwood, sycamore, red 
and slippery elm, black and white walnut, ash, hackberry, honey 
locust, pecan, persimmon, pawpaw, coffee-nut, white maple, red 
birch, linden and mulberry, and the common varieties of oak, and 
shell-bark and pig-nut hickory. The greater portion of this bot- 
tom is susceptible of cultivation, and possesses a sand^' soil that is 
not surpassed, in its productive capacities, by any other portion of 
the county. It is subject to overflow, liowever, during seasons of 
extraordinary high water, and those who cultivate these lands 
must calculate on a partial, if not a total, loss of their crops once 
in about seven years. 

" Springs are not abundant in this county, but are occasionally 
found at the base of the i-iver blufl's and in the valleys of the small 
streams. Some of these are chalybeate, and contain, in addition 
to the iron, both sulphur and magnesia. Good wells are usually 
obtained on the uplands at depths varying from twenty to forty 
feet. The surface deposits of this county comprise the usual sub- 
divisions of the quaternary system, and attain an aggregate thick- 
ness of about seventy-five feet. All the uplands are covered by 
accumulations of drift, varying in thickness from twenty to sixty 
feet or more. This usually consists of a bed of blue clay or hard 
pan at the bottom of variable thickness,which is overlaid by brown 
clays, with gravel and boulders of waterworn rock of various sizes. 
Sometimes there are thin beds of sand in the brown clays, that pre- 
sent a stratified appearance, and serve as channels to the under- 
ground streams of water." 


And in regard to these " boulders," such objects of curiosity and 
speculation all over the county, scattered not only along the bluffs 
and river shore, but standing isolated and alone, away in the prai- 
ries, the Report has the following wonderful statement: 

" A large portion of the material composing the drift deposits 
has been transported from a distance, and many of the boulders are 
derived from the metamorphic strata of Lake Superior, several hun- 
dred miles from the spot where they are found. Many of these 
boulders are of great size and many tons weiglit, and must have re- 
quired a mighty force to transport them to their present position. 
One of these may be seen at the foot of the blufi^s between Nauvoo 
and Appanoose, composed of the metamorphic rock of the North- 
west, which is nearly twenty feet in diameter. The power required 
to wrench such a mass of rock from its native bed and transport 
it, for hundreds of miles, with a force sufficient to obliterate all its 
angles, is inconceivably great; but hero is the boulder of granite, 
nearly five hundred miles, as the crow flies, from the nearest known 
ontcrop of this kind of rock, giving unmistakable evidence that such 
a result has been accomplished. Several specimens of native cop- 
per ha\'e been found in the drift deposits of this county, which, 
from their appearance, leave no doubt that they have been trans- 
ported from the copper region of Lake Superior." 

Of its economical geology, from the Keport we glean the following: 

^'Huildinff Stone. — Hancock county is well supplied with good 
building stone, and there is, perhaps, no natural resource of this 
portion of the State that is so lightly appreciated at the present time 
in proportion to its intrinsic value as this. * * * The middle 
division of the Keokuk group will afford the greatest amount, as 
well as the finest quality, of building stone, and where this is easily 
accessible, no better material need be looked for. It is generally 
even textured, dresses well, and is well adapted for all the ordinary 
uses to which a building stone is applied. It is also tolerably even 
bedded, and affords strata thick enougii for all the ordinary require- 
ments of architecture. Some of the beds are susceptible of a fine 
polish, and may be used as an ornamental stone. It outcrops on all 
the small streams in the western part of the county, as well as in 
the river bluffs throughout the county, except in the vicinitj' of 
"Warsaw, and for a distance of five miles below, where, b}' an undu- 
lation of the dip, it is carried below the surface with the exception 
of a few feet of the upper layers. It appears again, however, on 
Kocky run, six miles below Warsaw, forming bluffs on that creek 
tw«nty feet or more in height., In the eastern part of the county 
it outcrops on Brunce's creek, north of Plymouth, and Crooked 
creek, in the vicinity of St. Mary's. 

" The arenaceous and magnesian beds of the St. Louis group will 
also furnish a building stone but little inferior in quality, and quite 
equal in durability, to that afforded by the Keokuk limestone. 
* * * IS orth of Warsaw, its out crop is generally high up in the 
bluffis, or on the small streams that intersect them, and in the in- 


terior of the county it will be found on all the principal creeks that 
intersect the limestones imiiiodiately below the coal measures."" 

" Fotter's Clay. — The under-claj's of the coal seams are almost 
the only clays in the State used for the manufacture of potter's 
ware, and are the only ones from which a good article of fire- 
brick has been made. The nnder-clay below the lower coal seam 
on William's creek, in the southeastern part of the county, is 
about thiee feet thick, and appears to be of good quality, suitable 
either for potter's ware or fire-brick. There are probably many 
localities in tlie eastern part of the county where this clay may be 
found equal in quantity and quality to that of the locality above 
named. Beds of soft material like this are seldom well exposed by 
natural causes, and are best seen by artificial cuts through the 
strata with which they are associated. The coal seams will always 
serve as a guide to those in search of these clays." 

Coal.-^Tlie supply of bituminous coal in this county is quite 
limited. And the Report concludes, that our people will mainly 
have to rely upon more favored districts. 


There are numerous mounds throughout Hancock county, as in 
many other sections of the State and the whole Mississippi valley. 
They are found chiefly on the blufl's bordering the river and the 
smaller streams. In some instances they are in the open prairie, 
but most of them are in the timbered lands, and often covered 
with large trees. They are mostly small, of various sizes and 
elevations, from a few feet in height up to 15 or 20, and fi'om 10 
to 40 or 50 feet in diameter. It is var}' rarely that one is found in 
this county to exceed these measurements. 

We know of but two exceptions. One of these is the Gittings 
Mound in the north part of the county, and though possessing all 
the characteristics of the smaller ones, covers nearly a section of 
land, and is perhaps fifty or more feet high. Mr. Gittings' farm 
lies on it, and it is without doubt a mere natural elevation of the 
prairie. The other is what is known as the " Big Mound " in 
Appanoose township. This mound is situated about seven miles 
east of Nauvoo, and in the open prairie. On the east, south and 
west of it, the prairie is quite level for several miles, but on the 
north it is approached by the broken timbered lands skirting the 
river bluffs. We are not aware that any accurate measurement of 
this mound has ever been made; but from the best observation we 
could make, by standing on its top, and also on the prairie at its 
base, we judge it to be not less than 40 to 50 feet high, while it is 
about one-fourth of a mile in diameter. It belongs to the estate 
of the late Amos Davis, and he chose it for the site of his fine 
residence, which occupies its summit. The barn, stables and other 
out-buildings, besides two or three fine orchards, are also located 
on the mound. 


Excavations have been made into numbers of these mounds, and 
in most instances human skeletons have been found, togetlier with 
various art utensils, such as knives, tomahawks, stone axes, beads, 
pottery articles, etc. This fact has led to the conclusion that these 
mound formations have been selected as places for the burial of 
their dead, by some people occupying the country before us. Who 
were those people? We think the answer is plain. We hear much 
talk and read much newspaper comment about the " Mound- 
Builders." This term we believe to be a misnomer. Because a 
people have chosen these places as receptacles for their dead, it does 
not follow that they built them for that purpose, or that they built 
them at all. The Indian tribes who have just preceded us are 
doubtless the people who have so used these mounds. Indeed we 
know that they have done so. The writer of this has himself seen 
them in several instances thus depositing their dead. But who 
ever saw or heard of these aborigines building mounds? The}' find 
them already built, by the same Almighty hand that built the 
mountains and the hills and prairies. Besides, North America has 
been known to civilization for nearly 400 years, and the people first 
discovered here were as incapable of erecting these mounds as those 
just now passing away. And who supposes that human bones will 
remain at a depth of a few feet from the surtkce, for so long a 
period, without undergoing decom])osition i If the remains of 
Powhattan and King Philip can be found intact at this date, then 
it will do to (/we^-s- that the bones found in these mounds have been 
deposited there by a race of men anterior to the people known as 
North American Indians. We are sustained in this view of the 
subject by many high authorities. Rev. John M. Peck, a writer 
of sound judgment and extensive observation, in his "Gazetteer of 
Illinois," after referring to some of the large mounds in the Missis- 
sippi valley, says: 

*' These large mounds are of the same shape and proportions as 
the smaller ones. Who supposes these to be the works of human 
art? Who will place these among the antiquities of a country? If 
any one will account for the formation of these stupendous works 
of nature, in a country of unquestionabl}' diluvial formation, there 
are men who make no pretensions to the rank of western anti- 
quarians, who will account for the smaller ones, of a few feet eleva- 
tion, without the aid of an extinguished race of men. Until further 
evidence of their being the work of men's hands, I shall class them 
among the natural curiosities of the country." 

This opinion of the origin of these mounds is also maintained by 
Prof. Worthen, in his report on Madison county. — [See Geol. Sur. 
of 111., vol. i. p. 314.] 

We should not omit to mention that, in digging the well for 
Mr. Davis on the summit of the Appanoose mound, a piece of 
timber, said to be a species of cedar, was found at a depth of 30 
feet from the surface. Many similar discoveries have, however, 
been made in other places where no mounds exist. 


Bat there is indisputable evidence that this country lias at one 
time, how remote it is impossible to tell, been inhabited by a 
race of people far superior to the Indians found here by the Euro- 
pean discoverers. There are remains, both within and without 
these mounds, that go to prove this fact; remains that could not 
have been left by these savage tribes, but must have belonged to a 
cultivated and enlightened people. That this is so, none of these 
writers will gainsay; yet we do not see that its admission has any 
bearing on the question of the origin, of these mounds. 


Under this head we group together the productions of the ani- 
mal and vegetable kingdoms. Of the animal, the butfalo, once so 
common all over the western prairies, has entirely disappeared. 
Indeed, it is doubtful if one of the species has been seen in the 
county by any of its pioneers. The same may be said of the elk. 
Bears, though not common, have occasionally been seen and taken; 
but have now forsaken us. Wild-cats were quite plenty in the 
early days, and almost all the old pioneers have wild -cat stories to 
tell. Wolves, the black and gray, formerly abounded, and the 
bounty on scalps still draws money from the county treasury. 
They find retreats among the fastnesses of Bear and Ci'ooked creeks. 
The little prairie wolves, — so numerous 40 years ago, and whcse 
laugh-like bark awoke the echoes of the night, around the farm 
houses, and even in the village streets, like the still smaller prairie 
dogs — have fled before the tramp of civilization. Panthers have 
been seen, and killed, and to-day one of these animals, or some- 
thing else, produces an occasional scare in the neighborhood. 
That " same old coon," the opossum, the mink, and the skunk still 
abound, as many settlers can testily; an occasional fox is seen; but 
the beaver, badger and otter have disappeared. AVood-chucks and 
musk-rats still find holes, and a variety of squirrels tempt the 
sportsman's shot. Deer, so numerous -10 years ago, are now very 
scarce, and many a pioneer longs for the "saddle of venison " he 
once procured so cheaply, and so richly enjoyed. 

Hawks abound, and crows, and owls; -but the turkey-buzzard has 
taken himself ofi". Wild turkeys are sometimes seen, but are wilder 
than " the law allows," and are seldom taken. Grouse, or prairie 
chickens, and quails are not near so numerous as formerly. Wild 
geese, brant and several species of ducks frequent the rivers and 
sloughs. Numerous varieties of fish frequent the streams. Rat- 
tle-snakes still are found now and then; also the black snake, and 
a few others; and turtles, toads and bullfrogs creep, hop and croak 
upon the land and in the ponds. 

The principal forest growths of the county, are the several species 
of oak, hickory, walnut, butternut, ash, maple, elm, mulberry, Cot- 
tonwood, black-jack, pawpaw, sassafras, willow, hazel, blackberry, 
raspberry, and numerous other plants and trees. ^ . ._, 



The prairie g^rass, with its thousand and one gorgeous and beau- 
tiful flower?, which waved their tall stems to the breeze or nestled 
in little tufts upon the sod, — 

" Fitting floor 
For this magnificent temple of the sliy — 
With flowers whose glory and whose multitude 
Rival the constellations! " 

These, all these, have gone — given place to the fields of waving 
grain, the rustling corn and the timothy and clover meadow. lu 
recurring to those early days of prairie green and bloom, one can 
almost wish them back again; they were such a glory and a joy; 
such a boundless, magnificent, waving, rolling sea of beauty. This 
in bright summer; but ah! let winter's storms and snows come — 
and right here we close the picture and the chapter. 

• * 




How did people live in the pioneer days? — is a question which 
the youth of to-day may well ask. In 1S17, it is said the first 
steaniboat, the Gen. Pilve, ascended the Mississippi above St. 
Louis. Previous to that period, all merchandise and provisions, 
except of home product, had to be brought to Illinois by way of 
New Orleans, in keel-boats " cordeiled " up the current by strong 
muscular force, — a trip from the settlements to that city and back, 
occupying about six months' time; or they had to be conveyed 
across the mountains from the seaboard cities to Pittsburgh or 
Wheeling, and floated down the Ohio in " broad-horns." Salt was 
procured in small quantities from Kanawha and about Shawnee- 
town; but tea, coffee, spices, sugar, and the thousand and one arti- 
cles which now constitute the food of the inhabitants, were seldom 
seen ; or if seen, were procured for extreme occasions only, and at 
great expense, by the wealth}'. 

Buckskin moccasins and breeches, and rabbit and coon-skin caps 
were the common wear of the men ; while wife and children were 
generally but meagerly enveloped in fabrics made from flax at 
home, or coarse cottons obtained from abroad at high prices. 

The residences of the pioneers were chiefly log cabins; the most 
primitive ones always built without other tool than an ax, and 
perhaps an auger, and containing from top to bottom neither nail 
nor glass: hinges they had to the doors, made of stout timber, and 
locks in the form of a peg or wooden bar. 

The pioneers of Hancock, as of most other sections of the West in 
those early days, were generally poor men, who sought the country 
with a view of making homes for themselves and children. Some 
of them, it may be said, were merely hunters, and came for the 
purpose of getting away from civilization, and to find plenty of 
game. These, usually, as neighbors began to settle near, pulled 
up and went further on. But he who came with a view of locating 
a permanent home, brought in most cases a family with him, and 
a meager supply of indispensable utensils and tools, with which to 
begin life in the wilderness. For very evident reasons, they gen- 
erally made their homes in or contiguous to timber. Their cabins 
were to be built, and in the quickest time possible; water without 
digging was to be found there; and shelter was afforded for such 
stock as they possessed. 

Such few utensils as could well be brought in a two-horse wagon, 
with the family, or in many cases in a one-horse cart, were all they 

• « 


could aftord; a cow or two, and perhaps a yoke of oxen; an ax, a 
few other simple tools, and the inevitable gnn (rifle generally) con- 
stituted the "plunder" with winch many a now and long since 
independent citizen began life as a pioneer in Hancock county. 

Once located, the lirst thing to do was to construct a shelter for 
liimself and family, in tlie meantime living in the wagon as they 
had traveled, or under the shelter of a tent. It was the work of 
but a few days to erect a log cabin, with a clapboard roof and 
without a floor, into which the family and pi'operty could be stored, 
safe from storms and wild beasts. 

Some came in parties of three or four or more, built tJieir rude 
dwellings, and perhaps planted a small patch of grain; then 
returned for their families. 

The construction of one of these primitive houses >vould be a 
curiosity to the denizen of the city now, though to most people 
throughout the West not verj* remarkable. Many of them have 
been built and occupied for years — comfortable abodes, too, for 
intelligent and happy families, — without a nail or a bit of iron in 
their make-up. Some of the best men our State and county have 
known — Judges, Governors, Senators, Generals, — have been born and 
reared in these rude structures. A few of them, now old and 
dilapidated, and fast approaching their end, like their earliest 
occupants, are yet to be seen in OTir midst; some, reconstructed, 
doing duty as smoke-houses, pig-pens or corn-cribs; others standing 
silent and deserted, in their desolation. Their owners, those that 
are left of them, have long since transferred their goods and chat- 
tels to more costly and pretentious edifices. 

The ax has been the principal tool in the path of American civil- 
ization. It has always preceded the plow. In preparing the home, 
it has ever been the pioneer tool in the bauds of thq pioneer man; 
and with it, and with no other, he can fashion a home not to be 
despised. AVith it the trees are felled and cut into proper lengths 
for the hut; with it alone the clapboard roofs can be made; with 
it the puncheons for a door and the floor. But the tools really 
needed, though not always attainable, were, first, the ax, then a 
saw, an auger, a frow, and a drawing-knife. With these, and with- 
out many of them, \inder the guidance of a strong will, and wielded 
by a strong arm, the wilderness. of Illinois has been dotted with 
happy homes, that would defy the rains of summer and the snows 
and storms of winter. 

But there is another and often a mournful side to the picture of 
pioneer life. The rains and storms come sometimes before shelter 
can be provided. Sickness overtakes the pioneer or his family. 
Away in the wilderness — away from kindred or sympathizing 
friends — beyond reach of medicines or kindly help— no comforts^ 
perhaps unsuitable food — the wife, the child — another and another 
droop and die, and in the gloom and desolation are consigned to 
their lonely graves. No neighborly hand near to place the sod or 
strew a flower; no kindly voice to oflTer comfort. It is on this pic- 


ture of pioneer life that we would ask the reader to drop a tear. 
Pioneer mother! Sad and disconsolate in thy dreary cabin, thy 
loved one lying asleep in death before thee, soon to be hid from thy 
loving embrace and care, to thee we drop a tear to-day. Pioneer 
FATHER ! the partner of thy joys and sorrows stretched on a bed of 
pain and sickness, or, perhaps, enveloped in her death shroud; chil- 
dren helpless and needing a mother's kindly care; money gone, 
crops failing, neighbors far away; a gloomy future before thee, — 
TO THEE we heave a sigh in this, our day of prosperity and richer 

As before stated, the first settlers in this prairie country always 
selected locations in or near to timber. Gradually, a new comer, 
disregarding the practice and the advice of his predecessors, would 
work his way into the prairie a mile or two and erect his cabin. 
The results emboldened others to follow his example; and now, 
after forty or fifty years of trial, all that broad tract known of old as 
the " Hancock Prairie," embracing two-thirds of the county, is en- 
closed into farms, and the only vacant land in the county is in the 
timber ! 

Comparing the settlements of the county as between the eastern 
and western sides, there is a wide difference observable. In the 
west, most of the earliest settlers are gone, having " pulled stakes " 
and removed perhaps to greener pastures. They had settled mostly 
on the bluff' lands near the river, or on the river shore; and lived 
by hunting and fishing, and by following river occupations. The 
broad prairie lying east and south of them was abroad waste, useful 
only as pastures for deer and other game. 

Those on the eastern side of the county came mostly a few years 
later; and finding the timber and prairie lands more evenly dis- 
tributed and more convenient for farms, took up lands and settled 
to stay, and they did; and numbers of them yet remain in the 
county. Divide it evenly by a north and south line, and the east- 
ern half will count probably two permanent settlers of the period 
previous to IS40, to the western side's one. 

There is another marked difference between the two sections. 
"While in the eastern part we will see many of the best farms still 
fenced with the old-fashioned Virginia rail fence, the growth of the 
forests nearby; in the west side such fences are rarely seen, except- 
ing along or near the river bluffs. The great prairie between, set- 
tled and occupied more recently, and since the introduction of pine 
lumber, is generally enclosed with boards, or with the more recent 
Osage orange line fence. The latter is largely used; and in con- 
nection with the barbed wire, will constitute the fence of the future. 

To the lug cabins of the eai-ly days, many pioneers who now 
occupy fine mansions, with their many modern improvements, look 
back with a feeling of kindness akin to regret. They remember 
the happy hours they have passed in them ; the many days and 
nights of enjoyment amid friends and neighbors, they have lived 
in these rude and rough, but comfortable homes. To be sure, their 

^^. ^^ 

-^^/^ ^'^ 'SLe^u.-i^ 




exteriors were rough and uninviting, and their interiors anything 
but ornamentah But there the babes were born and nurtured, 
perhaps mourned in death. There the holiest of human of aifec- 
tions were centered, and there tlie ever-changing scenes of lift's 
drama were enacted. Those only who have had the experience can 
tell of the comforts and eujoyiuents that may be realized in these 
rude homes of the West. Let the i.oa cabins of the pioneers be 
remembered with reverence ! 



Who the iirst man was to settle within the limits of the county 
of Hancock, after the most diligent inquiry we have been unable 
to ascertain. 

When Illinois became a member of the Union in 1818, the 
county of Madison with eight or ten others had been formed. Out 
of Madison, Pike was formed in 1821, and in 1825 several counties 
were formed from the latter, among which were Adams and Han- 
cock — the latter being attached to Adams until such time as its 
population would justify a separate organization. 

Whether there was at the date of the State's admission a single 
white inhabitant, other than the garrison at Fort Edwards and its 
attachees, within the limits of tiie county, may never be known. 
The Frenchman named hereafter, it seems resided amoog the Sacs 
and Foxes, on the site of Quincy, as long ago as the year 1811; and 
it is probable that others were settled in the vicinity of Forts John- 
son and Edwards. There were French here at date of organization, 
but we have no knowledge of them beyond that fact. 

There was a garrison at Fort Edwards from the date of its erec- 
tion in 1814 to 1824, when it was abandoned ; and it is reasonable 
to conclude that it would draw traders and settlers around it. But 
all those around it when it was vacated are now gone. We have 
the fact that when Adams was separated from Pike in 1825, there 
were in Hancock certain residents, some of whose names we have 
been able to obtain ; and also that before this event, certain Hancock 
people are mentioned in the records of Pike county. 

Fort Edwards was made a voting place by the Adams County 
Coi^rt in 1825, and included the whole of Hancock county. 

The following extract from a " History of Quincy," by Henry 
Asburv, Esq., will come in jilace here. It is from the Quincy 
TFA2>"of Dec. 31, 1874: 

" ISll — Bauvet, a French trader, had a trading-post here. Was 
supposed to have been killed by Indians, 
"1813 — An Indian village of the Sauk tribe here'. 
" 1813 — Two regiments of .mounted rangers, from Missouri and 
Illinois, commanded b}' Gen. Howard, passed over the present site 
of Quincy and destroyed the village, the Indians having decamped." 
of this expedition, Davidson & Stave's "History of Illinois" says: 
"The march was continued up the Mississippi. On the present 
site of Quincy they passed a recently deserted camp and village, 


supposed to liave contained 1,000 Sac warriors. At a point called 
the 'Two Kiver?,' the}' struck out eastward and across the high 
prairies to the Illinois, which was reached near the mouth of Spoon 
river." Who can now tell the location of the point called the "Two 
Kivers?" The expedition was against the hostile Indians on and 
about Peoria lake, and had set out from Camp Russell, in Madison 

From said " History of Qiiincy " we obtain the following further 
facts : 

" 1819 — Willard Keyes, who afterward bnilt the second Iiouse in 
Quincy, floated past on a raft, but did not land. 

" 1820 — The Western Enterprise, the first steamboat on the 
Mississippi river as far up as this place, and which landed here. 

" 1824 — JohnWood filed a notice, in the Edwardsville Spectator, 
of application for a new county. 

"1825, Aug. 17 — The (Adams) Coiinty Commissioners borrowed 
$600 of Russell Farnham to purchase original town site. 

"1825— The first Circuit Court was held Oct. 31, 1825; John 
York Sawyer, Judge; Henry H. Snow, Clerk." 

On the jury lists for this first term of court in Adams county,we find 
the names of the following Hancock county citizens, to-wit: Mor- 
rill Marston, Lewis Kinney, Luther Whitney, Hezekiah Spillnian, 
Curtis Caldwell, Peter Williams and Benjamin McNitt. 

The first county court held in Pike, after separation from Madi- 
son in 1821, was held at Cole's Grove, near Gilead (now in Calhoun 
county). We notice that James W. Whitney, the " Lord Coke " 
of the Quincy and Hancock bar afterward, was appointed its Clerk. 

At its session of June 5, 1821, Daniel Shinn, John Shaw and 
John W. Smith, were appointed to view and locate a road from 
Ferguson's Ferry, on the Illinois river, to Fort Edwards, on the 
Mississippi river; and it was "Ordered, That all that part of the 
Fort Edwards road lying north of the north line of section 27, 
township 6 south, range 5 west, compose the fourth district of 
said road, and that John Wood, (ex-Lieut.-Gov.) be appointed 
superintendent of that district, and to have control of all the hands 
living within three miles each side of the road." 

June 6, 1821 — "Ordered, That the militia of the county be or- 
ganized into a regiment, etc., and that all north of the base line be 
and compose the Third Company District" (this included Hancock 

July 6, 1821 — " Ordered, That the report of the Commissioners 
to view and lay out a road * * * through Cole's Grove to 
Fort Edwards, be accepted as far as the north line of section 27, 
town 6 south, 5 west; that being as far as said Commissoners were 
able to proceed, owing to the excessive vegetation; and it is further 
ordered (time extended) until after the vegetation shall be destroy- 
ed hy frost,'''' etc. 

Nothing further concerning this part of the county till December 
6,1824: "Ordered, That all the part of the Fort Edwards road 


between Bear creek and Fort Edwards, be and compose the 8th 
district of said road, and that Samuel Groshong be appointed 

And on March 7, 182.5—" Ordered, That a ferry license be grant- 
ed to Peter Williams to keep a ferry across the Mississippi river 
at Fort Edwards, on his paying a tax of five dollars besides the 
Clerk's fees; and that the following rates of ferriage be established, 

"For a sinsrle person, $ .35 Every Dearborn wagon, $ .,5i) 

For a sino-le horse, 2.5 Other four-wheeled carriages,. . . 1 00 

Head of clittle over 1 year old,. . .25 Two-wheeled carriage, 75 

Ho", sheep, or goat, 06^ . Every cwt. of dead lumber, 061^" 

This was the first legalized ferry ever established within the 
limits of Hancock county. The last entry is in relation to the 
Fort Edwards road again, April 27, 1825: 

" Ordered, That Levi Hadley, John Wood, and Willard Keyes 
be, and they are hereby appointed Commissioners to survey and 
locate that part of the Fort Edwards road, commencing at a point 
above Mill creek and continuing on to Fort Edwards on the bluffs, 
or where they think the best ground; provided, that said Com- 
missioners will perform said service gratuitously and without ex- 
pense to the county."* 

The first session of the Adams County Court was held at Quincy, 
at the house of Willard Iveyes, on Monday, the -ith of July, 1825; 
Peter Journey, Willard Keyes, and Levi Wells, Commissioners; 
Henry H. Snow, Clerk. 

At regular September term grand jurors were ordered summon- 
ed, and we find the following residents of this county: Morrill 
Marston, Lewis Kinney, Luther Whitney, and Beuj. McNitt; and 
of the petit jurors: Hezekiah Spillman and Peter Williams. 

Nov. 9, 1825 — "Ordered, That the attached part of this county 
be set ofi" into an election precinct, to be called Fort Edwards pre- 
cinct, and that all elections for civil ofiicers be held at the house of 
Lewis Kinney in said precinct ; Lewis Kinney, Luther Whitney 
and Peter Williams, Judges of Election." 

Dec. 6, 1825 — Jeremiah Hose, John Wood and Henry H. Snow 
were appointed to view a road leading' east to intersect Fort Ed- 
wards road, laid out in June, 1825, by Pike county. 

Luther Whitney, Lewis Kinney and Truman Streeter, appointed 
to view a road from Bear creek (where the viewers appointed by 
Pike county left ofi") to Fort Edwards. 

Dec. 15, 1825 — " Ordered, That Luther Whitney be appointed 
Supervisor of all roads from Bear creek to Fort Edwards, and that 
he have charge of all hands between said points." 

* For the foregoing extracts from the records of Pike county we are indebted 
to W. B. Grimes, Esq., the gentlemanly Deputy County Clerk, at Pittsfield. 


March 6, 1S26 — The following were established as tavern rates in 
the count}' of Adams, including Hancock: 

For each meal $ .25 Wine per bottle $1.00 

Lodi;iii£c pernigUt 12i< Gin " ' " 18^ 

Half pint whisky Vi^ Single horse feed 13i| 

" French brandy 37i.^ Horse feed per night, with fod- 

" rum '. IS'^i der and grain 2.5 

" wine ST'j 

June 5, 1S26 — Lewis C. E. Hamilton appeared in open court, 
and entered as a matter of record, the emancipation of a certain 
negro boy named Buck, born the 16th day of December, 1S17, — 
and entered into bond for his maintenance as tlie law requires. 

Peter Williams appointed Constable. 

Peter Williams, Jerry Hill and Luther Whitney, appointed 
Judges of Election in Fort Edwards precinct. 

Dec.6, 1S26 — Hezekiah Spillman, Peter Williams, James White, 
Russell Farnham, Morrill Marston, Lewis Kinney, Luther Whit- 
ney, Benjamin McNitt, John Waggoner, and Curtis Caldwell (all 
of Hancock), on jury lists. 

Sept. i, 1S26 — Luther AYhitney a duly elected County Commis- 

Sept. 6 — Ordered, Tliat the Sheriff be authorized and required to 
have the court-house (log cabin 22 x IS, costing $185) suitably pre- 
pared fur the reception and accommodation of the next Circuit 
Court; that he provide a suitable place for the Judge's seat — to be 
nine feet long and platform one foot high — four 10-feet benches, 
and two 7-feet ditto, and a temporary table for the use of tlie bar. 

License granted to Russell Farnham as a non-resident peddler 
for one year, for $10 and Clerk's fees. 

March 5, 1S27 — On the application of Wesley Williavns, ordered, 
that a certificate of good moral character be granted him, for the 
purpose of obtaining a license to practice law in this State. 

James White, Peter Williams, and Luther Whitney, appointed 
to view and stake a road frotn Fort Edwards to the head of the 
rapids of the Des Moines — a road from thence to the settlement on 
Crooked creek in township 6 north, 5 west, and thence to Fort 

Said viewers reported to dispense with the road from the head 
of rapids to Crooked creek and thence to Fort Edwards, and say: 
" We set out from Fort Edwards a southeast direction, and turned 
a north direction as soon as we could get around the brakes, thence 
through prairies and timber a north direction, until we got oppo- 
site the rapids, thence we went a course a little north of west to 
the head of said rapids." 

Marcli 31, 1827 — Wesley Williams was unanimously appointed 
Treasirrer of Adams county. 

Sept. 5, 1827 — Wesley Williams appointed (afterward substi- 
tuted by Levi Wells) to draw the revenue of Adams county from 
the State Treasury, conditioned to " exchange it for specie, at not 
less than 70 cents to the dollar." 


1828 — James White elected a County Commissioner. John 
Harding, John Gregg, Jolin Clark, Hugh White, Henry Nichols, 
John E. Wilcox, Robert Wallace, Edson AVhitney, Daniel Cren- 
shaw, William Flint, and Andrew Vance (of Hancock) appear as 

Sept. 14, 1839 — [Hancock organized] and " Charles Holmes 
appointed Treasurer, to fill vacancy occasioned by the removal of 
Wesley Williams from the eounty." 


" To the Clerk of Adams county— Greeting : 

"Please to take notice that 1 have appointed the fifth Monday 
in October next for holding the Circuit Court in and for the county 
of Adams and State of Illinois. Given under my hand at Atlas, 
this 28th day of May, 1825. J. Y. Sawyer, Judge of tlie First 
Judicial Circuit." 

Court held as per order: 

Present— John York Sawyer, Judge; Henry H. Snow, Clerk; 
Levi Hadley, Sherift'; John Turney, Att. Gen. frotetn. 

Next term, Oct. 19, 1S26— Sawyer, Judge; Jonathan H. Pugh, 
on behalf of Attorney General. 

May 29, 1827— Samuel D. Lockwood, Judge: Wm. Thomas, 
Prosecutor ^?'o tern. 

Oct. 28, 1828 — Lockwood, Judge; Wm. Young appointed to 

"The first trip ever made by a steamboat from St. Louis as high 
up as Galena, by private enterprise, was made in the spring of 1827, 
by Capt. James May, with the steamer Shamrock. Steamboats 
had been employed by the Government some three years previously, 
to carry military stores and soldiers to Forts Armstrong, Crawford 
and Snelling."— [Charles Nkgds, before Van Buren {Iowa) 

* For these extracts from Adams county records, and for numerous other favors, 
we are mdebted to Gen. E. B. Hamilton, of the Quincy Bar. 



Judge Young's order for organizing the county of Hancock was 
issued in the summer of 1829, and it recited that the county was 
represented to contain a population of 350 persons, the number 
fixed by law to enable it to maintain a separate existence. Count- 
ing one to five of population, would give it seventy adult male citi- 
zens. At the first session of the County Commissioners' Court, there 
were sixty men selected to serve as jurors in the Circuit Court, 
twenty-four for the grand and thirty-six for the petit jury. There 
had been five men elected to county oflices (three County Commis- 
sioners a Sherift' and a Coroner,) and the Board of Commissioners 
had appointed its clerk. There were thus sixty-six men named as 
residents of the count}' in the month of August, 1829. 

These facts present some points of inquiry which we have been 
at some trouble to investigate. Did it require all the adult male 
citizens to put the county machinery in motion ? And if there 
were left any other eligible citizens, who were they ? The inquiry 
has shown the fact that there were residing in the county, at the 
date of its organization, not only enough male adults to meet the 
requirements, but a few more; that there were certainly not less 
than seventy, perhaps seventy-five ; and that the county without 
doubt could honestly claim the requisite population. 

The matter is of little importance now, except as it presents the 
curious fact, that full thirteen-fourteenths of the eligible citizens of 
the county were pressed into active service the first year of its exist- 

Again, what of all those sixty or seventy men whose names ap- 
pear upon our county's records of fifty years ago ? Whence came 
they? and when? and what has become of them? As pioneers, as 
the first emigrants to, and settlers in this county, then a wilderness, 
now past the semi-centennial year of its existence, and peopled with 
nearly 50,000 human beings, they are deserving of more than usual 

But a remarkable and solemn fact is developed: Of those sixtj^- 
six pioneers, wlio were first called to serve the county in a civil ca- 
pacity, and who began to shape its destiny, not one now remains in 
the county ! and one only is known to be living at this date, Janu- 
ary 1, 1880 ! That one is Isaac R. Campbell, of St. Francisville, 
Mo., one of the grand jurors, and first County Treasurer. 

We have called them " pioneers " and " settlers. " Pioneers 
they certainly were, but a large number of them can scarcely be 


called settlers; for we find that many of them left the county at 
an early day, to pioneer, and perhaps to settle in still newer locali- 
ties. More than one (as will be seen) left the county for the 
county's good; some left it to make homes and grow up with the 
country elsewhere; while still others remained to be good citizens 
and do further service, and died regretted. 

After much labor and inquiry, we have been able to gather in- 
formation concerning many of these, which we present in the order 
in which tliey are named on the records, beginning with 


liichard If. Young~^\\o occupied the bench of the Fifth Judi- 
cial Circuit at the time Hancock was organized, and whose duty it 
was made by law to issue the order for organization, was a native 
of Kentucky, and was an early settler in the State. He was ap- 
pointed to the Judgeship in 1828, and resided at Galena, but after- 
ward settled in Quincy. His circuit embraced all the counties 
between the Illinois river and Galena, and east to Chicago. In 
1837 he was elected by the Legislature to the U. S. Senate, and 
after his term of service had expired, w*s appointed by President 
Polk to be Commissioner of the General Land Office. Henry 
Asbury, Esq., of Quincy, in his " Sketclies of the Bench and Bar," 
published in the Quincy TP%;'gr, says of Judge Young: 

"Judge Young resided here for many years. He was a gentle- 
man in all his aspects — not perhaps the most profound of our judges 
and lawyers, but for his day and time, and in the absence of 
modern facilities and great libraries, his attainments were of such 
a character as to command for his memory our high respect. He 
was an honest man, and died in poverty at Washington city some 
years ago, though he had been Judge of the Supreme and Circuit 
"Courts in Illinois, a Senator in Congress, and Commissioner of 
the General Land Office. His open-handed generosity left him 
poor in his old age." 

Judge Young's term on the circuit lasted eight or nine j^ears. 
The first sessions of his courts were held at private houses on the 
rapids, afterward in the log cabin court-house in Carthage, in 
which the bench was a splint-bottomed chair, the lawyers, juries 
and clients occupying the slab benches. 

Dignified and courteous in his demeanor, on and off the Bench, 
we believe that it can be truly said, that no one of his many suc- 
cessors ever gave more general satisfaction to the people, or carried 
with him in his retirement more of their sincere respect, than did 
Judge Young. 

George Y. Cutler — Was one of the three to whom Judge Young 
addressed his order, and was consequently one of the judges of the 
first election. He was a popular man, as he received fifty votes of 
less than sixty cast for Commissioners, with six candidates running. 
Concerning Mr. C, we can obtain but little information. He 
resided at the head of the rapids, wliere he sold goods; was a 


wliole-souled, genial man — a native of one of tlie New England 
States. He died about 183J:, and liis estate stands sixth of entry on 
the Probate records, under date of Sept. 1, 1834. How long he liad 
been in the count}' is not ascertained. "Cutler's Grave," sur- 
rounded by a wall of stone, is still an object of note, near the bank 
of the Mississippi at Nauvoo. 

Henry Nichols — One of the first County Coramissionei-s — having 
received 37 votes — came to the county at an early day, date not 
known ; neither do we learn the State of his nativity. He settled 
in Rocky Run township, where he continued to reside until about 
25 years ago, when he removed to Wisconsin, where he was lately 
residing, in a green old age, and in excellent health. He was mar- 
ried to Miss Delia, the daughter of Luther AVhitney, and sister to 
Sheriff Edson and Horace B. Whitney. His son, Luther, resides 
at the same place in Wisconsin. 

Judge Nichols was a man higlily esteemed by his neighbors, was 
an active and prominent participator in public affairs, and was fre- 
quently honored with oflices of trust in the county. 

James White. — Captain White was a juror for Adams county iu 
the first j'ear of its existence (1825), and received thirty-one votes 
at the first election in Hancock, electing him by one majority over 
Major Morrill Marston. Capt. White was born in Ohio, whence 
he emigrated to Missouri Territory in 1818, three years before'it 
became a State. In 1824 — or, perhaps, 1823 — he came to reside 
and trade with the Sac and Fox Indians, who at that time had a 
large village of some 400 or 500 lodges at the head of the rapids, 
where Nauvoo now stands. In 1824, the treaty was made with 
those Indians by the general Government, by which they relin- 
quished their lands on this side of the ri\er. Capt. White, wishing 
to obtain possession of the site of their village, for the payment of 
200 sacks of corn, induced them to vacate in his favor — when they 
loaded their loik-ke-iijjs and other " plunder " i\ito their " dug-outs" 
and paddled across to the Iowa sliore. On the vacated spot, Mr. 
White opened out a farm ; but his chief occupation during the 
remainder of his life — or until the business was superseded by 
steamboats — was that of keel-boating on the Mississippi. In this 
business he was assisted by his two sons, Alexander and Hugh, and 
by his future son-in-law, Isaac Newton Waggoner. His old resi- 
dence stood on the bank of the river, near where the Nauvoo House 
now stands. He died June, 1837. His son, Alexander, survived 
him only a few months — died October, 1837. The son Hugh for 
many years resided near the old place, and followed the business of 
steamboat piloting, and was widely known between St. Louis and 
Galena. William, the thii'd son, died early. 

Alexander Wliite in his later years was engaged in merchandis- 
ing. He was a candidate for Sherifi" at the first election, but was 
beaten by 

Eison Whitney. — This gentleman received 31 votes, to Mr. 
White's 22. He was the son of Luther Whitnej', one of the per- 


sons to whom Judge Young's order was addressed. He afterward 
resided on a farm nine miles below Warsaw, in Eock}' Run town- 
ship. He was re-elected to the oiSce of Sheriff for several terms, 
Mr. White being his competitor on two or three occasions. Mr. 
Whitney was an active politician of tlie Whig school, and an 
efficient and capable officer. In the difficulties between the old citi- 
zens and Mormons he took an active part. He was married to a 
daughter of Charles Hill, and sister of the late Davis Hill, of 
Eockj Eun. Mr. Whitney removed with his family to Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, some 20 or 25 years ago, and died ten or a dozen 
years since. 

Robert Wallace — Was elected Coroner without opposition. 
That he resided somewhere along the rapids, is all that we can 
learn of him. He left the county at an early period. 

John Johnson. — This gentleman was chosen the first County Sur- 
veyor, not by election, but by appointment from the Governor, 
liaving been recommended to that position by the County Commis- 
sioners at their first session. He was also on the first grand jury 
list. Mr. J. resided at Eiverside, and was appointed Postmaster at 
Montebello by President Jackson, an office which he held till his 
death, Dec. 31, 1836. Of his nativity or early life little is known. 

Wesley Willia im-. — A.t the first session of the County Com raission- 
ers'Court Mr. Williams was chosen Clerk to the Board ; and afterward, 
when Judge Young opened the first Circuit Court, in October 
of the same year, he was appointed Circuit Clerk. These two 
positions he held for several years, besides several others to which 
he was subsequently appointed ; and with what fidelity and correct- 
ness, the early records of the county will abundantly show. iS^o 
man among the pioneers of Hancock countj' was better known than 
he i)i its earlier days ; and no one, perhaps, among them all did 
more to shape its destinies. 

Mr. Williams was a resident of Quincy several years, and held 
offices of trust there — that of Treasurer of Adams county the year 
previous to the separation. On the organization of Hancock, he 
resigned and removed to this county, and was appointed to the 
clerkship here. He was a lawyer by profession, though he never 
engaged in general practice in this county, his official duties re- 
quiring his undivided attention. Previous to the removal of the 
county-seat to Carthage, he was Clerk ot both the Circuit and 
County Commissioners' Courts, and also Judge of Probate, and 
after removal to Carthage he was appointed Postmaster, a position 
he held for several years. His son, Samuel Otho Williams, a young 
man of e.xcellent clerical al)ility, assisted him in his official duties, 
and was at one time for a short period Circuit Clerk by appoint- 
ment. He was married to a Miss Baldwin, of Carthage', and died 
two or three years later. 

_ Wesley Williams was one of three brothers, all lawyers by profes- 
sion, natives of Kentucky, who came to Quincy and' settled about 
1825 or 1826. Archibald, elsewhere referred to in these pages, 


remained in Ailams coi.nt}', but became eminent asa jurist, and had 
an extensive practice throughout the Circuit and the State. Robert 
E. and Wesley settled in this county about the same period. Of the 
former but little is known, as he died at an early day. 

Wesley AVilliams was beirn in Lincoln county, Ky., March 24, 
1792, and died at Fountain Green, May 12, 1870, aged 78 years, 
1 month and 18 days. He was married in Bourbon county, Ky., 
on April 2, 1816, to Miss Elizabeth Ayres, from whom he 
was divorced in this county (she never residing west with him). 
He was again married to Ruth Scobey, June 9, 1831. Three sons 
and two daughters were the fruits of these marriages — Eli. 11., now 
residing at Carthage, Samuel Otho, before mentioned, and Wesley 
C, residing in Prairie township, and Isabel (Spangler) of Fountain 
Green, and Kate (present name unknown). Wesley C. is said to 
have been the first child born in Carthage. 

Isaac II. Campbell. — This name closes the list of county officials 
in 1829. Mr. C. was the first Treasurer of the county, not by elec- 
tion, but by appointment of the County Commissioners' Court. He 
remained in the county for only a few years, and finally settled at 
St. Francisville, Mo., where he is still living at the date of this 
present writing, at an advanced age, the only living representative 
of Hancock's first ofiicials, and probably the only remaining one of 
her sixt}' jurymen of fifty years ago. 

We notice among the early marriage licenses granted in the 
county, one (the 9th) to Isaac R. Campbell and Emily Davis, cere- 
mony performed by Luther Whitney, Esq. 


The following are the names of first panel of grand jurors selected 
b}' the County Commissioners' Court, with such account of them as 
we have been able to obtain, viz: 

Daniel Crenthaw — Resided in what is now EockyRun town- 
ship. Died in 1831. His estate stands third on the probate records 
for settlement, under date of October, 1831. Some of his descend- 
ants (or relatives), we believe, are still residents of that township. 

Luther Whitney. — This gentleman, with his sons, Edson and 
and Horace B., came to this county at an early period — exact date 
not ascertained, but he was here while the county was a part of 
Pike. lie resided in Montebello township. His name appears on 
the jury list of both Pike and Adams counties; and he held the 
office of County Commissioner in Adams in 1826. Mr. Whitney 
was a native of Vermont, but removed to Kentucky at an early 
day, thence to Missouri, thence to Hancock county. He lived 
only a few years after organization. He served also in the capacity 
of Justice of the Peace, and was a prominent man in many re- 
spects, though we obtain but little of his career. 

Morrill Marston. — -Major Marston was one of the officers at 
FortEdwards, and, at the time of the abandonment of the fort, was 


court-martialed, we believe for intemperance. He settled in the 
county a short distance below the fort, near the Calamus spring, 
where he opened a farm. He was a native of Rockingham county, 
New Hampshire. His name also occurs on the Pike and Adams 
jury lists. 

Major Marston was a very intemperate man, and died in a fit of 
intemperance by drowning, as was supposed — having been found 
in a shallow slough between tlie fort and his residence. His estate 
stands firstof entry on the records of the Probate Court, under date 
of March, 1831. He had no relatives or heirs in the county at time 
of his death, and his estate was put into the hands of administra- 
tors ad interim, and finally administered by his brother, David 
Marston, who came west for the purpose. 

John Clark — Resided in the vicinity of Fort Edwards, and was 
one of a family of three brothers, all of whom resided in this 
vicinity, and still have relatives here. John Clark died many 
years ago. 

Leonard L. Ahney. — Resided near the Calamus spring below » 
Fort Edwards. His name ayjpears in the list of candidates for 
County Commissioner in 1832, and in 1833 ho was an acting Justice 
of the Peace. 

Ph'dip Malette — One of the early Frenchmen, resided in the 
vicinity of the fort. The early Circuit Court records show a divorce 
case between him and his wife. He left the county soon afterward, 
and nothing further is known of him. 

Williaiii Clark — Brother to John Clark, left the county at a 
very early day. 

Thomas Payne — Resided near Calamus spring. Was said to be 
descended from Spanisli or French parents, and 'was from Vin- 
cennes, Indiana. Left in early times. 

JoJin Johnson. — ^See p. 218. 

John Harding — Resided in the Bear creek region, not far from 
the present village of Chili. The three Hardings named in these 
lists must have been among the earliest, if not the very first, set- 
tlers in the south part of the county. The name of John Harding 
appears as one of the jurors while the county was attached to 
Adams, in 1827. He sold the farm on which he resided, adjoining 
the town of Chili, to Elisha Worrell, Esq., in 1835, and removed to 
parts unknown. 

William Vance — Son-in-law to Luther Whitney, resided on 
the river near Montebello. 

Mazen Bedell — A New Englander, resided at Montebello, and 
was the first Postmaster at that place, appointed under President 
Jackson's administration in 1830; was also a Justice of the Peace 
in 1831. Mr. Bedell died about the beginning of 1835, leaving a 
widow and three children, all of whom afterward went to Warsaw 
to reside. Tiie eldest son, Edward A., was for many years an active 
business man in that place. During the Mormon difficulties he 
took an active part as a " peace man," and was one of the most 


prominent of that class designated as " Jack-Mornion>." He le- 
ceived the appointment of Indian Agent to Utah, and died in 
1854, soon after his appointment. Tlie second son, Lucien, studied 
medicine and went west. Tlie daughter was the lately deceased 
widow of Samuel AV. Brown, formerly of Warsaw. 

John Waggonner — -Was perhaps the first settler at Riverside. 
He settled there in 1824. He had previously been one of the 
pioneers in the settlement of the city of Cincinnati, there being 
a tradition in the family that he built the first cabin in that city. 
This is probably a mistalve, as the Cincinnati Historical Society 
records the fact and gives a list of the names of some 30 or 40 first 
emigrants to that place (then called Losantiville) in a body from 
Maysville, Kentucky, and Mi\ Waggonner's name does not appear 
in the list. At the time of his settlement in this county his fam- 
ily consisted of four sons, — Isaac Newton, Price, Henr>' Clinton, 
and Seth. A sketch of the eldest will be found elsewhere in these 
phages. Price and Henry C. both became steamboat engineers, 
and went to St. Louis to reside; now both deceased. Seth died at 
the age of 18. The father died at Eiverside in 1S39, and his re- 
mains lie buried in the old and neglected Montebello cemetery, 
on the high bluft' overlooking the rapids, and not far from the res- 
idence of the family. 

James Miller — Resided somewhere along the rapids; place of 
nativity or other antecedents unknown. Emigrated to Warren 
county about 1832, thence to Texas, and finallj' to Oregon. 

Davidson H'lbhard. — This gentleman resided on the bluflf just 
below Commerce, where he had a farm, part of which was finally 
swallowed up by the encroachments of the city of Nauvoo. For 
tlie main portion of the account which follows, we are indebted to 
his grand-son, Wm. D. Hibbard, Esq., of Nauvoo. The exact 
date of Mr. Hibbard's emigration to the county is not recollected. 
He was born in New Hampshire in 1780, aiift married in Maine, 
in 1816, to Miss Sarah Tiltou. They were the parents of five chil- 
dren, — one son and four daughters. He remained on the place 
where he settled until his death, which occurred in the fall of 
1852, in the 67th year of his age. His widow is yet living (1879) 
at the advanced age of 86, but has'been an invalid for several years. 

There was but one other white family within several miles, when 
Mr. Hibbard first settled in the county, which was that of Captain 
James White, heretofore mentioned. For a number of years they 
were compelled to go to Crooked creek in Schujder county, to 
mill. There were many Indians in the neighborhood (Sacs and 
Foxes), with whom he dealt and maintained uninterrupted friend- 
ship. He was well acquainted with Black Hawk and Keokuk, 
both of wliom were present at a double wedding of his two daugh- 
ters, one of them marrying a son of Capt. White, and the other a 
Mr. Waggon ner. 

At the time of the coming of the Mormons to Nauvoo, Mr. 
Hibbard was in a prosperous condition, and suffered much from 


the depredations of the thieves associated with that sect, as they 
stole ahnost all the movable property he had; at one time even 
driving oflF a drove of fat hogs he had fed for market; and so 
adroitly did they execute their\vork, that not a trace of them could 
be discovered. 

Mr. Hibbard was ingenious and enterprising, and was an efficient 
•vrorkman in either wood or stone; could make almost anything 
from a violin to a wagon, and thus did he appear to be well fitted 
for a frontiersman. He built the first stone house that was put up 
in Nauvoo, which is still standing, the masonry being apparently 
as good as when built. 

Mr. II. was a member of the Masonic fraternity, and was highly 
respected by the members of iiis lodge, as he was by all who knew 
him; and the old settlers who knew him yet respect his memory 
and speak of his virtues and intelligence. At the time of his 
death he was possessed of considerable property. 

Dewey. — Nothing to be known of him, not even his full 

name. On the probate books, however, we find the name of Joseph 
Dewey, deceased, under date of December, 1834. 

Samuel Gooch — ^Residence somewhere along the rapids — re- 
moved in early times to some point north of Carthage, and after- 
wards to Fort" Madison, Iowa, wliere he made a claim. Died about 

John Seed — Resided in what is now Appanoose township. Gone. 
His name appears twice on the jury lists for the next year — 1830. 

Edward White. — Mr. White resided on the Mississippi, above 
Commerce, in Appanoose township. In the earlier j-ears he was 
engaged with Capt. James "White in his keel-boating business, and 
afterward, in 1832, in connection with his son-in-law, Mr. Amzi 
Doolittle, established a ferry, crossing the river at or near Fort 
Madison, and in July, 1836, laid out the town of Appanoose. Of 
his antecedents littlens known, excepting tliat he came from Ohio. 

Hugh Wilson. — From his son, Mr. James Wilson, a respected 
citizen of Sonora township, we gather the following particulars of 
the life of this, one of the early settlers ot the county-. A Ken- 
tuckian by birth, he had resided some time in Tennessee, where he 
married a Miss Susan Skiles, before he came to Illinois. He re- 
moved with his family to Schuyler county in 1825, and to Hancock 
in 1827, and settled near Ijie head of the rapids. The log cabin 
he built for his residence was about the third or fourth one in that 
vicinity. Mr. W. only remained in the county for a few years; 
in 1833 removed across the Mississippi to the vicinity of Fort 
Madison, which was then a part of Michigan. There he resided 
till his death in 1847 or '48. Some of his children still reside in 
that vicinity. Mrs. Wilson died about ten years after her husband. 

The story of Mr. Wilson's experience on the prairie during the 
great storm of 1830, in which his neighbo.' and companion met 
such a tragical fate, will be found on another page. 



Horace B. Whitney — Was the son of Luther Whitney, and brother 
to Sheriff Whitney. Died in 1835, as appears on records of Pro- 
bate Court of June in that year. 

John R Wdcod\ — This gentleman was a Major among the offi- 
cers at the fort, and settled at tlie place after the fort was evacuated 
in 1824. For furtlier particulars concerning him, see biography of 
his son, Dr. Lewis Wilcox, of Warsaw. 

Edward Robertson. — No account of this juror can be obtained. 
Ilis name also appears on the jury list for the spring term of 1830, 
and then disappears from the records, as he doubtless did from the 

Samuel Brierly. — Was married to a daughter of Dr. Isaac Gal- 
land, and was for a time associated with the Doctor in selling goods 
at Commerce. About 1840 he removed to the other side of the 

James Brierly.- — An elder brother to the above had emigrated 
to the EEalf-Breed tract, across the river, previous to 1837, and 
resided at that date about four miles below Fort Des Moines (now 
Montrose). He was a candidate and elected once, if not oftener, to 
the Territorial Legislature. They both left Lee county 25 or 30 
years ago, and settled in Buchanan county. Mo.' There James 
became an active Union man, and was elected as snchto the Missouri 
Legislature. The other died some years since in or near St. Joseph. 
Thomas, a younger brother, went into steamboating on the Mis- 
souri, became rich, ran a packet between St. Louis and St. Joseph; 
and finally, with a fine boat of wliich he was one-third owner, ran 
the blockade during the Eebellion to join the rebels; the boat was 
finally burnt in the Yazoo river, to prevent her falling into the 
hands of the Union troops; and he, reduced to poverty, died at the 

Rohert Harding. — A relative, as supposed of John Harding, one 
of the grand jurors. As was also 

Aaron Harding — And all resided iu the same vicinity. Green 
Harding, a present resident there, is a relative of the family, to 
whom we made application for information, but without success. 

Richard Chaney — Resided near the mouth of the stream known 
as Chaney creek, and from whom it derived its name. Mr. Chaney 
was said to have been a native of Prince George's county, Mary- 
land, born in sight of the ''Federal city." The date of his emi- 
gration to the county is not known. About 1833 he removed to, 
and settled in Fort Madison, and was among its earliest inhabitants. 
Has since kept a hotel at Iowa city. 

Benjamin T. Tungate — Resided in the vicinity of Chaney creek, 
and removed up the Oes Moines river as early as 1836. He took 
out the second marriage license and was married to Deborah Flint, 
another early settler, October 17, 1829. 

George W. Harper — Resided on the rapids at Montebello, near 
where theConwre^ational Church now stands. His name stands on 


botli jury lists for 1S30. He is said to have emigrated West about 
1834, by some of the old settlers; while others think he was the 
Harper "who met his tate in company with Hugh Wilson in the 
great snow storm. (See another chapter.) 

Charles Iiobiso}i—Was born in Western New York about 1773. 
He came West in 1823 to the Wabash country, thence to Sangamon 
county, where he remained till the spring or summer of 1829, when 
he came to Hancock county and settled at the mouth ofLarry's 
creek, near the line between Montebello and Sonoma townships. At 
this place he continued to reside until the Mormon period, when he 
left the State, settling at West Point, Lee county, la. There he 
continued to reside till his death. 

Mr. Kobison was a minister, we believe, of the Baptist Church, 
and labored in that field with good acceptance among the people, to 
whom he became widely- known. He had several children; one son, 
Chauncey, now resides in Appanoose. One or more of the sons 
joined the Mormons and went away with them to Salt Lake. His 
daughtei', Eliza, was the legal wife of Gen. Daniel H. Wells, one of 
the chief magnates now of Salt Lake, but from whom she separated 
and refused to go with him, because he declined to renounce the 
Spiritual Wife doctrine, at that time being inculcated at Nauvoo. 
He is stated to have supplied her place, however, with several others. 
She now resides in Burlington, Iowa. 

Patrick Moffit. — -Li this name, the generally correct Clerk, 
Williams, has made a mistake, as there was no Patrick among the 
the pioneer MofEts of the county. James, John and Thomas were 
the three Moffits who originally settled in the vicinity of Yenus, at 
the head of the rapids. James and John (dietant relatives of the 
present James, junior, now residing in Sonora, from whom we 
obtain this information), were born in Ireland, county of Sligo, and 
came to America about 1818, single men. They located at an early 
day in Madison county, near Alton, but soon afterwards went to 
the lead mines near Galena, then the great center of attraction and 
speculation at the West. From the lead mines they went back East, 
to Central New York, and after a stay of a year or two, returned to 
Illinois and settled on the rapids, in what is now Sonora township. 
The lands on which they settled were afterward purchased when 
they came into market, at the Quincy land-office. This settlement 
was made about 1827 or '28. James died Sept. 18,1868; John 
had died many years before. 

That the above-named Patrick Moffit was intended for one of 
these, is the more evident from the fact that the name occurs no 
where else in the early records; while James and John both appear 
on the jury lists for each term in 1830. Thomas, the third of the 
trio, did not come to the county till 1830. 

William Wallace — Resided on the place on the rapids bluff, 
below Venus, afterwards occupied by Roger Hibbard. He soon left 
for Warren county. 

Enoch Hankim — (not Hawkins, as printed in some of the 


cm^TL^ QS'^duAy 



sketches of the count}') — Was one oftliose M'ho '• left liis country for 
his country's good," heino; tlie individual who has the reputation 
oflieiiiir Hancock conuty^s first imirderer/ He stands charged 
with killing a Mr. ^loore, during court, on the rapids, in 1832. 
Resided in what is now Sonora township, and was an emigrant 
from Ohio. He was arrested, and tliere being no jail in the county, 
he was taken to Qnincv for imprisonment. There he broke jail, 
and was never more heard of 

Abraham Moore — The victim of Hankin's murder, resided on the 
rapids. Cause of the murder, an old grudge; said to have been 
neighliors in Ohio. 

Asa Reed — Resided near the head of the rapids, as some citizens 
remember, but nothing more can be learned of him. 

William Flint — Ditto, and ditto. Probably a relative of 
Deborah F'lint. 

Peter Williams — Resided near Fort Edwards, and was without 
doubt one of Hancock's very earliest settlers. He was here when 
it was a part of Pike, and was licensed to keep a ferry at the fort 
by the Pike authorities in 1825. A correspondent informs us that 
Mr. Williams stated to him that he resided at the fort when the 
first steamboat ascended the river [doubtful], and that " he thought 
the destroying angel had come " — not one of the " Destroying 
Angels " that were afterward so notorious at ISTauvoo. What the 
year was we are not able to say. AVe have heard Mr. W. mentioned 
as a minister of the gospel, but whether attached to any denomi- 
nation we cannot say. 

In 1832, he, with others, made claims in Fort Madison, Iowa; 
and in 1833, says our correspondent, "his cabin and that of Rich- 
ard Clianey, with the two chimneys of the old fort, were the 
improvements of Fort Madison." 

Daniel Yan BurMoe — Resided near Venus.; no further account 
of him, excepting that there was a Yan Burkloe residing in the 
neighborhood after the Mormons came. 

Avizi Doolittle. — At the time of his death, which occurred in 
1878, Mr. D. was the only remaining member of the first juries, 
and the last man but one of the 66 men who set the wheels of 
government in motion in the county. He was an active business 
man during the whole period of more than half a century of civil- 
ization. He was a native of Madison county, N. Y., and was born 
June 16, 1803. He came to this county in 1827, from Schuyler, 
where, and in Sangamon, lie had resided about six years, having 
emigrated to the State at the age of 18. • 

Mr. Doolittle's first wife was a daughter of Mr. Edward White, 
heretofore mentioned in this list of jurors. She died in 1845, and 
in 1846 he was married again to Mrs. Sarah M. Wallace, who is 
still living. In September, 1832, Mr. D., in conjunction with 
his father-in-law, was licensed to establish a ferry at Appa- 
noose, and in July, 1836, the sameparties laid out the town of Appa- 
noose, named after an Indian chief well known at that time. It 
is remembered that a steam ferry-boat belonging to this company 
was disabled in a storm, or in the ice, near Nauvoo, early in the 



Mormon period, and left over night; the next day, on going to- it, 
its owners found it stripped of everything that could be carried 
away — even to the lighter parts of its machinery stolen. 

Hezekiah Spillman.—T\i\s gentleman was also an Adams county 
juryman in 1825. At what time he came to the county, or where 
from, we cannot ascertain. He died many years ago. He resided 
at what was known as Spillman's Lauding, on the Mississippi, in 
the north part of the county. 

Richard Dunn. — This gentleman was son-in-law to Mr. Hugh 
Wilson, and, it is supposed, left the county at the same time, and 
died at or near Fort Madison. 

Yaples — As entered on the jury list, was John Yaple, a 

native of New York, who resided at or near where Pontoosuc now 
stands. From his native State he emigrated to Ohio, thence to 
Morgan county. 111., and thence to Hancock. He died about 1842, 
on his way to Texas. Messrs. White and Doolittle, Hezekiah 
Spillman and Mr. Yaple were probably four of the earliest settlers 
in the county, above the head of the rapids. Warren, born in 
Morgan, and James M. and Oscar, born in Hancock, are his three 

Mrs. Warren Yaple, residing near Adrian, in Rock Creek town- 
shio, from whom we obtain these facts, relates the following inci- 
dent, as occurring soon alter settling in this c6unty: The Indians 
were plentiful in those days along the river; and one day a squaw 
brought her own pappoose to the Yaple cabin, and taking the white 
child from its cradle unobserved, deposited her own in its place, 
and was making off with it. The exchange was discovered in time; 
she was followed, and each babe restored to its rightful mother. 
On being questioned as to her reasons for doing it, she said she 
wanted a white pappoose! 

SamUel Bell — Was a resident somewhere along the rapids, was 
with Capt. White in the keel-boating, and is believed to have died 
of cholera about 1832. 

Noah W. Payne — A brother to Thomas Payne, and a resident in 
the vicinity of the fort. 

Lewis — Given name even not ascertained, resided on the 

rapids, and is supposed to have also gone, with the many others, 
over to the " 'ise.w Purchase." 

Eeuben Brattan, John Sykes, Abijah Wilson, Abdiel Parsons, 
Charles Smith. Nathaniel Kennedy, John Campbell, Ralph 
Raburn, Thomas Safly, Arthur Parrin, Joseph P. Punyear, — eleven 
others belonging to the first juries, — we cannot trace. Some of them 
are remembered by old settlers, but whence they came or what be- 
came of them is left to conjecture. 

The foregoing includes all the names of citizens of the county 
that appear on the records as residents at date of organization, 
August 4, 1829. That there were a few others has been made evi- 
dent in the course of our inquiries; although for a time it seemed 
pretty certain that all the adult males had been pressed into active 
service at the very fij-st session of the County Commissioners' 
Court. Such of those not named in these lists, as can be ascer- 
tained, will be noticed hereafter. 



On June 15, 1829, Judge Young issued the following order, viz: 

Fifth Judicial Circuit. J " " 

Whereas' It has been represented to me, the undersigned. Judge of the Fifth 
Judicial Circuit of the State of Illinois, north of the Illinois river, that the citi- 
zens of Hancock county in said State, are desirous that the same should be 
organized with as little delaj' as possible, and it apjiearing to my satisfaction that 
the said county contains three hundred and fifty inhabitants and upward ; 

I do hereby, in pursuance of the powers vested in me, by virtue of the ninth 
and eleventh sections of the act entitled "An act forming new counties out of the 
counties of Pike and Fulton, and the attached parts thereof," approved 13th 
January, 1825, order, direct and appoint that an election be held in some conven- 
ient house in Fort Edwards, in the said county of Hancock, on the first Monday 
iu August next, and to continue for one day only, for the following named otBcers, 
to-wit: Three County Commissioners, one Sheriff, and one Coroner, to serve, 
when elected and qualified, in and for the said county of Plancock; and I do 
hereby nominate and appoint Luther Whitney, James White and George Y. Cutler 
Judges of said Election, whose duty it shall be to give twenty days' notice of said 
election, by posting up copies of this order, with such other notice of the same 
as they may deem necessary, in eight of the most public places in said county, 
distributing them as uear as practicable among the principal settlements of the 
county, to the end that all persons concerned may have due notice. The election 
to be viva voce, and conducted in all respects as near as maybe in conformity with 
tlie laws now in force respecting elections ; and the result thereof, when ascer- 
tained, to be fairly and legibly made out, certified, and returned to the proper 
department, that commissions may issue without delay, to such persons as may be 
entitled thereto. And lastly, it is ordered, that Circuit Courts be held in and for 
the said county of Hancock, on the third Mondays in June, and fourth Mondays 
in October, at such place as may be selected by the County Commissioners of said 
county, until other regulations shall be made by law, or different times shall be 
appointed by the Judge of said Court. 

Given under my hand and seal at Quincy, in the county of Adams, 
[L S.] this fifteenth day of June, A. D. 1829, and of the Independence 

of the United States the fifty-third. 

Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the State of Illinois, north of the Illinois 

In pursuance of the foregoing order an election was held at Fort 
Edwards on the day named, being tlie tliird of August, with the 
following result: 

The Commissioners named in the order, acting as Judges, with 
Davidson Hibbard and John R. Wilcox as Clerks. 


Foe Codntt Commissionkk — 

George Y. Cutler received 50 votes- 
Henry Nichols 37 

James White 31 

Morrill Marston. 30 " 

Peter Williams 10 " 

Hazen Bedell ~ 9 " 

For Sheriff — 

Edson Whitney had 31 " 

Alexander White , 23 " 

For Coroner — 
Kobert Wallace had 35 " 

The next day the Coiintv Commissioners elect met at the same 
place and organized, when the following proceedings were had, as 
appears upon record: 

Hancock Coukty, j' 

At a County Commissioners' Court held in and for said county, at a special 
term at Fort Edwards in said county, on the fourth day of August, iu the year of 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine. Present, James White, 
George Y. Cutler, and Henry Nichols, Commissioners. 

Ordered, That Wesley Williams be apiiointed Clerk of this Court, temporarily, 
until superseded by a permanent appointment to that office ; who thereupon came 
into Court, was sworn according to law, and entered upon the duties of said 

Ordered, That Isaac R. Campbell be appointed Treasurer of the county, and 
that he give bond and security according to law, in the sum of one thousand dol- 

The Court proceeded to lay off and divide the count}- into districts for the elec- 
tion of Justices of the Peace and Constables, whereupon it is — 

Ordered, That all that part of the county lying between the north line of Adams 
county, and the line dividing townships four and live north, be erected into a dis- 
trict, to be known and designated as district No. 1, and that elections for Justices 
of the Peace and Constables be held at the house of Henr)- Nichols, in said dis- 
trict and that Luther Whitney, Henry Nichols and John Clark, be appointed 
Judges of Election therein. 

