Skip to main content

Full text of "The history of Harlem : an historical narrative delivered at Harlem Music Hall, April 24th, 1882 ... : a lecture"

See other formats




Small Talk Series, No. 





^rumi ^qnniy itml ffifnglif 

L. ... 






Awarded Two Grand Gold Medals of Honor, 111. State Fair, 187^^. 

Received Highest Award Centennial Exposition, 1876. 
-^ «-^ 

Awarded Highest Premuirn Missouri State Fair, October, i88x. 
Awarded Grand Gold Medal of Honor Atlanta Exposition, Dec. 1881. 

WARER00MS.-I4th St., cor. 5th Ave. and 129 E. 125th St. 
FACT0RY.-l24thSt, and 1st Ave. 


Small Talk Series, iw. L 

*-><»r-fc-'«— *-TJw''*.rTfai»» «i.*r%-*-^ -^^ «>»*-^^^jig ^.< »^*-«'*r»^*og^r* %Y-j:^«*«<«i 






»fci.-»-.> ««v^ x*r ^ *. J 



^inuiih ^(jmur ;uhI ^i^rigljf 



Awarded Two Grand Gold Medals of HoLOr, ill. State Fair, 1874. 

Received liighest Av>'ard Centennial Exposition, 1876. 

Awarded Hi^hcot Prer:iui:n Missouri State Fair, October, 1881. 
Awarc'ed Gra,;d Gold Medai of Honor Atlanta Exposition, Dec. 1S81. 

WASEBOOMS.-14'h St.. cor. 5!h !m. and 129 E. 125th St. 
FACT0RY.-l24thSt. mid 1st Ave. 



History of Harlem 

— UT 


An H:hi..i i« .'t. KxEHAm-x i/£M\Ei.Et> at Hahi^m Mcsic Halt,, Apiul 2'Im, 







VEfiCtlD^TlOit or OI.D LiS'DMAhKS Sm I^ BTANMJfG ; 





ritOM 1596 TO 1G74. 



• t 



Small Talk Pcelibhiko CoMrk>ii-! . ... .. - - ..- . 

• .• • • • • 

• • 

• /> 

1982. '.. ■<•-■'■/ *J i. 

, , . If. t ...... , . ' 

; f 


c « ' 
*■ r 

c •. t  

[ « < 

«•• • 

« « • 
t  • • 


; ' 

In prfsentiug this b<»(.»k to our Patrons, ami a ^jcnerous Public, 
but little need be- siid. The Lecture eraenatinjj from the vcell 
kuowi. ability of Col. CaMwcll, as a writ^^r an<l public si^eaker, will 
coniuiend itself to every lover of history; it being a coinplcte naira- 
tive of Hirleifl, cn-i told iu an enterlaiuinjj style. Of tbe entire 
lecture c -urse of ♦he Yoanjj ilen's Hebrew Association of Harlem, 
of about fiftv in uuMiber, delivered in Music H.ill last vnnttr 
Ijy] prominent speflkei the lecture of CoL Caldwell drew forth the 
liirgest and mo^L intelligent audience, was the finest delivered, and 
received the greatest plaudits. It wa3 a ooinplete and triuinpliant 
success in the lectuve iield, and was followed by an imperative de- 
mand for the pablic.ition of the lecture. Col. Caldwell gave ^-.z, ■^/ce 
of charge, his manuscript, to whom we offer our public thanks. 

Tliis History d^^tails the discovery of Htirlem, the early pioneer's 
siraj;glGs with the Indians; formation of " New Harlem Village " 
it'.id^its government ; slirnng incidents of the Revolution — one of 
the^'reatcst battles thereof; old laud -marks of the village and the 
liCvolulion now standing ; humorous and amusing anecdotes ; 
progress of tradesmen and mechanics; the good results which wiU 
arise from the Harlem River Improvement, and much other valua- 
ble infonnatioB as to dates ond liistoiieal incidents not heretofore 
publi.shcd. Embracing a peiiod of incidents Kince 1039 io date — 
213 years (137 years prior to the Revolution.) 

Also an iuterosLing appended history of New York, from 1598 
to 1(574. 

Also a Business Directory of the leading business firms in Har- 
lem, all of which will be valuable iiifoi-mation to every inhabitant 
of llauhattan Island. 


'"•'.' Publishers. 

Harlem, July, 1862, 




[Fi-ryr,: t!r§ Ui^trirt Cfirt nz-ecr^i] 

Oi bfirg introdarea by Prer/ulont Oiinalho, of tbe Y M. H. .V. of ILirl^m, 
r?.e C?!onpl vne rc-eeivcd with iiiiiupcso appl^aee, and entered iran^e- 
■^iVelv vyon bis '^•orl;. ju ft lond and dihtii^ft voi-jp. wMcblie l..-:d for one 
ho-.? ii.1 y. half, oncliiicirt; the large nnd intellige-^t aadieacf; V-y thrilling in- 
c:d<J"! of 'hoEev.i'ulion in Harlem ; how the v.bue f^ttlers f;rt:;:_;!eJ_^Hiih 
Ihc ^Virif 137 jears prior to iLt Revolufior., and giviii.*: a li^t '>t ihe pro- 
t;en'.t .-rs of tae preHf.'\t in'>«t prominent r.ri^ceadants of HHr'rm s.'ia their 
tL»jrac',"^r;ttic6. * • • * 'I'jj^ C'IoupI mms at tiaies 

tra';- f \"> j^iOut. arousing Lie Tienrara to the highest pitcli of tethisf-.jni ; ,\U'\ it 
:s c.-^I'.nt tjiat Vie will sooa l.ocoiufi a very p*pu'.i\r lociurer. laVriiig tb'.-; d-ruon- 
ftTF.t' 'J Rr>. ")L;g )i:i< iiuir.c-ron^ fricndu, und wbt-re h<? :i well kn':>*Ti; as .i '^rittr 
sL-i r-T;b)ic 6j)eakcr. 

I/Vr,rii f'rf .V. )'. SUr.] 

51 «^c Hi'.l, Harloiu, w-/:s filled Inst night with a fiae ar..iMcc8, to boir a ]ec- 
tit-WCnouo\A.h. Cild\reli on "liarleui, its History- and Prf>>p^r!tT." 
M?.-/ of ti.'i dosceuJaritsof tn9 ourly s^ltlerH vrere -preiient, i%ud eld Dutch 
2aa:r= abounded, both ia the lecture and in the h.iost. 

[Frnn tie flnr'fhi /ic-orc?.] 
A '■e-ct^r.i wa'5 delivered oa irof'.dttj •rersing at Kivle.'Q Muiic HiU ^j CoL 
A. 3. C'd Ixe'd on " Oirlein ns It Was. as It Ir, and t.'5 It Will D«." There 
W5..5 o c-7.dh' attendance of piople, n^any of th**)!; beirj the representatives of 
the o!J Harlem families. The lecture Vii u good etf_>r1, re^tctiag cre-lit on 
the psilent research and indiifctr/ of the l«>;tnrer. 

[Fro;n the W< ii(/-tieiter Tiii.tJi]^ 
A 'rTj interesting lcct\ire on the Tlirtory of Harlem was dolUered Mouday 
eTcn'iiij. at H'lrlem iliisic K.iH, m.der the lu.spiots of the Ycnr.g jile:/s He- 
brf.- As--v-.iH*ioi; -if >f:iilom, by C >!onel Alonzo B. CJdwoU. The l:?.il vrhs 
croJrdei ?.itu fiu attentive i'.tid:<?»ice, ft great many of '.vhom. no da-i!.i. were 
d^^-^endints of th* early fi^ltiora. The lecture is entirely oHjinftl with CwL 
CsMwt'I, and th^.t gcntlot-iau dtsvrves great f redit for the r.u'ns he has I e- 
rtoi^el on th'.' snbjoct, for, bcsidefe searching thro.iijh old d.^e'imeiits, Iftiers, 
et?., bi haa thor );igh!y oaiivas'ed the wh.'ile diftrict whcs^a hi.-1f.ry he c^:^es 
'uic r.roi:ght historical fat-ts to light. The Colonel spoke in & loud, 
TC-ice, di-^tii-cUy audible in every part uf the hall, fi.nd appl:.iuie Tr.t frequent. 
He ;'.tr:.dr.ced i/.any hviiaorons Hiories, which he told in a f;iDay minr:«^r, and 
h"Is ditc^irM •vai thus reli'ivc-d of the to^inrn gcnerrtll}- oipLTic-nccd at •»»! his- 
t-ur^ca] lr»tnr& and the audience wi^s kept in g'>od bamor. 

[from (he ,V. V. 7iiJ.-p^nl''iiL} 
T!^e Cv'ouel held the attoutiou cJ bis bearers unringthe bonr ^nd ^ lis.lf cc- 
cr.y^iel, ar.d was fre<]neutly iutcmii"ted by long coi;tinned and Lc-Arty ap- 
plscii. He Fhowed a keen appreciation of hie suhje^t, and handJed the 
M»a9 w:th & Jjafterlj skill, 

[From, tht .Y. r. Tnb-iw.] 

ColM-d A. B Caldwell leoturodla«t night at the Harlem Mumc Hdll, Third 
Aven'^^. and I'.jOth Street, on the early sc' lie uent of Harlem village. He de- 
tai;r-<i !:.:docti» CfiacprniDg 5 td government, its e-irly inhabit.Tntfi, and its old 
bJBf'rlr !a::dn>^rks, many of which are now standing. He closed Tii:h the 
pre-jieiloi t^l»-t the H>>rlem Kiver im])ro -eniinte now going on will rr.-'J:* 
Hai-ic^ the lCo^t j'l.'portaut centre of the inf'tropolis. A li*rj;e andienc« wa* 



Mr. Pr^<U'.-i}(, /.2'?jW a' I G-:n'l.imen : — 

By tbe kindiies-s aivl c.>urle^; 'A tlie p ipiibir Young Men's 
Iltbr ow iosocittiou of fliiL ^ai, i 'i tre the huuor to stfiini before 
voiv this oveLiug to vluliv-r an • -Jtv, but u-'ith ;;o little embarrass-* 
iae;it, as \he\ Iiave given ir.? tbfiiio for discour>e morf suitc-l for 
clJer residents of ^-T .rl.Tc. •.-.•.J abler speakers wuo arc here to-night, 
and could give their .subj ct mor'» e'vbidU^ihujents, aud render its 
aunuls uaoreatfr.ictiv*' '. entertaining. - 

Ho^'cver, - a cH-.zen d this historic soil, I will :nrike luy best not. to weary your p.itience, nor recount facts which are | 

not fuliv ;iuihei;Iit".ted l»y truthful ]i;st-->iy. T'« My subject thon, 
•■• Ilarkni, Its Pa i His' vry; Its Prirsent and Future Prosperity." ' 

Ii would Vt'- a 1 Jg story to trace the ancestry of the Harlem 
pionecri?; if w > ild carr\' u- btck to the fi'hf^rlaiids, to the great 
lu'.rU a J<1 to s:o:ue of the obscure homes of [I>ilaiid, Belgium, and 
Nur'.i-.-ni France — amid tiieir anti'Uie remains and rare works of 
:ir*, the btundard wonders of tourists from eviTy clime in the \vorld. [ 

The astuunding discoveriv.s of Columbus in the dfLe. nth century 
had opened up a u^w field forniaritime adventure in this then vast 
w Idcrntjss of ours. It was the heroic enterprise of the merchants 
and mariners of tiie F)-ench fiieaj^iorts under Louis XII., which first 
thorough'y exi^lored the yorfh Americ.m coast rind discovered that 
e\hr.u?.t'. bs mine of wealtli in tlie Xiwfoundland fisheries of the 
New ^. Olid. 

The idea of colonizing Aniericd, slumbered ic Finance durinfT its 
ci il wars, and wii<5 revived in the time of Henry the Fourth, 
•fence Cha:n-;laiii in l'"OS, f'..uuded Quebec, the first pfrmanent 
Eurcjiear col jnj in N jrth Ato^ ricA. 


ll(.)ll.iutl now ajipcare on the scene as a rivnl fi«lventuicr And ex 
plorer, having en? ichcJ hfi-stlf in the Ea.-t lii-Txa trade. Hudsori 
an Englishn'an, who hr.d discovered fUe f;imous river -which stiJ 
hcivs hi.:? nn.ine, sold his ni.^li- s of discoT».i-ie:- here to the Hollanders 
when her raorclMnts and oijv.tnlists f.ttod hiiu out at Amstt rdara ii 
1009, and he made fvutherexpior I'ions np the river, nnd led U 
the fonnation of the celehrated " Du'oa '^est India Compan^v;"' aD< 
ia 1023, colonists, cou.-isting of French and Walloons, wh( 
were driven by war and j.>cr.-?ccuti'^'n, to-A' refuse ou the banks o 
the Hudson River. From this s'liall Ix-gi'iniufr grew the great stat< 
Ne*.v York, the " Empire of the Union." 

Before I conie to the Har'cm feKtleinont, ploase indulge me in j 
brief retrospective review. It Ls ai old error cherished in thi 
loc.Uity that the fou'ider? of Harlem all ca me from Holland 
Thev came from several parts of T^'est^?'n — from the sunu' 
plains of France, and from the fir-dad hill? of Scandinavia. Danes 
S.vedes and Norwegians, in /aith Lntli-eran?. — men of integrity, an( 
n.sf d to toil and. V.,„, "o'iips. Tut hi'^e rroportii.'n, hov.-ever, wen 
iioiiandors and French Hngiunots. Ams. '., .» was the grea 
commercial mart of Holland, the point of immigration to the "Xev 
Netherlands," which tr ict r-£ luid the-j cilkd, covered New Eng 
liud through to Virginia, in'.-luding New York city, the "Nev 

Your time and 2)aticnce woi;l 1 not -.Olu'v loc to pjictnre the causei 
which led all of our Xovc York or Harlem ].ioueei-s to seek thii 
land — to sunder the national ties of ta-:;ir respective Fatherlands 
aftif many struggles for civil and religions hberly, and to escap< 
va&aelago. Tliis you can Cnd ii: history. I am limited to loca 
facts — to deal with H ivluin rs it ira<, i--; and what it i^ to become. 
Although this is an historic d essiy, I must leave the dry, heavj 
annal? t-^ the historian. The objects ."'f hihtorj are not merely the 
recording of facts. The world, — a^ its distant tnd widely- extend- 
ing climes, with their peculiarities of eituatiou and climate, make 
together one great whole, — so t::at the events that have hajipened 
in it, which arc happening, aul wh.ich will h.-.ppen, are closely 
terwov'jn, as it were, into one anbivkou threa'h The past has 
,vl iis influence in forming the pre^ont^ TLe present is opcr-iting 
^nightily on the future. Hi^^tory may, ye^, it niu.^ note down 





events, when an-1 whcro (bey occur. It must infoim us of Cosar, { 

of Leoni(1:is, of Couepait, Croiinvcll unJ AYiiiliiugton, aaJ otlier ^M' 

great men, — wlioii they lived, what Ji^rlingaibUed actions tlicy ; 

achieved, what kuJ tLey bk-ssed or ruined,— how they rose, and Ij! 

Low they ftlL It must alao take uoticc of the siualler chai-acters^ ' 

who iake part in the greit drama of Life. And how beautiful, .]. 

how grand, how euaobluig is this view of mankind and their 
doings. Age3 have rolled on— generation has succeeded gener- jij 

ation, but the tie that connects man with his fellow man, has never i' 

been severofh Tliey, vrho have gone before, by their gradual ad- [,'■ 

vancenaeut, have contributed to place us where we are ; and we, ."| 

in our turn, are but cnrrying on the same great enterprise of im- 
provement, in wliich the^' have laboro'L There is not a great 
event in the aunals of the world, wherever or by whom achieved, 
that has ceased to operate, or that ever will. There is not a dia- 
tingaished character, — be it for his viiiues, or his crimes, — ■'Tho 
has ever trod ujjou the earth, who does not yet live in tlie good or 
ill iri'''nence of li's life. Is it net a pleasant thought, that men of 
p.ll ages, and -all nationa, are thus felloe' laborers, arc thus brethren? 
Is it not a high and interesting duty, which, in this view, history 
has in charge? 

T'le present is a revolutionary age. The political elements r^e^m 
everywhere in motion, — and all are busy, cither as actors in, or 
sp-ectatoj-s of, the great work, n? it is called, of rtforia. And while 
nev,- revolutions are iu i^rogross, old ones are becoming the themes 
of conversation, and the subjects of research. Men are going 
back to the ancient baltlefiolds of their fellow men, —studying the 
principles which gave birth to their uprisings, noting the conuee- ' 
tious of remarkable events, and writing the lives of the leadeiu of 
revolution.s. All this is natural, it is well, it is, it is right. 

But to resume. The opportunities for tra.'fic in furs on the Hud- 
son, the flattering advantages for peaceable homes and lovely land- 
BCiipes, an:l an a^-quisition for riches, h:^d long attracted Holland and 
other countries to emigrate to " New Aiiisterdam," or the I'-land 
of New York, or what the Indians called it, MaamhaUa, .signifying 
the " Red lion's Home." Our early settlers hero wero net cri.'nin- 
als, esv'aping from justice, nor speculators allured by plunder, nor 
vagabonds exiled fioiu their native lauds, but fhey were honect, 



iut?l;i.-cijt, Jiiird-'.vorking na*! useful citizens, wliose love for civil 
nn\ religious libe; ty, ana thoir devotiou to their roligious toneta 
were further incentives ^vhlch inJuc-rd theio to leave trrrtunj and 
Keek what his ever .since been cillod the '' Asylum of tlie Op- 
prefssed," or, ia a more poetic sense, 

" The l.iud cf t}i? free au'] tlie Lor;ie of tbe brave." 

I will o>uit the details uf Hudb on's explorations of Long Inland, 
N^'A' y >rk and the Hudson River ; that on the spot now called the 
" i>.dlr-ry,"' tlie " Fort AvinsterJ.iiu '' was then built to protect 
tuo traders in lOLi ; that up to 1050. New Y-nt contained 
oaiv 120 houses and 1,0"IO inhabitants ; how the Dutch siurreu- 
derod to the ER^"ii?>h, and afforwiids recaptured thoir beloved 
city, "nd .s .on afterwai- 1? eel?,! it to the EuLdish bv trealv, on 
co'jo'.usion of the war bjtw^eu Idollaiki and En^Iiud ; nor tlie fi'e- 
i"iit, ooiifl cts betwoea the ludians and tha white men of those 
diiy'i ; iiow th.' tea wa.-^ served out (as was tiaid) of ''juij stic d(>ii 
teapot'i, oruanx'^ntC'l with jnctures of fat little Dutch sboj'herds 
Aod shc^j^herdr-ssr^a tendin.^ pigs ; how the beaux distingui.shed 
rai;iiiielve-,bj their aJroitness in replenishing this pot from a huge 
copp -r t(. i-]:ettle, ',vhich woildhavo the pigmy luacaroaios of 
J.hes3 digeuirate d.iys p^r.-pae m'irclj- to look at. To sweeten the 
beverage, a lamp of ?'igar was liid V»3.side each cup. au<l the com- 
pany Hlternatily nibbh.-d anl sippjd with great decorum, until a 
shrewd ;tuT or jrvimii. Dutch vrow invented an iuiproveuiriit, which 
v,'.u 1 1 suspend a I'.rge la. up of sugar directly over the tea table, 
b.y a :-trii!g fr.j:u the celling, ao that it could b>j swucg from mouth 
t/> n>OLt!h. T.'iere was no tiiiting or co.-]uctting in those days— no 
ga.ubijlling of old ladies, u u* hoyden chattering and romping of 
young ones -n , s^lf-aitisneJ 'itrultiogsof wealthy geutlenien," with 
Tuoro ce'it.i in their pockets than 6-''iv; in their heads, nor amusing 
conceits and monkoy divertisements of smart young gentlemen, 
w;;a u^ brains at all. No fist hoists and defalcations in banks, 
nor swindled treasuries. Tiien the young men earned the dollars 
and th3 fathers s.aved them , but now the father? earn the fortunes 
and Ihcir sons and d lughters spend them ! On the contrary, the 
voung ladies of our c-a-ly -lavs '•' sjatcd themselves demurely in 
tholr r!ishd)oitomed chairs and knit their woolen hose, nor scircely 



opeuotl their months excsptingj to cat, a'i<\ to say, ' Yah, injnh.-r,' 
to c-verj tj'icstiua aslcej of them ; behavioj iu all things like de- 
cent, 'svcil o>luo,ito.I JaiQsels. iu true IlolhiU'l ptyle. As to the gen- 
tleuien, each of ihoiu tranquilly smoUrJ his pipe and seemed lost 
iu contcinplitloa of tlic blue and white tile-; with whi<'h the fire- 
places wero decon^tcd ; whoroin .>uiidiy passa^'es of Scnpture were 
portrayed- Tol>:t acd his dog figured to great advantage ; Raman 
swuQff cousnicuoiisly and ncrvotisl}- on his pfibbet, and Jonah 
appeared most r;j;iufally bomicing out of the wh:de Jike harlequin 
through a barrel of lire ! 

The fair daoisi's' hair, models of untorfured abniuinations of 
modfTu art, ■\v;is ?crupuloa->ly poiaitumed back from their fore- 
heads With candle-grease, covered with little cajjs of quilted calico, 
which fitted esitctly to their heads." Those were good old honest 
days, \rh(n ?slary .kaa gossipei-s were unknown, Avery woman staid 
at home and read her Ihble, tenuod her o»\u babies, scorned all 
lap J')>;s, and wore large side pockets to carry about ordinary house- 
hold utr-nsils, such us big shears, pot houks, wooJen ladles, iron 
spoons and clay ^nuff boxes. 

We now leave the " down town " of ManhattfvU and go to the 
" East end"' as the JIarlem bergers termed it then. Tlie Indians 
had full mastery of the forest hereabout. Tlic-ir hickoix bovys 
wei-e^ six. fe et long, an d when p uUeJ on man or beast, few escaped 
the Jea^irTarrpw TheyTTvoTrljy fishing and hunting, and clothed 
theirljolies wiih the skins of animals, and covered their huts with 
the barks of trees. They used flint or stone hatchets, and stone 
pipes for smoking tobacco. There were two races, the Manettuea, 
on this side of Hirlem Rivera aiid, on the other side, in Wctches- 
ter county, the Wickquaskci'ks, "When the v/hite man's axe com- 
menced to fell iras on the Island, and thatched houses were beino' 
built, tiiese dusky creatures, as they passed to and fro on their 
trading expeditious, eyed with surprise and displeasure the incur- 
sions and inroals ma-.le upon their ancient hunting grounds by the 
" pale faces." The howl of the wolf, t'le plaintive scream of the 
panther and the shrill yell of tjje redman, often disturbed the death- 
hke stillness of night, striking terror to the hearts of the suddenly 
awaker^ed sleepers of this locality. 

Although AVm. Kieft was Governor of {he " New Netherlands," 

I ; 


-\vliicli includetl all of tbis ixart of the country, the Imliims dis- 
puteil his i-iglit cither to the huui or their jjoverurneut here, and 
HcLiiow'lodgeJ uo ]uler except " ]\Ianitto," an imaginary " Great 
Spirit," fr..^m v.hom they trailit.ionally beh'eved they had emanated, 
and, f<.s Jiltorigine!?, the}' possessed tliis soil, and declared : " White 
man :io good ; Indian drive oft' pale faces." This savage hatred 
was Hoon raanifested against onr first settler:^, as I shall fnll^' show. 
Captain Jochiem Picter.-ron Knyter, of Holstein, who had formerly 
comniaiided in the East Indies, for the King of DenraarV, 
with his fiiond Jonas Bronck, and their respective families, came 
here by way of An!i:terdam",''in 1G30. Knyter was a hravf., adven- 
turous man, fmoly edi.""ated, and possessed of C'^iisider^ible means;' 
He brought v.ilh him laborers and a g(>od breed of eatde. To find 
immediato grazing for his stock, he obtained a grant of land from 
Governor Kieft, callod by the Indians, " Schor.ikin," lying along 
the Hai'lem River, comprising about 400 a'-res. He built a 
thatchcd-vo. 'f dwelling and out-buildings, enclosed all with a high 
palisade fei;ce, as protection against tlie savages and wild beasts. 
He called his Boweric or Plantation, Zf/jcndaJ, or " Vale of Bless- 
ing," or in other wor^is, " Happy Valley.'' This land lay in the 
vicinitv between East 107 to ll?-Lh Streets, and from Haidem River 
to 3rd Avenue. Knyter and his white followers had terrible strug- 
gles with theladiani The red men '.vere as savage as their cous- 
ins, the woiTCs and bears, and when tliis bestial trio fought for the 
products of the forest, the white men locked on as complacently 
and as indiiT-rently as the Hoo?>ior did wl:ea his wife fought the 
" bar," he " didn't care a darn winch whipped " 

The ludiins, in lG.j3, burned Kuyter's house during the absence 
of hiivisolf and family. He soon built up 3gain and went oir 
bravely, l.eeping a watchful eye npjn the Indians and tilling his 
plantation, and bringing it into a high state of cnltiv;iiion. By his 
winnmg manners, and obliging the Indians on individual occasions, 
he had dispelled much of their personal animosity towards him, 
when Governor Kieft, by a most impolitic act, fired the entire Indian 
TT.ce with indignation ; by lev\ing upon them a tax, and demand- 
ing their corn, fur and S-uranf., (or vinnprm) in payment This was Indian nione%, made by tabular beads of pieces of 
conch shells, and faftened on skins, cloth ")r canvas. For many 


-> I.ECTCKE OX HAni.E>L Ti. 

years our earl 3- .settlers usc-<l this sort of raoucj in coinniorcial, :'.nd tvc-ji for church c(-utrlb:.ui..>ns. Only think, of 
to-'l:iy, Colonel Hamuel "W'aklron, who ruw .sits ..>u this plalform, a 
liiioal tksccD.laut of the gront Barou Resulv.d Wi.u'.roji, (^an early 
pioneer of Ilavloia) stulling headed canvas, on Sunday, into the con- 
tribotioQ box of " Jiraniy Wood's? church." 

Tlie Indians f^rev; nioro and more restive and troul'^lesome as 
their tnyxa were onfcrced. The whito r.U'n had to carry arms, a<j k 

the red lucu were coufttantly in ainbvisli, and had s.voru " to root jj 

( at the DuLfh." They ruthlesslv killed off several nhite bottlers 
snd burut-d 'holi* cabiuf?, and believing that Ki]\Itr could have 
inl'.uencod a decrease iu their taxes, or had a baud in the imposi- 
tif )n, they resolved to ninv ler hirn. The "Week^quakeek ( Weschester) 
Indians, oaine over st'ia'tbily in canoes, at midnight, in 1054., and 
shot blanng arrows iiito his thatched roof, and as he came out in 
frant of his burninrr tl\vo]iin«j and bravelv faced the sava;re euemief* 
they pierced hita to the heail with aiTows, and he f<.'il doa<l, which 
was a jnuurnful loss to the white settlers. His wife and children, 
by going out the back v,ay, esc;i.ped in the forest, and thus saved 
their lives. 

