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Full text of "History of Hartford, Vermont, July 4, 1761-April 4, 1889. The first town on the New Hampshire grants chartered after the close of the French war"

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July 4, 1761-ApRTL 4, 18S9. 




Member of the Vermont Historical Society. 










K 1933 L 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1889, by 

in the oflBce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 


The author of this history has attempted to collect and prepare for publica- 
tion, in a permanent form, a large amount of valuable and interesting matter, 
comprising not only nearly all the important facts found in the public records 
of the town, but also incidents and events of unwritten histoiy gathered from 
the Ups of the oldest surviving inhabitants, and information found in authentic 
memoirs, ancient manuscripts and autograph letters; all of which he has en- 
deavored to weave together in an instructive and entertaining style for the old 
and the young aUke. To the older citizens of the town, especially those who 
are " native to the manor born," tliis history will revive many pleasant mem- 
ories of by-gone days. To the young it will present valuable evidences of what 
the early settlers of the town wrought out, under grievous trials and hardships, 
from the rough wilderness ; how with an axe in one hand they cleared the sturdy 
forests, and M'ith the deadly rifle in the other, resisted the encroachments of all 
invaders; how, exposed for a longer probation than the children of Israel expe- 
rienced, to extraordinary vicissitudes and necessities, and gaining a meagre sub- 
sistence, by toil that knew no rest, from a rugged soil that often-times yielded a 
reluctant return to their industry, they gi-ew stronger as they toiled, and suffered, 
and yielded not, and triumphing everywhere and in all tilings, transmitted to 
their posterity a goodly heritage of priceless value. 

All readers of this history will learn facts concerning the origin, the first settle- 
ment, and the organization of tliis town, which have not before been i)ublished, 
and which the author first discovered and established. They will also, find a 
clear exposition of the principles, customs and manners of the early settlers; 
their civil, religious and military affairs; the progress and improvement of the 
town in its agricultural, manufacturing and mechanical interests; of its educa- 
tional institutions, and of its yet immense undeveloped resources. 

No one but an author of a work like this can know the cost in time, in strength, 
patience and money of the effort. The author has given more than four years 
of unremitting attention to the preparation and publication of this history. In 
the very inception of his undertaking the author discovered the annoying fact 
that a considerable portion of the records of the municipal legislation of the town 
was missing, probably beyond recovery. The blank space extended over a period 
of twenty-four years, — 1778 to 1802 — a very important era in the life of the town. 
Tradition could not supply the missing links, and nearly every one of the worthy 
petjple who were busy actors in the scenes of the era named, have passed from 
time to eternity, and the tomb cannot be invaded for needed facts. 
^To bridge over, and fill up to a considerable extent, the gap caused by the loss 
CSTthe town records has been a work attended by many difficulties. To accom- 
l)lish tliis work the author has traveled from village to village and from Ivouse to 
house within liLs own and many other towns in Vermont; has explored both pub- 



lie and private libraries: consulted tuwn liistories, town records, the records of 
historical and genealogical societies and family records, and has, at the same 
time, maintained a written correspondence amounting to thousands of letters. 

There are many incongurities in tlie early records of the town and it was sev- 
eral months after the author entered upon the iireparation of this history, before 
he was able to solve the jirovoking difficulties that unpeded his labors; but, during 
his efforts to remove the rubbish in his way, he made discoveries that partially 
compensated him for the annoyances he had experienced, to wnt: that both the 
date of the first settlement of the town and that of the organization of the town, 
as given by Thompson and other historians, are erroneous by several years. 

The labors of the author have been attended by much pleasure. Should any- 
one ask: What is the pleasure to be found in such labor? the answer is, the 
pleasure arising from a sense of having performed a duty by conveying to those 
who shall come after us, precious remembrances of the lives and deeds of thi:' 
noble men and women ' ' who laboriously and lovingly prepared for us such a 
heritage of popular rights and privileges, and of personal good in many forms, 
as none else on earth ever received from those who went before them."' Tlic 
author has had not the' least expectation of pecuniary remuneration, nor of gain- 
ing present or posthumous honor. It has lieen to him a la bor of love, four years 
of patient labor during A\^hich tiine, for months in succession, he has given from 
ten to sixteen hours daily to the work. 

The author has had it in view to make this an exhaustive history of the town. 
The work is divided into Chapters, like things being brought together, and the 
whole contents placed in such order as seemed most eligible. The consulting 
apparatus consists of two copious Indexes: one, of the Chapters in their order ; tln^ 
other an Alphabetical Index of thesame. He has endeavored not to encumber 
the work with notes, annotations and marginal I'ef erences of an ambiguous char- 

This work though written in conformity to facts is probably not exempt from 
errors, but it is believed that no important anachronism, palpable inconsistences 
or illogical inferences will be discovered. This work is essentially original. 
Transcriptions are credited to the authors from whom they are taken, or by 
marks of quotation. Having done his best to produce a valuable local history 
the author submits it to the public with no feeling of reluctance, c-r ill-foreboding 
as to its reception and usage. He prefers however, that it shall be attentively 
read and adversely criticised, rather than placed on the shelf for ornament only, 
or " food for moths." The author has had some generous and enthusiastic help- 
ers. All thanks to these appreciative souls, and also to the great majority of his 
fellow townsmen for their repeated expressions of interest in his work, as indica- 
ted by their votes, in three successive town meetings. 

In conclusion , the author must express his grateful recognition of the valuable 
moral and material aid extended to him by appreciative friends and helpers. 

Thanks are due first to Hon. Frederick Billings of Woodstock, Vt.; Hon. W. 
S. Dewey, Quechee, "Vt. ; Allen L. Pease, Esq. , Hartford, Vt. ; Messrs. J. C. Parker 
& Co., Qeechee, Vt. ; Hon. C. W. Porter, Montpelier, Vt. ; George W. Smith, Esq., 
White River Junction, Vt., and Daniel O. Gillett, Hartford, Vt. : who have assisted 
me practically beyond all others in my arduous undertaking. 


The following contributors of dates and facts are deserving of special mention: 

Eev. M. D. Bisbee, librarian Dart. Col. , 

Hanover, N. H. 
Rev. S. I. Briant, pastor Cong. Ch., 

Hartford, Vt. 
Rev. R. L. Bruce, pastor Meth. Ch., AV. 

R. Junction, Vt. 

W. F. King, town clerk, Johnston, R. I 

W. G. Kingsley, town clerk, Lebanon, 

Col. W. E. Lewis, town clerk, Nor- 
wich, Yt. 

Hon. C. P. Marsh, Woodstock, Vt. 

Hon. Frederick Chase, treas. D. C, j Mrs. Amanda Morse, Union Village, Vt. 

Hanover, N. H. , Joel A. Delano", Grove. Midi. 

John M. Comstock. A. B., Chelsea, Vt. j J. G. Porter, Supt. Woodstock R. R., 
Edwin Congdon, town clerk, Claren- Woodstock, Vt. 

don, Vt. Hon. John L. Rice, Springfield, Mass. 

Royal Cummings, printer, W. R. June- Rev. Charles H. Richards. Madison, 

tion, Vt. Wis. 

Hon. W. H. DiiBois. treasurer of Vt., Erving Russ, Hartford, Vt. 

Randolph, Vt. Hon. N. B. Safford. Hartford, Vt. 

Hon. Amasa P. Dutton. Craftsbuiy, Vt. Hon. Henry Safford, Quechee, Vt. 
Hon. Samuel E. Pingree. Hartford. Vt. Mrs. Sophia D. Stoddard, Middletown, 

Edwin L. Dutton, Hartford, Vt. 
W. Tracy Eustis, Boston, Mass. 
Col. H. E. Folsom. Supt. Pass'c. R. R. 

Lyndonville, Vt. 
Hon. W. C. French. Woodstock. Vt. 
H. Allen Hazen. Washington, D. C. 
Henry Hazen, Hartford, Vt. 
Miss Louise Lvman Hartford. Vt. 

Rev. A. K. Teele, Milton, Mass. 
Hon. A. B. ThomiDson, Sec. of Slate, N. 

H.. Concord, N. H. 
Col. George E. Todd, Supt. Northern 

R. R., Concord, N. H. 
Miss Julia Tracy, W. Lebanon, N. H. 
Dea. Samuel Tracv, Platteville. Wis. 

Thanks are due to many others, including town-clerks, clergymen and post- 
masters, who have kindlv furuislied valualile items of information. 


Portrait of William Howard Tucker, Frontispiece. 

George W. Smith's Business Block (White River Junction) 128 

Portrait of Hon. Albert Gallatin Dewey facing page 356 

Portrait of Hon. John Porter facing page 376 


Introduction xiii 



Hartford the first Township Chartered, after the close of the French War- 
Date of the Charter— How the Grantees secured the first choice of Terri- 
tory—Why christened " Hartford "—Form and Conditions of the Charter 
—First Meeting of the Grantees under the Charter— Town Officers Chosen 
— Connnittee Chosen to visit the Town to Lay out Eoads, Lots, etc. — Re- 
port of tlie Committee — Sequestration of Fifteen Hundred Acres of Land 
— HighAvay from the " King's Ferry " up the Connecticut River — Drawing 
of Sixty-two Lots by Lottery— Location of the Lots, and by whom Draw^n 
— Survey of the Town — Recai)itulation of the Divisions of Territory 1 



Climate— Rivers— Soil and Production— Natural Fertihzers— Geological Fea- 
tures — Quechee Mineral Spring — Pot-Holes— Quechee Gulph— Terraces — 
Flora and Fauna — Description of Villages and Hamlets — Account of the 
Great Flood in 1867 13 


Measures Adopted to Promote an Early Settlement of the Town — " Book of 
Town Votes," wuth Records by Prince Tracy — Date of the First Settle- 
ment — Error Made by Thonapson corrected — Benjamin Wright's Certifi- 
cate — Squatters in the Town in 1761 — First Meeting of the Proprietors in 
the Town held in the House of Solomon Strong — Last Meeting held in 
Connecticut — Clu-onological Record of Subsequent Meetings — First Sale 
of a Proprietors' Right — Early Settlers and Land-Owners 30 



Date of the Organization — Proprietary and Town Offices vested in the same 
Persons — Transfer of Proprietors' Meetings from Connecticut to Hartford 
— EiTor as to the Date of the Organization of the Town — Elijah Strong, a 
Good Man bvit an Indifferent Clerk — First Grand-Jurymen Elected — 
Establishment of Cattle-pounds — First Vote for a Judge of Probate — Town 
Officers Chosen at the same Meeting — Condition of the Settlers in 1778 — 
Pirating upon Public Rights — Last Record made in the " Book of Town 
Votes " — Loss of Town Records — One Thousand Acres of Land voted to 
Thomas Hazzen — Pitches Made by Mr. Hazen — Jonathan Birch sent to 
New York — Loss of the New Hampshire Charter — Troubles with the New 
York Government — Passive Policy of the People of Hartford — Failure of 
Effort to Obtain Letters Patent 42 



Certificate sent to the New York Government — Petition of the Proprietors 
and Inhabitants to tlie Governor of New York — Petition of Grantees to 


Sir Henry Moore — Record of Council — Warrant of Survey to Surveyor 
General of New York— Petition of Crantees and Others to Sir Wni. Tryon 
— Record of Covmcil 59 



Meetings in the House of Widow Ruth Strong — Committee of Safety Chosen 
— Erection of Cumberland County by New York — General Conventions of 
Delegates — County Convention in Westminster — Meeting Held in Chester 
— Two Regiments of Militia in Cumberland County — Citizens of Hartford 
Commissioned — Correspondence between the Historian and the Adjutant 
General of New York — Col. Joseph Marsh severs his Allegiance to the 
New York Government 69 



Alarm on the Frontiers — Meeting held in Hanover, N. H. — Ranging Depart- 
ment Organized — Last Meeting of the Cumlierland County Committee of 
Safety — Stirring Events of '77 — Estates Confiscated — Delegates to the 
Windsor Convention — Vote to Form a New State — Constitution and Form 
of Government Adojited at Windsor — Col. Joseph Marsh, Chairman of a 
Committee to Procure Arms for the State — Census Taken of Cumberland 
and Gloucester Counties — Population of Hartford — Hartford Militia in 
the Battle of Bennington — Men and Horses Employed in Transporting 
Flour to Battenkill — Court of Confiscation — Hartford Militia doing Fron- 
tier Duty — Militia Pay-rolls for Service Against Indians 75 



Character of the Pioneer Settlers — First Settlements Made on the Hills — 
Methods of Clearing Land, Building Houses, and Making Furniture — Ar- 
ticles of Food — Work of the Farmers, their Wives, and Sons and Daugh- 
ters — Wearing Apparel — Marriage Ceremonies — Outfit of a Bride — Estab- 
lishment of Schools — Medals for Good Scholarship— Trials and Suffering- 
Borne Patiently — Unity, Harmony and Love Among all Classes — Militia 
Trainings — Stimulants too Commonly Indulged in — Al^undance of Game 
and Fish — Husking-bees, Squirrel-hunts, Aj^ple Cuttings, Quilting Parties, 
Spelling, Writing and Singing Schools — Dealing upon Trust — Faihire of 
Crops — Scarcity of Food — Economy of Dress — Methods of Travel — Emigra- 
tion to the Western States. . 96 



Labor Unaided by Labor-Saving Machinery — Rudeness of Farming Utensils 
and all Tools— Industry of the People— Twenty -five Miles to a Grist-mill 
by a Bridle-path — First Saw-mill and Grist-mill in the Town — Fulling and 
Cloth-dressing Machines- Process of Making Maple Sugar — Manufacture 
of Charcoal, Potash and Pearlash— Manufactures and Mills in Quechee— 
Distilleries— Cider-making— Mills and Factories in various parts of the 
Town— Marble and Granite Cutting— Cracker-baking and Other Indus- 
tries -- 113 





Highways from Charlestown, N. H., to White River Junction: from Nor- 
wich to Pomfret; from Connecticut River to Pomfret — Town Divided into 
Higliway Districts — Turnpike Roads Completed to Boston — The First 
Skow Ferry-boat — Ferries on Wliite River — Munsill's Ford — Log Bridges 
— Bridge over Otta Quechee River — Lyman's Bridge over tJie Connecticut 
River, and Litigation Connected therewitli — Lottery Scheme to build a 
Bridge in White River Village — White River Bridge Company — Bridges 
at West Hartford — Locking Water Quechee Falls, White River and White 
River Falls — Steamboats on Connecticut River 139 



The First Railroad in the United States — First Locomotive Engine Built in 
the United States — jMiles of Railroad in Vermont — Enhanced Value Given 
to Real and Personal Estate in Hartford — Saving of Time and Money in 
Transit — Intellectual and IMoral Intluence Exerted by New Methods of 
Transit — Connection of Boston with Lake Erie — The A^ermont Central 
Railroad — Terrible Disaster at the Centreville Bridge — Connecticut and 
Passumpsic Rivers Railroad — First Passenger Trains — Removal of Shops 
— Lease to the Boston and Lowell, and Present Lease to the Boston 
and Maine Railroad — Officers of the Road — The Woodstock Railroad — Its 
Charter-7-Orgauization — Bonded Debt — Probable Extension 151 



First Post-Route and First Postoffices in Vermont — Post-Route from Wind- 
sor to St. Johnsbury: and from Burlingt(in to INIontreal — Postoffices and 
Postmasters in Harford- — Newspapers and Editors 166 


Statistical Table — Causes of Increase and Decrease of Population — Rank of 
Eighteen Towns in Vermont in Valuation — Poi^ulation of Vermont by 
Counties— Tabulated Statement of Births — Births for Ten Years arranged 
by Months — Classifications — Marriages — Form of Marriage Certificate — 
Numljer of Marriages 1802-1857 — Table of Marriages Registered from 1857 
to 1886— Record of Marriages— Divorces — Table of Deaths— Fifteen Prin- 
cipal Causes of Mortality — Causes of Consumption — Old Age and Causes 
Promotive of it — Deaths for Ten Years by IMonths- Sanitary Matters — 
Municipal Action Concerning SmallPox 172 



Desire of Mortals for Memory— Neglect of Burial-places— Lists of Decedents 
in Ten Cemeteries — List of Decedents whose Graves have no Headstones — 
Record of Deaths by Rev. Austin Hazen— Deaths, Accidental, Sudden, 
and by Suicide 1"^ 




Taxes Paid for the Support of Ministers — Constitution of the Lords — Proprie- 
tors of Carolina — Third Article of the Constitution of Vermont — Act of 
the General Assembly — Certificates of Religjous Connection — Vote to 
Build a • Meeting-house — First Congregational Preaching — Hardships of 
the Early Ministers — First Congregational Society Organized — Congrega- 
tional Church Papers — Settlement of Rev. Austin Hazen at the Centre 
of the Town — Condition of the Church there — Record of Church-meetings 
— Resignation and Dismission of Mr. Hazen — Papers Relating to Support 
of Mr. Hazen — Warrant to Collector of Taxes 201 



Steps Taken to Build a Meeting-house, and Organize a Religious Society 
in White River Village — Society Organized — Meeting-house Dedicated — 
Consolidation of Two Societies, under the Title of " The Second Congrega- 
tional Society,"' Churcli at the Centre of the Town Continued in White 
River Village^ — Clerks of the Society — Records of the Chujch to the In- 
stallation of Rev. S. I. Briant — Records of Baptisms — Membership of the 
Church— List of Deacons — West Hartford Congregational Church and 
Society — Meetings held by Rev. Aaron Hutchinson — List of Pastors and 
Acting Pastors — Deacons and Clerks — Statistics of the Church — First Con- 
gregational Society in Quechee — Meeting-house Societies — First Congrega- 
tional Church — Ministers 1830 to 1887 — Church Statistics — Congregational 
Church in Olcott 216 



Branch of the Church at Dartmouth College — Meetings Held in the House of 
Thomas Hazen — Controversies Arise — Members of the Hartford Branch of 
the Church claim Sujiremacy — Members of the Hanover Branch claim In- 
dependenc}^ — Puljlic Interest in the Quarrel — Question Carried into Polit- 
ical Strife — Rev. Eden Burroughs — Records of the Church — Rev. Austin 
Hazen Installed Pastor — Troul)le with a Refractory Member, who Objects 
to the Polity of the Church — The Church Changes its Usages and Cvxstoms 
— Rev. Cary Russell, the Last Pastor of the Church — Dissolution of the 
Church — Comments 242 



Formation of a Roman Catholic Parish — Old Moseley House Converted into 
a Chapel — Church Edifice Built — Pastorate of Rev. M. Pigeon, Rev. Daniel 
Sullivan, Rev. Dennis Lynch, and Rev. James Booth Whitaker — Valuation 
of Church Property— Families in the Parish — The Parochial School — 
Methodist-Episcopal Church — First Preaching — First Meeting-house — 
Preaching in White River Junction — Meeting-house Erected — Ministers — 
Methodist Church in Quechee and in Olcott — Covenant Baptist Society — 
Certificates of Membership — The Christian Denomination— Jasper Hazen 
Set Apart to the Ministry — Society in Quechee — Rev. Moses Kidder — Dis- 
solution of the Society — The Protestant Episcopal Church — History of the 
Glebe and Propagating Rights — Glebes Sequestered for the Use of Com- 
mon Schools — Occupants of Churcli Lands in Hartford — Uiiiversalist 


Society Organized — Church Edifice Erected — Pastors to the Present Time 
— The Second Adventists — Their Camp-meeting Ground — Organization of 
"White River Junction Camp-meeting Association " — The Puritans 252 



Liberal Provisions by the Early Settlers to Promote Education — Legislative 
Support — System of Public Instruction — The Surplus Revenue — Dona- 
tions to Dartmouth College — Division of the Town into School Districts — 
Lease of School Lands — First School in West Hartford — Teachers of Fifty 
Years Agfj — Monologue — First School White River Village — Hartford 
Academy — Superintendents of Schools — Teaching a Profession — The Town 
System — Prudential Committees and Teachers — Forms in use by the Select- 
men and Treasurer — The Huntington Fund, Newspapers, etc 272 



Local Self-government — Prevalence of Congi-egationalism as a Form of 
Church Polity — Town Votes for Governors — Contest over the Election of a 
Town Representative — Duty of Every Citizen to Exercise the Right of 
Franchise — Caucuses — Members of Congress, State, County and Town 
Officers— The Selectmens Book 288 



Methods of Collecting Taxes — Minimum and Maximum Rate of Taxation — 
General List by Decades — Comparative Auditors' Reports — Rank of the 
Town in its Grand List and Population — Increase of Ratable Property — 
Sales of Land for Taxes— Lists of Taxpayers— Grand List for 1887 297 


The Poor and Their Support— Sale of the Care of the Poor at Auction — Sale 
of Irena Dunkin — Insane Poor Kept in Cages — Town Farm Purchased — 
Annual Cost of Supporting the Poor — Overseers of the Poor — Secret 
Societies — Free Masons, Knights of Honor, Odd Fellows, and Good Tem- 
plars 305 



Quota of Vermont Militia called for in 1812 — Militia Companies — Selectmen's 
Orders for Ecjuipments and Supplies — Supplies Furnished to the State — 
War of the Rebellion — Requisition on Gov. Fairlianks for Troops— Com- 
missions for Raising the 2d and 3d Vt. Regiments— Municipal War Legisla- 
tion— Rosters of Volununteers from the Town During the Civil War— War 
Expenses of the Town— Abraham Lincoln Post. G. A. R.— Memorial 
Association — Military Necrology — A Military Incident -^IS 



Letter from Roswell Marsh— The Old Centre Meeting-House— Two Inter- 
esting Letters — Hotels and Landlords 338 




Biographical Sketches of Native and Foreign-born Citizens 352 


Honorary Degrees, Conferred 386 



The Bartholomew Family 408 The Pinneo Family 455 

The Biigbee Family 411 The Richards Family 456 

The Delano Family 412 The Savage Family 458 

The Dutton Family 414 The Sprague Family 460 

The Gillett Family 421 The Strong Family 462 

The Hazen Family 425 The Tilden Family 465 

The Leavitt Family 447 The Tracy Family 467 

The Lyman Family 447 The TrunibuU Family 470 

The Marsh Family 448 The Tucker Family 471 

The Newton Family 452 The Whitney Family 475 


Business Directory 1889 477 

INDEX 479 


For more than a century after the landing of the Pilgrim fathers at 
Plymouth, no settlements had been made in Vermont, and prior to 1760 
but a few settlements had been attempted, and such were of a military 
character. Daring the colonial and Indian wars the territory of Ver- 
mont, being situated between the English and French provinces, be- 
came a thoroughfare over which the respective military forces of the 
belligerents were almost constantly passing and re-passing, and the ter- 
ritory being claimed and occupied as a hunting gi-ound by the native 
Iroquois, Cossack and St. Francis tribes of Indians, who were often at 
war with each other, the settlement of the territory was regarded as 
dangerous and infieasible. These and other obstacles militated against 
peaceable and permanent settlements, consequently no such were 
eJBfected till after the conquest of Canada by the English in 1760. 

The territory now constituting the State of Vermont, was anciently 
claimed both by the province of New York and that of New Hampshire. 
Benning Wentworth, who was commissioned goverernor of New Hamp- 
shu'e in 1741, began in 1749 to make grants of lands situated, as he con- 
ceived, within the borders of New Hampshire. These grants extended 
westward within twenty miles of the Hudson, and along the shores of 
Lake Champlain. The titles to these lands, so granted, wore disputed 
by New York, which claimed the whole of this territory to the west 
bank of Connecticut river by a grant from King Charles the Second. A 
lengthy correspondence between Wentworth and Governor Clinton of 
New York concerning their respective titles to the lands thus granted 
ended in an agreement between the two governors to submit the point 
in controversy to the king, yet Wentworth disregarded the agreement 
and continued to make grants west of Connecticut river till 1754, when 
a renewal of hostilities between the English and French put a stop to 
applications and delayed the determination of the king regarding said 

The war being closed in 1760, a treaty of peace was concluded be- 
tween England and France in 1763, which secured to the British a large 
tract of country situated between New England and New York and 
Canada. In their expeditions against the French, the English colonists 
became acquainted with the value of the lands lying between Connecti- 


c it river and the Canadian border, and at the cessation of hostilities 
they were eagerly sought after by adventurers and speculators, and it 
became the interest of the royal governors of New York and New Hamp- 
shire to vie with each other in granting this territory and receiving the 
golden emoluments arising from their grants. 

Governor Wentworth availed himself of this opportunity to renew his 
work of making grants, and by advice of his council ordered a survey to 
be made of Connecticut river for sixty miles, and three lines of town- 
ships on each side to be laid out. As applications increased, townships 
of six miles square were granted, and in 1761 not less than sixty town- 
ships were granted west of Connecticut river, and eighteen on the east 
side. In 1763, the whole number granted on the west side amounted to 
138. The passion for obtaining these lands rose to a great height, and 
the new townships were ere long peopled, to a considerable extent, 
with emigrants from Connecticut and Ma'^sachusetts, most of whom 
were only temporary sojourners. 

Belknap says : "Besides the fees and presents for these grants which 
were undefined, a reservation was made for the governor of 500 acres in 
each township, and of lots for public purposes. These reservations were 
clear of all fees and charges. The whole number of grants on the west- 
ern side of the river amounted to 138, and the extent was from Connec- 
ticut river to twenty miles east of the Hudson, as far as that river ex- 
tended northerly ; and after that, westward to Lake Champlain. The 
rapid progress of these grants filled the cofi'ers of the governor. Those 
who had obtained the grants were seeking purchasers in all the neigh- 
boring colonies, whilst the original inhabitants of New Hampshire, to 
whom these lands had formerly been promised as a reward for their 
merit in defending the country, were overlooked in the distribution; 
unless they were disposed to apply in the same manner as persons ^rom 
abroad ; oi*, unless they happened to be in favor. When remonstrances 
were made to the governor on this subject, his answer was that the peo- 
ple of the old towns had been formerly complimented with grants 
which they had neglected to improve ; and, that the new grantees were 
better husbandmen and would promote the cultivation of the new prov- 
ince." * * * 

" The grants on the western side of Connecticut river alarmed the 
government of New York ; who, by their agent, made application to the 
crown, representing that it would be greatly to the advantage of the 
people settled on those lands to be annexed to New York ; and submit- 
ting the cause to royal decision. In the meantime a proclamation was 
issued by Lieut.- Governor Golden, reciting the grant of King Charles 


to the Dake of York, asserting the jurisdiction of New York as far east- 
ward as Connecticut river ; and enjoined the sheriff of the county of 
Albany to return the names of all persons who under color of the New 
Hampshire grants held possession of lands westward of that river. 
This was answex'ed by a proclamation of Governor Wentworth, declar- 
ing the grant to the Duke of York to be obsolete, and that the western 
bounds of New Hampshire were co-extensive with those of Massachus- 
etts and Connecticut ; encouraging the grantees to maintain their pos- 
sessions, and cultivate their lands, and commanding civil officers to 
execute the laws and punish disturbers of the peace." 

The application of New York, above named, was referred to the 
board of trade, and upon their representation, seconded by a report of 
a committee of the privy council, the following order was passed by the 
king iu council, which will doubtless interest all readers of this history: 

j —7 I M tl)e (fourt of St. 5nine0, 

^ —- * ®hc 20: (lay of Ifuly, 1764. 


The Kings Most Excellent Majesty. 

Lord Stewart, Earl of Hillsborough. 

Earl of Sandwich, M. Vice Chamberlain. 

Earl of Halifax, Oilbert Elliot, Esq. 

Earl of Poriiis, James Osivald, Esq. 
Earl of Har court. 

Whereas, there was this day read at the Board a Report made by the Right 
Honorable the Lords of the Committee of Council for Plantation Affairs, dated 
the 17th of this Listant, upon considering a Representation from, the Lords 
Commissioners for Trade and Plantations relative to the disptdes that have 
some years subsisted between the Provinces of Neiv Hampshire and New York 
concerning the Boundary Line between those Provinces, — His Majesty taking 
the same into consideration ujas pleased, with the advice of His Privy Council, 
to approve of what is therein proposed, and doth accordingly hereby order and 
Declare the Western Banks of the River Connecticut from where it enters the 
Province of Massachusettes Bay as far North as the forty-fifth Degree of 
Northern Latitude to be the Boundary Line between the two Provinces of New 
Hampshire and New York — whereof the respective Governors and Commanders- 
in-Chief of His Majesty's said Provinces of New Hampshire and New York for 
the time being, and cdl others whom it concerns are to take notice of His Majes- 
ty's pleasure hereby signified and govern themselves accordingly. 

(Signed) W. BLAIR. 


Statc of ilciii l^ampsljlrc, 
^rcrrtary'iS CHficc, (l^oncovrt, ^\. |i. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing is (( true copy of the origimd document. 
Li testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my offjcicd signature and af- 
fixed the .s('»Z of the Stcde. 



Secrftary of State. 

" A town exists in its Mstorj/-— Take away the memory of tlie past and 
wliat remains ? A name and only a name, Take away the example of 
the recorded wisdom of the past, and what ray of light would be left for 
our guidance? What could we do hut wander in the maze of perpetual 
childhood? If we are bound to respect the claims of posterity, we like- 
wise owe a debt to our ancestors." — Chipman. \ 

" A people who do not lookback to their ancestors will not look forward 
to their posterity."— ^.v;-/-.'. 

" How carefully should we secure tlie memorials, w-hile we may, of the 
long procession of true-hearted men and women that have borne down, 
with many tears and toils and prayers, the precious ark of God's cove- 
nant and of our liberties to the present hour, We xvill not, we cannot, 
forget those who toiled and dared and endured so much for God and for 
US"—B. IV. Dwii^ht. 



Among the many grants made by Gov. Wentworth in 1761, was 
that of Hartford, ' which was the first township chartered after the 
close of the French war. The charter was granted on the 4tli of July, 
1761, seven years, to a day, after the first plan of the American Union 
was adopted ; fifteen years prior to the promulgation of the Declara- 
tion of American Independence, and in the second year of the reign of 
King George HI. of England. 

Tradition does not inform us why the grantees of this Township 
selected it from among the many townships which Wentworth caused 
to be surveyed on the west side of the Connecticut River, nor why 
they were so fortunate as to secxire the first choice of territory, in every 
resj^ect the best of the river townships. Belknap, in his History of 
New Hampshire, written in 1784, states his opinion in relation to the 
settlements made on both sides of the Connecticut River immediately 
after the close of the French war, in these words, viz. : " During the 
war the continual passing of troops through these lands caused the 
value of them to be more generally known, and when, by the conquest 
of Canada, tranquility was restored, they were eagerly sought by 
adventurers and speculators." 

It may be that the fame of these lands inspired John Baldwin 
and his neighbors in Windham, Ct., with the desire and determination 
to possess a portion of them, but why did they select this Township, 
which they christened "Hartford," ' in preference to all othei's ? 

The writer of this History is of the opinion that the early appli- 
cation made by the grantees for a charter of this particular Township 
was solely due to the influence and efforts of the Strong brothers, who 
were among the first settlers of this Township, and that this Avas 
brought about by their having a personal knowledge of the Township. 

When Governor Wentworth became cognizant of the fact that 
the lands in New Hampshire and Vermont wei'e " eagerly sought after," 
he hastened to have said lands surveyed and laid out into townships. 
This step created a demand for surveyors. The two brothers, Elijah 

• This name was chosen probably for the reason that the grantees of the 
Township resided in Connecticut, of which State Hartford, in Hartford County, 
is the capital. A predilection for this name was a very natural one. 

■-' On a " Chorographical Map of the Northern Department of Northern 
America" this Town is laid down as " Ware." 


and Benajab Strong, were bj vocation land surveyors. Doubtless 
they were summoned to aid in the work of surveying this and other 
townships. During the progress of their work they perambulated this 
Township, and, with a keen perception of com))arative values, soon 
discovered the superiority of this Township to others included in their 
surveys, in respect to the splendid water-power and mill-privileges 
found b}^ them on the three rivers that watered the Township ; in the 
valuable pine forests that skirted these streams and extended inland, 
and in the richness of the soil from river bank to mountain top. Their 
favorable impressions were communicated to their neighbors in 
Lebanon, Ct., and hastened their application for a charter which would 
secure to them the coveted territory, and, happily for them, they 
secured the first choice and, consequently, the first charter granted 
after the close of the French war. 


The Charter of the Township of Hartford was granted to John 
Baldwin and sixty-one other grantees, most of whom were inhabitants 
either of Windham or Lebanon, Ct. The Charter begins as follows : 

"Province of New Hampshire. 

George the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, 
King, Defender of the Faith, etc. To all persons to whom these presents shall 
come. Greeting." 

The Charter proceeds to say that His Majesty of his special grace, 
for the due encouragement of settling a new plantation within said 
Province, by and with the advice of his trusty and well beloved 
Benning Wentworth, governor and commander-in-chief of said Province 
in New England, and of his council of said Province, had, upon the 
conditions and reservations to be named, given and granted in equal 
shares unto his loving subjects of said Province and other governments 
whose names were entered on the grant, to be divided to and amongst 
them into sixty-eight shares, all that tract of land within said Province, 
containing by admeasurement 27,000 acres, which tract was to contain 
six miles and a half square, out of which an allowance was to be made 
for highways and unimprovable lands, 1,040 acres free, and the same 
was incorporated into a townshi]) by the name of Hartford. The 
boundary of the Township was as follows : " Beginning at a white 
pine tree marked opposite to the southwest corner of Lebanon, across 
the River Connecticut, from thence north 68° west seven miles ; thence 
north 35° east seven miles ; thence south 60° east six miles to a hemlock 
tree marked, at the head of White River Falls ; thence down the river 
to place of beginning." 


The Charter conferred on the future inhabitants of the Township 
all the privileges and immunities exercised and enjoyed by other New 
Hauij^shire towns, j^rovided that as soon as there should be fifty families 
resident and settled therein, they should have the liberty of holding 
town fairs twice annually, and also of opening and keeping a market 
one or more days in each week, as might be thought most advantageous 
to the inhabitants. Also, the Charter provided that the first meeting 
for the choice of town orticers should be lield on the last Wednesday 
of August, 1761, and that the annual meetings forever thereafter, for 
the choice of town officers for the said town, should be held on the 
second Tuesday of March. The conditions upon which the Charter 
was granted were : 

First. That every grantee, his heirs and assigns, should plant 
and cultivate five acres of land within the term of five years for every 
fifty acres contained in his share, and should continue to cultivate and 
improve the same under a penalty of the forfeiture of his grant. 

Second. That all white and other pine timber (trees) within the 
township fit for making his Majesty's royal navy, should be carefully 
preserved for that use — and none should be cut or felled without 
special license, upon a penalty of forfeiture of the right and the 
penalty of any act of parliament then or thereafter enacted. 

Third. — That before any division of the land should be made to or 
among the grantees, a tract of land, as near the centre of the township 
as the land will admit of, phould be reserved and marked out for town 
lots, one of which should be allotted to each grantee of the contents of 
one acre. 

Fourth. — Yielding and paying to his majesty, his heirs and successors 
for the space of ten years, the rent of one ear of Indian corn only, on 
the 25th day of December, annually, if lawfully demanded : the first 
payment to be made on the 25th day of December, 1762. 

Sixth. — That each proprietor after the expiration of ten years from the 
25th day of Dec, 1762, should yearly pay to his majesty one shilling 
proclamation money for every 100 acres he owned, which should be 
paid in his majesty's council chamber in Plymouth, or to such officers 
as should be appointed to receive thfe same, and this to be in lieu of all 
other rents and service whatever. 

On the back of the charter the names of but sixty grantees are re- 
corded,' and the following endorsement, viz. : 

"His excellency, Benning Weiitworth, Esq., a tract of land containing 500 
acres as marked B. W. in the pkin, wliich is to be accounted two of the within 
named shares. One whole share for the incorporated society for the propagation 
of the gospel in foi-eign parts : One whole share for a globe for the church of 

'One name, that of Benj. Whitney, is duplicated, two names, viz. : Elihu Hvde 
and Elisha Wright, which appear in the record of first division by lottery, are 
omitted on the charter. The number should be sixty-two plus four reser- 
vations, and two shares for the Governor — total, sixty-eight shares. 


England, as by law established : One whole share for the first settled minister of 
the gospel, and one share for the benefit of a school in said township. 

' ' Province of New Hampshire — recorded in the book of charters. 

•' (Signed.) Theodore .itkinson, Secty." 

Inasmuch as the pages of the old record books have become worn 
and defaced by age and much hard usage, I deem it proper to copy 
under their respective dates such portions of the proprietors' and early 
town records as are most important in facts — at least sufi&cient of the 
same to insure a clear and concise connection in this work, convey an 
intelligent idea of events to the reader, and preserve that which is truly 
interesting and valuable. 


In accordance with the provisions of the charter, a meeting of the 
proprietors of the township of Hartford was held in Windham, Con- 
necticut, August 26, 1761. The record of that meeting was made by 
Prince Trac}^ clerk-elect, and the following is a copy, verbatim ad litera- 
tim : 

At a Meating- of the Proprietors of the Town of Hartford, In the Province of 
New Hampshire, Legally Warned and Holden att "Windham, in the Colony of 
Connecticvxt, August ye 26, 1761. Pursuant to a Charter of sd Township, Dated 
July 4, 1761 : In Said Charter Mr. John Baldwin was appointed Moderator of 
said Heating : At Said Meating Chosen Prince Tracy Proprietors' Clerk and 

Voted, — That the Selectmen,' Viz. : William Clark, Prince Tracy and John 
Baldwin, Shall be Assessors for said Proprietors. Chosen Maj'r Joseph Blanch- 
ard, Silas Phelps, and Moses Hebard, Collector of Taxes. s 

" At Said Meating. the Said Moderator being obliged to attend another meat- 
ing of another Town on Sd Day, Whereupon he Conducted Said Meating to the 
Choice of another Moderator. Whereupon sd Meating Chose Capt. William 
Clarke Moderator to Conduct the Remaining Part of Sd Meating. Att Sd Meat- 
ing Voted that they will Chuse a Committee to Go and View Sd Township and 
Lay the first Division of land to Each Proprietor on Lot, and that Sd Committee 
Shall Consist of six men to be Chosen for that purpos. 

Voted, that Capt. William Clark, Lieut. Prince Tracy, Mr. Silas Phelps, Mr. 
James Flint, Mr. Benjamin Wright and Mr. Elijah Bingham, Shall be sd Cdm- 
mitte to Go and View the Said Township and lay out a Town Plot, or the land 
ordered in the Charter to be Laid out for Town Lots and also, to Lay out Con- 
venient Rhods or highways So wide as sd Committee Shall Judge Convenient 
and so many as they Shall Judge Nec'ary for the Present use of sd Township ; 
Then to Proceed to Lay out as many Lots as there is Proprietors or Equal Shears, 

' The first business transacted at this meeting was making choice of town 
officers — or organizing the town — which Thompson, and other historians, have 
erroneouslj stated did not occur until March, 1768. Thompson derived his in- 
formation regarding this, and other events, from citizens of the town whose 
memories were not trustworthy authority. 


the Least of Which to Contain fifty acres, and so to Inlarge the Quantity so as to 
make them as Equal as they can. Having Regard to the Quality and Situation 
of the Laud and make a Proper Plan of tlieir Doings on Good Parchment with 
the Quantity, Description and Number of Each Lot therein Contained. 

Voted, That a Tax of Twenty Shillings Lawfull money To Each Proi^rietor 
Shall be forthwith Maid and Collected to Pay the debts of Said Town and pay the 
Chai-ge of the Comtee laying out sd Township. 

" Voted, that this meeting shall be adjourned unto the third Tuesday of No- 
vember next at nine of the clock in the morning at the iKjuse of Mr. Paul He- 
bard, in Windham, in the Colony of Connecticut. And said meeting was 
accordingly adjourned." 

Immediately after the first meetiug, the committee chosen to visit 
the township, make an inspection of it, and lay out the first division of 
lots, proceeded to the performance of the duty assigned to them ; rap- 
idly completed their work in the township ; returned to Connecticut, 
and, at a meeting held in Windham pursuant to adjournment, reported 
the result of their labors. The record of said meeting reads as fol- 
lows : 

" At a meeting of the jiroprietors of the town of Hartford, in the province of 
New Hampshu'e. holden in Windham in the colony of Connecticut. November 
ye ITth, 1761, by adjournment from August ye 26th, 1761 : 

Voted, That they will except of the doings of the committee as the}' have ex- 
liibited to this meeting by their plan and return. 

Upon the report of the committee to this meeting exhibited that they have 
laid out as many lots in said township as there are proprietors. "Tis therefore 
voted that the said lots be distributed to the proprietors by a lottery, that is to 
say, that the names of the proprietors shall each be written on separate pieces of 
paper, and also, that the description of each lot shall be written on separate 
pieces of paper, and that said names shall be put into one thing by themselves 
and the said descrijjtion into another, then they shall be drawn out by indiffer- 
ent persons, they not seeing wliich they draw, and the lot that shall be drawn 
against any proprietors' name shall be his, and shall be recorded to hini, his 
heirs, and assigns, to hold in severalty jjursuant to the charter. 

And said lots were accordingly drawn by two disinterested persons and the 
lots came out, or were drawn as hereafter recorded. Also voted, that there shall 
be lands to the contents of fifteen hundred acres reserved and sequestered lying 
in the north-west corner of said township in a square body to lie to make those 
proprietors good or equal which shall not have so good lots as the proprietors 
have in general. 

Voted, That the treasurer shall pay to Mr. Jolm Baldwin the sum of three 
jiounds, fifteen shillings and tenpence, three farthings more than he hath al- 
ready had, being what he is to have for the present for his service in procuring 
a charter for us. 

Voted, That there shall be a committee of three men chosen to agree with the 
committee that laid out the lots in said town, and adjust the same, and their 
order shall be a sufilcient warrant for the treasiirer to pay the sums to the per- 
sons they shall agree with and order out as aforesaid. 


Chosen, Mr. Samuel Terry, Mr. Elias Frink. and Mr. Jonatlian Martin, a com- 
mittee for the purpose aforesaid. 

Voted, To adjourn until Monday next, being the 28rd day of this instant, at 
13 of the clock, to the house of Mr. Paul Hebard in Windham." 

At the meeting held pursuant to the last named adjournment the 
proprietors chose Prince Tracy their committee to apply to the com- 
mittees or selectmen of the several towns lying down Connecticut 
river to the Kings' Ferry above Charlestown, or " No. 4," and with 
those above Hartford on Connecticut river, to join in seeking out a 
public highway from said Kings' Ferry up Connecticut river. It was 
also voted to raise a tax of eleven shillings ($2.66) to each share to de- 
fray necessary expenses. Mr. James Flint was chosen to take effectual 
care of the pine timber, both standing and lying, and improve that 
already cut down, etc., and to contract with the King's surveyor for 
getting masts and other timber for his majesty's navy ; and render the 
profits to the proprietors. Also, that future meetings should be 
warned by the selectmen by putting up a warning in writing under 
their hand on the sign post, in Windham and Lebanon Conn., and 
also by advertising said meeting in the " Boston Publick Newspaper," 
at least three weeks before such meetings. 

The next record is that made of the drawing of lots by lottery, viz : 
" An account of the persons who drawed the lotts in the lottery. In 
the open proprietors meating Nov. ye 17th, 1761, and the Lotts came 
out to the several Persons as Hereafter Recorded.'' 

The drawing resulted in a division of sixty-two lots. The charter 
gives the number of proprietors as sixty eight. This number in- 
cludes the Governor's right — (two shares) — and the four reservations for 
public, pious and charitable uses. The record of the names of the 
charter members found recorded on the back of the charter, contains 
sixty-one names only, including one name that is duplicated, viz : Ben- 
jamin Whitney. Expunging the duplication, and inserting the names 
of Elisha Wright and Elihu Hyde, who are named in the list of those 
who drew lots, we have the correct number, sixty-two. 

It appears that some of those who had paid in money in expectation 
of becoming charter members were left out. At the third meeting of 
the proprietors, March 9th, 1762, it was voted " that the treasurer shall 
pay the three shillings back to those who paid the same and got left 
out of the charter." 

No mention is made, up to this time, of the location of the six shares 
mentioned on the back of the charter. For convenience of reference, 
and comparison with later divisions of land, I will here insert a list of 
the proprietors who drew lots, together with the number, the location 


and number of acres recorded to each proprietor. Forty-three of the lots 
laid out bordered on the Connecticut river, of which twenty-four were 
north of White River and nineteen were south of White River; two of said 
lots bordered on both of said rivers. Fourteen lots bordered on White 
river, north side, and hve directly on White River, south side, — the num- 
bering of each tier of lots began at the confluence of said rivers. The 
figures on the left of the names indicate the number of the lot, the 
figures on the right indicate the number of acres. 

On Connecticut River. North of White River. 








Benjamin Whitney 19 

Elislia Doubleday 50 

Thomas Bell 50 

Joseph Follett 51 

Rowland Poyvell 52 

Joseph Martin 53 

William Temple 53 

William Alia 54 

Ephraim Terry 54 

Oliver Booth 55 

Silas Phelps 56 

Oliver Bre^vster 56 

13 James Flint 57 

14 Elihu Hide 58 

15 James Newcomb 59 

16 Ebenezer Gillett 69 

17 Joseph Newmarch 60 

18 Gideon Heliard 60 

19 Calel) Howard 59 

20 Daniel Redington 59 

21 Aaron Fish 59 

22 Joshua Wight, Jr 60 

28 Samuel Terry 60 

24 Eleazer Hebard 60 

Total number of acres 1314 

Up North Side of White River 

Timothy Clark 31 

Joseph Blanchard 50 

John Rounday 50 

Jonathan Simons 50 

Daniel Warner 50 

John Baldwin, Jr 50 

Samuel Terry, Jr 50 

8 Elisha Wright "53 

9 PrinceTracy 53 

10 N. Waldow 53 

11 Jonathan Martin, Jr. 53 

12 William Yongs , Jr 59 

13 Samuel Porter 59 

14 Benjamin Wright 61 

Total number of acres 

Up South Side of White River. 


1 John Baldwin 31 

2 Ezekiah Huntington 48f 

3 Nathaniel Holbrook, Jr 61| 

Total number of acres 

4 Eleazer Fitch, 3d 61f 

5 Eliphalet Phelps 65 

6 Elijah Bingham 65 


On The Connecticut River, South of White River. 

Nathaniel Clark 19 

David Newcomb 50 

Joshua Pomeroy 50f 

Elias Frink 50| 

Benjamin Wright, Jr 50^ 

David Newcomb 494 

William Clark 50| 

Samuel Wentworth 51 

Samuel Williams 52 

11 John Spencer, Jr 50 

12 Nathaniel Warner 56|f 

13 Daniel Pomeroy 58^f 

14 Gideon Flint 58 

15 Elijah Bebbins. 58^^^ 

16 Thomas Tracy 59i 

17 Jonathan Commings 58 

18 Caleb Owen 58i 

19 Gideon Bingham, Jr 57j\ 

Total number of acres 938f f 

The Grand total of acres thus divided was 3,308ff . This division is 
subsequently referred to as the first fifty acre division. 



The question of making a second division of land was first debated 
at a proprietors meeting held in Windham, Nov. 3rd, 1762, when it was 
decided to make a division of one hundred acres to each proprietor, 
each lot to front on the public roads already laid out, and, at the same 
time, one lot in the most convenient place for that purpose should be 
reserved for the first settled minister. No further action was taken on 
this subject until March 8th, 1763, when it was voted " that those pi'o- 
prietors, etc., who shall make their first entry on the lots of the second 
division shall have their first choice, and so successively as they shall 
enter on said lots." These favorable terms failed to promote emmi- 
gration commensurate with the hopes and expectations of the proprie- 
tors. Indeed, the committee chosen to lay out the second division, 
failed to then perform that work. Certain persons had, however, en- 
tered upon lands of the first division, and done some work toward 
clearing and improving said lands. In the following warning for a 
meeting of the proprietors one of the causes of the delay becomes ap- 
parent : 

" Whereas sundry of the proprietors of the town of Hartford, jn the province 
of New Hampshire have appUed to us for a meeting of said proprietors, some 
representing that the votes ah*eady come into relating to laying out a second 
division wiU not answer the end proposed, and others representing it best, in 
their opinion, to have the whole township laid out and distributed. These are 
therefore to warn said proprietors to meet at the house of Samuel Badger, inn- 
holder in Windham, in the colony of Connecticut on Tuesday the 30th day of 
August instant at 12 o'clock at noon, to conclude. Whether it is best to make 
any alteration in said votes, and what, or whether they will lay out the whole 
township in proper divisions, and distribute the same as justly as may be among 
said proprietors and raise money sufficient with what is already raised to defray 
the charge of doing the same, and also choose a committee to do said sei'vice, 
etc. Given under our hands this 20th day of August, 1763. 

Elias Bingham, j 

Silas Phelps, - Comtee. 

Thomas Tracy, ) 

The proprietors met in accordance with the above warning and voted 
that they would change all former votes relating to a second division. 
They then voted that the committee chosen to go and lay out the sec- 
ond division should look out all the meadow land not yet laid out and 
divide said land equally in quantity and quality to each proprietor ; 
that the hundred acre lots should be laid out in any part of the town- 
sbij^ where the committee judged best, having special reference to lay 
out the best land, and make the lots as equal as possible, with allow- 
ance for a highway to each lot, and also, to lay out the four public lots 


named in the charter, fronting on the rivers, and in as good situation 
and of as much value as the first division of land ; and to lay out a 
proper share of meadow, or hundred acre lots, to those who had, 
labored in the town. John Spencer, Jr., Prince Tracy, and Elijah 
Strong, were chosen a committee to do this work of laying out roads 
and the land named, and thej' speedily began operations, each proprie- 
tor being taxed ten shillings to defray expenses in addition to eleven 
shillings on a share previou-sly assessed, a total of about $3.15. 


On the 31st December, 1763, the report of the committee on their 
survey of the town, etc., was considered by the proprietors, and ac- 
cepted. The report was in substance as follows : 

" We the subscribers pursuant to the trust reposed in us did, on the 4th day of 
October last, begin to run round the town of Hartford in the province of New 

We began at the N. E. corner at the hemlock tree standing near the head of 
White river falls, and run thence north 60° west one mile to a large black birch 
tree marked 1 m. , standing on land descending a Uttle to the south, thence one mUe 
to a small Emnion-wood tree on land descending toward the south-west, marked 
2 m.; thence one mile to a midhng beech marked 3 m.; thence one mile to an 
Emmonwood ti'ee marked 4 m. ; thence one mile to a tree marked 5 m. ; thence 
one mile to the corner of Hartford and marked a smaU Beech tree standing 
on the east side of a liill between two small runs of water running southerly and 
meeting a little south of the corner ; said tree is marked 6 M. CORNER OF HART- 

From thence we riui south 34°, W. 100 rods to Wliite river ; thence 14 rods 
across said river, then proceeded out the first mile to a Hemlock marked 1 m. : 
thence one mile to a small Beech marked 2 m. ; thence one mile to a middling 
Hemlock marked 3 m.; thence 54 rods to Pomfret road, then extended out the 
mile to a small Beech tree marked 4 m. ; thence one mile to a Basswood marked o 
m. . on a hill ; thence one mile to a large Hemlock tree marked 6 m ; thence 54 
rods to Water Quechee river, thence 7 rods across said river, then extended out 
the mile to a small Rock maple tree at the south-west corner of Hartford, 
marked 7 MILE south-west corner. 

From thence we run south 68°, east one mile to a small Hemlock tree marked 
1 m. ; thence one mile to a Beech tree marked 2 m. ; thence one mile to a large 
Maple tree marked 3 m. ; thence to a small Rock maple marked 4 m. : thence one 
mile to a small Black oak tree marked 5 m. ; thence 232 rods to Water Quechee 
river, then extended out the mile to a large White oak tree marked 6 m. : from 
thence to Connecticut river the same course and have marked a line of trees in 
all of the above described lines (the east line is Connecticut river.) 

" Then we proceeded to lay out a highway from the River Connecticut to Pom- 
fret line." (Here follows the several courses run from a point about 200 rods 
below the south bank of White River, thence over Hurricane Hill to the centre 
of the towm, and onward to Pomfret line, a distance of about 5^ miles.) " The 


above descrilied lines was run on the northerly side of said road, and said road is 
three rods wide from Connecticut River until it comes to the rear of White River 
lots, and the remainder is eight rods wide." 

" Then we laid out forty -six hundred acre lots on the southerly side of White 
River in said town, and four fifty acre lots, — which were reserved by the charter 
for public uses — fronting on Connecticut River, and we have numbered them 20, 
21, 22 and 23, and have also numbered the hundred acre lots, setting the number 
of each lot on the bound of said lot. We have laid out twenty hundred acre lots on 
the northerly side of White River, setting the number of each lot on the bound 
thereof. We have also left an allowance for several highways between the lots 
on southerly side of White River * * * We have also sequestered, or reserved, 
lot No. 16, abating south on Pomfret road, and westwardly on land allowed for 
a highway eight rods wide, for the use of the first settled minister. We have 
also exhibited a plan representing the foregoing surveys bearing even date here- 
with. The foregoing surveys were finished October 26th, 1763, with the assist- 
ance of Mr. Aaron Storrs, surveyor, by us. 


PRINCE TRACY, - Comtee for said purpose. 


The second hundred acre division was laid out between March 8th 
and June 20, 1768. At the same time a survey was made of the middle 
land or meadows lying on the Water Quechee Kiver. On the 20th of 
June, 1768, the proprietors voted that each proprietor should have the 
right of pitching his second hundred acre division as follows : — " The 
names shall each be written on a separate piece of paper and put into a 
box and be drafted for the pitchers. The first shall make his pitch by 
Monday next, and get the two first letters of his name (initials) on the 
bound tree under the number that is on the bound tree, with a certificate 
from under his hand to be delivered to the clerk, he is to record the 
hundred acre and meadow lots as they are brought in to file. Daniel 
Prince and Lieut. John Strong, chosen to agree with the owners of 
land for highways and exchange for them. Abel Marsh, chosen to 
draw the pitchers for the 2d 100 acre division, and Elisha Marsh to 
make the pitches for the school right." 

On the second of November, 1772, the proprietors decided to make 
a division of fifty acre lots, and also voted to advertise in the Connec- 
ticut public prints that an application would be made to the committee 
chosen for that purpose, to lay out to each aggrieved proprietor his 
part of the land sequestered to make each lot in the first division equal, 
the proprietors to pay the cost that should arise — the same to be done 
by June 1st, 1773. On the last Monday in May, 1776, the proprietors 
met at the house of widow Ruth Strong, and voted that each proprietor 
should have liberty to take up of the undivided land in town, 50 acres 
to each original right. On the first Monday in November, 1776, the 


proprietors voted to accept of the pitches that had been made, in 
accordance with the vote taken in May, by Thomas Hazen, Israel Gillett, 
Mitchell Clark, John Bennett, Jr., Becket Chapman. Joshua Hazen, 
Benj. Wright, John Gillett, Stephen Tilden and Simon Chapman.' 

Sept. 26, 1779, Joshua Hazen, Israel Gillett and John Bennett, were 
chosen a committee to lay out as much of the undivided land as they 
should consider right to each man who had had his lots cut up by set- 
tling disputed lines, or proprietors' grants. Dec. 29,1780, Asa Hazen 
was chosen proprietors' clerk and Joshua Hazen and Stephen Tilden, a 
committee to examine into all deeds and claims. 

On Tuesday, 6th Feb'y, 1781, the proprietors voted to lay out a divis- 
ion of 40 acres to each right, and that an ample plan should be made 
and also a survey of said divisiou, both of which should be laid before 
the proprietors for confirmation. Under this vote Thomas Hazen 
pitched 560 acres to fourteen different 40 acre rights. This pitch was 
made May 30, 1781, and the land adjoins the one thousand acres which 
he received from the proprietors in 1773 for the money Joshua Hazen 
hired for the proprietors. It will be observed that his pitch and the 
1000 acres comprises the 1500 acres which the proprietors, on the 17th 
of Nov., 1761, voted to reserve and sequester in the north-west corner 
of the township in a square body, " to lie to make those proprietors 
good whose lots were not as good as the proprietors have in general." 

The foregoing divisions were supplemented by other later divisions. 
The last meeting of the proprietors, at which current business was 
transacted, was held in the house of Josiah Tilden,o in White River 
village, Nov. 9, 1808. Daniel Marsh was then chosen clerk, also a 
committee to act with the selectmen to see if the public lands were all 
laid out. From the date of this meeting to April 5, 1819, thirty-five 
meetings were held, and all meetings were terminated at that time, but 
nothing was recorded, in the interim, concerning further divisions of 
land. Records in detail are quoted in another chapter. 

' Under this vote Thomas Hazen pitched 650 acres of land, of which 576 acres 
was in one body, and constitutes what is now known as Jericho, the centre being 
near the intersection of the roads leading from White River and West Hartford, 
thence to Dothan. 



Whole nmiiber of acres in the township as per charter 37,000 

Allowance for highways, rocks, ponds, mountains, &c 1,040 

Governor's tract of land containing two shares. . - 500 

First division by lottery, 63 shares 3,309 

" 100 acre lots 66 shares 6,600 

Four public lots 50 acres each 200 

Second division of 100 acre lots, 66 shares 16,600 

" 50 " " " ... 3,300 

Division of 40 acres, 66 shares 3,640 

Other divisions as per records, including meadow and pine lands. 3,751 

Total, 27,000 



Hartford lies between the meridians of 4° 30' and 4" 45' of west 
longitude, and between the parallels of 43° 40' and 43° 55' north lati- 
tude, and is bounded north by Norwich, east by Connecticut river, — 
which seperates it from Lebanon, N. H. : — south by Hartland and Avest 
by Pomfret. It lies 42 miles southeast of MontjDelier ; 14 north of 
Windsor, and 14 northeast of Woodstock. The total area is about 46 
square miles, or nearly 27000 acres. 

Climate. The climate, like that of the State in general, is cold. The 
extremes of heat and cold are about 96° above, and 33° below, the zero 
on Faharenheit's thermometer, the average annual temperature being 
about 43°. Observations made during the months of January and 
February' 1885, at Hartford village, showed the minimum temperature 
for January to be 24° below zero, while that for February was 33°. 
The highest degree for January was 50° above zero : for Februarv 36°, 
the hour of observation, 7 o'clock A. M. From January 4th to the 17th, 
the average temperature at 7 A. M., Avas 27° above zero. From the 1st 
to the 2 2d the temperature was not below zero, excepting on the 3d, 
when it fell 2° below, and on the 21st to 6° below. For fourteen days 
in February the temperature ranged from zero to 36° above, the aver- 
age being 13° above. For the remaining fourteen days the tem- 
perature ranged from zei-o to 33° below, the average being 10° below. 

Orvis Wills of West Hartford, furnishes the following average tem- 
perature for the month of February for fifteen years : 

February, 1871, 17 degi-ees above. 

1872, 71 

1873, 111 

1874, 144 

1875, 6i 

1876, 16i 

1877, 17^ 

1878, 14 

February, 1879, 134 degrees above. 

1880, 194 

1881, 144 

1882, 18 
" 1883. 17 " • 

1K84, 24 
1885, 3 

May 14th, 1834, frost killed the maple leaves. On the next day, snoAv 
fell to the depth of one foot. June 6th, 1816, snow fell half the day. 
At night the ground was frozen. The 7th was windy and cold. On 
the morning of the 8th snow covered the ground to the depth of several 
inches. Very little corn and English grain were raised in 1816. Sep- 
tember 10th, the water in ponds and rivers froze to some thickness. 
Before the hills were denuded of the old forest growth, the crops of- 


tener suffered from excessive wet, than by drouth. Since the hills have 
been literally scalped of trees, drouths are more frequent, that is, the 
soil is continuously dryer throughout the vernal season, than before the 
land was so extensively cleared as at present.' The lengthy drouths 
that sometimes occurred in early times arose from an entire absence of 
rain fall, while the continuous aridity of the soil at the present time is 
to be attributed, principally, if not entirely, to the cutting down of the 
forests, Avhich threw off immense quantities of vapor into the atmos- 
phere, and the exposing of the surface of the ground to the direct action 
of the sun and winds. Before the country was cleared, the whole sur- 
face of the ground was covered with leaves and logs, and these absorbed 
the rain, and the channels of outlet being obstructed, the water passed 
off slowly, during a rain storm, or when the snow was dissolved. Now, 
during the melting of the snow, and heavy rains, the water runs rapidly 
aAvay ; the streams ai'e suddenly raised, and violent freshets succeed. 
When the snow is gone, or rain ceases, the soil soon becomes arid, the 
streams subside, mills cease to receive the necessary supply of water, 
springs and wells become dry, and the land half, or wholly naked, 
during the winter season, freezes to a great depth, w^hich proves fatal to 
grass and shrubbery, and j^oung fruit trees. 

Rivers. — The rivers within the town are White and Queechy rivers. 
White river, called by the Indians, " Cascadnac," or pure water, enters 
the town at the north west corner and runs south easterly through the 
town to its confluence with Connecticut river at White River Junction. 
Queechy, or Ottanquechee,' called by the early settlers, " Water- 
queechy" river, enters the town at the Pomf ret or west line of the town, 
and flows in a southerly direction, and crosses the line into Hartland, 
about one mile and a half above it confluence with Connecticut river. 
Connecticut river washes the Avliole of the eastern side of the town. No 
town in the state is better sup})lied with pure wholesome water than 

' Droughts of long duration occurred in this country at intervals prior to the 
time the land was extensively cleared, the most remarkable between 1620 and 
1S76, were as follows : — 1621, 34 days ; 1630, 41 days ; 1657, 75 days ; 1626, So days ; 
1674, 45 days; 168S, 81 days; 1694, 62 days; 1705, 40 days; 1715, 46 days; 172S, 
61 days; 1730, 90 days; 1741, 72 days; 1749, 108 days; 1755, 42 days; 1762, 123 
days; 1773, 80 days; 1791,82 days; 1812,28 days; 1856, 24 days; 1871,42 days; 
1875, 26 days; 1876, 26 days. In 1762 no rain from May ist to Sept. ist, and 
money was sent to England for hay and grain. 

- On a map printed by John Gant, Albany, N. Y., entitled " a Chorographical 
map of the Northern Department of Northern America." Waterquechee river is 
laid down under the name, " Qiiatoqueechy river." 

The valley of the Ottanquechee covers an area of 150 square miles. This is 
rich in mineral and agricultural resources and is not surpassed in the State, in 
the beauty of its scenery — mountain, hill and valley. On this stream and its tribu- 
taries is a motive power of immense value, but a small portion of which is now 


Hartford, and none more abundantly watered. The smaller streams 
are separated largely b}^ hills ranging from 100 to 500 feet above the 
streams, consequently the descent is ratlier abrupt, and the streams run 
briskly between the divides, forming a natural drainage sj^stem throuoh 
which the waters find their way to the rivers. Most of the streams 
have diminished in size as the forests have been cleared up, and some 
are entirely dried up in the summer time. 

/Soil and I^roductlons. — The soil of the town is in general, a sandv 
loam. Still there is a variety of soil. The soil of the interval lands, is 
an alluvial deposit, thrifty and productive of large crops of corn, and 
other cereals, grass and garden vegetables. The alluvial deposit is 
however, not much in excess of one foot, and is underlaid by an admix- 
ture of coarse sand, and pebble stones, which render deep ploughing 
impracticable on account of the leachy nature of the subsoil ; conse- 
quently top-dressing is becoming a very common system on other than 
clayey lands. Back from the intervals the land rises abruptly into hills, 
which present an irregular contour and somewhat broken aspect. The 
upland farms are not, in the main, inferior in productiveness to the in- 
terval farms. Fruit trees thrive better on the uplands, than near the 
rivers. There is but a small portion of land in the town that cannot be 
easily and profitably cultivated even to the apex of the highest hills. 
The hill farms afford the very best of pasturage, and something jjrofit- 
able is done in the dairy business on most of the farms in the town, as 
well as in stock i-aising. 

Natural Fertilizers. — So long as the hills were crowded with forests, 
the low lands were constantly enriched from the neighboring eminences. 
The decay of trees, broken down by wind or succumbing to age, the 
decay of leaves annually falling, and of woodland plants constantly per- 
ishing, formed in the process of time a rich mold, which was washed 
down by summer rains, or gradually conveyed away by melting snows, 
and distributed over the surface, affording a never-failing supply of 
good manure. In many places the contour of the ground was such that 
the decaying substances accumulated in basin-like repositories, where, 
undisturbed by the elements, they annually received accessions of like 
material, which deposits are termed " muck-beds." Numerous deposits 
of this kind are found in Hartford. Some of them are underlaid by a 
grayish tinted plastic marl. 


The principal rocks of the io^-n. are of a mica schist formation. 
Talcose schist exists to some extent. Of the three great ranges of tal- 


cose schist in Vermont, the least enters the State in Springfield, passes 
out at the Weathersfield " Bow," re-enters in the south-east part of 
Hartford, and continues in Vermont until it terminates near Guildhall. 
Prof. Adams discovered a deposit of gneiss in Hartford, which was 
isolated from all other rocks. This was a portion of the middle range 
of gneiss which extends from Halifax to the Otta Quechee river. It is 
supposed that this projection of the gneiss to Hartford forms an anti- 
clinal axis, underlying the calciferous mica schist. 

A mile and a half southwest of White River Junction the rock is an 
indurated talcose schist with sulphurets of iron and copper in small 
veins scattered through it. A coarse rock, with black spots of argil- 
laceous matter more or less calcarious is abundant about White River 
Junction. Along White river are found numerous blocks of the peculiar 
indurated black calcarious schist. There are obscure traces of stratifica- 
tion in it, and numerous large blotches of a black argillaceous matter 
which effervesces strongly with acid, are thickly strewed through it. 
A porphyritic hornblend is found southwest of White River Junction, 
and viens of quartz traverse the formation. At White River village a 
compact hornblend rock is interstratified with soft talcose slate. An- 
alagous rocks are found on the way from this village to Norwich Center. 
— Geology of Vermont^ Vol. I, pp. 465-519. 

The minerals most common in the town are calcite, kyanite, quartz, 
pyrites, and felc]spar. No minerals of commercial value, with the ex- 
ception of a modicum of silver, have been found in Hartford. Some 
prospecting for silver ore was made several years ago on the farm now 
owned by George C. Brockway, near West Hartford village, but the 
enterprise ended abortively.' 


This spring occurs in the calciferous mica schist formation on a 
beautiful slope of land on the town poor farm, which is about two miles 
distant from Quechee village, and about the same distance from the 
village of West Hartford. 

The water is strongly impregnated with muriate of soda and carbonate 
of lime, and traces of carbonate of soda and muriate of magnesia are 
plainly discernable. It is probable that iodine exists in the water in the 
state of iodic acid combined with one of the alkalies. The water from 
the springs has deposited beds of tufa several inches in thickness. It 
was by this deposit that the springs were first brought to public notice 

' Mr. Levi Hazen of West Hartford, has collected one of the finest cabinets of 
minerals to be found in the State. 


through the instrumentality of the Windsor County Natural History 
Society, about the year 1840. Subsequently, for a few years, the 
springs were visited by a large number of people who drank the water 
there, and carried it away with them, and claimed to be greatly benefitted 
by its use especially in the numerous varieties of scrofulous diseases. 
About the year 1846, a company was formed for the purpose of laying 
a pipe from the springs to the village of West Hartford, with the view 
of erecting in that village a large hotel for the accommodation of guests 
who might seek the medicinal virtues of the water. The owner of the 
sf)rings declined to sell upon any terms, and not long after the springs 
fell into disuse, and the waters, at the present time, have no utility 
beyond tnat of occasional use by the town's poor who are quartered in 
the immediate vicinity of the springs. 


The existence of pot-holes in ledges of rock is regarded as proof that 
a cataract once existed at the spot. Hence, whenever they occur, rivers 
must have existed ; in other words, streams once ran where pot-holes 
now are, and subsequently they wore out the valley to the depth at 
which they now run. 

During the construction of the Vermont Central Railroad between 
West Hartford village and a point just west of the boundary line be- 
tween Hartford and Sharon, a blast made in a rock cutting disclosed an 
enormous pot-hole seventeen feet deep, the fissure leading to it from 
the surface of the rock above being about six feet in length. Side by 
side within this hole lay two granite boulders. These were taken out 
by the workmen, who, not appreciating their great value, rolled them 
into the dump or embankment near by. This fact came to the engineers 
in some way, and they unearthed the buried treasures. One of these 
proved to be a beautiful sphere two feet four inches in diameter, and 
as perfect and symmetrical in outline as any piece of lathe work. The 
other was irregular in form, and nearly as large as its companion, but 
this was not removed. The story of this discovery having reached the 
ears of Prof. Edward Hitchcock, the celebrated geologist, he, with 
his class in Dartmouth college, made a journey to West Hartford to see 
this unequalled sphere of granite — Nature's own handiwork. Sub- 
sequently Gov. Paine, president of the Vermont Central Railroad, sent 
this stone by a two horse team to Burlington, Vt., where it was placed 
in front of the college buildings. 


This stone, which " the builders did not refuse," was found at a spot 
at least sixty feet above White river. Who can tell how many centuries 
ago White river was coursing its way at that elevation above its present 
bed, or by what process those fragements of rock were encased in their 
rock-bound repository?' 


In addition to the attractiveness arising from the terraces upon the 
'Otta Qaechee river near Dewey's mills, another prominent and interest- 
ing object is found in the extensive gorge or chasm, at the head of 
which Dewey's mills are located. This is a channel cut through 
schistose rock some five hundred feet in length, one hundred in width, 
and varying in depth from fifty to one hundred and sixty-five feet. The 
Woodstock railroad crosses this chasm over a bridge, the track of which 
is one hundred and sixty five feet above the bed of the river. This 
point is a popular resort, in summer-time, for picnic parties, and is much 
visited by toui'ists from all parts of the country. 


The otta Quechee river rises in Sherburne, passes through Bridgewater, 
Woodstock and Hartford, and unites with the Connecticut in North 
Hartland. * * * At Quechee village there is a very distinct basin. 
Southeast of the village near Dewey's factory, on the southeast side of 
the stream, there are seven very pleasant terraces, and four upon the 
opposite side. They are, perhaps, gorge terraces, as they are at the 
mouth of quite an extensive gorge and waterfall. In this very interest- 
ing region there is an old bed of the river upon the east side. * * * 
The river at its point of union with the Connecticut, modified the ter- 
races of the latter stream. It has also carried away a large portion of 
the Connecticut's terraces at North Hartland. The river falls over 
strata of clay near its mouth, at least four times, and the amount of fall 
is from sixty to seventy feet. 

The principal branch of White river arises from the Green Mountains 
in Hancock, Rochester and Pittsfield, passes through Stockbridge to 
Bethel, where it joins the other branch coming down from Roxbury ; 
thence it follows the route of the Vermont Central railroad through 
Royalton, Sharon and Hartford, to White River Junction, where it 
unites with the Connecticut. * * * The first basin upon White 
river belongs to the ninth basin of the Connecticut, which extends from 

' At Qiiechee village, just below the bridge over Otta Qiiechee river, a large 
isolated flat rock may be seen near the centre of which is a large pot-hole, and at 
one end of this rock is a well defined section of another pot-hole — both valuable 
illustrations of such structures. 


Windsor to Norwich. It is quite short, extending only from White 
River Junction to a short distance west of White River village, yet the 
terraces are finely developed, especially where White river unites with 
the Connecticut, there being five terraces on the south side — the high- 
est of which is composed of sand, and its summit is 209 feet above the 
Connecticut at the railroad bridge over White river — and four upon the 
north side. The second basin extends from White River village nearly to 
West Hai'tford, and is well lined with terraces upon both sides, their 
number being nowhere less than three, and never exceeding seven. 
Yet the number varies every half mile. The valley varies from a quarter 
of a mile to a mile in width. The third basin extends from a rocky 
barrier (Rocky mountain so-called) at West Hartford to a similar bar- 
rier, well inarked, a mile southeast of Sharon. — Geology of Vermont, 
Vol. 1, pp. 122-123. 

Of one of the terraces at White River Junction, Prof Hitchcock says : 
" At this place, (White River Junction), as universally in Vermont 
where two streams meet in a wide spread basin, terraces of various 
heights and extensive range are found. Upon the top of one of these 
terraces at an elevation of over 120 feet above the Connecticut river is 
a pond covering several acres, possessing no visible inlet, but belonging 
to the third class of ponds. Pond-lilies abound, and their roots form a 
strong net-work capable of sustaining the weight of a man. Vegetable 
matter has accumulated upon these roots to a considerable depth, and 
in spots alders and other shrubs grow luxuriantly. A person may safely 
walk several rods from what was evidently the original shore of the 
pond. As he walks, however, there is communicated to the ground 
upon which he walks a wave-like motion that visibly extends in every 
direction. Here the traveler may notice the process by which the jelly- 
like accumulations of matter, often met in swampy grounds, were 
formed. If the agencies now at work are not disturbed, a film of vege- 
table matter will ultimately extend over the entire surface of the pond, 
and afford a congenial spot for plants of larger growth, and in due time 
a swamp will usurp the place now occupied by this pond." 

This terrace was probably once the bed of White River, which then 
entered the Connecticut river below the present junction. Upon leav- 
ing White River Junction, via the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers 
railroad, the tourist finds himself upon the second terrace from the 
Connecticut, at an elevation of thirty feet above the stream. The ter- 
raced hills that rise abruptly from the western side of the railroad and 
hide the view from the west, gradually recede upon approaching Nor- 
wich station. This road crosses the boundary line between Hartford 


and Norwich about three and one-eighth miles north of White River 


The flora and fauna of the town are similar to those found in most of 
the towns bordering on White river. The white pine once common on 
the meadow lands and plains, and which was an object of special care, 
as shown by provisions contained in the charter of the town, and util- 
ized with the greatest economy, has been in the march of civilization 
swept nearly out of existence. These trees in many places grew to a 
wonderful height, and were well adapted for masts. Trees were said to 
be found on the plains exceeding 200 feet in height, and one was found 
in Hanover 270 feet long. The pitch pine, or what is now termed "sec- 
ond growth," is found on sandy plains bordering the Connecticut and 
Otta Quechee rivers. The hemlock was once abundant in every section 
of the town. The first growth equalled the white pine in diameter, and 
in some instances in height. But few of these evergreens remain. 
Within the last fifty years they have been felled and sawed into timber 
and boards, or split into fence rails. The other evergreens, like hack- 
matacks, firs, and spruces, which are common in the northern por- 
tion of the State, are not found in this town. Every variety of the 
maple is found, and the sugar-maple has proved a source of great profit 
to our farmers. Thousands of pounds of sugar are annually made 
from the sap of the maple — the average yield to a tree being about four 
pounds. The beech, birch, oak and maple constitute the larger part of 
the hardwood forests. The black and white ash, the bass and the 
cherry, once abundant, have been ruthlessly felled, converted into lum- 
ber and exported for various uses. Our white ash has been shipped to 
California, and even to foreign countries. The poplar, which is quite plen- 
tiful, is now being converted into paper. The butternut is preserved 
mainly for its fruit, but it is extensively used in the finish of houses. 
The elm, which is the most majestic and beautiful shade tree in Amer- 
ica, still exists to a limited extent, but its value as a tenacious and 
strong substance for carts, carriages, sled-beams, etc , has rendered it 
scarce. Indeed, the woodman's axe has nearly denuded our hills and 
valleys of their primitive glory and beauty. Wood for fuel is now so 
scarce and costly that a large number of the inhabitants of our villages 
burn but little else than Pennsylvania coal — Pennsylvania coal fields 
furnish fuel for our grates, and for our lamps — to warm, cheer and com- 
fort us. The shrubby plants are our only compensation for the loss of 
our forests. The blackberry and raspberry bushes spring up in the 


newly cleared fields ; by the roadsides, in pastures, and about hedges 
and fences, and hundreds of bushels of their fruit are annually picked, 
to be made into jam. jellies, and preserves. Apple orchards are com- 
mon, but our severe winters militate against the cultivation of this fruit, 
nor are we any more successful with plums and cherries. Strawberries 
are plentiful, but are mostly of the cultivated kind. 

Of the fauna of our State, this town has its proportion of the fox, 
raccoon, woodchuck, grey, red and striped squirrel, mink, muskrat, rab- 
bit, skimk and weasel. The assertion was made by Thomas Hobbes, a 
very profound thinker, that " war is the natural condition of our race." 
This predisposition to war is not confined to a war upon the genus ho- 
mo, for man's inhumanity has been ventilated upon the inferior animals 
to such an extent that every variety of wild animals is now nearly ex- 


Hartford has four principal villages; first, Hartford, otherwise 
known as "White River Village;" second, Quecliee ; third, West 
Hartford; and fourth, White River Junction, all of which are post 


This is placed first in order for the reason that the first post oftice in 
the town was established in this village; also, because the Town Clerk's 
office is located here, which renders it a central point for the transac- 
tion of public business. Prior to 1840, the public business of the town 
was transacted at what is known as the " Centre of the Town," but in 
that year Hon. George E. Wales, then residing in Hartford village, 
was elected Towni Clerk; consequently the business of that office was 
transferred to said village where it has ever since been continued. The 
town meetings, however, which had been held at the centre of the 
town for more than seventy years prior to the election of Mr. Wales as 
Town Clei'k, were not held elsewhere until about the year 1872, since 
which time the meetings have been held alternately in Hartford, Que- 
chee and White River Junction. 

Hartford village has grown to its present proportions through the 
advantages afforded by its water-power, which has been well utilized 
since mills were erected at this point in 1795, This village now has 
the Town Clerk's oftice, the meeting-house of the Second Congrega- 
tional Society, a flourishing public school, a post-office, five merchants' 
stores, a hotel, a large woolen mill, a manufactory of farm implements, 
a grist-mill, a carriage manufactory, a chair factory, several mechanic 


shops, a circulating library, and contains not far from 500 inhabitants. 
This village was for several years the home of the late Andrew Tracy. 
Hon. Geo. E. Wales resided here from 1811 until his death in 1860. It 
is now the home of the oldest man in Hartford, if not the oldest in 
Windsor county. I allude to Phineas P. Fisher, who is now 93 years 
of age, and still possesses vigor sufficient to enable him to support him- 
self by manual labor, with some help from the town. 

Among the earlier inhabitants, were Josiah Tilden, Edward Knee- 
land, Bani TJdall, Jonathan Bugbee, Abijah Taft, Justin C. Brooks, 
Nathan Gere, John Grout, Erastus Clarke, Ira Moore, Wyllys Lyman, 
Walter Pease, Alvan Bailey, David Trumbull and Wright Porter. 

Hartford village is pleasantly situated for residences and is accessible 
by the Centi'al Vermont railway. 


The village of Quechee, now the most important village in the town 
in i-espect to manufactures and the wealth of its inhabitants, is located 
on the Otta Quechee river, and on the line of the Woodstock railway, 
seven miles from White River Junction and seven miles from Wood- 
stock, The river here affords a fine water-power, and upon the banks 
of the stream, which now turns many wheels, were erected the first 
mills employed in the town to perform the Avork of drudgery incident 
to the building up of new settlements. As early as 1765, the proprie- 
tors of the town voted to give 600 acres of land bordering on Quechee 
river, and centering on the falls, to aid in the erection of a saw-mill 
and grist-mill. A saw-mill was erected prior to 1769. In 1774 action 
was taken to encourage the erection of a grist-mill, which was, not long 
after, accomplished, and thus the inhabitants of the town were relieved 
from the onerous task of taking their grain to Charleston, N. H., to 
be ground. This was the inception of the work of utilizing the water- 
power which has resulted in giving to the village of Quechee the fine 
manufacturing establishments now owned and operated by A. G, Dewey 
& Co., and J. C. Parker & Co., and i^romoting the growth of other 
industries, which have served to bring wealth and material growth and 
prosperity to the village, which now has the meeting-houses of the Con- 
gregational Society and of the Methodist Society recently organized, 
several stores, two fine factories for the manufacture of woolen goods, 
a grist-mill, a tannery, mechanic shops, and about 100 private dwellings, 
including those at Dewey's Mills. 

' Named from the river on which it is located. 


Quechee village is noted as having- been the residence of several of 
the most eminent and most highly honored citizens of the town durino- 
their life time. Among these were the late Joseph Marsh, Avho was 
the first lieutenant-governor elected in A^ermont, and prominent, not 
only in the political affairs of Hartford and Windsor county, but also, 
in those of the State, for nearly forty years; the late Hon. Andrew 
Tracy; the late Hon. John Porter, Judge of Probate for Hartford Dis- 
trict, and an incumbent of many other offices of trust and honor; the 
late Hon. Albert G, Dewey, a highly esteemed citizen, a successful 
manufacturer, and, for many years, prominently identified with town 
affairs; and the late Hon. William Strong, who was sheriff of Windsor 
county; a representative of Hartford in the General Assembly; a mem- 
ber of Congress; a judge of the Supreme Court of Windsor county; a 
member of the Council of Censors, and an incumbent of other less im- 
portant offices. (See biographical sketches of the above named persons 
in another portion of this history). Quechee is the. birth-place of Hon. 
Charles W. Porter, the present Secretary of State of Vermont. It is 
the place of residence of Hon. J. C. Pai'ker, the present treasurer of 
the Vermont Agricultural Society, and one of the board of State j^rison 
directors ; of Hon. Henry Safford, the present capable and efficient 
overseer of the poor; of Hon. Wm. S. Dewey, and John J. Dewey, 
Esq., successful and wealthy manufacturers. Among the older citizens 
now residing in Quechee, are Harvey Thomas, a well-to-do farmer; 
Charles Tinkham, for many years a successful merchant, and for 
twenty years the postmaster in this village; and Charles R. Whitman, 
chairman of the board of selectmen, from 1871 to 1888. Among those 
who have passed away, were Nathaniel Thomas, Shubel Russ, Abel 
Marsh, Elkanah Sprague, Abel Barron, Oscar Barron, Theophilus 
Cushing, Daniel Marsh, James Udall, Lionel Udall, Elijah Mason 
(grandfather of Mrs. President Garfield), John Marsh, Philip Dimmick 
and John Bliss. 