All that jiortion of the county lying between the south line of townships five 
north, and the north line of said townships, be erected into a district known and 
designated as district No. 2, and that elections therein be held at the house now 
occupied by William Vance, and that Hazen Bedell, Charles Robison, and John 
Waggonner, be appointed Judges of Election. 

All that portion of the county lying north of the township line between town- 
ships five and six north, and the north boundary of the county, be erected into a 
district to be known and designated as district No. 3, and that elections be held 
therein at the store of Alexander White, and that Davidson Hibbard, Peter Wil- 
liams and Edward White be appointed Judges of Election therem. 

Ordered, Tliat the following named pereons be summoned to attend Circuit 
Court of this county at the October term, to serve as grand jurors, to wit: 

Daniel Crenshaw, Thomas Payne, James Miller, ; 

Luther Whitney, John Sikes, Davidson Hibbard, 

Morrill Marston, John Johnson, Dewey, 

John Clark, John Harding, Samuel Gooch, 

Leonard L. Abney, Wm. Vance, John Reed, 

Philip Malette, Hazen Bedell, Isaac R. Campbell, 

Wra. Clark, John Waggonner, Edward White, 

Reuben Brattan, Robert Wallace, Hugh Wilson— 34. 


Ordered, That tlie following named persons be summoned to attend the Circuit 
Court of the county, at the October term ensuing, to serve as petit jurors, viz. : 

Horace 15. Whitney, Charles Robison, Asa Reed, 

John R. Wikox, Charles Smith, William Flint, 

Edward Robertson, Patrick Moffit, Peter Williams, 

Samuel Brierly, William Wallace, Daniel Van Burkloe, 

James Brierlyj Nathaniel Kennedy, Amzi Doolittle, 

Robert Harding, J<ilin Campbell, Hezekiah Spillman, 

Aaron Harding, Ralph Raborn, Richard Dunn, 

Abijah Wilsoii, Thomas Sotly, Yaples, 

Abdiel Parsons, Enoch Hankins, Samuel Bell, 

Richard Chaney, Arthur Parvin, Noah W. Payne, 

Benjamin T. Tungate, Abraham Moore, Joseph P. Puryear, 

George W. Harper, Alexander White, Lewis-36. 

On reading and filing tlie petition of a number of the citizens of the county, 
recommendin.s;' John Johnson as a suitable person to fill the office of Surveyor of 
this county, it is — 

Ordered, That he be recommended and nominated to the Executive of the State, 
to be commissioned Surveyor of this county. 

Ordered, That until otherwise directed, the courts of this county shall be held 
at the house of James White, at or near the head of the Lower rapids. 

Ordered, That John Tillson, Jr., be authorized and empowered to obtain from 
the Auditor of Public Accounts of this State, a warrant on tue treasury for the sum 
of §350, the amount of the revenue due this county from said State treasury for 
the year 1829 ; and the Auditor of Public Accounts is herebs' requested to issue his 
warrant accordingly. 

Ordered, That the Clerk of this Court make out a certified copy of the foregoing 
order, and enclose it to John Tillson, Jr., at Hillsboro, Montgomery county, in 
this State, advising him to obtain a warrant, and forward it to Tillson & Holmes 
in Quincy, subject to the further order of this Court, and to advise this Court of 
its being so forwarded. 

On motion of Wesley Williams, it is — 

Ordered, That the Clerk of this Court be permitted to hold his office at or near 
the house of Hazen Bedell, near the foot of the lower rapids, for the present, if 
he chooses. 

Ordered, That the Clerk of this Court be required to copy the proceedings of the 
court, into the records of this Court, when provided, and also to copy the order 
issued by the Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit Court north of the Illinois river, 
in relation to the organization of this county. 

Ordered, That Court adjourn till Court in course. 

Henry Nichols, 
James White, 
Geo. Y. Cutler. 

We copy the foregoing proceedings of the first Connty Comrais- 
sionei's' Court, in full, verbatim from the records. They are ex- 
ceedingly interesting for many reasons: First, they supply us with 
the names of nearly all the resident adult citizens in August of the 
year it was ushered into existence as an independent corporate com- 
munity. From the location of the several voting places fixed by 
the Court, we have evidence that the settlements were mainly on the 
west side, along the river from Rocky run to Spillman's Landing; 
none in the central portion. Three of the jury — the H-ardings — 
resided on the head waters of Bear creek, near the line of Adams. 
Fort Edwards, near the foot, and the little village of Venus at the 
head of the rapids, seem to have been fifty years ago the chief cen- 
ters of population and business. 

The Court held another, its regular, session in December, at the 
house of Commissioner White. At this session onlv Henrv Nichols 


and Mr. White were present. A subdivision of the county for 
general election purposes was made, as follows: The upper dis- 
trict to embrace all that portion of the county lying north of a line 
running through the center of townships five north; place of vot- 
ing, house of James White; Judges of Election, Peter Williams, 
Andrew Vance and James Miller. Loxver precinct^ all south of 
said line, with place of voting at house of Henry Nichols; Judges, 
John R. Wilcox, Luther Whitney and John Shewey. 

At this session was presented the first petition for a ferry license. 
It asked that Luther Whitney and William Vance be authorized 
to establish a ferrj' across the Mississippi river on or opposite the 
southwest quarter of section IS, five north, eight west. License was 
ordered ou condition that they pay into the county treasury the 
sum of one dollar, and tlie following ferry rates were fixed h-^ the 

For crossing a man and horse f 1.00 

A footman 50 

Wagon and team 3 00 

Cart and team 2.30 

Single horse 2.5 

Each head of cattle 35 

Each hog, sheep or goat ISJ^ 

This ferry was located about two miles above the present site of 
Hamilton, at the place now occupied by Mr. C. F. Darnell, then 
the residence of the petitioners Whitney and Vance. The property 
passed into otlier hands, and was for many years known as the 
Montebello House. 

At this term was also granted the first tavern license — to Alex- 
ander White, at his store in said county (head of the rapids), and 
that he enter into bond and pay two dollars tax on said license. 

Again John Tillson was asked to aid tlie count}' in procuring the 
revenue of -I^SoO due from the State treasury for 1830. 

Road surveys were ordered as follows: 1. Commencing at the 
termination of a road heretofoi'e viewed, thence to the north line of 
the county; 2. Commencing where the line dividing townships six 
and seven nortli strikes the Mississippi river, running in an east 
direction through the settlement on Crooked creek to the east boun- 
dary of tlie county; and 3. Commencing at some convenient point 
on the last named road, and running in a direction to strike the 
Mississippi river near the residence of Hezekiah Spillman. Edward 
Wliite, Hugli Wilson and John Bi'ewer, vjewers. 

This " settlement on Crooked creek " must at that date have 
been quite limited, as we can learn of but two resident families in 
that region in 1830, that of Mr. Brewer, above mentioned, and Mr. 
Ute Perkins, near Fountain Green. 

At this term, also, the first county orders were issued, numbering 
one to sixteen, inclusive, for the aggregate sum of $62.50, chiefly in 
payment of official services. 

The foregoing closes the official record of the County Court dur- 
ing the first five months of its existence. Within that period the 


little craft has weighed anchor and set sail on her uncertain voyage. 
Her principal otHcer, Clerk Williams, was a man of some previous 
experience; the others had seen little service of the kind. Yet they 
conducted the affairs of the craft reasonably well; and through all 
the changes and vicissitudes, the tempests and calms of half a cen- 
tury, she still rides the waves. 

At the March term, 1830, Wesley Williams was regularly 
appointed Clerk, to continue ''during good behavior," and required 
to give bond in one thousand dollars. 

In that day it was deemed expedient to fix the rates at which 
hotel-keepers should entertain the public; but whether for mere 
uniformity's sake, or because they were suspected of extortion, does 
not appear. Thus the County Board established the rates of fare 
for the guidance of the one " tavern " in the county, thus: 

Each meal of victuals 2.5 cents. 

Lodging, per night 123^ " 

Keeping a horse 2~i " 

Half pint of whisky 12}4 " 

Half pint of rum, gin, brandy or wine 25 " 

Single horse feed 123^ " 

At the March term, 1830, the taxation of the people began ; and, 
whatever else may have been remitted, as time progressed, that has 
gone on steadily for fifty years. We quote: 

Ordered, That an ad riiloremta.xhe levied on the value of the following described 
property, to wit : On horses, geldings, mares, mules and asses, stock in trade, 
wagons, carts, pleasure-carriages, clocks, watches, with their appendages, and 
cattle ; and the County Treasurer is ordered to assess the foregoingkinds of per- 
sonal property according to their value, at the rate of one half per centum. 

Another session was held in June, at which it was — 

Ordered, That the sum of .$4.5 be appropriated for the purchase of a suitable press' 
books and stationery, for the use of the Clerks' offices of this county. 

Bnt the Board took care that the Clerk should not run away with 
so large a sum of public money; for before receiving it he was 
required to enter into bonds with the Treasurer. 

It seems there was now (June, 1830) sufficient population in the 
eastern portions of this county to justify two new election districts; 
one was established eml;)racing townships six and seven north, and 
ranges five and six west, called the Crooked Creek district; elec- 
tions to be held at the house of Ute Perkins, with John Brewer, 
Thomas Brewer, and Henry Donohoe, as Judges; and another em- 
bracing townships three, four and five north, ranges five, six and 
seven west, to be called I3ear creek district; electiuns at the house 
of John Harding, witli John Harding, Robert P. Thurman and 
Robert Harding, Judges. The first of these included the present 
townships of La Harpe, Fountain Green, Pilot Grove and Durham; 
the other included Augusta, St. Mary's, Chili, Harmony, Bear 
Creek and St. Albans. 

The following are the jury lists selected at the June term, 1830: 




John Johnson, Sr., William Wallace, Andrew Vance, 

Squire D. Ensley, Arthur Parvin, Daniel V. Burkloe, 

George W. Harper, Hugh Wilson, Edward White, 

James Moffitt, John M. Forrest, John Johnson, Jr., 

David Long, Enoch Hankins, Ute Perkins, 

Rezin Bailey, John Waggonner, John Brewer, 

Abraham Moore, William Flint, Curtis Caldwell, 

John Harding — 32. 


Charles Hobison, Peter Williams, John Clark, 

John MolBtt, Amzi Doolittle, Lawson Hood, 

Edward Long, Hezekiah Spillman, Edward Robertson, 

William Southard, John Ritchie, William Clark, 

Thomas Sofly, Thomas Brewer, Robert P. Thurman, 

George Wilson, Henry Donohoe, Joseph Dewey, 

John Reed, Thomas Palmer, Nathan Kennedj', 

Alexander White, Morrill Marston, Charles D. Hill — 24. 

At the September term, Mr. Campbell being about to remove 
from the coiintj resigned the office of Treasurer, and George Y 
Cutler was appointed his successor. Mr. Campbell rendered the 
following account in delivering up the office: 

Treasurer of Hancock county. Dr. 

State Revenue for 1829 $262.50 

Tax on Tavern License — Alex. White, 2.00 

I. R. Campbell 2.00 

By county orders redeemed to this time, including allowance for taking 
lis's of taxable property for 1830, of $12.00, and the sura of $4.82J.|, 
commission on redeeming county orders $257,935^ 

Leaving a balance of $ 8.56J-4 

To State revenue for 1830, in Illinois State paper, $350.00. 

The revenue due from the State for 1829, we have seen, was 
* ); whether its reduction to $262.50 was due to depreciation in 
State Bank bills, or some other cause, does not appear. The Treas- 
urer's bill for assessing the county was $12 — cheap enough. But 
then he was allowed $4.82f commission, wiiicli gave him the 
large sum of sixteen — nearly seventeen — dollars, for his year's 
Continuing with the proceedings of the County Board: 
March Term, 1830— Ordered, That Court hereafter be held at 
Clerk's office, head of the rapids, instead of house of James White. 


Were ordered as follows: Ordered, That the device of the official 
seal of this Court be as follows: On the circle the words " Hancock 
County Comrars'. Court," with the word " Illinois " through the 
middle, and on one side of said word engraved a plow, and on 
the other a steamboat; and that the following be the device of 
the official seal of the Circuit Court, to-wit: "Hancock Circuit 
Court" engraved on the circle, and in the middle the rising sun 
with the fifjures "1829." 



Isaac R. Campbell and Liitlier Whitney, each licensed to keep 
tavern— bonds $100 each, tax $2.00. 

Jury lists selected at September term, 1830: 

Geo. Y. Cutler, 
Robt. Wallace, 
Ralph Raborn, 
James Wood, 
Wm. D. HickersoD, 
Wilson Turner, 
.Tames Miller, 
John Reynolds, 

Pierce Atchison, 
Alexander White, 
David Coon, 
John Gregg, 
Wm. Wallace, 
Thomas Long, 
Iluirh Wilson, 

James W. BraUle, 
Wm. Mattox, 
Sam'l Gooch, 
John Reed, 
Richard Dunn, 
Benjamin Mudd, 
John Day, 

John Moffitt, 
.Tames MotWtt, 
Jolm Robison, 
Chauncey Robison, 
Richard Chaney, 
Ralph Parsons, 
Geo. W. Harper, 
John Johnson, 

Beriah Doolittle, 
Edward Shipley, 
Leonarti L. Abney, 
"Wm. H. Peavy, 
Arthur Morgan, 
Reuben P. Thurman, 
Robert R. Williams— 22. 

Edward White. 
Isham Cochran, 
Lewis Peyton, 
Daniel Crenshaw, 
John Waggonner, 
Joseph Dewey, 
James Lincoln, 
Amzi Doolittle— 24. 

New ferry license — to Richard Clianey, at mouth of Chaney 
creek; and another, to Andrew Vance (renewal), at section 18. 

Dec. term, 1830 — Tavern license to Russell Farnham at Fort 
Edwards, and one to James White at the head of the rapids. 

Ferry license, June, 1831, to John R. Wilcox, on northwest of 
nine, four, nine; bond $100, ta.x $1.00. Rates of ferriage some- 
what reduced, 

Under this date we find an order fixing merchants' license at 
$5.00 each. 

County Commissioners' Court this year held at Montebello, at 
home of Hazen Bedell. 


Newspaper publishers in the county, had there been any, 
would not likely, as now, have cojtended for the tax lists in the 
primitive days. The delinquent list returned by Edson Whitney, 
Sheriff, to the County Commissioners' court, for the tax of 1830, 
amounted to the sum of four dollars and forty cents, all told! 


The question as to where and how the county-seat shall be located, 
seems to have agitated the public mind soon after organization; 
and there seems, as in most cases of the kind, to have been two or 
more projects advocated — one to locate on the river at Fort Ed- 
wards, and the other at a point at or near tlie center. It has not 
transpired that any very considerable warmth was manifested in 
favor of either proposition; but the action of the County Board 
proves that both were considered. An etiort was made, as will 
appear, to secure the fort fraction for that purpose, but failed. Had 


it succeeded, and the county-seat located there, and maintained at 
that point, there can be little doubt but there would now be there, 
instead of a little city of 4,000 or 5,000 inhabitants, one of four 
times that population. At the December term, 1830, an order was 
passed by the Commissioners requesting Senators and Representa- 
tives in the Legislature to procure the appointment of Commis- 
sioners to locate the seat of justice for the county; and another 
inquiring of the General Land-office at Washington, whether Han- 
cock county can be permitted to locate her county-seat on the 
fractional quarter-section on which Fort Edwards is situated. We 
do not tind of record any reply from tlie land department, but pre- 
sume the right was denied; for under proceedings of March term, 
1831, the Board took action looking to a central location. George 
Y. Cutler, Luther Whitney and John Johnson, being appointed a 
committee to ascertain the geographical center of the county, and 
make report of situation, etc., at next meeting of the Board. 

We don't Und any report from the committee, or any further 
action on the subject, until the following: 

"William Gillham and Scott Riggs, two of the Commissioners appointed to 
locate a permanent seat of justice, made the following report, to-wit: 

We, the undersigned, Commissioners appointed by the General Assemhly for 
the purpose of locating the seat of justice in the county of Hancock, have taken 
a general view of said county, viewing the present population and the prospect of 
the future, — believe it to be just and equitable to locate said scat of justice on 
township live north, range six west, section nineteen, northwest quarter, and the 
most eligible site on that quarter, which we have shown to the County Comniis- 
sioners. And we further say that the above described spot shall be the seat of 
justice for said county of Hancock, and the name shall be Carthage. Given 
under our hand this 21st day of March, 18.33. 

WM. GILLHAM, [l. s.] 
SCOTT RIGGS. [l- s.] 

And so the matter was settled; and at the same session the report 
was ordered to be certified to the Eeffister of the General Land- 
office at Quincy, and that the county of Hancock claims pre- 
emption on the northwest quarter of section nineteen, five north, 
range six west, — and then ordered that the County Commissioners' 
Court be thereafter held at Carthage, the county-seat. 

Accordingly, on the 2d of April, 1S33, a special term of the 
Commissioners' Court was held at the new county-seat, at the house 
of Thomas Brewer. It had previously been held " all along shore" 
on the rapids, from Fort Edwards at the foot, to the house of James 
White at the head, with two or three intervening points about 
Montebello. Now it is to cease its wanderings, and remain perma- 
nently at Carthage. 

Here the Board ordered that John Johnson, County Surveyor, be 
employed to lay ofi' the town of Carthage into lots,'to be done by 
May first, and that he be paid out of "the sales for his services. 
And also that a sale of lots, to take place on the first Monday in 
June, on a credit of si.x, twelve, and eighteen months, be adver- 
tised for three weeks in the Sangamo Journal. 


And at another special term, held at the house of Wesley 
Williams, on June 3. Thomas H. Owen was appointed a Com- 
missioner to contract for building a temporary court-house, to 
be comj>leted before August 25. This cabin court-liouse was 
built by John M. Forrest, under direction of Mr. Owen; written 
notices posted first at Venus and Fort Edwards. Can find no record 
of cost or dimensions; was probably about 1<3 by 24 feet. 

The regular term of the Board was held in the court-house, 
Sept. 2, 1833. This court-house was a log-cabin situated south of 
the Square, about where the jail now stands. It was built of round, 
unhewed logs, with a clapboard roof, held on by poles; had a 
puncheon floor and slab benches for seats. Its door was in the 
north side, and it was adorned with at least two glass windows. 
On the south side was a platform raised about a foot from the floor, 
on which was placed a splint-bottomed chair, as a seat for his 
honor, while administering the law. This "court-house" was also 
used, hy permission of the authorities, for a school and for Sunday 
preaching, and for public meetings of different character. Most of 
the early sermons, by ministers of the various denominations, 
were preached in this building. Its clapboard roof was not the 
best protection against the weather; for in its "latter da3'S," it is 
ill the raemor}' of a lady who in it taught some ot the young 
Carthagenians "how to shoot," that in time of a hard showei", her 
pupils had to seek for dry places on the floor. 

In this building the County Commissioners' Court held sessions, 
and Judges Young, Lott and lialston held their Circuit Courts 
from 1S33 to 1839. 

As earl}' as 1836 action began to be taken towards the erection 
of a more commodious court-house. At the term March 10 of 
that year, the Board appointed a commission, consisting of Michael 
Rickard, Sidney H. Little, and John F. Charles, to advertise and 
contract for the erection of a new court-house, and authorized a 
premium of §25 for the best ]>lan. And at June term, 1839, the 
new building was finished and ffiven in charge of the Sheriff for 
the use of the county. Moses Stevens was contractor and builder; 
cost about §10,000. This building was the west portion of the 
court-house as it now stands. 

First tavern license granted in Carthage, Sept., 1833, to Louis 
Masquerier; also license to sell goods. 

Dec. 5, 1834 — County purchased of M. ftiekard, north of town, 
two acres of land for a burying-ground. 

Benjamin F. Marsh's bond as School Commissioner increased to 
$40,000, March. 1836; afterwards. Sept., 1838, increased to $75,000. 
Afterward, same term, removed from office, to which action he 
took an ap]ieal to tlie Circuit Court. 

Sept. 6, 1837 — New official seals adopted. For the County Court: 
on the circle the words, " Hancock County Commissioners' Court," 
in the middle a spread eagle, the word " Illinois" below. Seal of 
Circuit Court: in the circle, the words " Hancock Circuit Court," 
a sheaf of wheat in the center, " Illinois " underneath. 


Under date of Sept., 1838 — We notice a tavern license issued to 
Jesse W. Bell, at Plymouth, a business in which he has since been 
continuously engaged for more than forty years. 

Special term, 1838— A re-snrvey of the town of Carthage ordered; 
survey made bv James W. Brattle, and old one vacated by act of 

Dec. 1839 — Walter Bagby appointed School Commissioner, and 
declined; Malcolm McGregor appointed in his place; bond, $12,000. 
And at the March term, 1841, Walter Bagby appointed again, to 
fill vacancy occasioned by death of Mr. McGregor; bond $50,000. 

Special term, March, 1839 — Proposals for a jail ordered; and in 
1841, built and received by the county. 

This building became historic, as the place where the Mormon 
prophet, Josepli Smith, and his brother, Hyrum, were killed, and 
two of their associates wounded, on the 27th of June, 1844. It was 
situated northwest from the court-house about 400 3'ards, and at 
that time quite out of town. It was bnilt of stone, two stories high, 
the lower portion being occupied as a residence by the jailor, 
and the upper for the prisoners, to which access was iiad by steps 
on the south end toward the town. Windows were on the east and 
west sides. The building still stands, reconstructed with additions, 
the property and residence of ex-Treasnrer Browning. 


Among the many relics of the " peculiar institution " scattered 
all over the State of Illinois, is the following, which we copy ver- 
batim from the records of the County Commissioners' Court, under 
date of Dec. 18, 1832. Tiiere may possibly be other similar entries, 
but, if so, we failed to observe them. Similar entries exist in 
Adams county, and we presume in most of the counties in the 

Jane Buckner, a tree woman of color, produced in open Court 
a transcript of the record of the County Court of Nicholas county, 
in t'le State of Kentucky, as evidence of her freedom, and also of 
her children, which was read and ordered to be recorded, and is in 
the words and figures following, towit: 

Nicholas County. I 

April Court, 1814. 

An instrument of writing from under the hand and seal of Samuel Buckner, 
emancipating and setting at libert3' sundry negro slaves therein mentioned, was 
produced in open court, and acknowledged by said Samuel Buckner, and ordered 
to he recorded, to wit : 

"Know all men by these presents. That I, Samuel Buckner. of the county of 
Nicholas and commonwealth of Kentucky, for divers good causes moving me 
thereunto, do by these presents, and in pursuance of the Act of the General Assem- 
bly in such case made and provided, free and emancipate forever the follow- 
ing negro slaves, my property :—^a»e, a negro woman about thirty years of age; 
Qeorge, about eight years of age; Will Ditto, about five years of age; Thornton, 
about three years old, and Lewis, one year and si.^ months old. All of which 
Iiegrne=i, f, the %w\ Samuel Buck-c, do bv these nresents as aforesaid, free and 


emancipate from my service, and my heirs, and all other persons whatsoever, 
claiming said slaves, through, by or under me, — to take etlect from the dale of these 
presents. As witness mj- hand and seal this 25th day of April, 1814." 

Samuel Buckner. [l. s.] 

And thereupon the said Samuel Buckner came into court and entered into bond 
in the penalty of one thousand dollars, conditioned according to law, which bond 
is ordered to be recorded, and is in the following words, to wit: 

"Know all men by the these presents, etc., etc. See Bonds filed, marked 
A. Whereupon it is ordered that said negro slaves, named Jane, George, 
Will, Thornton and Lewis, as aforesaid, be set free, and they are hereby declared 
emancipated according to law." 

" 1, Andrew J. Hughes, Clerk of the County Court for the county aforesaid, do 
certify that the foregoing copies are true transcripts of the records of said court. 
In testimony whereof t have hereunto set my hand and affixed the seal of said 
county, at Ellisville, this 13th day of August, 1814. 

Andrew J. Hughes. 

Clerk of Nicholas County Court." 

And so Jane Buckner, a " free woman " of Kentucky, emigrating 
with her four children to the free State of Illinois, as evidence that 
she is free, was compelled to procure and bring with her the fore- 
going long testimonial, and have it recorded among the archives 
of the county, lest the " heirs or other persons claiming them," or 
the authorities, under the " black laws," should sieze and remand 
them again to slavery. 


We turn n(nv to the Circuit Court record: 

' > SET. 

At a Circuit Court commenced and held in and for the county of Hancock and 
state of Illinois, at the house of .James White, Esq., at the head of the lower or 
Des Moines rapids, the place appointed by the County Commissioners' Court of 
said county, for holding of the Circuit Courts, this 37th day of October, A. D. 1829, 
the Court having been adjourned from yesterday to the hour of nine o'clock, by 
the SherifT of this county, in pursuance of law. Present: 

Richard M. Young, Circuit Judge. 
Wesley AVii.liams, Clerk. 
Edson Whitney, Sheriff. 
Ordered, That the order heretofore made on the l.ith day of June, A. D. 1829, 
for the organization of said county of Hancock, together with the order regulate 
ing the times of holding the Circuit Court in said county, be spread upon the 
records of this Court, which said orders are in the words and figures following, 
to-wit: [Here follow the orders heretofore given.] 

Next follow the bonds of Edson Whitney, Sherili', and Robert 
Wallace, Coroner elect, with oaths of office, and bond of Wesley 
Williams, Clerk; and a parcel of rules of practice to the number 
of thirty-two, — all as in the County Court records and those of the 
Probate Court, in the neat and plain hand-writing of Mr. Williams, 
the competent Clerk. 

It does not appear of record that there was any Prosecuting 
Attorney present at this first term of Court; but at the June term 
following (1S30) George Logan was appointed Prosecn tor ^ro ^ewi.; 
and at theOctuber term ensuing, Thomas Ford, the regular Attorney 
for the Fifth Judicial Circuit, was present. 



Below we give a list of Judges and officers of the Circuit Court 
from organization, to Jan. 1, 1880, with date of their services: 

Oct., 1829- 
Apr., 1837- 
Sept, 1839- 
May, 1841- 
Oct., 1843- 
May, 1845- 
Oct., 1845- 
Apr., 1849- 
June, 1851- 
Oct., 1851- 

Oct., 1829- 
Oct., 1830- 
June, 1831- 
Aug., 1834- 
Apr., 1835- 
May, 1843- 
Oct., 1843- 
Ma)-, 1845- 
June, 1845- 
Oct, 1815- 
May, 1846- 
Oct., 1846- 

Oct., 1839- 
May, 1841- 
May, 1843- 
May, 1843- 

-Richard M. Young. 
-James H. Ralston. 
-Peter Lett. 
-Stephen A. Douglas. 
-Jesse B. Thomas. 
-Richard M. Young. 
-Norman H. Purple. 
-William A. Minshall. 
-Onias C. Skinner. 
-David M. Woodson. 

Mar., 1853— Onias C. Skinner. 
Oct., 18.54— Pinckney H. Walker. 
Mar., 1855 — Onias C. Skinner. 
Oct., 1855— Joseph Sibley. 
Mar., 1878— Chauncey L. Hiebee. 
June, 1878— Joseph Sibley. 
Oct., 1878-John J. Glenn. 
. Mar., 1879— L. P. Shope. 
June, 1879— Joseph Sibley. 
Oct., 1879— John H. Williams. 


-No prosecutor. Apr., 

-Georse Logan, pro tern. Sept., 

-Thomas Ford. June, 

-Arch. Williams,p;-o tern. Oct., 

-Thomas Ford. Mar., 

-O. H. Browning, pro tern. Oct., 

-Wm. A. Richardson. Slar.. 

-William Elliott, i Mar., 

-James H. Ralston, pro tern. June, 

-W'illiara Elliott. May, 

-James H. Ralston, pro tern. Oct., 

-Calvin A. Warren, pro tern. !Mar., 

-Mason Brayman,p;-o tern. Mar., 

-William Elliott. Mar., 

-Henrj' Stephens, pro tern. Mar., 

1847— William Elliott. 

1848— Robert S. Blackwell. 

1851 — William C. Wagley, pro tern. 

1851 — James H. Stewart. 

1853 — Calvin A. Warren. 

1854 — George Edmunds, pro tern. 

1855 — Calvin A. Warren. 

1856 — George Edmunds, pro iem. 

1856— C. A. Warren. 

1857 — Wesley H. Manier, prQ tern. 

1857— (!. A. Warren. 

1865 — Bryant F. Peterson. 

1869— William G. Ewing. 

1873— Bryant F Peterson. 

1877— William E. Mason. 


-Wesley Williams. 
-Sam'l O. Williams,p/'o tern. 
-Jacob C. Davis. 
-Jacob B. Backenstos. 

May, 1845— David E. Head. 
Mar., 1857 — Squire R. Davis. 
Mar., 186.5— Melancton S. Carey. 
Mar., 1873 — Andrew J. Davis. 

It will be perceived that during the fifty years since organization, 
his honor, Judge Siblej', held the office of Judge for nearly half 
the period — almost as long a time as the remaining fourteen. Of 
prosecutors there have been eighteen, including several pro tern. 
appointments — none of whom held office for a long period. Of 
Circuit Clerks there have been eight only: Williams, the first, 
holding the office by appointment for a period of about twelve 
years. David E. Head held it, by appointment and election, for 
about the same length of time. S. R. Davis and M. S. Carey each 
held it for a period of eight years, and A. J. Davis' term will expire 
at the end of another eight years' service. 

The first civil cause docketed was " John R. Wilcox, assignee of 
Peter Kinney, Complainant, vs. Nathan Kennedy, Defendant, on 
appeal from Justice's Court." 

The first criminal cause on docket is: " The People of the State 
of Illinois vs. Isaac Galland, Indictment for Peijury, from Schuyler 
county," which was continued and subsequently dismissed. 

We shall not follow this Circuit Court record any further in this 
place. There have no doubt been many interesting and important 



civil causes tried in onr courts, argued by the eminent counsel 
practicing at onr bar; but our limits will not allow reference to 
them. The important murder cases and other criminal causes will 
be found in future chapters of this book. 


The first Court of Probate for the county of Hancock was held 
on the 4tli of January, 1S30, Wesley AVilliams, Judge. At this 
and also at the subsequent term in February, no business was 
transacted. At the March term, 1S31, the estate of Major Morrill 
Marston was entered for probate, and John Clark and Robert R. 
Williams appointed administrators, witii orders to sell personal 
property on April IS. and rent the farm till March 1, 1832; Jacob 
Lewis, John Dedman, and Dempsey Hood being named as 

April 4, 1831 — The ofhcial seal was ordered: "On the outer circle 
the words 'Hancock Court of Probate;' the word ' Illinois' througli 
the middle; above it two orphans embracing each other, and under- 
neath a loaf of bread." 

At this term tiie estate of Andrew Yance was entered for 

June term, 1831, John E,. Wilcox, being a creditor, was appointed 
administrator of Morrill Marston, deceased; but at the September 
term following, David Marst(!>n, of Rockingham county, N. H., 
brother of deceased, appearing, was appointed administrator, and 
Wilcox removed. 

The folio wins: entries of estates occur in their order: 

John Shook, Sr.— Sept., 1831. 
Daniel Crenshaw — Oct., 1831. 
Almon S. Foot— 1832. 
George Y. Cutler— Sejit., 1834. 
Henry Weddina:-Sept., 1834. 
Oliver Felt— Sept , 1834. 
Preston H. Houston — Sept., 1834. 
Josiah Smith— Nov., 1834. 
Joseph Dewey— Nov., 1834. 
Henry Butler— Dec, 1834. 
Thomas O'Neal— Dec, 1834. 

Hazen Bedell— Feb., 1835. 
Thomas Crabtree— March, 1835. 
William C. Hawley— April, 1835. 
Horace B'. Whitney— June, 1835. 
James White— Jan , 1837. 
Alexander White— Jan., 1837. 
John Johnson — Jan., 1837. 
Agrippa Wells— Sept., 1837. 
Lewis Cliamberlain — Dec, 1837. 
John Gordon — July, 1839. 
James M. Wells— July, 1839. 



When at Mecca, ia Arabia, about the close of the sixth century, 
Mahomet, the founder of Islamism, began his career, he was doubt- 
less honest in his purposes, which were to modify and improve the 
idolatrous worship of his people. But he was an enthusiast and a 
fanatic. His efforts met first with neglect and contumely, then 
with opposition and violence. Enemies increased around him, and 
he was compelled to flee his native city to save his life; and hence- 
forward he was a changed man. Revenge and ambition became his 
ruling passions. 

The character and career of this great leader have sometimes 
been compared with those of the pretended Mormon prophet, 
Joseph Smith; but the contrast is so great as to aft'ord but very 
slight resemblance. "When Joseph Smith began his career at Pal- 
myra, !New York, his motives were not honest, nor was he prompted 
by either revenge or ambition. His feeble imagination had not 
yet grasped at anything be3'ond a mere toying with mysterious 
things, by which he hoped, if anything, to earn a living without 
honest labor. It is evident that at first he had no higher or more 
ambitious purpose in view. He was one of those indolent and 
illiterate young men to be found in all communities, who, dissatis- 
fied with their lot, have embraced the pernicious doctrine contained 
in the phrase " The world owes me a living." Fortune, luck, 
chance, deception, jugglery, any or all of these that would aid him 
to obtain that living he was ready to employ. Hence we find him 
at an early age trying his skill at little tricks to impose on the 
credulity of his associates. As he grew older, searching for lost 
treasure became one of his favorite employments; for was it not 
better to obtain the golden millions from the nooks and crevices of 
the earth, in which Kidd and the pirates and robbers had hid them, 
and live in splendor, than it was to obtain a small competency by 
the slow and uncertain processes of honest labor? And as he pro- 
gressed from one wild scheme to another, new light began to dawn 
upon his mind, till accident threw Rigdon and "The Manuscript 
Found" in his way. Then it was that the idea of a new sect, a 
new creed, a new play upon popular ignorance and credulity, and 
consequent place and power and fortune, was gradually developed 
and boldly and persjistentlv carried forward. 




It is the purpose in these pages to o;ive not only a true and faith- 
ful historj' of Jlornionisua as it existed in Haneoclc county for eight 
or nine years, but to go back to its beginnings and investigate the 
claims of its founders. We s,'A.\ founders, because all who knew 
Joseph Smith, the so-called pro]ihet, can bear testimony that he was 
not, without help, capable of building up the structure to the shape 
and consequence it assumed. Ignorant and unlettered as he was, 
he managed to draw to him a few men of greater mental capacity 
than his own, through wliose combined eft'orts his and their crude 
purposes were gradualh' brought into shape. 

Mormonism had its birth and incipient growth in Western New 
York; it gained strength and acquaintance with the world in 
Northern Ohio; it increased to a considerable magnitude in North- 
west Missouri. But it was broken and weakened there in its con- 
tests with its neighbors and the authorities. After a few years of 
arrogant pretension and active proselytism, it met with a similar 
fate in Illinois, and also lost its daring leader. When left to itself 
in the wilderness of Utah, it developed into what it now is, an ngly 
and troublesome excrescence upon the body politic. 

When the little band of " Latter- Day Saints," as they called 
themselves, landed in Illinois, in the winter of lS?)8-9, they were 
poor and disheartened, and many of them were objects of charity. 
Tlieir troubles in Missouri had brought thera into notice. They 
were thought to liave been persecuted for opinion's sake; and when 
they crossed the Mississippi at Quincy, they received much sympa- 
thy and material aid from the people of that city and Adams county; 
and afterward as they passed up into Hancock, the same kindness 
and consideration were shown them. Their prophet and his chief 
adviser, Sidney Rigdon, were yet in durance at Liberty, Mo., and 
their principal men scattered, some as refugees from Missouri 
wrath, and some as missionaries to the Gentile world. 

Such were the Mormons and sncli Mormonism when they first 
became a reality to the people of Hancock county and the State of 

At that time there was a little village on the river shore, where 
Nauvoo now stands, called Commerce, with but a few houses. 
Below was the farm of Hugh White, and out northeast on the hill, 
where the temple since stood, was the farm of Daniel H. Wells, 
another old settlei', who, after growing rich by the sale of his lands 
to the new-comers, joined the Church, and finally left with the rest 
for Salt Lake, where lie has since become a leader high in authority 
among them. Alongside of this village of Commerce lay the lots 
and squares, and streets and parks of Commerce City — a.paper town 
which, a few months before, had been ushered into existence by a 
brace of Eastern speculators. 

Opposite, across the Mississippi, in the then Territory of Iowa, 
stood the barracks of the old fort Des Moines, but lately vacated by 
the U. S. Di-agoons and occupied by a few settlers. Here was also 
the land-ofiice of the New York half-breed land company. The 


village of Keokuk, on the same side and twelve miles below, also on 
the half-breed lands, had but a few inhabitants, while Fort Madison, 
above, had a somewhat larger population. 

In Hancock county was Warsaw, eighteen miles below, with a 
population of, say, 300; Carthage, the county seat had not so many ; 
Augusta, St. Mary's Plymoutli, Fountain Green, La Harpe, Chili, 
and a few others, had been laid out (chiefly in 1836), and contained 
each a few families, and were in the midst of young and fast grow- 
ing settlements. There was no newspaper in the county; The Car- 
thatienian, at Carthage, had, in 1836-7, a sickly existence, and had 
now "gone where the woodbine twineth." The population of the 
county was probably 6,000; by the census of 1840 it was 10,000, 
including the then Mormon emigrants. 

Such was the status of Hancock county and its neigliborhood 
when the Mormon exodus from Missouri began. That people 
crossed directly eastward to Qiiincy, in Illinois, through North 
Missouri, as the nearest and best route to a place of safety. Their 
leader was yet in jail, but he, somehow escaping, soon made his 
appearance among them, and at once began operations for planting 
a " new stake," and gathering his followers around him. The first 
intention was to settle on the half-breed lands in Iowa, to which 
Smith had been invited through correspondence with Dr. Isaac 
Galland before leaving Missouri. Dr. C had interest in those lands, 
and also resided and held some interest at Commerce. For various 
reasons, chief of which was imperfect title, the negotiation as to the 
half-breed lands fell through, and the main body of the Mormons 
remained in Hancock county, though numbers li^d already settled 
on the other side of the river. 

In September, 1S39, the city of Nautoo was laid out and named, 
its proprietors being Joseph Smith, Sidney Eigdon, Hyrum Smith 
and George W. Robinson. Afterward, down to May, 1843, as 
manj' as fifteen additions had been made to it by dilferent parties, 
including one in 1840 by Daniel H. Wells, embracing part of his 
farm. The whole of the two farms named, including a portion of 
Mr. Davidson Hibbard's, and much additional land, was finally in- 
cluded within the limits of the fast rising city. 

Tiie name "Nauvoo" was said by its projectors to be Hebrew for 
" pleasant land." Whether this be true, we leave for linguists to 
determine, but the site of the cit}' is certainly one of the most pleas- 
ant and beautiful in the West. It is presumed, however, that 
Smith and liigdon knew about as much of Hebrew as they did of 
the '•■Reformed Egyptian" (whatever that may be), in which the 
"Book of Mormon " is said to have been written on the golden 

All the important movements of this people from the beginning, 
as well as some very unimportant ones, had been directed by pro- 
fessed revelation from heaven, through Joseph Smith, their " proph- 
et, seer and revelator." There had been revelations before, as will 
appear hereafter, that these "Latter-Day Saints" were to enter in 
and enjoy promised lands, first in Ohio at Kirtland, then at two 


or three different places in Missouri. And now the way was open 
for a new revelation; and it came, under the sanction of a "Thus 
saith the Lord," that this "pleasant land" was the "promised 
land," to he henceforth occu]Med hy the scattered saints. And the 
command went out to all the world, and summoned tliem hither; 
and hither they came as fast as proselytes could be made and cir- 
cumstances would permit. A monthly paper called the Times and 
Seasons was started, to be the organ. Revelations were multi- 
plied, as occasion demanded, and promulgated through the organ 
and from the stand. A cit}' began to be built. The sounds of 
industry were heard on every hand. For whatever may be said of 
the Mormon people in other respects, it is true that the great body 
of them were hard-working, frugal and industrious citizens. 

Is it any wonder, then, that in view of all these circumstances, 
these people and their prophet and leader should attract attention? 
The war in Missouri; their sufterings there and during their flight, 
in an inclement season; their cry of oppression, so industriously 
repeated, and the sympathy created in tlieir behalf, had drawn pub- 
lic attention to them over the whole country. 


But what of this man, Joseph Smith, and these people, his pro- 
fessed disciples and followers? He claimed to be a holy man, a 
prophet of God, a seer and revelator; a chosen minister of the Most 
High, for the accomplishment of a grand and divine purpose. And 
yet he was killed — slain by the hand of violence! And these peo- 
ple who followed him and believed in his mission, claim that he 
died a martyr to the cause of righteousness! 

Concerning him and his history and claims, there are two theo- 
ries, neither of which maybe true; and if neither be true, one must 
be infamously and blaspheinously false. The story told by himself 
and accepted as true by his followers, is as given below, and pur- 
ports to be in his own words, contributed for publication in a 
"History of the Keligious Denominations of the United States," 
published in Philadelphia, and is orthodox Mormon history: 

"I was born in the town of Sharon, Windsor county, Vt., on the 
2.3d of December, 1S05. "When ten years old my parents removed 
to Palmyra, N. Y., where we resided about four years, and from 
thence we removed to the town of Manchester, a distance of six 

"My father was a farmer, and taught me the art of husbandry. 
AVhen about 14 years of age, I began to reflect upon the importance 
of being prepared for a future state, and upon inquiring the place 
of salvation; I found there was a great clash in religious sentiment; 
if I went to one society they referred me to one place, and another 
to another, each one pointing to his own particular creed as the 
summum ionui/i of perfection. Considering that all could not be 
right, and that God could not be the author of so much confusion, 


I deteraiined to investigate tiie subject more fully, believing that 
if God had a Church it would not be split up into factions, and that 
if He taught one society to worship one way, and administer in one 
set of ordinancese, he would not teach another principles which 
were diametrically opposed. Believing the word of God, I had con- 
fidence in the declaration of James: 'If any man lack wisdom let 
him ask of God, who giveth to all men liberally and upbraideth 
not, and it shall be given him.' 

" I retired to a secret place in a grove, and began to call upon the 
Lord, "While fervently engaged in supplication, raj' mind was 
taken awav from the objects with which I was surrounded, and I 
was enwrapt in a heavenly vision and saw two glorious personages 
who exactly resembled each other in features and likeness, sur- 
rounded by a brilliant light which eclipsed the sun at noonday. 
They told me that all the religious denominations were believing in 
incorrect doctrines, and that none of them was acknowledged of 
God as His Church and kingdom. And I was expressly commanded 
'to o'O not after them,' at the same time receiving a promise that 
the fulness of the gospel should at some future time be made known 
unto me. 

"On the evening of the 21st of September, A. D. 1823, while I 
was praying unto God and endeavoring to exercise faith in the 
precious promises of scripture, on a sndden alight, like that of day 
only of a far purer and more glorious appearance and brightness, 
burst into the room; indeed, the first sight was as though the 
house was filled with consuming fire. The appearance produced a 
shock that aftected the whole body. In a moment, a personage 
stood before me surrounded with a glory yet greater than that with 
which I was already surrounded. This messenger proclaimed 
himself to be an angel of God, sent to bring the joyful tidings that 
the covenant which God made with ancient Israel was at hand to 
be fulfilled; that the preparatory work for the second coming of 
the Messiah was speedily to commence; that the time was at hand 
for the gospel, in all its fullness, to be preached in power unto all 
nations, that the people might be prepared for the millennial reign. 

"I was informed that I was chosen to be an instrument in the 
liands of God to bring about some of His purposes in this glorious 

" I was informed also concerning the aboriginal inhabitantsof this 
country, and shown who they were and from whence they came; 
—a brief sketch of their origin, progress, civilization, laws, govern- 
ments, of their righteousness and iniquity, and the blessings of 
God being finally withdrawn from them as a people, was made 
known unto me. I was also told where there were deposited some 
plates, on which was engraved an abridgment of the records of the 
ancient prophets that had existed on this continent. The angel 
appeared to me three times the same night, and unfolded the same 
things. After having received many visits from the angel of God, 
unfolding the majesty and glory of the events that should transpire 


in the last dajs, on the 22il of September, A. D. 1827, the angel of 
the Lord delivered the record into my hands. 

"Tiiese records were engraven on phxtes which had the appearance 
of gold; each plate was six inches wide and eight inches long, and 
not qnite so thick as common tin. They were filled with engrav- 
ings in Egyptian characters, and bonnd together in a volume as 
the leaves of a book, with thi'ee rings running through the whole. 
The volume was something near six inches in thickness, a part of 
which was sealed. The characters in the unsealed part were small 
and beautifully engraved. Tiie whole book exhibited many marks 
of antiquity in its construction, and mucli skill in the art of 
engraving. With the records was found a curious instrument, 
which the ancients called ' Urim and Thummim,' which consisted 
of two transparent stones set in the rim on a bow fastened to a 

" Through the medium of the ' Urim and Thummim' I translated 
the record, by the gift and power of God." 

Tlie foregoing is the story of his life to the finding of tlie Golden 
Plates, in what is since called " Mormon Hill," in the town of 
Manchester, near Palmyra, X. Y. Corroborative of his statement 
is the testimonj' of eleven witnesses, to be found prefixed to all edi- 
tions of the Book of Mormon, as follows: 


Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, unto whom this 
work shall come, that we, through the grace of God the Father and our Lord Jesus 
Christ, have seen the plates which contain this record, which is a record of the 
people of Nephi, sind also ot the Lamanites, his brethren, and also of the people of 
Jared, which came from the tower of which hath been spoken ; and we also know 
that they have been translated by the gift and power of God, for His voice hatli 
declared it unto us ; whereof we know of a surety that the work is true. And we 
also testify that we have seen the engravings whicii are upon the plates; and they 
have lieen shown unto us by the power of God, and not of men. And we declare 
with words of soberness, that an angel of God came down from heaven, and he 
brought and laid before our eyes,' that we lieheld and saw the plates, and the 
engravings thereon; and we know that it is tiy the grace of God the Father, and 
our Lord .Jesus Christ, that we beheld and bare record that these things are true ; 
and it is marvelous in our eyes; nevertheless, the voice of the Lord commanded us 
that we should bear record of it ; wherefore, to be obedient unto the command- 
ments of God, we bear testimony of these things. And we know that if we are 
faithful in Christ, we shall rid our garments of the blood of all men, and be found 
spotless before the judgment seat of Christ, and shall dwell with him eternally in 
the heavens. And the 'honor be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the ifoly 
Ghost, which is one God. Amen. 

(Signed) Oliveb Cowdekt, 

David Whitmbr, 
Mabtin Harris. 

And also tlie Testimony of Eight Witnesses. 

Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues and people, unto whom this 
work shall come, that Joseph Smith, .Jr., the author and proprietor of this work, 
has shown unto us the plates of wliich hath been spoken, which hath the appear- 
ance of gold; and as many of the leaves as the said Smith has translated we did 
handle with our hands ; and we also saw the engi'avings thereon, all of which has 
the appearance of ancient work, and of curious workmanship. And this, we bear 
record, with words of soberness, that the said Smith has shown unto us, for we 


have seen and hefted, and know of a surety, that the said Smith has got the plates 
of which we have spoken. And we give our names unto the world, to witness 
unto the world that which we have seen ; and we lie not, God bearing witness of it. 
(Signed), Christian Whitmer, 

Jacob Whitmer, 
Peter Whitmer, Jr, 
Hiram Page, 
Joseph Smith, Sr-, 
Htrum Smith, 
Samuel H. Smith. 

Late editions of the book make these eight- witnesses testify of 
Smith as the " translator " of the work, instead of the " author and 
proprietor," as in tlie foregoino; certificate. A copy issued at 
Plauo, 111., froiri the press of young Joseph Smitli's reorganized 
Church, now before us, perpetuates this change, and also corrects a 
number of errors in grammar. 

It is further claimed by Mormon adherents that the book con- 
tains internal evidence of its genuineness, proving how much 
men can diiier; for all others than Mormons can see in it numer- 
ous internal evidences of a fraudulent character. 

The second theor}' in regard to the origin of the Book of Mor- 
mon, is tliat it was written as a mere romance by Rev. Solomon 
Spaulding, a Presb.vterian minister of Korthern Ohio; that it some- 
how fell into the hands of Rigdon and Smith, and was by i;hem 
diverted to its present purpose. 

It is however believed by many that Smith and his co-workers 
in iniquity manufactured the whole thing themselves, and out of 
whole cloth. Yet the peo])le about Palmyra, many of them still 
living, who were cognizant of the facts as they occurred, and who 
knew tlie Smiths and the eleven witnesses well, assure us, in recent 
correspondence, that the Spaulding story is undoubtedly true. 


The first questions likely to be asked by one unacquainted with 
any of the facts, would be, AVhat matters it whether Spaulding 
wrote the story or not. either as a romance or as a veritable history; 
or whether Smith and Rigdon wrote it? What is its character? 
"What does it purport to be? 

The following is its title in full: 


an account written by the hand of Mormon, upon plates taken 
from the plates of Kephi; wherefore it is an abridgment of the 
record of the people of Eephi, and also of the Lamanites, written 
to the Lamanites, which are a remnant of the house of Israel, and 
also to Jew and Gentile; written by way of commandment, and 
also by the spirit of prophecy and revelation: written and sealed 
up and hid unto the Lord, 'that they might not be destroyed; to 
come forth by the gift and power of God", unto the interpretation, 
thereof; sealed by the hand of Moroni, and hid up unto the Lord, 


to come forth in due time by the way of the Gentiles; the interpre- 
tation thereof by tlie gift of God, and an abridgment taken from 
the book of Ether. 

" Also, which is a record of the people of Jared, which were 
scattered at the time the Lord confounded the language of the 
people, M'hen the^' were building a tower to get to heaven; which 
is to show unto the remnant of the house of Israel how great things 
the Lord had done for their fathers, and that they may know the 
covenants of the Lord, that they are not cast off forever; and also 
to the convincing of Jews and Gentiles that Jesus is the Christ, 
tlie Eternal God, manifesting himself to all nations. 

" And now, if there be fault, it be the mistake of men; wherefore 
condemn not the things of God, that ye may be found spotless 
before tlie judgment seat of Christ. 

" By Joseph Smith, Junior, Author and Proprietor." 

In late editions, instead of " By Joseph Smith, Jr., author and 
proprietor," the title is simply signed "Moroni." 

In regard to the claims set up hv Smith and his ele%'en witnesses, 
tliere are several things to be considered before we take their state- 
ments as true. 1. The importance and value of the so-called 
revelation; 2. The means used; and 3. The character of the agents 

How any person with a well-balanced mind can see anything in 
the book worthy of being styled a revelation from God to man, sur- 
passeth understanding. Its purport and aim no man can gather from 
the '' confounding of language," in its title; but in turning over its 
pages we find it to be a pretended history of the early inhabitants 
of this continent; that they are represented to be the descendants 
of some of the tribes of Israel; or, as the book uf Ether has it, of 
the people dispersed at the tower; that they somehow got to this 
country in" eight barges;'" and that after multitudinous and terrible 
wars, they were, like the Kilkenny cats, nearly used up; and that the 
Indian tribes are the tails that were left. What possible difference 
can it make to the human famil}', in a soul-saving point of view, 
whether the stoiy is true or false? Had the general idea been 
eliminated into good English by one who had a well-balanced 
mind, and not by one who had 

eaten of the insane root 

That takes the reason prisoner, 

it might have made a volume of pleasant reading, if nothing more; 
and were there any facts of co-incident history to verify it, it might 
even approach the dignity of an historical treatise. But whv men 
should be required to believe it, is a mystery. And why these 
"Records" should be thus preserved and handed down tlirough 
various hands, ''servants of the Lord " (Mormon, Moroni, Nephi, 
Ether, and a lot of others), and finall}' " sealed up " and deposited 
in a hill in IS^ew York, for fourteen centuries, is anotiier mystery. 
And then the character of the agents employed by the Almighty 


to bring these things to light and usher them to the world! If 
that is the Lord's work, truly " the ways of the Lord are past 
finding out." 

There are so many silly things throughout the work that it is 
hard to speak of it seriously. Tiiey abound, but we can only make 
room for a few. Turn to page 50-4, book of Ether [Piano edition], 
and learn how America was peopled, and also obtain some valuable 
ideas of ship-building and navigating the seas: 

And the Lord said, Go to work and build after tbe manner of barges which 
ye have hitherto built. And it came to pa^s that the brother of Jared did go to 
work, and also his brethren, and built barges after the manner which the)- had 
built, according to the instructions of the Lord. And they were small, and they 
were light upon the water, even unto the lightness of a fowl upon the water : and 
they were built after a manner that they,were exceedingly tight, even that they 
would hold water like unto a dish ; and the sides thereof were tight, like unto a 
dish; and the bottom thereof was tight, like unto a dish; and the ends thereof 
were peaked; and the top thereof was tight like unto a dish; and the length 
thereof was the length of a tree; and the door thereof, when it was shut, was 
tight like unto a dish. 

And it came to pass that the brother of Jared cried unto the Lord, saying, O 
Lord, I have performed the work which thou hast commanded me, and I have 
made the barges according as thou hast directed me. And, behold, O Lord, in 
them is no light: whither shall we steer ? And also we shall perish, lor in them 
we cannot breathe, save it be the air which is in them; therefore we shall perish. 
And the Lord said unto the brother of Jared, Behold, thou shalt make a hole in 
<he top thereof, and also in the bottom thereof; and when thou shalt sutler for air, 
thou shalt unstop the hole thereof, and receive air. And if it so be, that the water 
come in upon thee, behold, ye shall stop the hole thereof, that ye may not perish 
in the flood. And it came to pass that the brother of Jared did so, according «s 
the Lord had commanded. And he cried again unto the Lord, saying, O Ltn-d, 
behold I have done even as thou hast commanded me ; and 1 have prepared the 
vessels for my people, and, behold, there is no light in them. Behold, O Lord, 
wilt thou suffer that we shall cross this threat water in darkness? And the Lord 
said unto the brother of Jared, ^Yhat will ye that I should do that ye may have 
light in your vessels? For, behold, ye cannot have windows, for they will be 
dashed in pieces ; neither shall 3-e take tire with you, for ye shall not "go by the 
light of fire; for, behold, j-e shall be as a whale in the midst of the sea; for the 
moimtain waves shall dash upon you. Nevertheless, I will bring you up again 
out of the depths of the sea; for tlie winds have gone forth out of my mouth, and 
also the rains and the floods have I sent forth. * * « ^n(j j; came to 
pass that the brother of Jared (now the uumlier of vessels which had been 
prepared was eight) went forth unto the mount which they called mount Shelem, 
' because of its exceeding height, and did molten out of a rock sixteen small 
stones ; and they were white and clear, even as transparent glass ; and he did carry 
them in his hands upon the top of the mount, and cried "again unto the Lord, 
saying, O Lord, * * * touch these stones with thy fioirers, and 
prepare them that they may shine forth in darkness; and they shall shine forth 
unto us in the vessels which we have prepared, that we may have light while we 
shall cross the sea. * * * ^.nd the Lord stretched forth his hand and 
touched the stones, one by one, with his finger. * * * pqj. j( game to 
pass after the Lord had prepared the stones, which the brother of Jared had 
carried up into the mount, the brother of Jared came down out of the mount, and 
he did put forth the stones into the vessels which were prepared, one in each end 
thereof ; and behold, they did give light unto the vessels thereof And thus the 
Lord caused stones to shine in darkness, to give light unto men, women and 
children, that they might not cross the great waters in'darkness. 

And it came to pass that when they had prepared all manner of food, that 
thereby they might subsist upon the water, and also food for their flocks and 
herds, and whatsoever beast, or animal, or fowl, that they should carry with 
them,— and it came to pass that when they had done all ttiese things, ihev got 
aboard of their vessels or barges, and set forth into the sea, commen'cling them- 


selves unto the Lord their God. And it came to pass that the Lord God caused 
that there should a furious wind blow upon the face of the waters, toward the 
lu-ouiised land ; and thus the}' were tossed upon the wave of the sea before the 
wind. And it came to pass that they were many times buried in the depths of 
the sea, because of the mountain waves which broke upon them, and also the 
great and terrible tempests, which were caused by the fierceness of the wind. 

And it came to pass that when they were buried in the deep, there was no water 
that could hurt them, their vessels being tight like unto a dish, and also they were 
light like unto the ark of Noah. * * * And no monster of the sea could 
break them, neither whale that could mar them; and they did have light con- 
tinually, whither it was above th" water or under the water. * * * ^ac\ thus 
they were driven forth three hundred and forty and fodr days upon the 
water; and they did land upon the shore of the promised laud. 

Let us imagine these eight wonderiully planned vessels, on their 
adventurous voyage, — all built alike, light like a fowl, long as a 
tree, tight like a dish, all provided with holes in bottom and top, 
and all lighted with those transparent stones which the brother of 
Jared " did molten " out of a rock, — they all start together before 
the wind — a furious wind, — and after a little voyage of onlt/ three 
hundred and forty-four days, land together, without so much as 
one being lost! No monster of the deep hurt them; no whale 
tnarred them! Sometimes engulfed beneath the mountain wave, 
the ever-watchful brother of Jared is read^^ pl»g in hand, to stop 
the holes; and when rising to the surface, as the whales do to 
spout, he is ever on the alert to give his crew and passengers 
another snift" of ^ir! 

And now having them safely landed on the shore of this prom- 
ised land, let us turn to page 530 of this same prophet Ether, and 
learn some of the deeds of their descendants here. War seems to 
have been the main business and pastime of these people through 
all the long centuries of their existence in their Western home. 
But here is an account of one of the greatest battles ever fought 
since the world began. Talk of the wars of Napoleon, of the 
Ca?sars, of Alexander; they are nothing compared to the struggles 
between those two great heroes, Shiz and Coriantumr. Tliese were 
the chiefs of the two contending parties at one time. They had 
already fought till Coriantumr computed he had lost " two tnillious 
of mighty men and also their wives and children." If Shiz 
had lost as many, the computation would reach from fifteen to 
twenty millions of souls. And now they are real mad, and are 
going at it in earnest: 

And it came to pass that when they were all gathered together, every one to 
the army which he would, with their wives and their children, both men, women 
and children being armed with weapons of war, having shields and breast-plates 
and head-plates, and being clothed after the manner of war, they did march forth, 
one against another to battle. 

Men, women and children, all armed and panoplied, going forth 
to battle! And it proved a nine-days battle, at that; for "on the 
morrow " they went at it again, and the next, to the sixtli day, 
when the historian makes a count, and finds " they had all fallen 
by the sword, save it were fifty and two of the people of Corian. 


tumr, and sixty and nine of the people of Shiz." Then again, at 
the end of this day Shiz had 32 left and Coriantnmr 27. The next 
day it was fight and flight; but on the morrow, which was the 
ninth, after a fierce and day-long struggle, only the generals Shiz 
and Coriantnmr were left. And they were about as good as dead, 
for Shiz fainted with the loss of blood. 

And it came to pass that when Coriantunir had leaned upon his sword, that he 
rested a little, he smote off the head of Shiz. And it came to pass that after he 
had smote off the head of Shiz, that Shiz raised up his hands and fell ; and after 
that he had struggled for breath, he died. And it came to pass that Coriantumr 
fell to the earth, and became as if he had no life. 

And so ended the battle and that story. Messages from heaven, 
indeed ! ! 

Such are some of the records, which Mormon, and Moroni, and 
Nephi, and Ether, and a lot of others are said to have written and 
preserved in Cumorah Hill, New York, and which Joseph Smith 
was commissioned by an angel to dig up and translate for the sal- 
vation of the world! And the plates, too, must be hid away again 
by the angel. O, why could not at least those translated ones have 
been retained, and exhibited to, and " hefted " by an unbelieving 
world? They might have been at least as convincing as the unsup- 
ported testimony of Oliver Cowdery and the Whitmers and 

But, after all, the whole question turns upon human credulity, 
for rejection or acceptance. To speak phrenologically,'those people 
■whose heads have the organ of Marvelousness excessively devel- 
oped will perhaps believe the story, though the heavens should 


We turn now to find what their neighbors say of Smith and his 
co-workers. In 1867 appeared from the press of D. Appleton & 
Co. a work entitled, " Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism," 
by Pomeroy Tucker, Palmyra, JST. Y. This book is written by one 
whose residence was at Palmyra when this Mormon imposture 
began; who was personally well acquainted with all the Smith 
family, and with Martin Harris, Oliver Cowdery, and most of tlieir 
earlier adherents; who, at the time the "Book of Mormon" first made 
its appearance, was editor of the paper on the press of which said 
book was printed; who did much of the proof-reading on the book, 
and had many interviews with these men. 

Of the truth and general correctness of the statements contained 
in this book of Mr. Tucker's, we have the attestations of numbers 
of honored living witnesses about Palmyra; and not only that, but 
that it represents the beginnings of that folly, as known"to all the 
old citizens of Palmyra and the region around it. 

The name of Thurlow Weed is of national fame. . He resided at 
Epchester during the progress of these events, and was acquainted 
with some, if not all, the actors therein. He says: 


New York, June 1, 18G7. 
Dear Sir. — 1 have been so constantly occupied that I- really did not get time 
to say how much I was interested in your history of Mormonism. I have long 
hoped that some person with personal knowledge of the origin of this great delu- 
sion, who saw it as I did, when it was " no bigger than a man's hand," and who 
has the courage and capacity to tell the whole truth, would undertake the task. 
1 read enough of j-our manuscript to be confident that you have discharged this 
duty faithfully. The character you have given ".Joe Smith,'' his family and asso- 
ciates, corresponds with what I have often heard from the old citizens oi' Palmyra. 
Such a work is wanted, and no one but a writer personally and familiarly 
acquainted with the false prophet and his sun'oundings could have written it. 
Truly yours, Thurlow Weed. 

The testimony of the eleven witnesses to the book of Mormon, 
or of eleven hundred like them, impeached and branded as most of 
them have since been b}* Smith himself, will not weigh an atom in 
the scale with that brought in Tucker's book, substantiated as it is 
by so man}^ living witnesses and facts. 

Smith says in his biograpli}', that his father was a farmer, and 
"taught him the art of husbandry." Tucker savs that while in 
Palmyra the familj^ subsisted on the profits of a " cake and beer 
shop," and that while out on the "farm" afterward, "the larger 
proportion of the time of the Smiths was spent in hunting and 
fishing, trapping muskrats {mush -7^ats was the word they used), 
digging out wood-chucks from their holes, and idly lounging around 
tlie stores and shops in the village."' Further, that " the family 
were popularly regarded as an illiterate, whisky-drinking, shiftless, 
irreligious race of ))eople;" "Joe, as he was always called, being 
unanimously voted the laziest and most worthless of the genera- 
tion," "noted only for his indolent and vagabondish character, and 
his habits of exaggeration and untruthfulness." His father called 
him the '•^ genus of the family," and he was; for after a while he 
got to be a tolerable reader, and delighted in su^pBgh-toned works 
as " Kidd, the Pirate; " though he afterward tome to reading the 
Bible and attending protracted meetings, once even joining a 
Methodist class, but was soon "let off." But the story how he 
passed on from reading Kidd to reading the Bible; from digging 
potatoes, for which he had no taste and had been ]30orly "in- 
structed," to digging for buried treasure, for which he had a pen- 
chant, inspired by Kidd; and from digging for treasure to proph- 
esying, is too long to tell in these pages. It is told in the book 
betbre ns with great particularity and much sincerity. Suffice it 
to say that he finally succeeded in making a few ignorant persons 
believe that there was "something" in his pretensions. Numerous 
diggings for treasure were engaged in, Smith in the meantime 
sitting by directing the work. But nothing ever was found, the 
"devil" generall}- interfering just in time to prevent it from fall- 
ing into their hands. In these searchings for treasure, and other 
divinations, he used a little white stone, held in his hat; probably 
one of the identical stones used by Jared and his brother in light- 
ing their barges across the sea. 


We quote one of these inonej-digging incidents from Tucker, 
p. 32: 

A single instance of Smitli's style of conducting these money-diggings will suf- 
fice for the whole series, and also serve to illustrate his low cunning, and show 
the strange infatuation of the persons who yielded to his unprincipled designs. 
Assuming his accustomed air of mystery on one of these occasions, and pretend- 
ing to see by his miraculous stone exactly where the sought-for chest of money 
had lodged in its subterranean transits. Smith save out the revelation that a 
" black sheep '' would be required as a sacrificial offering upon the enchanted 
ground, before entering upon the work of exhumation. He knew that his kind- 
hearted neighbor, William Stafford, who was a listener to his plausible story, a 
respectable farmer in comfortable worUily circumstances, possessed a fine black 
wether, intended for division between his family use and the village market; and 
Smith know, moreover, that fresh meat was a rarity in his father's home, where he 
lived. The scheme succeeded completely. It was arranged that Mr. Stafford 
should invest the wether as his stock in the speculation, the avails of which were 
to be equitably shared among the company engaged in it. At the approach of the 
appointed hour at night, the digging fraternity, with lanterns and the fattened 
sheep for the sacriflc..'. were conducted by Smith to the place where the treasure 
was to be obtained. There Smith described a circle upon the ground around the 
buried chest, where the blood of the animal was to be shed as the necessary condi- 
tion of his power to secure the glittering gold. As usual, not a word was to be 
spoken during the ceremony, nor until after the prize was brought forth. All 
things being thus iu readiness, the throat of the sheep was cut by one of the party, 
according to previous instructions, the poor animal made to pour out its own 
blood around the circle, and the excavation entered upon iu a vigorous and 
solemn manner. In this case the digging was continued about three hours, when 
the "devil" again frustrated the plan exaclly in the same way as on the repeated 
trials before! In the meantime, the elder Smith, aiJed by one of the junior sons, 
had withdrawn the sacrificial carcass and reduced its flesh to mutton for his 
family use. 

We cite a case of conversion, to slioW the extent that liuinan cre- 
dulity can go. Calvin Stoddard was a citizen whose mind was ever 
on the watch for tlie miraculous, and he also became impressed, and 
thought tliere '^a^hthe" something in these pretended revela- 
tions; and yet flllP'didn't know." Among the many Governors 
sent out to govern Utah, our readers will probabl}' recall the name 
of Hon. Stephen S. Harding, of Indiana. In his youth he was a 
fun-loving young man, with a keen sense of the ludicrous, and re- 
sided at Macedon, a village in the vicinity of Palmyra. Knowing 
Stoddard's proclivities, and bent on fun, he concluded to have some 
at his expense. So he repaired one dark night at midnight to Stod- 
dard's house, and knocking him awake, called out in as unearthly 
a tone as he could assume, — " Cal-vin Stod-dard! Cal-vin Stod- 
dard! the an-gel of the Lord com-mands that he-fore an-o-ther 
go-ing doicn of the sun thou shalt go forth among the peo-ple and 
preach the Gos-pel of ]Ve-phi, or thy wife shall he a widow, thy 
chil-dren orphans, and thy ash-es scat-ter-cd to the four winds of 

Young Harding remained long enough to hear Calvin out and 
on his knees promising to obey the divine command, and then he 
" cut and run." And Calvin did obey it; was around the next day 
telling of the mira&ulous visitation; joined the new Church; came 
with the- band to the West; was at l^auvoo, and, we believe, died 
in this county. 