Other settlers of pr«;jaiuence had arrived in Ilailem, almost co- 
tcniporaneous with Kayter, such as Isaac De Forrest, Dr. Johau- 
nca De La MoLi-agae, Jonkheer Van Curler, etc Isaac was the 
ancostur of all tlie De Forrest s hereabout. He stttlod on the 
'•' Fkts," \>as a tobacconist, a brewer, became a member of the 
" Bc'ird of S'.-lec<7nen," held several other j-vublic cflic-^s, and died 
in 1074. Y.'iQ Curler came over with Van Tv.ilhjfr (subsequently a 
Du-octor General,) possssscd the " Otter spoor," situated north of 
" Mill Creek," at lOSth Street, and extending from Harlem River . .| j 
to 5th Avenue. It lay next to De Forest's plantation. Dr. 
^fontagne v,a.<» a French Hugenot, and it is safe to say that he 
was the most learned scientist on Majihatfan Island* and his ability 
was roui-ted l>y the highest in power. Governor Kieft appointed 
him commander of a battallion of soldiers which the Doctor raised 
himself, and he set out in pursuit of the Indians. He fought the 
dusky races from Long Tidand to Harleir., a^i^d drove the a^ri^htened 


wretches to AVliife Plains, throe ^slau.^ihi4TCMl_.4napy, b^rncij_-tljeir 
main villages, and ho^tihtJ os ceased foi a ^on^ time, except by an 

! I 

I ( 

12 M-crauE on h.vrlem. 

ciccasloual iniraudin'ng pirty. For tLi< heroic service the Gov- 
ernor '^n\e him a tract of lau 1 on '.ue '' Fists," ^}iiig bet^rof:!! what 
is now cilled 9lth ai'd 108th streets, an] froru East lliver to 8th 
Avenac. He called his Bov.-crie " ]'r<<hu,JjJ,'' or " Quirt IW^," 
nearly a mile Wlow the " New IlarleLQ "' village. Tlie Doctor 
sold it to John L. Bogert for 3,000 guilders, ($7.=^0) in 1C72 ; 
it was purchased in 170G bj Johaune.s Boason, thij first Benson 
settler heie; arid tbe property was hehl by the Benson faitnly, 
until Margaret Benson, sole surviving owner niarried Andrew 
'McGown, in 1781. Foriions of this tract are still owned by the 
McOown family. The well-known Thompson family, (George 
Thomp.son corner 3d Avenuo :itid I'Joth street) are deaccndants of 
Dr. M'-iitagne. The Doctor raiicd eight children h.- re, the most 
prorriir.ent of whom was John Montague. One C'f the def.cendants 
owned a piece of land, now within C-ritr..l ParK, upon vrluch stood 
tlte Black Horse Tavern, of Revolntionary notoriety. Hon. Itaac 
Montagne, editor of the fiulcj't'.iulenf, at Goshen, N. Y., is a lineal 
descendant of the Doctor. I have a spiitolaim deed, given by 
twelve p< rson5 to June.-? A. Corse, dated December, 1817, and 
Timong the signers ave John De La 'Moi.tagne, Geo. S. D^^ La Mon- 
tagne, Beij.unin Thompson, 'said George's father) John S. and 
Andrew Th(jnipson, (ancles to George; and Eliza Thompson 
(Georgti's uufit), which relinquishes all their lutsre.sfs in the Mon- 
tagne property, called by the Indians, " Bf-hr'icaiu'r-,^' and deeded 
to the Doctor by Gov«rjior Kieft in IG 17, as before stated. This is 
due proof that the Thompson family and the Montagne fiimily are 
connexions by <-ousanguiL'ity. 

Adjoining the !Montagne fiirm. was Baron Bc.solved Waldron's 
grant, lying between Slst and 9 tth Stre<ns, and from Hurlem River 
to Cth Avenne. The Indians called the "^Vidmu Tract, also, Berlie- 
wane.<, (crooked hmd) and by the Holland^iio it was named "Hoorn's 
Hook," from an amusing incideni:. It appears that a surveyor 
named Jan Tan Hoorn was with a surveying party in the forest 
there, and he volunteered one day to climb a tree for wild grapes. 
After lining his .stomach and pockets with the coveted fruit, he pro- 
ceeded to descend, fell, and the seat of his bucl-.,skin trowsers 
caught on a lind->, and there he hung and swung, like a .scarecrow 
in u cc-rnru-ld, or like ]\b;hf\mmcd's codiu, l)itween the heavens 

y./ Lr.CTUKE ON UAV.I.EM. iV ' 

:tn(l earth. The Hollariflers Wufcfh tlio tree ol>scrvii>g the swivel 
jiredicatnent Hooni wa5 in, l;it:j:Li.^g'r «-*i-icd ont, "See, Hoom is 
hocliC'l," inid hence the ap'.)el1r;tiou '• Horn s Huok,"' wliioh lasted 
over inO years aino'g the Harleia settlers. 

lu this connection I n:ig;ht s^-riJe to V.e f.xct that Lx-Gove- ,, 
nor Kieft set sail for Hulhunl, ltU7, in the sliip " PrincesK," 
wliich fouuLlcied, nod Wiis !o>t ou the coast of W;ilcs. ^^,„ . 
General Petius Stmvesr.nt succeeded Lim as Governor, 
and appoiiited B!jron Eesclved Waldron, Joseph Wal- 
dron, (Ilia brother; snd Joost Tan O. BIinu3, as Coramis- 
si'"'ntrH to settle the "East End," — Harlem. It vras con- 
ditioned that thoj sh'iulcl plunt t.^tatv-five fauiilica here iu three 
j'ei^ro. and ei-talolish a forry acrr'ss the river to WtstLhester, and 
call this side " New Ha?lera," which couditioas were duly com- 
plied with. A row-boat witti tvo oars conveyed foot passengers 
and horses, vv'hile mule^ and cattle had to swhu bahind the boat. 
This f'^rry -wos located on this side <">f r2.3th Street, east of First 
Avenue, then called " foot of the Church Lane." Soon ^sas built 
there, what- was .since tfrmed, '"The Old Stone Ferry House," 
kept by Jan Van "Cipor, a jolly Hcllind Dutchman, ■oho is thus 
described by one of Harkm's pastond Biirds :— 

*' WTio sold d<ler, l»:er ami gin, 
Aji=o kejit y«XH? ctecr ■within ; 
A ad for yenrs Idi cM Fign hung, 
Movt luerrilj tj ;liir breezes 6w Dug." 

From the fact that so man}' wel.'ings were ba(> in 'this ancient 
mansion, it was called by the dovvn-town people the "Wedding i ! 

House." Many un elopement fomiinated in a -wedding there, i . 

vfhile some -were intercepted and frustrated. The fastest horses 
■won the day on that score. Van It--ner, thro'igli a little cunuinjr. 1 

used to help the young folks out. He would dose the "old man" 
with " stone fence," until he bccam" jolly, then obtain his consent 
to the raairiago, marry the happy young couple, when all, dominie 
include'l, indulged in " stone feiice," and the connubial parties | ' 

Tv'ould men-ily go home together. This old land-niark Mas last oc- 
cupied by John Jloore, and pnl'ed down about twenty-one years 



Imiaigr^iUMM^to'this couubv w,»s Gov/ in full Wast. Tbose 'atLo 
Ci^DiO ovc-v here the oariieit, icturiicd for vigils, and eacU one gave 
;rl'>vin;r acoouuUs of tbe liclmess of tLifi coun'xv: its line muierp-l. 
asjncultiii.ij a;iJ contrj.f.roicJ a.lvijii.aj^es, and pai ticularlj tLe psr- 
.<i'ja] libcrtl^-r, or 'ix-od->n' fvoin moDnii-lii.u it^lniints, wliicli the 
peo]^^-le enjovedin Uif "^c-vs- N«;tlicrluuJs," and especially ou Min- 
Lnttiin Islaiul. I luight o-'enfiou oik* of tiiese r..'tara Yoy-igt-s !:s 
in;pO)tant. DarlLg the life time cf Kujitr, he aiul Cornelius 
jrdyu n.Tr,nolli--cl with Go^erijur Kioi't, ■tlief.;ing that they had 
i-icd lo:-;es tioou^h KiuJl's jnisir.U-, vhile Goveni'ir ; thej 
ciiu^ hoth lasuibtvs of the " Kt;rijt ^len." ui- Council, wrote Lone 
to the St:«tt'? Geutval, In *.hc i;;'.nit of their B i.-ird, aavore oiiri- 
cisms on Eiefts u.tuaJiiJnistralioj),. which no <louhf Ij hI tu Kleft 
bei^g siipcr^edtd by Gover nor S Ui yvestiit . Kiofi; pr^iorrod 
chzv-^-zs a^a'-^ist^iivt£rarrfi.ll^l\j^^ \vc-re 

Irjea, conv- tc«t iva 1 s?MV:n--c.l to be bii2i;>hed t)iiee yoir.s and 
'Ined several liiiuTTi^: t giji'.dcrs. Stuyvesapt, iu passiui^ f^eutenrp, 
quokd only the l^r lipti'ral law for tbeii oiYencos — " Thou s.V^V >Krf 
i-lj^ak coil'!,'' >he:'>'ler >>/ Ci'j p-'-ip'''." Rieft was jubih-nt over his 
vlctf>ry. ILiviiic:^ aviiasj-?*! c- fcrtuiie, ho bfai-ted ou a vi^-it to lS.o\- 
land, Au:^''..-ii 3«?M:, iniT, in ili.e '■i-ip "IVincoss," as I meiitioincd 
beloie, :'ud Ciiri'.'U^ly, the t-vo banisLcd i ulprits v.ere put ou bciu'i 
thLs .-atiie >?hip. The sbip j,'ot out. of its course, oil the coast of 
M'?l.-s,.^iriick a rock aod <o siuV. K.ieft setiug ali hope 
;V)ne, at-Vjiowleuvred to Knyter u'^d Mclya that he did theia 
wrong, riiid a-]<ed s.nd obf Jined th o \ r_ for gisiiSifi^s. The ship 
dushed to jiie^jes, but Kuyter and "ATeHii '\-ere saved on seperste 
pieces of Ihu HTfcck i-y di-ifting ashore, while Kieffc aud i.;thers 
juet a \v;itory 'ncse, or r;:Oi-e poetically speaking : 

■'• I-i tliO '^eep blue ocr^n buried." 

lltlyu lobt a son iu this diso.ster, and also was o)ijulphed 
Ererfirdas B^gnrd;!^, She pixstor, counselor and friend of Kuj-ter, 
T)r. Moutr-gne, DeFore'jfs, Broick and other colonists, whose 
d^ith was 1 ng and deeply rao.irned by thera. Kuyter and 
'dtlyn, fdter recovering from their ahock, proceeded to Hollr.nd, 
liid their cases before the Prince of Orange, and bore "back to 
Governor Stu; vcsa at ^nuHilic^tion of the or.ler of banishment 

^ - LwrcnE OS iuhlesi- 15 

and Rncs. Kuyter remaii-.eJ iLe Sim fjien«3 of hi:* fellow coin- 
patriot MfclvQ, uutil bis own tr;i^'ic J<^atli, l\v tbe ludians, in 1054, 
as previously described. Thi« f iirnisbci* Ibc believers in fore-oi'li- 
r.?t:t>n an iiiciufiit^ " born to bo bung 'vlll never be 

We uo'X come to tbe vear I'l'S, -Alien a moverueut fo.r a \il'a''e 
was lauac Tbe iuoentive was on account of the iusolrtnoy of 
nefuy all tbe laud-bolvif-rsbercabout. Most of tbe obi faria own- 
ers had died, and tbeir beire bad banl*ivipted tbe eslntc-s. Even 
Dr. ^^oatague, Came here soon after Kuyter, jiad d.^ef ly in- 
vclycd bis one fum on the flats, and tLaii^^h a Vice Director Gene- 
ral, vvith ? recei^ih inert ased salary, he was reduced to pei ury and 
vr.vct The Koyt^r heirs were no betl-r oflf— in fact, there was a 
gfiieral depiv'ssiou all round, and everybody wis in fi-iancia! rlis- 
tross. It was resolved to foriL. a nl'age corporation, lay out and 
sell !o:v-, and thi:s raise a sufficiency of money to retr-eve their 
waning 'or tunes. Consequently the Director G<^:ier:.l and Coancil 
of "Xew Amsterdam" granted a village charter on ilarch 4th, 
1G5S, which ejnbraced the Ku}tcr est-ite, tbe Conrad Van Keulen 
tract (200 aczx-s) called then " Van Keulen's Hook, or oiigiually 
named "Otter-Spoor," lying in the vicinity of lU8Lh Street ; also 
the Claes C. S wits' farm, which lay between the other two plania- 
{ions, upon wbich bittor farm the cleared portion was to forui the 
village bite. Ground was broken for it 14th, ^tnd the siu'- 
vey was completed by September 10th, that year, when Johan 
Verveeleu regiilcd a large comriuny of the pioneer Eergci"? in fes- 
tivity, with bis "New Amsterdam Beer," amid great liilarity and 
good cheer which mirked the auspicious event. The on'ginal plan 
of *'Kew Harlem" village rrn from 74th Street, Eu.4 F«ive.r, di- 
agonally to 128th Street, intersecting the Hudson cr North Jliver, 
taking inside all land lying between the Hudson and H.ilem 
liivcrs lip to SiAiyten Dajcel Creek. Many have a-sked why this 
creek was thus called. "\\'ell, I have three versions — take yoor 
choice. One is that Anthony Van Corlaer, tbe jolly trumpeter of 
Governor Stuyvesunt, swore he would swim tbut stream on a dai^k, 
stormy night, in ypuut den duyvel, (in ."^pite of the dtvil) and he was 
not as fortunate as Leander who swam the Hellespont, m his Satan- 
ic maje'^^ty,' in the form of a mossbunker, seized Anthony and took 

"it, TJX re 15" ON HAUIKM. 

liim " (lo'vn btlow," to that s\:iria p!;ioo '.yLcre they (\<m\ lomk ilic *' \ 

lire o'ni'^'Lt.sI Anotlier Ini.litioa js, l]-rit tlic Iiu.liaD5! called it alU'V X^ 

Ha'liOE's -bip jts it saikd up the crttk, like a spoutiiig denl, in 

Dutcli I:irt,'uajf. Spuytt'ii Dti^fV-'^- Stilljinothf'i-, in anci-))t 

riHicr-l, 1G72., Ci'.iled .sj.'Uj/yc'/i //('.virZ, tnvii.<^ to a lar^re s]))iL>g llo^v- 

iiso into tbe crctk. Tiiat creek }.s there still, but the " dnyid Oiily 

kno'vs ■' wbtre tl'C- niiae oauio from. 

l^ut to the Yiil-ige again. It was laid out aloug the "Great 
Kill" (K.irlti-i riiwr), ukiiii; for its piiiiciplo street au Indian 
trail, toiicMog the river iit about 125tu Streot, where the Fen\- 
■vliifh I l.:ive described, paissed ovf r to " Brojj«k8id.%'" (Ivlurrisiiriri), 
Another strott was foriued, called the "Great Way," but sir.oo that . 

riijie, has beoTi botter known as *' Church Lane," vlth if^ hist-.-ric j 

eld lior.Ko snd majv^atic elms — allyneto decay. Between these 
two large streets, lay the erven, or house plot'?, ninety three iJ.g- 
Ush feet loi g. and iic-arly as wide, while the cro:^s slreets fonned 
their^e iuto four I'.its ea<;h. Tli-it 'Old CIj arch Lane" still lives in 
the fondest inemorio.-' of or.r olde&t ir.habitaiits. They reiiieinher 
the- Old Dutch Chnrelj; which tiood u ear Harlem Eivfr. in a corner 
.'•f the cenu terv rrinovcd in 1808. 

The new viilago Avas laid out after the Holland style, iijlo houee 
"lots and garden j)lots adjoining, a* desired for horticulture. It 
wjl: be observed that " New ^^ ui.-.lerdam." '^Nev, York), and "Ne\v 
Hailem" ^onr Harleiu), and the ancient Aajstcrdara and Harlem, 
in H(>lland, bear a dual j-er;emblance. oc account of the two cities 
on either side of the ocv-au beitig !iear to the other, and possessing 
similar advantages rud relations. The Holliuders held their Har- 
lem in great reverence— .a SYiiony)n for all that was viriuous :.nd 
truly h'^.rr>ic, as the ran'ie is derivtil fro.'u two words, Ileer and 
LfcUi, Lord AVilleiu being the founder of Harlem, in Holland. 

At the formation of New Harlem vil lage, a _j.iolcij t ni alarial dis-»-r broke out, and man;^UJi'_r.soGS dlvd of t hejdia£us.e. Besides, 
floods came and despoiled fruits, crops and winter forage, and 
nearly created a famine. Many occupants abandoned their plots, 
but new Sc-ttleis took them up in the spring, and business moved 
right al'jng, until 10'!0, when a war broke out between the white 
settlers and Indians at EsopuK, and a general massacre Mas feared, 
on Manhatluu Itiaud, as emanating fi-om the Eiver Indians here. 

y\ , „ LEcni'.E ON ir.HT.n.M. 17 

wlio Tsere iu syi-.ipatliy \vlLli t!ie ^ToLic.".cs fit Esopag. This fact 
frigLteiK'J )jrujj 'vl.-itws awar Troio "New Ainsterfliim," as also 
from " New ir.'.rlc r./' Oevfinor Stu^ ro.-<n,i)t ioA the fioM at Eso- 
piiSj an! d<.ttrm^'i3Ci.l to eittr}iii:iut.'i the hosfilc savages there, riDd 
gaveorcVrs to upon on the lu-L.tus bc-re, if (bey tlid not kc:«?p 
^;tik.t. Our aev; village fitw to arrus, an<] evc-ry old Lluuclerbus.. shot 
gun. njnslct't: bcr-e pistol, sabre, aud ru-' y siword were pcMshed 
o.p, and put in position for the impL-Julliig titt;\ck. Tu tbo absence 
ol the Goveriivr, (be CouQcil acted, aud appoiutid a Board cf 
!>ril)trav ConuiisMrjiicrs bc-re. consisting of Jun Pittcrson Slot, 
Diriicl Tourneur and Jaques Crcson, the fubt one Darned to be-, 
rrcskleut The ^ ill .gors were piit 'ai'.dor tliis control, or Martial. 
LaT»', and this wim the first local autbority exercised in " New fl^r- 
)em." TheEsopr.s war lasted about six month v,, during whicbj 
tirae Harlem t\us ]-:tpt in great disquietude. 

Human nature seeni.s to have boen (i^.e 'jame in Hulem, 2'22 
years ago, a? it Is now, for we t!;en found a mixed wcicty — lights 
over cattle, swlue rj-id gee;-?, breaking i)ito enclosures ; aud occa- 
sional street broils supei-iuducedLy too frequent polationi? of " New 
Ainsterdain Beer," the slanderoas tongue of nn occasional "Mary 
Ann setting gO:?*p-i!ioi>g''rs by the ear^ : qn us els over divturbed 
landmarks, el^.- , .cl of wliich induced (be better portion oi the vil- 
lagei-£ to petition iho Direct- -r General aud Ccunedfor a" Com t of 
Jutti'je," wbieh rts granted August JGth, 1000, and Jan Pieteisou 
Slot, Daniel Tourn- ur and Piere Crcson, vre.-o iq)pci)itcd a Board 
of Magistrates, the firfct one niu-ed to art ivj Schouf, (Deputy 
Sheriff.) Tlie trUa had before this board ^vere ciiraerous, anel 
]'iiany very a?ui;s!:jj. H.ivi})g secured a Cvurt, the people now 
turned their att:-tition to church felluv.-ship. They u'.itcd into an 
orgarization, ^i the " Diilih Rtrformed " pujsuasioi), with Jaa La 
Mont agne Jr., ub Deacon. A young niini«-»er, liev. Micbatd Zype- 
ra^, who arrived froiy Ho'hmd, 0<.-tobcr 2r>tb, IGCO, was Eeleel€d 
ap'.»i, but not Luviag been ordair.ed, be was all3-.\ed onl^- to 
exboi't, wbile *_Lo ad':.lnistratIon of 8r'cr;i;Uf'ct, jxrfonaances of 
Laptitrn and jr- irriagfS, and adiiiis3ic>ns to meinlxrsbips, were 
left to Rev. H'-nry Selvns, oi Brooklyn, who ol?lcia(ed iu the cbapel, 
en the hlte of the- present ►St. Maik'3 Church, Stuyvesant Place, 

18 MxmiE ON ir.vrrLEM. 

New Y.jj;k. Zv] erii'^ lioul religious ^YOvs'll!p in tlie private hou.=res, 
aC'i oiijir 'iH<:!rij:^> ir; !IJ;ulc,ii, hc cl.urch b.:i;«g y f rvcdctl. 

Dani»^l T<''urii:-ur, l1:c aucrstoi' of the Tourncrs, Avas appoiulc-d 
^fiiuTytralc- for Hirl''-!n, Aui'ust I'ltlj. ITWiO, hwI lie f.Ci'ved various 
tenns ill tlirit oap.'icity, .IS olso Diipiity SlioriM' several years, be- 
c.iii^e a dcaro.n in ■fhe clmrcli, aiui was scloctoJ a «"lckgate to tLe 
General A.ssnnihly, in 1()'31. 

lu ICGl, Auolpu ?.r<'yer aiiivrl 'uc-ie. He was ancestor of the 
!Moyfr^-, ?\v\ ir-rivrieJ iliria, f1:iaL;l>t-:r of jLhana? Yerveelon. 

Aivnt llaniiaiis B'<^ several times j\lagis(rate in ITarleni, 
ar.l ancestor of tiiC !3^i^:si^.p:j! Lerc and in "Wc stchooter Coiiutj, ar- 
rivc"! lierc iu IGOl. Or.e of the decDi'lants, Rebecca D., maii-icl 
'^{oxi. Xatliauiel J,<i-vio of New Y -iL., eijco 3-:navu as AlJeriaan r.nJ 
Couuiv Clt-rk. lie -.s still lining. 

Jan DycVman, oue off he wealthiest patenters ef Kin;^sbnf]ge, 
er,-ne over here wltli Ailolpb ."M- yer anl Aront H. Br.>:=ing, in l«16l. 
He v.-as tJie ro)cestor of all the Dychinaiis liereahout. 

At this t'me. 221 yeai's aj.'o, there being ■'::i.o grist mill here, tlie 
Harleraitcs earned th<ni «frist.s to Dalch Kills, Queens Conntj. 
They cf^nveyed therj in ranooF, i!ur>ugh the danger:? of Hell-gate 
to Xex^tov.n CiceV. now 3 tth Street", and np that creek to Peter 
Joriis' trrist mil!. This i iHl wos tidccu down about fiftv vears T~q,f^, 
and thrj upp -r and nether laill plones are row onbcddod as 
ocor ste]>s, in front of a re.-?i(lcnce 1 OS years olJ, within :a i^\K rods 
oi the mill site. That jnill nas r.ot a very lively one, as it ground 
out ';nly three shcijel.-^per day (2 1-1 bus^hel). This ye^^r 'JGfil) a 
petition \s-iir^ denied Xha Harlenutcs for a grist mill o'a Dr. ?rlc»nta- 
gnes llat, for the reason tu:.t a new mill jnight form a settlement 
about it, and detci- the Y't'ogress vi tlie " New Harlem " village. 

The Hopp'':r fan-il}' is very numerous in New Jtrsej, Hariim 
and Wectchester County. Vn.lries Hopper the ancestor came 
here, from Holland, in ir;.')2, and Yellis Hopper of " Hoorn's 
Hool</' wa> gran tl father to Mrs. "Wilham H. Colwell, no^7 residing 
corner r25th Stre't and Lexington Avenue, Harlem ; and to Mrs- 
Eliza Lisco:;iV», who c'ied and was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery 
in ISSO. Mr=. Li.'^corab was a sister to Mrs. Colwell, and the 
.mother i-f Williani H. Liseomb, Alfred A. Liscomb of Harlem, and 
Ehza J., wife of Archibanld G. Armour, in "VTestehester County. 

, > . LEOTUan ox HUtl.tM. 19 

TIjc D"L iJirdtT fniiiily =priiiig from Clau-lo Le ]\iuistie, who 
came here in IGG'2, a^i sc-rved :!j 'M;j;3'ii*iato /our terms. Hon. 
Schuyler Colfax is one of hi.s dcccudants. 

Tho ^vell-kuown Johauues Ycvmylea Avas the projcuitor of the 
Tcrmjlea fauiilj. He (.ivj.i' h( re in 1C']2. He '.Vits captain of a 
niilitarjr compauy in If.'iJ^, a court nies'songer in lOOo, coupt'ihle ia 
1GG7, jnagistrafc l'>vo tcms from 1(570, and laernher of the com- 
mittee of s.ifoty in ]L)Sr>, and a biower witb^ He r*.'.sided nearly 
central of block, bctvreen Ist and 2d Avenues and l'22d and 123d 
Streets, and div-d in 1696. 

Jan LouweBog'irt, ancestor of the Bug^^rts, came here in l(>n2. 
He was magistrate in 1C75-6. He spent thirty-fivo years in H;ir- 
lem and moved do\\Ti town. One of his dccemlcnts bought the 
Lawrence B«^nson Horr.tstead, and during the .Kevolutioji, Avhen 
the Piovincial Convention on leaving New York, niet for a month 
in the Harleiu Church, the records were I:ept at the Bogart 'Man- 
sion, which stood then on the site of tlie pre.sent Morris Bandell 
House, foot of r2uth Street and Harlem Biver. 

As immigrants Averc constantly arriving, the Montagues oeti- 
tioned tlie Director General and Council to allow them new allot- 
ments of their tract Vrcdejulal, but it was denied, in fear that a 
rival settlement might retard the gi'owth of " N'iw Harlem." Up 
to this date (10G2; H:ul.:;in contained thirty-two heads of families, 
and of these .Tan La Moutagne Sr., had been the longest in this 
sec-ion, about twenty-Cv.o years, and Jan Laurens Duyt«, the only 
one of the t^iirty-two who had been born here. Of this number 
eleven were Fj-^nch, four Walloons, a larger species of the French, 
seven Hollanders, four Danes, three Swedes and throe Gormans. 
A braver or more honest lot of pioneers never graced a new coun- 
try with their presence. 