This village is located on the Central Vt. railroad, about seven miles 
north west of White River Junction, and occupies a portion of the one 
thousand acres of land granted by the early proprietors of the town- 
ship to Thomas Hazen, in consideration of the sum of one thousand 
dollars which his son Joshua hired for the use of the proprietors, 
which money was sent to New York for the purpose of procuring Let- 
ters Patent from the Govei'nment of New York. Mr. Thomas Hazen 
subsequently acquired 560 acres adjoining the said grant, making alto- 
gether a tract of 1560 acres. Just previous to his death Mr. Hazen 


divided this tract of laud, giving to each one of his twelve children 120 
acres, and reserving for a homestead an equal portion. More than one- 
half of the whole tract (1560 acres) is now owned and occupied by the 
lineal descendants of Mr. Hazen, among whom are Silas, Willis, and 
Alice, children of the late Levi Hazen, Alice and Bertha, grandchildren 
of Levi's, and Levi son of John Hazen, now deceased. 

This village contains about thirty-five dwelling houses, one church 
edifice, two stores, hotel, post office, school house, saw mill, a depot 
and other business interests. It has become the trading centre, and 
shipping point for many of the farmers and other residents of Pom- 
fret, Sharon and Norwich. It is noted as being the birth place of sev- 
eral men who have attained prominence in various walks of life. 
Among these may be mentioned the late Brigadier General William B. 
Hazen, who achieved an enviable reputation during the recent civil war, 
and daring the last six years of his life held the honorable position of 
chief signal officer in the U. S. service. Also Col. Alba M. Tucker, who 
is prominently identified with railway interests in Indiana and Ohio. 
Among those who have lived in this village during a portion of their 
lives, I will mention the late Hon. David M. Camp, who in 18^6 was 
elected lieut. -governor of Vermont, and ex-officio president of the first 
senate. Col. Joel Marsh, who won his military title by service in the 
revolutionary war ; and carried on the business of distilling cider brandy 
on the premises recently bought by Mr. Frank Wheeler. Hon. C. C. P. 
Holden, now a wealthy and influential citizen of Chicago, lived in this 
village several years during his boyhood. Francis W. Savage, an ex- 
tensive land owner, and conspicuous in town affairs, kept a public house 
for many years, where W. H. Gile, now lives. John Downer, an enter- 
prising and very intelligent man, lived for more than thirt}' years with 
his son-in law, Lucius Hazen, in the hou:e now owned and occupied by 
Silas H. Hazen, Esq. 

Among those people who lived in West Hartford fifty years ago, and 
were then in the prime of manhood, were Capt. Levi Hazen, Doctor 
David Ingraham, Keuben Hazen, Dr. Ira Tenney, David Hazen, 
Eliphaz Hunt, Abel Camp, Abel Howard, Baxter B. Newton, Zavan 
Hazen, Stephen Thurston, Reuben Wills, Stephen S. Downer, Lucius 
Hazen, Thomas and Dea. Solomon Crandall, Dea. Burpee Prouty, S. A. 
Ballard, Dea. Samuel Dutton, James Wade, David Wilson, Orange 
Bartlett and Alvin Tucker. Most of these men lived to a good old age. 
They have passed from life to death. 

" Like i^ilgTiins to the appointed place Ave tend ; 

The world's an inn, and death the journeys end." — Dvyden. 



The following account of an extraordinary calamity that happened to 
the village of West Hartford, Feb'y 10th, 1867, is compiled from arti- 
cles written for the Vermont Journal, and Boston Journal, by the 
writer of this history, who was an eye-witness to the scenes herein de- 

For more than eighty years the inhabitants living in the "White river 
valley have been very much disturbed by the freshets that annually 
occur, and which are usually very destructive to property. The fresh- 
ets of both winter and summer are much more severe than they were 
before the forests were cleared away from the hills and the valleys. 
Whatever snow is on the ground during a thaw in winter melts rapidly 
and the water runs quickly to the streams. The same result follows 
the heavy rain storms of summer and autumn, but with more serious 
consequencesdaring the continuance of storms.' During winter freshets, 
White river sometimes rises fifteen to twenty feet above low water 
mark and has been known to rise sixteen feet in the space of one hour, 
when covered with ice. At such times it sweeps away bridges, build- 
ings, and all else in its way. 

The greatest and mcst disasti'ous freshet ever known in the valley of White 
river occurred on Sunday niorning- February 10th, 1867, during wliich the village 
of AVest Hartford was inundated, a large amount of property destroyed, aud one 
l^erson was drowned. For several days preceding the calamity the weather had 
been warm, and the snow melted rapidly away, and the inhabitants became 
greatly alarmed, but still neglected to move their property to places of greater 
security. On the evening of the 9th a heavy rain storm set in and continued 
unabated until past midnight. Before day-break the wind veered from the 
.south into th^ north-west, and the temperature of the air fell nearly 40 degrees. 
At 7 o'clock, a. m., on the 10th, a breakage in the ice connnenced atjout one mile 
above the village of West Hartford and extended, in aboiit twenty minutes, to a 
point of rocks situated m an abrupt bend of the river aljout a half-mile below 
the bridge crossing. There was not a sufhcient quantity of water to force the 
ice past the point of rocks named, consequently the whole body of ice was sud- 
denly checked, thereby forming a dam which caused the water to set back to such 
an extent that in less than twenty minutes thereafter sixteen houses in the vil- 
lage were svibmerged above the first floor, and their occupants driven either out 
of doors or to the upper stories of their dwellings. 

The scene beggars description. A panic seized the minds of those in danger. 
It was difficult to determine whether safety depended ujion remaining indoors, 
or upon reaching some place outside above the waters. In some cases there was 
no alternative, because the houses wei"e surrounded by Avater, and there was no 
means of escape. There were almost un])aralled instances of female heroism 
and bravery, and men performed daring and noble deeds in behalf of their 
neighbors and friends. There were miraculous escapes from death. Many peo- 
ple were svii prised in bed, and had barely time to fly in their nightdress to places 
of greater safety. Mr. Alliert Woodbury and his wife were awakened by the 
crashing ice, and on looking out of a window sa^A' that their house was walled 
in l)y ice. and their bed-room floor was covered with water nearly one foot 
deep. They waded out of their sleeping room, ascended to the chamber, and 
finally descended from the chamber window on steps cut in the ice. 

' The summer freshets usually occur in the month of June. These are de- 
structive to all growing crops. 'Occasionally there is a great freshet in the fall 
of the year. That of October, 1869 was very disastrious in its effects. 


]\Ir. (~"liarles Beck\\ith t-arrieil his wife and two children some distance from 
liis house throuti,h two feet of water and floating ice. But a few minutes later 
his house was walled in by huge cakes of ice, some of which lay as high as the 
eaves of his house. His barn was crushed into kindling wood. 

Mr. William Renahan and family were not awakened until the water was more 
than one foot deep in their bedroom. This family escaped through a chamber 
window, on to a shed roof and thence to a bank by a board walk. Mr. Thomas 
Carr and family were met at the outer door of their house by the rising flood, but 
escaped without trouble. Dr. Laban Tvicker and family were aroused from 
slumber l)y a very unceremonious tlnimping of ice against a cornei' of their 
house. They sprang from lied and (jn reaching the outside door found that the 
water was nearly three feet deep in the highway fronting their house. Mrs. 
Tucker seized her little daughter and heroically waded through the stream, a 
distance of three rods to land, but the effort was so great that she had barely 
strength to reach the steps of the church, opposite her home, where she and her 
child were found soon after by AVillie H. Tucker, a son of the writer. The little 
girl was clad only by her night dress, and both mother and child suffei-ed intense- 
ly. Dr. Tucker, after lilierating his valuable horse and cow from the stable, 
returned into the house, but before he had completed arrangements to leave the 
water had risen to a height that precluded the possibility of leaving the house. 
He was taken about noon from his chamber window into a boat, and joined his 
^vife in safety. 

Allen Hayes and family were unable to effect their escape from the house 
before the flood had surrounded the house. They fled into a chamber from which 
they were taken away by some boatmen. The water was eight feet deep in Mr. 
Hayes' barns. He lost three good horses, two cows, one yoke of oxen and twenty 
sheep. The house of F. F. Holt was filled with water and surrounded by ice 
above the windows of the first story. A large blacksmith's shop that stood on 
the bank of the river opposite Mr. Holts" house, made him a inorning call and 
announced its visit by knocking in the parlor windows, and moving his house a 
short distance southward. Mrs. Holt had left the house the night before. Mr. 
Holt lost a yoke of oxen and a fine cow. 

Mrs. Nancy Hazen and family escaped through a window in the north end of 
her house, after seeing her barn and other buildings SM^ept away. Silas Hazen, 
who lives near the bridge crossing, lost one hundred and forty-five blooded 
Merino sheep, considerable hay and grain, and his buildings were badly damaged. 
Mr. S. S. Downer and family who lived in Mr. Hazen's house, were taken from 
the hovise in a boat. The covered bridge that had braved many hard freshets 
succumbed to this. It w^as lifted bodily from its foundation, and carried several 
hundred feet down the river. This bridge was erected in 1827-28. 

Mr. Henry West, nierchant, while going from his store was caught by the 
flood and swept against a maple tree, which he resolutely grasped and climbed, 
where he remained an hour. He became chilled and maintained his position 
with difficulty. The water was rushing past the tree, and a fall would have been 
sure death for him. Finally, a large feed box was discovered in a barn opposite 
to the tree. Ropes were attached to this box, which was carefully floated under 
the branches of the tree, and Mr. West got into the box and was hauled to the 
barn in a half -frozen condition.' The houses of Mr. Hoyt Hazen, Mr. Benson, 
and Mr. Seymour Hazen were flooded. Mr. Hoyt Hazen saved a valuable cow 
by driving her into his dining room. 

One incident of this freshet was of a lamentable nature. I allude to the un- 
timely death of Miss Frankie Williamson. Mr. Williamson's house was located 
within a few feet of the river. The water had risen to the floor of the house, 
and the ice had torn away one corner of the house. Soon the floors of the house 
w^ere forced upward. Death stared the occupants in the face. There seemed no 
safety except in flight. Miss Williamson chose this course, and in company with 
Col. S. E. Pingree, left the house. The water was then but about six inches 
deep in front of the house. They waded safely through this and were nearly to dry 
land, when they were struck by a strong current of water and forcibly separated. 
Miss Williamson, with admirable presence of mind grasped hold of a stone-fence 
post as she was forced along by the flood, to which she bravely clung till the 
rising water reached her neck. Then, just as she reached one hand out to catch 

'To the writer of this history, the recollection of the sorrowful scenes of 
that day is attended with the pleasing memory and reflection that he was instru- 
mental in providing the means by which Mr. West so narrowly escaped death. 


a roi^e thrown her, the post gave way, and alas, she disappeared beneath the 
angry waters, never more to be seen alive. Her death cast a gloom over the 
entire community. 

Col. Pingree was swept down by the flood to a gate by Mr. Silas Hazen's barn, 
and this, with a snperliuman effort, he grasjied, and being intrepid in danger, he 
gradually battled his way to the margin of the water, from which he was taken 
by kindly hands. Thus in one brief hour, sixteen families were rendered home- 
less, and one family deprived of a young and much loved member. 

The flood subsided to some extent during the succeeding twelve hours, and the 
aspect of the scene was hideous and discouraging. The highways were blocked 
by ice. The interior of the invmdated dwellings presented a sorrowful sight. 
Valuable books, pictures, musical instruments, carjsets, furniture, much prized 
souvenirs, were irretrievably ruined; but the end was not yet. 

On the 14th of February, and before any material efforts had been made to 
restore order, the water rose higher than ever before, and created another panic; 
but on the succeeding day it began to subside, and retired to the bounds of its 
old channel. Immediate efforts were put forth to recover the body of Miss Wil- 
liamson. The work continued for thirteen days, during which time the scene of 
the disaster was visited by thousands of people, many of whom came a hundred 
miles. Hundreds of men came prepared to assist in restoring order and to search 
for the lost one. • At length on the 13tli day the body was found lying near the 
river under about six feet of ice. 

It is worthy of record that several so-called ' ' spii'itiial mediums '' were called 
to designate the place where the body of Miss Williamson might be found, but 
they signally failed to determine the point. But what mediums of the ''genus 
homo " could not discover, was determined by the instinct of the fehne race. On 
the morning of Feb. 23d, after a light fall of snow, a gentleman, who was inter- 
ested in discovering the body, on looking over the held of ice, below the old 
bridge site, observed a large number of cats' tracks all converging to a common 
centre from many different directions. Knowing the proclivities of this animal 
for the human body in a death state, he at once inferred that the body of Miss 
W. must be near this place. His suggestions led to a search at that exact place, 
and the body was soon found a few feet from the spot where the tracks con- 


This village owes its present importauce and its growth to the con- 
struction of the various railways which centre at that point. It is now 
the most important railway centre north of Boston, and must ever main- 
tain that supremacy. The altitude of the village above the ocean is 
335 feet. 

It was at this point that the committee of six persons sent hither by 
the grantees of the township in the autumn of 1761, " to view the town- 
ship and lay out the first division of land," began their work, and two 
months later reported at Windham, Connecticut, the result of their 
labor. Suffice it to say that the land selected by the committee em- 
braced that on which White River Junction and White River village are 
located. However sanguine Prince Tracey and his five associates in 
that exploration might have been as to the future of their grant, it is 
doubtful whether they would have credited, even a revelation from 
heaven, that within the life of the third or fourth generation of their 

' That portion of White River Junction which lies ou the north side of White 
river bore the name of "Lyman's Point" until the Central, Passumpsic and 
Northern railroads were completed, since which time the territory on both sides 
of the river has been called White River Junction. 


successors, the march of civilization would obliterate the landmarks 
established by them, defined alone by blazed trees, convert their trail 
along the river borders into costly lines of railways having their ter- 
minus on the very ground selected by them for the first division [and 
that, within the radius of a few chains' length from where their first 
camp fire was lighted], the then unbroken wilderness would be trans- 
formed into a scene of active life, enterprise and prosperity, such as 
now presents itself to evei'y attentive observer at White Eiver Junction, 
and indicates an era of progressive civilization. 

With the name of White River Junction, will ever be associated the 
names of Elias Lyman, 3d, and Col. Samuel Nutt. The first was grand- 
father of Mrs. Mary (Lyman) Allen, daughter of the late Lewis Lyman, 
and also of Misses Louise and Lizzie Lyman, daughters of the late 
Geo. Lyman, Esq. Elias Lyman, 3d, commenced life for himself as a 
flatboatman on the Connecticut river. From this vocation ho passed, by 
degrees, to the occupation of a merchant, and settling on the north side 
of White river near its confluence with the Connecticut river, about the 
year 1793, he soon became widely known, and by a life of energy and 
enterprise attained to a handsome fortune. Col. Samuel Nutt in early 
manhood commenced boating on the Connecticut river. He subse- 
quently became the owner of boats, and also the builder of river and 
canal boats, and in the meantime purchased the land which he lived to 
see occupied by the stations, offices and other buildings erected by the 
railway campanies, and many dwelling houses besides his own. 

White River Junction has a fine union railway station which contains 
the most commodious and best furnished restaurant and dining room 
to be found in New England. It is managed by Mr. E. A. Dunton, 
than whom no more capable and obliging caterer can be found. 
" Plenty of time ! " is his assuring exclamation to the traveler at his 
table. This village has the meeting houses of the Roman Catholic, 
Methodist, Universalist and Episcopal churches ; an extensive cracker 
and confectionery manufactory ; two printing establishments : a fine 
hotel ; two drug stores ; a national bank with a capital stock of $100,- 
000 ; a savings bank ; an Odd Fellows hall ; a steam grist mill ; granite 
curbing and marble monumental works ; a wholesale jewelry store ; 
numerous dry goods, clothing and hardware stores, railway shops and 
offices ; two insurance agencies ; three lawyers ; two physicians, and sev- 
eral mechanics. Twenty-four dwelling houses, mills and stores were 
erected in this village in 1885. Among the prominent men who have 
lived and died in this village may be mentioned Dr. Samuel J. Allen ; Geo. 
Lyman, Esq., for many years postmaster, and N. B. Safford, Esq., for 


many years the treasurer of the Vermont State Agricultural Society ; 
for several years postmaster of this village and an extensive and suc- 
cessful farmer. He was largely instrumental in securing the establish- 
ment of the extensive pulp and paper mills built at Olcott Falls. 

Centreville is a hamlet located on White river about midway between 
Hartford village and West Hartford. It has a grist mill and saw mill, 
school house and a dozen dwelling houses. 

Christian Street is a hamlet lying between Hartford village and Nor- 
wich. The only manufacturing business carried on there is that of 
brick-making by Mr. Edward N. Gillett. 

Dothan and Jericho are hamlets located in the northern part of the 
town. The names of these two hamlets were given to them by Rev. 
Aaron Hutchinson, who, many years ago, preached in that section. 
Mr Hutchinson gave the name " Goshen " to that portion of the town 
where the brothers George and Norman Newton now reside. The sec- 
tion known as " Church Hill " was so named for the reason that it 
comprised one of the lots that were pitched by the selectmen to the 
church right. 

Russtown is a hamlet on the road leading from Hartford village to 
Windsor via. George Pease's and Mrs. Daniel Simond's residences. 
Several of the Rust family reside in that section, and some of the de- 
scendants of Daniel Piuneo, who was one of the earliest settlers in the 

Olcott Falls,' the latest settled hamlet in the town, is located on the 
Passumpsic railroad, two miles north of AVhite River Junction, and is 
the location of the pulp and paper mills of the Olcott Falls Corporation. 
It is in the newly formed school district No. 11 ; is growing in popula- 
tion rapidly, and will ere long rank as one of the principal villages in 
the town, and may become within the next decade the most important 
village in the town. (See Article on Manufactories and Mills). 

' On a map printed by John Gant, Albany, N. Y., entitled " A Chorographical 
Map of the Northern Department of Northern America," these falls are designated 
as "White Falls-" The date of the publication of this map does not appear on the 
map, but it was probably published a short time after the erection of Cumberland 
county by the New York government. 



Every available method was resorted to by the grantees to promote 
an early and rapid settlement of the township. The grantees wei'e all 
inhabitants of the colony of Connecticut, and they sought purchases of 
their rights in that and other colonies, and offered apparently tempting 
inducements to influence emigration hither; but, notwithstanding the 
inherent proclivity evinced by the Yankee to better his fortune, and to 
emigrate to new and uncultivated lands, it was two years after the 
grant before a settlement was made in the township. The proprietors, 
however, held meetings regularly, either in Windham or in Lebanon, 
Ct., and continued to legislate xipon the affairs of the grant. After 
disposing of the first division of land they turned their attention to lay- 
ing out highways, running out the boundary lines of the township, 
enforcing the collection of taxes from delinquents and making a second 
division of land. Prior to this, however, several of the charter mem- 
bers had deeded their shares to others who were more hopeful in the 
venture. But few of the proprietors, or original grantees, ever visited 
the town, and not more than half a dozen of them made a permanent 
settlement in the township. Some of those who absented themselves, 
but retained possession to a late day, and some of those who came into 
the township, neglected to pay their taxes, and consequently, their land 
was distrained, advei'tised and sold to make the arrearages good. The 
following exhibits the measures taken by the proprietors to promote 
settlements in the town : 

March 9tli, 1762, Prince Tracy was chosen clerk and treasurer; Samuel Wil- 
liams, Prince Tracy and James Flint, assessors; Silas Phelps, Moses Hebard and 
Joseph Blanchard, collectors. At this meeting the collectors were instructed to 
sell the land of all delinquent tax-payers. It was also voted that there should be 
a premium of sixpence for each bushel of wheat, rye or Indian corn raised in 
Hartford the next year (1763). Also voted that the treasurer should pay back 
the three shillings to those who paid the same and got left out of the charter. 

Nov. 3d, 1762, the projirietors voted to make a second division of land of 100 
acres to each right, and after reserving one lot in the most convenient place for 
the first settled minister, then those proprietors or their assigns who would go on 
to the township the next summer, or fall, should have their choice of said lots 
without reserve; and that all said lots not thus taken up should be distributed 
by lottery to the rest of the proprietors as the first division were. Mr. John 
Sjiencer and Mr. Oliver Brewster, were chosen a committee to make said divis- 
ion. It was also voted to sell the rights of delinquent tax-j^ayers; also, that 


Prince Tracy should endeavor to get the taxes which were in Maj. Joseph 
Blanchard's hands; also, i^rocure a law-book of the laws of said province of New 
Hampshu-e for the proprietors' use. (Maj. Blanchard then resided in the prov- 
ince of New Hampsliire, and was a tax collector.) 

March 8th, 1763, the board of town officers embraced several quasi military 
officers, viz. : Capt. Wm. Clark, moderator ; Lieut. Prince Tracy, clerk and 
treasurer ; Lieut. Prince Ti-acy and Lieut. Hezekiah Huntington, assessors ; 
Lieut. Huntington and Maj. Joseph Blanchard, collectors. 

The first warning for a proprietors' meeting that Avas entered upon 
the records read as follows: 

" These are to worn all the proprietors of the township of Hartford in the 
province of Newhampshear to meat at the house of Capt. Jonathan Barker, inn- 
holder in Lebanon in the colony of Connecticut on the 20tli day of April next at 
nine of the clock in the morning to conclude whether they will do anything 
further to encourage settlers to go on to said town the next summer * * * 
and proceed to lay out the whole township, and chuse a committee to take care 
of the pine timber — also to agree on some easier way to warn meatings for the 
future, and do any other business proper;" This was signed by Prince Tracy, 
William Clark and Samuel Terry, who were chosen Selectmen at the town 
meeting of March 8th, 1763, and dated March 20th, 1763. 

At the meeting so warned it was voted that the further conditions on 
which the proprietors should hold their choice of lots in the second 
division should be that each one should clear up and sow down to grain 
or grass four acres the first year, and so continue to do for three years 

The last record made by Prince Tracy in the proprietors' book of 
records was of the proceedings at the meeting of Dec. 21st, 1763. The 
next record made b}'^ him was entered in a pamphlet-book entitled, " A 
Book of Town Votes for the Town of Hartford, in the Province of 
New Hampshear," and is a record of proceedings at Windham, March 
13th, 1764. The last record ever made by Mr. Tracy as town clerk, 
was entered in this pamphlet-book, and this was the record of the last 
meeting held by the proprietors in Connecticut. 

The records of the town now passed into the hands of the newly 
chosen clerk, Benajah Strong, but no further record was entered on the 
pages of the pamphlet-book until March 8th, 1768, when this book was 
again brought into use by Elijah Strong, who was then elected town 
clerk and thus filled the dual offices of town and proj^rietors' clerk. In 
the meantime the records of the proprietors were made in a new and 
larger book, now known as "Book A of the j^roprietors' records," 
which was opened Oct. 19th, 1764, with the record of the warning 
issued for the first meeting held within the town which occurred Dec. 
3d, 1764, five months prior to the last meeting held in Connecticut. 



Thompsoa, in his " History of Vermont," fixes the date of the first 
settlement of Hartford to have been in 1764, when Elijah Strong and his 
brothers moved into the town. Had Mr. Thompson, or those persons from 
whom he derived his information on this point, studied the records of 
the town in a careful manner, he, or they, could not have failed to dis- 
cover the fact that the first settlement occurred as early, at least, as the 
spring- of 1763. 

At a proprietor's meeting, held Nov. 3d, 1762, it was voted that those 
proprietors, or their assigns, who should enter on, possess and improve 
the one hundred acre lots of the second division, the next summer or 
fall, should have their choice of lots in said division. That this propo- 
sition induced emigration to the township as early as the spring of 1763, 
is shown by the record of a warning calling a meeting of the proprietors 
to be held in Windham, Conn., at the inn of Samuel Badger, Dec. 21, 
1763. One article in said warning is as follows : — 

" Likewise to hear and examine the evidences of those men who have 
been at labor in said town this summer jyast, or fall, whether they have 
performed the conditions on which they were to take their choice of 
those hundred acre lots." 

At the proprietors' meeting held pursuant to this warning, satisfactory 
reports were made by said settlers, and their accounts were adjusted 
accordingly. Further evidence is found in the fact that the proprietors 
in 1763, built a large skow ferry boat sufficiently strong to carry men 
and horses and carts, and this was placed in the Connecticut river near 
where Alonzo Nutt now lives. But I have recently discovered other 
important evidence on this point, as will be seen by the following copy 
of a certificate made by one of the few proprietors who came into the 
town to effect a permanent settlement therein. 

" Hartford, October, 27 1763. 

These may certifie all Persons whome it may concern, that Benjamin Wright, 
one of the proprietors of Sd. Hartford, persuant to the vots of the proprietors did 
enter upon sd land in order to setel theariu the year 1763, and have made coyce 
of the hundred achor lot No 1 Lying on the south side of the road that goette 
from the great river (Connecticut) toward pomphrit (Pomfret), for the first 
devison Lot caled No 8, and allso have piched on No 2 agoining for the hun- 
dred akor Lot called No 6 from Whit river down Connecticut river. The first 
pick mad for the Lot orignely Cap Wm Clark's, the second orignely Benj 

W^right's Junr, as witness mv hand. 


This certificate establishes two facts — first, that a settlement was 
made in the town in 1763, and secondly, that Benjamin Wright was, at 


least, one of the first settlers, if not the very first settler. I am able to 
adduce still further tangible evidence on this point. In May, 1765, 
certain of the proprietors petitioned the New York government for 
Letters Patent, and in furtherance of their design they sent to New 
York a certificate of sundry expenses they had incurred in procuring a 
charter, laying out their lands, &c., and referring to the immigration 
that had taken place they say : — 

" In the Sumer 1763, There was Ten persons which Entered on the 
said Town and Laboured in the same the said Sumer. And in the year 
1761 There was four Persons have moved on the said Town with their 
famelys and there Dwells Ever since. And the said Ten continue to 
Improve the said Second Sumer ; & others Did Enter on ; and this 
Present Spring 10 men have Gone on to Improve and about 10 others 
Intend to Go Imediately." 

I apprehend that the statement above made is, in the main, true ; but 
the clause relating to four families having moved into the town in 1761, 
should be taken cum grano salts. The charter was not granted until 
July 4th, 1761, and the first committee sent into the township by the 
proprietors to locate the first division of lots did not conclude their 
labors until late in the fall of 1761, therefore ; it is not probable that 
any one or more of the proprietors moved into the town prior to 1763, 
for permanent settlement. There may have been and probably there 
was squatters in the township — hunters and trappers, perhaps — even 
before the charter was granted. 

Some of the oldest persons living in the town in 1872, entertained the 
opinion that Benjamin Wright was the first actual settler, and that he 
moved into the town in 1763. Miss Parthena Tilden, a grand daughter 
of Stephen Tilden, the elder, informed the writer, in 1872, that when a 
child, she often heard her relatives conversing on this subject, and they 
generally asserted that Mr. Wright was the first settler, and that he 
built and lived in the first house ever erected in the town, and this was 
located near Connecticut river, not far below the mouth of White river. 
In the first division of land among the proprietors by lottery, in 1761, 
Mr. Benjamin Wright drew lot '' No. 14," up White river on the north 
side. He subsequently owned nearly every other lot contained in the 
first division that bordered upon the north side of White river. The hun- 
dred acre lots "No. 1" and "No. 2," mentioned in the foregoing certificate 
by Mr. Wright, were selected by him by virtue of his having purchased 
of Benjamin Wright, Jr., lot "No. 6" of the first division, and of Capt. 
AVm. Clai'ke, lot "No. 8" of the first division, together with all their un- 
divided land in the town. He was, thex-efore, entitled, under the vote 

passed by the proprietors, to make a pitch of two hundred acres, and 



his pitch comprised the land embraced in the farms now owned respec- 
tively by Charles Ballard, David Wright and George Pease. 

It is probable that Mr. Benjamin Wright built his first house either 
on lot "No. 6," or "No. 8." The testimony of Miss Tilden is suflBcient to 
assure us on this point. Mr. Roswell Marsh, a grandson of Gov. Joseph 
Marsh, wrote, in 1870, that the first settlement in the town was made 
at the mouth of White river. This is rather indefinite, but construing 
it to mean " near the mouth of White river,'''' lot " No. 6," south of 
White river, would come within the limit so defined. 

It is deemed proper to be thus particular in the exhibition of recorded 
and traditional evidence concerning the first 'settlement of the town, in 
order to correct present misapprehension, and fix with precision for all 
future time, the date of this event, which has been heretofore, as much 
a matter of doubt and speculation as the more important event, viz: the 
date of the organization of the town. 


It is a matter of record that Elijah, Solomon andBenajah Strong, Jon- 
athan Marsh, Noah Dewey and Benjamin Wright, together with their 
families, were located in the town as early as the summer of 1764. Tra- 
dition says that they came from Lebanon, Connecticut, to Hartford, via. 
Northampton and Greenfield, Mass., to the Hinsdale and "Number 
Four" forts, thence ujd the Connecticut river route, via. Windsor, to the 
mouth of White river, bringing along, on horseback, their household 
goods and farming implements. 

By law and custom, whenever the actual settlers in a township came 
to own one sixteenth part of the whole number of rights or shares in 
said township, they might draw the meetings of the proprietors within 
the limit of the township. The number of proprietors' shares in Hart- 
ford was sixty-four, consequently the settlers above named constituted 
more than the necessary quorum, and therefore, in accordance with the 
law, they made application to one of his majesty's justices of the prov- 
ince of New Hampshire requiring him to issue a warning for a meeting 
of the proprietors within said township. The petition was granted and 
the following warning was posted, viz : — 

Whereas, application has been made to me the subscriber, one of his 
majesty's justices of the peace for the province of New Hampshire, by 
the owners of more than one-sixteenth part of the township of Hartford 
in the province aforesaid, requiring a meeting to be warned of said 
proprietors on Monday the third day of December next, for the cotents 
and purposes hereinafter mentioned : 

1st. To choose a moderator to govern said meeting. 


2d. To choose a proprietors' dark, proprietors' treasurer, and col- 
lector, assessors, &c. 

3dly. To see if the proprietors will do anything with regard to the 
speedy settlement of said township, and to choose a committe for said 

4thly. To see if they will do anything with respect to the laying out 
roads and clearing roads throughout the township. 

5thly, To see what methods the proprietors will come into with re- 
gard to calling meetings for the future of said proprietors, and do all 
such other things as ye said proprietors at their said meetings shall see 

These are therefore in his majesty's name to notify and warn ye said 
proprietors to assemble and meet at the dwelling house of Mr. Solomon 
Strong in said Hartford on Monday ye third day of December next at 
one of ye clock afternoon, to vote and act — all ye aforesaid articles as 
you at 3^our said meeting shall see fit. 

Dated October 19th, 1764. (Signature omitted). 

Pursuant to the above notice a meeting was held at the house of Sol- 
omon Strong, which was near the centre of the town. The record of 
the proceedings is as follows, viz : — 

" At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Hartford in the province 
of New Hampshear, legally warned and holden in said Hartford, December ye 
third, 1764. 

Chosen, Mr. Noah Dewey, moderator. 

Chosen, Mr. EHjah Strong, proprietors' clerk. 
. Chosen, Mr. Solomon Strong, proprietors' treasurer. 

Chosen, Mr. Elijah Strong, collector. 

Chosen, Mr. Noah Dewey, Benajah Strong, Solomon Strong, Elijah Strong, 
and Jonathan Marsh, committee. 

Voted, that all those proprietors that will clear three acres and stock well with 
grain or grass within one year from tliis time shaU have then- liberty to pick 
their hundred acre lot that is already laid out. 

Voted, that all those proprietors that will come with their families witliin one 
year from this time or clear and fence and manure four acres, or any that now 
have their family here, or have already cleared four acres, shall have liberty to 
pick their interval or meadow land. 

Voted, that they would do something about laying out and clearing highways. 

Voted, that each proprietor should work four days at clearing Irighways by 
the first day of September next, or pay sixteen shilhngs lawful money. 

Voted, that Mr. Solomon Strong should see that the fore voted tax should be 
laid out m clearing said highways, except enough to pay for laying out said 

Voted, that the proprietors shall for the future warn the proprietors' meetings 
by putting a writing on the sign-post in Hartford in New Hampshear, and in 
Windham, or in Lebanon in Connecticut, at least twelve days before said 

Voted, that the proprietors' clerk shall keep the law book that belongs to the 
proprietors, and the Charter, and all other public writings that belong to the 


Voted, that this meeting shovild be adjourned to the first Monday in May next 
at one of the clock afternoon, at the dwelling house of Mr. Solomon Strong, and 
said meeting was accordingly adjourned." 


At a meeting of the proprietors held in Lebanon, Connecticut, Mch. 
19, 1765, it was voted that the proprietors ' meetings for the future 
should be held in Hartford. Elijah Strong was chosen proprietors' 
clerk, and Jonathan Marsh, Ebenezer Gillett and Elijah Strong pro- 
prietors' committee. It was also voted that the committee should see 
" that the proprietors' debts be paid, taxes collected, and paid to the 
treasurer, warn proprietors' meetings, receive of the former treasurer 
and clerk all the former records, law books, charter, plans and all other 
papers, and give a receipt therefor." The proceedings closed with the 
choice of Prince Tracy as treasurer, to succeed Solomon Strong, who 
was elected treasurer at the meeting of Dec 3rd, 1764. Prior to this 
last date all the town and proprietors' public business had been trans- 
acted alternately at Windham and Lebanon, Ct. But their growing 
interests in the new township resulting from an increase of population, 
and the need of the presence of a board of civil authority to manage 
municipal affairs, together with an increasing demand for more ex- 
tended facilities in the way of roads, bridges and other internal im- 
provements, compatible with the best interests of all concerned, led to 
a transfer of all the business of the j)roprietors to the township. 
Henceforth, as in the past, the administration of the municipal affairs 
of the proprietors and those pertaining to the town proper, was vested 
in the same individuals, but the legislative acts performed by each or- 
ganization, though recorded for many years by the same clerk, were 
recorded in separate books from the date of the first meeting, Aug. 26th, 
1761, until the final closing up of the proprietors' affairs in 1832, when, 
by a vote of the town, the proprietors' records passed from the hands 
of the proprietors' clerk to the archives of the town. The records made 
in the small pamphlet book, which has been referred to, related ex- 
clusively to the election of town officers at the annual meetings held 
in March, until March, 1770, when Elijah Strong began to record on 
its pages the legislative acts of the town which he and his successor in 
that office continued to do until 1778. But Mr. Strong, to the confu- 
sion of his posterity, ignored his official duty, to enter upon record, 
anywhere, the proceedings at the annual town meetings held between 
1775 and '78 ; and, added to this dereliction, his method of keeping the 
records was crude, in the extreme. In fact, there are many real and 
seeming incongruities in the records generally, for many years, that 


cannot be explained without an infinite amount of research. It is 
deemed proper to say that subsequent to 1774, no mention is made in 
the proprietors' records of the election of any municipal officers with 
the exception of proprietors' clerk, treasurer, collector and committee ; 
that the same person held the dual offices of town and proprietors' 
clerk, and the men who served as proprietors' committee, were also in- 
cumbents of the more important offices of the town, and this arrange- 
ment conserved to harmony "which is the strength of all institutions." 

The first two meetings held in the township were held in the dwell- 
ing house of Solomon Strong. Later meetings, in the interest of the 
proprietors, were held in the dwelling houses of Elijah Strong, Christo- 
pher Pease, Benjamin Wright, Daniel Pinneo and Joel Marsh, but, in 
the greater number of instances in the house of Elijah Strong, while he 
was town and proprietors' clerk. After the election of Amos Robinson 
as clerk in 1775, the proprietors' meetings were held in the inn of Stephen 
Tilden, Jr., until the year 1800 ; when James Tracy was chosen clerk, and 
the meetings were held in his house during his term of office, or until 
Nov. 8th, 1803. In 1808, Daniel Marsh was chosen clerk, and from this 
date until 1819, the proprietors' meetings were held in the public inn of 
Ereegrace Leavitt at the centre of the town. 

From 1765 to 1808, the proprietors held meetings in the town, but 
not regularly. From May 17th, 1785, to February 9th, 1790, and from 
March 1803, to Sept. 22d, 1808 there were no records made in the pro- 
prietors' book of records. In the interim between 1765 and 1819 — 
when their records were closed — many important events transpired in 
the local history of the town, which will be alluded to in other por- 
tions of this history. The proprietors' committees were engaged in 
making divisions and sales of the land (which included a new division 
and redistribution of the land included in the first division by lottery 
in 1761, and that of the second division made in 1763) the establish- 
ment of highways and boundary lines ; promoting immigration ; fos- 
tering the improvement and cultivation of the soil by premiums paid 
for crops raised ; rewarding public services, and other less important 

Referring to the proprietors' records I will quote, in chronological 
order, the more important proceedings of the proprietors' committees 
from 1764, to then- last business meeting, Nov. 8th, 1808 : 

Jane 20, 1768. — A second division of land was made by lottery. A 
tax of one dollar on each share was laid to defray expenses (1st mention 
made of federal currency.) 

Nov. 2, 1772. — Israel and John Gillett and Joshau Hazzen were 
chosen a committee to size the fifty acre lots. Voted to " advertise in 


Connecticut public prints the proprietors of Hariford to make applica- 
tion to the committee chosen for that use to lay out to each agreved 
proprietor his part of the sequestered land for that use in order to 
make each ones share of first division equal, they paying the cost." 

April 24, 1773. — In a warning for a meeting, the 2nd article related 
to ousting Elijah Strong from his position as clerk, which was not ac- 

iVbw. 22, 1773. — Abel and Joel Marsh and Amos Robinson were 
chosen a committee to lay out in lots that body of pine land that laid 
near the " Island meadows ;" one lot to each right. 

April 18, 1774. — At a meeting held in the house of Elijah Strong, 
Capt. Joseph Marsh was chosen moderator, and Capt. Joseph Marsh, 
Stephen Tilden and Elisha Marsh were chosen a committee to see about 
settling the line between Hartford and Hertford, and erect a bound by 
Connecticut river and warn off those " who have incroached." Thomas 
Hazzen, was chosen treasurer. Amos Robinson ceased to be collector, 
and William Bramble and Elisha Marsh were chosen collectors. (First 
mention of Joseph Marsh). 

Oct. 31, 1874 — Above named committee to settle the town line, re- 
ported that they cited the inhabitants of Hertford to preamhulate with 
them, but they did not, and the committee warned off those who w^ere 
encroaching on the pine lands belonging to Hartford. 

May 16, 1775. — Amos Robinson w^as chosen clerk and a committee 
was chosen to regulate the records (which were indeed in a confused 
state as left by Elijah Strong) and thereafter, until 1780, the records 
were made in the neat, uniform, but rather feminine chirography of Mr. 
Robinson. At this meeting it was voted that pitches of fifty acres each 
might be made by the proprietors of the undivided land. 

On the first Monday of November 1776, at a meeting held in the 
house of widow Ruth Strong, voted to accept the return of pitches of 
the fifty acre lots made by Thomas Hazzen, Israel Gillett, Mitchell 
Clark, John Bennett, Jr., Becket Chapman, Joshua Hazzen, Benj. 
Wright, John Gillett, Stephen Tilden and Simon Chapman. 

April 27, 1778. — The proprietors voted to procure a charter of the 
township, and Stephen Tilden and Amos Robinson were chosen a com- 
mittee to procure the same. Joseph Marsh and Amos Robinson, were 
chosen a committee to apply to the General Assembly to have the line 
between Hartford and Hertford settled. " Voted to raise one hundred 
dollars to defray expense of committee." 

Oct. 12, 1778. — Joseph Marsh, Amos Robinson and Stephen Tilden 
were chosen a committee to settle line between Hartford and Hertford, 
and they were instructed to hire a committee to begin at north west 
corner of Windsor and measure Hertford west line seven miles and a 

Dec. 3, 1778. — Said committee reported a survey of the line between 
the said towns, made by John Hatch, surveyor, and John Griswold, 
Josiah Russell and Samuel Paine. A committee consisting of Joshua 
Hazen, Amos Robinson and Joseph Marsh, was chosen to settle and 
establish said line. A tax of three shillings on each proprietor's share 
was voted. The line thus established was identically the same as that 
named in the charter, and surveyed in 1763. 

See Book A. Proprietor's records, pages 43-44. 


June 24, 1779. — It was voted to make another division of the com- 
mon land. 

Dec. 29, 1780. — Asa Hazen was chosen clerk, and it w\as voted that 
the Selectmen should take the proprietor's records from the old clerk 
(Amos Robinson) and deliver them to the new clerk. 

Feb. 6, 1781, it was voted to lay out a division of forty acres to each 
proprietors' right. 

Nov. 12, 1800. — Voted that each proprietor have nine acres to a right, 
and to accept of all the pitches made on the nine acre division. 

March., 1803. — (2d Wednesday) met at James Tracy's. Chose Amos 
Robinson, Esq., committee to apply to Mr. Marion to obtain a copy of 
the charter of the township of Hartford from the Secretary of New 

Aug. 17, 1808. — By application of more than one sixteenth of the 
proprietors to Pascal P. Enos, Justice of the Peace, a meeting was 
warned to be holden in the house of Josiah Tilden, the 2d Monday of 
November, 1808. The business of said meeting was as follows : 

1st. Chose Joseph Marsh, Esci., Moderator. 
2cl. Cliose Daniel Marsh, Proprietor's Clerk. 

3d. Chose Daniel Marsh a committeeman to act with the Selectmen of said 
town to see if the public lands are all laid out. 

From this time to April 5th, 1819, thirty five meetings were held, at 
which no current business was transacted. Mr. Marsh retained the pro- 
prietors' records till 1832, when he turned them over to the Town Clerk 
of Hartford. 

At the last mentioned date the divisions of land among the grantees 
had been amicably and satisfactorily adjusted and completed. Many of 
the whole shares of the first, second and third divisions had been di- 
vided and sub divided and disposed of to imigrants. Many of the 
grantees had never visited the township. Some who had come into the 
town with a view of settling herein, were not well pleased with the 
country, or were not disposed to face the political troubles of the hour, 
and, therefore, disposed of their shares for a song, and retraced their 
steps, or went into more favored localities.' Thus the interests and 
rights, at first vested in the grantees, passed gradually into the hands 
of speculators, jobbers and land-grabbers, like Gov. Joseph Marsh and 
his relatives and confreres, or to assigns of a more respectable type ; 
while the judicial, executive and legislative powers vested in the gran- 
tees by the charter, were by degrees vested in tbe town authorities by 
virtue of constitutional laws. 

The war of the Revolution, and the war of 1812, had both inured to 
the benefit of the people, and they were now free to pursue their 
respective vocations without fear of molestation or interruption from 

' Several of the grantees of this township were also grantees of other townships 
chartered by Gov. Wentworth from 1760 to 1768. 


without, or internecine troubles at home. The olive branch and the 
laurel were intertwined with the cypress, and under the benign influ- 
ences of victory, peace and mourning, our fathers were laboring to cor- 
rect the anomalies which had sprung up in the political, military, judi- 
cial and fiscal departments of the new polity, and to establish all the 
institutions of government on the Constitution — that magna charta 
which ensures to their posterity to-day the security of property, the 
peace of our streets and the happiness of our homes. 

grantees' first sales. 

The first sale of land made by a charter proprietor was that made by 
Joshua Wight, Jr., to Samuel Murdock, Jr., of one whole share, or 
proprietor's right. As this was the first conveyance of right and title, 
and the form and phraseology of the deed are similar to all others 
found in the records of sales subsequently made, I will quote the deed 
in full, viz : — 

To All People To Whom These Presents Shall Come, Greeting: 

Kno'w that I Joshua Wight Junr. of Windham in the County of Windham 
and Colony of Connecticut for the ConsideratioD of Five Pounds Lawful money 
received to my full satisfaction of Saml Murdock Junr of Windham afforesd do 
Give, Grant, Remise, Release and for ever quit ciaini unto the said Samll Mur- 
dock Junr, one Wliole Shear or Proprietor's Right in a Township of Land, Late- 
ly Granted to me and some others by the Govr. and Council of the Province of 
New Hampshear, Which Town Lies on the West Side of Connecticut River in Sd 
Province, called Hartford. To Have and to Hold the Premises To the Sd Samuel 
Murdock Junr, his heirs and Assigns for ever, So that Neither I the said Joshua 
Wight, nor my heirs, nor any other Person, from, by or under me Shall have 
Clame, or Challenge any Right, title, or Interest in the Premises, but Shall for 
ever be barred by these Presents. Witness my hand and Seal Augt 5th, 1761. 

JOSHUA WIGHT Jun'r. [Seal.] 

Signed Sealed and Delivered in the Presence of 
Sam'U Gray 
Mary Gray 
Windham Sst Windliam Novr 14th 1761, Personally Appeared Joshua Wight 
Jun'r Signer and Sealer to the above Written Instrument and acknoldg the same 
to be liis free act and Deed. 

CORAM SAM'LL GRAY, Just of ye Peace. 
The fourgoing Deed Recorded March ye 23d 1762. 

Attest PRINCE TRACY, Town Clerk. 

The share thus conveyed was number twenty-two on Connecticut 
river, north of White river, coctainiug 60 acres. The price paid per 
acre was about forty-seven cents. 

The next sale made, in order of date, was made by Samuel Porter of 
Lebanon, Conn, to Stephen Tilden, Jr., of the same town; being lot 
" No. 13," up White river on the north side, which contained fifty-nine 
acres, and was sold for a consideration of ten shillings ($2.42) or about 
four cents per acre. This lot is embraced in the farm now owned and 
occupied by Wm. E. Dutton. 

On the 15th of March, 1762, Nathan Clark, of Windham, Ct., deeded 


to Elijah Strong, of Lebanon, Ct., lot " No. 2," on the south side of 
White river, bordering on both this and Connecticut river, and contain- 
ing nineteen acres. Also 360 acres, or one whole right in the township, 
making altogether 379 acres for a consideration of four pounds ten shil- 
lings ($21.78) or less than six cents per acre. Lot "No 2 " and lot "No. 
3," drawn by Daniel Neweombe of Lebanon, Ct., and lot "No. 1" drawn 
by John Baldwin, containing respectively nineteen, fifty and thirty-one 
acres, constitute the location occupied by the net-work of tracks and the 
depot and other buildings belonging to the various railroads centering 
at White River Junction. Tradition says that the first dwelling house 
ever erected in Hartford was built by Elijah Strong on lot " No 2," 
in the spring of 1764. 

On the north side of White river, and bordering on the two rivers, 
was lot " No. 1," owned by Benjamin Whitney, containing nineteen 
acres. Adjoining this on the west was the lot drawn by Timothy Clark, 
containing thirty-one acres. These and a few other adjoining lots were 
subsequently owned by Messrs. Cone and Knowlton, by whom they 
were sold to Elias Lyman 3d, whose heirs and assigns now live thereon. 
Among the early immigrants and land-owners, are found the names of 
Elijah Strong, and his brothers, Solomon and Benajah ; Noah and 
Joshua Dewey ; Jonathan and Abel Marsh, Daniel Pinneo, Stephen Til- 
den, Benjamin Wright, Prince Tracy, Israel Gillett, Christopher Pease, 
Seth Burgess, William Bramble, John Bennett, Eleazer Robinson, Ben- 
jamin Burch, Lionel Udall, John Strong and Ebenezer Gillett, all of 
whom lived in the town prior to 1771. Subsequently, and down to 1778, 
only six of the charter members, or grantees, had settled in the town. 
There were other settlers in the town, though few in number. Between 
1771 and 1778, the following names appear in the lists of town officers, 
viz: Amos Robinson, John and Elisha Marsh, Thomas Richardson, 
Joshua and Thomas Hazen, Samuel Udall, Joel and Joseph Marsh, Jon- 
athan Burch, Mitchell Clark, Alexander Brink, Thomas Richardson, 
Darius Sessions, John Gillett, Levi Demmon, Asa Hazen, David Bliss, 
Simon Chapman, Samuel Webster, Thomas Emerson, Silas Hazen, An- 
drew Tracy, Thomas Tracy, Elkanah Sprague, Phineas Strong, George 
Smith, Asa Emerson and John Baldwin, all of whom were incumbents 
either of town or proprietary offices. From 1778 to 1802, the town 
records are missing, with the exception of a book used by the selectmen 
of the town, beginning in 1798 and continued to the present time. 
From this book will be given a list of the principal taxpayers in the 
town in 1800, which will appear under the head of taxes. 



The organization of the town was coeval with the date of the first 
town meeting. The records kept by Prince Tracy, the proprietors' 
first clerk, conclusively show that the town was organized at the 
date of the proprietors' first meeting, August 26th, 1761. Mr. Tracy, 
like all the clerks who succeeded him — so long as the proprietors held 
business meetings, — filled the dual position of proprietors and town 
clerk, but while he held this office he kept two distinct sets of books of 
records,one of which contained a record of the election of the proprietors' 
officers, and their proceedings — which were the only acts of municipal 
legislation recorded, — the other contained a record of the election of 
town officers at the regular annual meetings. Generally the proprietary 
and town offices were vested in the same persons, but not always. This 
being the case it was not necessary to keep parallel records of the 
municipal acts of legislation. The record book in which Mr. Tracy 
entered the names of the town officers as distinct from those of the 
proprietors, was designated as " A Book of Town Votes for the Town 
of Hartford in the Province of New Hampshear," while the record book 
containing the names of the proprietors' officers elected, etc., was desig- 
nated as "Proprietors' Record." To illustrate the difference in the 
two records it will only be necessary to quote the record made in each 
of said books of the first meeting, August 26, 1761 ; and as the organi- 
zation of the town was the first business transacted at said meeting, the 
record of said meeting should be the first quoted, viz : — 

" At a Toion Meating of the Proprietors of The Town of Hartford in 
the Province of New Hampshear, legally warned and Holden atWindham 
in the Colony of Connecticut August ye 26th, 1761. Pursuant to a charter 
of said Township Dated July ye 4th, 1761. In said Charter Mr. John 
Baldwin was appointed Moderator of said Meeting. At the said meeting 
Chosen Prince Tracy, Town Clerk ; Chosen Capt. William Clark, Prince 
Tracy and Mr. John Baldwin Selectmen for said Toum. Chosen Prince 
Tracy, Town Treasurer. 

Voted That this Meating shall be adjourned, etc." 

The record made in the " Proprietors' Record-book reads as fol- 
lows : 

" Att a Meating of The Proprietors, etc : 

Att said Meeting Chosen Prince Tracy Proprietors' Clerk. Voted that 
the Selectmen, namely, William Clark, Prince Tracy and Mr. John 
Baldwin shall be Assessors for Said Proprietors. 

Chosen Prince Tracy, Proprietors' Treasurer. 


Chosen Maj. Joseph Blanchard, Silas Phelps and Moses Hebard Col- 
lectors of Taxes." Here follows the record of the business transacted 
by the proprietors as already quoted. 

As further proof of the existence of a town organization it appears 
that at the town meeting held March 8th, 1763, for the election of 
officers, Lieut. Prince Tracy, Capt. William Clark and Mr. Samuel Terry, 
were chosen selectmen of the town of Hartford, and Lieut. Prince Tracy, 
Town Clerk, and no other officers were chosen. At the same time, 
however, and for the first time, the proprietors' committee was com- 
posed of different men from those chosen as selectmen, for the town. 
The same moderator presided, and the same person was chosen clerk, 
for both organizations, but the proprietors chose an executive commit- 
tee, composed of Elijah Bingham, Silas Phelps and Thomas Tracy, to 
manage the proprietors' affairs in general ; and also elected assessors 
and collectors. The selectmen attended to the business especially 
appertaining to their department, but also participated in the legisla- 
tion on proprietary matters in general, all the officers being original 
grantees, or charter members. 

The last record made by Prince Tracy, as town clerk, was entered in 
the pamphlet book of town votes, March 12, 1765, at which time Benajah 
Strong was chosen town clerk ; Elijah Strong, Solomon Strong and 
Benjamin Wright, selectmen ; John Bennett, constable, and Ebeuezer 
Gillett, Jr., surveyor of highways. At this meeting it was voted that for 
the future the toxon meetings should be held by the inhabitants of Hart- 
ford within said town, which is evidence that town meetings had been 
held in Connecticut. 

Prior to this last named meeting, the inhabitants of the town, com- 
prising more than one-sixteenth portion of actual residents, had requested 
a transfer of the proprietors' meetings from Connecticut to the town of 
Hartford. Acceding to that request, the proprietors, at a meeting held 
in Windham, March 19th, 1765, voted that for the future the proprie- 
tors' meetings should be held in Hartford. At this meeting Elijah 
Strong was chosen proprietors' clerk, Prince Tracy proprietors' treas- 
urer, and Jonathan Marsh, Ebenezer Gillett and Elijah Strong, com- 

The writer of this history is thus particular to fix with precision the 
date of the organization of the town for the reason that Thompson, and 
other historians, have erroneously stated that this town was organized 
March 8th, 1768. Their error arose from a hasty inspection of the 
records, or, they drew their conclusions from the fact that Elijah Strong's 
first record of the election of town officers was entered in the pamphlet 


book of town votes under date of March 8th, 1768, three years subse- 
quent to the date of the last town meeting held in Connecticut. Elijah 
Strong kept the records of the proprietors' meeting in regular order of 
date, etc., but who can account for his having failed to record in chron- 
ological order, for the space of three years, the proceedings at the an- 
nual town meetings ? His silence on this point Diust be attributed to 
one of three reasons, viz: — first, that the tenure of office of the officers 
chosen March 12, 1765, extended to March 8, 1768 ; or secondly, that 
the proprietors failed to comply with the terms of the charter requiring 
annual meetings ; or lastly, that their clerk stupidly ignored his duty. 
It is not at at all likely that the proprietors would have neglected so 
important a duty. Elijah Strong was a good man, but in his youthful 
days the schoolmaster was abroad. 

At the annual town meeting March 8, 1768, the following named offi- 
cers were chosen: — 

Benjamin Wright, Moderator. 

Elijah Strong, Town Clerk. 

Clu'istopher Pease, Solomon Strong and John Marsh, Selectmen. 

Daniel Pinneo, Constable. 

Abel Marsh and Solomon Strong, Highway Surveyors. 

Abel Marsh and Elijah Strong, Tithingmen. 

John Marsh and Benjamin Wright, Deer-reafs. 

Elijah Strong continued to hold the office of proprietors' clerk until 
May 16th, 1775 ; but was superceded as town clerk March 13th, 1769, 
by John Strong, at which time the first grand jurymen were chosen. 
The proceedings at this meeting were recorded in the pamphlet-book, 
and the first act of municipal legislation, aside from the election of 
officers, recorded in said book, was the vote to build a bridge over 
Water Quechee river near the saw-mill. John Strong continued to fill 
the office of town clerk until May 18th, 1773, when Amos Robinson was 
chosen to fill the office. The first overseers of the poor were chosen at 
this meeting, also the first fence viewers and pound keepers. Joel 
Marsh was chosen supervisor, an office peculiar to the province of New 

May 17th, 1774, Capt. Joseph Marsh was chosen supervisor (an office 
peculiar t ) the province of New York and toward which Capt. Marsh 
exhibited a decided leaning.) The town at that early period of its ex- 
istence, had been highly honored by the choice of one of its citizens to 
fill a high office in the government of the State. The town had become 
occupied by industrious settlers, most of whom had come from the 
towns in the colony of Connecticut. They were not a medley collec- 
tion of speculators, each intent on personal good alone, but they were 
bound together by ties of kinship, and by unanimity of sentiment, that 


assured harmony of action, success to every undertaking, stability to 
all their enterprises and permanence of residence. Disaffections caused 
by, or arising from, unequal divisions of land, wantages and pervers. 
ions of the provisions of the charter by some of those high in author- 
ity, had been allayed by compromises, equitable settlements, as far as 
possible, and other pacific measures. 

The royal provincial governor of New Hampshire, for some years 
subsequent to making grants, was not above the suspicion of being in 
collusion with some of the land jobbers who at first infested this and 
other grants ; but, however amenable to condemnation the governor 
made himself, and however much he merited the retribution subse- 
quently meted out to him, it is evident that Hartford, if she did not 
furnish her quota of his rascally confederates, had, later, within her 
borders those who did not scruple to appropriate to their own use the 
valuable land set apart by the charter for public uses, and substitute 
in their place, much less valuable lands in less favorable locations. 
This species of pirating upon public rights, and infringing on the rights 
of one's neighbors, was one of the wi'ongs imposed on the early set- 
tlers of this town. In the light of history such deeds cannot be pal- 
liated by public service ; never effectually disguised by judicial ermine, 
priestly surplice, armorial bearings, or the insignia or honor of any 
station in life ; nor will they be cancelled by the Nemesis of justice, nor 
pass into oblivion unheeded by the faithful and impartial historian. 

In consideration of the fact that the pamphlet-book entitled, " A 
Book of Town Votes for the Town of Hartford in the Province of New 
Hampshear," is exclusively devoted to records of town meetings prior 
to 1779, and to preserve beyond possible loss the records contained in 
said book, which is now in a dilapidated condition, and is the only 
book of town records prior to 1802, it is deemed advisable to give here 
a verbatim copy of all the records found therein relating to municipal 
legislation. A portion of this book is devoted to family records, and a 
portion to the registration of the ear marks used by owners of sheep 
and cattle. On the title page is a record of a certificate declaring that 
" Ephraim Wright, Samuel Bullar and Nathan Warriner are members 
of the Baptist church in Wilberham (Mass.'?) (signed) Seth Clark, 
Elder of said Church " This is under date of Oct. 16th, 1788. The 
records are copied verbatim ad literatim^ih.o^e entered by Elijah, Benajah 
and John Strong, being unique specimens of clerical patchwork. 
The first four pages were recorded by Prince Tracy, whose hand writing 
was elegant, but his method of spelling was ideographic. Amos Robin- 
son was methodical, usually grammatically correct, and a good penman. 



"Att a Town Meating of the Proprietors of the Town of Hartford in tlie Pro- 
vince of New Hampshear, Legally Worned and Holden at Windham in the 
Coloney of Connecticut August ye Twenty sixth 1761. Persuont to a charter of 
said Township Dated July ye 4th 1761 — In said Charter Mr. John Baldwin was 
appointed Moderator of said Meating. 

At said meating chosen Prince Tracy Town Clerk. 

Chosen Capt. William Clark, Prince Tracy, and Mr. John Baldwin Select Men 
for said Town. 

Chosen Prince Tracy Town Treasurer. 

Voted That This Meating Shall be Adjurned unto the Third Tuse Day of 
November next at Nine of the Clock in the morning. To the House of Mi\ 
Paul Hebard in Windham in the Coloney of Connecticut, and said meating was 
accordingly adjurned. " 

"At A. Town Meating of the Proprietors of the Town of Hartford, in the 
Province of New Hampshear Holden at Windham In the Coloney of Connecticut 
November ye 17th 1761. By Adjvirnment from August ye 36th 1761. 

Voted — That This Meating shall be adjurned unto Monday Next, Being the 23d 
Day of This Instant, at Twelve of the Clock on said Day to the House of Mr, 
Paul Hebard in Windham in the Coloney of Connecticut, and said meating was 
accordingly adjurned.'' 

"Att a Town Meating of The Proprietors of The Town of Hartford, in the 
Province of New Hampshear Holden at Windham in the Coloney of Conneticut 
November ye 23d 1761, by adjurnment from ye 17 of November Instant. 

Voted that the Methord for Worning the Town Meatings for the futer shall be 
as falloweth. (viz) That the Select Men of the Town for the Time Being shall set 
up a Worning in Writin under there Hands on the Signpost in the Towns of 
Windham and Lebanon in the Coloney of Conneticut, Appointing Time, Place 
and Buiseness of said Meating at Least six Days before said Meating, and Also 
Advertize said Meating in the Boston Publick Nuse Paper at Least Three weeks 
before said Meating, and a Meating so Worned shall be Held and Esteened a 
Legal Meating to Transact any Busseness for the futer untill said Town shall 
agree upon some other methord." 

"Att a Town Meating of the Proprietors of the Town of Hartford in the Pro- 
vince of New Hampshear, Legaly Worned and held at Windham in the Coloney 
of Conneticut, March the 9th 1762. 

Chosen Mr. Elijah Bingham Moderator. 

Chosen Prince Tracy Town Clerk. 

Chosen Mr. Samuel Williams, Prince Tracy and James Flint Select-men for 
said Town of Hartford." 

"Att a Town Meating of the Proprietors of the Town of Hartford in the Pro- 
vince of New Hampshear Legaly Worned and Holden att Windham in the 
Coloney of Conneticut for the Electing Town officers March ye 8th 1763. Chosen 
Capt William Clark. Moderator, Chosen Lieut Prince Tracy Town Clerk. 

Chosen Lieut Prince Tracy, Capt Wm Clark and Mr Samuel Terry Select-men. 
Voted, that for the futer a Warning in Wrighting under the Hands of the Select- 
men of said Town, set uppon the Sign Post in the Towns of Windham and Leb- 
anon In the Coloney of Conneticut Ten Days before any Town Meating, 


appointing Time, Place and Buisiness of such Meating shall be a Legal Wai-ning 
to hold such Meating upon, untill such Town shall agree other way." 

"Att a Town Meating of the Proprietors of the Town of Hartford in the Pro- 
vince of New Hamijshear, Legaly Worned and Holden at Windham in the 
Coloney of Conneticut March ye 13th 1764, for the Electing Town officers. 

Chosen Jonathan Marsh Moderator, and Prince Tracy Town Clerk. Chosen 
Elijah Strong, Jonathan Marsh, Prince Tiacy Select-men. Chosen John Beimett 
constable, and Benjamin Wright Survayor of Highways." 

"Att a Town Meating Worned and Holdin by the Proprietors of the Town of 
Hartford in the Province of New Hampshear, in Windham in the Coloney of 
Conneticut March ye 12th 1765. Chosen Jonathan Marsh Moderator. Chosen 
Benajah Strong Town Clerk. 

Chosen Elijah Strong, Solomon Strong, Benj Wright Selectmen. 

Chosen John Bennett Constable. 

Chosen Ebenezer Gillett Survayor of Highways. 

Voted that for the futer the Town Meating shall be held by the Inhabetants of 
said Hartford Within said Town, and that a Worning in Wrighting under the hands 
of the Selectmen of said Town, apointing Time Place and Buiseness of such 
meating, Set up in said Town on the Signpost or Some other Publick Place, six 
Days before said Meating shall be a Legal Worning for to hold such Meating 
untill the Town shall agree otherwise." 


"At a town meting Warned and Holden by the Proprietors of the town of 
Hartford March ye 8 A D. 1768. 

Chosen Benjamin Wriglit Moderator, Elijah Strong To\\ti Clerk. 

Chosen Christopher Pease, Solomon Strong, John Marsh, Select men. 

Chosen Daniel Pinneo Constable. 

Chosen Able Marsh and Solomon Strong Survaors of Highways. 

Chosen Able Marsh and Elijah Strong tighing men. 

Chosen John Marsh and Benj Wright Dear Reafs." 

(TLere are bo records for 1766 and 1767.) 


"Att a town meting Legally warned and Holden. Chosen Mr. John Marsh 
Moderater. Chosen John Strong Town Clark. Chosen Christifer Peas, Jolm 
Marsh Israel Gillett Select Men. Chosen Liomy Udael constable, Elezur Robin- 
son, Benjamen Burch Benajah Strong, survaors of hiway. WiUiam Bramble 
John Bennet, Granjury men. 

Voted to Bild a Brig over warter quechy river nere the sawmill and do it as 
hiway work, and voted that Abil Marsh should be oversere about giting the 
timber ^nd bulding said Bryge." 


"At a town meting Legally warn and holden on the 13 day of March A D 1770 
Chosen John Marsh Modratur. 

Chosen Jolm Strong Town Clark. 

Chosen John Marsh and Cristefer Peas and Elijah Strong, Select Men. Chosen 
Elezer Robinson constable. Chosen Danl Pinneo and John Marsh survaours of 
the highway. Chosen David Bliss and William Brambel Tilling men. 


Voted that the Rode from the contry Rode that goes up and down Connectticut 
River Beginmg nere White river, and Runing from to Pomfret shold be four 
Rods wide. 

Voted that John Marsh, Cristefer Peas and Elijah Strong shold be a comite to 
olter the Rodes where theay want oltering and Lay out Rodes where theay are 
wanting and estabelish those that the Proprietors comite Laid out and to make 
there Retorn of theare Doings by the second day of April next. Voted that this 
meting shold be adjourned till the second Tusday of April at one of the clock in 
the after noon at the Dweling hous of Cristofer Peas, and the meeting was 

(Note.— The next two meetings were held in the house of Christopher Pease, 
but no business was transacted excepting voting to adjourn.) 


"Att a Town meting Legally worned and held att Mr. Benajah Strong in 
Hartford on the 12 day of March 1771. Chosen Mr. Abel Marsh Modurater, 
chosen John Strong town dark. Chosen Lt Israel Gillitt and Abel Marsh, and 
Lione Udel Select men. Chosen Elezer Robinson and Thomas Woodard con- 

Chosen Thomas Saveg and Thomas Miner, Henry W'^odward and Lyne Udel 
survaers of hihway. Chosen John Strong, Abel Marsh and Lyone Udel a 
comite for to Lay out an alter highways where theay are wanted in said town of 
Hartford. Voted to make a publick pond between the Dwelen hous of Mr. 
Cristofer Peas and John Strong. Voted to hold the metings for the futer at 
Benajah Strong." 

"Att a Town Meting Legally warned and Holden on the 10 day of March A D 
1772, att the Dweling Hous of Elijah Strong in Hartford, in the Conty of Cum- 
berland AND Province of New York. 

Maid choice of Danel Pinneo, Moderator. 

Maid Choice of John Strong, Town Clarck. 

Chosen Danel Pinneo, Lione Udael and Elisha Marsh, Towns men. Chosen 
Danel Pinneo, and Wm. Bramble, Constabels. Choesen Jolm Strong, Danel 
Pinneo and Benjamin Burch, Comishenurs of hiways. 

Chosen Israel Gillet, Danel Pinneo, Jonathan Burch and Abel Marsh, Sur- 
vaers of Hiways." 

(Note. — The town was now under the jurisdiction of the New York govern- 
ment, and most of the persons chosen to oflfice at the last mentioned meeting 
sided with the New York government during the memorable triangular contro- 
versy between New York and New Hampshire and Vermont.) 

" At a Town Meting att Elijah Strong's in Hartford on adj 3 Tusday of May, 
A. D. 1772. 

Chosen Benjamin Wright, Moderatur. Chosen Jolm Strong, Town Clarck. 
Chosen John Strong, Supervisor. Chosen Stephen Tilden and Lione Udel, Ses- 
sors. Chosen Samuel Pese and Amos Robinson, Colecters. Benj. Wright and 
Elisha Marsh Overseers of the Poor. Abel Marsh, Elijah Strong and Danel 
Pinneo, Comisheners to Lay out hiways. Abel Marsh, John Marsh, Thomas 
Richardson, Israel Gillett and Danel Pinneo, Path Masters. Elisha Marsh and 
Benj. Wright, fence viewers. Danel Pinneo, Israel Gillett, Joel Marsh and 
Thomas Richason, Constables." 


The next record relates to the measures taken by the proprietors to 
secure Letters Patent from the New York government. Their effort? 
for some unknown reason, proved abortive. Nevertheless they ex- 
pended a large sum of money in their efforts, and as I have already 
stated, they borrowed money of Thomas Hazen for this purpose. 
Oliver Willard of Hartland was employed by the proprietors as their 
agent to obtain Letters Patent. In another portion of this history the 
reader will find this subject elaborately treated. 

" At a town meting Legally warned and held att Elijah Strong in Hartford, on 
adj 9 day of July, A. D. 1772. Maid chois of Mr. Stephen Tilden, Moderator for 
sd meting, and all so maid Chois of Benjamin Wright, Stephen Tilden, John 
Sti-ong, John Bennet and Elisha Marsh a Comitity to selld with Esq. Burch for 
servis don for the Town of Hartford in Gooing to New York for them in. order 
to Settle with Esq. Wilhurd and Petition for a Paten for said Town, and all so 
to Pay said Burch for it and to settle with Mr. Joshua Hazen for Ms troble Don 
for said Town Hartford. July ye 9, A. D. 1773." 

(Note. — The remaining records were wi-itten by Amos Robinson.) 

" At a To\\Ti meeting Legally warned, and held the 18 day of May, 1773, at 
Elijah Strong's. 

Chosen, Benjamin Wriglit, Moderator of said meeting. 

Amos Robinson, Town Clerk. 

Joel Marsh, Supervisor. Danel Pinneo and Abel Marsh, Assessors. David 
Wright and Joshua Dewey, Collecfrs. 

Jolm Bennet and Christopher Pease, Overseers of ye jioor. 

EUezer Robinson, EUsha Marsh and Joel Marsh, Commissioners of highways. 

Joshua Hazzen, David Wright, Benajah Strong, Clu-istopher Pease, Jr., and 
Samuel Udel, Path-masters. 

Benjamin Wright and Samuel Pease, fence viewers. 

Eliezer Robuason, Benjamin Wright, Jr., Wm. Brambel and Benajah Strong, 

"Amos Robinson, John GUIet and EUsha Marsh, Pound keepers." 

At a meeting Legally warned and held the 17tli day of May, 1774, at Elijah 
Strong's. (Centre of the town. — Ed.) 

Chosen Capt. Joseph Marsh, Moderator of said meeting. 

Amos Eobirison, Town Clerk and Treasurer. 

Capt. Joseph Marsh, Supervisor. 

Benjamin Wright, Jr., and Jolm Marsh, Assessors. 

Christopher Pease, Jr., and Jonathan Bennet, Collectors. 

Steplien Tilden and Capt. Joseph Marsh, Overseers of ye poor. 

Jonathan Burtch, Esq., Benajah Strong and Beuj. Wright, Jun., Corn's of 

Mitchell Clark, ^^Uexander Brink, Solomon Strong, Thomas Richardson and 
Johsua Dewey, Surveyers of highways. 

Jonathan Burtch, Esq., and Capt. Joseph Marsh, fence Viewers. 

Solomon Sti"ong, Sealer of Measures. 


Eleizer Robinson. Benjamin Wright, Jr.. Wni. Bramble, Benajah Strong, 

Voted to Build a Pound at the head of Amos Robinson's Lane' in ye corner 

joining to Dea. Benjamin Wright on the west side of the country road. Amos 

Robinson to build ye pound. Voted to build a pound near ye Bridge by Esq. 

Burtch's, in the most convenient place. Esq. Burtch to buld ye pound. Amos 

Robinson and Jonathan Burtch Esq. Pound-keepers. Voted to build a Meeting 

house, etc." 

(Note. — The reader is referred to the Ecclesiastical portion of this history for 
a complete record of action taken by the town concerning the building of a 
meeting-house at the centre of the town. — Editor.) 

At the next annual meeting, held in the house of Widow Ruth 
Strong on Tuesday, May 16, 1775, the following town officers were 
elected : 

"Jonathan Burtch, moderator; Amos Robinson, Clerk and Treasurer; Jona- 
than Burtch, Supervisor ; Amos Robinson and Jonathan Burtch, Assessors ; 
John Bennet and Samuel Udall, Collectors ; Stephen Tilden, and Capt. Joseph 
Marsh, Overseers of the poor ; Alex. Brink and Amos Robinson and Jonathan 
Burtch. Commissioners to lay out highways ; Alex. Brink, Stephen Tilden, 
John Gillett, Solomon Strong, Benjamin Burtch, Abel Marsh and Newbury 
Edde, Surveyors of highways ; Capt. Joseph Marsh and Jonathan Burtch, 
Fence Viewers ; Benj., Wright, Jr., Daniel Pinneo, Benajah Strong and Joshua 
Dewey, Constables ; Solomon Strong, Sealor of Weights and Measures ; Amos 
Robinson, Stephen Tilden, and Benajah Strong a conmiittee to take care of the 
School lands and rent them out." 

" At a legal meeting held at the house of the Widow Ruth Strong, on Thurs- 
day ye 1st day of June 1775, Chose Capt. Joseph Marsh, moderator. Chose 
Amos Robinson a delegate to go to Westminster, Vt. Voted that each man pay 
his equal proportion of the expenses of sending Delegates to Westminster. 

Voted to treat any man with Neglect and Contempt that refuses to pay his 
proportion of said expenses." 

" At a legal meeting held at the house of Widow Ruth Strong, on Monday ye 
19th day of June, 1775. Chose Capt. Joseph Marsh, Moderator ; Joel Marsh to 
be Captain, Benjamin Wright, Jr., Lieut., Alexander Brink, Insign to a com- 
pany of Militia. Chose Capt. Joseph Marsh, Joel Marsh, Stephen Tilden, Amos 
Robinson, and Joshua Hazen to be a Committee of Safety for ye Town." 

"At a meeting legally warned and held at the house of the Widow Ruth 
Strong, on ye 20th Nov. 1775 : 

Voted to comply with the request of the Provincial Congress in choosing men 
to represent this county at the Honorable Provincial Congress at New York. 
Voted to raise by tax the sum of 4 pds. 17 s. 6 p. 

Voted— that the assessors chosen last May make up the bill, also that the 
collectors chosen last May collect the same. 

Chose Capt. Joseph Marsh, Stephen Tilden and Joel Marsh a committee to 

' Amos Robinson lived at the foot of the lane leading to the ferry crossing on 
Connecticut river, a short distance south of the mouth of White river, and near the 
present residence of Alonzo B. Nutt, at White River Junction. 


treat with Amos Robinson and with Lebanon about the road and ferry. This 
meeting is dismist." 

"At a meeting Legally warned and held at the house of the Widow Ruth 
Strong on Monday the 6th day of May, 1776, for the electing to"WTa officers. 
Chosen, Capt. Joseph Marsh Moderator. 

Amos Robinson Clerk and Treasurer; Joshua Hazen and Abel Marsh assessors; 
Joel Marsh and Thomas Hazzen Overseers of the Poor; Jolin GUlet and Levi 
Demmon, Collectors; Stephen Tilden, Joshua Hazzen, and Elisha Marsh, com- 
missioners of highways; Jolm Bennet and John GiUit Fence Viewers; David 
Wright and Asa Hazen, Constables; Solomon Strong, Sealer of Weights and 
Measures; Thomas Hazzen, Sealer of Leather; Stephen Tilden, Joel Marsh, 
Joshua Hazzen, Abel Marsh and Amos Robinson, Committee of Safety; David 
Bliss, Simon Chapman, Samuel Webster, Joel Marsh, Levi Demmon, Jolin 
Bennet, Jr., Samuel Udel and Amos Robinson, surveyors of highways. 

Voted — for the commissioners to lay out a road to meet with Lebanon at the 
Potash so-called." 

"At a meeting of the Inliabitants of the Towm of Hartford at the house of the 
Widow Ruth Strong on Saturday the 13th day of July, 1776. Chosen Capt. Abel 
Marsh Moderator. 

Voted, that the Town take the ammunition that the committee pin chased at 
Connecticut, into their care as Town Stock. 

Chosen, Capt. Abel Marsh, to take care of the ammunition. 

Voted, that Maj. Joel Marsh, Stephen Tilden and Samuel Udel be a committee 
to give obligations to Capt. Marsh and Maj. Griswold for the ammunition. 

Voted, that said committee proportion an assessment on the inhabitants for 
the payment of the ammunition, and give a bill to the constables to collect. 

Voted, that Caj)t. Marsh deal out one pound of powder to each soldier belong- 
ing to this town that is gone or is going to Royalton, and lead and flints pro- 
portionable to the stock, and half pound powder and flints proportionable to the 
stock, to each man in town that lias a gun. 

Voted, that if any man wastes or any way disposes of any of his ammunition 
drawn or to be drawn out of the town stock he shall pay after the rate of two 
dollars per pound, and shall be held up to puhllck veic as an enemy to his country ! 

(Note. The records of the next meeting, held Feb. 7th, 1771, relate to small- 
pox, and are quoted at length in another portion of this work. Also the record 
of a meeting held March 17th, 1777, concerning the same matter.) 

" At a meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Hartford on the 13th day of 
March, 1777, at the dwelling-hovise of Solomon Strong. 

Chosen, Mr. Elkanali Sprague, moderator. 

Chosen, Amos Robinson and Joel Marsh, delegates to go to Windsor the 19tli 
inst. to show the minds of the people with regard to making money in the new 

Voted — that the delegates have the following instructions, viz. : that they pro- 
test against emitting a bank of money in the new State until we are known and 
established to be a State by the Honorable the Continental Congi-ess. Meeting 

" At a meeting legally warned and held at the house of Solomon Strong on 
Tuesday the 1st day of Af)ril, 1777. 


Chosen, Col. Joseph Marsh, moderator: Amos Robinson, clerk and treasurer; 
Lieut. Joshua Hazzen andMaj. Joel Marsh, Covmty Committee ; Amos Robinson, 
Col. Jos. Marsh, Stephen Tilden, Capt. Abel Marsli and Lieut. Israel Gillit, Town 
Committee; Capt. Abel Marsh, Lieut. Joshua Hazzen, and Benjamin Wright, Jr. 
Commissioners of Highways ; John GilHt, Joel Marsh, Thomas Emerson, Elisha 
Marsh, Daniel Pinneo, Benj. Wright, David Bliss and Jonathan Bennet, Sur- 
veyors of Highways ; Benjamin Wright, Jr. , Thomas Tracy, Fence Vewers , 
Solomon Strong, Sealer of Weights and Measures, Thomas Hazzen, Sealer of 
Leather ; Mitchel Clark and Elisha Marsh, Pound Keepers ; Wm. Bramble and 
David Wright, Constables ; Silas Hazzen and Andrew Tracy, Collectors ; Joel 
Marsh, Daniel Pinneo and Joshua Hazzen, Assessors. 

Voted — To make sale of the ammunition that Capt. Marsh and Maj. Griswold 
purchased for us at Connecticut. Capt. Marsh to make sale of the same. 

Voted — to raise by tax twenty pounds to defray the charges of the supervisors 
and county committees going to Westminster, and the charge of the Royalton 
department which was our quota to pay. Voted to dismiss this meeting." 

" At a meeting legally warned and held at the house of Solomon Strong on 
Monday the 23rd day of June 1777. 

Chosen, Benjamin Wright, moderator. 

Voted — To send two delegates to Windsor to attend a General Convention the 
3rd day of July next. 

Chosen, Col. Joseph Marsh and Joshua Hazzen, delegates. 
Voted — That we do authorize and impower Col. Joseph Marsh and Lieut. 
Joshua Hazzen to join with the delegates from the other towns in the State of 
Vermont that are chosen to meet at Windsor on the 3rd day of July next to 
draw the outlines of Government. 

Voted unanimously, that ive loill join to be a New State on the New Hampshire 
Grants ! " 

At a town meeting legally warned and held at the house of Solomon 
Strong on Thursday, the 9th day of April, 1778, to give in their votes 
for a Judge of Probate and to choose town officers for the year ensu- 

Chosen — Governor Joseph Marsh, moderator. 

Amos Robinson, Town clerk and Treasurer. 
Lieut. Thomas Tracy, Ensign Elkanah Sprague and Benj Wright, Select Men. 
Daniel Pinneo and Serg-t. Joshua Dewey, constables. 
Christopher Pease and Jolm Bennet, Grand jurors. 

Jno. Gillett, Andrew Tracy, Phin's Strong, George Smith, Benaiah Strong, 
Joshua Dewey, Sam'l Pease, Asa Emerson & Jno. Bennet, Surveyors of high- 

Benj Wright Jr. and Jolm Bennet Jr. , Fence viewers. 

Amos Robinson, Asa Emerson & Asa Hazzen, Listers. 

Joshua Dewey and Daniel Pinneo, Collectors. 

Phineas Strong and Samuel Webster Sealors of leatlier. 

Andrew Tracy and Capt. Abel Marsh Tithingmen (sworn) 

John Rennet and Benjamin Birch, Hog howards. 

Solomon Strong & Amos Robinson, Sealors of measurs, (sworn) 


Abel ]\Iarsh and John Bennett, deer reafs. (swoms.) 

David Brewster, Brander of horses. (Sworn) 

Mitchel Clark and Elisha Marsh, Pound Keepers (sworn) 
Voted that a town book of records be purchased and the purchaser paid out of 
the toum treasury. 


At a Town lueeting Legally warned and held at the Dwelling house of Solomon 
Strong on Monday ye 27th day of May 1778 — 

Chosen, Hon. Joseph Marsh, Moderator. 

Voted — That the Select men should serve as a Committee of Safety for the 
Town the year ensuing and to chuse two more to serve with y'm as a Com'tee of 
Safety & Inspection. 

Chosen — Capt. Abel Marsh and Mr. Thomas Emmerson, s'd Com'tee. 

Chosen. IVIr, EUsha Marsh Constable & Collector in the room of Sarg't 
Joshua Dewey which the Town releast. 

Voted To prociu-e a parchment to Draw a plan of the Town upon. 

Voted To chuse a Com'ttee to Smwey every Lot in Town to mark out the lines 
& to make or set up Monuments at each comer of every Lot. 

Chosen Mr. Benajah Strong & Lieut. Israel Gillit to be said Com'tee. 

Voted That Esq Hatch of Noi-wich be the Survair. 

Voted To raise one Hundred & fifty poimds by Tax to defray the expence of 
surveying the Town and other Town charges. 

Voted That any man that pays the Com'tee or Surveyor & takes their receipt, 
it shall annul so much of then* rate. 