As to the golden plates, and what became of them, no human 
being has ever professed to have seen them, except the eleven wit- 
nesses. The story is that tliey were hid awaj' again b}* the angel, 
for what purpose we are left to guess; perhaps to bei'cvealed again 
in another age, when another fit man makes his ajipearance on the 
earth to receive and translate them. Can any reasonable man fail 
to reach the conclusion that Oliver Cowdeiy, David "Whitmer, 
Martin Harris, and the other eight, were liars and perjurors? It 
is a hard thing to believe of a fellow-being, but easier, far easier, 
than to believe such a story, told for such a purpose. The world 
is full of bad men; and that these men were of that class, we have 
other than " Gentile" testimony. Martin Harris was denounced 
by the prophet Smith himself, in the ^^ Elders' JouriiaV of 
August, 183S, as " a liar and swindler;" and in the " Tirars and 
Seasons.'' at Nauvoo, volume I, he denounces both Cowdery and 
Whitmer in unsparing terms. It may be mentioned here that all 
three of- them, at different periods, have renounced Mormonism; 
though it is claimed, with what truth we cannot sa}', that they all 
returned again to the fold.* Cowdery and Harris are both dead; 
AVhitmer was lately living at Richmond, Missouri, near the scene 
of their former troubles. He is said to have in his possession the 
original manuscript of the " Book of Mormon," in the handwriting 
of Oliver Cowdery. 

AVho, then, was the real author of the " Book of Mormon?" We 
have felt inclined to reject the Spaulding story, for it seemed 
incredible that a college-bred Christian minister could be the 
author of such an ill-conceived " confusion of language " and ideas. 
But the proof is clear that Rev. Spaulding did write a book of 
siiriilar import, which was left in manuscri]?t at his death in 1816, 
and was tntitled "Manuscript Found." How it came into the 
hands of Smith and Rigdon may never lie known; one story being 
that the latter obtained it, or a copy of it, from the office of a book 
pnblisher in Pittsburg, where it had been left for publication; and 
another, that at a late day it was stolen from the widow. That 
Spaulding, though educated, was weak and visionary', is evident. 
Had he succeeded in procuring the publication of the book, he 
certainly would have lost in literary reputation; but it might have 
cut off" the chance for a senseless and base imposition. 

No one will denj' that it is entirely competent for an individual 
to take "Manuscript Found," "The Mysteries of Udolpho," the 
" Last of the Mohicans," or any other book he may choose, and 
make it the basis of a religious creed; and from it form articles of 
faith on which to originate and build up a sect. Some of the sects 

* Since writing tlie above we h;ive conversed witli a geutleman who knew 
Cowdery well in Tiffin, Ohio, since leaving the Mormons. He saj-s Cowdery 
confessed to him that when he signed the " Testimouj' of the Three VV'itnesses," 
he " was not one of the best men in the world,'' — using his own expression. 


of the day, other than the Mormon, liad their origin in a no more 
reputable manner. And there is no law to prevent people from 
attaching themselves to such sects and ransacking the world for 
proselytes. So, had Smith and Kigdon written or stolen " Manu- 
script Found," and built upon it a creed, claiming no supernatural 
agency in the matter, and had been able to induce a sect to rally 
around it, no one could complain. It could only have excited rid- 
icule and contempt. But when they claim it as a God-given 
message; that Smitii is God's chosen one to communicate it to the 
world; that the angels of heaven were its bearers to him; and that 
those who fail to receive it on his ipse dixit are to be eternally 
lost; and these eleven witnesses testify that they know these 
things to be true, it puts quite another aspect upon the matter. 

The article of the Mormon creed which requires them all to con- 
gregate together in the "NewZion," and claims all who are not be- 
lievers as enemies — Gentiles who were ultimately to be cut off — is 
the rock on which they were wrecked in Ohio, in Missouri and in 
Illinois, and which will wreck them as long as it remains. The 
theory that they are the chosen people of God, who are to come in 
and possess the land for an inheritance, so industriously preached 
frem the beginning, is an aggressive one. No people outside of 
" Zion " can be expected to relish it. It cannot fail to embroil any 
people with their neighbors. Though it may be put forth in a fig- 
urative sense (which we are compelled to say was seldom the case), 
the ignorant and simple followers were always prone to interpret it 
literally. It was that, and not persecution for o].)inion's sake, that 
worked their ruin in Northern Ohio; it was that, and not persecu- 
tion for opinion's sake, which drove them from Missouri; it was 
that, and not persecution, that caused the death of' the Smiths in 
Carthage jail and drove the deluded followers into the wilderness. 
This very essence of their creed is a challenge — a continual menace 
everywliere. "We do not say there was no wrong done against them 
in all these places. Far from it. There was much wrong done 
against them everywhere ; and yet that policy of their leader 
which brought them all to one ''Zion,'' was the great source of 
Smith's power and influence. It was meat and bread, and fine 
clothes, and riotous living, and honor and etnolument to him, and 
to Eigdon and the rest of the leaders. Without it, he and they 
could only have been priests — and poor ones at that — or humble 
members of an humble sect; and that was not the purpose. With 
it he was an autocrat, a king; and they were his dukes and lords 
and nobles. 

It is not at all probable that in the beginning of his career, Smitli 
had any thought of founding a religious sect. His only aim was to 
see how far he could dupe a few idle and worthless associates. His 
success emboldened him to try still further arts, and make them 
inure to liis own pecuniary benefit. The result, no doubt, astonished 
him ; and as his influence in that direction increased, his ambition 
became awakened, and he dimly saw the road to advancement open- 


ing before him. AYhat would have been his course, and what he 
might have achieved, had not Rigdon and tlie " Manuscript Found " 
fallen in his way, it is hard to guess, Bntthe presumption is that, 
had it not been lor this circumstance, the world would never have 
heard of the Prophet Smith, or been cursed with the delusion of 

The following narration, from the pen of Mrs. Matilda Davison, 
the widow of Rev. Solomon Spaulding, was published in the Bos- 
ton liecorder in 1S39. It gives so clear an account of the origin 
of the book, and is told with such apparent sincerity and truthful- 
ness, that we are forced to accept it as true. We are well aware 
that the Mormons deny the story — deny that Rigdon was ever a 
printer in the office of Mr. Patterson at Pittsburg — and claim 
that it is a fabrication of their enemies. But that such a work was 
written by Mr. Spaulding is incontestable; that it was read fre- 
quently to his neighbors and friends, and left in manuscript at his 
death, is equally clear. The only break in the chain is that miss- 
ing link which places it in the hands of Rigdon and Smith. 

MRS. (spaulding) DAVISON's STORY. 

Mrs. Davison's story is as follows: "Learning recently that 
Mormonism has found its way into a Church in Massachusetts, and 
has impregnated some of its members witli its gross delusions, so 
that excommunication has become necessary, I am determined to 
delay no longer doing what I can to strip the mask from this mon- 
ster of sin, and to lay open this pit of abominations. Rev. Solo- 
mon Spaulding, to whom I was united in marriage in early life, 
was a graduate of Dartmouth College, and was distinguished for a 
lively imagination and great fondness for history. At the time of 
our marriage he resided in Cherry Valley, !N. Y. From this place 
we removed to Kew Salem, Ashtabula county, O., sometimes 
called Conneaut, as it is situated upon Conueant creek. Shortly 
after onr removal to this place, his health sunk, and he was laid 
aside from active labors. In the town of !New Salem there are 
numerous mounds and forts, supposed by many to be the dilapi- 
dated dwellings and fortifications of a race now extinct. These 
ancient relics arrest the attention of the new settlers, and become 
objects of research for the curious. Numerous implements were 
found, and other articles, evincing great skill in the arts. Mr. 
Spaulding being an educated man, passionately fond of history, 
took a lively interest in these developments of antiquity; and in 
order to beguile the hours of retirement, and furnish employment 
for his liveh' imagination, he conceived the idea of giving an his- 
torical sketch of this long lost race. Their extreme antiquity, of 
course, would lead him to write in the most ancient style, and as 
the Old Testament is the most ancient book in the world, he imi- 
tated its style a,s nearly as possible. 

" His sole object in writing this historical romance was to amuse 
himself and neighbors. This was about the year 1812. Hull's 


surrender at Detroit occurred near the same time, and I recollect 
the date well from that circumstance. As he progressed in his 
narrative, the neighbors would come in from time to time to liear 
portions read, and a great interest in the work was excited among 
them. It claimed to have been written by one of the lost nation, 
and to have heen recovered from the earth, and assumed the title 
of ' Manuscript Found.' The neighbors would often inquire how 
Mr. S. progressed in deciphering 'the manuscript.' and when lie 
had a sufficient portion prepared lie would inform them, and they 
would assemble to hear it read. He was enabled, from his acquaint- 
ance with the classics and ancient history, to introduce many sin- 
gular names, which were particularly noticed In' the people and 
could be easily recognized by them. Mr. Solomon Spaulding had 
a brother, Mr. John Spaulding, residing in the place at the time, 
who was perfectly familiar with this work, and repeatedly heard the 
whole of it read. From New Salem he removed to Pittsburg, 
Pa. Here Mr. S. found an acquaintance and friend in the person 
of Mr. Patterson, an editor of a newspaper. He e.xhibited his man- 
uscript to Mr. P., who was very much pleased with, and borrowed 
it for perusal. He retained it a long time, and informed Mr. S. 
that if he would make out a title-page and preface he would pub- 
lish it, and it might be a source of profit. This Mr. S. refused to 
do, for reasons I cannot now state. 

" Sidney Rigdon, who has figured so largely in the history of the 
Mormons, was at this time connected with the printing-office of 
Mr. Patterson, as is well known in that region, and as Rigdon 
self has frequently stated. Here he had ample opportunity to be- 
come acquainted with Mr. Spaulding's manuscript, and to copy it 
if he chose. It was a matter of notoriety and interest to all who 
were connected with the printing establishment. At length the 
manuscript was returned to its author, and soon after we removed 
to Amity, Washington county, Pa., where Mr. Spalding deceased 
in 1816. The manuscript then fell into my hands and was care- 
fully preserved. It has frequently been examined by my daughter, 
Mrs. McKenstry, of Monson, Mass., with whom I now reside, and 
by other friends. After the ' Book of Mormon ' came out, a copy of 
it was taken to New Salem, the place of Mr. Spaulding's former res- 
idence, and the very place where the ' Manuscript Found ' was 

" A woman preacher appointed a meeting there (New Salem), 
and in the meeting read and repeated copious extracts from the 
' Book of Mormon.' The historical part was immediately recognized 
by all the older inhabitants as the identical work of Mr. Spaulding, 
in which thej' had been so deeply interested years before. Mr. 
John Spaulding was present, who is an eminently pious man, and 
recognized perfectly the work of his brother. He was amazed and 
afflicted, that it should have been perverted to so wicked a purpose. 
His grief found vent in a flood of tears, and he arose on the spot 
and expressed in the meeting his deep sorrow and regret that the 


writings of his sainted brother should be used for a purpose so vile 
and shocking. The excitement in New Salem became so great that 
the inhabitants had a meeting, and deputed Dr. Fhilastus Hurl- 
but, one of their number, to repair to this place, and to obtain 
from me the original manuscript of Mr. S. for the purpose of com- 
paring it with the Mormon Bible, to satisfy their own minds, and 
to prevent their friends and others from embracing an error so 
delusive. * This was in the year 1834. Dr. Hurlbut brought with 
him an introduction and request for the manuscript, signed by 
Messrs. Henry Lake, Aaron Wriglit, and others, with all whom I 
was acquainted, as they were my neighbors when I resided in New 
Salem. I am sure that nothing could have given my husband 
more pain, were he living, than tlie use which has been made of 
his work. 

''The air of antiquity whicii was thrown about the composition, 
doubtless suggested the idea of converting it to purposes of delu- 
sion. Thus an historical romance, with the addition of a few pious 
expressions, and extracts from the sacred scriptures, has been con- 
strued into a New Bible, and palmed off upon a company of poor 
deluded fanatics, as divine. I have given the previous brief nar- 
ration, that this work of deception and wickedness may be searched 
to the foundation, and its autlior exposed to the contempt and exe- 
cration he so justly deserves. 

Matilda Davison." 

A. Ely, D. D., Pastor Congregational Church, and D. R. Austin, 
Principal of Monson Academy, Mass., certify to the good character 
of Mrs. (Spaulding) Davison, under date of April 1, 1839. The 
" Book of Mormon" was printed at Palmyra in the summer of 1830 
— Martin Harris mortgaging his farm for the pa^'ment. This act, 
with others in regard to the matter, caused such " unpleasantness " 
between him and his hetter half, as to lead to final separation. Mr. 
Harris afterwards married the widow of the celebrated Morgan, of 
Anti-Masonic fame, and resided with her at Nauvoo. 

The book was printed at the ofiice of the Wayne Sentinel, at 
Palmyra, of which Mr. Tucker was editor, the type-setting being 
done by Mr. John H. Gilbert, now a worthy citizen of that place. 
A great error, we think, was committed by the printers in this 
matter. In submitting the manuscript, Smith and his helpers 
insisted that no alteration from copy in any manner was to be 
made; but the printer having charge of the job found the manu- 
script to be in such an imperfect condition, that he objected to the 
arrangement, and was allowed to correct its " many errors of syn- 
tax, orthography, punctuation, capitalizing, paragraphing, etc." 
This was wrong; it should have been printed verbatim. A work 
" from heaven" should not have been changed in any particular. 

A Church oi'ganization was also attempted the same year. The 
most conspicuous names among these earliest members were 
Cowdery and Harris, the Whitmers and Smiths. W"e find also 


that of Orriii Rockweli, the parent, we believe, of the celebrated 
"O. P." of Danite Band memory. Previous to this Rigdon was 
not known among them, though it is believed he had been an 
occasional visitor at Smith's for a year. He now appeared as the 
tirst Mormon preacher. His first sermon was preached at Palmyra, 
but it was so coolly received that no public attempt at proselytism 
was ever again raade^at that place. 

Kirtland, Ohio, was soon chosen by " revelation" as the place for 
building up the new Zion, and hither all the " Saints" were required 
to congregate. Active work was commenced ; Riffdon, Parle}' P. 
Pratt and others were sent out to preach, and many were converted, 
who made their way to Kirtland; and in a short time over one 
hundred had joined them. Here Smith had divers revelations, of 
which the following may be regarded as chief, as laying tiie founda- 
tion of liis temporal power. It was a bold stroke, but it was meekly 
accepted by his followers: 

In answer to the question, O Lord, show unto thy servants how much thou 
requirest of the properties for a tithing. Verily, thus saith the Lord, I require all 
their surplus property to be put into the hands of tlie bishop of my church of 
Zion, for the building of mine house, aud for the laying of the foundations of 
Zion, and for the priesthood, and for the debts of the presidency of my Church; 
and this shall be the beginning of the yearly tithing of ray people ; and afterthat, 
those who have been thus tithed shall pay one-tenth of their interest annually, and 
this shall be a standing law unto them forever, for my hoi)- priesthood, saith the 
Lord. Verily, I say unto you, it shall come to pass that all those who gather unto 
the land of Zion sliall be tithed of their surplus properties, and shall observe this 
law, or they shall not be found worthy to abide among you. 

How much of one's property was to be called " surplus property" 
the Lord did not inform them; so it was left for Smith to decide. 
This was to begin with, and one-tenth annually was to follow. 
Among the rest, it was to be devoted to " paying the debts of the 
presidency of the Church." With the funds thus abundantly pro- 
vided by revelation, milling and merchandising were entered into, 
and after a time the " Kirtland Safety Society Bank" was estab- 
lished, on the " wild-cat" plan, and for a period everything went on 

But the " We-are-the-Elect " style of preaching and practice, 
was distasteful to the unbelievers around Kirtland, and difficulties 
arose. So a new commandment was requisite, and one was forth- 
coming, that Independence, Missouri, was to be the place for the 
city of Zion. An embassy was sent, a spot for the temple indi- 
cated, aud numbers flocked to the new " stake," though Smith 
and a portion remained behind. A temple had already been 
begun at Kirtland, to cost fifty thousand dollars. But matters at 
that place grew worse and worse; the mill and the store ceased 
operations; and the "safety" bank bills, having been freely circu- 
lated, became depreciated and came flowing in for redemption. To 
stop this tide. Smith resorted to this stratagem. We copy from 
the " Latter- Day Sainfs Messenger and Advocate," at- Kirtland, 
for August, 1837: 


Cavtinn. — To the brethren and friends of the Church of Latter-Day Saints : I 
am disposed to say a word relative to the bills of the Kirlland Safety Society 
Bank. I hereby warn them to beware of speculators, renegades, and gamblers, 
who are duping the unsuspecting and unwary by palming upon them those bills, 
which are of no worth here. I discountenance and disapprove of all such 
practices. I know them to be detrimental to the best interests of society, as well 
as to the principles of religion. Joseph Smith, Jr. 

Cool, for a president of a bank! 

Kirtlancl was now declared to be only a branch of Zion, the 
main body being at Independence. Here much the same policy was 
pursued, bringiue; disaster. The same thing occurred at two or 
three other points in that State afterward — each time planting a 
new Zion, and beginning the erection of a temple; till finally, in 
the fall and winter of 1838, they were expelled from the State. 


Among the numerous books on Mormonism, perhaps the most 
curious one is, " Tlte Rocky Mountain Saints: a History of the 
Mormons," — by T. B. H. Sienhouse, and issued by the Appletons 
in 1873. Its author claims to have been for twenty-five years a 
Mormon Elder and Missionary, and editor of the Salt Lake Daily 
Telegraph. He was an Englishman, and, from the encomiums 
passed upon Orson Pratt, we take it he was connected by that gen- 
tleman during his successful missionary efforts in England. His 
work contains some of the most terrible accusations and statements 
against the Salt Lake Mormon leaders; and yet, strange to sa^', he 
professes to believe that they are honest and good men! ! Of 
course, it would not do to acknowledge that he had been for 25 
years intimately associated with rogues and villains. How he 
manages to reconcile his opinions with his statements, will be seen 
in some of the extracts which we quote. Though not among them 
till after the death of the prophet, he had made himself familiar 
with his history and has much to say regarding him. He says: 

The Mormon organization is thorough and complete. It permeates every 
position and condition of life, and controls and governs everything from the 
cradle to the grave, [p. 6. 


Summed up, Jlormonism demands perfect submission — total dethronement of 
individuality— blind obedience. There is no middle path. [p. 11. 

Of the Spaulding story, he writes: 

Those who accept such statements as the true solution of this book (the " Book 
of Mormon ") must necessarily conclude that Joseph; Smith was a deliberate 
falsifier and impostor. There is no avoiding this. * * * fhe most 
incisive writer on this subject — John Hyde, formerly an Elder in the church — 
unhesitatingly announces this as his own conclusion. His "Analysis of the Book 
of Mormon and its Internal Evidences," is a masterly work to which no Mormon 
Elder has ever attempted a reply, [p. 545. 

But while the author frankly admits the unanswerable .and powerful arguments 
of ]Mr. Hyde, he dissents from his conclusions — that Joseph Smith was a willful 
impostor, [p. 546. 


That is, Hyde makes "unanswerable" arguments, to Avhich 
Stenhoiise dissents! 
And here is another: 

To the author's mind, Joseph is still defensible against the charge of willful 
imposture. It does not seem possible that he could have borne up through his 
whole life of i)ersecution, and have lived and died maintaining the truth of his 
story, if the book had been a fraud. 

Let us look a little into tlie force of this argument: Joseph Smith 
died at about the age of forty years — only fourteen years after the 
promulgation of the " Book of Mormon ;" certainly less than twenty 
years after he could have liad any thought of such an imposture. 
J{ot a very long period for a man to run a career of infamy. The 
criminal records of the world abound with cases where grey-haired 
old men have carried forward their schemes of imposture and other 
villainies, including rapine and murder, and never relented. John 
Hyde had been in a position to know, and likel}' did know, of the 
truth whereof he wrote. 

To insist that there were deliberate imposture and deliberate falsehood at the 
origin of Mormonism, is to challenge the veracity and honesty of the himdreds 
and thousands of persons who accept the faith antl who testify that thei/ know of 
its truth.— [p. .553. 

Not so; it is only to " challenge the veracity and honesty" of 
Smith and his eleven witnesses, with a few others, who have been 
in a position to know whether the claim was true or false. And is 
it not more reasonable and rational to believe a dozen or score of 
men to be blasphemers and liars, than to believe that the Almighty 
would resort to such ridiculous and silly means to reveal great 
truths to men — truths on which their soul's salvation depends? 

That Joseph Smith was, in these experiences (clairvoyance) one of the most 
remarkable men that ever lived, those outside of Mormonism altogether, who knew 
him intimately, testify.— [p. 5.51. 

No people who knew him intimately ever testified to any such 
thing. Besides, this is an after apology. "While he was living and 
in the height of his glory and fame, no one ever thought of claim- 
ing any unusual mental quality for him — clairvoyant or otherwise. 

The charges made against him (the prophet Smith) of being an " indolent, 
worthless young vagabond," are in all probability somewhat exaggerated, for it is 
hardly possible that the vast energy and benevolence of his after-life could have 
developed from any such roots. — [p. 14. 

Stenhouse, p. 520, quotes approvingly from a correspondent, in 
which the writer says: 

Joseph Smith was no more and no less than a " spirit medium," — more im- 
pressional than clairvoj-ant or clairaudient. Being the first of the age operated 
upon by spiritual power, he was very crude in his conceptions, both of the char- 
acter and modii^ opel-nmK of spiritual communicatious, and gave them all the 
weight of divine revelations, while they were really no more than the opinions of 
the spirits of men who had once lived on the earth. 

Is not this the veriest bosh in the world? The opinions of 
departed spirits would not likelv cause him to believe that he had 
found golden plates, wortli $15i!000 in the market, when he had 


not; that he was daily translating tliem, and submitting his trans- 
lations to his friends, when he was doing no such tiling; — and these 
departed spirits would hardly make the eleven witnesses believe 
they were handling and "hefting" these valuable golden plates, 
when there were no such plates to heft and handle. No; the whole 
story of the origin of Mormonism is either true or false; and liow 
much more reasonable to account for it on that theory, than to ran- 
sack the unseen and the unknown world for a theory to make its 
founder an honest but deluded man. Delusion there certainly was, 
and still is; but it is the delusion of the followers and believers of 
the blasphemous story. No theory of delusion can apply to his 
case and the cases of his co-M^orkers. Our author has cited cases 
of delusion in the world's history, in proof; but where there has 
been one case of delusion approaching this in character, there have 
been a thousand of brilliant and successful rascality, many of them 
transcending this in enormity. 
And so, of Brigham Young, one author says, page 460: 

That Brigham Young is by liis natural instincts, a bad man, or that his Apostles 
or his Bishops are men of blood, is not true. Here and there among' them a mali- 
cious man is met with, but apart from religion, the ruling men in Utah would be 
considered good citizens in any community. 

Let the scenes of the Mountain Meadow massacre, the dastardly 
killing of the Parrishes at Springville, and the heart-rending assas- 
sination of the seceding prophet, Morris and his followers, answer 
this statement. True, it has not lieen shown that Brigham actually 
gave the orders for the commission of these demoniacal crimes, so 
strongl}' depicted by Stenhouse himself; yet that he was an acces- 
sory before and after the fact, is as clear as sunlight. The whole 
life of Brigham Young in Utah has been a standing attestation that 
he could have looked with complacency on and seen their little Jor- 
dan running with blood, if that blood was from the veins of Gentile 
unbelievers; or he cuuld find some sanction for its shedding in one 
of Smith's or his own pretended revelations, or for the successful 
up-building of the priesthood. "Apart from religion," these 
"Apostles and Bishops " would be good citizens in any communit}'! 
What is "religion?" Apart froln a system which requires a blind, 
unquestioning obedience to a priesthood, and an entire and absolute 
abnegation of conscience and of self, and surrounded and restrained 
by the conservative influences of society and law, they might have 
been passive and peaceful, but not "good " citizens. To place one's 
self of his own free will and choice, in a position to do evil, is an 
essential ingredient of a Ijad citizen. 

So, in respect to the character of John D. Lee, the " scape-goat" 
who was executed for his share in the Mountain Meadow massacre, 
as one has depicted it: "Lee is a good, kind-hearted fellow, who 
would share his last biscuit with a fellow traveler on the plains, but 
at the next instant, if Brigham Young said so, lie would ctit that 
fellow traveler's throat." Such is the S3'stem taught in Utah, was 
taught in less horrid perfection in Nauvoo, in Missouri, in Kirtland 


and away back in Palmyra. Ah! but it is the system and not the 
men, urge these apologists, to whicli these monstrous evils are to be 
attributed. True; but who, if not the men who originated and up- 
hold it, are responsible for the system? 

The Mormons as a people are not justly chargeable with the wrong-doing which 
has been ascribed to them. There are bad men among them, dangerously bad 
men, who have committed outrages and damning deeds which would disgrace any 
community. But these deeds were perpetrated by the few; the masses were sin- 
cere and devoted to their concejJtions of right and truth, as the whole course ot 
their lives and eventful history abundantly proves. This has been the united test- 
imony of iill the " Gentiles " who have lived among them. The errors of the past 
life of the people, whether in their treatment of apostates or in their hostility to 
the nation, are attributable to the system and to the men who direct the public 
mind. Men and women who, for a religious faith, voluntarily abandon the homes 
of childhood and rend asunder the hallowed ties of family and friends — as Mormon 
converts do in all parts of the world — traversing oceans and plains, and suffering 
privations incident to creating new homes in a barren waste, are not persons devoid 
of the qualities of good citizens. — [Stenhouse, p. 7. 

The foregoing, while partly true, is yet in a sense extreiriely 
false. That a large portion of the rank and file of the Murmon 
brotherhood are " sincere and devoted to their conceptions of right 
and truth," will not be denied; yet anotlier large portion of them 
joined the ranks caring little for "right and truth," so that they 
could improve their worldly condition in a land said to be '' flow- 
ing with milk and honey," and where the Gentile was soon to be 
brought into subjection. These, it will not be claimed, possessed 
the qualities of good citizens. Audit may well be questioned if 
the sincerely honest ones were not really the more "dangerous" in 
the hands of the few bad men, whose behests were to them as the 
word of God. Take for e.xample the Mountain Meadow massacre, 
or the slaughter of tlie seceding Morrisites. These " damning " 
deeds were not perpetrated alone by the bad leaders; they were 
done in all tlieir atrocity by men who were " devoted to their con- 
ceptions of right and truth," — inspired by the vindictive fanati- 
cism of the leaders; and that is the system to which our author 
attributes the " errors " ofMormonism! Errors, indeed! Which 
is to be most dreaded in a community, — the i'ew bad men who 
order and direct, or the many "sincere and devoted," who execute 
the damning deeds of midnight or open-day assassination and 
pillage ? 

In referring to the character of Smith, Stenhouse in another 
place gives us the following, p. 158: 

The poor farm laborer merges in the preacher, the preacher becomes a trans- 
lator, a prophet, a seer, a revelator, a banker, an editor, a mayor, a lieutenant-gen- 
eral, a candidate for the Presidency of the world's greatest republic, and last of 
all, though not the least difficult of his achievements, he becomes the husband of 
many wives. This variety of work accomplished within the short space of four- 
teen vears,^ exhibits a fertility of brain and a reckless activity, which stamps 
Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, as one of earth's most remarkable men. 

All this seems very remarkable and real until submitted to the 
touchstone of truth — until we call things by their right names. 
JVot one half of these was he ever in realitij. We have already 


shown that he was not a farmer. A preacher? instead, he was 
only a rude, ionl-niouthed declaiiner and blasphemer; a trans- 
lator^ instead, he was notoriously incapable of even interpret- 
ing his own native tongue; a prophet? a seer? a revelator? in 
each and all an arrant pretender and failure; a baid<er? on 
tlie money bestowed upon him by his dupes, he and his asso- 
ciates did establish what they called a bank, but its disgraceful 
ending showed that it deserved any other name; an editor? 
only by having his name at the head of a paper, his subordinates 
doing the work; a niaj'or? he did hold the title under the city 
charter, but it was really an office of king and high jiriest. The 
title of lieutenant-general was bestowed on him by the charter, but 
it was one unknown to the Constitution or laws of the State or 
nation. A candidate for the Presidency? any man can proclaim 
hiriiself such, but that does not invest it with the dignity of 
fact. And as to the last, — that of being the husband of many 
wives, — the laws of the country decide. A " variety of work," 
truly; but all centered in one grand scheme of imposture — the suc- 
cess of which has been truly remarkable, both under him and his 
successors; but which does not stamp either him or them as of 
" earth's most remarkable men." 

His character in youth, as described by Tucker, is no doubt 
correct — a character just snited to the foundation for such a struct- 
ure as liis life proved to be. 

Tucker saj's, p. 16: 

From the age of twelve to twenty years he is distinctly remembered as a dull-eyed, 
flaxen-haired, prevaricating boy, noted only forhisindolentandvagabondishchar- 
acter, and his habits of exaggeration and untruthfulness. * * * He could utter 
the most palpable exaggeration or marvelous absurdity with the utmost apparent 
gravity. He nevertheless evidenced the rapid development of a thinking, plodding, 
evil-brewing mental composition, largely given to inventions of low cunning, 
schemes of mischief and deception, and false and mysterious pretensions. In his 
moral jibrenology, the professor might have marked the organ of secretiveness 
as very large, and that of conscientiousness " omitted." 

Stenhouse, in his charity for the prophet and his cashier, Rig- 
don, as bankers, concludes that they did not contemplate a deliber- 
ate swindle, in the matter of the Kirtland bank. He says such a 
conclusion " would be very inharmonious with their life and 
programme at that period." And j'et he gives this statement in 
regard to it, on the authority of a Pittsburg banker. Those 
hankers, having been induced to receive the Kirtland money, found 
themselves one day with considerable of it on hand, and a rumor 
on the air that the bank had become shaky. So they despatched 
an agent with a lot of its bills for redemption. Rigdon was aston- 
ished at their assurance; coolly told him that their notes had been 
put out as a circulating medium for public accommodation! that 
they redeemed nothing ! that the Pittsbnrgers liad not been 
asked to take their paper! and compared them to the money- 
changers who had been scourged out of the temple at Jerusalem! 



were "said to have been seven by eight inches in size, about the 
thickness of common tin, and that they were fastened together at 
one side by rings, making a book about six inches thick. This 
would make a solid gold block of nearly 300 cubic inches; worth, say 
fifteen to eighteen thousand dollars. Who will believe that so 
much treasure iu hand, no matter what may have been engraved 
thereon, would not have been too tempting a bait for those men to 
resist; and that they would not have found some way to circum- 
vent the angel, rather than have them again hid from sight? Such 
a mine of wealth, in those days, and to such men, would have been 
a bonanza worth fighting angels and "devils" for. 


We resume now the thread of Mormon history in Hancock 

The first great error committed by the people of the county, was 
in accepting too readily the Mormon story of persecution. It was 
continually wrung in their ears, and believed as often as asserted. 
The Mormon people were among us, many of them in distress and 
in need of our sympathy and aid; while the " Missouri rufSans " 
were at a distance; — and that was before the age of railroads and 
telegraphs and fast mails. 

Another great wrong grew out of party spirit. The two politi- 
cal parties, Democrat and Whig, were nearly equally' divided in 
tlie county, and a great presidential election was approaching. It 
was soon seen that Mr. Smith's influence would control the Mor- 
mon vote; and that that vote, if thrown one way, would decide all 
•political contests in the county. Hence, it was only natural that 
both parties sought to attach the Mormons to their interests. In 
August, 1839, the election did not turn on party politics, and not 
many of the new comers being voters, the result was much as 
before, — candidates of both parties were elected. 

During the summer and fall of 1839, many who had crossed the 
river at Quincy wended their way up to the new Zion; many 
others stopped with their families in Adams and the lower end of 
Hancock, wherever they could find an empty hut or place for tem- 
porary sojourn. In September the city of Nauvoo was laid out. It 
embraced a large portion of the two small fractional townships .six 
and seven north, range nine west, lying in the bend of the river, at 
the head of the rapids, and extended over into the township on the 

In view of their distressed condition when they reached Quincy, 
large contributions were made for them by the citizens, and also in 
Hancock county. The then small city of Quincy contributed some 
thousands of dollars. These contributions were made in money, 
clothing, pi-ovisions, or any thing to relieve distress. 

It soon began to be loudly urged that Missouri was in duty 


bound to make good the losses incurred by the refugees ; and prej)- 
arations were made by the chiefs at Nauvoo to press their claims 
upon the national autliorities at Washington. During the fall, 
the prophet, with two of his chiefs, Higdon and Colonel lligbee, 
repaired to Washington to lay the matter before Congress and 
President Van Buren. They carried with them a large number of 
certificates reciting losses sustained by the brethren in Missouri, made 
out indue form and sworn to, with the county seal attached. lion. 
John T. Stuart, member of Congress from this District — a Whig — 
undertook to present the matter to the House, and Henry Clay 
was appealed to to lay it before the Senate. They also applied to 
the President and to Mr. Calhoun. The latter bluntly informed 
them that the General Government had no authority in the prem- 
ises. No redress was obtained, either through Congress or the 
President; and they returned to Nauvoo, highly incensed against 
the President and his administration. One great object, however, 
had been attained — a national notoriety'. 

At this date, Eobert Lucas a former Governor of Ohio, was 
Governor of Iowa Territory. He was appealed to for a letter, and 
he kindly forwarded the following: 

Iowa Territory, Jan. 4, 1840. 

Sir : — You informed me that a committee of Mormons are about to apply to Con- 
gress of the United States for an investigation on the cause of their expulsion from 
the State of Missouri, and to ask of the General Government remuneration for the 
losses sustained by them in consequence of such expulsion, and ask me to state my 
opinion of .the character and general conduct of these people while they resided in 
the State of Ohio ; and also the conduct and general report of those who have settled 
in the Territory of Iowa since their expulsion from the State of Missoiu'i. 

In compUance with yom- request, I will state that I have had but little personal 
acquaintance with them. I know that there was a community of them in the northern 
part of the State of Ohio; and while I resided in the State they were generally con- 
sidered an industrious, inoffensive people ; and I have no recollection of ever having 
heard in that State of their being charged with violating the laws of the country. 

Since their expulsion from Missouri, a portion of them, about one hundi'ed fam- 
ilies, have settled in Lee coimtj', Iowa Territory, and are generally considered indus- 
trious, inoffensive and worthy citizens. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Robert Lucas, Goc. of Iowa Ter. 

A. Ripley. 

A great Conference of the Church was held at Nauvoo on the 
6-9th of April, 1840, at which it was said there were several thou- 
sand persons present. At this meeting Orson Hyde and John E. 
Page were commissioned to visit the Jews in Europe, and at Con- 
stantinople and Jerusalem. At this Conference, Smith gave an 
account of his reception and doings at Washington, in which he 
was very severe upon President Van Buren. The Conference also 
passed a series of resolutions, thanking the people of Illinois tor 
their kind and generous conduct; the Illinois delegation in Con- 
gress for tiieir course; and Governors Carlin of Illinois and Lucas 
of Iowa for their s^Mupatiiy, aid and protection. 

It is stated that while in Missouri Mr. Smith had been an adher- 
ent of the Democratic party; but his treatment there, with this 
rebufi' at Washington, prepared the way for throwing his support 


to the Wliigs. In the snuimer of 1840 it came to be generallj' be- 
lieved that such was his intention; and as he had several hundred 
votes now at his control, it became a matter of concern with candi- 
dates to secure his favor. Hence, those of both parties frequently 
visited Nauvoo, hoping to receive some pledge or to obtain some 
sign of support for tlie coming election in August. And these 
signs were in turn vouchsafed to them all; all were allowed to go 
away with high hopes, to relate to their friends in other sections 
the certainty of success. 

It will be remembered that this campaign of 1840 was distin- 
guished as the "log cabin and hard cider" campaign, in which the 
Whigs held many large and enthusiastic meetings in favor of Gen. 
Harrison for President. About the last of March one of these 
mass meetings was held at Carthage, at which nominations were 
made for the county. The ticket put in the field was an unexcep- 
tionable one, viz.: for County Commissioner, Samuel Comer, of 
Carthage; for Sheriff, Wm. D. Abernethy, of Augusta; for Coro- 
ner, Harmon T. Wilson, of Carthage; and for Representative, 
Martin Hopkins, of Fountain Green. The ticket was well received 
by the people, ard was placed at the head of the Western World, 
the Whig paper at Warsaw, where it remained until the 2'2d of 
July, the election to take place early in August. In the World of 
that date, the "Important Announcement" was made that Mr. 
Hopkins had withdrawn, and that Dr. John F. Charles, of Car- 
thage, had been selected in his place. And what was the reason for 
this change — the purpose of a party in thus setting aside a capable 
and good man and substituting another in his place? Simply this: 
the autocrat at Nauvoo had declared he wouldn't support him! 
Such was party subserviency. And it is not strange that Smith 
\ised the power of which he found himself so fully possessed. 

The result was, that the whole Whig ticket was elected by an 
average majority' of about 400 votes. 

No sooner had these people settled amongst us than they com- 
menced those petty acts of stealing and other depredations upon 
property which were charged against them everywhei-e, and which 
were so annoying to their neighbors and provocative of hostility. 
It will not do to charge that all these oflenses were committed 
by Mormons; some of them were doubtless Vjy others on their 
credit; but it is clear that the prophet had among his followers a 
large number who interpreted literally his teachings that the prop- 
erty of the Gentiles rightfully belonged to the Saints, and practi- 
cally carried out the precept. It is also a notable fact that while 
openly professing a desire to punish all offenses, the leaders and 
members generally would screen and protect the guilty. 

These depredations had been going on more or less for a year, 
when an event occurred on the river below Warsaw which created 
great excitement. A citizen found in his vicinity a depot of stolen 
goods, a considerable portion of which had been taken from a store 
in Tnllv, Missouri, a few miles further down. Some citizens of 


that place came over and claimed part of the goods, and took them 
away; and tinding some Mormons in the river bottom hunting 
horses, caught them and took them to Missouri, where they were 
tied to trees and severely beaten. It is claimed that they confessed 
the theft, but this is not certain. This outrage created a great 
sensation at Nauvoo, and througliout the county. A large public 
meeting was held and strong resolutions ]«xssed. Shortly after- 
ward, some four or live citizens of Tnlly, found on this side of 
the river, were arrested and brought before Daniel II. Wells, Esq., 
of Xauvoo, for examination, and upon a hearing discharged. Mr. 
Sidney II. Little, Whig Senator, was employed in the prosecution. 
An envoy was sent by Gov. Carlin to Jefferson City, it was stated, 
to demand the delivery of the TuUy culprits, and he returned to 
Quincy stating that they would be given up. But a day or two 
afterward a couple of officers arrived in Quincy (Gov. Carlin 
resided in that city), armed with a requisition from Gov. Boggs, 
of Missouri, for Joseph Smith and Sidney Kigdon, as fugitives 
from justice in that State. So far as now remembered neither of 
these demands was complied .with. 


During the summer or fall of 18-10, a new star rose upon the 
horizon at JMauvoo, and shed its light upon the city and people for 
a year or two, and then disappeared. Tliis was no less a personage 
than Dr. John C. Bennett, a man, though small in stature, yet large, 
extremely large, in his own estimation. About the first of October 
he was baptized into the Mormon faith, and at once was taken into 
the confidence of the prophet, and assigned a high rank among 
the leaders. Gov. Ford's notice of this individual is so tersely 
written, and so well accords with the public opinion, that we give 
it in his own language. He says: 

This Bennett was probably the greatest scamp in the Western country. I have 
made particular inqukies concerning him, and have traced liim in several places, in 
wliich he has lived before he had joined the Mormons, — in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, 
— and he was eveiywhere accounted the same debauched, unprincipled and profligate 
character. He was a man of some little talent, and had the confidence of the Mor- 
mons, and particularly that of their leaders. [Hist. III., p. 263. 

To Dr. Bennett was entrusted the duty of procuring from the 
Legislature such charters as they required. Accordingly, at the 
session of 1810-11, he repaired to Springfield to lobby for that 
purpose. His task was an easy one; both jiarties in that body vy- 
ing with ea3h other to obey his behests. He returned about the 
first of January, having secured three charters — one for the '"City 
of Nauvoo," one for the "University of the City of Nauvoo," and 
a third for the " Nauvoo Legion." To Senator Little of Hancock 
county, and to Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, then Secretary of State, it 
is said lie was mainly indebted for the liberal and extraordinary- 
provisions contained in these charters, though they passed both 
houses without opposition, and were read only by their titles. 


This act (the three charters "were all contained in one act) created 
a " City," a "University," and a "Military Legion," represented 
respectively by a " City "Council," a "Board of Trustees," and a 
" Court Martial," each of which was invested with legislative, 
judicial and executive powers, the right to " enact, establish, ordain 
and execute all laws and ordinances not repugnant to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States or of this State." No proviso appears in 
the act, guarding against infringement of the laws of either State 
or United States. That very usual proviso in charters seems to 
have been purposely omitted; for it will be found, on examination, 
that in all other charters granted af that session of the General 
Assembly, the laws as well as the Constitutions, are included in the 
provisos. And yet, as in all probability the charters were the work 
of Bennett Iiimself, the omission may have been accidental on the 
part of our legislators. We hope, for the fair fame of the honored 
dead, who were instrumental in procuring these charters, that it 
was so. Yet it is a no less painful fact, that the Judicially Com- 
mittee, the members generally, and the Governor who signed the 
bill, omitted the performance of a plain duty. 

But this omission was not perhaps the worst feature of the act. 
All three of the charters seem to have been contrived to give the 
Mormons a system of government as far as possible independent 
of the rest of the State. Another provision, having the same pur- 
pose, was afterward added to the charter, by wa}' of amendment, 
passed as a rider to a road law. It provided that " any citizen of 
Hancock county, may, by voluntary enrollment, attach himself to 
the Nauvoo Legion, with all the privileges which appertain to that 
independent military body." The etfect of this, it will readily be 
seen, was to bring all those brethren who resided out of the city, in 
various parts of the county, into the legion, and under the same 
military control. 

On the 3d of Febi-uary, 1841, the city of Nauvoo was organized 
under its ch.arter, with Dr. Bennett as its first Mayor. The legion 
and the university were organized about the same time, with Smith 
as Lieutenant-General and Bennett as Major-General of the legion. 
James Kelley, A. M., " an alumnus of Trinity College, Dublin," 
was chosen Chancellor of the university. This last named, we 
think, never occupied the position. One of the first acts of the City 
Council was to pass a vote of thanks to the State Governmer.t for 
favors conferred, and to the citizens of Qi>incy for the kindness 
shown them when driven from Missouri.- The legion was furnished 
with State arms bj' Gen. Bennett, who, we omitted to state, had 
been appointed Quarter-Master General the year before by Gover- 
nor Cariin. 

Mr. Douglas, who had at the late legislative session been elected 
a Judge of the Supreme Court, and assigned to circuit duty, held 
a court in Hancock county early in May. One of his first acts was 
to appoint Major General Bennet to the office of Master in Chan- 
cery. This act of indiscretion met with unqualified condemnation 


by people of all parties. It was rebuked by the AVarsaw Signal 
(then tli6 only paper in the county outside of Nauvoo), chiefly for 
the reasons that the appointee was a comparative stranger in the 
county and State, and that the mass of the people had no confidence 
in him. In the same issue of that paper was an editorial stating 
that a rumor existed that tlie newly arrived emigrants from Eng- 
land were dissatisfied with affairs at Nauvoo, but that Mr. Rigdon 
had given assurance that the rumor was false. The Signal contin- 
ued as follows: 

But this is no concern of ours. While on the subject, however, we will notice 
an accusation which has been made against us — that of having, for political effect, 
tiattered the Mormons. This is not true. We have occasionally noticed their 
doings, but not with any such design. We believe they have the same rights as 
other religious bodies possess, and ought to be protected in the just and proper 
exercise of those rights. We do not believe in persecution for opinion's sake. 
But whenever they, as a people, step beyond the proper sphere of a religious 
denomination, and become a political body, as mauy of our citizens are beginning 
to apprehend will be the case, then this press stands pledged to take a stand 
against them. On religious questions it is and shall remain neutral; but it is 
bound to oppose the concentration of political power in a religious body, or in the 
hands of a few individuals. 

We copy the foregoing for two reasons: first, because it expresses 
the feeling that pervaded the public raiml throughout the county 
at that time, without regard to party distinctions; and, secondly, 
in order to show in what spirit it was received by the prophet. 
Soon afterward the following note was received by Mr. Sharp 
through the mail; 

N.\tA'oo, III., May 36, 1841. 
Mr. Sharp, Editor of the Warsaw Signal: 

Sir — You will discontinue my paper: its contents are calculated to pollute me. 
And to patronize that filthy sheet, that tissue of lies, that sink of iniquity, is dis- 
graceful to any moral man. Yours, with utter contempt. 

Joseph Smith. 
P. S. — Please publish the above in your contemptible paper. 

On June 5th. Mr. Smith, being in Quiney, was arrested on a war- 
rant from the Governor, under a requisition from the Governor of 
Missouri. A writ of haheax corpus was at once sued out before 
Calvin A. Warren, Esq., Master in Chancery for Adams county. 
But Judge Douglas happened to be in the city, and he ordered 
that the prisoner should be taken before him at Monmouth, where 
his court was to sit on the following Monday. This was done, and 
after a hearing Smith was discharged on the ground that the writ 
had once been returned before it was served, and was functus offi- 
cio. There was a strong suspicion among the people, and the charge 
was pretty freely made that this arrest on a defective writ, and dis- 
charge, was all concocted for political effect. Of this we know of 
no existing proof. 

On. the 6th of April, the imposing ceremony of laying the corner 
stone of the temple was performed at Nauvoo, in presence of a 
multitude of people, supposed to number seven to ten thousand. 
The legion was out in full force, amounting to over 600 men, com- 


manded by Gen. Bennett, under the direction of the prophet, as 
Lieutenant-General. Sidney Rigdon was the orator of the day. 

On a Sunday about the tirst of May, Judge Douglas and Cyrus 
Walker, Esq., of Macomb, — notables of the two great parties, 
paid a visit to Nauvoo and were received with great consideration 
and ceremonv. They were each introduced to the congregation 
on the meeting ground, and after being complimented by the 
prophet, made addresses in response. A flattering notice of the 
fact was published by Smith in the next issue of the Times and 

It is not to be wondered at, after what had transpired among the 
politicians, and the colirse so evidently to be pursued by Smitli and 
the leaders at Nauvoo, that the sober and reflecting citizens of the 
county should become alarmed. And to increase this alarm and 
apprehension, tlie following appeared in the organ of the Church, 
under date of May 24-, 1S41: 


The First Presidency of the Chui-ch of Jesus Clirist of Latter-Day Saints, anxious 
to promote the prosperity of said Church, feel it their duty to call upon the Saints 
who reside out of this county to make preparations to come in, without delay. This 
is important, and should be attended to by all who feel an interest in the prosperity 
of this, the corner stone of Zion. Here the temple must be raised, the university be 
built, and other edifices erected which are necessary for the great work of the last 
days; and which can only be done by a concentration of energy and enterprise. 
Let it therefore be miderstood, that all the stakes, excepting those hi this county, 
and in Lee county, Iowa, are discontinued, and the Saints instructed to settle in this 
county as soon as circumstances will permit. 

Joseph Sshth. 

Nauvoo, Hancock Co., 111., JMay 24, 1841. 

AVe have heretofore used the word " autocrat," in reference to 
this leader of the Mormon people. Is it an improper term? Did 
ever emperor of Russia claim to exercise such power over his sub- 
jects? Here is an order that the members of his church, wherever 
located, — in the United States, in Great Britain, Germany, India, 
Australia, or the islands of the sea (and he had agents in all 
these to make proselytes), no matter what their occupation or con- 
dition in life, and owing allegiance no matter where, — all must 
gather around this new corner stone of Zion, and contribute of 
their energy and enterprise, money, strength, sweat and toil, for 
this great work of the' latter days! The mandate was issued as if 
expected to be obeyed ; and it was obej'ed. 

In consequence of the growing apprehension, public meetings 
began to be held over the county; and finally it was agreed to call 
a county convention to consider the subject. One was accordingly 
held at Carthage on the 2Sth of June, composed of citizens of both 
political parties. It was decided to nominate a ticket selected from 
both parties, to be run at the approaching August election. This 
was done, Robert Miller, a Whig, and Richard Wilton, a Democrat, 
being selected for County Commissioner and School Commissioner, 
and elected, the first by 114, and the last by 4 votes. 


From this convention, and it was one of the most respectable 
and earnest ever held in the count}^ may be dated the rise of the 
Anti-Mormon party, and the origin of the term "Anti-Mormon," 
as applied to those who were seeking to counteract Mormon influ- 
ence in the county and State. One or two of the resolutions 
passed at this convention will not be out of place here. They 
resolved : 

That with the peculiar religious opinions of the people calling themselves Mormons, 
or Latter-Day Saints, we have notliing to do. — being at all times perfectly willing 
that they shall remain in the full possession of all the rights and privileges which our 
Constitution and laws guarantee and other citizens enjoj'. 

That in standing up as we do to oppose the influence which these people have 
obtained and are likely to obtain, in a political capacity, over our fellow citizeus and 
their liberties, we are guided only by a desire to defend ourselves against a despotism, 
the extent and consequences of which we have no means of ascertaining. 

The convention also put forth an earnest address to the people, 
urging them to lay aside all party differences and support the 

In justice to Mr. Walter Bagby, Mr. Wilton's opponent for 
School Commissioner, it is proper to state that he was an old 
citizen and in noway identified with the Mormons, and in after 
years became a zealous Anti-Mormon. 

The Mormons cast their votes nearly solid for the Harrison 
electors, and for John T. Stuart, the Whig candidate for Congress. 

About this time, Mr. William Harris, a seceding Mormon elder, 
appeared in the county and lectured against them at several points. 
He was not a man of much talent, but by his zeal and energy, he 
succeeded in stirring up considerable opposition. He also issued 
a pamphlet exposing them, which was printed at the office of the 
Warsaw Signal. 

Few of the people of Warsaw at the present day know how near 
their pleasant little city came to being made a Mormon town. During 
the summer of ISil, the owners of the sixteenth (school) section' 
lying adjoining town on the south, opened negotiations with Smith 
for the sale of said section to the Mormons; and on the 10th of 
July, the prophet, with Gen. Bennett and several other leaders, 
appeared to take a look at the tract and conclude the bargain. It 
was reported that the bargain was consummated, and that it was the 
intention to have the ground surveyed and a large colony located 
at once. The name was also said to have been selected — the '• City 
of Warren, " in honor of Calrin A. Warren, Esq., now of Quincy, 
one of the principal owners. But for some cause the negotiation 
was broken off, and Warsaw escaped the fate of being merged into 
a Mormon city. In discussing names for the new town, the Signal 
suggested that it be called " Money-Diggersville." 

On the 10th of August occurred one of those events which so 
often happen to change tiie current of affairs. We allude to the 
death of Hon. Sidney H. Little, Senator of this District in the 
Legislature. Mr. Little was a man of fine talents, stood high in 
the estimation of the people, and had great magnetic power over 


all with whom he came in contact. He was an ardent Whig and a 
popular leader among them; and had already acquired an enviable 
distinction in the Legishiture. The Mormons felt grateful to him 
for what he liad done; and had he lived, he would doubtless have 
possessed much influence over them for good. But as the dissatis- 
faction increased among the old citizens, Mr. Little saw the delicate 
position in which lie was placed, and sought to devise means to 
avert tlie coming troubles. To a near friend, he even expressed a 
thought of leaving the county; but this we do not believe he 
would have done. What course he would have pursued, had he 
lived tlirongh the years of disorder wliich followed, is only for an 
inscrutable Providence to know; but we feel sure that had Sidney 
H. Little been permitted to remain among us, his fertile genius 
and commanding talent would have found for the county a better 
way out of her difficulties than that she found and adopted. 


We have charged that the rank and file of the Mormon brother- 
hood were prone to commit depredations on their neighbors' 
property, and especially to screen from arrest and punishment 
those charged with such oiTences. They had high authority for 
such practices — that of the leaders themselves. It is well known 
that in«those days there was no legal title to be obtained to the 
half-breed lands lying in Lee county, Iowa, opposite Kauvoo — 
what title tliere was, being undivided among several hundred 
claimants whose interests had never been adjudicated. Tliese 
leaders obtained a lot of the pretended claims, on which they issued 
scrip, which was placed in the hands of proselyting elders East. 
And, as all new converts were required to emigrate to Nauvoo, it 
was sometimes difficult to sell property at home in order to get 
away. So this scrip was passed to them in exchange, thej' deeding 
their good titles for a worthless title in Iowa. How many thou- 
sands thus went into the coflers of the First Presidency may never 
be known; but that they were largely replenished in that way there 
is abundant proof. 

But if any believe that the Mormon leaders inculcated theft, let 
them be undeceived. Here is direct testimony to the contrary, 
submitted in all solemnity. We quote from Times and Seaso7is of 
Dec. 1, 1841 : 


Whereas, It hath been intimated to me by persons of credibility that there are 
persons in the surrounding country who profess to be members of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, who have been using their influence and endeav- 
ors to instill into the minds of good and worthy citizens in the State of Illinois, 
and the adjoining States, thaUthe First Presidency, and others in authority and high 
standing in said Church, do sdlnctiou and approbate the members of said Church In 
stealing property from those persons who do not belong to said Chiu-ch, and thereby 
to induce persons to aid and abet them in the act of stealing, and other evil practices. 
I therefore hereby disavow any sanction or approbation by me, of the crime of 


theft, or any other evil practice, in any person or persons whatever, whereby either 
the lives or property of our fellnw-mon may he unlawfully taken or molested; neither 
are such things sanctioneil or iippiolmlcd liy the First Presidency, or any other 
person in authority or good standing' in said ('luirch, but such acts are altojrether in 
violation of the rules, order, aiidn-giilalioMsof the Church, contrary to tlie teachings 
given in said C'luirch, and the laws of Imth OimI and man. I caution the unwary, 
who belong to the aforesaid ChiU'ch. and allntlicr persons, against being duped, or 
led into any act or scheme which may endaugei- their character, lives, or property, 
or bring rcpniacli uimii tlie C'liurch; and I certify tliat I hnld my person and property 
ready to supinu-t the laws of the land, in the dctdtinn of any person or persons who 
may commit aii_v breach of the same. To wliicli I subscribe my name and testify, 
this 26th daj- of November, 1841. Hykhm Smith. 

Sworn to, and subscribed before me, this 3Gth day of November, 1841. 

E. RoBixaoN, J. P. 

Then follows a long atldress from the Twelve, from which we 
copy only the concluding paragraph: 

We hope that what we have written may suffice, and take this opportunity of 
expressing oiu- decided and imqualified disapprobation of anj'tliing like theft, in all 
its bearings, as being calculated to destroy the peace of society, to injure the Church 
of Jesus Chi'ist, to wound the character of the people of God, and to stamp with 
eternal infamy all who foUow such diabolical practices, to blast their character on 
earth, and to consign them to eternal perdition. 


Nauvoo, ni., Dec. 1, 1841. 

Brigham YorxG, Oeson IItde, 

Heber C. Kimball, William Smith, 

Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, 

John E. Page, Wilford Woodruff, 

WiLLAED Richards, John Taylor, 

Ltman Wright, Geo. A. Smith. 

Then follows another affidavit from President J. Smith, without 
doubt in his own language and of his own composition: 

CiTT OF Naua-oo, III., > 
Nov. 20, A. D., 1841. I 
To the Public: — The transpiration of recent events makes it criminal in me tc 
remain longer silent. The tongue of the vile yet speaks, and sends forth the poison 
of asps; tlie ears of the spoiler 3'et hear, and he puts forth his hand to iniquity. It 
has been proclaimed upon the house-top and in the secret chamber, in the public 
walks and private circle, throughout the length and breadth of this vast continent, 
that stealing by the Latter-Day Saints has received my approval ; nay, that I have 
taught the doctrine, encouraged them in plunder, and led on the van — than which 
nothing is more foreign from my heart. I disfellowship the perpetrators of all such 
abominations ; they are devils and not saints, totally unflt for the society of Chris- 
tians or men. It is true, that some professing to be Latter-Day Saints have taught 
such vile heresies, but all are not Israel that are of Israel ; and I wish it to be dis- 
tinctly imderstood in all cbmuig time, that the Church over which I have the honor 
of presiding will ever set its brows like brass, and its face like steel, against all such 
abominable acts of viUainy and crime ; and to this end I append my affidavit of dis- 
avowal, taken this day before General Bennett, that there may be no mistake here- 
after as to my real sentiments, or those of the leaders of the Church, in relation to 
this important matter : 

Hancock County, j" 

Before me, John C. Bennett, Mayor of the City of Nauvoo, personally came Joseph ' 
Smith, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (commonly 
called Mormons), who. being duly sworn accorcUng to law, deposeth and saith, that 
he has never directly or indirectly encom-aged the purloining of property, or taught 
the doctrine of stealing, or any other evil practice, and that all such vile and unlaw- 


ful acts will ever receive his unqualified and unreserved disapproval, and the most 
vigorous opposition of the Church over which he presides, aud fm-ther this deponent 
saith not. 

Joseph Smith, 
President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. 
Sworn to, and subscribed before me, at my office in the City of Nauvoo, this 
29th day of November, Anno Domini, 1841. 

John C. Bennett, 
Maj'or of the City of Nauvoo." 

Now, it is to be hoped that none will hereafter be so recldess as to state that I, or 
the church to which I belong, approve of thieving, but that all the friends of law 
and order will join in ferreting out thieves wherever and whenever they may be 
found, and assist in bringing them to that condign punishment which such infamous 
crimes so richly merit. Joseph Smith, 

President of the Chm-ch of Jesus Chi-ist of Latter-Day Saints. 

And now the Legion is after the thieves: 

Court Martial. 

City of Nauvoo, III., Nov. 30, 1841. 
To Brevet-Moj.-Gen. WiUon Law: — We, the undersigned, memljcrs of the Gen- 
eral Court Martial, detailed by you on the order of Lt.-Gen. Smith, through Maj.- 
Gen. Bennett, for the trial of David Smith and Joseph Holbrook, officers of the 
Nauvoo Legion, charged with theft, and being accessory thereto, are of the opinion 
that they are guilty of the charges preferred against them, and our unanimous 
decision is that they be casJiiered, and their names be stricken from the rank roU. 
Witness against David Smith — Hazen Kimball. 
Witnesses against Joseph Holbrook — B. Young and W. Richards. 

Hteum Smith, Brev.-Maj.-Gen., 

President of the Court. 
Wm. Law, Brev.-Maj.-Gen. 
C. C. Rich, Brig. Gen. 2d Cohort. 
H. JIcFall, Adj. Gen. 
Daniel H. Wells, Com. Gen. 
S. Bent, Col. 3d Reg. 2d Cohort. 
T. Billings, Col. 1st Reg. 3d Cohort. 
J. T. Baenett, Capt. 3d Co. 1st Reg. 2d Ct. 
lilembers of the Court. 
To Mfij. Oen. Bennett: — I approve of the above decision, and submit it to you for 
your action on the case. 

Wilson Law, Brev.-Maj.-Gen. 

To Lt.-Geri. Smith: — The General Court-Martial detailed for the trial of David 
Smith and Joseph Holbrook, officers of the Nauvoo Legion, have made the above 
report to me, and asked my concurrence in the same, wliich, under the circum- 
stances, can not be withheld : it is, therefore, submitted to you for your final 
approval or disapproval. 

John C. Ben^titt, Maj.-Gen. 

Approved: Joseph Smith, Lt.-Gen. 

About the first of April, 1842, a weekly paper was established 
at Nauvoo, under the editorial management of the " Patriarch " 
William Smith, a brother to the prophet. This new sheet was 
entitled The Wasp, from which we are to infer that it was 
regarded as a stinger by its conductor ; but for illiterate and vul- 
gar abuse and silly nonsense, it has never been excelled perhaps in 
the State. The prophet in his youth had been pronounced the 
" genus " of the family, so " Bill Smith," as he M'as always called, 
was generally regarded as the fool of the family. Nevertheless, 
he had sense enough to aspire to political honors, aud he was placed 
on the fusion ticket for one of the members of the Legislature and 


Late in 1841, the Democratic party, in State Convention, had 
nominated Hon. Adam W. Snj'der for Governor; ex-Governor 
Josepii Dnncan being the candidate of the Whigs. But Mr. 
Snyder died, and Jndge Ford was nominated to take his place. 
Early in 1842, the prophet issued a proclamation enjoining his fol- 
lowers to support the Democratic nominees. Yet still, it was 
policy to divide and distract the anti-Mormon party in the county. 
This jiarty held a convention, and placed a ticket in the field, as 
follows, selected from each of the political parties, viz: 

For Senator — Wm. H. Roosevelt. 
For Representatives — Wesley Williams, 

Edson 'Wliitiipy. 
For Sheriff— Stephen H. Tyler. 
For County Commissioner — Joliu J. Brent. 
For School Commissioner — Wm. D. Aberuethy. 
For Coronei — Benjamin Avise. 

Xotwithstanding the proclamation, many political aspirants of 
both parties, believing they could secure tlie Mormon vote, were 
induced to run as independent candidates; but the result was the 
election of all the regular Democratic nominees by majorities of 
800 to 1,000 votes. The official vote will be found elsewhere. The 
following is the county ticket elected : 

Senator — Jacob Cunningham Davis. 
Representatives — Thomas H. Owen, 

William Smith. 
Sheriff — Wm. H. Backenstos. 
County Commissioner — Jolm T. Barnett. 
School Commissioner — Franklin J. Bai'tlett. 
Coroner — George W. Stigall. 


During the summer of 18-42, a quarrel sprung np between the 
two great leaders in Nauvoo, — Lieutenant-General Joseph Smith 
and Major-General John C. Bennett. The causes of this quarrel 
were never fully known to the public, but are believed to have 
originated in jealousy. The city, though large and rapidly grow- 
ino', was not lai'ge enough for them both. Bennett had fast risen 
to power and greatness, through the munificence of the State Gov- 
ernment and the favoritism of tlie Mormon people; and his ambi- 
tion demanded a greater share of the honors and profits than the 
prophet was willing to yield him. Though, from the published 
articles on the subject from both sides, it looks as though there 
may have been 'a woman or two in it. As they had been close 
friends before, so now they became vindictive and bitter enemies. 
But, as was usual. Smith held the reins of power. The Lieutenant- 
General ont-generaled the Major-General with the masses, and the 
latter was compelled to leave the city. He who had, within the 
year or two, held many of the most important offices in the city 
government, legion and university, was expelled — or he seceded — 
and began at once to expose the wrongs and wickedness perpe- 


trated amono; them. Several other leaders, and prominent men at 
the same time, manifested a rebellious spirit — among tlie rest, Sid- 
ney Rigdon, Orson Pratt, George AV. Robinson, the Higbees, Wil- 
liam Marks, etc. The power of the prophet restrained all these, 
however, and Bennett alone was turned over to the buftetings ot 

Bennett at once left the city, and from Carthage and other 
points began a series of letters in the Sangamo Journal, the Whig 
organ at Springfield. These letters were widely read and com- 
mented on. They are interesting for many reasons. 1. They 
exhibit in strong light the character of jjennett himself. 2. 
Whether he is to be regarded as worthy of full credence or not, 
they portray the workings of tliat semi-theocratic s^'Stem w-Jiich pre- 
vailed at Nauvoo; and 3. They give ns an idea of the sort of 
people he had been associating with, and the motives wliicli actuated 
them and him. As literary productions they are weak and in bad 
taste; but we think a portion is worthy of introduction here. We 
copy from his letter, dated — 

"Caethage, Hauoock Co., July 2, 1843. 
To theEdUor of the .Jovrniil: 

I am uow in this place to attend to some of my official duties as Master in Chan- 
cery, and h.aving some leisure time, I shall proceed with my histoiy of Joe Smith 
and the Saints. It is ray determination to state facts, and such facts as will 
arouse the public indignation, if there is yet virtue and courage left in man — for 
we are exhorted to be enterprising and courageous — but the heast and faUe prophet 
(Joe Smith) shall tremble in the days of his captivity like an aspen leaf in the wil- 
derness. The '• Lord's annointed," as Joe is called, must be washed in the laverr of 
the law, until liis polluted carcass and corrupt soul be purified by fire. And to 

1st. • The Duresse. — On the 17th day of May, A. D. 1843, Joe Smith requested 
to see me alone in the preparation room of the Nauvoo Lodge, U. D., on some 
important business. We entered, and he locked the door, put the key in his pocket, 
and di-ew a pistol on me and said : " The peace of m}' family requires that you should 
sign an affidavit, and make a statement before the next City Council, on the 19th, 
exonerating me from all pai-ticipatidn whatever, either directly or indirectly, in word 
or deed, in the spiritual wife doctrine, or private intercourse with females in gen- 
eral ; and if you do not do it, with apparent cheerfulness, I will make catfish bait 
of you, or deliver you to the Danites for execution to-night ; for my dignity and 
purity must and shall be maintained before the public, even at the expense of life. 
Will you do it, or die? " I replied that he had better procure some other person, or 
persons, to do so, as there were a plenty^who could do it, in truth. ''No," said he, 
' ' that will not do ; for it is known that you are well acquainted with all my private 
acts, better than any other man ; and it is in your power to save me or damn me ; 
and as you have now withdi-awn from the Church in an honorable manner, over my 
■ own signatm-e, a privilege never granted to any other person, you must and shall 
place it out of your power to injure me or the Church. Do it, or the Mississippi is 
your portion; will you do it?" 

I remarked that it was a hard case, and that I would leave peaceably, and without 
any public exposition, if he would excuse me. He replied : "I tell you, as I was 
once told, ' Yom- die is cast, your fate is fixed, your doom is sealed/ if you refuse. 
Will you do it, or die?" I remarked that I would, under the circumstances, but 
that it was hard to take the advantage of an unarmed man. " If you tell that pub- 
licly," said he, "death is your portion — remember ilie Danites!" He then unlocked 
the door, we went into the room below, and I gave the affidavit as subscribed before 
Alderman Wells (who was then doin '. business in the lower room), and made the 
statement required before the City Council on the 19th. I was not awai-e, imtil Smi- 
day last, that any other person was apprised of the fact of the threat of murder, but 
on that day Col. Franci? 31. Higbee told me, in~the presence of Geo. W. Robinson, 


that if it came to the worst, he was in possession of a secret tliat would open the 
eyes of the people, and that he would file his affidavit if necessary: but he would 
not tell nie whnt the secret was. Gen. Kohinson, however, informed nie afterwards 
that it was a kncnvledtre of .loe's threats of iiuu'der. On the 30th of Jiuic, 1843, I 
called uinin t'ol. Ilisliee for his.all'ulavit, whieh was taken before Gen. Hiram Kimball, 
an Aklermau of the city, and is in llie following words, to-wit : 



Personally aiijicared liefore me, Hiram Kimball, an Alderman of the city of 
KauviHi. Francis >I. Hiiiiiee, who, bcina; duly sworn according to law, deposeth and 
sayeth, that Joseph ^?mith told him that John C. Bennett could be easily put aside 
or drowned, and no person would be the wiser Inr it. and that it ought to be attended 
to; and he fm-ther remarked, that the sonner this u,is , the better forthe C'hm-eh, 
fearing, as he said, that Bennett would maLr smiir ilisdusm-es prejudicial to said 
Smith. This was about the time of Bennett's withdrawal from the Church, or a 
short time before; and further this deponent saith not. 