" Oft 'lid the harvest to thoir sickle yield, 

Their furrow oft the stubborn g'ebe has broke; 
How Jocund did Ihuy drive their team atield, 

How bowed the woods beneath their btardj strike I 
. Let DOt amfcitivn mock their ns'^ftil toil. 

Their bom -Ij jojs and dettiuy obscure; 
Kor graudtur hear with a di-:dalnful siaile, 

The short and siiui)le anuals of the poor." 


Tie spirit wbich Jiuiniated their l^rcasts is rooted in tlie soft rich 
soil of Jlcirlem, and altlioujjVi mauy of the:i- decendauts Lave been 
scallered over the iflhabif able globe, tbat sweet iDOJuory of their 
once native Harlom, like the scent of the roses v>-ith the broken 
vase., v.all clin^ round them etili! 

That the snrromidirg lane's yhonld not go to ■wa.-te, the Diicctor 
General and Oounoil lin'.lij ordered a new allotrii<;nt of u\i the 
lauds about the, \\heii ground briefs were discarded, and 
Van Keulen'.c Ilouk and tlie Montagne flat were divided up into 
twc-Jitv-tvro I'.is for new purchases and lea.sos. This enabled TV^il- 
liam MoTiiagns to hold the "Moniagne's Point" free of debt At 
thi« il;ne (IGCr/) the old custom of " horning " newly married coa- 
plos war, in vogue. Soon aa the marriage ceitmouy was over 
then co'n?ncnced in front of the house the blowing of horns, firing 
of grns, bUniderbui^es, old Holland horse pistols, drannning of 
'in pans — f-nch din only as Bedlam c^uld let loose. After evciy 
tootor was tired of blowing, the party would plant *' JIaj- Trees " in 
fiont of the nuptial dcor, nlUd with ragged .stockings, etc It was 
not infrequent that sorootinies the window would suddenlj' rise 
and the homers get their eyes full of ground red pepper, and oc- 
casicnaiiy receive a volley of peas or beans fired out of an old shot 
gnn. Several lives w« re lost on su.?h occasions, as old crusty 
bachelor bridegrooms would nt.t 3t>;nd much of such clownish 

June 7th ]0)13, filled Harlem with alrirm — the India n tnas.?acre_ at 
F^opll: ^*"i" «t:tt!trs then numbering -in all forty adults, enclosed 
the villagf- ^\ith a line of stockades, and everybody was armed, 
three eeven pound ball cannon v^ere j^lanted, and the whole village 
became a ganisoned outpost. They broke up this valliant army of 
forty into four conipanies, and put a brave commander at each 
head, all^resolving to give the Indians " fits," or be a good fit for 
the savages when tl.ey came on, iis they expected the Indians 
hereabout to take sides with the race at Esopus. Stuyvesant, who 
seemed to need troops ::t Esopus, gave orders for aid, and our 
f.nny here sent ■riy/)M"einforceraents, which came very near break- 
ing up one of our compauie?! Bat it had a good effect abroad, as 
the Esopus Indians hauled off when they found out that the Har- 


letii troops were on tlic marcL I Like Col. Crockett's Coon, " no 
shoot, IniVian come down !" 

TLe Tirst l.ind c.ise whicli wns tried in Ilruleyi, Jixua.-iiy IGtb, 
1CG2, w:is between Nicholos De Mever, Plainti'T, aud Sigismundu3 
Lucas, {Icfendant. "Sig" sold his lot tiud refused to give posses- 
fcion, and of course, was dcf(-r.t<;d on hi.s broach of contract 

The firct town clerk elected in Harlem was John L. Montague, 
the oldest son of the old Doctor, in J 002. John Vervetlon came 
here Junuary 13th, 1GG3; became a magistrate {S<-heiicn in Dutch) 
in 1003, it delegate to the General Assomllj iu IGO-i, and died 
about 1702. He was associated in tlie browing basine-s A\'ith 
Isaac DeForest. 

Baron Resolved \Yaldron, the ancestor of the "U'aldrocs, came 
to this country with his brother Joseph, in 16.">4, and moved to 
Harkm in October, 1004. He was a printer in Germany. He 
held Fii-caid (Attorney General) and various commiscio'ns and 
other offices of public trust. Col. Samael "Waldron, who resides on 
the coriicr of 113th Street and 4th Avenue, Is o-.w. <>f his honored 
descendants, to whom I am deeply indebted for many valuable 
tacts in this essay. And right here let me acknowledge much 
•lata obt;iiued from Riker's Historv of Harlem. 

In IGGi, liLborers were very scarce in Harlem, consequently on 
'May 20tli, that year, our settlers proceeded to Fort Amsterdam 
aud puichast'd r.cgroes at auction. They came from Curacao, in 
the ship Shannon. Hence, slavery was plaritcd in "New Harlem." 
A new saw mill was erected this year by Jan Van Bonimel, on a 
stream e;np»tying into the East River, foot of 74th Street, since 
called "Saw Kill" 

While Harlem was now prospering, the rest of the " New Netb- / 
crlands" was in turmoil by one cause or another. The Dutch / 
possessions were seized on tlie Connecticut River; a revolt broke / 
out on Long Island and in "Westchester, in alUance with New ^ 
England, besides Indian troubles, all of which filled Stuy- 
vosant with alarm. He finally allowed a General Assembly to 
meet at " Nev; Amsterdam," April 10th, 1004, of the pc-cple's own 
chosen representatives, with Daniel Tournor.r aiii^ Johauiiea Ver- 
veelon as the Uarlora delegation. The convention had no author- 


22 LE< ICJtK 0>' :T\RL5.>L 

ity to do ftnythinp', be joud an nppcal to {lie Statas General iu llcl- 
];vad, to aid iatlie defense of this .s£otio!i. May lOtli, sime year, 
oorxiiidcd a trordy, 'vvliir-li '.ras ratiPiod l>y {lie Hud=oa Tu lians and 
by those saviigcs in and about Ilarlt^ia. The I'ldian Cliief San- 
wecarack, cf the Widcjiiaskecks of \r'.'^tclie>tcr, liaving olso 
signed Hie treaty, gave great security and oncouragomoi t to Har- 

Soon came anotJKi- rdarm, one unloolicd for. C.d. nicbard 
Nicoll?, witb an Er..c,liHb ilc-i-t, suddenly appeared in tbt barber; 
and Soplcmber 1'', l''(51, Fort Anisterduic si:nvndcvo-l Nioolls 
annonncfed bimself .:-< Crjvernor of tlie " New N'otlivvlinds," and 
named the Citv and rrovin.-o New York. K jjlem lost s-me of ber 
inbabitaLiJs by ab.radonincit, but came and cccup'i d tbeir 
pjlac^-?. Thus LHvled the Datc'i rule. Jan La Montague <; D.-puty 
SlieriiT) v,oull not serve nndf-r English rule, and tliri^f up his com- 
micsion. Oucnders v.-ont unrebaked ; la^Vjes^ness was rasripnnt and 
rjin flowed in oa'i.^ing riots, etc, a'i about. Nicclls"d orders to lii.' H.irltnn Schrn^as (magistrates) but they only 
laughed at bim. Finally, NicolU i>^3aed a proclaniali.Mi, June 12, 
JGG'>, putting the city ui'der a M\vor, .Udrnnan an! Saeritf. and 
June loih the Harlem magistrates were cited to app'^ar before 
the Council; wlien there was not so ra\wh laughing — Ihoy y^cre re- 
moved from olTice. Thomas De Lttvall uas cho-.-ju as Al l.^rmaa 
for Harlem, and Picsolvod A^'aldron as C-onstablo, th-^ first one in 
this section. W.ddron 'vas u.itliorized to select thr^-e e>r fuvii- per- 
sons as magistrate?, and be uatued Dani<.d Tourntva\ for Magis- 
trate, and J-jhannes Verunlii for Court ^[ts-^'ngf-r. Soon after 
the G.^ivcrnor aonoiufeJ Tonrueur F:ider Slieriff and Pr-, sident of 

1 4. 

the olTices of SiJiOi^t and Scl'ejieas. Mucli troulJe arose in the 
pdniiiiisiration df justice in Harlem, owing to the Dutch prejudice 
ngain^rt English rale, but in due time " Order nigne^d in Warsaw." 

Abo at thl. time DeLavall built a grist mill, whic.h w lii after-.vards 
known as " '.rin Cnnp." nientir.ned on th« '* Old B:-ns )n' Farm." 
This mill lay a little A^'c-st of the «:;vek, near 3d aveiiue. Hage 
Cruyusen, a Swede, was first iiiiller. 

January 13. I'^'iT, the fir-it church, Dutch R'-f(vrmed, was so far 
ooraiilcte 1 th it an ;dl>t'nont of seats took plar-'r The ground 

^ J V, LECTrR£ ON" ^AKLX^U 23 

upon wlncli tuc clinvcli \y;i~ bailt was called Kerch erf (cliurch lot). 
The Kerch hof was tb.o more nnciout cciuetcry, lying in tUa rc^ir of 
the " T^uJabloK" and may bo reinc'Jib<-rcd still ;n flie "• Negro 
BuryiEg Ground, '" cot:si:^l:ug of onc-balf acre of luud. 

The most celebrated resort in ILirlom now was Joluiimes Ver- 
vc'loc-u's Tavern, near r23d street and 1st Avenue. Klcjn h'wr, 
(small bec-r) Spanish wine and rum wore the driulcs in those days, 
and seemed to bo indispeiiiible even at the most trivial business 
transaction, and it seems tlie custom is pretty well kept up in Har- 
lem, except in a change of beverages. One in paiticular, '•40-rod 
wliiokej'," that is the full range nt wliioh it is suppost-d to kill a- 
man, it lie comes within the circle. I am n.ot a tot^d abstinence 
man, but I believe iu b'.iug temperate ia all things ; yet I am con- 
strained to say th it, in my judgment, at least nine-tenths of the 
crimes committed in Now York city are tither directly or indirectly' 
traceable to the influences of ardent .spirits. I have only to take 
the daih' cr.ininal records and read them as jjroof of my assertion. 
Slany coi!t':-nd that lagtr beer is not iutoxicitiag. I have tried that 
" haruilcss beverage '' mys?!f, a'.id found that it m:ide a hive of 
bees iu mv head and evervbee a king I I lieard once of a Holland 
bier ven-lor being jMit t-n tuc witness stinJ, aiid lie ?-iid. " Y<I1, 
I can't swore dat lager ish ii-tosicatiug or not, as I t-uit triiiks only 
ISO classes von tay, imd I tont know vat it njight too if a man 
makosvon hog of hisstlfl" Iu Hu'L-i'i it wis a e mwnon custom 
for even magistrates to have their drinks br.-ught in, wiiile occu- 
pying the Bench, and charged to the public e\p*'nse! Bier and 
other beverages were freely used at the or liiiitioii of d Icis and 
deacons, and at the pei formmoes of funeral soU-nriitics Faiiiilies 
laid in their bier by half n/.'s (o-- b:»rrtl.s). Tljisr- fur;:i-i!iiiig bier 
at that time were Jihannes VLr:n:lye, Dave V'-rv.-h-'-n, Isnac De 
Forc.'-t and Jacob Kipp. 

The fir-t Indian trad marki 1 out ii Jlirlem w i- < idlfd '• Tlarlem 
Lane," which r ju through the '* Fhits." tou.-ht.d :.t '* .'IcOown's 
Pas?,"ihrough " Clove of the Kill" to North Biv-r, uid up 'Break 
ncck Hill " to Si)uyt< 11 Duy\i! Creek. 

July 1.5, lOGO, the H:irl m Ft rrv was tr iiisf<ir-.'il and run by ' 
Johannes Verveleeu and cali. d, • From the I->l'iud to the Main." 


Verveleon settled liis ftrry on ilie "Pi^pi'.riaaniio," anJ thus liekT 
t-.Iie kc'j to lIiDlj-ittan Itlaria. lie wa^ consUWe at Fordliam, cs- 
tabllsbed aco;nt ihert and superiRteaJe^.! tbe building of a bridge 
between Paiiririnanjin ancj Fordbaoi. 

\Vc now come down to 1G70, p.r>d tb.? only houses now left of the 
originrd village of Harlom wbieh I can 6iid bere, erected prior to 
1670, are l-;^, the " Old Benson" now occupied as a batb- 
ing place, 125tb .street and IT irlem Paver ; and the other the "Van 
Gcisen House," F.tiuding partly endwise on l'23d Stieet, between 
Lexington and Fourth avenues. It was by John Kenyon, 
recently deceased, and is occupied by John IL Covert. It fronted 
the "Old BoJrton Si:age Tvoad/' vbon it run by it and up through 
where now ia built, ' flarlerc Iron Bridge." 

August 10, 1GT3, ihe Ilollind and Ze.^dand ileei.s sailed here and 
captured " Fort^rdam," which tuey named " Fort ^Yilli&m 
Hendrick," find called Kew Tork_j^ewOrange^\Jn_honor of Lord 
Prince of Orange. This was one oftlie fruits ofwar now waging 
in Europe, and Dutch rale was aga'.n frjly re-established, and Har- 
loiu was overjoyed and \-i:?lded reedy obedience to the new ruler — 
Anthony Colve as Govenor; but it did not last long, for the next 
year, November lOih, If 174, the nrovir-ce fell again into Enghsh 
hands, and "Fort WiUiarn Hendrick" was chri.stv^aed "Fort 
James," and " New Orange " renamed " New York." " The 
Slayor's Cjurt" was revived, and f:":r Eduiund Audros became 
Governor. Although distasteful the F'>ghsh Government was 

1G75 brought frish .abirias, the "King Piiilip TVar" commenced 
in the East, and portended a westward advance with an alliance 
of all our river Indians. Governor Anlros ordered all of the la- 
di-tn canoes here>about to le scizL-d and safely confined. He fur- 
nifibed our settlers with arms and amuuition; but the notorious In- 
dian chief being billed .^ugu^t l'2:h, the war ceased, and quiet 
again was restored in Harlem- 
John H.^ndrieks Brevoort, the v>ell-known ancestor, came to 
Harlem in 1674. 

The ancestor of the Kortright family w.vo Cornelius Jansen — no 
date of his amval, but he died in lt»80. Tiie main bxanch of the 





Kortriglits spiniug from Lannns Coruclmi Kjrtri^Lt, boru here 
in 1C81. TLey were groat land owners. 

The Lo-,v fi'.niily sprnng from Laurous J.msen, born ia Hollnud, 
purcliasfcd a lot Lere of Nicholas De Meytr, in 1CG2. The present 
M.ijror of Brooklyn, Seth Losv, is one of the descendants. 

In 1684, the notorious pirate, Captain William Kidd, occupied a 
portion of this farm with his fathcr-iu-law, Captain Samuel Bradley. 
This farm was located near Ilell-gate, and although Kidd was 
hiin;j, he no doubt occapics a place " down below" similar in name 
to the one he was removed from! 

About lhi.3 time the city was divided into sis wards, Haj'lem 
ccuuted as one of the out wards, " embracing all of its farius' 
pi?fitaticris and settlements on the island of Manhattan from the 
north side of the Fresh "Water," and divided as formerly, between 
Harlem and Ncav York, at Saw -Mill Creek, and such division to 
have its local court" 

In 1GS4 Janscn erected the famous tavern, " II;df-way House," 
located on Harlem Lane, at the foot of the hill, about lO'Jth street. 

Daniinie frelyn, after an absence fi'om Harlem eighteen years, 
ret irned and btc uue Pastor of the church. 

In IGSo, the wolves were as plenty as blackberries, and still des- 
tructive on this island, and the city government premiums 
for their annihilation. 

In 168fi, a new cliuich was projected and built, Laurens 
•Tansen, of the Delauiater family, gave his two north seven 
for the church site. The first stone was laid by Resolved 
Waldron, the second stone by Johannes Vermilye, and Do- 
minie Selyu preached the first sermon in it. The old bell used 
in that church is still used in the Dutch Reformed Church at 12l8t 
Gtreet and 3d Avenue. It was cast in Holland and conta'us $20 in 
gold and $20 in silver, and bears this inscription : — 

" Aji(rt*fdam, Anno 1734.'' 
" Me Fecit." 

V This year brought to Harlem Jan Kiersen. He leased " Harlem 
Heights," called then "Jochem Peters Hills," and built the " Jumel 





^IMansioD/' whK'Ii still reir.alns auci now owiitd aiul o<-ciimeJ l\i 
Nelson C'liase. f 

Captain Joliraines .Dcnsou, the fii'st of the familv, came Lere 
purcLasea a jilace in IJarlem of Peter Yau Oljlemis, in 10Uf>, an(!' 

uieJ ia 1715. He was a Dane. The d(.-f;conclant<; are ver< 

numi'i'ous in Harlom, Alban}' and SclKMiOctailv. Samson Bensonj 

•Jr., eldest s^n <:>f J3eujaiaia, inbcrited tbe ancestral estate' 

From a AvcitLuoss of his ev'i'S he \v;i.-: called " Crviii" Sam." His 

"widow dicil in 1835, and the estate fell to its sole survivor, I\Ii=i': 

"Margaret Benson, who married Autlrcw McGown, son of Captain 

Daniel M^jGovrn. Tlie Captain resided then on the north side oi 

" Church Lane.'' Captain McGown a Scotch-Irishman, the son 

cf a clcrj,'ymau, wag the ancestor of the ^IcGowu fannlj ; he 

was lost at sea prior io the Revolution. His widow bought a few 

acres on the hill, bad: of the old Bei:soii Farm, vrhich became 

celebrated in tlie Eevolution as ' ^IcGown's Pa'^s." Andrew liei:>tj 

piiblic hcu'je, which wa« part of the Stetson Hotel, called jilount' 

St. Vincent, and v.hich was burned down in 1881. 

Andrew died October IG, 1820. He was the f::ther o.' ^Jajor; 
Andrew '[.-Gown, who participated in the war of 1812, and died 
here in 1870. His broth.:-'*. ex-.\lderinau Sirason B. 3.IcGown, aged 
85 yearp, still resides at the old homestead, at lOOih Street. 
3Iajor McGown was the fat'ier of Henry P. McGown. uow 
occupying the Bench of the 0th .Judicial District Civil Court. 

I will explain this " IVlcGown's Pa=;s,''as it is famor.s in Pevolu- 
tionarj annals, one of the battles of the Eevolution having 
been fimglit there. I 

Tliis ])i^s was gu.arded by a block house, built aci-oss Harlera >; 
Line. Col. ^^dler for eight d iys held the fort, at " Hooru"s Hook,'' , 
against the British boinbardment from the Harlem river, when [ 
they drove him out by firing the fort with hot shot. The i 
Colonel th<>n retreated with his :30D brave Spirtans. Leonidas-Hke. j 
and made a bvav? s^and at " McGown's P:iss," being surrounded 
and attacked by 1509 British and H'^s^iaris. It was a desperate ^ 
struggle, and was al>^o participaled in by General Putnam and ; 
Colontl lv'i-)\vUn. C )lon?l Miller's knees were carried away b}- a | 
cann ju bill, a'l 1 lia expired crying, •' \Mcaic\ ksu Libkktv !' 



Colonel Kuowll<- u Avas kHIod in this buttle, ubicli Listed eix Lours, 
Vihon tUe British wc^re coinpletely routed under tLcir commander, 
Kiipliausoji. The old bloi'k house and tlie eartli works still re- 
loain in Coutral Park as niouumeuts of heroic Tulor. 

Au inciilout occurred near Hell G.ite. in 1777, ■worth rolatino'. 

, A very beautiful <^'n-\ u.-iiacd Lucy Vandorstiue was abducted by 

a Tlessian captain and carried to his camp. Her brother crept 

sofllj to the camp at midnight, felled the bontinel, and rescued his 

I sister, lie took an o.ith to kill the first Hessian he should meet 

j with, and did so. soon after, by forcing one of them into a duel. 

The skull of thia Hessi\-j waj unearthed on the Dr. Bnker farm, at 

; "Sih street, a few jeai-.s ago. 

VCe might allude to the " Juniel 'Mansion," once more, on Wash- 

infjfcon K-'ights. wliich was once occunied bv " the father of his 

I couutrv," in 177G. This house was built by one Phillips, for Lis 

i daughter Mary, who married Roger Morris. George "Washington 

. courted ^fary. and came near getting her ; so near, that he would 

h".ve hid her, had Afaiy consented. National prejudice broke up 

the match. 

! It mav bo well to give some of the ludian names. They called 
' weird's IsLmd, Tcnke.iOTt ; BlackvvcU's Island, MiouahannKrl- ; 
I Spuyten Duyvil Creek, S -li'tyalaiKik, and Hell-gate, Sfrandican 
i (mad waters). The jiollaudcrs called AVaid's Island, Oreat 
I B:irent Island, and Ran<' "'«^ Island, Little Barent Island, and 
'• Mount Moriis, S'any Bcrj, (bnake HilL) 

I One of i\ie^ B isiinj d-;;scendants built a d vdh'ng, prior to the 
devolution, at McComVs Dam, south side of 8th Ivenue, which 
still remains, ani occupied by Charhs Francis, a policeni m. 
I Hendrick Yan Bramer erected a house, before the Pi.evo -li^n, 
on the old " Harlem LaTie," 7th avenne, betwt-en 117th and llSth, 
streets, which is still sttnding, and Bartholf occupies it now as a 
" road house." 

Hiving thus viewed the past, let us d^vell briefly, before concln- 
j.ion, on the ]-)resent and future of Harlem. It was said by some 
historian, tliat Noah, the sole heir of the earth, after the Deluge, 
gave his acquisitions tn liis children — to She; :, .\.via ; to Ham, 
(the colored gentleman,) Africa, and to Japhet, Eurr pe. I presume 




if Lo had ha«.l .a fourfb son, America avop.LI liave been {jiveu to luri-, i 
oi* at least Ihut portion of it, palled Htrlem. Whiit grauder or 
more beautiful spot can be fouud than Harlem and its little velvolj . 
islands and silvery rivers, in a gr-lden sianot— sublimely pictur- ; 
tsque in vernal bloom — tbi ^'orjrous l^inlscape, which charms [ 
evt-ry vi.sitor, and fills the mind and soul with rapture. , 

But a few years ago H olein vfas nearly a ban en waste — Gold- , 
smith's " De&f-rt'-d Village."' Everybody vraa giving it the ".shaV.e," 
because it was giving the " :Thake3 " to everybody I Djwa-town j 
people ^vould scarcely come near ns, except by the river, because 1 
to cros3 the Poatine M vrshi-s, or " IT-.ilem Flit 5," by land, w:;uld 
squelcii the nose of a rhiniceru^, and knock the bi-eath out of a i 
raule! A balky hor-e C\e minutys onthe2dcT'?d Avenue rail- 
road track, down there on tbat Upag desoit, would stifle the bmgs 
of a whole car load, and it was about " vrbich and t'other," as to ; 
which perfume predominivted, the natural one from the soil, or i 
that it.rising frorn the covering of it with coal gaa tar ! * T am told 
that aquatic excursionists found it safer to burn brimstone ii3 they i 
came up tlirough Hell-gate ! It has bsen filled in since, in<l soon ! 
will be built over. At the coiumencomc-nt of the Rebellion (ISGl) | 
Ifarlem be;'an to ^^row, an 1 fcwoarts of our citv have grown faster ' 
and been more be'tutifiod by new buildings, than this. New set- | 
tiers are eon.stantly arriving, trade is spreading on every street and i 
nvenue, and everybody says they are happy avjd making money, | 
excci^ting the Elevated Rillroad ! In this connection, and to con- ' 
ti-ast travel with the past, I might mention the first stage, in 1832, ( 
which run from "Wm. D. Bradshaw's corner, (now IMarsh'g Drug 
Store) in Harlem, to down town. Soon after, the " Franklin " run 
from Harlem to Pell street and the Bowery — fare fifty cents the I 
round trip. Xow, some grumble at ten cents on the Elevated , 
railroail, aii<l get angry becaudC they don't let 'em carrj' along a j 
small grocery store in the bargain. Up to 18 i3 onlj' seven stages I 
'.vere on the road. In 1853 the 3d avenue horse railroad was 
chartered, which took twice as long to ride down town as in the | 
fitagos — an hour and twenty minutes, providing no horse balked 
or fell dead across the track. 

The Elevated makes now about four tiips to one of the surface, 



antl yet. the surface roatis ure Joing a better business tlian ever. 
Tbe Ilarlcm Navigntiou Line, from Harlem to Peek Slip in h/"' au 
hour, caine in as a reli.f |.ri'jr to tlie elevated convenience. Tbe 
Elevated llailroad, bj its connecting links on the East and West 
Bides, has )nade Harlem, enncbe J proixrlj, owners, increased trade, 
lowered tbe prices of produce and, but raised rents. 
Landlords, go slow on that; our people will net stand too much 
impo.sition. I mn glad to sec our tradesmen try to please their 
customers by competing with down town merchants. Itisbett^Ji 
for the purchaser to leave bis money in Harlem and the vender to 
secuie it here by fair dealing. I don't think the ladies co'nsider 
the importance of home hading so much as they do the pleasure of 
down-town shopping. "Mxiij is the time they want a paper of nee- 
dles, then on with the bonnet and away on "rapid trausit" to Macy's, 
or St€w:u-t's, or Taylor's I knew a lady summer, who wanted a 
certain kind of mitts and could get them down town for forty cents, 
ten cents less than the samekindhere. Slie purchased, camehome; 
forty cents for mitts and twenty cents for car fare, total sixty cents. 
Xext dav she went down and changed them. For m'ttg, car fare 
and lunch, one dollar and £ve cents — out by not trading here, 5fty- 
iivc cents. That is tightening the spigot and loo.-^ing out of the 
bung. I certainly must c;>mmend the spirit and enterprise of our 
Harlem tradesmen now. Not to be invidious, but I am sure yoa 
can trade now in nearly all things as cheap in Harlem as elsewhere; 
so go and buy your piano from Behning, who makes the best 
pianos now in use; yjur dry goods of such firms as Callan 
aud others; your clothing of St^^ne «k Goodman, or the Harlem and 
Wcsteiiester Clothing Hous*^: your groceries of William 
Robinson, Avers, or Bent-jtt & Jarvis; your shoes of the 
Zabinskies, Goodman, or your furniture of' George Fennel] 
& Company and ^b[ithony Brothers ; your carpets of Croft 
Brothers ; your hardwaie of Charles ^fann or Dickerman ; 
your Millinery of Pistr or "Madden iV McGliun; your fancy 
goods of Yv'ilhams k Co., Sj^ier, or Hclmqs; your gent's furnish- 
ing goods of Hartley; your stationary and such uicknacks oi 
i'hillips, Goddard, or Si>eck; your jewelry of Gluason, Keej^ing; 
;, our Foreign and Dc-mestic delicacies of Lazarus k Stender; your 

30 i.KLxniE i)N UAJUiar. 

iLnts of Kelly or GoMsiukl; all kintls of j^cuinir maeijines of 
I^au€cl); vG^i' rublH'i* goods of CroO'.lvertr, nuJ olbcrs, nuJ you 
will save li]uc aud money, and aid our tradesiuou by quick 
sales to oom])ete with down-town tratric. 