Voted To dismiss this meeting." — i^ios Robinson, Clerk. 

The foregoing records, covering a period of nearly seventeen years, 
are all that we have left of our town records for a space of nearly forty- 
one years — a blank space of nearly twenty-four years in the history of 
the town ! Nearly a century has since elapsed and not one of the old- 
est inhabitants of the town now living retains even a dim remembrance 
of the events that transpired ninety years ago, otherwise than as they 
learned of them from the lips of their elders. 

This pamphlet book of records contained the registration of about 
125 different ear marks, used by as many stock owners to distinguish 
their cattle, sheep and hogs, all of which were permitted to roam at 
large, and could not be identified when found except by special marks. 
As an illustration of the manner of marking then in use, I quote the 
following, viz: 

" Thomas Savage's ear mark, — a slanting crop of the right ear. 
Philemon Hazen — ear mark: a half penny under side of the left ear. 
Josiah TUden — ear mark : two slits in the end of right ear. 
Thomas Hazen, ear mark: a slit in the end of right ear. 

James Tracy, ear mark: a square crop of the left ear and a slit in the end of the 


Asa Hazen, ear mark: a square crop of each ear and a slit in the end of the 
right ear. 

David Newton, ear mark; a slanting crop at the under side of each ear. 

Stephen Tilden Jr., ear mark: a half penny upper side of the right ear. 

Israel Gillet, ear mark: a square crop of the right ear. 

Joshua Hazen, ear mark: a crop of right ear and a slit on under side of same. 

Christopher Pease, ear mark: a lialf crop under side of left ear, and a slot 
under side same. 

Joseph Marsh, ear mark: a crop off each ear and a slit under the left. 

Nathaniel Button, ear mark: two half pennys on the under side of the right ear. 

Juniah Chapman, ear mark: a swallow's tail in the end of the right ear. 

The present system of marking is to puncture one ear of the animal 
and insert a narrow strip of metal on which the owner's name is 
stamped, and also numbers, from one upwards as desired, and these 
strips of galvanized metal are clamped securely, and no irritation fol- 


Hartford has been erroneously classed with those townships granted 
by Gov. Wentworth, that were subsequently confirmed by Letters 
Patent under the great seal of Nevy York. It is true that some of the 
proprietors of this township made several applications, in the form of 
petitions, to the New York governors for Letters Patent, but, for some 
reason not explained in the proprietors' records, nor spread upon those 
of the New York provincial government, they failed to secure a patent. 

The first allusion to the New Y''ork government, found in the pro- 
prietors' records is contained in the warning for the second meeting 
held within the township, which is as follows, viz. : 

" These are to Notefy the proprietors of the township of Hartford 
Leatly Chartered by the Governor and Counsel of Newhamshier, Now 
Seeded to Newyork, that they meet att the house of mr. Elijah Strong 
in sd Hartford on monday the twelth day of August next at ten of the 
Clock in the forenoon." The third article in the warning is as follows, 
viz. : " Also, to see what they will Do on account of appling to his 
Excelency the Governor of Newyork in order to obtain a grant of sd 
township." This warning was dated " July ye 15, 1765." The record 
of the proceedings of the meeting so warned contains nothing relating 
to the said article in the warning. 

According to the records, this subject was next considered and acted 
upon September 4th, 1772, when Thomas Hazzen and Stephen Tilden 
were chosen as agents to represent the affairs of the proprietors before 
his Excellency the Governor of New York. The next warning for a 


proprietors' meeting is very conspicuously headed, "Province of New 
York, Oct. 12, 1772." At the meeting held pursuant to the said warn- 
ing, the proprietors voted as follows : 

" That we will give one thousand acres of land att the northwest 
corner of the town for the money Mr. Joshua Hazzen hired for us in 
order to settil with Esq. Willard for his servis att Newyork." 

On the 17th of November, 1761, the proprietors voted to sequester 
1500 acres lying in the northwest corner of the township, in a square 
body to lie to make those proprietors good or equal who should not 
draw as good lots as the proprietors in general. It appears that some 
of the proprietors questioned the propriety of diverting this land from 
such use and giving it to Mr. Hazzen. This division of sentiment de- 
layed the settlement with Mr. Hazzen. In the meantime the matter of 
compensating him for his services in going to New York was settled on 
the 9th of May, 1773, by the following vote : 

" That we will give Mr. Thomas Hazzen the privlidge of pitching his 
undivided land, and sixty acres more, if he or his son Asa will procure 
a deed of sixty acres of any other proprietor, &c." 

The sixty acres were secured, and on the 30th of May, 1781, Mr. 
Hazzen pitched 560 acres in one body, bordering on Norwich line and 
adjoining the 1000 acres which he subsequently received from the pro- 
prietors. On the 12th of May, 1773, the proprietors passed the follow- 
ing vote, viz. : 

" That we will let Mr. Thomas Hazzen have one thousand acres of 
land lying in a square body at the northwest corner of the town for the 
money his son Joshua hired for us. 

That the present proprietors' clerk shall give a deed of the above 
voted land to Mr. Thomas Hazzen, in the name and behalf of the pro- 
prietors upon his son Joshua giving up all his obligations to the clerk 
that he has ■wpon some of the proprietors." 

(Note. — The deed executed by Elijah Strong, the proprietors' clerk, on the 
14th of May, 1773, conveying to Thomas Hazzen the 1000 acres of land voted to 
him May 12, 1773, is recorded iu Vol. 1, page 63, of the proprietor's land records. 
The conveyance was made in Rockingham County, N. H., and acknowledged 
before Beza Woodward, a Justice of the Peace. Thomas Hazzen then resided in 
Woodbury, Litchfield County, Connecticut. On the 20th of August, 1781, Mr. 
Hazzen deeded the said 1000 acres together with the 560 acres voted to him May 
9, 1773, to twelve of liis sixteen children, giving to each 120 acres, with a 
reservation of a like (|uantity for himself. The village of West Hartford is 
located on the land thus acquired by Mr. Hazzen. In 1776, Mr. Hazzen made 
an additional pitch of 576 acres in the second division of fifty-acre lots, which 
will be found recorded in Book A, page 1, of the records made of the surveys 
of pitches. His subsequent purchases and pitches, prior to 1787, amounted 
to fully 500 acres, giving him the ownership of at least 2600 acres of land, 
or nearly one-tenth part of the whole town. His sons owned nearly KlOO 
acres. Mr. Hazzen moved into Hartford about the year 1785, and settled on the 
farm on whicli his greatgrandson, Charles D. Hazen now lives, and there Ha cd 
the remainder of his life.) 



In 1772, the proprietors sent one of their number, Jonathan Burch, 
Esq., to New York to effect a settlement with Oliver Willard, Esq., for 
his services in behalf of the proprietors, and also to petition the New 
York government for Letters Patent for the town. Mr. Burch carried 
the New Hampshire charter belonging to the town with him. He failed 
to secure the coveted Letters Patent, but, as the sequel shows, left the 
charter in the hands of the New York authorities, or otherwise unau- 
thorizedly disposed of it. On the 22d of May, 1773, the proprietors 
instructed their clerk to "send to New Y'^ork to get the charter carried 
there by Jonathan Burtch." The'effort jDrovedunsuccessful. 

The foregoing comprises all that is contained in the records proper 
concerning the efforts made by the proprietors of Hartford to obtain 
Letters Patent from the New York government, or, in other words, to 
comply with the arbitrary mandates and requirements imposed by that 
government upon the inhabitants on the New Hampshire grants west 
of Connecticut River, following upon the first order of King George in 
1764. I have, however, discovered a memorandum record made by 
Amos Robinson, which relates to the loss of the charter and the efforts 
made by the proprietors to recover it. The record is as follows : 

"Province of New York, Cumberland County, ) 
Hartford, 30th August, 1773. \ 
At a meeting of the proprietors" cominitty of the Township of Hartford. We 
ye said committy in behalf of the proprietors, Request and Desire that Amos 
Robinson make a Demand on Jonathan Burch, Esq., for the charter of the Town- 
sliip of Hartford, Granted by His Excellency Benning Wentworth, Esq.. that he 
the said Burch, hath taken away from ye proprietors and neglects to Return it 
again :— that he forthwith deliver it into the hands of him ye sd Robinson whom 
we Constitute and appoint to receive the same as ye said Burcli Avill answer his 
neglect at tlie peril of the Law: — as witness our hands 

Proprietors* Com'ty, 
John Bennett, 
Stephen Tilden, 
Israel Gillett. 

On the back of the document is the following endorsement : — 

"81st Aug. 1773. — Then made a demand of the within named Burch, in his 
hearing for the within mentioned cliarter, in the hearing of Oliver Willard and 
Amasa Wright. 

Test for me Amos Robinson." 

The charter was not recovered : therefore, at a meeting of the pro- 
prietors held on the second Wednesday of March, 1803, Amos Robin- 
son, Esq., was chosen " a committee to apply to Mr. Marion to obtain a 
copy of the charter from the Secretary of New Hampshire." 

The promulgation of the decree making the western bank of the 
Connecticut river the boundary line between the provinces of New 
Hampshire and New York, circumscribed the jurisdiction of the gov- 


ernor of New Hampshiie, and left the grantees of the soil west of Con- 
necticut river within the jurisdiction of the New York government. 
" The grantees soon found themselves involved in a dispute with the 
government of New York, From the words to be, in the royal declar- 
ation, two very opposite conclusions were drawn. The government 
supposed them to refer to the time past, and construed them as a dec- 
laration that the river always had been the eastern limits of New 
York ; consequently, that the grants made by the governor of New 
Hampshire, were invalid, and that the land might be granted again. 
The grantees understood the words in the future tense, as declaring 
Connecticut river from that time to he the line of jurisdiction only, be- 
tween the two provinces ; consequently that their grants, being derived 
from the ci'own, through the medium of one of its governors, were 
valid. To the jurisdiction they would have quietly submitted had no 
attempt been made to wrest from them their possessions." ' 

The New Y^ork government ignored the opinions and declarations 
of the grantees, concerning their rights under the New Hampshire 
charters, and not only demanded that the grantees should deliver up 
their titles derived from New Hampshire and obtain re-grants of the 
same land from New Y^ork, as a confirmation of their titles, but refused 
to make re-grants of the same lands to the original proprietors and oc- 
cupants, unless at the rate of exorbitant fees. 

The first uprising in the New Hampshire grants against the govern- 
ment of New Y^ork, originated in the towns west of the mountain. 
The inhabitants east of the mountain, though greatly embarassed at 
the prospects before them, deemed discretion the better part of valor, 
and acceeded to the requirements of the government of New York, by 
relinquishing their New Hampshire charters, and purchasing,for a stip- 
ulated consideration, Letters Patent under the great seal of the Pro- 
vince of New York, and thus secured exemption from the hardships, 
troubles and outrages experienced by those who ignored the authority 
of New York and resisted the efforts of the land-jobbers to oust them 
from their lands. A passive acquiescence was the only policy that 
could have been safely adopted by the inhabitants of such towns as 
Hartford, Woodstock and many others in Cumberland county, in each 
of which, at that time, the number of inhabitants liable to do military 
duty was so small, and their means of defence so limited, they could 
not have resisted even a corporal's guard. 

It is evident from the proprietors' records, already quoted, that the 
proprietors of the town of Hartford failed in their frequent attempts 

'Belknap's History of New Hampshire, p. 326. 


to obtain a confirmation of their titles (acquired under their New 
Hampshire charters) by Letters Patent issued hy the New York gov- 
ernment. The evidence of the steps that were taken by tlie proprietors 
to secure Letters Patent, is found in the Department of Manuscripts in 
the New York State Library, and consists of certificates, and petitions 
made by the proprietors, and inhabitants of the townships, and pre- 
sented in their behalf to the New York government, by Oliver Wil- 
lard, Esq., and Jonathan Burtch, Esq., ' together with records of the 
action taken concerning the same by the Ncav York government. 
Copies of all the documents pertaining to this matter, now on file in 
the New York State Library, will be quoted in the next chapter begin- 
ning with a certificate which preceded other papers in date." 

'The discovery of the order given by the proprietors, committeejto Amos Robin- 
son, "to demand of Jonathan Burtch, Esq., the return of the charter of the town- 
ship, etc., etc.," removed all doubt concerning the failure of the proprietors and in- 
habitants to procure Letters Patent. They could not have succeeded without first 
giving up their New Hampshire charter. Success would, therefore, have debarred 
them from the privilege of regaining possession of said charter. 

- In order to preserve tangible and important evidence of what was done by the 
proprietors and inhabitants to obtain re-grants, or Letters Patent, from the New 
York government, I shall here introduce copies of manuscript now on file in the 
Department of Historical manuscripts, in the New York State Library, in Albany. 
These documents are long and somewhat desultory, but as they are important to 
lay the case authentically before the reader they shall be given in their own words. 
I will say that no record of a Patent for Hartford can be found, nor the New Hamp- 
shire charter, of the township. 



These May Certifie all Persons, whome it may Consern, that The 
Proprietors of Hartford which was supposed to be in the Province of 
New Hampshear, which now Apears to belong to New York Province 
Have Been at the Charge and Troble in Giting Said Township and Set- 
ting the Same Which Amount to the Perticulers following, (viz) : To 
Taxes Granted and made to Procure the Charter of said Township, 
Survaying the same and Laying out Lands in said Township Thre 
Pounds Lawfull Money on Each Proprietors Rights and Equal Shear 
bing 64 in the Number which Amounts in the whole to £192.00.0. 

Also they have Holden Eleven Proprietors Meatings Allowing but 
Fifty to be Present at a Meating at the moderate Computation of five 
Shillings a Peace to Each Proprietor for Each Time for his Time Travil 
and Expence Amounts to £131.10.0. 

Likewise they did in the year 1761 Lay out one fifty acres Lott to 
Each Proprietor and Distributed them to the said Proprietors to Each 
one Lott and have them Record to Each to hold in Severalty. Also in 
the Year 1763 they Did Survay and Lay out said Township By Runing 
Round the same and making Proper bound at the Corners and in the 
Line Every mile between said Corners, Then Laid out and Maid Proper 
allowances for Most of the Needfull Highways in said Town, Then 
Laid out 68 Hundread acres Lotts in said Town, Some of which are 
now Taken up and Improved on. The others Lay Ready for those who 
will Go on and Improve 

The fore Going Facts are True Extracts from the Proprietors Rec- 
ords. Attest ; Prince Tracy Proprietors Clerk. 

Also these may ferther Certifie that In the Sumer 1763 There was 
Ten Persons which Entered on the said Town and Laboured in the 
same the said Sumer And in the year 1761 There was four Persons have 
moved on the said Town with ther famelys and there Dwells Ever since 
And the said Ten Continue to Improve the said Second Sumer : others 
Did Enter on: and this Present Spring 10 more have gone on to 
Improve : and about 10 others Intend to Go Imeduately. 

Dated at Lebanon in ye Colony of Connecti cut May ye 7th 1765 


PRINCE TRACY ) Propritors 



The Names of the Persons who now Own the Several Rights of Land 
Which was Chartere to the origanal Proprietors of Hartford by the 
Gover nr of New Hamp Shear as Neare as we are able to Informe, Are 
as followeth (viz) : 


Prince Tracy on his origanal R'gbt 

Jonatlian Martin Assignee to Joseph Martin 

Mosess Hebard, Assignee to Eleazer Hebard 

Thomas Tracy on his own Right 

Elijah Bingham, Ditto 

Sarah Flint, Ditto 

Elijah Frink, Assignee to Daniel Redington 

Elijah Dewey, Assignee to Gideon Bingham 

Solomon Lord, Assignee to Eleazer Fitch 3d 

Joseph Follet on his own Right 

John Spencer Junr on his one Right 

John Hill, Assignee on half the Right of Jeduthan Simons 

James Pinneo Janior Assignee to Hez Huntington 

Elijah Strong, Assignee to Nathan Clark 

John Baldwin, on his one Right 

John Baldwin Assignee to I. ? Flint 

John Baldwin, Assignee to John Roundey 

John Baldwin Junr, on his own Right 

Hezekiah Spencer, Assignee to Elisha Wright 

John Bennit, Assignee to Benjamin Whitney also to Elisha Dubldee 

Elijah Bebben on his own Right 

Solomon Strong, Assignee to Joshua Pomeroy 

Benajah Strong, Assignee to Daniel Pomroy 

The Heirs of George Smith Assignee to Daniel Newcomb. 

Jonathan Avery Junr, Assignee to Jonathan Martin Junr. 

Samuel Terry Junr, on his own Right 

Samuel Terry on his own Right 

Aaron Fish on his own Right 

Benjamin Wright on his own Right, also Benjamin Wright Junr 
Assignee to William Clark 

Ebenezer Gillet on his own Right (also Assignee to Gideon Hebard) 

Epherim Terry on his own Right 

William Clark, Assignee to Silas Phelps 

Stephen Tilldin Junir, Assignee to Samuel Porter 

Nathan Waldow on his own Right 

Sam'll Williams on his own Right 

Silas Sprague, Assignee to Nathaniel Warner 

Nathaniel Holbrook Junr on his own Right 

Rowland Powel Junr on his own Right 

Christopher Pees Assignee to James Newcomb 

Oliver Bruster on his own Right 

Jonathan Marsh, Assignee to Caleb Howard 

John Marsh, Assignnee to Caleb Owen 

Jedidiah Strong, Assignee to Eliphalet Phelps, also to Joshua 
Wight junr 

Noah Dewey, Assignee to Elias Frinc 

William Bramble, Assignee to William Yongs 

Daniel Downer, Half Assignee to Jeduthan Simons 

PRINCE TRACY ) Proprietors 


JAMES PINNEO Junr ) Comtee 


The Names of those Proprietors which were in the Charter, which 
Belonged to Hamp Shear His Exelencj Beuing Wentworth Esqr Eights 

William Temple 
Joseph Newmarch Esqr 
Thomas Bell Esq 
William Alld 
Daniel AVerner Esqr 
Joseph Blanchard 
Samuel Wintworth 
Jonathan Comings 
Da'd Newcomb 

These may Certifie all Persons 
whom it may Consern that 
those Persons whos names 
Stand against these have Never 
paid into the Treasury of All 
the Taxes Assessed on them in 
the whole but Twelve Shillings 
As Appears by the Treasurers 
Accompts. Test : Prince Tracy 

Proprietors Treasurer 


Paper from the 
Township of Hartford 
No. 2 
(also in different hand : ) 

Hartford Records 


To the Honorable Cadwallader Golden, Esqr., Levtenant Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief in and Over his Majesty's Province of New 
York and the Territories their to Depending in America &C : 

In Council, 
The Petition of Olliver Willard in behalf of the Proprietors and In- 
habitants of the Township of Hartford 

Humbly Sheweth 

That their is a Certain Tract of Land now lying in this Province, late- 
ly called by the name of Hartford, Beginning (on the Banks of Connec- 
ticutt River) at the North East Corner of the Township of Hartford 
and from thence Extends up the River to the South East Corner of 
Norwich, from thence Extends W^esterly, until the full Contents of six 
Miles Square is Included, as the Charter and Plan of said Township 
may appear Reference thereto [SIC ?], that your Petitioners are the 
sole Proprietors of the same. That there is Thirty Inhabitants now in 
Actuell Possession of said Township, — that they hold the same under 
the Great Seal of the Province of New Hampshire ; That they supposed 
their Title to be good until a Resolve of the King and his Majesty's 
Privy Council Came to hand ordering the West Connecticutt River to 
be the Boundary Lines between this Province and the Province of New 
Hampshire. That they are Desireous to scure their Properties, Posses- 
sions and Improvements by Obtaining a Grant of the same under the 
Seal of this Province. Your Petitioners therefore who have been at a 
great Expence in Purchasing, Survaying, Dividing and Improving said 
Land, humbly Prays, that in Consideration of these Cause, that jouv 
Honours will be Pleased by his Majesty's Letters Pattent to Grant unto 
your Petitioners their Heirs and Assigns forever, the aforesaid Lands, 
the number of Acres mentioned in their Grant from New Hampshire, 
on such Terms as your Honours shall think Just and that the same 
erected into a Township by the name of Hartford and that the same be 


Invested with such Powers and Priviledges as other Towns in this 

Province have and enjoy. 

And your Petitioners as in 
Duty Bound shall ever Pray 
New York 31st of October 1765 

(Endorsed) OL'R WILLARD 


Petition of the 

Township of 


No. 60 

1766 November 12. 
Read and referred to a Com'ee 
and reported and granted to 
the Original Grantees except 
4 Shares and the usual Reserva- 
tion for publick Uses. 

4th Nov'br, 1765. 


To his Excellency Sir Henry Moore, Baronet, Captain General and 
Governor-in Chief in and over the Province of New York and the Ter- 
ritories depending thereon in America, Chancellor and Vice-Admiral of 
the same. 

In Council. 
The Humble Petition of Oliver Willard in behalf of the Proprietors 
and Inhabitants of the Township of Hartford. 
Humbly Sheweth, 

That the Grant of the said Township of Hartford is advised to be 
made in the Names of the several Original Patentees under New- 
Hampshire or those claiming under them, amounting in the whole to 
upwards of 50 Persons. 

That the Granting of the said Lands in the Names of so many Per- 
sons will as your Petitioner apprehends be attended with very great 
Inconveniences which would be avoided by having the said Grant pass 
in the Names of Twenty Persons, in which case your Petitioner is wil- 
ling to enter into such Security as your Excellency shall think fit to 
secure the Interests of the Grantees under the Grant of New-Hamp- 
shire and those Claiming under them, upon the Like Terms as are 
Expressed in the Minutes of Council relative to the Townships of Cav- 
endish and Springfield. Your Petitioner therefore humbly prays, that 
the Grant of the said Township may pass in the names of the several 
Persons following to wit : Prince Tracy, Benjamin Wright, Benjamin 
Burch, Joseph Marsh, Benajah Strong, Elisha Marsh, John Baldwin, 
John Bennet, Nathaniel Holbrook, Junior, Noah Dewey, Junior, Solo- 
mon Strong, Jonathan Marsh, Amos Robinson, Rufus Baldwin, Daniel 
Pinneo, Elijah Strong, Ebenezer Gillet, Junior, Giles Alexander, Abel 
Marsh and Zadock Wright. 

And your Petitioner will pray &C. 
New York 17th | ^^.^ WILLARD. 

December 176b. j 

(Endorsed :) 17th December 1766 
Petition of Oliver 
3d January 1767 Read & granted 
& the Entries of 12th Novr which lie 
in Draft to be made conformable 
to the prayer of the petition 



At a Council held at Fort George in the City of New York on Wed- 
nesday the twelfth day of November 1776. 
His Excellency Sir Henry Moore, Baronet, Captain, General, etc. 
Mr. Horsmander \ Mr. Reade 
Mr. Smith [ 

Mr. Apthorpe j Mr. Morris 


The Petition of Oliver Willard, in behalf of the Proprietors and In- 
habitants of the Township of Hartford, was presented to the board and 
read, setting forth, that there is a certain Tract of Land lying in this 
Province, lately called by the name of Hartford : Beginning on the 
Bank of Connecticut River and at the Northeast Corner of the Town- 
ship of Hertford, and from thence extends up the River to the South- 
east Corner of Norwich ; from thence extends Westerly until the full 
Contents of Six Miles Square is included ; that the Petitioners are the 
sole Proprietors of the same ; that there is thirty Inhabitants now in 
actual Possession of said Township ; that they hold the same under 
the Great Seal of the Province of New Hampshire ; That they supposed 
their Title to be good until the Order of the King in his Privy Council 
came to hand, directing the West Bank of Connecticut River to be the 
Boundary Line between this Province and the Province of New Hamp- 
shire ; that they are desirous to secure their Properties, Possessions 
and Improvements, by obtaining a Grant of the same under the Seal 
of this Province ; And therefore the Petitioners humbly pray, that the 
said Tract of Land may be by his Majesty's Letters Patent be granted 
to them and their heirs, and that the same may be erected into a Town- 
ship by the Name of Hartford, with such Powers and Privileges as 
other Towns in this Province have and enjoy. 

On reading whereof, It is ordered, that the said Petition be referred 
to the Gentlemen of the Council or any five of them. 

His Excellency withdrawing, the Gentlemen of the Council resolved 
themselves into a Committee on the said Petition and being ready to 
make their report, his Excellency returned to the Council Chamber and 
took his Seat. 

Ordered, that the said Report be made immediately. 
Then Mr. Reade Chairman of the said Committee in his place re- 
ported, that the said Committee had duely weighed and considered the 
said Petition, and were humbly of Opinion, that his Excellency might 
grant the said Tract of Land and Premises unto Prince Tracey, Benja- 
min Wright, Benjamin Burch, Joseph Marsh, Benajah Strong, Elisha 
Marsh, John Baldwin, John Bennet, Nathaniel Holbrooke, Junior, 
Noah Dewey Junior, Solomon Strong, Jonathan Marsh, Amos Robin- 
son, Rufus Baldwin. Daniel Pinneo, Elijah Strong, Ebenezer Gillet 
Junior, Giles Alexander, Abel Marsh and Zadock Wright. Except the 
Shares and Proportions of the said Tract of Land formerly allotted to 
Daniel Warner Esqr Joseph Newmarch Esqr Thomas Bell Esqr 
and Samuel Wentworth ; which Shares and Proportions having no 
Improvement made thereon, are to remain vested in the Crown, and 
that the several Shares of the said Tract, which by the Grant or Char- 
ter from New Hampshire was intended for publick uses, be granted in 
Trust as follows that is to sav : One such Share for the use of the In- 


corporated Society for the Propogation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts ; 
a like Share for a Glebe for the use of the Minister of the Gospel in 
Communion of the Church of England as by Law established for the 
Time being residing on the Premisses ; a like Share for the use of the 
first settled Minister of the Gospel on the said Tract ; and one hundred 
Acres for the use of a Schoolmaster residing on the same Tract. 

Which Report on the Question being put was agreed to and ap- 
proved of. 

And this Board doth humbly advise and Consent, that his Excellency 
do by his Majesty's Lettres Patent, grant to the Persons first above 
named, and their heirs the Tract of Land aforesaid, to be thereby 
erected into a Township, by the Name of Ware, instead that of Hart- 
ford, with the usual Privileges, Under the Quit Rent, Provisoes, Limi- 
tations and Restrictions, prescribed by his Majesty's Instructions : 
Excepting out of the Land so to be granted, the Shares formerly 
allotted to the Persons named in the Report of the Committee; And 
whereon no Improvement hath been made, which are to remain vested 
in the Crown : And that the several Shares heretofore intended for 
publick Uses be granted in Trust, for the Uses in the said Report par- 
ticularly declared and expressed. 

And it is ordered by his Excellency the Governor with the Advice 
of the Council, that previous to the Passing the said Letters Patent, 
the said intended Grantees, or some Persons for them of sufficient 
Ability, do enter into Bond unto our Sovereign Lord the King in the 
Penalty of two thousand Jr*ounds current money of the Province of 
New York ; Conditioned that they the said intended Grantees, their 
heirs or Assigns, shall as soon as may be after the Passing of the said 
Letters Patent, grant and Convey in fee simple unto all and every the 
other Proprietors of the said Tract of Land, under the Grant of New 
Hampshire (Except the aforesaid Daniel Warner, Joseph Newmarch, 
Thomas Bell and Samuel Wentworth) their heirs or Assigns the sev- 
erall Lotts Shares and Proportions of and in the same, which they the 
said Proprietors so respectively held, are interested in or intitled 
unto, under the said Grant ; upon the said Proprietors or their heirs 
or Assigns paying their respective Proportions of all Fees Charges and 
Disbursements arising or growing due thereon. 


By his Excellency, Sir Henry Moore, Baronet, Captain General and 
Governor in Chief in and over the Provinces of New York and the Ter- 
ritories depending thereon in America, Chancellor and Vice Admiral of 
the same. To Alexander Colden Esquire Surveyor General of the Prov- 
ince of New York, Greeting : 

You are hereby directed and required to Survey and lay out for Prince 
Tracy, Benjamin Wright, Benjamin Burch, Joseph Marsh, Benajah 
Strong, Elisb a Marsh, John Baldwin, John Bennet, Nathaniel Holbrook 
Junior, Noah Dewey Junior, Solomon Strong, Jonathan Marsh, Amos 
Robinson, Rufus Baldwin, Daniel Pineo, Elijah Strong, Ebenezer Gil- 
let Junior, Giles Alexander, Abel Marsh and Zadock Wright, All that 
certain Tract of Land lying in this Province, lately called by the name 
of Hartford, Beginning on the Bank of Connecticutt River and at the 
Northeast Corner of the Township of Hertford ; and from thence Ex- 
tends up the River to the Southeast Corner of Norwich ; from thence 


extends Westerly until the full Contents of Six Miles square is included, 
Except the Shares and proportions of the said Tract of Land formerly 
allotted to Daniel Warner Esquire, Joseph Newmarch Esquire, Thomas 
Bell Esquire and Samuel Wentworth, which Shares and proportions 
having no improvement made thereon, are to Remain Vested in the 
Crown ; And of the Land so to be Surveyed You are hereby directed and 
required to Survey and lay out, adjoining each other, certain small Lotts 
or Shai-es, which by the Grant of the Tract of Land aforesaid, under 
the Seal of the Province of New Hampshire, were Intended for Publick 
uses ; and which are to be granted in Trust as follows, that is to say, 
One such shai-e for the use of the Incorporated Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign parts, — a like share for a Globe for the 
use of the Minister of the Gospel in Communion of the Church of Eng- 
land as by Law established, for the time being residing on the said 
large Tract, A like Share for the first settled Minister of the Gospel on 
the said Tract, and one hundred Acres for the use of a Schoolmaster 
residing on the same Tract — In Doing whei eof you are to have regard 
to the profitable and unprofitable Acres and to take Care that the 
Length of the said Tracts, Lotts and parcels of Land or either of them 
doth not extend along the Banks of any River, otherwise than is con- 
formable to his Majesty's Instructions And of what you shall have done 
herein you are to make Return to me or the Governor or Commander 
in Chief within six months at farthest from the Date hereof together 
with a Plott or description of the said Tract of Land thereunto annexed, 
distinguishing therein such part of the said Tract as is to remain Vested 
in the Crown and the particular Lotts intended to be granted for pub- 
lick Uses as aforesaid. To the Intent that the Commissioners appointed 
for the setting out of all Lands to be granted within the said Province 
(of whom the Surveyor General is to be one) may on the said Survey, 
be the better enabled to set out the said Tracts, Lotts and parcels of 
Land, in manner and form as the same are Intended to be Granted to 
the said Prince Tracey and the other Parties first above named and 
which together with the Lands so to remain vested in the Crown as 
aforesaid, are to be erected into a Township by the name of Ware, with 
the usual Priviledges, under the Quit Rent, Provisoes, Limitations and 
Restrictions precribed by his Majesty's Instructions ; And for so doing 
this shall be your Warrant. Given under my Hand and Seal at Arms 
at Fort George in the City of New York the Twelfth Day of November 
One thousand seven hundred and Sixty six. — H. Moore, By his Excel- 
lency's Command Geo. Banyar D. Sec'y. 


To his Excellency William Taylor Esquire Captain General and 
Governor in Chief in and over the Province of New York and the Ter- 
ritories depending thereon in America, Chancellor and Vice Admiral 
of the same. 

in Council. 

The Petition of Jonathan Bui'tch in behalf of himself and the other 
Owners and Proprietors under the Grant of New Hampshire of a Tract 
of Land known by the name of the Township of Hartford 



Most Humbly Sheweth 
That Oliver Willard did ou a petition in behalf of Prince Tracey and 
19 other persons, proprietors of the said Township to his late Excel- 
lency Sir Henry Moore Baronet Deceased, Obtain an Order of his said 
late Excellency in Council bearing Date the twelfth Day of November 
1776 for granting to them and their Heirs the Tract of Land aforesaid 
lyiug on the West side of Connecticut River to the Northward of the 
Township of Hertford and Southward of a Tract of Land called Nor- 
wich except such Shares thereof as were alloted under the said Grant 
of New Hampshire to Daniel Warner, Joseph Newmarch, Thomas 
Bell and Samuel Wentworth. 

That your petitioner and his associates are the sole proprietors of 
the said Tract, that there are about 120 Inhabitants in actual posses- 
sion thereof under the said New Hampshire Grant, who are desirous 
of securing their said Possessions and Improvements by Letters 
Patent under the Great Seal of this Province and are willing to give 
the Security for the Benefit of all the Owners of the said Tract under 
the said New Hampshire Grant usually required in similar Cases. 

Your Petitioner therefore humbly prays that when the Letters Patent 
shall issue for the said Township of Hartford, the Persons whose 
names are mentioned in the Schedule hereunto Subjoined May be in- 
serted as Grantees in the said Letters Patent, 

that the Shares of the said Township reserved in the former 
Order may be included in the Grant for the Benefit of the 
Present owners thereof. 

And your Petitioner shall ever pray etc. 


New York, 1st April 1772. in behalf of himself and Associates. 

Schedule Referred to by the foregoing Petition 

Jonathan Burtch. 
Hugh Gaine. 
John Kane. 
James Lankashire. 
William Ross. 
William Smith. 
Valentine Nutter. 

Isaac Heron. 
Robert Neille. 
Daniel Neille. 
Robert Neille. 
William Young. 
William Todd. 
Christian Will. 


Johannes Will. 
Peter Montaigne. 
John Schevington. 
William Stott. 
James Thompson. 
James Rolls. 
"Mathew Gloves. 

George Ball. 
Christopher Dud- 
John KeUy. 


At a Council held at Fort George in the City of New York on Wednes- 
day, the Eighth day of April 1772. 

His Excellency William Tryon, Esquire, Captain General, etc., etc. 

Mr. Horsmanden. ] 

Mr. Watts. | 

Mr. De Lancey. )■ 

Ml'. Apthorpe. | 

Mr. Morris. J 

Mr. Smith, 
Mr. Cruger. 
Mr. White. 
Mr. Astell. 

The Petition of Jonathan Burch in behalf of himself and the other 
Owners and Proprietors under the Grant of New Hampshire of a Tract 
of Land known by the Name of the Township of Hartford was presented 


to the Board and read Setting forth, That Oliver Willard did on a Peti- 
tion in behalf of Prince Tracey and nineteen other Persons Proprietors 
of the said Township to his late Excellency Sir Henry Moore Bai'onet 
deceased, obtain an Order of his said late Excellency in Council bearing 
date the twelfth day of November 1766 for granting to them and their 
heirs the Tract of Land aforesaid lying on the West Side of Connecticut 
River, to the North of the Township of Hertford and Southward of a 
Tract of Land called Norwich except such Shares thereof, as w^ere 
allotted under the said Grant of New Hampshire to Daniel Warner, 
Joseph Newmarch, Thomas Bell and Samuel Wentworth ; That the 
Petitioner and his Associates are the sole Proprietors of the said Tract. 
That there are about one hundred and twenty Inhabitants in actual 
Po ssession thereof under the said New Hampshire Grant, who are desir- 
ous of securing their said Possessions and Improvements and are will- 
ing to give the Security usually requu'ed in Similar Cases. And there- 
fore the Petitioner humbly prays that when the Letters Patent shall 
issue for the said Township of Hartford, the Persons whose names are 
mentioned in the Schedule thereunto subjoined may be inserted as 
Grantees in the said Letters Patent and that the Shares of the said 
Township reserved in the former order may be included in the Grant 
for the Benefit of the present Owners thereof. 

Oq due Consideration whereof the Council did humbly advise that 
when the Letters Patent shall issue for the said Tract of Land, his 
Excellency the Governor do issue the same agreeable to the said Order 
of the twelfth day of November 1766, but that instead of the Persons 
therein mentioned as Grantees, the said Letters Patent issue in the 
Names of Jonathan Burtch, Hugh Gaine, John Haine, James Lankashire, 
William Ross, William Smith, Valentine Kutter, Isaac Heron, Robert 
Neille, Daniel Nellie, Robert Neille Junior, W^illiam Young, William 
Todd, Christian Will, Johannes Will, Peter Montagnie, John Scheving- 
ton, William Scott, James Thompson, James Roles, Mathew Gleves, 
George Ball, Chi-istopher Dudley and John Kelly : That the Share of 
the Tract formerly allotted to Benning Wentworth remain vested in 
the Crown and that the Shares of the said Tract appropriated under 
the Grant of New Hampshii'e to the said Daniel Warner, Joseph New- 
march, Thomas Bell and Samuel Wentworth be granted by the said 
Letters Patent, Subject to the Conditions to be expressed in the Bond 
hereafter mentioned and that the whole of the said Tract of Land be 
erected into a Township by the name of Hartfoi'd with the usual 

And it is Ordered by his Excellency the Governor with the Advice of 
the Council, that previous to the passing of the Letters Patent for the 
said two ' Tracts of Land called by the respective names of Cavendish 
and Hartford, the Grantees to be named therein or some Persons for 
them of sufficient Ability do enter into Bond unto our Sovereign Lord 
the King in the Sum of two thousand Pounds current money of the 
Province , of New York, Conditioned that they the said intended 
Grantees, their Heirs or Assigns shall as soon as may be after passing 
of the said respective Letters Patent respectively grant and convey in 
Fee Simple unto all and every the other Proprietors of the said re- 
spective Tracts of Land under the Grant of New Hampshire, their 

^ A patent for the Township of Cavendish was petitioned for previous to Hart- 
ford and is included in the above two. — B. F. 


heirs or Assigns (except the Heirs or Assignes of the aforesaid Ben- 
ning Wentworh) the several Lotts, Shares and Proportions of and in 
the said respective Tracts of Land, so to be granted under the Seal of 
this Province, which they the said other Proprietors, their heirs or 
Assigns paying their respective Proportions of all Fees Charges and 
Disbursements arising or growing due thereupon, Provided such other 
Proprietors their heirs or Assigns do make Applications for such Grant 
and Conveyance within the space of one year after Notification in one 
or more of the publick Newspapers of this Colany of the issuing such 
respective Letters Patent and of the Names of the Patentees under 
the Grants of New Hampshire. 



The first recorded evidence to be found in the town records that the 
town took any interest in the political affairs that so deeply absorbed 
the attention of the people generally, appears in the records under 
date of June 1st, 1775, This record was made by Amos Robinson, 
and reads as follows: 

" At a legal meeting held at the house of Widow Rutli Strong, on Thursday ye 
1st day of June 1775. 

Chose — Capt. Joseph Marsh, moderator. 

Cliose — Amos Robinson a delegate to go Westminster. 

Voted — that each man pay liis equal proportion of the expenses of sending 
delegates to Westminster. 

Voted to treat any man witli contempt and neglect that refuses to pay his pro- 
poi'tion of said expenses." 

At a meeting held in tlie house of widow Ruth Strong (relic of Elijah 
Strong) June 19th, 1775, Joe^ Marsh was chosen captain; Benjm 
Wright, Jr., lieut., and Alexander Brink, ensign to a company of militia 
for Cumberland County upper regiment, and at the same meeting, Capt. 
Joseph Marsh, Stephen Tilden, Amos Robinson and Joshua Hazen,' 
were chosen a committee of safety for the town. 

Nov. 20, 1775, the town voted to comply Avith the request of the 
New York Provincial Congress to send men to represent the county at 
the Honorable Provincial Congress at New York, but the names of the 
delegates chosen were not recorded. Probably Capt. Joseph Marsh 
was one of the delegates chosen. 

The old county of Cumberland was erected by New York July 3, 
1766, and was composed of the counties of Windham and Windsor. 
The freeholders and inhabitants of the county were authorized to elect 
supervisors, assessors, collectors, a treasurer and other officers, at the 
meeting next after their appointment, the supervisors were directed to 
levy and collect of those residing or sojourning in the county a sum not 
exceeding £200, to be applied in constructing a court house and jail. 
Chester was selected as the location of these buildings, and here subse- 
quently the justices and judges held courts. In 1768 a new charter was 
granted to the county and permission was given the inhabitants to 
erect a court house at their own expense. Chester was again chosen as 

' These men were afterwards prominent supporters of the go% ernment of Xev- 


the location of the court house and jail. At a meeting of the supervi- 
sors held at Chester May 26, 1772, Westminster was chosen as the shire 
town of Cumberland County, where a good court house and jail were 
built. The first County Congress of Cumberland County was therefore 
held at Westminster. 

At a town meeting held July 13, 1776, it was voted that the town 
should take the ammunition that the committee purchased in Connecti- 
cut into their care as a town stock, and Capt. Abel Marsh was chosen 
to take charge of said ammunition. It was also voted, that Maj. Joel 
Marsh, Stephen Tilden and Samuel Udall, should be a committee to 
give obligations to Capt. Abel Marsh and Maj. Griswold for the 
ammunition, and proportion an assessment on the inhabitants for the 
payment of the same, and give a bill to the constables to collect. Also, 
that Capt. Marsh deal out one pound of jjowder to each soldier belong- 
ing to the town that has gone or is going to Royalton, and lead and 
flints proportionable to the stock, and half a pound of powder, lead and 
flints proportionable to the stock to each man in town that had a gun. 
Also, that if any man wasted or in any way disposed of any of the 
ammunition drawn, or to be drawn out of the town stock he should pay 
after the rate of two dollars per pound, and be held up to public view 
as an enemy to his country. April 1st, 1777, the town voted to sell 
this ammunition, and Capt. Abel Marsh was appointed a committee to 
make the sale. It was also voted to raise by tax £20 to defray the 
charges of the supervisors and county committee going to Westminster, 
and the charge of the Royalton department which was the town's quota 
to pay. 

Nothing further appears in the town records relating to the further 
participation of the inhabitants in the affairs of Cumberland county; 
we will, therefore, quote M^hat we have been able to glean from other 
sources concerning the identification of the leading citizens of the town 
with the " Congress " and " Committee of Safety " for Cumberland 
counnty.' The executive officers of the towns comprising the counties 
of Cumberland and Gloucester, were styled supervisors, and these, when 
at home, were chairmen of the committees of safety for their respec- 
tive towns. The county committees of safety were composed of an 
aggregation of town committees. Then there were General Conven- 
tions of a still higher grade which were composed of delegates ap- 

^ Cumberland County was composed of Windham and Windsor counties. 
Gloucester county embraced only Orange County. Cumberland County was 
divided into districts, the most noteworthy of which was named "Hartford" 
and ranked as District " Number i " and embraced the town of Hartford an d 
the territory north of it to the line of Gloucester County, which line was terme d 
the frontier of Cumberland County. 


pointed by the inhabitants of the several towns, and the resolves and 
votes of the Conventions were executed by committees or agents 
thereto appointed by the conventions. 

May 16th, 1774, a committee of correspondence, consisting of fifty 
members was formed in the city of New York for the purpose of elicit- 
ing the sentiments of the people of the respective provinces, and par- 
ticularly of New York, on the measures of the mother country in 
respect to her American colonies. Of this committee Isaac Low was 
chairman, and he addressed the supervisors of Cumberland County, 
May 21, 1774, asking information as to the sentiment of the people. 
The supervisors, who were all pledged to the interests of New York, 
which province was then extremely friendly to the mother country and 
ready to cater to her interests — took no notice of Mr. Low's letter fur- 
ther than to attempt to conceal it. But by accident it was discovered, 
and the supervisors were called upon to explain their reasons for with- 
holding the letter. They with profuse excuses produced the letter, 
whereupon a copy of it was sent to each town in Cumberland county, 
and a county convention was called to meet at Westminster on the 19th 
of October, 1774. The inliabitants of Chester anticipated the action of 
the forthcoming convention by holding a meeting October 10th and ap- 
pointing a committee to unite with the county committee to prepare a 
report to be sent to the New York committee of correspondence. The 
proceedings of that meeting were too prolix to be inserted here entire, 
but as the resolutions adopted were, in sum and substance, the first 
declaration of sentiments that later were elaborately enunciated in the 
Declaration of American Independence, they are entitled to a place in 
this history. The resolutions were as follows: 

" At said meeting. Resolved, first, That the People of America are 
Naturally Intitled to all the Privileges of Free Borne Subjects of Great 
Britain, which Privileges they have Never Foi'feited. 

Secondly. Resolved, that Every Man's Estate, Honestly Acquired, 
is his Own and no person on Earth has A Right to take it Away without 
the Proprietors' Consent unless he forfeit it by Some Crilne of his 

Thirdly. Resolved, that all Acts of the British Parliament Tending 
to take Away or Abridge these Rights Ought not to be Obeyed. 

Fourthly. Resolved, that the People of this Town will Joyn with 
their Fellow American Subjects in Opposing in all Lawful! ways Every 
Incroachment on their Natural Rights. 

Chester, April 20th, 1773." 

It is not surprising that such sentiments were deprecated by the New 
York authorities to whom they were indirectly aimed. 

The first Cumberland county convention at which Hartford was 
represented, was held at Westminster, Feb. 7-9, 1774. Jonathan Burch 


was the delegate from Hartford, and he Avas chosen one of a committee 
of correspondence, &g. Twelve towns only were represented in this 
convention. The animus of this convention was expressed in the 9th 
vote taken, viz. : — " That this Convention Recommend it (to) their 
Constituants to chuse a Man for their Supervisor at the next Annual 
meeting- such as they would Chouse if they ware to send him to New 
York as their Assemblyman, &c." 

The next in the order of revolutionary events was the massacre of 
William French and Daniel Hoisington, at Westminster, May 13th, 
IV 75, by the officers of New York, which was afterwards described as 
" the shedding of the first blood that was shed in America to support 
Brittanic government." 

It seems paradoxical that such men as Col. Joseph Marsh, Col. Simon 
Stevens, Col. Benj. Wait and Col. Jacob Bayley, could have maintained 
for so long a time as they did, warm, friendly relations with, and 
accepted imj^ortant offices at the hands of, the New York authorities, 
who were guilty of undue use and oppressive exercise of the power of 
jurisdiction toward the inhabitants on the New Hampshire Grants — a 
jurisdiction unfounded in right and reason — and, at the same time, not 
being in the confederacy of states, nor directly sufferers from the in- 
justice of the British government toward the American colonies, remain 
oblivious of the similarity in the controversy between Vermont and the 
government of New York, and that of the American colonies with the 
British government, and unhesitatingly pledge their support and full 
proportion towards maintaining a war against Great Britain, whose 
iniquitous measures Avere endorsed by the New York government. 

The Cumberland county congress again met at Westminster, on the 
26th of July, 1*7 75. In August the Province was divided into military 
districts and the counties of Charlotte, Cumberland and Gloucester 
were embodied in one brigade. Two regiments were formed in Cum- 
berland county, one of Avhich was designated " The North, or Upper 
regiment.* August 14th, 1775, at Springfield, the following list of 
officers for the Upper regiment were chosen : — 

Field Officers : — Simons Stevens, of Springfield, colonel ; Joseph 
Marsh, of Hartford, lieut.-colonel ; and Benjamin Wait, of Windsor, 
major. Among the company officers chosen from Hartford, were Joel 
Marsh, to be Captain ; Benjamin Wright, lieutenant, and Alexander 
Brink, ensign.' 

On the 21st of November, the county "Congress " met at AYestminster, 
f- i"st as a "Congress" to elect deputies, and then as a "Committee of 

'The officers elected at this meeting were nominated in June, 1775. 


Safety " to nominate militia officers. The following persons were 
nominated for the Upper Regiment : — Capt, Joseph Marsh, first colonel; 
Capt. John Barrett, second colonel ; Lieut. Helkiah Grout, first major; 
Capt. Joel Matthews, second major; Timothy Sj)encer, adjutant; Amos 
Robinson, quartermaster.' For a Regiment of Minute men : — Capt. 
Joab Hoisington, first colonel ; Seth Smith, second colonel ; Joseph 
Tyler, first major ; Joel Marsh, second major ; Timothy Phelps, adju- 
tant ; Elisha Hawley, quartermaster. The above named nominees were 
confirmed Jan'y 4th, 1776. Col. Marsh, Amos Robinson and Maj. Joel 
Marsh were citizens of Hartford.^ It is probable that several citizens 
of Hartford, who were then liable to military duty, were members of 
the upper regiment of Cumberland county Avhich was organized August 
14, 1775, at Springfield, Vt,, and, doubtless, some were membei's of the 
ranging department, but there is no evidence of this in the town records. 
For the purpose of obtaining more light concerning the enlistments 
of citizens of the town into the above named I'egiments, I made appli- 
cation to the adjutant general of New York, Feb. 1st. 1886, which elic- 
ited the following response, viz : — 

General Hevdquarters, State of New York, } 
Adjutant-General's Office, Albany, Feb. 5, 1886. ) 

Respectfully returned inviting attention to enclosed conimunication from Mr. 
Feniow. (Signed) J. N. PORTER, 

Maj. -Gen. and Adjt.-Oen. 
Mr. Fernow wrote as follows : — 

'■ The records of this department give only the following list of offi- 
cers commissioned for the Upper or North Regiment of Cumberland 
County by the committee of safetv of New York, on the 4th of January, 

Colonel — Joseph Marsh. - Lieut. -Col. — -John Barrett. 

1st Major— Hilkiali Grout. 2d Major — Joel Matthews. 

Adjutant — Timothy Sjiencer. Quartermaster — Amos Robinson. - 

After the adoption of the State Constitution and the election of a 
governor (Gov. Clinton) and a council of appointment, no further notice 
seems to have been taken of the northern part of Cumberland County 
by the authorities of this State. Hence the pay list, or list of certifi- 
cates of indebtedness issued to the levies and militia by the treasurer of 
New York does not contain the names of the officers and jirivates in 
Col. Marsh's regiment. For further information Mr. Tucker is referred 
to the ' Journal of the New York Provincial Congress.' " 


State Custodian of Historical Mecords. 
Albany, Feb. 4th, 1886. 

'The officers in this list took the place of those nominated in June. 
^ See nominations made Nov. 21, 1775. 


The followiug appears in the records of the Gloucester County com- 
mittee of safety : 

" At a meeting of the committees of the Counties of Cumberland and 
Gloucester appointed to nominate a brigadier-general and a brigade- 
major, at Windsor, on Wednesday the 22d day of May, 1776 ; made 
choice of Colonel Joseph Marsh as chairman, and Major Joel Matthews 
clerk ; then proceeded and made choice of Col. Jacob Bayley as briga- 
dier-general and Simon Stevens Esq. as brigade-major, of said counties. 
Voted, That the return of the above nominations be sent by Colonel 
Marsh to the honorable Provincial Congress, who is authorized to rep- 
resent this Committee at Congress." By order. 

(Signed) JOSEPH MARSH, Chairman.' 


To the Honorable Provincial Congress. 

At a meeting of the Cumberland County committee of safety held at 

Westminster, June 20-22, 1776, Hartford was not represented. At this 

meeting it was voted to send representatives to New York to sit in the 

Provincial Congress, and that the three highest in number of votes should 

be the gentlemen chosen to go. Col. Joseph Marsh received 368 votes ; 

Deacon John Sessions 172, and Simon Stevens Esq. 166, and they were 

declared the three highest in vote. The chairman of the committee was 

instructed to make out certificates that these gentlemen were duly 

chosen delegates to sit in Provincial Congress." 

' Col. Marsh did not, after the date of this meeting, participate in the proceed- 
ings of anj' Congress, convention, or committee of safety, held in the interest of 
the government of New York. 

-Deacon Sessions and Mr. Stevens went to New York, but Col. Marsh declined 
the mission. Col. Marsh doubtless retired from all connection with the govern- 
ment of New York in 1776. On the ist of April, 1777, he was chosen with Amos 
Robinson, Stephen Tilden, Capt. Abel Marsh and Lieut. Israel Gillettto serve as 
a town committee of safety. 




At a meeting of several adjacent Towns at the College Hall on Friday the oth 
day of July, 1776 (viz) Lyme, Hanover, Lebanon, Thetford, Norwich and Hart- 

Chosen — Amos Robinson,' Clerk. 

Chosen — Deacon Nehemiah Estabrook, Moderator. 

Voted — to raise 50 men Exclusive of officers to Repair to Royalton to fortify 
in that Town and Scout from thence to Onion River and Newbury. 

Voted — To appoint one Captain and two Subalterns. 

Voted — To appoint Mr. David Woodward, Captain. 

Voted — To appoint Mr. Joshua Hazzen, first-Lieut. 

Voted — To appoint Mr. Abel Lyman second Lieut. 

Voted — To appoint a Committee of three men to Direct the Building of the 
fort at Royalton and furnisli sd Fort with all necessary supplies. 

Chosen Esqr Joel Marsh,' Mr. Isaac Morgan and Majr Jolm Slapp to be sd 

Voted — To raise 250 men Exclusive of officers to go to Newbury to fortifie, 
scout and guard there for three months unless sooner discharged. 

Voted — To ajapoint Capt. Abner Seelys Major of the last mentioned Depart- 

Voted — To divide sd 250 into four Companys. 

Voted— To appoint Mr. Levi Willard, Mr. Oliver Ashley and Mr. Samuel 
Paine to be Captains. 

Voted — That the Captains appoint theu- Subalterns. 

Voted — To appoint a Committee of three men to Direct and order the affairs 
of the Newbury Department. 

Voted — That Col. Bailey, Col. Jolmson and Col Olcott be sd Comtee. 

Voted — That this Committee engage to see that the oflicers and soldiers in 
both the afore mentioned Departments be honorably paid for their services. 

Voted To dismmiss this meeting — it is accordingly dismist. 

A ti"ue copy from the Minutes. 
Test : Pr me Amos Robinson, Clerk. 

At a special meeting of tlie members of the Committee of Safety for 
Cumberland county, July 23rd, 1776, Thomas Hazen, of Hartford, was 
present as a member of the committee. On the 25th, the committee 
voted that the powder which had been sent to the county by the Pro- 
vincial Congress of New York should be dealt out to the several town 
committees to be kept as a town stock, and not dealt out without some 

' Amos Robinson, Joel Marsh and Joshua Hazen were from Hartford. 


extraordinary caution, and if dealt out and not used to be returned.' 

On this occasion it was resolved, " that any person knowing of any 
criminal correspondence kept up between any person or persons in this 
county and the King's officers in the army at Canaday, on giving notice 
thereof, shall receive the utmost protection from this committee." 

On the 6th of August, 1776, the committee of Cumberland and Glou- 
cester counties met at Windsor in order to appoint officers, such as 
captains, lieutenants, &g., for a ranging department granted by the 
Provincial Congress of New York, viz : — 252 men out of the two coun- 
ties, to the command of which the Congress had commissioned Mr. Joab 
Hoisington, of Woodstock, major. Stephen Tilden, of Hartford, was 
a member of this meeting. The committee agreed to appoint 3 captains 
and 4 lieutenants in the county of Cumberland, and one captain and 4 
lieutenants in Gloucester county. Major Joel Marsh, of Hartford, was 
appointed captain in said dej^artment. Thomas Hazen and Stephen 
Tilden, of Hartford, J. Winchester Dana, of Pomfret, and lieutenant 
John Strong, of Woodstock, were chosen to join a committee of Glou- 
cester county to appoint their jjroportion of officei's, and to meet at 
Abner Chamberlins' in Thetford, and in case Maj. Marsh declined to 
serve as captain in this department to choose a substitute." It was also 
voted, that the sub-committees of the towns should see that a late 
hand-bill from New York was signed by all citizens, and the refusers 
to be dealt with according to said hand-bill.^ 

At a meeting of the County Committee at Westminster, June 4-5 
1777. Thomas Hazen of Hartford, was present. This was the last 
appearance of Mr. Hazen at the meetings of said Committee. While 
Mr. Hazen was in attendance at this meeting, Col. Joseph Marsh and 
Mr Steven Tilden were attending the general convention of the rep- 
resentatives from the several counties and towns in the New Hamp- 
shire grants at Windsor, as delegates from Hartford. 

The last meeting of the Cumberland county Committee was held at 

' This powder was an object of great solicitude. A guard was kept over it day 
and night. Julj 23rd, the committee voted " that landlord Nichols should provide 
the guard the necessary victualing and half a pint of rum to each man once in 24 
hours, and that the wages of the guard should be 3&. per day and 2s. per night. 

^Mr. Marsh declined ; at least he was not commissioned. 

■^The handbill referred to was sent to the committee from the Provisional Con- 
gress of New York, and suggested the expediency of instituting civil government 
according to the exigencies of the county, and the formation of a mode of gov- 
ernment independent of the Crown — for the preservation of the rights, liberties 
and property of the people — and requested the towns to make some expression of 
their sentiment on this matter. The major part of the people of the county, in- 
cluding Hartford, agreed to the proposition, elected delegates, and empowered 
them with authority to agree with the Provincial Congress in favor of the proposed 


Westminster, Sept. 2-3, 1777. In the roll of members then present 
there appears the name of Mr. Rust of Hartford, who must have been a 
self-constituted representative, as he was not a member of the town 
committee nor a town officer at that date. The record of proceedings of 
this meeting indicates the existence of a strong sentiment against New 
York. It was moved that the committee should send some sutiable 
person to the legislature of New York to inform them of the conduct 
of the pretended council (of safety) and pretended committees of the 
State of Vermont and take their advice and. directions thereon. The 
vote stood four to three against the motion. It was then voted to 
adjourn until the second Tuesday of November.' 


The year 1777 was fraught with important events to the whole 
country, but to Vermont it was the most eventful period in her history. 
Some of the important proceedings of the conventions of that year 
have been already alluded to. It has been said that the convention of 
June 4th appointed a committee to repair to Ticonderoga to consult 
with the commander of the fort at that point respecting the regulations 
and defense of the frontiers. While the committee was at that point 
Gen. Burgoyne with his army appeared on the lake, and resting at 
Crown Point, he sent a scout of 300, mostly Indians, to land at the 
moiith of Otter Creek, to annoy the frontiers of the State. Gen. Poor 
declined to allow any troops to the committee for defense of the fron- 
tiers, but allowed Col. Warner to go with the committee, who soon 
raised men sufficient to repel the scouts. Such of the committee as 
were members of the convention left the militia and repaired to the 
convention at Windsor, July 2d." 

The convention of the 4th of June issued a proclamation for a fast to 
be observed June 18th. The convention also took possession of the 
common goal for the county of Cumberland, and directed that the 
keeper should keep in custody all prisoners already committed by any 
legal authority within the State until discharged by the convention. 
The convention also notitied the chairman of the Committee of Safety 
for the counties of Cumberland and Gloucester to desist from longer 

' During the proceedings above named (Sept. 2-3), Mr. Clay the chairman of 
the council was not present. Soon after the adjournment named, Mr. Clav put 
in an appearance, and the committee reassembled with him. and it was decided 
to send some person to New York to inake a representation of the difficulties the 
county of Cumberland w'as laboring under, and Capt. Clay was chosen for that 

-' Allen's Yt. p. 92 in Yt. Hist. Soc. Coll. Yol. i p. 382. 


acting in such capacity by virtue of New York authority : ordered the 
Committees of Safety acting under the authority of Vermont to take 
into immediate custody all such estates of enemical persons who have 
been or may have proved to be such, and emjjowered all town com- 
mittees to seize and secure all and every person and their estates, that 
appear to be enemical to their country, and them safely keep for the 
use of the State during the recess of the convention, except what may 
be sufficient to defray the necessary charges arising for trial of such 
offenses ; that town committees seizing the person or estate of any sus- 
pected enemies, and finding cause to proceed against the same, should 
be emjiOAvered to call thirteen committeemen from adjacent towns to 
act with committee of said town, to try such offenders and give sentence 
against them and order judgment to be put in execution — provided the 
offenders are not worthy of death or other corpoi'al punishment — in 
Avhich case the committees should imprison the offenders in the common 
goaP within this State there to remain without bail until a proper 
court should be established in this State to try them. 

Pursuant to the request of the convention the people of Hai'tford 
met on Monday, June 23d, IVVV, to elect two delegates to attend said 
convention. This meeting was held in the house of Solomon Strong, 
near the centre of the town. Benjamin Wright Avas chosen Moderator. 
Col. Joseph Marsh and Lieut. Joshua Hazen Avere chosen delegates. 
The following vote was taken, viz: 

" That we do authorize and empower Col. Joseph Marsh and Lieut. 
Joshua Hazen to join with the delegates from the other towns in the 
State of Vermont, that are chosen to meet at Windsor on the 3d day 
of July next to Draw the out Lines of Government. 

Voted — unanimously that we will join to be a New State on the 
New Hampshire Grants. 


This convention established a constitution, and frame of government. 
Col. Joseph Marsh of Hartford was chosen Vice-President of the con- 
vention. Rev. Aaron Hutchinson of Pomfret delivered a sermon. 
After the sermon the convention proceeded to the specific business for 
Avhich it was called. A draft of a constitution was laid before the con- 
vention and read. The convention had this under consideration when 

' The convention of Sept. 25th, recommended and it was voted, that a goal be 
erected in Manchester twenty feet by thirty inside, to be built of logs and earth 
for the confinement of tories and other offenders. Said goal to be built of a 
double wall of logs not less than twelve inches through, laid eighteen inches 
between walls, the vacancy to be filled with earth about 7 feet high, then roofed, 
to have a log floor, double and strong door. 


their attention was called away by the arrival of a dispatch from Col. 
Seth Warner announcing the advance of Burgoyne upon Ticonderoga 
and calling for assistance. The news greatly alarmed the convention, 
as the capture of Ticonderoga, — which was regarded as the Gibralter of 
America — would leave the frontiers of the State exposed to the inroads 
of the enemy. A copy of Col. Warner's dispatch was immediateh^ for- 
warded by express to the General Assembly of New Hampshire, then in 
session at Exeter, with a letter from the Convention, stating the situa- 
tion, and submitting the consideration of the matter to the serious 
attention of the Assembly. The militia of the State were then with the 
officer commanding at Ticonderoga. Consequently the convention 
could take no other measures to reinforce the beleagured fortress. It 
therefore proceeded to consider the constitution. It resiained in session 
until July 8th, when its deliberations were again interrupted by the 
arrival of a dispatch from Gen. St. Clair, returning his thanks for the 
exertions made by the convention to reinforce Ticonderoga, but an- 
nouncing the evacuation of the place on the morning of the 6th of July. 

This news caused great alarm. Many of the members were for leaving 
and flying to the defense of their homes, but a severe thunder storm 
came on which compelled them to remain awhile, and in the interim 
they were persuaded by other members, less alarmed by the news, to 
conclude their business. The constitution was read for the last time 
and unanimously adopted. It was then ordered that an election should 
be held in December, 1777, for the election of representatives to the 
General Assembly to meet at Bennington in January, 1778. Col. Joseph 
Marsh, Joseph Williams, and Timothy Brownson were appointed a 
committee to procure a supply of arms, for the State, Avith instructions 
to draw them, if possible, from governmental arsenals. A council of 
safety was appointed to administer the affairs of the State until some 
other provision should be made. The convention voted to establish a 
loan office and appointed Ira Allen its trustee. After a session of six 
days the convention adjourned. 

The battle of Bennington has been declared the decisive battle of the 
Revolution, for the reason that there can scarcely be a doubt that a 
contrary result would have exposed all New England to devastation. 
The British Colonel Baum had boasted that he would march through 
Vermont to Boston, which he doubtless would have succeeded in doing- 
had victory not perched on the banners of the gallant American forces. 
" One more such strike," said Washington, " and we shall have no great 
cause for anxiety as to the future designs of Iiritain." 

The onlv adducible evidence that Hartford contributed men to the 


militia marched by Col. Joseph Marsh to reinforce Gen. Poor, at Ticon- 
deroga, or to the forces sent to Bennington from the grants, is found in 
the records comprised in the Vermont Historical Society's collections, 
now deposited in Montpelier. 

The records of the town are very meagre concerning military affairs. 
Indeed, the entire records of the legislative action of the town, for a 
period of seventeen years, 1761-1778, were kept in the small pamphlet 
book, heretofore alluded to, and the proceedings specifically relating to 
military matters are recorded on less space than two pages of foolscap 
paper. Our ancestors were men of brawn, and not given to buncombe 
demonstrations. Their legislative proceedings were brief in character, 
and only stubborn facts for present reference dotted the pages on which 
they inscribed the record of their action. They formed but few plans, 
but these they executed with perseverance and heroism worthy of the 
cause they were striving to maintain. The number of those, however, 
who took up arms and entered the arena of actual hostilities must have 
been small, for the reason that the whole number of inhabitants in the 
town, at the date of the Bennington battle, was less than two hundred, 
and of these none but able bodied men between sixteen and sixty years 
of age were liable to do military duty. 

In 1765, the government of New York divided a portion of the New 
Hampshire grants into a new county by the name of Cumberland which 
embraced the territory now constituting Windham and Windsor coun- 
ties. This county they divided into military districts, of which Hart- 
ford and all towns north to the south line of Gloucester county (now 
Orange), formed the 1st district, which was entitled "Hartford 

In 1771, the New York government caused a census to be taken of 
the aforesaid counties. At this time Cumberland county contained 
3,947 inhabitants ; Hartford contained but 191, while the whole number 
in the State did not exceed 7,000. The eastern half of the State con- 
tained the largest part of the population. Dr. Williams estimated the 
population of Cumberland and Gloucester counties to be at least two- 
thirds of tlie people in the whole State, or territory ; and in 1791 the 
number on the east side was 43,970; on the w^est side 41,569, total 
85,539. Hartford, in 1791, had a population of 988. The probable 
number of her inhabitants at the commencement of the Revolution was 
about 300. On a call for troops her full quota (eliminating those en- 
titled to exemption from military duty, could not have exceeded fifty 
men — probably not 40. 


It seems probable that the militia of Hartford were employed to do 
frontier duty against innovations made by the Indians ; and to repel 
any attempted overt acts on the part of the New Yorkers : also, to do 
duty in behalf of the Continental Congress. They were under the com- 
mand and authority of committees of safety, who were considered as 
the supreme executive, and whose orders and recommendations were 
regarded as the law of the land, the infraction of which was punished 
with severity. Though Vermont was not in the Union, and was denied 
admission to it, the people of Hartford, in common with those of other 
towns, when the controversy with Britain approached open hostilities, 
imbibed the spirit of opposition that grew out of the coercive measures 
taken by the mother country, and responded to every call made upon 
their patriotism, both to defend their personal rights and the cause of 
the country at large. 

An examination of the records in possession of the Vermont Histor- 
ical Society, re\ eals some interesting facts that are entitled to a place 
in this history. The first document found, in the aforesaid records, 
relating to Hartford, in the Eevolution, is found in Vol. I., under date 
11th August, 1777, which shows that on that date the council of safety 
sent an express to Colonel Joseph Marsh of Hartford to march one- 
half of his militia to Bennington. Jones Fay, vice-president of the 
council, in a letter to Maj. Israel Smith of Strafford, under date of 
August 13th, wrote : 

" Dear Col. : By express this day received from the commanding 
officer of the Northern Department, we learn that a door has now 
opened for the troops of this State to do duty on this side the north 
river which will be clear from Gen. Schuyler's command, and as an ex- 
pedition is on foot of the greatest importance, which is to remain a 
secret till the troops are colJected, these are therefore the most positive 
terms to require you, without a moment's loss of time, to march one- 
half of the regiment under your command to this place. No small 
excuse at this juncture can be received. * * * You will hurry 
what Bangers forward are recruited with all speed. Now is the time, 
gjj, * * * J desire you would, By Order of Council send this Ex- 
press to General Bayley, Peter Olcott, Col. and Col Marsh." 

As this order was issued only three days prior to the day of the bat- 
tle, it could not have reached Col. Marsh in time to enable him to col- 
lect his men (who were not in garrison) and march them to Bennington 
by the 16th, but it appears of record, that he did collect his men and 
started on the 16th for Bennington. This is shown by the following 
documentary evidence to be found in Vt. His. Soc. Coll. Vol. 2, p. 379, 
entitled : 

" A Pay roll of Capt. Seth Hodges' company in Col. Joseph Marsh's 



regiment of militia for the bounty allowed by the State of Vermont, 
Pomfret, Oct. 7, 1777. 

Corporal Asa Emerson, Privates Jonathan Burch, Eddy Barch, 
Becket Chapman, Mitchell Clark, Wm. Curtis, Bary Damon, Hezekiah 
Hazen, Jno. Hill, Abel Marsh, Elisha Perkins, Phineas Strong, Seth 
Savage, Elkanah Sprague, Stephen Tilden, Andrew Tracy, Josiah Til- 
den, Wm. Udall, Benjamin Wright,' Samuel Webster, Timothy Hard- 
ing, Wm. Kanney, Nath'l Troop, John Watkins." ' 

This roll is made up in a tabulated form and states that the time of 
entering service was Aug. 16th, 1777, that with few exceptions, they 
remained in service to October 4th (fifty days), that the monthly pay of 
each of the men was at the rate of £2, 10s.; that the miles travelled 
were 180 ; each man s mileage pay was 15s. and the whole pay to each 
man who served the full time was £4, 18s., 4p. On the back of the 
■ roll is the following endorsement by Col. Marsh : 

"In Council, Hartford, July 14th, 1778. The within pay-roll accepted and 
approved, the sum of which is £197-1-8 whicli sum the treasurer is desired to 
pay; per order of Council. (Signed) JOSEPH MARSH." 

A family tradition is that Col. Marsh was in the battle of Bennington. 
Paul Spooner mentioned in his letter to Brig. Gen. Bayley under date 
of the 11th August, that an express was that day sent to Col. Marsh 
ordering him to march one-half his command to Bennington. Mr. 
Spooner was deputy secretary to the council, and knew whereof he was 
writing. The express could have occupied not less than two days en 
route from Bennington to Hartford, under the most favorable circum- 
stances the militia could not have been collected, provisioned and 
marched to Bennington, by the most available route, in less than four 
days. It is therefore probable that Col. Marsh's regiment did not 
march before the l6th, and, as Gov. Hall suggests, was in service on 
the Hudson, instead of being at Bennington.^ 

The next document, in chronological order, was a return of the num- 
ber of men and horses employed by Capt. Abel Marsh in carrying 
flour from some point on the Connecticut river to Battenkill. 

A return of the Men and Horses employed by Capt. Abel Marsh in 
Carrying Flour from Connecticut River to ]3attenkill for the use of the 
Northern Army by order of Jacob Bayley, B. D. G., 13 October, 1777. 

' The first nineteen were citizens of Hartford. 

- The last five were citizens of Pomfret. 

^ The late Hon. Roswell Marsh of Steubenville, Ohio, grandson of the lieu- 
tenant governor, in whose family he lived until he was i8, was certain that 
leading public men and members of the family spoke of his having a share at 
Bennington and of camp-life while the regiment guarded the river to prevent 
Burgoyne's retreat, and cut off supplies from Canada. Governor and Council, 
Vol. I, p. 237. 



Men's Names. Xo. clays No. of 

Service. Horses. 

Joseph Marsh 1 

Nathan Howling 15 1 

Josiah Lamb 15 1 

Jolm Strong 9 1 

Joseph Safford 9 1 

Wra. Powers 9 1 

Oliver Kidder 10 2 

Israel Burlinganie 10 2 

Jeratluiiael Powers 10 1 

Roger Bates 10 1 

Samuel Scott 10 1 

EUjah Mason 1 

James Burch 6 1 

Elkanah Sprague 9 1 

Zebulon Lvon 15 1 

Eldad Hubbard 15 1 

Joel Marsh 1 

Roswell Morgan 16 1 

LVett Benson 16 1 

Josh via Spear 1 

Levi Baldwin 1 

Elijah Smalley 16 1 

Abner Howard 16 1 

Ohver Udal 1 

Darius Sessions 1 

Peter Thatcher . 1 

Dan'l Waterman 1 

David Staton 3 1 

Nathl Boardman 8 1 

Joseph Hatch 3 1 

Cash exjiended on the Voige 

No. of 

Expenses per 


(lay, men 

Sum Total 


and horses. 




s. p. 





































































5 4 




5 4 



































Attest, Abel Mahsh. 

On the back of the return are the following endorsements : — 

" This certifies that by direction of Gen. Lincoln, I ordered the within 
supplies of flower which was delivered to the commissary at Battenkill 
at the time within specified when the baggage horses were dismissed. 


Pay Koll Ofiice, Charlestown, N. H., Oct. 25, 1781. 

The within account examined and there is allowed thereon £78. Is. 

4p., and the treasurer is directed to pay the same to Capt. Abel Marsh 

or bearer. 



ray Table. 


Treasurer's Ofiice, Charlestown, ] 
Oct. 24, 1781. Received of the treas- I 
urer the contents of this order in be- 
half of Capt. Abel Marsh. 


'In September 1777, Gen. Bavley was at Castleton on military business and 
affixed the initials "13. D. G." to his name, which probably was meant for Briga- 
dier General. He was commissary General of the northern department when tlie 
above named order was sriven. 


On the 26th of March, 1778, the Governor and Council, empowered 
by the General Assembly, appointed a court to confiscate and order the 
sale of the estates, both real and personal, belonging to the enemies of 
the United States, which laid within the limits of Vermont. Two courts 
were established, one for Cumberland, the other Bennington County. 
The court for Cumberland county consisted of Lieut. Governor 
Marsh, Jacob Bayley, Thomas Murdock, Peter Olcott, Benjamin Emmons 
Paul Spooner, and Benjamin Carpenter. Any four of these were to be 
a quorum. The court for Cumberland County found many causes for 
confiscation, but it does not appear of record that any estates were con- 
fiscated in Hartford, or that any punishment was inflicted upon any of 
her inhabitants. Still, there may have been cases of sequestration, as 
there were in the adjoining town of Hartland, and in Windsor. Corpo- 
real punishment was inflicted in many portions of the State. One case 
will be sujSicient to illustrate the intent, if not the application of the 
law of chastisement. One Francis Breakenridge had been arrested for 
inimical conduct, and after being kept in durance vile for some time, 
asked leave to return home. Leave was granted in the following 
terms : — 

" Francis Breakenridge is permitted to return home and remain on 
his father's farm, and if found ofl:* to expect 39 lashes of the Beach Seal, 
until further order from this Council." 

One Zadock Wright, of Hartland, rendered himself very obnoxious 
to his neighbors, and in consequence his propertj'^ was seized by order 
of the Council, his farm was rented to Moses Evans, with some excep- 
tions in favor of his wife. It is supposed that the following voucher of 
expenses, or return of services by a guard or guards relates to the said 
Wright, for the reason that the men named as guards were members of 
the militia of Hartford and Hertford (Hartland). 

A Return of the gard that garded Maj. Wright : — Elkanah Sprague, 
Thomas Ritcheson (Richardson), Jeremiah Rust, Phineas Rust, Eli 
Willard and Achial Rust. Time three days and three nights at one 
pound six shillings each. Total £10. 4s. 

Test Elkanah Sprague ofeser of the gard. Hartford, June, 1778. 

A return of another gard that geardf d said Wright : — Joseph Marsh, 
Jr., Andrew Tracy, Stephen Tilden, Jr., and David Wright. Time 8 
days and 3 nights. Wages £1. 6s. each. Total £7. 4s. 

Esq. Dana, Zebulon Lee and Joseph Marsh, Jr., who guarded said 
Wright to " No 4," 2 days with horses and expenses 2 pounds, 15 shil- 
lings each. Total £8 5s. 

Test David Wright, sargent of the gard, June, 1778. 
Hartford, Oct. 24th, 1778. This may sartify that the above gards were 
ordered by me. 10.4 

JOSEPH MASH,' Major of geard 8.5 

• Son of Lt.-Gov. Joseph Marsh. £25.13.0 


The foregoing will convey a very clear idea of the course pursued by 
the Council toward the enemies of the State and U. S. government. 
Doubtless punishment was administered in many instances with un- 
called for severity. Proscription and confiscation was the rule against 
every expression of loyalty to the old regime. Those who had been loyal 
subjects of the King, were, doubtless, unable to suppress their prefer- 
ences in that direction, and to those who were struggling against every 
obstacle to maintain what they deemed a righteous cause, every mani- 
festation in opposition to that cause was magnified into dangerous hos- 
tility, and those who were lukewarm, as well as those who assumed a 
hostile attidude, were denounced as tories, or traitors, and an indiscrim- 
inate policy of warfare was visited upon them. A sweeping system of 
confiscation, ostracism and corporeal punishment was practiced against 
the inimical, and they in turn hounded on the savages to butcher with 
the tomahawk or maim with the scalping knife, the neighbors with 
whom, in other days, "they took sweet counsel and walked to the house 
of God in company." Some compassion was shown to the families of 
the proscribed, but nothing was left of movable property but such 
articles as human compassion revolted against appropriating. "Those 
who are not for us, are against us," was the rule of action. " Woe to 
the vanquished," cried the conquering Gaul Brennus, as with false 
weights he appropriated the redemption money of the Romans : " Woe 
to the vanquished," was the rule by which Ira Allen proposed to sup- 
port and pay a regiment of Rangers in the work of seizing the property 
of enemical persons, including the passive and the active, the fighting 
and the flying ; " Woe to the vanquished," was the rule of Congress to 
replenish an empty treasury. 


From the journals of the Governor and Council, and the Council of 
Safety, recently published, I have gathered facts showing that on 
several occasions men were drafted in Hartford for service in defending 
the frontier of the State from the date of the Dorset convention to the 
cessation of the troubles between Vermont and New York. 

It appears that there were six regiments of militia in the State in 
1777. One of these regiments was commanded by Col. Joel Marsh of 
Hartford. On the 2d of April, 1779, the Governor and Council, as 
Board of W^ar, ordered a draft of men to reinforce the military on the 
northern frontiers of the State. Orders were sent to the following 
colonels, viz: Col. Samuel Fletcher, Col. Samuel Herrick, Col. Joe 
Marsh, and Col. Gideon Warren. Of the one hundred men, exclusive o 


commissioned officers, to be raised, the quota of Col. Marsh of Hartford 
was fixed at one 1st lieutenant and thirty non-commissioned officers and 
men, and these were to be drawn from towns in Cumberland County, as 
well as some of those raised by the other colonels above named. 

On the 5th June, 1779, the Board of War made another call for men 
to serve as a guard at Rutland and the frontiers of the State. Col. 
Marsh's quota comprised one captain, one ensign, three sergeants, and 
thirty rank and file, total thirty five. On the 30th July, 1779, an addi- 
tional twenty-six effective men of the militia were raised to be sent to 
Rutland. Of this number Col. Marsh furnished six privates, all citizens 
of Hartford. 

April 6th, 1780, the Board of War resolved, '• That one company of 
75 men exclusive of officers be immediatley raised to join Maj. Ebenezer 
Allen's for the defence of the frontiers." The proportion from Col. 
Joel Marsh's regiment was 12 men, some of whom were from Hart- 

On the 11th of May, 1780, at Arlington, the Board of War resolved 
that, in consideration of the fact that continental provision of sub- 
sistence for troops on the frontiers was stopped, and that the soldiers 
were without meat, the selectmen of each town in the State should 
collect thirty pounds of salt pork for each man raised in said towns, 
and, if said pork could not be collected otherwise, the selectmen should 
take the same from the inhabitants in proi^ortion to what each family 
possessed ; an account of the pork to be kept and expense of trans- 
portation of the same to Rutland for which the State would pay. The 
amount proportioned to Hartford was 180 pounds, showing that the 
number of her citizens then in service at Rutland was six. 

On the 18th of August, 1780, the Board of War resolved that Col. 
Joel Marsh, of Hartford, and other officers, should be a committee to 
station Capt. Safford's and Capt. Cox's companies of rangers : and "that 
said committee should stake out the grounds for forts and give direc- 
tions how said forts should be built — having reference to the present 
campaign only, as the lands that the several surveyors are now survey- 
ing to the west and north of you will be a settling next spring." 

The foregoing is all that appears in the records of the Governor and 
Council concerning the participation of Hartford people in the defence 
of the frontiers ; which service, it must be remembered, was performed 
in the interest of the (Continental government. 

On the 24th of April, 1778, the Governor and Council sent by express 
to Lieut. Governor Marsh, of Hartford, a letter, ordered by the follow- 
ing resolution that day passed in Council, viz : — 

Resolved, that his Excellency the Governor write to (Lieut.) Governor 
Marsh to acquaint him that it is the Resolution of this Council that the 
whole of the Troops that were to be raised to fill Col. Warner's regiment 
to march fortwith to Rutland, which is the Resolution of this Council 
and Governor Marsh is to be requested and ordered, to order the officers 
commanding the said Troops to march them to be raised in Cumberland 
county to Rutland, and the Governor is to order the commanding 
officer of the Two Regiments in this (Bennington) county, to order their 
men immediately to march. 


Pursuant to this request, Governor Marsh ordered the officers com- 
manding troops in Cumberland county to collect their men and march 
to Rutland. One of the commanding officers in said covmty was Colonel 
Joel Marsh, of Sharon, who, on receipt of a copy of said order, wrote 
the following letter to Simon Stevens of Springfield : — 

Honoured Sir : — 

These are to inform you that it is ordered by ye Governor and Coun- 
sell that the men that are raised in my regiment be ordered to meet at 
Windsor in order to cheuse their officers for said company in order to 
march to Rutland as soon as may be. I have therefore appointed next 
Thursday, to be ye time to meet at Landlord Hastings house in Windsor 
at 10 o'clock in ye forenoon for said purpose, and desire your assistance 
in collecting said men. Sir, I should be glad if you would order Rock- 
ingham, Kent (Londonderry), Springfield, Chester, Andover, Weathers- 
field, and Cavendish to send their men on said day, and I should be 
glad if Tou would meet with us if you can. I am sir with great respect 
your most humble servant, 


Hartford, May ye 9th, 177S. 