Francis M. Higbee. 

Sworn to and subscribed, tliis 30th day of June, A. D, 1842. 

HiKAM Kimball, Alderman," 

My affidavit and statement, under Duresse, were published in the Nauvoo Wasp 
of the 25th of June, 1843. Is it not high time that this band of mm-derers should be 
made to feel the just penalty of the law ? It is certainly a most alarming state of 
society when men are above the reach of law, and free to perpetrate the blackest 
crimes of cruelty and oppression. All this in a land of boastecj freedom! Great 
God! where is the arm of power ? Where is liberty and the rights of man? Arise, 
ye otficers of justice, and assert the majesty of j'our insulted laws. Let the sound of 
the clai-ion give the alarm ! and horsemen and chai'iots will tell the story, until one 
stone shall not be left upon another, or a vestige of iniquity and crime to pollute the 
goodly land. 

2d. The Fulfilliuent of Prophect/. — In 1841, Joe Smith predicted or prophe- 
sied, in a public congregation in Nauvoo, that Lilburn W. Boggs, ex-Governor of 
Missom'i, should die by violent hands within one 3'ear. From one to two months 
prior to the attempted assassination of Gov. Boggs, JNIr. O. P. Rockwell left Nauvoo 
for parts unknown to the citizens at large. I was then on terms of close intimacy 
with Joe Smith, and asked him where Rockwell had gone. ' ' Gone ?" said he — ' 'gone 
TO FULFILL PROPHECT !" Rockwell returned to Nauvoo the day before the report of 
the assassination reached there, and the Nauvoo Watp remarked : "It yet remains 
to be known who did the noble deed." Rockwell remarked to a person now in Nau- 
voo, and whose name I forbear to mention for the present, from motives of prudence 
and safety of the person, but which shall be forthcoming in due time, that he had 
'■ been all over upper Missom'i, and all about where Boggs lives ;" and this was com- 
municated to me by that person before I withdi'ew from the Chiu'ch, and we had con- 
siderable conversation upon that daring act. Rockwell is a Danite. Joe'spuhlic mem- 
ory is very treacherous on this subject, I presume; but his primitcraeuiory is so good he 
keeps a guard around his house every night, with the State cannon and a full supply of 
small arms, for the protection of his person against any attempted arrest. He like- 
wise requested me to write to Gov. C'arlin for his protection, which I agreed to do; 
and accordingly did, asking the Governor whether he would be protected from any 
ilUf/iil act of violence ; to which the Governor replied that till citizens should receive 
equal protection, but that he knew of no privileged man, or order of men, and that 
the cUgnity of the State should be preserved according to the strict letter of the Con- 
stitution and the laws. This letter I refused to show to Joe, as open hostilities had 
commenced between us ; and he accordingly detailed a court-martial to try me for 
treason against the citizens of the State of Illinois! ! ! This Court I regarded as ille- 
gal, and treated it with that utter contempt whicli such an assemblage of inferior 
officers will always receive at m)' hands. Now, I call upou Col. Francis M. Higbee 
to come out and tell what he told Gen. Robinson and myself, in relation to the mur- 
der of a certain prisoner in Missouri. Col. Higbee, do not fear to tell the dreadful 
story ; tell exactly how Joe had the murder done up, and what part he ordered you 
to take in the affair, but which you did not take. Tell it as Robinson knows it, and 
as 3-ou told me, and do not fear. Gov. Rejniolds will make another demand, and Joe 
shall be delivered over. I will visit Jlissouri and tell the dreadful story. Let the 
call be made, and the laws shall be executed. 


3d. My Late Vuit to Sprincrfidd.— On my arrival in Carthage, I found, as all the 
citizens well know, that I was followed by Mr. O. P. Rockwell, a Danite, who, on 
his arrival late in the night, made strict inquiries as to where I was : his ostensible 
business was to put a letter in the post office ! ! but judge ye the real design. I was 
prepared for the gentleman, and he approached me not ; but another 'swift rider, 
Capt. John D. Parker, another Danite, followed me to Springfield, to carry a letter 
to Dr. Helm ; but he had another object, and you may well suppose what it was. I 
told Capt. Parker that I was aware of his object, but I feared him not. At Virginia, 
in Cass county, ou my return, Parker met me again, and I called the attention of the 
stage driver to him, who thereupon put two additional baUs into liis pistol, and then 
informed me he was ready for him or any other person having the same object in 
view. Many of the Danites have been aromid me in Nauvoo, for the purpose of 
secret murder, in order to save the arch-impostor Joe from public infamy. 

4th. Mrs. Sarah M. Pratt, wife of Professor Orson Pratt, of the University of 
Nauvoo. — Joe Smith stated to me at an early day in the history of that city, that he 
intended to make that amiable and accomplished lady one of his spiritual wives, for 
the Lord had given her to him: and he requested me to assist him in consummating 
his hellish purposes; but I told liim that I would not do it; that she had been much 
abused and neglected by the Cluu-ch during the absence of her husband in Eiu-ope, 
and that if theLord had given her to him he must attend to it himself. • ' I will do it, " 
said he, "for there is no "harm in it if her husband should never find it out." I called 
upon Mrs. Pratt and told her that Joe contempUted an attack upon her virtue, "in 
the name of the Lord," and that she mast prepare to repulse him in so infamous an 
assault. She replied: "Joseph can 'not be such a man: I can not believe it until I 
know it for myself, or have it from his own lips; he can not be so corrupt." "Well," 
I replied, "you will see, unless he changes his mind." Accordingly in a few days 
Joe proposed to me to go to Ramus witli him. I consented to go, and we started 
from the house about four o'clock, p. m., rode into the prairie a few miles, and 
returned to the house of Capt. John T. Barnett, in Nauvoo, about dark, where we 
put up the horse with Baruett's permsssion. He, Joe, pretended we were looking 
for thieves. We then proceeded to the house where Mrs. Pratt resided, and Joe 
commenced discoiKseas follows: " Sister Pratt, the Lord has given you to me as 
one of my spiritual wives. I have the blessings of Jacob granted me, as he granted 
holy men of old, and I have long looked upon you with favor, and hope you will not 
•deiiy me." She replied: "I care not for the blessings of Jacob, and I believe no 
Buch revelations; neither will I consent under any circumstances. I have one good 
husband, and that is enough for me." Joe could not come it I He then went off to 

see Miss , at the house of Mrs. Sherman. He remained with her an houi' or 

two, and then returned to Barnett's, harnessed our horse, started for Ramus, and 
arrived at Carthage at early breakfast. We then went to Ramus, and returned to 
Carthtige that night, and put up at the house of Esq. Comer. Next day we retmned 
to Nauvoo. I called on Mrs. Pratt and a.sked her what she thought of Joseph. 
She replied: "He is a bad man. beyond a doubt." Mrs. Pratt, in a conversation 
with Mrs. Goddard, wife of Stephen H. Goddard, said: "Sister Goddard, Joseph 
is a corrupt man; I know it, for he made an attempt upon me." Three times 
afterward he tried to convince Mrs. Pratt of the propriety of his doctrine, and she 
at last told him : "Joseph, if you ever attempt anything of this kind with me again, 
I will tell Mr. Pratt on his return home; I wiU certainly do it." Joe replied, 
"Sister Pratt, I hope you will not e.xpose me; if I am to suffer, all suffer; so do 
not expose me. Will you agree not to do so?" "If," said she, "j'ou will never 
insult me again, I will not expose you, unless strong circumstances require it." 

"Well, Sister Pratt," says Joe, "as you have refused me, it becomes sin, unless 
sacrifice is offered;" and turning to me, he said, "General, if you are my friend, I 
wish you to procure a lamb, and have it slain, and sprinkle tlae door-posts and the 
gate with its blood, and take the kidneys and the entrails and offer them upon an 
altar of twelve stones that have not been touched with a hammer, as a burnt offering, 
and it will save me and my priesthood. Will you do it?" "I will," I replied. So I 
procmed the lamb from Capt. John T. Barnett.* and it was slain by Lieut. Stephen 
H. Goddard, and I offered the kidneys and entrails a sacrifice for Joe, as he desired; 
and Joe said, "All is now safe : the destroying angel will pass over without harming 

* We have the authority of Capt. Barnett for the statement that Bennett's story ii trae, so 
farai tothe procnring of alamb fromhim. The Iamb was obtained by Bennett, the Captain 
■wondering what he desianed doing with it. Cant. Ti. now reside- at (ra'i s'»arg. III. 


any of us." Time passed on in appiirent friendship, until Joe grossly insulted Mrs. 
Pratt asain, after her luisband liad returned linine, liy approarhiuj;- and Uissiiu; her. 
Tliis liii;hly olfeiuled her. and slie luld Mr. Pratt, who was uuieh eiM-ai;ed, aiul went 
aud told Joe never to otfer an insult of the like again. Joe replied: "1 did not 
desire to kiss her; Bennett made me do it." Joe, you can't come it ! Mrs. Pratt is 
far above yom- foul and polluleil lireath, your calumny mid detraction. I now appeal 
to Jlrs. Pratt, if this is not true to the very letter. Just speak out boldly. 

5th. Miss Kiiiici/ liiffchin, daughter of Sidney Rigdon, Esq. — [A story of a simi- 
lar attempt on Miss Rigdon, in which General Bennett and Col. F. M. Higbee inter- 
fere, and she is saved.] 

Tth. I will now append my own atRdavit : 
Hancock C'orxTT. >" ^" 

Personally appeared before me, Samuel JIarshall, a Justice of the Peace in and 
for said county, John C. Bennett, who, being duly sworn according to law, deposetli 
and saith, that the affidavit taken before Esquire Wells, on the 17th of May, and 
the statement before the City Council of Xauvoo, on the 19th, as published in the 
Wiif.p of |the 2oth of June, 1843, are false, and were taken under duresse, as stated 
in tins letter * * * John C. Bensett. 

Sworn to and subscribed, this 3d day of July, 1843. 

Samuel MAEsnALL, J. P. [l. s.] 

Bennett's third letter to tlie SaiHjamo Joxirnal is devoted largely 
to an expose of Smith's action as trustee for the Church, and in 
taking the benefit of the bankrupt law. He concludes as follows: 

Come out, gentlemen, and renounce and denounce Joseph Smith, that soul-damn- 
hig impostor. Come out xow, or bow down and lick the dust, worsliip at his shrine, 
and chain your fate to the wheels of damnation and the car of Iniquity. The issue is 
made up: it can not be averted ; and I pray God that the "bitter cup may not pass." 
You all, with Francis il. Higbee, Geo. W. Robinson, Chauncey L. Higbee, Heiuy 
Marks, and hundreds of others, know that I have told the mivarnished truth, and the 
people at lai-ge will beheve me, though I have not yet told half the dreadful stokt ! 
Come out from among the ungodly, and be ye separate. Gen. Robinson writes under 
date of July 3d : Joe says to the people : ' • Look out \ look out ! These men, I will 
venture to say, will come out on me with aU their power, aud say and do all they can 
to put me down ; but do not believe one word of their ciu'sed lies ; for I know I am a 
prophet." Yes, and Pratt, and Rigdon, and Robinson, and the Higbees, and the 
Slarks, and hundreds of others, know you to be a liae, Joe ; and Pratt and others 
have told you so in the face of open day. Yon lied in the name of the Lord I Re- 
member that, you base blasphemer 1 remember that and weep ! took at your black 
catalogue of crimes, yom' seductions in the name of yom' !Maker, yoiu- robberies, and 
your murdersi Why, Satan blushes to behold so corrupt and loathsome a mortal, — 
one whose daring deeds of crhne so far siu^iass hell's darkest councils, as to hide the 
sable Prince in impenetrable darkness forever. * * * 

I aiii going over to Missom'i to have Joe taken to justice; and then I am going to 
Kew York to publish a book to be called '• The History of the Saints," in which I 
shall tell most of the actings and doings at Nauvoo for the last two years — of most of 
their great men, and some of their great women, too. So, look out for breakers. 
We shall have full disclosures, if the fianites don't catch me ; they are after me like 
prowling wolves, by Joe's special orders. In ha.ste, Yours respectfully, 

John C. Bennett. 

An apology niaj seem necessary for occupying so much of our 
space with this man's braggadocio letters; but it should lie remem- 
bered that he was for more than a year the second man in position 
in the city and in the Church; that he had during that time the full 
confidence of the prophet and his people; aud more, that he was an 
officer by appointment of the Governor of the State and a Judge of 


the Circuit Court. Tliat he was a weak man and a knave, his own 
conduct and expose abundantly pi-ove; and it is left for the public 
to decide how far his statements are to be relied on. Notwith- 
standing his urgent appeals, he failed to carry with him the men 
to whom they were made; though it is to be noted that, within the 
next two years, they all, or nearly all, seceded from tlie Church, and 
by their course brought about the events which ended in the 
prophet's death. 

We have been utterly unable to obtain possession of the Wasj), 
the Nauvoo paper of that period. The Mormon side in the con- 
troversy, it is remembered, was not left behind in the use of "names" 
and invective. So that about the proper conclusion for the outside 
public to adopt, was to believe both sides — a conclusion which time 
has only strengthened. 


In August of this year a new demand was made for both Smith 
and Eockwell, and sent to Gov. Carlin, at Quincy, who issued a 
warrant for tlieir arrest, which was placed in the hands of an 
officer dui-ing the week after the election. He repaired to Nauvoo, 
and on Monday, the Sth, made the arrests without difficulty. The 
prisoners were immediately' taken on a writ of Aaleas eoi'pus issued 
by the Municipal Court, brought before that body and at once dis- 
charged. The officer insisting that the Court had no jurisdiction, 
and that the discharge was illegal, it was agreed by Smith, that if 
the writ sliould be returned to the Governor, with the indorsement 
that the prisoners had been discharged b}' the Municipal Council, 
he would hold himself in readiness to obej% if the Governor should 
again send for him. The officer hereupon returned to Quincy, but 
was dispatched back Ijy the Executive with orders to re-arrest at all 
hazards. In the meantime Smith had taken legal counsel, and 
when the officer returned had disappeared. It is believed that he 
was hid in the cit}-. The name of Rockwell seems somehow to 
have been dropped. AVhy no etlbrt was ever made to jirocure 
Eockwell, who was clearly amenable to the laws of Missouri, is not 
well understood. 

We find an ordinance of the City Council, dated the Sth of August, 
the day of the arrest, but whether passed in anticipation of that 
event, or subsequent to it, and to guard against the future, does 
not appear. It is evident, however, that whether discharged by 
virtue of it, or before its passage, the discharge was in any case 
flagrantly illegal. — [For this ordinance see sub-head, " Charter and 
Ordinances, further on. "J 

Gov. Ford says: 

As I before said, Gov. Carlin, in 1842, had issued his warrant for 
the arrest of Joe Smith, the prophet, as a fugitive from justice in 
Missouri. This warrant had never been executed, and was still 
outstanding when I came into office. The Mormons were desirous 
of having the cause of arrest legally tested in the Federal Court. 


Upon their application a duplicate warrant was issued in the winter 
of 1842-3, and placed in the hands of the Sherifl" of Sangamon 
countv. Upon this Jce Smith came to Springfield and surren- 
dered 'himself a prisoner. A vrrit of /laleas cormis was obtained 
from Judge Pope of the Federal Court, and Smith was discharged." 
—[Ford's Hist. Ill, p. 314. 

As much controversy has been had in regard to the discharge 
from this arrest 1)}' Judge Pope, it is proper that we should give 
the basis of the arrest, and the Judge's reasons for the discharge of 
the prisoner. The following are the official pajjcrs in the case: 

STATE OF Missorni,). jj 

CorXTY (IF Jacksox. ) ' 

This diiv personally appeared before me, Samuel AVestoii, a Justice of the Peace 
within ami for the county of .Jackson, tliesuliseriber, LilliurnAV. Boggs, who being duly 
sworn, doth depose andsay, that on theniglit of the (it h day of Jlay, 1842, while sitting iu 
hisdwelling in the town of Independence, inthe county of Jackson, lie was shot with 
intent to lull, and that his life was despaired of for several days ; and that he believes, 
and has good reason to believe, from evidence and information now in his possession, 
that Joseph Smith, commonly called the Mormon prophet, was accessory before the 
fact of the intended mm-der ; and that the said Joseph Smith is it citizen or resident 
of the State vf Illinois; and that the said deponent hereby applies to the Governor 
of the State of Missouri to make a demand on the Governor of the State of Illinois, 
to deliver the said Joseph Smith, commonly called the Mormon prophet, to some 
person authorized to receive and convey him to the State and county aforesaid, there 
to be dealt with according to law. 

LiLBUEX W. Boggs. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 20th day of July, 1842. 

Samuel Weston, J. P. 

The Gocernor of the State of Missouri to the Governor of the State of Illinois— 

Gkeetixg : 

"Whereas, It appears by the annexed document, which is hereby certified to be 
authentic, that one Joseph Smith is a fugitive from justice, charged with being 
accessorv tiefore the fact, to an assault with intent to kill, made by one O. P. Rock- 
well, onLilburn W. Boggs, in this State : and it is represented to the Executive 
Department of this State, has tied to the State of Illinois ; 

Now, therefore, I, Thomas Reynolds, Governor of the said State of Missoun,_ by 
virtue of the authority in me vested by the Constitution and laws of the United 
States, do by these presents, demand the surrender and dehvery of the said Joseph 
Smith to Edward R. Ford, who is hereby appointed as the agent to receive the said 
Joseph Smith on the part of the State. In testimonj', etc. 
The People of the State of Illinois to the Sheriff of Saiir/amon, coiwit/— Greeting: 

Whereas, It has been made kno-ivn to me by the Executive authority of the State of 
Missouri, that one Joseph Smith stands charged by the affidavit of one Lilbnrn W. 
Boggs, made on the 20th day of July, 1842, at the county of Jackson in the State of 
Missouri, before Samuel Weston, a Justice of the Peace witliin and for the county of 
Jackson aforesaid, vrith being accessory before the fact to an assault with intent to 
kiU. made by one O. P. Rockwell on Lilburn W. Boggs, on the night of the 6th 
day of Mav, 1842, at the county of Jackson, in said State of Missom-i, and that the 
said Joseph Smith had fled from the justice of said State and taken refuge in the 
State of Illinois : 

Now, therefore, I, Thomas Ford, Governor of the State of lUinois, pursuant to the 
Constitution and laws of the United States, and of this State, do hereby command 
you to arrest and apprehend the said Joseph Smith, if he be found within the limits 
of the State aforesaid, and cause him to be safelv kept and delivered to the custody 
of Edward R. Ford, who has been duly constituted the agent of the said State of 
Missouri to receive said fugitive from the justice of said State, he paying all fees and 
charges for the arrest and apprehension of said Joseph Smith, and make due return 
to th"e Executive Department of this State, the manner in which this writ may be 
executed. In testimony whereof, etc. 


And now, at the distance of over a third of a century from these 
events, and regarding tliese writs and the facts in the light of 
reason and common sense, it seems like mere boys' play that these 
chief magistrates and officials were engaged in, or, worse still, that 
they were purposeh' and wickedly issuing writs they knew to be 
defective, in order to avoid the responsibility resting upon them as 
conservators of the peace and supporters of the law's majesty. 
The writs were illegal and wrong : first, because if Joseph Smith did 
send Orrin P. Rockwell to Missouri to kill Gov. Boggs (and' that 
be did, vre believe, is almost the universal verdict), — if he did, his 
crime was not against the State of Missouri, but the State of 
Illinois, where he resided and was a citizen, and by Illinois laws 
and courts must he be tried and punished. Secondly, ex-Gov. 
Boggs' affidavit plainly charges that Smith is a " resident or citizen 
of the State of Illinois;" and hence, for Gov. Reynolds in his 
requisition, and Gov. Ford in his writ of arrest, to say tiiat he had 
"fled from the justice of the State of Missouri," were palpable and 
unwarranted perversions of fact, not only as stated by Boggs, but 
as they all knew it to exist. So, it is fair to presume that these 
officials knew, and that the prophet knew before ho submitted 
himself as a prisoner at Springfield — as well as we know now — 
that Judge Pope was bound to discharge him. And he did dis- 
charge him, chieiiy on the grounds above stated, in these words: 

The Court can alone regard the facts as set forth in the atfldavit of Boggs, as having 
any legal existence. The mis-recitals and over-statements iu the requisition and 
warrant are not supported bj' oath, and can not be received as evidence to deprive a 
citizen of his liberty, and transport hkn to a foreign State for trial. For these 
reasons. Smith must be discharged. 


In the year 1S4.3 it was not deemed expedient, nor was it possible 
to keep up the Anti-Mormon organization. The Whig politicians 
had hopes of securing the Mormon vote, or at least of dividing it 
in favor of their candidates. Smith had been released from arrest 
by Judge Pope, a Whig judge, and his case had been ably argued 
by Whig lawyers. The Democrats equally desired a party organ- 
ization, and expected to retain the vote because they had heretofore 
secured it, and saw no reason for a change. The Warsaw Message 
had succeeded the Signal, rrnder charge of Gregg and Patch — the 
latter its political editor, who strongly favored distinct Whig 
organization and a full Whig local ticket. 

On the 10th of May, at a Whig convention at Rock Island, in 
which the Mormons were represented, Cyrus Walker, of Macomb, 
was unanimously nominated as the AVhig candidate for Congress. 
Joseph P. Hoge, of Galena, was about the same time nominated 
by the Democrats for the same office. This, the Fifth Congres- 
sional District, embraced the fifteen counties of Jo Daviess, Carroll, 
Stephenson, AVinuebago, Ogle, Whiteside, Rock Island, Mercer, 
Warren, Henderson, McDijnough, Stark, l^ee. Knox and Hancock. 


The two candidates were representative men of their respective 
parties, and personally popular. Mr.-Walicer was an old lawyer of 
distinction in the State, and regarded as the peer of tlie leading 
lawyers at the capital. Iloge was a 3'ounger and newer man, but 
was talented, energetic, and a good stump speaker. He had never 
been in anj' way identified with the Mormons, residing in a county 
remote from them in tlie district. Walker was supposed to be in 
good favor witli them, and had once or twice acted as counsel for 
the Prophet. 

Soon after the nominations, the campaign of the district began 
with great vigor. To make a thorongh canvass in so large a district, 
it required a great deal of time and a great amount of physical 
energy, it being necessary to address the people in at least three or 
four, and often eight to ten, places in a county. Irrespective of 
the Mormon vote, there was a decided Whig majority in the 
district, and the probabilities were strongly in favor of the success 
of the Whig candidate. 

But the "irrepressible conflict" between Missouri and the 
Mormon prophet, was not yet at an end. True to his threat. Gen. 
Bennett had gone to that State and succeeded in procuring another 
indictment against his enemy, and another requisition. Ford's 
History states tliat this indictment and requisition were against both 
Smitli and Eockwell for the attempt upon the life of ex-Grov. Boggs. 
But Mr. Southwick, one of Smith's Dixon attorneys, in a statement 
made to tlie 2Iess<cg6 of July 15, says it was against Smitli alone, 
for " treason against the government of Missouri." As no after 
attempt was made to arrest Eockwell, the latter statement is prob- 
&\Ay the correct one. On the requisition Gov. Ford issued his 
warrant for Smith's arrest, and placed it in the hands of Harmon 
T. Wilson, of Carthage, a deputy Sheriff, with instructions to serve 
it and place the prisoner in tlie hands of Joseph H. Reynolds, the 
agent of Missouri. 

Learning that Smith and his wife were on a visit to her relatives 
at Palestine Grove, in Lee county, Illinois, toward the northern 
pact of the district, and about 1.50 miles from jS'auvoo, they quietly 
repaired thither, found him at the house of his friend, arrested him, 
and placing him in a carriage, started by way of Dixon, the county- 
seat. Here the prisoner was allowed to consult with lawyers, who 
procured for him a writ of habeas corpus from the Master in 
Cliancery in said county. Tliis writ was made returnable before 
Judge Caton, at Ottawa, in whose circuit they were. This placed 
the officers as prisoners in tlie hands of the Sheriif of Lee county. 
The morning following they started for Ottawa, distant about forty 
miles, and after traveling three-fourths of the distance, were 
informed that Judge Caton was temporarily out of the State, 
when they returned to Dixon. 

Before starting for Ottawa, Smitli had commenced suit in the 
Lee Court for false imprisonment against Reynolds and Wilson; 
and being unal»le to procure bail, thev were held in the custody of 


the Sheriff. Against this arrest they also procured a writof AaSeas 
corpus^ returnable before Judge Young, at Quincy, — and this writ 
was also placed in the hands of the Sheriff. After the return to 
Dixon, Smith procured another writ of habeas coiyus (as a substi- 
tute for the first one), returnable before the " nearest trihimal in 
the Fifth Judicial Circuit, authorized to hear and determine writs 
of habeas corjyus.^'' The Fifth Judicial Circuit embraced Quincy 
(the residence of Judge Young), and also Nauvoo, with a JMunici- 
pal Court, claiming the right to hear and determine writs of habeas 

These proceedings completely turned the tables upon the officers. 
Instead of Smith as their prisoner, tiiey found themselves under 
arrest and unable to give bail, with Smith really a free man; the 
fiat had already gone forth that he would be discharged ; for was 
not the Nauvoo Municipal Court ?!,«a/'(?^ than the court of Judge 
Yoang, at Quincy? and was not Smith himself Mayor of the city 
and presiding officer of that Court? 

Smith's arrest was made on Thursday, tlie 23d of June, and on 
Monday, the 26th, the cavalcade, " consisting of Reynolds, Wilson 
and Smith; Messrs. Walker, Southwick and Patrick, the counsel 
of Smith; McKay, a guard employed by Reynolds to guard Smith; 
Sanger, the owner of the stage coach that took them; McCorasey, 
the driver of one of the teams emploj'ed; Ross, the driver of the 
stage coach; Mason, attorney for Reynolds and Wilson; Wassou, 
a relative of the wife of Smith; Montgomery, son-in-law of 
Walker; and Mr. Campbell, Sheriff of Lee county — all started 
from Dixon soutliward in the direction of JSfauvoo and Quincy. 
Where were they going, and what were they going for? The 
officer had in his pocket two writs of habeas corpus, directing him 
to carry the persons therein named, one to Judge Young, at Quinc}', 
the other to any authorized court in the Fifth Judicial Circuit, to 
hear and determine on habeas corpus. It is not too severe a judg- 
ment to say, that all five of those legal gentlemen well knew that 
the place where those writs were properly returnable, was Judge 
Young's court. Instead, they traveled directl}^ to Nauvoo. The 
conclusion is irresistible, that when that second writ was obtained, 
the purpose was to carry them before that nondescript tribunal. 
We have, indeed, the testimony of one of the attorneys to that 
effect. Mr. Southwick says: "No threat or intimidation was used 
b}^ any person whatever, to induce Mr. Campbell, the Sheriff of 
Lee county, to go to Nauvoo with Reynolds; and Mr. Campbell 
well knew before starting from Dixon, that it was the determina- 
tion of the whole company to go to Nauvoo, he particularly con- 
senting to the same. The stage was also chartered to go to 
Nauvoo. Smith stated before leaving Dixon, that he should stib- 
mit to the law, and appeared desirous to do so.'' (.'.') 

'•Smith pledged his word," continues Mr. Southwick's state- 
ment, " previous to his arrival in Nauvoo, that Reynolds should 
not be harmed;" and he was not. He and Wilson- were even 


invited to dine with the prophet at bis house, which they did, 
and were introduced to his family! " In the afternoon of the daj' 
of said, arrival, a writ of habeas corpus (still another!) was issued 
by the Municipal Court of the city of Nauvoo, directed to 
lieynolds, requiring him to bring before said Court the body of 
said Smith; which he accordingly did, objecting, however, to the 
same, that said Court had no jurisdiction of the case. " 

Of course he did; and the next sentence shows that there was 
still a lingering qualm of conscience on the part of counsel. Mr. 
Southwick con.tinues: "The counsel of Smitli, however, appeared 
to entertain a different opinion as to the jurisdiction of said Court, 
and the examination was had before them and Smith discharged 
upon the merits of the case, and upon the substantial defects in 
the warrant." 

Let us here recall the clause in tlie cit}' charter in relation to 
writs of habeas corpus. The following is the whole of it: 

•'The Municipal Court shall have power to grant writs of habeas 
corpus in all cases arising under the ordinances of the City 

' When Smith was arrrested it so happened that both Walker and 
Hoge were in the vicinity of Dixon canvassing the district. In 
addition to the two Dixon attorneys. Smith sent for and engaged 
AValker. This gentleman left his appointments, and, as we have 
seen, rode with the cavalcade to jSTanvoo, and, it is said, there made 
a three-hours speech in favor of Smith's discharge by the Munici- 
pal Court, and contending for its jurisdiction. Gov. Ford, in his 
history, states that both he and lloge, from the public stand in 
Nauvoo, afterwards declared their belief in the existence of the 
power claimed by the Court. 

Being thus signally baffled, the Missouri agent applied to Gov. 
Ford for a militai-y force to enable him to retake Smith; and Mr. 
Walker, as Smith's attorney, repaired to Springfield to resist the 
application. The Governor declined to grant Reynolds' request, 
and the matter was dropped. 

Thus ended another move, and the last one, in the interesting 
game of " Demand and Discharge " which the chief executives of 
two great States had been for two or three years playing. 

Itis funny to note how differently the two interested parties tell 
the incidents of this arrest. If either be true, it was dramatic in 
the extreme. 

The Times and Seasons of July 1, 184.3, thus tells it: 

While he (Smith) was there (at liis wife's sister's residence, 13 miles from Dixon), 
a ilr. J. H. Reynolds, Sheriff of Jackson county. Mo. (so he says), and Mr. Harmon 
AVilson, of Carthage, arrived at Dixon, professing to be Monnon preachers ; from 
thence they proceeded to Mr. Wasson's, at whose house Mr. Smith was staying. 
They found Mr. Smith outside the door, and accosted him in a very uncouth, ungen- 
tlemanly manner, quite in keeping, however, with the common practice of Missou- 
rians. The following is as near the conversation as we can gather ; Eeynolds and 
his coadjutor, Wilson, both stepped up at a time to Mr. Smith, with their pistols 
coc'^ed. and without showing any wiit or serving any process, ilr. Reynolds, with 


his pistol cocked at Mr. Smitli's breast, cried out "G — dd — u 3'ou, if you stir I'll 
shoot — G — d d — n you ! be still, or I'll shoot, by G — d." 

" What is the meaning of this ?" interrogated Mr. Smith. 

" I'll show you the meaning, by G — d; and if you stu' one inch I'U shoot you, 
G — d d — n you." 

"I am not afraid of your shooting," answered Mr. Smith. "I am not afraid to 
die." He then bared his breast and said, "Shoot away; I have endm'ed so much 
of oppression I am weary of life, and kill me if you please. I am a strong man, 
however, and with my own uatiu-al weapons could soon level both of you ; but if 
you have any legal process to serve, I am at aU times subject to law, and shall not 
offer resistance." 

" G — d d — n you, if you say another word, we'll shoot you, by G — d." 

" Shoot away," answered Mr. S.; "I am not afraid of yom- pistols." 

They then hm'ried him oS to a carriage they had, and without serving any process 
were for hurrying him off without letting him see or bid farewell to his family or 
friends. Mr. Smith then said : 

"Gentlemen, if you have any legal process, I wish to obtain a writ of Jiabeas 
co7-piis," and was answered : 

' ' G — d d — n you, you shan't have one. " 

Mr. Smith saw a friend of liis passing, and said : 

" These men are kidnapping me, and I want a writ "of habeas corpus to deliver 
myself out of their hands." 

This friend immediately proceededlo Dixon, whence the Sheriff also proceeded 
full speed. 

The account goes on to say, that, arriving at Dixon, tliey put n]S 
at a hotel where Reynolds continued very abusive of Smith, and 
refused to let him see or converse with a lawyer, so much so that 
the bystanders interfered, when he relented, and did allow him to 
consult with two attorneys. 

This stor^' differs greatly from the one told by Wilson. We have 
heard it from his own lips; and knowing him as we did for many 
years'previous to his death, can not but believe his statement to 
have been substantially true. 

He stated that he and Reynolds drove in their carriage to the 
residence of Mr. Wasson, alighted and hitched their team, and 
stepping to the front door, inquired for Mr. Smith. The answer 
was very unsatisfactory, but that he was not there. They took 
seats, however, — Reynolds in the doorway, and Wilson on the step 
outside, — and entered into conversation. While thus engaged, 
Wilson, who had a view of the stairway, saw Emma, the prophet's 
wife, hastily cross the hall at the head of the stairs. This con- 
vinced him that they were on the right track. The conversation 
continued a little longer, but Wilson was becoming excited and 
uneasy. Rising from his seat, he made a step or two to the corner 
of the house, and casting his eye along the side of the building, 
was astonished to see, off in an open field one or two hundred yards, 
the object of their search, running towards a piece of woods some 
distance away. 

On the impulse of the moment, and without bidding good-bye 
to the household, or explaining to Reynolds, he gave a whoop, and 
started in pursuit, leaving his companion to bring up the rear. 
The pursuers, being lighter in weight and nimbler of foot, gained 
upon the pursued. So he resorted to strategy. He was nearing 
an old building, uninhabited, but at the side of which was a well, 


and near by a lot of clothes sjiread over some grass and weeds to 
dr}'. It was evident that Smith had been making lor the forest 
beyond; but on arriving at the bnilding, Wilson could nowhere 
see the fugitive. He certainly had not had time to reach the 
woods, nor could he be seen about the building. Giving a hurried 
glance at the surroundings, — taking in the cabin, the weeds, the 
drying bed-clothes, — an idea struck him, and the ne.\t moment he 
saw a pair of boots partly protruding from beneath some l)edding 
on the weeds, 

B}' this time Reynolds was close at hand; but, in his excite- 
ment, and without waiting to see if there was a man in the boots, 
or who that man might be, Wilson sprang upon the blanket and 
called on Reynolds to come on. The man in the boots soon 
emerged from beneath, and stood before them as their prisoner, and 
in great trepidation assured them of his surrender. In due time 
he was placed in the carriage, and they started on their journey — a 
journey ludicrous in its beginning, but disastrous to them in the 

■These are the two stories of the arrest — rather conflicting; we 
leave them with the reader. 


While these things wei'e transpiring np north, tremendous excite- 
ment existed at Nanvoo and over Hancock county. As soon as 
possible after the arrest, the news thereof had been sent to the city 
by swift messenger, and quick preparations were, made for their 
prophet's rescue. But it was not known what route to Missouri 
would be taken by the oflicers with their prisoner. It was conject- 
ured that they might drive eastward, and take steamer at the 
nearest point on the Illinois i-iver; or that they might aim to put 
him on board a St. Louis steamer at Rock Island ; or that he might be 
taken in bv-waj-s across the country. All these contingencies were 
provided ibr. The little steamer Ariel, owned and employed at 
Nanvoo, was armed, it was said, with a cannon or two, and manned, 
and despatched down the Mississippi to intercept them in or at the 
mouth of the Illinois river. At the same time squads of horsemen 
were sent out on the various roads toward Dixon. The delay, as 
we have seen, at that place, gave time for numbers of these horse- 
men to be a considerable distance on their way north before the 
party of prisoners and lawyers had left for Nauvoo; and during 
the journey it was met bj- many of them, who turned and escorted 
their chief back to the city. 

These events occurred during, the latter part of June and the 
iirst days of July; and it was some time before Mr. Walker was 
ready to resume his canvass. His conduct, as well as that of Mr. 
Hoge, was the occasion of much comment throughout the district, 
and many Wliigs were highly indignant. It is believed that Smith 
had intended in scood faith to throw the Mormon vote to Mr. 


"Walker; but the dissatisfaction of the Whigs in part, and for the 
reason that Reyiiold's application to the Governor for a force to aid 
him in retaking Smith was still held in terrorem over him, he 
changed his policy. Ford himself states that a friend of his, in hi& 
absence and in his name, had pledged to a Mormon emissary, Back- 
enstos, that if they would vote the Democratic ticket, the force 
should not be sent. — [p. 317. 

The Governoi-'s statement of what occurred at Nanvoo in regard 
to the matter so nearly accords with what we learned from other 
sources, that we give it in his own words: 

A great meeting was called of several thousand Mormons, on Saturday before the 
election. Hyrmn Smith, patriarch in the Mormon Church and brother to the prophet, 
appeared in this great assemby, and there solenmly announced to the people that 
God had revealed to him that the Mormons must support Mr. Hoge, the Democratic 
candidate. William Law, another great leader of the Mormons, next appeared, and 
denied that the Lord had made any such revelation. He stated that to his certain 
knowledge the prophet Joseph was in favor of 3Ir. Walker, and that the prophet was 
more likely to know the mind of the Lord on the subject than the patriarch. Hyrmn 
Smith again repeated his revelation, with a greater tone of authority. But the 
people remained in doubt until the next day, being Sunday, when Joe himself 
appeared before the assemblj'. He there stated that "he himself" was in favor of 
Mr. Walker, and intended to vote for him ; that he would not influence any voter in 
giving his vote ; that he considered it a mean business for him or any other man to 
attempt to dictate to the people who they should support in elections; that he had 
heard his brother HjTum had received a revelation from the Lord on the subject; 
that for his part he did not much believe in revelations on the subject of elections; 
but brother Hyrum was a man of truth ; he had known brother HjTmii intimately 
ever since he was a bo}', and he had never known him to tell a lie. If brother 
Hyrum said he had received such a revelation, he had no doubt it was a fact. When 
the Lord speaks, let all the earth be silent. 

That settled it. The election occurred on the next day. It is 
believed the prophet did, with a few others, vote for Walker, in 
the face of the revelation; but the body of his followers voted for 
Hoge, giving him 2,088 votes to Walker's 733 in the county, and 
beating him in the district by 455 votes. This change of position 
at Nauvoo was not known in Adams county till after the election; 
so Mr. O. H. Browning, the Whig candidate in that district, 
received the Mormon vote there. 

To Mr. Walker and his friends, and the Whig party generally, 
this result was the more aggravating from the fact that it was made 
quite evident that by a straightforward, honest and independent 
course, thus securing a full and enthusiastic Whig support, he 
could have been elected with the Mormon vote solid against him. 


The conduct of politicians and political parties, during the cam- 
paign of 1843, gave a new impulse to the Anti-Mormon sentiment, 
and measures to prevent their recurrence began at once to be 
taken. The election fullj' developed the fact that, although two or 
three good men had been chosen to county offices — men not objec- 
tionable to the great body of the old citizens — yet practically tlie 


ST Marys Tp. 


whole conntj was at the feet ot" tlie prophet. Four of the officials 
elected were Mormons, and one of tiiein, James Adams, was not 
even a citizen of the count}'. At the time of his election as Pro- 
bate Judge, lie held the same office in Sangamon county; having 
joined the Church and being about to settle in Nauvoo, he was 
placed upon the ticket here and elected. 

Mr. Adams died within a mouth after his election, when at a 
special election to fill the vacancy, David Greenleaf, an old settler 
Democrat M-as chosen in his place. 

An eftort to reorganize the Anti-Mormon party was decided on. 
Accordingly a public meeting was called at the county seat on the 
7th of September, at which a central and other committees were 
appointed, and other steps taken toward a permanent organization. 
Among the resolutions passed was one — which we now think 
objectionalde, and should have been omitted — recpiesting the Gov- 
ernor of Missouri to make another demand for Smith, and pledg- 
ing aid in the execution of the writ. 

In the meantime difficulties were frequently occurring between 
the parties at various points in the county and at Nauvoo, whicii 
tended to keep alive the excitement. Numerous acts of tyranny 
were perpetrated by the prophet on citizens of the county, and 
even on his own followers; and heavy fines were inflicted at his 
instance, for no punishable otfense, by tlie Municipal Court, or by 
himself as Mayor and presiding officer of the Court. If he commit- 
ted an ofiense against an individual, which rendered him liable, he 
had an' easy way of escaping, which was to procure an arrest by 
some of liis tools, have an ex -parte hearing, and get discharged ; 
then, if an officer called upon him, he was coolly informed that he 
was too late ! 

One of the most conspicuous of these outrages was perpetrated 
on Mr. Alexander Sympson, of Carthage, a well-known and prom- 
inent Anti-Mormon, about the beginning of 1S44. This case so 
fully sets forth the man and his methods, that we give it in Mr. 
Sympson's own words: 

Til the Editor of the Warsmi) Message : 

Dear Sir : — Through the columns of yoiu- journal I wish to make a full and fair 
statement of an occmTence with myself and the Mormon prophet at Nauvoo. I beg 
your indulgence while I give the particulars, as I wish it to go to the world in its 
true colors. 

On the 17th day of last months I was waited on by Mr. Roundy, of Nauvoo, at 
!Mr.. Davis' store, of that place, with a request to go immetliately to see the prophet 
at his own house, as he had some important business with me. I asked him if he 
knew what was wanting. . He said he did not. I went' with him to see what the 
prophet wanted. On arriving there we were told that he had gone to his farm in 
the coimtry. He then requested me to go [and see a Mr. Phelps, who was his clerk ; 
he in all probabiUty could teU what was wanting. On seeing Phelps, he could tell 
nothing about the business I was sent for. I went with him to the Steamboat Hotel, ^ 
where I board ; got my dinner, and was returning to my business in Dr. R. D. Fos- 
ter's effice, near the temple. On my way I was again met by this Mr. Roundy, who 
informed me that the prophet had left the business with a Col. Dunham to attend to, 
and that he was at the office waiting for me, and wished me to call and see him 
immediately. I again asked if he knew what was wanted. He assured me did not 
know. We went to the office ; Dunham was not there ; after waiting and looking 


for Duiiham about one hour, I told hira I could stay no louger. Said he, " Wait a 
few minutes longer ; I have sent for Dunham, and I see the man I sent running 
across the street ; he no doubt sees him, and will be here with him in a few min- 
utes." Accordingly I waited some 30 or 30 minutes; they did not appear, and I 
told him I must leave ; that he might tell Dmiham he could find me in Dr. Foster's 
office anj' time that evening. I was in the act of leaving, when he said, "If j-ou 
can not stay any longer, I must inform you that I must detain you on behalf of the 
people of the State of Illinois." I asked him why he did not tell me so at first, and 
not trifle with me in that way ; and ' ' Where is y oiu^ authority, and what am I 
detained for ?" He replied, that he had no precept — that he was a police officer — 
and by the ordinances of the city he could take me as well without as with a pre- 
cept ; and that I was accused of an attempt to mm-der and rob a Sir. Badhani, who 
resides some five or six miles from the city, on the Carthage road, and that the 
prophet (Mayor) had told him that morning to arrest me. I asked who made the 
complaint. He said if he was at Esq. Johnson's office he could tell. We went to 
Esq. Johnson's office (it was now 3 o'clock p. M.) and asked for the papers. He, 
Johnson, showed me a blank affidavit and warrant, and said he got word to make 
out those papers this morning, and a Mr. Dunham had just left the office to fiud a 
man that would swear to it ; and if he could not find him, he would retm'n and 
swear to it himself. I remarked that "If Dunham could hire a man to swear to a 
d — d lie, he would do so ; if not he would do it himself." 

By this time there had several called to see the prisoner. I spoke freely about 
their proceedings, and the power usurped by the prophet, which did uot relish so 
well. The prophet was brought to set matters right. He told me why he had me 
apprehended ; that he had been told I was the man, and he thought it his duty as 
Mayor to have me tried ; and that they had a right to take a man without a writ in 
that city ; and said he : " Jlr. Sj'mpsou, you know I am a man that keeps notliing 
back. Mr. Badham has seen you, and says that you are the identical man that 
stabbed and robbed him, and sent me word to have you apprehended ; which I have 

I was held in duress tiU seven o'clock, or a little after that time. Neither Dunham 
nor the man he went after had yet retm-ued. The prophet. Smith, then made affi- 
davit that he reallj- believed I was the man who stabbed and robbed Mr. Badham, 
on or about the 10th of December last. The warrant was issued and served at halt- 
past seven, p. m. We then went to trial. R. D. Foster, Esq., was called to assist 
Esq. Johnson. Mr. and Mrs. Badham were sworn in behalf of the State. Mr. 
Badham was examined first : 

Question. Would you know the man, if you were to see him, that stabbed and 
robbed you? Anxwer. I,would. 

C. L. Higbee. Esq., pointed me out to him, and asked: Is that the man? Am. 
No, nor nothing like him. 

I then asked him if he had ever seen me before. He said he had no recollection 
of ever having seen me. I asked him if he had sent the prophet word that he had 
seen me, and that I was the man who had committed the act, and he wanted me 
apprehended. An«. I never did. 

Mrs. Badham testified that I was uot the man, and did not resemble him in the 

His Holiness, the prophet, came next, and requested to tell his story without any 
questions being asked. After he got tlirough, I remarked to the Com-t that I 
wanted to propound a few questions to the witness. Leave was granted. 

Q. Have you the smallest particle of befief whatever, at this time, that I am the 
man who committed the act with wliich I am charged ? Atis. No, sir; / have not 
now, and I nevr had. 

Q. Wh}' did you swear it in your affidavit ? A. 1 did not. 

I replied: "You did, sir." The affidavit was then read, and he too plainly saw 
that it cUd not agree with his evidence in the case. Said he, extending his hand 
towards Esq. Johnson, who had just read the aflBdavit, "Give me that paper." The 
Court hesitated. He asked for it again ; he said it was couched in stronger language 
than he had intended to swear to. 

]\Ir. Higbee, my attorney, said he hoped the Court would not give it up ; that it 
was part of the record, and that Smith had no right to it. Smith then said he had 
not sworn to it; that he had signed it, but the oath was uot administered to him. 
(This is ■svith him and his justice, Esquire Johnson.) Smith went on to say that what 


he Imd done was to befriend me — that he knew I would be honorably acquitted, and 
that I woulii stand fairer than over I did. (Tlic Lord deliver me from such friends!) 
I was now discharged b}' the nnigistrates. 

Alexandek Sympsox. 

Gen. Bennett's e.\post5 mentioned several parties by name, as 
being disaffected toward the prophet. These, it is believed, never 
became heartily reconciled, thouo-h they refused to " come out," 
when so strongly urged by the General. Some of these were Sid- 
ney Kigdon, Bishop Marks, Geo. W. Robinson, William and Wil- 
son Law, Dr. Robert D. and Charles A. Foster, and Francis M. 
and Chauncey L. Higbee; also a Sylvester El^lmo^s, an attorney at 
law, who was a member of the City Council, but was said to have 
never been a member of the Church. None of these had ever been 
fully in the prophet's confidence since the secession of Bennett; 
and the breach was daily widening between them. The conduct of 
young Higbee, as we have seen in the case of Sympsou, in daring 
to defend a man charged by the prophet with crime, was of itself 
enough to doom him to that person's displeasure. Dr. Foster had 
been elected School Commissioner by Mormon votes, probably as 
an inducement to keep him quiet. 

During the winter and spring of ISii, the breach had widened 
to the extent of organizing a new Church, and | one' was instituted 
in April or May, with William Law as its President, but who dis- 
claimed any prophetic attainments. It was also decided to estab- 
lish a newspaper in the city, as their organ, and with which to 
fight the prophet. Accordingly, in May a printing press and mate- 
rials arrived by steamer from St. Lonis, and were landed and 
hauled into the city and set up without molestation. 

Of course, these events caused great excitement, not only in the 
city among the faithful, but over the whole county. Evidently a 
crisis was approaching. The lion was being bearded. In the 
meantime the habeas corpus was not inactive. In May, Mr. Francis 
M. Higbee, one of the seceders, commenced against the prophet a 
civil action for slander, in the Hancock Circuit Court, on which a 
capias was issued. On this being served b}' the Sheriff, instead of 
entering bail for his appearance, as usual. Smith obtained a writ of 
habeas corpusiYOva. the City Court, and was set at liberty. About 
the same time, one Jeremiah Smith, an Iowa defaulter to the U. S. 
Government, fled to the city for refuge, was arrested by the U. S. 
Marshal, and twice released in the same wa}-, the Court rendering 
a judgment for costs against the L'^nited States ! 

The May term of the Hancock Circuit Court commenced its 
session at Carthage on the 20th. At this Court several cases 
against Smith were disposed of, as follows: 

Alexander Sympson vs. Joseph Smith, for false imprisonment; 
change of venue to Adams county. F. M. Higbee, complainant, for 
slander; C. A. Foster, complainant, for false imprisonment; and A. 
Davis, complainant, for trespass, to the county of McDonough. In 
addition to the four above named civil actions, two indictments were 
found against him by the grand jury — one for adultery, and one 


for perjury. To the great surprise of all, on the Monday following, 
the prophet appeared in Court and demanded trial on the last 
named indictment. The prosecutor not being ready, a continu- 
ance was entered to the next term. 

In the meantime the seceders were not idle. Law boldly 
denounced the prophet from the stand in the city; while the others 
were busy among the people in and out of the city. The pros- 
pectus for the newspaper was circulated extensively, and received 
with much comment. Its title was to be the Nauvoo Expos- 
itor^ and its purposes, as set forth in the prospectus, were the 
Unconditional Repeal of the City Charter — To Correct the Abuses 
of the TJiiit Power — To Advocate Disohedience to Political Peve- 
tations, — in short, to oppose the prophet Smith, and correct the 
abuses of which he was claimed to be the cause. 

The paper was issued under date of June 7th. It had for its 
editor Sylvester Emmons, and the names of William Law, Wilson 
Law, Charles Ivins, Francis M. Iligbee, Chauncey L. Higbee, 
Robert D. Foster and Charles A. Foster, as its publishers. In a 
literary point of view, it exhibited no decided talent. It had evi- 
dently been prepared in huny and excitement, and with no attempt 
at artistic arrangement. About half of its 2-eading matter was 
selected. Of its original contents, live or six columns were occu- 
pied with a " Preamble, Resolutions and Affidavits of the Seceders 
from the Church at iNauvoo,'' giving reasons for their action, and 
making charges against Smith and his adherents. A number of 
editorial articles followed, couched in strong language, but not 
remarkable for abilit}' or point. 

The confessed aim and purpose of this sheet were to expose the 
enormities practiced by tlie prophet and his followers at Nauvoo. 
And from the statements and proofs adduced, and from corrobo- 
rative facts, making all due allowance for exaggeration, we are com- 
pelled to accept most of them as true. Yet we can not but remem- 
ber that while they were showing Joseph Smith to have been a 
desperately bad man, they were, to put it in as mild a way as pos- 
sible, adding little to their own characters, inasmuch as for years 
they had been his supporters and defenders, and (having been in 
his contidence) must have known long before that he was a cheat 
and a fraud, and that all his pretensions to religion and sanctity 
were false. And now that he and they had quarreled, that their 
personal right had been trampled upon, that the sanctity of their 
homes had been invaded, the}' rebelled and sought to put him 
down. Better late than never, and better from questionable motives 
than not at all, however. 

Sidney Rigdon, who, taking their statements to be true, had 
more reason than any to come out and denounce the prophet, still 
refused, till after the prophet's death, and Brigham and the Twelve 
had thrown him overboard. Did Rigdon know of Smith's vil- 
lainies, after fifteen years' association with him? These seceders 
gave countenance to Joseph H. Jackson, in his exposures, — a new- 


comer, who, as he says, had only been in Siuitli's confidence a little 
while; and Jackson pnblished that Smith had acknowledged to 
him that he was a connterfeiter, that he had instigated murder, and 
that the Mormon bible and golden jilates were frauds. Is it naore 
likely' that Jackson would have gained the prophet's confidence 
than they? 

Dut the life of the t'u'jws'dor was a short one. This number was 
its initial and final one. It was issued on Friday, the 7th of June, 
IS-iJr, and on Saturday, the Sth, the City Council was in session, 
considering what shoidd be done about it. They deliberated all 
da}-, and all day Monda}', and at 6 o'clock in the evening jiassed a 
resolution declaring it a nuisance, and instructing the Maj-or to 
cause it to be abated, which he did about eight the same evening. 

The Xauvoo J^eifjhhor had succeeded the lFas/». We have before 
us an extra of that paper, containing a certified copy of the pro- 
ceedings of Council on this occasion. It is due to them that their 
side of the controversy should be given, and this extra fully sets 
forth the reasons for their action. Besides, it should be preserved 
for all time to come, as a curiosity in legal proceedings, and as 
illustrating to future law-makers the nature of a nuisance, and its 
proper mode of treatment. Though long, it is worthy of a place 
here, and we cop}' it entire, only correcting its typography: 


Monday Morning, June 17, 1S44. 

To the Puhlic : 

" As a soft breeze in a hot day mellows the air, so does the simple 
truth calm the feelings of the irritated, and so we proceed to give 
the proceedings of the City Council relating to the removal of the 
Nauvoo Expositor as a nuisance. We have been robbed, mobbed 
and plundered with impunity some two or tlu'ee times, and as every 
heart is more apt to know its own sorrows, the people of Nauvoo 
had ample reason, when such characters as the proprietors and abet- 
tors of the Nan voo ^/y9fl«2^c>r proved to be before the City Council, 
to be alarmed for their safety. The men who got up the press 
were constantly engaged in resisting the authority or threatening 
something. If thej' were fined an appeal was taken, but the 
slander went on; and when the paper came, the course and the 
plan to destroy the city was marked out. The destruction of the 
City Charter and the ruin of the saints was the all commanding 
topic. Our lives, our city, our Charter and our characters are just 
as sacred, just as dear and just as good as other people's; and while 
no friendly arm has been extended from the demolition of our press 
in Jackson county, Missouri, without law, to this present day, the 
City Council, with all the law of nuisance, from Blackstone down 
to the Springfield Charter, knowing that if they exceeded the law 
of the land, a higher court would regulate the proceedings — abated 
the Nauvoo Expositor. 


" The proceedings of the Council show, as sketched, that there 
was cause of alarm. The people when they reflect will at once 
say that the feelings and rights of men ought to be respected . All 
persons otherwise, and, without recourse to justice, mercy or 
humanity, to come out with inflammatory publications, destructive 
resolutions, or more especially extermination, shows a want of 
feeling, and a want of respect, and a want of religious toleration 
that honorable men will deprecate among Americans, as they 
would the pestilence, famine, or horrors of war. It can not be that 
the people are so lost to virtue as to coolly go to murdering men, 
women, and children. No. Candor and common sense forbid it. 

For the Nei'jhhor. 
" Mb. Editor : — In your last week's paper I proposed giving your 
readers an account of the proceedings of the City Council, but time 
forbids any thing more than a brief synopsis of the proceedings of 
the Municipality of the City of Nauvoo, relative to the destruction 
of the press and fixtures of the ISIauvoo Expositor. 

" City Council, Regular Session, 
June 8th, 1844. 

" In connection with other business, as stated in last week's paper, 
the Mayor reirrarked that he believed it generally the case, that 
when a man goes to law, he has an unjust cause and wants to go 
before some one who wants business, and that lie had very tew 
cases on his docket, and referring to councilor Emmons, editor of 
the Nauvoo JExjwsitor, suggested the propriety of first purging the 
City Council; and referring to the character of the paper and pro- 
prietors, called up Theodore Turley, a mechanic, who, being sworn, 
said that the Laws (Wm. and Wilson) had brought bogus dies to 
him to fix. 

'' Councilor Hyrum Smith inquired what good Foster, and his 
brother, and the Higbees, and Laws had ever done; while his 
brother Joseph was under arrest, from the Missouri persecution, 
the Laws and Foster would have been rode on a rail, if he had not 
stepped forward to prevent it, on account of their oppressing the 

"Mayor said while he was under arrest by writ from Gov. Carlin, 
Wm. Law pursued him for $40.00 he was owing Law, and it took 
the last expense money he had to pay it. 

" Councilor H. Smith referred to J. H. Jackson's coming to this 
city, etc. Mayor said Wm. Law had offered Jackson $500.00 to 
kill him. 

" Councilor H. Smith continued Jackson, told him, he (Jackson) 
■ meant to have his daughter; and threatened him if he made any 
resistance. Jackson related to liim a dream; that Josepli and 
Hyrum were opposed to him, but that he would execute his 
purposes; that Jackson had laid a plan with four or five persons 
to kidnap his daughter, and threatened to shoot any one that should 
come near, after he had got her into the skifl"; that Jackson was 


engaged in trying to make bogus, wiiicli was his principal business, — 
reterrcil to the revehition read to the High Council of the Church, 
which has caused so much talk about a multiplicity* ot' wives; that 
said revelation was in answer to a (juestioii concerning things 
which transpired in former days, and had no reference to the present 
time; that when sick, Wm. Law confessed to him that he had 
been 'guilty of adultery,' and 'was not lit to live,' and had 
'sinned against his own soul,' etc., and inquired who was Judge 
Emmons. When he came here he had scarce two shirts to his 
back, but he had been dandled by the authorities of the city, etc., 
and was now editor of the Nauvoo EcposHor, and his right-hand 
man Francis M. Iligbee, who had confessed to him that he had * 
****** ^* * 

"Washington Peck sworn: — Said soon after Joseph H. Jackson 
came here, he came to witness to borrow money, which witness 
loaned him, and took some jewelry as security. Soon after, a man 
from across the river came after the I'ewelry; Jackson had stolen 
the jewelry from him. At another time, wanted to get naoney of 
witness; asked witness if he would do any thing dishonorable to get 
a living. Witness said he would not. Jackson said witness was a 
damned fool, for he could get a living a deal easier than he was 
then doing by making bogus, and some men high in the Church 
were engaged in the business. Witness asked if it was Joseph. ' No,' 
said Jackson, '1 dare not tell it to Joseph.' Witness understood 
him the Laws were engaged in it. Jackson said he would be the 
death of witness, if he ever went to Joseph or any one else to tell 
what he had said. 

''Ordered by the Council that Sylvester Emmons be suspended 
\intil his case could be investigated for slandering the City Council; 
that the Recorder notify him of his suspension, and that his case 
would come up for investigation at the next regular session of the 
Council. [The order is in the hands of the Marshal.] 

" Councilor J. Taylor said that Councilor Emmons helped to 
make the ordinances of the city, and had never lifted his voice 
against them in the Council, and was now trjdng to destroy the 
ordinances and the charter. 

"Lorenzo Wasson, sworn : — Said Joseph H. Jackson told witness 
that bogus-making was going on in the city; but it was too 
damned small business. Wanted witness to hel]3 him to procure 
money, for the General (Smith) was afraid to go into it, and with 
8500 he could get an engraving for bills on the bank of Missouri, 
and one on the State of New York, and could make money; said 
many times witness did not know him; believed the General had 
been telling witness something. ' God damn him, if he has I will 
kill him,' — swoi'e he would kill any man that should prove a traitor 
to him. Jackson said if he could get a company of men to suit 
him, he would go into the frontiers and live by highway robbery; 
had got sick of the world. 

"Mayor suggested that the Council pass an ordinance to prevent 


misrepresentation and libelous publications, and conspiracies 
against the peace of the city; and referring to the reports that 
L)r. Foster had set afloat, said he had never made any proposals to 
Foster to come back to the Church. Foster proposed to come back ; 
came to Mayor's house and wanted a private interview; had some 
conversation witli Foster in the Hall, in presence of several gentle- 
men, on the 7th inst.; offered to meet him and have an interview 
in presence of friends, three or four to be selected by each partj', 
which Foster agreed to; and went to bring his friends for the inter- 
view, and the next notice he had of him was the following letter: 

"'June 7, 18ii. 
"'To Gen. J. Smith: 

" ^Sir — I have consulted my friends in relation to your proposals 
of settlements, and they as well as myself are of the opinion that 
your conduct and that of your unwurth}', unprincipled clan is so 
base that it would be morally wrong and detract from the dignity 
of gentlemen to hold any conference with you. The repeated in- 
sults and abuses, I, as well as my friends, have suftered from your 
unlawful course towards us demands honorable resentment. "We 
are resolved to make this our motto; nothing on our part has been 
done to provoke your anger, but have done all things as become 
men; you have trampled upon everything we hold dear and sacred, 
you have set all law at defiance and profaned the name of the Most 
High to carry out your danmable purposes, and I have nothing 
more to fear from you than j'ou have ali-eady threatened; and I as 
well as my friends will stay here and maintain and magnify the law 
as long as we stay; and we are resolved never to leave until we sell 
or exchange our property that we have here. The proposals made 
by your agent, Dimick Huntington, as well as the threats you sent 
to intimidate me, I disdain and despise as I do their unhallowed 
author. The rights of my family and my friends demand at my 
hand a refusal of all your offers; we are united in virtue and truth, 
and we set hell at deliance and all her agents. Adieu. 

" 'R D. Foster. 

'''Gen. J. Smith: 

"Mayor continued: — And when Foster left his house, he went to 
a shoe shop on the hill and reported that ' Joseph said to him if 
he would come back he would give him Law's place in the Church 
and a hat full of specie.' 

"Lucien Woodworth sworn: — Said that the conversation as stated 
by the Mayor was correct; was at the Mansion June 7th when Dr. 
Foster rode up and inquired if Gen. Smith was at home. Dr. Fos- 
ter went into the house; witness followed. Dr. Foster was there, 
the General and others looking at some specimens of penman- 
ship; something was said respecting a conversation at that time 
between the General and Doctor. Gen. Smith observed to Foster, 
if he had a conversation he would want others present. The Doctor 


said he would have a word with him by liiiiiself, and went into tiie 
hail. Witness went to the door that he might see and hear what 
was passing. They still continued to talk on the sul)ject of a con- 
versation that they might have afterwards with others present, 
whom Mr. Smith might ehoi»se and Foster might choose. Foster 
left, and went for them that he said he wanted ]iresent, and would 
return soon with them; thinks he heard all the conversation; heard 
nothing about Gen. Smith's making any offers to Foster to settle; 
was present all the time. Dimick Huntington said he had seen 
Foster and talked with him. 

" Mayor said he wished it distinctly understood that he knew 
nothing about Dimick Huntington going to see Foster. 

" Woodworth said he sent Dimick Huntington to Foster, and 
Joseph knew nothing about it. 

" Councilor H. Smith said Dimick Huntington came to him on 
the 7th inst., and said he had had an interview with Dr. Foster, and 
thought he was about ready to come back, and a word from him to 
Joseph would bring it about. 

" Ma^-or said the conduct of such men and such papers are cal- 
culated to destroy the peace of the city, and it is not safe that such 
things should exist, on account of the mob spirit which they tend 
to produce; he had made the statements he had, and called the 
witnesses to prepare the Council to act in the case. 

" Emmons was blackguarded out of Philadelphia, and dubbed with 
the title of Judge (as he had understood from the citizens of Phila- 
delphia), was ppor, and Mayor helped him to cloth for a coat before 
he went away last fall, and he labored all winter to get the post- 
office from Mr. Eigdon (as informed). 

" Mayor referred to a writing from Dr. Goforth, showing that the 
Laws presented the communication from the 'Female lielief So- 
ciety,' in the Xauvoo Ne'iglihoi\ to Dr. Goforth, as the bone of con- 
tention^ and said, 'If God ever spake by any man, it will not be five 
years before this city is in ashes and we in our graves, unless we go 
to Oregon, California, or some other place, if the city does not put 
down everything which tends to mobocracy, and put down their 
murderers, bogus-makers and scoundrels;' all the sorrow he ever had 
in his family has arisen through the influence of Wm. Law. 

" C. H. Smith spoke in i-elation to the Laws, Fosters, Higbees, 
editor of the Signal, etc., and of the importance of suppressing that 
spirit which has driven us from Missouri, etc.; that he would go 
in for an effective ordinance. 

" Mayor said at the time Gov. Carlin was pursuing him with his 
writs, Wm. Law came to his house with a band of Missourians, for 
the purpose of betraying him; came to his gate, and was prevented 
by Daniel Cairns, who was set to watch. Law came within his 
gate and called Mayor, and the Maj'or reproved Law for coming at 
that time of night, with a company of strangers. 

" Daniel Cairns sworn: — Said that about 10 o'clock at night a boat 
came up the river, with about a dozen men. Wm. Law came to 


the ^ate with them, witness on guard. Stopped them. Law called 
Joseph to the door and wanted an interview. Joseph said, 'Bro. 
Law, 3'ou know better than to come here at this hour of the night;' 
and Law retired. Next morning Law wrote a letter to apologize, 
which witness heard read, which was written apparently to screen 
himself from the censure of a conspiracy, and the letter betrayed a 
conspiracy on the face of it. 

"Adjourned at half-past 6 F. M. till Monday, 10th, at 10 o'clock 
A. M. 

"adjourned session. 

"June 10th, 10 o'clock A. M. 

"Alderman Harris presiding. 

" Mayor referred to Dr. Foster, and again read his letter of the 
7th inst. (as before quoted.) 

" Cyrus Hills, a stranger, sworn: — Said one day last week, be- 
lieved it Wednesday, a gentleman whom witness did not know 
came into the sitting-room of the Nauvoo Mansion, and requested 
the Hon. Ma3'or to step aside, he wanted to speak with him. Mayor 
stepped through the door into the entry by the foot of the stairs, 
and the Gen. (Mayor) asked him what he wished. Foster, as wit- 
ness learned since was the gentleman's name, said he wanted some 
conversation on some business witness did not understand at the 
time. The Gen. refused to go any farther, and said he would have 
no conversaticu in private; what should be said should be in public; 
and told Foster if he would choose three or four men, he would 
meet him with the same number of men, among whom was his 
brother Hyrum, and they would have a cool and calm investiga- 
tion of the subject, and by his making a proper satisfaction, things 
should be honorably adjusted. Witness judged from the manner 
in which Foster expressed himself that he agreed to the Mayor's 
proposals, and would meet him the same day, in presence of friends. 
Heard no proposals made by Mayor to Foster for settlement, heard 
nothing about any offers of dollars, or money, or any other offer 
except those mentioned before; nothing said about Wm. Law; was 
within hearing of the parties at the time conversation was going on. 

" 0. P. Rockwell sworn : — Some day last week, said Dr. Foster 
I'ode up to the Xauvoo Mansion and went in; witness went in, and 
found the Mayor and Dr. Foster in conversation. Gen. Smith was 
naming the men he would have present, among whom was Hyrum 
Smith, Wra. Marks, Lucien Woodworth and Peter Hawes, and Dr. 
Foster had leave to call an equal number of his friends, as wit- 
ness understood, for the purpose of having an interview on some 
matters in conversation. 

"The doctor's brother was proposed; Gen. said he had no objec- 
tions; wanted him present. Dr. Foster started, saying he would 
be back shortly. Before Dr. F. left, the men whom Gen. Smith 
had named to be pi-esent at the conversation were sent for. 


" Cross-examined. — Witness went into the house as Mayor and 
Dr. Foster were coming out of tlie bar-room into the hall; nothing 
said by the Mayor to Dr. Foster about his coming back; made no 
offer to Foster about a settlement. 

"Mayor said the first thing that occurred wiien he stepped into 
the hall with Foster, was that he wanted to assassinate him; he 
saw something shining below his vest; TMayor put his tinger on it 
and said, ' WJtat is thatP Foster re])lied, '■It is my pistol,'' and 
immediately took out the ])istol and showed it openly, and wanted 
the Mayor to go with him alone. Mayor said he would not go 
alone. Mayor never saw the pistol before; had a hook on its side, 
to hang on his waistcoat. 