The " Hftilon Eivor Iiaprovement," so long aud so inucL talked 
about, m\ist i>'jctssaiily he coiisumiuatedin about two years. Con- 
gressman Flo\vf-r riccuth- bad passed an ajipvopiiation of >:50,000. 
A commis.-iou Las inciiargG tLo settlement of coiupcn&atiou to the 
l;'.nd-o\Miers along tbe Vnt, an>l tlieii* dufy ib neai-ly c-nded, while 
General Xewton rep^irt.s that his surveys will f50on be done; and I 
see no reason now v.hy (he ^n-at artiiioiid channel, or ship Ci?ual, 
cannot go foi-ward io completion, thus comiugling the wat-ers of 
the ITr.dbOP, llarlt'n r.\d East Rivers with those of the sea, and 
circle H-u-kin's borders with oc:e of the finest marts in the known 
v.ovld. Think of the immense cargoes of all kinds of merchandise 
which will come through this way instead of going as usual r.rouud 
the Battez-y, sixteen miles further. Tiie cost of this enterprise is 
estimated between three and four millions. The channel will be 
four hundred feet -vi.le, eighteen feet deep, and six miles long, 
starfing from Randair^j Ii^hind, running through Pyckm.ui.s mead- 
ows. an<l tevminatieg at the Hudson Tdver and mouth of Spu^-ten 
Duyvil Creek. It is also proposed to deepen the channel of the 
Harlem Kills, ami thus make a direct connection between Harlem 
and the Sound, and avc-id the danj^erous passage of Hell Gate. 
V>'h« u this gi-i.-at Work vhall have been comi*leted, {he vessels of 
every clime wiHt-unoucd Harlem, our streets will be thronged with 
the busy life of a l3roadway, and this famous old Dutcli town will 
be the grand comn.ercial centre of the metropolis ! With what 
delight the first settler of Hailem, Kuyter, would then, if alive, look 
upon the s^ene in contract with his beloved ZejrnrhJ of 100 acres, 
2 28 years ago ! also, if the old Hollander, Gov. William Kieft, could 
then rise from the vasty deep, whei*ehe went down with the ship \ 

Princess, and gaze upon Harlem, wherein he gave so many grants / 

and ground briefs, his heart would leap with rapture, and, in Lis 
; usual jolly mood, he would say, "Come in goot fi-ients and trink 
\1 miao 'New .Im-^ieTdam peer.' " Who among us then, with Har- 
leui's past history before you, and the goodly prospects in store. 

, , ^ LlCrURE ox nAIiLEM. 

; Are !.ol proiiJ of h::ng called Uailemites ? Let us cultivate tliC' 
j hievi'ls'Ji^i as of vore-, iu "j'e ancient village," anilleuTe auimoiiiies 
and cor.lcntions to other localitio;-; and tbougb we mav dJiTer scion- 
tificailj-, pj'iitically, aiid oven roligiouJy, let us unite cordially and 
fricmUy, in every jrablic and private business enterpriae '.vhicli may 
have a tendency to i-rogrcss, build up, and benefit our own boloved 







It is a mistaken i<lep. tba.t Hendiick Fudson made tlie firnt landing en New 
I'ork IclAml, or '• Island of MiinbntUin," in 1*>0'.\ BB some lli^tor)ans have it. 
The earlietit r-^rtrd^ e'sfnnt strit« tLat is early as lo'.iS, a few Hollhndcn;, in the 
employ of ft GreeoLind Conij.any. v.ere in of resorting to Ktw Nefh- 
crlands (''. e. Now York;, net, it is tme, with h de£,ij^n of electing a settle- 
ment, Imt merely to Hecure a shelter durirg iLe T.-inter nionths. Wi(h this 
view tbey bniM two small foits, to protect themsciverf against the Indians. 
Ncvortheless, the fact romainR uadisputed. tbit l^IIudsou belongs the honor 
of being the lirbt o'le vlio directed public attectiin to the If-'and of Alaiihattan 
as an advantiigeon-i poic. for a (lading port in the New World. 

Go the -ith of A]/7il, lt)09, the grvat n.-wigafrr sailed out of the h;irbor of 
Amsterdam, and "by twche of ye clouke " of th-; Cth he was t->ro leagues off 
the ki.d. He -vas in the c^npioy of the Dntcb E: st Itjdia Cornpar.y, vho had 
co'xir.iissioned him ti> se'-k a pp-.'sagf to the Eist In.lies by thu uoi^h tide of 
NovaZeinbIa Having, however, fonud 'he sea at that part f.iU of ice, he 
turned the prow of hip little vf-^^el, the JI'ilf-M'-n, westward, arid, after a 
n>outh's cmise, reached the great Bank of Newfoundland, on the 2d of Jnly. 
Thence he sailed southward to the James River, Virginia, and again altering his 
course — still in jmrsnit of a new channel to India— he coasted along the 
phort:s of New Jerti y, and on the 2d of September, l(i09, cast anchor inside of 
Sandy Hook. 

Iliidsou, having explored the river that bears his nnme as far as the pre- 
sent City of AlV>any, set Fail on the 4th of October for Europe, bearing the 
news of the cjibtrovery of a new cuuutry — ths opening for the new eoimmrc^-^ 
lor nlthou^h his patn-ns were disappointed in finding a short roid to the land 
of siik';, teas, a)id tp ices, still, his gr;jat ili-^-overy was destined to open in 
fuvar*^ *ime mints of wealtli, more valuable than rdl the imagined riches of the 
Cclestia] Empire. 

Z^ki that pf^riod, Holland carried I'n a lucrative tiade vrith the East Indies end 
Russia. Ev'^ry y<'ar thej' dispr.tchcd nearly one l-rmdred ships to ■•Archangel 
for i\xr^ ; but HidsonV- glowing accounts of the -."ich peltry he had seen in the 
newly di^cov* red re^-ion.'; soon turned the atttnlion of the busy Dutch to a 


, WtT- \-i. 



AXl'EMUX. 33 

r^imtry \vlic-re thf^o r.niclcp co"J('. ho pur. ).a»;«^'1 ^vijbout Ihr (nsrs of cunt-jm- 
lioiuf^H and other diifios. Aoc<'r.lii:;^]y, in the your KUO, a few a^tr* banis dis- 
patclipd ;\iif'lhr-r ves-iel, un.ler Vm tO!!iii!?.?;d of tlic jJ'iif-}f'ju:i\* foroier inaU, 
to tniflic iu f u;-s witli Ibc Ii'.iiiauK. Tin's euluremit willi bncb success, that 
two yertr>i ifter, in !''.1'2. tbe F"rlnnr feiul tlif TigT, cunnnai^dfed, respectively, 
by Hei;>5r^.k Chris;ici>r.'^'U iiiul Adii-^n iJkuk. aiilnl on a trp.iUng voyage to tbe 
" Maiir' Uivfr." as tbe llodson Viii> iii>t u.-ucod. Tbe following year, 
also, throe more vcs.'-els. cunji'iiiud'-d by CapLiiiih iJe Y\'itf. Vi'lcki-rtsfu, and 
Vi't-v, Kailnl from au>1 Hciveu on a -imilur advent iue. Those ■n<'re 
tbe b'>;;!!u;in?i;>-' of t^io iiai"'irt:ir!t fnr trade which vae. erp loi^c;. to be a chi»'f 
KOiirce (>f M'ealth to lioll.'.Tid -irid Anjr-rica. It '.vas cow det<.i;i:infd to open u 
regnlar <.-oiii/:inuic;iliou with llie ue-.vly-discovor^'.d regii^n, and to make the 
Island of Manhattan ths depot of the fur trade in Au:orioa. It was also 
resolved to c-sfp.blish j-frinaut al agents here for tlu purL-l a^e and colleition of 
skins, whilr th>^ \f-s.-,e!s were on their voyajjc- to and from H:>l!an(l, Captain 
Hf-ijdrjtk ( hristiaPiiseii bocr-iiie the fir-t agent, aijj liuilt a leduuot. with fonr 
►•/iiall bonscs. on v!rj';nd Nvhich, it is ^ftid, is now the site of No. 3'J liroadway. 

.\ little uavy V, as coiiuncnc'.-d abont tbe same period, by Captiiiu Adrien 
Rloi-k. one of the voss^^^ls of wh:<;h was acc.idemalh bnrred, just on the eve of 
his deparlnre for Holland. Having abt.udaiit maienals. however, in the 
Island of Mp.^hattau, he tinisLe«\ another; and in the spring of l.i H, lac ncbed 
ttm first vessel eve r bailt iu New^AimJ^rdata. She was named the JUi^UTi*. a 
y!\rSt~Tff^ixtcfvrtons'^^^aT':TaT^^ ever-busy and f':tiiro great citj-. 

'J'he entire winK-r j^as'^ed i;-. bnilding thevcs.^f-I. the ludiaus kindly supplying 
fhe £tr.i))R''rs with ^ood. Such were the earliest luovemdits of coniinorce iu 
N'.'iv Ntiherlands abont 284 yeuis ago. 

A few months before Captain Block's rttuiu to Holland, the Stites- 
Ofueral of the Xeiherlauds, with a view of oucf'nraging emigration, 
j'lisseJ an (>r(liniiiu'5 granting the discovtrc-rers of i;ew countries the exclu- 
sive privilege of t::vd:ng at Munhattr.n duriu.L; four voyages. Accordingly, 
iliu in<r.'ljants who hail sent "••nt the llrst c,\pediii(jn had a jnap made of nil 
the country betw e-^n Cj.riul.i n;iu \'irginia, a-i the whole i^ew .■"egion v,ks called, 
aijd rlal'ning to be the orii,'i;ial diK..overerfi, petitioned the Go>err,jEeiit for the 
proiuised monopoly. Their p^titioa was eranted ; andean the 11th of Octo- 
ber, 1G14. the^' obi.iined a-h.iittr for the ochisive righ.f of the? trade on the 
lenitory within the -10th and ■l.'jlh degrees of north latitude. Tbe charter also 
forbade all other perrfons to interfere with this nuniopoly, in the penally of 
coutis.'dtiiig both vt.'^sels and cargoe>^, witli a fine also of fiO.MOO Dutch 
dnc.Tls fi)r the lienefit of the ch.irter's grantees. Thf new jiroviuce first for- 
mally received tbo caiiiC of .A>/p X'tlurJ/tr.d in ibis doc-uinent ; uud DuU^h 
merchai,fs, associnting themselves under tha aime of tliC " Tnited Xev? Netb- 
erliiud f.'ouipany," straight w.vy prepared to conduct their operations on a more 
exteu!:i^•e scale. Tr^^diug parties iu the interior hritteued to colh-ct furs from 
tbe Indians, and deposit them at Fort Nassau (Albany) and Manhattan. 
Jacob Eelkins:, a shre;vd trader, received the appointment of agent at the 
former |^]rice, \vhei« the f.rfci cue, Captain CbrJFtiaeusen, bad been murdered 
by an Indian. This was the first mnrd'T ever recorded in the new province. 

In the year l>il7 ^a formal t reaty of pea£e_andaHiance w^is concluded Jae- 
tween th-j J)utcti i.i.d ;he pow erfuTTTatlon of Fb elroi pIoiKl Tbe~pipe of peace 
waTTBWoItod, au I .ut hate^net burlecl in the earthfon the present tita of 

Trade bc.-am'- !,o prcfitahle, Ihrt Tvhen the charter of tbe United \cw Xeth- 
erhnd Company ei:pured, in ICIS. thty petitioned for arene^'al, but failing to 
obtain it thty coaticu^d thtir L-ade t\*o or three jOe.T6 longer, under a fpeci&l 


Up to this p.riod, lb'? Holkivloi-R lind oon.-.idcrcil M.inbaflau .is a tradhiR 
pi -St only, aiid ilw; It in mere tf^nijionKy buts ol rn le couptn^clion. Hut the 
Liriti>-b uow <;\pl.ired the Ainsil'f.11 t'>aKt, <'li;iijiiug tbf. whole rtgion betvreou 
Caufidd aud Viryiuin., (itfd frrui the Ailinlie to the PiK-iiic Oceans; aud the 
Dutch, consc^ii'Utly bcgau to r.-'.ilizc the importance of seonring the Aiueri- 
oan po.-^cjssions in tlie new province. Th'' EuLtlit^h Puritanf;, luaring glowing 
aeconu's of the Now Notb-r]:i.i:d, ieipii->st(d ])t-miission to (.•niif.';rate (here vith 
( fanrilit's. IJr.t the S'.ates-Geucrul, bavmj,' otbor piins in view, d'-cliued 
the pnivcfs <:f (be Puritans. They thought it bettpr policy Ui supply tlio new 
province with their own r-iu'itr^nien, a,ud on the third of ■Tune, IC'il, granted 
a charter to th-; Wcyt IiidWv Compi^ny f<;r tv.'euly ytMrs. ■nhich conferred npf>a 
them the excluKive jurib-lijtion over New Netberland. Meanwhile, the P.iri- 
tans, not tVNbearteJied, reacli'-'d Plyniojilh Kock, and tbr.s conveytd their 
faith ajid tr.illic to tho sb..r;b of New Ivii^l.ind, where they t-outiiuic t-o this 

'J'hc "Wtst India Oonijiany now began to colcuize tlic now provinc,-; wiih 
fre^h /xal. Th^^ .\i)ist' rii;'.iu f'!;,iaibt.r, irj l'J'J3, tilttd out k sliiji of ;?")0 tdjiB, 
thi3 JVfW ydfuriuiuf, in whith tlii^ty fiiiuilieK eniba/ke.! for (be distant terri- 
tory whose nnn.e she boro. fai^tuiii Wt-y cnminaniicd the expetlitinn. having 
lieen .-if)pfint'd the tirst Director of l.hc jtixniuce. Most of (he '■.olonists were 
WiiUooiix, ox Fveueb Prolt^'-cn's, the bonier'^ of Fr.vnce and Belf;ium 
au-1 fio'tglil a boiuf from rL-liL,i''ns pcrsocntious in tbuir own land. 

With the ^.rnviil of '.h<' .\<r Xtlfi< -ln)'-l, a new mc. in the d-jii-e^tic history 
of the setti'Ui'jnt began. Soon sj'W-mills supplied the Tucessary timber for 
comfortable dwellings, in Die j;lacc of the b;trk-htits built afU-r the Indian 
fii^hion. The i?ew buildings were generally one-story higlj, with two 
rooitiK on a floor, and a th;;tehedri'of gjsrret. I'^r^m the w.nit of brick and mor- 
far, the chinineys wpre cousliudrd of wood. Tlie n terior was, i;s a matter of 
oour.'^e, v'.ry scanily snppjic'd viih furniture — the gr^dt cin st frora FntJirr- 
Iniid, with its pn;^ed ]:( asebold gOu;ls, being tlie most imposing article. were g<n<rally the beans of l)arrels pi iccd on '>i'd; r'.>ugh shjlvrs cou- 
stituled the enpl/Canl. and el.tiiis \»crc log.s of A.'Ojd rougli liewn from the 
forext. To comjil'ite the furniture, there was tlie well hnowQ ' Slxip 
Jii'Tick.^^ or f,lcfcping-l>encb— the bedstead- whr-ie lay the bo:ist. the pride, the 
comfort of a Dutch bou.sel;<-ei;er, the f'-ather bed. Around the i>ret>e)it Bat- 
ten' and Co<')iti<s Plij) and the yowling-frieen v.tre the housH^, a f • w of 
wliicb kvere s-iiToui.ded by gardens. The fniit-trees often e.\cit<"d the thievish 
propensities of tlie uitives.and one devastating wur followed the shooting of aii 
Indian girl V. bile st(':iiiiig pcacbts fr^ni ;iii orchard on Broad'.\ny. near the 
present IJuwling Grec'i. Meanwhile connnerce kept ]'ace with the new 
h'.nseK, and the staunch ship, thi> .'At Xftficrl-nu!, r.'tumed to IIoILmd w th 
a c.irgo of furs valued at >:12.Ui>0.'' 

.•\uxiouK to fidlil itsjpart of the Rpv< enaent. thft West ^ndia Company iu 
lf-25, also sent to three ships and a vat ht, containing a number of 
families, armed with faiiuing implerjents, and IW head of cattle. F>^aring 
the cattle niight be lost in the surrounding forests, the settl-^rs landed them 
on Nutteu'fi (Governor's) I.t^land, but afterward conveyed theai to Manhattan. 
Two more vpssel.s shortly after arrived frr^m Holland, and the settlement soon 
numbered fiomo 200 persons, and gave prijmise of p<=-rmanency. 

In the year l(i24, "NVey, returning to Holland, William Verhulst succeeded 
hiui in the Directorship. The lilter^ however, d'd not long enjoy tb.e emoln- 
mentsof "fficc, for I't the (-n<l ojf the year he also was recalled, and Peter Minuit 
ap(»oint''d, in his jilace. iJirector-Geuf-ral of New Nethej-land, with full power 
to org .nize a jjrovisional govejument. He firrived iL'iy -1, 1626. in the ship 
Svimon, Adnar Jovis, captain. The tirnt seal was now granted to the pro- 

, Al'PEKDIX. 35 

vItiiO. Laving for n orc-t. n ln^iivfr, Umn wbicL, fur n oop.t of anns, uif.hiug 
ctiiM anve bV:-n: uiMre Rpprojiriaie. It uas filling thrtt the earlii^st Hi'U'inJers 
of Mjc " Einpire City " sliouUl thi;.< Lonor tbe auiuiftl that was ol' Inst euricli- 
in^ th-em in tlieir newly-ii'if>l>t*»d bcnip. 

To tbe credit of Director Miuuit, bo it eaid. the very first r.ct of bis admia- 
i.-tr.itii.ii was to jiuri'Lnst.- in an oi'en aud houi-rable iiiiinner '.h''> I.-slanJ of Mhq- 
huttau from tbe Iuili..a>! for sixty giKk-rs, or twcity-four ilollars. Tb'^ Is!ft»(l 
it«.-:if v\-;is csti-na'ej tu cont<>.iu 2'i.<lf>fl acre*--. Tli^: ph'^e paid, it is (nu-, was a 
more trilie, but tbe purcbase itself vas lawful aud sat i.- factory to tbe uboriginal 
owners — a f:;ct ^vbich cr.uuol be truly said iu rtgard to otLor regions taken 
fr Jiu the ludiauK. >■ 

To r.-ssiht hi'ji in carrying out bic instructions, the Pire'ttor was furnisbed 
with aa E\peiitivc- Cfj'inoil. TtiO latter ^xa^,. iu turu, r.s^isted by tba K'Xjphhin, 
vbo actt'd as Sfcrotary to tbe provino \\\\\ hook-ki^eper <A tbe {lublic ware- 
»:b'3us«i. Last "f all. camo tbe S< }i''U.t-r'i-f:'al, a i-ivil factouwu, half sheriff aud 
attiiraey-^Oiiiod, o.xeoative otHotr uf tb-"- Couiu il, aud j^iTc-ral custuui-hou«e 
o!!iciaL Thus early had the Putcb au eye to the '' uidn fbaucf:;," tbe exjKirt 
of fiirs- that j-rar (ICi'itt) aiiiuuuiiug to $l-*,000, and J^i^'iug promiso of a cou- 
htant inoroase. 

Some thirty rudely coustnicttd I'-'g-bor.yes now e\teudcd along tbe .shore of 
the F.HSt Itivpr. nnd tbcr.e. with iv l<ioi k-housc, a borst-mill, and 
a ■• Ov iiipauy's " thati bed btoue buildiu}', constituu'd the .settl'^oient of tbe 
pr«-s«ut City of New York. (^leigymAU or K.hoobua^ter was a.n ynt unknown 
Hi the infaut c'louy. Every f-ettlc-r bad his owu oiibiu .od cowk, tilled his 
j.HQ.I or iruJod with (he ladiaus — all were busy, like their own euiblciu, the 

In t)je year ]fi2'.). tbe " CbartP.r of I'rivileges and Exerjiptions " was gnuitod 
iu Ho'.laiid. and patr"//" wer<' allowed to sottle in tbe new co'ony. ThiR iiu- 
poit:.ut (locuuient traufiferT'-d t) ilie free soil of America tbe old feudal t«unre , 
i.r.i\ bi);-dfutf of Cout'.ucntiiJ Eiir.ipe. Tbe pi-opcsed J'ti'i'"/ii>n'i x were only 
lri';.scrl;>t^ of tbe St!'jiievri(-K ;uid Li/rdxh^-p^- po comuku at jv-riod. and 
vJiich rb< Fr,^.:i: -■■::•■,"' *b.:^ '•"m. Ll.i.o, O'stablisbing iu Canada. In that 
pr<^.inoe, even at tbe present daj-, \\v- feudal appcudageb of jurisdiotion. pre- 
emjitioa rights, nionc)"iilieR of mines, minerals and waters, with bunting, fish- 
ing aud fuv.'liutT. forui a part of the civil law. Pursuiu;^, how^ever, a more 
liberal pi-liry. tba grantees of the charter to tlit New N -th'-rland 7>'/</-ik//'* 
becurftd tbe Indian's right to his native toil, at the Siuue time enjoining school* 
and cburches. * 

Meanwliile, tbe settlement in New Notbr-rlanJ continued to jiropper, and 
soon became the i>rii!cij)al dejxji for the fur and ccaKting tr.ide of iiw p'jtri>otts. 
The lailor were obliged to Imd all tbeii cargoes at Fort Aiusterdam : and in 
tbe yeara K'2')-30. tbe iuipcrts from old Amsterdam anjounted to 113,001) 
gailderi, and tbe erportb from Manbattan exceeded 13(),i)00. Tbe Company r»- 
b.?rved the exclusive right to tbe fur trade, and imposed a duty of five per 
cent, on all the tnide of \h<d 2"itrM7i*. 

The in>iabitiintB, iu order not to be idle, turned their attention, ^rith fr^sh 
7t.'J, to t-l iji-building, and with so iDU'jb success, L)at as early as 1631, New 
An^Hterdaui bad become tlie metropoliu of the New World. Th<» Neu> Nether- 
laiui*, & Bbip of 8f>0 toun, was built at Manhattan, and dispatched to Holland 
— an imponant event of the lianes, since the vessel wati one of tbe largest 
infTchautmen of the wurld. It wa« a very cvistly eAptrimeut, however, and 
was not poon repeated. Emigrants from all nations now bt-gan to flock into 
tbe new colony. Tbty were jirincipally ind\iced to c.ime by tbe liberal offers 
of the Dutch Coiupauy, w}>o transported them iu its own veseelK at the cheap 
rate of twelve and a half cents ptr Oitm jjassnge and stores ; giving them, 

r.l.-«», .IS a still funbfr indncenient, as DincL lam^ as iLc-y conM cnltivalc. Nor 
weto th"<* the only rcu.sous '.vLich i:tiiseil thrui to leiive tueir Fid'terlcnd. 
M'ilh :\ wis? .^!id liberal poii<;y. t'^tally ilifferent from that of its eastern neigh- 
Lors. tue Dutch ,2;r,iuti^d the ir.llost rcMu'ifius icUriition. The "Wjilloonr, Cal- 
vinist*. Quakers Calbolii-s nnd Ji^wk. nil fonud a s:\fe and religious iiome ;□ tlie 
New Netnerlfti'd, .ind here laid the hri,ad a5:d s"'lid funmliition of that tolerant 
chamoter ever sinc« retaiii<;d \>y the City of Now Yorl:. In onr streets and 
a'onr; oar broad av^iines Juny Lc seen on aay Sabb.itVi, Jews, Geutih'S and 
Curistiai;c. all worshi])ing God in their pacrtd teuiples, and *' aeeording to 
the dicta't5 i.f their own eonscicDce." 

Ill tbo s-'-.w year (IC. 52), Peter Misuit. the Director. ;t will be remembered, 
<'f New NethiTlf.ud. ^vas bMsj/ei'tel of faviirii'g the jr.ti-xnis. and was recalled 
fr.):u I:!-! Direi:LO^--hip. He returned to llo'laiid iu the f-hip }\cn'l:-(iyt (-.vhicb b'.'oiiijht over iiis dismissal), which carried, also, a return cargo of n.OlX) 
beavei^skin^: — :-.ii evid;^n.-c of the colony's ci)mmercial ijrosjieity. The vcs.-el. 
driven by strc.vs of M'tiitiier, jJul into the barb'Or of I'lynioiith, where she was 
retained, oa the ground of having ill< gaily interfered with Engli.^h monop- 
(ilies. This urre^t of the D:itch trader led to a correspondence between tiie 
rival pov ers, in v hich the respective cluinis of each were distinctly set fodh. 
The Hullauders claimed the fcllowin;? {grounds : 1st. Its discovery by them 
in the year 1»;00; 2d. The ret.:m of their ptople in 1<']0 -. 3d. The grant of 
a trf..liag chi.ler iu IfiH : ith. The maint«'uanoe of a ftn-t. nutil iri2). 
\\^\x<t^i tba Vi'est India O'^mipany was 'organized : and, 5th. Their ]^nrchase of 
the l.iud frou) the Ijxliaus. The E-ij,'iish, c^u the contrary, defended their 
riglU of po<^oss!on fiom the i)rior dis.-overy of Cubot and the patent of 
Jaiucs I. lb the. Plymouth Cojnpany. The Indians, they arguf-d, a.s wanderers, 
vsere :ioi the />";:(/ /?('<; os^ucrs of the land, and h -v.<-e, had no 
rij^'ht to it. conscqnently. their titles n.'tT-l be irivalid. Bi.t Knghmd, beinf; at 
thi-j period jnst on the evo of a c^vil w.-.r, was in no conditn n to force her 
claims: and she, Ihereforo, bavinj^ released the E' 'nfrnj*. contented herself 
with tlMfci'iere assimptioa of authority — reserving the accotnpl^'ihmeut of her 
dt.-^ignffirtii a more convenifut s-^asi^n. 