In the Vermont Historical Society!s collection of documents relatir g 
to the events of the American Revolution, I have discovered several 
papers of an interesting nature, and valuable withal in view of the fact 
that they afford the only adducible evidence on record of the part taken 
by the inhabitants of Hartford in the said Revolution. These papers 
are mostly in the form of pay rolls, and vouchers for services performed 
by scouting parties, guards and detachments, under the command both 
of commissioned and non-commissioned officers, according to the nature 
of the service in which they were respectively engaged. The service of 
guards over inimical persons has already been alluded to. Other cases 
will now be quoted, viz : — 

'• A pay-roll of Sergeant Nathaniel Throops gard ordered out by Col. 
Joel Marsh to be under direction of John Benjamin, High Sheriff in the 
State of Vermont, to guard Enemical Persons from Windsor to Albany, 
from thence to Bennington, from the time of engaging until discharge 
by the Sheriff, commencing the 17th of July and ending the 1st of 
August, 1778, both days included. 

Men's names — Nathaniel Throop, sergeant ; Abel Davis, corporal ; 
privates — John Gillett, Daniel Ainsworth, Oliver Williams, Ellet Por- 
ter, Vespasia Norsiton, John Darling, Silas Bannester, Denison Emer- 
son. Wages of sei'geant and corporal, 3f . Privates, 3 — per day. 2 
horses 14 days. 2 pack horses 120 miles at 6d per mile per horse, facit 

'Joel Marsh resided in West Hartford until 1777, when he removed to Sharon. 
He was chosen to be Captain of a company of militia in the Upper regiment of 
Cumberland County in 1775; Nov. 21, 1775, he was nominated by the Committee 
of Safety for Cumberland County to be 2d Major in the said regiment. June 
4th, 1777, he was one of the delegates from Sharon to the General Convention at 
Windsor. The date of his commission as colonel of a Vermont regiment does 
not appear. 


Endorsements on back of roll — " The committee to examine accounts 
having examined the within find due thex'eon £28 — 13 — 0. 

BENJ. EMMONS. ]- '-ommitiee. 

To Ira Allen, Treasurer, You are hereby ordered to pay Nath'l. 
Throop the within roll which amounts to £28 — 13. 


"Received, Windsor Oct. 26, 1778, of Ira Allen, treasurer, £28— 3 3 in 
full. Endorsed by John Benjamin, Sheriff." 

The next paper in order of date relates to scouting service: — "A re- 
turn of a scout sent out by Capt. (Joshua) Hazzen (Hazen) June, 1778. 
Andrew Tracy, Stephen Tilden, Wm. Allen, out 7 days, at 12 shillings 
per day per man finding their own provition £12.12s." 

" Return of a scout sent out by Capt. Hazzen, Aug. 1778. Israel Gil- 
lett, Asa Hazen, John Dutton, Elias Chapman, 7 days at 36 shillings a 
day, finding their own provitions, £16. 16s." 

" A return of a scout sent out by Col. Marsh Aug. 1778 — Beriah 
Green, Silas Newton, and Wm. Freeman, 16 days at 36 shillings per day 
finding themselves, £28. 16s. 

Hartford Oct. ye 24th, 1778, in pursuants to orders received from the 
Mai general ' the above scouts was sent out. 

By me, JOEL MARSH, Col." 

During the wars between Great Britain and France, the Indian tribes 
of Canada found service, first with the French and then with the Eng- 
lish, as interest or passion dictated them. The Indians were first stim- 
ulated by the French to murder and pillage the defenceless inhabitants 
of the American-English colonies, and this procedure was received by 
the English with execrations. But during the Revolutionary war, 
England employed the same savages as allies to pillage and massacre 
their own brethren ; and it is more than probable that merciless savages 
were incited by the government of New York to do murderous work 
upon the inhabitants of Vermont. 

Dr. Dwight, speaking of the perilous situation of the eary settlers of 
New England, says : 

" The greatest of all the evils which they suffered were derived from 
the savages. These people kept the colonists, after the first hostilities 
commenced, in almost perpetual terror and alarm. The first annunci- 
ation of an Indian war is its actual commencement. In the hour of 
security, silence and sleep, when your enemies are supposed to be 
friends quietly employed in hunting and fishing, when they are believed 
to be at a distance of several hundred miles, and perfectly thoughtless 
of you and yours ; when thus unsuspecting, slumbering on your pillow, 
your sleep is broken up by the war-whoop ; your house, your village are 
set on fire ; your family and friends are butchered and scalped ; your- 

'The ist section of the " Militia Act," passed in February, 1779, made the lieu- 
tenant-governor major-general. In a letter written by Gov. Chittenden to Lieut- 
Gov. Marsh, 29th of April, 177S, he addressed him as major-general. 


self and a few other wretched survivors are hurried into captivity to be 
roasted alive at the stake, or to have your body stuck full of skewers 
and burnt by inches. You are a farmer and have gone abroad to the 
customary work of the field ; there you are shot down from behind a 
tree ; or you return at evening and find your house burnt and your 
family gone ; or perhaps discover their half-consumed bones mingled 
witli the ashes of your dwelling, or your wife murdered and your little 
ones lying beside her, after having been dashed against a tree." 

If one would learn something of the horrors of an Indian massacre, 
let him read the records of the bloodshed and violence perpetrated in 
the Wyoming, Mohawk, Schoharie, and Cherry Valleys, by tories and 
Indians in 1778. Or coming nearer our own homes, peruse the tales of 
inhuman atrocities by the St. Francis Indians — the savage rangers of 
the French and Indian wars, — in the valley of the Connecticut, in the 
Cohos ' region, as late as 1760 ; and in Vermont still later. The history 
of the attack on Royalton in 1780, and on Peacham in 1781, is familiar 
to nearly every student of history in Vermont. The following tran- 
scripts of pay-rolls will give an idea of the services rendered by the 
militia of Hartford in guarding the frontiers and repelling invasions by 
Indians: — 

"A pay roll of Capt. Joshua Hazen's Company that turned out by the 
order of Col. Joseph SafFord to the intent to head that party of the 
enemy (Indians) that was supposed was going to Cohoss in their return 
in October last A. D. 1780. Our march was as far as Bethel." 

(The pay rolls are made up in tabulated form and cannot be given 
here in the original form, but the names of officers and privates engaged 
in service, together with the number of days they served, wages per 
day, miles traveled, mileage pay and total amount of pay-roll will be 

" Officers — Capt. Joshua Hazen ; Lt Wm Bramble, Sergiant David 
Wriglit, Corporals John Gillett, and Hezekiah Hazen. 

Privates — Solomon Hazen, Erastus Chapman, Joseph Chapman, 
Jonathan Wright, Barnabas Tisdel, Josiah Tilden, James Tracy, Seth 
Savage, John Cheney, Enoch Emerson. 

Service 3 days each ; Captains pay 16s pr day ; Lieuts do 12s ; Ser- 
geants do, 4s 10 ; CorporaFs do 4s 5. Pi'ivates do 4s. Miles of travel 
by each 30, at 10s mileage. Total £12-11-8. 

Captains and Lieutenants rations 2 days each." 

This roll was attested by Capt. Joshua Hazen : sworn to by him at 
Norwich before Nathaniel Brown, Justice of the Peace ; examined and 
approved June 23d, 1781, at Bennington, by Pay Table committee, 

' Cohos or Coos is an Indian name, signifying " crooked," and is said to have 
been given originally to a bend in Connecticut river and the territory belonging 
on either side of it, including in New Hampshire, Lancaster, Northumberland 
and Stratford, and in Vermont, Lunenburg, Guildhall and Maidstone. 


who directed its payment to Joshua Hazen or bearer, and was paid June 
23, 1781. 

The following is the sum and substance of a pay-roll that will be read 
with interest. It is the only record extant of the names of the citizens of 
Hartford in 1780, and contains the names of a great majority of the 
voting portion of the population at that period. It is a register of the 
ancestors of a large number of the present citizens of the town, and is a 
matter of history worthy of preservation on other accounts. 

The number of days service, number of miles travel and traveling 
wages were, for both officers and privates, the same, viz : — three 
days service ; forty miles travel ; thirteen shillings four pence traveling 
wages. The wages for service were as follows : Captain, 16 shillings ; 
Lieutenant, 12s ; Ensign, 8s ; Sergeant, 4s. 5p ; Clerk, 4s.5p; Corporal, 
4s. 2p. and privates, 4s. Rations for Captain, Lieutenant and Ensign, 
three days. 

The roll is headed, " A Pay-roll of Capt. Joshua Hazen's Compan y 
in Col. John Wood's regiment, that marched to Brookfield in the larm 
Oct 1780." 

"Names of Officers — Capt Joshua Hazen; Lieut. Wm. Bramble; Ensign 
Elkanah Sprague; Sergeants Elias Chapman, Asa Hazen, Andrew Tracy and 
David Wright; Clerk, Asa Emerson; Corporals, Wm. Dunham, John Gillett, 
Hezekiah Hazen and Stephen Tilden. 

|i [Privates — Ehaathan Allen, Wm Allen, Jonathan Bennett, David Bliss, Wm 
Burch, Erastus Chapman, Joseph Chapman, Simon Chapman, Jolui Cheney, Dan'l 
Clark, Nehemiah Closson, Simeon Curtis, Barjone Demmon, Levi Demmon, 
John Dutton, Enoch Eaton, Enoch Emerson, Daniel O. Gillett, Ezekiel Gillett, 
Isarael Gillett, Jacob Hall, Jonathan Hall, Willis Hall, Daniel Hazen, Solomon 
Hazen, Thomas Hazen, Thomas Hazen, Jr., Thomas Holbrook, Timothy 
Johnson, Abel Marsh, Samuel Marsh, John Marsh Lieutenant-Governor 
Joseph Marsh, Joseph Marsh, Jr., Roger Marsh, Elijah Mason, David New- 
ton, Christopher Pease, Daniel Pease, Samuel Pinneo, Eliot Porter, Calvin 
Powell, Luther Powell, Rowland Powell, Rowland Powell, Jr., Jonathan 
Reynolds, Jehial Robbins, Francis W. Savage, Seth Savage, Solomon Sitzele, 
Ashbell Smith, Ignatius Sprague, Benajah Strong, Phineas Sti'ong, Solo- 
mon Strong, Solomon Strong, Jr., Josiah Terry, Josiah Tilden, Stephen Tilden, 
Barnabas Tisdel, James Tracy, Thomas Tracy, Lenuiel White, Joseph WilUams, 
Benjamin Wright, Jonathan Wright. Total number of officers and privates, 78. 
Amount of pay, £60.5s.7p. 

A true copy of the pay-roll, attest Joshua Hazen Capt Norwich June ye 9th 

Then personaUy appeared Capt Joshua Hazen, of Hartford, and made oath to 
the within pay-roll that it was made according to the best judgment. 

Before me Nath'l Brown, Justice Peace. 

Pay-i-oU office, Bennington, June ye 23, 1781. 


The within account examined and approved and the ti'easurer is directed to 
pav the same wliicli is £60.7s.5i). ' 


- Committee 

June 23d 1781. Received of Ira Allen treasurer the contents of this order. — 
Elkanah Sprague."' 

It will be seen that Lieut. -Governor Marsh served as a private in this 
expedition, and that the list comprises six of the Marsh family then liv- 
ing at Quechee. 

In October, 1780, Capt. Edmund Hodges' company, in Col. Joseph 
Safford's regiment, did service for fourteen days at Fort Fortitude, 
Bethel, Vt. Among the members of said company were Lieut. Asa 
Hazen, Sergt. Elijah Mason, Sergt. Andrew Tracy, Corporals Stephen 
Tilden and Asa Emerson, and Privates Wm. Burch, Nehemiah Closson, 
Luther Powell, Jacob Hall, Francis W. Savage, Thomas Tracy, Solomon 
Strong, Phineas Wright, all of Hartford. 

An attack was made on Peacham, Vt., March 8, 1781. Col. Thomas 
Johnson of Newbury, who had engaged to erect a grist mill at Peacham, 
arrived at the house of Jonathan Elkins on the evening of the 7th of 
March. About 1 o'clock the next morning a party of Indians from Can- 
ada, invaded the house of Mr. Elkins, and made jDrisoners of Col. John- 
son, Jacob Page, and young Jonathan Elkins, and took them to St. 
Johns, P. Q. The news of the foray reached Hartford by express sent 
by Gen. Bayley, who requested immediate help. Capt. Joshua Hazen 
promptly responded to the requisition and marched with a portion of 
his company to Piermont, N. H., but there learning that the enemy 
could not be overtaken, he retraced his steps. A portion of Capt. Haz- 
en's company was at Quechee when the dispatch was received by that 
officer. On receiving notification from Capt. Hazen to march to Peach- 
am, Lieut. Wm. Bramble collected the members of the company at 
Quechee, and proceeded toward Peacham, but had marched no further 
than Dresden (Hanover, N. H.) when Capt. Hazen arrived there on his 
return from Peacham, and all returned to Hartford to rendezvous until 
again called into service. 

"A pay-roll of Capt. Joshua Hazen's company who marched to Peir- 
mont upon Gen. Bayley's request, March 9th, 1781. Capt. Joshua Haz- 
en ; Sergeants Elias Chapman, Asa Hazen, Andrew Tracy and David 
Wright ; Corporals, John Gillett, Hezekiah Hazen and Stephen Tilden ; 
Privates, Jonathan Bennett, Nath'l Bugbee, Benjamin Burk, Erastus 
and Joseph Chapman, Nehemiah Closson, Simeon Curtis, Enoch Eaton, 
Israel Gillett, Solomon and Thomas Hazen, Timothy Johnson, Calvin 
and Luther Powell, Artemus Robinson, Seth and Thomas Savage, Solo- 

'An error in favor of the State. Amount should be £68.18.9. 


mon, Jr., and Wm. Strong, Josiah and Stephen Tilden, Joseph 
and Thomas Tracy, Benjamin and Redington Wright. Service 2 days, 
travel 60 miles. 

Roll approved June 22d, and paid to Elkanah Sprague, June 23d, 

The company from Quechee consisted of Lieut. Wm. Bramble, Sergt. Emerson, Corporal Wm. Dunham, Privates Elnathan Allen, James, 
Jonathan and Wm. Bui'ch, John Carpenter, Wm. Curtis, Joshua Dewey, 
Jacob and Jesse Hall, Isaac Jones, Abel, Daniel, Joseph Jr. and Roger 
Marsh, Ehot Porter, Jonathan Reynolds, Thomas Richardson, Elkanah 
Sprague and Oliver Waterman. 

Services 2 days, miles travel 12. Total pay £ 

Approved at Bennington, June 22d, and paid June 23d, to Elkanah 

In Jane, 1781, a portion of Capt. Joshua Hazen's company were on 
scouting duty, with headquarters at Strafford. The scouts comprised 
men from Hartford and Norwich, who were under the immediate inspec- 
tion of Col. Peter Olcott. 

In August, 1781, a company was ordered out under the command of 
Capt. Wm. Bramble, to march to the fort in Bethel. The company com- 
prised Capt. Wm. Bramble, Lieut. Asa Hazen, Ensign David Wright, 
Sergt. Andrew Tracy, Asa Emerson, and Wm. Dunham. Privates — 
Jonathan Burch, Erastus Chapman, Levi Demmon, Gershom Dunham, 
Eliphalet Marsh, Matthew Ransom, Artemus Robinson, Thomas Savage 
and Solomon Strong. Service 4 days, miles travel 25. Total pay 

Under date of Oct. 9th, 1781, Capt. Hazen sent to the pay-roll com- 
mittee the following voucher, viz : — 

" Hartford, Oct. 9, A. D. 1781. 

A pay-roll of the men that was out in the Royalton larm last October, 
who through mistake was left out of the roll that I sent in at the ses- 
sion of June last, viz : Samuel Webster, Wm. Powers, Christopher 
Pease, Elisha Marsh, Benjamin Steetson, Wm. Porter, Benjamin Burch, 
Wm. Curtis and Benjamin Kingsbury. 


Days service 3, at 14 per day. Travel 34 miles. Pay 11.4. Amt. 
15.4. Total amount £6.18. Approved by committee." 

" Pay-roll for company that marched to Bethel fort in Aug. 1781, 
being called out by authority under Elkanah Sprague Capt, viz : Elka- 
nah Sprague, captain ; privates, Benjamin Wright, John Carpenter, 
Thomas Hazen, Wm. Powers, Jonathan Powers. 

(Signed) ELKANAH SPRAGUE, Capt." 

The foregoing pay-rolls constitute the only adducible evidence on 
record of the services actually performed by the citizen militia of 
Hartford for and in behalf of the State of Vermont. The last records 
of the town undoubtedly contain evidence of an important nature relat- 
ing to this subject. 



The Declaration of Independence rendered the situation of the in- 
habitants on the New Hampshire Grants worse than before. New Hamp- 
shire had severed all political connection with them ; their controversy 
with New York was at a white heat, and Congress ignored their every claim 
to a recognition. The Convention of New York had, August 2d, 1776, 
unanimously voted " That all quit-rents formerly due to the Crown are 
now due and owing to this convention, or such future government as 
shall hereafter be established in this State." To submit to such claims 
was to reduce themselves to a condition of slavery and beggary. To 
openly rebel against such extortion would probably bring on a violent 
contest with New Y'ork, and with Congress also, and " to continue with- 
out some form of government for the protection of their just rights was 
regarded as impossible." This condition of things urged action in the 
direction of establishing the independence of Vermont. No measures 
were more necessary and no better time could be chosen. They had' 
never, acceded to the claims of New York, and the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence severed every tie to Great Britain. The claims of New York 
were founded alone upon an arbitrary decree of the King surrepti- 
tiously obtained, and the dissolution of all connection with Britain ren- 
dered the King's decree null and void. The people were, as they 
expressed it, " reduced to a state of nature," or left free to form a 
government for and by themselves. 

The open declaration of these sentiments, together with the efforts 
made by the people on the grants, on the w^est side of the Green Moun- 
tains, at length resulted in rousing the inhabitants on the eastern side 
of the grants to a sense of duty. They were driven by force of popu- 
lar sentiment to abandon their conservative position and unite in form- 
ing a government suitable to theii' condition. In this crisis the leading 
men of Hartford no longer talked of compromises, nor of the policy of 

On the 15th of January, 1777, a convention of delegates from both 
sides of the Green ilountains assembled at Westminster. In this con- 
vention Hartford was rej^resented by Stephen Tilden, than whom no 
better man could have been chosen a delegate. Woodstock was repre- 
sented by Benj. Emmons; Norwich, by Jacob Burton, and Maj. Thoiuas 
Moredock : Pomfret, Barnard and Royalton, were each represented by 
a letter voting for a new State. Ebenezer Hoisington represented 
Windsor. The delegates were all " good men and true." 

The convention was opened with Capt. Joseph Bowker, in the chair. 
Doct. Reuben Jones was chosen clerk pro tempore, the convention then 


adjourned to the 16th inst. On re-assembling Thursday morning, 
Lieut. Leonard Spaulding, Ebenezer Hoisington and Major Thomas 
Moredock, were chosen to examine into the members that had voted for 
the district of the New Hampshire Gi'anfcs to be a separate State from 
New York, and how many were known to be against it, and to report as 
soon as may be. The committee made the following report : — 

" We find by examination that more than three-fourths of the people 
in Cumberland and Grioucester counties, that have acted, are for a new 
State; the rest we view as neuters." 

The convention then adjourned for one hour. Convention opened 
at time, and voted N. C. D. 

" That the district of land commonly called and known by the name 
of New Hampshire Grants be a new and sejoarate State ; and for the 
future conduct themselves as such. 

Voted. That Nathan Clark, Esq., Mr. Ebenezer Hoisington, Capt. 
John Burnham, Mr. Jacob Burton, and Col. Thomas Chittenden, be a 
committee to prepare a draught for a declaration for a new aod separate 
State, and report to this Convention as soon as may be. 

Voted. That Capt. Ira Allen, Col. Tbomas Chandler, Doctor Reuben 
Jones, Mr. Stephen Tilden and Mr. Nathan Clark, Jr., he a committee 
to draw a plan for further proceedings, and report, &c. 

The Convention then adjourned until the next ruorning. 

On Friday morning the committee chosen to bring in a draught of a 
declaration, reported in substance as follows ? — 

1st. That tohenever protection is vnthheld, no allegiance is due or 
can of right be demanded. 

2d. That whenever the lives and properties of a part of a community 
have been manifestly aimed at by either the legislative or executive 
authority of such community, necessity requires a separation. And 
whereas the Congress of the several States did, in said Congress, on 
the 15th of May, A. D. 1776, in a similar case, " Resolve that it be rec- 
ommended to the respective assemblies and conventions of the United 
colonies, where no government sufficient to the exigencies of their 
affairs, hath been hitherto established, to adopt such government as 
shall in the opinion of the representatives of the people, best conduce 
to the happiness and safety of their constituents in particular and 
America in general.'" 

Your committee offer the following declaration, viz : — 

This convention whose members are duly chosen by the voice of their 
constituents, do hereby proclaim and publicly declare that the district 
of territory comprehending and usually known by the name and descrip 
tion of the New Hampshire Grants, of right ought to be, and is hereby 
declared forever hereafter to be considered as a free and independent 
jurisdiction or State, by the name and forever thereafter to be called, 
known, and distinguished by the Name of New Connecticut : and that 

Uohn Adams originated this resolution for the purpose 'of suppressing govern- 
ments under the Crown in the then United Colonies. 


the inhabitants that at present are, or that may hereafter become 
resident either by birth or emigration within said territory, shall be 
entitled to the same privileges, immunities, and enfranchisements as 
are allowed, and on such condition and in such manner as the present 
inhabitants shall or may enjoy : which are and shall be forever con- 
sidered to be such privileges and immunities as are allowed to any in- 
habitants of the independent States of America. Such shall be regulated 
in a bill of rights, and by a form of government to be established at 
the next session of this Convention. 

The Convention immediately informed Congress of these proceedings, 
and at the same session appointed a Committee of War on the east side 
of the mountains of which Mr. Stephen Tilden, of Hartford, was made 
a member. Mr. Tilden was also appointed one of a committee to draw 
a letter forbidding the delegates from Cumberland County sitting in 
the Provincial Congress of the State of New York. ' 

'June 20, 1776, Col. Joseph Marsh, Deacon John Sessions, and Simon Stevens 
were appointed '' Representatives to go to New York" by the Cumberland County 
Committee of Safety, and not by the people. Col. Marsh did not attend. Messrs. 
Sessions and Stevens attended, and the said letter was addressed to them only. 



The old Latin maxim : '' Omnia mutantur nos et mutamur in illis," 
has an exemplification in the remai'kable changes that have occurred in 
the customs, habits and manners of the people of New England within 
the last eighty years. Whether there has been a marked progression or 
a retrocession in the moral and social condition of the people at large 
during the period named, is a question that cannot be properly consid- 
ered nor discussed by the writer at this time. " History is philosophy 
teaching by example." Whatever was right and commendable in the 
manners and customs of our ancestors, as well as those things which 
were wrong and reprehensible, should be impartially chronicled by the 
historian of to-day, that the rising generations may avoid their errors 
and mistakes, and emulate only their virtuous actions. A distinguished 
historian has said : "This I hold to be the chief office of History, to rescue 
virtuous actions from the oblivion to which a want of records would 
consign them, and that men should feel a dread of being considered 
infamous in the opinions of posterity, from their depraved expressic ns 
and base action." 

Our ancestors, the pioneer settlers of Hartford, were a people of 
simple, frugal habits; they were warm-hearted, generous- minded, and 
self-sacrificing in their intercourse with each other, hospitable to friends 
and strangers alike ; outspoken, earnest and fearless in the avowal and 
defense of their religious principles and political sentiments; con 
scientious and honest in their business dealings with others. They 
were cheerful, contented amid the privations they experienced, lovers 
of fun, fond of athletic sports, courageous in danger, patriotic at all 
times. They were given to drinking flip, toddy and sling, which was 
not considered venial unless indulged in to the extent of habitual inebri- 
ation. Owing, however, to the plainness, and oftentimes scantiness of 
their daily food, their out-of-door manual labor and their many pri- 
vations, their habitual use of such stimulants proved to them less 
harmful than it would had they been as daintily bred as the people 
of this generation. 

When the first settlers came into the township they found the land 
covered Avith a dense growth of timber; that on the low lands adjacent 
to the rivers being chiefly white pine of a large size, with elm and black 


ash, while the hill lands were covered with maple, beech, birch, oak and 
hemlock. The first settlements were made on the hills. This occurred 
for several reasons: 1st, because the opinion prevailed that the hill 
lands, being thickly covered with a vegetable mold formed from leaves 
falling for a long succession of ages, were more friendly to every species 
of vegetation than the pine lands; secondlj'^, because the hill lands being 
more lightly timbered than the low lands, were more easily cleared; 
thirdly, because the hill regions wei"e considered more healthful than 
the swampy low lands, and lastly because the timber on the hills fur- 
nished material for making charcoal, and potash, and for the production 
of maple sugar and at the same time the woodland was valuable on 
account of the food and shelter it afforded for cattle and other live 

The first business of the settlers was the clearing of a portion of their 
land and building thereon a temporary dwelling house built up of logs, and 
rudely constructed. In this work the settlers assisted each other, and in 
this, and in other similar works when neighbors turned out to lend a help, 
ing hand, they regarded it a frolic, and worked with willing hearts and 
ready hands. There were two methods practiced in clearing land. The 
general practice was to cut down and remove such trees as was best 
suited for houses, and for fencing, and to set fire to the rest and the rub- 
bish on the field, and thus to proceed in the work until the required 
number of acres for cultivation were cleared. In other cases the whole 
wood was cut down, the ti*ees trimmed of their branches which were 
thrown into piles, and after laying until sufticiently dry, fire was set to 
the whole. The logs remaining unburnt were thrown into piles, after 
which the cleared ground was sown with wheat, or planted with corn or 
potatoes, which generally gave the cultivator a fine crop. Sometimes, 
in tlie process of clearing land, the timber was utilized in making char- 
coal and potash. Sometimes the largest trees were girdled — that is, the 
bark near the foot of the tree was cut around so as completely to destroy 
the vessels by which the progress of cii'culation is conducted, and their 
decay was rapid. After saw-mills came into use, and matters were so 
far arranged that the settlers had means and leisure to erect comfortable 
dwelling houses and other buildings, they proceeded to clear the pine 
lands, and not many years elapsed before they had unwisely stripped 
their land of the most valuable timber then standing. Thousands upon 
thousands of white pine trees were consigned to fire, or rolled into the 
rivers because they were considered less valuable than the land upon 
which they grew. 



The first settlers were poor in worldly means, and had but little more 
than enough money to enable them to make the journey from Connec- 
ticut to this town, and erect a log-house. Indeed, had they been 
wealthy they could not have provided themselves with better, nor with 
more desirable dwelling houses. They laid up logs for a house, using 
poles for rafters and covered these with elm, or hemlock bark, for a 
roof. For floors they laid split and hewed logs. The crevices between 
the logs were chinked with clay. Small apertures were left for windows, 
and paper, or thin white cloth was used as a substitute for glass. Fire- 
places were built of stone, and for a hearth they laid the longest and 
widest flat stone, or stones obtainable. Chimneys were built partly of 
stone and partly of short logs laid up in clay, and they often proved 
very objectionable on account of a lack of proper draught. The fire- 
places were of liberal dimensions, and it was not an easy matter to fill 
one of them with wood. A huge back log from six to eight feet long, 
was first drawn in — oftentimes by a horse, or oxen — and placed on the 
back of the hearthstone. Another smaller log was placed on top of the 
back-log and a third in front of it. Above this pile dry branches were 
laid. This sufficed to make a cheerful fire for a day's time and with 
proper care was maintained day and night the year round. ^ 

'Without friction matches — what did people do ? 
We call them necessities now ; it is true 
They are a great blessing, yet folks had a way 
Of doing without them in grandmother's day. 

The huge open fire-place was deep, and "twas wide. 

And grandfather often has told us with pride, 

Of oxen he trained to drag over the floor, 

The great heavy back-logs they burned there of yore. 

The fire on the hearth 'twas an understood thing. 
Must never die out from September to spring ; 
In live coals and ashes they buried from sight 
The log to hold fire throughout the long night. 

And this, in the morning, they opened with care, 
To find brightest embers were glimmering there. 
To then make a blaze, it was easy to do, 
With wood and a pvifl' of the bellows, or two. 

But sometimes in summer the fire wovild go out — 
A flint and a steel must be then, brought about, 
A spark from them caught in the tinder near by — 
Before-hand prepared, and kept perfectly dry. 

Once grandmother told me how tinder was made ; 
They took burning linen, or cotton, and laid 
It down in the tinder-box — smothered it there — 
A mass of scorched rags to be guarded with care. 

And when they could find it they took from old trees, 
Both touch-wood and pvmk, and made tinder of these, 
By soaking in niter : but all of tliese three — 
Flint, tinder and steel — we shall very soon see. 
Would not make a blaze : so they called to their aid, 
Some matches, not " Lucifers." but the home made. 


These matches were slivers of wood that were tipped 

With sulphur ; when melted, they in it were dipped ; 

The spark in the tinder would cause one to burn, 

And tlud lit the candle — a very good tviru — 

For when it was lighted all trouble was o'er 

And soon on the hearth, flames were dancing once more. 

~ If damp was the tinder, or mislaid the flint, 
They rubbed sticks togother (a very hard stint) 
Until they ignited ; the more common "vray 
Was borrowing fire, I've heard grandmother say. 
Indeed it was nothing uncommon to do 
To go for a fire-brand a half mile or two. 

Good Housekeejiing . 

A long iron crane was hung on one side of the fire-place. This swung 
in and out as required, and from it were suspended, on hooks, pots and 
kettles used for cooking and other purposes. Iron kettles provided 
with long legs, and heavy covers and used for baking bread, corn cake, 
he , were set on coals, and were called " Dutch ovens." These were 
superceded by tin ovens which were set near the fire. Potatoes and 
eggs were roasted in hot ashes on the hearthstone. Later when saw- 
mills came into use they began to build frame houses, generally of one 
story, with a huge chimney in the middle which had a fireplace on each 
of its four sides, and a large oven in connection with the kitchen fire- 

At first their house keeping articles were few in number and of the 
most primitive kind. An iron kettle or two, a frying pan, a Dutch oven, 
a few wooden trenchers, pewter platters, plates, spoons and cups, wooden 
handled knives and forks, water pails, or buckets made of staves shaped 
out of pine wood, water dippers made of gourds, three-legged stools to 
sit upon and set various articles upon, tables made of split-logs, hewn 
on one side as smoothly as possible, and supported by legs made of 
small saplings cut in proper lengths : beds of straw laid on bark or 
hemlock branches, a loom in one corner and spinning wheels here and 
there. Over the fire place hung the trusty rifle by the aid of which a 
supply of game was obtained. 

The food of the early settlers consisted wholly of the products of 
their cultivated patches of land, and of game and fish, then easily ob- 
tainable. Their customary daily fare consisted of corn-food, such as 
Johnny-cake, porridge, mush, hulled corn, puddings, and green corn ; 
buckwheat cakes, rye and wheat bread, bean porridge, hot or cold, and 
" best when nine days old," potatoes roasted in the ashes, pumpkin pies, 
and, now and then, a partridge or a squirrel stew. Though, as a gen- 
eral thing they had sufficient food, there were times of scarcity caused 
by a failure of their crops in inclement seasons, like that of 1780, that 
necessitated rigid economy and great self-denial. Tradition informs us 

692423 A 


that in 1780 the settlers suffered greatly for food, and many times went 
supperless to bed. 

The men and women of those early times earned their bread by the 
sweat of their faces. The men felled the forests, cleared the land, cul- 
tivated the soil, and garnered the products of their labor. In due pro- 
cess of time the result of their efforts was s^en in fields of waving grass 
and golden grain, in well-stocked pastures, thriving orchard?, well- filled 
granaries, and substantial, pleasant homes. 

" Oft did the harvest to then- sickle yield, 

Tlieir furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 
How jocund did they drive their teams afield; 

How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke."' 

The boys of that period were taught to believe in the motto which 
Mr. Spooner had chosen, and placed in the heading of the Vermont 
Journal : " The freedom of the people cannot be suppoi'ted without 
knowledge and industry," and they rendered valuable assistance to their 
fathers in every phase »of their labor, such as chopping down trees, 
splitting rails, making fences, clearing land, mowing grass, reaping grain 
and threshing it, getting out flax, holding the plow, and working out 

The women were quite as industrious as were the men, and nobly 
bore their part as supporters and comforters with unshrinking firmness 
and inspiring love. 

A certain writer has said : 

"In each house might be seen a foot wheel, or two, for spinning the 
flax, and as many large ones for spinning wool ; a pair or two of hand- 
cards for the tow, a hatchel, and in every two or three houses a loom. 
The women manufactured the cloth with which they and their families 
were clothed, and made up the same into garments. They made their 
own fine white diaper table cloths and towels, their fine white underlin- 
ing, their striped gowns, checked handkerchiefs and aprons, clean and 
well-ironed, and in which dress they were fitted out for any company in 
any place. They also manufactured their husbands' and sons' white 
summer shirts, frocks and trousers. They knit stockings for themselves 
and for the family besides, and leggings for their boys — as boots for 
boys were not then known — and did their own housework." 

The girls were instructed by their mothers in the art of housekeeping. 
They received practical lessons in cookery and could prepare good and 
wholesome victuals. They learned to spin, weave, sew and darn, and 
patch garments, do nice laundry work, make butter and cheese, sweep 
house with a broom made of birch, by their fathers or brothers, and 
they also assisted in out-of-door work, such as milking the cows, feed- 
ing the pigs and poultry, carrying wood and water, and, in haying time, 
raking after the cart ; nor did they feel degraded by such work ; indeed, 


to be useful was considered as an imperative duty, and the art and econ- 
omy of housekeeping was an accomplishment that every woman should 
take pride in acquiring.' Much open-air exercise conduced to good 
health and long life. They were much in the habit of exercising on 
their feet, both in walking abroad and at the great wheel. They ap- 
peared at meeting, and elsewhere, clad in home made garments, with 
I'uddy countenances, strong and active bodies and limbs, and a cheerful 
and vigorous mind. In those days the useful was not subordinated to 
the ornamental. Every young lady who could procure it by her own 
labor had one calico dress. They worked at spinning and weaving for 
fifty cents a week to enable them to purchase such a dress, at a dollar 
a yard Six yards constituted a dress pattern, therefore it required 
twelve weeks' work to pay for a dress, besides the trimming and making. 

Grown up daughters made good wives and willing helpmates. Their 
husbands were not necessitated to employ a governess, a wet nurse, and 
a waiting maid to care for the children ; a maid-of-all-work to keep the 
house in endurable condition, and their mothers-in-law for monitors and 
advisors in general. Our grandmothers gave no time to spinning street 
yarn, retailing gossip, annoying their neighbors by a relation of their 
family troubles, complaints against their husbands, nor to sewing seeds 
of discord among their neighbors. How is it now ? 

The ceremony of marriage, among the early settlers of the town, was 
unattended by the furore that characterizes this ceremony now-a-days. 
There was no exclusiveness in giving out invitations. Neighbors then 
dwelt together in a spirit of unity, mutually dependent on each other, 
and practiced the amenities of social, civilized life. The bans were 
publicly proclaimed in advance. All relatives, and all neighbors were 
invited. The occasion was one of unalloyed happiness to both the old 

' In marked contrast to the condition of things at that time, when girls willing- 
ly went away from home to do housework, I quote the following statement from 
the Waterloo, P. Q^ Gazette of August 28, 1885 : 

A Waterloo man was sent out the other day by his wife to find a hired girl. The case 
was urgent and his instructions were not to come back without the desired article. He 
scoured a wide section of counti-y, calling at scores of houses where there were girls, and 
eloquently pleading his mission. But it was all in vain. Everywhere he met with a re- 
fusal. The girls dicl'nt want to do housework at any price or for anybody. He could have 
hired forty teachers, and as many more girls for a knitting factory. It is clear that house- 
work is not popular with the rising generation of girls. What is the reason? The average 
country school teacher gets fifteen dollars jjer month and boards herself. A good hired 
girl can command ten dollars per month and a comfortable home in a respectable family. 
In point of wages the hiird <,4rrs position is the best. As a training school for the respon- 
sible duties of wife and mother— as the head of a household — her situation is incompar- 
ably better than the teacher's. Yet ten young women aspire to be poorly paid teachers 
where one will hire out to do housework and train herself for those duties of life which 
fall to the lot of nine-tenths of woman-kind. Teaching is rather more high toned. It 
secures better social advantages. It affords more leisure. But after all it is a question if 
the hired girl is not the better off. At any rate the teacher is being overproduced. There 
is a glut in the market. The hired girl, on the other hand, is growing scarcer, and her 
value is i-ising in the labor market. People who want a hired girl get down on their 
knees to her. She is mistress of the situation and can within limits dictate her own 
terms. She can, for instance, have her afternoons out, her Sundays off, and her evenings 
for receiving her best young man. These are all material advantages which flow chiefly 
fro m the scarcity of the article. 


and the young. The service was of a simple and solemn nature. The 
benediction invoked of heaven upon the married couple by the beloved 
pastor, was supplemented by unequivocal, heartfelt expressions of good- 
will and good wishes on the part of relatives and friends. There were 
no costly gifts ostentatiously displayed. There was no long, tiresome, 
bridal trip. The young couple entered upon domestic life in a quiet, 
sensible way, having that assurance of happiness which may be reason- 
ably expected where there is a likeness of disposition and manners, and 
accordance of hearts : — 

• ' Where friendship full exerts her softest j)ower, 
Perfect esteem enlivened by desire 
Ineffable and sympathy of soul : 
Thought meeting- thought, and will preventing will, 
With boundless confidence ; for naught but love 
Can answer love, and render bliss secure." 

The laws regulating marriage, prohibited intermarriage within the 
following degrees of kinship, viz: — "No man shall marry his mother, step- 
mother, sister, father's sister, mother's sister, daughter, son's daughter, 
daughter's daughter, brother's daughter, sister's daughter. No woman 
should marry her father, step-father, brother, father's brother, mother's 
brother, son, daughter's son, son's son, brother's son, sister's son." Every 
such intermarriage was to be deemed incestuous and ipso facto null and 
void, and the issue illegitimate. Ministers of the gospel and justices of 
the peace were the only persons authorized to solemnize marriages. The 
intention of marriage between any two persons must be published in 
soine j^ublic meeting in the respective towns or jjlaces in which the 
parties resided, by the minister of the gospel, town or parish clerk ; or 
be posted at some public place, at least eight days before such intended 
marriage. This act did not affect the right of Friends or Quakers to 
solemnize marriage in the manner usually practiced in their meetings. 
Every marriage was to be recorded in the book of records belonging to 
the town. — Clerk's fee for record was six cents. 

" All things change and we change with them," is a maxim, that is 
well illustrated by the striking difference between the outfit now 
deemed essential to enable a young married couple to begin housekeeping 
in respectable style, and that which in former times was regarded as 
sufficient to render the same class of people both comfortable and happy. 
The contrast between the provision made by parents for their daughters 
on the occasion of their marriage, in the olden time, and the trousseau ^ 
or general outfit of brides at the present day, is shown by the following 


statement copied from an old account book, used for many years by a 

former well-to-do farmer of Hartford, viz : 

Hartford, January 1, 1822. 
Artickals wich my davighter had at her marriage : §7.00 ; forty yards of 
linnen sheating, §13.33: twelve yards of linnen pillow-cases, $4.00; tlu-ee sheets of 
flannel, $7.50 ; three Kersey blankets, §11.00 : bed quilts and coverlaids, §11.00 ; 
two bedsteads and beads, §24.00 ; fire shovels and tongs, §3.00 ; foot wheel and 
reel, §3.50 ; great wheel, §1.00; coffeepot, .30; sive, .30; looking glass, §2.00 ; 
crockery at Tenney's store, §5.72 ; spoons, knives and forks at Boston, §6.93 ; 
iron ware at Lyman's, §3.50 ; 1 small brass kettle and gober. §1.90 ; one brass 
kettle, §7.00; bailing, iron and brass w-are, §4.91 ; brass skimmer, .83 ; thirteen 
chairs, §16.00 ; total, §127.72. One cow, five sheep." 

The above named trousseau comprises only such things as were truly 
useful. — Other gifts were contributed to the welfare of the young 
people by the family of the bridegroom. The presence of a foot wheel, 
a reel and a great wheel indicates that the bride was accustomed to their 
use, and doubtless she had assisted in spinning the flax and the wool 
composing the sheets and cases named, and also in making up the 
articles of bedding enumerated. Tradition says that this young lady, 
like many of her female associates, Avas well versed in the art of house- 
keeping; that she had been taught how to prepare a wholesome, 
palatable meal of victuals; that she could deftly spin, weave, sew, em- 
broider, knit; crochet, darn, patch, and otherwise repair articles of cloth- 
ing, and Avas an adept at nice laundry Avork ; that she Avas brought up 
to be tidy and methodical in her habits ; to have proper places for every 
thing and keep things in their proper places, and as she grew up to 
Avomanhood she Avas led under the Christian influence of her parents to 
cultivate a gentle, loving and obliging disposition, and an amiable de- 
portment. Although at her mai-riage she brought to her husband but a 
small outfit of worldly goods, she possessed the best dowry a j^arent can 
bestOAA' — chastity and modesty. 

Thus endowed, educated and prepared for the married state, she 
assumed and performed the A^arious duties devolving upon her at her 
own fireside, and elscAvhere, in all the relations of life, with that assi- 
duity to be and do good, that characterizes domestic worth and Christian 
excellence. — Such a devotion to home interests, such a disposition to 
promote the happiness and welfare of others, such eminent qualifications 
for married life as our heroine possessed, supplemented by like qualities 
in a husband, and a disposition on the part of both husband and wife to 
quietly settle their trifling disaffections by mutual concessions, and, 
above all, to conceal Avithin their own breasts their petty family jars, 
and thereby avoid public ridicule, Avould prove effective as the ounce of 
preventive against the evils of divorce ; at least more effective than the 
pound of cure which is being administered in homoeopathic pellets to 
eradicate the evil while slightino^ the causes of its existence. 


In the matter of education it is due to our pi'Ogenitors to say, that 
although most of them possessed but little common school education, 
they recognized the value of it, and whenever a sufficient number of 
scholars could be gathered in any locality a school was established, and 
for want of better places, schools were opened in private dwellings, and 
often in barns. The branches taught were English reading, writing 
and arithmetic. These were designated by the law of the State I'espect- 
ing schools.- Grammar was not taught in the common schools of this 
town until about the time when school districts were first organized, 
nor did the girls study arithmetic until a still later time. Boys rarely 
ever went to school, except in the winter, after they were old enough to 
work on the farm, or in the workshop. None but male teachers were 
employed, and these boarded around among the families that sent 
children to school. Many families lived a long distance from the school- 
house, and their children trudged to school in all seasons of the year, 
and in all weather, carrying bundles of books and luncheon, and they 
seldom received a tardy mark or missed a recitation. Proficiency, espe- 
cially in spelling, was regarded with great favor, and for the purpose 
of encouraging greater diligence in the study of spelling lessons, special 
inducements were presented to the scholars. Medals consisting of silver 
coin of a value not less than twenty-five cents, perforated, and strung 
singly on a ribbon or small cord, were prepared by the teacher, one for 
each spelling class. The scholars were then informed that the boy or 
the girl in each class, who stood at the head of his or her class, when 
the spelling lesson was over each day, should have the class medal to 
wear until the opening of school the next day, and, at the end of the 
term, the scholars who had worn the medals the most times should be 
presented with some special reward of merit: — 

And, to their credit be it said. 

Girls were as often at the head 

As their more robust friends the boys, 

And won the prize with much less noise! 

During winter evenings the boys and girls of a family might be seen 
in the chimney-corner poring over their lessons, and aiding each other 
over hard places, having no other light than that given out by the 
cheerful fire. They mastered the branches they studied; their progress 
was not measured by the number of pages passed over during a term of 
school, but by the actual amount of knowledge they acquired and thor- 
oughly digested. Aside from their school books, they had but little 
other reading matter. The family Bible, catechism, psalm book and a 
few religious tracts formed the greater part of their libraries. They 


soon learned the substance of the few books they possessed, and com- 
prehended what was taught therein, without the aid of learned ex- 

The children of the early settlers were taught to reverence the aged, 
to honor and obey their parents, to respect their teachers, and to com- 
port themselves modestly and deferentially in the presence of theu' eld- 
ers. They were taught the value of habits of industry, economy and 
honesty, and to limit their wishes and desires within the bounds of 
prudence, and to deny themselves many things rather than eke out their 
existence in idleness and uselessness, or to resort to every possible ex- 
pedient to live at other people's expense — too many instances of which 
are observable at this time. 

The early settlers were exposed to many hardships and drawbacks of 
a discouraging nature, and oftentimes lacked food. They had hours of 
mental anguish and physical suffering such as puts us mortals in mind 
of our mortality and calls for the sweet offices of mercy and love. At 
such times they found a great solace in the friendship, good-will and 
sympathy expressed by their neighbors who, not being untutored in 
suffering, learned thereby to pity and aid others in their affliction. 
" One touch of natui'e makes the whole world kiu." 

The spirit of harmony, brotherly love and good-will, was manifested 
in kind, timely services at the bed side of the sick and the dying ; in 
readiness to render assistance in the work of clearing land, raising build- 
ings, harvesting crops, at social gatherings, where all met on terms of 
equality, and the scene was not marred by the least semblance of envy, 
jealousy or airs of superiority such as we often see exhibited now-a-days 
by people whose only passj)ort from insignificance to social or political 
prominence is worldly possessions, often acquired by dishonest means, 
and whose ridiculous pretentions and airs of importance are credentials 
of impotence ! 

It has been said by one writer that " there was one trait in the char- 
acter of the early settlers which it would be well for the present gener- 
ation to imitate ; if one had hard thoughts of his neighbor, he did not 
ventilate them in private slander — there was no ' snake in the grass ' 
management ; he went with bold step, erect gait, and clear voice to 
expostulate with the offender. If their anger was easily kindled, it was 
as easily appeased." 

Not many years after the town was settled mihtia companies were 
organized, and military trainings were had at least two days in each 
year, one in the month of June and one in October, and once in every 
two or three years a general or regimental training lasting two or three 


days, which were very expensive affairs both for the ofi&cers and men ; 
and, so far as practical results were concerned, it was "• much ado about 
nothing." ' The town militia bore the name of "flood-wood companies " 
for the reason that the men were not uniformed when on parade, but 
each wore the same clothes that he wore in his daily work at home, and 
their guns and other accoutrements were as dissimilar and odd as their 
dress. Those trainings were demoralizing to all who participated in 
them. The burning of powder was commenced at midnight before the 
houses of the officers, who were expected to answer by treating all 
hands, and, after going the rounds, firing guns, halloing and drinking 
until morning, it is safe to say that many were in a maudlin condition. 

To be a captain, or subaltern of a military company, was a much cov- 
eted honor, and it was expected that every oflicer-elect would express 
his obligation to his comrades by a liberal contribution of free rum, or 
whiskey, on training day. " A man's a god w^hose hogshead freely 
bleeds." The effects of the rum drank on these occasions lasted for 
several days. Query — Are the pleasures of getting drunk greater than 
the pains of getting sober '? 

But not alone at trainings was liquor freely indulged in. Rum, 
brandy, whiskey, cider, in the form of punch, sling, toddy, fiip and egg- 
nogg, were indulged in at raisings, haying, harvesting, at social parties, 
in cold weather and warm, in wet and dry, in sickness or in good health, 
in prosperity and in adversity. People treated each other as a pledge of 
friendship, and " put an enemy to their mouths to steal away their 
brains!" It seems somewhat paradoxical to us, that our forefathers, 
who were, in the main, sober-minded, law-abiding, morally and relig- 
iously inclined, earnestly disposed to educate their children, and pos- 
sessed of many virtues, should have been so oblivious of the divine pre- 
cepts against the intemperate use of intoxicants. They must have 
observed the evil effects of the habit; they must have been conscious 
that their example would readily and deeply corrupt their children. 
It is probable, however, that but few drank to excess, and the majority 
were blessed with a constitution " so treacherously good that it never 
bends until it breaks;" nevertheless, they violated the laws of their 
being, and entailed upon their posterity the evils engendered by the 
non-observance of said laws. In the final day of judgment it will be 
seen that Hartford has a large representation among the victims of in- 
temperance. " Every inordinate cup is unblessed, and the ingredient 
is a devil." 

' The Legislature ol Vermont, Oct, 30, 1844, repealed every act in relation to 
the militia. 


In the times of which I am speaking, game was abundant in the woods, 
and trout in the streams. Bears were sometimes seen, but they did but 
little damage. The first and only one killed in the town was shot by 
Maj. David Wright. It was first discovered by Mrs. Peter Rider, who 
was on her way home from Maj. Wright's, where she had been visiting. 
She was afoot and alone, and was not far distant from Maj. Wright's 
house when she discovered Bruin directly in her path, whereupon she 
set up screaming, and woman-like flirting her apron at the bear, which, 
being quite as much frightened as his new-made acquaintance betook 
himself to a tree, Maj. Wright, hearing the screaming, seized his 
loaded rifle, and following the path taken by Mrs. Rider, soon found 
her standing in the path shaking her apron at the bear, A successfully 
made shot brought the animal to the ground. It proved to be a young 
bear, and probably it had never before encountered anything noisier than 
a screech owl, and wearing a petticoat. Foxes were plenty and they 
made sad havoc in the sheep-fold and poultry yard. Fox hunting with 
hounds was exciting sport, for Reynard was seldom captured before he 
had led his pursuers in a chase long and exhaustive, though generally 
running in a circle round his hole. Bounties were paii for killing 
foxes. Raccoons were plenty. They were fond of poultry and green 
corn. They were hunted at night with dogs, and when fat, their flesh 
made very good eating. Squirrels were plenty — to use a homely phrase, 
" the woods were full of them." Among the varieties were the Ameri- 
can gray, the European red, the American flying, and the striped, or 
chip munk. Occasionally a black squirrel was found. Skunks infested 
poultry yards, but its faculty of annoying its enemies by the discharge 
of a noisome fluid caused it to be shunned rather than hunted. Its skin 
was valuable for robes, but the smallest drop of the fluid emitted by the 
animal is suflicient to render a garment detestable for years. Smoking, 
baking and burying articles of dress in the ground ai"e inefficient for its 
removal. Woodchucks infested clover fields; their skins were some- 
times sold at a dollar apiece. Mink and muskrats were plentiful. The 
latter are found quite often now. Mink pelts were sold at from twenty 
to forty cents each; the}^ are now sold for $10 each. Muskrat pelts 
then brought more than mink. 

Pigeons were very numerous, especially during the season of harvest- 
ing wheat and oats. During their migrations in search of food, the air 
was literally full of them. Of late years but few are found in any 
portion of Vermont. Partridges were numerous, but the clearing up 
of the woodlands which formed their common resort has sufficed to 
render them scarce. What few remain are so persistently hunted that 


tlifir cuniiini*' and instinct seem to be sharpened thereby, and quite 
superior to the Imnter's skill, though not to that detestable cowardice 
that places an invisible snare in their path. That noble bird, the golden 
eagle, that built his nest on the highest cliffs of our mountains is rarely 
ever seen here now. That vigorous-winged and well known bird, the 
American fish hawk, which was the formidable rival of the eagle in 
strength and rapacity, has, like the eagle, nearly disappeared before the 
march of civilization. The white-headed or bald eagle, was occasionally 
seen in the White river valley, perched on the high dead limb of a large 
tree that commanded a wide view of the river, waiting, perhaps, in 
readiness to descend like a whirlwind upon his prey, or to snatch from 
a fish hawk the dainty morsel he had secured and was exultingly 
bearing away. Then, as now, the quacking of wild geese above the 
clouds announced the advent of the vernal season, or the approach 
of winter. The lazy-winged, slender crane, and wild duck habited our 
rivers. The former is seldom seen now; the latter are still quite 
numerous. The hen hawk and the crow which wei-e numerous a cen- 
tury ago, are not less so now. Trout are still caught in our brooks, but 
the brooks are rapidly diminishing in size, and there are fishermen, and 
fishermen, and trout are not permitted to attain much growth. There 
are no evidences that wolves troubled the early settlers of this town, 
nor do the oldest people now living here remember having seen deer; 
but as deer reeves were among the officers elected at town meetings, it 
is reasonable to infer that there were deer to be protected. 

Although the early inhabitants were isolated from each other in 
respect to their dwelling places, yet, in their work, as well as recreations, 
they often met together from all parts of the town, and after combin- 
ing their strength to complete the work of building a log-house, cleai-- 
ing a green fallow, or harvesting a crop, they indulged in wrestling, 
ball-playing, rifle-shooting and other athletic sports. The men also had 
their husking-bees and hunting-parties. In the autumn after harvest- 
time they had what were termed "squirrel hunts." After collecting 
at some previously chosen rendezvous— generalh^ a public house — the 
men and boys collectively chose two men, termed captains, from their 
number, to lead in the hunt. The captains drew lots to see which 
should have the first choice of men in the formation of two parties, and 
made their selections alternately until each party had an equal number 
of hunters. The day for the hunt was then fixed upon, the only condi- 
tion involved being that the party which brought in the least game, at 
the end of the hunt, should provide and pay for a supper for all con- 
cerned on both sides. There were different methods of counting the 


game, but in all cases a squirrel counted as one or as the unit of enu- 
meration; then each crow, hawk, partridge, mink, woodchuck, muskrat, 
skunk, fox, rabbit, coon, etc., represented a specified number of squir- 
rels, as per preliminary agreement. No limit was fixed to the territory 
to be hunted over. Usually, each hunter was privileged to go wherever 
he pleased, and where a hunt lasted two or three days in succession, 
some of the hunters visited other towns, as far away as Bethel. 
In Hartford, the two parties mutually agreed to divide the territory 
between them, one taking the south side, and the other the north 
side of White river. At the conclusion of the hunt the game 
taken by each pai'ty was separately counted by tellers, after which a 
substantial supper was eaten, with a bout or two at the whiskey bottle. 
During these hunts every expedient, even to artifice was resorted to for 
obtaining game; and, like "that heathen Chinee," for ways that were 
dark, and tricks that were vain, those hunters were very peculiar. 

It must not be inferred that the men and boys monopolized the social 
enjoyments, or left the women and girls at home Avhen they turned out 
to assist a neighbor in his work, or to unite in sports of various kinds. 
On such occasions they were accompanied by their wives and daughters 
who took along their knitting-work, or plain sewing, and meeting 
together " on terms of amity complete " passed the time as interested 
observers of the work and the athletic sports of the other sex, or in kindly, 
pleasant intercourse that denoted similarity of mind, taste and feeling, 
and like experiences in their daily life. 

' ' Held within modest bounds the tide of speech 
Pursues the course that truth and nature teach." 

But, while the men and boys had their games, and sports, the women 
and girls found social enjoyments in their quiltings, and apj)le-cutting 
parties, and occasional neighborly visits, and it was customary for the 
young people, without distinction of sex, to attend husking-bees ; and, 
later on, as the population increased, and schools were opened, there 
were spelling, writing and singing schools, which took place on winter 
evenings, and served to break up the monotony that would have other- 
wise prevailed. Every reader of these lines who ever attended anj^ one 
or all of the meetings here mentioned, must have experienced feelings 
of regret that those customs of the early times have become obsolete, 
for the reason that such occasions marked an era of frank, unequivocal 
expressions of neighborly good will and kindness, unity of purpose and 
action. Christian endeavor and practice. There was no shirking of duty, 
no insensibility to the misfortunes, troubles, and sufferings of others, 
no exclusiveness nor vicious pride, no back wounding calumny. 


The system of dealing upon trust was more in vogue in former times 
than it is now. It was then the custom for merchants to deal almost 
wholly upon trust, and to trust every body. Of course they sold at a 
great profit, and as many failed to pay, those Avho did pay, made good 
what was lost by the failure of others. People took advantage of this 
system by buying extravagantly, or by buying many things which they 
could not have obtained under the cash system of trade; but when pay 
day came, or the creditor deemed it hazardous to extend further credit, 
if the payment was not made, there followed all the concomitants of 
expensive and ruinous litigation. There was much sueing, much going 
to jail, much false swearing, much ill-will engendered among neighbors. 
Victory was often a disgrace to the creditor, and often entailed miseiy 
upon the debtor and his famih^ None were benefitted but attorneys 
who let out for hire their jDassions and their words, " Iras et verba 
locant ; " justices, shei'iff s, constables and jailors, who thrived upon 
costs and fees, or rather upon the folly and ignorance of others. 

I have already stated that the pioneer settlers were sometimes com- 
pelled to live on short rations. This was owing to a failure of crops, 
and had game been scarce, there must have been many cases of death 
from starvation. Giist iiiills were few and far between, and it was 
difficult to get grinding, even if they raised wheat and corn in abundance. 
It was customary in such exigencies to boil corn and wheat in a whole 
state, or pound it up in large mortars. Roast potatoes were a prominent 
article of food. As salt was scarce, meat was preserved by smoking 
and drying it. This was the custom in vogue among the native Indians. 
Tea and coffee were little known. Broths of various kinds were in 
constant use, and also hasty pudding and milk. Dishes wei'e scarce as 
well as knives and forks. Wooden spoons were much used, and it was a 
common thing for the whole family to eat broth, porridge, &c., from 
one dish. Mr. Henry Clark, in an address given at Poultney, Vt., re- 
lates the following anecdote: — 

" A party of young people once assembled at a neighbor's in early 
times for social intercourse. The supper — What was it ? Not a modern 
supper of roast turkey, oysters, &c., but hasty pudding and milk. There 
being but three spoons, one division of their guests sat down to table, 
then another division and another till all had been served. All went 
off well, and it was considered a fashionable, well managed affair." 

Owing to the limited extent of pasturage, and the depredations made 
upon sheep by wild animals, the settlers kept but few if any sheep. 
Great economy was necessary in the use of woolen clothing. The men, 
when at work, Avore tow shirts, coarse woolen frocks, and leather 


aprons, made of hides tanned by themselves. The women wore short 
frocks and petticoats, while engaged in home work. The best suit of 
Avoolen cloth was reserved for Sabbaths and special occasions, and lasted 
several years. Mr. Clark further said: — 

" In the winter they wore shoes, excluding the snow by a pair of 
leggings fastened over the mouth of the shoe by strings. Boots were 
rare, surtouts or overcoats were rarer still. A pair of boots would last 
a man many years. In summer neither men nor women wore shoes at 
home.^ On the Sabbath the women often carried their shoes (and stock- 
ings ?) in their hands till they came near the meeting-house (to save wear) 
— when they put them on. Sometimes, in winter, families were con- 
veyed to meeting, or to a social visit, through deep snow, on an ox-sled. 
In summer time, the man, if he was the owner of a horse, rode to meet- 
ing with his wife seated on a pillion behind him, one arm circling his 
body, and, if they had children, one rode seated on a pillow before the 
man, and another and smaller child in the mothers lap, encircled by 
one of her arms." 

" As a sample of the usages of the time, it may be stated that at the 
raising of a meeting-house a lunch was prepared for the raisers, of 
bread, cheese and dry fish." A barrel of cider or rum was freely bled 
and this last occurred at all raisings, whatever the building might be. 

A large number of the sons and daughters of Hartford have emigrated 
to the Western States. Between 1820 and 1840 the tide toward Ohio 
and Illinois was the greatest that it has ever been. Great canvas covered 
wagons drawn by horses and destined for Ohio, were often seen leaving 
this town, and they took from our midst a class of people whose places 
have not been well filled. Emigration and the building of railroads 
have been followed by a decadence in the moral and religious condition 
of the people. There has not been a progression in the physical, mental 
and moral condition of the people commensurate with the constantly 
increasing means, opportunities and facilities for developing and im- 
proving the minds and the hearts of our citizens in general. 

'The writer remembers seeing children barefooted in the winter. Hon. C. C. P. 
Holden, now a wealthy citizen of Chicago, when six years of age, and living in 
West Hartford, went barefooted all winter, as did some of his brothers and sisters. 
They were rosy-cheeked and healthful children and made energetic men and 



The labor of the early settlers -was not materially aided by water- 
power, nor by labor-saving machinery to any great extent. Farming 
utensils were of very simple construction, and largely constructed at 
home, and were, for the want of good tools, very rudely made, and such 
tools as augurs, bits set in crooked stalks of wood, hatchets, etc., that 
have been preserved as relics of the past, are looked upon with a degree 
of interest and curiosity akin to that excited by the exhibition of the 
stone implements fashioned by the native Indian tribes that once inhab- 
ited this section of the country. The great majority of the settlers of 
Hartford came into the town in an indigent condition, to better their 
fortunes, and for many years were under the necessity of practicing the 
strictest economy in all matters. But the actual wants of nature are 
but few, and the people being, by habit and custom, contented with 
their privileges and surroundings, their lack of what is to-day consid- 
ered essential to promote or complete personal happiness and comfort, 
was not by them considered in the light of a privation, and, therefore, 
caused no complaints against Providence, or repinings against fortune. 
The necessity of laboring diligently to clear and improve their lands, to 
live in log houses, to travel on foot, or on horseback, to dress simply, 
and live sparingly, were blessings in disguise. 

" They builded better than they knew." 

A wonderful change has taken place in the industrial habits and cus- 
toms of the people during the past sixty years, especially among the 
farming population. In the olden days while the men worked from early 
morn till late at night, the women delved, both in and out of doors ; in- 
doors they were busy at their wheels or looms, dipping their own can- 
dles, making their own clothing, as well as that for the rest of the fam- 
ily — they generally had a large number of children — making their own 
carpets, and in doing all manner of other household work ; out of 
doors they assisted their husbands in doing various kinds of farm work. 
They were adepts in handling horses, rode much on horseback, and 
transacted much business that would now be considered unbecoming 
for the gentler sex to engage in. Mrs. Gov. Chittenden, on one occa- 
sion at least, rode on horseback to a carding machine, taking a load of 
wool on her horse behind, from Williston to Hinesburg ; had her wool 
carded, and returned home with her rolls the same night. 


The first business of the settlers after reaching the town, was to pro- 
vide themselves with shelter. The land was then covered with heavy- 
timber. After fixing upon a place to settle or build upon, they cut the 
timber, cleared a patch, and proceeded to build a log house. There 
were no boards to be had and they were without the means of procuring 
them. In the absence of saw mills they had to substitute logs for 
frame timber, poles for rafters, bark of trees for shingle, hewn logs lit- 
tered with straw, or leaves of trees, for flooring of boards, benches and 
seats of hewn logs for tables and chairs. Kough stone were used in 
place of brick for chimneys, and clay formed a very good substitute for 
lime-mortar in filling crevices, and in building chimneys. Tables, bed- 
steads, etc., were made with no other tools than a saw, axe and augur. 
The next thing in order was clearing up land for planting and sowing 
of grain. To make grain available for family use a grist mill was neces- 
sary, but these pre-requisites to real comfort were some years in coming. 

For several years subsequent to the first settlement of the town, the 
inhabitants were "compelled to go to Charleston (No. 4) to have their 
grain ground. The distance was twenty-five miles, and the roads were 
bridle-paths, or but little better — designated by spotted trees on either 
hand. A journey to mill was a serious job — a two days' adventure. 
The late Miss Parthena Tilden informed the writer some years ago, that 
her uncle, Stephen Tilden, when a boy, was sometimes sent to Charles- 
town to mill on horseback ; that her grandfather used to tie the bags of 
grain securely to the old saddle-horse, and then tie Stephen to the bags,and 
thus mounted, the brave boy rode off through the wilderness to Charles- 
town, and never failed to go and return safely. The boys of that gen- 
eration were the heroes of a later revolution " that tried men's souls." 

Tradition informs us that our grandmothers sometimes pounded corn 
and wheat in mortars to a consistency for hominy, and in certain exi- 
gencies boiled both kinds of grain in a whole state, which was called, 
when cooked, "firmaty." Their drink was coffee made of roasted rye 
and wheat boiled in water. Tea was made of dried raspberry leaves. 
Rye was much used for bread, and buckwheat for warm cakes, but 
wheat and corn were the staple articles of food, and when the lands 
were at first cleared they bore abundantly of both these cereals. 

But to remedy the trouble of going so far to mill, and to provide for 
building material, the proprietors of the town, at a meeting held Sep- 
tember 16, 1765, voted to give three hundred acres of land on the north 
side of Water Quechee river, and three hundred acres on the south side 
of the same river, centeriner on the falls between Jonathan and Abel 


Marsh's property — meadow land to be excluded — to aid in the erection 
of a saw-mill and grist-mill ; the former to be finished by June 1st, 

1767, and the latter by June, 1769. The saw-mill was completed prior 
to 1769, as we find that a bridge built, or voted to -be built that year, 
was to be located just below the saw-mill. At a meeting held June 23d, 

1768, the proprietors voted to give Benjamin Burtch, Abel Marsh 
and Joshua Dewey, the privilege of the stx'eam on the fourth part of 
the falls in Quechee river, from the mouth, with a suitable place for a 
log- way, as long as the grantees would maintain a saw-mill thereon. 
This influenced the grantees to build said mill. 

Oct. 24th, 1774, the proprietors voted to John Marsh, his heirs, and 
assigns forever the great falls on Quechee river to his use and behoof, 
to build a saw-mill and grist mill within two years thereafter. It 
appears that John Marsh, or Joseph Marsh, prior to 1778, built a grist- 
mill, or, what is more probable, Jonathan Burtch, aided by the Marsh's, 
built a grist-mill, saw-mill and fulling.mill, prior to 1778. May 22, 
1783, the proprietors voted to give to Joseph Marsh the privilege of 
the falls on Quechee river above the bridge, where he then had a grist- 
mill, with two acres of laud adjoining said mill, to be and remain to 
him, his heirs and assigns, as long as he or they should keep grist-mill 
there in good repair. 

Mills for carding wool and dressing cloth were among the earliest 
wants of a people whose clothing was almost wholly of domestic manu- 
facture. The first carding machines were introduced into this country 
about the year 1800. Fulling and cloth-dressing machines have been 
in use in this town since 1775. Before the introduction of carding 
machines wool was carded by hand, indeed most of the cloth, woolen 
and linen, used in families was made at home. The price for a week's 
work spinning was four shilling (sixty-six and two-thirds -cents) with 
board. When Gov. Chittenden kept an inn in Charlotte, Vt., a gentle- 
man who called to see him afterwards related the following fact con- 
cerning his visit : " After the Governor's wife had with her own hands 
prepared supper and cleared up things, she took her position by the 
kitchen fire and carded wool till a late hour, while the Governor was in 
the bar-room alternately transacting official business and waiting on 
customers at the bar." 

Nearly every house had its spinning wheels and loom. The wool 
after being cleansed was carded into rolls by the farmer's wife and 
daughters ; spun into yarn upon the " great wheel," and then wove into 
flannel cloth, which was then sent to the fulling-mill and there prepared 
for men's or women's clothing. That for men was colored and the nap 


shortened by heavy iron shears. That for women's wear was not fulled, 
but was dyed some favorite color, and, after being pressed and taken 
home, was made into dresses, sensible in style, and pattern, neat, warm 
and durable. 

Flax was raised by nearly all farmers. This was prepared for the 
distaff by the farmer and his sons. It was first rotted in the field, 
then passed under a hand-break, and the swinging knife to remove the 
outer covering ; then through the hackle ; then tied in bunches, in 
which condition it was taken in hand by the women. The flax was 
wound upon the distaff and spun upon the " little wheel," into linen 
yarn or thread ; then woven into cloth which was used for such pur- 
poses as cotton and linen cloth are now used. 

Maple sugar, the salts of ashes, and charcoal were among the earliest 
and most important manufactures in the town. That the general pro- 
cess of manufacturing each of these articles of commerce may be per- 
fectly understood, the manner of producing them must be separately 
described, begining with maple sugar. 

The process of making maple sugar was unlike that of the present 
time, in some respects. Instead of boring into the trees, and inserting 
spiles of sumach to conduct the sap from the tree into tin or wooden 
buckets, they were boxed with an axe, making an incision in the tree 
from which the sap was conducted to troughs cut out of soft wood. 
The sap was boiled in the same kettles that were used in making 
potash. The following verses clipped from the Lyndon Union, pub- 
lished by C. M. Chase in Lyndon, Vt., are descriptive of the scenes of 
sugar-making, and are worthy to be used in this connection : 


Wlien come the first warm days of spring- 
Then boys look out for fuii, 
For when the brooks begin to sing 
The sap begins to run. 

Then in the woods a merry sound, 
Of shouting and of rappmg, 
The boys are scattering bvickets 'round 
Willie older ones are tapping. 

When every maple's been rimmed out 

With bvicket hanging to it, 

And just above a tiny spout 

With sweet sap trickling through it, 

Then start the fires whose cheery Uglit 
Shines brighter than a lamp, 
And to the sled yoke Broad and Bright 
And haul the sap to camp. 

Then bu.bble, the big sap pan goes 
And bubble goes the kettle. 
And sweeter yet the syrvip grows 
Wliile it is growing little. 


Oh! there is fun on land and sea 
And many kinds of hliss, 
No better sport is tlicre for nie 
Then boiling sa]) like this. 

And when it chance, as oftentimes 
Your sweethearts with you there, 
Then all the bliss e'er told in rhymes 
Cannot w^ith this compare. 

For sugar pans no secrets tell 

Of wishes and desires. 

But mind their own sweet business well 

If you but mind the fires. 

'Though many a tale they might have told 
Of many a plighted troth, 
And many a kiss that dimples hold 
Far sweeter than their broth. 


Charcoal is an artificial coal consisting of wood burned with as little exposure 
to the action of the air as possible. Common charcoal mtended for use for fuel 
in tinmen's furnaces, blacksmith's forges, &c., is prepared by cutting pieces of 
w^ood from one to three inches in diameter into lengths from one to three feet, 
forming them into a conical pile, ends up, and covering them with turf or clay ; 
leaving two or three small holes close to the ground for lighting the %vood, and 
boring through the turf in the upper part of the cone, a few small holes for the 
escape of smoke. The pile being Hghted at the several holes along the 
bottom, continues burning with a slow smouldering flame for a week or two, 
and is allowed to cool before the turf is removed. In the case of very high winds 
the holes to the windward are stopped to prevent combustion from going on with 
too great rapidity. In case of too rapid combustion the covermg falls in, and 
the pile is burned to ashes. To prevent this, those employed at the work are 
compelled to expose themselves to great danger from fire. Lives have been lost 
at such times. As constant watchfulness and care is requisite, the workman 
generally stay in shanties erected near the coal-pits during the burning of the 
wood into coal. 

Charcoal is now made in kihis built of brick. Such may be seen near the line 
of the Passumpsic railroad m Thetford, Vt. Charcoal obtained by distilling 
beech-wood, log-wood, willow and other woods which are free from resin, is 
called cylinder charcoal. The charcoal employed in the manufacture of gun- 
powder is now so prepared. 


Where timber was an incumbrance upon the soil, it was feUed, piled up in 
pyramids and burned solely with the view to the manufacture of potashes. The 
ashes were put into wooden receptacles [often the shell of trees decayed within and 
hollowed out], at other times boxes of boards having a false bottom, with a plug 
at the bottom of one of the sides under the false bottom, or a box or hogshead 
open at both ends and standing on a broad flat stone slightly hollowed in the 
middle, and raised a foot or more above the gi-ound. Resting upon the bottom 
was a rack composed of twigs, or split sticks, and above this straw was laid. 


thus forming a filter under the ashes. A quantity of quicklime was mixed with 
the ashes, then a inoderate quantity of water was poured upon the mass, and this 
was continued until all the soluble matter was taken up, and passed off in the 
form of lye. Tliis was evaporated to dryness in ii-on pots or kettles of large 
capacity, and finally fused at a red heat into compact masses, gray on the out- 
side and pink -colored within. 

Pearlash is prepared by calcining potashes upon a reverbatory hearth, till the 
whole carbonarious matter, and a greater part of the sulijluu', is dissii^ated, then 
laxiriating the mass ui a cistern having a false bottom covered with straw, 
evaporating the clear lye to diyness in flat iron jjans, and stin-ing it toward the 
end into white lumpy granulations. 


I will now refer to most of the transfers made of mills and factories 
built on Water Quechee river at Quechee from 1771 to 1857 : — 

Dec. 29, 1771, Benj. Burtch, Abel and Elisha Marsh, and Joshua 
Dewey deeded theu' saw mill and two acres of land to Jonathan Burtch 
for £86. 13s. 5 pence. Jonathan added a grist mill and fulling mill, etc., 
and Sept. 10, 1778, sold the entire property, with mill privileges, to 
Lionel Udall, of Stephentown, N. T., for £2,000 ($10,000). Sept. 24, 
1778, Lionel Udall sold his purchase to Joseph and Elisha Marsh for 
£2,000. Nov. 5, 1781, Joseph and Elisha sold one-half of the same mills 
to Thomas W. Pitkin. August 2, 1779, Joseph and Elisha conveyed to 
John Carpenter the fulling mill and clothiers' shop and utensils, and 
thirty-nine acres of land, for £212. 10s. Nov. 1st, 1788, John Carpenter 
deeded to Jonathan Burtch, Jr., of Wells, Vt., the same mills and ma- 
chinery, and thirty acres of land, for £200. Feb. 19, 1789, Jonathan 
Burtch and Jonathan Jr. sold the same property to William Stewart of 
Stephentown, N. Y., for £100. Feb. 28, 1789, Stewart conveyed the 
same, viz : — Thirty acres of land, a fulling mill, clothiers' shop, and ap- 
purtenances, to Elisha Marsh for £100. Elisha Marsh, March 19, 1807, 
deeded his purchase to Eleazer Harwood with the privilege of dam for 
putting up a carding machine. March 17, 1807, Elisha Marsh deeded 
the grist mill, a house and shed, with land attached thereto, and water- 
right, to Milo Marsh for $2,000. Feb. 3, 1812, Milo Marsh deeded to 
Eleazer Harwood and Matthew Kanson, his said purchase for $2,000, and 
Elisha Marsh deeded Harwood and Eansom the fulling mOl, etc., for 
$500, with the privilege of the stream from bank to bank. These pur- 
chases put Harwood and Ransom into full possession of all the mills, 
houses, mill privileges, etc., at Quechee village at that time. 

Prior to Oct. 2, 1813, Harwood had erected a brick factory building, 
and on that day he deeded to Abel Penfield one-third of the whole prop- 
erty for $1,400. Sept. 17, 1819, Penfield conveyed his interest to Sam- 


uel Tyler, Abel P. Chamberlin, James Harrenden and David D. Win- 
chester, of Woodstock, Ct., for $3,140. December 7tli, 1824, Samuel 
Tyler and A. P. Chamberlin deeded their interest to D. D. AVinchester, 
for $1,500. April 26th, 1825, Winchester and Harrenden deeded all 
their interest to Elihu Ransom. Sometime in 1825, the entire property 
passed into the hands of John Downer, Elihu Ransom and Chester 
Davis, (John Downer & Co.,) who built the brick factory now standing. 
Downer & Co. soon failed, but arranged with their creditors, and July 
17, 1826, sold the mills and other property to the Quechee Manufactur- 
ing Co. for the sum of $12,000. This company failed in 1828, and the 
property passed into the hands of parties in Boston, who continued 
business there by their agent, W. M. Towne. Wm. Jarvis, John Page 
and F. R- Nichols were associated with Towne. March 21, 1836, Towne 
sold the property to Josiah Pierce, Lewis Mills and Jonathan D. Wheel- 
er for $3,600 (his right). Dec. 22, 1836, Pierce, Mills, Wheeler, Isaac 
• Li verm ore and H. R. Kendall deeded the mills, etc., to Wm. Jarvis, 
Daniel Bowman, Lyman Mower, G. H. Mower, O. P. Chandler and 
Hamden Cutts, who, the same day, deeded their purchase to the Mai- 
lory Woolen Co., for $27,914.34. Jan. 8th, 1843, the Mallory Woolen 
Co. mortgaged to Wm. Jarvis for $24,582.50, which was not redeemed. 
March 11th, 1857, Wm. Jarvis sold the entire property, then in his pos- 
session, to Messrs. Taft and Parker of Barre, Vt., for $8,500, sustaining 
a loss of $16,082.50 in the transaction. 

The investment by Messrs. Taft and Parker proved to be a fortunate 
one. On the 2d of November, 1858, Mr. Taft retired from the partner- 
ship, and Mr. Parker continued the business alone till March 21, 1866, 
when he entered into partnership with W. S. Dewey and Wm. Lindsey, 
each of these gentlemen taking an undivided fourth interest in the con- 
cern. On the 21st of March, 1876, Mr. Dewey sold an undivided third 
of his interest to Mr. Lindsey, and the balance to Mr. J. C. Parker, and, 
on the same day, Mr. J. Walter Parker became a partner with his father 
and Mr. Lindsey by purchasing an undivided half of his father's inter- 
est, or one-third of the entire property. 

During the great freshet which occurred in October, 1869, Messrs. 
Parker, Dewey and Lindsey suffered the loss of the north wing of their 
factory, which was undermined and precipitated into the river, involv- 
ing the loss of a large quantity of wool, and much damage to valuable 
machinery. The work of rebuilding was soon after commenced, and 
rapidly pushed to completion. 

The following statistics relating to the business of this firm in 1870, 
are taken from the U. S. census report of that year, viz : 


Name of manufacture — Flannel: Capital invested, $100,000. Motive power, 
water; horse j)ower, 70. Machinery: looms, 26; cards, 28 sets; spindles, 2,800; 
elevator, 1. 

Hajids employed — Males above 16 years, 20; females above 15 years, 25; chil- 
dren, 5. Wages j)aid during the year, §18,000. 

Material used, including mill supiilies and fuel — Wool, 100,000 lbs: value of 
same, $40,000. Wood, 200 cords; value, $1,000. Lumber, 25,000 feet; value, 
S300. Soap, 15,000 lbs; value, §750. Burlaps, 2,500 yards; value, §500. Tota 
value of material, $42,550. 

Production— 29,500 yards flannel; value, $100,000. 

In addition to the above business, this firm was engaged in wool-pull- 
ing and tanning, as shown by the following statistics : — 

Capital invested, $30,000; motive power, 5-horse water; macliinery, 1 Bark 
mill, 1 wheel, 1 pump; help, males above 16 years, 4; material used, pelts, 35,000, 
value $30,000; bark, 100 cords, value $800; hen-manure, 20 bushels, value $10; 
salt, 12 bushels, value $12; total value material, $30,822; wages paid, $2,000; pro- 
duction, wool 71,000 ir.s., value $28,000; pelts 30,000, value $6,000; total, $34,000. 

This company is now (1888) operating seven sets, employs seventy- 
five hands, manufactures 1,500 yards per day of superior white flannel, 
and produces annually about $3 50,000 in value. 

dewey's mills. 

The large woolen factory which is located on the Otta Quechee river 
about one mile south of Quechee village, and now owned by A. G. Dewey 
& Co., was erected and opened in 1836, by Messrs. J. P. and C. Strong 
& Co., for the manufacture of fine satinets. The financial crisis of 
1837 compelled this company to suspend operations. The factory 
remained unoccupied until 1840, when Mr. A. G. Dewey leased it. About 
the year 1840, Reuben Daniel of Woodstock conceived the idea of con- 
verting or reducing soft woolen rags to fibre, denominated "rag-wool." 
Following up this idea, Mr. Daniel invented a machine for picking rags 
into fibre, and the first machine was put in operation in the woolen 
factory at Qaechee village in 1840. This was the first inauguration of 
shoddy in the United States. 

In 1841, Mr. A. G. Dewey, leased the lower factory, and commenced 
the manufacture of what was then termed "-rag cloth,"" and what is 
now designated as '■'•shoddy.''' The varieties now made by A. G. 
Dewey & Co., are known all over the country as " Dewey's Grays.' 
During the past forty-five years Mr. Dewey and his associates have 
manufactured many millions of yards of this cloth. The maximum 
capacity of their factory is about 2000 yards per day. They have six 
sets in operation, and em})loy eighty hands. They manufacture two 
varieties of cloth — one from "tailor's clippings" — (remnants of new 


cloth) — and the other from soft woolen rags of every description 
except fulled cloths. Eighty per cent, of the above named material 
mixed with twenty per cent, of fine wool constitute the filling of this 
cloth. The warp is cotton. It forms a warm, comfortable and econom- 
ical material for clothing, and is worn by all classes of people. 

The motive power at Dewey & Co.'s factory is a Hathaway wheel of 
eighty horse power under a fall of twenty-five feet of water. The con- 
trol of the stream is secured by a very simple and inexpensive structure 
— a sufficient reserve being maintained at all times. The supply of 
water is large and constant, indeed but thirty per cent, of the stream 
at this point is utilized. The location of this factory is a very 
romantic one — being at the head of the celebrated Quechee Gulph, 
which has become a popular place of resort for tourists and pleasure 
seekers generally. Mr. W. S. Dewey and his brother, John J. Dewey, 
are the active members of the firm, and continue the business under the 
title of A. G. Dewey & Co. 


Prior to the year 1800, there were several distilleries in operation in 
the town for the manufacture of potato whiskey, new rum, and cider 
brandy. The annual product of the distilleries is not known, but the 
business was for many years a lucrative one. Cider brandy was a 
staple commodity of the town. Farmers were prompted to convert 
their cider into an article of greater commercial value than cider ; and 
also, by a desire to obtain a beverage more palatable, and stimulating. 
During the war of 1812, Freegrace Leavitt and Thomas King, had a 
distillery at the centre of the town. They made potato whiskey. Dur- 
ing the war of 1812, whiskey was scarce, and brought $1.50 per gallon. 
The business paid a large profit until the close ofthe war. The next day 
after peace was declared, the price of whiskey declined from $1.50 to 
thirty-three cents per gallon. Leavitt and King had in store, unsold, 
2000 gallons of whiskey. The decline, therefore, made a difference to 
them of $2340, which led them to suspend business in that line. 