"Andrew L. Lamaraux sworn: — Said that in 1839 or '40, while 
President Joseph Smith, Elder Eigdon, Judge Higbee, O. P. 
Rockwell and Dr. R. D. Foster, on their way to Washington, 
called at witness' house in Dayton,'Ohio; the evening was spent 
very agreeably, except some dissatisfaction on the part of certain 
females with regard to the conduct of Dr. Foster. On their return 
from Washington, witness informed President Smith of Foster's 
conduct. President Smith said he had frequently reproved Foster 
for such conduct, and he had promised to do better, and told wit- 
ness to reprove Foster if he saw anj'thing out of the way. That 
evening Foster refused to join the company, and walked through the 
town till about S o'clock, when he came in and interrupted President 
Smith, who was expounding some passages of scriptures, and 
changed the conversation. Soon after the company was invited to 
Mr. Brown's at the next door, whither they all repaired. While 
at Mr. Brown's, conversation going on, and the room mucli 
crowded. Dr. Foster and one of the hidies he had paid so much 
attention to before, took their seats in one corner of the room. 
Witness heard her state to Dr. Foster that she supposed she had 
been en ceinte 'iov somQ time back, but had been disappointed, and 
supposed it was on account of her weakness, and wanted Foster to 
prescribe something for her. Foster said he could do it for her, 
and dropped his hand to her feet, and began to raise it, she gave 
him a slight push and threw herself close to the wall. 

•' He laid his hand on her knee, and whispered so low that witness 
could not hear. Next morning witness went in while Foster and 
others were at brealcfast, and related what he liad seen. Foster 
denied it. President Smith told him not to deny it, for he saw it 
himself and was ashamed of it. Foster confessed it was true, and 
promised to reform. 

" Peter Hawes sworn: — Said that he had come to Nauvoo before 
the Laws and brought considerable property; it was a short time 
after the Church had been driven out of Missouri, and had arrived 
in this place. The families having been robbed of all in Missouri 
were in a starving condition. By the counsel of the Presidency, 
witness converted his funds to feeding the poor, bringing in meat 
and flour, etc., and wliile thus engaged drew upon the Laws, who 


were at that time engaged in merchandise, to the amount of some 
six liundred dollars, which, on account of exijenditure for the poor, 
he was not able to pay, to within some 70 or SO dollars, which 
they pressed him for as soon as they wanted it, although he ofl'ered 
them good property at considerable less than the market value. 
As witness was obliged to leave the city on Church business for a 
little season, Wm. Law threatened and intimidated witness' family 
during his absence for the pay. 

" Dr. Foster made a public dinner on the 4th of July. Witness 
was obliged to be absent, and deposited meat, flour, etc., withWrn. 
Law, to give to the poor at that dinner, and Law handed it out as 
his own private property. Witness carried a load of wheat to 
Law's mill to be ground. Law would not grind it only to give a 
certain (Quantity of flour in return by weight. Law used up the 
flour, promising from time to time he would refund it. As wit- 
ness was about to start on a mission to the South, with valise in 
hand, saw Law before his door, talking with Hyrum Smith; called 
on Law and told him he was going away, and his family wanted 
the flour: Law promised on the honor of a gentleman and a saint, 
his family should have the flour when they wanted. 

" Councilor -H. Smith said he recollected the time and circum- 

" Hawes said when he returned, found his family mnst have 
starved if they had not borrowed money to get food somewhere 
else — could not get it of Law. And Law was preaching 2nmc- 
tuality, PUNCTUALITY, PUNCTUALITY, as the whole drift of his 
discourses to the saints; and abusing them himself all the time, 
and grinding the poor. 

"Mayor said if he had a City Council who felt as he did, the 
establishment (referring to the Nauvoo Expositor) would be a 
nuisance before night; and he then read an editorial from the 
Nauvob Expositor. He then asked, ' Who ever said a word 
against Judge Emmons nntil he has attacked this Council, or even 
against Joseph H. Jackson or the Laws, until they came out 
against the city? Here is a paper (Nauvoo Expositor') that is 
exciting our enemies abroad. Joseph H. Jackson has been proved 
a murderer before this Council.' He declared the paper a nui- 
sance, a greater nuisance than a dead carcass. They make a crimi- 
nalitj- for a man to have a wife on the earth, while he has one in 
heaven, according to the keys of the holy Priesthood; and he then 
read a statement of William Law's from the Expositor., where the 
truth of God was transformed into a lie concerning this thing. 
He then read several statements of Austin Cowles in \X\q Expositor 
concerning a private interview, and said he never had any private 
conversation with Austin Cowles on these subjects; that he 
preached on the stand from the Bible, showing the order in ancient 
days, liaving nothing to do with the present times. What the 
opposition party want, is to raise a mob on us and take the spoil 
from us, as they did in Missouri. He said it was as much as he 


could do to keep his clerk, Tlioinpsoii, from publishing the proceed- 
ings of the Laws, and causing the people to rise up against them, 
Said he would rather die to-morrow and have the thing smashed, 
than live and have it go on, for it was exciting the spirit of moboc- 
racy among the people and bringing death and destruction upon 

"Peter Hawes recalled a circumstance, which he had forgotten to 
mention, concerning a Mr. Smith who came from England and 
soon after died. The children had no one to protect them ; there 
was one girl 16 or 17 years old and a younger sister. Witness 
took these girls into his tamily out of pity. Wilson Law, then 
Major-General of the JXauvoo Legion, was familiar with the eldest 
daughter. AVitness cautioned the girl. Wilson was soon there 
again and went out in the evening with the girl, wlio, when 
charged by witness's wife, confessed that Wilson Law had seduced 
her. Wilson told her he could not keep her. The girl wept, 
made much ado, and many promises. Witness told her if she 
would do right she niight stay; but she did not keep her promise. 
Wilson came again and she went out with him. Witness required 
her to leave his house. 

" Mayor said certain women came to complain to his wife, that 
they had caught Wilson Law w'ith the girl on the floor at Mr. 
Hawes' in the night. 

" Councilor C. H. Smith proceeded to show the falsehood of 
Austin Cowles in the Expositor^ in relation to the revelation 
referred to, that it was in reference to former days, and not the 
present time, as related by Cowles. 

'• Mayor said he had never preached the revelation in private, 
as he had in public; had not taught it to the anointed in the 
Church in private, which statement many present confirmed, that 
on inquiring concerning the passage in the resurrection concerning 
'they neither marry nor are given in marriage,' etc., he 
recei\-ed for answer, ' Men in this life must marry in view of 
eternitj', otherwise they must remain as angels, or be single in 
heaven, which was the amount of the revelation referred to; ' and 
the Mayor spoke at considerable length in explanation of this 
principle and was willing for one to subscribe his name, to declare 
the Expositor and whole eetablishmeut a nuisance. 

2 o'clock P. M. 
" The Clerk of the Council bore testimony to the good character 
and high standing of Mr. Smith and his family, whose daughter 
was seduced by Wilson Law, as stated by the last witness before 
the morning Council; that Mrs. Smith died near the mouth of the 
Mississippi, and the father and eldest daughter died soon after 
their arrival in this place; and that the seduction of such a youth- 
ful, fatherless and innocent creature by such a man in high stand- 
ing as the Major-General of the Nauvoo Legion was one of the 
darkest, damndest and foulest deeds on record. 


" Gomicilor Hyrum Smith concurred in the remarks made by 
the clerk concerning the excellent character of Mr. Smith and his 

" Mayor said the Constitution did not authorize the press to 
publish libels, and proposed that the Council make some provision 
for putting down the Nauvoo Expositor. 

" Councilor Hyrum Smith called for a prospectus of the Expos- 

" Councilor Phelps read article 8, section 1, Constitution of 

" Mayor called for the Charter. 

" The Clerk read the prospectus of the Nauvoo Expositor. 

"Mayor read the statements of Francis M. Higbee from the 
Expositor and asked, 'Is it not treasonable against all chartered 
rights and privileges, and against the peace and happiness of the 

''Councilor H. Smith was in tavor of declaring the Expositor a. 

"Councilor Taylor said no city on earth would bear such slan 
and he would not bear it, and was decidedly in favor of active 

"Mayor made a statement of what Wm. Law said before.the City 
Council under oath, that he was a friend to the Mayor, etc., etc., and 
asked if there were any present who recollected his statement, 
when scores i-esponded. Yes! 

"Councilor Hunter was one of the grand jury; said Wm. Law 
stated before the grand jury that he did not say to the Council that 
he was Jose]ih's friend. 

" Councilor Taylor continued: ' Wilson Law was President of 
this Coimcil during the passage of many ordinances, and referred 
to the Records. Wm. Law and Emmons were members of the 
Council; and Emmons has never objected to any ordinance while 
in the Council; but has been more like a cipher, and is now become 
editor of a libelous paper, and is trying to destroy ouk charter and 

" He then read from the Constitution of the United States on the 
freedom of the press, and said, ' We are willing tliey should pub- 
lish the truth; but it is unlawful to publish lil)els; the Expositor 
is a nuisance and stinks in the nose of every honest man.' 

"Mayor read from Illinois Constitution, article S, section 2, 
touching the responsibility of the press for its Constitutional 

" Councilor Stiles said a nuisance was any thing that disturbs 
the peace of a community, and read Blackstone on Private Wrongs, 
vol. ii, page 4; and the whole community has to rest under the 
stigma of these falsehoods, referring to the Expositor\ and if we 
can prevent the issuing of any more slanderous communications, 
he would go in for it. It is right for this community to show a 


proper resentment, and he would go in for suppressing all further 
coinniunications of the kind. 

"Councilor II. Smith believed the best way was to smash the 
press and ' ]n ' the type. 

"Councilor Johnson concurred with the Councilor who had 

"Alderman Bennett referred to the statement of the Expositor 
concerning the Municipal Court in the case of Jeremiah Smith as 
a libel, and considered the paper a public nuisance. 

" Councilor Warrington considered his a peculiar situation, as 
he did not belong to any Chnrch or an}' part}'; thought it might 
be considered rather harsh for the Council to declare the paper a 
nuisance, and proposed giving a few days' limitation and assessing 
a fine of $3,000 for every libel, and if they would not cease pub- 
lishing libels, to declare it a nuisance, and said the statutes made a 
provision for a fine of $500. 

" Mayor replied that thej' threatened to shoot him when at Car- 
thage, and the women and others dare not go to Carthage to pros- 
ecute; and read a libel from the Expositor concerning the impris- 
onment of Jeremiah Smith. 

" Councilor H. Smith spoke of the Warsaw Signal and disap- 
proved its libelous course. 

" Mayor remarked he was sorry to have one dissenting voice in 
declaring the Expositor a nuisance. 

" Councilor Warrington did not mean to be understood to go 
against the proposition; but would not be in haste in declaring it 
a nuisance. 

"Councilor H. Smith referred to the mortgages and property of 
the proprietors of the Expositor and thought there would be little 
chance of collecting damages for libels. 

" Alderman E. Smith considered there was but one course to 
pursue; that the proprietors were out of the reach of the law; that 
our course was to put an end to the thing at once; believed, by 
what he had heard, that if the city did not do it, others would. 

" Councilor Hunter believed it to be a nuisance; referred to the 
opinion of Judge Pope on habeas corpus^ and spoke in favor of the 
charter, etc.; asked Francis M. Higbee before the grand jury if 
he was not the man he saw at Joseph's house making professions 
of friendship; Higbee said he was, not [hundreds know this state- 
ment to be false] ; he also asked R. D. Foster if he did not state 
before hundreds of people that he believed Joseph to be a prophet; 
' No,' said Foster. They were under oath when they said it. 
[Many hundreds of people are witness to this perjury.] 

"Alderman Spencer accorded with the views expressed, that the 
Nauvoo Expositor is a nuisance; did not consider it wise to give 
them time to trumpet a thousand lies. Their property could not 
pay for it; if we pass only a fine or imprisonment, have we any con- 
fidence that thej- will desist? None at all! We have found these 
men covenant-breakers with God! with their wives ! ! etc. Have 


we any hope of their doing better? Their cliaracters have gone be- 
fore them; shall they be suifered to go on, and bring a mob upon 
us and murder our women and children, and burn our beautiful 
city? No! I had rather my blood would be spilled at once, and 
would like to have the press removed as soon as the ordinance 
would allow, and wish the matter might be put into the hands of 
the Mayor, and everybody stand by him in the execution of his 
duties, and hush every murmur. 

" Councilor Levi Richards said he had felt deeply on this sub- 
ject, and concurred fully in the view General Smith had 'expressed 
of it this day;' thought it unnecessary to repeat what the Council 
perfectly understood; considered private interest as nothing in com- 
parison'with the public good. Every time a line was formed in the 
far West he was there, for what? To defend it against just such 
scoundrels and influence as the Nauvoo Expositor and its support- 
ers were directly calculated to bring against us again. Considered 
the doings of the Council this day of immense moment, not to this 
city alone, but to the whole world; would go in to put a stop to the 
thing at once; let it be thrown out of this city, and the responsi- 
bilit}' of countenancing such a press be taken ofl' our shoulders and 
fall on the State if corrupt enough to sustain it. 

" Councilor Phineas Eichards said that he had not forgotten the 
transactions at Haun's Mills, and that he recollected that his son, 
George Spencer, then lay in the well referred to, on the day pre- 
vious, without a winding-sheet, shroud, or coffin. He said he could 
not sit still when he saw the same spirit raging in this place; he 
considered the publication of the Expositor as much murderous at 
heart as David was before the death of Uriah. Was for making a 
short work of it; was prepared to take his stand by the Mayor, and 
whatever he proposes, would stand by him to the last. The quicker 
it is stopped the better. 

"Councilor Phelps had investigated the Constitution, Charter, 
and laws; the power to declare that office a nuisance is granted to 
us, in the Springfield charter, and a resolution declaring it a 
nuisance is all that is required. 

"John Birney sworn: — Said Francis M. Higbee and Wm. Lftw 
declared they had commenced their ojserations and would carry 
them out, law or no law. 

"Stephen Markhara sworn: — Said that Francis M. Higbee said 
the interest of this city is done the moment a hand is laid on theii' 

" Councilor Phelps continued, and referred to Wilson Law in 
destroying the character of a child, an orphan child, who had the 
charge of another child. 

"Warren Smith sworn: — Said F. M. Higbee came to him and 
proposed to have him go in as a partner in making bogus money. 
Higbee said he would not work for a living; that witness might go 
in with him if he would advance fifty dollars, and showed him 
(witness) a half dollar he said was made in his dies. 

/im f^ 


La Ha^pe Tp. 


" Councilor Phelps continued, and said he felt deeper tliis day 
than ever he felt before, and wanted to know, by ' Yes,' if there 
were any present who wanted to avenge the blood of that innocent 
female who liad been seduced by the then Major-General of the 
Nauvoo Legion, Wilson Law, when ' Yes ' resounded from every 
quarter of the house. He then referred to the tea plot at Boston, 
and asked if anybody's rights were taken away with that trans- 
action, and 'Are we offering, or have we offered to take away the 
rights of any one tiiese two days?' {No!!! resounded from every 
quarter.) He then referred also to Law's grinding the poor during 
the scarcity of grain, while the poor had nothing but themselves to 
grind; and spoke at great length in support of active measures to 
put down iniquity aud suppress the spirit of mobocracy. 

'' Alderman Harris spoke from the chair, and expressed his 
feelings that the press ought to be demolished. 

" The following resolution was then read and passed unanimously, 
with the exception of Councilor Warrington: 

Resolved, By the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, that the printing office 
from whence issues the Nauvoo Expositor is a public nuisance, and also all of said 
Nauvoo Ei-positcn which may be or exist in said estabUshment; and^ the Mayor is 
instructed to cause said printing estabUshment and papers to be removed without 
delaj', in such manner as he shall direct. 

Passed June 10th, 1844. Geo. W. Harris, Prest. pro tem. 

W. RicHAEDS, Recorder. 

6 o'clock, p. m., Council adjourned. 

This certifies that the foregoing is a true and correct synopsis of the proceedings 
of the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, on the 8th and 10th days of June, isfi, 
in relation to the Nauvoo Expositor and proprietors, as taken from the minutes of 
said Coimcll. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand, 
[l. s.] and the corporation seal, at Nauvoo, this 17th day of 

June, 1844. 

WiLLARD Richards, 
Recorder and Clerk of the City Council. 

The following order was immediately issued by the Mayor: 


CiTT OF Nacvoo. \ To the ULirshnl of said City, Greeting: 
You are hereby commanded to destroy the printing press from whence issues the 
Nauvoo Expositor, and pi the tyjie of said printing establishment in the street, and 
burn aU the Expositors and libelous hand-bills found in said establishment; and if 
resistance be offered to your execution of this order, by the owners or others, 
demolish the house, and if any one threatens you, or the Mayor, or the ofBcers of the 
City, arrest those who threaten you and fail not to execute this order without delay 
and make due return hereon. 
By order of the City Council. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
Marshal's return — The within named press and type is destroyed and pied 
according to order, on this 10th day of June, 1844, at about 8 o'clock, p. m. 

J. P. Green, C. M. 

Headquarters Naitvoo Legion,) 
June 10, 1844. ; 

To Jonathan Biinham, acting Mojor-Generol of the Nauvoo Legion: 

You are hereby commanded to hold the Nauvoo Legion in readiness, forthwith 
to execute the City ordinances, and especially to remove the printing establishment 


of the Nauvoo Expositor-, aud this you are required to do at sight, under the penalty 
of the laws; provided the JIarshal shall require it, and need your services. 

Joseph Smith, Lieut. -General Nauvoo Legion. 


Mayor's Office, Nacvoo, June 16, 184:4. 

" As there are a number of statetnents in circulation which have 
for their object the injury of the ' Latter-Day Saints,' all of which 
are false, and prompted by black-hearted villians, I therefore 
deem it my duty to disabuse the public mind in regard to them, 
and to give a plain statement of facts which have taken place in the 
citv within a few days past, and which has brought upon us the 
dis'pleasure of the unprincipled and the uninformed, and seems to 
afford an opportunity to our enemies to unite and arouse themselves 
to mob; aud alreadj- they have commenced their hellish operations 
by driving a ^Q\y defenseless Mormons from their houses and homes 
in the vicinity of AVarsaw and Carthage. 

" A short time since a press was started in this city which had 
for its object the destruction of the institutions of the city, both 
civil and religious; its proprietors are a set of unprincipled scoun- 
drels, who attempted in every conceivable way to defame the char- 
acter of the most virtuous of our community, and change cur 
peaceful and prosperous city into a place as evil aud polluted as their 
own black hearts. To rid the city of a paper so filthy and pesti- 
lential as this, becomes the duty of every good citizen who loves 
good order and morality; a complaint was made before the City 
Council, and after a full and impartial investigation it was voted, 
without one dissenting voice, a public nuisance, and to be imme- 
diately destroj'ed; the peace aud happiness of tlie place demanded 
it, the virtue of our wives and daughters demanded, and our con- 
sciences demanded it at our hands as conservators of the public 
peace. That we acted right in this matter we have the assurance 
of one of the ablest expounders of the laws of England, viz.: Biack- 
' stone, tlie Constitution of the State of Illinois, and our own 
chartered rights. If then our charter gives us the power to decide 
what shall be a nuisance and cause it to be removed, where is the 
ofl'ense? What law is violated? If then no law has been violated, 
why this ridiculous excitement and bandying with lawless ruffians 
to destroy the happiness of a people whose religious motto is 
' peace and good will toward all men V 

" Our city is infested with a set of blacklegs, counterfeiters and 
debauchees, and that the proprietors of this press were of that class, 
the minutes of the Municipal Court fully testify, and in ridding 
our young and flourishing city of such characters, we are abused 
by not only villainous demagogues, but by some who, from their 
station and influence in society, ought rather to raise than depress 
the standard of human excellence. We have no disturbance or 
excitement among us, save what is made by the thousand and one 
idle rumors afloat in the country. Every one is protected in his 


person and ])ropertv, and but few cities of a population of twenty 
thousand people, in the United States, hath less of dissipation or 
vice of any kind, than the city of Nauvoo. 

"Of the correctness of our conduct in this affair, we appeal to 
every high Court in the State, and to its ordeal we are willing to 
appear at any time that His Excellency, Governor Ford, shall please 
to call us before it. I therefore, in behalf of the Municipal Court 
of Nauvoo, warn the lawless not to be precipitate in any interfer- 
ence in our affairs, for as sure as there is a Cod in Israel we shall 
ride ti'iuniphant over all oppression. 

"Joseph Smith, Mayor." 

It was stated at the time, that the brotliers, Joseph and Hyruin, 
■were occasionally, during tlie two days' discussion in the Council, 
highly excited, and indulged in violent language. The former is 
reported to have vehemently exclaimed: " If you will not stick 
by me, and wade to your knees in Hood, for my sake, you may go 
to h — I and he d — d, and I will go and build another city!" Hj-runi 
is reported to have used this ironical language: " We had better 
send a message to Long-nosed Sharp that if he does not look out, 
he might be visited with a pinch of snuff that will make him 
sneeze!" And continued: "If any person will go to Warsaw 
boldly, in daylight, and break the press of the Signal office with a 
sledge hammer, I will bear him out in it, if it costs me a farm. He 
could only be taken with a warrant at any rate, and what good 
would that do?" 

Of course such language would not do to be reported in the 
organ. It is proper, however, to state that Hyrum and his friends 
made emphatic denial of having uttered threats against the Signal 
or its editor. 

The foregoing report in the extra is to be taken as conclusive ol 
the reasons for the destruction of the press. When analyzed they 
resolve themselves into this: Emmons was poor when he came to 
the cit3', with only two shirts to his back; the Laws oppressed the 
poor, by adhering to their rules in grinding, and they had dunned 
the prophet for money due; Dr. Foster had been too intimate with 
a sister in Ohio, and besides had written the Mayor a sauc}' letter; 
Wilson Law had seduced another sister; they had all misrepre- 
sented the spiritual-wife doctrine; and all this amounted to treason 
and rebellion against the independent sovereignt}' and kingdom of 
Nauvoo; and, therefore, their printing press was a nuisance, and 
must be destroyed. Even in this the Mayor transcended the 
authority given him by the Council. The resolution instructed him 
to abate the nuisance by removal; he issued his order to the City 
Marshal to destroy the press and pi the types in the street, and, if 
necessary, demolish the house, and arrest all who oppose. 

the atonement. 

The city was now at fever heat. The seceders all left, and 
repairing to the caunty seat, procured writs for all engaged in the 


destruction of the press, on the charge of riot. These writs were 
placed in the hands of an officer, who, with a posse, went to the city 
and arrested a nuniber of persons charged. The habeas corpus was 
again applied, and they were "honorably discharged!" 

" Meanwhile the whole county was in commotion. Public meet- 
ings were held at various points, and the people called to arm for 
the approaching crisis. The following resolutions were adopted at 
"Warsaw and afterward at Carthage, by acclamation: 

Resolved, That the time, in our opinion, has arrived, when the adherents of Smith 
as a body should be driven from the sm-rounding settlements into Nauvoo. That 
the prophet and his miscreant adherents should then be demanded at their hands, 
and if not smrendered, a "war of extermination should be waged to their entire 
destruction, if necessary for our protection. 

Resolved, That every citizen arm himself to be prepared to sustain the resolutions 
herein contained. 

It is proper here to state that there were at this time and even 
afterward while the Mormons remained, four classes of citizens in 
the county: 1. The Mormons themselves; 2. A class called Jack- 
Mormons, who, not members of the church, adhered to and sus- 
tained them for mercenary or political gain; 3. Old citizens who 
were Anti-Mormons at heart, but who refused to countenance anj' 
but lawful measures for redress of grievances; and i. Anti-Mor- 
mons who. now that the crisis had come, advocated " war and exter- 
mination." Some of the third class were denounced as Jacks, by 
the extremists; though the great body of them acted throughout 
with the foitrth class, in all but their extreme measures. 

All over the county men were arming, organizing and drilling, 
havinw been notified by the officers that the posse comitatus 
would be called out to assist in making the arrests. A great want 
existed in the absence of arms and ammunition. Agents were seut 
to Qnincy, to St. Louis and other places. At St. Louis a cannon 
and a lot of ammunition were procured and brought to Warsaw. 
The authorities of the town voted SLOOO for supplies. A deputa- 
tion having been sent to Gov. Ford, at Springfield, he decided to 
visit the county in person, and judge for himself. 

In much that follows regai-ding the death of the Smiths, and the 
events leading thereto and subsequent, we condense from Ford's 
History, correcting his evident mistakes, and his many distortions 
of facts in order to make a case against the old citizens. 

Upon the Governor's arrival at Carthage he found an armed force 
collected and collecting, while another was assembling at Warsaw. 
Gen. Deming had also called for the militia of McDonough and 
Schuyler counties. The Governor at once placed all the troops 
under orders and under command of their proper officers. He 
next summoned tlie Mayor and City Council of Nauvoo to present 
their side of the question, which they did, through a committee 
sent to him. After some considerable delay and indecision as to 
what course to pursue, "a force of ten men was sent with the 
constable to make the arrest and to guard the prisoners to head- 


quarters." The officer made the arrests of the Maj'orand Council- 
ors, who signitied their willingness to accoinpan>' him to Carthage 
at eight o'clock next morning. Eight o'clock came, but the 
accused failed to appear, and the pos>>e marched back to Carthage 
witliout them. 

This incensed the Governor; he blamed the officer for coming 
M-ithout them, very unjustly. The officer knew better than His 
Excellenc}' the ways of the accused. He knew if they had intend- 
ed submission, they would have ]ireseuted themselves at the time; 
and that if they did not, -aw officer and ten men would iind it an up- 
hill business to hunt out and bring away an equal number, from 
the midst of two or three thousand armed men. 

Next the Governor demanded that the State arms in possession 
of the Legion should be delivered up; and they delivered three 
pieces of cannon and 220 stand of small arms, of 300 which had 
been distributed to it by Quarter-Master General Bennett. 

The surrender of the chiefs being insisted on, on the 2ith the 
prophet, his brother Hyrum, some members of the City Council, 
and othei-s, came in and surrendered to the officer holding the 
writs, and voluntarily entered into recognizances to appear at 

In the mean time a new warrant charging Joseph and Hyrum 
with treason had been issued, and they were again arrested b}' the 
constable. The charge of treason was based on the alleged fact of 
levying war against the State, by declaring martial law, and order- 
ing out the legion to resist the execution of the laws. Here 
historian Ford, in order to find fault with the Hancock people, 
gives us a new and uovel definition of treason. He says: 

Their actual guiltiness of the charge would depend upon circumstances. If their 
opponents had been seeking to put the law in force in good faith, and nothing more, 
then an array of military force in open resistance to the posse C(>mrt<(?«s and the 
militia of the State, most probably would have araomited to treason. But if those 
opponents mainly intended to use the process of the law, the militia of the State, 
and the posse comitatus, as cat's-paws to compass the possession of their persons for 
the purpose of murdering them afterward, as the sequel demonstrated the fact to be, 
it might well be doubted whether they were guilty of treason. — [Ford's Hist. III., 
p. 337. 

So that treason, instead of depending upon the acts and inten- 
tions of the person charged, is to be measured by the! acts and 
intentions of others. It is a principle of law that intention must 
be taken into account; but it comes strangely from the Governor 
of a State, that to constitute crime, the intentions of the people 
who are endeavoring to bring a criminal to justice, rather than his 
own, are to be considered. But by what process does Gov. Ford 
so summarily arrive at the intentions of those he styles the "oppo- 
nents" of the Mormon leaders? "5 

Neither party being prepared for the examination on the charge 
of treason, .the Smiths were committed to the county jail for greater 


The Governor now decided to march his force into Nauvoo, but 
does not seem to have had any clearly defined purpose in so doing. 
Tlie morning of the 27tli was fixed on for tlie march, and on the 
26th word was sent to tlie troops at Warsaw to meet liim and the 
main body at Golden's Point, about seven miles from the city; 
but on the 27th he wavered in his intention of going with a force 
into the city, and called a council of oificers to consult. A small 
majority voted in favor of going, but the Governor took the respons- 
ibility, and ordered the troops disbanded, excepting three compa- 
nies, two to remain at Carthage, and one to accompany himself 
and a few friends to Nauvoo. Word to this effect was sent to the 
Warsaw troops, who were already on the march; and they were 
met by the messenger on the pi-airie before reaching Golden's 
Point. Here, much to their dissatisfaction, the officer disbanded 
them. After disbanding, many returned home, while a portion 
lingered, and final]}' straggled east toward Carthage. The two 
companies left to guard the jail were placed under command of 
Capt. Smith, of the Carthage Greys, his own company being one 
of them. 

" Having ordered the guard, and left Gen. Deming in command 
in Carthage, and discharged the residue of the militia, I immedi- 
ately departed for Nauvoo, IS miles distant, accompanied by Col. 
Bvickmaster, Quartermaster-General, and Capt. Dunn's (Augusta) 
company of dragoons." — [p. 34:5. 

It was claimed that one purpose had in view, in thus visiting 
the city, was " to search for counterfeit money." But on the way, 
he began to fear an attack on the jail; so he decided to omit the 
search, but hurry on to the city, make the Mormons a speech, 
and return to Carthage the same night. The baggage wagons 
vrere halted, with orders to return at night. He and his escort 
reached the city about four o'clock, called the people together, made 
them an address, in which he says he rated them pretty severely 
for their bad conduct, and ended b}' putting the vote whetlier they 
in future would obey the laws. They unanimously voted Yes, 
when His Excellency and his retinue started for Carthage a little 
before sundown. A few miles out they were met bj' a messenger 
with the information that the two Smiths had been assailed in jail 
by a mob, and killed! The messenger who brought the news was 
ordered to return with them to Carthage, which he did; but by 
some means unknown to us the news reached the city during the 

General consternation now pervaded the whole county. The 
troops had been disbanded, and most of them had left for their 
homes. Three companies only remained — the one with the Gov- 
ernor, and the two at Carthage — to confront the Legion, should it 
make a raid upon them. The Governor with his command hurried 
on to Carthage, only to find the place partially deserted; and all 
who had not gone were going as fast as they could find means of 
conveyance. Men with their families, in carts, in wagons, and on 


horseback or a-foot, were en route mostly toward Augusta and St. 
Mary's. The Hamilton Hotel, where the dead bodies and their 
wounded comrade had been taken, with perhaps a tew other houses 
only, were not forsaken. Gen. Deniino- had left town in the afternoon, 
before the deed had been committed. The Governor, in great 
excitement, hurried into town, where he remained only long 
enough to denounce the people for their folly, and rode on to 

At Warsaw the people were not long in hearing what had been 
done, and anticipating Mormon vengeance, hurried from their 
homes, mostly crossing the river to Alexandria. Picket guards 
were stationed about the town to watch the approach of an enemy. 

At Kauvoo great consternation prevailed. The messenger had 
been turned back by the Governor; yet late in the night the news 
somehow reached the city. The ]3eople were appalled at the dis- 
aster which had befallen them. Most of the citizens had retired 
to sleep before the news was received, so that only a portion knew 
of the death of their leader till the morning. 

On the morning of the 2Sth of June, IS-ti, the sun rose on as 
strange a scene as the broad Hancock prairies had ever witnessed. 
At the three corners of a triangle, 18 miles asunder, stood a smitten 
city and two almost deserted villages, with here and there a group 
of questioning men, anxious to hear the news of the night. To- 
ward the two villages the more courageous ones were returning to 
find their several abodes unsacked and untouched. The wet and 
heavy roads leading to the county seat from the south and east 
were being again traversed by the refugees of the night, now 
returning, and wondering that they had homes to return to. All 
know that a great crime had been committed, by whom they knew 
not; and they knew not how, upon whom, where, or in what man- 
ner retribution might fall! 

The murder of the Smiths, while he was at Nauvoo and in dan- 
ger, convinced our suspicious Governor that his own death had 
been contemplated by the murderers as a part of the programme. 
But for this suspicion he had not the shadow of evidence. He, 
however, very justly concluded that his authority was at an end. 
He had by his course failed to satisfy either party, and both 
regarded him with disti-ust. He accordingly hurried from the 
county, and brought up at Quincy, forty miles from the scene of 
the troubles. It was strongly suspected by the citizens that he had 
contemplated a rescue or an escape of the prisoners; and he was 
very angry with them for harboring such suspicion. But he 
acknowledges in his book that he had such a plan; which was 
"thwarted by this insane folly of the Anti-Mormons," [p. S39]. 
Tliis fact was never fully known, until made puljlic by himself. 
Its consummation could hardly have been etfected without blood- 
shed and violence. And here M'e have the startling fact confessed, 
that the Executive of a State, whose duty it is to execute the laws, 
was contemplating the escape of great criminals, in order to avoid 


the responsibilities his duty devolved upon hiui, and as the easiest 
way of getting rid of troublesome men. 


There can be little doubt that the killing of the Smiths was 
perpetrated by men who had been with or of the Warsaw troops. 
There was plentj' of time during the day, however, for others to 
have joined them, and they may have done so. Those troops were 
composed partly of citizens of Warsaw and the countrj' around it, 
with a few from Missouri and other places. They numbered some 
one or two hundred, and were under command of Colonel Levi 

After being disbanded on the prairie, as we have seen, a portion 
of them left at once for their homes, while others went on toward 
Carthage. What course they took, or what became of them, until 
the afternoon when they were observed approaching the jail, is not 
known. From a lady who resided perhaps nearest the jail, and who 
saw them approach, we lately obtained the following: That they 
strung along in single file and quick step, from the direction of the 
woods northwest of the town, until they came to the fence sur- 
rounding the Ituilding. This they scaled at once, and seized the 
guard. She was several hundred yards away, too far to recognize 
any of them, or to see positively whether they were masked or 
otherwise disfigured, though she thinks they were not. Her first 
impression was that they were Mormons, come to release the pris- 
oners; and that impression was shared by the other inhabitants of 
the town, as the alarm spread. She thinks there were not more 
than thirty to forty men in the gang, as they filed along. The 
guard was soon overpowered, and a rush was made for the stairway, 
ascending on the outside to the door of the jail, on the south end, 
the upper stor}' being used for that purpose. The door was assailed 
and burst open. The prisoners inside, aware of the attack, were, 
however, behind it, well armed, endeavoring to prevent ingress. 
As the door would yield to the outside pressure, the Prophet fired 
several shots around the edge with his revolver. The mobbers fired 
a number of shots through the door, which killed Hyrum Smith, 
and wounded John Taylor severely. Seeing they were being over- 
powered, Richards, who was still unhurt, ran with Taylor wounded 
into the inner dungeon, while Joseph Smith hastened to a window 
on the east, raised the sash and leaned partly out, probably with a 
view of jumping, when he was shot by several balls from the out- 
side, and he fell to the ground near the well curb. It has been 
stated that after he fell, he was set up against the curb, and several 
times shot. This last, we are reliably informed, is not the fact, 
but that no shot was fired after he fell, and that he died from the 
two or three shots he received in the window. The story, we 
believe, is based on the statement of Daniels, who afterward issued 
a pamphlet giving a most miraculous account of the transaction. 

Gov. Ford and others have stated that the plan had been devised 


and concerted between tlie mob and the Carthage Greys, and tliat 
the guard of ten men of that coni])any wlio were stationed around 
the jail, were in tlio plot, and made only a feint at resistance. This 
we are compelled to iielieve is partly true. It is certain that a por- 
tion of the Greys knew that something was to be done; but others, 
the great body of them, knew nothing about it. We have lately 
conversed with some who protest that they were wholly ignorant of 
anything going on, until the firing was heard, and then, like the 
rest of tlie citizens, they apprehended a Mormon rescue. 

Gov. Ford also charges that the mob selected that time — while 
he was in Nauvoo, and in the power of the Mormons — to do the 
bloody deed, in order to compass his own destruction at their hands 
in revenge. His own too excitable and suspicious nature origin- 
ated the thought. So far from it being the fact that they designed 
and contemplated the murder of the Governor, we believe they did 
not even contemplate the killing of the prisoners! This avowal 
will no doubt surprise many of our readers; for we well know that 
the Governor's statement has been so often reiterated that it has 
been genei'ally received. I3utfroni all the inquiries we have made, 
and looking at the circumstances as they are known to have existed, 
that is our honest and fixed conclusion. Of the thirty or fortj' men 
who approached the jail that day with stealthy tread, we do not be- 
lieve there was one with murder in his heart. They are not excus- 
able, nevertheless. They were there for an unlawful and wrongful 
purpose; though we believe that purpose was not clearly defined iu 
any one's mind. 

Let us look at the circumstances on which this opinion is based: 
There had been several demands made by Missouri for the delivery 
of Smith, in the near past, all of which had in some way been 
thwarted. Added to this, only a short time before, a pulilic meet- 
ing at Warsaw and another one at Carthage had asked the Gover- 
nor of Missouri to make another demand, and pledging aid in sup- 
port of it. This purpose, we are convinced, and this only — to take 
the prisoners and run them into Missouri — was as far as any pur- 
pose went, until they reached the door uf the jail. ' There they were 
met with resistance — with tight; a defense certainly to have been 
expected; and it ended in death. It has been stated that two or 
three of the mobbers were wounded and carried away. We know 
not whether this is so. 

This "Book of Daniels," referred to above, was such a curiosity 
in itself, and contained so many wonderful statements, that we 
should be glad to copy it entire as a specimen of the literature and 
truthfulness of the times. It was put forth by one Wm. M. Dan- 
iels, a good-for-nothing youth, whom no one ever heard of before 
or since, who says that he was among the Warsaw troops, and at 
the jail when the deed %\as done, and that afterward he was warned 
in a dream that he must go and join the Saints, and publish his 
knowledge to the world, in order to further the ends of justice. He 
accordingly went to Nauvoo, and, with the assistance of a typo there, 


his book was ushered to the world. But we must content ourselves 
with a very short extract. He says that on the way to Carthage, 
after being disbanded, the Warsaw troops concocted the plan of 
killing the Smiths; that Sharp, and Grover, and Davis, and others, 
openly boasted of it along the road; that they sent a squad of men 
on ahead, to confer with the Carthage Greys; that a portion of the 
latter.came out to meet them with a proposition, which was agreed 
upon; that the Gre^'S stood and looked on while the killing was 
going on, etc., .etc. He says, that after Joseph fell to the ground — 

A fellow six feet tall and upward, holding a pewter flute in his hands, bare- 
headed and bare-footed, having on nothing but his pants and shirt, with his sleeves 
rolled above his elbows, and his pants rolled above his knees, picked him up instantly 
and set him up on the south side of the well curb, situated three or four feet from 
the building. As the ruffian sprang over the fence to Gen. Smith, and while he was 
in the act of picking him up, he said : "This is old Jo : I know liim. I know you, 
old Jo. Damn you 1 You are the man that had my daddy shot." The reason of his 
talking in this way, I suppose, was that he wished to pass himself to Gen. Smith as 
being the son of Gov. Boggs. * * * Four of the ruffians who stood in front of 
Col. Williams, about eight feet east of the curb, were ordered by Williams to fire. 
They raised their muskets and the tire was simultaneous. * * * After the breath 
had left his body, the person I have previously described, who had passed as the son 
of Gov. Boggs, caught up a bowie knife for the purpose of cutting off his head. 
The knife was raised ready to strike, when a light, so strange, so bright and sudden, 
flashed between him and the corpse, that he and the fom- men who had shot him 
were struck with terror and consternation. Their muskets fell from their hands, 
and they stood like marble, not having power to move a single limb. Tliey were 
about to be left, when Col. Williams, who had also beheld and been terrified at the 
light, shouted out to the men, "For God's sake, come and carry away these men!" 
They were obliged to carry them away, as they were as helpless as though they were 
dead. This light was something like a flash of lightning, and was so much brighter 
than the day, that after it had passed, it left a slight darkness like a twilight. 

Daniels further states that wiien it became known that he was 
going to be a witness against the accused, and the nature of his 
testimony became public, the sum of $2,500 was oifered him to 
leave the State; this failing, efforts vvere made to put him out ot 
the way by violence! 


During the summer and fall (lS4i), after the death of the lead- 
ers, great dissatisfaction and trouble existed at Nauvoo, growing 
mainly out of the struggle for tiie succession. Rigdon and his 
adherents were at work against Brigliatn Young and the rest of the 
Twelve. Many of the rank and file were becoming lukewarm, and 
were quietly leaving the city; at the same time numbers were 
retiring from the Mormon settlements in other parts of the county, 
some locating in the city, and others scattering to other counties, 
and in doing so were stealing liberally from the Gentiles. 

To add to the excitement a Grand Military Encampment was 
called to be held at Warsaw on the 2d of October. Tliis call was 
circulated in handbill, and was dated 27th Sept., signed by Col. 
Williams, Major Aldrich, and a number of officers of independent 
companies in the neighborhood of Warsaw. 

We are assured that this movement actnallv intended nothing 


beyond wliat was expressed in tlie call, but it gave great uneasiness 
to tlie Mormons and their friends. They saw in it something 
more than a jieacet'ul military disjilay; and it soon became magni- 
fied into a great woU' hunt, in which the wolves hunted were to be 
Mormons in sheep's clothing. The excitement spread, and the 
Governor was appealed to for protection. His Excellencj', ever 
ready to believe any thing prejudicial to the old citizens, in this 
case allowed himself to be imposed upon, and without proper 
inquiry, decided to send an expedition with troops into the county. 
A proclamation was accordingly issued, calling for volunteers 
(2,500 required), and after a delay of several daj'S a force of about 450 
men was marched into Hancock, the whole under command of Col. 
John J. Hardin, accompanied by the Governor himself. The two 
Quincy companies were sent directly to jSTauvoo, by way of the 
river. People were reluctant to volunteer, believing that the Gov- 
ernor was engaged in an unnecessary and uncalled-for enterprise. 

Some days previous to the call for troops, Murray McConnell, 
Esq., of Jacksonville, had been sent into the county, to Carthage 
and Nauvoo; and the result was that Messrs. Willianis and Sharp 
of Warsaw, and tlie Laws and Fosters of Rock Island, with Joseph 
H. Jackson, were selected as examples for arrest, and writs for 
them were accordingl}' issued by Aaron Johnson, a Nauvoo Justice 
of the Peace. These writs, excepting as to Col. Williams, were 
sei'ved ; but all refused to go to Nauvoo for hearing, and no 
attempt was made to take them there. 

After a delay of a day or two at Carthage, the Governor's army 
was marched to Nauvoo on the 2Tth, and encamped about a mile 
and a half below the city near the Mississippi. On the 2Sth the 
ISTauvoo Legion was paraded for review. From Nauvoo the troops 
were ordered to Warsaw, where they arrived on the 29th, and 
encamped in the suburbs. As the troops approached the town, the 
men apprehending arrest, with some of their friends, quietly 
repaired across the river to Alexandria. Knowing this fact. Gov. 
Ford chartered a keel-boat at Montebello, and had it secretly 
dropped down to the vicinity of Warsaw; intending to use it that 
night in kidnapping the men from Missouri, and bringing them 
to the Illinois side. But during the afternoon Cols. Hardin and 
Baker visited the Missouri side, and had a conference with the 
accused. An agreement was entered into by which Williams and 
Sharp (Jackson being sick) agreed to give themselves up on con- 
dition that they be taken before Judge Thomas for examination, 
with some other conditions as to bail, etc. The writ was accord- 
ingly read to them, and afterwards, with Col. Baker, escorted by 
Quincy troops, they were shipped to Quincy in quest of the Judge. 
Here, after waiting two days, and no prosecuting witnesses a])pear- 
ing, they entered into voluntary recognizance to appear at next 
term of Court, and were set at liberty; thus leaving the whole mat- 
ter as it was previous to the Governor's expedition. 


All this occurred just previous to the October term of Court, at 
which the indictments were found. 

Mention has been made of Joseph H. Jackson . Mr. J. was an adven- 
turer of fine appearance and gentlemanly manners, who appeared 
in the county during the troubles; went to Nauvoo and became 
quite intimate with the prophet and the leaders; afterwards turned 
against them, went to Warsaw and published a pamphlet claiming 
to be an exposure of Mormonism and the evil purposes and prac- 
tices of its chiei's. This pamphlet made many serious charges 
against Smith and his adhei-ents — charges of murder and conspir- 
ac}', of counterfeiting, debauchery, spiritual-wifery, etc. ; and 
claimed that he had gone among them with the sole view of 
ingratiating himself and then exposing them. His expose was 
of much the same character as that of General Bennett. As in the 
case of the latter, much of his statement was corroborated by cir- 
cumstances, and much lacked confirmation. The equivocal position 
in which he stood, it is proper to say, tended to lessen the confi- 
dence of the public in his statements, and his little book made but 
slight impression . The Mormons charged that he was an adven- 
turer of tiie worst class, and came there to practice his trade of 
counterfeiting, etc., and quarrelled with the prophet and the 
authorities because he was detected and exposed. 


At the October term, 184-i, of the Hancock Circuit Court — 
present, Jesse B. Thomas, Judge; William Elliott, Prosecuting 
Attorney; Jacob B. Backenstos, Clerk, and Gen. Minor K. Dem- 
ing, Sherift". 

The following composed the Grand Jury: 

Abraiu Lincoln, Thomas Gilmore, 

James RejTiolds, Benj. Warrington, 

Thomas J. Graham, Reuben H. Loomis, 

"Wm. M. O-svens, Samuel Scott, 

Ebenezer Rand, James Ward, 

Thomas Brawner, Samuel Ramsey, 

Ralph Gorrell, Thomas H. Owen, 

Brant Agnert, David Thompson, 

Martin Tetter, John J. Hickok. 
William Smith, 

Abram Golden, E. A. Bedell, and Geo. Walker, excused for cause. Samuel 
Marshall refused to serve, and fined $5.00. 

The Court began its session on Monday, the 21st. There had been rumors indus- 
triously circulated that the old citizens intended to rally and interpose obstacles in 
the waj' of the Court, and considerable anxiet}' was felt. The Judge in his charge 
to the Grand Jury alluded to thisrumor, and said he was glad to see that no such demon- 
strations were being made. He charged them to do their duty in the cases likely to 
come before them, and leave the consequences. His charge gave general satis- 

There was a rumor that a lot of Mormons and Indians were encamped near town, 
and this rumor occasioned considerable uneasiness. Orders were issued to investi- 
gate. The facts turned out to be that a number of Mormons had come down from 
Nauvoo to attend Court, and had gone into camp to save expense. As to the 
Indians, it was ascertained that a company of them had gone through the county. 


on their way to Iowa, for some purpose not Iviiown; but the two facts had no con- 
nection with each otlicr. 

On Tuesday tlie Grand Jury l)egi\.n their work, and on Saturday about noon, they 
broushl into Court two bills of indictment against nine individuals; one for the 
murder of Joseph Smith, and the other for the murder of his brother Hyrum. 
The persons iiidiuted were as follows: Levi Williams, Jacob C. Davis," JIark 

AUlrich, Thos. C. Sharp, William Voras, John Wills, Wm. N. Grover, 

Gallaher and Allen. 

Murray MeConnell, Esq., of Jacksonville, by special Mppointment of the 
Governor, was present, assisting Mr. Elliott in the prosecution. Messrs. Bushnell 
and Johnson of Quincy and Calvin A. Warren, and perhaps others, appeared for 

Immediately on annoimcement of the indictments, most of the defendants 
appeared, and asked for an immediate trial. This Mr. SIcConnell objected to on 
the ground of not being ready. His witnesses before the Grand Jury had 
departed without being recognized, and besides, Mr. Elliott had gone. It was 
finally agreed that the causes be postponed until next term, and that no cupias 
should issue from the Clerk in the interim, if the defendants would pledge them- 
selves to appear at the time agreed on — a compact which was afterward violated 
by the prosecution. 

Subprenas were asked for by the prosecution for between thirty and forty 
witnesses, among whom wereWm. M. Daniels and Brackenberrj', the two miracle 
men, and John Taylor, Mrs. Emma Smith, and Governor Ford. 

On May 19, 1845, Court again met in special term at Carthage — 
present, Richard M. Young, Judge; James H. Ralston, Prosecuting 
Attorney; David E. Head, Clerk; and M. R. Deming, Sheriff. 
Tiie cause of The People vs. Williams et al. coming up, Messrs. 
Williams, Davis, Aldrich, Sharp and Grover appeared, and were 
admitted to bail on personal recognizance in the sum of $5,000 
jointly and severally. Josiah Lam born, of Jacksonville, as Assist- 
ant Prosecutor; and Wm. A. Richardson, O. PI. Browning, Calvin 
A. Warren, Archibald Williams, O. C. Skinner and Thos. Morri- 
son for defendants. Motion of defendants to quash the array of 
jttrors for first week, on account of supposed prejudice of County 
Commissioners, who selected them, and of the Sheriff and deputies, 
was sustained. Also, motion for the appointment of elisors for 
the same cause, and absence of Coroner from the county. The 
array was set aside, and Thomas H. Owen and Wm. D. Abernethy 
appointed elisors for the case. These gentlemen had a thankless 
and arduous duty to perform. Usually it is not hard to find men 
willing to sit on juries; in this case but few were willing to try the 
experiment of going to Court, with the almost certainty of being 
rejected by one or the other party; and the position was not an 
enviable one, if taken. Ninety-six men were summoned and 
brought into Court before the requisite panel of twelve was full. 
The following are the names of the jurors chosen: 

Jesse Griffitts, Jonathan Foy, 

Joseph Jones, Solomon J. Hill, 

Wm. Robertson, James Gittings, 

Wm. Smith, F. M. Walton, 

Joseph Jlassey, Jabez A. Beebe, 

Silas Griffitts, Gilmore CaUison. 

The trial lasted till the 30th, when the jury was instructed by the 
Court, and, nfter a deliberation of several hours, returned a verdict 
of Not Guilty. 


Instructions to the jury had been asked by both parties. The 
following, among a list of nine asked by defendants' counsel, were 
given, and probably had most influence on the verdict: 

That where the evidence is circumstantial, admitting all to be proven which the 
evidence tends to prove, if then the jury can make any supposition consistent with 
the facts,-by which the murder might have been committed without the agency of 
the defendants, it will be their duty to make that supposition, and find defendants 
not guilty. 

That in making up their verdict, they will exclude from their consideration all that 
was said by Daniels, Brackenberry, and jSIiss Graham. [Witnesses.] 

That whenever the probability is of a definite and Umited nature, whether in the 
proportion of 100 to 1 or of 1,000 to 1, or any ratio, is immaterial, it cannot be 
safely made the ground of conviction; for to act upon it in any case would be to 
decide that for the sake of convicting many criminals, the life of one innocent man 
might be sacrificed. — [Stakkie, 508. 

Same defendants, for murder of Hyrum Smith, were required to 
enter into recognizance of $5,000 each (with 14 sureties) to the 
June term, 1845. At said term case was called, and Elliott and 
Laijiborn not answering, the cause was dismissed for want of pros- 
ecution, and defendants discharged. 

It has been the custom for sensational writers to treat this trial 
and verdict as farcical and an outrage. One of these writers. Col. 
John Hay, now of the State Department at Washington, though 
then a mere boy, was yet raised in the county, and had within his 
reach correct sources of information. In the Atlantic Monthly for 
Dec, 1869, he has a lengthy article, abounding in extravagant and 
sensational statements and surmises, among which we quote only 
the following: 

"The case was closed. There was not a man on the jury, in the 
Court, in the county, that did not know the defendants had done 
the murder. But it was not proven, and the verdict of Not Guilty 
was right in law." 

Here is a fling at the jury, the Judge, and people; and we ven- 
ture to characterize it as extremely unjust. "VYe know the writer 
intended to perpetrate no wrong. He was too intimately con- 
nected with some of the accused — indeed, with all concerned — to 
desire them wrong; but he aimed to produce a readable stoiy for 
the Atlantic, whicli lie did, thougli at the expense of candor and 
justice. Another fling at the jury was equally unjust: 

"The elisors presented ninetj'-six men before twelve were found 
ignorant enough and indifl'erent enough to act as jurors." 

Some of those men we knew — not all; and we know that they, 
instead of being " ignorant and indifl'erent," were men of intelli- 
gence, probity and worth. 

There were some circumstances connected with those cases, not 
generally known, that tend to show how difficult it was to find out 
the guilty ones. The Mormons had had one John C. Elliott 
arrested and bound over, charged with the ofi'ense; they had also 
had writs for the Laws, and Fosters, and Higbees, at Rock Island, 
under the same charge. And when the Grand Jury was in session, 


the names of some sixty indivkluals were jjreseuted by tlie ])r6se- 
cution tor indiettneiit. One of those sixty lias infoi-meil us that he 
since leariiod tliat he narrowly escaped indictment, although, being 
one «if the Warsaw men, he returned immediately home after dis- 
bandment, and had no knowledge of the aftair till after it was over. 
It has since transpired that the Grand Jury voted on the whole 
sixty together at the tirst, and failing of an indictment, struck off 
ten and voted again, and so on until the last nine were reached, 
when the indictment carried. It has also been ascertained that the 
Grand Jury found bills against the nine, some as principals and 
some as accessories solely on the testimony of the three witnesses 
whose testimony on the trial the Court instructed the petit jury to 

From all these facts it is verj- easy to say that a murder had 
been committed; that somebod}' had done the deed. But to say 
that among the Elliotts, Laws, and Fosters, and Iligbees, and long 
list of men charged, those five or six who were on trial had done 
it, and the jury, and Court, and everybody else knew it, is sating 
A CtKeat deal. / 


If anything were needed to convince one of tlie tblly and wicked- 
ness of Mormonism, it is to be found in the quarrels and conten- 
tions of the leaders. During the prophet's lifetime he was contin- 
ually at variance with one or more of his former tbllowers and 
trusted associates; denouncing and excommunicating them one 
month, and the next taking them back to his embrace and confi- 
dence. Cowdery, Harris, Whitraer, Eigdon, Phelps, Williams, 
and many others, had been sent by his maledictions to " buffet 
with Satan for a thousand years;" and long betbre their time was 
out, taken back again and the malediction removed. 

So, after his death, a great struggle began for the possession of 
the mantle that had fallen from his shoulders. The grief at his 
death was genuine on the part of the main body; but on the part 
of the few, its bitterness was assuaged by the hope of assuming 
iiis place and honors. Rigdon, who had the best right — having 
furnished the principal brain supply for the concern at its origin 
— was soon sent back to Pittsburg with a flea in his ear. He had 
made the inexcusable and unlucky mistake of moving to carry the 
delusion back to the East. Young, wiser and more discerning, 
adopted the idea of following the setting sun; and he succeeded 
in overcoming all opposition. Absent when the prophet was 
killed, he hastened home, and quietly but firmly began to gather 
the reins of government about him — one by one securing the 
co-operation of his associates — till, before they knew it, he was 
supreme dictator, and they the ]:)liant tools of his will. 

William, the patriarch (all the Smiths, we believe, had been 
patriarchs), the only male member left of the family, also hurried 
to JSTauvoo, to advance his claims. But he was vacillating and 


weak, and sadly lacking in the traits requisite for a leader; and he 
fell into the meshes of the others, and quietly settled down into 
the business of dispensing "patriarchal blessings" for pay; and 
the organ urged the brethren and sisters to patronize him. But 
the pay being insufficient, or for some other cause, he again 
became troublesome — flew off at a tangent — quarrelled with and 
denounced the Twelve — -and finally went and joined James Y. 
Strang in Wisconsin. But after the leaders had left for the West, 
thinking there might be a chance again, he came back to Nauvoo, 
and tried to prevent the remnant from following Young into the 
wilderness. FtYiling again, he, Rigdon and Strang organized a 
trinity which drew off a great many of the taithful. Whether Strang 
had ever been with them at Nauvoo, we do not know. The first we 
hear of him is at a place he called Voree, in Wisconsin, where he 
tried the old game of finding plates, claimed tlie prophet's mantle 
by will from the prophet himself, got up revelations, issued a 
small monthly paper, and for a time made some noise in the Mor- 
mon world. The following illustrates his method of plate finding: 

Strang's fouk witnesses. 

On the 13th clay of September, 1845, we, Aaron Smith, Jirah B. Wheelan, James 
M. Van Nostrand, and Edward Whitcomb, assembled at the call of James .J. 
Strang, who is by us and many others approved as a prophet and seer of God. He 
proceeded to Inform us that it had been revealed to him in a vision that an 
account of an ancient people was buried in a hill south of White river bridge, 
near the east line of Walworth county, and leading us to an oak tree about one 
foot in diameter, told us that we would find it enclosed in a case of rude earthen- 
ware under that tree at a depth of about three feet; requested us to dig it up, and 
charged us to examine the ground, that we should know we were not imposed 
upon, and that it had not been buried since the tree grew. The tree was sur- 
rounded by a sward of deeply rooted grass, such as is usually found in the open- 
ings, and upon the most critical examination we could not discover an}' indication 
that it had ever been cut through or disturbed. 

We then dug up the tree, and continued to dig to the depth of about three feet, 
where we found a case of slightly baked clay containing three plates of brass. 
On one side of one is a landscape view of the south end of Gardner's prairie, and 
the rana'e of hills where they were dug. On another, is a man with a crown on 
his heacl and a scepter in his hand; above is an eye before an upright line; below, 
the sun and moon surrounded by twelve stars; at the bottom are twelve large stars 
from three of which pillars arise, and closely interspersed with them are seven 
very small stars. The otlier four sides are very closely covered with what appear 
to be alphabetic characters, but in a language of which we have no knowledge. 

The case was found imbedded in indurated clay so closely fitting that it broke 
in taking out, and the earth below the soil was so hard as to be dug with difficulty, 
even with a pick-ax. Over the case was found a flat stone about one foot wide 
each way and three inches thick, which appeared to have imdergone the action 
of fire, and fell in pieces after a few minutes' exposure to the air. The digging 
extended in the clay about eighteen mches, there being two kinds of earth of 
difl'erent color and appearance above it. 

We examined as we dug all the way with the utmost care, and we say, with 
utmost confidence, that no part of the earth through which we dug exhibited any 
sign or Indication that it had been moved or disturbed at any time previous. The 
roots of the tree stuck down very closely on every side, extending below the case, 
and closely interwoven with roots from other trees. None of them had been 
broken or cut away. No clay is found in the country like that of which this 
case is made. 

In fine, we found an alphabetic and pictorial record, carefully cased up, buried 
deep in the earth, covered with a flat stone, with an oak tree one foot in diameter 



(zy^^^^TO-y-C^-C^ V>^<><U€^ 



gTOwini; over it, with every evidence tliat the sense can give that it has lain as 
long as that tree has been growing. Strang toolv no part in the digging, but Ivept 
entirely away from betbre the tirst blow was struck till after the i)lates were taken 
out of the case; and the sole inducement to our digging was our faith in his 
statement as a prophet of the Lord, that a record would thus and there be found 

Aaron Smith, 


I. M. Van Nostrand, 
Edward Whitcomb. 

Now, if living, stand t'ortli, Messrs. Smith, Wheelan, Van Nos- 
trand, and Whitcomb, and answer: AVhen you made that piiblic 
statement tliirtytive years ago, did you not utter an absolute and 
infamous falsehood? 

Why the discovery of these plates did not form the basis of anew 
revelation and a new creed, we can not say; nor even whether Strang 
ever attempted a translation of thein. It may be that he came to the 
very erroneous conclusion that the fools were nearly all dead — and 
so gave it up. 

tiigdon, as heretofore stated, endeavored by all the means in his 
power to gain the place left vacant in the Church. The Twelve how- 
ever decided quite unanimously that they would have no prophet, seer 
and revelator any inore, but that the Twelve should be thesupreiue 
authorit}' as a body. The breach widened, and finally they brought 
the contumacious old man to trial befor*^ the conference. This 
trial is reported at length in the Times aiid Seasons, and deserves 
a conspicuous place in tlie history of ecclesiastical tribunals. The 
charge against him was — a little of everything bad; but the offense 
for which he was tried and condemned, was really tliat he wished 
to be President of the Church. The trial was a long one, and 
finally tlie vote was put, offered by AV. W. Phelps, " that Elder 
Sidney Rigdon be cut off from the Church, and delivered over to 
the buffetings of Satan until he repents." 

The vote, sa3'S the report, ''was unanimous, excepting about ten." 
A motion was then made to cut off the ten. This failed, and they 
were taken singly, on separate and different charges, and cut off b}' 
unanimous votes. Elder Marks was one of them, having made a 
speech defending Rigdon; but the conference had hopes of hiin, 
and he was not expelled. In the next Times and Seasons he issued 
a card, stating that after candid consideration he had become con- 
vinced that Sidney Rigdon's claims to the Presidency were not 
founded in truth . The conference closed after Elder Young had 
delivered Sidney over to the buffetings of Satan, in the name of 
the Lord, '' and all the people said Amen!" 

Mr. Saulsbury, a brother-in-law to the Smiths, though we 
believe never a leader among them, about this time came out, and 
through a letter to the Warsaw Signal denounced the Twelve and 
made the same or similar charges against them that William Smith 
and Rigdon had made. He died in this county. 




If the year 1844 was one of blood, that of 1845 was more bloody 
still. Excitement and violence prevailed during a great part ot 
the year. 

We have seen that Gen. Minor E. Deming was elected Sheriff ot 
the county in August, 1844, and Jacob B. Backenstos and Almon 
"W. Babbitt members of the Legislature, by Mormon votes. More 
objectionable men to the Anti-Mormon citizens could scarcely have 
been found in the county. Gen. Deming was an officer of militia, 
and a citizen previously in no way identified with the Mormon 
fraternity. He had resided on a farm some miles out of Carthage; 
was well educated and capable, and we think he was conscientious 
in his endeavors to do right. But he was extremely conservative 
in his respect for law and order. He was also conceited and self- 
willed, and had " an itching palm " for office, and the best way to 
obtain this was to ingratiate himself with the Mormon leaders. 

Mr. Backenstos was a new-comer into the county, imported, it 
was said, bj' Judge Douglas from Sangamon, to take the office ot 
Circuit Clerk, which he had held for some time previous to liis 
election to the Legislature. Babbitt was a Mormon lawyer. He 
was expected to obey the" behests of the Mormon leaders, of course. 
As the others obtained favor with the Mormons, they incurred the 
hatred and distrust of the other citizens of the county. 

As before stated, the agreement entered into that no arrests 
should be made of the parties indicted for killing the Smiths, was 
violated on the part of the prosecution, and frequent attempts 
were made by the Sheriff and his deputies to arrest some of them, 
during the winter. J. C. Davis, one of them, was State Senator. 
At the opening of the Legislative session he took his seat in that 
body. During the winter he was arrested at Springfield by an 
officer from Hancock county, but was ordered released by resolution 
of the Senate. 

During the session a move was made to repeal the Nauvoo char- 
ters, and after discussion in the House was passed, January 21, 
1845, by a vote of, 76 to 36. It subsequently passed the Senate. 
Messrs. Backenstos and Babbitt both made speeches against the 
repeal, the former taking occasion to violently denounce the old 
citizens of the county. For this speech, and his otherwise vindic- 
tive and objectionable course, a demonstration was made in the spring 
after his return, to drive him from the county. He soon afterward 
obtained an appointment through Congressman Hoge, to an office 
in the lead mines, and subsequently was made a Captain in the 
forces sent to the Mexican war. 

During the winter and spring, as a result of the unsettled state 
of aflairs in Nauvoo, and the consequent hard times, there was an 
unusual amount of stealing done, not only in the city, but in other 
parts of the county. It extended to Adams, Henderson, and other 
adjoining counties. In Adams, where arrests could be made, there 


were as many as eight Mormons in jail at one time. In the city, 
the two parties, Tweh-eites and Riirdonitcs, stole from each other; 
while in the country the Gentiles were the chief snfterers. This 
became so insupportable that public meetings were held at many 
points to devise means of protection and redress. Township com- 
mittees were appointed to collect statistics of these thefts, which 
was done, and many of them ])ublished, footing up hundreds of 
dollars in various townships. Some of these reports were no doubt 
exaggerated; but as many must have been omitted, it is safe to say 
that the totals fell short of the truth. Of course, it was not proven 
that all these depredations were committed by Mormons, and proba- 
bly were not. The charge has often been made that stealing was 
done on Mormon credit, which is in itself an admission against 
them ; but that a vast percentage of it was done by them alone, 
all circumstances go to show. And events which transpired this 
3'ear, show that they had among them some who did not hesitate 
at robbery and murder, as well as theft and burglary. 

On Saturday night, May 10, 1845, a horrible murder was com- 
mitted near the town of Franklin, in Lee Co., Iowa, on the persons 
of John Miller, a Menonite German minister from Pennsylvania, 
and his son-in-law, Leiza. The latter was not killed, but died of 
his wounds afterward. The locality is about ten or twelve miles 
from Nauvoo, and the murderers, three in number, were traced to 
that city. Their names were AVilliam Hodge, Stephen Hodge, 
and Thomas Brown. The Hodges were arrested on the 13th and 
conveyed to the Iowa penitentiarj' at Fort Madison, for safe keep- 
ing. On the 15th they were indicted by the Grand Jury at "West 
Point, and on the 21st were arraigned for trial. They asked for a 
change of venue, and the cause was certified to DesMoines county. 
On the 21st of June they were put upon their trial at Burlington. 
They were defended by two eminent Burlington attorneys, J. C. 
Hall and F. D. Mills, assisted by George Edmunds, of Nauvoo. 
The trial lasted about a week. Mason, District Judge, then sen- 
tenced them to be hung on the loth of July. They were so 

A peculiar cap woru by one of the murderers, and which he lost 
at the house of the murder, led to their arrest. They were traced 
to Xauvoo, and found at the house of their brother, Amos Hodge, 
in the suburbs. They were taken before Aaron Johnson, a Justice 
of the Peace, for examination, where they were defended by Almon 
W. Babbitt. Babbitt himself was afterward^'murdered mysteriously 
in Utah, while U. S. District Attorney. 

On the night of the 23d of June, Irvin Hodge, brother to the 
accused, was assassinated in Nauvoo, while on his way home from 
a visit to them at Burlington. He had, it is said, endeavored to 
induce Brigham Young to send and have his brothers rescued from 
jail, and failing, was free in denouncing him for the neglect. But 
little notice was taken of this last murder in Nauvoo. The father 
of the Hodges was allowed to visit them before their execution. 


from his confinement in the Alton penitentiary, where he was 
under sentence for larceny. 

The patriarch Wm. Smith, in a letter to the Sangamo Journal, 
dated Sept. 2-1:, 184.6, says of the Hodges: " Irvin Hodge was mur- 
dered within twelve feet of Brigham Young's door. Amos Hodge 
was murdered, it is said, between Montrose and Nashville, Iowa, 
by Brigham Young's guard, who pretended to escort him out of 
Nauvoo for his safety, under cover of women's clothes, who then 
pretended that he had run away." And again: "If Mr. Amos 
Hodge, the father of the young Hodges, will call and see me, I can 
tell him the names of persons that will put him on the track of the 
men who murdered his sons." 

In an affidavit for witnesses to prove an alihi, the Hodges claimed 
to rely on the testimony of six or eight named witnesses residing 
in Nauvoo, and upon John Long, Aaron Long, and Judge Fox, 
who they said resided in St. Louis. These names will long be 
remembered in the annals of ci'ime in the West, as the parties who 


at his home on Rock Island, on the 4th of July, just after the con- 
viction of the Hodges. This murder was perpetrated in broad 
daylight, while all the family but the old Colonel wore absent at a 
celebration on the main land. He was an aged and quite infirm 
man, and was quietly sitting at his house reading a paper, when he 
was attacked by the robbers. Rising to approacii the door, at which 
he heard a noise, it was pushed open, and three men entered, one 
of whom at once discharged a pistol at him, the ball entering his 
thigh. He was then dragged through a hall, and up the stall's, to a 
closet containing his safe, which they compelled him to open. 
After obtaining the contents, and money from his bureau drawers, 
they left him, still tied upon his bed, in which condition he was 
afterward found bj' persons passing. Surgical aid was procured, 
and he was revived sufficiently to describe the assassins and the 
circumstances, but he died about ten o'clock that night. 