At lerigr'n, in the month of Airil, lii'-'i'^, the ship !^>''f'ih<_.rr; reached Manhat- 
tan vifli Woiittjr \"an T.viiler. the nev.- Director- Geiieral (or Govi rnor). and a 
tnilitary force of one hundi-cd and fonr soldiers, together with a Spanish 
c.'imvel, ca)>:>ired on the. way. Among the passengers, also came l."'omiuie 
I^eriidns llogardns and Adam Roolansen, the first regular clergyman and 
Bchoolmaster to Nsw Aiesterdaia. A church now became iudispOisaDle ; and 
n room over the horse-niill, where prayers had been regularly read for seven 
ycai-s. was abandoned fc.r a rude wofiden church, on Pearl, between Whitehall 
.•ii:d Pro id "-treets, on the shore <'f the Plnst J'iver. Tliis was the first Itt^fomied 
])iitch Church in the city ; and near by \v-ere constructed the parsonage and 
thi D^miaie's stables. The gr.ueyard was laid out on lU'oadnay in the 
vicinity of Morri.-? street. 

Van 'INviller occupied '' Farn: No. 1" of tlie Com])any. which extended from 
Wall to Hudson street. " Farm No. 3," at (ireenwich, he approjiriatcd as his 
tobacco ]iIantation. The new Governor and the Domiiiie did not harmonize. 
Bogardus had interfered in i.ublic concerns, which A'au J" wilier resented, the 
fori;]<=T, fro!ij his juilpit. pnuounced the Governor n " Child of Suian." This, 
doubtless, was very true, lait the "Child of S.itan " becam? so incensed, as 
never to enter the church door again. Eail}' times had their own peculiar ways 
of doing things, the sajue as ourselves. In DISS, ■• for slandering the Kev. E. 
Bogardus." au old record states, '• a wonutn was obliged to appear at the 
sound of a bell, iu the fort, before the Governor and Council, and y-Ay that she 
knew Ijc was honest and pious, and that she had lied falsely." 


APIT.NDlt. n 

Yaii Twillt-r hail liopii ]jroiuotc(l fioiu n clerksliip ic sLc Couiiiany's Ware- 
Lou-ie. ;md f.oeius to Imve becu a \o.ry iucoiiU'etful Guvcfuor. He proli.ahlj' 
oLuiiufd the pkcb, not from fitni^ss, but froui the same uieans whifh act in 
siiiiiiar ca«c-s nt the pr.^sent day, viz : }inlit:c;il iuflaeiu'-e, arising from the 
fac: ibat he had ui.imod the- d;niy)iter of Killian V.m Kon.-scIaer, the wealthy 

The Conip.'tny bid authorized him to fortify the depots of the fur trade. 
Accjrdinyly, the fort on the Bittery, comiaonot-d J:i tue ye>ir ltV2t), was re- 
bi'.iit. and a guard-horse and barraclcK prep.ircd f>r '.ha soldiers. Several 
brivk and Ktone dwi' wi-re erected within ll;e fort, acd three windmills, 
iLSed to grind the grain for the garrison, on the sonihvrr ^t ba-^tion of the fort. 
.\frican slaves were the laborers ])rinciiiariy en-;r.s^td npt'U those improve- 
iiK-nts. At a subsequent jieriod, wlu'U th"-~e j^Iaves had gr^pwu old, they 
)-e:i:i<!ned the authoritieh fur th^ir freedom, and recomitc-'i their .s<.rvices at 
the tin.e mentioned in enppojt of their aj.p'.ie.-.ticn. in proof of v.hich they 
l>rt ^-nted a eerlifieate <„'iveu them by their overse<.r : '■ That during the ad- 
luiuistr.itioD of V..i; Tv>iller. he (Ja'-ob StoCeb-^-u). liS overseer of the Coni- 
jiftuj'is negroc;:, w-.i.-; continnnlly employed with said cegro.-i in the constmc- 
ti-Ji'. of Fort .A.nisterdaci, whieli was finished in l«>v"> : and that the negroes 
.issistc-d in choj j>in;^ trees for the bi;,' h'juse. iuaVii,g :-.nd spliuing palisades, 
:iiid oth'ir work." The ''big hunse " here ref err- d to was the Guvernor's 
r»-sideuce. It was Iniilt of brick, and was. no donbt, a .substantial edifice, ajs 
it is f.'iind to have served for the r« ^i^ieuee of sncccssive chiefs of the colony 
ilurin;^ tlie whole of the Dutch em. and for a f^w years snbseqnenL 

In respect to the walls of the fort, they were in ::o Tfi.-e improved by the 
iiicimpeteul YanTwilkr, excciit the uorihwot bastion, which wr^s faced with 
^t^)ne. The othor parts of the walls were sinjply b^nks of earth without 
«!!lchos: nor \^ere tLey even sniTounded by a fence to k» ep f»ff tha goats and 
rmimals rnnniig wild in the town. Wlien (rviv-^ni-'r Kioft arriveti, in 1G38. jw 
V;in Twiller's .su.-ces.sor, he found the fort in a .l.'c.iyed state. " opening ou 
every side, so that nothing could iib.sti-uci fjuir.-:: in or coniiiig ont, except at 
the stone pcint." Xcverth'^less, there is no doubt that the fort exercised a 
very salntar\' influence in kei-jiing the ludiarjs at a resj^tctfal di.stance. 

In l''.3;j, the commercial import<irice of New Am-terdam Wits iucrp.;»sed by 
the yrant of the '• Staple Kight." a sort of feadaJ jirlvil* ge simiLir to the 
t'.itlirl.ind. By it, all vessels trading along the tvi>t, or sailing ou the rivers, 
w( rcobligedto eitber discharge their cargoes at the i^^-jri, or j-ay certain dnties. 
This soon became a valuable right, us it gave to Xew .Kmstenlaoi the commer- 
4-i.J nu.noj'oly of the whole Dut<.'h province. 

A sliort tiuae before the arrival of (ie.imor Van T wilier. De Vrici, who'» 
biile colony at Su.alendael, Delaware had l.e^n l-m: off by t'at Iniliaus, returned 
to .\mi Hca on a visit, in the mauimoth ship. Stir yiihrhniri. A yacht, 
about tliifi time, also arrived — the English Khij\ MV/'V-i.v, with Jacob Eelkins, 
\. ho bad been dismissed as superc:irgo by the Co'.npany, in l'"^2. Enraged by 
this dismissal, he had entered the service of the r.ngli>h. and had now retumej 
to I remote their ie.terests in the fur trade on the Mauritius (Hudv:jn^ Kiver. 

This was a Ixild act. and contr.iry to the jiolicy of ihe West India Comp.iny. 
Accordingly, Van T-^illor, who, though mu inetScieut Gov. raor, was a thor- 
ough merchant, a)id ruderstood the importajit m.-iiit.j)'jly of the fur trade, 
refused nermission for the \ f ^sel to ])roceed f iilh;;r ou its way. His demand 
n[>ou F.elkins for his c<irau'iissic>n w;is refused by ths u.tter, ou the ground that 
Le occupied British territory, and w;mid ixiil up the river at the cost, if need 
1>€, of his I'fe. There"i'oi), the Dirtrctor, orlerii^g the m-.'iouid flag to be 
hoisted, anil three g;ii:s to be fired in honor of the Pri^-ce of Omnge, forbade 
!iim to proceed fu.-ther in the name of bis master, ;Le Dutch Goveriuiieut. 


Bat, fur from lichig danntt"! by tlils jjrobibition, EelKins answeretl by running 
np, in his turn, the Uriti^h colore, firing a valu'.e for King Charles, and coolly 
Meercd np the river in dollauco of Fort ATusterdatD. The Rnjazenieut of 
Van Twiller »t the audaiity of (ce os-Dutcb agent may be easily imagined. 
Astonished afi he was at this d;ir:ng act, the Dirocior, nevertheless, proceeded, 
very philoKophic illy : First, he f.nniijioned all the people t.o the front of the 
fort, no* the Bowling Green ; next ha ordi^red a cask of ^r':ne, and another of 
beer ; then, lulling his own gl3<;s, he called on all good citizens who loved 
tlic Priaoe of C>''angt- to follow hih pp.triotio cxaijjple, and drink confusion to 
the Jruglish GovfTninent. The peo;:Ie, of coarfie, wer-^ not slow iii obeying 
this reasonable requoKt : inde'-d. what more ci uld thty d'>, for the English 
trhip wiiti nuw far beyond all reach. >.,..fely pursuing her way up the Kuilson. 
tStill, vhile they drank his wine, thoy were deeply mortitied at the Governor's 
»;owar.lice. De Vries openly charged bii'i ^^ ith it, and plainly told him, if it 
Lad been hiii case, he should have sent pojuq " eight-pound beans " after tlxp 
impudent Englishnian, and h(lj)od liiin down the riser cgaiii: but it being 
now too late to do this, he should send the Su^thl-a-'j after him and drive him 
down the river. The effect of thib advice was not lost upon the Guveinor, for 
a few days after, Van Twiller t-crew-.d up hi.^ courage .siitliciontly to dispaich an 
armed force to Fort Orange (Albany), ^^here Eelkins had pitched his tent, and 
where he found Lc was busily engaged in trading with the Indians. The 
Dutch boldiers quickly destroyed his cau\ us i-tore. and, re-shipping the go-xls, 
brought ihe vetsel back toFort .\.uii-terd.'.ui. Eelkins \v;.k then recpdred to 
yive up his peltry; after whicl.'. he was sent to boa, with the warning never 
again to i?iferfere with the Dutch Goveniineut trade. 

Me.'.uwhile the settloujent at Fort An-.slorduni- -the Now York eudir^'o^-con- 
liuned to increase and prosper, luen ot entorprise and wealth often arriving. 
Most of these came Irouj the Dutch Netherlands, and thus tranKf':rred the 
doui'.-stic economy and habits of Holland .md the Khine to the banks of the 
Hudson. Ships were loa<"4« d with bri'^ks biimeii in Hohi-ud, and. at Mrnt, every 
dwelling was icodelcd afttr tlH»e thcj- had le^t, aiid wiih store-rooms for 
tr-vde, like those of Amsterdam and othi-r trading towns in FiUhcrUiiid. Thus, 
at New .\a.b-tcrlam and Fort Orange (AJUiny^, rows of houses could be Sf<eu 
built of iiupoittd brick, ^vilh th;-tchLd roofs, wooden chiiunicy, and their 
gabk- ends always towanl the street. liisiJe were ah the ntatnoss, frugahty, 
ordjr and industiy which tht i'jn,ut.-s bri..ught from th»:ir native bud. Until 
the yc.^r IfiG'J. city stret-ts and lots were unk-jcwn. adveutarc-rs and settlers 
selecting land wherever mfist vonvenien: for their purjiose. Hence the 
crooked courses of some of our down-town streets. 

CorneHus Drcckeu owned a fanu by tije prosv^nt Peck Slip, and ferried 
pasBcngerj acroKS tiie East Bivor i<\ the small sum of three stivers, in J-diu- 
pinn. \t that time. I'earl (-treet formed the bank of the river. ^Vater, Front, 
and South streets have all been reclaiiaid for the purpose of inciejising trade 
and commerce. The old woud»n, •■'KingUd ?iov.\e, one of the last venerable 
relic« of the oldcu iim« . on ihe corner of Peck Slip, was so near the river 
that a stf)ne could be easily tbrown into it. Pearl, it is thought, was the first 
street occu])ie.d, the ti'-st bouses bi-ing built here in 10;i3. Bridge street came 
next : aud a dic-d is ^till in e.xibteace for a lc>t on it, thirty-four by one hun- 
dred and ten feet, for the sun of tw?jity-fuur guilders, or nine dollars aud 
sixty cents. This is the earliest conveyance of city projjcrty on record. 
Vfliitehall, Ston.-, Broad. F.eaver and Mjirlretlield '/ere opened soon after. In 
the year l('-t'2. the lirst grant C'f a city lot, e^ of the fort at tho Batt.ry, was 
made by »lH;ndricksen Bij*. l>aring the utxt year, several lots wee granted 
on the lower indof •' Heesc Stra.i'.," r-s Br ...dway was then named. Martin 
Krigjer was the first gmntee of a lot of land in this section, opposite the 

' .1 



. ■" .«• 

I'n-alir.t,- <^roo:i, 'wljich cont.vinrd oif;li{;,-six rods, ITf-n he built tlia wcll- 
knowu ■' Krit;;- r's T:l^tJrn." wLich so»iu h.'c.Dii n fnshioriable resort. 

At thi* criticiil uioiQent, the third Din-^ir.n-l J.r.rrnl and Gt)V:rnor, nrriv^d 
Mnr.-li, lOoS. an the succe^.^or of the ^\•elk Van 'f wilier. Jlis fir?t K*:>p to 
orf;auj/:o a Council, rfliiiniug, however, its rutirc coutmL Dr. J<.Laiinea L. 
Momagno, a leanied lIuRiKii'^t. wns ni-pointod by Lim a member of this E^^r 
board. Coruelieus Vnu Tiouboven, from Ulrocht, one of thf ol>'oKt f-etdera, 
was .ippoi'jtfd Coloninl Pt-ret.'iry, with a ftilftrj of two hiiudrpd and fifty dol- 
l:.TB fr 'i/i/itn,i ; while ririch LevrM'ld continued as StLcc!- Fiscal, or Sheriff 
acd Atfotiify-Geiu-ral. .Adrian Dirck^-ea was jnade Af^Mst:int C'>n.r.iiK.;ary. 
becriT^r.e he s])oke correctly the laogiiBge of the Mohawki". and wfti-; " w(ll 
vers.d in the art of tradiijg with them." The Kev. Mr. Bogardus continued 
rhe I)o.Tji:^ie. and Adatu Roolaiit^en the Pchcolrja-ster. 

Tbo utw Governor did uot con&ne hiruoclf to correcting ujffial abuses 
KolfJy ; he i<siie;l, also, prochunations to iLnprovo the mfirol condition of tbo 
h: ttlcniei.t . and nil persoue were soriouj-!y cnj'.incd from " fiybting aud all 
o;l-,<r irn;T5<irhlities,'" as the guilty v.ould be puni.-Led. and made a terror to all 
evil-ilofrs. Uightly judging, ait-o, tlmt pab-lic worship wo'Ud be a peaceful 
anxiliary- lo hib laV orR, and the old wooden (Lun^h of Van TwiUer having 
fal'e-. to pieceB. be cle terniiaed to cri^ct a nev one inbide the fort. Jochera 
Pi.'ier?pn. Kuyter, Jaiiscn Dtui-.n, wi;h Kieft tmd Captain Vries, as 
"Kirko Meoters," superiutecded the new work, »'.ad Jchn and Richard Ogden V-s 

w-r-^ the uiiPOUK. The buildiu;.; was of intone, seventy-two by iifty-two feet, I j! 

and flxtecu high, aud cost 'i.oOO gjilde.-s : iis legend, trrinblatod from tho 
Dnicb. read : Anno Douiini, \CA1, Wilhehn Kiefr. Direetor-<jfcnera!, bath the 
Cfiiiinouidity caused fo I'uiid this temple."' New Amsterdam had a tovrn bell ; 
(lilt, was now removed to the btlfn,- of ibe new cbureli, v,bence it reguLitfsd 
tbe city loovementF, tbe time for laborers, the courts, meny wedding peals, 
i'A\f:C\ the funerals, and called the people to the Lord's House. \ 

Hardly, however, bad Kieft got his plans for the moral reformation of his 
people fairly under way, when, as before hinted, tbe patriAira began to g'ne 
frvsh trouble ; that class now (l'i38; demanded "new privileges" — " that they 
i.ii^i I nionopi'b/.e move t' rritory — be iuvutted with the la^gc^t feudal powers, 
and fujoy free trade throughout Ntw Xetherlaiid." Nor was this all. la their 
arrogance they also demaud-d t'jat all "' private persons " aud poor 
emigrants t-bo'jld not oe allowed to j-uuhus? lands from tbe Indians, but 
sboLid settle wiibiu tbe coloniLr, uuder tbe juriaJicliou of tbe manorial lords — 
i. (.. thciti.teheH. i j 

These gnitj)i>ig deuiiinds of the y^itroom, were rcsen-ed for future consider-  | 

ation by the States -General : and it wjis dotermined lo try free competition in '' 

tbo Inteinal trade of tbe New Netberlar.<l. A nutilicution was accordingly  ' 

published in tbe Amsterdam Cb..mber, that all the inhalitaiits of tbe United 
Provinces, and of friendly countries, might convey to New Netberland, " in 
tbe Company'H ships," any cattle and )nt=rrb?.n(lis€, and might " receive what- 
ever returns they or their agents were able to obtain in those quarters there- 
for." K duty of ten per cent, was paid to the Company on all goods exported 
from New Ne'berl md with tbe freight. Every omigrtnt, upon his arrival at 
Nf-w Ainsierdam, was to receive " as much l.ind as he and his family could 
properly culti\atf . This liberal system gave a great impulse to the prosperity | 

of New Netberland by encouraging emigration of substantial colonists, but { 

only frc m Holland, but from ^■irginia aud New England. ConscieJiCf. bad ever ! 

be^n free in Ne-^v Netberland, and now trade and commerce were also made 
frto to alL Political francLise in Ma.'-.s.-icbnsetts was limited to church mem- 
V»trs, and now " many men began to enquire after tbe Southern ports," not 
from tbe clijnate there, or tbe necitsarj wants of life, but, in tbe langiiage '>' 

10 Kn-ysvix. 

tl'f* old L'lironi' ler, " fo cv^'rijie their nibupporcalilc povcfaruitif." Tlj" only 
o'olifjr^tiou r'-'ijuir.^il of emigraniK v,-,Ts n.'i o^ith of lidriify Rud allegixDce to thfi 
colony, the saujo ris iijipopod upon tJje Thitcb tettiers. Eojh j^arties c:jjoTfd 
cjukI privilegea. 

In ICIO. Director Kipft di'to'-niined npou another nnryi^e rapasnire, viz : the 
rxactinu of a coutriV/ntioii, a t-iK of com, fvirs and unmfi'nn, frLiu V'la Indi.ius 
abouf. P^ort Ainstordr-.m. Thi'-- a:id other iroj'roppr jicTh entirely c.-tranpei them 
fni'n the settler^. R-.'d laid tli'' fonndation •'if bloc'dj^ war, which, the next year, 
(l''>41). dtbolat'-il Ise-A- N',-thi:ri.TuJ. JTcauv.liile, Kieft eoniinnino stubhom, 
seiit sloojis to Tajipan to levy contriliitioii«! ; bttt the uitivcb indif^n.'.uHy re- 
fused to July t};e no el tribiito. In their own plain lar^^'iiage, they wouder^'d 
how tl'O S:ich(iij at the fort dared to c\c\;-t Mi'.-h lhin;^'s from theni. ilo hiiIkI 
be, they said, a vry sh-vbby fellow ; he had ct))ne to live ou Iheir land, »}i<re 
ihey li!.d not in^'ited him, :in>l novr came to deprive them of their ooru for no 

Nol-viihstanili':pr. howrvoj-, fb many injndiciouK at;t>- ■■>f riovernor Kicft. it 
eannoi be d.-nicd tha*. during his f-dmicistration, the trtde o' New Ainst-^r-iini 
begp.n to br b'''tt<r rr^gnla'ed. The Kireets of the town -ilno, wore b^^tter laid 
out in (lie lower section of the city In Irtll, Kiaft ins'.ituted two annuni fairK. 
for the purpose of enccnra,iiu,n; agrioitliKre -one of whi'di was Leid in Octo- 
ber, for cat* 1,3, :i:id ilie othi^r the next inontb.. for ho^^s, upon the Howling 
C'i-^ei\. 'J'he hoilii:!.' <if tbi--;e faii-s opeord tl:e way 'or nnolher inii)or(aat 
addiiion to lh<^ I'onifjrL of the town. No tavern, as ye', had L'='CU started iu 
the Dutch eettitioeut ; and (hn cr.nieroti^ visitors f ro n the interior and the 
New England colonics had to avail themselve'^ of the Gov'^morV- h'^spitali!i'=-s. 
The fairs incre.-v-ing in numlier, Kioft found them a heavy tax npoa I'.is polite- 
ness, as well as his larder.- and, in H>i2, he erected a largf. stone tavern it 
the Company's expeope. It v/as fiitnated ou a conir.itnding spot, near tl»c 
j>resen) Coenties Slip, and "A"as afterwurds altered into the •' St.uU Jfuj/K," or 
(.ity Hall. 

About this time the infrca-^iii^ inteiconrse and biuiiK ss \sith the Englisli 
settlenieu's tniide it nece-sa'-y that n:'r • attention .-huiil-l lit- ]>,(id t-j the Ku^- 
lish l;»nguige. tiover.-ior Kit-ft iiad, it is trae, 'soi.ii.' knowledge of the En;^lish 
tongue ; br.t Lis ev.bordi nates were gpneraliy i^juoi ant o! it- a cireumstanoe 
v\hich often Ciner^d great emb:rrassnKUl. Geor-^e B.ixtcr was accordingly 
appointed his English Secretary, with a salary of two imiulred dollars y7fr 
 i/i'-,,i,)i; ntjd thtis, for the tirsl tiiut, the English lanj^iiage \va>i ofFiCiallj 
recognized in New AtDsterJam. 

The t:rst charier of New Net!)crlaud rest.ieted, ns w^ have s.-'en, tlie com- 
mercial i-'riviiec;es of the PotruOiis ; bi:t in the year 111 10, th(;y wercextendt'd 
to " fU fr'^e coioiiistH." and the stockhold'-^rs in the Dutch Company. Never- 
theless the latter body adhered to ori'.roiis imports, for its benefit, and re- 
quired b. duty of tea per cent, on all goods shipp^-d to New Ketherland and 
tive upon return cargrrg, exc<^ptinc; jicitry, \\hich paid ten at Manhattan before 
pxpori-d. The prohibition of manufacturrs within the pro\ince was now 
abolished, and the Company renewed its piromise to send o^^er " as loany blacks 
es pos.sible " 

In 1613 the colonists e-asily obtained j;oods from the Coaipmy's warehonse. 
whither ibey were obliged to bria£> their fnr ptircliasop, before shipment to 
HoUatid. Thefars were then genL-rally sold at Arnsterdam, tinder the siper- 
vision of a jiitr^on. whose share Art,t was one-half, hut was afterwards re- 
duced r,i-!e-s;>;tb. Under this 6ypt<5!n, the price of a beaver akin, which be- 
-"ore l'J12 had been siz, now rose to t^ea " fathcms." 

In 1044, the evtr-bupy New En^ilauder— imagining that the beavcrt came 
from •• a great lake in the northwest part " of their patent — began to covet » 

'»■ J 




share hi tlie fur traile on the Dohwarfi. Accoidinv:lv uii t-xpedilion was des- 
}'!it<^b< il from Postuu to " .-ail uj> tli3 Delaware liK lii^h ;\.s they coaid gu ; and 
KOine of tbe coiojvuiy, nndt-r the conduit of Mr. ^ViUiaru AHi>iu-.viil), a good 
nnifit, aud one Ldd Leeu iu tuobc partK, to pass l>y jiuall fckilF i>nd canoes 
r.p iLft river, so far as tliey conld." 

lliiB coiiliiiMod iutfi fercr.ce of Nt- w Lcpland advcnturcTs witb the Delaware 
irade. at kii.ufh becaruc very auutyiuf^ to y.ieft, as well as ti^ Priutn. the 
Sw«.d eIi Gov'.Tiioi of tbe Dii;iv.;:re tolory. The Dulob at New AiuhftrdAni, 
as Jie furlicbt ^>\■l.■]or^-r^ of the South Kivcr, bad seou their tr.idinc; monopoly 
tbaie iuvaded by tb^', .S%vcdc< : >'at tbe New Ei:g:i'ii!dtrB iu-.idc (boL- appear- 
ance ill pursuit of tbe .Kanje pri^--, tbe Swede.-s bad cumiiuou c-aube with the 
Dutch to reji-el tbo ucw inlraders. The tpiestiou of hovereijtutv waa f-oon 
raised ubroad by tlic arrival of two ships tbe Kcj^ of C'a'uPtr aud ^latne, nent 
borue by I'rintz with large c?-rcroes of tobaci'o acd bt-aver-sliius. Ijad weather, 
and tbe war yifi^. b-'p^uu b-itwcL-u DeiiMiark and Sweden, lyade Ibree vessels ran 
iuto tbe I'orl, of Ilarlington in ^ric^lalul. There Ibcy were Heizc-d by flie 
WVfit India Company, which both claimed sovereignty ov-r ail the rej^iona 
around tbeSontb liivtr and ixacled tbe iniport duties that their cbaiterf^rant-fd 
it. The Swedish ciinister at tbe Hague jrote^ted agaii>t tbt fie evactiouK, and 
a long oorrcppondcuee ens-ied. which retclted in the ves«f Is beicg dibcbarged 
'.be following Ktiuinjcr njion payment of tbe import diifies. 

During tbt; year lt',i4, Kieft, bcidstrong and impn:d-nt ae n8nal, became in- 
volved iu a war with ;be Ncv Eug'.iiid lutli-ics. At this jnucture of affairK, a 
Kliip arrived from HoU.ojid v.itii a <-.'iigo of goods for Van Kenssclacr's^/'t '■/*£</«- 
«/\y, arid Kiefl, the Dutch forces being in v.ant of cl-^tbing, c.i'icd upon tbe 
su])ercargo to furnish fifty p;-.lrs of shoes fur the t'oldiers, ofTcn'tig full pay- 
ment in silver, beavers, or '.'■.niq-'na. Tne supeicargo, however, zealously 
regardnjg his jatro.'n'n rjereautile Interfstf, refused to coniply, whereujton 
tbe Governor ordered a '«'vy, and t^btained enough sho>;s to sufiply as mauy 
soldiers as aftenv.ird ki'led IJve hundred of the euen.y. The Gvvernor, much 
provoked, next coniinandi.d the v<jhsel to l>e thoroughly seart bed, vhf-n a Ifirgo 
lot of iiud anmir.nitior:. u'.it i.n the ruiiuiffst, were dcchirt-d and, 
and the .-hip and cargo connscatvd. "Wimhrop says that he bad onboard 4, ('00 
weight of powder and seven hundred jioces to trade with tbe natiAes. For 
such acts as these, Kieft seonis to have been equally dettstvl by both Indians 
aud Dutch, the f<irmer de^irins; bis removal, and daily < lying, ** Wouter ! 
^Volltcr 1'" meaning Wruicr Van Tv'.iller, b'S immediate jired<r'.-cssor. 

Meanwhile, the Indi.ta war continued ; tbe Dutch hetllers were in danger 
of utter destrucli'in, uid the lApeiiaCs of the soldi, vy couid not be met. 
Neither could the Wtht India Company send aid to it*; unfortneate colony, ns 
that body bud been m.ide b.mkrapt l)y its ndliiary opcr.'.ti->ns iu Brazil. A bill 
of exchange, drawn by Kicft lipou tbe Amsterdam (.HiHinber, came ba<k pro- 
teeted. Th*- demands for public u;on»-y wore loo pre^bing to await tbe t-low 
prucecding'% of the Adudralty Court. Aecordiugly, so<3n after Ibis, on tbe '2'.>th 
of May. \MA, a privateer, the I.a Ooru, Captain Blativcit, having bren com- 
luiosoned by tbe Go-, inior to cruise u. the A\\st Indies, returned to Manhattan 
vith t »vo rich S]>aaihh prizes. 