In those days, it was customary for farmers to club together in the 
business of making cider — the same as they do now to have their milk 
converted into cheese, — and to establish creameries. One of their 
number was chosen " cider monger,^'' or superintendent of the work of 
making the eider for all members of the association. Oct. 16, 1816, 
Philemon HazeD,of Jericho, was chosen " cider monger." He held the 
office for several years thereafter. From a day-book kept by him it 
appears that there were twentj^-three members in the Jericho association, 


and that in 1816 the product of his mill was 288 barrels ; in 1817, 271 
barrels; in 1818, 317 barrels ; 1819, 554 barrels. The product for 1819 
would have given an average of 24 barrels to each member, or nearly 
nine gallons to each person in the town. 

The names of the farmers who composed the association of 1819, and 
the number of barrels of cider proportioned to each member were as 
follows : — 

WiUiam Pixley, 31; John Tracy, 37i; Zebulon Delano, 26; Reuben Tenney, 70; 
Pliilemon Hazen, 57; Chester Richards, 11; Abiather Austin, 14; Asa Pixley, 19; 
Harvey Gibbs, 8 ; Noah B. Hazen, 17; Daniel Hazen, 51; Reuben WiUs, 8^; PhUo. 
Sjirague, 9; Luther Bartholomew, 63; G. R. Dunham, 45; Thomas Savage, 61; 
Joshua Cushman, 8; Wilham Savage, 16; Stephen Tilden, 2. — Total, 554. It 
must be remernbered that this number of barrels was not more than one-fifth of 
the whole number made in the town in 1819. The whole quantity made in town 
that year, if equally distributed, would have given one barrel each to every 
person then living in the town. 


In making the survey and laying out of the lots first divided among 
the proprietors in 1761, fourteen lots were laid out on the north side of 
and bordering upon White river, and six lots were laid out on the south 
side of and bordering on White river. Lot " No. 8," on the north side 
of the river, was drawn by Elisha Wright. This lot extended up the 
river so far as to include all the water power in use on the north side of 
the river in said village since the first mills were erected there. Lot 
" No. 6," on the south side of the river, extended up nearly to the present 
bridge crossing on the road to Windsor, and included the site of the 
mill lately built by the Hartford Woolen Co. 

In the second division of lots (100 acres each) John Baldwin drew 
" No. 19." This lot was bounded on the north by White river, east by 
lot " No. 6," and extended up the river about one hundred and seventy 
rods, and included all the water power now in use by French, Watson 
& Co. On the 12th of August, 1782, lot " No. 19 " was purchased by 
Joel Tilden, of Lebanon, N. H. December 1st, 1795, Mr. Tilden sold 
to Josiah Cleveland one and one-fourth acres of land bordering on 
White river, which comprised the land on which French, Watson & 
Go's mills are located. The price paid was $193.60. 

On the 9th of January, 1795, Josiah Cleveland bought of Benjamin 
Wright, Jr., three-fourths of an acre of lot " No. 8," on the north side 
of the river (riparian right) paying for the same $38.72. This purchase 
gave Cleveland the ownership of the riparian rights on both sides of 
the river above the bridge. May 5, 1795, Josiah Cleveland deeded his 
entire interest in the above named riparian rights, to Jacob Murdock 
for the sum of $3,500, agreeing to build a dam across the river and erect 
a grist-mill and saw mill on the north side of the river, all of which he did 
within one year thereafter including also an oil-mill. March 24, 1797, Mur- 


dock deeded one-half of the whole property to Ebenezer Broughton, and 
the other half to Trumbull & Ellsworth. January 9th, 1799, Broughton 
sold his half to Perez Jones for $2,000. Jones sold to Caleb Tuttle one- 
half of his claim, and Tuttle sold the same to Elias Lyman, 3d on the 
18th of July, 1803. The entire property then comprised two saw- mills, 
one grist-mill, one oil- mill and three-fourths of an acre of land on the 
north side of the river, and one and one-fourth of an acre of land on the 
south side of the river. 

Lyman, and Trumbull & Ellsworth, erected a saw-mill on the south 
side of the river in 1803-4. On the 29th of January, 1805, they sold 
said mill, the land, and one-half of the dam, to Wharam Loomis for 
$2,000. June 24th, 1805, Lyman sold his interest in the entire property 
to Trumbull & Ellsworth. 


The history of the Riparian rights, and mills on the north side of 
White river has been given to June 24, 1805, when Elias Lyman, 3d, sold 
one half of the mills, and one-fourth of the dam to Trumbull & Ells- 
worth. On the same day Joseph Dorr bought of Trumbull & Ellsworth 
their entire interest in the mills and water power for the sum of $2000. 
July 28, 1810, Mr. Dorr sold the same property to Benjamin Lamphear. 
Lamphear sold to William Scales, July 11, 1811, and Scales deeded the 
whole property to President John Wheelock of Dartmouth College. 
From the latter the property passed in the hands of Charles W. Win- 
ship of Roxbury, Mass. Subsequently this property was transferred 
from one party to another until December 28th, 1836, when it was sold 
by James Appleton to Lucius AV. Tilden, (i. e., f th including the lease 
of the toll-house at the north end of the White river bridge.) Subse- 
quent owners were Samuel and Alonzo Moore, Edward Hazen, James 
Fuller, Sylvester Morris, Edward Morris, John Dwight Strong, Moore 
& Madden, Z. B. Clark, Jonathan Bugbee. On the morning of January 
20, 1886, the grist-mill belonging to Moore & Madden, the box factory 
owned by Zerah B. Clarke, and the carriage shop and blacksmith shop 
owned by Jonathan Bugbee, were totally destroyed by fire — the total 
loss being not far from $20,000, with but $3000 insurance. 

March 15, 1886, Moore & Madden conveyed to E. W. Morris their 
grist-mill right, power, privilege and property — excepting a mill house. 
March 11, 1887, Zerah B. Clarke sold to Isaac Gates, the site on which 
his box shop stood for the sum of eighty-five dollars. During the 
autumn of 1886, Jonathan Bugbee, built a blacksmith shop, carriage 
and paint shop on the sight of the buildings burned. In the summer of 
18 87 Isaac Gates erected a three-story building on the land he bought 
of Z. B. Clarke — to be used as a chair factory. 



After running the saw-mill until October 1st, 1806, Wharam Loomis 
disposed of his purchase to Elias Lyman, 3d. March 25, 1807, Mr. Lyman 
leased a lot of ground 20x40 next east of the saw-mill to Absolom Ball, 
with the privilege of taking sufficient water from the dam to carry a 
fulling-mill, a machine for dressing cloth, a machine for cutting dye- 
stuff and^^ a grindstone. On this lot Mr. Ball built a fulling-mill in 

1807. On the same day (March 25) Mr. Lyman leased to Joseph H. 
Kneeland, a lot of land 29x40, adjoining that leased to Ball, with the 
privilege of using water sufficient to carry a carding machine, spinning 
and weaving, turning a lathe and a grind stone. On the 26th of July, 

1808, Mr. Kneeland deeded to the "Hartford Manufacturing Com- 
pany,'" all his right, title and interest acquired by virtue of said lease. 

Absolom Ball continued in business at this point until his death in 
1822. May 12, 1823, EHsha Fowler of Bethel, Vt., deeded the leased 
premises, buildings, etc., to Joseph Fowler. April 8, 1831, Joseph 
Fowler sold the same property to John S. Haines, who on the 19th of 
February, 1833, sold the fulling-mill and machinery therein to Justin 
Lyman, and some land with a dwelling-house and barn, west of the 
saw-mill, to Thomas Belknap, a son-in-law of Justin Lyman's. The 
lease given to Joseph H. Kneeland by Mr. Lyman, and by Kneeland to 
the " Hartford Manufacturing Co.," lapsed after some years, and the 
factory was in disuse until 1831. 

On the dissolution of partnership between Elias and Justin Lyman in 
1829, Elias deeded to Justin all the property they had jointly owned on 
the south side of the river, including the saw-mill, old and new factories, 
mill privileges, etc., — subject only to the lease given to Absolom Ball — 
for the sum of $15,000. This sale included the new cotton factory 
erected by Elias Lyman, just east of the bridge in 1823. On the 4th of 
June, 1831, Justin Lyman leased the factory built by Joseph Kneeland, 
and a dwelling-house, to Noah B. Hazen. Mr. Lyman refurnished the 
factory with new machinery for the manufacture of woolen goods. The 
yearly rental was $200 for the factory, $45 for the house, and twelve 
per cent, on the machinery, the lease to run three years. Soon after 
effecting this lease, Mr. Hazen formed a partnership with Foster Sturte- 
vant who came from Perkinsville, Vt. This partnership ended in 1832, 
through the defalcation of Hazen. Attachments placed upon the prop- 

' Incorporated November 7, 1S07, by the General Assembly then in session in 
Woodstock. The corporators were Samuel Horr, Guy Trumbull, Joseph H. Knee- 
land, Thomas Hartwell, and Amos Bugbee. The factory then standing on the 
leased ground was built bj this corporation prior to the time Kneeland made over 
his lease. 


erty of the company, led to a suspension, and a sale of their property, 
at auction. Aaron Willard was the principal purchaser, and in 1833, 
he entered into a partnership with Mr. Sturtevant, and they continued 
the manufacture of woolen goods in the old factory until 1839, when 
the partnership was dissolved. 

In the meantime, Foster Sturtevant purchased of Frances, widow of 
Justin Lyman, the factory and machinery, the saw -mill, a dwelling house, 
one and one-fourth acres of land, and one equal half of the dam and 
water, and use of water in the canal. Two days later, June 15, 1836, 
Thomas Belknap sold to said Sturtevant the land and buildings thereon, 
sold to said Belknap by Joseph Fowler in 1833. Mr. Sturtevant con- 
tinued the manufacture of woolen goods in said factory until 1848, 
when his factory was destroyed hj fire. This loss added to Hazen's 
defalcation, was a severe trial to Mr. Sturtevant, and was probably the 
principal cause of his death, which occurred by suicide Mai'ch 17, 1849, 
at the age of forty-eight years. 

On the 16th of September 1852, Alvin Braley of Koxbury, Vt., pur- 
chased of the legal representatives of Foster Sturtevant all the real 
estate left by Mr. Sturtevant, and at once commenced to build a factory 
on the foundation of the one burned. He paid $2,200 for said property 
and before his new factory was completed he disposed of his purchase 
as follows: One-eighth to Dolphin G. Smith, one-fourth to John Van 
Ornum, one fourth to Justus W. French, and retained three-eights. 
The four then united in a partnership under the title of " Van Ornum, 
Braley & Co," for the pui-pose of manufacturing hay forks, garden rakes 
and other steel implements for farming purposes. 

October 7, 1856, D. G. Smith sold his interest to J. W. French. Jan- 
uary 10, 1859, the fork factory, so called, was destroyed by fire, but the 
company rebuilt and resumed business during that year. July 15, 1861, 
John Van Ornum sold out to J. W. French. Nov. 16, 1861, A. Judson 
Van Ornum purchased one-fourth of all owned by French & Braley. 
Dec. 28, 1865, Alvin Bialey sold his share in the concern to J. W. 
French. July 20, 1866, George Bannister purchased one-eighth of the 
property, and a new partnership was formed under the title of " French, 
Van Ornum & Co." On the 11th of April, 1868, A. J. Van Ornum sold 
out to Edwin C. Watson, when the title was changed to " French, Wat- 
son & Co.," which continues to be the title. H. C. Pease, proprietor. 



The manufacture of cut nails was carried on in White River village, 
on the south side of White river, in a building that stood near the east 
end of the saw mill, as early as the year 1800." The first recorded evi- 
dence that this business was carried on in this village at an early date, 
is found in Vol. 6 of the land records of the town, and is in the form of 
an agreement, of which the following is a true copy : — 

•' In consideration of David Matson this day selling his buildings in which his 
nail mesheen stands to Absoloni Ball, I hereby agree to let the said David have 
a privilege to set his nail mesheen in the under part of a building I am about to 
erect near the saw mill on the south side of White river as soon as the buildings 
shall be built, so it is practable erecting the same, and he is to have sufficient 
room for his nail mecheen and to work the same as long as tlie said David wishes 
personally to carry on the nail cutting business, &c. 


Hartford, 25th of March, 1807. 


In the second division of one hundred acre lots among the proprie- 
tors, lot " No. 64," on the north cide of White river, and bordering on 
the river, was drawn by Benjamin Whitney. This lot comprised the 
location of the hamlet known as Centreville. After several transfers this 
lot became, in 1791, the property of Elias Wilson. On the 26th of 
August, 1798, Mr. Wilson sold seventeen acres bordering on the riv^r 
with all the water privileges belonging thereto, for the sum of eighty- 
five dollars, Lemuel Cone being the purchaser. In 1801, Jesse Stoddard, 
a constable, levied upon the premises owned by Cone, to satisfy a direct 
tax of $5.33 asst. to said Cone, under an act of Congress passed July 
14, 1798, to raise two million dollars to support government. In 1803, the 
property levied upon was sold at auction to Peter Miller for the said tax 
and costs of sale. April 22d, 1805, Miller sold to Jedediah Strong fifty- 
one acres, including twenty-one sold to him by Stoddard, with a grist- 

' The first machine for making cut nails was invented in Massachusetts about the 
year iSoo, by a Mr. Odion. Soon after another was contrived by a Mr. Reed, of 
the same State. Before these machines were introduced the strips of iron of-suit- 
able widths for conversion into nails were cut into wedge-like pieces by an instru- 
ment which acted on the principle of the shears ; and these were afterwards headed 
one by one with a hammer. Tacks were made by the same process. 

■-' The only evidence in support of the fact that nails were made in this village as 
early as iSoo, is the statement made by Mr. S. B. Parman. who says that his grand- 
father Farman, was engaged in the business of nail making in White River village 
in i8oo, and, perhaps, at an earlier date. Mr. Parman's name does not appear in 
the voting-list of the town, nor anywhere else in the town records. It is, therefore, 
probable that he was only an employe in the nail works. Nails were then headed 
vye'j a hammer. Mrs. Farman worked at heading small nails and tacks with a ham- 
in iSoo. 


mill, saw-mill, blacksmith's shop, dwelling-house, and the water privileges 
for the sum of $2,000. Feb. 12th, 1808, Mr. Strong sold to Joshua 
Cushman and Jesse Bridgman twenty-one acres and the mills, &c. In 
1811, John Tracy bought of Cushman & Bridgman, the blacksmith shop 
and the privilege of using water to run a trip hammer, paying for 
all $200. February 25th, 1815, Cushman & Bridgman sold their pur- 
chase to Jedediah Strong, who, after running the mills until 1827, sold 
out to his son, John Strong, thirty acres and the mills, &c. 

In 1839, through the efforts of John Strong, a company was formed 
under tbe title of " The White River Mill Co," for the purpose of re- 
pairing the mills, and dam, and increasing the facilities for grinding 
grain, sawing lumber, carding wool, &c. 

The members of this association were John Portei", John Downer, 
John Strong, Thomas Crandall, Norman Tilden, Wm. Shepperdson, 
Lucius Hazen, John Tracy, Stephen S. Downer, James Wood, Norman 
Savage, Samuel Tracy, William Savage, Columbus Tracy, of Hartford, 
Nathan Snow, of Pomfret, and Daniel Cobb, of Strafford. The capital 
stock of this association was $10,000, or fifty shares at a par value of 
$200 each. The enterprise proved to be an unprofitable one. The 
stockholders realized less than six per cent, annual interest on their 
investment, and on the dissolution of the association, in 1854, the 
shares were bought by John D wight Strong, at a discount of ninety 
per cent, from the original par value. John Strong, alone, found it to 
be a profitable venture. 

J. Dwight Strong paid $1,000 for the entire premises. April 18th, 
1857, he sold the same to Lucien B. Bliss. The owners of the property 
since 1857, have not until quite recently found business there fairly 
remunerative. Mr. Bliss sold to Jonas G. Lamphire in April, 1865. 
Lamphire sold to Milo G. Gilbert, April 29, 1865. Gilbert sold to 
Oscar F. Barron, March 1st, 1866. Between 1866 and 1886, the mills 
were run by various parties on leases and otherwise. On the 2d of 
April, 1886, David H. Moore and Edgar M. Madden purchased the 
property, including a grist-mill, a saw- mill, dwelling-house and all 
water privileges, paying for the same $2,250. In a word they paid but 
two hundred and fifty dollars more than they received for their mill 
site and water privilege in White River village. They have the entire 
water-power in Centreville, do a good custom business there, in addition 
to their flour and meal trade in White River village. 



So far as I can learn, it seems probable that a saw mill was built in 
West Hartford by Daniel Ransom in the year 1794. An addition was 
made to this mill not long afterwards, in which the dyeing and carding 
of wool was carried on for several years. These buildings stood on the 
spot now occupied by the saw mill in use by H. D. Barrows, built in 
1813. The owners of the premises since 1815 have been as follows : 
David Wilson, 1815 to 1837 ; Henry Faunce, 1838 : Zacheus Wheeler, 
1838 to 1843 ; John Fuller and Charles H. Thurston, 1843 to 1855 ; 
Charles H. Thurston, 1855 to 1872; Hamilton D. Barrows, 1872 to 

As early as 1819, David Hazen owned a tanning establishment, which 
was located closely adjacent to the saw mill. Mr. Hazen sold the tan- 
nery, a dwelling house, etc., to Noah Dutton in 1835. February 2, 1843, 
Mr. Dutton sold the tannery, dwelling house, and several acres of land, 
to Isaac Dexter. In 1845, the premises were bought by Willard W. 
Low, who after doing a thriving business for several years, fell into 
habits of dissipation, and in 1868 died of delirium tremens. Since the 
settlement of his estate nothing has been done at tanning in that vil- 
lage. The premises are now owned by A. H. Colby, Esq. 

In 1856, Alvan Tucker commenced the manufacture of spring-beds, 
hand-rakes, etc., by the use of steam-power, but relinquished the busi- 
ness two years later. In 1830, Peter Whitney and his sons John and 
Ebenezer, had a furnace for manufacturing castings of various kinds. 
After the removal of the Whitneys to Ohio in 1838, their business was 
continued by Zavan Hazen. The business terminated in 1843, when Mr. 
Hazen moved to Newburg, Indiana. 

In 1854, Carlos Hazen began the manufacture of tin and sheet-iron 
ware, in the shop previously occupied by James Wade, a cabinet maker. 
After a few years' stay there Mr. Hazen removed to Lowell, Mass. 
Amos Bartholomew, a very eccentric man, carried on the wheelwright 
business in that village for many years. 


Steam is the only available motive power in White River Junction, 
and this has not been utilized there to any great extent. In 1849, Ar- 
thur Latham, of Lyme, N. H , purchased land of Col. Samuel Nutt, 
upon which he erected a foundry, a machine shop, and several boarding 
houses, and opened the business of manufacturing and repairing loco- 
motives, railway cars, etc. After continuing this business but a few 
years he suspended under heavy liabilities. The result proved more 



ruinous to his creditors than to Mr. Latham and his family, in a finan- 
cial point of view. The business was not again revived there. The 
machine shop was converted into a peg-factory, which was in operation 
until 1882 under the superintendence of Mr. A. H. Wolfe. After the 
discontinuance of the peg business the buildings stood unused until 
1884, when they passed into the hands of W. L. Mclntire, a contractor 
and builder, who refitted them with machinery for making mouldings, 
general house finish, clothes pins, etc. In 1886, after making an addi- 
tion of another building to the works, Mclntire suspended and left the 

In 1884-5, Joseph Mace erected a grist mill near the Central railroad 
round-house. It proved to be too heavy an undertaking for Mr. Mace 
to carry through with success. The heavy expense of building and run- 
ning a first-class mill in the face of competition, and other drawbacks, 
led to a temporary aberation of his mind, and caused his withdrawal 
from business. Subsequently business in this mill was commenced by 
Byron Tilden and Fred Grover. After running the mill about one year 
at a sacrifice, they closed it in the autumn of 1886, and the mill stands 


This representative house is one of the oldest in New England in the 
combined cracker and confectionery business, having been established 
in Hanover, N. H., in 1837, by Mr. E. K. Smith, who by keen fore- 


sight, sound judgment and a thorough devotion to his business, suc- 
ceeded in building up, while in Hanover, an extensive and profitable 
trade, thus exemplifying the truth of the theory that from small begin- 
nings a person possessed of industry, honesty and perseverance, may 
obtain pre-eminence in any branch of business. 

With a clear perception of the many advantages to be secured by 
removing their business to White River Junction, the site now occupied 
was taken in 1871, and this is one of the most desirable locations in 
Vermont. Mr. E. K. Smith, the founder of the firm, died in 1877, since 
which time the business has been conducted solely by his son, George 
W. Smith, who is, in every sense of the word, a first-class business man. 
This house has not been entirely exempt from losses during its exist- 
ence of more than half a century, but has never failed. In 1884 the 
premises were badly damaged by fire, but they were soon rebuilt, and at 
the same time an extensive annex was made, which was demanded by a 
largely increasing business. 

While making a specialty of crackers, in which business he has 
achieved an unrivalled reputation and phenomenal success, Mr. Smith 
also carries a full line as displayed in confectionery, cigars, and other 
things suited to the demands of the wide market in which he seeks to 
serve and satisfy his patrons by a progressive system of business deal- 
ing. He aims to sell the best goods at fairly remunerative prices, and 
by pursuing this policy is enabled to secure a large share of the best 

He buys the materials required in his business on an extensive scale, 
and, consequently, everything is secured at the lowest prices. He 
annually converts from thirty to forty car loads of flour, of choice 
brands, into " Hanover " crackers, in which business he also uses at 
least 300 barrels of lard. He now makes 65,000 crackers daily, or about 
fifty barrels. In the manufacture of confectionery, he uses at least 500 
barrels of sugar annually, or about 140,000 pounds. In addition to his 
own manufactures he carries in stock fifty varieties of fancy cakes and 
crackers, and about 400 varieties of confectionery. He employs ten to 
twelve men in his bakery ; keeps on the road five salesmen, who sell by 
samples, and has a weekly pay-roll of $200. 

As an illustration of the extent of Mr. Smith's cracker making, it may 
be said that his annual production is 1,625,000 dozens. If this number 
were placed in a pile twenty-five feet square, and one hundred and 
thirteen feet in height, sixty men could stand side by side around such 



a pile, and if each man should eat three dozen daily until the entire lot 
was consumed, the pile would last thirty years. Or if his annual pro- 
duction was equally divided among the inhabitants of Vermont, every 
person would receive five dozens. 


The manufacture of marble monuments, tablets and head- stones, was 
commenced in White River Junction by John Harding, April 12, 1878. 
Mr. Harding: uses but little other than Italian marble. His work is 
equal to that produced in any works in Vermont, in point of design and 
finish. His productions range in value from twenty up to one thousand 
dollars. He deals in granite monuments, made of the fine red variety 
found in Red Beach, Maine. His principal carver and cutter is Mr. J. 
M. Hodet. 

Samuel Carlton opened the business of getting out granite curbing 
and monuments in White River Junction in 1881. He uses, principally, 
Concord granite, and produces work ranging in price from twenty-five 
to one thousand dollars. His work is excellent in finish and quality, 
and finds a ready market. His principal assistant is Mr. Jeff Durgin, a 
skillful cutter and designer. 


This corporation, located in White River Junction, was established 
for the purpose of "manufacturing books, printing, publishing or deal- 
ing in newspapers, blank books, blanks, stationery, music and musical 
instruments, and for procuring a place of business and incurring such 
other expenditures as maybe necessary for the commencement and pros- 
ecution of the business above named." The capital stock was origi- 
nally $5,000, or 100 shares at $50 each, the actual amount paid in at the 
date of organization, April 19, 1881, being $3,500. The president is 
George W. Smith, the directors Alma C. Farman, Geo. W. Smith and S. 
L. Farman. Place of business, basement of Smith's block. 


The Wholesale Jewelry business of T. F. & M. J. Bogle, located in 
Smith's Block, at White River Junction, is worthy of notice, as showing 
perseverance and enterprise : it being the only wholesale house of the 
kind in Vermont or New Hampshire. 

The business was started eight years ago, by its present manager, 
Mr. C. C. Bogle, who then lived at West Lebanon, N. H. He com- 
menced selling goods to the trade in a small way, by driving one horse. 


and carrying a few goods with him in two small trunks. Their business 
now extends through the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont 
and New York. They employ two salesmen on the road, and a corps 
of efficient clerks at the store ; dealing exclusively in Watches, Clocks, 
Jewelry, Silver Plated Ware, Gold Pens, Spectacles and Eye Glasses, 
Watchmaker's Tools and Materials ; and in these goods can compete 
successfully with the New York and Boston Houses. 


One of the most important manufacturing enterprises ever inaugurated 
in Vermont, is that now well established at Olcott Falls on the Connec- 
ticut river, two miles above White Eiver Junction, — one of the two 
pulp mills being located upon the New Hampshire side of the river in 

This location on the west bank of the Connecticut river was known to the 
early settlers of Hartford as " White River Falls," the water power at that point 
being designated in the charter of township by that name and doubtless, for the 
reason of their near proximity to the mouth of White river. The Proprietors' 
Committee, who came into the town in 1761 to lay out the boundary lines of the 
town, reported that they commenced their work at the north-east corner of the 
town " at the marked tree standing near the head of White River Falls." There 
are, in fact, two principal falls, distinguished as " The Upper " and " The Lower 
Falls," both of which are included in that portion of the river between lots "14" 
and " 24," of the original division of lots, north of Wliite river, bordering on the 
Connecticut river. The extent in length of both falls is about 400 rods, and the 
power afforded by them, jointly, is excelled by a few others only in New England 
— being not less than 7000 horse power at low water ; with a possible 40 feet 

The mill privileges at the lower falls were utilized, on both sides of the river, 
as early as 1785. The lot of land immediately adjacent to the river at what is 
termed the " lower bar of the falls " was, ui the first division, number "19" and 
was drawn by Caleb Howard. April 10, 1769, Howard deeded this lot to Joel 
Marsh. Oct. 23, 1769, Marsh deeded the same to Israel Gillett, who, by various 
transfers to him, became possessed of all the original shares from " 18 " to " 28," 
inclusive. The water privilege, together with about four acres of land bordering 
on the river, subsequently passed into the hands of Jolin Payne, of Hanover.and 
John Payne, Jr. . and Elizabeth Turner, of Hartford, who erected thereon a corn 
mill and saw mill. Jime 14, 1787, the Paynes and Miss Turner, for a consider- 
ation of $72.60, granted to Joseph Fowler of East Haddam, Ct., and Dr. Joseph 
Lewis and Samuel Hutchinson of Norwich, the privilege of setting a fulling 
mill at their (the grantors) mills, and to draw water from the bulkhead neces- 
sary to run said fulling mill. The grantees did not erect a fulling mill, but, on 
the 19th of October, 1795, they deeded the right of water for a fulling mill to 
Elisha Fowler, who on the 7th of October, 1793, had bought of Israel Gillett one 
acre and thirteen rods of land on wliich to erect a fulling mill. Elisha Fowler. 


aliout this time imrchasedof Frances W. Savage, 15 acres of laud bordering on the 
river, which Fowler sold to Erastus Chapman July 29, 1790. Mr. Chapman \vas 
by trade a blacksmith and he built on this land, a blacksmith's shop. Elisha 
Fowler, about this time, built a house near the falls. 

On the 4th of April, 1790, John Payne of ^Hanover, N. H., deeded to Capt. 
Daniel Phelps four acres of land, one-eighth of a corn mill, three-eighths of a 
saw mill, and water power at the lower fall. Cajitain Phelps, after buying the 
interests of John Payne Jr., and Elizabeth Turner and Elisha Fowler, on the 31st 
of January, 1804, sold the whole property, incliidiiig water power, to Daniel 
Green. Daniel Green sold to Gordon Whitmore. In August, 1817, said Whit- 
more and Josiah Bellows deeded three undivided fourths of all the land and Mills 
and power to Mills Olcott of Hanover, for the sum of $1500. Zerah Brooks, 
father of the late Justin C. Brooks, deeded the remaining one-fourth to said 
Olcott for the sum of $1000. About the same date, said Olcott bought the 
riparian rights on the Lebanon, N. H., side of the river, and erected a saw miU 
on the site. 

The "White River Falls Comi^any " — Mills Olcott and others corporators — 
was chartered by the New Hampshire legislature, June 12, 1807. This company 
commenced building locks and canals on the same in 1810 at an expense of nearly 
$40,000. Mills Olcott was then about thirty years of age. At first the amount of 
business afforded no dividends, but later, it became a source of satisfactory 
revenue. Mr. Olcott was, however, subjected to almost constant litigation, 
annoyance and anxiety for nearly forty years. 

A corporation under the title of "The White River Falls Corporation" was 
established by the Legislature of New Hampshire, Jvme 23d, 1848. The corpora- 
tors were James Harris, Rufus Choate, Joseph Bell, Edward R. Olcott, Wm. H. 
Duncan and Chas. E. Thompson. The authorized capital stock was $500,000. 
This corporation was formed for the purpose of " maintaining a dam and water 
power on Connecticut river, at White River Falls." On the 17th of August, 
1848, Rufus and Helen (Olcott) Choate, C. H. Olcott, Jane E. Heydock, Wm. A. 
Olcott, (by Harriet A. Olcott) Wm. H. and Sarah (Olcott) Duncan, Edward R. 
Olcott, Charles E. and Mary (Olcott) Thompson and Joseph and Juliana B. Bell, 
deeded to Joseph Bell of Boston all the land and Mills owned by Mills Olcott 
(three-fourths in Hartford) and all in Lebanon, for a consideration of $80,000. At 
the same time James Harris and Avife, deeded to said Joseph Bell, their interest 
of one-fourth of the premises in Hartford, for a consideration of $20,000, — the 
entire amovtnt of property deeded " to be held in trust by said Bell to and for the 
use of Wliite River Falls Corporation, so long as the same remains unchanged by 
any material amendment, etc. 

Although the ostensible object of the corporation, as expressed in their charter, 
was " to maintain a dam and water power at White River Falls," they soon after 
put this projierty on the market, hoping to effect a sale; but the price fixed, or 
asked, ($25,000) precluded the possibility of effecting a sale. Finally, Daniel G. 
Blaisdell, treasurer of the corporation, announced an auction sale of the property, 
including all riparian rights on both rides of the river, the privileges of the sti-eam, 
a saw mill on the Lebanon side, together with the locks and canal on the same 
side, but, on the day named for said sale, not a bidder appeared; and all subse- 
quent efforts made to dispose of the property proved futile until many years 


In 1865 Israel Gillett, Bd, and Horace French, erected a paper mill on the west 
side of the Connecticut river and near the " Upper falls," so called, where they 
manufactured paper from straw, until 1872, when the mill was washed away and 
they suspended business at that point. Recognizing the value of the immense 
water power afforded by the two falls and having often heard their relative, 
Daniel O. Gillett, express his willingness to donate forty-five acres of land lying- 
adjacent to the river at that point, to encourage the utilization of said water 
power, they called the attention of the late N. B. Safford to the matter. Tliis 
public spirited gentleman being ever ready to promote the well-fare and j)ros- 
perity of his feUow citizens, proceeded to make an inspection of the water power 
at the falls, with which he was very favorably impressed; and he resolved to 
make an effort to interest several wealthy manufacturers in the enterprise of pur- 
chasing and utilizing said water power to its f u.llest capacity. Earnest and enthus- 
iastic in this project, he soon succeeded in enlisting Messrs. Jones and Lamson, 
manufacturers of cotton goods, Windsor, Vt., and through them, Messrs. Floyd 
Bros. & Co., of Boston, in the project. 

As a preliminary step, toward the consummation of their design, IVIi". Safford 
was delegated to confer with the owners of the water power and the riparian 
rights adjacent thereto, on both sides of Connecticut river, to learn upon what 
terms a title to the same could be acquired. With the land-owners on the Ver- 
mont side of the river he was eminently successful. Daniel O. Gillett, a level- 
headed, public-spirited gentleman, not only confirmed his (previous) offer to give 
forty-five acres of laud in aid of the enterprise, but took upon himself the work 
of soHciting voluntary subscriptions to the amount of §4000 toward a purchase of 
the interests of the "White River Falls Corporation," which he readily accom- 
plished. He was also largely instioimental in influencing other land holders to 
unite with himseK in bonding over 100 acres to Mr. Safford, viz: Daniel O. 
Gillett forty acres, Azro GiUett twenty, Orrin Taft twelve, Reuben Loveland ten, 
Wm. J. Chandler twenty. 

Wm. H. Duncan, who owned about fifty acres in that vicinity, declined to 
gratuitously contribute land, but offered to sell ten acres for a consideration of 
of $2000, which Mr. Safford decided to pay. Pending further negotiations how- 
ever, Mr. Safford and his associates decided to apply to the General Assembly of 
Vermont for an act of incorporation under the title of the " Hartford Mills Com- 
pany," which they secured Nov. 26, 1872. The corporators were Noah B. Saf- 
sord, Russell L. Jones, Eastburn E. Lamson, Hiram Harlow, Daniel O. Gillett, 
Chas. J. Jones, Edward E. Floyd, Samuel J. Wliitton, Joseph A. Call and theu- 
associates; incorporated for the purpose of manufacturing cotton and woolen 
goods, etc. The capital stock was to be one hundred thousand dollars with the 
right to increase the same to any sum not exceeding two million dollars; the 
shares to be one hundred dollars each. 

At this juncture of affairs, when success seemed assured beyond doubt, Mr. 
W. H. Duncan, who was vacillating, and too easily influenced by some of his 
narrow-minded neighbors, raised an insuiDerable obstacle to further negotiations, 
by declining to deed any portion of the property unless the " Hartford Mill Co. 
would agree to erect their first mill, or mills, at the ' lower falls,' or in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the residue of his land adjoining the aforesaid ten acres.'" 
To this condition the would-be j)m-chasers would not submit, and the trade fell 


through. ]Mr. Duncan hved to see and ackiiowiedge liis error, and make honor- 
able amends. 

Havmg received assurance that Mr. Duncan liad finally decided to give ten 
acres of land in aid of the enterprise, and that Messrs. Gillett, Taft, Chandler, 
Loveland and others, would renew their ft)nner bond to deed the quantities of 
land offered by them in the premises, and also, that the water power and riparian 
rights could be purchased on more favorable terms than formerly, Mr. Safford 
began anew in 1880, to accomplish his long cherished purpose. The first re- 
sponse to his efforts, came from Mr. D. P. Crocker, a wealthy resident of Spring- 
field, Mass., who, after a careful inspection of the water power at the falls, and 
due consideration of the liberal inducements offered, concluded a purchase of the 
water and riparian rights owned by the " White River Falls Company," for the 
sum of four thousand dollars. He also ixirchased about fifty acres of land on 
the Lebanon side of the river for wiiich he paid three thousand dollars, while, at 
the same time, he received at the hands of the above named land-owners a gift 
of about one hundred and thirty acres of land on the west side of the river, most 
of which lies east of the Passumpsic railroad. 

On tlie 23rd of June, 1880, Mr. Crocker conveyed his right, title, and interest 
in the above real estate, and 1000 shares of the stock to ' White River Falls Co.' — 
reserving twenty acres of land on the west side of the railroad, and this he sub- 
sequently deeded to the " Olcott Falls Co." In 1881, by an act of the New Hamp- 
shire legislatiu-e, the title of the " White River Falls Company," was changed to 
•' Olcott Falls Co." 

On the 10th of August, 1883, the " Olcott Falls Co." commenced the work of 
constructing a dam across Connecticut river. This was completed Jan. 10th, 
1883. The length of the dam is 808 feet, wood work 608 feet, abutments 200 feet. 
Nearly 1,700,000 feet of lumber and 3300 perches of stone were used in the dam. 
The cost of the dam was about §50,000. A pulp mill was completed Aug. 26th, 
1883. Twelve thousand yards of stone were removed in forming the wheel-pit. 
By one blast with 650 pounds of dynamite, 600 cvibic yards of rock were removed. 
The pulp mill has two stories and a basement. The machinery consists of eleven 
Hunt water wheels, each of 200 horse-power. Water is conducted to these 
wheels through two iron pent stocks, each eight feet in diameter and 120 feet in 
length, the fall being forty feet. The machines for reducing wood to pulp con- 
sist of nine Tower grinders, each capable of grinding five tons per day of wet 
pulp, and other machines in general use. With a run of twenty-four hours, this 
mill produces about forty-five tons of wet pulp, using nearly thirty cords of tim- 
ber per day. The ground plan of this mill is 86x86 feet. 

The paper mill comprises six divisions, viz: — an engine-room, 64x119; a bleach 
house, 48x66; a machine room, 60x138; a finishing room, 36x90; a boiler house, 
40x42: and a stock house, 38x150, all built of brick, and mainly, one story in 
height. In the construction of the buildings and chimney about 2,000,000 brick 
were used. The chimney is 100 feet in height. The whole ground space occu- 
pied by all the buildings named is nearly 37,000 square feet. The machinery in. 
the paper mill comprises four boilers, each of ninety horse-power; two paper- 
making machines, each having a capacity of nine tons per day, together with 
the necessary Hunt water wheels which are fed through a pent stock of the same 
dmiensions as those above named. 


The dam and mills were biiilt by S. S. Ordway, contractor; Stone Bros., of 
Laconia. N. H., being sub-contractors for laying brick, plastering, etc. Tlie tim- 
ber for the dam was fm-nished mostly by Pattee & Per ley, of Lebanon, N. H. 
The stone was blasted out on the sjwt, with the exception of granite, most of 
which, including door and window caps and sills, were obtained of D. Tilton, 
Enfield, N. H. The brick were made at Orford, N. H., by the O. F. Co. The 
southern pine came from the New Haven Lumber Co. The machinery was man- 
ufactured as follows: Water wheels, Rodney Hunt, Orange Mass.; gi'inders. 
Holy oke (Mass.) Mfg. Co.; boilers, H. Loi-ing, South Boston, Mass.; paper ma- 
chines, Union Macliine Co., Fitchburg, Mass. 

The paper made at Olcott is exclusively for city daily newspapers. Tliis paper 
is formed of the filaments of spruce and poplar wood, and some waste cotton, 
and by an adjustment of macliinery of extraordinary delicacy, the pulp formed 
of these substances is converted into an endless web of paper, as long at least as 
the machines are supphed Mnth pulp. Tlie paper made at this mill is made into 
rolls weighing 600 poimds. Much of the spruce and poplar comes from Canada 
ready to be fed to the grinders. 

Tlie Olcott Falls Co. is constructing a new pulp mill on the Lebanon side. This 
mill has ten grinders requu'ing a total of 2250 horse power. The pulp produced 
in this mill will be conveyed to the paper mill on the opposite side of the river 
in pipes laid upon a foot bridge spanning the river. There are only three 
or four houses on the Lebanon side. Probably other manufacturing 
establishments will be put in operation in Olcott at no distant day, and 
the many hundred available building lots there will be occupied; and it will 
become the most important village in Hartford, if not in. Windsor county. The 
nucleus now formed comprises about fifty dwelling houses, a commodious school 
liouse, a post office, a dry goods and grocery store, a public hall with a seating 
capacity of 150 persons, a livery stable, etc. A congregational church was 
organized here Oct. 14, 1888, imder the name of the " United Chm-ch of Christ in 
Olcott." Tlie property of this company, in Hartford, now exempted from taxa- 
tion amounts to 8327,300, divided as follows : for ten years from April 1, 1885, 
§77,300; for ten years from April 1,1888, 8150,000. It is, however, safe to say 
that the increase in the valuation of real estate, including buildings, resulting 
from the estabhshment of the mills already in operation at that point, is largely 
in excess of the amoimt exempted for ten years from April 1, 1885. 

Tliis enterprise wfil conduce to the gi-o\\i;h, wealth and prosperity of the town. 
Our farmers will experience an increased demand for then- farm produce. Good 
prices and a ready market are the natural results of the establisliment of manu- 
factories in our midst. Farming in particular is rendered more profitable and 
pleasant as a calling. Increased and continuous profits on labor and capital 
furnish means wherewith to meet taxation, the payment of help and interest 
money, to raise mortgages or to obviate giving them, and to secure increased 
comforts of life and more agi-eeable surroimdings. Like benefits accrue to all 
classes of society. These benefits are too obvious to need enumeration further 
than to say that factories and mills suc-h as exist in Hartford add largely to the 
taxable property of a town, and increase the number of taxpayers, thereby lessen- 
ing per capita taxation. They also afford employment to many persons who 
would othei-wise be idle, and very likely worse than idle, " idleness being the 
mother of mischief." 



The site occupied by this company, on the south side of White river, is 
the north end of lot " No. 6," which, in the first division of land among 
the proprietors of Hartford, was drawn by Elijah Bingham, and con- 
tained sixty-five acres. This lot, after several transfers had taken place, 
became the property of Josiah Tilden in 1800. In January, 1807, Mr. 
Tilden sold to Elias Lyman three-fourths of an acre off the end of this 
lot, bordering on the south side of the turnpike. This slip of land has 
been since 1761 the subject of numerous transfers, the owners having 
been as follows: Elijah Bingham, Nehemiah Closson, Josiah Tilden, 
Elias Lyman, 3d, Jonathan Bugbee, David Kneeland, Joseph H. Knee- 
land, Edward Kneeland, Sylvester Morris, E. W. Morris, and the Hart- 
ford Woolen Co. That portion of the lot lying between the turnpike 
and White river has changed hands as follows : Elijah Bingham, 1761 
Nehemiah Closson, 1772 ; David Wright, 1783 ; Josiah Tilden, 1800 
Joseph Buckingham, 1804 ; John Gilbert, 1806 ; Elisha Hotchkiss, 1808 
David Matson, 1809 ; Elias Lyman, 3d, 1815 ; Justin Lyman, 1829 
Sylvester Morris, 1853 ; E. W. Morris, 1857 ; Hartford Woolen Co. 

The site on which the Hartford Woolen Company have erected their 
mill is invested with a degree of interest that seldom attaches to building 
sites, for the reason that one of the first two factories built in Vermont 
for the manufacture of cotton goods was here located. I allude to the 
factory erected on this site by Elias Lyman, 3d, in 1823, which was the 
second cotton factory established in Vermont, and one of the first 100 
put in operation north of the Potomac river. In November, 1829, on 
the dissolution of the partnership between Elias and Justin Lyman, this 
factory came into Justin's hands. On the 27th of August, 1831, Mr. 
Lyman leased his factory and four dwelling houses to Horace Barbour 
and Stephen Kimball, of Lowell, Mass., for a term of five years, com- 
mencing March 1st, 1832. In 1835, this factory was destroyed by fire. 
Mr. Lyman did not deem it advisable to rebuild, and the site remained 
vacant until 1853, when Mr. Sylvester Morris, of Norwich, Vt., pur- 
chased the foundation of the factory, one two-story dwelling house, one 
one-story dwelling house, one store house, and an equal half of the dam 
for the sum of $2000. Mr. Morris erected a mill on the foundation of 
this factory, and into this mill he put machinery for grinding plaster. 
In 1855 he added the business of getting out chair stock. 

In 1857, Mr. Morris sold the premises and business to his son, Ed- 
ward W., who added a saw mill to the establishment, fitted up the mill 


with machinery for manufacturing chairs, and also built the store house 
now standing near the railroad opposite the factory. 

This company was organized on the 14th of October, 1886. The arti- 
cles of association were signed October 9th by Ephraim Morris, Edward 
W. Morris, Henry H. Hanchett, Daniel L. Gushing, Vincent J. Brennan, 
Charles M. Cone, and Dr. Joseph B. Band, of Hartford, and Dr. Wm. 
T. Smith, of Hanover, N. H. The amount of capital stock is $100,000, 
or 1000 shares at a par value of SIOO. Officers : president, Ephraim 
Morris; secretary. E. W. Morris; treasurer, C. M. Cone; superintend- 
ent, Vincent J. Brennan. Mr. Brennan soon retired and sold his stock. 

The mill is 174 feet in length by 50 feet in width and four stories in 
height, with a corner tower 20x20 feet and 65 feet in height. The chim- 
ney is 85 feet in height. The whole mill is brick lined and is extremely 
well lighted throughout. The machinery consists of two sixty-horse 
power Risdon water wheels, two seventy-five-horse power boilers, one 
sixty-horse power engine, eight 300 spindle spinning mules, six sets of 
cards, thirty broad fancy looms, together with pickers, finishing machin- 
ery, and all other appurtenances requisite to a first-class mill. The tow- 
er is surmounted by a fine bell weighing 500 pounds. The method of 
heating is by steam. The use of automatic sprinklers, well distributed 
and placed, in every apartment of the mill, and fed with water from two 
1200 gallon tanks located in the tower, together with a Daniels rotary 
water pump and a Dean steam pump, afl'ord means for extinguishing 
fires, that reduce probabilities of losses by the devouring element to a 
minimum, and consequently rates of insurance are materially reduced. 

The lumber used in the construction of this mill was bought of Mr. 
Austin Howard, the well-known leading manufacturer and wholesale 
dealer in lumber, who resides in West Hartford. The windows, doors, 
casings, etc., were furnished by Charles A. Bacon, of West Lebanon, 
N. H. 

The daily product of the mill has been 600 yards of double-width 
cloth for gentlemen's suitings, with a weekly pay-roll of $800. When 
running full the company will employ from 125 to 150 hands, to pro- 
duce daily 1000 yards of double-width goods. 

The location of this manufacturing establishment is a very desirable 
one in respect to the available water power afiforded by the White river, 
the superior facilities for transportation by rail, both in receiving sup- 
plies of new material and the shipment of manufactured goods, the 
remarkable healthfulness of the climate of this section, also in being in 
the heart of a productive agricultural region where food is plentiful. 


good and cheap, and with a few exceptions rents are reasonable, though 
tenements of a desirable kind are wanting.* 


The following article written by the historian for the " Vermont 
Journal,''^ publislied in Windsor, appeared in that paper under date of 
April 18, 1888: 

The farmers of Hartford are manifesting great interest in the matter of estab- 
lishing creameries in the town. The subject has been discussed in all its bear- 
ings for some weeks past, and one of the practical results following therefrom, 
is the organization of the Hartford Creamery Company, which occurred on 
Wednesday, the 11th inst., at Hartford village, tlie following named officers 
being chosen: President, Harper Hazen ; vice-president, G. H. Savage ; secre- 
tary and treasurer, A. L. Pease ; manager, Albert B. Chandler. This company 
has leased a building and water-power of Messrs. Moore & Madden at Centre- 
ville, and wnll at once put in a separator of the most improved kind, with a 
capacity equal to the extent of business that may reasonably be anticipated. 
Milk for 100 jaounds of butter per day is assured witli the surety of a large in- 
crease in the future. 

Centreville was chosen as a location for the creamery for the reason that a 
very desirable degree of patronage can thereby be secured in Ponifret and West 

It is to be hoped that this new enterprise will prove a successful one.^ Some- 
thing should be done to render the work of farmers" wives less burdensome. 
Science and art have been taxed to their utmost resources in the production of 
labor-saving machinery for the benefit of the male portion of the community. 
The work of the farmer has been wonderfully lightened and lessened by the in- 
troduction of improved implements of husbandry. Horse, or steam power, ren- 
ders his work comparatively easy and pleasant. But, what has been done to 
relieve farmers' wives of the drudgery to which they are continually subjected ? 
The sewdng machine may render their family sewdng less onerous, but the 
motive power necessary to accomphsh this work is found alone in their own 
nmscles and nerves. In no phase of their labor can they avail themselves of 
horse and steam power ! The patient endurance of farmers" wives is something 
almost marvellous to witness. 

Now just see what an immense saving of drudgery to farmers' wives this 
creamery will be ! Instead of having a large number of pans of milk to skim 
and empty ; pans to wash and scald, and set in the sun ; butter to churn, ■wash, 
w^ork over and stamp, or pack down ; a number of swill-pails or barrels sitting 
around with more or less unpleasant odor, they have a few pails to wash, and 
their dairy work is completed. 

' To encourage this enterprise the town voted in 1S85 to exempt the property from 
taxation for five years. The amount exempted from April i, 18S7, to April i, 1892, 
is 810,000; from April i, 188S, to April i, 1893, $22,300. Total, $32,300. 

' Business was suspended at this creamery in the fall of jS88. 



It has already been stated that the proprietors sent a committee into 
the township as early as 1761 to lay out lots and highways. The action 
of the proprietors relating to highways will now be quoted from the 

August 36th, 1761. Voted to lay out convenient roads so many as the com- 
mittee shaU judge necessary. 

Nov. 23d, 1761. " Voted that one or more persons shall be chosen to apply to 
a committee or selectmen of the several to\\Tis that lie down the Connecticut 
river from Hartford unto the King's ferry above Charlestown . or Number four 
so-called, on the west side of said river, and also to comply with those above on 
said river, if applied to, to join with us to search ovit a publick road from the 
said King's ferry in the most convenient place through said towns to accomo- 
date travehng to and through said towns, and mark out and clear the same so 
much as to make feasil^le traveling." 

The committees who had visited the town came up the Connecticut 
river by " Number 4 " fort, to the mouth of \yhite river through a 
dense wilderness, their coui'se being marked by blazed trees. By this 
primitive bridle-path the first settlers found their way into the toAvn- 
ship, bringing on horse-back all their worldly goods Avherewith to begin 
house-keeping, and tilling the soil. 

March 9th, 176,2. Prince Tracy and John Baldwin were chosen a committee 
to agree with the jiroprietors of other towns below Hartford to find out Avhere 
the best place was for the aforesaid road, and mark it out, and hire men to clear 
it as cheap as they could. November 8d, 1762, it was voted to lay out a liigli- 
way through the town eastward from the Connecticut river to Pomfret line ; 
also to lay out a road from the Norwhich line to Quechee, the two roads to cross 
each other at the centre of the town as the land will conveniently admit of, with 
a suitable place of parade. Dec. 3d, 1764, it was voted that each proprietor 
should work four days at clearing highways by the 1st of September or pay 
sixteen shillings tax. 

Sept. 19, 1767, it was voted to lay out a highway from that leading from 
Connecticut river to Pomfret up said river to White river, thence up said river 
as far as may be thought best, thence to steer the nearest and best way across the 
town over to or near the saw mill of Abel Marsh & Co.' Stephen Tilden, Elijah 
Strong and John Marsh were chosen a committee to lay said road. It was also 
voted to pay £1 12s money, or do eight days' work upon each share, on highways 
that fall. Also, that Solomon Sti'ong and Abel Marsh should view the road 
from Daniel Pinneo's to Hertford'^ and pay for the labor done on it out of the 
above voted tax. October 7th, 1768, Abel Marsh, John Marsh and Benjaixdn 
Burtcli were chosen a committee to lay out a road from the saw-mill (Quechee) 
to Pomfret line; also from said mill to the centre of the town. 

' Quechee Village. - Hartland. 


September 18, 1769, it was Toted to accept the reports of all the committees on 
roads and the settlement of land damages was entrusted to Eleazer Robinson, 
Abel Marsh and Benajah Strong. Nov. 16th, 1775, Capt. Joseph Marsh, Stephen 
Tilden and Joel Marsh were chosen a committee to treat with Amos Robinson 
and with Lebanon about a road from the Connecticut river road to the feny on 
the Lebanon side of the river. 

The foregoing constitutes all the important action of the proprietors, 
and of the town up to 1775, on roads. In 1821, the town was first 
divided into highway districts, twenty-three in number. In March, 
1822, the first district surveyors were chosen (twenty-three). Seven 
districts have since been added. The following list comprises the full 
number of districts, the name of the first surveyor chosen in each dis- 
trict and date of the organization of each district. 

MARCH 22, 1822. 

Disti-ict No. 1, Billy Gillet; (2) Dan Hazen; (3) Joseph Crandall; (4) AUen 
Smith; (5) Joseph Tracy; (6) Thomas Savage; (7) Noah B. Hazen; (8) Reuben 
Tenney, Jr.; (9) Edward Kneeland; (10) Hyde Clark; (11) Charles Pinneo: (12) 
Levi Russ; (13) S. G. Gardner; (14) Joseph Fowler; (15) W. Jennings; (16) Daniel 
Marsh; (17) Jacob Dimmick; (18) Jonathan Smith; (19) Reuben Hazen; (20) H. 
Marsh; (21) RosweU Deming: (22) Christopher Pease; (23) Nathaniel Thomas. 

March 4th, 1832. No. 24, Eli Harrmgton; (25) Jessie P. Hatch. March 4th, 
1845, (26)ZerahB. Clark. March 4th, 1850, (27) Norman Tilden; (28) William 
Savage; (29) Loren B. DucUey. March 4th, 1862, (30) John C. Head. 

The limits of this history will not permit of a detailed statement 
relating to the building of all the highways in town — aggregating at 
least 200 miles. 

The first highway on the north side of White river leading up said 

river from Connecticut river, was laid out pursuant to the following 

petition, to wit : 

To the Selectmen of the Town of Hartford in Windsor County, Vt: 

The application of us the subscribers, freeholders of said town humbly showeth 
that there is no road or highway laid out on the north ride of White river from 
the fordway a little below Capt. Andrew Tracy's to the great river at the mouth 
of Wliite river, near Mr. Jno Bennett's about two miles in length, and that there 
is gi-eat need of, and even necessity for a liighway in the place abovementioned 
to accommodate the public, as there is and must be of necessity much travel, 
thereon, and of great public utility, as well as private advantage and conven- 
ience. We do therefore pray the said Selectmen to repair to the place, above 
mentioned and lay out a liighway, and survey the same and make return of their 
doings in the premises, into the Town Clerk's office as the law directs. 
Dated at Hartford this } Signed DAVID JANES 

21st day of June 1790. \ STEPHEN TILDEN JUN ) 

BENJ WRIGHT JUN [ Freeholders. 

Pursant to the above application the selectmen laid out a road from 
the west end of Capt. Tracy's interval to John Bennett's at the 
mouth of White river, the entire distance being one mile and two hun- 
dred and fifty four rods. The ferry above alluded to was used from 
1764 until 1852. The highway was built about six years before a dam 
was built at White River Village. 


The first movement toward building a turnpike, or toll road, through 
Hartford, was made by Col. Joel Marsh, Elias Stevens and George 
Dana, who petitioned the General Assembly of Vermont Oct. 13, 1800, 
for "' the exclusive privilege of making a turnpike road on northerly side 
of White river, through Hartford, a corner of Pomfret, Sharon, and to 
the mouth of the second branch of said river in Royalton, under the 
corporate title of ' The White River Turnpike Company.' " An act in- 
corporating said company was passed November 1st, 1800. On the 11th 
of Nov., 1802, Elias Stevens and Elias Curtis, road commissioners, 
completed the survey of said turnpike from Lyman's Point to Sharon 
line, a distance of seven and three-fourths miles and forty-six rods. The 
distance from Lyman's Pt. to the terminus in Royalton was not far 
from twenty miles. 

On this turnpike road toll gates were erected, the first in Hartford, 
being located at or near Munsill's Ferry (See Ferries). Later this was 
removed about one mile further north near to the residence of Abel 
Camp's (now Levi Hazen's), and one at John Downer's inn on the Sharon 
line (now the home of Harry Parkhurst). In 1852, the stockholders 
voted to give up this turnpike to Hartfoi'd, Sharon and Royalton, when 
the three towns would, together, pay $30, or when any one of them 
would pay $10, to the corporation, such town should be entitled to that 
part of said turnpike that lay in said town. George Lyman was appoint- 
ed agent to close up the affairs of the corporation and all books aod 
papers passed into his hands. The proposition to the towns was 
accepted by each of them, the gates were taken down, and another step 
toward a more enlightened civilization was accomplished. 

Prior to 1836, nearly all the West India and dry goods, hardware, 
&c., used in this section of the State, came from Hartford, Connecticut, 
by flat-boats. This was owing to a lack of good roads to Boston. The 
roads were then almost impassable by one horse teams, yet, in cases of 
urgency, or expediency, two-horse teams were sent over the road via. 
Concord to Boston. It is related of Elias Lyman that he, on a certain 
time, desired to send $1,000 in money to Boston, and adopted a novel 
method of sending it. Wishing, at the same time to send some clover 
seed to Boston he enclosed the money in a bag of the seed, and sent it 
forward by a two-horse team as freight. The team was on the road 8 
days, but reached Boston safely, and then, for the first time, the team- 
ster learned the nature and value of his load. 

The general freight and passenger business in those days was confined 
to the Connecticut river. The mode of conveyance was by flat-boats. 
The round trip between this town and Hartford, Ct., occupied 15 days 


Steamboats were run up the river, a few times, as far as Dalton, N. H., 
but owing to a difficulty in passing them through the locks, they were 
withdrawn. In consequence of the completion of turnpike roads to 
Boston in the year 1836, trade was diverted from Hartford to Boston, 
and river transportation practically ceased. 


Ferries preceded bridges by some years. The proprietors being de- 
sirous of opening communication with the town of Lebanon voted April 
29th, 1763, "that a good skow ferry boat twenty-five feet long and 
eight feet wide sufficient to carry men, horses or carts, or the like, 
should be built for the proprietors' use, and upon the proprietors' cost, 
w^hich should be kept in Connecticut river against said town." John 
Baldwin was chosen to build this boat, and assisted by John Bennet 
and Elijah Strong, completed and launched it as designated, in 1764. 
It is probable that this was the only method of crossing the river until 
Elias Lyman built the first bridge over the Connecticut river, near the 
confluence of this stream with White river, in the year 1800. 

A ferry existed near the mouth of White river, between the north 
and south side of said river, as early as 1808, and probably much earlier. 
On the 14th of April, 1817, the authorities of the town established a 
rate of ferriage for this ferry and one existing at Hartford village. 
Jonathan C. White, was appointed ferryman at the mouth of White 
river and Wharam Loomis to the same oftice at Hartford. 


Each footman, 3c.; horse and rider, 5c.; one horse and wagon, 10c. ; two 
horses and wagon, 15c. ; loaded wagon, 20c. ; chaise and horse, 13ic. ; two-horse 
carriage, 25c. ; one do do, 34c. ; each sheep or swine, Ic. ; each horse or mule, 3c. ; 
each neat cattle, 2c. ; cart by two cattle, 15c. ; cart loaded, 30c. ; each additional 
beast, 3ic.; (4th April, 1818), mail coach each time, 17c.; foin--horse team, 35c. 

Prior to 1820 a ferry existed at West Hartford near where the bridge 
now stands. A canoe dug out of a log was first used to convey pas- 
sengers only. The river Avas forded at numerous points between 
Lyman's bridge and Sharon line. The following is found in the town 
records : 

" At a meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Hartford legally warned and 
holden at the meeting-house on Tuesday the fourth day of September, 1798, 
acted as follows, viz.: First chose Gov. Marsh moderator to govern sd meeting. 
Voted to stop all the public roads to and from White river from Connecticut 
river to Stephen Tilden's, Jr., house, when a good bridge shall be built near 
Benjamin Wright's. Voted to dismiss this meeting and it was accordingly dis- 


The selectmen of the town in 1799 established a ford way on White 
river, crossing from Samuel Wells' land to the farm of Widow Smith, 


since then the town poor farm. This was called " Munsel's ford." ' 
Thsre was also a fordway near the residence of Abel Camp at West 
Hartford, where Levi Hazen now lives, and this was the chief crossing- 
place on the route to Woodstock and Pomfret prior to 1820. A ford- 
way existed near Wood's tannery, above Hartford village, until within 
a few years past. Zenas Cleveland was ferryman at Hartford village 
several years, subsequent to 1836. There was a fordway just south of 
the bridge crossing at Hartford. In 1805 the directors of the White 
River Bridge Company gave Maj. David Wright power to confer with 
the town about stopping up this fordway under the bridge and the 
roadway across the river near Trumbull's mills (just above said bridge) 
on the ice ; whereupon, the town voted '' that if said corporation would 
set their gates open for the inhabitants of said town so that they might 
cross either way free of expense, the said corporation might stop the 
said fordways at its own expense and keep them stopped so long as the 
corporation would keep their gates open and no longer." A compro- 
mise was some time after this effected, by which the fordways were 
closed to public travel. 


The first bridges were strong, rudely constructed structures. Logs 
composed the foundation and abutments, and the coverings were of 
poles with a heavy log placed at each end of the bridge to hold down 
the poles, and guard from running off teams. Such bridges answered 
for brook crossings, and if often swept away by high water, were easily 
replaced. But settlements had been made on both sides of the rivers, 
and communication between these by fordways was liable to be sus- 
pended by high water, and the ferries were insufficient to transport all 
teams from shore to shore, and, in such exigencies, bridges were needed. 
In selecting a site for river bridges, convenience of location would 
naturally govern the choice made ; but, if practicable, this would be 
subordinated to the desirability of economizing time, space and money, 
by building over a narrow channel, which, in the course of nature, 
would be rock bound, and points offering this double advantage of 
narrow width and rock foundation were often utilized on the score of 

'The following record is found in the Selectmen's Book: "June 14, 1799- 
Road to Munsil's Ferry, beginning on the south bank of White river where the 
road strikes said river which is laid through Eliphalet Marsh's land, thence west- 
wardly up said river on the side of the bank thereof as near the river as may be 
convenient as far as to the west side of the first brook which empties into said 
river. No damages assessed to the owner of the land. Laid and established by 

DANIEL HAZEN, > <; , , 
ABEL BARRON, ^ ^'eiectmen. 


economy, though our ancestors soon learned that the narroicest channels 
had the highest water, especially during spring freshets, and that, then, 
the swollen streams freighted with ice, and all manner of flood-wood, 
could not be confined within limits prescribed by men, and played fan- 
tastic and vexatious tricks with the experimental structures first thrown 
across the rivers. Eighty years later the civil engineers who laid out 
the first culverts built along the line of the Vt. Central Kailway, heedless 
of the voice of reason and experience, were soon taught by the voice of 
angry -rushing waters, the fallacy of trusting to unaided human judg- 
ment. They did not " build better than they knew." 


The records inform us that a bridge was built over the Water Quechee 
river, near Marsh's saw mill, in the year 1769, and that Capt. Abel Marsh 
was chosen to oversee the work of constructing the same. This bridge 
was, doubtless, made after the plan of the " king-post " bridges then in 
vogue, which required but little mechanical skill in their construction. 
In 1803, the town was indicted for neglecting to keep this bridge and 
one at Neal Rust's in repair. Joseph Marsh was chosen agent to defend 
the suit commenced against the town. At the same time the town de- 
cided to replace the bridge at Marsh's mills, and repair or condemn the 
bridge near Neal Rust's. Mitchell Clark, David Newton and Asa Tilden, 
were entrusted with this duty. 


On the 21st of Oct., 1795, the Legislature of Vermont passed an act 
to incorporate certain persons for locking falls, cutting canals, and 
building bridges over Connecticut river between the mouth of White 
river and two miles north of the mouth of Minkbrook in Hanover, N. H. 
The corporators were Ebenezer Brewster and Ruf us Graves, of Hanover, 
and Aaron Hutchinson, of Lebanon, N. H., under the title of "The 
Proprietors of White River Falls Bridge." The Act fixed the rate of 
tolls for passing bridges and locks. That for boats was as follows : " for 
each boat and loading, not exceeding two tons weight, one dollar ; if 
more than two tons, fifty cents for each additional ton, including the 
toll for the boat ; for each thousand of boards, twenty-five cents, and 
other lumber in proportion, — the rates of toll to continue thirty years 
from the passing of this Act — after which the net proceeds of the toll 
should not be less than twelve per cent per annum of the first cost, after 
deducting the annual expenditures for repairs. The above named cor- 
porators sold their franchise to Elias Lyman, 3rd, for the sum of 
in 1801-2. 


About the year 1800, Elias Lyman, 3d, built an open, or King-post 
bridge, across Connecticut river, just above the embouchure of White 
river. This bridge was taken down in 1835, and in 1836 the Lyman 
Bridge Co. erected the present covered bridge. The Lyman Bridge Co. 
was incorporated in 1836 — the act being approved Dec. 8, 1836. The 
charter was given to Francis Lyman, Thomas Belknap and Wm. J. 
Hamersley, their associates, &c., with the right to build a bridge on, or 
across the Connecticut river, between the towns of Lebanon and Hart- 
ford, at any place between the lower bar of White river falls and the 
south line of Lebanon. Francis Lyman was empowered to call the first 
meeting on or before the first Wednesday of June. The capital stock 
was fixed at 200 shares, par value, $100 per share. It was enacted that 
the toll should be fixed by the justices of the Superior Court of Judi- 
cature, who should, every five years thereafer, add to or reduce the 
toll as should appear equitable, provided, however, that the net proceeds 
from said toll should not exceed ten per centum per annum on the cost 
and expenditures incurred on account of said bridge. It was further 
enacted, that said corporation, by theii' directors, should, at the next 
stated term of said Superior Court, and once in every five years there- 
after, cause an exhibit to be made under oath to the justices of said 
court, showing a true account of the cost and expenditures incurred on 
account of said bridge, together with an account of all the tolls received 
therefrom, down to the time of making such exhibit, and, upon an 
omission to cause such an exhibit to be so made, all the rights, &c., of 
said corporation should be subject to forfeiture. 

This act was signed by C. G. Atherton, speaker of the house, and 
James Clark, president of the senate, and approved by Isaac Hill, gov- 
ernor, Dec. 8, 1836. 

The above named conditions were never complied with, but instead, 
the incorporators watered the stocks, from time to time, to make it 
appear that the large amount of toll taken did not exceed ten per cent, 
on its value and expenditures, and thus continued to bleed the public. 
Later, this bridge fell into the hands of a citizen of Hartford, who paid 
about $2500 for the bridge, land, toll-house, etc., but the rates of toll 
established at first were never reduced. Subsequently, the citizens of 
Lebanon made an effort to have the charter forfeited by the court, on 
the ground that the tolls were not proportionate to the cost and expen- 
ditures, and that neither the corporators nor theii- assigns had ever 
made to the court the required exhibit upon which said court was to fix 
the rate of toll. The assign, then in possession, made oath that the 



tolls yearly collected by him amounted to less than one-half of ten per 
cent, on the cost, to him, of said bridge, and expenditures ; and upon 
this, and other pleas, he gained a longer tenure of possession. Still 
later, the citizens of Lebanon petitioned the court to appoint a commit- 
tee to appraise the value of said bridge property, whereupon, the said 
assign, true to his instincts, made oath that the said property was pay- 
ing him about $1800 per year, or more than seventy per cent, on his in- 
vestment ; in other words, to prevent a forfeiture of the charter, he 
made oath that he was receiving less than five per cent, on his invest- 
ment ; but, when it became apparent that Lebanon was determined to 
buy the property, he changed his tactics, and made oath — simply, that 
he committed perjury in the first instance / Finally, the bridge was 
made free to the public, and Hartford paid for her proportion the sum 
of $1000, or about one-fifth of the amount jointly paid by Lebanon and 
Hartford for the said bridge property. 

In early times, the practice of raising money by lotteries for various 
purposes, was sanctioned by the Legislature of Vermont. In an abstract 
of all the acts granting lotteries, which were passed by the Legislature 
of this State I find the following : — " To raise £500 for building a 
bridge over White river at Hartford, passed Nov. 8, 1792." This scheme 
was probably gotten up by the " Connecticut river turnpike company," 
to provide means for building a bridge at White River village, but for 
some reason the project failed, and was not revived in this form ; but, 
later, efforts to obtain an act of incorporation were successful. On the 
27th of October, 1795, the General Assembly of Vermont passed an act 
granting to Stephen Jacob, Amasa Paine and Oliver Gallup, et als., the 
exclusive privilege of building a toll-bridge over White ^river, " within 
two miles of the place where this stream unites with Connecticut 
river." I think the bridge was built not later than 1796. In 1814, it 
was carried away by a flood. Many of the citizens of the town were 
very much opposed to paying toll, and considerable trouble ensued in 
consequence. Charles Pinneo cut the toll gate down, in the winter of 
1811. At the town meeting in March following, the claim for damages 
demanded by the bridge company was considered, when it was voted 
" that the town would do nothing in restitution, and that ' no one 
should be holden excepting those who held up their hands.'' " No one 

In 1815, an effort was made to obtain the aid of the town to re-build 
the bridge, but without success. This action was taken in behalf of 
the Connecticut River Turnpike Co. 



This company was incorporated Nov. 10, 1815, and was organized in 
1818. Prior to its organization, the company delegated Joseph Dorr, 
Nathan Gere and Levi Bellows, a committee to confer with the Connec- 
ticut Kiver Bridge Company to obtain the right to erect a bridge where 
the former bridge stood. At a town meeting held March 12, 1816, the 
the town, having under consideration the subject of assisting the White 
River Bridge Company, voted, that as soon as said company should 
erect a good bridge, to the acceptance of the justices of the county 
court, near the lower mill dam, then the two highways (fordways) lead- 
ing across said river — the one across the mill dam, and the other below 
said dam — should be discontinued : and that, so long as a good bridge 
should be maintained by said company, the town would not open the 
said highways, nor any others across said river within one mile above 
or below said dam ; on the penalty of paying to said company all the 
damage sustained by it in consequence of oj)ening said highways. It 
was stipulated that '' said contract should not extend beyond fifty 

The " White River Bridge Company "' was organized in 1818, with 
twenty-seven enrolled members, and Geo. E. Wales, clerk and treasurer. 
In the autumn of that year the second bridge was opened for public 
use. Dec. 17, 1832, the company discussed the subject of taking down 
their bridge, or repairing it, but nature decided that point. In the 
spring freshet of 1833, the bridge was carried away by the ice. Aug. 
1, 1833, the company decided to build another bridge, to be completed 
by Sej)tember, 1834. The bridge was not completed until 1836. The 
records of the company between August, 1833, and November, 1848, 
are missing. Nov. 1, 1848, the third book of the company's records 
was opened. At a meeting held that day, Justin C. Brooks was chosen 
clerk and treasurer, which offices he continued to hold until 1858. The 
number of shareholders in the meantime was 118, and the stock paid a 
quarterly dividend of $1.50 to each share. In 1854, the town bought 
the bridge for $2265, paying out the sui'idIus money borrowed for that 
purpose. About as large a sum was subsequently expended in repairing 
the bridge, and it still remained a weak, unsightly structure. April 14 
1858, the White River Bridge Company was dissolved by mutual con- 
sent, when a final dividend of $1.60 was paid on each share. 


The first bridge built over White river at West Hartford was built in 
1820. It was an open or " King-post " bridge, and, principally, built 


of timber floated down said river from the vicinity of Rochester. It 
was an ungainly structure, and was necessarily taken down in 1827. A 
covered bridge was then built by Daniel Baldwin of Montpelier. The 
town voted March 3d, 1828, that the selectmen should draw money 
from the treasiry to make the first payment on this bridge, the cost of 
vsrhich was about $4000. This bridge stood until Feb, 10, 1867, when 
it was carried away by the ever-to-be-remembered flood of that date. 
The present lattice bridge was bult in 1867, b}^ a Mr. Tasker, at a cost 
of $6,110.79. Messrs. Bement and Adams built the first bridge at West 
Hartford. The bridge was built by subscription. When it was taken 
down in 1827, Nathaniel Dustin took a portion of the timber and put it 
into the frame of the house now standing on the river bank, in front of 
the meeting house at West Hartford. The river at the bridge crossing 
was then but eighty feet wide. 

Iq 1827, while Mr. Baldwin was at work on the second bridge, a great 
flood came and washed away his trestle work, and considerable of his 
frame timber. At the same time, about forty feet in width of the east 
bank was washed away, and with it John Tenney's store, a potash and 
other buildings. Stephen Downer and another man, while endeavoiing 
to save the trestle timber were surrounded by the rising water, and 
escaped by being hauled ashore at a roj)e's end. In 1833, a Mr. Bullard 
and his daughter of Pomfret were one night crossing the West Hartford 
bridge, when the horse became frightened, and all were precipitated 
into the river thirty feet below. Miss Bullard was killed outright. Mr. 
Bullard and his horse were but a trifle injured. The old man had been 
drinking New England rum. the last glass of which he took at the store 
of Baxter B. Newton,' but a few minutes preceding the accident. In 
the autumn of 1818, John Steele, then a merchant at West Hartford, 
went out with some of the village boys to inspect some melon patches. 
While returning to Steele's store the party hearing a team approach 
ing them ran into the north side of the river bridge to escape discovery. 
During the day before the flooring had been removed from the south 
side of the bridge. Forgetful of this fact, young Steele got over the 
dividing partition between the two sides, and over the obstruction 
put up to prevent teams passing, and missing his foothold, fell to 
the solid rock about fifteen feet below, and was nearly killed. He 
lived but a few years thereafter, and never fully recovered from the 
injuries received by that accident. He, however, recovered in a suit 
for damages against the town about $1500 — an unjust decision against 
the town ! 

' Since converted into the dwelling house now occupied by Mr. Hoyt Hazen, the 
present postmaster and railroad agent in that village. 


Jane 29l:li, 1831, a board of commissioners laid out a bridge at Tafts- 
ville over the Otta Quecbee river. Hartford, Hartland, Pomfret and 
Woodstock were each required to pay one-fourth of the cost of its con- 
struction, and maintainance. In 1868 the town built a lattice bridge 
over White river at White River Junction. The contract was let to a 
Mr. Tasker. The cost of this bridge including litigation was S13,- 
426.62. In the fall of 1885 the bridge at Quechee village, built in 1803, 
was taken down, and a new covered bridge was erected at a cost of 
about $1100. 


I have alluded to legislation concerning locks and canals on Connec- 
ticut river. On the 2d of November, 1797, the General Assembly of 
Vermont passed an act granting to Elkanah Stevens and others the 
exclusive right of locking White river. The preamble and first section 
of said act were as follows : — 

" Whereas Elkanah Stevens, ZJaniel Gilbert and Jacob Smith, all of Royalton, 
in the Covmty of Windsor, and State of Vermont, have petitioned, that the 
exclusive privilege of locking and continuing locks on ^Vhite river, from the 
mouth of said river, up the same as far as Royalton meeting house may be granted 
to them their assigns and hehs forever. 

Therefore, 1. It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State of 
Vermont. That Elkanah Stevens, Daniel Gilbert, Jacob Smith and their asso- 
ciates, be and they hereby are formed into, constituted and made a body politic 
and corporate, by the name of ' ' The Company for Lockmg AVlrite River," and they 
and their successors, and such other persons as shall be hereafter admitted mem- 
bers of said comjiany, shall be, and continue a body politic and corporate, by 
the same name forever. And the said company shall have the exclusive privilege 
of erecting and continuing locks on White river, in the State of Vermont, in 
such places as they think necessary, from the mouth of Wliite river up said 
stream, as far as Royalton meeting house, under the follo^ving limitations and 
restrictions, to wit, etc." 

This company was made liable to forfeit all right of locking said river 
if they failed to complete the work within the ensuing ten years. Toll for 
conveying loaded boats through each lock was fixed at twenty cents per 
ton, and the same for every thousand feet of boards and timber, etc. 
The general stage of water in those days was favorable for locking. 
Now it is impossible to row a skiff on White river excepting on stretches 
of water above dams. In other words, the stream is now so affected by 
droughts that are the result of denuding the hills and valleys of timber, 
that were the dams removed, the usual depth of water would not per- 
mit the passage of a loaded skiff from the mouth of the stream north- 
ward but a small portion of the distance to Royalton. The same is true 
of Water Quechee river, and the Connecticut to some extent. 


On the 2 2d of October, 1794, an act was passed by the General As- 
sembly granting to Perez Gallup and his associates the exclusive priv- 


ilege of locking, and continuing locks on Water Quechee falls on Con- 
necticut river (falls at North llurtland) through his own land in Hart- 
land, under limitations and restrictions similar to those provided for 
the locking of White river. The toll for conveying loaded boats 
through said locks was fixed at eighteen pence per ton, and nine pence 
per ton on empty boats, eighteen pence for every thousand feet of 
boards and timber, and for every 6000 of shingles, etc., the same rates 
to continue forever excepting the same should be reduced by the 
supreme court, which at the end of the term of twenty-one years should 
examine into the state of the accounts of said company, ascertain the 
cost of erecting, maintaining and attending to said locks, the net pro- 
ceeds, etc., and if the net proceeds had averaged more than twelve per 
cent, upon the actual expenditures, to said court to lessen the said toll 
to such sum as to them appeared reasonable. The name of the com- 
pany was " The company for rendering Connecticut river navigable by 
Water Quechee Falls." (See History of Olcott Falls relating to Lock 
and Canal.) 


On the 29th of October, 1829, the Legislatures of Vermont and New 
Hampshire passed acts incorporating the "Connecticut River Steam- 
boat Company." Nov. 5, 1830, the charter w^as altered to the "Con- 
necticut River Valley Steamboat Company," allowing the corporation 
to purchase, hold and convey real estate to the value of $20,000. Canals 
and locks were built at rapids and falls of the river from Hartford, 
Ct., to Dalton, N. H. There were three in Vermont, one at Bellows 
Falls, one at Sumner's Falls in Hartland, and one at Olcott Falls on the 
Lebanon side of the river. Below Sumner's Falls steamboats were 
regularly plied. Col. Samuel Nutt in 1830, built a boat for the pur- 
pose of locking it through the entire length of the canals to avoid 
taking passengers and freight around said rapids and locks. The first 
attempt to navigate the river was in 1827 when the "Barnet " was run 
to Bellows Falls. She made but this one trij). Li 1829 the "Blanch- 
ard " and the " Vermont " were put on the river and run a few trips 
between Bellows Falls and Barnet, but the enterprise was not success- 
ful, and the method of plying boats between the locks only was con- 
tinued. (See Biographical Sketch of Col. Samuel Nutt.) 



•' Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain shall be laid low ; and 
the crooked shall be made straight and the rough places plain." So spake the 
prophet Isaiah, with clear vision looking down through the vista of coming 
ages. — Isaiah 40-4. 

The first railway act in the United States was passed by the Legisla- 
ture of Pennsylvania, March 31, 1823, authorized the construction of a 
road from Philadelphia to Columbia, but the grantees failed to meet 
the terms of the charter, and the act was repealed. The next act was 
passed in the same State in 1826, incorporating the Columbia, Lancas- 
ter and Philadelphia Railroad, which road was completed in 1834, being 
eighty-one and a half miles in length, and, at that time, the work was 
considered as a remarkable achievement. But the first railroad actually 
built and operated in the United States, was in 1826, in Quincy, Mass. 
It was but three miles long and was built to carry granite from the 
quarry to the tide-waters of the Neponset river. The most important 
railroad enterprise commenced in the United States, prior to 1840, was 
that of building the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, the corner-stone of 
which was laid July 4th, 1828, by Charles Carroll of Carrolton, then a 
nonasrenarian and the last of the sio'uers of the Declaration of Inde- 
jjendence. On that occasion Mr. Carroll said : " I consider this among 
the most important acts of my life, second only to my signing the 
Declaration of Indej^endenee, even if second to that." 

The first locomotive engine imported into the United States was the 
" Robert Fulton " built by George Stevenson in England and sent here 
in 1831. The first locomotive constructed in the United States was 
built at the West Point foundry in 1830, for the Charleston and Ham- 
burg railroad in South Carolina, which history informs us was the first 
road in the Avorld built expressly for locomotive power for general 
freight and passenger business. Since then there has been a remarkable 
increase of railroad mileage in the United States, of which Vermont 
has had a continuous proportion since 1848. She has now within her 
borders nearh^ 950 miles of railroad track, exclusive of sidings, giving 
facilities of trade and travel to nearlj' 200 cities, villages and hamlets 
situated directlv on the various railroad lines, and to every farm, mill- 


privilege and qnany in the State an enhanced value.' Population and 
business gravitate toward cities and villages situated along lines of rail- 
ways and this changes centres of population ; hamlets are transformed 
to thriving villages, and villages are bereft of their importance as 
centres of trade. 

Sixteen different roads, comprising nearly 1000 miles, have been con- 
structed and equipped in Vermont at a cost of nearly $38,000,000, and 
this has been accom2)lished within the last forty years." Some of the 
original stockholders of these roads have incurred the direct loss of 
their subscriptions, and in some instances these are still brooding over 
the loss of their investments, forgetting that the seed they sowed is 
being returned to them an hundred fold by the enhanced value of their 
real estate, the facilities of marketing the products of their farms, etc. 
Consider the advantages the people of Hartford have gained by the 
construction of the four lines of railroad that centre at White River 
Junction. Let those who cavilled against what they termed " infringe- 
ments upon private and public rights," and resisted, with eveiy means 
at their command, the progress of this step in the march of civiliza- 
tion, compare .the general list of Hartford for 1840 with that of 1888, 
and see, not " as in a glass darkly," the influence of railroads, in the 
wonderful increase in the value of real estate during the last forty- 
eight years ! 

In 1840, before the construction of the Vt. Central Railroad, the 
total value of all the real estate in the town was $216,781.40. In 1888, 
the total value of the same was $1,103,320.00, an increase of $886,538.60. 
The number of miles of main line of railway built in the town since 
1840 is about twenty-three. Estimating the cost of construction and 
equipment at $36,000 per mile, the total cost for 23 miles amount to 
$828,000, or less by $58,538.60 than the increased value of real estate. 
The total value of all taxable personal property in the town in 1840, less 
exemptions, was $87,863.65. In 1888, the total value of this class of 
property, less exemj)tions, was $902,985.36 ; an increase of $815,121.71, 
which, added to the increase of value in real estate, gives a grand total 
of $1,643,121.71. This is not to be attributed to accessions to the 

' It is assumed that a line of railway gives access to fifteen miles square of coun- 
try on each side of it, or thirty square miles altogether. The influence of this 
method of transit upon every branch of industry is therefore not easily estimated. 
No vocation is so inconspicuous, no hamlet so secluded, no farm-house so isolated 
as to be exempt from its power. No person is so high as to be independent of it, 
no one so low as not to be affected by it. — Hon. j. N. Patterson. 