Fifteen hundred dollars reward for the murderer was oftered by 
George L. Davenport, his son; and John Long, Aaron Long and 
Granville Young were finally arrested and hung for the offense; 
Judge Fox was arrested and allowed to escape, while one Birch, a 
daring desperado, said to have been connected with the Danite 
Band, was implicated and arrested, but escaped by turning State's 
evidence. About the same time numerous acts of robbery and 
burglary were committed in Lee count}', opposite, and along the 
river, traceable in almost all cases, to a gang that had their head- 
quarters in Nauvoo. 


But while these acts of violence were being perpetrated out of 
the county, a most lamentable tragedy was enacted at home. On 


Tuesday, June 24, 1845, au altercation occurred between Dr. 
Samuel ilarshall. County Clerk, and the Sheriff of the county, 
General Demiii;^, which resulted in the death of the f )riner at the 
hands of the latter. The difficulty arose in regard to some mistake 
in official business. Dr. M. was a very exact and punctual man in 
all his affairs, and lie expected others to be equally so, and the 
General's apparent carelessness in the matter in dispute irritated 
him. A scuffie ensued, in the midst of which Gen. Deming drew 
a pistol and shot his antagonist. The affair was a very unfortu- 
nate one, as it resulted in the death of a most estimable citizen and 
public officer, and added to the excitement already existing in the 
county. A little self-control and moderation on the part of both, 
and the conflict might have been avoided. Dr. Marshall was a 
strong Anti-Mormon in his feelings and principles, and had the 
full confldence of the party; yet he resolutely refused to sanction 
any of their unlawful proceedings. He was one of that small 
number who believed it better to suffer all the ills of Mormonism, 
rather than resort to illegal and violent measures for redress. 

Gen. Deming was at once taken into custody by the Coroner, and 
a jur}- of inquest summoned. The jury returned a verdict of 
" Murder without sufficient cause or provocation." This occurred 
on the day set for the special term of Court for the trial of the 
persons charged with the murder of Hyriim Smith. The Court 
opened about five in the afternoon, and two hours after the tragedy 
Deming was brought into Court, and stated that he was desirous to 
have a Grand Jurj' impaneled for the investigation of this case. 
The Court ordered the Coroner to summon a Grand Jury by the 
next morning. The accused then inquired if tliere was no process 
by which he might be admitted to bail during the pendency of the 
investigation, to which the Court gave a negative answer. On 
Wednesda}' morning a jury was impaneled, and charged l)y the 
Court, and at three in the afternoon brought into Court a bill for 
murder, with counts for manslaughter. It was stated that the 
vote stood in the jur}' room 16 to 3. 

A motion was made by Deming's counsel to admit him to bail, 
and after hearing he was admitted to bail in the sum of $5,000. 
Bail was given and he was discharged from custody. 

Mr. Deming resigned the office of Sheriff, and an election was 
ordered to fill the vacancy, to take place August 11th, resulting in 
the election of J. B. Backenstos by the following vote: Backen- 
stos, 2,334; John Scott, 750; scattering, 11. 

Mr. D. was never brought to trial. He was stricken with con- 
gestive fever, no doubt brouglit on or aggravated by excitement, 
and died on the 10th of September, and was buried in Quincy by 
his brother's side. 

And now it becomes our painful duty to chronicle a series of 
events which transpired in the count}', — acts which had no warrant 
in law or order, and which cannot be reconciled with any correct 
principles of renponing. and which we then thought, and still 


think, were condemned by every consideration looking to good 
government; acts which had for their object, and which finally 
resulted in, the forcible expulsion of the Mormon people from the 
count}'. The disorders at Xauvoo, the vast amount of stealing 
and other depredations upon property, the murders in Iowa and 
elsewhere, and the consequent feeling of fear and insecurity evei-y- 
where, brought the people to a state of recklessness. 

On the night of Sept. 9th, a public meeting of Anti-Mormons 
was being held in a school-house at Green Plains, for some purpose, 
when it was fired upon by parties in the bush. It was at once 
resolved to begin the expulsion of the Mormons from the settle- 
ment known as Morley-Town. This resolve was put into execu- 
tion; on Wednesday night two Mormon cabins were burned, and 
the inmates notified to leave the settlement. For a week the 
burning continued until the whole of Morley-Town was in ashes, 
with many other residences in the Bear Creek region and that of 
Green Plains. In all it is stated that as many as 100 or 125 
houses were burned, and their occupants driven off. These pro- 
ceedings created intense excitement all over the county. Sheriff 
Backenstos endeavored to raise a^^ among the old citizens to 
suppress the disturbances, but failed. He therefore issued a proc- 
lamation dated at Green Plains on the 13th, calling on the rioters 
to desist, and upon the posse comitatus of the county to assist him. 
He also stated that it was his policy to have the Mormons remain 
quiet, but that 2,000 men held themselves in readiness in Nauvoo 
to come to his aid when necessary. On the 16th Lieut. Franklin 
A. "Worrell was killed while passing from Carthage to Warsaw, by 
Backenstos, or some, and on the 17th Samuel McBrat- 
ney was killed among the burners at Bear Creek, by the passe. 
Lieut. Worrell (of the Carthage Greys) was in no way connected 
with the burners, and had nothing to do with the prevailing dis- 
turbances. In company with eight other men, he was passing on 
the road from Carthage to Warsaw, with the view of ascertaining 
the facts as to the disturbances at Green Plains. Three of these 
men, Worrell and two others, were on horseback; the others 
were in a buggy and a two-horse wagon, the wagon also contain- 
ing the arms of the company. As they came in sight of the road 
leading toward Nauvoo, and which they would cross at right 
angles, thej' discovered a man riding up that road. Not knowing 
him, and seeing he was coming from the direction of the burning, 
they hurried on to intercept him at the crossing, hoping to gain 
information. He then drove more rapidly, apparently to cross 
before the}' could come up. They hurried on, the three horsemen 
in the lead. As they neared the brow of a ravine he had crossed, 
and when they came in sight, he was seen standing near his buggy, 
and at the same moment a shot was fired from near him, which 
struck Worrell. He nor his associates had made no demonstra- 
tions of violence; but now seeing or believing it to be Backenstos 
and \\\& posse, immediately wheeled their horses and rode toward 


the wagon and buggy which were a])i)roachin^. Mr. Worrell soon 
fell from his horse, was picked up, placed in the wagon and driven 
to Warsaw; but died on the way. 

Backenstos and the notorious O. P. liockwell were both subse- 
quently indicted for the murder of Worrell, and both acquitted, 
tlie former under trial by cliange of venue at Peoria, and the latter 
at Galena. AVho was the actually guilty party maj' never be known. 
We have lately been informed from Salt Lake that Rockwell did the 
deed, under order of the Sheriff, which is probably the case. The 
Sheriff's Proclamation No. 2 would lead to this conclusion. He 
says, in his usual style of exaggeration: " I discovered an armed 
body of some 20 or more men on the Warsaw and Carthage road, 
two or three miles east of me, going toward AVarsaw. I watched 
them, and on discovering that four men of the force mounted on 
horses, left the main body, apparently to strike a point in advance 
of me, with all the speed of their horses, and finding that they 
were in pursuit of me, I put the whip to my horse; as 1 was trav- 
eling in a buggy, they taking a near cut evidently gained on me, 
The chase lasted for a distance of about two miles, when I for- 
tunately overtook three men with teams. I immediately informed 
them that armed men were pursuing me, evidently to take mj 
life; I summoned them as a posse to aid me in I'esisting them. 
I dismounted and took a position in the road, pistol in hand. I 
commanded them (the mobbers) to stop, when one of them held 
his musket in a shooting attitude; whereupon one of my posse 
fired, and. it is believed, took effect on one of the lawless banditti." 

Admitting this statement to be an honest one from his stand- 
point — which is not at all likely — it only illustrates how easily the 
fears and excitements of an individual can change peaceable citi- 
zens into "lawless banditti." It is, furthermore, quite certain 
that had Lieut. Worrell and his companions known who it was they 
were following, he would have been permitted to go his way un- 

The Sheriff says that he ordered his pos'^e to take the burners 
prisoners, if practicable, if not, to fire on them. How well this 
order was obeyed the killing of McBratney will show. He was 
pursued, with others, by a crowd of men on horseback; was over- 
taken and shot in the back, and while down was hacked and bay- 
oneted in numerous places. His horse was slow, and he could have 
easily been taken prisoner alive. 

It is proper to state that the Mormons and their friends have 
charged the tiring on the school-house at Green Plains to have been 
a sham previously arranged by the mobbers to create a sympathy 
in their favor. This has been denied; whether true or not, we do 
not know. 

Tlie Sherift", failing to raise a posse outside of Nauvoo, was 
obliged to resort to his " 2,000 armed men " there, to carry out his 
purposes. He obtained such force as he desired, and soon succeeded 
in scattering the burners. He now carried things in the county 


with a high hand. Exactly what his object was is not known, but 
on the evening of the 19th of September, the Sheriff, at the head of 
several hundred men, rode into Carthage after sundown, sur- 
rounded the place, and ordered all the citizens who could be found 
to be arrested and taken to headquarters at the court-house. He 
said he was in quest of criminals. After roughly handling many of 
them, and searching their houses for arms, most of them were set 
at liberty. In the morning, the posse, excepting about fifty, left 
town, the fifty remaining, as he said, to protect the town. Tiiey re- 
tained possession of the court-house till the arrival of Gen. Hardin 
and his State troops, who gave them immediate leave of absence. 

These disturbances and excesses, as on a former occasion, of 
course, called for executive interference, and accordingly Gov. Ford 
again sent a detachment of volunteers into the county, and again 
under command of Gen. John J. Hardin. The General was accom- 
panied as adviser, by J. A. McDougal, Attorney-General of the 
State, and also by Judge S. A. Douglas and Major W. B. Warren. 
On the 27th of September, Gen. Hardin issued a highly merito- 
rious proclamation to the people of the county, enjoining theui to 
be peaceable and to obey the laws and the constituted authorities. 
In conjunction with his advisers he at once entered into correspond- 
ence with the authorities of the Mormon Church at Nauvoo, 
which resulted in the Mormons agreeing to leave the State in the 


In the meantime a meeting of representatives of nine counties 
contiguous to Hancock had been called to meet at Carthage on the 
first and second days of October (Hancock county being exchided), 
to take into consideration the state of aflairs. The convention was 
organized as follows, viz: Isaac N. Morris, Esq., of Adams, Pres- 
ident; Col. AYm. Ross, of Pike, Gen. James McCallen, of "Warren, 
and John Kirk, Esq., of McDonough, Yice-Presidents; and Alva 
Wheeler, of Knox, Geo. Pobinson, of Schuyler, and Wm. H. Ben- 
neson, of Adams, Secretaries. Fiftj'-eight delegates were reported 
from the counties of Adams, Brown, Henderson, McDonough, Pike, 
Schuyler, Warren, Marquette and Knox. On motion of O. H. 
Browning, of Adams, a committee of three from each county was 
appointed to prepare a preamble and resolutions expressive of the 
sense of the convention. Mr. Browning, in behalf of the committee, 
reported a preamble and scries of resolutions, of which we find room 
for only two, as giving the sense of the convention on the points 

ResolceiJ, That it is the settled and deliberate conviction of this convention that 
it is now too late to attempt the settlement of the difficulties in Hancock county 
upon any other basis than that of the removal of the Mormons from the State; 
and we therefore accept, and respectfully recommend to the people of the sur- 
rounding coUDties to accept the proposition made by the Mormons to remove 
from Ihe^ State next spring, and to wait with patience the time appointed for 


lieiMlKed. Thfit we vtterli/ repinlinle llie impudent assertion so often and so eon- 
siiintly put foi-th In/ the Moniions, tJuit Ihei/ are PERSECUTED fou-uigiiteousness' 
SAKE, ll'e do nut believe litem to he n perseeuted people. We know that they are 
not; but that whatever grievances they may sujf'er are the necessary and legitimate 
consequences of their illegal, wicked and dishonest acts. 

The action of tliis convention, composed as it was of leading and 
representative men from the neighboring counties, and from both 
the political parties, had a beneticial etlect npon the ])ublic mind; 
and no doubt satisfied man}' that the conclusions to which it 
arrived were only such as would give peace and prosperity to our 
distracted county. And the Mormons also accepted the conclu- 
sions as inevitablcj and earnestly prepared to act accordingly. The 
opinion expressed in the last of the resolutions quoted, is as much 
as the most ardent Anti-Mormon could ask, and should forever shut 
the mouths of those Mormon apologists, who have regarded them 
as a persecuted people, only needing to be let alone. 

As the basis for the subsequent action of both parties, the cor- 
respondence alluded to is here reproduced: 

NAm-oo, Oct. 1, 1845. 
To the First President and Council of the Church at Naiivoo : 

Having had a free and full conversation with you this day, in reference to your 
proposed removal from this county, together with the members of your Church, 
we have to request you to submit the facts and intentions stated to us in said con- 
versation to writing, in order that we may lav them before the Governor and 
people of the Slate. We hope that by so doing It will have a tendency to allay the 
excitement at present existing in the public mind. 
We have the honor to subscribe ourselves, respectfully yours, etc , 

John J. Hardin, 
S. A. Douglas, 
W. B. Warken, 
J. A. McDougal. 

NAin-oo, Oct, 1, 1845. 
To Oen. John J. Hardin, W. B. Warren, S. A. Douglas and J. A. McDougal: 

Messrs: — In reply to your letter of this date, requesting us to " submit the facts 
and intentions stated by us to writing, in order that you may lay them before the 
Governor and people of the State," we would refer you to our communication of 
the 24th ultimo, to the " Quincy Committee," etc., a copy of which is herewith 

In addition to this, we would say, that we had commenced making arrange- 
ments to remove from this county previous to the recent disturbances; that we 
now have four companies organized of one hundred families each, and six more 
companies now organizing of the same number each, preparatory to removal. 
That one thousand families, including the Twelve, the High Council, the Trust- 
ees and general authorities of the Church, are fully determined to remove in the 
spring, independent of the contingency of selling our propertj', and that this com- 
pany will comprise from Ave to six thousand souls. 

That the Church, as a body, desires to remove with us, and will, it sales can be 
effected, so as to raise the necessary means. 

That the organization of the Church we represent is such, that there never can 
exist but one head or presidency at any one time, and all good members wish to 
be with the organization ; and all are determined to remove to some distant point 
where we shall neither infringe or be infringed upon, so soon as time and means 
will permit. 

That we have some hundreds of farms and some two thousand or more houses 
for sale in this city and county, and we request all good citizens to assist in the 
disposal of our property. 

That we do not expect to lind purchasers for our Temple and other public build- 
ings; but we are willing to rent them to a respectable community who may 
inhabit the city. 


That we wisli it distinctly understood, that, although we may not find purchasers 
for our property, we will not sacrifice or give it away, or suffer it illegally to be 
wrested from us. 

That we do not intend to sow any wheat this fall, and should we all sell we shall 
not put in any more crops of any clescription. 

That as soon as practicable we will appoint committees for this city. La Harpe, 
Macedonia, Bear Creek, and all necessary places in the county, to give informa- 
tion to purchasers. 

That if these testimonies are not suflBcient to satisfy any people that we are in 
earnest, we will soon give them a sign that cannot be mistaken — roe will leave 
them ! 

In behalf of the Council, respectfully yours, etc., 

Brigham Young, Pres. 

WiLL\RD RicHAKDS, Clerk. 

The communication to tlie Quincy committee was of similar 
import to the above, but i-eferred particularly and in eloquent terms 
to their sufierings and grievances here and elsewhere, and begged 
to be let alone. 

Two other murders were committed at this time, one in Nauvoo 
and tlie other in the Camp Creek settlement, by Mormons. On the 
16t:h, Phineas Wilco.x, a young man of St. Mary's township, went 
into Nauvoo on business, was there charged with being a spy, and 
was never afterward heard of, although repeated inquiries and 
search were made for him by his friends. Circumstances stroiigly 
showed that he had been murdered and thrown into tlie river. The 
other case, that of Andrew Daubenheyer, was as mysterious and 
atrocious. Mr. D. resided in the nortli part of the county, and was 
known as an active Anti-Monnou. On tlie IStli of September he 
started to Carthage witli a two-horse wagon. On the evening ot 
the 20th he started for his home on horseback, which he never 
reached, but on tlie morning of tlie 21st his horse came home with- 
out him. On his road, home was encamped a body of Mormons, 
supposed to be of Backenstos' posse, and the belief was that he had 
been waylaid and killed by them. Search being made his body 
was afterward found, buried near the place of the encampment. 

The agreement entered into by Gen. Hardin and the Mormons 
being deemed suflicient to pacify the county, the troops were with- 
drawn, leaving- only Major Warren with a hundred men, to remain 
until withdrawn by the Govei-nor. 


In accordance with the pledge made by the Twelve, active prep- 
arations were made during the winter in i^auvoo, and throughout 
the county, to leave in the spring. Those residing in the country 
made sales of their property and retired to the city in order to join 
the expeditions. Large numbers of wagons were manufactured, 
and many were obtained by way of exchange, while oxen and horses 
were in great demand. As early as Feb. 10, the weather being 
favorable, it was stated that over one thousand persons, including 
most of the Twelve, and many of the other dignitaries of the 
Church, had crossed the river and were on their way westward. As 


tlie spring advanced they were still leaving in large nnmbers; but 
the advance had not yet reached beyond Keosauqua, from which 
point they kept up a constant intercourse with the city. The Rig- 
donites, Strangites, Sniithites, and Twelveites, still behind, kept 
up their dissentions, the former all agreeing in denunciation of the 
latter, and all excepting the latter, censuringthe Western movement. 

Major Warren, who had been deputed in the fall to remain in 
the county with a small force, had orders from the Governor in 
April to disband and withdraw on the first of May. lie and his 
troops had been stationed at Carthage all winter, and had performed 
many arduous and delicate duties to preserve the peace, arrest 
offenders, and execute writs. Their aid had been invoked in all 
parts of the county, and they had been employed on numerous occa- 
sions in Nauvoo in the execution of process. They had been 
braved and threatened and insulted, even to violent resistance in 
that cit}', but they had exhibited a prudence, firmness and judgment 
which entitled them to the regard of all peace-loving citizens. 
These gentlemanly soldiers were mostly from Quiucy, the " Quincy 
Hiflemen," under the immediate command of Captain James D. 
Morgan and Lieut. B. M. Prentiss, names the country has since 
recognized in the list of Union Generals in the late Rebellion. 

The contemplated withdrawal of the Guard, together withfindi- 
cations at Nauvoo, gave general uneasiness to the people. It began 
to be feared that many of the Mormons were not intending to leave 
the city, but to quietly remain, in the hope and expectation that in 
time all danger would be over. Public meetings began to be held 
in Hancock and the adjoining counties, at which these apprehen- 
sions were expressed, and reference made to the action of the nine 
counties in October. These demonstrations brought a letter of 
inquiry from Mr. Babbitt to Gov. Ford. In his answer the Gov- 
ernor denied that he or the State was a party to the agreement 
that the Mormons should leave in the spring. But he al.'^o plainly 
intimated that they were bound to go, and that he would be pow 
erless to prevent their expulsion. -'I tell you plainly," said His 
Excellency, " that the people of Illinois will not fight for the Mor- 

The day after Maj. Warren's detachment had been disbanded at 
Carthage, he received an order from Gov. Ford to retain them in 
service until further orders. He again mustered them in and 
remained, making his headquarters chiefly at the Mansion House in 
Nauvoo. On May 14. he sent a dispatch to the Signal, stating 
that the Mormons were leaving with all possible speed; that the 
ferry was crossing as fast as possible; that an estimate of 450 teams 
and 1,350 sonls had left within the week; that new settlers were tak- 
ing their places, etc. Information was also received from LaHarpe, 
Ramus and other points, that they were fast leaving the neighbor- 
hoods. On the 22d he reported: " The Mormons still continue to 
leave the city in large nnmbers. The i'en-y at this place averages 
about 32 teams per day, and at Fort Madison, 45. Thus it will be 


seen that 539 teams hare left during the week, which average 
about three persons to eacli, making in all 1,617 souls." A week 
later the reported estimate was about SOO. 

After the Twelve had left the city, and while within convenient 
reach, O. P. Kockwell seems to have been employed as a messenger 
between the camp and the citj'. He became very violent in his con- 
duct while tiiere, so much so .that the leaders began to fear he would 
bring trouble upon them. On May first, a writ was issued for his 
arrest, on the affidavit of a certain Dr. Watson, charging him with 
the killing of Lieut. Worrell. This writ was placed in the hands 
of some of Maj. Warren's men, who proceeded to Nauvoo and 
arrested him, surrounded witli fifteen shooters and other weapons 
of defense. He waived examination, and was sent to Quincy to 
fail. At the May term in Carthage, a true bill was found against 
him by the Grand Jury, and he was sent to Galena for trial, he hav- 
ing obtained a change of venue from this Circuit. He was subse- 
quently tried in Galena and acquitted. 

Warlike demonstrations still continuing, on May 11th Maj. War- 
ren issued a proclamation, in which he warned the Anti-Mormons 
to desist, assuring them that in his opinion the Mormons were 
making all reasonable efforts to leave. Notwithstanding this assur- 
ance, a public meeting was held at Carthage, at which the opinion 
was expressed that large numbers of the Mormons designed to 
remain; and recommending that the citizens of the surrounding 
counties prepare forthwith to put in execution the resolutions of 
October last. Accordingly a considerable force was assembled at 
Carthage, and thenee marched to Golden's Point, where they held 
a conference with a deputation of new citizens from Nauvoo, who 
had been invited to meet them there. The latter objecting to their 
entrance into the citj', and the force lieing weak, and poorly officered 
and drilled, it was decided to retire again to Carthage, where it 
was soon disbanded. 

On June 20th, George AValker, Esq., the "old citizen" County 
Commissioner, resigned his office and notified the public tliat his 
Mormon associates, Coulson and Perkins, having both left the 
country, there would be a full board to elect at the coming election. 
Backenstos, having been appointed to a Captaincy in the army 
against Mexico, also resigned the oflice of Sheriff. On July 25th 
an Anti-Mormon Convention was held at Carthage to nominate 
candidates for office. The following ticket was put in nomination: 
For Senator, Jacob C. Davis; for Rejiresentatives, Thomas Morri- 
son and James Stark; for Slierift", Melgar Couchman; for County 
Commissioners, Frederic Walton, Daniel N. Painter and James 
M. Renshaw; for Treasurer and Assessor, James W. Brattle; and 
for Coroner, Wm. S. Moore — -t Democrat* and 5 Whigs. No full 
ticket was put up against tiiis, but there were several independents. 
The above named were all elected by majorities of about -±00. At 
this election Nauvoo polled between SOO and 800 votes. 

The peace was of short duration. About the 10th of July, some 


Mormons from Nauvoo went out to the vicinity of Pontoosuc, and 
engaged in harvesting a lield of wheat for one of the brethren. It 
is stated tliat they behaved in a very unruly manner, when some 
of the neighbors collecting, seized and whipped them, and sent 
them away. A few days after, ^, posse went out from Nauvoo and 
arrested Maj. McAuley, of Pontoosuc, and James W. Brattle, of 
Carthage, who happened to be at his house. In return, several 
other Mormons were captured and held as hostages, and this led to 
other arrests, till there were of McAuley's party some ten or fifteen 
held in the city in custody. They were held for over a week, and 
denied the privilege of an examination or giving bail. At length a 
writ of habeas cor2}ns was obtained from Adams county, and served 
on Clifford and f urness, who had the prisoners in custody, and 
they and their prisoners were taken to Qnincy, examined and 
released on bail. 

The new citizens of Nauvoo were generally an orderly and well- 
disposed people; but they had a few ruffians among them, who, by 
their violence and intemperate conduct made themselves generally 
obnoxious. Of these, the most conspicuous and disorderly was 
William Pickett. Clifford and Furness, above named, were very 
vindictive toward the Anti-Mormons. 

About the first of April the Hancock Eagle appeared at Nauvoo. 
It was ably conducted by Dr. William E. Matlack, a stranger in the 
county, it claimed to be a " Democratic" sheet, but was in fact 
the organ and mouthpiece of Backenstos and what was known as 
the "Jack-Mormon"' influence. Its course no doubt greatly weak- 
ened tlie Mormon efforts to get away, and increased the animosity 
existing between them and their enemies. It continued under Dr. 
Matlack's management until his death, which occurred about the 
last of August. 


During the first week in August writs were issued by John 
Banks, Esq., of Eocky Kun township, for Clifford, Furness and 
Pickett, of Nauvoo, charged with false imprisonment and robbery, 
during the troubles heretofore mentioned. These writs were 
placed in the hands of John Carlin, of Carthage, a Deputy Sheriff. 
On the 7th, the officer went to Nauvoo and arrested Cliftbrd and 
Furness, but was resisted and defied by Pickett. He took Furness 
before the Magistrate (Cliflbrd having taken sick and left), where he 
gave bail for his appearance at Court, and was set at liberty. Carlin 
resolved that Pickett should be arrested. On the 17th he therefore 
issued a proclamation, calling out the_^;»cxse comitatus to assemble 
at Carthage on Monday the 24th, to aid in the arrests. 

On the 12th a meeting was held in Nauvoo, of the Mormons and 
their adherents, at which it was resolved that Carlin's writs should 
not be executed; they also took measures to organize for military 

On the 21st, Gov. Ford, at Springfield, issued an order to Maj. 
James E. Parker, of the 32d Peg. 111. Militia, saying: 


Sir : — I have received information lliat another effort is to be made on Monday 
next to drive out the inliabitants of Nauvoo, new and old, and to destroy the city. 
Maj. P. was authorized to talie command of such persons as would volunteer free 
of cost to the State, and repel anj' attack and defend the citj'. He was also 
authorized to assist any peace officer in making arrests. This order of the Gov- 
ernor's placed Parker and Carlin in antagonism. Carlin's proclamation was 
dated the 17th; on the 25th, Parker issued a counter proclamation, calling on all 
armed bodies of men in the couaty to disperse, and stating that he held himself 
in readiness '• to aid any officer in any part of the county in executing any lawful 
writs in his hands." Carlin replied by letter, that he was a legally constituted 
officer, with writs in his hands to execute, that he had been resisted, and had 
called out the jjasse to aid him, that he did not acknowledge the authority of the 
military to interfere, that a large force was collecting, and he should proceed. 
To this Parker rejoined, that he was sent by the Governor, that the force imder 
Carlin was a mob, whose aim was to set the ]\Iormons over the river, that his 
position compelled him to regard the posse as a mob, and he must treat them as 
such. This brought another letter from Carlin, who reiterated his former state- 
ments, and concluded: " The poss« will proceed to perform its dutj'-, and as you 
have cautioned me, that if it does not soon disperse you will treat it as a mob and 
as one good turn deserves another, I will caution 3'ou,that if j'ou attempt to inter- 
fere with this posse while acting under the law, I shall regard you and your com- 
mand as a mob, and 'treat them as such.'" Hereupon Parker fell back upon 
proclamations. On the 28th he issued a second, and on the 3d of September, a 
third, defining his position, and warning " the mob " to desist. 

In the meantime the force was concentrating at Carthage. On 
the 25tli, CoL John B. Chittenden, of Adams county, was placed 
in temporary command, with the understanding that Col. James 
W. Singleton, of Brown, was to supersede hira on his arrival^ 
Col. S. arrived on the 2Sth and took command, with Col. Brock- 
man, of Brown, in command of the First Regiment, and Col. Thomas 
Geddes, of Hancock, in command of the Second. The camp was 
fixed about five miles from Carthage, on the Nauvoo road, the 
force numbering from 600 to 800 men. Here negotiations for a 
compromise began between the two commanders in secret. This 
was concluded and ratified by Col. Singleton, but unanimously 
rejected by his oflicers and men, amid great excitement. The con- 
ditions of this agreement were, in short: that the Mormon popula- 
tion of Nauvoo shall all leave in 60 days; that a force of 25 men 
be left as a guard, the expense to be equally borne by both parties; 
that an attorney be selected to take charge of all writs; that the 
Mormons shall deliver np the State arms, and that all hostilities 
shall at once cease. The reasons given for the rejection were, that 
no confidence could be placed in the Mormon's professions of sin- 
ceritj', and that no provision was made for the execution of the 
writs in Carlin's hands. 

On the rejection of the treaty, Col. Singleton withdrew from the 
command, and Carlin appointed Col. Brockman to the place. He 
immediately gave orders for an advance, and on the 10th, the whole 
force, numbering about 700 men, marched toward Nauvoo and 
encamped about three miles from the temple. Here a committee, 
consisting of Hon. John Wood, Major Flood and Joel Rice, of 
Quii:icy, appeared and proposed a compromise. Terms were named 
to them, and by them taken to the city; but no answer was 
received. The posse was put in motion towards the city, and for 


two days considerable skirmishing was carried on between picket 
guards, and some firino- of artillery, of whicli both parties had a 
few pieces. On the 12th, a Hag of truce was sent in b}' Brockman' 
and Carlin, demanding a surrender. It was repled to by Maj. Ben- 
jamin Clifford, in command (but what became of Parker does not 
appear), refusing to compl}'. Fi'eparations for battle were there- 
upon immediately made. As this was the concluding and only 
military battle of the war, we deem a report of it in full, copied 
from the Warsaw Signal of the 13th October, worthy of a place 


"After the reception of this letter (Clifford's) the army was 
drawn up in column on a piece of high ground lying between the 
camp and the city. While in this position a few shots were fired 
from a breastwork the Mormons had erected during the night, and 
the fire was returned from our artillery. So soon as all was ready, 
the Warsaw Kifienien were divided into two sections and deployed 
on the right and left as flankers. Capt. Newton's Lima Guards, 
witli Capt. Walker's gun, were ordered to take position a quarter 
of a mile in front of the camp, and employ the attention of the 
Mormons at their breastwork, and from which they kept a constant 
fire, while the main Ijod}' of the army wheeled to the left, passed 
down across the La Harpe road, through a cornfield, thence across 
Mulholland street, then bore to the right through an orchard and 
on to the city. So soon as the army was fairly under way, Capt. 
Newton's company and the piece of artillery with it, were brought 
up in the rear. Tliis march was made directly across and in the 
face of the enemy's fire, and within good cannon range, yet not a 
man was injured. 

"Arriving on the verge of the city, the army, all except the 
artillery and flankers, was halted, while the latter advanced and 
commenced an attack on the Mormon works, from which they had 
been firing during the whole time of the march. A hot fire was 
kept up b}' the artillery from both sides for fifteen or twenty 
minutes. During this time the Mormons did no execution on our 
ranks, while the balls from our cannon rattled most terrifically 
through the houses in the city. 

" At length the fire_ of small arms was heard from some Mor- 
mons who had taken position on the extreme left in a cornfield. 
Immediately Col. Smith's regiment was ordered up and drove the 
assailants before them. The Second Regiment was in the mean- 
time ordered up to the support of the artillery. By this time the 
action became general. 

"The Mormons were in squads in their houses and poured in 
their shots with the greatest rapidity. Our men were also divided 
ofi" into squads, took shelter where they could best find it, and 
returned the tire with gi-eat energy. The greater part of the First 
Regiment had no better shelter than a cornfield and a worm fence ; 


the Second Regiment was on open ground, having but two or three 
small houses to cover the whole body; while our artillery was 
entirely exposed. 

" The firing of small arms was continued for half an hour, during 
which time our men steadily advanced, driving the enemy in many 
instances from their shelter. For a time their fire was almost 
entirely silenced; but unfortunately at this juncture our cannon 
balls were exhausted; and our commander deeming it imprudent 
to risk a further advance without these necessary instruments, he 
ordered the men to be drawn oft". This was done in good order, 
and in slow time the whole force returned to the camp. 

" In this action we had about 500 men engaged, and four pieces 
of artillery; 200 men and one piece of artilleiy having been left at 
the camp for its protection. Our loss in this engagement, as well 
as in the subsequent skirmishes, will be found in the report of the 
surgeons hereto appended. Most of our men throughout the action 
displayed remarkable coolness and determination; and we have no 
doubt did great execution. We believe if our cannon balls 
had held out ten minutes longer, we should have taken the city; 
but when the action commenced we had but 61 balls. The battle 
lasted from the time the first feint was made until our men were 
drawn off — an hour and a quarter. Probably there is not on 
record an instance of a longer continued militia fight. (?) 

•' The Mormons stood their ground manfully ; but from the little 
execution done by them, we infer that they were not very cool or 
deliberate. Their loss is uncertain — as they have taken especial 
pains to conceal the number of their dead and wounded. They 
acknowledge but three dead and ten wounded. Amongst the killed 
is their master spirit, Capt. Anderson, of the 15-shooter rifle com- 
pany. Their force in the fight was from three to four hundred. 
They had all the advantage, having selected their own positions ; 
and we were obliged to take such as we could get. Sometimes our 
men could get no covei', and the artillery was all the time exposed, 
while theirs was under cover. 

" On Saturday after the battle, the Antics commenced entrench- 
ing their camp, and on Sunday made it secure against the shots of 
the enemy's cannon, which frequently reached or passed over it. 
On Sunday the Anties cut part of the corn from the field on the 
left of the La Harpe road, to prevent the Mormons from taking 
cover in it. While thus engaged the Mormons fired on the guard 
"which was protecting the corn-cutters. The fire was returned by 
the guard, and kept up at long distance for two or three hours. In 
this skirmish one of our men was badly wounded. The loss of the 
enemy is not known. On Monday a party of Mormons crept \ip 
through the weeds to a piece of high ground, and fired at our camp 
— wounding three men, none seriously. Their balls were nearly 
spent when they struck. On Sunday morning after the battle 
a powder plot was dug up in the La Harpe road, which the army 
was expected to pass. On Wednesday another was dug up on the 




same road nearer the city. Several of tliese plots were discovered 
near the temple and in other parts of the city." 

But the lighting was over and the war was ended. On Tuesday 
mornino", the 15th, a deputation from 100 citizens of Quincy 
arrived in camp with proposals for mediation. The sub-committee 
was headed by Andrew Johnston, Esq., as chairman. A similar 
sub-committee was sent to Nauvoo to confer with 13. Clifford, the 
Commander there. A truce was agreed on, and after a long and 
voluminous correspondence, a treaty was concluded, which we can 
give best in its own words: 

1. The City of Nauvoo will surreuder. The force of Col. Brockman to enter 
and take possession of the city to-morrow, the 17th of September, at 3 o'clock p. m. 

3. The arms to be delivered to the Quincy Committee, to be returned on the 
crossing of Ihe river. 

3. The Quincy Committee pledge themselves to use their influence for the 
protection of persons and property from all violence ; and the officers of the camp 
and the men pledge themselves to protect all persons and property from violence. 

4. The sick and helpless to be protected and tieated with humanity. 

5. The Mormon population of the city to leave the State, or disperse, as soon 
as they can cross the river. 

6. Five men, including the trustees of the Church, and five clerks, with their 
families (William Pickett not one of the number) to be permitted to remain in 
the city for the disposition of propeity, free from all molestation and personal 

7. Hostilities to cease immediately, and ten men of the Quincy Committee to 
enter the city in the execution of their duty as soon as they think proper. 

We, the undersigned, subscribe to, ratify arid confirm the foregoing articles of 
accommodation, treaty and agreement, 'he day and year first above written. 

Signed by: Ahnoii W. Babbitt, Joseph L. Heyicood, John S. Fullmer, Trustees 
in Trust for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints; Andrew Johnson, 
Chairman of the Com. of Quincy; Thos. S- Brockman, commanding posse; John 
Carlin, Special Constable. 

The remarkable feature of this treaty is, that it contained not a 
word about the arrest of the persons named in the writs held by 
Carlin, and for the service of which the expedition was undertaken. 

Soon after the agreement was signed and exchanged, Major Clif- 
ford gave orders for the withdrawal of the forces under his com- 
mand. By three o'clock the next day, nearly the whole Mormon 
population had crossed the river. At three, Brockman's force was 
put in motion, marched through the city, and encamped near the 
south end of town. On Friday all except 100 men were disbanded, 
and to co-operate with these the new citizens organized a company 
of 100 men as guards to the city. 

The surgeons in Col. Brockman's camp, Drs. Berry and Charles 
of Warsaw, reported twelve men wounded, as follows: John 
Kennedy, of Augusta, in the shoulder; Jefferson Welsh, of 
McDonough Co., in the thigh ; Mr. Rogers, of Adams Co., thigh 
and hip ; Uriah Thompson, of Fountain Green, in arm; Mr. Hum- 
phreys, of Hancock Co., in the thigh severely, and died ten hours 
afterward; George Wier, Warsaw, in the neck; Capt. Robert F. 
Smith, who commanded the First Regiiuent, slightly in the neck; 
Mr. Crooks, of Chili, in the head slightly; Mr. Winsor, of Nauvoo, 
in the back, while loading; Mr. Denny, of Green Plains, at camp- 



guard; Dr. Geiger, ofN"auvoo, in camp; and Mr. Stinson, of Brown 
Co., in the thigh. Of the loss on the other side we have no reliable 

Bnt, although the war was over, the troubles were not jet to. end. 
The force left in the city, not satisfied with the withdrawal of the 
Mormons, dealt pretty roughly with the ring-leaders of the obnox- 
ious new citizens. A few of them were ordered to leave. They 
-did so, but made their appeals to the public and to Gov. Ford at 
Springfield, in a tissue of most exaggerated statements. Maj. Bray- 
man, who had been commissioned by the Governor to investigate, 
made reports also to his Excellency, which, taken together, decided 
him to again order a force into the county. He recruited about 
100 men, with which he entered the county, and after a day or two 
at Carthage, proceeded to Nauvoo, where he arrived on the 28 th 
of October. He was \Vaited on by numbers of the respectable new 
citizens, who endeavored to disabuse his mind as to the state of 
affairs in the city. The Governor encamped his force about the 
temple, where he remained until the lith of November, when he 
left for Springfield, leaving a part of his force under Major Weber, 
at Nauvoo. Before reaching the county, tlie Governor became_con- 
vinced that he had undertaken a useless expedition, as the result 
proved, for during his whole two weeks' presence nothing trans- 
pired requiring military or executive interference. The force left, 
remained in the county inactive, until withdrawn by Gov. French. 
Gov. F., having been elected to succeed Ford, was inaugurated 
December 8th, and on the 12th he withdrew the force, and ad- 
dressed a short note to the people of Hancock county, announcing 
tiieir withdrawal, and exhorting to peace and quietness. 


A history of Mormonism in Hancock county would be incom- 
plete that failed to recite the Charter granted that people b}' the 
State Legislature, and to give a few samples of the Ordinances 
passed by the City Council. The following is a verbatim copy of 
the Charter: 


Sec. 1. BeitenactedbythePeopleof the State of lUiuois, represented in the Gen- 
eral Assembly, That all that district of country embraced within the following 
boundaries, to-wit: [omit long description of boundaries.] 

Sec. 2. Whenever any tract of land adjoining the city of Nauvoo shall have 
been laid out into town lots, and duly recorded according to law, the same shall 
form a part of the city of Nauvoo. 

Sec. 3. The inhabitants of said city, by the name and style aforesaid, shall 
have power to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended, 
in all courts of law and equitj', and in all actions whatsoever ; to purchase, receive 
and hold property, real and personal, in said city; to purchase, receive and hold 
real property beyond the city for burj'ing ground, or for other public purposes, 
for the use of the inhabitants of said city ; to sell, lease, convey or dispose of 
property, real and personal, for the benefit of the city ; to improve and protect 
such property, and to do all other things in relation thereto as natural persons. 


Sec. 4. There shall be a City Council to consist of Mayor, four Aldermen and 
nine Councilors, who shall have the qualifications of electors of said city, and 
shall be chosen by the qualified voters thereof, and shall hold their offices for two 
years, and until their successors shall be elected and qualitied. The City Council 
shall judge of the qualifications, elections and returns ot their own memljers, and 
a majority of them shall form a quorum to do business; but a smaller number 
may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members, 
under such penalties as may be prescribed by ordinance. 

Sec. 5. The Mayor, Aldermen and Councilors, before entering upon the 
duties of 'their offices, shall take and subscribe an oath or atlirmation, that they 
will support the Constitution of the United States and of this State; and that they 
will well and truly perform the duties of their offices to the best of their skill and 

Sec. a. On the first Monday of February next, and every two years thereafter, 
an election shall be held for "the election of one Mayor, four Aldermen, and nine 
Councilors ; and at the first election under this act, three Judges shall be chosen 
viva voce by the electors present, the said Judges shall choose two clei'ks, and the 
Judges and clerks, before entering upon their duties, shall take and .subscribe an 
oath or affirmation, such as is now required by law to be taken by judges and 
clerks of other elections ; and at all subsequent elections, the necessary number 
of Judges and clerks shall be appointed by the Cit}' Council. At the first election 
so held the polls shall be opened at nine o'clock, a.m., and closed at six o'clock, 
p. M. ; at the close of the polls the votes shall be counted, and a statement thereof 
proclaimed at the front door of the house at which such election shall be held; 
and the clerl;s shall leave with each person elected, or at his usual place of resi- 
dence within five days after the election, a written notice of his election, and each 
person so notified, shall within ten days after the election, take the oath or affirm- 
ation hereinbefore mentioned, a certificate of which oath shall be deposited with 
the Recorder, whose appointment is hereafter provided for, and be by him pre- 
served; and all subsequent elections shall be held, conducted, and returns thereot 
made as may be provided for by the ordinances of the City Council. 

Sec. 7. All free white male inhabitants, who are of the age of 21 years, who 
are entitled to vote for State officers, and who shall have been actual residents of 
said city sixty days next preceding said election, shall be entitled to vote for city 

Sec. 8. The City Council shall have authorit}' to levy and collect taxes for 
city purposes, upon all property, real and personal, within the limits of the city, 
not exceeding one-half per cent, per annum upon the assessed value thereof, and 
may enforce the payment of the same in any manner to be provided by ordinance, 
not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, or of this State. 

Sec. 9. The City Council shall have power to appoint a Recorder, Treasurer, 
Assessor, Marshal, Supervisor of streets, and all such other officers as may be 
necessary, and to prescribe their duties, and remove them from office at pleasure. 

Sec. 10. The City Council shall have power to require of all officers, appointed 
in pursuance of this act, bonds with penalty and security, for the faithful perform- 
ance ot their respective duties, such as may be deemed expedient; and also to 
require all officers appointed as aforesaid, to take an oath for the faithful performance 
of the duties of then- respective offices. 

Sec. 11. The City Council shall have power and authority to make, ordain, 
establish and execute all such ordinances, not repugnant to the Constitution of the 
United States or of this State, as they may deem necessary for the benefit, peace, 
good order, regulation, convenience and cleanliness of said city ; for the protection 
of propert}' therein from destruction by fire or otherwise, and for the health and 
happiness thereof ; they shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen by 
death, resignation or removal, in an}' of the offices herein made elective; to fix and 
establish aU the fees of the officers of said corporation not herein established; to 
impose such fines not exceeding one hundred dollars for each offense, as they may 
deem just, for refusing to accept any office in or under the corporation, or for 
misconduct therein ; to chvide the city into wards ; to add to the number of Alder- 
men and Councilors, and apportion them among the several wards as may be most 
just and conducive to the interests of the city. 

Seo. 12. To Mcense, tax, and regulate auctions, merchants, retailers, grocers, 
hawkers, pedlars, brokers, pawn-brokers and money-changers. 

Seo. 13. The City Council shall have exclusive power within the city, by ordi- 
nance to license, regulate and restrain the keeping of ferries ; to regulate the police 


of the city ■ to impose tines, forfeitures and penalties for the breacli of any ordinance, 
and provide for tlie recovery of such fines and forfeitures, and the enforcement of 
such penalties, and to pass such ordinances as may be necessary and proper for 
carrying into execution the powers specified in this act : Provided, Such ordi- 
nances are not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States or of this State ; 
and in fine, to exercise such other legislative powers as are conferred on the City 
Council of the city of Springfield, by an act entitled "An act to incorporate the city 
of Springfield," approved February third, one thousand eight hundred and forty. 

Sec. 14. All ordinances passed by the City Council shall, within one month after 
they shall have been passed, be published in some newspaper printed in tlie city, or 
certified copies thereof be posted up in three of the most public places in the city. 

Sec. 15. All ordinances of the city may be proven by the seal of the corporation, 
and when printed or pulilished in book or pamphlet form, piu'porting to he printed 
or published by authority of the corporation, the same shall be received in evidence 
in all courts or places without further proof. 

Sec. 16. The Mayor and Aldermen shall be conservators of the peace within 
the limits of said city, and shall have all the powers of Justices of the Peace therein, 
both in civil and criminal cases, arising under the laws of the State; they 'shall, as 
Justices of the Peace within the limits of said city, perform the same duties, be 
governed by the same laws, give the same bonds and secm'ity as other Justices of 
the Peace, and be commissioned as Justices of the Peace in and for said city by the 

Sec. 17. The Mayor shall have exclusive jurisdiction in all cases arising under 
the ordinances of the corporation, and shall issue such process as may be necessary 
to carry said ordinances into execution and effect; appeals maybe had from any 
decision or judgment of said Mayor, or Aldermen, arising under the city ordinances, 
to tlie ilunicipal Court, under such regulations as may be presented by ordinance, 
which Court shall be composed of the Mayor, or Chief Justice, and the Aldermen 
as Associate Justices, and from the final judgment of the Municipal Court to the 
Circuit Com't of Hancock County, in the same manner as appeals are taken from 
the judgments of Justices of tlie Peace: Provided, That the parties litigant 
shiill have a riglit to a trial lij' a jmy of twelve men in all cases before the iluui- 
cipal Com-t. The ^Municipal Court shall have power to grant writs of liabeas cui'jius 
in all cases arising under the ordinances of the City Council. 

Sec. 18. Tlie Municipal Court shall sit on the fij'st Monday of every month, and 
the City Council at such times and places as may be prescribed by city ordinance, 
special meetings of which may, at any time, be called by the Mayor or any two 

Sec. 19. All processes issued by the Mayor, Aldermen or Municipal Court shall 
be directed to the Marshal, and in the execution thereof he shall be governed by 
the same laws as are or maj' be prescribed for the direction and compensation of 
constables in similar cases. The Marshal shall also perform such other duties as 
may be required of him under the ordinances of said city, and shall be the 
principal ministerial officer. 

Sec. 20. It shall be the duty of the Recorder to make and keep accurate records 
of all ordinances made by tlie City Council, and of all their proceedings in their 
corporate capacity; which records shall at all times be open to the inspection of 
the electors of said city, and shall perform such other duties as may b"^ recxuired 
of him by the ordinances of the City Council, and shall serve as Clerk of the Mu- 
nicipal Court. 

Sec. 21. When it shall be necessary to take private property for opening, widen- 
ing, or altering any pul^Iic street, lane, avenue or alley, the Corporation shall 
make a just compensaiion tlierefor to the person whose proper y is so taken, and 
if the amount of such compensation can not be agreed upon, the Jlaj'or sliall cause 
the same to be ascertained by a jury of six disinterested freeholders of the city. 

Sec. 23. All jurors impaneled to inquire into the amount of benefits or dama- 
ges tliat shall happen to the owners of property so proposed to be taken, shall first 
be sworn to that etfect, and shall return to the Mayor their inquest in writing, 
signed by each juror. 

Sec. 23. In case the Mayor shall at any time be guilty of a palpable omission 
of duty, or shall willfully and corruptly be guilty of oppression, mal-conduct, or 
partiality in the discharge of the duties of his office, he shall be liable to be 
indicted in the Circuit Court of Hancock county ; and on conviction he shall be 
fined not more than two hundred dollars, and the Court shall have power, on the 


rc'comuiendation of the jury, to add to the judgment of the Court, that he be 
rt'inoved from office. 

!?EC. 34. The City Council may establish and organize an institution of learn- 
ing within the limits of the city for the teaching of the arts, sciences and learned 
professions, to be called the " University of the City of Nauvoo ;" which institution 
shall be under the control and management of a Board of Trustees, consisting ot 
a Chancellor, Registrar, and twenty-three Regents, which Board shall thereafter 
be a bodj' corporate and politic, with perpetual succession, by the name of the 
" Chancellor and Regents of the University of the City of Nauvoo,'' and shall have 
full power to pass, ordain, establish and execute all such laws and ordinances as 
they may consider for the welfare and jirospcrity of said Universit}', its officers 
and students ; Provided, That the said laws and ordinances shall not be repug- 
nant to the Constitution of the United States or of this State; and. Provided, also, 
That the Trustees shall at all times be appointed by tlie City Council, and shall 
have all the powers and privileges for the advancement of the cause of education 
which appertain to the trustees of any other college or university of this State. 

Sec. 25. The City Council may organize the inhabitants of said city subject to 
military duty into a body of independent military men, to be called the " Nauvoo 
Legion," the court-martial of which shall be composed of the commissioned offi- 
cers of said Legion, and constitute the law-making department, with full powers 
and authority to make, ordain, establish and execute, all such laws and ordinan- 
ces, as may be considered necessary for the benetit, government and regulation of 
said Legion; Provided, Said court-martial shall pass no law or act repugnant to 
or inconsistent with the Constitution of the United States or of this State; and. 
Provided, also. That the officers of the Legion shall be commissioned by the Gov- 
ernor of the State. The said Legion shall perform the same amount of military 
duty as is now or may be hereafter required of the regular militia of the State, 
and shall be at the disposal of the Mayor in executing the laws and ordinances ot 
the City Corporation, and the laws of the State, and at the disposal of the Governor 
for the public defense and the execution of the laws of the State, or of the United 
States, and shall be entitled to their proportion of the public arms; and. Provided, 
also. That said Legion shall be exempt from all other military dut}'. 

Sec. 26. The inhabitants of the " Citj- of Nauvoo" are hereby exempt from 
working on any road beyond the limits of the city; and for the purpose of keep- 
iugthe streets, lanes, avenues and alleys in repair, to require of the male inhabit- 
itants of said city, over the age of twenty-one and under fifty years, to labor on 
said streets, lanes, avenues and alleys, not exceeding three daj-s in each year; any 
peraon failing to perform such labors when duly notified by the Supervisor, shall 
forfeit and pay the sum of one dollar per day for eac h day so neglected or refused. 

Sec. 27. The City Council shall have power to provide for the punishment of 
otienders, by imprisonment in the county or city jail, in all cases when such of- 
fenders shall fail or refuse to pay the fines and forfeitures which may be recovered 
against them. 

Sec. 28. This Act is hereby declared to be a public act, and shall take effect on 
the first Monday of February next. 

Approved, December 10, 1840. 


And we present below a few of the ordinances passed from time 
to time by the City Councils of Nauvoo: 


Regulating the mode of proceeding in cases of Jiabeas corpvs before the Munioi 
pal Court: 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, That 
in all cases where any person or persons shall at any time hereafter be arrested 
or under arrest, in this city, under any writ or process, and shall be brought before 
the Municipal Court of this city, by virtue of a writ of habeas corpus, the Court 
shall in every such case have power and authority, and are hereby required to 
examine into the origin, validity and legality of the writ or process, under which 
such arrest was made; and if it shall appear to the Court upon sufficient testi- 
mony, that said writ or process was illegal, or not legally issued, or did not proceed 
from the proper authority, then the Court shall discharge the prisoner from nuder 


said arrest ; but if it shall appear to the Court that said writ or process had issued 
from proper authority, and was a legal process, the Court shall then proceed and 
fully hear the merits" of the case upon which said arrest was made, upon such 
evidence as may be produced and sworn before said Court ; and shall have power 
to adjourn the hearing, and also issue process from time to time, in their discre- 
tion, m order to procure the attendance of witnesses, so that a fair and impartial 
trial and decision may be obtained iu every case. 

Sec. 2. And be it further ordained, That if upon investigation it shall be 
proven before the Municipal Court that the writ or process has been issued either 
through private pique, malicious intent, religious or other persecution, falsehood 
or misrepresentation, contrary to the Constitution of the United States or of this 
State, the said writ or process shall be quashed, and considered of no force or 
effect, and the prisoner or prisoners shall be released and discharged therefrom. 

Sec. 3. And be it also further ordained, That in the absence, sickness, debility 
or other circumstances disqualifying or preventing the Maj'or from officiating 
in his office, as Chief Justice of the Municipal Court, the Aldermen present shall 
appoint one from amongst them to act as Chief Justice or President pyo tempore. 

Sec. 4. This ordinance to take effect and be in force from and after its passage. 

HTRt::M Smith, 
Vice-Mayor and President pro tempore. 

Passed August 8, 1842. 

James Sloan, Recorder. 


Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, That 
all male persons over the age of seventeen years, and females over the age of 
fourteen years, may contract and be joined in marriage; Provided, in all cases 
where either party is a minor, the consent of parents or guardians be first had. 

Sec. 2. Any jjcrsons as aforesaid wishing to marrj', or be joined in maiTiage, 
may go before any regular minister of the gospel, Mayor, Alderman, Justice of 
the Peace, Judge, or other person authorized to solemnize marriages iu this State, 
and celebrate or declare their marriage in such manner and form as shall be most 
agreeable, either with or without license. 

Sec. 3. Any person solemnizing a marriage as aforesaid, shall make return 
thereof to the City Recorder, accompanied by a recording fee of fifty cents, within 
thirty days of the solemnization thereof; and it is hereby made the duty of the 
Recorder to keep an accurate record of all such marriages. The penalty for a 
violation of either of the provisions of this ordinance, shall be twenty dollars, to 
be recovered as other penalties or forfeitures. 

John C. Bennett, Mayor. 

Passed Feb. 17, 1843. 

James Sloan, Recorder. 

The foregoing, it will be observed, abrogates a law of the State, 
which requires a license to be obtained from the County Court. 
The second section was a mere scheme to put money into the 
pockets of the Recorder; and no penal t}' for its infraction could 
have been enforced by law, as every person solemnizing a marriage 
is required by State law to make return to the County Clerk, and 
when that is done the law is fulfilled. 

Here is an ordinance investing the " Prophet, Seer and Eevelator," 
and President of the Church of Zion, with all the rights, duties, 
responsibilities and emoluments — aye, emoluments — belonging to 
the liquor traffic: 


For the health and convenience of travelers and other persons. 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, That 
the Mayor of the city be and is hereby authorized to sell or give spirits, of any 


quantity, as lie in his wisdom shall judge to be for the health, comfort or conven- 
ience of such travelers or other persons as shall visit his house from time to time. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
Passed Dec. la, 1843. 

W. Richards, ^Recorder. 


For the extra case of Joseph Smith and others. 

[Preamble recounting Smith's difficulties with Missouri omitted.] 
Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, Accord- 
ing to the intent and meaning of the Charter, for the " benefit and convenience" 
of Nauvoo, that hereafter if any person or persons shall come with process, demand 
or requisition, founded upon the aforesaid Missouri difficulties, to arrest said Joseph 
Smith, he or they shall be subject to be arrested by any officer of the city, with or 
without process, and tried by the Municipal Court, upon testimony, and if found 
guilty, sentenced to imprisonment in the city prison for life, which convict or con- 
victs can only be pardoned by the Governor, with the consent of the Mayor of 
said city. ***** 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
Passed Dec. 8, 1843 

W. Richards, Recorder. 

Another of similar purport; 


To prevent unlawful search or seizure of person or property, by foreign process' 
in the City of Nauvoo. 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, To pre- 
vent kidnapping, illegal arrests of persons, or unlawful searches for property, 
that all writs issued oiU of the citj' shall, before they are executed within the limits 
of the city, be examined by and receive the approval and signature of the Mayor 
of said cit}- on the back of said process, and be served by the Marshal of said city. 

Sec. 2. And be it further ordained, That every officer who shall execute, or 
attempt to execute, any process as aforesaid, without first obtaining the approval 
and signature of the Mayor of said city, as specified in the first section of this 
ordinance, shall be subject to a fine of not less than five dollars nor more than 
one hundred dollars, or imprisonment not less than one month nor more than six 
months in the city prison, or both, as a breach of ordinance to be tried before the 
Municipal Court of said city. Joseph S>nTH Mayor. 

Passed Dec. 2], 1843. 

WiLLARD RicH.^RDS, l^ecorder. 


Sec. 3. Be it ordained by the Cit}' Council of llie City of Nauvoo, That noth- 
ing in the foregoing ordinance shall be so construed as to prevent, hinder, or thwart 
the designs of justice, or to retard the civil officers of the State or county in the 
discharge of their official duties; but to aid and assist them within the limits of 
this cit)'. Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

Passed Jan. 10, 1814. 

WiDLARD Richards, Recorder. 

Tliese two ordinances were so glaringly illegal and offensive, that 
it was deemed necessary to repeal, or at least make a show of repeal- 
ing them. That was done in this wise, — a repeal which re-enacts 
their chief features, only slightly varying the penalty: 


Entitled "An ordinance to repeal certain ordinances therein mentioned." 

Whereas, An ordinance entitled "An ordinance for the extra case of Joseph 
Smith and others." passed December 8, 1843, and. Whereas, the ordinance entitled 



"An ordinance to present unlawful search and seizure of person and property by 
foreign process in the city of Nauvoo," passed December 31, 1843, have had their 
desired effect in preserving the peace, happiness, persons or property of the citizens 
of Nauvoo, according to their intent and meaning; therefore. 

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the city of Nauvoo, That the 
aforesaid ordinances are hereby repealed. 

Seo. 3. And be it further ordained, that nothing in the first section of tliis ordi- 
nance shall be so construed as to give license or lilierty to any foreign officer, or other 
person or persons, to illegally distiu'b the peace, happiness or quiet of an3' citizen of 
said city, any ordinance to the contrary notwithstanding, under a penalty of not less 
than iive hundred dollars, or imprisonment six months in the city prison. 

Joseph S.mith, Mayor. 

Passed February, 1844. 

WiLLAKD RioHAEDS, Recorder. 

The foregoing ordinatices are copied verbatim from tlie Times 
and Seasons and tlie Nauvoo Neighbor, the official and recognized 
organs of the Church and city. Want of room forbids the copying 
of a number of otlier ordinances ])assed bj' the City Council, exem- 
plifying the pecnliar genius of that honorable body for governing 
a city. 

In concluding this chajiteron Mormon atlairs in Hancock county 
we throw together a number of items omitted in the course of the 
narrative, of more or less importance as parts of a complete history. 


c O^ 

The above are fair representations of two uf the six plates of cop- 
per, held together by a small ring, which were dug from a mound 
at Kinderhook, Pike county, Illinois, by Mr. Wiley, a merchant of 
that place, about the year 184-3. They were brought to Nauvoo, 
and exhibited among the Mormons, as well as at other places in 
the county, and regarded by the Saints as proofs of the autheiitic- 
tv of the Book of Mormon. The writer hereof saw and " hefted " 


them, at the time, but is now unable to tell what became of them. 
They are probably deposited in some museum, where they should 
be, unless the angel who guided Mr. Wiley in procuring them, or- 
dered them replaced in the mound. Whether the prophet ever 
undertook their translation, we are not informed. 


Both John and Orson Hyde believed in and doubtless knew of 
the existence of tiie Danite Band. The former, in his work on 
Mormonism, published ten or twelve years after that people left 
Hancock county, states that in 1S3S, in Missouri, a " death societj'" 
was formed under the direction of Sidney Rigdon ; that its first 
captain was David Patten, one of the Apostles, known as Capt. 
Fearnaught ; and that its object was to " punish the obnoxious." 
Thej^ had some trouble to find a suitable name. " Daughters of 
Zion," was first adopted, but dropped, from its inappropriateness. 
"Genesis xlix, 17, furnished the name they finally assumed. The 
verse is quite significant : ' Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an 
adder in the path that biteth the horse's heels, so that his rider 
shall fall backward.'" And Hyde continues: " ' The Sons of Dan ' 
was the style adopted: and many have been the times they have 
been adders in the path, and many a man has fallen backward and 
has been seen no mfire." — [Stenhouse, p. 104. 

From " Sons of Dan," they came to be known to the Gentiles as 
the " Danite Band." Brigham Young himself furnishes full con- 
firmation, as quoted by Stenhouse from the Deseret News^ vol. 7, 
page 148: 

" If men come here and do not behave themselves, they will not 
only find the Danites, whom they talk so much about, biting the 
horse's heels, but the scoundrels will find something biting their 
heels. In my plain remarks, I merely call things by their own 

It is due to the Mormons to say, that in all their publications, 
the}' have steadily denied the existence of any such organization 
among them. 


The country (America) to which these "Wandering Jews," 
described in the Book of Mormon, were directed, was entirely unin- 
habited. But "there were beasts in the forests of eveiy kind," 
— among the rest the ox. Here is revealed a fact in natural history 
of which even Cuvier was ignorant. Oxen have heretofore been 
supposed to exist only in countries inhabited by man: but here 
they were found running wild in the forests of America ! 


This man, notorious among the faithful at Nauvoo as one of the 
most blindh- obsequious followers of the prophet, was a printer by 



trade, and published at Independence the Evening and Morning 
Star. He was a ready writer, but usually dealt in the " hifalutin " 
style. He was supposed to liave been often employed by Joseph 
to adorn his compositions. For these many acts of kindness, his 
patron is said to have liad a revelation in his favor, that he should 
live till Jesus came. The Salt Lake papers report his death in that 
city on March 7, 1872, aged over SO years. 


As given by W. "W. Phelps, and published in the Times and 
Seasons, in 1841 : 

Biigham Young — The Lion of the Lord. 

Parley P. Pratt — The Archer of Paradise. 

Orson Hyde — The Olive Branch of Israel. 

"Willard Ricliards — The Keeper of the Rolls. 

John Taylor — The CJiampion, of Right. 

William Smith — The Patriarch of JacoVs Staff. 

Wilford Woodruff — The Banner of the Gospel. 

George A. Smith — The Entablature of Truth. 

Orson Pratt — The Oauge of Philosophy. 

John E. Page — The Sun-Dial, and 

Lyman Wight — The Wild Ram of the Mountains. 


How he became a linguist is beyond comprehension, seeing he 
was so entirely ignorant of his own native English tongue. But 
he was fond of parading liis acquirements in that respect before 
his wondering followers. In the Times and Seasons of May 1, 
1843, we find over his signature a learned dissertation on the 
derivation of the name "Mormon: " 

* * * It has been stated that tliis word was derived from the Greek word 
Mormo. This is not the case. There was no Greek or Latin upon the plates from 
which I, tlirough the grace of God, translated the Book of jMoi-mou. Let the 
language of that book speak for itself. On the 523d page of the fourth edition, it 
reads : 

"And now behold we have written this record according to our knowledge in the 
characters which are called among us the Reformed Egyptian, being handed down 
and altered by us, according to our manner of speech ; and if our plates had been 
sufficiently large, we should have wi-itten in Hebrew; but the Hebrew hath been 
altered by us also; and if we could have written in Hebrew, behold ye would have 
had no imperfection in our record ; but the Lord knoweth the things which we have 
written, and also that none other people knoweth our language; therefore he hath 
prepared means for the interpretation thereof." 

Here, then, the subject is put to silence; for ''none other people knoweth our 
language," therefore tire Lord, and not man, had to interpret, after the people were 
all dead. * * * We say from the Saxon, goud; the Dane, (jod; the Gotli. goda; 
the German, gut; the Dutch, goed; the Latin, bonus; the Greek, kalos; the Hebrew, 
toh; and the Egyptian, moii. Hence, with the addition more, or the contraction 
mor, we have the word Mormon, which means literally more good. 



In a correspondence with James Arlington Bennett, a " swell- 
head " relative of Dr. John C. Bennett's, residing at Arlington 
House, near New York city, tiie prophet made this display of his 
learning : 

Were I au Egyptian, I would exclaim Jah-oh-eh, Enish-go-on-dosh, Flo-ces-Floa- 
is-is (O, the Earth ! the power of attraction, and the moon passing between her and 
the sun) ; a Hebrew, Haueloheem j'enau ; a Greek, O |theos phos esi ; a Roman, 
Domiuus regit me ; a German, Got gebe uns das licht ; a Portugee, Senhor Jesu 
Christo e libordade ; a Frenchman, Dieu defend le droit ; but as I am, I give God 
the glory, and say, in the beautiful figure of the poet : 

Could we with Ink tlie ocean fill ; 

Was the whole earth of parclunent made, 
And every stogie stick a quill, 

And every man a scribe by trade,— 
To write the love of God above 

Would drain the ocean dry ; 
Nor could the whole upon a scroll 

Be spread from sky to sky. 

That beat Arlington. He had been appointed to some office in 
the Nauvoo Legion, and he had had some thought of coming to 
Illinois, and through the ])ropliet's influence being elected Gov- 
ernor. But he never came. 


of those grand displays is ■ given in "Gen. Joseph Smith's 
Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys." This effort was publislied 
in the Nauiwo Neighbor about the last of Jan., 1843. It was an 
address " To the Freemen of the State of Vermont, the brave Green 
Mountain Boys, and honest men." The burden of it was a recital 
of his suflferings in Missouri, and a call for aid in obtaining redress 
for the same, but whether b\' the sword and bayonet, or moral 
suasion, is not stated. He starts out by stating that he was born 
and raised in Vermont; that his father fought in the Revolution, 
etc., and after a rehearsal of Missouri outrages, and other matters, 
he injects the following learned paragraph : 

Were I a Chaldean, I would exclaim : "Keed'-naob ta maroon le-hoam elauhay 
augh dej'sheraayaugh yah aur kan ion gua abadoo, yabadoo ma-ar'guan bomen 
tehoat shemayaugh elah." (Thus shall ye say unto them. The gods that have not 
made tli'e heavens and the eartli, they shall perish from the earth, and from these 
heavens.) An Egyptian : "Saeeh-ni." (What other persons are those?) A 
Grecian : " Diabolos bassileuei." (The Devil reigns.) A Frenchman : "Messieurs 
sans Dieu." (Gentlemen without God.) A Turk : " Ain sheurs." (The fountain 
of light.) A German : "Sie sind unferstandig." (Wliat consummate ignorance!) 
A Syrian: " Zanbok." (Sacrifice.) A Spaniard : "II sabio muda conscio, 11 
nescio no." (A wise man reflects, a fool does not.) A Samaritan: "Sannau." (O 
Stranger!) An Italian: "O tempa!_ O diffidanza!" (O the times! O the 
diflSdence!) A Hebrew: " Autoub ail rancy." (Thou Goil seest me.) A Dane: 
" Hoad tidende ? " (What tidings?) A Saxon: "Hwart riht! " (What right!) 
A Swede: " Hvad skilla! " (What skill!) APolander: " Nav-yen-shoo-bah poa 
na Jesu Christus." (Blessed be the name of Jesus Christ.) A Western Indian: 
" Slie-mo-kah, she-mo-kah, ough-ne-gah." (The white man, O the white man, he 
very uncertain.) A Roman: " Procol, o procol ' este profani." (Be off, be off, ye 
profane.) But as I am, I will only add : " When the wicked rule, the people 



Our readers will remember this individual as having been tried, 
found guilt}-, and executed a few j-ears ago in Utah, for his partic- 
ipation in the Mountain Meadow Massacre. In looking over the 
Church organ, we find his name as having been a resident at 
K^auvoo in ISiS, and a ti-aveling elder, preaching and healing the 
sick, as reported. He was afterward advanced to the position of 
bishop, and at the time of the Mountain Meadow aflair was known 
as Bishop Lee. 