About this lime the ship !>''/<' f'<rn- arrivt-d fro-ji Cnn.coa with oue hundred 
and thirty Dut/.b sold'crs, q;:itt^ a n lief to ihe Kew Netberliindtrs against their 
savage foe. 

At length the pitiaMe condition of the New N.-therbnd colony attracted the 
attention of the llutch Government. Its originators, as before mcniioned, had 
become nearly, if not entirely, liankruj<t. 

Tr) use their own off.cial words, '-the long-looked-for profits thence " had 
jjot Rrrjved, and tb^-y {beinse^es had uo means to relieve " the jioor iuhabi- 



fai.t.H who liad l.^ft the /'V/^r-rZi/fW /'* accordir.gly, the l.ankrnpt Coiiipauy 
ur;;;f<l ilie " S(at«:s-G(^])i-r.i) " ioT ;'. ^^ul'si'ly cf l,(H"\0')tJ of guilders to place the 
j)nf«'h }>rovrii>.' iu a good. pr(is]iero'i> uud prc't:utl>le order. 

Tin's hi>,iy flirectt-d cl'Strvntions to b<i nin.'.c iuto the affiii;.-; of New Nt^tlier- 
iand, ai;d also into t]ie j>r.>2.iitty of rc-trictiaj,' ith int' nial truJt to residtuts, 
\vith '.Lf. ji'ilioy of opt niiip; a fii-3 oce beJw* t u Brazil lud ManLHt'uin. Upon 
making t)ii> ii:vestig;i'io)i, it \vfts fouii.l Vii-.i New Netherlfad. instead of be- 
coming a pouree of counnorrial jirotit to tLc Company, bud aLsoliUely cost 
thai body, from the ye:ir lo2l> to I'MA. " ov< r 'jZO/A'A) f^'inldern, ded'-itiug re- 
turu.s ro--'e;\f;d frrn;> there" Still, " ihe Ci^iup^ny Cfiuuot df-i=iiii3- or ooDsif>t- 
outly aloi'.J.iii it." The Director's --hlurA-, the report confiuiie^, 8nonM be 
'.),0'>'} L'Ji'dor^. a'ld tho wholi; civil ■■.wl iniblr'.iy f-.stftLlislmjtut of N-?'^- NctLer- 
la^id, 'ii\<)i)') u'liilders. 4s ni.iii3- Africp.u iiegro^r. it tbo<^;?lit, »lMnld be brought 
frcju Urazil as the 7" 'Y /«"«.<■. farmers .lud settlers '" wo'ild be villiiig to p\y for 
at ft f-tir price." Ii vrmid tiius ai)[<c-u: th.d our Dntcli forcinthers had .some- 
tliing to do -vdth the slave tnido as Tvell as the Sov:thtru coloii'-e.?. Free grants 
4>f land r.boi:ld 1 e granted to all eiuigr.iius on Mai:hattar. Island, a trade 
-:tl.o«vd to Brazil f.nd tho fisheriei^ : the lu.iuufA-.'tnn? aiid v'Xpjrtation of salt 
slioiild be eiicot:r.'.p;ed, and the d'Uies of " rev« u^ie oJli-ers b? sLaipIy afle;ided 
lo.'' Sneh v-fis tho buf■ilK'^'-i couditii;u of ihe Ne\7 Netherl.i''id iu the y^ar lt)45. 
The fi«-e rrcvio'.is year-; of lu-liau wars 1,'ad banlly knowzi five lairths of peace 
pod pro- j)C-r:(y. Kieft, iierci-iviug liis foruier ►rrcrs, uo.v ci>nv-lnded a treaty 
'■f ?.njih' "^^ith the I).dia!iK. August 30, KM>. Iu tv,-o years, ],("/ii1 savages bad 
Jj6.?n I'.'lJcd at Manhattajj auii its ntigliV.'.rhool, and searccly one huudred 
coti'.d be found bcnidcK traders. 

Soon after the of ;iee, in 1<>J7. Kieft, bav;ng been recalled, eiabarliod for 
Holland, o,irr;-ing \vi:li biiu sjieoimens of tiic New N<therla:j.i Uiinerilfi (gath- 
ere'3 hy 'ho Iiiritan Indians in the Nov^-r^•il:^■ Hills), and a Ixriune. which Li? 
euemicri ostiiiiated 'it JOft.fKiO gniJdci-s. Pouiinie I'ogardns .Tnd Van der Kuy- 
geiis, late ris--al. Were fc]lr.v-]>as-;rngers in the richly !;ido:i vfpv.l. By u;i6- 
t^ke, the ves-sel was Kavigatrd ;n!o the Kjiglish Ob.aunel, vas n-rf-cked upon 
the ni^ct'J ooa-t of N\'«les, ai..1 went lo pieces. Kieft, wiib eighty ether per- 
hOri»;, iiic'.'iding Boganb'.s and 'ho Fi-^* :th \vi'->-=> h-st ; only twfutj i^ere saved. 
Melyn, the ;;'7^/'"'A of ."-^tateu Island, f.oated on his back, landed on a sand- 
ba-..'k, liLd '.betjie reached (hi; niaii laud in sp-fely. K.iyter, f'./t)nd;T of new 
Jtarlun 'AfiS also ^w^ved. 

On ijie Iltji of May, 1GJ7. Govern'^r Stnyve.snj:*, as " redres.=cr general " of 
a'l th'^ coloni.d abuses, ariived at Manhattan to enter npon en adruiui.-tmtiou 
which -vK-s ti 1 mt until the end of the Duich j>ov,er over New Neth.^rLnid. 

Stnyvesrtnt ahso, sef nis to b::ve been the lirst g'^rernor who took pride in 
the town it.-^^If. lie found the infant city very r.nattrftctive — fences straggling, 
^k(tlo mnning around loose, the pnljlic ways crooked, u.'any of tb.cja encroach- 
iiig on tb-j Hues of the ^tvet, and half ihe bo.aees in a tuinbk-dowu condition. 
AU these evils he at once set about to remedy; and one of bis carUcst acts wom 
<o ajipoiut the first " Surveyors of Baild' Jgs," whose duties were to regulate 
the erection of new houses in New AmsttTd.^in, 

The Dutch Company "now resolve J to oj.en to private jjcrscns the tra^ie, 
■which it exclu-ivtly carried on with New Neth^Tland, tlse Virginia, the 
S" .vjish, Engbsb. and French colonies, or other p]aceB thercabotJl," a'ld tk« 
'aew^ Director und Council were ordered lo be vigilunt in enforcing all colcuial 
cns^oin-hous^ regnlHtioue. All cargies to New Netherland were »o be exam- 
ine!, on firrivai, but the ccs'oin-bouse ofBcers, and all who wera homeward 
bound were to give bonds for the payment of duties in Iloiland. KtX' was it 
long before Stuyveiant had an opp'"i-tnnity of showing his zeal, 

AtH>at this period, IGIS, it became necessary lo regulate the taverns, as 
»l:«o<4 OLo-fourth of the to»n cf New Amsterdnn had become hooscii for the 

, . -X AlPtSDIX. 48 

si'.te of bran<1y, tobacco, or beer. No new taverns, it wjis orilaineJ, should be 
licensed, oxcc'itt 1'3- tiiuiiiimons con-f-nt of tbe Director ftucl bis Council; and 
those eslablished ini;;)it cuntiune four ye:irs longer, if their owners would ab- 
stain from ReUing to tbe savager,, rt-pi-rt a11 brawls and occuj'y decent houses, 
" to adorn ibc town of New Amsterdam." Notvrithstvndiiig, however, all 
the~e precautions, tlie Indians w<^rediiijj' v^en '*rnuiiing drunk throut,'h tbe Man- 
batuxns." New York, now tbe metropolitan city, witnes'.es everyday a&d nigbt 
crowds of Blub dmnkeji f:ii\ages in he r streets : and it wo'ild almoKt seem (hat 
our wise Icgisiiitnrs have nut wisdom or strength enough to f r.iuie laws to sub- 
due or prcvi-jit this puMic evil of ail 'jvil-?. At last, at New Amsteniim, ia 
;uUlitiou lo the former pen.JtieK, offenders against tbe teriperauce laws were 
now " to be arbitrarily p-inisbed, v.-ithoni any dissimulation." 

la tbe year 1G46, no i->?rKou was allowed to carry on business, eiccpt be 
Vits a pormttijcnt resident, and h:td taken tbe oath of allegiance, whs worth 
from two tbunsauu to three thousand guilders, at leas-t, and intended to keep 
'•lire and I'ght in th<^ province." This was an early *>xpression of permanent 
residenee in the Dutch province. Old residents, however, not possessing tbe 
full t.ntde qualificatious, were allowed the saTue jjrivilege. provided they re- 
mained in the province and used o;i]y the weights and nieaeures of •* Old 
Amsterdam,'' and, " to which we owe onr name." Scotch mercban's and 
pedlcrs were not forgotten in these arraug'^ments, for it was also ordained, that 
•' all Scotch mercbaiMR and dealers, who czne over from their own country 
with tbe intention of trading here," should "not lie permitted to carry on any 
trade in the land "' imtil they had re-^idei here three years. They were also 
reipiired to build a " dC'ent, habitable tenenoent," one year after arrivaL 
E' ery Mon'Liy was to be market-day, and. in imitntion of fajtherJond, an 
annual " k-'^omis,'' or f;iir, for ten days, wis established, commencing on Mon- 
day after ^?t. Bartholomew's Day, at whi.;b all persons covild sell goods from 
their tents. 

At Irist, a naval wur, long brewing, broke ont between England and the 
I'uited Province^, and, without warning. Dutcli nhips were aiTtsted in Eaglish 
jVirt-^. and the «.rc:ws impressed. Mnrtia llRij)crtsen Tromp comnjHnded tbe 
Diit<b fle<^t. ITis ui^me has no prefix of " V;ili," as many vritcrs insist. Ban- 
croft and Broadbcad are among tbe few who have not adopted the common 
cnor. The Dut'h .Vd.jiiral wav no m.iro " Vitn Tromp " than the English was 
'"Van Bi;ike,'" or our i rave American •'Van Farragut." Tromp, in a few day?, 
jiieL the British fleet, under Atlmiral B'jike. in Dover Straits, and a blot^y 
but iudeci^ive fight followed, lirilliant naval engagemeLtri ensued, in which 
Tromp and De liujter. with Blake and A.yscne, immortalized themselves, But 
the firb-t year of hoitilititts closing with a victory, Blake sought refuge in the 
TLames, when tbe Dutch commander pliced a broom at the masthead, an 
emblem or token iLat be had Bwe!)t the British Channel free from Briti5h ships. 
These hoftilities between Hollra-d and England encouraged pirates and robbers 
to inf-jst the shores of the East River, and perpetn^te eicesses on Tjoug Islaiid 
and the neighborhood of New Amsterdam. Sevenil yachts were imme<lii'.te]y 
comniisr-ioned to act against the jiirates. A reward of one hxindred thalers was 
offered for each of tbe ouflaws. and a procla'aution issued prohibiting all per- 
ti0!i£ from harbi>ring them, under tbe j>enaUy of bmishmtnt and the confisca- 
tion of th-^ir goods. Forces had even been collect(jd to act against New Nether- 
land, but the joyful inlelligenc of pejice sent them to dislodge tbe French from 
the coast of Maine ; and thus, for ten years longer, the coveted Datch-.A.meri- 
•can province continued r.nder the sway of n<.'lland. llie peace was published 
'•in the ricg'ng of bell from City ]^rtIl,"on the 12tli of August, 1C54, app<3inted, 
piously, bj- Stuyvei-ant, as a day of gener.d thanksgiving. 

During the same month, 1C54, Le Moyne, a Jesuit father and Uiissionary to 



the Iiiili^us, inir.K>r(ali>;«d hit^ iiaiu? bf « ili-covoij" wliich ai'terwar.! formed 
one "f (ho lar^Pbt sources of wf,i,Uh in our Stiite. liercuirg tie entrauce of a 
sioiill lake ti:!e,i -with 8iiliiio!:-l,ruiit and oxhfT lisb, be tustod the water of a 
pnriiig which his Icdiau giiidcB were afrniu to drink, Mvin^ that there wao a 
d;-ii:on in the'Ji which ron.'.'^vcd it jUcnK'.'C. But the Jv.-uit had discovered a 
" foi'i'.tnia of tJ' »vf.tor, "" from vhich lie actually ivi;i''e SviU as urUur.d as that 
of thr sfa. 'rakiu.2 u sniup'e, be dosc-aded the Oi;;i, j^assed over the ;uid theSt. Lawrence, and safely rc.n'b'.'d Quebec v.ith the intplligence 
of his woiidi.rf'.il d^s^•'>ver^•. To the State of Ne\r York it has since been more 
Vii!",ir.ble '.hail a niiue of silver or gold ; located at Syracuse. 
. DiUTi.j5 the year of 1*''".4. She Swedish aud the Ca-siuiir colouisis on the Dela- 
ware had taken the Dutch fort there; 80011 after, Stuyve-tiiit hal .an opportuni- 
ty of retaking; the G'/'jUii >\',niK\ a S>vedish ^hip, bound to Soutii Ri.-er, 
which, by ujistake enttred Siiidy Hook, and ••nchored behind Statin Is-laud. 
Hit error d;s<-c.ver"d, the t>i{):aia sent a L.iat to ^Iinhatta:! for a pilot, when 
t^'.e Go\ornor orderi-d the crew to the ^;nard-hou^;;•, and di-'p'iteh-d soldiers to 
^I'-xae the vessc-I. The Spark'x oar^^o was removed 10 the v?jmi)anyV uvigazine 
until a "-ecipro-al restitution shoi:id have been niaie. Th'- Swedish a^'/ot sent 
a lo'ig protest to Governor St'iyve.-^ant. coini>!aiuiug of hi> CoPduct. 

la the year ii'i2fl, there w-^re ju New Aiii-^tfrdam. one hundred .and twenty 
bon<es aud oae thoas,ind Konls. A procla'.uatiou now f<.rbid the removal of 
B.ny crcijis in iho or Ciiiony. Mnlil tlje Coin;iaay's tith-.-.s bad been paid. 
The anfhorivies <. f Kejisselaf r^-wyck refusing to jmblish thi.-; notioe, I'.e tapsten? 
were sent down to Xew .\ia'^terdani. plea iiug that they acted under the orders 
of their feudal o/f.i-i rs. 'J'hif- dtfense was o-. tirnle.i, and o;ie Sued t'^vo hun- 
dred pounds, and anotber^!<.-ht hundred guilders. 

In the yciir 10.57. " ii. cn.iforinity to the cu-toni of the City of Amsterdam in 
Enrore.'' this grerd b'urgher right v/as iutro.luced into Nt-w Aii;?;ter.-'aiii. This 
was an absurd iiuiti'.tion of an ia^iduol.^5 policy, and the taother city aers.df 
\Tfts soon obliged to aban-l'.iii it' "lotwithstajidingGovenior Stayv(s.Hat atteuipt- 
ed to csi:ibli-L ia N- w ,\MrlLrdani this niost offensive of al! ".listinotions —.".a 
anstocr.wy fouadivioo a elisb or aijra weilth. 

I'.riug tlie year IC'SO. it discovered that the Du'.eh oolouy had as yet 
jirc'ducf-'l no ri-tnrnK, p.iid already se\ en thous.ind g'liMers in a''re.irs. It 
wa.-i therefore dit-rrj.iiued that, to prevent further loss, such coiobist's only as 
had left Holland before Deceaibsr. ]f>.')S, shuuld be pruoded with provisiotiS. 
Go^r.Js were to be sold only for cash, and exenipti^ns from tith-^ and taxes 
v.'re to cea>-v over several years before the stipu'al' d periled, aud laerchan- 
dis-i thvreaftfcr wa* to be c;>a-igaed to the City of .Vm^terdaio ?\clusively. 
The colonists ienionstr:;ted agaiu;^t this new restriction of trade, which had 
the ap[»3ar.>.u;& of gri-s-j slavery aai of f jr.ter:ng the free pr-j'.ppcts of a 
■wcrlliy people. This r"!aonslrance was well-t'me.i, aud the Citv Council con-' 
."ented that f.ll tho tr.ib^rs oa the South Iliver jaight export all g', eicejit 
peltry, to anv place thej' wished. 

In the yej.r ItU^O. a second s\ir\ey and juap of New Aiasterdani was luade by 
Jac'jUwS Ci^rtelyon. aud the oity w;is found to '"cntaiji three hoii.lred and fifty 
horses It \v.'_s st-n* to the Aiasi'jrdim Chamber, in it r.hor.ld be thought 
" g.x)d to make if u.^re jiublic by ha-.iag it eugraved." The rest'>r?.tiou of 
Cbftrles the ."^e.oud. ja lO'.l, did not j)roduce in England raore frieiidly feel- 
ings tow.irds the Dutch ; and the two nations now becarje ->ora:aer.':al rivals. 
Tb'i .K'X of Narig-tion had already closed the ports of Ivew England, Virginia 
and 'laryLiud, au'.iinst Holluad ;'.nd its Colony of New XetherJand. Such, at 
t'la: tini-3 was the na'Tow sjarit of British strttehaien, and jaaay In-.V-peudeuts 
aa.l Diss? de-ired to r,' ik i.ew homes, "wh^-re they would be alike free from 
niC'iarchy, i<relacy, and British rule. 

. APPEN'DIX. 45 

• "*■ * 1 

A niinibiT of Lr( v, jriob. Irick kilus. ami other nianufnttories, c.arrie<l on a 
sUL'cesu-.fnl bu<!ia<-ss ; ;tail the potteries on Lni.g Isluu'l, Koine po.rS')US estceiiieiJ 
f'luil to t):'>.--.' of Delft. Dirck Dc Wolf hrning obtaiued from the Amst»-rdam 
Chamber, in Kit;i, the oxciu.^ive privilege- of Uiakiag ^aU for tcven years ia 
New NctlitrLiiid, i)fg.m its nifiuufactnre upon Cfmey Island; but the Grakts- 
eud Kcttloix. whr- claimed the spot, arrested the ent'irpris'.' ; and this, t<DO, not- 
v.''1'Gg ("rcverii'ir Stuyvef..viitst.-nt a military guard to protect him. 

In the \(:\.c li'iCA. the poi'iilatiou of Xtw Motherland had iiurt^uK'.d to " full 
ten thousand,'" aii'l Xfw Aii'-ter.lam cfnt linfd one thonsaiid five hundred, and 
wore an ajpix^'.rauce of grc-iit pro-^perity. English jealousy evidently increased 
with the aui.Tjeuting eonun<rce of the DiUeh. James, Duko of Voik, was the 
King's broth' r, and als(j ihe Cioveru'jr of the Afriiran Company, and he de- 
nounced the Dutch West I-idia Cojupany. which had endeavored to seeure the 
territory on the Gold Coas: from Plnglisu speculators and intruders. England 
resolved to march a stejj further, and, at one blow, to r(;b Holland of her 
Aiiieric.'iQ provinr-e. Tlie King granted a sealed ]\i1ent to the Duke of York 
for a L<rgti tenit<ny in Aruerica. including hong Island and all the lauds and 
rivers from (he '.vest side of the Coniiccticut to the east s-ide of the Delaware 
l^ay. Tliis sweepiiig grant cnihraced the whole of Xew Netherhaud. 

'I'lie Duke of York, that he might lose no time in Fecurii.g his patent, dis- 
lialched Cajitaiu Scott, with one liundred and fifty followers, to ^isit the 
Island f'f M.':nci,itfan, the vulue of whii-h was now obiimHtcd at three thousand 
pounds. On the 11th of -Januai-y. 10')^, the vularous Scott made his appear- 
ance at " Breucicu " Feiry Li'nding, and, with great flourish of trun.pcts, de- 
njan>led s'ibmi--!-ion io__the English flag. Governor Stuyveriint, rtisjiatohing his 
Secrct&rj-. jjolitely fusked Cajitain Scott, " Will \ou come acros.s the river?" and 
the reply vv\.s, ,' No ; let Stuy\esaut come over with one hundred soldiers ; I 
wiU wail fur bim here." "' What for?" denianded the Secretary. " I would 
run Lim through the body." was the Captaiu's courteous answer. " Th»it 
would not be a friendly act." replied the Governor's deputy Thus they 
imrted. Scoit rt tiring to Jlichout (Flatbush), with his forces, with drums 
beat''j)g and colors flying, while the people " locked on with wonder, 
not knowing it meant. Scott told 'hem they must abandon their allegi- 
iince to the Dutch, and pron.iscd to confer with Governor Stuyve.sant. But 
when he iear!;i-d the river, on his way to New Amsterdam, for this purpose, 
bo diclinsd cro.>s-ing it. StiU. he felt \ <.-fy hnivo, thrmteTLirig to go over, pro- 
cliam the Kuglisb King at tlio Manhattans, and " rip the gnts " and cut the 
feet froiii .my man who viys, " This is not the King's hind ' " This was, cer- 
tainly very bloodthirsty ; but the gorul peoi)le of >IanhaltHn all escai>ed with 
v^hoie feet and bowels. TLo valiant Ctjitaiu th^n iiiarohed into New Utretcht; 
orderi.d '.be on'y gun of wliich the block-house V>oasled to be fired ii- the King's 
honor, and continued his tiiumphaiit march to Amersfort, for aiiother bloodless 

Gov.,-rn''T Siuyvesant nr)W ord-'rcd a new commission to conft:r with Captain 
Sc(.'tt, at JamHica, an<i Ciirnrlis Steeuwyck — one of the fathers of New Am- 
sterdam, resi'ling on bis farm at Htirlcm — was one of the comioission. It was 
here figre^d that the English captain should hereafter desist from disturbing 
the Jjutch to>»ns. TIj? latter, however, insisted that the b*sis of future 
Liegotiations, should r'^iognize Lo'ig T.slxn] as belonging to Great Britfain. He 
alv) liinted that tiiC Duke of York intended to reduce, in tiine, the whole 
province of New Nelherland- a deolandion which was to prove true sooner 
than the Dut>jh Governor anticipat.jd. 

In Septenditr of the :»auie yt-ar f 1 ■ir>4\Colonel Nicholls anchored before New 
Am'-terdam with a fleet and soldiers. His imperious message to Governor 
ijtuyvesaut wjis ; "I shall come with ohii>s and .soldiers raise the white flag of 


peace at tLe fort, ami tbon sonn't 'ling ronj- he coii-^idercd." The Dutch colony 
was entirely uiiprriiiired ft.r such a warlike visit, iinJ caj itnlale.i at eight o'clot-k 
en the morning of Se[>tembcr ^<th, lOr.i. StuyvcFarjt, at the head of the gar- 
rison, nii'rched out of the for: with the honors of war, purs'a,iut to the terms of 
tho Kurrend-^r. n"s <;o]diers were iiuiBcJiately led down the "/?r'//',-',t Pn-atjf .,'''' 
on Be.avcr L<a):e, to tho shore of the Kfirth liiver, where Hiey onil>«rked for 
Holland. Aa PIugHsh " coi-^ior;d's gnidc" iiiiruedi.atelir '-nti-ied and took pos- 
EOt~siou of the f'irt, over vrhich the Eiif:;ht;b flag was p.t once hoisted. Its name, 
Fort Ai.'.sterdam, was thtn changed to "Fort Jame^." and New Amsterdam 
was hiiueeforfli kuowc as " Nkw Youe." This was a violent and tr'-ocht-rons 
seizure of territory ;»t a time .if profound peace — .i breach of private justice 
and piililic fittth ; and by it, a great stale had imp )sed un it a uam" v^liich is 
imknown in hi^to'y, sive as it is c^nnecttd with bigotry and tyranny, and 
which has ever been an crieiriy o' .Tud religious liberty. 

Before follov.iiig f>;rtbor flie conree of even's, a nijjid retrospect of the coua- 
mercipl prrsp'Tiiy of New Nitherlaud <-eemb desirab'e. At the period when 
<iOV.!'iuor Stuy\ef.ant's idnjirjistvivtiou whs so suddenly tenii:a;vte.i by the Duke 
of York's forcep, ibe i)ojj-)!ation of New Netherlaud Vi.t; established at " full 
ten thcusnud," V.'iien Ncsv Amsterrhtin Wixs first surveyed, in l*'.'.'), it contained 
oiifi hundred ar.l twmty h>uses and cue thousand souls, which increased ta 
•.ifteen hundred in U>o4 

AJtbougL U'lritp'iiii ciT " r-'iirnn " had become abnoht the exclusive currency 
of New Netherlrtn-is '■lt>'i-l,\ stiU, beiu'er remained the ^tiindard of value. 
During the years ir.r)l-2. Director Stuyve^Jint tried to intro.lnce a sjietie cur- 
rency, and at>].!ied lo Holland for tv.euty-five thou^.ind guilders in Dut..b 
shillings and ft nr-pei'.ny ])ieoe.s. but the Directors there disapproved of his 
project. The people wore thus mtirely dependent on n-ii/iipjtin, .is we are 
r.pcu '• greenbacks," i-.ud tlie value of w;iges, property, ai.d e'-ery commodity, 
was, in, seriously distriroed. So it is in this t'iiy, and evr will 
be, with Mi curriucy, whether of ••lam sh-11-;. thin paper or any- 
thing else, not equal to specie. At first Wiimp'iiu pissed p.t the n-.te of four 
black beads for .me stiver; uext i* was lowered to six, and in I'.'.y to eight, 
and then ordered lo be considered a tender for gold and siher. To a similar 
level our wu.'"acre liuanciors would now reduce our pr.per-mo'jcy. But Stuy- 
ves,\nt wi.--J_> obicctP'i, as it 'Vonld bring the value of iTupcrty to naught. In 
the year if ""•',•, the ".^biu- ''('/•/, I •/'</ was I'ext reduc-d from twelve to sixteen, 
and the bla.k from six to ^-ight for a stt\or. Wjmt wa^; the result? Tije 
holder Was obliged2,to give more iratiiju'itt for any a»^ic1e he purcu.tscd from 
the tr.ider. vho, in return. all»;wfd th- natives a large quantity of it for his 
bearers a;. d skins : and, to use the jdaiu record of the day, "little or no 
benefi; jKcnied.'" Ncminally, prices advanccfL v,'h-m bcavers which had sold 
for twelve <-\nd fourteen 'guilderr,') rose to tweuty two and twenty-four, bread 
from fo'.irteen to twfuty-two slivers — eigbt-p<iund loafs — be.-f nine to ten. 
stivers per peuTi'l, pfivk fifteen to twenty sti^»-r.s, shi)es fr-iin three and a half 
guilders to twelve a jtair, u!id wr<»'ight iron eighteen t'.i twenty stivers 
the, pound. l.>e avers and specie remained ai! the while of e piid value; but 
the difference between these and was fifty per ocut The effect on 
wages was almost ruinous. An old record says; "The p(K>r farmer, laborer, 
and public oSicer. biung p id in zfiT'in, are almost reduced t<> the nece.iuity of 
living on alms.'' 