"In i886, the capital stock of railroads in Vermont was $24,548,300. Funded 
debt, $14,113,000. Total investment 840,832,767. Cost of roads and equipment 
$37,932,276. Gross earnings §3,940,064. Net earnings §1,143,590. 


population by immigration, and the incoming of wealth thereby, but to 
a rise in values. The annual per centage of increase in the population 
between 1848 and 1888, was probably about 1.14, while the increase 
in the total valuation exceeded 11 per cent. The increase represents 
simply that which was added to the general comfort and welfare of the 
people of the town. 

Time is money. In 1840, a journey from Hartford to Boston and 
return, consumed not less than six days. Now the same journey can 
be made in fifteen hours ; or, by taking the present 3.15 A. M. train at 
W. R. Junction, one may reach Boston at 9.35 A. M., remain in that 
city nearly ten hours, and return to White River Junction at 12.40 
A. M., or have three hours in Boston and return to White River Junction 
at 5.25 P. M., same day. In other words, one can go from White River 
Junction to Boston, spend three hours there on business, and, return- 
ing, reach home all within the space of fourteen hours ; the distance 
traveled being 290 miles ; a saving in time of four days between the old 
and the new methods of travel, or sufficient time to perform a journey 
to Chicago and return. Who can compute the annual saving to the 
public, in time and money, secured by the adoption of this new mode of 
transit ? 

But the advantages are not limited to an increase of material pros- 

" New methods of transit exert an intellectual and moral influence 
upon the minds and hearts of men, and modify social life. They mul- 
tiply public meetings and conventions, and facilitate and extend the 
intercourse of society. Thought travels upon the rail, and art, science, 
and literature are diffused. The products of the teeming brain are car 
ried to the remotest hamlet. The best thinkers and orators speak to 
the country as often as to the city. Information is disseminated and 
mental activity stimulated. This diffusion of intelligence tends to level 
society and destroy individual prominence, and intellectual dictatorship. 
* * * This new method determines largely the material prosperity and 
civil power of nations, and affects, directly or indirectly, their relations 
and character. * * * Railroads have not simply added to the articles 
of commerce and consumption, by opening new fields to enterprise, but 
also by bringing about a universal division of labor, and so increasing 
the rapidity and perfection of productive work. They stimulate pro- 
duction by removing limitations upon its markets. No man now works 
for his neighborhood, but for all mankind. Steamships and steam cars 
take the grains of our fields and the fabrics of our factories to the most 
distant nations and bring back for our consumption the fruits of every 
clime and handicraft of the world." — Hon. J. W. Patterson. 

What person, among those who subscribe for and take daily news- 
papers, would forego the pleasure and profit derived from the perusal 
of his daily, morning or evening paper — the vade niecum of the whole 


world's daily life and history ? No improved methods of transit are 
probable, none are likely to supercede those of to-day. No agent of 
locomotion will ever be so generally utilized as is steam at the present 
time, though electricity will become a formidable rival to it. 

The honor of first suggesting a connection of Boston with Lake 
Ontario is due to John L. Sullivan, a prominent civil engineer of Mas- 
sachusetts ; the credit of indicating the line on which the work was 
constructed, and of instituting the measures which led to the inaugura- 
tion of the woi'k belongs to Montpelier, while the honor of securing the 
completion of the enterprise is chiefly due to the late Gov. Charles 
Paine, of Northfield. The discussion of the enterprise was commenced 
by Montpelier newspapers, notably by the Watchman, some years be- 
fore the first New England railroad had been completed. The first 
charter for the Vermont section of this great line of road, was passed 
Nov. 15, 1835, under which nothing highly important was accomplished. 
The second charter of the Vermont Central Eailroad Company passed 
Oct. 31, 1843, and the work of securing subscriptions was at once com- 
menced. Jan. 8, 1844, a Railroad Convention was held at Montpelier, 
Hon. Charles Paine, of Northfield, was president ; Hon. Elijah Blaisdell, 
of Lebanon, N. H., Gen. Joel Bass, of Williamstown, Simeon Lyman, of 
Hartford, and Hon. Joseph Howes, of Montpelier, vice presidents ; and 
Hon. Oramel H. Smith, of Montpelier, and Halsey R. Stevens, of Leb- 
anon, N. H., secretaries. At that convention James R. Langdon, Esq., 
of Montpelier, advanced ten thousand dollars for making surveys from 
Connecticut river to Lake Champlain. The surveys were completed 
that season, and a favorable report was made Nov. 20, 1844. 

The books were opened in Boston June 10, 1845 ; July 23d the first 
meeting of stockholders was held at Montpelier at which time the com- 
pany was formally organized with a subscribed capital of $2,000,000. 
The amount obtained in Vermont was $500,000, of which $200,000 was 
subscribed in Montpelier. Hon. E. P. Walton of Montpelier is entitled 
to great credit for the aid rendered by him in the projection of the 
great enterprise which gave to Vermont her first railroad, and linked 
Boston with Ogdensburg, in a chain 400 miles in length ; and has fur- 
ther resulted in giving to Vermont other important lines of railroad, 
the combined length of which is not less than 950 miles, including 

The Vermont Central railroad was incorporated, as expressed in the 
charter, " for the purpose of building a railroad from some point on the 
eastern shore of Lake Champlain, up the valley of the Onion river and 
e xtending to a point on Connecticut river most convenient to meet a 


railroad either from Concord, N. H., or Fitcbburg, Mass. The route 
chosen was from Windsor up the Connecticut river, to the mouth of 
White river, thence up said river to the source of its third branch,thence 
via. Roxbury and down the Dog river to the Winooski valley about one 
mile west of Montpelier, thence up said valley to Burlington, a distance 
of 114 miles. Ground was first broken at Windsor, Dec. 15th, 1845, on 
the farm formerly owned by Judge Elijah Paine, father of Charles 
Paine, where the latter was born. This was the first ground broken in 
Vermont for a railroad. The contract to build the entire road was let 
to Sewal F. Belknap. The first rail was laid at White River Junction 
on the farm of Col. Samuel Nutt, early in 1847. There were present Col* 
James Moore, chief engineer of the road, R. W. Baker, division engineer, 
and Jacob M. Clark, Samuel B. Tucker and Isaac B. Culver, assistant 
engineers, together with many of the workmen on the road and a large 
number of citizens. As assistant engineer of the division on which the 
first rail was laid, Isaac B. Culver was accorded the honor of driving 
the first spike in the track of this road. 

Regular passenger trains first passed over the road from White River 
Junction to Bethel, June 26, 1848 — this was the first railroad train and 
first passenger train run in Vermont. About one years later, June 20, 
1849, the road was opened through for busim ss to Burlington. The 
Central railroad enters the town of Hartford at the Sharon line, one 
mile above the village of West Harford, and follows White river to 
White River Junction, thence down the Connecticut river valley to the 
Hartland line, a distance of about twelve miles. At White River Junc- 
tion, it connects with the Northei'n New Hampshire to Concord and 
Boston ; with the C. and P. R. R. R. to Wells River, Newport and 
Sherbrooke ; and with the Woodstock R. R. for Woodstock. Henry E. 
Tinker is the efficient and popular local agent of this road at White 
Rivfr Junction. The general offices are at St. Albans. 

Since the opening of this road several shocking accidents have occurred 
on that portion of the line within the town of Hartford, each involving 
loss of life. One of the most appalling accidents, that ever occurred in 
this country was that which took place on this road Feb. 5, 1887. 


The writer was personally cognizant of the history of this horrible 
railway disaster. He visited the scene of the wreck about day light 
on the morning of the accident ; visited and conversed with the survi- 
vors from the ill-fated train, from time to time, during their convales- 
cence ; observed the reprehensible conduct of the officials of the Cen- 


tral railroad, in their premature attempts to effect settlements with the 
mangled, tortured survivors of that holocaust. Justice, humanity and 
decency were set at defiance by the attorneys and the Vial-lain ous ame 
damnee rej^resenting said corporation, who did not hesitate to villify 
and traduce those who were not obsequious to their will, or ready to 
be their time servers at the price of an annual pass. 

The following report of the railroad commissioners concerning the 
disaster of Feb. 5, 1887, is an acceptable showing of facts, but the 
number of passengers aboard the train is, and ever will be, a matter of 
mere guess-work. As to the speed of the train on approaching the 
bridge and crossing it, it is sufficient to say that the Leightons, who 
live near the bridge, concur in saying that the speed of trains was rarely 
ever perceptibly diminished while crossing it. It is too much to believe 
that the ill-fated train, which was nearly two hours late, was slowed up 
to one-half of the schedule rate before reaching the bridge. Under 
positive proof that he was running in excess of schedule time. Engineer 
Pierce could not escape the penalty of manslaughter. As to the responsibil- 
ity of the corporation, testimony recently given conclusively shows* that 
the track from the end of the said bridge, for several hundred feet had 
been not long before the accident, relaid with much worn iron — some of it 
re-curved in a cold state, and that it was unfit to use for mogul engines, 
and the very heavily loaded trains constantly passing over it. The 
sum and substance of the commissioners' report is as follows : 

The facts and circumstances attending tlie above named disaster, as developed 
by the testimony taken by tlie board, and an inspection of the i^remises shortly 
after the accident occvu-red, are as follows: 

Train No. 50, known as the " night express," left White River Jmiction for 
Montreal at 2.10 o'clock, on the moniing of the 5th instant. 

The train was one hovir and thirty minutes late. Tlie schedule place of meet- 
ing the night express bound south from Montreal to Boston, is Randolph. That 
train was correspondingly late, and train No. 50 was under orders to meet it at 
Randolph as usual, and started out accordingly at the hour above indicated. 

The number of passengers aboard the train was seventy-nine. The trainmen 
were the conductor, engineer, fireman, two brakemen, baggage man, express 
messenger, two postal clerks, a Pullman conductor, and two Pullman porters. 

The distance from White River Junction to Hartford (formerly known as the 
Woodstock) bridge, is about four miles. South of the bridge is a curve of three 
degrees and forty-five minutes in the track, which becomes'straight again about 
142 feet from the bridge, and so continues for some rods beyond the bridge. 
From a point some fifty rods south of the bridge to a point about 143 feet there- 
from the grade is sliglitly downward, when it becomes level and so continues to 
a point just beyond the bridge. 

At a point 510 feet from the abutment at the south end of the bridge, while the 
train was moving at a speed of less than twelve miles an hour, the rear sleeper 
" Pilgrim" was thrown from the rails, but kept the roadbed until it came upon 
the bridge, when the rear end swung to the right side of the track to the deck of 
the bridge, and thence to the frozen river below, a distance of forty-three feet, 
drawing with it the sleeper and the two coaches in front, all of which were 
crushed in the wreck upon the ice. The coupling between the Boston coach and 
the combination mail and smoking car broke or unclasped, so that the rest of the 
train was saved. 


Fire soon broke out from the wreck in several places, and it is clearly in proof 
before the board that some of the cars immediately took fire and within fifteen 
minutes of the time they fell to the ice they were all enveloped in flames, which 
reached and set fire to the bridge, which soon fell alongside the burning cars, the 
wind blowing the flames of the burning timbers directly upon them. The in- 
tensely cold weather — eighteen degrees below zero — added to the peril of those 
who survived. 


The list of ])assengers who lost their lives in the disaster is as follows: Edward 
F. Dillon, .Springfield: James A. Stone, Burlington; Edgar Wilder, St. Albans; 
D. D. Woodward, Waterbury; Sam'l S. Westcott, Burlington; George J. Bell, 
Bellows Falls; Mrs. William Devino, Winooski: Frank L. Wesson, Springfield, 
Mass.; Harry Brooks, Boston, Mass.; Francis Flynn, Worcester, Mass.; Peter 
Blais, Warren, Mass.; Fred Blais, Warren Mass.; Francis Boulanger, Holyoke, 
Mass. ; Miss Anastisa Boulanger, Holyoke, Mass. ; Miss Nancy Dunbar, Sonier- 
ville, Mass.; Miss Delima Brodeur, Nashua, N. H.; Louis B.' James, New Haven, 
Conn.; Charles Cadieux, Rockville, Conn.: Herbert A. Thayer, Chateaugay, N. 
Y. ; Cephas Mills, Irocfuois, Ont.: Peter McLain, Actonville, P. Q. ; Dieudonne 
Maigret, Shawinigan, P. Q.; Miss Arminie Guirard, Upton, P. Q.; Miss Agnes 
Rogers, Lakefield, P. Q. 

And that of the trainmen is as follows: Smith C. Sturtevant, St. Albans, Vt., 
conductor; Edward Brocklebanks, Lebanon, N. H., brakeman: M. R. Burgess, 
Boston, Mass., Pullman conductor; A. J. Hammer, Maiden, Mass.. colored por- 
ter " Pilgrim"; J. H. Jones, Boston, Mass., colored porter " St. Albans." 


The list of passengers known to be injured is as follows: Hon. Henry Mott, 
Alburgh; Henry W. Tewksbury, West Randolph; Julius C. Hutchins, Montgom- 
ery: F. W. Tuttle, Tunbridge; William Devino, Jr., Winooski; Miss Persis H. 
Follet, Sharon: Miss Katie Cahill, Boston, Mass.; Frank M. Pratt, Springfield, 
Mass.; J. Herbert Cushing, Middleboro, Mass.; Joseph E. Jacques, Fitchburg, 
Mass. ; Andrew^ A. Wheeler, Fitchburg, Mass. ; Howard A. Smith, Gloucester, 
Mass. ; Fred A. Fisher, Gloucester, Mass. ; Bennie Boulanger, Holyoke, Mass. ; 
Mitchell Lacaillade, Lawrence, Mass. ; August LeBoeuf , Lynn, Mass. ; Alex. La- 
valle, Greenfield, Mass.; Mrs. Mary J. Graham, Bedford, Mass.; Mrs. Charles 
Kastner, Boston, Mass.; Miss Annie Murj^hy, Boston, Mass.; Miss Polly Arel, 
Chicopee Falls, Mass. ; Miss Margaret Walsh, Greenfield, Mass. ; Horace Juneau, 
East Pepperell, Mass. ; J. S. Suit, New Haven, Conn. ; H. G. Wilcox, Malone, N. 
Y.; Louis Combremont, New York City, N. Y. ; James Kiley, Burke, N. Y.; Jo- 
seph Jeannette, Sciota, N. Y. ; O. S. Boisvert, St. Angeline, P. Q.; Moses Pouliot, 
Quebec, P. Q.; George Lowe, Montreal, P. Q.: Joseph Libbv, St. Valere, P. Q.; 
Mrs. W. S. Bryden, Montreal, P. Q.: Mrs. O. Boisvert, St. Angeline, P. Q.; Miss 
Ennna Lovell," Montreal, P. Q. ; Miss Maria E. Sadler, Ormstowm, P. Q. One 
trainman, Geoi'ge H. Parker, Ijrakeman, was injured. 

There was but one house within a long distance of the scene of the wreck, and 
the only help at hand were the few wdio were left on the engine and the mail 
and baggage car, and such of the passengers as were not wholly disabled. This 
coi'ps did aU that men could do to save lives in the few- minutes they could work 
upon the wreck. 

The cars struck the ice upon the right side or the right top corner as the train 
ran, and they were crushed diagonally tow^ard the surface. The management of 
the train appears to have been as follows: 

Cfjnductor Sturtevant was in the forward passenger coach collecting fares and 
examining tickets when the first trouble in that car was noticed.' He humedi- 
atelv pulled the bell and Engineer Pierce took the alarm thus given from the bell 
andinstantly let on full brakes. Then looking back he saw the rear sleeper 
SAving off the bridge. He thereupon let olf brakes, opened the throttle of his 
engine, and pulled away from the rest of the train, stopping his engine and the 
two cars saved as the rear car, combination mail and smoker were partly off the 

As soon as the engine was stopped on the dump, beyond the bridge. Engineer 
Pierce ran back over it. met Brakeman Parker, wdio had jumped from the rear 
of the forward coacli before it went upon the bridge and was following up the 
ti-ain, and sent him to the Junction to give the alarm and get help there as 


quickly as possible, which he did, getting a team at Centerville, a half niile 

Then Engineer Pierce, Fireman Thresher, Baggage Master Cole, Express Mes- 
senger Robbing, and Postal Clerk Perkins took axes, shovels and bars, hurried to 
the rescue of the sufferers, and worked manfully until driven from the wreck by 
the flames. The rescued hurried, or were helped, to the house of one Oscar 
Paine, about twenty-five rods away. 

The attempts to stop the fires within the cars availed nothing, as the same 
could not be gotten at in season, and accordingly all the efforts of these men and 
the passengers who were not disabled were directed to the releasing of those con- 
fined. The cars were all heated by coal stoves, and lighted by lamps with min- 
eral sperm oil which was 300 degrees fire test. The brakes were the Westing- 
house automatic air brakes. 

There were flange marks on the ties and frozen earth, and also indications of 
heavy blows upon some of the ties and earth for several rods before the bridge 
■was reached, continuing to the abutment: also abrasions as scrapings of the inner 
side of the left hand rail at different points, so as to leave impressions and in- 
dentations as if made by some substance as hard as itself, trying to climb those 

The new iron bridge on the Central Vermont railroad to replace the 
one destroyed, as related in the foregoing account, was completed 
November 6th, 1887. 

" The bridge which has replaced the ill-fated one is of more than 
ordinary interest on account of the accident, and the travelling public 
will be glad to know something of the success which attended its 

This is the longest railroad bridge in Vermont, and the longest on the 
line between the Victoria bridge at Montreal and Boston. It is of the 
most approved pattern, and the strongest also. Its length is 650 feet, 
and it is composed of four spans of 150 feet each and one of fifty feet. 
The abutments rise twenty feet above the water and ai'e built of granite 
blocks with a filling of looser stone. Since the accident these piers have 
been made solid with cement filling, hundreds of barrels of the material 
having been used in the operation. The uj^per tiers of stone which 
were damaged by the fire have been replaced by new courses of masonry, 
rendering them more solid and substantial than at first. The bridge is 
twenty-four feet high from the base to the top, making the distance 
forty-four feet from the water. About 440 tons of iron have been used 
in the construction, from which it will be seen that the weight of each 
of the longer spans is over 100 tons. 

The weight which the bridge is constructed to carry is 3000 pounds 
per foot, or ^25 tons to the sjian. But this weight mathematically is 
known to be only one-sixth of the loading which would become neces- 
sary to break the structure ; 1350 tons per span. The severest test that 
can be applied, and one that cannot occur in actual business, is the 
placing of three mogul engines on each span, all they will hold, at a 
weight of 270 tons in the aggregate. So it will be seen that but a 
small proportion of the real strength of the bridge can be ascertained 


by actual test. The final test was made, consisting of twelve mogul 
engines, all that could be placed upon the bridge from end to end. 

What to the uninitiated would be considered as an exceedingly- 
difficult task, the placing of the spans in position, is easily accomplished. 
A temporary bridge is built upon postings set in the river alongside of 
the position the bridge is to occupy, and here the parts as they have 
left the shop are put together and riveted. Some idea of the extent of 
this work may be gathered from the statement that over 30,000 of these 
seven-eighth inch iron rivets were used in the last process, and this is 
but a meagre portion of the number used from first to last. 

When the span is finished the trestle work is removed except from 
either end, where heavy track timbers remain at right angles with the 
bridge. Four traverse jack screws are inserted under each end of the 
weighty load and standing on these ways the bridge is lifted by these 
jack screws so the weight of the bridge is borne by them altogether, 
each screw being capable of sustaining a weight of thirty tons. The 
jack screws are made to move on a sub-base of polished steel, well 
lubricated all at right angels with the bridge, which is carried sideways 
by means of other screws working from the sub-base against the base 
of the jack screw, the bridge by this process being patiently slid into 
position. When the screws have reached the limit of their own track 
they are relieved of their weight and a new hold taken. The span is 
moved at each operation about fourteen inches." — St. Albans Messenger . 


The Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad was first chartered 
Nov. 10, 1835, but some difficulty was experienced in securing subscrip- 
tions to stock, and the charter became void. The second charter was 
secured Oct. 31, 1843. The road was to run from some point near the 
Connecticut river, on the Massachusetts line ; up said river and the Pas- 
sumpsic river to some point in Newport or Derby ; but in 1845, the 
right was secured to divide the route near the mouth of White river ; 
the northern portion to be called the " Connecticut and Passumpsic 
Rivers Railroad," and south of White river was given over to the Connec- 
ticut River Railroad, on condition that the stock already subscribed 
should be retained by the former. The road was organized Jan. 15, 
1846, with Erastus Fairbanks, president. The survey was commenced 
in April, 1846, ground was broken Sept. 7, 1846 ; the first rail was laid 
July 15, 1847. Oct. 10, 1847, the road was opened, and the first pas- 
senger train was run to Bradford, twenty-nine miles from White River 
Junction. Nov. 6, 1847, the road was opened to Wells River, forty 


miles ; in 1852, to St. Johnsbury, sixty-one miles, which remained the 
terminus of the road for several years thereafter. In the autumn of 
1853, surveys for an extension of the road were made to Newport, with 
trial lines from West Burke, via. Glover to Barton, and from Barton 
via. Brownington to Derby. Owing to some cause, the surveys were 
discontinued in the autumn of 1854, and work was not resumed until 
the autumn of 1855, when grading was commenced. Barton, twenty- 
nine miles from St. Johnsbury, was reached in 1859, and Newport in 
1863, in which year the grading was completed to the Canada line, a 
distance of about 110 miles from White River Junction. 

Then occurred another suspension of work until the completion of 
the Massawippi Valley Railway, July 1, 1870. This road is thirty-four 
miles in length, and is operated by the C. & P. railroad, under a lease of 
999 years. It forms the connecting link between the C. & P. railroad 
and the Grand Trunk Railway. The present terminus of the Connecti- 
cut and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad is at Sherbrooke, P. Q., 145 miles 
from White River Junction. 

July 30, 1854, Henry Keyes of Newbury, was elected president of the 
company. Owing to some difficulties between Mr. Keyes and the Fair- 
banks's, the former used his influence to effect the removal of the prin- 
cipal offices and workshops of the road to Lyndonville, which took 
place in June, 1868. Mr. Keyes died in 1870. He was succeeded in 
the presidency, Oct. 26, 1870, by Emmons Raymond, a well-known cap- 
italist and prominent citizen of Boston, who held the position until Sep- 
tember, 1886, when he was succeeded by A. B Harris, of Springfield, 
Mass. In 1880 the Union passenger station at White River Junction 
was taken down, and replaced by a costly structure. The work was 
superintended by President Raymond, and it is due to him to say, was 
accomplished with that promptness and perfection which characterizes 
whatever work he essays to accomplish. 

On the first day of January, 1887, the C. &. P. R. R. R. was least d to 
the Boston and Lowell, possession being given on the first day of June 
following. On the first day of April, 1887, the Boston and Lowell, 
togf-ther with its leased roads, was leased to the Boston and Maine — 
possession being given to the latter Oct. 17, 1887. The C. & P. R. R. 
R. is, therefore, designated as the " Passumpsic Division — in the Lowell 
system of the Boston and Maine Railroad." This division enters Hart- 
ford at Norwich line and runs to White River Junction, a distance of 
about three and one-fourth miles, where it connects with the Northern 
New Hampshire, the Central Vermont, and the Woodstock railroads. 

The C. & P. railroad is taxed in Hartford on three acres of land and 


one tenement. This corporation owns one-third of the Union passenger 
station at "White Eiver Junction, the one-third interest being valued at 
$10,000. Its other buildings at that point comprise a new and com- 
modious freight house, a repair shop, wood shed, etc. The tonnage over 
this road via. AVhite Kiver Junction for the current year ending June 
30, 1887, was 305,000 tons, while its passenger business was propor- 
tionately large. This was but a portion of the business of the road; 
much of its freight and passenger trafl&c being sent to Boston over the 
B. C. & M. railroad from AVells Kiver. 

The present officers of this corporation are as follows : President, A. 
B. Harris ; vice do., W. K. Blodgett; treasurer, J. H. Williams; super- 
intendent. Col. H. E. Folsom ; roadmaster, Wm. G. Roberts ; local agent, 
White River Junction, Wesley A. Davis. 

Mr. Folsom is the youngest railway superintendent in New England, 
and none excel him in administrative ability and well deserved popular- 
ity. The general management of this road is characterized by open, 
honorable measures, and fair, generous dealing. 


The act to incorporate the Wookstock Railroad Company was 
approved Oct. 30, 1863. This act conferred the right of building a 
railroad, with a single or a double track, from some point in the village 
of Woodstock to some point on or near White river or Connecticut river, 
either in the town of Hartland or Hartford, as said company might elect, 
and passing through either or any of the towns of Woodstock, Pomfret, 
Hartford, as said company might elect, with the right of crossing the 
railroad of any other railroad company, for the transportation of persons 
and property by team or horse power. 

Section two of said act made it obligatory upon said company to com- 
mence the construction of said road within eght years, and expend 
thereon at least five thousand dollars, and complete said road and put 
it in operation within fifteen years. By section three, the capital stock 
of said company was fixed at one hundred thousand dollars, with privi- 
lege of increasing the same to an amount sufficient to complete said road 
and furnish all necessary apparatus for conveyance, suitable depots, 
etc., the shares to be fifty dollars each. 

By section four, Thomas E. Powers, Eliakim Johnson and Lewis 
Pratt of Woodstock, and Albert G. Dewey and Joseph C. Parker of 
Hartford, were designated as commissioners for opening books of sub- 
scription for the stock of said company at Woodstock and elsewhere. 



On the same day, Oct. 20, 1863, an act was passed by the General 
Assembly,authoriziug the town of Woodstock to raise by tax on the grand 
list of said town, at a meeting called for that purpose, a sum of money 
not exceeding twenty thousand dollars, or any part of said sum, to be 
appropriated to the building of said road. (For other sections of said 
act see "Laws of Vermont " passed at the annual session of 1863.) 

The company was temporarily organized Jan. 9, 1867, with the late 
A. G. Dewey of Hartford chairman, and L. O. Greene secretary pro 
tern., when the following board of directors were chosen : Peter T. 
Washburn, Thomas E. Powers, A. G. Dewey, Charles Dana, Francis W. 
Clarke, Lewis Pratt, Frank N. Billings, Chas. S. Raymond, and Otis 
Chamberlin. The organization was completed Jan. 23 by electing P. 
T. Washburn, president ; L. O. Greene, clerk ; S. E. Manger, treasurer. 
The surveys of the line were made by the late Hosea Doton, a scientific 
and capable civil engineer. Ground was first broken on the farm of 
Ezra A. Champion in Hartford, by President Washburn, April 21, 1868. 
The construction of the road was contracted to Ralph Jones & Co. 
They proceeded with the work of construction into the season of 1869, 
when, owing to want of funds, the contractors suspended operations. 

In January, 1870, the company voted to bond the road to the amount 
of $250,000, and to execute a mortgage of the road and franchise there- 
of, with all appurtenances and appendages, the rate to be seven per 
cent, payable semi-annually, the principal to be payable in twenty years 
from date of mortgage. The company failed to realize any money on 
the bonds. At the session of the Legislature of Vermont in October, 
1872, an act, entitled. " An act to authorize the town of Woodstock to 
guarantee the interest on the bonds of Woodstock Railroad " was passed 
and approved. On the 2d of April, 1873, the town of Woodstock, at a 
meeting legally warned, voted to guarantee the interest on $250,000 of 
the bonds of the Woodstock railroad for the period of fifteen years — 
the same to terminate in fifteen years from the time of the completion of 
the road, which will end on the 15th day of April, 1890. This interest, 
amounting to $17,500 a year, has been voted and promptly paid by the 
town of W^oodstock annually to the present time. This road was com- 
pleted to Woodstock village by the contractor, S. S. Thompson, in Sep- 
tember, 1875. The first rail was laid at White River Junction, May 21, 
1875. On the 12th of August, following, the fine " Howe truss '' bridge, 
built over the celebrated " Quechee Gulf," near Dewey's factory in Que- 
chee, was so far completed that an engine was run over it. On the follow- 


ing day nearly 3000 people assembled at that point to celebrate the long 
anticipated event. Four brass bands made music, and great enthusiasm 
prevailed. A grand ball at Quechee village in the evening terminated 
the festivities of the occasion. The road was formally opened for busi- 
ness Sept. 28, 29 and 30, 1875, with a series of excursions to the 
thirtieth annual fair of the Windsor County Agricultural Society at 
Woodstock, arranged and conducted by the Central Vermont Railroad 
Company, by invitation of the Woodstock Railroad Company. The 
length of the main line of this road is 13 ■^^f^ miles, with three-fourths 
mile of side track. Of the main line there are in Hartford 9 j-^^ 
miles. Eleven miles and a fraction over of the track is of iron 
rails, and two and one-half miles of steel rails. The road is divided 
into three sections, with three men to each section. There are 
four striuger bridges over highways, and two over brooks, each 
of twenty-five feet span. There are no trestles. The "Howe 
truss " bridge over Quechee gulf is 250 feet in length, and the deck is 
163 feet above the stream. The capital stock of this road has a nomi- 
nal value only. The capital stock is $259,000. The cost of the road 
as evidenced by the stock and bonds was $509,000. It is due to the 
people of Woodstock to state that the town in its corporate capacity, in 
addition to obligating itself to pay $17,500 yearly for fifteen years on 
the company's bonds, subscribed and paid $100,000 for two thousand 
shares of the stock at $50 par value. It has been a great tax upon the 
resources of the people of Woodstock, but they have promptly met 
every requirement and obligation with unflinching energy and perse- 
verance, and they now have a first-class road in every respect. Material 
aid was furnished by the j^eople of Bridgewater and Hartford. 

The twentieth annual report of the directors to the stockholders of 
the Woodstock Railroad for the year ending Sept. 30, 1887, is as fol- 
lows: Gross earnings, $24,266.63 ; expenses (less $1,028.06 received 
from sale of old rails), $16,159.45 ; paid town of Woodstock interest 
account $8,107.18 (nearly one-half the intei'est on the bonded debt); 
number of passengers carried, 15,146 ; tons of freight transported, 
11,345 ; not an accident occurred, and no loss by damage to freight in 

Before the era of railroads, and when Rutland was but a mere hamlet, 
Whitehall, N. Y., was the entre2)ot from which numerous towns east of 
the Green Mountains, in Windsor and Orange counties, imported their 
supplies of flour, lime, salt, and other commodities, all of which were 
transported over the mountains, via. Rutland, Sherburne and Wood- 
stock, by two-horse teams, mostly belonging to and driven by their 


owners — well-to-do farmers, — who, in this way, supplied their own 
wants, and earned many an honest penny in the service of the merchants 
and traders. Beyond Woodstock, and following, with some deviations, 
the same route over the mountain to Rutland as that travelled by the 
teamsters of those days, the Woodstock Railroad will be, at no distant 
day, extended to Rutland ; possibly by a combined effort of the Boston 
and Lowell and the Delaware and Hudson railroad companies, but 
probably by the latter alone, for the purpose of establishing an outlet 
(more desirable than via. Bellows Falls), to White River Junction, and 
opening up a new route to the West, at least sixty miles shorter than 
the present route by rail between White River Junction and Rutland. 
To consumate such an enterprise the town of Hartford might profitably 
bond herself in the sum of $25,000. As one of the results. White River 
Junction would become the most important railroad center in New 
England. The passenger traffic over the new route would be simply 
immense. Our prince of caterers, E. A. Dunton, who never fails to 
give '■'plenty of time,''' and plenty to eat, as well, would wax rich, and 
find much enjoyment in feeding hungry crowds by night and by day. 
Our genial friend Porter would find the office of superintendent of the 
Vermont division of the road a partial reward for his faithful, efficient 
endeavors. The people of Woodstock would be relieved of burdensome 
taxes, and find in the annual dividends of interest upon her $100,000 of 
stock, and the revival of her manufactures, some compensation for 
sacrifices heroically made, and difficulties bravely met and overcome ; 
and lastly, the travelling public would be immeasurably benefited by a 
saving of time and money — three hours of time and about two dollars 
car fare to each adult person, — while to the tourist in search of enjoy- 
ment the route over the mountain, via. Woodstock, presents a great 
diversity of charming scenery that could not fail to attract and satisfy 
the eye that slumbers not nor sleeps, amid the beautiful creations of 

The present directors of the W^oodstock railroad are Frederick Bil- 
lings, Lewis Pratt, F. N. Billings, Justin F. Mackenzie, Woodstock ; S. 
S. Thompson, Lyndon ; Wm. C. Raymond, Bridgewater ; John J. 
Dewey, Quechee ; president, Frederick Billings ; vice-president, Justin 
F. Mackenzie ; clerk, Charles P. Marsh ; superintendent and treasurer, 
James G. Porter (appointed in January, 1876). 

The returns made to the railroad commissioners and the commis- 
sioner of state taxes for 1888 show the gross income, operating expenses 
and net income of the railroads in Vermont for the year ending June 
30, 1888, to have been as follows : Gross income, $4,884,372 ; operating 


expenses. $3,319,964; net income, $1,564,408. Included in the operating 
expenses is the annual item of $100,000 in round numbers for state 
taxes. The gross earnings and net earnings of the principal railroads 
in the state for the year ending June 30, 1888, were as follows : 

Name of road. Gross income. Net earnings. 

Central Vermont $3,649,169 $693,133 

Pass (Boston & Maine lessee) 765,467 240,817 

Vermont Valley 186,894 75,900 

Bennington & Rutland 259.124 91,092 

Montpelier & AVells River 99,533 28,978 

St. Johnsbury & L. Champlain 365,020 



The first post-route in Vermont was established by the Governor and 
Council June 19th, 1781, Avhile in session in Bennington. It was solely 
for the benefit of the Governor. At the session of the General Assembly 
in Bennington in 1783, a post-route was established, for the first time, 
for the benefit of the public, and the post-rider was to go weekly from 
Bennington to Albany.' An act for establishing post-offices in the 
State passed the General Assembly March 5th, 1784, and on the same 
day, Mr. Anthony Haswell was appointed Postmaster General within 
and for the State of Vermont." Five post-offices were established by 
this act, viz., one in each of the towns of ' Bennington, Rutland, Brattle- 
borough, Windsor and Newbury, under such regulations as governed 
the post-offices in the United States. These offices were to open a 
regular communication throughout the State. 

" Meagre as the postal service established by Vermont seems to us to 
have been, yet it was extended very slowly by Congress." The first 
act by Congress March 1791, provided that "the Post-master General 
shall be and he is hereby authorized to extend the carrying the mail from 
Albany, N. Y., to Bennington." In June, 1792, only four post-routes 
had been established in Vermont by Congress. Three of these were 
weekly, and one semi-monthly. One of these routes was from Brattle- 
borough to Charleston, N. H., and Windsor to Hanover, N. H., once 
a week. 

On the 26th of October, 1795, the General Assembly, then sitting in 
.Windsor, passed an act empowering and directing certain persons to 
lay out and survey a post-road from Massachusetts Line to the north 
line of the town of Newbury in the County of Orange, Vt. Under the 
provisions of this act a survey was commenced in the Spring of 1796, 

' Extract from the Journal— "Resolved, that Mr. Samuel Sherman be paid Nine 
Shillings per week out of the pubUc treasury, for riding. Post, carrying and bringing 
the Public Intelligence to and from this (Bennington) to Albany (N, Y.) until the 
sitting of the General Assembly in February next : — He to be accountable for all 
the money he shall receive as Postage on Letters, etc," The Vermotii Gazette of 
Nov. 27, 1783, informed its readers that, " by this act of the Assembly, the post- 
office business will be transacted at the Printing office, and the greatest care will be 
taken to forward letters, etc., as expeditiously as possible. Postage will be under 
the same regulations as in the United States; the postage of all letters addressed to 
persons out of the State, must be paid at the time of leaving them at the office as 
far as Albany." 

- Mr. Haswell was one of the firm of Haswell & Russell, publishers of the Ver- 
mont Gazette, established in Bennington, June 5th, 17S3. 


under the direction of committees named by the General Assembly. 
The committee of three chosen to lay said road through Windsor 
County consisted of Hon. Paul Brighara of Norwich, Gen'l Lewis R. 
Morris of Springfield, and Oliver Gallup of Hartland. A plan of the 
survey and location of said road, as laid through the town of Hartford, 
was filed in the Town Clerk's office August 31st, 1796, and recorded in 
Vol. 6, pages 70-71. The report reads as follows : 

"A survey of a post-road laid out by the Hon. Paul Brighani, Lewis 
R. Morris and Oliver Gallup, Esquires, a committee appointed by the 
Hon. Legislature of the State of Vermont, at their session at Windsor 
October, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, for the purpose 
of laying out a post-road from the nortli line in Windham County to 
the north line of Windsor County ; beginning at the nortli line of Hart- 
land. (Here follows a statement of the compass lines from station to 
station through Hartford, with distances in chains, terminating at Nor- 
wich line.) The report is signed by the committee and by Marston 
Cabot, Count}^ Surveyor, by whom the compass work was performed, 
and the report was written. A rudely drawn sketch of the compass 
lines, accompanies the report, which defines the location of Maj. David 
Wright's house, the point of crossing White River, and the location of 
Widow Hazen's house near Norwich line. This post-road is the present 
highway leading from Norwich line to Hartford village (the Christian 
St. road), thence across White River to Hartland, passing the present 
residences of Charles B. Ballard, Rev. H. Andrews, Mrs. Daniel Simonds, 
Seth B. Wright, W. H. Braley, Ervin Russ, Barney McCabe, Frank 
Huntoon, and so on to Windsor via. North Hartland. 

On Monday Oct. 24th, 1796, Oliver Gallup and others presented a 
petition to the General Assembly, then in session in Rutland, praying 
for the avails of the Connecticut River Lottery " which remains not 
expended, for the purpose of appropriating the same on the post-road 
on the west side of Connecticut River, etc., being read and by the 
House referred to the Lottery Committee, resolved to join accordingly." 

In 1792, June 1st, additional post-offices were opened in Manchester, 
Burlington and Vergennes. The Vermont Register (almanac) for 1797, 
gave a list of eight different routes then established in Vermont, 
together with the towns then havins: mail service. Route " No. 6 " 
was from Windsor to Newbur3^ and St. Johnsbury. The towns along 
this route, with their respective distances from Windsor and the post- 
riders along the route were as follows : Windsor to Hartland, five miles, 
post-rider. Lull ; Windsor to Hartford, fourteen miles, rider, Hazen ; 
Hartford to Norwich, two miles, rider, Bunton ; Norwich to Thetford, 
eleven miles, rider, Childs ; Thetford to Fairlee, nine miles, rider, 
Freeman ; Fairlee to Bradford, six miles, rider, Stebbins ; Bradford to 
Newbury, five miles, rider. Mills ; to next office in Newbury, three 
miles, rider, Lovell ; to another office in Newbury, one mile, rider, 
Johnson ; Newbury to Barnet, fifteen miles, rider, Gilchrist ; to next 


in Barnet, two miles, rider, Stevens ; Barnet to St, Johnsbury, eleven 
miles, rider. Lord. 

The Register further says : — " A Post-Road is established between 
Burlington and Montreal in Canada and a British carrier arrives at 
Burlington every fortnight. Rate of postage of every single letter by 
land, 30 miles, 6 cts.; 60 m., 8 cts.; 100 m., 10 cts.; 150 m, 12| cts.; 
200 m., 15 cts.: 250 m., 17 cts.; 350 m., 20 cts.; 450 m. 22 cts. For 
more than 450 m. 25 cts. 

No allowance is to be made for intermediate miles. Every double 
letter is to pay double the said rates ; every triple letter triple ; every 
packet weighing one ounce, at the rate of four single letters for each 

The number of deputy postmasters in Vermont in 1797 was 10, viz.: 
— Bennington, Brattleborough, Burlington, Manchester, Middlebury, 
Newbury, Rutland, Vergennes, Westminster and Windsor. 

Mr. E. P. Walton, of Montpelier, in speaking of the mail service in 
Vermont, in March, 1784, says : — " In these days of railroads and tele- 
graphs the condition of the service at that time may provoke a smile ; 
but in fact Vermont, at that time, provided mail facilities quite equal to 
those furnished by the United States for any but the largest towns and 
cities. The following, nearly eight months later is to the point " : 

Hartford (Conn.), November 2.^ 

" A stage wagon has lately been erected to run, with four horses, 
between the city of New York and Stratford ferry, in Connecticut, 
which completes the stages from Portsmouth, in the State of New 
Hampshire, to Richmond, in the State of Virginia, a distance of up- 
wards of 700 miles." — 


Through the courtesy of Hon. W. W. Grout, M. C, I have obtained 
from Hon. A. E. Stevenson, First Assistant Post-Master General, the 
names of the post-masters, and the dates of their appointment respect- 
ively, at the offices of Hartford, Quechee, West Hartford and White 
River Junction, which I give in the order of the date of the establish- 
ment of said offices, viz.: — 


Joseph Dorr, 21 July, 1806 Justin C. Brooks 15 Nov. , 1850 

Derrick Stebbins 7 May, 21 Henry B. Brown 23 Apr. , 56 

Andrew Tracy 15 Jan'y, 24 Justus W. French 28 May, 56 

Pliineas Kimball 12 Apr. . 27 Justin C . Brooks 19 Mch. , 62 

Oramel H. Nichols _. 2 Aug.. 32 Willis S. Brooks 3 Nov., 75 

Moses French 23 Jan"y , 41 Allen L. Pease 8 Apr. , 81 

Justin C. Brooks 8 June, 41 Nellie L. Brooks 14 July. 84 

Oramel H. Nichols... 26 Jany, 47 

'From the Vermont Gazette of Nov. 15, 1784. 



Shubael Russ 8 May, 1837 Joseph K. Edgerton 17 Mch. , 1860 

Jacob Dimniick 26 May, 30 Chas. W. Harrington 9 Oct., 60 

Wm. S. Carter 23 Aug. , 47 Shubel Russ 2 July, 61 

Joseph K. Edgerton. 17 June, 53 Chas. Tinkham 29 Oct., 67 

Name changed to Name changed to Que- 

Queechy 26 July, 55 chee 16 Mch., 68 

Shubel Russ 20 July, 57 


Phineas Parkhurst. . 2 Apr. , 1830 Lucius Hazen 7 Oct. , 1850 

Baxter B. Newton.. 22 Sept., 30 Albert E. Williamson 18 Apr., 54 

Ebenezer J. Whitnev 29 Mav, 33 Wm. L. Brockwav 7 Aug., 61 

Chas. Tinkham 1 15 Dec., 37 Levi Hazen ." 24 Mch.. 64 

W. H. Steele 9 July, 39 W. Howard Tucker 12 Apr. . 69 

Sam"l G. Steele 24 Oct., 44 Hovt Hazen ...20 July, 69 

JohnSteele H July, 49 R. Munsil 88 


Samuel Nutt 30 Oct. . 1850 Noah B. Safford 18 Aug. , 1879 

Luther S. Grover 10 Dec, 59 Sanford H. Potter' 31 Apr., 86 

Geo. Lyman 12 Apr. , 61 


The first attempt to establish a printing office and a newspaper in 
Hartford was made by Dr. Ira Davis, of Norwich, associated with Mr. 
E. Southworth, in October, 1852, when they started a newspaper under 
the title of " The White River Advertiser and Vermont Family Gazette." 
It was established by removing the " Federal Gazette " from Bradford, 
Vt. Some time in 1853 the office of this company was destroyed by fire 
and the paper was discontinued. 

The next paper published in town was the " Eepublican Observer," 
commenced by Thomas Hale, at White Eiver Junction, January 1, 1878, 

'Mr. Potter is the fifth postmaster here since the office was established in the 
spring of 1849. Col. Samuel Nutt, a Democrat, was the first postmaster, appoint- 
ed under Zacharj Tavlor's administration. The office at first had a very small 
patronage and was kept in the postmaster's house. In a few months a depot was 
built, and the office was moved into that. Col. Nutt held the office until Dec. 12, 
1859, ■^vhen Luther Grover, also a Democrat, received the appointment. Soon 
after the change to a Republican administration, or May 20. i86i, George Lyman 
received the appointment, and held the office until his death, July n, 1879. Miss 
Louise Lyman, daughter of George Lyman, then became acting postmistress for 
the bondsmen, and did the business until N. B. Saftbrd received the appointment 
and took the office, Sept. i, 1879. He held the office until his death, March 10, 
1886, when Herbert L. Dutton was acting postmaster for the bondsmen until the 
appointment of Sanford H. Potter. There have therefore been but four post- 
masters in the thirty-seven years of the existence of the office, two Democrats 
and two Republicans. Both of the latter died in office. The office survived one 
fire — the burning of the depot in which it was located, in 1862. All the books, 
papers, mail matter and fixtures were saved. It was assigned a place in the new 
depot, when rebuilt, where it remained until that was torn down and a new de- 
pot built in 1S80. It was then given a place in a shed, and set out doors, where 
it has remained to this day. During Mr. Grover's postmastership the office paid 
about $600; now it pays 'the postn-.aster $1,200 with about $100 fees on money 
order business, and an allowance of $300 for clerk hire. — Fn/Ly Sun. 

A post office was established in Olcott village 1887. 


and continued until June 1, 1880, when it was removed to Keene, N. H. 
Hale started the Observer with a list of about 1600 subscribers, which 
he had obtained by personal persistent teasing/ and had he been able 
to subdue his nomadic propensities, and make his expenditures and in- 
come commeasurable, he could not have failed to make his venture here 
a perfect success. Mr. Hale was, in a literary point of view, an able 
editor. He possessed a remarkable memory, and was thoroughly con- 
versant with the political history of the country, and knew much of men 
eminent in the fields of literature, science, art and politic?, both in this 
and other countries. He was a ready writer, and, when not moved by 
impecunious considerations, was very entertaining in conversation. But 
he was egotistical, fractious and insolent in his treatment of his com- 
positors and other assistants, though obsequious to those who held any 
kind of a whip-lash over him ; negligent of, and indifferent to his pecu- 
niary obligations; extravagant in his mode of living; treacherous in 
social obligations, and the butt of ridicule everywhere. 

He was near-sighted, but disliked to be reminded of this defect of 
vision. Once, when about to cross a railroad track in front of a moving 
locomotive, a youth who knew him caught hold of him unceremoniously 
and hurried him beyond danger. Hale construed this as an imposition, 
and manifested a disposition to give the preserver of his life a good 
threshing, but the young fellow was no chicken, and the threatened can- 
ing was indefinitely postponed. 

In August, 1880, a stock company composed of capitalists in Keene, 
N. H., started the "New England Observer" in that town, with Mr. 
Hale as editor-in-chief and manager ; but, in a few months thereafter he 
had antagonized the principal stockholders, and not being able to recon- 
cile differences, he stepped down and out, and there closed his career as 
an editor. " Qualis vita finis ita." 

" The Sun " was established at White River Junction by Royal Cum- 
mings on the 9th of December, 1881. Three months later it was pur- 
chased by A. A. Earle, and converted into the hybrid, or combination 
patent- and-home-made production, y-cleped "The Landmark," (March 
12, 1882.^ 

The " Valley Sun " was commenced by Royal Cummings at White 
River Junction, January 18, 1884, with a patent outside. In July, 1885, 
the size of the paper was reduced, and subsequently issued as an " all- 
at-home " printed paper, and was the only paper so printed between 

' Hale manifested a persistence in teasing that would hiave rendered him an inval- 
uable lightning-rod agent. His remarkable tenacity gave rise to the following con- 
nundrum : — " Why is Tom Hale like the Hoosic tunnel ? " Ans. — " Because he is 
a wonderful bore." 


Montpelier and Concord, N. H. It was Republican in politics, excluded 
patent-medicine and other questionable advertisements, and was a neat, 
newsy, readable paper, and it is to be regretted that ^Mr. Cummings was 
compelled to suspend its publication. Dr. Talmadge, in a sermon 
preached to newspaper men on a recent Sunday, said : '■■ There are only 
two kinds of newspapers — the one good, very good; the other bad, very 
bad. A newspaper may be started with an undecided character, but 
after it has been going on for years, everybody finds out just what it is, 
and it is very good or very bad. The one paper is the embodiment of 
news, the ally of virtue, the foe of crime, the delectation of elevated 
taste, the mightiest agency on the earth for making the world better. 
The other paper is a brigand amid moral forces, it is the beslimer of 
reputations, it is the right arm of death and hell, it is the mightiest 
agency in the universe for making the world worse and battling the 
cause of God. The one an angel of intelligence, the other a fiend of 

Chief Justice Parker once said : " The liberty of the press is always 
a subject of discussion ; the press is the chief engine to create and sus- 
tain civil, political and religious liberty. But the press is not invested 
with the power or right of invading private character, or of circulating 
falsehood against public or private men. It may promulgate truth, 
however harsh and severe, with a good purpose, and with an honest view 
to expose and reform, but it cannot, with impunity, under the garb of 
good motives, and justifiable ends, traduce and calumniate. Powerful 
as the press is, it has a master, and that master is the lav;, which, when 
it trangresses its legitimate bounds, will punish the transgressors. * * 
The imputation of crime is not necessary to constitute a libel. Any 
opprobious terms calculated to expose the party of whom they are used 
to contumely, may be libelous. * * * If the words of a supposed 
libel are not calculated to injure the party of whom they are used in the 
community, they have no noxious meaning, or tendency, and such tend- 
ency is an essential ingredient of oflence. * * * If a publication is 
unjustifiable, and its natural tendency is to create hostile feelings, aver- 
sion and hatred, malice is inferred by law." 

The Landmark was sold by Mr. Earle to Charles R. Jameson in 
December, 1888. The new owner assumed control of the paper Decem- 
ber 14. Mr. Jameson is a practical printer, and has ability to publish a 
first-class paper. The paper already exhibits marked improvement in 
its general make-up. 



In a petition made by Prince Tracy and others to the New York 
government for Letters Patent it was stated that the population of the 
town in 1765, was thirty persons. The population in 1771, as shown by 
a census taken of the towns in Cumberland County (comprising Wind- 
ham and Windsor Counties) was 190 persons. In 1791, when the first 
census of Vermont was taken, the population of the town was 988 per- 
sons, an increase of 608 in twenty years. The next census was taken in 
the year 1800, when, according to the U. S. census reports, the popula- 
tion was 1094 persons. The census from 1800 to 1880 by decades was 
as follows : In 1810, it was 1881 ; in 1820 it was 2010 ; in 1830, it was 
2044 ; in 1840, it was 2194 ; in 1850, it was 2159 ; in 1860, it was 2396 ; 
in 1870, it was 2480 ; in 1880, it was 2954 ; the increase during the last 
decade was 474, a percentage of increase of 19.1 per cent. 

Taking the above figures as the basis of calculation, it appears that 
the increase of population for 109 years, 1771-1880, has been 2764 
— a mean annual increase of 25.36 per cent., of which nearly one-sixth 
occurred in the decade between 1870 and 1880. The increase from 1771 
to 1791 was mainly from immigration ; that from 1791 to 1800 was 
probably due to the excess of births over deaths during that period, 
with some immigration. Between 1800 and 1810, the tide of emi- 
gration began again to flow into the town ; but from 1810 to 1820, the 
war of 1812 and the fearful epidemic of 1814-15 not only decimated the 
town, but served to check the tide of emigration, and the increase was 
chiefly of indigenous growth. Between 1820 and 1850 the philosophy 
of the decrease is difficult to understand. The construction of railways 
induced immigration to a considerable extent, but this was of a tran- 
sient and temporary character. The depletion might have been caused 
by the " Western fever," which continued to influence emigration from 
this section of Vermont for a longer period than in other portions of the 
State. It will be seen that the increase between 1820 and 1830 exceeded 
the mean annual increase for 109 years, but the actual loss between 1840 
and 1850 is an anomaly not wholly attributable to decimation by emi- 
gration. In the absence of official registration reports, and other 
statistical data, it is impossible to determine what were the actual causes 
of the variable increase and decrease of the population, or to make 
satisfactory deductions relating to the same. 


The increase in population between 1850 and '60, must be attributed 
to the completion of several railways to White River Junction, which 
led to the establishment, at that point, of numerous offices and work- 
shops connected therewith, and, also, to the impetus thereby given to 
almost every branch of industry, all of which resulted in an influx of 
railway officials and workmen, and laborers to factories, farms and 
other departments. From 1860 to '70, there was but a slight increase. 
The civil war with its disturbing influences, the decimation by recruit- 
ing, supplemented by the depletion consequent upon diphtheria, which 
was epidemic in 1863-4-5, all militated against a gain in population. 
The excess of births over deaths during the decade was only 33. The 
total gain in population during the decade being 84, we gained hy im- 
migration 51, or about 6.5 per cent, of the whole gain, probably more, 
as there must have been a depletion by emigration. 

Betw^een 1870 and '80, the increase was 474, a rate of increase of 47.4 
per annum, and a percentage of 19.11. The excess of births over 
deaths during the decade was 262. Deducting this from 474 we find 
that the gain by immigration was 212 or 44.6 per cent, of the total 
gain; and 8.5 per cent, on the population. These figures make the 
causes of increase perfectly obvious. In March, 1878, there were 619 
families in tOAvn. Families with children 417. Children under 5, 302; 
5 to 10, 290; 10 to 15, 278; 15 to 20, 230; aggregate, 1100. These 
figures show that the number of single persons over 20 years of age 
was about 520; children of school age, 798; the total population being 
about 2858. 

The rates of increase of population dui-ing the last decade 1870-'80 
is lai'ger than that of any other town in Vermont. The population of 
the State in 1870 was 330,551; in 1880, 332,286, showing an increase of 
1,735 only in ten years, or a percentage of .00525, nearly. The fore- 
going table shows that the actual increase of population in Hartford 
during the same period exceeded one-fourth of the total gain in the 
State; the percentage of increase being 19.11, or 27.32 per cent., nearly, 
of the total gain in the State. 

Doubtless many of the readers of this history will be interested in 
the following comparative statement of the poj^ulation of Vermont by 
counties in 1880 and 1870, showing the gains and losses during the 
decade in the counties respectively : 

Addison county, population in 1880, 24,174; in 1870, 23,484: gain 690. 

Bennington " " •• - 31,945; " " 21,325: " 620. 

Caledonia " " •• " 23,609; " " 22,235; " 1,372. 

Chittenden " '• • • 32,798; " " 36,480 ; loss 3,682. 



county, population in 1880 

Grand Isle 

Total gain, 7,471; total loss, 5,736. Excess of gain, 1,735. 
during decade was 474. 


7,931 ; 

in 1870 

6,811 ; 




a 11 

30,291 ; 




4,082 ; 




" " 









" " 

21,035 • 




" " 





. <( (< 





" " 

26,036 ; 



35,192 ; 

" " 

36,063 ; 



Gain in Hartford, 

111 1856 the General Assemblj^ of Vermont jjassed an act relating to 
the registry and return of births, marriages and deaths, by town and 
district clerks, and the annual publication of the same by the secretary 
of State. The i^racticability and utility of this measure has been 
clearly demonstrated. It ensures greater accuracy, and affords facts 
from which valuable conclusions and inferences may be drawn concern- 
ing the three eras of human life, viz. : Birth, marriage and death, 
" upon which, to a very great extent, are dependent the physical, moral 
and civil condition of the human family," 

In the following table are grouped together the whole number of 
births registered by the town clerks of Hartford during the thirtj' 
years 1857-'86 inclusive; together with the average birth-rate, popula- 
tion to one birth, number of each sex and nativity for six quinquennial 
periods, the last period being computed upon the average of the sup- 
posed population for said period, tlie estimated increase from 1880 to 
1886 beina: 400 : 





be cj 



c3 u 




f~i L, 























































































The ratio of males to females is as 103.24 is to 100. 

Fi om the foregoing table itappearsthatthe wbolenumber of births in 
the town was one thousand seven hundred and sixtv. This number exceeds 



the whole number of deaths during the same period by five hundred and 
sixteen. Eliminating the number of still-born (twenty-nine) these 
figures indicate an increase of the population of four hundred and 
eighty-seven. According to the IT. S. census reports the actual gain in 
population between 1850 and 1880 was seven hundred and ninety-five. 
A proportionate gain between 1857 and 1880 would be six hundred and 
twenty-nine. Assuming that the population in 1886 was thirty-three 
hundred and fifty-four, the total gain for thirty years — 1857-86, was 
one thousand twenty-nine. Hence the increase by immigration was five 
hundred and forty-two, and by excess of live births over deaths, four 
hundred and eighty-seven. The annual average number of births 
exceeds the annual average number of deaths by a fraction more than 

Those of my readers who are conversant with statistics on this sub- 
ject, will observe that notwithstanding the fact that the births in Hart- 
ford are remarkably few in proportion to the population, the number of 
births and the proportion of births to the population are not less than 
in many other towns in Vermont. In 1884 the proportion of births to 
population in Windsor County was one to every 67.9 of its inhabitants, 
while in nine other counties in Vermont the proportion was less than 
in Hartford. 

One birth occurs annually in Massachusetts to every thirty-five per- 
sons ; in France one to every thirty-five persons ; in England one to 
every thirty-one persons ; in Vermont one to every fifty persons ; in 
Hartford one to every fortj'^^-six persons. 

In the following table the births that have occurred in the town for 
ten years, 1877-86 inclusive are arranged by months. 

















February . 



25 . 
















July _ 


























From the above table it will be seen that January was the most fruit- 
ful month, and August the least so. We also see that the number of 
births varied but little with the seasons. During the months of winter 
there were 170 births ; spring, 155 ; summer, 161 ; autumn, 167. 

Flural Births. — During a period of thirty years only fourteen child- 
ren were born in couplets. Of these twelve were males, and two 
were females. This is one couplet in every 251.4 births. 

Illegitimates. — Nine cases are recorded, three of which were females. 
This is one in every 195.5 births. 

Still-born. — The statistics on this point are unreliable. I obtain the 
number here given from the Town Clerk's registry of deaths. The 
number recorded is twenty-nine, of which thirteen were males ; thirteen 
females, and three unknown. This is one to every 60.7 of all births. 
. Parentage, — Of the whole number of births 67.4 per cent, were of 
American parentage; 28.9 per cent, of foreign parentage, and 3.7 per 
cent, were of unknown parentage. The greatest proportion of Ameri- 
can births to every one hundred of population, was in 1858, and the 
least was in 1884. On the other hand, the foreign births were greatest 
in proportion in 1874, and the least in 1861. In 1858, the proportion 
of American to foreign births was twelve to one ; in 1870 it was 1.91 to 
one, and in 1880 it was 2.08 to one. Of the whole number of births 
from 1860 to 1870, seventy-five per cent, were American, and twenty- 
five per cent, were foreign. From 1870 to 1880, sixty-one per cent. 
of the births were American, and thirty-nine per cent, were foreign, 
From 1882 to 1886 inclusive, sixty-five per cent of all births were 
American, and thirty five per cent, foreign. In the latter class the 
excess of births over deaths, for thirty years 1857-86 inclusive was 436; 
while in the American class the excess was only eighty-one. The excess 
of bii ths over deaths in the foreign class in 1885-86 was eighteen. In 
the American class, the excess of deaths over births during the same 
period was twelve. The ratio of increase in the foi^eign births in this 
town, and elsewere, is suggestive of the thought that the foreign popu- 
lation in this country may eventually, by natural increase, outnumber 
the American population. 


Prior to 1857, it was customary for ministers of the gospel and mag- 
istrates who performed the marriage service to make a certificate of the 
marriage in duplicate, one copy of which was given to the married 
couple and the other was deposited with thv3 town clerk for official rec- 



ord. As a specimen of the usual form of certificate thus made, I will 
quote that of a marriage performed in 1807, -viz : — 

State of Vermont, } 
Windsor County, ss. f 
Be it remembered that at Hartford, in said County, on the 6th day of January, 
in the year of our Lord 1807. Pomp Quaw and Lucy Smith (both blacks) both of 
Hartford, in the State and County aforesaid, were duly joined in marriage by 
me. Attest: ^ SHERMAN DEWEY. Justice Peace. 

Hartford, March 31, 1807. 
The foregoing is a "true copy of the original. 

Attest: FREEGRACE LEAVITT, To\yn Clerk. 

The whole number of marriages recorded in the town records for sev- 
enteen years — 1802-1819 — is about 200. The number recorded from 
1819 to 1857 — thirty- eight years — is 515, or a total of 715 couples in 
fifty-five years. The annual average is thirteen couples. On the basis 
of the average population as given in the U. S. census reports, there was 
one marriage to every 146 persons. 

The following table exhibits the whole number of marriages regis- 
tered by the town clerks during thirty years — 1857-1886, inclusive — to- 
gether with number of persons married, their nativity, population to 
one marriage, etc., arranged in six quinquennial periods on a basis of 
the average population, estimating the population at 3354 in 1886 : 

Average No. No. 


Population to 
1 Marriage. 


\EARS. Population. Couples Persons. 


For. ! Un. 

1857-1861 2369 64 128 
1862-1866 j 2430 47 94 


i 3 

1867-1871 ! 2479 90 180 
1872-1876 2670 183 266 
1877-1881 2911 135 270 
1882-1886 3220 133 266 




602 ' 1204 







2680 201 402 


The ratio of increase from 1850 to 1860, is 23.7; 1860 to 1870, is 8.4; 1870 to 
1880. is 47.4: and from 1880 to 1886, is 66.7. 

I am unable to obtain reliable data concerning the number of first 
marriages : the first of men ; the subsequent of women ; of widowers to 
maids ; of widowers to widows ; and of the actual number of divorces. 
So far, however, as my personal observation extends, I can endorse the 
opinion entertained by a well-known statistician, i.e.: that in the first 
marriage of men the bridegroom is generally the elder ; that bachelors 
are quite apt to succumb to the charms of widowhood, and often take 
partners older than themselves ; that the widower marrying a maid 
seeks one who is younger than himself ; that in the union of widowers 

with widows, they find congenialty in partners nearer their own age ; 



that too many people marry in haste, to repent at leisure ; and, finally, 
that in marriage, as in many other things, there is no accounting for 
tastes ! 

The number of marriages found recorded in the town clerk's office 
prior to the year 1857, or between Jan. 1, 1802, and Dec. 31, 1856, is 
not far from 250. As the records are in a very good state of preserva- 
tion during that period, it is not deemed advisable to give a list of them 
in this work. The author has, however, copied nearly every marriage, 
and all who desire to refer to his list are at liberty to examine it at any 
time. The number of marriages for ten years — 1877-86, inclusive — ar- 
ranged by months, are as follows : January 32, February 16, March 
18, April 16, May 18, June 18, July 12, August 14, September 25, Octo- 
ber 30, November 43, December 26 ; total, 268. Arranged by seasons, 
they are : Winter 74, spring 52, summer 44, autumn 98. 


It is probable that the number of appellants to the courts from Hart- 
ford has been as great, in proportion to the population of the town, as 
those from any other town in the State. The number of divorces 
granted in Windsor County for seven years — 1880-86, inclusive — was 
as follows: In 1880, 5, or one in every 56 marriages ; in 1881, 21, or 
or one in every 12 marriages; in 1882, 17, or one in every 15.6 mar- 
riages; in 1883, 23, or one in every 12.4 marriages ; in 1884, 26, or one 
in 9.85 marriages ; in 1885, 11, or one in 26 marriages ; in 1886, 12, or 
one in 20 marriages. Divorce is preferable to an unhappy, quarrelsome 


In the following table may be found a resume of the mortality of the 
town for thirty years, 1857-86 inclusive, giving the number of decedents 
of each sex at different ages, the annual average number, the population 
for one death and the percentage, arranged in five quinquennial periods, 
1857-81 ; one triennial period, 1882-84, and for the years 1885-86 an- 
nually. — Collated from records in Town Clerk's office. 






















1— < 









3 1 




l! 4 














41 1 

3 10 


3 6 













10 1 

8 10 


4: 5 













12) 7 

5 12 


3 7 





128; 3 






4! 1 

6' 5 


4; 7 












1 4 




3| 5 













3' 3 3 
















31 3! 5 



7il6j 10 












3 5 




7i 7; 7 











4| 5 




101 6|. 11 














9!ll 16 


















7| 13 














35 61 











The aggregate ages of all the decedents is 47,072 ; the average age is 
37.84. Excess of females, 84. The number of decedents under one 
year of age was 159 ; from one to two, 58 ; from two to three,35 ; from 
three to four, 35 ; and from four to five, 19 : total, 306, or nearly one 
fourth of the whole number of decedents. The number under one year 
of age (less the still boi-n) was 130 or more than one-tenth of the entire 
mortality of the town. Two centenarians are among the decedents, 
viz.: — Mrs. Jane Bethel, a widow of Irish nativity, died March 21, 1875, 
aged 103 years. Mrs. Isaac Fouse Baker, a Canadian, died Oct. 13, 
1880, aged 100 years. 

Of the whole number of decedents (1244) eleven hundred and jBlfty- 
three, or 92.7 per cent, were of American parentage, and ninety-one, or 
7.3 per cent, were of foreign parentage. In the latter class the number 
of males was 41, females 50. Of the ninety-one decedents, twenty-seven 
died during the eighteen years ending Dec. 31, 1874 ; thirty-nine in 
the ten years ending Dec. 31, 1884, and twenty-five in the two years 
1885-6 inclusive. The above figures show that there was a rapid in- 
crease in the death-rate in the foreign class during the last decade. The 
birth-rate, however, was largely in excess of the death-rate, the number 
of births being 240 to 64 deaths. There was also an increase of the 
foreign population by immigration with but little if any emigration. It is 
therefore probable that the death-rate, during the last decade, was not 
greater in proportion to the population, than it was during the preceding 
decade. In the foreign class the decedents numbered one to every 884 
of the entire population, or one in every one hundred of this class. The 


increase ia the percentage of decedents was simply commensurate with 
the increase of population. 

It is gratifying to note the fact that the death-rate, on the whole, has 
materially decreased from year to year, notwithstanding the fact that 
the rate of mortaUty in Windsor county, in the classes of diseases most 
prevalent in this town, is in excess of that in most of the other counties 
in Vermont,— the rate of mortality being greatest in the counties bor- 
dering on Connecticut river, especially in consumption, cancer, typhoid 
fever, and heart disease. 


li is not practicable to present a complete nomenclature and classi - 
fication of all the causes of mortality as found recorded, or, as used by 
nosologists and statisticians. 

In the following table may be found an exhibit of the number of de- 
cedents in the fifteen principal causes of death for twelve years, 1875 - 
1886 inclusive, arranged in the order of their fatality, together with the 
sex, population to one death, and the annual average : — 


No. OF Decedents. 

Males. Females. Total 


1 Death. 



Pneumonia _ _ 

Old Age 

Heart Disease 



Cholera Infantum. 

Tvphoid fever 



Lung Fever 




Bright's Disease... 

















The whole number of decedents from all causes, during the twelve 
years above named, was 541, or one among every 67 of the population : 
consequently the number of decedents specified in the above table is 
53.2 per cent of the entire mortality, the proportions of the sexes being 
23.2 per cent, of males to 29 per cent of females. 

From the foregoing table we glean a number of interesting facts. It 
appears that consumption and other lung diseases and fevers comprise 
a large per cent, of all the decedents. Consumption leads the above 
list, as it ever has the lists of the registration reports of the State. The 


decedents from this disease are found at every period of life, but the 
largest number succumb between the ages of twenty and thirty. It is 
said that, if the seeds of death from this disease do not mature at forty, 
the victims may run on to sixty or seventy. The foregoing table shows 
that more than three-fifths of the whole number of decedents from this 
disease were females. So long as this is a hereditary disease, the excess 
of females is a sad commentary on the non-observance of those laws of 
health which alone conduce to good health and long life. The customs 
of society, the lack of open air exercise, the constant respiration of 
vitiated air — heated to excess by the cremating stove, and poisoned by 
the odors of cookery, or ill- ventilation in every apartment, especially in 
sleeping rooms — all militate against customary or continuous good 
health. I do not assume that the avoidance of, or entire removal from 
these and kindred causes, will do more than diminish the mortality of 
this disease when it is hereditary in character, but, with this, and all 
kindred diseases, the ounce of prevention, which consists of a knowledge 
and practice of the laws of health, will be worth more than the pound of 
cure, oftentimes vainly sought for in the skill of learned pathologists but 
never found in the nostrums that patent medicine imposters from 
Warner down to those arrant knaves, retired clergymen, and nomadic 
quacks, like Gage, flamingly advertise, and gain thrift by, simply 
because their deluded victims, like drowning men, clutch at and cling 
to straws, and with like results. 

Old Age. — This is classed by Kosologists among Developmental 
diseases. It is not properly termed a disease, though it is a fruitful 
soui'ce of mortality. In many instances where death is attributed to old 
age, or senility, the decedent had not attained to seventy years of age. 
It seems probable that in these cases the decedents must have been 
subject to constitutional disease of some kind. Many jjersons at seventy 
years of age have a greater prospective tenure of life than others have 
at the age of fifty. Old age is, as a rule, the result of causes that con- 
duce to long life, viz: — 

Habits regular, and good, 
Wholesome and nutritious food, 
Exercise in open air, 
Contentment and little care; 
These, with cleanliness combined, 
Will ensure to aU mankind 
Health of body, health of mind; 
These united, — I presage, — 
Conserve life to good old age. 



Premature old ajje is often the result of constitutional diseases, or it 
may be the result of deep mental suffering, but, as a rule, it is caused 
by habits of dissipation that tend to abbreviate life. 

The number of decedents reported under the head of " Old Age " for 
twelve years, 1875 to 1886 inclusive, was thirty. During this period 
the number of decedents at the age of seventy and upward, including 
two centenarians, was 149, while the whole number at seventy and 
upward for thirty years, 1857-86, was 283 ; males 129, females 154. 
The aggregate of their ages was 25,480 years, the averages being 
respectively 79.5 of females and 79.1 males. The number of aged dece- 
dents in the hill districts largely exceeded the number in the districts 
bordering on the rivers. 

In the folloAving table the whole number of deaths that occurred in 
town during a period of ten years, 1877-86, inclusive, are arranged by 
months : — 





















Male . 































From the above table it will be seen that March, August and Septem- 
ber gave the gi'eatest number of deaths, the aggregate being nearly 34 
per cent, of the entire number. The mortality by seasons was as fol- 
loAvs : Winter 103, per cent. 22.2 ; Spring 115, per cent. 24.7; Summer 
112, per cent. 24.1; Autumn 135, per cent. 29. 

In concluding this subject, I will say that it is assumed by statisticans 
that a mortality of two per cent., or one death among every fifty indi- 
viduals, may be fixed upon as a healthy and natural standard. The 
greater number of the countries in the world, however, show a mor- 
tality of about 2.5 per cent., or one death among every forty persons. 
It will be noticed that the mortality of this town has been, since 1857, 
only 1.5 per cent., or one death among 65 persons. This is a wonderful 
low mortality. The percentage of decedents of both sexes in Vermont 
in 1884 was 1.57. 


The early settlers adopted very stringent precautionary measures to 
protect themselves from the ravaging effects of epidemic and contagious 


diseases. The small-pox was their scourge for many years. Consump- 
tion, catarrhal fevers, canker rash, and the dj'sentery were common, but 
not as fatal as in some other sections of the State. The spotted fever 
was epidemic in the years 1811 12, and carried off about sixty persons. 
But no disease produced a continuous feeling of alarm excepting the 
small-pox. This was very much dreaded, for, where it did not prove 
fatal, it disfigured the countenance and changed beauty into homeli- 

Natural small-pox is a most fatal disease at all periods of life ; the 
most so in infancy and advanced life. The mortality in the natural 
small-pox is from one-fifth to one-third of all it attacks. The practice 
of inoculation, or the engrafting of the matter of small-pox, was effica- 
cious in mitigating the danger and severity of the disease, in saving life 
and preventing deformity. It is asserted that, with proper care, not one 
in 1500 died of the engrafted disease. Other authorities say that " one 
in 300 is the proportion of the inoculated that will surely die." The 
practice of vaccination renders inoculation unnecessary, excepting in 
cases where no vacine matter is obtainable. 

The small-pox caused a great commotion in this town in 1777, and the 
action of the town authorities on the occasion was of a serio-comic na- 
ture, calculated to excite a smile on the face of the reader of the records 
of their proceedings at two meetings, viz : 

" At a meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Hartford, verbally warned by 
the committee of safety of said town, and holden at the dwelling house of Solo- 
mon Sti-ong, on Monday ye 7th day of February, 1777. Chosen — Col. Joseph 
Marsh, 3Ioderator. Voted unanimously, that we icill not admit of the small-jjox 
being set up in this town by any persons! Chosen — Amos Robinson, Silas Hazen 
and Samuel Udall a committee to take care that the small pox is not introduced 
into town." 

The succeeding meeting seems to have been an indignation meeting 
over the same subject. The unanimous vote of the February meeting 
had failed to produce the desired effect. 

" At a meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Hartford, verbally warned by 
the committee of safety to meet at the house of Capt. Abel !Marsh, on Monday, 
17th day of March, A. D. 1777, to take into consideration the alarming conduct 
of some persons belonging to this town and the town of Pomfret, in introducing 
the small-pox into this town, contrary to a former unanimous vote of this town 
against the same: 

Voted — To confine both the persons who are infected with the suiall-pox and 
John Udall that has introduced the small-pox into town. 

Voted — That the committee be empowered to hire twelve men that have had 
the small-pox to guard said persons who have the small-pox. 


Voted — To empower said committee to take sufficient bonds of John Udall for 
his good behavior with regard to the small-pox — he paying the charges the town 
has, 0?' may he put to, on account of his introducing the small-pox into town, or, 
on his refusing to give such bonds, to commit him to the covmty jail until he 
can be tried by the county conmiittee and make such satisfaction as they shall 

However ludicrous or however severe the action taken by the town 
in this instance may seem to us, it shovtld be remembered that, at the 
time named, natural small-pox was the only existing form of the disease; 
inoculation was the prevailing method of treating the disorder (the first 
case of vaccination being practiced very nearly twenty years later,) and 
while the advantages of this practice were, to the individual, obvious, the 
absolute mortality was increased for the reason that inoculation did not 
serve to prevent contagion nor to eradicate pestilence, but, as before 
remarked, simply mitigated the severity and danger of the disease. 
These facts were potent to the early settlers, hence defensive measures 
against the introduction of the dreadful disease were imperatively de- 
manded, and compulsion in some form justifiable, especially if in the 
least objectionable form of a fine. " Tho'," says an eminent authority, 
" it may be doubtful how far it is justifiable to compel a person to take 
care of his own life, or that of his offspring, it can scarcely be disputed 
that no one has a right to put in jeopardy the lives of his fellow crea- 

At the present time the appearance of small-pox creates a furore not 
less intense than that which was excited by the recurrence of the dis- 
ease before medical science had rendered it less fatal in its effects. A 
classified list of epidemic diseases, in the order of their fatality, may be 
found on page 180 ante. 



" Let not ye dead forgottonly 
Least men forget that they must die."' ^ 

The aspiration for immortality is common to all mankind. The 
Almighty has bestowed upon the human race every requisite of a happy 
life. "But, if life itself be pleasing-, and even though there were no 
existence beyond the grave, life might be still, by the benevolence of 
Him who conferred it, have been rendered a source of pleasure; (a 
pleasure made for the sopl and the soul for that) it is not wonderful 
that we should desire futurity, since futurity is only j^rotracted life. 
It would, indeed, have been worthy of our astonishment if man, loving 
his present life, and knowing that it was to terminate in the space of a 
few years, should not have regretted the termination of what he loved ; 
that is to say, should not have wished the continuance of it beyond the 
period of its melancholy close. 

The universal desire then, even if the desire were universal, would 
prove nothing but the goodness of Him who has made the realities of 
life, or, if not the realities, the hopes of life, so pleasing that the mere 
loss of what is possessed, or hoped, appears like a positive evil of the 
most afflicting kind." '^ 

" For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey, 
This pleasing anxious being e'er resign'd, 
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day, 
Nor cast one longing, Hng'ring look behind ?" 

— Gray's Elogy. 

Akin to the desire for immortality, or continuance, is the desire of 
memory, fame and celebration. We devoutly hope to share the atten- 
tion of future times and that our names and deeds shall not be forgot- 
ten. The consciousness that we are not to sink into oblivion, but that 
after the close of our brief existence on earth, our bodies will be con- 
signed to a resting-place amidst scenes of beauty, where our surviving 
friends will erect some monument over us, expressive of their love, and 
to perpetuate our memory, and will often plant or strew flowers on our 
graves ; this will rob death of half its terrors. 

' Epitaph on the grave-stone of Isaac Williams. Obit 17S9. In cemetery on 
south side of White river at White River Junction, adjacent to the Catholic cem- 

- Dr. Brown's Moral Philosophy, Sec. 97. 


It lias \weu said that " so useful and elevating a contemplation as 
that of the soul's immortality cannot be resumed too often." In no 
other place will our minds be brought to such' a contemplation so surely 
as at the graves of our friends. It behooves us then to often visit the 
hallowed ground where they repose, and to beautify and make attrac- 
tive the places of their sepulture. 

There are, at least, eleven cemeteries in Hartford, including two pri- 
vate burial places. Four of the whole number are appropriately and 
pleasantly located and well-cared for, a few are in a deplorable condi- 
tion. In all there are more or less graves without liead-stones, and 
many head-stones are broken, or in a dilapidated condition, that pre- 
cludes the possibility of deciphering the inscriptions on them. This 
state of things is deprecable. Costly monuments are suitable to com- 
memorate the virtues, or the worthy deeds of good and great men, but 
the graves of the humblest and >iiost indigent of mortals should be 
marked by durable head-stones, and be as well cared for as those of 
their more fortunate fellow-beings. How this may be accomplished is 
showm by the action of the late William S. Carter of Quechee. This 
gentleman was richly endowed with a sense of the proprieties of life, 
and possessed a noble and generous heart. He exemplified these quali- 
ties by donating to the Quechee Cemetery Association, the sum of |500, 
the annual interest of which is to be expended in improving and em- 
bellishing the cemetery at Quechee villiage. This beneficent deed — 
characteristic of the man — is worthy of emulation by others. 

It is impossible to determine in which of the cemeteries in this town 
the first burials were made. Admitting that the first settlements were 
at White River Junction, it does not follow that the first death or 
deaths occurred there, nor, if such was the fact, that the first dece- 
dents were buried in the cemetery there. Many of the earliest settlers 
who died in the town, were taken to their native places for sepulture. 
The graves of many of those who were first interred in the cemeteries 
of the town, are without head-stones, and many head-stones bear no 
inscriptions, while others are distinguished by initial letters only. Most 
of the earlier settlers were in the prime of life, and but few deaths 
occurred among them during the first twenty years succeeding the first 
settlement. Probably many children were interred on the home prem- 
ises even after the establishment of burying-grounds. 

The following lists of decedents comprise those whose graves are 
marked with head-stones. I have personally visited every cemetery in 
the town and copied the inscriptions from nearly every head-stone, but 
have omitted the names of children and youth with a few exceptions, 



from these lists. The cemeteries are classified in the order in which 
the first burial was made in each, and for convenience of reference the 
burial-place of each decedent is given, also the year in Avhich each per- 
son died, arranged in chronological order. The number of decedents 
in each cemetery, or burial-place, as shown in the following lists, is as 
follows, viz.: Christian street, 123; Quechee village, 232; White 
River Junction, south side of White river, 56 ; Delano cemetery (on 
river road between O. M. Paine's and Harper Savage's), 80; centre of 
the town, 54 ; Russtown, 57; private cemetery at West Hartford (near 
W. H. Giles' house), 26; White River Junction, north side of White 
river, 13V ; West Hartford, 127 ; Catholic, in White River Junction, 
76 ; tomb, near David Wright's house, 6 ; private cemetery, near the 
to"wn poor house, 20 ; total, 814. 

Figures on the left of name, signify date of death ; those on the 
right signify the age of decedent. 




Name of Decedent. Age. Year. Name of Decedent. Age. 

Bell, Samuel 89 

Bartholomew, Mabel P 37 

' ' Bartholomew, Noah 82 

" Burroughs, Mrs. Abigail 

" Burroughs, Rev. Eden 76 

1822 Boardman, Mercy 36 

1827 Bartholomew, Azubah 60 

1837 Brooks, Mrs. Mary 91 

1839 Bartholomew, Luther 82 

1840 Bartholomew, Diadama 73 

1847 Burton, Ehjah H 52 

1859 Bartholomew. Delaua S 54 

1 865 Brockway . Wm . E 74 

1869 Bartholomew, Sheldon 81 

1871 Bartholomew, Amos F 71 

' ' Bartholomew, Noah 70 

1875 Brockway, Mrs. Anna B... 84 

1792 Chapman, Simeon 69 

1 799 Chapman , Mrs. Alice 77 

1809 Clark, Mrs. Sarah 95 

1822 Clark, Mrs. Deborah 77 

1823 Clark. Mrs. Lvdia 79 

1833 Clark, Mitchell 86 

Clark, Jolm 88 

1839 Clark, Mrs. Ruby 56 

1853 Clark, Mrs. Betsy H 72 

1856 Crandall, Joseph ... 65 

1861 Clark, Hyde 82 

1862 Crandall, Mrs. Abigail 66 

1875 Carhsle, Charles 74 

1799 Dutton, Thomas 98 

1813 Dutton,John 71 

1814 Dutton, Mrs. Hannah 37 

1813 Dutton, Thaddeus 38 

1815 Dutton, Reuben... 29 

1823 Dutton , Nathaniel 76 

1824 Dutton, Mrs. Sarah 75 

1830 Dutton, Mrs. Experience... 54 












Dutton, Asahel 64 

Dutton, Elijah 62 

Dutton, Mrs. Emiline 32 

Dutton, David 69 

Dutton, Harriet 17 

Dutton, Mrs. Naomi 77 

Dutton, Lorenzo 57 

Dutton, Mrs. Irean 74 

Dutton, Dea. Alonzo 67 

Dutton, Mrs. Sarah 84 

Dutton, Maria G 57 

Dutton, Thaddeus 60 

Dutton, Thomas 78 

Dutton, Jolm 72 

Dutton, Mrs. Emilv S 64 

Dudley, Mrs. Polly (Gibbs) 

Newton 75 

Fidler , Mrs. Mariah 73 

Fox, John 55 

Fox, Chester 43 

Fuller, Archippus 91 

Gillett, Roger 52 

Gillett, Mrs. Susan 77 

Gillett, Lieut. Israel 91 

Gillett, Jolm 85 

GiUett, Mrs. Ruby 58 

Gillett. Mrs. Jemima 86 

GiUett, Israel. 2d 58 

Gillett Laura G 36 

GiUett, John S 24 

Gillett, Dea. Wm 42 

Gillett, BiUa :.. 70 

Gillett, Justus 39 

Gillett Mrs. Harriet B 45 

Gillett, Carlos D 17 

Gillett, Mrs. Mary _ 76 

Gillett, Mrs. Elizabeth 66 

Gillett, Jasper A 29 



Year. Name of Decedent. 