Uttered in the name of the Lord, bj the prophet. Smith, soon after 
his appearance in Illinois, and indeed throughout his whole career, 
would of themselves form a curious chapter in religious literature. 
The limit and scope of this woi-k will not permit us to devote much 
space to them; but we copy parts of one given Jan. 19, 1841, as 
found in the Tinier and Seasons, of JuTie 1, 1841. It is long, 
and we only quote its essential portions: 

Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my, Joseph Smith, I am "svell 
pleased with your offerings and acknowledgments which j'ou have made; for 
unto this end have I raised you up, that I might shew forth my wisdom through 
the weak things of the earth. Your prayers are acceptable before me, and in 
answer to them, I say unto you that you are now called immediately to make a 
solemn proclamation of my gospel, and of this stake which I have planted to be 
a corner-stone of Zion, which shall be polished with that refinement which is 
after the similitude of a palace. This proclamation shall be made to all the kings 
of the world, to the four corners thereof, to the honorable President-elect, and 
the hi:jh-minded Governors of the nation in which you live, and to all the nations 
of the earth scattered aljroad. ******* 

And again I say unto you, let my servant, Robert B. Thompson, help 3-ou to write 
this proclamation, for I am weU pleased with him, etc. 

And again I verily say imto you, blessed is my servant Hyrum Smith, for I, the 
Lord, loveth him, -etc. 

Again, let my servant John C. Bennett help you in your labor, in sending my 
■word to the kings and people of the earth. * * * j have seen the work he hath 
done, which I accept, if he continue, and will crown him with blessings and great 

And again, it is my will that my servant Lyman "Wright should continue iu 
preaching for Zion, etc. 

And again, my servant George Miller is without guile; I seal upon his head the 
office of a bishoprick. Let my servant George, and my servant Lj'man, and my 
servant John Snider and others, build a house mito my name, such an one as my 
servant Joseph shall show unto them, upon the place which he shall show unto them 
also. And it shall be for a house of boarding, a house that strangers may come from 
afar to lodge therein; therefore let it be a good house, wortliy of all acceptation, that 
the weary traveler maj' find health and safety while he shall contemplate the word 
of the Lord, and the corner-stone I have appointed for Zion, This house shall be a 
healthy habitation, if it be built unto my name, and if the Governor which shall be 
appointed unto it shall not suffer any pollution to come upon it. It shall be holy, 
or the Lord your God will not dwell therein. 

And again, veril}' I say unto you, let all my saints from afar, and send ye swift 
messengers, yea, chosen messengers, and say unto them, come ye, with all your gold 
and your silver, and yoiu- precious stones, and with aU yoiu' antiquities ; and with 
all wiio have knowledge of antiquities, that will come, may come, and bring the box- 
tree and the fir-tree and the pine-tree, together with all the precious trees of the earth; 
and with iron, and with copper, and with brass, and with zinc, aud with all your 
precious things of the earth, and build a house to my name for the Most High to 
dwell therein, etc. * * * - 

HISTOliV ol'" IIAXC'nCK OtifXTY. 3G5 

And now I say unto you, as pertaining to my boarding house, wliicli I have com- 
manded you to build for the boai'ding of strangers, let it lie liuilt unto my name, and 
let my name be named upon it, and let my servant Joseph and his house have place 
therein from generation to generation. * * * Therefore, let my servant Joseph 
and his seed after him, have place in that house from generation to generation, for- 
ever and ever, saith the Lord, and let the name of that house be called the Nauvoo 
House. * * « 

Let my servant Isaac Galland put stock in that house, for I, the Lord loveth him 
for the work he hath done, and will forgive all his sins, etc. * * * And let my 
servant William Law pav stock in that house for himself and his seed after him, 
etc. * * * And again, verily I say unto you, if my servant Sidney will serve 
me, and be a counselcir unto ni}' servant Joseph, let him arise and stand in the otBce 
of his calling, and humble himself before me. * « * Veril}' I say unto you, even 
now, if he will hearken to my voice it shall be well with him. 


WJio may be entitled to the infamy of inti'oduciiii^- polyi^amy as 
part of the system of Mormonism is not positively known to the 
ontside world. . It is a qnestion on which the saints themselves 
disagree. That it was instituted and practiced sometime before it 
was publicly acknowledged is certain. It needs no argument to 
prove that it is a direct and flagrant violation of law throughout 
all Christendom, the bane of the social system, destructive of the 
best influences of home and the family circle, and an outrage upon 
civilized society. It has itot one ennobling and humanizing feature; 
and could have only been engrafted into their system and practiced 
for the most debasing and lustful purposes. But no people, no 
set of men and women, however well-meaning they may be, have 
a right to shield themselves from just punishment for such prac- 
tices, under cover of a religious creed. And it is a wonder and a 
shame, that more determined efibrts have not been made by the 
constituted authorities to put an end to these illegal practices. It 
is now claimed tliat the system has been so long in operation, that 
to break it up would cause great injury to many innocent persons. 
It is a principle of law, that one shall not take advantage of his own 
wrong; and besides, every one is presumed to know the law. These 
pretended revelators, while claiming the sanction of heaven to cover 
their selfish purposes, knew that the law and the morality of the 
country were against them, and that their so-called revelation was 
an infamous and blasphemous falsehood. Religious creed, too 
often used as a cloak for sin, cannot be permitted to shield its 
wearer from the consequences of crime. 

That Joseph Smith ever advocated or encouraged polygamy, as a 
branch of the creed, is now strenuously denied by the followers of 
his son, of the re-organized branch. They justly denounce it with 
all the rest of Christendom; and they quote strong proof from his 
writings and from the Book of Mormon, that he set his face against 
it. The Salt Lake Mormons as flail}' assert that he was its author 
and introducer. We think the new branch will have hard work to 
convince the world, — as they cer'tainly have not convinced us, — 
that the prophet was innocent of this outrage. He may not in his 
day have fully incorporated it into his creed and taught it to his 


followers in public; but we think there is indubitable evidence that 
he was its originator. Who, without his sanction, had a right to 
broach such a thing, and preacli it, by degrees and parcels, as was 
done in his life-time and in his chosen city? And how came it to 
be so fully established so soon after his death, that it had become a 
sweet morsel in the creed of the leaders, at the time they left for 
the West two years afterward, so sweet a morsel that it divided 
man and wife ? In his life-time it had not reached the dignity of 
title it has since. Now, it is '' Polygamy " (and didn't Solomon 
and David and Abraham, and all the patriarchs practice polygamy?). 
Then it was " Spiritual-wiferv," a sort of clandestine, sneaking 
system of concubinage, with an I- would-if-I-dare effort to adopt it, 
and an I-do-and-I-don't acceptance ; but with a crushing public 
denial and denunciation. All who remember the days of Mormon- 
ism in this county and are conversant with its workings, know that 
this is the way in which polygamy became a constituent of its creed 
and a chief pillar in its system. Had the main body remained here 
it would have been " spiritual-wifery " still, most probably — denied 
to the outside world, and practiced in the harems of the leaders. 
Before they left it was the accepted creed of the governing class; 
and we know of one legal wife of a prominent man among them, 
who refused to go with him, and did not, because he would not 
agree to forego the anticipated delights of the system in the wilder- 
ness;* while others generally went, by force of circumstances, though 
their best natures as women cried out against the unnatural dogma. 
The Salt Lake people now publish a revelation which they assert 
was delivered by the prophet before his death, in which this doc- 
trine is promulgated. The reorganized branch here claim this to 
be a forgery; whether justly or not, we leave the reader to decide. 
John Taylor is now and has ever been a prominent leader at Salt 
Lake; while here, and after the prophet's death, we believe 
throughout, be was editor of botli the Mormon papers. The files 
of those sheets show that he was continually denying the doctrine, 
and ridiculing it as an invention of their enemies. If said revela- 
tion had been genuine, as now claimed, Taylor must have known 
it; and what can be said of his and their truthfulness? 


The Act to incorporate the " Nauvoo House Association " con- 
tained one clause which can be recommended to all similar asso- 

Sec. 9. It is moreover established as a perpetual rule of said liouse, to be 
observed by all persons who may keep or occupy the same, that spirituous liquors 
of every description are prohibited, and that such liquors shall never be vended 
as a beverage, or introduced into common use in said house. 


The following ordinance was flourished in the Nauvoo papers, 
without date, as proof of the tolerant spirit prevailing there; 



Sec. 1. Be it Ordained by tlie City Council of the city of Nauvoo, That the 
Catholics, Presb3'terians, Methodists, Baptists, Latter-Day Saints, Quakers, Epis- 
copalians, Universalists, Unitarians, Mohammedans, and all other religious sects 
and denominations whatever, shall have free toleration and equal privileges in 
this city; and should any person be guilty of ridiculing, abusing, or otherwise 
depreciating another in consequence of his religion, or of disturbing or interrupting 
any religious meeting, within the limits of this city, he shall, on conviction thereof 
before the Mayor or Municipal Court, be considered a disturber of the public 
peace, and fined in any sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, or imprisoned 
not exceeding six months, or both, at the discretion of said Mayor or Court. 

The foregoing was paraded as proof of the extremely liberal 
spirit prevailing in the city; and yet it will be perceived that it 
empowers the Mayor to line a man five hundred dollars and 
imprison him six months, for merely speaking in depreciation of 
the Mormon religion ! 


which many have contonnded with the Nauvoo House, was a neat 
frame building situated some hundreds of yards from the river, 
and was in all the prophet's after j'ears his residence and home, 
and where he dispensed hospitality and good cheer to friends and 
visitors. It was a hotel, and was opened with great ostentation on 
the 3d of October, 1843, on which occasion a large crowd sat down 
to the table. The following is one of the volunteer toasts passed : 
" Resolved, That Gen. Joseph Smith, whether we view him as a 
Prophet at the head of the Church; a General at the head of the 
Legion ; a Mayor at the head of the City Council, or as a Landlord 
at the head of his table, has few equals and no superiors." 


Prof. Caswell, of Kemper College, near St. Louis, told the follow- 
ing story: He paid a visit to Nauvoo and the Mormon prophet, and 
had in his possession a Greek psalter of great age — one that had 
been in his family several hundred years. "Why he took it to Nau- 
voo does not appear; but some of the brethren saw it, and insisted 
that he should give brother Joseph a chance of translating it. The 
professor consented, and the book was handed over. The spirit of 
prophec}' — the same as in the days of the golden plates — descended 
upon Joseph, and he said, "This book I pronounce to be a Dic- 
tionary of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics." 


is said to have cost in labor and money over a million of dollars. 
It may be possible, and is very probable, that contributions to that 
amount were made to it, but that it cost that much to build it, few 
will believe. Half that sum would be ample to build a much more 
costly edifice to-day; and in the three or four years in which it was 
being erected, labor was cheap and all the necessaries of life remark- 
ably low. Wheat was quoted in the county markets at forty to 


sixty cents; corn, 20; flour, $4.00, and pork, $2.00. If a million of 
dollars were contributed by the faithful for the temple fund, it is 
easy to guess where at least half the sum was expended. 


was never half finished during the prophet's life- time, and was never 
occupied by him or an}' one. It stood, one of its wings under roof, 
but the walls of the main building unfinished, an imposing struc- 
ture, until long since the prophet had met his fate, and his follow- 
ers had located in the wilderness. It was left or somehow passed 
to the ownership of the widow and her second husband. Major Bid- 
amon, and has recently been fitted up and kept by them as a hotel. 
The location is most beautiful and commanding, being on the slop- 
ing and rocky bank of the Mississippi, facing southward at the 
curve of the river, and about 150 yards from the water's edge. 

The work upon this building was never prosecuted by the faith- 
ful with the same zeal as that upon the temple. While the contri- 
butions flowed in freely for the temple, those for the hotel lagged; 
and it took much hard begging to keep the latter going forward. 
At the April conference, 184:1, President Smith said: " It is neces- 
sary that this conference give importance to the Nauvoo House. 
A prejudice exists against building the Nauvoo House, in favor of 
the Lord's Honse, and the conference are required to give stress to 
the building of the JS'auvoo House. This is the most important 
matter for the time being; for there is no place in this city where 
men of wealth and character and influence from abroad can go to 
repose tliemselves, and it is necessary we should have si;ch a place." 

So the Times and Seasons, under date of Nov. 15, 1841, in an 
editorial says: "Let us not forget that we have another house also 
to build in this place, even the Nauv^oo House; and which is as 
important to us as the temple; inasmu chas great things are depend- 
ing upon that house, and it is commanded us of God.'' 


This was an ambitious young man, who resided in Springfield 
111., and a member of the Church. He claimed to be gifted with 
the spirit of prophecy, and issued a pamphlet in which he put forth 
his claims. But this was not allowed. He was dealt with, and 
the organ, Dec. 1, 1842, admonishes the brethren against him, 
quoting from the Book of Doctrine and Covenants: "But behold, 
verily, verily, I say unto thee, no one shall be appointed to receive 
commandments and revelations in this Church, excepting my ser- 
vant Joseph Smith, junior, for he receiveth them even as Moses," 
etc. .So Mr. Brewster was squelched. But this x;ommand must 
have been afterward abrogated in favor of brother Hyrum ; for we 
find him declaring a revelation in the election of 1843, in favor of 
Hoge for Congress; and the prophet vouched that " brother Hyrum 
never told a lie." 





J La HarPe Tp. 



" It is stated that on leaving Nauvoo for Carthage, he said: ' I 
am going like a lamb to the slaughter, but I am calm as a summer 
morning. I have a conscience void of offense toward God and 
toward all men. I shall die innocent, and it shall yet be said of 
me, " lie was murdered in cold blood."'" — [Doctrine and Cove- 
nants, p. 335. 

Stenhouse says: 

Notwithstanding this apparent readiness to meet death, and the deep and clear 
divine impressions claimed to have been imparted to the prophet of his forthcoming 
end, it is understood that he managed to send from prison a communication to the 
Mormon officers in military command at Nauvoo, to bring with all possible dispatch 
a portion of the Legion to protect him from treachery and from that assassination 
which he had then so much cause to apprehend. This military commander put the 
prophet's communication into his pocket and gave no heed to the call for help. No 
one was acquainted with the contents of the paper, and the officer was therefore, 
he presumed, safe in disregarding it. 

After the prophet's death, by some accident or other, this communication was 
lost, and picked up on the street and read. The intelligence that Joseph had called 
for aid, and none had been rendered him, was soon bruited among the Saints, and 
excited their deepest indignation, as they were not only ready to march at a 
moment's notice, but were eager for the opportimity. 

Some time afterward, when all was quiet, this "coward and traitor," as some of 
the Mormons called him, or "fool and idiot," as others said, was sent on a mission 
to the Western frontiers, accompanied by a faithful elder. While traveling alone 
with his companion he fell ill and died, it is said of dyHentery! His companion 
buried him. Page 164, Note. 

If the foregoing statement is true, it reveals a fact which we 
have never heard from any other source. The whole story bears 
the semblance of truth; and from the narrator's twenty -five years' 
connection with the priesthood afterward, it is evident he had every 
facility to learn the truth. It was always accounted a wonder that 
the Legion did not make some demonstration while their leaders 
were in jail, either to protect or release them. That they did not, 
we have attributed to their {-eliance upon the prophet's previous 
good luck. This story, taken in connection with the admission of 
Gov. Ford, that he, too, contemplated a rescue, presents a very 
important suggestion: whether the disobedience of the officer of 
the Legion did not frustrate a rescue, and the consequent massacre 
of the guards and citizens. The belief has always been general, 
that had not the murders been perpetrated as the}- were by the 
mob, the affair would soon have terminated in a bloody encounter 
by an attack fi'om the other side. This belief cannot be offered as 
an excuse for the murders, but it does excuse the people of Carth- 
age and the Greys for the feverish apprehension under which they 
labored, and which their vacillating and excitable Governor blamed 
them so severely for. Who that Legion commander was, thus 
alluded to in the quotation, and wlio died afterward of dysentery 
(the italics are Stenhouse's own) we are unable to state. The italics 
suggest a popular Mormon mode of dealing with offenders. 



We have shown from his own admission, that Gov. Ford was 
willing to connive at the escape of the Smiths, notwithstanding 
his virtuous indignation at the citizens for suspecting him. We 
shall now show that, notwithstanding his devotion to law and 
order, he did, what was asserted at the time, counsel the violent 
expulsion of the Mormons from the State. Col. Thomas Geddes, 
then still residing at Fountain Green in this county, and at the 
time of the troubles in command of a portion of the troops at 
Carthage, lias recently made us this statement, of which he saye 
his recollection is clear: 

"While the Smiths were in jail, I went to the jail in company 
with Gov. Ford, and there we conversed with them for some time, 
tiie burden of Smith's talk being that tiiey were only acting in 
self-defense, and only wanted to be let alone. After leaving the 
jail, and wliile returning from it, the Governor and I had still 
further conversation about the subject matter. After some time 
the Governor exclaimed, ' O, it's all nonsense; you will have to 
drive these Mormons out yet!' I then said, ' If we undertake 
that. Governor, when the proper time comes, will you interfere?' 
* No, I will not,' said he; then, after a pause, adding, ' until you 
are through.'" 


wife of the now General Daniel H. Wells, one of the dignitaries 
at Salt Lake, was a daughter of E,ev. Charles Robison. She now 
resides at Burlington, Iowa. On the authority of her brother, 
Chauncey Robison, of Appanoo.-e, we have the statement that 
when the Mormons left for the Far West, Mrs. Wells refused to 
go with her husband because he would not consent to confine him- 
self to one wife — which he refused to do. She had never joined 
the Church. Thus they were separated and divorceds, he remain- 
ing behind, and he following the fortunes of the Brighamites, with 
whom he was then and has since remained in high authority. This 
fact tends to show that polygamy was a cherished institution with 
the leaders before they left Nauvoo. 


A good deal was said by Gov. Ford and in the Mormon papers, 
about the insubordination of the Carthage Greys toward Gen. 
Deming, while the Smiths were in custody. From a gentleman 
who was a member of that company, we have procured the follow- 
ing statement of the facts, as near as he can recollect them. It 
seems that after the McDonough regiment had been disbanded and 
were about to return home, they expressed a desire to see the 
prisoners. The wish was reasonable, and as the easiest mode of 
gratifying it, they were drawn up in line, and Gen. Deming, with 
the two prisoners, one on each arm, and the Grej's as an escort, 


passed along the line of the troops, Deining introducing thera as 
"Gen. Joseph Smith," and "Gen. Hyrura Smith, of the Nauvoo 
Legion." The Greys, not aware that this was done at the request 
of tlie McDonough men, and not satisfied to be made an escort to 
such a display, exhibited signs of dissatisfaction, and finally gave 
vent to their feelings by hisses and groans. As a punishment for 
this offense, they were afterward ordered under arrest. In the 
mean time there was great excitement in the company. As a 
detachment of the troops was being detailed for the purpose of 
putting the General's order into execution, the officer in command 
of the Greys addressed them a few words, and then said, " Boys, 
will you submit to an arrest for so trifling an offense?" " No!" 
was the unanimous response. "Then load your pieces with ball!" 
was his sullen order. In the mean time some explanations had 
been made, which permitted Gen. Deming to countermand the 
order for arrest, and the Greys were quietly marched to their 


In 183S Parley P. Pratt was engaged in a controversy with 
LaRoy Sunderland, editor of Zioti's Watchman, an Eastern paper. 
During the controversy, Mr. Pratt was seized with the spirit of 
prophecy, and poured forth the following: " Within ten years from 
now the people of this country who are not Mormons will be 
entirely subdued by the Latter-Day Saints, or swept from the face 
of the earth; and if this prediction fails, then you may know the 
'Book of Mormon' is not true." 

It has now been forty-two years since this prediction was uttered, 
and Pratt himself, and the prophet, and Eigdon, and Young, have 
been "swept from the face of the earth." So we have Pratt's own 
testimony to the falsity of the Book of Mormon. Mr. Pratt mis- 
took his own intense fanaticism for the voice of the Lord, — a 
mistake which many men wiser than he have made before him. 


in the temple at Nauvoo, was in itself a curiosity, and a fit 
accompaniment to the building. It was first constructed of wood, 
but this being deemed not sufhciently durable, was taken away, and 
another built of stone. It rested on the backs of twelve stone 
oxen of' colossal size — four abreast at the sides, and two at each 
end, standing back to back. The oxen had the appearance of being 
sunk in the floor half-way to their knees, and the font rested on 
their shoulders, their horns, heads, necks and shoulders being 
exposed to view outside. The font itself was of immense size — 18 
feet long, eight feet wide, and four feet deep. It thus stood about 
eight feet high, from the top of its rim to the floor. It was placed 
in the basement, or first story of the building — an object of great 
curiosity and comment to all stranger visitors. 



T'rom a very respectable old gentleman who was an eye-witness 
t)f some of the house-burning operations in the fall of 1845, we 
have the following statement received from him verbally during 
the last year. He saj's that for sucli lawless and outrageous acts, 
they were done in such a quiet and ordei'ly manner as to be aston- 
ishing. He resided not far from some of the houses that were 
burned ; and hearing what was going on, he mounted his horse 
and rode to where the work was in progress. There seemed to be a 
company of 25 or 30 men engaged — mostly, as he thought, Warsaw 
clerks, though he only knew a portion. They were commanded, 
he thinks, by a man from the north part of the county, whose name 
he could not recollect. 

The burning began at what is now Tioga — then called Morley- 
town, or Yelrome, in Walker township — and continued on up to 
Green Plains. The last house burnt in that section of the county, 
was tbe one they were at when attacked by the Mormon posse under 
Sheriff Backenstos, and where McBratney was killed. The houses 
burnt were mostly log cabins of not much value, though some 
pretty good dwellings were included. 

The manner was to go to the house and warn the inmates out — 
that they were going to burn it. Usuall}' there would be no show 
of resistance; but all hands, burners and all, would proceed to take 
out the goods and place them out of danger. When the goods were 
all securely removed, the torch would be applied, and the house 
consumed. Then on to another. We are not aware that a correct 
count was ever made of the number thus burned; but our inform- 
ant states that there were probably 70 or 80. Some accounts have 
placed it as high as 125. 

As an evidence of the coolness and good temper in which this 
work was done, our informant relates the following, to which he 
says he was an eye-witness. While the burners were engaged in 
burning a certain house, a young woman belonging to the famih', 
standing and looking on, felt an inclination to smoke, and asked 
one of the burners for some tobacco. Having none himself, he 
pointed to one of his comrades and said he would give her some. 
She approached the other; he unconcernedly put his hand in his 
pocket, handed her the tobacco, from which she took what she 
wanted, and handed it back; when he went on with the work in 
hand, and the young woman proceeded to smoke ! 


I. R. Tull, Esq., of Pontoosuc, gives us the following items, as 
illustrating Mormon methods: "I often went with produce to 
Nauvoo; and it mattered little what kind it was, so it was some- 
thing people could live on; and if at any time my stuft" was dull 
sale, I would go to the committee rooms, and could always trade it 
off for something. They had almost every conceivable thing, from 


all kinds of implements and men's and women's clothing down to 
babj' clothes and trinkets, which had been deposited by the owners 
as tithing, or for the benefit of the temple." 

Again he says: ''In the foil of 1S43 I went to Nauvoo to buy 
calves, and called on a blind man who had one to sell. I bought 
his calf, and being curious to learn his history, went in and saw his 
wife, with two little twin infants in a cradle, and great destitution. 
He told me that he had a nice home in Massachusetts, which gave 
them a good support. But one of the Mormon elders preaching in 
that country called on him and told him if he would sell out and go 
to Nauvoo, the prophet would open his eyes and restore his sight. 
And he sold out, and had come to the city, and had spent all his 
means, and was now in great need. I asked why the prophet did 
not open his eyes. He replied that Joseph had informed him that 
he could not open his eyes until the temple was finished, and then 
when the temple was finished he would open them, and he should 
see better than betbre! And he believed, and was waiting patiently 
for the last stroke to be made on the temple." 

And again, of this same, poor family: "After this interview, 
when in Nauvoo I often took them something, and the blind man's 
wife seemed to think I was one of the Saints. One day I inquired 
how the}' were getting along. She told rae they had been getting 
along finely; that there was a company formed to go out on the 
prairie and butcher cattle to get beef for the destitute, and they 

had been well supplied until about a week ago; but brother 

was mean enough to tell on them, and now they dare not go out 
any more to kill beef on the prairie, and 'what to do we don't 
know.' " 


As a specimen of Gov. Ford's general inacciiracy of statement in 
regard to our difficulties, we mention the following: He says in 
his History of Illinois, p. 319, of Walker and Hoge's canvass: " Mr. 
Hoge received about 3.000 votes in Nauvoo, and was elected hj 
600 ur 800 majority." The facts are: the vote for Hoge through- 
out the whole count}', including regular Democrats and Mormons 
outside the city, was just 2,088, and he was elected by i55 majority 
in the district. 


The prophet was quite a speculator in lands and town lots, in 
and about JMauvoo. Of course, he desired a monopoly of the busi- 
ness. One of his methods was to keep the following notice stand- 
ing in the Nei(ihbo7\' 

To Emifimais and Latter-Day Saints Qenerally: 

I feel it my duty to say to the brethren generally, and especially those who are 
emigrating to this' place, that there is in the hands of the trustees in trust, a large 
quantity of lands, both in the city and adjoining townships m this cotmty, which is 


for sale, some of whichibelongs to the Church and is designed for the benefit of the 
poor, and also to liquidate debts owing by the Churchy for -which the trustee in 
trust is responsible. Some, also, is land which has been consecrated for the building 
of the Temple and the Nauvoo House. 

If the brethren who move in here and want an inheritance, will buy their lands of 
the trustees in trust, they will therebj- Ijeuefit the poor, the Temple, and the Nauvoo 
House, and even then only be doing that wliich is their dut_y, and which I know, by 
considerable experience, will be vastly for their benefit and satisfaction in days to 
come. Let all the brethren, therefore, when they move into Nauvoo, consult Presi- 
dent Joseph Smith, the trustee, etc., and purchase their lands of him; and I am bold 
to say that God wUl bless them, and they will hereafter be glad they did so. 

We hold ourselves ready at any time to wait upon the brethren and show them the 
lands belonging to the Church, and Temple, etc., andean be fomid anj' day, either 
at President Joseph Smith's bar-room or the Temjile Recorder's office at" the Temple. 

Nattvoo, Dec. 16, 1843. W. Clayton, Clerk. 


In concluding this history of the Mormon Era in Hancock 
county, it will not be out of place to refer to Joseph Smith, junior, 
•who, it is known, is buildin^ up a sect which he denominates the 
" Keorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." 
(While he was about it he might have reorganized the phraseology 
of its title to advantage.) 

At the time of the exodus from Nau\oo Joseph was a mere 
child, and with his mother and the rest of the family remained 
behind; she not choosing to relinquish a competence and a home 
here, for the uncertain honors and the certain privations of a 
sojourn in the new promised land. In this she acted wisely; but 
by doing so she greatly thwarted the purposes of the leaders. It 
was their ambition to carry with them the widow, and above all, 
the j'oung son of their martyred leader. For years afterward they 
adhered to this darling scheme, and many efforts were made to 
induce the youth to join them. Embassies were sent to him, and 
glowing representations made ; but to no purpose. His ever- 
watchful mother and his own disinclination proved effective against 
all their solicitations and blandishments. 

Joseph grew up to be a sober, temperate, and steady young 
man. and with a fair reputation among his neighbors. We never 
heard that he aspired to any extra share of holiness, or to the pos- 
session of any miraculous gifts; or pretended to have had any 
special call from heaven, for the course he has seen proper to pursue. 
Tsor do we know just at what time or in what manner he under- 
took his work of reorganization. Strange as it may seem, 
we miist inter that he believes in the divine mission of his father 
and the truth of his claims; as he makes these in effect the basis 
of his work. 

This reorganized Church is based on the " Book of Moi'mon," 
the " Book of Doctrines and Covenants," and other works common to 
Utah Mormonism; but it totally rejects the polygamy features of 
the Utah creed. We are not able to perceive any other marked 
features of difference either in creed or form. The practice of the 
new Church, however, has been widely difierent. Instead of call- 
ing all the believers together to one " Zion," or " New Jerusalem," 


the building of one magnificent temple, and the pampering of a 
domineering and infallible priesthood, as under the old S)'stem, 
the new organization thus far has allowed its members the freedom 
of choice as to where they may make their homes and pursue the 
business of life. Consequently here and there through the States, 
societies are springing up, churches being erected, and regular 
worship carried on, much as is done by societies of other denomi- 
nations. There are several of these reorganized Churches in this 
count^^ And why not? Joseph Smith has just as good a right 
to head a sect as an}' man has, and to build up a creed and ransacT\ 
the country for proselytes. And he has a right to base his creed 
on Spaulding's Manuscript Found or Esop's Fahles, if he so 
choose. That is a right to which no man or set of men has a 
monopoly. And so long as he will continue in what seems to be 
his present course and policy, and avoid the rocks on which his 
father went down — and which are sooner or later to be the destruc- 
tion of Utah Mormouism — while we ma}' not respect his judg- 
ment or wish him God-speed, no man can desire him evil. 

While Methodism, Presbyteriauism, Quakerism, or any other 
form of Christianit}' can live and be at peace even with Paganism, 
no so-called Gentile people in a land of .light and liberty can 
quietly dwell side by side with Mormonism, as it existed of yore 
under the dynasty of Smith, the elder, in this county, and since 
under Brigham Young in Utah. Under them it was eternally 
aggressive upon the rights, the consciences, the property of their 
neighbors. " This laud is for the home of the Saints — This prop- 
erty you call your own, is consecrated to their use and the service 
of the Lord — Your blood is as water, to be poured out upon the 
earth, for the unbeliever shall be utterly destroj'ed," — is now and 
has been from the beginning, the teaching from their temples and 
the burden of their songs. And should this reorgauizer (" Presi- 
dent," we believe he calls himself) ever fall into this fatal and 
wicked error, it will as certainly bring to him disaster, as it did to 
his predecessors who adopted it. 

Whatever may be iu the future for Utah Mormonism, it looks as 
if the reorganized branch might take and hold a respectable place 
among the religious sects of the day, could but the facts of its ori- 
gin and the character of its founders be effaced from memory. 


And we now close our account of the Mormons and Mormon 
history in Hancock county and the State of Illinois. Much more 
we are compelled for want of room to omit. We believe, however, 
that we have brought together in these preceding chapters, a more 
complete and reliable statement of Mormon affairs, during their 
eight years' sojourn in this county, than can elsewhere be found, or 
that has ever before been given to the public. 

And, in conclusion, we beg to be indulged in a few reflections. 
It would seem that no one can take the trouble to acquaint himself 



with Joseph Smitli's character and career, as seen in the liglit of 
history and truth, and not know that he was a very bad man — a 
hypocrite, a blasphemer, a knave. And yet hundreds and thousands 
believe otherwise, that he was a holy man, a saint and a martyr to 
the truth. Such is the diflerence in men. And while we are 
forced to believe tliat he was as before stated, we are also compelled 
to conclude that many of his professed followers and believers were 
equally guilty — were, in truth, not his dujoes, but his tools. That 
while he was taking care of number one, and rioting in luxury and 
debauchery, they were doing the same thing, as his aiders and abet- 
tors. His own talents could never have secured for liim the posi- 
tion and notoriety he obtained; but to Sidney' Rigdon, Parley P. 
Pratt, Brigham Young, and scores of others, whom his interests and 
their interests drew around him, he was largely indebted for his 
success. The)' submitted to be managed by him, because their in- 
terest lay in submission. 

Beyond these and around them, supporting, feeding, pampering, 
and ready to fight for them, rallied a host of others, of many grades 
of character, sincere, devout, ignorant, willing and unwilling dupes, 
to wiiose sustaining power the sect owes its life. They furnish the 
bonds that hold the rotten system together. 



In Andreas' " Illustrated Historical Atlas of Hancock county," 
published in 1874, we find the following: 

About the beginning of the eighteenth century, the French built Fort Johnson at 
this place (Warsaw)." It stood on the point of bluff near where Albers' mill now 
stands. In the middle of the eighteenth centmy, diu-ing the trouble between the 
French and English, it -was abandoned, because of an expected attack from the 
latter, rill the Great Lakes. In the latter part of the eighteenth century, Fort Ed- 
wards, named after Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, was built by Capt. (afterwards Presi- 
dent) Zachary Taylor. It stood on the bluff at the foot of Clay street, and was aban- 
doned in 1835, and afterward used by the fur company. 

It would be difficult to jumble together a dozen lines of " history " 
containing more palpable errors than are to be found in the fore- 
going. Firsts the eighteenth centur}' began in 1701, now 180 
years ago, only 30 or 40 years after tlie discovery of the Nortliwes- 
tern country by the French. Secondly, had the French built Fort 
Johnson at that early day, they would not likely have named it 
after the killer of Tecumseh, who flourished more than a hundred 
years afterward. Thirdly, " It was abandoned about the middle 
of the eighteenth century," sixty-three years before it was actually 
built. And, Fourthly, Fort Edwards was built by Capt. Zach. 
Taylor, and named after Gov. Edwards, in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, while Zach. Taylor and Ninian Edwards were 
both in their infancy! 

Not wishing to record history by guess, we addressed a note of 
inquiry to the War Department, and received the following in 
reply : 

War Depaktment, WASHmoTON City, ) 
Sept. 7, 1878. f 

Sir : — In regard to the history of old Forts Johnson and Edwards, which were 
situated in Hancock county, Illinois, information concerning which was desired 
in your letter of the 37th ultimo, I have the honor to state that the only data in 
possession of this Department regarding Fort Edwards, is that it was established 
about the year 1814, and abandoned in July, 1834, per general order No. 36, from 
the Adjutant-General's oflnce, June 11, 1834, at which date it was garrisoned by 
Company F, Fifth Infantry, commanded by Lieut.-Gideon Low, Fifth Infantry. 

There is nothing of record here regarding Fort Johnson. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servani, 

Geo. W. McCraby, Secretary of War. 
Thomas Gregg, Esq., Hamilton, 111. 

OKDEE NO. 36. 

Adjutant-Generai's Office, Western Department, \ 
Louisville, Ky., 11th June, 1834. ( 
The position of Fort Edwards, 111., will forthwith be evacuated, and its garri- 
son (excepting a faithful non-commissioned officer and six privates, who will be 


left for the preservation of the public property, and the crop at present standing) 
be removed to Fort Armstrong. 

Assistant Surgeon McMillan will, on the receipt of this order, report by letter 
to the Surgeon-General for orders, as to his present station, and will accompany 
the garrison at Fort Edwards to Fort Armstrong, where he is required as a witness 
before the Court to be convened at that post, for the trial of Brevet-Major Mars- 
ton, of the Fifth Infantry. 

The Quartermaster's Department will furnish the necessary facilities for the 
most prompt execution of this order. By order of 

Major-Genekai, Scott. 

H. Smith, Lt. and Aid-de-Camp. 

The foregoing is to be taken as conclusive as to Fort Edwards, 
but it settles nothing regarding Fort Johnson. Recourse must be 
had, then, to the history of the times. This we have searched until 
we feel sure that the mystery is explained, and conclude that the 
two forts were built within a few months of each other, in 1814. 

Peck's ''Annals of the AYest," second edition, St. Louis, 1850, 
on page 744, says: 

A detachment under command of Major Taylor left Cape au Gris on the 23rd 
of August, 1814, in b'lats, for the Indian town at Rock river. The detachment 
consisted of 334 men, officers and privates. A report from the commanding otficer 
to Gen. Howard, dated from Fort Madison, Sept. 6, and published in the Missouri 
Gazette of the 17th, gives the details of the expedition. 

The expedition met with a superior force at Rock Island, were 
repulsed and fell back. The report says: 

I then determined to drop down the river to the Des Moines without delay, as 
some of the officers of the Rangers informed me their men were short of provis- 
ions, and execute the principal object of the expedition, in erecting a fort to com- 
mand the river. 

Fort -.Johnson (says the Annals), a rough stockade with block-houses of round 
logs, was then erecied, on the present site of the town ot Warsaw, opposite the 
mouth of the Des Moines. 

Then, un pa,'e 746, the Annals continues: 

Fort Madison, after sustaining repeated attacks from the Indians, was evacuated 
and burnt. And in the month of October the people of St. Louis were astounded 
with the intelligence that the troops stationed at Fort Johnson had burnt the block- 
houses, destroyed the works, and retreated down the river to Cape au Gris. The 
oiflcers in command (Maj. Taylor having previously left that post), reported they 
were out of provisions and could not sustain the position. 

That there was no fort between Cape au Gris and Fort Madison 
previous to 1814, is proven by several circumstances. In the sev- 
eral exjieditions made up the river before that time, mention is 
made of the Des Moines river and rapids, but no mention of a fort 
till Madison ;is reached. Again, about 1813, Gov. Edwards fur- 
nished the War Department with a long tal)le of distances from 
Prairie du Cliien down, in which Madison, the head of tlie rapids, 
the foot of the rapids, Des Moines river, are all named, but noth- 
ing about a fort. 

And so we conclude, and so state, as veritable history, that, 
instead of liaving been built one hundred and eighty years ago by 



the French, and named Johnson, that fort was erected during our 
war with Great Britain, by our own soldiery and by command of 
our own Government, in 1814; and that Fort Edwards was also 
built and, occupied the same year, after the destruction of the 
former, and named after the Governor of Illinois Territory; and 
that Capt. Zachary Taylor, afterward President of the United 
States, was the builder of them both. 




Referring to the foregoing State History, page 84, for a general 
account of the Black Hawk war, we deem a more particular account 
of that noted chieftain proper in this place. Many of the citizens 
of Hancock county were more or less engaged in that struggle, or 
intei-ested in it from its proximity to them; and besides, there was 
a tradition that he was born within the limits of the county, upon 
Camp creek. For this there was probably no good foundation. 

That Black Hawk was a man of genius and bravery cannot be 
denied. He fought, and fought bravely, for what he deemed his 
rights. But when, at the battle of Bad- Axe, he was conquered and 
made prisoner, his spirit was broken, and he yielded to inexorable 
fate. He was carried a prisoner to Washington, and on a tour 
through the Eastern States, and then returned to his tribe beyond 
the Mississippi, with jiresents and an admonition. That tour of 
itself, showing him the vast power and resources of the people with 
whom he had been contending, ^as sufficient to convince him of 
the futility of war as a means of i-edressing his wrongs, and he 
buried the hatchet forever. He mingled with his tribe more as an 
humble follower than as a warlike chief. And when passing about 
among the whites, his deportment was always quiet and resigned. 
He acted as a deposed chief might be presumed to act, whose spirit 
was broken and whose will had ceased to be law. 

The writer of this first met Black Hawk in 1837, at Fort Des 
Moines, now Montrose. He was usually accompanied by his wife, 
and they were always treated witli attention and respect by those 
whites upon whom the}- called. More than once have Black Hawk 
and his well-behaved squaw sat at our table; and vphile the two 
women would chat freely over their tea, talking "Greek" to each 
other, the "chiefs " were compelled per force to maintain respectful 
silence. These tea-parties are remembered with as much pleasure 
as though the entertained had heeii a duke and duchess. Black 
Hawk in those days usually wore a black hat and a white blanket, 
and took no pride in trinkets and feathers. Keokuk, whom he 
hated, and whose hate was returned, seldom appeared in public 
without being decked out in fanciful style. He was portly and 
made an imposing appearance. 

These joint tribes were then settled up the Des Moines river, and 
their chief villages were, we believe, near where the city of Des 
Moines now stands. 



But the old chieftiiin's career as a brave and a warrior had 
closed, and it was soon to close as a man. He, whose scalping- 
knife and tomahawk had afleamed in the face of many a foe, whose 
war-whoop had wakened the echoes of the night from tiie Missouri 
to the Wisconsin, and whose martial shout had sent defiance and 
threat across the Father of Waters, was soon to take his departure 
to the far-off hunting grounds prepared for him by the great 
Manitou! He died on the banks of the Des Moines river, in what 
is now the county of Davis. 

At this day, and among a people so tamiliar with him and his 
career, it will he hard to assign him his true place in history. His 
abilities as a commander and leader were doubtless inferior to those 
of Philip, of Pokonoket, or Powhattan ; his talent for strategy and 
his energy of purpose were excelled by those of Tecumseh; his 
oratory, of which little has been handed down to us, very likely 
fell short of that of Logan; but his name on history's page will 
stand along with these, and serve with theirs' "to point a moral 
and adorn a tale." 

We have been unable to fix with absolute certainty, the date of 
the old chief's death, or of his age at the time. Gov. Ford, in his 
History of Illinois, gives his age at eighty, and places his death on 
the 3d of October, lS-±0. We should have called him at least ten 
years younger. It is stated that he had been aid de-camp to 
Tecumseh, in the war of 1812-'15. A correspondent of the 
Keosauqua Republican states his death to have occurred in 1837; 
Mr. Wm. Garrett, an old resident of Burlington, places it in 1838, 
or '39; while Mr. James H. Jordan, of Davis county, who resided 
near and owil^d the laTid on which Black Hawk resided at his 
death, claims* that it occurred in Sept., 1888. His remains were 
not buried, but deposited in usual Indian style above ground. 
Previous toliis death he requested to be buried on the spot where 
he had held his last council with the lowas, near by, which was 
complied with. • • ""-^/^ 

He was dressed in a full suit of regimentals, frock coat with gold 
epaulettes, a cocked hat, sword and belt and spear cane. Fastened 
about him were three large medals — one presented him by Gen. 
Jackson, one by President Madison, and one by the British. The 
body was placed on puncheons at an angle of 30 or 40 degrees, and 
covered with puncheons like a house roof. Tiie whole was sur- 
rounded by a strong palisade of posts. 

The remains were afterwards stolen and carried away, but 
recovered by the Governor of Iowa, and placed in the Museum of 
the Historical Society at Burlington, where they were destroyed 
by fire. 

Mr. J. H. Lawton, of Plymouth, tells the following anecdote of 
Black Hawk: About 1837 or '38, he^was employed by Mr. Hiram 
Kimball, who had a store at Commerce, to clerk while Mr. K. went 
East. He had been instructed to keep a good watch over the 


Indians when they came about the store, and to call in an old 
settler there to interpret for him when necessary. 

One day Black Hawk, among others, came in. The old warrior 
lingered ai'onnd for some time, and linally pointed to a book lying; 
upon the desk, an account book used in the store. The clerk, sup- 
posing he wished to examine it, took it and began to show him its 
construction, etc.; but the chief shook his head: that was not what 
was wanted. He took it, turned over the leaves, and pointed to the 
entries. Concluding finally that he wanted to refer to th^sm, the 
clerk turned leaf by leaf, till he came to an entry against Black 
Hawk himself — such and such articles charged, amounting to so 
many dollars and cents. He was now understood; figuring up the 
amount, the clerk communicated it to him in some way, when the 
old chief pulled out the exact sum and paid it. When this was 
done, he motioned to have the account balanced, which was done, 
and he went away satisfied. Tlie articles had been purchased and 
the entries made mouths before. The transaction showed not only 
an honesty of purpose, but good credit and a good memory on the 
part of the old chief. 

Henry Asbury, Esq., of Quincy, furnishes the following: 

" I met (at Burlington in 1835) the Indian chief Black Hawk, 
who, through an interpreter, told me that for a time when a child 
he resided with his parents at the point where Quincy now stands. 

" Whilst standing on the bank of the river conversing with the 
chief, the steamboat Warrior passed up the river without landing. 
Black Hawk manifested whilst looking at the boat, great anger and 
displeasure; and went on to say that the day bef|i"e, or a short 
time before the battle of the Bad-Axe, this safce steamboat 
Warrior came up to a point where his warriors were collected in 
their retreat — that he sent a white flag to the shore "^(A^the purpose 
of offering a sui-render — an^ that the flag was fireg^on from the 
boat. That he wanted in good faith ^^£urrender, ana would have 
done so, if permitted; and that the^W^^uent massacre of his 
people might have been thus avoided. 

" He knew the name of the captain — Throckmorton — and called 
him ' Che-wal-i-ki Che-mo-Tco-mon? [Bad White Man.] 

"Black Hawk was a very extraordinary Indian; rather under 
size, yet he was compactly built; possessing the most pleasant face 
and features I ever saw in an Indian. In manner grave, dignified, 
and polite. He looked less the savage than any Indian I have 
ever seen." 

Another correspondent. Col. J. C. Walsh, of Maryland, says: 

"I have often heard the old chieftain, Muck-ah-tah-mish-e-ka- 
ah-ki-ak or Black Hawk, make the same assertion he did to Mr. 
Asbury, namely, that he desired to surrender at the battle of the 
Bad-Axe, but that his white flag was fired on. 

" Black Hawk and his family, — Moh-wah-e-quah, his wife, Nah- 
she-us-kuh and Sarn-e-sah, his sons, and Ifan-ne-sah, his daughter, 


were remarkable for their bigli-toiied deportment in every partic- 
ular. Nali-she-us-kuk, when I lirst knew him, was without excep- 
tion the finest formed man I ever saw; about six feet two inches 
in height, with limbs of most symmetrical mold, he was a striking 
counterpart of the A[)ollo Belvidere, and his manners were as 
graceful and polished as any courtier's. I have often remarked 
that he was truly one of nature's noblemen. One rare trait he 
possessed, and that was, he never made use of whisky or tobacco. 
" My recollections of this Indian family are of the most pleasing 
character, and I shall never forget the kindness and hospitality 
with whicii I was invariably treated by them. Often has been the 
time, that, coming to their lodge hungry and sorely tired, after a 
day's hunt, that I have thought the boiled corn and deer meat 
which Moh-wah-e-quah (wolf woman) would set before me, was a 
feast fit for a king; and the soft skins and warm Mackinaw 
blankets that she would spread for my bed, was a couch on which 
had it been eider down my repose could not have been more pro- 
found and undisturbed. And I felt as safe in the rude wih-ke-up 
of the Indian chief in the depths of the forest, surrounded by those 
of his band who remained loyal to him, as if I had been resting in 
the guest chamber of the mansion of the proudest in the land." 




If any county in Illinois can count a larger list of unfortunate 
newspaper enterprises than Hancock, we pity the people thereof 
and shed tears in behalf of the projectors and publishers. 

In June, 1836, now 44 years ago, the writer of this printed at 
Carthage the first newspaper ever issued in the county. It was 
called The Carthagenian, and was owned by a company of citi- 
zens. After a precarious existence of less than a year, it was pur- 
chased by Dr. Isaac Galland, one of the proprietors, and removed 
to Fort Des Moines, Wisconsin Territory, now Montrose, Iowa, its 
editor-printer going with it. There the new paper was called the 
Western Adventurer. 

A short sketch of the newspaper press at that day will not be 
out of place here. The whole vast region north of Palmyra, Mo., 
and reaching to the Pacific ocean, was without a newspaper, with 
the exception of one at Dubuque and one just commenced at Bur- 
lington. At St. Louis, Chambers & Knapp published the Missouri 
HepuWcan, with Nathaniel Paschal for its editor, then the lead- 
ing Whig paper west of the Ohio. There was also the St. Louis 
Argus, a Democratic paper. Elijah P. Lovejoy about that time 
began the Ohserver, a religious and anti-slavery paper, and for 
which he was killed by a ra©b at Alton, having rem^ed his press 
to that city. 

Pev. John M. Peck, a stalwart Bi^ptst minister, well known in 
that day as a pioneer and historian, was publishing at Rock Spring 
in this State, and afterward at St. Louis, the Western Watchman. 
At Springfield, Simeon Francis was conducting the Sangamo 
Journal,' and at Jacksonville was the Illinois Patriot, by James 
G. Edwards, and the Illinois Spectator, by Mr. Brooks, father of 
the late Austin Brooks, of the Qmncy Herald, and John P. Brooks, 
one of our former State Superintendents of Public Instruction. 
These were soon discontinued or changed. Mr. Brooks removed 
elsewhere, and Mr. Edwards emigrated to Iowa, took the press of 
the Adventurer, and established the Fort Madison Patriot, which 
he afterward transferred to Burlington and named the Hawkeye. 

About the same date Samuel H. Davis, of the Wheeling (Va.) 
Gazette, came to Peoria and established The Register, which he 
conducted with ability and success until liis death. " Long John " 
Wentworth had a year or two before located at Chicago and issued 
The Democrat, though two or three other papers had previously 


been published in that embryo city. At Quincy, Judge Kichard 
M. Young had published the Bounty Land Register, which was 
about that date suspended or merged into the Quincy Argus, by 
John H. Petit. Near the same date was also commenced the 
Quincy Whig, by Mr. S. M. Bartlett, or Bartlett & Sullivan. 

There were papers at Vandalia, then the State capital, at Shaw- 
neetown, and a few other points in the south end of the State. 
One at Alton was begun by Judge Baillhache, formerly of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, called the Alton Telegraph, and was long a leading 
"Whig paper in that section. Rushville, being an old town, may 
have had a paper, but its title, if so, is not recollected. 

The old city of Galena must not be forgotten — that capital of the 
lead mine region — so long on the confines of civilization. Of 
course it had one, if not two papers anterior to the Black Hawk 
war. James G. Clark, Secretary and afterward Governor of Iowa 
Territory, commenced the Wisconsin Territorial Gazette, at Bel- 
mont, on the east side of the river; and on tiie division of the Ter- 
ritory, removed it down to Burlington, and named it Iowa Terri- 
torial Gazette. 

Keokuk was then but just named, still widely known as " The 
Point," and had no paper for years afterward. Des Moines, Iowa 
City, Omaha, Kansas City, Council Bluffs, and all that string of 
cities to the Pacific, wei-e nowhere. San Francisco, at the Golden 
Gate, from whose port the auriferous stream has of later years been 
pouring to enrich the world, was but an unknown Mexican town. 

From a list of the newspapers in Illinois, compiled from the 
Alton Telegraph in 1857, we find that the number was just twenty- 
seven, all told. 

Previous to 1836 the people of the county were chiefly snpplied 
with newspapers by the jrw50'M»'4i?ej9'MJZicwn, the Sangamo joxir- 
nal, the Bounty Land Register, and the St. Louis Argus, to which 
may be added the WatohTnan, which was received in a good many 
Baptist families. 

After the suspension of The Carthagenian the county was with- 
out a paper until the fall of 1839, when the Mormons settled in it, 
and the Times and Seasons was issued at Nauvoo, by Ebenezer 
•Robinson and Don Carlos Smith, the youngest brother of the 
prophet. Its first issue was dated Nov., 1839. It was a small 
sixteen-page monthly, and was designed for the organ of the Mor- 
mon Church: terms $1.00 per annum. This paper continued to be 
published (semi-monthly, at $2.00 after the first year) during the 
stay of that people in the county, under several editors and pub- 
lishers, among \\'hom are remembered, besides its originators, the 
prophet himself, Frederic G. Williams, John Taylor, Wilford 
Woodruff, W. W. Phelps, and others. The circulation of this 
paper is unknown, but being a Church organ, it is supposed to have 
gone into the thousands. 

About the year 1842, Patriarch William Smith, another brother 
to the prophet, established a small weekly paper called The Watp, 


and continued i\ for some months, when itwas merged into a larger 
and more respectable paper, entitled the Nauvoo Neicjhhor. This 
was conducted, we believe, through the whole period of its exist- 
ence, in whole or in part, by John Taylor, one of the Twelve. It 
was the secular organ of the Mormon body, and was continued 
till about the time of the exodus to the far West. These three 
were the only Mormon publications issued in the county. They 
were conducted with a great deal of zeal, but carried the marks of 
incompetency and illiteracy on every page. 

In the spring of 1840, Daniel IST. White, editor and publisher of 
the Pittsburg Gazette, at the instance of his brother-iu-law, Daniel 
S. Witter, of the Warsaw steam flouring mill, was induced to bring 
a press there and commence the publication of a paper, which he 
called the Western World. It was a six-column weekly, at $2.00 
per year. At the end of six months he retired, selling his estab- 
lishment to Thomas C. Sharp, Esq., and James Gamble, a journey- 
man printer. These gentlemen at the end of the iirst year chauged 
its title to Warsaw Signal, a name which continued in Warsaw 
through vai'ious tribulations and changes, with short intervals of 
rest, for a period of about thirteen years. 

In 1S43 the office came into the hands of Messrs. Gregg & Patch, 
(Th. Gregg, Wm. T. Patch) wiio for a year or so issued the War- 
saw Message, a Whig, paper. Again, in February, 1844, the office 
reverted to Mr. Sharp, who, sometimes alone and sometimes with 
a partner, continued to publish it until the close of the Mormon 
war in 1847, which terminated his connection with the Signal. 
It then passed over to Gregg & Miller, and continued in their 
hands till 1850, when it was sold to James McKee, of the Nauvoo 
Patriot, wlio established the Warsaw Commercial Journal, a 
Democratic paper. Mr. Gregg afterwards procured an old press 
aud material and revived the Signal in Aug., 1851, there being 
then for a time two papers in Warsaw. 

In the fall of 1853, Mr. Sharp again decided to enter the edito- 
rial field; the Signal office aud jjatronage were transferred to him, 
and with a new press and types he began the Warsaw Express, 
which he issued with fair success, for about fifteen months, and 
then sold to Mr. G. G. Galloway, Mr. S. continuing to conduct it 
to the close of the year. Soon after the issue of the Express, Mr. 
McKee also sold out his Commercial Journal concevn to Dr. Kan- 
kin, who rfmoved it to La Harpe; aud thus originated the first 
newspaper in that ambitious town. Tlie name of this paper was 
the Hancock Democrat. Just how long the enterprise lasted we 
cannot say; but only a few months, when Wesley H. Manier, 
Esq., of Carthage, purchased the materials, and in conjunction 
with Mr. Thaddeus Clarke, issued the liepublican, Jan., 
1854. These gentlemen continued it till October of the same 
vear; it being an "independent" paper, price $2.00 per annum. 
Then it passed into the hands of G. M. Child, Esq., by whom it 


was transformed into an intensely Democratic sheet, and so con- 
ducted by him for several years. In Aug., 1861, Robert "W. 

McClaughry, Esq., fresh from Monmouth College, witli his 
brother-in-law. Dr. A. J. Griffith, purcliased the Republican and 
changed its character, supporting ardently the measures of the 
Government in pulling down the llebellion. 

In Aug., 1862, Mr. McClaughry enlisted in the army and Dr. 
G. sold the Republican to J. M. Davidson, Esq., who, on Oct. Sth, 
1863, issued his initial number, and has since continued as owner 
and editor to supply articles for every issue, with the exception 
perhaps of one or two numbers. Mr. D. is a native of Illinois; 
was born May 22, 1828, near Edwardsville, in Madison county. 
In 18'15-6, in company with Charles McDowell, he published the 
Fulton Gazette at Lewistown; in 1855 established the Fulton 
Democrat at Lewistown, running it until 1858; then sold it to his 
brother, Wm. T. Davidson. In 1859-60-61, he published the 
Squatter Sovereign at Havana, in Mason county. During the 
session of the Legislature of 1858-9, Mr. D. was Legislative corre- 
spondent of the St. Louis Republican and Chicago Times. 

During his more than sixteen years' continuous labor on the 
Republican (Democratic paper) Mr. D. has been faithfully 
devoted to his party and unremitting in efforts to advance its 
interests; has been energetic and zealous in building up his busi- 
ness; a hard worker, a ready writer; and has succeeded in making 
the Republican one of the best Democratic journals in the Mili- 
tary Tract. 

But we can not follow these many newspaper enterprises and 
changes in the order of their dates; so we fall back upon Mr. 
Sharp, he being the oldest editor and publisher now in the county. 

During the dark days of the Rebellion, in the winter of 1863-4, 
the several Union Leagues in the county, feeling the necessity of 
maintaining a firm Union paper in their midst, induced Mr. Sharp 
to undertake the enterprise. He accordingly purchased back the 
Expi'eis office of Mr. McKee (the paper having been discon- 
tinued and materials sold to him), and issued the Hancock New 
Era in 'April, 1864, which he continued for fifteen months, till 
after the close of the war. Having been elected County Judge in 
November, 1865, he removed to Carthage, where, after his four 
years' term expired, he obtained the Gazette., which with one year's 
exception has been under his management, as a Republican paper. 

Mr. Sharp's editorial career has extended over a period of more 
than twenty years in all, since he assumed the management of the 
Western World\ and his labors have covei-ed not only the most 
exciting and perilous times in the county's history, but also periods 
most difficult and disastrous to newspaper enterprises. 

"Without instituting comparisons, it is no injustice to others to 
say that Mr. Sharp and Mr. Davidson are the strongest and most 
forcible writers of Hancock's editorial fraternity. Occupying as 
they do responsible positions at the county-seat, their papers have 


become the acknowledged organs of their respective parties, and 
their influence is felt accordingly. They may be set down as the 
veterans of the press in Hancock. May they acquire a compe- 
tence from their arduous labors, and live long to enjoy it! 

We turn to Nauvoo again: Early in 1846, while the Mormons 
were preparing for their journey into the wilderness, the Hancock 
Eagle, a Democratic paper, \Vas established there in the interest of 
the Mormons and their adherents. It was conducted by Dr. Wil- 
liam E. Matlack, a Phiiadelpliian. Dr. M. was a well educated, 
classical scholar, a graduate of Princeton, had traveled extensively 
in Europe and Asia, and had been editorially engaged with Horace 
Greeley on the New Yorker. This information is obtained from an 
editorial notice of his death in The Eigle, which occurred July 28, 
1846, in the 34th year of his age. The Eagle was now offered for 
sale, and fell into the hands of Samuel Slocum, and a paper entitled 
the New Citizen was the result. During the winter of 1846-7, 
Mr. S. employed Dr. Isaac Galland as its editor. The Citizen was 
Anti-Mormonish, and, as its name imjjlied, was devoted to the 
interests of the new citizens who were taking the place of the emi- 
grating Mormons. As the Doctor had been one of the prophet's 
baptized adherents and liis private secretary and agent, it was 
thought he needed a little watching on the part of Slocum and his 
friends. So, one day, an editorial article appeared in proof sheet, 
which was of such a character as to " bounce " the Doctor from his 
tripod. The paper was then for a period conducted by the foreman, 
John S. Winter, Esq., for several years since manager and editor 
of the Knoxville Journal, and present County Clerk of Knox 
county, 111. We know nothing of the circulation of the Citizen — it 
could not have been large — but we are informed that its exchange 
list was immense for a country paper, amounting to several hun- 

In the fall of 1847, James McKee published in that city the 
Nauvoo Patriot, a Democratic paper. In 1850, he removed to 
Warsaw, and it is believed the Patriot oflice went into tiie hands of 
the Icariau Community. About the beginning of 1851, that colon}' 
began the issue of the Icarian Peview, printed half in English and 
half in French. It was under the editorial charge of M. Etienne 
Oabet, their venerable and talented leader. They also published 
the Popular Tribune, under another editor whose name is not now 
remembered. The Community broke up and the paper was discon- 

July 24, 1858, two young men, Gregg & Lambert, started the 
Nauvoo Democratic Press. It remained in their hands but a few 
months, when Messrs. Yates, Chapman, Bauer & Swartz took the 
concern. Finally Mr. Yates took it and employed Mr. Grove, a 
school-teacher, to conduct it. After Mr. G., it was conducted by 
Mr. Abraham Yates, son of the proprietor, until his death in 1860. 

Henceforward until 1873, we believe Nauvoo was without a news- 
paper. On November 14th of that year, Messrs. Kramer and 


Thomas began the publication of the Nauvoo Independent. It 
remained in their hands but 44 weeks, wlien it was purchased by 
Hamilton & jSTelson (Dr. JR. B. Hamilton and Joseph Nelson), in 
whose hands it remained one year, when Dr. H. retired, and Mr. 
Nelson remained its sole proprietor. It is now in its seventh year 
and still under his care, with a fair prospect of continuance, a use- 
ful ''independent," two dollars, 8-column folio. 

Star of Dallas, was the first newspaper in Dallas City, by Fran- 
cis Ashton, in the spring of 1859. In the fall it was removed to 
La Harpe and back again in two weeks. In the summer of 1860 it 
passed into the hands of Mr. Trueblood, who advocated the election 
of Judge Douglas to the Presidency. It died May, 1861. 

December, 1869, G. M. Child, of the Hancock Democrat, at Car- 
thage, removed his paper to Dallas, where he continued to issue it 
until his death in 1872. It was a 7-column folio, at Sl-50 per year. 
At his death it was discontinued for a time, but revived in the 
winter of 1872-3, by Mr. J. F. Taylor, his son-in-law, but it was not 
long lived. Attempts were made to re-establish it; and we find 
that in the winter of 1875-6, Messrs. Mason & Murphy were print- 
ing a paper there — the Advocate — which in June, 1876, passed into 
the hands of Mr. Walter B. Loring, who had been an apprentice 
and journeyman with Mr. Child. At a subsequent date, Mr. Penu 
Harris, of Chicago, opened out in Dallas City with an S-page 64- 
coluran sheet; but it proved to be too big a boom, and was sus- 
pended after two numbers. It was called the Sucker State, date 
not remembered. W. C. Brown issued for a few months the Dallas 
City Monitor, whicli, we believe, was the latest eflbrt until April 
6, 1878, Mr. E. H. Thomas, formerly of the Nauvoo Independent, 
started the Dallas City JVetos, a 7-column folio. It is still pub- 
lished under the same management, a live paper, and independent 
as to politics, and seems to be enjoying a fair patronage, likely to 
maintain a longer and more prosperous career than most of its pre- 

Augusta has not been without its several newspaper enterprises. 
The first venture of the kind there was made in the summer of 
1856, by L. S. Grove & Son. Mr. G. had been a school-teacher in 
various places in the county, and striking Augusta, concluded to 
try his hand on a newspaper. It was called the Augusta Weekly 
Times. It ran about one year. 

The Augusta Home Banner was started about Dec. 1, 1864, by 
W. P. Campbell, editor and proprietor. He was succeeded in about 
a year by "W". R. Carr, who continued the Banner about two years 
probably. Mr Carr is now a Methodist preacher at Rushville, 111. 

The Augusta Herald was begun Aug. 2, 1S78, by Mr. Henry E. 
Allen, who emigrated from Knox Co., 111., where he liad been 
conducting the Abingdon Knoxonian. The Herald was a good 
local paper, and seemed to be managed with considerable tact and 
skill; yet Mr. Allen left it in about a year, transferring it to Mr. 
Silas Eobinson, by whom it was continued till early in 1880. 


In March, 1880, Mr. R. removed his press to Warsaw, where he 
began and is now publishing the Warsaw Democrat, an S-page 
Democratic slieet (as its title indicates) at 82 per year. Mr. R. 
also published, for a month in Warsaw, a little daily, called the 
Independent. The Augusta Mail is just started by Mr. Garrison. 
From Augusta to Plymouth is but five miles by rail, up the C, 
B. & Q. " If Augusta can start a paper and fail, why can not we 
also start one and succeed?" thought the citizens of the rival town. 
So, one day in the springof 1857, tlie writer of this, then at Warsaw, 
was invited to come to r. and take an interest in, and charge of, a 
paper they were going to issue there. He declined, but oiiered to 
conduct it for a salary. His offer was accepted, a company formed, 
press purchased, and the Plymouth Locomotive was put upon the 
road. He published it till November, then begged to be released, 
when it passed to other parties, and finally gave up the ghost the 
next year. The press and materials were sold to a publisher at 

Plymouth then remained without a newspaper for about eighteen 
years, when in Jan., 1877, Mr. E. A. Hail, of Macomb, brought a 
press there and issued the Plvmouth Advocate. He continued it 
till Aug. 30, 1878, when he sold to Post & Bell (W. A. Post, Jesse 
W. Bell, Jr.). By these gentlemen — Post succeeded by W. S. 
Hendricks, as editor — the Advocate was continued until April 24, 
1879, when it was stopped, and the press ti-ansferred to Clayton, 111. 
Again, June 26, 1S79, Mr. Charles K. Bassett, of the Abingdon 
Register, brought another press to Plymouth and began the publi- 
cation of the Plymouth Phonograph. It began as a Democratic 
paper, but has changed to neutrality. Mr. B. is the youngest 
editor in the county, having just now reached his majority. Should 
he be able to sustain a paper in Plymouth, which he seems likely 
to do, it can hardly be ascribed to his youth and inexperience. 

Returning again to Warsaw: During the summer of 1844, a 
small paper, called the Hancoch Democrat, was printed at the 
Signal oflace for Mr. E. A. Bedell. Its purpose was to advocate 
the claims of Jacob C. Davis for Congress; but he failing of a 
nomination, the paper was discontinued after four issues. 

In 1853-4 a strong temperance wave swept over Illinois and the 
county of Hancock, and in Jan., 1854, a small montlilv sheet was 
begun at the Express office by Mr. Gregg, called the Temperance 
Crusader. In a few mouths this paper reached a circulation of 
1,790 copies, mainly through the agency of the Sons of Temper- 
ance. But it came to an untimely end. In an evil hour, an offer 
to merge with a similar sheet in Chicago was accepted, the united 
paper to be issued from that city. The Crusader subscription list 
was sent on; but for a j-ear nothing could be heard from the paper 
or its publisher, when it was learned that he had goue East and 
abandoned the enterprise. The list was gone, and the paper could 
not be revived. 


About 1856 or '7, "W". K. Davison, a phenomenal printer, havi?ig 
money, struck AVarsaw in liis wanderinj^s, and concluded to settle. 
The Warsaw _Bulle/in was the result. Mr. D. was not a literary 
man, but he was an industrious editor and possessed energy and 
business tact, and he made the Jjidletin pay better than any paper 
yet published in the county. He conducted it with good success 
till the second or third year of the war, a portion of the time issu- 
ing a small daily, when he went into the arm}', leaving the paper 
in the care of Mr. John F. Howe, who allowed it to run down. 
Mr. Davison was mustered into the 118th 111. Inf , as Quarter- 
Master, and served till the regiment was mustered out, Oct., 
1865. But he was taken sick and died, after his dischai'ge, before 
reaching home. 