The wft which broke out in 1 '172 between the a ad the Dntch, and 
whieh was chieJly K-arrit-d on by the natives .if the two pf<vers, occasioned ap- 
prehensions fur tlie f;:ift ty of tlie Province of N«w York : and Governor Love- 
lace, the pucc^:sn.)r of Ni. -hulls the first Hnglisb Gov-roxr, made pnp.imtiona 
for a deuionsir.'Atio!! of cJ^aracter ou the pirt of the Dutch. Nor were 



Tis ; allLcu^h 5->n>:' I'j.^nths elap-ms w'tLont aai* app^Ararioe 
of the eueniy, he tillowfid Ulul■^►'if lo fall ioto a f.itr.l tcusa of ^c•c•.lnty, iwid 
6cooriV:n;^ly ilisbai:i'c(l ll:p. levies, while he hiiu^elf iV nvto<i on a vieit to the 
E;stern colituict;. leaving the f"«rl ia charge ef Ciplnia John Mauuing. Tba 
Duiob, however, w ere not -.isleeji : nor had thsy lelinciiisheJ their design. 
D<>t-_nuiufeJ to ro;-iiin New .\m>^t^;^d^nl fit all ha-'-.a-.'-^, iLoj fitted out a fleet of 
dve fchips, couiiiianded by Admirals Benches .%r?d Eo^rtsen, witn C;iptnin8 
C'>lve, Boes, and Van Zye. On the 2?th of .T'-ily, 1673. they appeared oT 
San Jy Hook ; and tpiietly sa.liu;.5 np th>^ bay, \ind .-uichorisg before Rtaf<ia 
Island, Kfton apjteared opposite the Battery. The tb.;n opoued a heavy 
f.vanousde ni>ou the city, at the name tiiViC that Capt;iia Culvp, lauding >»ith 
-ix hundred men, draw up in order of battle ou ih' Cosanons, ready to in-^rcL 
ii:to the city. At a given sii;na). the men iiiarcheil Bro:idway, where- 
'.ipon C>;pf;'iQ dimming surrt^nd^red the f'^rt, on corutition that if.s_ garri«:on ni'irch out vitb hU t'tie lionors r,f war. Thi.-i condition having been 
granted; the Dutch troop=^ Hg;tia puss:-sied the fort and city. New York re- 
ceived the name of New Orange, und the fort hs-^li the a ime of Fort William 
Heudrick. Oovernor Lovelace, who, jneauwhile, liai hastened hack -from his 
pkf-.Fure tonr, was allo\i-ed to retiirn with the Diitch .Admiral only ; however, 
to receive from the P^ug'ish Goverri^n-nt a se v. re reprimand for cowardice 
iiLd treachery, aud to learn that his estates had heea conSbcated to (he Duke 
of York. 

CapLain Colve. now in coruu:an.l of the Prjviiice of New Netherlnnd, rc- 
c<^:ved a coi.iii'.ission from Bouckes and Kvortseu to govern the new territory. 
His rale, thiju.'h brief, was euer'^etii;. H^^ at once !o-?i lUPisures to iiujirove 
the deft-uses of the fort ; aud in Ootober, 167.3, we l:ai it stated in one 'if hie 
<>rd?rB tl:at the fortiurations bad then, at gr>,-at expen~? aud labor to the citi- 
zeab and iidiab'tants. been brought "to p'-rfectlon." Anthony De MiU was 
p.ppoiuted Schont, v.ith three burgouia-tCTb aud live sthopens. The entire 
city a•^sumed tiie aj)pei;rauce of a liiilitary po^t, the <3o!(iiuonri ^he priHcnt 
park^ becoming the parade-ground. A >ru!f: or p.tlisr.dt- was jilaced around it, 
rcnning frora Trinity Church along Will *fr»r7 — htixe itK name— and block- 
houses protected the t^ettlemruf ou every hide. Every day the Schout reviewed 
the niihtary, before the " Stadi Huys.""at the head of Ooentits .Slip. At nix 
in the ev(-ni;ig he received the city keys, aud with a j^'iiard of six men locked 
the public gates, and ptatioi.ed the .s-^utin'-ls. lie unlocked the galeis at fun- 
riie. The I'ity at this period numherf J three hundred and twpnty-tr. f> hoi.;crs. 

But the se<oud administration of trie Dutch va-- Je.«-tiued to be of bhort du- 
ratiom On the nth of February, li"74, the treaty of i<tace between England 
aud the Siates-Gcncral was eigne 1 at WestminsU-r: ,;nd the Dutch, having 
dis-^overed ai:d posscbsed the b.aiiiftil country of N( w Nf-tlierlands for almost 
t-ixty years, were now, once and fort-ver, dispo-.s'tsicd of it. On that day the 
old fort again became " Fort James." liiiving •surrendered to Sir Edmund An- 
drews, who bad been apj)oiuted (I'lveruur by the of York. 

The Dutch of New Amet.'rdaru were di6li^gni^:h•^l for their good uatnre, 
love of home, and cordial hospitality. yonr.g men, late botins. and fash- 
jouable dissijmtion were unkuown There wr.<<, nrvertheless. plenty of oppor- 
tunity for h( ulthful recreation. Holidays werr abu!;d:P.t. pa<;h family having 
Bome of 'ts own, su' h as birtbilnys, christenings and marriage anniversaries. 
FAchsea-son. too. iutrodaced ith nwn peculiar and so^Ld fcs-tivals— the " Quilt- 
ing,"' " .\ppIe-KaiKing," and "Husking Bees." The work on snch occasions 
was KOOQ liui'-bed, after which the gu'ots sut dowu to a snpper, well Kuppliod 
with chucolate and watTles— the evening teroiinating with a m^rry dance. 
Dancing w.a»i a favorite amuienn nt The slaves dauce^l to the music of their 
rade instrnmeuts, in the markeu ; while the maidems raid youths pnvc*i«ed the 



J<rirT\e Rrnii«<?m.-»Et at tli^^ir sxial p;'rtieK, anf? ui. uaJ t'ae auuaal Maj-Pole. on 
tbe " Bowling Gre«u." 

B.'sitlcK .^ulL h.VJd.ijs five pnbiic or imn'on.'! fr-livnls \T.;ri.- obsorved. These 
v<?r? : K i' r.-U'^jd.* , or ('Lristuius : Si>\L'ti J'tr, ',t New Year; Pii-n*, or V;\}^n- 
ovur; J'ink!:'i; V>liit<iinti<!e ; rind Siint" Cla :s, St. Nicla'-li-.s, or Chris-Kiukle 
D,^y. T!iP reom i.f Ibe Xatiiily was ha'!'^-'! witb nniversai '^.Jufatious of u 
' Iilorry Christ.iirts'" — ;i gi>oii oM Kni'-kerLocaer <•U!^t()ri} wUicb has dosifcuded 
UiiiiRjiaired (''• us. No\t, in the d.iy's i>rofjmi;i-na?, c.inio "Turkey Sl-.oling " 
- -tlio yonj'ti Tii-^a rojuiriii'^ eitlinr io tbt " Hocktuai; Swuiup," or on the Cwui- 
ii!Ou (^Purk ), fur tb.:-^ fi!j:us(;ru''-Ji. E.kIi mnn piid .i few stivt rs for a "c'jf.ncu," 
wben tho l,'st sL .t ./>>tiin»d tbe pri/o. Tlje cLi\ was also coinmopjorated, rt<; 
il is ;it till' T.'r-'S'?'it day, l»y fauiily diuner'^, :ii:d c-lo^;cd with doKiestlc g!>.yety 
PT)(J cboftifulcess. 

Nft'vV-Yoiir'j D:ty ■«■.« dev.)tei io the -a^ iatei-L-liauge of \isits. Every 
t^oor in N >w Anisterdiia was (lirown T\idv- o^'eu, :'.ud a ^"urm wck-uiue es- 
ten.lftd to t'io <*-oiVio^iT lib woU as the friend. 

Si'i'n <'lii-H!i, LoH( »er, va.-; .';/(/ diy of all otbers with tbe little Dutih folk. 
for it Wds t-d.:r^ 1 to "^t. Nirliolr.s— the tulc-iar divinity of Now .Vm^terd'iiu, wbo 
h\\ presided at thu fi.,iiro-hcad of (Ivj first iiuis^r^Mit sbip tbut reailied her 
fihf>ref^. 'I.'i:e first oLircl' er-ctcd v/itbiu bor fort was also na;ued aftor St. 
Nicbolm, lie was. to t!ie ima;;ination of :1)e Hf.U" ppoplo. a jolly, rosy- 
cUock'.Hl. lif.l.'- old mail, witb a sli>'icbf>d Lat, Inrg^s ncse, dii-l a very 
long j.ijie. H!-> .-leigh, loaded '.vitb all sor's of Cbri.-itu-.a-; g'fti?, vas drawn by 
r.iii.dccr ; an.l, as he d)ove rapidly over tlie roofs of the houses, he would 
j>.iiis«- ii tb-^ oljitnncys to leavo preseius in the st!>:-kings of tbe good children ; 
if ^.T//, t'uey ijii:;ht expert nothi'if;; bat a swit'-h or It-ather-stra)). Ii! this way 
the youiii; Kr.iok.'rlioekors becinie models of good V)chj\ior aud )5ropriety. 

About 1T>'). the vv;».-, oame iu fa.-liion — a Liugint,'''r prcjectiu;^ caudle- 
elick, with a mirror to reflscl the rays. This wn- a very s^liowy article, giving 
a fill'', liyh' to th.? rooms After rhi.- period, j)'er ai;d made glasses tame b\io 
fashion. Pictiir-s. such as ttiey were, alouuded: bi:t the/ were for the mo.-it 
jiirt p for cngr,;v;;igs of Dutih oi!i''S and naval eng:i:;.;iieatH. Cliiutz v-alico 
of la'crior ij;:- liiy formed the ooij' wirdi« corUii!i»<, without any eoruit^es. 
Thero wcr't no .-iryi'ts among tiie e.irly Datrh. iior atiy hi £;eueral lue aruong 
No;v Yorkers .i;:!:! u;* to tbe porioi of tbf Revolati.jn. The famous Captain 
Kidd, it is s.~.;d, own' .1 tbe first u.odern carj>fct iu his best r^oin, ard the pi- 
xate's house vis the lienl furnished iu the oity. It was made of Turkey work, 
fit ft eost of tweuty-Jive dollars, and resembled a large rn.j. The custom of 
Handing the l!o >r of the principal room, or parlor, was uaivirsal, and much 
t.t-,t.e ^I'.s d;.■^|;'<' 1 in lb- nia'U' faujiful 'levi.-es and tigares made in the sand 
with the '»roo.i>s of the s?mrt Dntcli inttrons and diagbters. Our Holland 
ftnce-itors knew ujfliing of louu;_'es or sofas, or evou thi\t ojiiifortible .Viceri- 
can iu\'eution, tu" rr. king-oh.iir. Their b-st oh -.irs .v^re striiglit and high- 
backed, coverel wirh IJussia leather. auJ el.ilx»iv.iely oriiari^uti'd with dor.ble 
find triple ro;;-s of,.^ uaiih. Iu addition to tht-^e, tbe parlor was decorated 
with one or two cliai'-s having o;nbr"idered seats and uaeks, the handiwork of 
the diughters. Some of the oldest fa:uilies also displayed in their best rooius 
two ch lirs w'lii cusbJous of tapestry, or velvet, trinimed with laee. About tbe 
>ertr 17110, c:, LP seats became fashionable, a'ld thirty yf-ars after came the 
leather chairs, w.>rtb from five to Vn dollars e.-icb. Tb>se led the fashion 
about thirty y^ars more, wlicu nnhogaoy and bla.k wibuit chairs, with their 
••rinisoii dauiasl: cn>-hions, appeared. 

But the most ornaau-nfal pi'^cc of furniture in tbe parlor was the bed, with 
ils heavy cun-aios and va'auoe of camlet No -jiattresses th':>u. but h snbstaa- 
tial bed of hve geese feathers, with a very Hgh: oup of dowu for the cover- 

ing. T'ucKe beds '.vc-re tlio beast .lui pride of tUc luist rebpecUble Datcu ma- 
IroTis, ;iijd, witli tht>ir wejl-tilled cli-jsts of hoLue-m-ide liuen. supplied thfir 
e! iiair. to ^kill iii bouK-kecpiiig. A ^'bot-k co->';riug ci^dJ llii' bods .in J piiiows; 
♦he Hhct-ts were ininle of bouu>sp::Q Mucn, aud ('vrr tbe whole -aks Ibrowa a 
btd'-iuilt of pai''hv,ork, wrought iuto every (^mcf-i vabl? hbape .-iiid pattero- 

Tbe horses iu those days '.vero bred wild in tlie v>\iod.i and )ja>iliiro..s whicb 
coveri^d the upper jiart of >Taub;ittan Isliind. Tbousjinds of thoni ruu at large 
— the owners, at ccriiiiu sea-iou-^, bra':ding tbei'i %s ilb thuir uaiues, wbtn they 
tiirued tbeui loOhO figairi, uutil wiiitor r'^iiu^-red a shelttr for tbeiu neees'iary. 
Such '.vm their ir..jreaf;e, tl<:»t it is R^id the I.^laud n/.-is oveinin by tho 
.Huijoiils, liow bfeonie ns wild niid diiugerous us thf^ liutialoeo of thej-raries; 
the l.r'ctk wa";, coti^o.juciitly, inferior, the I'rice of a horse niiigibg from teu 
dollars to forty dollars, ewordiug to tbe .streugtb, Hud cot the sptrod of tbe 

Tho liferr.ture of New Am^'terdiim T^as entirely different from that of rtod- 
ern ti?aes, Iu the jiJace of tbe novels. luar^'a/.ijj. s and light reading which 
Cuw til! tbo center-ta!»le6, there was to be fouud little else tbau IMblos, Testa- 
iiienli; and psilm-books. The matrous" ehnrch books were geuerally costly 
bouud. with Kilver cla'qjs and edgiugs and soiu* liiues of gold. 'llieHe were 
Fu.cpcuded to the girdle Liy silver ai.d gold chalus, and distiuguibhed the style 
of the f.iniilies using thtuj. ou the Sai.I.afb days. 

The Simdavs iu Ncxv A-jisterdam wro, moreover, belter observed by its 
inbabit'iuts Ihiu at the pri.seut d;iy. All el.^^^Kes armyod iu their best, then at- 
teud<-d lbs public bervices of religion : aud the people, exclusively 
Crdviuists,'"i<led the Dutch Ileformed Church. 

At f'ju. rais. it nas the custom to gi\e hoi wine iu water, and wine-fiangarce 
hi s.iiL.Tier Ltilies geuerally aitende,] ou such mournful occasions, especially 
if the deceased %v:is a female, when burrit wiue was served in silver 
tiuikard''. At a later era. on the death of Mrs. D.iniel Phoenix, tbe wife of 
the City Treasur.-r, ail the pall-beitrf-rs were la<lies, 

Tbe workiug-uiau alwr-.ys wore hi.f leatlier e.pron, no matter what bio em- 
pijyment. Tradesuieu were accustomed to f;aw bis owu wood ; aud a mOot 
ueallhfui exercise it was, Kor did auy man in middle cireunistaEces fear to 
carry borne bis " one hurdn-d weight "' of meid from U)arket, On the 
eoutrary, it woiiJd have be^.-u con.-idered a disgrace to have avoided such a 

Sleighing was a fasbionabb? amriPemeiit : aud a ride to Ilarlem became tbe 
longest drive among the " city folk." Parties, however, ofteu turned aside 
to visit •'Hell Gate," influenced, doubtlesK, by tbe fact that ou this road, over 
the Taiukill (a little stream emptyiug into tbe Harlem River, opposite Black- 
welle' Island), was the ■' Kis-iuig Ilrhlgf-,^' so laid down on the maps,, and 
ij:'.:iied from the old Dutch cnstoui of the gentlemen &ilutiug their lady com- 
p.tnious whenever they cro.ssed the bridge. 

To sum up, the earliest Dutch emigiants to New York left their deep im- 
press ujion the city aud upon the State, Far-reaching comniercfi, which im- 
nioilalized Old Amsterdam iu the seveuteeuth century, soon prov(.ked the 
envy of New .•\.mslerd.iui"s neighbors, and in the end made our city th» empo- 
rium of tbe ^Ve^teru World. Our ancestors left children and children's chil- 
dren, w;bo were well iit'.fd to act imponant parts in t!;e great work of openinj? 
tlie American continent to European and Cbri«-fian civilization. They brought 
with thf^m honest m.'i\iiiis. iudu^try, aud the libeml ideas of their Fath'.rlan'i 
— ibfcir Kchoobnasters, th^'ir doniiuies, and th»-ir JJihi.e-s. In the course of 
events, however. New Nt-therlaud pae^' d over to British nile, v.hen new 
customs, new reJaticubhips, aud new habits of thought, wore introduced. 


n. -SAUSCH, 




1-3 51 TLird Avonr.e, 



Builders* Hardware, 

Brt vf-.;ii llTili H!.l n.stb streets 




Sewing i^lacliiiies 


22r,7 Tl.Ird Vve., bet. l'22d .t 123d Sts. 

Sold, ?:xHinnf,'oa, lientcd 


Neir liild Sfi-ci-t. 

afld ed. 

ittr Jobbing ProDiptly attended to. 


Fins Teas, Coffejs, Splcss, 

(?rrini'jry aud Daily liutttT. 

Choke Fa:nihj Flour and Srhct 
Groceries--, go to 


01 M T'lird Ave., m-ar 110th Strp^U 
23'>0 Third Avenue, i:tar 127(h Street. 


:2-27l TLird Aveuue, 
E. tw.-1-n 12 Id liiul 124tli StB , Side, X.Y. 

SPIER'S mmmi mm, 

?] each. C to oMcr, »7..'«0. 

Hofi.^rj , Noti'-nf, Fancy (1oo<l«, 
fiirniBbing Goods. 


170 K:iPt 12'itb St., South Side. 


LaJies' ancl Geiit«' 


Tlie tJiilt-il Stat-'s Champ. <>a Coffc« 
a'waji rt-idy. 

Laige Dich*-* » Sj" cialty at ro;.iii«r rricec 

'233S Third Aveune, 

Between anl 127th Str.rts, Harle.-n. 
Oj>fn .MI NU'ht. P'e»wC«.l. 


Foreign and Domestic Carpets, Oil Cloths, 



Window Shades for Stores and Private DweW'ngSy 

2159 & 2161 THIRD AVE., Cor. of 118tb Street 




A ccrlJiln i-nr" for 


Pr'-pdiiid ai'J KoM at ".VvyJiV 1 1. arm »<-}•, 
:'ltV2 'Iliml Third Avp.. Cor. 11S;L St. 

TS Ceiili a )'.ot11e, 


JVatches, Clocks, Jewelry, &e. 

R'^jisiKng a Spo.'ialty. 

2117 Third Aveuii<?, 

Bftwepu 117th and listli 8trr.3t>sWooaV Block. 


>?Er,^ ..s C'RAWior.K. 


Real Estate (& Insurance Brokers, 

Coutiuenfal Fir<- Iu^•^lran(■t BuUdiLg, 

Southwcpt Corner Lexicgtou .^.vemie 

and 12oth St., New Tork. 

T.f'ans >TcgoMatt'l, Proi-^rty Sold or Ex- 
chau(j<-d, lioiiscB lA-t, and Il-uts Collected. 

N»«tary Public. 

Harlei^i Express CoiiipHiiy, 

Pbin. u II, Oi-rirp, 
208 East T-'."ith Slreot, 
Brjii'-h ( tfitoK. — t OM s;:r.. 3 Ur. U.n Ftrf-^t, 
^.m; Cai:a: .smt-' aD<; .11 W.i-t li.-'lli Stro-'t. 

I (uMieral l^a^'ira^e and rackjiije 
j Kx press. 

j GivkJp called f.r Hiid tor-jrdrdfi. r)'.l.x-Hi^n» 
, made l:i a J parts of tUe Unitwl S'a't« aa<l 
,^iS. HaJlfad aud Su?ar.:V)oiit rickct Of^'-e 
. for ibe North, Siiutli, Ea-» si d \V.*t. jli^ik-ai'© 

I'li'tlii-d ;jiim TtPMid'TU'e to DcBtiiiatioii, l'm4. 
I fciiilTs i>o.'Vi-d to all paits of t'je CJoi-titi^-tt. 
' Drafts fur i^^'.c from IX Hj»w-ar<l?, ut iLcIcwct 

rstfH, SrOlfAGh; ROOMS. 

iJ/i^i/zz^ Morris Hotel, 

Cor. 1 --.i.! St. it Jlouni :\Iorris Ave. 

Importer of Rhine Wine» 


.\11 delicficies in their sea.soti. 

L. 8. DEWEY'S i 

Storage Warehouses, j 


Metropolitan Furniture Transfer. ' 
Nob. 106 <fc 108 East 120th St., 

Near Fourth Ave., New York. j 

Oor>d8 called for iind dfclivfrcd to all ptrU of • 
the rity or country. floxniR and Shiupinn i 
atti-nd'.-d to. S'juriite rooas for furniture, kc 

J. G00D3IAIS, 

2"210 Third Aiicnne, 

Comtr 122d Strt^ 

Hiih the larg<->»t anil fin-jst -Icv-lt of 

oots & Shoes, 

lu every varietj- aud it It in Il&rleni. 

J. }{. Rosen & Co., 



2239 Third Avenue, 

Maiinfacturers nf Fine Cigars, 

ITp-tOKD age-Its for »'J the kading 
I'raitdH of 

Smoking and Chewing Tohaccos, 

printing PrcsHCR on the Pr-julfeu. i 2383 Third Aveiiue, 

No work WD t on t. I Norlli(a»^i Oimer 159tU Street 




Is oae of the lustilutions of Harlem. Keops u}> with the Times 

Has always a fuil line of Hats iii their Season. 


W. H. COLWELL li SO^, 

—-ESTABLISHED 18'i1 — - 




OKFlcr, TIIIUU AVE. nnd T-'Sth ST., 

YARDS, 3d Ave. <& ;2.S7/j St., and 12inh St. let. 2d & 3d .icerjies. 

Hardware, House Furnishing Goods, 

2289 Third Avenue, 

Kear VlixU Street, NEW YORK. 





Charles B. Tooker, 


Iloui% Feed, Hay, Sti'aw, Grain, Salt. 



23S0 Third Avenue. 

Cor. I29th Street. 

OFFICE for Delivery of Coal, 205 East 128th Street. 


















Tiic best and only Washing' Gompoimd 


SHAKES -^^^A^n^l^G S3ASY 


In Hard or Soft Water, without Harm to Falnic or Hands. 

:nLUO.\S UPON MILUO^^S of packages are annually COhSlMD 

Byiutclli^out houae'se. pers ii aH rarts of i!:^ cr-uLlry, and tlie d«;:.ijind it l-j.-rvjaging. 
By its use ♦^^'.prudgery of Washing is well nigh t!cne away with, 
and delicate women can perfoim the worlr with comparative ease, 
esoecially in hot weather, when the washing can be done in ccld water 
without boiling. 

C^For iIoK<ec]oiU»i»?, Washing Dislicn, Cloaiiiiig Milk Cans, &c., ic. 
2'Ii£re if ru>thiiig io oAnpart trith t'L 

Sold by Grocers in Harlem. 

Beware of Vile Jmliutluns, put vp urJ'.r N::inci; that sound like 

And are nref.l by doarlers beranse ib-y c-m matt' larg-.r profits. rKARLIXJE 
is the only S^FE article, and always bcio-s the naiflc of 




JLAVr AMi).VV Ti'-OS.) 
M:i(ii.fafturrT j^ 

Cahinet Furrdture and 


Dfj.ot \!.tiiiiial Wiro Matti»ssrj. 

2'2S7 Tliird AvJnu'?, 

r..tri-ii< r.lTh :^'l 12:>tli S'r'.-els and 

201 Eftsl :24*.ji St. 

Crl;-re Tor^J. yi^ii'g Kxi .•■..IfHl at IKe nlif.rtt st 

Attorney nnd Courscllor at Law, 

S. W Cor. I25tli St. A- Lexington Ave. 
j Oflice open tm fl p. lu. 

r. /". THOMPSON 

A I.a.-ge AD^crhi«iit of 

ox v^ya. 

Fra' ruitlr to orOler in any snle. 

Pariefa«:;:oa f;:nrstitee«l. 

•231S Fonnli Avenue. 
I5'tAP« n 125th sad 12tUli St'cuta. 



i.'27;j Thir.i Ave.. H-t 123<i .v J 24(h Sts. 

t?oie .\fevnt Mr H.iilcni for IHSl'CU'S 

Lodu-^' Fnrr.r^l.inj ti: Fiuirij Gccdf Store. 

yrV line of T/V.doi wear, Hohl.^v. fcr, 
Aff'St ,*■< r .Tobn It. (Iiitt-r 4 Co.'s'o«M)rated 


i '"'"H1ST'0Ry7)F irARLEM~ 


; A '.aTC,i3 sitiil Miiocintt liii^foi y of tIarVm, 
•^r'* T-T*^ jr* «p» >jw -o:,.- rj ^5;-^ . flMtitj^ tjf!<k ?IJ y.-:TS, will Kf.on 1.0 lunlisijflrt. 
.ii:; JjZt^ Jt^^ X-J^. -iii^ .-:;^rS> yi.l-is;b(-..,!lj r,il! ,,n,\ .-crre.t h;,^torv of 

I Hurlim. 'irdert will he rKfivofl bv tb- ur.tbor 
I St yo. 12i EH't HHh So-i-.'U N. Y. " l'nr,e$5. 


The One Price Hatter, 

2.31-2 Third Aveu'ie, 

li.-t-.ti-e;i 10.ML -vu.l 12tt)i S.'rwi*. 

Ci?"".^!'.!;" l;ats made to -inif-r .1 Rpoc:aJty. 


Columbia Cigar Store, 

Tliird Avei:ne and 12.'th Str.X't. 

P-rl; * Ti:fc^d■^ r.gar.-. 
(Gcimi.-i'' '.lapon.d Ha\ aus.) 