Year. Name of Decedent. 


1878 Gillett, Nathan 75 

1883 Gillett. Azro 76 

1887 Gillett, Henry 28 

" Gillett, Enos 41 

1782 Hazen, Thomas, 3d 63 

1796 Hazen, Joshua 51 

1802 Hazen, Mrs. Ann 76 

1813 Hazen, Silas 32 

1814 Hazen, Daniel 53 

1819 Hazen, Asa 69 

1820 Hazen, Mrs. Susannah 62 

1824 Hazen, Mrs. Mercy 76 

' ' Hazen, Susan 26 

1827 Hazen, Mrs. Theodora 65 

1829 Hazen. Hezekiah 74 

1830 Hazen, Franklin 35 

1 835 Hazen , Thomas , 4th 77 

1837 Hazen, Mrs. Eleanor 67 

1841 Hazen, Mrs. Amy 43 

1845 Hazen, Mrs. Olive ---. 85 

' ' Hazen , Philemon .' 79 

1847 Hazen , Mrs. Abigail 47 

1849 Hazen, Capt. Solomon 89 

1852 Hazen, Mrs. Kezia 75 

"• Hazen, Mrs. Parthena . 60 

1853 Hazen, Mrs. Sarah M 90 

1 854 Hazen , Rev. Austin 68 

1857 Hazen, Mrs. Lora 73 

1858 Hazen, Reuben 75 

1871 Hazen, Allen 76 

1873 Hazen, Alvin 81 

' ' Hazen, Mrs. Hannah 73 

1874 Hazen, Celinda 55 

' ' Hazen, Daniel, 2d 79 

1879 Hazen, Mrs. Hannah D-..- 75 

1884 Hazen, Nelson S 59 

1887 Hazen, Elijah 91 

1802 Ingrahain, Jeremiah 54 

1827 Latham, John 79 

" Latham, Mrs. Esther 

1828 Mosely, Prince 75 

1815 Newton, Elizabeth 35 

1823 Newton, Mrs. Laurena 39 

1839 Newton. David 87 

1849 Newton, Sheldon 75 

1854 Newton, Mrs. Catherine-.. 68 
1856 Newton, Abner 69 

" Nott, Hiram 66 

1865 Newton, David, 2d 87 

1867 Newton, Mrs. Sabriel 75 

1868 Newton, Andrew 88 

1870 Ne%^i;on, Lucy 79 

1871 Nott, Mrs. Susan S 79 

1872 Newton, Elizabeth 82 

1818 Pease, Mrs. Hannah 96 

Pease. Christopher 

1826 Pixley. Mrs. Eunice 62 

1827 Pixlev, Capt. Wm 76 

1871 Pike," Hezekiah 65 

1775 Redington, Mrs. Dorothy .. 75 

1812 Richards. Joel 45 

1827 Reynolds, Lucy 42 

1828 Richards, Gardner 16 

1855 Richards. Mrs. Merriam S. 82 

1798 Savage. Thomas 84 

1823 Savage, Mrs. Rhoda 65 

1827 Smith, Caroline 16 

1829 Smith , Lieut. Seth 73 

1831 Sprague, Mrs. Clarissa 61 

1835 Sanborn. Mrs. Clarinda..-. 29 

1856 Sprague, Philip 91 

" Strong, Orange 54 

1861 Smith, Mrs. Susanna 78 

1869 Shephardson, Mrs. Mar- 

garet 79 

1872 Spaulding. Rulof 76 

1876 Sprague, Jedediah 72 

1880 Spaulding, Mrs. Dorothy... 85 

1 884 Savage . Jasper H 44 

1828 Tenney, Homer 26 

1832 Tenney, Harper 36 

1835 Tracy. James, 2d . _ 55 

1840 Tenney, Mrs. Rebecca 70 

1852 Tracy, Mrs. Mary 74 

1794 Wright, Mrs. Ann 64 

1803 Wright, Benjamin, 2d 67 

1844 Waterman, Ezra 51 

1857 Wilson, Mrs. Polly 73 


Year. Name of Decedent. 


1777 Strong, Marv 44 

1780 Udall, Abigail 

1786 Marsh, Mary B . . .' 85 

1787 Pitkin, Thomas W 37 

1797 Demmon, Levi 

1801 Marsh. Elisha 85 

1802 Bramble, Dea Abel 37 

1805 Case, Hubbard W 79 

" Udall, Samuel 67 

1806 Thomas, Esther 56 

1807 Call, James 79 

1809 Bramble, Lucy 32 

" Porter, Mary 51 

1810 Humphrey, Alice 51 

" Marsh, Dorothy 78 

Year. Name of Decedent. 







Ransom , Daniel 47 

Udall, Olive 64 

Marsh, Josejih 85 

Bramble, William 44 

Dewey, Sherman 40 

Porter, William 63 

Shattuck, Jerusha 43 

Hall, Esther 45 

Hall, Rebecca.... 78 

Pease, Dr. Leonard 37 

Hagar, Eliza.. 53 

Sessions, Melinda 30 

Bramble, Oman 42 

Marsh, Mary 84 

Russ, Benjamin 61 



























Name of Decedent. Age. Year. 

Braley. Wing 38 1842 

Bramble. Elizabeth 79 

Wheelock. Luke 71 " 

Marsh, EUsha 87 

Pease, Rebecca 71 ' " 

Pease. Sarah. 67 " 

UdalL Lvdia 83 

AMieelock. Esther 73 1843 

Bralev, Sarah 45 " 

Bramble. Capt. Wm 86 1844 

Foster, Fordvce 47 1844 

Furl)er . Abigail 62 

Hall. Liberty 52 

Tinkham. PoUv 43 1845 

Dimock, Paul.' 34 1846 

Marsh, Eunice 58 " 

Porter, Eliot... 70 1847 

Richardson , Thomas 85 " 

Howe, Rlioda 61 " 

Howe, Steward 67 " 

3Iarsh, Daniel 69 

Braley, Mary 77 1848 

Jones, Lemuel 33 " 

Udall. James 76 

Gallup. Joseph 83 

Hall, Esther 41 

Porter, Amedia 67 1849 

Paige, John 57 " 

Ransom, Ruth .76 " 

Dewey, Joshua 91 1850 

Dimock. Joab 59 1851 

Harrington. Dr. Abel 25 1852 

Laniphire. Harry 41 •- 

Richardson. Esther 83 " 

L^dall. Anstes 73 " 

Furbur. Nathaniel 74 1853 

FUnt, Eliza 27 

Marsh, Joseph 81 

Lucas. Elisha 75 " 

Pease, Samuel 88 1854 

Raymo nd . Mary 61 1855 

Sessions. Capt. Sanford 44 '• 

Stevens. Mary A . 28 '• 

Stevens, Ziba 52 " 

Barron. Susan 29 " 

Bullard, Asa 87 

Demmon , Dorcas . 88 " 

Dutton, Oliver 73 1856 

Dewey, Marv 89 ■' 

Eddy. LucV. 24 1857 

Pitkin, Mary 57 " 

Sears, Edwin M 30 

Smith, Jonathan 73 1858 

Blanchard. Nancv 28 " 

Hall. Jacob " 93 

Hall, Willis 36 

Sessions, Darius 63 " 

Strong, William 77 " 

Marsh, Erepta 83 

Name of Decedent. Age. 

Bullard, Marcy 71 

Champlin, Content ... 84 

Etheridge, Wm. C 27 

Jennings, Wm 55 

Pease, Clu'istopher 91 

Udall. Mehitabel 70 

Whitman. Wm 80 

Barron. Betsy 77 

Laniphire. Harriet 45 

Colburn, David 83 

Marsh, Isaac 75 

Parsons, John 62 

UdaU, Wm. Wallace 22 

Demmon, AureUa F 41 

Colburn. Sarah 83 

Eddy, Sarah A 26 

Alexander, Quartus 86 

Laniphire, Lucy Ann 23 

Lucas, Rebecca 80 

Shattuck , Ephraim 75 

Lucas. Ehsha 80 

Bullard, Asa G 32 

Carlisle, Horace 37 

Champlin , Wm 91 

Demmon. Altheda 68 

Russ. Olive 82 

Bralev. John 65 

Hall. 'Martha 63 

Thomas, Nathaniel 74 

Thomas, Abbam 29 

Hagar, Jason 60 

Ames. Rebecca 70 

Dexter. Lucinda 24 

Dutton, Huldah 78 

Thomas. Esther 50 

Barron, Cliloe 85 

Blanchard , Wm. D 37 

Braley, Susannah 54 

Bramble. Emma 72 

Dimmick. Anna 75 

Mareh. Mrs. Bovde 47 

Hall, Lucy.-...' 62 

Paige. Elizabeth 76 

Richardson, Lionel 77 

Rock, Maria A 37 

Shattuck, Rebecca 72 

Tiescott. Wm 73 

Bullard , Reuben 86 

Thomas, Esther W 77 

Gallup. Sally 75 

Wheelock , Jonathan 73 

Parsons. Laura 71 

Dean. Harrison 24 

Lucas, Zilpha 63 

Marsh, Gratia . 72 

Ravniond. Mav 61 

Shattuck , Sophia 80 

Whitman , Tliirza 77 



Year. Name of Decedent. Age. Year 

1859 Billiard. Phebe 88 1872 

" Edgerton. Ariel 70 

" Waldrou Eliza. _. 37 

1860 Alexander. Mary 90 " 

Dutton. Ariel. 65 " 

" Strong, Abigail H 88 

Trescott, Susan 78 1873 

1 86 1 Denimon . Roswell 73 " 

> • Pitkin, Thomas W 88 

'• Porter, Luther 83 

1863 Braley. Elder Asa 83 1874 

" Udall", Lionel 82 1875 

1863 Gushing, Lucinda 69 

'• Dutton, Belinda 69 

'• Pitkin, Olive 47 1876 

' ' Tevvksburv, Deborah 64 " 

1864 Barron. Sally - 75 

'• Case. Phileta 55 " 

" Clough, Robert 74 1877 

" Eddy, James 54 " 

" Newton, Francis.. 89 " 

" Newton, Lois P 87 1878 

1865 Stevens, Nancy H 80 

" Sti'ong, Jasper 67 " 

1866 Burtch, Isaac 86 

' ' Gushing, Sarah 36 ' • 

" Shattuck. Albert L 38 

" Tewksbury, Mills 69 1879 

1867 Kenyon, Benjamin 79 " 

" Strong. Thomas J 55 

«' Udall, James 88 

1868 Foster. Elizabeth 85 1880 

" Wolcott, Elizabeth 85 

1869 Gushing, Tlieopilus 78 1883 

Hutchinson, Betsy H 72 1883 

1870 Dutton, Han-iet Ann 47 " 

" Hagar, Almina 78 1884 

Nash, Loviisa 73 " 

" Richardson, Clarissa 85 1885 

1871 Burch, Hannah 80 

" Dewey. Elisha.. 63 1886 

" Fogg, Hannah 85 " 

'• Spalding, Eliza D 63 1887 

Name of Decedent. Age. 

Clough, Susan 72 

Hall, Lucinda 94 

Harrington, Eli.... 71 

Herron, Catherine M 75 

Jennings, Jane 80 

Spalding, Uriel 64 

Boyd. James 76 

Deminon , Levi 93 

Dimmick , Jacob 83 

Dimmick , Susan 82 

Richardson , Abigail 83 

Bethel, Jane 108 

Dewey, Emily 68 

Marsh, Roswell 83 

Barron, Benjamin 89 

Piatt, James H 77 

Piatt. Sophia R 76 

Shattuck, Betsy E 81 

Barron, Rufus. . . 71 

Growell, Sarah N 52 

"Winslow, Warren W 53 

Alexander, Consider 78 

Harlow, Mary 77 

Humphrey, Nelson 69 

King, Alice 53 

Newton, Hannah 81 

Parkhurst. Rudolph 74 

Dutton, Daniel 79 

Kenyon, Alvin 63 

Thomas, Betsv 62 

Udall, Sophia D. C 87 

Pitkin , Thomas W. Jr 73 

Shattuck . Marinda A 31 

Dutton. Sarah A 59 

Bragg, Ruth Tinkham 73 

Porter, Anna ... 86 

Carlisle, Lucinda 65 

Perrin, Galista 77 

Alexander, Emily H 79 

Harrington 77 

Dewey, A. G 80 

Porter, John _. 88 

Hudson, Jonathan B 58 


South side White River adjacent to Catholic Cemetery. 

Year. Name of Decedent. Age. Year. 

1780 Robinson, Mrs. Daborough. 44 1812 

1785 Pinneo, Daniel Jr 14 " 

1789 Williams. Isaac 71 1813 

1790 Wright, PoUey 39 1815 

1798 Williams, Mrs. Rachel 81 

Wright, Benjamin 82 1817 

1799 Cone, Samuel 34 1830 

1800 Wright, Keturah 39 1835 

1803 Wright, Gapt. Jonathan... 48 

1804 Bennett, Jonathan 55 1837 

1805 Pease, Mrs. Sally 18 

1806 Bennett, Rosw-ell . 35 1830 
1808 Bubgee, Nathaniel 96 

1811 Terry, Mrs. Dorothy 40 1848 

' ' Warner, Mahitabel 37 " 

Name of Decedent. Age. 

Robinson, Amos 78 

Kibbe, Gapt. Elijah 49 

Gillett. Nathaniel 43 

Bugbee, Mrs. Sarah 93 

Waterman, John O 63 

King, Mrs. Sarah M 

Bugbee, Benjamin 60 

King, Daniel 67 

Lord, Matilda 39 

Brooks, Elam 58 

Bugbee, Mrs. Lois 70 

Bugbee, Mrs. Olvard 48 

King, Mrs. Sarah 35 

Kibbe, Austin 40 

Patch, William 34 



Year. Name of Decedent. 


Name of Decedent. 


Bugbee, Olvard 89 

Clark, Mrs. Altha 57 

Kneeland, Mrs. Charity 86 

Goss, Mrs. Mary Ann 35 

Griffin, Albert 23 

Patch, Charles W 35 

Porter , Mrs. Rachel 69 

Kneeland, Mrs. Delia A... 44 

Nutt, Mrs. Hannah K 73 

Smith, Hubbard L 37 

Nutt, Col. Samuel 79 

Pinneo, Charles 75 

Chilson, Mrs. Judith A.___ 39 


1844 Kibbe, Mrs. Hannah 49 1864 

1848 Pinneo, Charles 80 1865 

Pinneo, Mrs. Charles 81 1866 

1854 Patch. Mrs. Adeline W 39 

Pinneo, Daniel 56 1867 

1855 Kneeland, Edward 34 1868 

' ' Paddlef ord , George 53 " 

1858 King, Daniel 73 1869 

1860 Ford, Jessie A 43 1870 

1863 Chamberlin, Mrs. Harriet 

Tucker 38 1871 

Kneeland, Edward 80 1871 

Nutt, Mrs. Ruth A 39 1879 

" Pinneo, Mrs. Martha C-.- 65 

This cemetery comprises the graves of a portion of the Protestant 
population who have died in White River Junction since 1846, 
together with those who were transferred in 1846 from tlie old bury- 
ing-ground, then appropriated to the use of the Vermont Central rail- 
road, which contained about two acres, and was located on lot "No. 4," 
drawn to the original right of Joshua Pomeroy, in the 1st division of 
lots in 1761. 


Near G. H. Savage's. 
Age. Year. 

Year. Name of Decedent. 







Powell, Mrs. Mary Anne 

Tilden, Mrs. Roxalany 

Powell, Rowland 

Savage, Mrs. Molly 

Powell, Mrs. Mary Ann 

Pixley , William 

Savage, Alice 

Cushman, Mrs. Bethsheba. 

Richardson, Amos 

Delano, Jonathan 

Dustin, Mrs. Elcy 

Sprague, Daniel 

Bartholomew, Bethen 

Camp, Lucy 

Dunham, Mrs. Sally 

Munsil, Dan'l G 

Munsil, Eliakim 

Munsil, Eliakim, Jr 

Pixley, Benjamin 

Whitcomb, Mrs. Chloe 

Munsil, Mrs. Hannah 

Delano, Mrs. Ann 

Name of Decedent. Age. 

39 1816 White, Noadiah 2 71 

33 ' ' White, Mrs. Mary ^ 74 

70 1818 Delano, Mrs. Lusina 46 

45 1831 Walling, Ezekiel 34 

77 1833 Fenno, Joseph 65 

1833 Pixley, Benjamm Jr 39 

33 1833 Bartholomew, Daniel 44 

57 " Hazen, Mrs. Lucretia 53 

68 " Noble, Shadrack 85 

79 1834 Culver, James 71 

30 " Fenno, Ralph 36 

38 1836 Proutv, Lucy 60 

30 ' ' Tilden , Stephen Jr 73 

34 " Whitney, EH 34 

29 1838 Carlisle. David 45 

30 " Marsh, Eliphalet 86 

55 1839 Frink, Nathan ' 34 

28 " Whitnev, Dan 25 

68 1831 Delano,"^ Mrs. Abigail 58 

53 ' ' Doubledav, Asahel 31 

54 1833 Dustin, Nathaniel 57 

83 1834 Miller, Sylvanus C 81 

' This cemetery is in a deplorable condition. A few head stones are lying upon 
the ground. Several graves have no head-stones. Several head-stones bear no 
inscriptions whatever. For these reasons I have deemed it expedient to copy all 
legible inscriptions, excepting those on the head-stones of the graves of young chil- 
dren, that some memory of the place of burial of those interred in this cemetery 
may be preserved. 

''A pine tree, nearly eighteen inches in diameter and about fifty feet in height, has 
grown out of the graves of Noadiah White and his wife, a growth attained in the 
space of about fifty years. 

192 • 


Year. Name of Decedents. Age. 

1835 Noble, Mrs. Lucy 91 

1836 Pixley . Mrs. Celia 82 

1837 Pixley, Mrs. Mary 76 

" Tracy, Mrs. Clarissa 46 

1838 Dodge, Clarissa H 19 

1841 Savage, Mrs. Clara 71 

' ' Savage, Thomas 83 

1842 Frink, Mrs. Debby.- 76 

1843 Delano, Sarepta C 15 

1846 Savage, Amanda M 37 

Worth, Mrs. Clarissa L 25 

1847 Delano, Emily C 21 

1849 Proutv, Burpee 87 

1850 Gates, Mary E 38 

" Redington, Mrs. Olive 75 

Tennev, Russell 18 

1851 Delano. Zebulon 84 

1853 Gates, George H 19 

1855 Proutv, Mrs. Martha 77 






Name of Decedents. Age. 

Tenney, Reuben 57 

Cutting, Palmer 70 

Gates, George-.. 50 

Tenney, Jasper . 30 

Frink, Calvin 93 

Delano, Zebulon W 63 

Fenno, Mrs. Margaret 93 

Tilden, Mrs. Arabella L _ . . . 47 

Howe, Mrs. Abby L 69 

Tracy, John 80 

Carlisle, Mrs. Sarah 83 

Tilden, Mrs. Elizabeth 91 

Tilden , Jed Norton 67 

Cutting, Mrs. Hannah 85 

Tenney, Mrs. Polly Savage. 78 

Tracy, Mrs. Mary 50 

Tracy, James Carlton ) 70 
Since Removed to Vernon, >- 
N. Y. 


Year. Name of Decedents. Age. Year. 

Name of Decedents. 


1798 Smith, Mrs. Anne 74 

1800 Rider, Peter 85 1837 

" Strong, Solonaon 71 " 

1801 Tracy, Mrs. Elizabeth 73 1843 

1802 Tracy, Capt. Andrew 48 1844 

1809 Smith, John 52 1848 

1812 Gates, Noadiah 70 1849 

" Bliss. David 77 

1813 Tilden, Stephen 89 1850 

" Whitney, Dea. Jonathan... 52 1851 

1814 Tracy. Mrs. Sarah 52 

1816 Ball (Ensign), Absolom 36 1853 

1817 Wood, James 60 1855 

Tracv, Mrs. Rizpah 45 1857 

1821 Tracv. Thomas 95 1859 

1823 Strong, Mrs. Mary.. 81 1862 

" Rowland, Sylvester 23 1864 

1824 Tracv, Mrs. Mary 71 1865 

1838 Rider, Alva 29 1867 

1829 Tracv, Dea. Joseph 65 1869 

1831 Dimmick, Mrs. Sibbel 82 1871 

" Morse. CadyC 44 1872 

1832 Strong, Jedediah 80 1878 

1833 Dimmick, Pliilip 84 1879 

1834 Gates, Mrs. Martha 88 

•■ Tracy. James 74 1880 

1835 Rowland, Mrs. Sarah 66 1883 

Woodward, Elihu 80 

Sleeper, Dudley 65 

Strong, Mrs. Mary 

Bliss. Jabez 66 

Tilden. Mrs. Susannah 66 

Strong, Mrs. Ruth 89 

Tilden, Capt. Josiah 89 

Phelps, Cadwell 84 

Tracy, Mrs. Mercy 87 

Gage, James 71 

Smith, Mrs. Sarah 84 

Phelps, Mrs. Jane 77 

Fogg, Ebenezer 69 

Gage, Mrs. Clarissa 74. 

Marston, Jacob 81 

Champion, Mrs. Harriet... 76 

Case, Amos 63 

Sleeper, Joseph 60 

ShalUes, Joseph 84 

Marston, Mrs. Phebe 81 

Rider, Mrs. Sophia 68 

Ehner, Martin C 83 

Morse, Mrs. Sarah C 86 

Russ, Mrs. Lois W _ . . 90 

Champion. Jolm 86 

Shallies, Mrs. Mary C 80 

Sleeper, Mrs. Lucy 73 



Name of Decedents. Age. Year. Name of Decedent. 

1802 Morgan, Joseph 29 

1804 Rust, Mrs. Lucy 73 

1805 Rust, Matthew 77 

1809 Russ, Lemuel, Sen 43 

1813 Russ, Niel 56 

1820 Packard, Mrs. Eunice 29 

" Tiyon. Capt. Stephen 45 

1831 Johnson, Mrs. Mary 71 


1824 Rust, Mrs. Marv 35 

Rust, Mrs. Pollv Jennings.. 35 

1826 Jolmson, Mrs. 'Lucy 37 

1827 Russ, Mrs. Submit.. -_ 57 

1829 Huntington, Mrs. Mary 63 

1839 Russ, Mrs. Betsv 45 

1831 Rust, Mrs. Marv 78 

1833 Rust, Phineas.'. 78 



Year. Name of Decedent. Age. Year. 

1838 Neal, Oscar M 14 1866 

1839 Neal. Mrs. Cvnthia L 45 " 

1845 Neal. Orsoni: 26 1867 

" .Rust. Lemuel. Jr 36 1868 

" Rust, Mrs. Rebecca 79 

Rust, William 45 

1846 Fish, Otis 61 1869 

1850 Neal, Emily 23 1871 

1853 Barden, Mrs. Polly 70 - 

" Johnson, Ulyssis 70 1872 

1854 Fish, Louisa M 22 1873 

' ' Jennings, Clarinda M 33 1878 

1855 Russ, Mrs. Laura P 48 1879 

1859 Barden, Elijali 76 1881 

1861 Russ, Mrs. Ruby 62 1884 

1862 Dewev, Mrs. Rhoda 82 1885 

1863 Hilliard, James 36 

' ' Russ, Mrs. Susan S 34 1886 

" Woodward, Mrs. Rhoda 89 

1864 Russ. Horace P 17 

Johnson, Mrs. Mary 81 

Name of Decedent. Age. 

Huntoon, Jane A 16 

Try on, Stephen, Jr 60 

Dewey. James 91 

Neal, Alfred 73 

Russ, Phineas- 70 

Try on. Mrs. Abigail 94 

Neal . Mrs. Lucy B 66 

Huntoon, Joshua 82 

Russ, Mrs. Phebe 64 

HiUiard, Ivo H 18 

Russ, Orson 77 

Russ, Jeremiah 88 

Russ, Mrs. Pemilia 87 

Badger, Mrs. Charlott B... 68 

Neal, Jolm 84 

Hilliard, Mrs. Lucy A 53 

Russ, Arthur E 23 

Himtoon, Mrs. Deborah 99 

Russ, Mrs. Lucy M 50 

Russ, Mrs. Sarah 78 


Name of Decedent. 



1817 Savage, Francis W 55 

1819 Richardson, Mrs. Relief 38 

1820 Ingraham, Mrs. Lois 38 

1826 Hazen, Mrs. Dolly 31 

1828 Ingraham, Mrs. Anna 43 

1834 Ingi-aham, Thomas 22 

• ' Richardson. Electa 42 

1837 Newton. Mrs. Ermina 27 

1838 Fuller. Eliza C 26 

•' Wills. Noah L 30 

1839 Camp, Abel 83 

1842 Bartholomew, Simeon H... 28 

1844 Culver. Mrs. Susannah D... 24 

" Dutton, Mrs. Nancy Wilson 24 





Name of Decedent. 


Savage, Mrs. Abigail Hazen 79 

Whitcomb, Orra 76 

Camp, Mrs. Katurah Tucker 51 

Hazen, David 62 

Whitcomb, Alonzo 43 

Ingraham, Dr. David 78 

Downing, Ellen 13 

Whitcomb, Willis (soldier). 25 
Downer, Mrs. Abigail Sav- 
age 79 

Ingraham, Mrs. Mary 86 

Hazen, Mrs. Nancy Savage. 82 

Whitcomb, Mrs. Harriet L_ 71 

Hazen, Mary Frances 61 


North Side of Wliite River. 

Year. Name of Decedent. 


1819 Pease, Mrs. Eunice j . 58 

1820 Knowlton, Wm 53 

1823 Bailev, Mrs. Pollv 54 

1824 Gere, Nathan 50 

1829 Marsh, Mrs. Marv 54 

1830 Lvman, Elias 3d". 62 

1831 Marsh, Roger 64 

1833 Ti-umbuU, David 60 

1834 Brown, Amos 54 

1 835 Bailey, Mrs. Phebe 60 

• ' Bugbee, Mrs. Betsy 68 

1837 Grout, Mrs. Hannah 51 

' ' Lyman, Lewis 46 

1838 Grout, Jolm 60 

1839 Bailev, Samuel 84 

1840 Brown, Mrs. Pollv 56 

Year. Name of Decedent. Age. 

1842 Bailey, Judah 72 

Francis, Thomas 72 

' ' Row ell, Thomas 75 

1843 Leavitt, Freegrace 79 

' ' Porter. Mrs. Harriet P 43 

1844 Gere, Mrs. Nancy 64 

" Lyman, Mrs. Anna 72 

' ' White, Jonathan C 64 

1845 Cobb, Nathan 82 

•' Cobb, Mrs. Lydia Bliss 80 

1846 Wright, Dr. Dan 69 

1847 Bailev. Dan 42 

' ' Bailey, Mrs. Marv 82 

" Cobb, Nathan Jr 58 

" Ham, Mrs. Betsv 72 

" Hoit, Benj. J 65 




Year. Name of Decedent. Age. Year. 

1847 Sturtevant, George 73 1867 

1848 Hunter, Jabesh 79 1868 

" Udall, Bani 63 

1849 Bugbee, Jonathan 84 " 

" Snow, James 48 " 

' ' Stur tevatit , Foster 48 " 

1850 Francis, Mrs. Mary 73 1869 

' ' Bugbee, Mrs. Mabel 77 

" Nichols. Mrs. Almira 51 1870 

" Tilden, Asa 82 

1851 Bugbee, Jonathan 56 1871 

1853 Wales, Mrs. Amanda 63 

1858 Allard, Lemuel 50 

1854 Knowlton, Mrs. Betsy 76 

" Taft, Abijah 68 1873 

" Willard, Aaron 76 

1855 Kendrick, Harvey 54 1873 

1856 Trumbull, Mrs. Hannah... 78 1874 

1857 Camberlain, Mrs. Ruby 69 1875 

" Strong, John 64 " 

1858 Gere, Lucy 53 1876 

" Merrill. David 66 

1859 Ham, Orel 53 

" Pierce, Mrs. H. N 45 «' 

' ' Underhill, Susan 83 1878 

1860 Wales, Geo. E 69 

" Webb, Lucius R 57 

1861 Chamberlain, John P 80 1879 

" Porter, Sarah 77 " 

1863 Benson, Sylvia 58 " 

" Clark, Mrs. Parthena 75 1880 

" Hoit. Mrs. AbigaU 79 

' ' Hunter, Mrs. Mary 87 1881 

" Sturtevant, Mrs. Betsy 84 " 

'• Tilden, Mrs. Hannah 89 " 

1863 Leighton, Mrs. Jemima... 60 1883 

1864 Hmitoon, Mrs. Isabella 51 " 

' ' Lyman , Mrs. Mary B 64 " 

" Lyman, Ziba_..l 74 1883 

' ' Swinburne, Mary K 53 1884 

1«65 Bailev, Alvin 73 

'• Richards, Mrs. Fidelia 64 " 

' ' Strong, Mrs. M. G 61 1886 

1866 Braley, Geo. W 69 

" Moore, Ira 70 " 

1867 Clark, Erastus 84 1887 

' ' Richards, Chester 71 " 

Name of Decedent. Age. 

Richardson, Mrs. Polly 75 

Bugbee, Mrs. Cynthia P. . . 68 

Landei-s, David 75 

Tilden, Sarah M _ . _ 60 

Willard, Mrs. Mary W 87 

Sturtevant, Mrs. Mary 64 

Lyman, Livinia T 75 

Moore, Mrs. Roxana 73 

Pease, Walter 83 

Wood, Geo. E 46 

French, Amos 57 

Taft. Mrs. Betsy 81 

Tracv, Columbus 55 

Tracy, Thomas 83 

Ray, Rev. B. F 47 

Tracy, Deborah 82 

French, Moses 67 

French, Justus W 58 

Brooks, Justin C 74 

Whittier, Mrs. M. C 57 

Chapman, David S 73 

Hazen , Hezekiah 55 

Hazen, Melvin '... 66 

Pease, Luther 61 

Fenno, Joseph W 67 

Ferguson, Joseph 79 

Leighton , Isaac T 70 

Bailey, Mrs. Mary 75 

Lyman, George . . 73 

Tracy, Mrs. Esther P 90 

Freeman. John 89 . 

Rowell, Thomas G 65 

Ruggles, Jonathan F 81 

Pierce, Archibald T 70 

Tracy, Mrs. Ehzabeth 81 

Freeman, Mrs. C. G 88 

Simonds , Daniel W 67 

Wood, Ora 80 

Porter, Wright 84 

French, Mi-s. Almira 63 

Hamilton, C.S 76 

Wood, Mrs. Marv P 75 

Allen, Dr. S. J 68 

Fisher, Mrs. Mary _ 84 

Gardner, Perry C 78 

Brooks, Mrs. J. C 83 

Ray, Mrs. B. F 

New Portion of Cemetery. 
Year. Name of Decedent. Age. Year. Name of Decedent. 

1864 Horton, Wm 54 

1867 Pitkin, Lucius 

1874 Saflford. Chas. H 


1875 Russ, Stephen J 57 

1879 Hanchett, Louise H. B 45 

1883 Dutton, Ann M. F 56 

' ' Russ, Amanda M 55 



Marston, Jacob 67 

' ' Tracy, James Harvev 84 

1886 Brown, Nathan ' 63 

" Satford. N. B 68 

' ' Sawyer. Mrs. S. A. D 46 

' ' Trescott . Lorenzo . _ 73 




Name of Decedent. 


1830 Parkhurst, Phineas 

1831 New'ton, Daniel 

1833 Wilson, Mrs. Eunice 

1834 Wilson, Jeremiah 

1835 Newton, Flora 

1836 Dimick, Henry 

1838 Dimick. Mrs. Sarah ". - 

1841 Thurston , Louisa D 

1842 Brockway , John N 

" Savage, Mi's Temperance. ._ 

Tenney , Dr. Ira 

1843 Simons, Mrs. Fanny 

Thurston, Hannah 

1844 Brockway, Desire 

•• Simons, Dan 

1847 Brewer, Mrs. Sarah 

Dexter, Mrs. Sarah 

Downer, Mrs. Hannah . 

1848 Dimick, Joab B 

' • Fuller, Mrs. Anna 

' ' Newton, Truman 

1849 Pike, Mrs. Hannah 

1850 Hunt, Sarah P 

1851 Dexter, Mrs. Keturah Tucker 
' • Elliot, Mrs. Sophia 

Hazen, Mrs. Rebecca T 

" Low, Mrs. Adeline C 

" Marsh, Wm. B. 

1852 Hazen, Reuben 

1853 Hunt, Eliphaz 

" Lamb, Alpheus 

' ' Porter, Simon B 

'• WiUs, Reuben 

1854 Hazen, Mrs. Eliza J 

Hazen, Solon 

1855 Hazen, Levi 

•' Hunt, Emeline 

1856 Brockway, Hannah 

" Dimick, Orin 

Hazen, George 

Marsh, Lewis -. 

1857 Smith, Rev. Elihu 

' ' Wliitcomb, Alvan 

1858 Hunt, Mrs. Anna 

1859 Bartlett, Mrs; Minerva 

" Wallace, Maria 

1860 Hazen, Mrs. Miriam 

1861 Fuller, Dea. John 

' ' Porter , Samuel . . . '. 

1863 Dimick, Joel 

' ' Dimick, Martin 

" Tenney, Mrs. Clarissa O 

WiUs, Mrs. Mary 

1863 Cowen, Mrs. EUza 

" Downer, John 

' ' Oilman, James 

" Hazen, John 

Low, Willard W 

' ' Wliitcomb, Nelson 

' ' Wood, Mrs. Clarissa 

1864 Ballard, S. A 

' ' Lamb, Mrs. Clarissa 





































































Name of Decedent. 

















Savage, George O. 31 

Thurston, Stephen 83 

Morse. Mrs. Celeste 38 

Tambling, Geo. H 23 

Dimick, Mrs. Clarissa 69 

Dutton. Jacob G 55 

Dimick, Mrs. Lvicy 54 

Page, Mrs. Lucv B 66 

Porter, George B 18 

Williamson, Mrs. Dorris 63 

Ballard, Amarillis 74 

Ballard, Edwin L 34 

Bartlett, Orange 78 

Hazen, Dan 76 

Hazen, Mrs. Phinette 70 

Noble , Mrs. Char it v 66 

Thurston, Mrs. Philena.... 86 

Williamson, Francis D 21 

Fuller, Dea. Abner 81 

Hazen, Marv W 35 

Tucker, Mrs! Abigail M. Tos- 

sey 75 

Marsh, Emma P 23 

Brockway, George 31 

Newton. Mrs. Eunice 86 

Smith, Alden 75 

Williamson, Mrs. Martha.. 49 

Smith, Mrs. Chloe 82 

Tenney, Mary E 39 

Hazen, Mrs. Sarah H 74 

Mosher. Mrs. Lora 20 

Noble, Harvey 79 

Hazen , Seymour 57 

Foster, Mrs. Mary 65 

Newton, Calvin 66 

Pitkin, Otis W 68 

Rowell, Mrs. Lucy . . 52 

Hazen, Elisha 80 

Hazen, William 39 

Marsh, Mrs. Anna L 64 

Thurston , Volne v 69 

Smith, Mrs. Cynthia 86 

Hazen, Mrs. Abigail 87 

Dimick, Chancy 74 

Tucker, Alvan 75 

Hazen, Franklin S 48 

Hazen, Fred A 21 

Fuller, Mrs. Caroline 71 

Bartholomew, Harvey C — 44 

Hazen, Mary B 81 

Porter, Mary 77 

Porter, Retta W 82 

Tenney, Carlos 55 

Tenney, Mrs. Sophia (Hazen) 85 
Dutton, Mrs. Abigail (Ha- 
zen).. 66 

Thurston, Mrs. Paulina 70 

Dimick, Mrs. Percy (Bug- 

(bee) (Hyde) 77 

Hazen, Abel H_ . ... 56 

Howard, Mrs. Marv E. 

(Hunt) 78 



Year. Name of Decedent. 


Year. Name of Decedent. 


1884 Hunt, Phelps 70 

1885 Fuller, Mrs. Mary (Savage). 89 

" Howard, Abel 80 

" Merchant. James 73 

' ' Williamson, A. E 64 

1885 Downer, Stephen S 83 

Newton , Edward N 39 

" Rowell, Mrs. Mary A. 

(Hunter) 79 


Within a few years past (I think since 1885) a great improvement has 
been made in this cemetery. In the older portion the headstones have 
been placed in an upright position, and cleaned of moss that obscured 
the inscriptions. The briars and weeds have disappeared from the 
walks, the tops of the graves have generally been new sodded, and an air 
of proper neatness marks this home of the dead. A much needed addi- 
tion or extension has been made to the cemetery, and the annex is being 
laid out into lots to suit purchasers. 

During the construction of the Vermont Central railroad in 1846-47 
the east end of the cemetery was cut off, and several skeletons were 
exhumed, but principally from graves unmarked by headstones. Doubt- 
less the first interments made in this cemetery ante date, by many years, 
that of Mr. Phineas Parkhurst, whose grave stone bears the earliest 
recorded inscription to be found in this cemetery. Some of the first 
settlers were buried in the Delano cemetery, which was established as 
early as 1794, and others were interred at the centre of the town. The 
healthfulness of the climate in this vicinity is indicated by the longevity 
of a great majority of the decedents. 








Name of Decedent. 


Gilmore, Ellen C 35 

Filiar, Mrs. Eveline 33 

Lee, John 78 

Toughy, James 76 

Butler, James 39 

Ducharme, Mi's. Maggie 36 

Lawrence, Mrs. Catherine. 60 

Sullivan, Mrs. Hannah H.. 43 

Goff , Mrs. Catherme 34 

Mongeon. Mrs. Aglaie 36 

Dwyer , Mrs. Julia 60 

McCabe, Owen 79 

Clancy, Mrs. Hannah 53 

Enright, Mrs. Mary 75 

Enright, Edward 60 

Enright, Mrs. Ellen B 77 

Keegan, Alice E 19 

Neil, JohnO 63 

Daley, Patrick 66 

Farrell, John Jr 37 

Fushy, Mrs. Emily 33 

Haley, John 49 

Messier, Francois 70 

Year. Name of Decedent. 

1877 Coutermash, Mrs. Julia 

" Maher, Mrs. Ellen 

1878 Donnell, Mrs. Mary 

1879 Ashey , Mrs. Catherine 

" Ashey, Louis 

" Flood, Mrs. Catherine 

' ' McCarty , Mrs. Mary C 

" Marrion, Mrs. Ellen 

" Marrion, James 

" Roberts, Mrs. Archangel C. 

' ' Roberts, Stephen 

Trattier, Aristide 

" Wlieeler. Mrs. Margaret.. . 

1880 Burns, Thomas Jr 

" Canfield, Mrs. Mary 

' ' Coutermash , Joseph 

' ' Griffin, John 

' ' Gleason, Mrs. Mary 

Haley. Patrick 

" Hinchey. Mrs. Mary G 

" Hodet, Mary J A 

' ' Maynes, John 

" McCarthy, Mrs. Joanna D. 



Year. Name of Decedent. Age. Year. Name of Decedent. Age 

1880 O'Neil, WmJ 18 1884 Cummings, Mrs. Susan.... 28 

1881 Co with. Clara 16 " Degnan, Jolm ... 24 

Godsell, Arthur 73 " O'Leary, Cornelius 63 

" Irving, Mrs. Ellen H 53 " Scannell, Jeremiah 68 

" Lynch, Richard 45 " Starr, James ... .28 

McDonnell, Thomas 73 1885 Baker, Mi-s. Mary A . .. 29 

1881 McNamara, Mrs. Honora E 99 " Blessington. Mrs. Sophia... 24 
O'Day, Dennis 34 " Enright, Wm 25 

" Veyette, Jolm 75 " Flood, Mary Ann ... 25 

1882 Cotee. Philip P 25 " Keegan, Mrs. Bridget 37 

Godsell , John 19 " Veyette, Mrs. AureUa T . _ . 60 

Kelly, Kitty 28 1886 Callahan, Mrs. Mary H . . . . 49 

Murphy, Mrs. Nellie R 73 " McCarty, Mrs. Bridget W.. 50 

1883 Agan, William 75 " McCarty, Patrick 25 

" Banagan. Mrs. Mary 75 " Murphy, John 71 

The Roman Catholic cemetery is located closely adjacent to their 
place of worship. It is laid out with a greater degree of regularity 
than any other in the town, and a very commendable disposition is 
manifested by the lot-owners to keep the place cleanly and attractive to 
the eye. The site is not sufficiently large for a place of sepulture, but 
an important addition may be gained by terracing the hill-side, as has 
already been done in a few instances. 

The above list embraces all decedents but children under sixteen 
years of age. I will add that nearly every grave is marked either by 
a handsome marble stone or monument. A few graves ai-e marked by 
wooden crosses, but all, with a very few exceptions, are properly desig- 


Date. Name of Decedent. Age. Year. Name of Decedent. Age. 

1814 Wright, Mrs. Haimah 62 1822 Wright, Ma j. Davis 73 

1817 Wright, David Jr 42 1829 Wright, Bela .. 43 

1818 Wright, EUzabeth 37 1846 Wright, Mrs. Betsy 56 

The following list embraces those decedents who have died since 
1859, whose graves are not marked by head-stones ; at least not in the 
cemeteries in Hartford. Probably quite a number have been interi'ed 
in other towns This list includes only those seventy years old and up- 
Date. Name of Decedent. Age. Year. Name of Decedent. Age. 

1860 Sally Porter ... 78 1863 Wm. Crichton 78 

1861 Esther Perrin 82 " Charlotte Spencer 85 

" Nicholas Mosher 83 1864 Jerusha Kenyon 74 

1862 Mary Dewey . 79 " Timothy, Hodgman 72 

AnnaGage 87 1864 Lucy Miller 84 

Zenas Paddock 71 " Nancy Spaulding 74 

Gideon Shurtleflf 73 1865 Suiieon Kent 70 

Anna Goff 76 " David Kilburn 80 

Stephen Parker 81 " Sarah A. Bowman 94 

1 863 Clarrisa Cliamberlin 75 " Lydia Cone 79 



Year. Name of Decedent. Age. 

1866 Ellen Blessington 77 

' ' Cyrus Chandler ... 76 

' ' Lucinda Smith 89 

Oliver Bugbee 93 

1867 Asa Chase 81 

' ' Mary Coutermash 70 

1868 Shubel Russ 87 

Daniel Fields 79 

1868 Polly Birch 81 

" Samuel Bell 95 

" Philo Sprague 81 

" Ezra Hazen. 75 

" Harriet Shepardson 83 

" Lucy Cutter 71 

" Asher Tarbell 71 

" Cushman Wood 78 

" Marv Colburn 70 

1869 Ben'iamin F. Gallup 85 

' ' Maria Merrill 78 

' ' Stanforth Warner 71 

" Susan Simonds 73 

" Lydia Moore 80 

1870 Louisa Jones 73 

" Sophia Whitney 73 

" Henry Morse 79 

" Thomas A. King 78 

" Rembleton Hodgman 73 

' ' Leonard Marsh 71 

' ' Rebecca Kemiison 79 

Elizabeth B. Mosher 85 

1871 Abigail Wood 74 

" Louisa Gummer 70 

" . Eleanor Hazen 78 

" Polly D. Merriam... 85 

1873 Catherine Hart 75 

' ' Esther B. Watson 78 

" Susan Lewis 96 

1873 MaryTatro 84 

" James Boyd 76 

' ' Eunice Chamberlain 80 

1874 Hannah Fogg 85 

" Alpheus Howe 83 

" Lucy Moseley 77 

' ' Rhoda Atwood 71 

1875 Mary Dimick 73 

" Sarah Paine 70 

1876 Annie Lombard 93 

" John C. Head 73 

" Hannah Pixley 87 

" Solon Newton 76 

' ' Jeremiah Huntoon 83 

" George Washburne 79 

" John Marsh 73 

1877 Uriah Kimpton 83 

' ' Horace Colburn 77 

" John C. Allen 78 

" Matilda B. Newton 76 

" Polly S. Tenney 78 

" Laura H. Sprague 83 

1878 Betsy Blaisdell 78 

" James L. Raymond 79 

" Sarah Morse 86 

Year. Name of Decedent. Age, 

1878 BeUnda Childs . 83 

" Nathan Holt 91 

" Mabel Gibbs 78 

" Nancy Bagley 83 

" Jerusha Wright 88 

" Moses Seavy 84 

' ' William Winslow 71 

' ' Laura Matthews 70 

1879 Andrew Willey 79 

" Mary Porter 75 

" Sarah P. Smith 77 

" Katie S. Ashey 75 

" Harriet Buck 84 

' ' Joseph Grey 91 

1880 Hannah Gibbs 84 

" Arthur Godsill 73 

" Mary Cain.. 78 

" John Gay 78 

" Mrs. I. F. Baker 100 

" Mary Hazen 80 

" BetsyBell 73 

" Eliza Goflf 71 

" Parthena Tilden 84 

" Achsah Tilden 86 

1881 Alvah Jennings 79 

" Eunice Jennings 81 

" Josiah T. Page 78 

' ' Raphael Carter . 75 

" David Dole 88 

1883 Mary Curtis 73 

" George Frye 81 

" Wm. Eagan 80 

' ' Margaret Chase . . 80 

" Julius Hazen 80 

1883 LovinaBroAvn 95 

" Fidelia Woods 73 

" Lawrence Fie 75 

" Annie Dro\^Ti 86 

" Abigail Kilburn 91 

' ' Jerrard Huntington 87 

" Percy Dimick 77 

" Warren Gibbs 76 

" Mary Newton 90 

' ' Ruf us Downing 74 

" Francis Smith 78 

" Sarah Pierce 73 

" Margaret McDonald 73 

1884 Paschal P. Shattuck 84 

" Lucy Head 73 

" Jonas G. Lamphire 73 

' ' Betsy Atkinson ... 84 

" Sarah Stanley 70 

" Amanda Woodcock. .. 74 

" Mary Frye 78 

1885 Jno. Roberts 73 

" Sally Currier . 79 

" Polly Dudley 75 

" Joab Young 76 

" Marcus Leach 75 

" James H. Tracv . 84 

1886 John Vaughn _.'^. 86 

" SarahJudd 87 


Year. Name of Decedent. Age. Year. Name of Decedent. Age. 

1886 Hannah Flanders 85 1886 Marv RoweU 77 

" Sarah Rollins 78 " Benj. F. Sisco 73 

" Susan Skinner 82 " Minerva Fogg 71 

•' Clement Tatro 78 

Rev. Austin Hazen, who was pastor of the Centre Congregational Church for 
manv years kept a record of the annual number of deaths from Jan. 1, 1812, to 
Dec."^31, 1828. The number was as follows :— 1812. 24: 1813, 63: 1814. 22: 1815, 
21; 1816. 19: 1817, 23: 1818, 16: 1819, 15; 1820, 14; 1821. 24: 1822. 17; 1823, 33; 
1824, 30; 1825, 19: 1826. 23: 1827, 37; 1828, 25, a total of 415 decedents m 17 years, 
a yearly average of 24.4, or one death to every 83 of the average population. 


Brooks, Wyllys H., overdose of morphine, July 31, 1881. Age 29. 

Burr, Willie, drowned in White river. June, 1888. Age 14. 

Burton. Elijah, killed on railroad bridge near Delano's i^lace, by a blast in 1847. 

Age 52. 
Clarke, ]Mis. Parthena, burned by clothes taking fire Dec. 24, 1862. Age 75. 
Demmon. Roswell, died in a fit, March 26, 1861. Age 70. 
Denison. Sanuiel, heart disease, 1887. 
Dimmick, Oren, lockjaw from cut on hand, Nov. 11, 1856. Age 57. 

Dimmick, . by a falling tree while chopping. 

Gillett, Henry, struck on head by a board flung by a circular saw in liis mill. 

Gillett, Enos, heart disease. 

Hazen, Andrew T., heart disease, Aug. 7, 1863. Age 58. 

Hodgeman, Timothy, mn over by cars, April 5, 1864. Age 72. 

Lamphere, Galusha, heart disease, March 10, 1864. Age 25. 

Majors, Jason, drowned at Olcott. 

Marston, Jacob, heart disease, Feb. 20, 1859. Age 81. 

Paddock, Zenas, fomad dead in his room, Aug. 16, 1862. Age 71. 

Pitkin. Thomas W., drowned in Otta Quecliee river, May 3, 1787. Age 37. 

Russ, Ruby, overdose of opium, Jan. 14, 1861. Age 63. 

Snow. C'yi'us, fell from staging at Quechee village. 

Southgate. Rev. Robert, heart disease, Feb. 6, 1873. Age 65. 

Stin-tevant. killed by blast on C. V. R. R. 

Tilden. Jedediah N., fell dead Aug. 3, 1867. Age 67. 

Tinkham. Albert D., dro\^aied m \Vhite river, 1873. 

Trumbull, Asaj)h, caught in machinery of oil mill, April 13, 1812. Age 6. 

White, . caught in machinery. 

Williamson, Frances, drowned at W. Hartford, Feb. 10, 1867. Age 21. 

Winslow, Chester, by blast of rocks. 

White, Wm., injuries on railroad, June, 1863. Age 22. 


Benson, Mrs. Rufus. RusstoA\Ti, hanging. 

Blaisdell, B. Franklin, Hartford village, hanging, Feb. 10, 1888. 
Brooks, Elane, WMte River Junction, hanging, 1827. Age 58. 
Cave, Amos, Hartford village, drowned himself March 26, 1864. 
Dutton, Henry A., Hartford, village, shot himself Jan. 19, 1880. 

Drown, , Quechee, diowned himself in White river. 

Frink, James, hung himself. 
Gage, Charles, White River Junction, hanging. 
George, Josiah, White River Junction, shot himself. 
Hatch, Lewis, Hartford village, shot himself. 
Hazen, Franklin S., W. Hartford, hangmg, Oct. 7, 1879. Age 48. 
Lamb. Alpheus. West Hartford, hanging, Aug. 3, 1853. Age 58. 
.Pease, John D., Hartford village, hanging, Nov. 6, 1869. Age 42. 
Porter. Edward D. . Hartford village, hanging, Nov. 22, 1872. Age 26. 
Planter. Mrs. J.. Hartford village, poison. 

Snow, James, Hartford village, hung himself in 1849. Age 49. 
Sturtevant, Foster, Hartford village, hung himself in bam, May 17, 1849. 
Age 48. 


Tracy, James H. Jr., Hartford villa<;e, poison, July 23, 1873. Age 31. 
Tryon, Stephen Jr., Russtown, poison, 1886. Age 60. 
Whitcomb. Wni., Hartford village, poison, 1887. 

Wright, Hannah, wife of David, drowned in a well, into which she pitched 
head foremost. 

la concluding this subject, the writer will say that one of the first 
objects for which he enquires on visiting a new place, is the cemetery. 
The selection of a site for a barying-ground, the manner of caring for 
it, the character of the monuments, the inscriptions to the memory of 
the dead, are a very correct index to the taste, if not to the intelligence 
of the inhabitants — the moral physiognomy of the place. 

It is well for the living to often turn away from the busy scenes of 
the world to the cemetery where repose the remains of those who have 
gone to " that bourne from which no traveler returns." 

'• The body to its place, and the soul to Heaven's grace, 
And the rest in God's own time." 

And there, with nothing to disturb the universal silence of the scene, 
save the beating of one's own heart, contemplate the memorials which 
have been reared above the slumberers beneath — the rich and the poor, 
the humble and the great, — and there study the inscriptions that indi- 
cate in turn ostentation or modest simplicity , affectation of grief, or 
sincerity of affection ; refinement or want of taste ; knowledge or ignor- 
ance. Here, a rudely-hewn and unlettered stone speaks poverty's lov- 
ing remembrance ; there, a modest tablet marks the repose of the hum- 
ble ; here, a cross, the sign of the Christian believei-, stands near a lofty 
and costly memorial over the remains of one distinguished in life for 
nothing but wealth, or perhaps for what the world calls greatness. But 
who in such a congregation as this can be accounted great ? 

' ' What gold survives the crucible of death? " 

Death is no respector of persons. Its triumphs and trophies include 
the king and the peasant, the most exalted in rank, title and wealth, and 
the most humble and obscure of mortals. Mankind must all come to 
the level of the grave. Our bones must mingle in one common mass. 

" We can learn nothing from the living which the dead do not teach 
us. Would beauty be modest and unpretending, let her quit the ball 
and the festival for a moment and carry her toilet to the tomb. Would 
the proud learn humility — the resentful, good nature — the penurious, 
charity — the frivolous, seriousness — the bigoted, philanthropy ? AVould 
the scholar ascertain the true objects of knowledge — the man of the 
world the true means of happiness here and hereafter — the ambitious 
the true sources of greatness — let him retire awhile from the precincts 
of the living, busy world, and commune with the dead." 



In former times the alliance between Church and State was stronger 
than the spirit of republicanism now sanctions. Every citizen was as 
much obligated to pay his tax for the support of a minister as he now 
is to pay his highway or school tax. He must also declare his religious 
preferences, if he entertained any. It mattered not whether he attended 
upon- religious worship, or whether the minister held sentiments not in 
accord with his own, the payment of a tax for the minister's support 
was not to be evaded. 

The form of government, or fundamental constitution established by 
the lords and proprietors of Carolina, in March, 1699, contained the fol- 
lowing articles, which illustrate the spirit that governed the early set- 
tlers of this country who fled from England to avoid persecution. 

" XCV. — No man shall be permitted to be a freeman of Carolina, or to have 
any estate or habitation within it, that doth not acknowledge a God, and that 
God is pubhcly and solemnly to be worshipped. 

C. — In the terms of communion of every church or profession, these following 
shall be three, without which no agreement, or- assembly of men under pretence 
of religion, shall be accounted a cliurch or profession within these rules: 

I. — That there is a God. 

II. — That God is publicly to be worshipped. 

III. — That it is lawful and the duty of every man, being thereunto called by 
those who govern, to bear witness to the truth, etc. 

CI. — No person above seventeen years of age shall have any benefit or protec- 
tion of the law, or be capable of any place of profit or honor, who is not a mem- 
ber of some church or profession, having his name recorded in some one, and but 
one record at once. 

CVI. — No man shall use any reproachful, reviling or abusive language against 
the religion of any church or profession. 

CIX. — No person whatsoever shall disturb, molest, or persecute another for his 
speculative opinions in religion, or liis way of worship." 

The lords and proprietors of the Province of Carolina were adherents 
to the Church of England. They believed that the religion of that 
church was the only true and orthodox religion, and, it being the na- 
tional religion of all the kings' dominions, it alone should be allowed to 
receive a public maintainance; nevertheless, they were not bigoted, nor 
intolerant of any other religions and professions. They held that there 
chn he no Christianity -where there is no charity. Their highest aim 
and purpose was to found the government upon the firm basis of relig- 
ion and morality; and they properly required every member of the body 
politic to publicly avow his religious preferences, contribute to the sup- 


port of some form of religious worship, and act in sympathy with the 
religious feelings of the community in which he lived. 

The (XCVII) ninety-seventh article of the laws of Carolina, framed 
by the proprietors of that province, is expressive of the liberal, chari- 
table and Christian spirit that pervaded the hearts, and regulated the 
conduct of that representative body of churchmen in their treatment of 
dissenters, and professors of other religions in general, and of non-pro- 
fessors as well. The article alluded to is so replete with Christian sen- 
timent, so strongly illustrative of the doctrine taught by Christ, while 
on earth, and so valuable as a rule of Christian conduct, that I shall 
quote it verbatim, viz : — 

' ' But since the natives of that place (Carolina) who will be concerned in our 
plantation, are utterly strangers to Christianity, whose idolatry, ignorance, or 
mistake gives us no right to expel, or use them ill; and those who remove from 
other parts to plant there, will unavoidably be of different opinions concerning 
matters of religion, the liberty whereof, they will expect to have allowed them, 
and it will not be reasonable for us on this account to keep them out; that civil 
peace may be maintained amidst the diversity of opinions, and our agreement 
and compact with aU men may be duly and faithfully observed; the violation 
whereof, upon what x>retence soever, cannot be ivithoiit great offence to Almighty 
God, and great scandal to the true religion, which, we jirofess ; and also that 
Jews, heathens, and other dissenters from the purity of Christian religion, may 
not be feared and kept at a distance from it, but, by having an opportunity of 
acquainting themselves with the truth and reasonableness of its doctrines, and 
the peaceableness and inoffensiveness of its professors, may by good usage and 
persuasion, and all those convincing methods of gentleness and meekness suit- 
able to the rides and design of the gospel, be won over to embrace and unfeign- 
edly receive the trutli : therefore, any seven or more persons agreeing in any re- 
ligion, shall constitute a church or profession, to which they shall give some 
name to distinguish it from others." 


On the 16th of March, 1780, the General Assembly of Vermont on 
motion made after a long debate, resolved that the following amend- 
ment be made to the " Act empowering the inhabitants of the respec- 
tive towns in this State to tax themselves for certain occasions," viz: 

" Always provided that no person be compelled by the major vote of said town 
to build or repair a meeting house, or support a worship, or a minister of the 
gospel, contrary to the dictates of his conscience ; Provided, said person or per- 
sons shall support some sort of religious worship as to them may seem most 
agreeable to the word of God, anything in this act to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing." The ayes and nays being demanded whether the last clause, or provision, 
of the amendment stand, the vote was ayes 23, nays 14. So it was resolved in 
the affirmative. 

This provision was evaded by requiring a man, avIio refused to pay 

his tax for the legally appointed clergyman, to prove that he belonged 

to another denomination. But, as many sought by this method to 

evade taxation altogether, the General Assembly in October, 1783, 

passed an act to remedy all trouble on this point, viz : 

" Be it enacted that every person or persons, being of adult age, shall be con- 
sidered as being of opinion with the major part of the inhabitants within such 


town or parish where he, she, or they shall dwell, until he, she, or they shall 
bring a certificate, signed by some minister of the gospel, deacon or elderj or the 
moderator in the church or congregation to which he, she, or they pretend to be- 
long, being of a different persuasion ; which certificate shall set "forth the party 
to be of their persviasion ; and until such certificate shall be shown to the clerk 
of such town or parish (who shall record the same) such party shall be subject to 
jiay all such charges with the major part, as by law shall be assessed on his, her 
or their polls or ratable estate." 

The above named act met with much opposition. The niimber of 
the minor sects in most of the towns was quite large. The opposition 
increased to such an extent that, in 1801, the Legislature repealed the 
clause in the act enabling any individual to obtain a certificate to ex- 
empt him from paying taxes, and enacted the following as a substitute : 

" That every person of adult age, being a legal voter in any town or 
parish, shall be considered as of the religious opinion and sentiment of 
such society as is mentioned in said act, and be liable to be taxed for 
the purposes mentioned in paid act, unless he shall, previous to any 
vote authorized in and by said act, deliver to the clerk of said town or 
parish, a declaration in writing, with his name thereto subscribed, in 
the following v/ords, to wit ; " I do not agree i7i religious opinion 
viith a majority of the inhabitants of this town.'' " 

This did not remove all objections, nor silence complaints, and at 
every session of the Legislature efforts were made to repeal the act. 
Finally, in 1807, the offensive parts were repealed, " divesting the towns 
of all power to act or pass any vote for the building of meeting-houses 
or the support of ministers, leaving every individual to decide for him- 
self whether he would contribute anything for the promotion of those 

The following certificates, which were made to comply with the re- 
quirements of the several acts, I have quoted, are found recorded in the 
records of the town, certified by the Town Clerk, whose certificate need 
not be quoted. The respective dates of the certificates indicate the 
legislative acts under which they were made. 

This may certify that Francis Whare Shallis, of Hartford, State of Vermont, 
I>rofesseth and belongeth to the Episcopalian church of England and has joined 
said church in this place. 

Given under my hand this 14th day of August, 1785. 

JOHN HOUSE, Church Warden. 

By the authority invested by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Right Father 
in God. By the Rev. Ranna Cosset, Missionary. 

These may certify that Mr. Benjamin Burtch, of Hartford, in the county of 
Windsor and State of Vermont is a member of the Baptist society in Woodstock. 

Woodstock Mch ye 18, 1786. 

Attest, JOSEPH CALL, Deacon of Baptist Ch in Woodstock. 

Hanover, 4th Jan'y 1790 : — To all whom it may concern: It is hereby certi- 
fied that Messrs. Hezekiah Hazen, Tliomas Hazen, Solomon Hazen, David New- 
ton and Erastus Chapman are members of the Church of Christ at Dartmouth 
College, which church is Presbyterian in persuasion and discipline, and that 
they and each of them are in fuU communion and regular and good standing 
with us. 

By JOHN SMITH, Pastor of said Church at Dartmouth CoUege. 


Bridgewater, Vt., Decembei- ye 19tli. 1791 : These may certify all that it may 
concern, that William Porter of Hartford is a member of the Bai^tist church of 
Christ in Woodstock and Bridgewater. therefore, let the opjjressed go free. 

Attest, WILLIAM GROW, Minister of the Gospel. 

" To all whom this may concern it is hereby certified that Joshvia Hazen, Esq., 
is a member of the Cliurch of Christ at Dartmouth College (wliich is a Presbyter- 
ian Church) and an Elder in the same. He has been for more than fifteen years 
last past and now is in full communion and regular and good standing with us, 
his opinion in the doctrine of religious and ecclesiastical discipline is the same 
with ours. 

Certified by John Smith, Pastor of said Church at Dartmouth College. 

Hanover 31st Jan'y 1792." 

" These certify that William Colston of Hartford, is a professed Universalist, 
and is a member of the Universalist Society in Woodstock. Attest, ISRAEL 
RICHARDSON, Moderator. 

Woodstock, December 27th, 1793." 

"This may certify that Hezekiah Lincoln, Gersham Dunham, Juniah Chap" 
man, Justin Smith, David Whitcomb, Daniel Hazen, Asa Pixley, Putnam Wil- 
son. PhiUp Sprague, Wm. Pixley, Joel Richards, Philemon Hazen, each and 
every of them, belong to the Calvinistic society composed of the North of Hartford 
and South of Norwich, and pay for the support of preaching here and each pro- 
fesses the i^rinciple above described. 

Attest, SYLVANUS SMITH, Moderator." 

January 7, 1795. 

" Tliis is to certify to whom it may concern that Isaac Turner of the town of 
Hartford, County of Windsor and State of Vermont is a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church and regularly contributes to tlie support of the ministry 
of that order. 

Given under my hand this 12th day of March, A. D. 1800. Shadrock Bostwick, 
presiding elder in said church and district including the town aforesaid." 

" This will certify that I am not of the religious sentiment of the majority of 
this town." Signed. SAMUEL PEASE. 
Hartford, Nov. 21, 1805. 

" This is to certify that I Daniel Sprague am not of the Religious sentiment 
that the majority of this town is of. Therefore I don't wish to join society with 
them." Signed. DANIEL SPRAGUE. 

Hartford, May 15, 1805. 

' ' This may certify that Capt Stephen Try on is a member of the protestant 
EpiscoiwHl church in this town; that he contributes for the support of said denom- 
ination and therefore is exculpated by law to support any other in Hartford." 

Hartford, Sept. 20, 1805. Certified by me RUSSEL CATLIN, Rector. 

The severance of the relations between chureb and State, or cutting 
the eburcbes loose from dependence on State support, and throwing 
tbem wholly on their own resources, thereby establishing the voluntary 
system, met with strong opposition, but it placed the respective denom- 
inations on a footing of equality, removed invidious distinctions, and, in 
time, those who had most strongly upheld the time-honored relation, 
pronounced the " Toleration A.ct," a good and wholesome law. 

The early settlers, as well as the proprietors of the town of Hartford, 
recognized the fact that constitutional freedom is ever insecure unless 
it is founded upon the immutable laws of God. They believed with 
Demosthenes, that all law is the invention and gift of Heaven, the reso- 
lution of wise men, the correction of every oifence, and the general com- 
pact of the State ; and with Grotius, that God approves and ratifies the 


salutai'y constitutions of government made by men. Actuated by tiiese 
sentiments, the proprietors made early and liberal provisions for the 
support of the Gospel at home, and its propagation in foreign countries. 
The charters of all the townships on the New Hampshire Grants, con- 
tained provisions for the sequestration of lands for public, pious and 
charitable uses, among which one whole share was to be reserved for 
the first settled minister. 

At a proprietors' meeting held in Windham, Ct., November 3d, 1762, 
the following vote was passed, viz ; " That in making a second division of 
lots among the proprietors, a one hundred acre lot, in the most conven- 
ient place, shall be reserved for the first settled minister." ' The first 
official action taken relative to erecting a meeting house was May 17th, 
1774, viz : 

"At a meeting legally warned and holden the 17th day of May, 1774, at the 
house of Elijah Strong. 

Voted — To bviild a meeting house as near the centre of the town as is conven- 
ient for a building spot, and the dimensions of the house to be 35 feet by 50, and 
two story high. 

Chosen — Darius Sessions to make a survey to find the centre of the town. 

Chosen — Darius Sessions, Capt. Joseph Marsh, and Amos Robinson a com- 
mitty to set down the stake wdiere the meeting house shall be." 

The committee reported as follows : — 

" We the subscribers being chosen a committee to find a spot to build a house 
upon, for the worship of God, met and agreed as follows, viz: — finding the 
centre of said Hartford to be East 18 degrees South 35 rods from the south-west 
corner of a lot of land called ' the Minister's lot,' from tlience south ten degrees 
west 16 rods, — and tiiere stuck a stake for the sjjot to build the house." 

The town adopted the report and voted £100 lawful money of New 
Hampshire, to build said house, which was to be completed by Septem- 
ber 1st, 1775. Capt. Joseph Marsh, Jonathan Birtch, Esq., and Amos 
Robinson, Esq., were chosen a committee to supeiintend the building 
of the house. John Marsh then owned the land upon which the house 
was to be built, and the building committee were instructed to 
agree with said Marsh for the land to set the meeting house on and 
enough for a convenient green. 

Subsequently the land on which the house was to be built passed 
into the possession of Daniel Dewey. May 3, 1791, the selectmen of 
the town made an arrangement with Mr. Dewey by which he deeded to 
the town " the land lying in the meeting-house square," in exchange for 
other land. The record of this transaction may be found in Vol. 2, 
page 59, Land Records. 

For some reason, not expressed in the records, the building commit- 
tee did not then proceed to the work of building a meeting-house, and 

'This lot was deeded by Rev. Thomas Gross to Bani Udall, March 30th, 180S, 
for a consideration of $2717, and is now owned and occupied by Frank McCarty. 


it appears by the following record that several years elapsed before the 
subject was again publicly acted upon. The record is as follows : — 

" At a meeting legally warned and holden at the house of David Bliss on« the 
9th day of September, 1783:— 

Chosen — Govr. Marsh moderator as mentioned in the Covenant. ' 

Voted — To build a meeting-house in tlie centre of the town. 

Voted — To clioose a comtee to build sd meeting-house. 

Chosen— Govr Marsh, David Wriglit, Oliver Udall, Thos. White Pitkin and 
Andrew Tracy sd comtee. 

Voted — To petition the Gen'l Assembly to grant the town liberty to tax their 
land in the town for the purpose of building a meeting-house in town. 

The Legislature at the October Session in 1783, passed an act author- 
izing towns and parishes to erect proper houses for public worship and 
support ministers of the Gospel. 

It seems very likely that this action by the General Assembly resulted 
from the petition made to that body in conformity to the above vote of 
the town, which ante-dated the passage of said act about one month. 
One of the probable results of the enactment of this law would be the 
building of a meeting-house by the petitioners in this case, very soon 
thereafter. It is a fact that the selectmen of the town, in June 1781, 
pitched two or more 100 acre lots to the ministerial right, the first 
being " No. 16," at the centre of the town, pitched in accordance with 
the vote of the proprietors, November 3d, 1762. This lot was desig- 
nated as the " Minister's lot," but there is no evidence that it was 
occupied as such by any settled minister prior to the time that Mr. 
Gross took possession of it, by virtue of the provisions named in the 
charter of the town. 


The first congregational preaching in Hartford was by Rev. Aaron 
Hutchinson, about the year 1774, possibly earlier by a year or two. In 
the records of the town of Woodstock, Vt., under date of September 3, 
1774, the following entry is found : — 

" The free-holders and other inhabitants being assembled in town 
meeting — voted to hire Mr. Aaron Hutchinson for five years in connec- 
tion with Hartford and Pomfret." " 

This method of hiring a minister was in accordance with the system 
pursued at that time. There was at the time of these proceedings no 
congregational church nor society in Hartford. The arrangements for 
preaching were made by the town. Were our town records not lost, it 
is probable that we might find therein a record of the action taken by 

'The existence of a Covenant implies the existence of an organized society of 
some kind. 

-Mr. Hutchinson settled in Woodstock in 1776, and continued to preacli there 
until 1781, when the first congregational church in Woodstock was formed. 


the town, in connection with Woodstock and Pomfret, in regard to 
hiring Mr. Hutchinson. It is now the prescribed rule in calling minis- 
ters, for the letters to be issued by a committee of the church joined by 
a committee of the society. " The call should proceed from the church, 
in the first instance in order that it may have ecclesiastical or binding 
force as a religious ordinance ; the action of the society is merely sub- 
sidiary, and has reference only to temporalities, such as salary, settle- 
ment, use of parsonage, &c. Such rights, towns in their corporate 
capacity continued to exercise, — a concurrence on their part with the 
church being requisite for the lawful settlement of a minister until the 
Legislature passed acts taking away from towns all such power, and 
societies came in place of towns in contracts for hiring and settling 
ministers." — Formerly meeting-houses were built and owned by towns : 
now they are built and owned by societies ; yet, as a rule, congrega- 
tional societies embrace more or less church members. 

During the period when the towns hired and settled ministers, clergy- 
men were more highly venerated and honored by the people at large, 
than they are at the present time. " The clergyman, in those days, was 
the minister; that is, the servant of the town and people ; but the pas- 
tor, that is, the keeper, the shepherd of the church. Then permanence 
gave dignity and authority to the office ; gravity, learning, and a pater- 
nal interest and care for the whole people, made the minister the first 
and principal man in the town, whose character, especially if for good, 
impressed itself thoroughly and permanently upon the whole town, and 
all its interests and institutions." * * * " What a change a half cen- 
tury with its new notions has brought about ? The reverence paid, and 
authority yielded to the clergy, is gone — and with them are gone much 
of the peace, order, sobriety and prosperity of our communities, especi- 
ally in the agricultural regions. The old-fashioned charity, hospitality, 
and brotherly kindness, have vanished away, and their place has not 
been supplied by any gifts or graces, that should cause their loss not to 
be noticed and lamented. Possiby in worldly prosperity, some show of 
advance has been made, but in domestic felicity and neighborly good 
feelings, the by-gone days may fearlessly challenge a comparison with 
the pi'esent times." — John B. Hill. 

We are wanting in the piety and devotedness of our fathers and moth- 
ers. In those early days, all made it a point to attend meeting every 
Sabbath in some way. They would travel many miles over bad roads 
and in the worst of weather, on foot and on horseback, to attend relig- 
ious worship. Of the early ministers it is said that "they toiled in the 
cold and in the heat, by day and by night, traversing the wilderness 


from one solitary dwelling to another, by marked trees and half-made 
roads, fording rivers and other streams." They were mostly itinerants, 
receiving but little pay, but they persisted in doing the Master's duty, 
without money or price. They did service for the dead and for the liv- 
ing alike : gave solace to the dying, spiritual aid and comfort to the 
living, — indeed, they were pastors, advisers, genial companions — in a 
word. Christians in practice, as well as in profession. They possessed 
no great literary qualifications, yet their ministrations were well adapted 
to the condition of the people whom they visited. Though having no 
"summer vacations" at Saratoga, or other fashionable resorts; though 
not domiciliated in cozy parsonages, but a stone's throw away from 
places of worship, nor having the advantage of the modern labor-saving 
system of exchanging sermons, whereby one and the same sermon may 
go the rounds to edify an indefinite number of congregations, they gen- 
erally died at a green old age and in the harness. 


A Congregational Society was formed at the centre of the town in 
1805. This was, probably, the first religious society formed in the town, 
and took the place of the town in regard to hiring and settling minis- 
ters, supporting a preached gospel, and building meeting houses, par- 
sonages, etc. Below is given the petition for a meeting of the inhabit- 
ants ; the warning issued by the town clerk for said meeting, and the 
proceedings of the meeting, as found in the town records : — 

" We the subscribers, inliabitants of tlie town of Hartford, in the County of 
Windsor, and State of Vermont, being sensible of the broken situation of the in- 
habitants of said town in respect to religious order, and being desirous that some 
method may be agreed upon by said inhabitants whereby a preaclied gospel may 
be regulary administered and supported among us: — do hereby, as the law di- 
rects, petition the Town Clerk of Hartford to warn a meeting of said inhabitants 
(excepting such as have heretofore entered into covenant for the same pui^jose 
at the north meeting-house in said town, or are otherwise cleared as the law 
directs) to see if tliey will form themselves into a society as the law directs, for 
the above mentioned purpose; and, if so, to choose such officers, and make such 
further regulations in said society, as they shall think best. 

Hartford, 20th March, 1805. 

Signed — Elisha Marsh, Benjamin Russ, Abel Marsh, Milo Marsh, Wni. Perry, 
Paul Pitkin, Olmstead Gates, Daniel Ransom, Jonathan Whitney." 


"By a petition of a number of the inhabitants of the town of Hai'tford, to 
warn a meeting for the pvirpose of forming themselves into a regxilar society in 
the centre of said town for the support of the gospel ministry, according as the 
law dii-ects: — This is therefore to warn the inhabitants of said town to meet at 
the meeting-house in the centre of the town, on Wednesday the 6th day of June 
next, -at 1 o'clock P. M. for the above purpose. 




'• Wednesday, June 6tli, 1805.— After said meeting was opened made choice of 
Joseph Marsh Esq. for Moderator. 

Motioned and seconded to try the mind of said town — whether they would act 
on the above warning or not ? 

Voted— That they would. 

Made choice of Freegrace Leavitt for their Clerk. 

On motion — Voted to raise money from the above date, to the 25th of Decem- 
ber next, to pay Mr. Gross liis annual salary, and to continue to suijjiort order in 
the centre of said town, by a tax, until it shall be otherwise agreed on. 

Made choice of for their committee — Elisha Marsh, EUjah Mason. 

Ti-easurer, Freegrace Leavitt; Collectors, Roger Marsh and Roger GUlett. 

Attest: FREEGRACE LEAVITT, Town Clerk." 


The first Congregational organization in Hartford was the church 
formed at the centre of the town. The records, both of the church and 
the society at the centre of the town have disappeared, and nothing 
remains to the historian to enable him to arrive at any satisfactory con- 
clusion regarding the date of the organization of the first Congrega- 
tional church. It has already been shown that Rev. Aaron Hutchinson 
preached at the centre of the town, and elsewhere in the town, as early 
as 1 774. Rev. Thomas Gross who was the first settled minister in the 
town, was ordained, according to Thompson, June 7, 1786. The follow- 
ing item from the record of the Congregational church in Woodstock 
clearly proves that the church in Hartford was organized some time 
before the ordination of Mr. Gross : — 

•' May 21st [1786] a Letter from the Clili. at Hartford was read requesting the 
assistance of this Chh by their Pastor and a Delegate to assist at the ordination 
of Mr. Thomas Gross. The Chh voted to comply with their request and Br Elias 
Thomas was chosen as a Delegate." 

June 30th, 1787, the church was invited to a Council in Pomfret. Mr. 
Gross was present and offered the concluding prayer at the installa- 
tion of Rev. Benjamin Bell, over the churches of Windsor and Cornish, 
N. H., Dec. 1, 1790. He was also in Woodstock July 22d, 1792, 
when the church there renewed their covenant. 

The foregoing comprises all of the tangible evidence now in posses- 
sion of the historian relating to the church prior to 1812, with the 
exception of the fact that Mr. Gross was dismissed in February, 1808. 
By whom he was succeeded, previous to the ordination of Rev. Austin 
Hazen in 1812 is a matter of conjecture only. After Mr. Hazen's ordi- 
nation, a reorganization of the church took place, and owing to the con- 

' This action of the settlers appears to have been in their capacity as a town or- 
ganization ; this society probably having the character of a " parish " — such as ex- 
isted at that time in Connecticut and Massachusetts. 



fused state of previous records, a new record book was opened, into 
which was copied the covenant originally made, and a list of the mem- 
bers of the church at that time. The new record book was in use until 
July, 1860. This book, which was in possession of Rev. Mr. Ray as late 
as 1870, has disappeared, consequently the church has suffered the 
irreparable loss of its records covering a period of at least three-fourths 
of a century. Fortunately, however, the historian made copious extracts 
from the record book opened in 1812, while engaged in the work of col- 
lecting data for a history of the town in 1869-70, the greater portion of 
which is contained in the following history of the church. 

On the l2th of May, 1812, Rev. Austin Hazen was settled over the 
church and society at the centre of the town, and on the 27th of May 
following was ordained as pastor. The following extract is taken from 
the new record book opened on that day, begining at p. 3, viz : " The 
brethren of the Chli being deeply impressed with the importance of 
keeping a fair record of their proceedings for their own and for the 
benefit of those who may hereafter be admitted to their fellowship, and 
finding former records, in several respects, very deficient, and being 
unable to correct them, have deemed it expedient to preserve them in 
their original form — to ascertain as accurately as possible their situa- 
tion on the 27th of May, 1812, at which time the Rev. Austin Hazen was 
regularly ordained as their pastor, and from that date make a new rec- 
ord, opening with 


You believe that there is one eternal only living and true God, Father, Son and 
Holy Ghost; that God entered into a covenant of works with man upon condi- 
tion of perfect obedience^that our first parents, by eating the forbidden fruit, 
cast themselves and their posterity into a state of sin and misery — that God of His 
mere mercy hath sent His only begotten Son into this \vorld, ■who, in our nature, 
hath borne the curse, and answered the demands of the law for us — that all who 
believe in Him are ju.stified and shall be kept by the mighty power of God unto 
salvation — that at the day of judgment Christ shaU descend from heaven and 
shall condemn all ungodly men into everlasting fire with the devil and Ms angels, 
and shall invite His saints to the possession of a kingdom prepared for them 
before the foundation of the world. Tins you profess to believe ? 


You do now in the presence of God and this assembly take the Lord Jehovah, 
Father. Son and Holy Ghost, to be your God, and do give yourself (selves) to be 
His, and promise that you will make the word of God the rule of your faith and 
practice — that you will make it your great concern to work out your own salva- 
tion with fear and trembling — tliat you will submit yourself to the establishment 
of Christ's church regularly administered in this place, and that you will, in 
brotherly love, seek the peace and welfare of this church so long as God 
shall continue you here. This is as far as you know your own heart(s), divine 
grace assisting, your determination." 

On a thorough examination it was ascertained that the church then 
consisted of the following members : — 



*Stephen Tilden, March. 1813 

*Thoma.s Tracy, Jan. 28. 1821 

*Abel March. Dec. 1821 

*Dorothv Sept. 1813 

*Israel Gillet. July, 1829 

*John Gillett, Jan'v, 1829 

*Jemima GiUet, NoV. 1828 

*DaTid BKss, May, 1813 

*Phebe BHss. July, 1824 

*Mary Stioug. AprH, 1823 

* Jacob Hall. 

*Esther Hall, Feb. 1814 

*Desu-e Morse, Jan"y 1816 

*Marv Brooks. Jan"v 5. 1837 

tMarV Wood. Sept. 1. 1847 

tJerusha Tilden. Dec. 1828 

*Martha Gates. Aug. 2, 1834 

Olmsted Gates. 
tMarahah Holbrook. July. 1813 

*Cynthla Wliite, Nov. 1828 

*Hannan April, 1818 

*David Wright. Feb"y. 1822 

*Hannah Wright, June, 1814 

*Polly Tracv. Feby. 1824 

"Mrs. Wilson, FebV. 1813 

*John Clark, Jauv. 3. 1833 

*Deborah Clark, May. 1822 

*Noah Bartholomew. Feb'y, 1813 

* Abigail Chapman. 
fRuth Tracy, 
*Abigail Whitney, 

* Jonathan Whitney, Dea 
*Jedediah Strong, 
*Rebecca Rider. 
*Abigail Wright, 
*Sarah Ti-acy. 
*Israel Webster, 
*Sopliiah Webster. 
*Dolly Bill. 
*Joanna King, 
*Thomas Savage, 
*Sybbel. Dimniock, 
*Aiina Lyman, 

May. 1828 

Oct.. 1814 

.Jan'v7, 1813 

Feb. 2."). 1832 

June. 1814 

Jan'v 2, 1813 

Sept.. 1814 

Oct. 29. 1841 

Apr. 25, 1831 


*Lucretia Cooley, 
*Mabel Bartholomew, 
*Sarah UdaU, 
*Anna Woodward, 
Charity B. Kjieeland, 
fSolomon Strong, 
fJames Tracy, 2d, 
fWm. Webster. 
+Lydia King. 
fLucy Whitney, 
*Rizpah Tracy. 
fSallv Clark. 
*Kirby Clark 
Susanna Smith 
Syhia Pease 
*Joanna King. 
Eliphalet Smith, 
fWm. Marsh. 
* Joshua Clark, 
t Abigail Clark. 
*Hannah Smith, 
fDaniel Clark, 
f John D. Hazen, 
fWinthrop D. CiUey, 
Jonathan Cillev, 
fPoUv Pitkin. " 
+Betsy Bill, 
t Wealthy Wood worth, 
Abel Dunklee. 
Ruth Dunklee. 
fPaul Pitkin, 
fSamuel Whitney,' 
^Rachel Stone. 
Polly Noble. 
'Susannah French, 
+Laura Miner, 
Betsy Tilden. 
*Daniel Marsh. 
fRizpah Dutton, 
fEleazer Harwood, 
t Abigail Harwood, 
Total, 84. 