After the demise of the New Era, a printer named Lick issued 
for a time in Warsaw the Public Record. He was succeeded in 
1867 by Mr. Dallam, father of the present editor of the Bulletin. 
Mr. D. was an able and vigorous writer. His ready and sharp wit 
made him a formidable antagonist to those brethren of the quill 
who belonged to the other side in politics. The following notice 
of him we cut from the Bulletin announcing his death, which 
occurred quite suddenly, on March 16, 1868, in Warsaw: 

" Francis Asbury Dallam was born in Butler county, Kentucky, 
September, 1821. Whilst he was still a child, his father removed 
to the city of St. Louis, Mo., where he was educated and soon 
became a practical printer. He soon took a high rank in his pro- 
fession, and in 1846 became the editor of a newspaper, establishing 
the Miner's Prospect at Potosi, in Missouri, and editing it in con- 
nection with Mr. Philip Ferguson. At St. Louis he was married 
to Miss Anna McKee, of that city. In 1852 he established at 
Oquawka, in this State, the Oquawka Plaindealer, which soon 
became extensively known as one of the ablest advocates of the 
principles of the old Whig party. This paper was a very success- 
ful enterprise, and the reputation which he here acquired procured 
him an invitation to Quincy, where, in 1856, he edited the Repid)- 
lican in connection with Mr. H. V. Sullivan, and in the course of 
a few months united this paper with the Whig, in which he was 
associated with Mr. John T. Morton. But in 1859 he returned 
again to Oquawka, and resumed the editorship of the Plaindealer. 
He was, of course, a very decided advocate of Mr. Lincoln's elec- 
tion to the Presidency, and received from him the appointment of 
Postmaster of Oquawka. But at the breaking out of the Rebellion, 
he was the first man in the place of his residence to volunteer in 
the army, where he became Captain of Company D, of the Tenth 
Regiment of Illinois Volunteer Infantry, with Morgan as its Col- 
onel. Re-enlisting at the close of tlie three months' service, he 
was appointed Major of the same (Tenth) Regiment in which he 
made the Kentucky campaign with General McClernand. In 
May, 1862, he became an Adjutant-General upon the staif of Gen- 
eral Ross, but was soon after compelled to resign on account of the 

396 , hiStoet of hancouk countt. 

state of his health, remaining as an invalid for some months at his 
home in Oquawka. In 1863 he made au excursion to California, 
and 1864 found him in Nevada, where, besides editing a paper, 
the Carson Independent, he became a member of the Convention 
which formed the Constitution of that State. The year 1866 found 
him again in Quincy, in this State, as editor of the Whig and 
Hepuhlican, and in the following year he removed to this place 
and bought the Record, the title of which he soon changed to that 
of the Warsaw Bulletin, which he continued to edit until the time 
of his death." 

At Mr. Dallam's death the paper was left in the hands of his 
widow and young sons. These — first Frank M., and latterly " Phil," 
— have conducted the Bxdletin ever since with good success. It now 
stands in the front rank among the country papers ; in size, excel- 
lence of workmanship, and character of its editorials, second to but 
few of them. The Bxdletin is a pronounced Kepublican, 9-column 
folio, at $2.00 a year. 

About the beginning of 1877, Mr. J. M. Faris came to Warsaw 
from Pike county, and established a Democratic paper, to which 
he gave the old name oi Mancoch Democrat. 

Mr. Faris was in bad health the whole period of his stay in the 
county, and he was compelled to give up the business. His estab- 
lishment was purchased by George P. Walker and Cortez Maxwell, 
Esqs., and continued (Mr. Walker retiring after a few months) till 
the fall of 1879, when it was discontinued. The Democrat was an 
8-column folio sheet, neatly printed, at $2.00 per annum. 

At La Harpe, after the demise of Dr. Kankin's Democrat, Mr. 
Henry King, a young son of J. AY. King, Esq., with Frank Nash, 
published the Star of the West. This was about 1858 or 1859; 
and afterward, in 1866 or 1867, James L. King published the Rome 
News. How long these papers continued we are not advised, but 
only for short periods. In November, 1871, Mr. H. G. Eising 
began to issue the La Harpe Leader, and before the close of a 
volume left it in the hands of L. S. Cogswell, Esq., who changed it 
to the La Harper in October, 1875. In his hands it continued 
over two years, when he transferred it to J. C. Coulson, Esq., who 
issued his first number dated April 5, 1878. Mr. C. is a son of 
Dr. Coulson, an early settler, and we believe is a native of the 
county. He is still at the helm of the La Harper, industriously 
devoting himself to the interests of his pleasant little city, and 
has succeeded in building up a fair jmtronage. His paper seems 
to be popular with the people; it is decidedly a local journal, and 
is now in its fifth volume. It is a 5-column quarto. 

In the spring of 1858, after leaving the Plymouth Locomotive, 
Mr. Gregg established, at Hamilton, the Hamilton Bepresentative, 
a 6-column folio. This continued two or three years, till it suc- 
cumbed to the hard times of the war. Again, in May, 1873, he 
published the Dollar Monthly, changed to Bural Messenger, Jan- 


uary 1, 1S76, and suspended April, 1877. It was a large 16-page 
sheet, and was devoted principally to literary and rural affairs. 

This brings us back to the county-seat, where we began, and 
where the first news sheet was floated upon the prairie breezes of 
Hancock county, 4i years ago. The summer it was issued the 
grass was knee high over the public square, with paths here and 
there across to the few business houses. The wild deer sniffed the 
morning air in the suburbs, and the bowlings and barkings of the 
little prairie coyotes awoke the echoes of the night. The town had 
perhaps 100 inhabitants, all told; the county, say, 3,000. 

After the suspension of the Carthagenian, the place was without 
a paper for ten or twelve j'ears, or more. But to omit none, we 
should mention that in the fall of 1836, a small campaign sheet 
was issued from the office of the Carthagenian, called The Echo, 
under the management of Walter Bagley, Esq., intended to advo- 
cate the election of Gen. Harrison to the Presidency. Only a few 
numbers were issued. 

The next venture there, we believe, was made by Mr. Thaddeus 
Clarke, of Macomb; but the date is not recollected, neither cau we 
recall the name of the paper, but believe it was News-Letter. This 
must have been a few years before his connection with Mr. Manier 
on the Republican. 

In the spring of 1860 Mr. James K. Magie, from the Oquawka 
Plaindealer, came to Carthage and established the Carthage Tran- 
scrij)t. How long this paper continued we have not at hand the 
means of knowing, but it was succeeded by the Carthage Gazette, 
in the hands of Mr. Fowler, afterward associated with Mr. Noble 
L. Prentis, and by them conducted with spirit and tact till about 
1869 or '70, when it passed to its present proprietor. The Gazette 
is now in its 15th year. 

We must not leave out of the list the little college monthly, 
named the Carthaginian (with an i instead of an e in its third 
syllable, which its erudite editors claim is the correct orthography). 
It is a handsome octavo, issued from the office of the Repuhlican, 
scholarly, spicy, under the management of the Faculty and literary 
societies of Carthage College. 

We have now gone through the list as well as the means at hand 
will permit, but very probably not without some errors. To enu- 
merate: At Carthage we have had the Carthagenian. Echo, News- 
JLetter{?), Transcript, Bepublican, Democrat, Gazette, Carthagin- 
ian — 8. 

At -Nauvoo^TiOTe* and Seasons, Wasp, Expositor, Neighbor, 
Eagle, New Citizen, Icarian Review, Popular Trihune, Demo- 
cratic Press, Independent — 10. 

At Warsaw — Western World, Signal, Message, Commercial 
Journal, Democrat, Express, Crusader, New Era, Bulletin, Pub- 
lic Record, Democrat 2d, Warsaw Democrat and Independent — 13. 


At La Harpe — The Democrat, Star of the West, Home Netos, 
Leader, La Harj^er — 5. 

At Augusta — Times, LLome Banner, Herald — 3. 

At Dallas City — Star of Dallas, Democrat, Advocate, Sucker 
State, Monitor, JVeivs — 6. 

At Plymouth — Locomotive, Advocate, Phonograph — 3. 

At Hamilton — Representative, Dollar Monthly, Rural Messen- 
ger — 3. 

Grand total, 51. 

Over half a hundred; one for every year of the county's exist- 
ence. To enumerate the fortunes made in these enterprises would 
be an easy task. To count the absolute and the partial failures 
would be a little more difficult. There have been reasons for these 
failures, chief of which has been ambition — ambition of individ- 
uals to be at the head of a press, and ambition of rising villages to 
sport a newspaper. JSTone of these first publications but were 
begun too soon, before there was sufficient population and business 
to sustain them. And j'et, having induced men to embark in these 
enterprises, it was the duty and the interest of the towns to sustain 
them. A newspaper failure in a rising village is a disaster not 
only to the person managing it, but also to the community. 

It has taken a long chapter to tell the story of these newspaper 
ventures, — the births, growths, suspensions, resurrections, failures 
and tinal flickerings of newspaper life in Hancock during its first 
half century. The budding hopes blasted, the air-castles over- 
turned, little fortunes consumed, debts incurred, mortgages fore- 
closed and Sheriff's writs executed, nobody may know, and nobody 

The career of that Cincinnati Franklin Press, the first one 
brought to TV n-saw, was a remarkable one, and of itself tells a story 
of newspaper adventure and failure. It has truh' been on all sides 
in politics. It first served the Whigs with White and the World; 
next iS^eutrality with Sharp and the Signal; theu agai;i a Whig 
under Gregg & Patch in the Message; then it breathed fire and 
Anti-Mormonism with Sharp again in the Signal; then with Gregg 
& Miller a Neutral; then with McKee a Democratic organ in the 
CommercialJoiirnal; then with Kankin atLaHarpe,a Democrat; 
then to Maniei; & Co. at Carthage, an Independent; then to Child, a 
Democrat and an opposer of tlie war; then to Griffith & McCiaughy, 
a War Democrat; and finally, it rests from its wanderings and polit- 
ical labors in a quiet nook in the Republican office, a doer of all 
work, after iO years of active service; and in all this time it has 
not been out of the county. It ma^' truly be called a Hancock 



The year 1811 is far enough back to go in search of liistorical 
incidents connected with Hancock county; and what we have to 
record of that year, concerns alil^e the whole Mississippi Valley. 
That was a year long to be remembered. The first steamboat to 
traverse the Ohio and Mississippi rivers — the "New Orleans " — 
was launched at Pittsburg in the summer of that year, and made 
her trip to New Orleans, scaring the aborigines along the rivers 
out of their seven senses. Arrived in the vicinity of New Madrid, 
the terrible earthquake occurred, which rocked the waters of the 
river, sunk large tracts of land, partially destroyed the town and 
came very near putting an end to the first experiment of steam 
navigation in the West. To increase the dismay caused by 
the earthquake, a fiery comet was seen coursing through the heav- 
ens, exhibiting an immense and gorgeous length of tail — the sup- 
posed harbinger of disaster to the astonished inhabitants. 

But the earliest date we can reach with safety, in regard to 
weather phenomena in Hancock county, is that of the memorable 


so well recollected by all living in this region in 1830-31. That win- 
ter marks an epoch in the history of Hancock and a-*-' the Military 
Tract and indeed, throughout a large portion of the great North- 
west. What its limits were we are unable to say, but they were 
extensive. To recount the sufi'erings caused by it would fill vol- 
umes. Those who were caught unprepared— as many always are^ 
especially in a new country — were put to great extremes for the 
means of sustaining life till spring. Fire-wood, generally near at 
hand, could be reached by dint of hard labor. But the difficulty 
was in procuring provisions. . Wild game and the product of the 
cornfields was the main dependence of the settlers. In most 
instances, the corn had not been gathered. It became a herculean 
labor, first to find it, as it lay imbedded in the snow, and then to 
procure it, and when procured, how was it to be got to tlie mills 
and returned in meal? Travel, for the greater part of the winter, 
was almost entirely suspended, it being impossible to go but a few 
rods in a day, with the best of teams. A great deal of stock died, 
from suffering in the snow, and from want of food. Game died in 
great numbers in the woods; or if alive, could not be found, and if 
occasionally found, was easily caught, but so poor as to be fre- 
quently unfit for food. 



But the greatest suffering, perhaps, was in those instances where 
people were caught away from home and out in the storm. Some 
of these instances of peril are reported in other portions of this 

The snow began to fall on the 29th of December, 1830, and 
continued almost incessantly for three days. The average depth 
was about four feet, with drifts in all the ravines and low places, 
sometimes twenty and thirty feet deep. What few fences there 
were had been entirely covered; roads, of which there were but 
few, were obliterated. The New Year of 1831 was ushered in 
upon a canopy of universal whiteness. The snow remained on the 
ground till spring, and as the winter advanced and a crust began 
to form, the difficulties of travel increased. All remember the 
deep snow of 1S30-31. 

STORM OF 1836. 

The next to mention is the remarkable storm and " sudden 
freeze " of Dec. 20, 1836. This we describe as experienced at 
Carthage. Other accounts from other places somewhat differ. 

The night had been warm, and in the morning a soft rain was 
falling, which continued till seven or eight o'clock. Then the weather 
began to grow colder, a slight wind began to blow from the west 
and afterward from the northwest, every moment increasing in 
violence. The rain ceased, l)ut soon was succeeded by sleet, and 
by ten o'clock there was a continuous and violent gale blowing, 
driving before it a body of fine round sleet, as hard as ice, and so 
cutting that it could not be faced. The soft ground was soon 
frozen hard, its uneven spaces filled with the sleet, till it became 
as hard and almost as smooth as ice, making travel very difficult. 
It continued all day and long into the night, the gale and sleet and 
cold unabated, and at times coming with increased violence. How 
low the mercury fell we can not now remember, but there was 
within the twenty hours of the storm a change of not less than 
sixty or seventy degrees of temperature. 

People who were so unfortunate as to be caught out in the storm 
suffered intensely'. Frozen ears, frozen feet and hands were 
numerous, and numbers over the country were frozen to death. 
One man was frozen to death between Carthage and Commerce, 
while on his way with an ox team. His comrade barely escaped 
with his life. The Illinois river froze over in an incredibly short 
period of time. 


A correspondent in the north gives us the following: In the 
month of June, 1838, a terrible toi-nado passed over the north part 
of the county. The storm-cloud commenced gathering west of 
the Mississippi, and by one o'clock had assumed a formidable, 
black and angry appearance. Grossing the river near Fort Madi- 


son, it started in an easterly direction. Then the cloiids assumed 
the appearance of large inverted funnels, three in number. Clear- 
ing the blufl' timber, it struck the earth near the west line of 7-T, 
about midway of the township. Then it presented an appearance 
at once awful, and grand to behold. The weeds and grass of the 
prairie were literally torn np by the roots. Continuing east, with 
a noise like a thousand thunders, it struck the yonng settlement 
of Pilot Grove. Huge trees were uprooted and broken like pipe- 
stems, and log houses were blown down. In one of the houses an 
old lady by tlie name of Sears was killed. A new frame-house 
that had just been built, was taken from its foundation, carried 
several rods and set down again, without receiving any material 
injury. Three persons were killed in the vicinity of Pilot Grove. 
Some cattle and horses were killed and missing. 

The tornado continued on through the timber east of Joseph 
Lionberger's mill, completely destroying every tree and bush in 
its path. It finally' spent itself over in the blutfs of the Illinois 
river. For many years afterward, the track of this fearful tornado 
was visible, and the dire eflects of its fury to be seen. 


We are unable to give all thej'ears in which the Mississippi rose 
to unusual height, but those of 1835, 1844, 1851 and 1853, are 
particularly remembered. In each'of those years the water covered 
the whole valley from bluff to bluff, with slight exceptions, all the 
way from Lake Pepin to St. Louis, making a broad expanse of 
water from two and three to seven miles wide. At Warsaw, and 
between that and Lima lake, tlie whole of that rich and valuable 
bottom land, now attempted to be reclaimed, was overflowed to a 
depth of several feet; while on the opposite side it extended to the 
sand ridge five miles away, leaving Alexandria from four to eight 
feet under water. 

The 3'ear 1836 — the year of our first acquaintance with the river 
— the water was also high, and there have been several seasons of 
high water since — dates not now remembered. These annual over- 
flows are known as the "June rise," because they occur in June on 
the lower Mississippi; here they generally reach the maximum by 
the middle of May, and are often on the decline before the begin- 
ning of June. 

But it will be observed that the " Father of Waters " is, by slow 
degrees gradually diminishing in volume; these high stages becom- 
ing less frequent, and its low stages in the autumn months more 


The tornado which passed through Bear Creek township on the 
evening of July 3, 1873, was not only very destructive, but was 
attended with peculiar characteristics. There had been wind and 


heavy rain all over the middle and sonthern portions of the county 
during the day, but the tornado proper began about three miles 
west of Basco, and held an easterly course towards Bentley, where 
it became less violent. It was, without doubt, accompanied by fire, 
as parties who were in it remember a sensation of heat, and some 
say, a smell of sulphur. Those who witnessed it from Basco, rep- 
resent it as sublime and terrible : a smoky, blue-colored cloud, 
rolling forward at great speed, emitting flames at intervals, and 
carrying destruction in its path. Houses, barns, farm imple- 
ments, horses, cattle, trees, fences, and human beings, were carried 
bodily into the air and deposited chiefly outside of the tornado's 
path. The total width of the hurricane was only about a quarter 
of a mile, while the tornado proper was only a few rods wide. It 
so happened that but few residences lay directly in its path, hence 
the destruction of life and property was not very great. 

A full account of this terrific tornado, and the destruction it 
occasioned, was published in the Carthage Republican of the 16th, 
from the pen of its editor, J. M. Davidson, Esq. The incidents 
narrated in it are so remarkable, and so well authenticated, that we 
copy almost entire, omitting only the least important portions: 

"Arriving at the village of Basco by the morning train, the 
writer was taken in kindly charge by Esquire Crow, a venerable 
and good citizen of the village, who procured a horse and buggy, 
and, without unnecessary delay, we were on the road to Booz's place, 
where the tornado seems to have made its first appearance in the 

" Mr. Booz's residence was a log house consisting of a story 
and a half, with a frame lean-to kitchen on the north. Between 
four and five rods to the north of the house was a large, new frame 
barn. East of the house, from 8 to 10 rods, was a fine growth of 
young timber, most of the trees being from 5 to 7 inches in 
diameter. So much for the situation. Mr. Booz was in the house 
when his oldest son, 18 years old, came running in and cried 
out excitedly: 'Father, come out here and see what this is!' Mr. 
Booz ran out and saw a dense cloud that looked like smoke 
rolling furiously toward the house, and the - air was very hot 
and sraelled like sulphur. He ran into the house, shut the doors 
and got his wife, children and himself into the cellar just in 
time to hear the whole upper part of the house go ofi" with a crash. 
The concussion was so great as to tumble over the milk pans in 
the cellar and shake the cellar walls terribly. He says: 'The whole 
house was lifted about one foot from the foundation on the west 
side, but fell back again.' The storm lasted less than five minutes 
and then he came out of the cellar to witness a scene of destruction 
that fairly paralyzed him. The upper half of his house was gone; 
his kitchen and smoke house nowhere to be seen: nothing left of 
his fine new stable but a few foundation posts and a pile of manure, 
and the pretty grove of timber twisted and broken into indescrib- 
ably fantastic shapes. In the stable were three horses, a threshing 


machine, a cultivator and other tools and about live tons of hay. 
A new wagon stood close to the stable. None of these were now 
to be seen: ail were swept away. One of the horses was carried 
into the timber and fell into the top of a young hickory tree and 
from thence to the ground where it was found dead next morning. 
Another horse was evidently carried over the house into the road, 
and seemed not to have been badly hurt. The other was carried in an 
opposite direction, and landed in a naeadow without injury. The 
broken remnants of Mr. Booz's wagon, cultivator, and parts of the 
barn were found scattered through the timber and beyond. Some 
remnants are not found yet. Tiie most of a heavy iron cultivator 
was found in Sanderson's meadow, 100 rods east! It is stated that 
Mr. Wm. Damron, who was some half mile north of tlie tornado, 
saw Mr. Booz's stable lifted into the air 200 feet, that it whirled 
around rapidly and finally fell to pieces and was blown off into the 
timber. Seventy-live apple-trees were torn out by the roots and 
carried across fields; posts five feet long on which the barn sat were 
pulled out of the ground in which they had been set nearly four feet! 
Two cows and calves were carried fully 100 yards into an adjoining 
meadow, all more or less injured. 

"We have been more particular in describing the destruction at 
Booz's place because it will answer for a faithful description in 
general, if not in detail, of the remarkable effects of the tornado 
throughout its entire patli. 

"East of Booz's, about a quarter, or a little more, was a hewn 
log house belonging to Mr. W. C. Baldwin and occupied by How- 
land Steffy and wife as renters. This house, and the barn adjoin- 
ing it, were blown to pieces, the logs carried hundreds of feet into 
an adjoining meadow. The floor only of the house was left. They 
said there had been a stable near by, but we don't believe it! 

"When the tornado approached, Mr. Steffy undertook to secure 
the door, but in an instant he was hurled 50 feet toward the road, 
the house taking another direction. After the storm passed he 
searched for his wife and found her lying composedly behind a 
locust stump in Sanderson's meadow with the logs of their house 
piled all around her! Mr. and Mrs. SteflTy were both severely hurt, 
but able to pick their way through fallen timber and accumulated 
rubbish to Mr. Booz's place, and afterward to some neighbor's who 
had better accomodations! Sanderson's meadow, immediately east 
of Steffy's, was thickly strewn withdebris, timber, parts of wagons 
household goods, dead pigs and chickens, wearing apparel, etc 
The next place struck by the tornado was that of John Sanderson 
north of east from Steffy's half a mile or more. Here the destruc 
tion was as complete as if the premises had been mined with gun 
powder. Not one stick of timber in either house or stable was left 
in its original position ; even the rocks at the corners were thi-own 
out of their places, and there was not enough timber of anj' kind left 
within a hundred yards — either of house or barn — to build a smoke 
house! The house and barn seem to have been carried iip into the 


air, broken to pieces and scattered about by the whirlwind, while the 
contents of the dwelling, including Mrs. Sanderson and her two 
smaller children, were blown in a direct line south from 500 to 1000 
feet. Broken bedsteads, tables, chairs, cooking stoves and other 
furniture, together with remnants of clothing, etc., were blown in 
fragments in a straight line south through the meadow just as if 
the house had been carried up into the air, and when the floor fell 
out an under current had driven the family and contents in the 
direction we have named. The fence south of the house, which was 
not wholly blown down, was, on the day of our visit, festooned with 
remnants of wearing appearel, bed clothing, etc. Concerning Mr. 
Sanderson's whereabouts or escape, there seems to be some confu- 
sion. That gentleman told us that when the storm came on him 
he was in the yard west of the house. His oldest child, a little 
girl 8 years old, was with him. They fell down, or were blown 
down, on the ground. When the storm passed over, himself and 
little girl went round and round the fallen rubbish calling for 
mother and the little ciiildi-en, but getting no response, he said he 
thought his wife and children had been blown away off, and so he 
went over to Mr. John Elder's, three-quarters of a mile distant, to 
get assistance. We learn, however, that Mrs. Elder firmly believes 
that Mr. Sanderson and child were blown over half that distance by 
the storm, as he could not have reached her house so quickly other- 
wise after the destruction of his house, which she witnessed. Dr. 
Hill, Mr. Tanner and others, of Basco, who were watching the tor- 
nado, saw Sanderson's house and barn rise in the air and go to 
pieces. The first named gentlemen at once mounted their horses 
and rode at full speed towards the scene of destruction. Others 
followed quickly. Search for the family was immediately insti- 
tuted, and within five minutes Dr. Hill found Mrs. Sanderson 
about 70 steps south of the house, lying with her youngest child in 
her arms. Every particle of her clothing except a remnant of an 
under garment was stripped from the poor woman, and that was 
wrapped tightly across her shoulders and under her arms. Dr. 
Hill threw his coat over her until remnants of bed-clothing could 
be picked up to wrap around her. The woman was conscious, and 
begged to have her head raised, which was done. The little 
child in her arms added its pitiful wail to the heart-rending 
scene. Mrs. Sanderson was found to be terribly bruised 
and mangled on every part of her body e.xcept on her 
bosom and arms, which were protected by the little 
child. The child was covered with blood, and yet, singularly 
enough, seems not to have been noticeably hurt. Mrs. Sanderson's 
right leg was crushed to a jelly between the knee and ankle. There 
was a deep gash near the small of her back, and one of her hips 
was literally impaled with splinters. Two rods distant her second 
little girl was found dead, with a terrible gash across her forehead. 
]!^"ot far off was found the little boy, aged three years, with both 
legs broken, one of them twice. The woman and children were 





conveyed carefully to the Basco House and medical assistance sum- 
moned. Two or three days later Mrs. Sanderson was delivered of 
a still-born infant that had evidently been crushed to death in the 
mother's terrible ordeal with the storm. 

" About one-quarter of a mile, or a little less, south and five or six 
rods east of Sanderson's was the two-stor}' frame dwellin_^ owned 
by Doty and Donaldson, and occupied by Robert Donaldson and 
wife. On the approach of the tornado Mr. Donaldson ran out 
into the orchard south of the bouse, calling to his wife to follow 
him. Mrs. D. preferred, however, to take the risks in the house, 
and tried to close the door. In an instant the house was swept 
away, carrying her with it. She was shortly afterwards found 
some rods to the northeast of the house in the midst of a wreck of 
broken joist, timber, boards and pulverized household furniture. 
That she was not killed was a miracle. Her only serious injury 
was a partially fractured ankle. 

" It will be remembered that the Sanderson house, some fifty rods 
or more to the north of Donaldson's, was blown almost directly 
south, while the Donaldson house was blown to the northeast — a 
remarkable evidence of the en-atic pranks of the wind. Neverthe- 
less, a large and high pile of stove wood-close to Donaldson's house 
was apparently not in the least disturbed, although the orchard still 
south of it was badly torn up. North of the house a small barn and 
a threshing machine, were torn all to pieces and the remnants scat- 
tered over the fields. 

" North of Donaldson's some distance, the tornado tore through a 
thick hedge fence, taking it out by the roots for several rods. The 
adjacent portions of the hedge were withered and killed as if by a 
flame of fire passing rapidly through it. Further on, Mr. John 
Elder's barn received a gentle hint that it was not in the right 
place; and moving it a few feet and turning it around, the tornado 
passed on to the Hufl' farm. 

" Here was an excellent two-story frame house, and a good barn. 
Mr. Huif was absent. Mrs. Hufl', her three children, and two 
nieces were in or about the house. Mrs. Hu9' says her oldest son, 
a lad of 14, first observed the coming storm and its threatening 
character, and advised his mother and the children to get into the 
cellar, which all did at once except Mrs. Huff, who proceeded 
quickly to fasten the doors and windows. This done, she ran partly 
up a stairway on the west side of the house where there was a 
window. She saw the tornado strike the stable which was two or 
three rods distant, and lift it whirling in the air. She then ran 
into the cellar, and in an instant the kitchen and whole upper part 
of the house was blown away. The family escaped without injury. 
The wreck at this place was complete. 

" Kohrer's house and barn were next assailed. The house, a brick 
structure, lost one of its gables and was badly wrecked. The barn 
was demolished. Thence taking a northerly course the tornado 
struck Judge Skinner's barn, a large structure, which it carried ofl" 


the foundation and completely demolished, killing two horses and 
a cow, and destroyinoj a wagon and a number of agricultural imple- 

"John Huff's house and barn, on the township line, were next 
attacked and blown to pieces. Mrs. Huff escaped with a painful 
hurt. A description of the devastation at other points will 
answer for the scene here. Nothing hardly was left but kindling 
wood, and that scattered up and down the road and through the 
adjacent fields. 

"The tornado next made its appearance a short distance north- 
and east of Bentley, greatly damaging the respective premises of 
Dr. James and Mr. L. Simmons, the particulars of which were 
given in our last issue. 

"At Basco numbers of citizens saw the approach of the tornado 
from the northwest. From its peculiar appearance most of them 
supposed it was a large fire. That notion was quickly dispelled as 
it appj-oached nearer, and when the barn and dwelling of Mr. San- 
derson were seen to rise and whirl high up in air. The same 
spectators saM* in a moment afterwards the Donaldson house dis- 
appear as if by magic. The whirlwind looked like a dense cloud 
of purplish-gray smoke, and seemed to be filled with innumerable 
objects whirling and tossing in every direction. Flames of fire 
M'ere observed by many to shoot through the rolling mass of cloud; 
and those who were momentarily within the influence of the rush 
of wind, declare that the air was as hot as a furnace. Some aver 
that the air was strongl}' impregnated with the odor of burning 
brimstone! others that it sraelled like scorched rags, and, as 
tending to confirm the impression of extraordinary heat, there 
were found pieces of shingles and boards that were scorched as if 
from sudden exposure to powerful heat. The hedge fence referred 
to elsewhere in this article, seems to have been literally roasted 
adjacent to the gap torn out by the storm." 

JULY 4, 1S73. 

The storm of the next day was also very severe all over the 
county. It occurred about seven and eight in the morning. At 
Carthage it was very disastrous, iitterly ruining one wing of the 
public school building, and damaging the structure to the amount 
of $4,000. The roof of the west side of the Carthage College 
building was blown off, and the structure otherwise greatly dam- 
aged. Other buildings were blown down, and not less than 100 
chimneys blown away. 

At Bentley much damage was done, many chimneys demolished, 
and several roofs blown off. 

At Bowen the fine public school edifice was demolished, and 
much injury done to other property. 

At Augusta the steeple of the Presbyterian church was pros- 
trated, and the roof of the building blown ofl". The steeple of the 


Christian church was also demolished, and the building moved 
from its foundation. Lines of freight cars on the railroad track 
were overturned. 

At Plymouth a freight car was started down the road, afterwards 
followed by an engine and brought back. 

At West Point a large frame house owned by Dr. Cheney was 
blown to pieces, also the grocery store of Funks & Howerton; and 
other damage done. In this vicinity the residence of Mr. Henry 
Garner was blown down, and Mrs. Garner and child and sister 
killed. All over the county, in the south part particularly, much 
damage was done to orchards, fences and groves. 

WINTER OF 1836-7. 

From an old settler in the north part of the county we have the 
following: " The winter of 1S36-7 was one of much snow. On 
Dec. 12 the first snow fell to the depth of about sixteen inches; 
three days afterward it clouded up again and continued snowing 
most of the time, night and day, for nearly four days, and when it 
quit the snow was full three feet deep. The weather moderated, 
the snow settled and the roads got good, and sleighing was very 
fine, the snow lying on till the last of February. Spring opened 
easy and fine." 

is umerous other weather phenomena, such as rain, hail and wind 
storms, thunder and lightning, floods, severe winters, hot summers, 
etc., etc., have occurred worthy of note, but memory will not serve 
us as to dates, and the "oldest inhabitant" has failed to report 



Among the Judicially of the Circuits to which Hancock has 
belonged, have been a number of ablemen, — quite as able, perhaps, 
as have fallen to the lot of other Circuits in the State. 

Richard M. Young — Was the first Judge who occupied the 
Bench (the splint-bottomed chair, we should say) in the county of 
Hancock, as well as in perhaps a dozen other counties in the north- 
western part of the State. It was he who first put the wheels of 
justice in motion where now nearh' a million of people reside. For 
a more extended notice of this distinguished man, see page 216. 

James H. Ralston. — This gentleman succeeded Judge Young on 
the Circuit by Legislative election in 1837, but resigned the ensu- 
ing August and removed to Texas. He soon, however, returned to 
Quincy. In 1840 he was elected to the State Senate. In 1846 he 
joined the army to Mexico as Assistant Quartermaster, by appoint- 
ment from President Polk. After the war he settled in California, 
where he died, having been lost in the Sierra Nevada mountains. 

Eet&i' Lott. — This gentleman was from New Jersey, was elected 
by the Legislature to succeed Judge Ralston, and held the position 
till 1841. He resided for a short time at Carthage, but removed 
to Quincy. After his judgeship he served as Circuit Clerk in 
Adams county for several years. Later he removed to California, 
where he was appointed Superintendent of the U. S. Mint at San 
Francisco. From this position he was removed in 1856 by Presi- 
dent Buchanan. He had served as Captain in the Mexican war, 
aiid it is stated that lie died at Tehuantepec, Mexico, where he was 
holding the position of tJ. S. Consul. 

Judge Lott was a well educated man, had been a class-mate at 
Princeton with Hon. Samuel L. Southard, the eminent New Jersey 
Senator, and studied law in his oflice. He is remembered as jovial, 
witty, companionable and fond of fun, not fond of study, and yet 
a good lawyer. 

Stephen A. Douglas. — The career of this eminent man is so 
well known as to require a mere mention. He was elected Judge 
iu 1841, and held the oflice till Aug., 1843, when he resigned to take a 
seat in Congress. Some of his acts while on the Bench here gave 
great oflense to the people of this county during the troublous 
days of the Mormon period. He found tlie docket loaded with 
unfinished cases; but his dispatch and ability were such that he 


soon cleared it. Of Judge Douglas' career as a statesman, in the 
House of Representatives, in the Senate, as a candidate for the 
Presidency, it is unnecessary to speak. This is all well known to 
the reader. ^ Senator Douglas was a man of the people, over whom 
he possessed an unusual magnetic influence. He became the 
recognized leader of a great party; and when the great Rebellion 
came, he at once took strong Union ground, and prepared to stand 
by the Government as administered by his great compeer. His 
influence and force of character greatly strengthened the hands of 
President Lincoln. His death occurred June 3, 1861. 

Jesse B. Thomas. — -Judge T. was a conspicuous man in the his- 
tory of Illinois. He was delegate in Congress as early as 1808, 
while Illinois and Indiana were together as one Territory. From 
Washington he came home with a commission as Federal Judge 
for the new Territory of Illinois, which position he held till it was 
admitted into the Union as a State in 1818. Thomas, with Gov. 
Ninian Edwards was then elected to the U. S. Senate, the first 
Senators from the State. It was while in this position that the 
memorable contest came up in Congress on the admission of 
Missouri; and Senator Thomas stands in history as the reputed 
author of the measure known as the Missouri Compromise, though 
it was taken up and strenuously advocated by Henry Clay. He 
was again elected to the Senate by the Legislature, which passed 
the Convention measure for making Illinois a slave State. 

This first Judge Thomas removed to and settled in Ohio, and 
was still living in that State, when his namesake and nephew was 
on the Bench in this Circuit. Judge T., junior, succeeded Douglas 
in 1843 and resigned in 184.5. His death occurred not long after- 
ward while Judge in another Circuit. 

Norman H. Purple — Occupied the Bench on this Circuit from 
1845 for about four years, when he resigned for the alleged reason 
that the salary was insufficient. He was a resident of Peoria. 
Judge P. was regarded as a man of high legal abilities and good 
executive talents. 

Wdliain A. Minshall — Resided at Rushville. and was elected to 
the Circuit in 1849, and held the position till his death, which 
took place Oct., 1861. He was an emigrant from Tennessee in an 
early day; attained to distinction and a good practice as a lawyer, 
and had been a member of the Legislative, and also of the Con- 
stitutional (Convention in 1848. 

Onias C . Skinner. — This gentleman resided a number of years 
in this county, coming among us a little previous to the close of 
the Mormon war. He settled first, we believe, in Nauvoo, and after- 
ward resided at Carthage, where he became well known and built 
up a good reputation and practice. He took his seat on the Bench 
in 1851, occupying it till May, 1854, when he resigned and was 
transferred to the State Supreme Court. How long he held this 
position we are not advised. His death occurred at Quincy not 
many years ago. 


Pinckney H. Walker — Succeeded Judge Skinner as Judge in 
this Circuit, and afterward succeeded him on the Supreme Bench, 
He was a Kentuckian — emigrated in his youth to McDonough 
connty. His present residence is Kusliville. 

Joseph Sihley — Held the position of Judge in this Circuit for a 
longer period than any other — in all over twenty years. He was 
an attorney at law for sever il years in the county previous to 
his election, and resided here several years afterward. He resides 
at present in Quincy. 

Chauncey L. Higbee — Is a resident of Pittsfield, in Pike county, 
where he has been many years in the practice of law. He will be 
remembered by the old citizens of the county as one of the mem- 
bers of the Mormon fraternitj- of Nauvoo, and owners of the Expos- 
itor newspaper, which was destroyed in the street of that city 
in 1844. 

S. P. Shope — Of Fulton county, and 

John H. Williams — Of Adams, with Judge Higbee, are the 
present Judges of the Sixth Judicial District of Illinois. 



Among the members of the Bar of Hancock county may be 
counted a number who have acquired a wide and even national 
reputation. Not all of them have made the county their homes; 
bat many, while residing in adjacent counties, have x^racticed more 
or less in our Courts, and are therefore justly entitled to notice in 
these pages. Probably most conspicuous among them have been 
those from the older counties of Adams and Schuyler. Indeed, in 
the earlier days of our legal histor}', the Rushville and Quincy Bars 
supplied the only legal talent we had, we believe, with one excep- 
tion, Robert R. Williams. If we mistake not, the county was 
without another attorney until 183-1 or '35, when Mr. Little located 
at Carthage. 

In 1S36, when the writer of this first knew the county, there 
were three attorneys at the county-seat, viz: Sidne}' H. Little, 
James W. Woods, and John T. Richardson; and about that time 
Messrs. Calvin A. Warren and Isaac N. Morris were locating at 
Warsaw. We begin, then, with those who are gone from among us: 

Robert R. Williams — A native of Kentucky, and brother to 
Wesley Williams, the first County Clerk, and to Hon. Archibald 
Williams, of Quincy. But little is known of Mr. Williams; he 
died at an early day, and consequently his acquaintance with the 
people was limited. He settled in the county about the date of 

Sidney H. Little — Was a Tennesseean by birth. But little is 
known of his early life. He came to Carthage about 1834 or '35, 
and began the practice of law, and soon took rank among the able 
young attorney's wlio frequented this Bar from abroad. Mr. L. was 
a man of decided talent, a good speaker, a clear reasoner and affable 
and urbane in his intercourse with the people. In a word, he was 
popular, and in the election of 1838 was chosen by the Whigs and 
elected to the State Senate. In this body he took a leading position 
as an active working member. With Secretary Douglas, he took 
a leading part in obtaining for the Mormons their celebrated char- 
ters in the Legislature — charters which, gotten up in haste and 
without due consideration, contained powers and conferred privi- 
leges the application and use of which could never have been antici- 
pated by him. Mr. Little's tragic death, by being thrown from 
his buggy by a runaway horse, occurred on the 10th of July, 1841. 

James W. Woods. — This gentleman remained in the county 
only a year or so — long enough to acquire citizenship and run fur 


the Legislature in 1836, and, although so confident of election as 
to bet freely on it, came out hindmost of four candidates, with a 
score of 18 votes! Tliis result disgusted him with the county and 
he left it for Iowa Territorj', where in time he became a lawyer of 
some prominence. 

John T. Richardson — Only remained one summer in the county 
— that of 1836 — when he went further west. He was a genial, good 
sort of a fellow, with no special talent for the law. Of his nativity 
or after career, we know nothing. 

Isaac Newton Morris — This gentleman's death was recent — at 
Quincy, October 29, 1879. The press notices thereof furnish the 
following: " He was the son of Hon. Thomas Morris, of Ohio, long 
a Free-Soil Senator in Congress; was born in Clermont Co., O., Jan. 
22, 1812, came to Illinois in 1835 and settled in Warsaw in 1836. 
A few years afterward, having married a Miss Robbing, of Quincy, 
he removed to that city, where he continued to reside till his death, 
engaged chiefly in the practice uf the law. Mr. M. was a strong 
Democrat in politics, was twice elected to Congress in this district, 
in 1S56 and in 1858, and always made an industrious and active 
member." He held other ofhces of honor and trust, both under 
State and national authority. The Carthage Gazette says of him: 
" Col. Morris was a man of strong character. He possessed fine 
natural ability, was a good speaker, was full oi vim, a warm friend, 
and a bitter, unrelenting enemy." 

Louis Masquerier — We had almost forgotten the learned, the 
eccentric, communistic Masquerier. .French in his origin, he had 
imbibed the theories of the French philosoph}^, and came West to 
disseminate them, and practice law. In this last he met with 
indifferent success; in the other, had he lived on another planet 
where human nature was not in the ascendant (if there be such an 
one) he might have succeeded better. He was a theorist only; 
had no practical ability with which to buffet the world's selfishness. 
He had resided in Quincy; in 1S36 he was in Carthage, but soon 
went back to New Yoi-k. 

'Thomas Ford — -Of Gov. Ford we have so much to say in other 
chapters that little must suffice here. He was a Prosecuting 
Attorney for the Circuit in the early years of the county. As such 
there are few who remember him. He attended Court here only a 
few times, often enough, as he states in his History of Illinois, to 
conclude that the people here were a "hard set." Mr. Asbury, of 
Quincy, speaks of him thus kindly: " All agree that Tom Ford was 
a bright, conscientious and just man. In 1833, when the cholera 
was raging in Quincy, he was here and stood his ground and helped 
the sick, like a man." 

Wm. A. Richardson. — Why he was always called "Dick" Rich- 
ardson we never knew. He resided at Rushville, and liad consid- 
erable practice in this county. Like his friend Douglas, Col. 
Richardson was best known as a politician. He was at one time 
Prosecuting Attorney for this Circuit. He was not distinguished as 


a mere lawyer, tlioue;h his sturdy, hard sense and experience, rather 
than study, made him successful. As an officer in the Mexican 
war he was brave and acquired distinction. After his return home 
it was that he became famous, not only in his district but in the 
House of Representatives and the Senate at Washington, as a poli- 
tician. He was born in Kentucky, and died in Qnincy on Dec. 27, 

Archibald Williams. — This " Nestor of the Bar " in the Military 
Tract was a Kentnckian, and settled in Quincy as eai-ly as 1825 or 
'26, where he continued to i-eside and practice his profession many 
years, acquiriTig a very high reputation. He had not an extensive 
practice in this count}^, but was often called to take part in cases 
of great magnitude; and his management was always such as to 
gain him a wider and more enduring fame. He was not an orator, 
in the common acceptation of the term; but his direct, plain and 
earnest reasoning always made an impression on a court or jury. 
He talked to convince; never aimed at rhetoric, or descended to vul- 
garity or abuse. He served for a short period as U. S. Attorney 
for the District of Illinois, and was appointed by his friend Presi- 
dent Lincoln, Judge of the U. S. District Court in Kansas. He died 
Sept. 21, 1863 (we believe in Kansas), and his remains sleep in 
Woodland cemetery, in tlie city he had so long made his home, and 
where he had established an enduring fame. 

Charles Oilman. — Mr. Gilmau was better known as a law- 
reporter than as a lawyer, liad a good education, fine literary taste 
and acquirements, and industrious habits. His reports have become 
standard publications. His practice was limited in this county, 
but as a partner with Mr. Sharp, for a period, he became somewhat 
known to our citizens. He was from Maine, resided, and died in 
Qnincy, of cholera, about the year 1S4S. 

Edward D. Baher — A resident of Springfield and a compatriot 
with Murray McConnell, John C. Calhoun, the Ed wardses, Abraham 
Lincoln and others, and possessed finally of a national fame, " JMed 
Baker," may be classed as belonging to our Bar. His appearance 
at our Courts was not frequent; yet when he did appear, the occa- 
sion was sure to be an important one. Mr. Baker may justly be 
ranked as among the finest orators the country has produced. His 
speeches made in the Carthage court-house have been among the 
ablest and most impressive ever made there. He possessed all the 
natural gifts of an orator, an easy flow of language, a good imagi- 
nation, an attractive and graceful manner and an earnest honesty of 
purpose. He went in command of a regiment to the Mexican war, and 
achieved distinction at Cerro Gordo, removed thence to the Pacific 
coast, where he became a U. S. Senator from Oregon. In the Sen- 
ate he stood high as a statesman and an orator. He resigned to 
take a position in the Union army, and laid down his life for his 
adopted country at Ball's Bluff. Gen. Baker was by birth an Eng- 
lishman, and was raised in Adams county, Illinois. 


Nehoniah £ushnell. — Of the man}- attorneys who have practiced 
at the HaTicock Ear, no one has gone to the Bar be^-ond, leaving a 
brighter fame and a purer reputation, perhaps, than Neheniiah 
BushnelL To Mr. Henrj' Asburj's " Slcetches of Bench and Bar," 
reference to wliich has been heretofore made, are we indebted for a 
portion of what follows, in regard to Mr. BushnelL He came to 
Quincy in 1887, and entered into a law partnership with Mr. 
Browning, which was only terminated by the death of the former. 
He was a New Englander, a graduate of Yale College and a 
highly educated and finished gentleman. Mr. B. was fond of books, 
was one of the best read men in the State and had accumulated 
a most valuable library. " Perhaps Illinois never held a more 
modest and unassuming really great man than Bushnell; and per- 
haps few, if any, really intellectualh' stronger men than he." Mr. 
B. was a very pleasant speaker, though not what the world calls an 
orator. His manner was graceful, dignified and earnest. " It has 
been alleged that he was too exhaustive and diffuse in argument, 
and in the production of his authorities." This is true, and it was 
nearly the only fault that could be found with the matter or manner 
of his addresses to Court or jury. " Perhaps no two lawyers ever 
lived better suited as law partners than Browning and Bushnell;" 
and we state but a well-known fact when we add that, perhaps, no 
partner was ever remembered with a kindlier feeling. Mr. Bush- 
nell was an active worker in behalf of the Quincy & Galesburg 
railroad, the city of Bushnell, on said road, being named in his 

Cyrus Walker. — For ability as a lawj'er, and for persistence and 
force in the prosecution of a case, there were no superiors at the 
Hancock Bar to Cyrus Walker. He had been a successful practi- 
tioner in Kentucky, and was a man of middle age when he settled 
at Maoomb. He had a good deal of practice in the " hard " cases, 
not only in this, but in other counties in the Circuit and out of it. 
"He was very strong in criminal cases, both on the side of the 
people, and in the defense. When Cyrus Walker was thoroughly 
aroused, and in dead earnest, with a determination to win the 
verdict from the jury, he was as terrible as an army with banners." 

William Elliott — Was a citizen of Fulton county, and was Pros- 
ecuting Attorney here for some eight j'ears, embracing the period of 
our Mormon difficulties. He was regarded as a lawyer of medium 
ability, but not an eloquent orator. In the celebrated trials growing 
out of Mormon aflairs, he usually had associated with him in the 
prosecution lawyers of more decided reputation. He afterward 
served as Quarter-Master in a volunteer regiment in the Mexican 
war, and died at home soon after the war was over. 

George C. Dixon — Was a Quincy lawyer who sometimes — not 
often — practiced at our Court. He was from New York, where he 
had previously practiced; was a well-educated and well-read lawyer, 
and withal a good speaker, though he never became popular with 
our people. He removed to Keokuk, Iowa, where he died some 
j-ears ago. 


Robert S. Blackwell. — Genial "Bob Blackwell," admired and 
esteemed by all who knew hini. Kesiding in liushville, he was a 
frequent practitioner at our Bar. Urbane, companionable, witty, 
lively, generous, he soon gained a position among our lawyers, and 
might have made — did make — a shining light in our midst. Some 
of his speeches, while Prosecuting Attorney, it is remembered, were 
among the ablest ever made in our Court, and compared favorably 
with those of his opponents, among whom we may name Browning. 
Walker and others. Mr. Blackwell was evidently a rising man 
when he left our Courts and settled in Chicago, in a broader field 
of usefulness, where he died several 3'ears ago. Mr. B. had a most 
remarkable memory, was always ready with his authorities, quot- 
ing book and page with the greatest facility. 

Jackson Qrimshaio — Of Pike, afterward of Quincy, was for 
man}' years well known in our county and had considerable prac- 
tice at onr bar. He was always regarded as a strong lawyer and 
able to cope with the best. Mr. Asbury says of him: "Mr. Grim- 
shaw possessed an active, perceptive and vigorous mind, was well 
grounded in the law, and was pre-eminently strong before a jury 
in any and every case where an analysis of the testimony and 
motives of witnesses might be brought into view. A prevaricating 
witness or a mean defendant had to snifer from his terrible denuncia- 
tions. Mr. G. would not pander to a mean prejndice in Court or 
jury, and his most scathing comments and denunciations only fell 
where he -felt that the right, the honor and the virtue of the case 
was on the side he represented." But Mr. Grimshaw was, perhaps, 
best known to our people as a stump orator, having been on several 
occasions before the people of the District in that capacity, either 
as a candidate or a volunteer in aid of his party. 

Ahneron Wheat — Was a Quincy attorney, an able lawj'er, who 
years ago had considerable practice in this county. Whether still 
living we are unable to state. The same may be said of 

H. Johnson — Excepting that he died a number of years ago. 
Mr. J. was an active member of the " Peace Committee of 100 " 
from Quincy, during the last Mormon troubles, and through his 
influence and skill probablj' the destruction of much life and 
property was averted. 

William H. Roosevelt — Was a scion of a rich family in New 
York city. He settled in Warsaw about 1836 or '7, and acquired 
large interests there. His practice at the Bar was merely nominal, 
being better known as a politician, a trader and land speculator. 
He was intimately identified with the interests of Warsaw, and 
labored hard to advance her prosperity. He was genial, good- 
natured, high-minded and held many honorable positions. He 
was several times a candidate for the Legislature, and was elected 
to that position in 1S5S. His deatli occurred soon after the com- 
mencement of the Rebellion. 

Malcolm McGregor — Was a New Yorker, who came to Warsaw 
about the same time with Mr. Roosevelt; was also a Democratic 


politician ; ^vas a candidate for the Legislature in 1840, but 
defeated by Dr. Charles. In 1839 he had been elected to the office 
of Probate Judge; was afterward appointed by the County Com- 
missioners to the responsible position of School Commissioner, 
and died while holding the office. 

Thomas Morrison. — This gentleman was 'a Tennesseean, and 
settled in Warsaw about the year 1842 or 1843; afterward resided 
in Carthage. He was a good lawyer, though he never obtained a 
large practice. He was a politician of the Whig school, and was 
elected to the Legislature in 1846. His death occurred not long 

Messrs. Roosevelt, McGregor and Morrison were brothers-in-law 
— married to the Misses Wells, sisters of James M. Wells, one of 
the Warsaw proprietors. 

Henry Stephens — Was a New Yorker, and is said to have read 
law in the office of Millard Fillmore. He settled in Warsaw about 
1840, and arose to the rank of Brigadier-General in the Militia. 
Gen. S. was not an able lawyer, neither was he an orator, yet by 
his industry, energy and methodical habits, he attained to con- 
siderable practice. 

Sterling P. Delano — Was raised in Hancock county in the 
vicinity of Warsaw. He studied with Browning and Bushnell, of 
Quincy, and entered into practice in that city with Messrs. Buckley 
and Macy. He enli>ted in the army, and was elected Captain of a 
company of cavalry. He was unfortunately wounded by a pistol 
ball accidentally discharged in the hands of his First Lieutenant, 
Catlin, which lodged in the spine and proved mortal. He died 
at his home in Quincy after months of extreme suffering. Mr. 
Delano's career as a lawyer was short but honorable. He was 
greatly esteemed by the members of the Bar, and died regretted. 
We are not aware that he had practice at the Hancock Bar, but as 
a Hancock boy this notice is due to his memory. 

Of the Hancock attorney's now living away, we can recall the 
names of Jason H. Sherman, Jacob C. Davis, William C. Wagley, 
N. W. Bliss, George W. Batchelder, and Robt. W. McKinney. 

Of old attorneys, non-residents of the county, and who formerly 
practiced at this Bar, we mention Hon. Orville H. Browning, Hon. 
James W. Singleton and Calvin A. Warren, Esq., all of Quincy, 
and all now venerable in age. And we must not omit to mention 
the younger attorney, who though a Quincy man and a citizen 
there, is a native of Hancock county — Gen. Elisha B. Hamilton. 


Of the present members of the bar in Hancock county, it does 
not become us to speak, only to name them. A number are elderly 
men of established legal reputations, who have long been in prac- 
tice among us and are growing gray in the service. Perhaps a 
majority are young men, who have yet, in a great degree, their 
reputations and fortunes to make. 



Residents at the couuty-seat are: Bryant T. Scofield, Thomas C 
Sharp, Wesley H. Manier, Bryant F. Peterson, John M. Ferris, 
John B. Risse, Wm. E. Mason, Win. Baird, Georsje J. Rogers, T. 
J. Scofield, Apollos W. O'Hara, T. C. Griffitts, George Edmunds, 
David Maok, Henry W. Draper, Wra. C. Hooker, Hiram G. Ferris, 
O. F. Berry, John D. Miller, M. P. Berry, Charles J. Scofield, J. 
J. Williams, Samuel H. Benson, W. B. Mclntyre, Mr. Shinn. 

At Warsaw: John W. Marsh, John H. Finley, Edward E. Lane, 
George P. Walker, Wm. N. Grover, Benj. F. Marsh, P. W. Plantz, 
Cortez Maxwell, R. L. McDougal . 

At Augusta: W. H. Mead, Nelson Comfort, B. P. Hewitt, Joab 

At La Harpe: Cornelius C. Preston, S. W. King, J. H. Hungate. 

At Nauvoo: Milton M. Morrill, Adam Swartz, William D. Hib- 

At Plymouth: L. G. Reid. 

At Dallas City: B. F. Newton. 

At Hamilton: Thomas Ruggles. 



In this chapter we collect together numerous incidents, anec- 
dotes and occurrences, without reference to the order of their dates. 
Some of them were overlooked in the regular course, and some have 
come to light as we have progressed with our work. 

When Sheriff Deming was in Warsaw looking for the defendants 
in the Smith murder cases, he was treated very shabbily. He put 
up for the night, and when he started to leave in the morning, he 
found that some ruffian had shaved his horse's mane and tail. He 
mounted him, however, and started to leave. Coming to where 
some citizens were standing, he halted, and remarked: "My horse 
got into bad company last night." " Most generally is, I reckon," 
retorted one of the by-standers. The General rode on, thinking it 
unnecessary to parley with such a crowd. 

Here is a story told of a certain Rushville attorney. We don't 
give his name because we really have forgotten it, but no matter. 
He practiced at the Hancock Bar, or at any rate attended Courts 
here for that purpose. But, if the truth must be told — and there 
is where the joke comes in — he practiced also at the bar of Charley 
Main's grocery. It was in the early days, when Courts were held 
in the log cabin south of the square. But earl}' as it was, there 
had been a circus perambulating the country, and one had exhib- 
ited a few days before on the square, and left its ring in the soil. 
So one night after a parcel of attorneys and others had been 
"indulging" at Main's, our Rushville friend started to go to his 
hotel alone. Coming to the circus ring, he took the track and fol- 
lowed it round and round for some time, till others coming along, 
asked what he was doing. "Doing!" replied he; "I'm going 
home; but I didn't know this town was so big. I've been half an 
hour on my way, and I've passed ever so many houses just like 
that over there." The next day the story got out, and the lawyers 
had a high time over it. We believe it was Sidney Little's sugges- 
tion that he was going to be candidate for Judge, and was only 
2)racticing how to run the circuit. 

Christopher E. Yates tells us this story — and it must be true — 
that " once upon a time," about 1834. during Court, a certain jury 


got "hung" under a Cottonwood tree not far from the court-house 
which liad been appropriated for a jury room. Mr. Constable Duff 
had been deputed to watch them, and make them hang together. 
But the case was a knotty one, and the^^ couldn't agree. One of 
them, becoming tired and saucy, said he was going home, and 
started. Duff told him he could not go without first whipping 
him. At it they went, aud Duff whipped him into obedience. 
But still they could not agree upon a verdict. Again the refrac- 
tory man began to rebel, and go home he would. Duff' was again 
under the necessity of whipping him in; and thus kept him until a 
verdict was rendered. 

Jesse B. Winn, a citizen of Carthage, had a mule that strangely 
enough died a natural death, during the session of one of these 
earl}' Courts. The fact caused great comment among the lawyers. 
Among them was one from Quincy, a native of Kentucky, who had 
no business at the town ; but his associates started the story that 
he came to attend the mule case; that it was good law in Kentucky 
that a mule never died, and their associate came especiall}' to 
investigate the reason why the law was not equally good in Illinois. 
The attorney decided that the mule in qustion had lost his hray^ 
and consequently had to give up the g-gko-o-st! 

J. H. Lawton, of Plymouth, tells a story of this same Winn mule, 
and his mate. Traveling once from Warsaw to Carthage, and near 
where Elvaston now stands, he found these mules hitched to a 
wagon load of corn, stuck fast in the mud. and no owner to be seen. 
He had stalled, and had gone off to town for help. An idea seized 
Lawton; truth was, tlie mules had not been well fed. So he took 
an armful of corn from the load and laid it on the ground a little 
way from the mud-hole, before the mules, when they quietly walked 
out with the load, up to the corn, and he left them eating. 

The morning after the murder of the Smiths, Gen. Deming gave 
Mr. Joshua C. Hobert authority to collect all the men he could 
find in town and guard the place. He did so, and at breakfast time 
had mustered thirteen men, kU told. Among the countrymen who 
came in during the day was Mark Phelps — everybody knows Mark. 
He was mustered into the company, a musket put into his bands, 
and ordered to guard in a certain district. This he did to perfec- 
tion. Another countryman, Mr. Thomas M., came along, and was 
about to start for home. This Mark forbid ; he couldn't go until 
he had first obtained a pass from Gen. Deming. Hobert came 
along and found them in a high state of excitement. "Shall I 
shoot him?" exclaimed Mark, ready to execute military orders. 


H. told him he had better not, but succeeded in persuading the 
refractory Tom to go and get a pass from the General. 

At Fountain Green, at the store of C. 0. Tyler, we were shown 
the journal belonging to the firm of Tyler & McClaughey (Stephen 
H. Tyler and Matthew McClaughey) doing business as merchants 
in ISiJr, in that place — both now deceased. In it is a memorandum 
in the hand-writing of C. C. T^'ler's father, then the bookkeeper, 
in the following words: 

" This night, at five o'clock P. M., Joseph Smith and Hyrum 
Smith, his brother, were mobbed and shot at Carthage, 111." Dated 
June 27, 1844. 

Whose was the boot with a foot in it, found in the woods a mile 
or two from the village of St. Mary's, a quarter of a century or so 
ago? Or, rather, whose foot was in it? — not so much matter about 
the boot. That is one of the questions which has never been solved 
to the satisfaction of the people in that vicinity. There was likely 
a dark deed committed in connection with that boot and foot, which 
" somebody " could explain. Many were the guesses and surmises; 
but that is all. They were said to have been found in the vicinity 
of the-vNorthern Cross R. E. track, which was then building, or had 
just been built. Who was that "somebody'"? 

Several glass beads attached to a ribbon or piece of cloth were, 
in the early days, found up in the forks of a tree, in St. Mary's 
township, by hunters. Row did those beads get there, and 
what were they there for? are questions the people frequently ask. 
Two theories are suggested; one, that they were ornaments about 
some Indian, who died or was killed near there, and that the beads 
were carried into the tree by bird or beast, in devouring the dead 
body. Another is, that after his death, his remains were suspended 
up in the ti-ee, after an Indian custom of disposing of dead bodies, 
sometimes practiced by them. 

The old settlers about Carthage used to tell the following good 
one on a certain j'oung mail-carrier in the olden time. An old 
gentleman in the county, well known, and who has held many 
honorable positions, had the contract for carrying the mail east 
from Carthage to Rushville. On the route, distant from any post- 
office, resided a farmer to whom the nearest P. M. had been in the 
habit of sending his papers by the hand of the carrier, outside of 
the mail. One day the contractor being sick, his son was put on 
to go the trip. As he passed the house of the farmer alluded to, he 

Durham Tp. 


was hailed — " Say, have you brought my papers to-day 1" " 1 don't 
know; I'll see," replied the sagacious youth; and jumping from 
his horse, he took the mail bag and began to fumble at the lock; 
then feeling in his pockets, he exclaimed, " Blame that Postmaster! 
he's forgot to give me the key!" 


Allen Melton, of Plymouth, tells the following: 
"Soon after the arrival of his company to settle, they had occa- 
sion to use a cross-cut saw and a frow, to make clap-boards for a 
cabin. Hearing that Mr. Phillips, a few miles below, had the 
articles, he was called on by them and asked if he could lend the 
articles. He replied that he could; but at present another neigh- 
bor had them, Mr. Ebenezer Rand, who resided at Camp Point, 25 
miles away. Mr. R, was accordingly interviewed and the tools 

A military muster and election in the early days of Carthage, is 
thus described by one who was there: There was to be an election 
of oiEcers'and a parade and drill that day, and all the warlike people 
were in town, and the groceries had plenty of whisky on hand for 
the occasion. The crowd had been brought together on the public 
square — a goodly number — and the electioneering began. The two 
principal candidates for Captain were a Mr. Howard and a Mr. 
Perkins. The respective merits of the two men were being dis- 
cussed, when Howard called out, " All who wish to belong to 
Captain Howard's company come over to the grocery and take a 
drink!" Nearly all started. Perkins tried the same experiment, 
but he was too late; the boys were already drinking Howard's 
whisky. " No use, boys," said he to the few around him; " let's 
go over and make it unanimous." And they went. So, through 
the list, the crowd each time drinking at the successful man's 
expense. Perkins, failing of the Captaincy, was, by way of soothing 
his feelingE, chosen First Lieutenant. After election, tlaey went out 
on the square and tried to drill. But it was poor work. " Shoulder 
arms!" they could not, for they had none to shoulder. "Right 
about face! " always turned them the wrong '^a.y. But when the 
oiBcer, giving it up in despair, shouted, " All who belong to Capt. 
Howard's company come and drink; forward, march !" they 
reached the grocery with alacrity, if not in good order. And the 
election and muster were over. 

It is 'not generally known that the township of St. Mary's — four 
north, five west — has no military bounty land in it. The reason 
for this is said to have been, that when the grant was made to the 


soldiers the survey of that township had not been completed, or 
was in some way defective, and hence was excluded from the grant. 
The survey was finished at a later day. Hence all the settlers in 
that township came into possession of their homesteads through 
entry at the Quincy Land-ofEce, and there are fewer controverted 
titles there than in other parts of the county. 

Mr. Valincourt Yan Ausdal, of the " Point," though never a 
citizen on this side, was often at Fort Edwards, and had much inter- 
course with our people. He says he came to the Point with his 
brother-in-law, Stillwell, to trade with the Indians, and had permits 
from Government, At the time of the Black Hawk war, during 
the scare, the women and children were taken down to the fort, 
while the men remained on guard. The American Fur Company 
then had a station at the Point. Mr. V. assisted often to ferry 
people across the rivei'. In answer as to how they got wagons and 
teams across m those days, he replied: "They were taken across on 
two ' dug-outs,' lashed together just near enough for two wheels to 
stand in each ; and the horses were swam across at another trip, 
the men in the canoes guiding them." In that way, wagon, horses, 
family and " plunder" were got across in safety. Mr, V, remem- 
bers the following steamboats on the river before the Black Hawk 
war: Indiana, Mexico, William Wallace, Josephine, and Warrior. 

Bear stories are always in order; so here is one of the Cartilage 
bear: "A bar! a bar! take the children in! a bar! " rang out one 
afternoon in the fall of 1835, from the stentorian lungs of Mr. 

, a North Carolinian, as he sprang down from a building on 

which he was at work, and ran toward his home on the south side. 
And sure enough there was a large bear, pursued by a couple of 
liorsemen and a lot of dogs, who had chased it from the Big 
Meadow, a few miles south of town. Of course the sight of a 
bear in the street was an occasion for alarm, and " a bear! a bear! " 
was re-echoed from house to house through the village. The 
animal had been chased so long that he was quite tired, and now 
being closely pressed he made for a pond of water that stood in the 
ravine southeast of the public square. Here he lay for some time 
in the water, while men and boys were gathered around pelting 
him with clubs and stones, and with all the dogs in town snarling 
and barking around him. ISTow and then a luckless cur, encouraged 
by the men, would approach too near, and get a hug and a clawing 
for his temerity, that would send him oS limping and howling. 
At length Bruin spied a cottonwood tree that stood a short distance 
away, and running to it, climbed it up to a fork, where he found a 
good resting place. In the meantime a gun had been brought, 
but it took several shots from the excited crowd to bring liim 
down. As he fell tumbling and crashing through the dead 
branches, the forty-seven dogs around coTicluded that their time 
had come, and ran yelping and howling from the scene. Aud so 


the trophy was won. As all had had a hand in the slaughter, or 
had at least been spectators, it was decidedthat the carcass should 
be divided, giving all a taste of bear meat. And the Carthage 
bear story is told even unto this day. 

And here is another — a bear that was not a bear: In dividing up 
the aforesaid bear, among others, Mr. John H. Lawton, then in his 
teens, obtained one of the paws. This he kept about as a relic for 
some months. In the early spring he had occasion to pass on foot 
from Montebello to Fort Edwards, along the river road. In doing 
so he was surprised and alarmed at discovering a bear track in the 
snow, at a point near where the Hamilton depot now stands. He 
hurried on to the fort and informed Mr. James Gregg, then resid- 
ing there, of his discovery. " But are you sure it was a bear track?" 
inquired Mr. Gregg. " Of course I am. Haven't I had one of the 
paws of the Carthage bear at our house all winter? and I reckon I 
know a bear track by this time." Well, a bear hunt was just the 
sport for Gregg, and procuring a companion and trusty riiles, with 
Lawton for a guide, they started for the chase. A walk of five 
miles or so brought them to the place where the bear tracks had 
been seen. Lawton triumphantly pointed them out, and said, 
"There! isn't that a bear track?" Gregg looked, examined it 
more closely, and " Humph! Squaw! " with a laugh that made the 
woods resound, was the answer he gave. 

The early settlers of Hancock and adjoining counties were much 
subject to the prevalent diseases of fever and ague ; and during the 
fall months, and often far into the winter, many of the citizens of 
all ages would take their turn at the " shakes," as the disease was 
called. Sometimes whole families would be stricken down with it; 
yet a death very seldom occurred. A doctor relates that on one 
occasion he visited a large cabin, the residence of an early settler, 
on business. He wrapped at the door for admission, and receiving 
no answer, he pushed it open, and on looking about, counted ten 
persons, old and young, big and little, some on beds and some 
on the floor — all shaking with the ague. On inquiring of them if 
they needed anything, the old man replied, between shakes, that he 
g-g-g-uessed t-t-t-hat if they h-h-ad s-s-ome q-q-q-ui-nine, and the 
h-house w-wouldn't f-f-fall down, they w-would g-get along." It is 
needless to add that the kind doctor furnished the needed remedy, 
and got them on their feet again. 

Hon. Thomas H. Owen was a man well remembered by old citi- 
zens of the county. Besides being a minister of the gospel, he was 
a strong politician, and a popular one at that, for he was several 


times elected to the Legislature. His friends tell the following good 
joke on him; and if they tell it, there is no harm in recording it 
here. Once/ when traveling in the north part of the county on an 
electioneering tour, he saw a man as he supposed some half mile 
away in a field; and not wishing to pass any one without giving 
his views, he hitched his horse to the fence and struck out on foot 
to speak to him. He had quite nearly approached the object, before 
he discovered it to be a " scare-crow," placed there to frighten the 
birds away. He didn't secure a vote on that occasion, but he 
thought the joke too good to keep. 

Samuel Gordon, Esq., of Moutebello, tells the following: "In 
the month of May, 1832, on one pleasant afternoon, while the 
inhabitants of Montebello were quietly pusruing their usual voca- 
tions, some one happened to look across tlie river and spied a large 
■ fleet of canoes quietly floating down the current, and not a person 
to be seen. It was at once surmised that the fleet was loaded with 
hostile Indians, intending to land below town, and on the return of 
darkness destroy the settlement. The alarm was quickly spread, 
and a douncil convened to determine upon the best plan to be pur- 
sued. It was soon decided to fortify the court-house, as a place 
of safet}' for the women and children of the neighborhood. All 
hands went energetically to work, and by dark the windows and 
doors of the court room, which was about 20 feet square, were 
secured by thick oak shutters, and the women, children and other 
valuables were gathered into the fort. 

The veterans of the war of 1812, and of the Indian wars subse- 
quent thereto, collected and organized to defend their homes and 
little ones from the dreaded attack of a savage foe. They were 
armed with a great variety of weapons known to a knew country. 
Guards were stationed, and the small force at hand was posted to 
the best advantage, to ward ofl' the expected assault. 

The hours of the night came to an end at last, when it was ascer- 
tained that the supposed savages were only a lot of half-b