Iii.lKJi-tor auj Who'ef>il(> 0.;r.ler iu Foreign au4 


! 174 East li;Uh Street, 

! Bit veoa Tjirl ul r.,ji rirl ,T Vt-'ai«^. 

' Y. BALDWIN, ' 

I Carpenter and Builder, 

6^ EciKt ]2f>th Ptreot, 
I Near Fourth Ave. 

I TTiu-i* on-rbu i!( J s'ld f'-jialrrd. Riorog siid 
; f>ftk-pK littC'l uj>. A!) ki'irls aud vanrt^ of work 
 (V'Tji- 111 NViiod at bhort liotioe 


' Con:pr 130t}j Sfrept eud Third Avnme. 
I r!ooir> and >'Oaio by tb.i day, wci k nrn. .xitb. 
C^iUTicoWd w.;li tl,f Hotel is a^« U«ll Viliich 
I» to Itl for la9i,fii:^8, ic. 

Ucal.r in 

Sfaple and Far-cy Groceries, 

2?.'].' Thiid .\vcnue. 

Xcar 12KdxSti-cct. 



I>c»kr in 

MiUinei^ij and Fancy Goods, 

7ep'.i>Te. f-:X! i\ ~:\\, r.Iblv.DK, F1 .wnrs, 
'/.■irr;*, V(-]vet^, ^■ci^tLe^'^. Kil 
Gloria, r.irtctb acd 

fi'.'(' Ii'ie c/ DrcSi, Jifa)<i'rs' Tiimm'wgs. 
IIZl i- 2237 Tl:iid Avenue. 




Between 117th and 118th Sts^ NEW YORK, 

Ready Mixed Paints, 

At IS Cents per lb., 


Johnson's Prepaiad Kalscmine, any Gclor, can be applied 

by a Child. 

WiUifitiif," Ll'iirM Gold Painf, jicr l.ottle, S^l.OO 

IMe\, Do'.ib;«d-iy iCo ■sLi.iiidG.jIlI'.iint, •' '• .75 

DiAmoTii, " " " '* •• .40 

Cro^-n, .2.> 

Wiusor and Kevioii's Oil rnid \Va;=^r Colors. 
Crtiyotis p.nd Crayou Papf r«. Artist's TaletU-s aud PaleLte Kuives. 

IJed Sable Artist":, Bnisbes, :-.^or.e.!, No. 1 lb 12, at si. 80 dozen. 

"We maunfacture our Emsbc'? £.ud Paints, and defy competitioa. 

SrkJfcr Illu4r,iti-J C-'-y'i'-^'U or.d Prt^e IJut 


D. 7A. WILLIAMS & CO.. ^^ CiJS3,3LX^.^, 

MILLINERY & FANCY GOODS, Comcr 121st street ?.aJ Third Aveune, 
Ladles' and C;.ut.O Fural(«liltig. \ 

2308 3d Ave., 2 do<-.r€ above 12T.tli St. 

Has tbe largest Jtock of 

XlFE INSIHANCE in tbe beet: lORKIG.X aud DO.^IESTIC 

iJ Cunjiii'.riy, '.ffcctol at thr I^owe*; Eslc*. I 


X. B. Por'ona 

,h. aAKJNt.1 I, ^„.^ 

2JG Ea^t Soth. Mrret. iE^Sir^r ^^0<OC3.^, 

for b^<■' fiimp, M-lil '* waited upon r''--"t»!:-y j H»t)em 

by in a<;Liit inimc.Uitelj ou r«^,-ti;>t ol lvUSc*. '" uitiem 

tloa. ' 

~ F. CGLEASON. '''^""'''^wNr DADrMcnv '"*• 

tt'VTCiiiis, CLOCKS, J E\vELa\v WM. ROBINSON, . 

S//. VJSli A so J I.A Ttl> WA IlK. ! -. , -^,-~ ,,-^. T-^TT-ta -rT-5» 

KtTn'jnd S>rli»cles aud Op. r» (.Iv;St«, (•;.;.r J-U<ai/*X-i?^lJriJn^ijt<S/5 

c.^. 107th Street, — N. » T-^rt ' 2316 Fo.irlli Aicaae, 

Wat^*-», lorj:^^^ ,a,,^Jil, H^yaUt^U Bet. 12r,fb & 126tli St... > E W TOBK. 




.* " n« T I . 1 f> r» t V 1- ' -^f '•'''^- S'""--«' St«ti-Prr. Books, .t Tor^. 

Z.^US* .l\f.., I A"-tnr.i,.i2i^ uDd o'-l.'-r Ii^ttii.'iicutsrriiairv.L 
CV.n and Bf«. Sp.tisfai-tion gii;irantr-fd Mu<ic furuitbHi for a.'! ..«ca-ionH 

Only fir-,t-cliss work. ! 224;i Third Ave, B-t. 1224 <fe 123d Pts. 

^""wARNKEN's HOTEL. ': Rodger's iiarleiii Butter Depot^ 

129tJ. suet o>Hi yj. Mck^Ia. A.nuc. \ ^,,::^},^}^:^ ^:^^..^ 

.*1ps, T^'itii-'*, I^lqiiors and >»r:iarK, ' Fine s'ld ;in<1 Ne* Cbt--?''-, 

V'l .. -VAUVWVV Pr„ ' t^ -■^> ^c'S-, Pu".- Mil, Pot CliC-CKfe, ButtT- 

V/ALT£R A. WHITE, \ TIIEO. 1>. C MILLEK, >t. I)., 

20118 I.._'x:nston Ave., 

Yird, 152 Fast- JH^th Stm-i, i 

>Var Lt;.\ij.gV'n A^«•. ' Oi vkk fl ivrf. — TI'5-»ie 9 a. in. 

PVmnufU Cai » Pr^H ia-.ty. [ 12 £.. 2 ami .=5 to 7 p. iii. 



., ^ , ' I.-tw.'(-:i l".t'i -..T d i2.;tU sticvfd, 

n..ii.-e I■l:r!JlHbJ!;gG.-^.^F, tc, , iv.ccr ((,r Drugs. V^.:;..:i.i-s:i7.d rritcrirH''Ji8 

J?.?/^'f T'/.jV'f 4a'»":«e^. j 50p-r <r,n lo^erllia-i ti-=e-»liere. 

Betwrn l-'lh 'Wi.l li>»Th Su*. ' \Vi-st SiiK i QUlNlNK in IVw.irr, PiUs — {.'oblin.' cr 

Prof an. 1 i'.-ijiiti!. K.i'pTli:n<', fca  pnija: (•cof<'rt, 1 i>'nt s grnin. 


A Most Effective Medium. 

Ci:ifcnlaLioii 15,000 per "Week, 

2.500 I'ER DAY. 


In an houesi and t)ioro'igL maurer, ou the Avenne aud a< the Elevated EaiLoad 
tjititioiis. Adverti!~iug rates lower than in any other j-.iper jmblished 


EacL Allv«.rti^^r rpceivo-^ ibe additional r.'lv.^ntr.;^.. of ovir ~\VELKLY FILE8, 
wLiili arc di-'.rilmted at all j-Lvces of riil,>lic Re.sort.^, I'EJIKINSON .'c JOIJXSON, 

223 Ea-^t 129tb Street. 




00]]] Inl] Hoolr IIofkiiioiiqp 



225 and 227 East 123th St. 

First lilacs printinij in all its biiinclus' at rates cojupariii;^ frtvor- 
ablr •A'itb any in Now York. 

The smallest Ljibtl or the largest PosLftr furnished at .Short 

Association. Ix)df:je atui Church Print inj^ « .Specialty. 

Esliiiiaiss ChssrfL'lIy Rirnisheil. 

Orders by mail promptly atteuleJ to an 1 (.•iuv;tii.**ri with 
■nitiplftH sft'.it to any a^MrfeBs. 



Mepxhants and Residents 

of n4J^LE:\I and Vicinity. 

Tbe und-.^rsigued Jesirc berewith to inform the up-town Public 
tbat they Uave purchased the complete Miller 


of Waterbarj, Conn., 

wlueb embraces all t'le .^Todern Machinery aud P.irapheicrdia, for 
he Biiv.liD;^ of PojLs, P uuphleta, etc. 

Tiiey are uow prepared to r'^ceive orders for all clusssa of Com. 
meivijxi and Family Vrork, v.i Rntes us Low as any ia New York and 
style and quality of workiaatiship unsurpassed. 

'Binding of Magazines, Hewpapers, Perioiiicais, Sc. 

will be made a specialty. 

Should yoa desire Binding, whether for a 8iii;jle paicphkt or 
ft birgs number of drst class volumes, please address 


225 oDd 227 Fjut 123ih Street. 


Arch I ton. 

Chhr'ts Jfxirr, 2?Clj'ilj rd A.tiiup. 


K. A. iiejc, 2^0- y< ir.Jj A.iijut. 


AdtTiiiy.ttnoh, l.jr. r.cvt l^'.'.h Str M, 

Eccr S.-iIooii%. 
rnj- iliF,-, Sl'JJ'J'jiH Amlv.c 

Berry W^je-i-, .3,7 Jli.r.i Avesne, 

l?-»a:"< to Let. 
O. P. llayniT, nirKa^ i<r;d^e. 


rerkir.aoa « ) . .,.oii, ::'> i: !■■; i: t'j S'ri-»t. 

Roots A .^lioca. 

I Drnj^jUt*. 

I Cl'"-on n-'.rrt, 2.-4! I U.rd Av :m«i, 

j A<i. J No V.u,,;! >; ;hird *^en^*.* Jiu^.rd. ' t; j W t : j i">lh . 
J IViU Wcl-r, .*i-.i. I'li.J A>c lit, 
I i^ G. WljI>, ;1oJ l!i:rrt Av.uue. 

Dry Goods. 

E. CalL-n, r^ rJ A^e. & i.'Ui street 

Dvcrs A; Cleaner*. 

j H. C Sflrlra.-:, j'M rojrlh meuue. 
 . L. »,:.•■:.■<, -,.i5 Ib.i-d Avenue. 

Elcvtrfcal Apparatu*. 

•Too. I. Coa:j-u i C.\. Li viugtou Aveuu* cad 
JU'.ib ftlriet. 

J. K, 

3182 I'j ,a Av, 

VC. h. & I o.. .'jSO Ti.;ra Avenue, 
r ^^h.;c■aout.o, an\ T);ird A\eiiue. 

M. Z^b::jKi!!, -iL-iU I'lUrd Am uua. 

Burglar .tlnrui*. 

Jo*. I. CcDkMn A! Cr. I.xti.tjtj Avenat atid 
IJ'uli str- et. 

BuIIdo-s' Hardware. 

Tb'^s:. Fair- 1,, Af.y J U rd A *o,.u«. 

rs utter a:>d Clieese. 

y. S. I;c(1fc;t»>-, -jJal TU<J A\eLoe. 

CarpcKiom <fc BiilJdera. 

r.. 13 :1 ■<« in. r.'i Kap; I2;)th S r.-of 

C. M.H. J-. tii.f, .31b Icuitli A»vLi.£. 


Croft Brcli^ers il^J a ^d -:';i Tiji-j Avenue. 

Clock Maker. 

L. J. Bouse!, 171 East IJOtj f_-tet 


Har>ni fc '^e^t. }«►!, , C'r-'.!rcT Ci 3,1 ATe 

rLd, 12-tli StrveL° 
5l3L» & Goodinau 2;,GI TLnd Arcune. 

Coal i Hood. 

■W. A. ^Vbit<^. 15i btreet. 

Cooked .Tte.-ttn .fe ProrUlon*. 

C. F. Kjra«-, 2J;J.- Tturd A-exiue. 


P. CV'btxI, \Tl r-ipt l-Ub >»rvet 
L. 3. Kinc. i-^TS Th-.rd Avruue. 
X. 8. I«ri.i«>jd, 70 iUmt Street 


i fii^rlen Exr-cs Co.. -JUs K;;>t I2'th Street. 

I Fn uc J- Coodn and >:otloii«. 

I John Uo.jic-, 2.'7.> ri.i.-d Aveuue. 


P.obtrl Brown, COOoX Third Ar.'ane. 

I'lour A: Feed. 

C. B. Tool:.-r,.;t.O T ,iid Av. .,je. 


W. F. l"ho:i:p>.ia, .iJis ici.-tb Avenus. 

\ Friilt«. 

I CuKcL t Matliew*, •.• <-4 Tb Ird Areaae. 

j Furntltire. 

) M. Antony, •r2<u Tiiird Avcuup. 
: Gf<>. B. Fei u-»u & On., ■i.j.iy ThJrd At*. 
^ Hsf.eui A .Ne>r r->r:; K.iniUjrt Co., 21SI k 
•JH"' I'liir.l Aveuue. 

Gonfs riirnNliliii; Goods. 

K. F. n3rt>y. J:!::i; Third Avtiiue" 
; OhMiI-«i K-iiC, ■.•.•» M"i>i ij-t!i stieet i,r, :2:i Tier I Vv-i.ue. 
, I. SIraafH, J.M3 ITiird Avenu-. 

I Good J ear rinbbef Goods. 

j Hccdqu«.-t£iv:-.a7 Third AvenneL 


Hcary FitCitor, 2.r, l/;,£i, 8U»«t. 

I <irocer». 

J-mf* Aver--. 5"V,-, Tb:rd Av n"(» 

M. 1- B«,.:'jj.n fc Co, Foi.r;h Avenae asd 
' ::Cd ir.tb SOfft. 

F t^Ji.r B.fN. Third Avenue ICilb SLraat 
; Wju Kor.iu^o'i, i<l6 Fo.Mtb AveLu«L 
I ». C. Tfclier, i)3j ibi d Av.niie. 

i Hardware and fToune Faralalilnff 
Coo<l«. ^* 

I J2rcra Eiatcrjw., ^.j Av»aa«. 



Hat*. j frlutt-r**. 

L OoldH;iii'l, 2-ni' Tiiir.l Av-u jo. J p.rkin'^m k .foliu.-on, zi^ East r.'JtU Strict. 

H. T. KeJIy, C;<J7 Tlurrl Aveau.-. ( 

,M»Di;f;i<-turer anJ I>>»J^ler.^ PfOVinloH l>ealcr<4, 

f lotolw. : ti- F. Knll.T i- SriDf, 2171 fbird A\tune. 

HmJ.. V Hoir!, l;^llt:l S;rp'-t i T'.iiiil Av.iiii* J Raii;ies <V r'urnace*. 

fc-..r-ti l..-\ii.t.s J^UI 1 liiia Av.;niie>. | i,rjili.^:ii & Murnby, i Ul Fourtli Avi-oui-, 

.ML Morris Ho«.-,.ir,Ui fit. .. M-. yU'Tr.r A^y. . , , ,vtate 

\ViJliaiiSch«:.!., -^iix- Thud •vv-iiue. t »Coal »,r.iatc. 

WariiV«ii s Il.->ff-l. I'i.'lh St. * ft. >";.->;o',»« A.V.. 'A'. \, All; »'. i-ou^J. •-.'SI Thira Avenu.'. 

I. .. i ,.....,., >I- 'At'-'-eU, N. K. our. lojnb \..-. s UJtli SU 

l<< I. rt am. U._.i:;-,i:.i liroWiOltCKaM l/5tb St;^vU 

«. .1. Siitmrlaiid, '.'^'.U TairJ A \ ■.•.iii-. vv H. )'• lbo:ii, 1 ••.1 rhiid Avi'i;u<*, 

llUiin-«'ii;'f OIU«-«-. it. A. MiU!<,i.i7 We-t l.i5 l. StiL*'- • 

\i AT V •»- u • ■• >-'h <t, . I ^-'«-"»- 'i Ora*lc.r.t, I.^iiit'ton Ave. i l-j-.-U St, 

It<dli.'<lrii<l Jusiira (!<-<>. «Je<i. H. Wivor, ijJii Thu- 1 A\eijue. 

.1. A. \1" K'^rui--. -•i'-I riiini \>i;iiii-. • Ri-stHurant. 

t,u\»j vri*. • .-,„,rs }.. .^uliiv:m, .:2ii Thici Aveiiue. 

l-,-;ix J.!j. uik. 2-:i.'. Tliir.! Avoiim . .A. Tiylor. r.t J.ast l-itb StrtrU 

Joe. H. M<C:iitb>. L-rxiu^rt'a .^^. A. l--".iii «i. So-'ur* and Totisioco. 

W. H 9;j.'c;'>-r, ».}<; El!^; HT'.ii dlr.v;. . j..^^,, j^ iii../~u^or -.'lui Tli-.r<l Aveju«. 

I'hoK. II. Vkkt-r. , •J2^:i J)iirii Avtitii. i ji^ji, H j„r:,.ajer. !l.i<' Tliird Aveiue. 

I.U or J- Sla!)le»i. . "Jwl StJrfc, -.'aa-i 'iLlrd Aveuue. 

^-;^-n r.-'""'; "r^* ,^, ^' l.Jt,i St^«. ^^^ m u,>.o»^ rhird A^,.uae« 1:MIi St. 

poftitt ;» Mdv,.,! i^3ud:T;i;. St-wliiK :»Iaol>iii«»i». 

Lumber. ^ Ka :,(h, i)3l IhirU.Vv^-nn*-, 

W. JI.fH,i*<ii *: Sou, T.uid \: . I V:<h M. 

siioodn;; Oaller). 

?f»a,hinNI>. . .^^^,T. K^:mij,^S:. luirl Avoua-^ 

SliiU P:iinlt>r*. 

Mtitli ',: Br-.,.j,'«, -^24 i:;i..^t l/HtU M.nxt. 

J. K....kl.n,2174TnudAvemi., 'NlHlioner. 

.m»niier> A: l'kiii.;> 4ioodM. u. r. yci^.»:i jr., Ki La-t I'-'Hii S'.n't-t- 

S. H.)il:iiiiii. 2Ml'ni;jd AMinif. Mora"0. 

.>i!JIIii. ry A Slair Gov.d.. I nd.rtuker.. 

".llibM'R llav/kiiiK. J.'.H", U'Lir-l Av,-iii',-. • j;,i.v»^i <i-h!. rl. 2M'. <lt Avoun<-. 

n ll<I«>. • Joiii; W. Lxun. 74 Tart IJ-IUi 6>tr.-,t. 

it. Sixrk i S'-ii. JJJ'J Tir.rl Av'iin. . ; |'i>U<fl»-:iT«TJ». 

PaiittH. I- KMiedpn>aLlj, -J-til Fu .tU Aveuue. 

INiey. !>.>al>'.. liiV .t C .. iU''. 1 i.'ird \v,-:.;ie. ' Vtlt-rluary .Viir^rfou. 

PU.Ho-rapUi.- An Uooiii^. l>.-. M. L. Fny, .li J:d-t ll.stb b:rv,,-t. 

i;. E. Bi;lkel« y, -I^^.n tr^ -jii j Tii-d Avraiif. \^ a^ini HullUor*. 

\V. L. Kmxor. ^?i>-, C^i-> rii.'d Ai-irjfc. X,-\lri.-V * iip-> ii. '■4>t l-»et l.-.i;h Slr^ft. 

.UTuc. 0,iul, TMr.i K.-. k ntU, -<.r-et. ; ' „ ,.„.i.,.. and .U^xvXry. 

FUiMO Furu- VI;.„iilu.t,ir.-r«. [ ^^ .,. i^^,^„. ,,,„, ^xeuae. 

I!, liiiiij^ At Son, ;jn l.a-f l.;.'>tli S'r--.l. ; f ,. Ol^r.^oii, sMu I loi.! Av.inia. 

Di<ta *. Z.'mb, 2;r4 Tl'.iid Av.n>.< " ,, . , ,^ ,,, „- ^ „ 

\v:,iU:«-. 'f '"•!., i<71i:ijd Am'IiIH-. i I.'ii.-u.- \ St.'lider, ^^74 Tldid Avcuiif. 

IMi> -.UlatiH. i «-'t-" '''"r'i'^l> ^^1 '^ '"^'' A^^*"*- 

1>. KraiiVUi., M. 1). ,!.'>; Ba^t UTiU Sir-^t. ', U'ilitK -id L,tt|U<>r». 

Th.->. 1). <:. M;!l, -. .nv!- I.r-iirip1,vi. \\faxie. ' ,. o Calijl' . T'nrd Avanue. 

/., I,. )<-f.ur,\. u: E.i-t 1 17tl, Ktr.fU Tr, i» li. ^17.-. T . Av^: ur. 

I'luinfKTx. ; n.«;riiian. I-i*' H'-'t Street. 

<>t«. U. ltn.«n. li'ilii St. .« >oilrtli .V*'- ! Jobii iliHi.. i.^,. r'j;rd Avcuue^ 

I'ailT * liilni'lv. ■2I.!7 I 'lird At. UUP. | «i ii-^ \t'nrk> 

.M(-«nv )lro«., IKS Ka.T rjJ,1 f3tr«t. = ** ''^*^ ^* '^ ' 

Wiu. a..»^liviliM. iljl : ..irth \x.-uii»-. 1. Siiilnan, !.-<:< Eairt 12»tb Street. 


♦. 1 





■■c*-<:•^-, . 



Ftinilp Com- tyeg, 
Toott&clio, A^- 

Price, 50 Cents, $i.oo and $1.75. 

RecomnienJed by PI>j'«>!otan«i L'scd to IIonpKal*. 

t"\l TION.— r;>SD'S PXTUACT bas fc-^n Miiitat<?;i. Tbe geanlue has the wnnU 
•' PO>J) S hXri^^CT " ''l wn in rU" i'l'^s, ;ind cur picMr^; triilc-'nirit Oi; surr-iuTidtnif biff 
wrapp«^r. Ucae ottjer la g.ui'.ae. AI-^ayTi iu-'ist 00 hiyin^ i'tJSD'ri HXTtt-'-C'T. Tt.lit no 
ether pr^iiaratiou. It ir novf »nVI iu bulk or by measure. 


•-*''05CAPt TS'Bi. t'*n'^ 



Si,rv«, .Eoik, 
t leer*. librD*. 
Si-alds, l'ilf«. 

of lu.ccrlt. 

ToIU-t .lril<rle«. 



Special lies. 

Ton<-l Treaui, . . tl.>>> Tatarrh Ktiuf Jy. . 76 Fmale S)riau'e. 
Kciitifrlre. . . su (lialiiif-at, . . . S'l Inhaler, liiibt/er. 

loiioi Snip, vl c'tkeo- . Su rUsf*r. . . Vt " UlaNS, 

MpSaUe. . . 25 >ir'ilicatv'J Paper. . .'Jo Na.'ial S^rijie, 

t<Al>I US r«-4ia :;»fes 1^, 18, 21 aud 2li iii "iir Ni-w Bc-yV, whi'-h LCCirn^aulce each butt'eof 
• 'iir Jjrc-p;ir:iii'j;j8. )I v.^u Jo i.'(.it 'ntv-; cue, it v,),i be tcJit free ou apj'.'lc^LiOb. 

» Our Ne.v Paxphlci wi;!i Hiitory of our riep»rutiouh Srut FRT".E on apj,Ucaiion Vo 


It Wc-I 1 Ji;i .SI., N«w York. 


Geo. Fenmell & Co., . 

vC2lcl<2Haif •uil B«!taii I>ra1«;rH lu 


0»J. Cloths, Bedding, Window Shades, &c. 


<3^Cr«;ditfc 10 Halt &il 

U . ^^ E. F. IIAK'J7.EY, 

l^/^S^^^^^^ 2<^5^ J///i?/} AVENUE, 

Tr'j^' Laundry, Collars dfc Ciz/j's lUeack, 

T.o.if'^.... leii's FiiriiiElier, 

 I ■! m iMiii r — III I - | -» rf i- i 



Mm k f estcloEier Clolliii Co., 


Satisfaction Guaranteed, or Money Refunded. 

If v'u v.rtut to see u liirje Afsoil'uent of 



No. -J^xO TRJRD AVENUE, Corner 124tli Street. 
Tit- rhi! snif 30U witli (luj style a on TiS'iI. 


I-Lnat/dl-os^' C^lOc^.Ii^.ti?^ a?3aoS(G> UP. 

•Jii>7 Thlr.l Avenue, beUctn ilOth and VlOth Sts. 

»i&aaK>*aaBi«i^i^»> 1 ■—'■r wr ■•■f « mi n m^ 1 mutm r-ari /j w*-« ' j!j .ffrag : 

Lazarus & Stender, 



Bel l'23d & 12ith Stt, 

. f 



Female Com* 




Tootbacho, Ac 


Itruis«K, Cat*. 
SoreK, Boik, 
rirers, Burns, 
Scalds, PUm. 
Bites & Stings 

of Insects, 
(Jhaflugr, ic 

Price, 50 Cents, $i.oo and ?i.75. 

Recommended by Physicians. Used In Hospitals. 

CAUTION.— POND'S EXTRACT has bften imitated. The geQiiiue has the words 
" POND S KXi'KACr " blown iu the g'ass, and our pict'ire trade-marn on surrounding buff 
wrapper. Noae other I3 genuine. Al.-^ays iusiat oq having POND'ri KXTKACF. T<tke no 
other preparation. It is never sold in bulk or by measure. 

Toilet Articles. 



].0i» . 

Toilet Cream, . . $1.00 Catarrh Keiuedy. 75 Female Sj rinse, 

I>entlfrice. ... 50 Ointment, . -50 Inlialer, Uitbber, . 

Toilet Soap, (a cakes) . 50 Plaster, . . 'in " tJlass. 

Lip >jal?e, ... as Sledicated Paper, , . 25 Sasal Sjrlage, 

LADIES read pages 13, 18, 21 and 2G iu our New Book, which accomi/ameB each bottle of 
our preparations. Ifyo'i do not have one, it will be eent free on application. 

» Our New Pamphlet with History of our Preparatious Sent FRKE on appHcatiori to 


14 "%Vest lllb St., S*-w York. 


& Co.. 

Geo. P'ennell 


Wholesale and Betali Dealers In 



Oil, Cloths, Bedding, Window Shades, &c. 


"Credits to salt all 


>^; ■''Wl^^ ^^^^^ THIRD AVENUE, 

'^ ^^^SIwISB^^ Bet. 12Sth and 127tli Sts. West side. 

Tioy Laundry, Collars & Cuffs He each. 



Harlei & ffestcliester ClotMi Co., 


Satisfaction Guaranteed, or Money Refunded. 

If you AVAut to see a large At^kortment f>f 



\o. 22R0 THIRD AVENUE, Corner 124th Street. 
He can suit you with auy style yon want. 


01O£ibllLf5, 1@1*50 UP. 
•JliiT Thud Avenue, between il9th and 120th Sts. 

Lazarus 8z: Stender, 



Bet 123d k I2^tb Bts 

J<JN 2 3 J971