Sept. 1812 

Feby, 1813 


Sept. 26, 1800 

Sept. 19, 1834 

Dec, 1813 

May, 1822 

June 16. 1817 

Dec. 1813 


June 23. 1817 

Sept. 1815 
Oct. 1813 
Nov. 1813 
Apr. 1821 
Nov. 1816 
Sept. 1, 1823 
Dec 1813 

Feb.. 1828 
Mch., 1814 

Feb., 1821 

May, 1822 

Dec. "7. 1853 

July, 1813 

Nov. 6, 1857 

Dec. 11. 1829 

May, 1822 

Sept., 1816 

*Date of death, f Date of dismissal by letter. 

[Note. — Dates of death later than 1829 inserted by historian.] 


Sept., 1812. — A i^roposition was imanimously adopted to hold an annual con- 
tribution for the pu.rpose of defraying the expenses of the communion table at a 
preparatory season, in preference to contributions on the Sabbath immediately 
after communion. Mch. 1813. — Eleazer Harwood was chosen deacon in place 
of Jonathan Whitney deceased. Bro. Harwood requested time to consider the 
subject. May 1813. — It was stated that Abel Marsh expressed dissatisfaction 
with the result respecting his complaint against Eleazer Harwood, May 8th, 
1812, and desired the privilege of submitting the case to a council of laymen. It 
was voted to grant his request and Deacons Clark and Jolm Gillet were chosen 
to agree with Iiim as to who should compose the council. July 8, 1813. — At a 
meeting held to consider Mr. Marsh's complaint against Mr. Harwood — the coun- 
cil, composed of Jacob Bennett of the chh in Woodstock, and Hezekiah and Solo- 
mon Hazen of the chh of Dartmouth College, decided unanimously that the com- 
plaint was not sujiported. 

March 15. IS 15. — Brother Harwood finally declined accepting the office of a 
deacon, and Daniel Marsh was chosen. Doubting his qualifications to fill the 
important office. Mr. Marsh requested time to consider the subject. 


Dec. 4, 1815. — Brother Marsh deeUned accepting the office of a deacon and the 
chh. chose Paul Pitkin. Brother Clark being disciualified by the infirmities of 
age requested that some one might be chosen in his place. Judah Bailey was 
designated. Tliese brothers asked time to consider whether it was their duty to 
accept the appointment. 

Jan'y 4, ISKi. — Brothers Bailey and Pitkin, with becoming diffidence, ex- 
pressed their willingness to serve as deacons according to their ability. 

June 3d, 1S16. — The constitution of the Union Consociation was laid before the 
church, with a request from the Consociation to send a delegation to their next 
meeting with a view to membership. Sabbath, June 9th, it was voted to adopt 
said Constitution, and Dea. Judah IBailey was chosen to attend the next meeting 
of the Consociation, with the pastor. June 12th, the chh. was admitted as a mem- 
ber of the Union Consociation. 

Dec. 12, ISIG. — Bro. David Wright, with whom the Clili. had long been labor- 
ing, made a confession which was accepted as preparing the way for his restora- 
tion to fellowship. Bro. Abel Marsh with whom also the Chh. had been laboring, 
asked for further forbeax'ance. Granted. 

Dec. 1, 1S17. — After a full and candid discussion adjusted the unhappy diffi- 
culty which lias long subsisted with brother Marsh by mutual concessions. 

From the above date no case of discipline occurred which was not 
adjusted by explanation and concession, or public confession, without 
being reported to the church, for more than nine years. During these 
years the church transacted its ordinary business at its stated con- 
ferences, and nothing was transacted except the admission and dismis- 
sion of members which it was deemed important to record, and those 
are recorded in their proper places. 

At a meeting of the church held at the house of the pastor Feb. 20th, 
1827, the question of temperance was discussed, after which two-thirds 
of the members present expressed- a willingness to whollj' abstain from 
the use of ardent spirits, as a drink, for one year. Inasmuch as there 
was a distillery located but a few rods away from the parsonage, and 
some members of the church were engaged in manufacturing whiskey 
there, this action of the church members was carrying the war into 
Africa with commendable zeal, and it evidences the fact that there was 
a need of reformation in that quarter. Tradition informs us that it was 
customary, in Mr. Gross's time, for members of his church and congre- 
gation, to resort to the tavern at noon-time on the Sabbath, and indulge 
in a mag of hot flip, or sliag, and that even the preacher was not free 
from this propensity. 

At the meeting of Feb. 20th, the following question was proposed : 
" Will the church as a body do anything towards supporting the ordi- 
nances of religion among them ? " No vote was taken at this time. At 
a meeting of the church, January 10th, 1829, the question was proposed: 
" Will it be expedient to maintain meetings statedly at the centre meet- 
ing-house when meetings shall have been regularly established at the 
new meeting- house ? Voted that in our opinion it will not be expedient." 
The pastor being invited to preach in the new meeting-house, Sunday, 
January 11th, the brethren advised him to accept the invitation. January 


22d, after prayer and considerable deliberation, it was decided not to be 
expedient to divide the church at that time. It was voted "to establish 
a monthly meeting for the edification of the church." It was also voted 
to hold the next communion in the new meeting house ; ^ also that bro- 
thers H. F. Leavitt and Samuel Tracy, be a committee to settle with the 
pastor in regard to his salary. 

At a meeting of the church held April 23d, 1829, Mr. Hazen present- 
ed the following communication : — 

"Dear Brethren: — 

" Late events of providence among us clearly indicate to my mind 
that it is my duty to seek a dissolution of the connection which has so 
long subsisted between us, and which on many accounts has been very 
pleasant to me. When I acceded t > j'our invitation to settle among you 
in the christian ministry, I anticipated a division of the parish. I sup- 
posed the time would arrive when meetings would be established in the 
two principal villages' in the town, in which case the old meeting-house 
Avould be abandoned and your pastor left to seek another field of labor. 
Tbat period has arrived. Meetings have been commenced in these 
villages, and another in addition within the original limits of my parish.' 
In consequence of these divisions I am left without a prospect of sup- 
port, and see no alternative but to request you to unite with me in 
calling a council to dissolve my pastoral relations to jon. I trust you 
will readily perceive the propriety of this request, and cheerfully grant 
it." (Signed) AUSTIN HAZEN. 

It was voted to accede to the request, and H. F. Leavitt and Daniel 
Marsh, were made a committee to agree with the pastor on the churches 
to compose the council. The record of the council is as follows^ : — 

" At an Ecclesiastical Council convened at the house of Rev. Austin Hazen, in 
the South parish of Hartford, mutually called by the church of Christ in that 
place and their pastor by letters missive, on the 29th day of April, 1829. — 
Present : — 

Rev. Samuel Goddard, pastor, and Brother John Emerson, delegate, North 
Church, in Norwich. 

Rev. Samuel Bascom, pastor, and Brother Abijah Burbank, delegate, church 
in Sharon. 

Rev. Abraham Brown, pastor and Bro. Asaliel Button, delegate. North church 
in Hartford. 

Rev. John Richards, pastor, and Dea Daniel Dana, delegate, church in Wood- 

Rev. James W. Woodward of Norwich. 

The council organized and chose Rev. Samuel Goddard. moderator, and Rev. 
J. W. Woodward, scribe. Opened with prayer by the moderator. The Rev. 
Geo. W. Campbell of the State of Maine, an agent of the A. C. Society, being 
present, was by consent of the pastor and committee of the church, invited to 
sit in council. 

The request of the pastor for a mutual council with a view to the dissolution 
of his pastoral connexion, and the vote of the church complying, were commu- 

The council, after maturely deliberating upon the question submitted to them, 
unanimously came to the conclusion that Brother Hazen's support having failed 
in consequence of local divisions in the society, it is expedient that his j)astoral 

' At White River Village. -W. Hartford and White River Villages. ^Quechee. 



relation to this church and people be, and hereby accordingly is, dissolved on 
the 4th day of May next." 

After expressing their sympathy for Mr. Hazen, in the circumstances 

of trial in which he was placed, and their condolence to the church, the 

council closed as follows : 

" The coiincil also feel it their duty, besides, a testimonial of the fidelity of the 
pastor which they have with this pec^ple, to recommend in consideration of the 
pecuniary sacrifices he has incurred during his connection with them, and which 
must probably be enhanced by this separation, that his present dismission be 
accompanied by some proof of their justice and of their estimate of his charac- 
ter and services. They feel that in so doing the command of the Savior wiU be 
fulfilled, •' Wliatsoever ye would that men should do unto you do ye even so 
them." Signed, SAMUEL GODDARD, Moderator. 


I have recently found some papers that show conclusively that the 
tax upon the grand list of Mr. Hazen's j^arishioners, added to dona- 
tions, must have been entirely inadequate to his support, even under 
the strictest system of economy possible at that period. The entire 
amount raised from all sources in 1818 was as follows : 1st voluntary 
subscriptions : 

Thomas Rowell $2.00 

Capt. Josiah Tilden 3.00 

Elam Brooks, Esq 2.00 

Mr. Foster 1.00 

Samuel Dorr 1.00 

Erastus Clark 2.00 

Joseph Fenno 1.00 

Dericke Stebbins $1.00 

Major D. Wright & Son 3.00 

Dan. D.Wright 2.00 

Thomas Savage 1.00 

Ira Gates 1.50 

Jonathan Hoit 2.00 

Eliot Porter 2.00 

Total, $24.50. 


Gillett, Billa $292.50— $12.43 

GUlet, Israel, Jr 231.50— 9.84 

Geer, Nathan 65.00— 2.76 

Hazen, John D 83.25— 3.54 

Kneeland, Edward 33.38— 1.42 

Marsh, Roger 241.00— 10.24 

Marsh, PoUy 16.75— 3.69 

Taft, Abijah 136.50— 6.00 

Trumbull , David 34. 20— 1 . 45 

Tracy, James 210.50— 8.75 

Tracy, Thomas, Jr 20.00— .85 

Tracy, John 48.25— 2.05 

N. Cobb's bill, $1.95; 

Tracv, James, 2d 55, 

Tilden, Stephen 344, 

Marsh, Joseph H 128, 

Smith, Ashbel 66 

Spooner , Daniel 68. 

Stone, Enos 97, 

Terry, John 36, 

Tracv. Joseph 179, 

Webster, Wm 75. 

Wales, Geo. E 71. 

White, Jonathan 97, 


Paul Pitkin, .$4.74. 



























Elias Lyman $5.00. John Emerson 1.00. Benj. Green 5.00. 

Zerah Brooks 3.00. Noadiah White 1.00. Abigail Savage 2.00. 

AsaTfiden 3.00. Warren Lord 1.00. Samuel Weld 1.00. 

Zebulon Delano. _. 1.00. John Strong 1.50. Eleazer Davis 2.00. 

Total, $26.50. 

Subscription, $24.50. Tax, &c., $146.09. Donation, $26.50. Grand total, 

The form of warrant issued to the collector of the tax was as fol- 
lows : 

State of Vermont, } To George E. Wales, one of the collectors of the 1st 
Windsor Coim^ty, ss. f Congregational Society in the town of Hartford, for the 
support of the Gospel for 1818. Greeting: 


By the authority of the State of Vermont, you are hereby commanded to levy 
and collect of the several persons named in this Rate Bill ."herewith committed 
to you tlie sum of money assessed to each person respectively, and pay the sum 
to the Treasury of said Society on or before the first of April next!! And if 
any Person shall refuse or neglect to pay the sum in which he or she is assessed 
in said Rate Bill, you are hereby commanded to distrain the goods, chattels or 
estate of such person so refusing and the same dispose of according to Law for 
the satisfying the said smn with your own fees, and for want thereof you are 
hereby commanded to take his or her body and him or her conunit to the keeper 
of the Goal in the County of Wmdsor, within said Prison, wlio is hereby com- 
manded to receive such person, and Mm or her safely keep untUl he or she pays 
the sum assessed with legal cost together with your fees, or be otherwise Re- 
leased or discharged according to law. 

Given under my hand this 23d dav of Dec'r, 1818. 

(Signed) JAMES TRACY, Justice Peace. 



At a meeting of citizens friendly to the project of erecting a meeting 
house in the vicinity of White River village, held in the dwelling house 
of Phineas Kimball, agreeable to a previous notice, on the 5th of Nov., 

1827, Hon. George E. Wales was chosen moderator and John Strong 
clerk A committee consisting of John Grout, Zerah Brooks, David 
Trumbull, Jonathan Bugbee and John Strong was chosen to select the 
best place for erecting a meeting house, within one mile of the school 
house in said village ; to devise means to raise money for the purpose 
named ; to make an estimate of the cost of said house, and report at a 
future meeting. 

Nov. 12th inst., an adjourned meeting was held in the house of 
Phineas Kimball, when, on motion, it was resolved, — 1st. That a relig- 
ious society be formed to be denominated the Congregational Society 
of White River village ; 2d. That the committee appointed at the pre- 
vious meeting, be authorized to draw a plan of a meeting house to be 
built; circulate a subscription, etc. Nov. 26th inst. Meeting was 
again convened and the building committee reported a plan for a meet- 
ing house fifty by seventy feet, divided into eighty pews, and fixed the 
price of each at fifty dollars ; and decided that the site at the west end 
of the village was the most eligible. They reported that the gross 
expense of site and building was estimated at $4000. At this meeting 
H. F. Leavitt was chosen clerk of the society. Dec. 3d, Phineas Kim- 
ball, Wylys Lyman and H. F. Leavitt were chosen a committee to draft 
a code of by-laws for the society. 

December 25, 1827, the by-laws and constitution were submitted, con- 
sidered and adopted. The organization was completed January 7th, 

1828, by the election of officers, viz : Clerk, H. F. Leavitt ; treasurer, 
John Grout ; prudential committee, John Grout, David Trumbull, John 
Strong, Phineas Kimball and Zerah Brooks. At the annual meeting, 
Dec. 25th, 1828, the price of slips was fixed at fifty-two dollars, and 
January 8th, 1829, was chosen as the day for dedicating the meeting 
house. January 1st, 1829, it was resolved "that this society most 
respectfully and cordially invite the North church and congregation to 
meet and unite with us at our new meeting house in religious wor- 
ship as one society," and a committee was chosen to carry the resolu- 


tion into effect. This communication was discussed by the people of 
the North church, January 5th, when it was decided to be expedient to 
form the union. H. F. Leavitt, John Strong and Wylys Lyman were 
chosen a committee to supply the society with preaching, and instructed 
to hire Rev. Austin Hazen for twelve Sabbaths. 

January 19th, the society extended an invitation to the church and 
society which had hitherto worshipped at the Centre meeting house to 
make the new meeting house in White River village their stated place 
of worship. This invitation was accepted. Thus the two societies 
were consolidated under the title of " The Second Congregational 
Society," and the Congregational church at the Centre simply trans- 
ferred itself, so to speak,to White River village, and there still preserves 
its identity as " The Congregational church." Rev. Austin Hazen was 
hired to preach twelve Sabbaths at the rate of $400 per year, if for only 
for three months ; and $300, if continued through the year. At the 
expiration of the twelve Sabbaths Mr. Hazen was dismissed, and imme- 
diately after sought a new field of labor. 


Nov. 5, 1837, to Nov. 26, 1827, John Strong of Centreville. 
Nov. 26, 1827, to Dec. 25, 1829, H. F. Leavitt of centre of the town. 
Dec. 25, 1829, to Dec. 15, 1832, Wyllys Lyman of Lyman's Point. 
Dec. 15, 1832, to Dec. 14, 1867, Justin C. Brooks, White River village. 
Dec. 14, 1867, to Dec. 16, 1871, Charles H. Tenney, White River village. 
Dec. 16, 1871, to Dec. 20, 1884, Ephraim Morris, Wliite River village. 
Dec. 20, 1884, to Dec, 1886, N. W. White, White River village. 


At a meeting of the church at the house of Mr. John Grout, held 
March 10th, 1830, it was voted that Rev. Charles B. Haddock, a pro- 
fessor at Dartmouth College, be appointed moderator of the church, 
and also as scribe.' It was also voted, "that in future the church 
would worship at the meeting-house in White River village." 

June 15th, 1830, at a meeting of the church, it was voted that 
brothers Reuben Hazen and Joel Dimmick, and sisters Almira A. Dun- 
bar, Sybel Dimmick, Jane Phelps and Charity Noble, at their request, 
be recommended to the Congregational church in West Hartford. 
Dec. 30th, the following persons received permission to unite with the 
contemplated church whenever formed at Quechee, viz. : Elihu Wood- 
ward, Mary Pitkin, Lucy Russ, Olive Russ, Rebecca Pease, Susan 
Jennings, Erapta Marsh, Percy Marsh, Gratia Marsh and Mary Childs. 
Oct. I'ith, 1831, at a meeting of the church, it was voted, "That it is 

' March lo, 1830, Mr. Haddock was hired to preach by the Sabbath at $4.00 per 
day. He continued a stated supply nearly twelve years. 


inconsistent with the rules of the gospel for professors of religion to 
send or permit of their children's attending dancing schools and balls." 
June 13th, 1832, Ephraim W, Page, was accused of intemperate drink- 
ing, performing secular labor on the Sabbath, falsehood, profane swear- 
ing, and neglecting to attend the ordinances of the gospel : John Strong- 
was the complainant. Brother Page, unlike Sister Riggs, declined 
to patch up his sins, or whitewash them over, by accepting the means 
proposed by the church to restore him to saving grace; nor would he 
consent to put on an appearance of virtue as a means of reconciliation 
with the church; and thus add hypocrisy to his other sins. He was 
therefore excommunicated. 

September 28th, 1832. Iia Tracy, having received license to preach 
the gospel, was ordained at W. R. Village as a missionary to China. 
On this occasion the following churches were represented by pastors 
and delegates : North Hartford, West Hartford, South Norwich, 
North Norwich, Strafford, Hartland, Windsor, W^oodstock, Royalton, 
Sharon, Windsor (by Joseph Tracy, a brother of Ira Tracy) and Leb- 
anon, N. H. August 29th, 1833, Bani Udall was indicted for having 
laid violent hands upon his neighbors, for profanity, etc.; and persist- 
ing in vindicating his conduct, was suspended. Oct. 9th, Mr. Udall 
plead NOT GUILTY and an investigation was postponed until after the 
December county court. Nov. 20tb, Mr. Udall made confessions and 
was restored to full communion. Dec 23d, 1835, after laboring with 
Mr. Udall for six months for profanity, without success, he was ex-com- 
municated. Other cases of discipline occurred during Rev. Mr. Had- 
dock's term of service, which expired in 1841. 

Feb. 2d, 1841, the church having enjoyed the labors of Mr. Geo. T. 
Smith of Salem, Mass., for three Sabbaths, and having succeeded in 
raising a subscription of $500 for his support, extended a call to that 
gentleman to be ordained their minister. Mr. Smith gave a negative 
reply. August 25th, 1841, a call was extended to Mr. John K. Loi d, of 
Hanover, which was accepted, and his ordination took place November 
3d, 1841. For the purpose of showing who were then Pastors and act- 
ing Pastors of neighboring churches, the proceedings on this occasion 
are quoted in detail. 

" Pursuant to letters missive from the Church of Christ at Wliite River vil- 
lage, Hartford, Vt. , an Ecclesiastical council was convened at the meeting house 
in this place on the 2d of Nov. 1841, for the purpose of ordaining Mr. John K. 
Lord to the work of the gospel ministry. 

Present from the Church of Christ. 

From Hanover Plain— Rev. Nathan Lord, DD., Rev. C. B. Haddock, Rev. 
John Richards Acting Pastor. Norwich North — Rev. Samuel Goddard, Pastor, 
Dea. Cyrus Partridge, Delegate. Norwich Plain— Rev. Roswell Shurtleff, DD., 
Acting Paster, Bro. I. B. C. Burton, Delegate. Woodstock— Rev. Worthington 


Wright, Pastor, Dea. Daniel Dane, Delegate. Lebanon, N. H. — Rev. Phineas 
Cook, Pastor, Bro. Jedediah Dana, Delegate. Berlin — Rev. Anstin Hazen, Pas- 
tor, Brother Allen Hazen, Delegate. West Hartford — Rev. Roldin A. Watkins, 
Acting pastor, Brother Lucius Hazen, Delegate. Hartford North — Rev. Carey 
Russell, Pastor, Brother Abner Newton, Delegate. Quechee — Bro. Shubel Russ, 

Rev. Ira Tracy being present was invited to sit in council as a corresponding 

The Council was organized by choosing the Rev. Roswell Shurtleff, 
DD., moderator and Eev. Carey Russell, Scribe. Prayer by Moderator. 
Evidences were then laid before the Council exhibiting the invitation of 
thfe Chh. and society to Mr. Jno. K. Lord to become their pastor and 
teacher. His answer was also given in the affirmative. The Council 
then proceeded to an examination of the candidate in relation to his 
doctrinal and experimental knowledge of Divine subjects. After a sat- 
isfactory examination the council voted unanimously to proceed to the 
ordination of Mr. Lord as pastor of the church in this place. 

Voted, that the several parts of the ordination exercises be perfoi med 
as follows : 

Rev. Mr. Watkins — Invocation and reading of the scriptures. Rev. 
Mr. Cook — Introductory prayer. Rev. Prest. Lord — Sermon. Rev. 
Mr. Goddard — Ordaining Prayer. Rev. Mr. Hazen — Charge to the 
Pastor. Rev. Mr. Russell — Right hand of Fellowship. Rev. Mr. 
Haddock — Address to the people. Rev. Mr. Wright — Concluding 
Prayer. Hymn and benediction by the Pastor. 

Voted to adjourn till to morrow morning at a quarter before ten, to 
meet at the White River hotel. Met according to adjournment. Then 
proceeded to the meeting-house and ordained Mr. John K. Lord Pas- 
tor of this church according to previous arrangements. 

(Signed) ROSWELL SHURTLEFF, Moderator. 
(Signed) GARY RUSSELL, Scribe. 

Attest— A true copy of record. CARY RUSSELL. 

A true copy from the records of the Council. 


Clerk of the Church. 

Dec. 8, 1846, at a called meeting, the church chose Samuel Tracy, 
agent on the part of the church, to execute a deed and bond of sale of 
the parsonage. July 3, 1847, Rev. Mr. Lord, having received an invita- 
tion to become pastor of the First Congregational church in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, requested the church to unite with him in calling a council. John 
Strong, Allen Hazen, and Samuel Tracy, were chosen to act with the 
pastor in calling a council, but the step taken by Mr. Lord met with 
great disfavor and evoked a spirited protest from the church. July 11, 
Samuel Tracy was chosen to present the case before the council, at 
which time the church adopted several resolutions expressive of regret 
that the pleasant relations which had existed for nearly six years be- 


tween the pastor and the church and society, should, contrary to their 
wishes, be broken ; and of their disapprobation of the practice of dis- 
turbing the pleasant and profitable relations between a pastor and his 
people, that he may occupy a new and untried field, and that, without 
consulting the wishes and opinion of those who are thus to be bereft of 
a pastor, — that it tends greatly to discourage those churches and par- 
ishes who take a moderate view of their own importance, and to encour- 
age dissatisfaction and instability among those who think themselves 
(with or without reason) to be the important ones ; and tends, also, to 
lead ministers of the gospel to think too much of the approbation of 
man to the neglect of the humble and faithful preaching of " Christ and 
his cross," and gives great occasion to the enemies of religion to think 
and speak of pastors as mere hirelings, and leads all to think lightly of 
a settled ministry ; that it was only in view of the unscriptural practice 
contemplated in the foregoing resolutions, and the urgency of the call 
at Cincinnati, that the church would not make an effort to prevent the 
dissolution of that connection which had hitherto so happily subsisted 
between them and their pastoi'. The council dismissed Mr. Lord, and 
his ministry at White River village terminated July 16, 1847.' 

February, 1848. — The church having enjoyed the labors of Mr. Jo- 
siah Merrill, for several Sabbaths, extended to him an invitation to be 
ordained as their pastor, which he accepted and was ordained March 1, 

Nov. 1st, 1849.— A letter missive was received from sundry individu- 
als at West Lebanon inviting attendance by pastor and delegate in coun- 
cil to assist in organizing a Congregational church in that place, and in 
the dedication of their meeting-house to Almighty God. Mr. John 
Strong was chosen delegate. 

Nov. 18, 1849. — A letter missive from the First Congregational church 
in Lebanon, was received inviting us by our pastor and delegate to meet 
in council on the 21st inst. to advise and assist in the installation of 
Rev. C. H. Downs, as their pastor. Chose Br. Geo. Lyman, delegate. 

June 15, 1847. — A letter missive from the church in W. Lebanon, N. 
H., was received inviting us to a council for the installation of Rev. Ru- 
fus Case. Br. John Strong was appointed delegate. (A. Bailey substi- 
tuted for Mr. Strong.) (Should have been inserted elsewhere.) 

Dec. 12, 1851. — Alvan Bailey was delegate to an exparte council 
called by a minority of the church in Hartland. 

' Mr. Lord labored in Cincinnati with his native ardor and fidelity, and with great 
success, till, in the summer of 1849, the cholera terminated his ministry,— all too 
brief as it seemed to those who mourned his loss. But, in his own words, — " his 
record is on high." 


Samuel Tracy was delegate for the installation of Rev. Dr. Clement at 
Woodstock (1851). 

Nov. 4, 1853 — John Strong, Allen Hazen, Nathan Gillett, Alvin Bai- 
ley, and Samuel Tracy, were chosen a committee to consider and report 
a plan for providing a vestiy. 

March 30, 1854. — Dea. Samuel Tracy being about to leave town for 
Platteville, Wisconsin, himself, wife and daughter received dismission 
and recommendation to any church where the providence of God might 
call them. 

Rev. J. Merrill, the pastor, was chosen clerk of the church.' 

April 25, 1854 — Bro. John Strong was a delegate to sit in council at 
West Hartford to advise with reference to the dismission of Rev. Wm. 
Claggett. (Mr. Claggett was not dismissed until May, 1859.) 

On Nov. 3d, 1854, Mr. Ora Wood was chosen deacon in place of Dea. 
Samuel Tracy who has gone to Wisconsin. 

May 7th, 1854 — Agreeable to a letter missive, Mr. Allen Hazen was 
appointed delegate to sit in council at Norwich North with reference to 
the dissolution of that church. 

Sept. 19 th, 1856 — At a church meeting a committee was appointed to 
confer with the pastor with regard to a communication read by him to 
the congregation on the previous Sabbath requesting the church to 
unite with him in calling a council with reference to his dismissal. 
This committee was authorized to take measures to adjust some dif- 
ficulties existing between the pastor and some disaffected individuals in 
the society. 

Sept. 26th, 1856 — It was voted that the church unite with the pastor 
in calling a mutual council to act with regard to his dismissal. The 
ecclesiastical council called on this occasion consisted as follows : — 

Hanover— Rev. J. Richards, D.D., Pastor. Prof. S. G. Bro\\Ti, Del. 

Woodstock — Rev. J. Clement, D.D., Pastor. Benjamin S. Marsh, Del. 

Quechee — Rev. Heman Rood, Pastor. Wm. L. Bragg, Del. 

West Hartford— JuHus Hazen, Del. 

Sharon — Rev. John Adams, Pastor. 

West Lebanon, N. H. — Rev. Rufus Case, Pastor. O. L. Stearns, Del. 

Council was organized by the choice of Rev. H. Rood, Moderator. Rev. Jno. 
Adams, Scribe. 

After consultation, the Covmcil resolved : that in view of the inadequacy of 
the salary the pastoral relations existing between Mr. Merrill and the church 
should be dissolved.'" 

The last entry made in the missing book was as follows : — 

March 4, 1859 — At a prei^aratory lecture, Mr. Edwin Goodell was chosen a 
delegate to sit in Council at West- Hartford in reference to the dismission of Rev. 
William Claggett. 

' Mr. Tracy was" clerk of the church from June, 1832, to March 30, 1854 — twenty- 
one years and seven months; and deacon from Jan. 11, 1832, to March 30, 1854, ^ 
period of twenty-two years and three months. 



The foregoing constitutes nearly evei'ything of material interest found 
on the pages of the church record book commenced by Mr. Hazen with 
the exception of the names of all persons, infants and adults, baptized, 
and of those admitted to church membership from the date of Mr. 
Kazan's ordination to July 1st, 1860, during the ministry of Rev. B. F. 
Eay. These were copied in 1870, and, being the only authentic copies, 
it is deemed proper to use them in this connection with a view to their 
future preservation. It is probable that not more than forty of those 
whose names appear in the list of church members are now living. 



Date. Names. 





Joel Dimock 

Joseph Wood Dimock 

Calvin Dimock 

Bartlett Dimock . . 

Sarah Dimock 

Henry Dimock 

Hannah Dimock 

George Dimock 

Wm. Sanford Hazen 

Ebenr. Payson Doit 

Mary Ann Stone 

Erastus Feno 

Sibbel Dimick Feno 

Sophia Dunham Feno 

Philip Dimick Feno 

Clarissa Feno 

Hannah E. Hutchinson.. 
Wm. Austin Hutchinson. 

Hazeah N. Penfield 

Wealthv Wright 

Eliza Wright 

Austin Hazen Wright 

Sylvester Edson Feno 

Sophia Dana Hazen 

Joseph Hazen 

Chas. Chapman Marsh 

Levi RusseU Marsh 

Edward Warren Marsh 

Benj. Franklin Marsh 

Allen Hazen 

Cynthia Bugbee 

Geo. Pease Bugbee 

Sarah Blake Lyman 

Charles Blake Stone 

Henry Morril Stone 

Emily Dora Hazen 

Jane Lyman 

]Mary Jane Lyman 

Jonathan Bugbee 



Mch. 1817 

July ;; 

May " 

a a 


ii ii 

ii ii 

Mch. 1818 

Alvin Wood Jime 

Carlton Clark " 

Larnud Clark " 

Mary Alexander King July 

Lucy King " 

Azeeba King " 

Hopkins B. Pease _ " 

Sawyer S. Stone " 

Emily B. Stone. .-. " 

Siloh Dunklie " 

Mary Dunklie " 

Lucia Dunklie " 

Paschal Dunklie " 

Thomas W. Pitkin i.. Sept. 

Mary Pitkin 

Lucius Pitkin " 

Persis Stone " 

Roswell Marsh July 

James Marsh " 

Percy Marsh " 

Louisa Marsh " 

Leonard Marsh " 

Arabella Marsh " 

Emily Marsh " 

Daniel Marsh " 

Rebecca Pitkin " 

George Pitkin " 

Joseph Tracy Aug. 

Ezra Carter Tracy " 

Myron Tracy. " 

Warner Tracy " 

Ira Tracy " 

Samuel Tracy " 

Stei)hen Tracy " 

Elizabetli Harwood Sept. 

Melinda Wood " 

Hannah Lyman " 

Charles Gage Mch. 

Samuel Augustus Gage " 

Eliza Pitkin. June 

Ruth Ann Dorr Nov. 

Shellys Sept. 

List of persons admitted to the church from the beginning to the 
close of Rev. Austin Hazen's ministry. May 1812, to July 1st, 1828. In 
this table p, signifies admitted by profession : 1, by letter ; *, dead ; X, 

















dismissed by letter : o, excommunicated ; b, baptized ; c, certificate of 

membership given ; a, ordained. 

Year. Month. Name. Year. Month. Name. 

1812 Jiilv, 
" Nov. 

1813 Mch. 
" May 

1814 Mch. 
" April 

I ' ' June 
t " Julv 

1815 Sept. 
" Nov. 

1816 Jan. 
" Mch. 
" May 



1817 Jan. 

1817 Jan. 
" May. 

" Oct. 

1818 Nov. 

1819 Mch. 
" July 

Percy Whitney t 
Benjamin Clark, Jr 1; 
Mercy Strong :}; 
Reuben Hazen X 
Polly Bailey * 
Judah Bailev * 
Abel Pentield X 
Jane Phelps :]: 
Joseph Tracy * 
Timothy Lester X 
Anna Gage 
Wm. Webster * 
Mrs. Emily H. Shellys 
Abigail Pitkin X 
Abigail Bliss * 
Marinda Hazen J 
Nancy Dorr X 
Samuel Weld X 
Sally Weld X 
Ruth Tracy * 
Elizabeth Hvitchinson * 
Lora Marsh X 
Lyman Marsh b * 
Miron Tracy X a 
Orpha Clark 
Erepta Marsh X 
Gratia Marsh X h 
Olive Loomis X 
Joel Dimock X 
Elizabeth Feno 
Aniira Smith X 
Ezekiel Evans * 
Hannah Kibby * 
Elihu Woodward X 
Abigail Baker X 
Susan Jennings X b 
Mary Green * 
Elizabeth Wright * 
Melinda Udall X 
Lucv Hall 
Ruth Pitkin * 
Lucy Russ b 
Frances M. D. Hazen ' 

1819 July p Joseph Tracy X 
" Mcli. p Mrs. Brown X 

" May 1 Wm. Hutchinson X 

1820 Sept. p Ira Tracy, ordained 
" '■ p Samuel Tracv X 

1821 Mch. p Roger Marsli * 

" " p Marv Marsh ^ b * 

1822 Sept. 1 Abigail Field * 
" " p Mary Child b X 
" Nov. p Sally Porter b * 
" " 1 Cyntliia Bugbee 

1823 May p Stillman Simmons b 
" " p Nancy Marsh 1) X 

" July p Jerusha Wright b X 

" '• p Orpha Fox * 

" Sept. p Nancv Hale 

1824 Mch. p Polly'Wood 

" " p Rhoda Riggs b * 

" May p Sarah A. Weld X 

1824 Nov. 1 Mrs. Christopher Pease} 

182") Mch. I Mrs. Jerusha Leavitt* 
Polly Smith* 
" '• Lucy Whitney :j: 

' ' May Abraham Marsh a 
1826 July Eliza Russ} 
•• Sept. George Lyman} 
Stephen Tracy 
" Martha Pinneo 

Clarissa Tracy b * 
" " Marv Strong b 

" " Harriet Brooks b } 

" " Laura Brooks b X 

1826 Sept. Ruby Gillett b } 

• • ' • Clementine Lyman b X 

Lydia B. King b t 
" " Nancy E. Douse} 

" Nov. Harriet B. Porter b} 
1 Marv B. Lvman } 

1827 July 1 Harvey F.'^Leavett} a 
" " 1 Minerva L. Leavitt* 

1828 Feb'y 1 Gershom Rice} 
" " 1 Sarah Rice} 

' ' July p Olive Russ b } 

The two years following the dismissal of Mr. Merrill, preaching was 
supplied from Hanover, N. H., and by Rev. O. B. Hitchcock, Rev. L. 
R. B. Perkins, and Rev. E. T. Rowe, the two latter nearly a year each. 
Rev. B. F. Ray commenced his labors in November, 1859 ; was installed 
Feb. 7, 1860, and after a successful ministry of nearly eleven years was 
dismissed July 11, 1870. His salary at first was seven hundred dollars 
and the use of the parsonage, which was increased to twelve hundred 
some time after. He removed to New Ipswich, N. H., where he died 
January 7, 1872. His burial was in Hartford cemetery, at the request 
of his former parishioners, who erected a monument there as a token 
of their respect and affection. 


Oa the 11th of September, 1871, the church and society voted to ex- 
tend a call to Rev. Robert Southgate to become pastor, and offer him a 
yearly salary of one thousand dollars and the use of two rooms in the 
parsonage. Oct. 24, 1871, the offer was amended by offering, in ad- 
dition to the above, a yearly vacation of four Sabbaths, and that Mr 
Southgate should preach two sermons on the Sabbath whenever re- 
quested to do it. This offer was accepted and Mr. Southgate was in- 
stalled. His labors were terminated by his sudden death, while on a 
visit at Woodstock, Feb. 6, 1873, at the age of sixty-five. 

The church was next supplied, for a year from Nov., 1873, by Rev. 
John Rogers. March 3, 1875 the church and society voted to give a 
call to Rev. S. IngersoU Briant, with a salary of twelve hundred dollars 
and the use of the parsonage. Mr. Briant accepted the call and was 
installed pastor, May 20, 1875, in which relation he still continues, 

The parsonage was built in 1848, and the vestry in 1860. The first 
pipe-organ was put into the meeting-house by Phineas Fisher in 
1885. It was built by a Mr. Phelps of Brookfield, Vt. In 1872, March 
9th, the pew-holders voted to repair the interior of the meeting-house, 
putting in new pews, furnace, &c., and in addition the old organ was 
replaced by the one now in use, which cost $1700. The old organ was 
sold to be placed in a Catholic church edifice in St. Albans. The cost 
of repairs, including carpet and cushions was $5,575. The bell now in 
use is the fifth in number that has occupied the belfry, and may it be the 
last. A bell to be used for no other purjDOse than that of calling peo- 
ple to meeting at a permanently established, well-known hour, is quite 
as superfluous as a bell to call people to a public concert, or other 
secular entertainment. People who attend religious exercises should 
consult their time -pieces with the same degree of interest that is mani- 
fested by them regarding the hour fixed for opening places of amuse- 

The total number of members admitted to the church since its organ- 
ization, as appears of record, is as follows : 

Number at tlie date of Mr. Hazen's ordination 85 

admitted during his pastorate 86 

" " ministry of Prof . Haddock 95 

of Mr. Lord 69 

ofMr.Merrill 38 

Nov. 1856 to Feb. 7, 1860 25 

to July 1st, during ministrv of Mr. Ray 14 

between July 1, 1860 and Jan 1, 1887 248 


Membership dissolved by death. 222 

by letter 245 

" " witladrawal 5 


Membership January 1st, 1887 188 


The membership of the church at stated periods has been as follows : 
May 27, 1812/ 85 ; January 1, 1831, 91 ; Sept. 1, 1833, 56; Aug. 1, 1835, 
59; Aug. 1, 1836, 65; Aug. 1, 1837, 60; Aug. 1, 1838, 57; Aug. 1, 
1839, 56 ; Aug. 1, 1840, 58 ; Aug. 1, 1841, 61 ; Aug. 1, 1845, 128 ; Jan'y 
1, 1858, 115; Jan. 1, 1870, 181; Jan 1, 1887, 188. 

The number of baptisms between Jan. 6, 1859 and Jan. 1, 
1887, is 78. For further statistical facts see record book in the hands 
of the clerk, Rev. Mr. Briant. The deacons of the church since its or- 
ganization are as follows : In office in 1812, Jonathan Whitney ; ap- 
pointed Jan'y 4, 1816, Paul Pitkin, Judah Bailey ; Jan'y 11, 1832, Sam- 
uel Tracy, William Gillett ; May, 1845, Nathan Gillett ; Nov. 5, 1854, 
Ora Wood. 


From the first settlement of the town until 1828, the religious life of 
the town flowed in a smooth channel. The Centre church and the church 
at Dothan were associated until 1805 with Dartmouth College. A re- 
arrangement, under the modern impulse to forsake the hills, and abide 
in the valleys, or business centres, was in progress from 1828 to the date 
of the dissolution of the Dothan church in August, 1847. The church 
at Dothan was the parent of the church at West Hartford. At a meet- 
ing of the church at Dothan, May 2d, 1830, the following petition was 
presented by David Ingraham, Elder : — 

" To the pastor and church and society, called Dothan Society, in 
Hartford, greeting : 

We whose names are underwritten being providentially situated at an 
inconvenient distance to attend generally the meetings of the church to 
which we belong, and in a neighborhood which has of late formed a re- 
ligious society for the purpose of supporting the preaching of the gos- 
pel, and as some of our neighbors who are members of other churches 
agree with us on the expediency of forming a visible church in the soci- 
ety, known by the name of West Hartford, present our request for let- 
ters of recommendation to a council which may he called for the express 
purpose of forming a church in the above named society, and until said 
church shall be formed wish not to consider our relation removed. 

N. B.: It is understoood that we expect to be in fellowship with the or- 
thodox churches in the neighborhood, and hope to be established by 
voice of a council already appointed for that purpose." 

' During the pastorate of Mr. Hazen, a period of seventeen years, eighty-six per- 
sons united with his church. During that time he baptized eight3r-two persons. He 
recorded the date of the death of fifty persons who were members of his church at 
the date of his ordination in iSi2, and of about twenty-five of those admitted to his 
church during his ministrations. Therefore the number of living resident and non- 
resident members of his church at the date of his dismission in 1829, was ninety-six, 
provided tiiat his record of the whole number of decedents was correct. 




The petition was dated " West Hartford, April 29, 1830," and was 
signed by David Ingraham, Truman Newton, Burpee Prouty, Zavan Ha- 
zeu, David Wilson, Polly Wilson, Abigail Hazen. Sophia Ingraham, Re- 
becca Smith, Daniel Newton, Sabra Newton, Rachel Burton, Eunice 
Newton, Abigail Savage, Lucius Hazen, and David Hazen. 

On receiving this petition, the church appointed, as a committee to 
confer with the petitioners. Brothers Solomon Hazen and Asahel Dut- 
ton. May 8th, the committee reported their conference with the peti- 
tioners, and recommended that their petition be granted. Whereupon 
the church voted to give their consent, etc. Subsequently the church at 
Dothan granted letters of recommendation to the church in West Hart- 
ford to the following named persons : Reuben Hazen, Alandrus In- 
graham, Elijah Hazen and wife, Luna DuttoD, Carlton D. Hazen and 
wife, Deborah Hazen, Norman Hazeu, Dea. Julius Hazen, Solomon 
Crandall, Hannah D. Hazen, Avice Prouty, Dea. John Fuller and wife, 
Harper T. Savage and wife, Mrs. Abigail H. Dutton, and others. 


The Congregational Society in West Hartford was organized January 
29th, 1829. The first meeting was held in the little brick school-house 
in this village on the above date. Dr. David Ingraham was chosen mod- 
erator ; Phineas Parkhurst, clerk and treasurer ; Zavan Hazen, collector; 
and David Hazen, Harvey Noble, and Joel Dimmick, prudential com- 

The constitution then ordained and established was then signed by 
the following persons : — 

Elijah H. Bm-ton, 
Thomas Crandall, 
Calvin Dimmick, 
Cliauncey Dimmick, 
Joel Dimmick, 
Oren Dimmick, 
Samuel B. Dimmick,' 
James Dunn, 
Jason Downer, 
Jolm Downer, 
Stephen S. Downer, 
James Gage. 
Dan Hazen, 
David Hazen, 

Elisha Hazen, 
Levi Hazen, 
Lucius Hazen, 
Lyman Hazen, 
Reuben Hazen, 
Reuben Noble Hazen, 
Stillman Hazen, 
Zavan Hazen, 
Abel Howard, 
Eliphaz Hunt, 
David Ingraham, 
Baxter B. Newton, 
Truman Newton, 
Harvev Noble. 

Hiram Parkhurst, 
Phineas Parkhurst, 
Cad well Phelps, 
Morris Phelps, 
John Pinks, 
Burpee Prouty, 
John Reddington, 
AVm. A. Simonds, 
Ira Tenney, 
James Wade, 
Asa Whitcomb, Jr., 
Willard White, 
Noadiah White. 
Thomas Whitney, 
David Wilson. 

Prior to the formation of this society many of the people in this sec- 
tion attended religious meetings at the Centre of the town. Others at- 
tended the meetings which were held by the Baj^tists, in the house of 
Col. Joel Marsh, at West Hartford, and in the brick school house. Con- 

' Mr. S. B. Dimmick is the only surviving member who signed the constitution. 


verts to the Baptist faith were baptized in the river near where the 
old hotel now stands. A Mr. Martin, who was a Christian minister, 
preached here a few times about 1819. There is a blank in the records 
of this society from January 7th, 1833, to January, 1838. Durirg this 
interim a meeting-house was built in 1832. The cost of this house, the 
sale of pews, the registration of the pew-holders ; in a word, all the 
business transactions of the society during those five years, are matters 
of doubt and uncertainty, owing to the culpable negligence of the clerks, 
Dr. Ira Teuney and W. L. Bragg. 

The church was organized Juue 3d, 1830. In pursuance of letters 
missive from a committee at West Hartford, who were members of Con- 
gregational churches in other j^arts of the town of Hartford, an ecclesias- 
tical council convened in the house of Dr. David Ingraham, in that vil- 
lage, consisting of the following pastors and delegates, viz : — 

North Church, in Norwich — Rev. S. Goddard, pastor, and J. Emerson, 

North Church, in Hartford — Rev. Austin Hazen, pastor ; A. Dutton, 

Sharon — Rev. Samuel Bascom, pastor ; Samuel Steele, delegate. 

Pomfret — Dea. David Dana, delegate. 

Royalton — Rev. A. C. Washburn, pastor : George Rix, delegate. 

Council was organized with Rev. S. Goddard, moderator ; and Rev. 
A. C. Washburn, scribe. After proceeding to business, there appeared 
Gershom Rice and Roger Marsh, as delegates from the church at White 
River village. After long and serious deliberation, the council resolved 
to form a church to be called " The Congregational Church of West 

The following order of exercises was adopted : Sermon, Rev. A. C. 
Washburn; fellowship of the churches. Rev. S. Goddard. The public 
exercises were then proceeded with. The sermon by Mr. Washburn 
was founded on 1. Thess. 2: 11, 12.: '-And ye know how we exhorted 
and comforted and charged every one of you as a father his children, 

The following persons were then organized into a church, all of them 
being recommended to the council from other churches, viz: David In- 
graham, Truman Newton, Burpee Prouty, Zavan Hazen, David Wilson, 
Polly Wilson, Eunice Newton, Lucius Hazen, Abigail Hazen, Sophia 
Ingraham, Rebecca Smith, Daniel Newton, Sabra Newton, Rachel Bur- 
ton, Abigail Savage, David Hazen, from the North church at Dothan ; 
with two from the church at the Centre of the town, making a total of 
eighteen members. During the year 1830, the membership of the 
church was increased to thirty-seven, of whom six only were by profes- 


Before the meeting-house was built, religious meetings were held in 
the brick school-house by the Congregationalists, and in the house of 
Joel Marsh by the Baptists. Rev. A. C. Washburn was the first preacher 
employed by the Congregational Society. He preached often during the 
years 1828-29. Rev. Joseph "White was the second acting pastor. His 
.ministrations extended to January 1st, 1833. Much religious prosperity 
attended his labors. In a little more than one year sixty- seven united 
with the church — fifty-five by profession. From January, 1833, toi May, 
1836, the pulpit was supplied by Rev. Samuel Bascom of Sharon, Rev. 
Joseph White and others. Rev. R. A. Watkins was acting pastor from 
May 27, 1836, to January 12, 1845. During his ministry in 1842, there 
were large accessions to the church. The next supply was Rev. Samuel 
M. Stone, who preached from May 16, 1845, to August, 1846.^ 

Rev. William Claggett, who was the first and only pastor of this 
church, came with his family in December, 1846. He was installed Jan- 
uary 31, 1849. The record of the council is as follows, viz : 

" Pursuant to letters missive from the Congregational church in West 
Hartford, an Ecclesiastical council convened at that place at 2 o'clock 
p. M. for the purpose, if thought proper, to assist in the installation of 
Rev. Wni. Claggett, as their pastor. The Council consisted of the fol- 
lowing pastors and churches : 

Pomfret, Rev. Elihu Smith, acting jDastor; White River village, 
Rev. Josiah Merrill, pastor ; Br. John Strong, delegate ; Norwich, 
north. Rev. E. B. Emerson, pastor; Dea. Samuel Goddard, delegate ; 
Quechee, Rev. John Dudley, acting pastor ; Dea. Solomon Crandall, 
delegate; Sharon, Dea. Timothy Marsh, delegate. 

Rev. Nelson Barbour, agent for the American Prot. Society, Rev. 
John Adams and Rev. J. Richards, D. D., were present. After an in- 
vestigation, the council voted to proceed with the installation. The 
parts were then arranged as follows : 

Invocation and reading Scriptures, Rev. E. B. Emerson ; introduc- 
tory prayer, Rev. John Adams ; sermon. Rev. J. Richards, D. D. ; in- 
stalling prayer, Rev. Nelson Barbour; charge to the pastor, Rev. Elihu 
Smith; address to the people, Rev. John Dudley; fellowship of the 
churches. Rev. Josiah Merrill; concludii:g prayer, Rev. E. B. Emerson; 
benediction by the pastor. Rev. Wm. Claggett." 

The council then adjourned to meet at the house of the pastor-elect 
on the following morning. 

Jan. 31st, Council met as per adjournment, and voted to proceed to 

' Mr. Stone met with a fatal accident in August, 1S46. While on his way to Han- 
over, N. H., to attend commencement exercises, he was thrown from his carriage 
and his right leg was broken. From this accident he soon after died. 

^ Mr. Claggett was dismissed in May, 1859. He died in Washington, N. H., 
August 1st, 1870. 


the meeting-house and engage in the services, Avhich were performed 
according to the arrangement. 

ELIHU SMITH, Moderator. 

Attest, LUCIUS HAZEN, Clerk of Church and Society. 

Rev. James B. Gilbert supplied the pulpit from June 1st to Septem- 
ber 1st, 1859. He was succeeded by his brother, X. P. Gilbert, who 
preached from October 16th, 1859, to Feb. 12th, 1860. From this last 
date until the arrival of Rev. Horace Wellington, the society was sup- 
plied by Rev. Heman Rood. Rev. Horace Wellington commenced his 
labors in November, 1860, and continued until January 31st, 1869. 
From Jan. 31st to April 4th, 1869, the church was supplied by Prof. 
Henry C. Parker of Dartmouth College, who also preached several 
times subsequently during the following five months. Prof. Parker 
was very much liked. To a fine physique, he added a gracefulness of 
manner, a j^leasing address, deep learning, unquestionable piety, and a 
fervent, earnest delivery. 

Mr. Parker was succeeded by Messrs. Pierson and Frary, of Andover 
Theological Seminary; Profs. Noyes and Packard of Dartmouth Col- 
lege; Rev. Geo. E. Byington; Rev. Dr. Clement of Norwich, and Rev. 
Mr. Smith of Hanover Centre, till Sept. 19th, 1869. Rev. Asa Hem- 
menway, formeiiy connected with the Siani mission, and late of 
Mooers, N. Y., commenced his ministry in this parish, Sept. 18th, 1869, 
and remained until January 1st, 1871. The pulpit was next supplied 
by Rev. Bezaleel Smith, from April 9th, J 871, to January 1st, 1878. 
Mr. Smith was succeeded by Rev. Frederick Newport, July 14th, 1878. 
He preached until Feb., 1880. Rev. Robert D. Miller commenced his 
labors Feb., 1880, and continued until 1885. Rev. S. L. Vincent, the 
present acting pastor, began his labors May 1st, 1885. Dismissed in 


*Rev. Azel Washburn, A. P 1828. Jan. 1831. 

Rev. Joseph White, A. P Jan. 1831. Jan. 1833. 

*Rev. Samuel Bascom, A. P Jiilv 1834. Jan. 1836. 

*Rev. R. A. Watkins, A. P Mav> 1836. Julv 1845. 

*Rev. Samuel M. Stone, A. P Mav 1845. Julv 1846. 

*Rev. Wm. Claggett, Pastor Dec. 1846. Mav 1859. 

Rev. James R. Gilbert, A. P May 1859. Oct. 1859. 

*Rev. Nath. P. Gilbert, A. P Oct. 1859. Feb. 1860. 

Rev. Heman Rood, A. P Feb. 1860. Nov. 1860. 

Rev. Horace Welhngton, A. P Nov. 1860. Jan. 1869. 

Rev. A. Hemmenway, A. P .Sept. 1869. Jan. 18T1. 

Rev. Bezaleel Smith, A. P Apr. 9, 1871. Jan. 1. 1878. 

Rev. Frederick Ne-wiJort, A. P Julv 14, 1878. Feb. 1880. 

Rev. R. D. MUler, A. P Feb. 1880. Apr. 1885. 

Rev. S. L. Vincent, A. P May 1, 1885. Apr. 25, 1888. 

*Known to have deceased. 


There have been fewer cases of discij)line and excommunication in 
the West Hartford Congregational church than in the churches in other 
parts of the town. Four cases only of excommunication have occurred 
during a period of fifty-five years.' All of these were caused by a 
withdrawal of the members, from the watch and care of the church, 
this being the only misdemeanor charged against them. One of this 
number was afterwards reinstated, and received a letter to the church 
at White River village. 

Februaiy 3d, 1861, the membei's of the church assented to a newly 

framed confession. The fourth clause of the confession is here quoted 

as it shows to what a deplorable condition a church, or a community 

may be brought by the evil disposition and habits of a few individuals, 

including both professors and non-professors of religion. The fourth 

clause of the confession is as follows : 

" We acknowledge to a great delinquency throughout this church in 
respect to christian conduct and example, whereby the cause of Christ 
has been much dishonored. We acknowledge the obligation upon us 
as professed christians to seek the jDurity and honor of the church to 
which we belong. And while there have been, and are still, to some ex- 
tent, evils among us which dishonor the christian name, such as an undue 
license of the tongue,'^ attendance upon balls and dancing-parties, and 
a lack of christian integrity in business engagements, we disclaim all 
sympathy with such evils, and acknowledge our obligation and inten- 
tion to seek to have them removed from the church for the honor of 
Christ and the christian name." 


*David Ingraham June 1830 Mar. 1835. 

*Burpee Prouty June 1830 Feb. 1849. 

Solomon Crandall .Feb. 1835 : Aug. 1840. 

Constance Sheppard Jan. 1836 Mar. 1840. 

*John Fuller July 1841 Sept. 1861. 

Harper T. Savage Aug. 1845 Oct. 1856. 

*Silas Ingraham Jan. 1860 Mar. 1865. 

Carlton D. Hazen Jan. 1860 Jan. 1870. 

Sherburn D. Hutchins Apr. 1865 Apr. 1867. 

*Franklm S. Hazen Feb. 1870 1879. 

John H. Hazen Feb. 1870 1887. 

Geo. T. Hazen May. 1882 " 

* Dead. 

' The members of the church referred to were Noah Button, Enos Newton, Laura 
Ann (nee Dutton) Newton, and Charles H. Thurston. In 1843, the first three be- 
came " Second Adventists," but failing in their expectation to " go up," at the time 
designated by Miller, their prophet, they renounced the church, and turned to the 
"world." C. H.Thurston was cut off from the church March 29th, 1866. After 
a full confession made Feb. 17th, 1875, he was restored. Feb. 29th he was recom- 
mended to the White River village church. 

■ " The censorious cultivate the forms of religion that they may more freely in- 
dulge in the only pleasure of their lives — that of calumniating those who to their 
other feelings add not the sin of hyprocricy." — Colton. The most ridiculous de- 
riders of piety, and the most bloodthirsty pirate upon the high seas, [are white souled 
and harmless as doves in comparison with the man or woman, who play the infer- 
nal roles of tale-bearers and scandal mongers against their neighbors. This class of 
humanity are a deadly bane to society at large, and an incubus upon the churches 
which they bring into contempt and decay. 


The clerks of the church and society are not all named in the re- 
cords. The list of clerks of the church since June, 1833, are as follows : 

Samuel Button, Jr., June 1833 — Feb. 1835 ; Rev. Samuel Bascom, 
Feb. 1835— Feb. 1836 : Solomon Crandall, Feb. 1836— May 1836, and 
Jany 1845— May 1845 ; Randall A. Watkins, May 1836— Jan y 1845; 
Samuel M. Stone, May 1846— Aug. 1845 : Lucius Hazen, Aug. 1846— 
May 1854 ; James B. Gilbert, May 1859— Oct. 1859 ; N. P. Gilbert, 
Oct 1859— Feb. 1860 : Loren B. Dudley, Feb. 1860— Nov. 1861 : Carl- 
ton D. Hazen, Nov. 1861 — Feb. 1870 : Henry H. Hayes, (present clerk) 
Feb. 12, 1870-1889. 

The whole number connected with the church since its organization 
is 303. The statistics of the church in January, 1885 were as follows : 
Organization of the church, 1830 ; Minister, Rev. Robert D. Miller, A. 
P.; church members, 21 males, 48 females. Total, 69; Sabbath-school 
scholars, 50 ; families, 38 ; benevolent contributions, $30 ; house expen- 
ditures, $400. 

In 1860, the meeting-house underwent thorough repairs. The pews 
were changed, the gallery was lowered a few feet, the walls were pa- 
pered and the floors were carpeted. A new pulpit was built, and nice 
lamps were affixed to this and to the walls of the house. Nearly the . 
whole expense of the repairs was defrayed by the Ladies' Sewing Society 
of this parish, and the work was superintended by Messrs. Alvan and 
Samuel B. Tucker. The late Abner Fuller, bequeathed to this society 
the sum of $400, the interest of which was to be used for the support 
of preaching. The late Thaddeus Dutton was constituted executor of 
the will. March 24th, 1870, after much disagreement, the society ap- 
pointed Bartlett Dimmick trustee of the fund. Later the fund was in- 
vested in a parsonage, which was the first the society ever owned. 

In 1884, the Congregational society expended about $1200 in making 
improvements within and without their meeting-house. The pews, 
pulpit and gallery for the choir, were constructed anew. The gallery 
was placed in the corner of the house to the left of the pulpit and 
facing the pews. New carpets were laid, new windows and blinds sub- 
stituted for the old, new pulpit furniture and new heating apparatus 
supplied, and the walls handsomely kalcomined. The new stoves were 
the gift of Mr. Carlos Hazen, of Lowell, Mass., a native of West Hart- 
ford. The pulpit furniture was contributed by the ladies of the parish. 


In consideration of the limited salary offered and paid by this so- 
ciety, it has been fortunate in obtaining many ministers of marked abil- 
ity, and none, with one or two exceptions, who have not labored accept- 
ably and successfully in the vineyard of the Lord. 


Rev. Randall A. Watkins, the first settled minister, was a man of ec- 
centric character. He was however a deep thinker, and a profound 
theologian. He had none of those prej)ossessing ways that mark the 
popular preacher. His sermons were purely doctrinal, and he dealt 
ponderous blows against the bulwarks of satan. He preached without 
gesticulation, and in nasal tones, and on summer days, the most wake- 
ful members of his congregation became a trifle drowsy, when the good 
preacher reached the " fifthly " of the fifth division of his sermon. Mr. 
Watkins was an inveterate smoker, and the loeed being very offensive to 
Mrs. Watkins, she arranged the matter to their mutual comfort and 
satisfaction by having a hole cut through the fireboard, into which he 
put his pipe, and the noxious fumes went up the chimney. Several 
years after he left West Hartford, Mr. Watkins removed with his 
daughter Elizabeth, near Chicago, 111., where in 1870, he died in a state 
of wretchedness, filth and destitution, to which he had voluntarily aban- 
doned himself, and subjected his daughter. An account of the matter 
first appeared in the Chicago papers, which was copied by the press all 
over the country. 

Rev. Horace Wellington, who was acting pastor from 1860 to 1869, 
was an able preacher, and during his ministry large accessions were 
made to the church. He was not, however, one of those men who attract 
by personal magnetism, and win friendly regard by deeds of loving 
kindness. He cultivated acquaintances with but a few of his parishioners. 
Had he been as attentive to all the sheep of his flock, as he was to a 
few cossets, his services would have been generally more profitable to 
the flock, and quite as acceptable to the Great Shepherd. 

Rev. A. Hemmenway was a very popular man with all classes of his 
parishioners, especially with the poor. From the time he began his 
labors he brought many people out to meeting who had seldom, if ever 
before, attended religious services. He acted the part of a Christian 
gentleman, and won love and respect by being deserving of both. He 
passed much of his time among his parishioners, ingratiated himself 
into their favor by a uniform expression of kindly interest, and made 
himself beloved and welcomed by every one. Consequently, he was 
successful in his endeavors to promote the Master's cause. " Ubi mel, 
ibi apesP Where there is a pleasing attraction there will be no want of 



A Congregational society was formed in Quechee Village January 
Tth, 1830, under the title of "The First Congregational Society in 
Quechee Village," at which time a constitution was adopted, and 
officers chosen. The articles of association were then signed by 

Benjamin Abbott, Daniel Marsh, James Russell, 

James Boyd, Hammon 3Iarsh, Sanford Sessions, 

Ethan Burnap, Levi H. 3Iarsh, James Snow, 

Thomas Carter, Leonard Marsh, Martin Smith, 

O. C. Currier, John Porter, Andrew Ti-acy, 

Johua Dewey, Elihu Ransom, George Udall^ 

Jacob Dimmick, Shubel Russ, Elihu Woodward, Jr. 
David Elmer. 


An association was formed in Quechee Village, November 5th, 1832, 
under the title of the " Quechee Village Meeting-house Society," for 
the purpose of building a meeting-house for the Congregational Church 
and society in that village. The third article of the by-laws reads as 
follows: " The meeting-house shall be at least sixty feet long by forty- 
four feet wide exclusive of the j^ortico — shall contain at least sixty 
slips, and shall be finished in the year 1833." Article 7th says: 
" Whereas unhappy differences arise from the collision of different re- 
ligious sects and unhappy effects result from preaching different and 
contradictory doctrines in the same place — the meeting-house of this 
society shall be exclusively for the use and occupancy of one denomina- 
tion of Christians, to wit — the Congregationalists — those Congrega- 
tionalists namely who are now usually called the ' Orthodox,' and 
sometimes ' Calvinists.' " 

The articles of association or bj^-laws were signed by the following 
named persons: — Leonard Marsh, George Udall, Andrew Tracy, Shubel 
Russ, Lucy Russ, Elizabeth Foster, Thomas Carter, John Lovering, 
John Porter, Levi H. Marsh, Elihu Woodward, Jr., Jose^jh Marsh, 
David Smith, Evarista Jennings, John B. Bliss, Elihu Ransom, Consider 
Alexander, 2d, Thomas Alexander, Christopher Pease, Joseph Shallies, 
R. Densmore, Ruf us Barron, Hammona Marsh, Josej^h Sleeper, David 
Elmer, Justus Gillett, Freegrace Leavitt, James Gage, Adino Udall, 
Jesse F. Jennings, Wm. Maxham, M. L U. Roswell Marsh, A. Lumbard. 

At the first annual meeting of the society held in the house of Wm. 
Maxham, October 31, 1834, the following named officers were elected: 
— President, Shubel Russ ; Secretary, Leonard Marsh; Treasurer, E. 

'The records of this society are missing. The above is all that I have been able 
to find. 


Woodward; Collector, Levi H. Marsh; Prudential Committee, L. PI. 
Marsh, George Udall, and Slmbel Russ. 

The meeting-house erected by this society in 1833, is the building 
now used for a school house. The records concerning the dedication 
of the meeting-house, the cost of its construction, and the amount of 
the fund donated to the society by Daniel Marsh, are not to be found. 
The Meeting-house Society went out of existence in 1844, about the 
time of the erection of a meeting-house in Quechee Village by the 
Christian Society. The clerks of the society were: Leonard Marsh, 
Daniel Marsh, F. K. Nichols, Levi H. Marsh, and Jacob Dimick. At 
the annual meeting held January 14, 1813, John Porter was chosen 
"to jjrocure a deed of the land the meeting-house stands on, and to 
ascertain the situation of the Marsh fund." The last record made in 
the society's book of records, reads as follows: "November, 1844. A 
meeting was legally warned, but no one took interest enough to attend 
and all went overboard ! 

J. DIMICK, Sec'ty." 


The second society, entitled the Quechee Village Meeting-house Soci- 
ety, was organized October 31st, 18 VI, for the purpose of building a 
meeting-house in Quechee village, or vicinity. As early as August 14, 
1871, a subscription amounting to $7270, had been secured for this pur- 
pose. The subscription list contained sixty-three names, among which 
was that of Hon. Frederick Billings of Woodstock. Prior to effecting 
a permanent organization, a meeting was held Oct. 12, 1871, for the 
appointment of a committee of three to draft a constitution and by- 
laws, and a committee to choose a location for said meeting-house. The 
first named committee consisted of W. S. Carter, O. F. Barron and 
John Porter. The locating committee were A. G. Dewey, J. C. Parker, 
John Porter and O. F. Barron. At the second meeting, Oct. 25, 1871, 
the constitution and by-laws were adopted and signed by those in 
attendance. The purposes of the society are expressed in the preamble 
to the constitution, viz: — 

First — To procure a suitable lot of ground in or near Quechee village. 

Second — To build thereon a meeting-house for the public and social 
worship of God. 

Third — To use and employ said house for said purposes, according 
to the first section of an act entitled " An act for the support of the 
gospel," passed Oct 26, 1797. 



The signers to the constitution at this meeting were as follows: — 

A. G. DeTvey, 
S. J. Men-ill, 
H. E. Gilson, 
Wni. L. Bragg, 
Wni. Lindsey, 
T. C. Slayton, 
U. H. Church, 
Clark Newton, 
L. M. Benson, 
D. L. Gushing, 
Wm. S. Carter, 
J. C. Parker, 
P. M. Anderson, 
Urial Spalding, 
G. W. Fogg, 
Chas. R. Whitman, 
Henry Safford, 
Lucius Morse, 
WiUie C. BHss, 
Albourne Lull, 

H. P. Taylor, 
G. D. Eastman, 
Jas. H. Tracy, 
Oliver D. Tewksburv, 
L. H. Cady, 
Jacob Dimick, 
N. S. Shallies, 
Jos. C. Aikens, 
E. P. Lamphire, 

E. F. Sisco, 
Ormon W. Wood, 
Jno. C. Head, 
Wm. Wallis, 

J. C. Morse, 

F. A. Sunier, 
Chas. H. Gardner, 
Jesse S. Gardner, 
John Porter, 
Jolui T. Sisco, 
Nathan Harlow, 

Orman B. Head, 
Frank S. Hewitt, 
Chas. Tinkham, 
Albert Smith, 
Chas. H. Shattuck. 
S. P. Buckman, 
Asa Russ, 
Jolni L. Coolidge, 
Thos. S. Carter, 
Channing Williams, 
Wm. S. Dewey, 
H. O. Stephens, 
N. S. Holt, 
Eugene Chiu'ch, 
Scott Tinkham, 
Frank Saxie, 
C. W. Cowen, 
J. W. Parker, 
Chas. A. Sperry, 
Benj. Carpenter. 

The first annual meeting was held Oct. 31, 1871, at which time John 
Porter was elected president, and D. L. Gushing secretary of the soci- 
ety. A committee of three, consisting of Charles R. Whitman, Urial 
Spalding and U. M. Church, was appointed by the president to present 
the names of three members to act as a prudential and building com- 
mittee for the year ensuing. On the 7th of November following, the 
election of officers was completed by the choice of W. S. Dewey as treas- 
urer, and Chas. R. Whitman, collector. A building committee was then 
chosen, consisting of J. C. Parker, D. L. Cushing, and U. M. Church, 
The society voted to locate the meeting-house on what was known as 
the " Russ place," ' owned by W. S. Carter, and then occupied by John 
Hart and E. F. Sisco. 

At a meeting held Nov. 21, 1871^ the building committee were in- 
structed to employ Mr. T. AV. Silloway, of Boston, as architect. The 
meeting-house was completed and dedicated on Thursday, May 23, 
1873. The dedicatory exercises were conducted by Rev. Jonathan 
Clement, D. D., assisted by Rev. Wm. Sewall, of Lebanoc, N. H., and 
Rev. B. Smith, of West Hartford. 

Pursuant to notice given on dedication day, a meeting of the society 
was held in the meeting-house May 24, 1873, J. C. Parker presiding. 
On motion of Mr. James H. Piatt, the pews were sold at auction to the 
highest bidders. Fifty-seven of the sixty-two pews in the house were 
thus sold, the amount realized being $1393. The sale was made for a 
fi'actional part of the year, terminating December 31, 1871. 

' This meeting-house occupies the site on which for many years stood a brewery 
or distillery. 


Dec. 31st, 1873, the society decided to build a parsonage,' and cho?e 
for a building committee Messrs. W. L. Bragg, J. C. Parker, D. L. Gush- 
ing, and Sylvester Merrill. Dec. 20, 1879, John F. Sisco was elected 
clerk of the society, which office he has continuously held to the present 
time (1889). 

At the annual meeting of the society Dec. 25, 1886, the following 
named officers were elected : President, Henry Safford ; committe, L. 
H. Cady, C. R. Whitman, and E. W. Church ; treasurer, F. S. Hewitt ; 
secretary, J. F. Sisco ; collector, H. O. Stephens. At the annual sale of 
pews, Jan. 1, 1887, forty-five in number, the sum realized was $118450. 
The salary of the pastor was fixed at $800, with free use of the parson- 
age, and an annual vacation of four weeks, at the time Rev. N. F. Carter 
was engaged to preach. This is equivalent to. a monied salary of 


The first Congregational church in Quechee village was organized 
Jan. 13, 1831. The records of this church open as follows : 

"Hartford, Quechee Village, December 23, 1830." 

To take into consideration the expedience, and, if judged expedient 
to form a church in this place, a council by letters missive were con- 
vened this day at the house of widow Marsh, consisting of : 

Samuel Goddard, Pastor, Thomas Hazen, Del., Norwich, Vt. 

Austin Hazen, Pastor, Daniel Hazen, Del., Dothan (Hartford.) 

Daniel Dana, Del., from Woodstock. 

Samuel Delano, Pastor, Seth Tinkham, Del., Hartland. 

Joseph Marsh, Pastor, Peter Abbott Del., Pomfret. 

Samuel Goddard was chosen Moderator and Joseph Marsh Scribe. 
Meeting was opened with prayer by the moderator. The brethren who 
were expected to be embraced in said church not all being present, a com- 
mittee of three, viz : Samuel Goddard, Austin Hazen and Samuel De- 
lano, were appointed to confer with them, and the council adjourned 
till nine o'clock to-morrow morning." 

December 24th, the council met as per adjoui'nment, at the house of 
Ethan Burnap, when it was deemed advisable to postpone proceedings, 
to give time for further preparations. The council therefore adjourned 
to January 13, 1831. On the day appointed the council convened at 
the house of widow Marsh. Rev. John Richards, pastor of the church 
in Woodstock, was present. After hearing a report of what had been 
df ne since the adjournment, and of the state of things at the present 
time, and all inquiries having been satisfactorily answered by Rev. Mr. 
Stone, the council then examined the articles of faith and covenant pro- 
fessed to be adopted, and finding them satisfactory, voted, unamiously, to 
proceed in the formation of a church with such individuals as were ready 
to be received. After addressing the throne of grace by the moderator, 
a church was then formed consisting of the following named persons : 

' The parsonage is located on the site formerly occupied by the store of Barron 
& Ransom, merchants. 


By letter — Zenas Darling, Benjamin Abbott, Dorcas Abbott, Olive 
Euss, Rebecca Pease and Susan Jenning. 

By profession — Elihu Ransom, Elihu Woodward, Jr., Esther Page 
and Mariah Woodward. 

The first communion was administered, February 6, 1831, by Rev. J. 
F. Stone, who was the first acting pastor. On this occasion, the follow- 
ing named persons joined the church, viz: Percy Marsh, Jane Randall, 
Gratia Marsh, Mary Pitkin, Erepta Marsh, Emily Marsh, Molly Ses- 
sions and Hannah Pease.' 


I shall quote, verbatin, the records made by the clerks of the church 
concerning ministers, from the organization of the church to the instal- 
lation of the Rev. N. F. Carter. 

" 1830, 1st Sunday in Feb. — Rev. John P. Stone, commenced preach- 
ing and continued his labors for one year. 

1831, August. — Mr. Goddard preached three or five Sabbaths. 
About the first of September, this year. Rev. Joseph Marsh commenced 
preaching and continued for six months. 

1832, March. — Rev. Mr. Marsh preached three Sabbaths. June and 
July Mr. Goddard of Norwich preached three Sabbaths. September 
3d, Rev. Mr. Shurtlefi" of Hanover, commenced preaching, and preached 
seventeen Sabbaths. 

1833. — We were supplied by Mr. Shurtleff through the year. 

1834, Feb. 6. — At a meeting of the church holden at the dwelling 
house of E. Burnap, the church voted that they should be highly grati- 
fied if the labors of Rev. Harvey Leavitt can be obtained. Also voted 
that a committee of two be appointed to join the committee of the Con- 
gregational society, and the committee of the Meeting- House Society 
and unitedly give Mr. Leavitt a call, &c. (This proved unsuccessful.) 

1834. — In October, Mr. Shurtleff discontinued preaching. In No- 
vember, Rev. Mr. Taylor, preached three Sabbaths. 

1835. — A protracted meeting was held for eight days in succession, 
carried on by neighboring ministers, (thirty-four persons were added 
to the church.) April 12, Mr. Wood (Rev. Luke) commenced preach- 
ing here and preached five Sabbaths, then returned home. 

'Ju7ie 30, 1835. — At a meeting of the Congregational church of 
Quechy Village, holden at the Meeting house, — Voted, that we invite 
Rev. Luke Wood, of Killingworth, Conn., to settle with us in the Gospel 
Ministry, as our Pastor & Teacher. Voted that we will give Mr. Wood 
Three hundred dollars per year, provided the Congregational Society 
in this place concur in the above votes. Voted that the Moderator. & 
Mr. Shubel Russ (clerk) api^ly in behalf of the Church of the V. D. M. 
Society for one hundred dollars to aid in supporting Rev. Luke Wood 
the ensuing year, as our Pastor and Teacher. 

August 26, 1835. — After mature deliberation Rev. Luke Wood con- 
cluded to accept the invitation of the church and people of Quechy 

' December 14, 1830, the Congregational church of White River village passed 
the following vote : — "That the following persons, viz: Elihu Woodward, .Mary 
Pitkin, Lucy Russ. Olive Russ, Rebecca Pease, Susan Jennings, Erepta Marsh, 
Percy Marsh, Gratia Marsh and Mary Childs, be permitted to unite with the con- 
templated church, whenever formed, in Quechee village, and that when so united 
they be considered as dismissed from our particular connection." 


Village, and tbis day he was installed to the pastoral care of said church 
and people, by a convocation of ministers convened for that purpose. 

May 15, 1837. — On the ground that his salary was inadequate to a 
support, the Rev. Luke Wood was regularly dismissed from his pastoral 
relation to the church and society in this place. In September, Rev. 
L. Bliss, commenced preaching as stated supply, and continued to 
supply until December, 1839. 

1840. — Rev. Thompson Bird supplied us for about three months. In 
May — Rev. Job Cushman commenced preaching and continued until 
March 1841. 1841, — 2d Sabbath, — Sewall Paine commenced preaching. 
1842, March or April, discontinued. 

1842, April 28. — Rev. George Butterfield commenced preaching and 
closed his labors Jan'y 1st, 1845, when Rev. Abram Jackson com- 
menced preaching and preached twelve Sabbaths. 

1845, Apr. 5th. — Rev. Jno. Dudley, commenced preaching and 
ministered to this church for the space of live years, when, having an 
invitation to labor witb the church at Danville, he felt it to be his duty 
to accept, and left us in the Spring of 1850. 

2f? Sabbath in June 1850, Rev. Abram Jackson resumed labors among 
us and served the church as a stated supply until the fall of 1852. Rev. 
Heman Rood commenced preaching as stated supply the third Sabbath 
of January 1853, and left Ajwil 1st, 1858. — Rev. Mr. Haddock, of 
Lebanon, N. H., commenced preaching in the Spring of 1858. 

1861. — Rev. Prof. Charles B. Haddock's ministry here was terminated 
by sudden death early in January. While stated supply here his 
I'esidence was in "West Lebanon, N. H. Rev. Prof. S. G. Brown, of 
Dartmouth College, supplied from the time of Prof. Haddock's death 
till the last of Jul}^, 1861. Rev. Royal Parkinson began to minister, as 
staled supply, Aug. 1st, 1861, and continued until March, 1863. Rev. 
Prof. Aiken (Dart Col.), succeeded Mr. Parkinson, and preached till 
August or Sept., 1863, when Mr. Wm. Bacon came. Mr. Bacon left for 
Shoreham Jan'y 1, 1864, at which time Prof. Aiken again commenced 
preaching and supplied the pulpit until about April 1st, 1865. 

On the 12th of June, 1866, the church and society united in inviting 
Rev. J. W. Kingsbury to become their pastor. Mr. Kingsbury ex- 
pressed his acceptance on the 15th inst., and on the 28th inst. pursuant 
to letters missive, a council convened in the house of worship, in Que- 
chee Village, consisting of the following named churches : — 

Hartford — Rev. B. P. Ray, pastor ; Charles D. Hazen, delegate. 

West Hartford — Rev. H. Wellington, acting pastor. 

Norwich — Rev. Wm. Sewall, acting pastor ; John Wright, delegate. 

Pomfret — Rev. "W. H. Kingsbury, acting pastor ; Elisha Hewitt, 

Woodstock — Dea. Dana Pierce, delegate. 

Hartland — Rev. Chas. W. Clark, acting pastor ; Elias Bates, delegate. 

Windsor — Rev. E. H. Byington, pastor. 

W. Lebanon, N. H. — Rev. J. H. Edwards, pastor ; Dan'l Richardson, 

The council was organized by the choice of Rev. B. F. Ray, Moderator, 
and Rev. Charles W. Clark, Scribe. After a due consideration of the 
call extended to Mr. Kingsbury, his letter of acceptance and other 


papers, and a relation of the candidate's christian experience, followed 
by an examination as to his theological belief, the council voted to 
proceed with the services of ordination and installation, with the follow- 
ing order of exercises : — 

Invocation and reading of the Scriptures, Rev. C. W. Clark : sermon, 
Eev. J. H. Edwards; ordaining and installing prayer. Rev. H. Welling- 
ton ; charge to the pastor, Rev. E. Byington ; fellowship of the 
churches. Rev. W. H. Kingsbury ; address to the people, Rev. B. F. 
Ray ; concluding prayer, Rev. Wm. Sewall ; benediction by the 

The exercises were performed at 130 p. m , and the council dissolved. 

The pastorate of Mr. Kingsbury continued until Sept. 28, 1869, when 
in accordance with the advice of a council composed of the churches in 
Woodstock, Hartland, Hartford, and West Hartford, a dissolution of 
his pastoral relation terminated. Mr. Kingsbury was succeeded by 
Rev. Dr. Jonathan Clement, who preached as supply until November, 

On the 12th of Nov. 1874, Rev. Melvin May was installed pastor by 
an ecclesiastical council, the following churches being represented : — 
Hartford — Ephraim Morris, del.; West Hartford — Rev. Bezaleel Smith, 
A. P.; Woodstock — Rev. L. W. Hicks, pastor; Dea. Thompson, del.; 
Pomfret— Rev. D. Goodhue, A. P.: Dea. E. Hewitt, del; Sharon— Rev. 
E. B. Chamberlain, A. P.; Windsor — Rev. R. T. Searle, pastor; Dea. C. 
D. Hazen, del.; West Lebanon, N. H. — Rev. A. B. Rich, D. D., pastor ; 
Dea. Saml. Wood, del.; Norwich — Rev. Wm. Sewall, pastor ; E. B. 
Phelps, del. Also, Rev. A. D. Smith, D. D., president Dartmouth Col- 
lege ; Rev. Jonathan Clement, D. D.; Rev. J. L. Fitch, from the church 
in Hartford. 

Rev. B. Smith was chosen moderator ; and Rev. Wm. Sewall, scribe. 
The installation services took place at 1.30 p. m., in the brick church 

Mr. May was dismissed October 20, 1875. Next came Rev. A. B. 
Chase, who was ordained Dec. 14, 1876. The council consisted of the 
churches in West Hartford, Norwich, Hartford, Pomfret. Sharon and 
Si^ringSeld. Rev. Dr. J. Clement was chosen moderator, and Rev. S. I. 
Briant, scribe. Mr. Chase preached as stated supply until some time in 
1879. The clerk of the church has omitted to record the date of Mr. 
Chase's dismissal, nor is there any record of the council convened on the 
occasion of his dismissal. 

Under date of Dec. 13, 1878, I find the following, viz : — 

"At a meeting duly notified for doing church business, Henry Safford 
and Luther H. Cady were elected deacons by every member present bal- 


Rev. N. F. Carter, after preaching eight months on trial, accepted the 

following invitation to become pastor : 

QuECHEE, Feb. 2, 1880. 
Rev. N. F. Carter: 

Dear Brother: — The undersigned, on behalf of the Congregational church of 
Christ, in Quechee, and the ecclesiastical society connected therewith, beg leave 
resjjectfully to submit to your consideration the invitation or call to become pas- 
tor of said church and society, together with the expression of our earnest hope 
that you will be able to conclude it to be the desire of the Great Head of tlie 
church that you accept the call and name an early day for the installation ser- 
vice. Yours in the Gospel, 


WM. L. BRAGG, - Com. of Society. 

J. C. PARKER. ) 


L. H. CADY, - Com. of Church. 

R. A. SEAVER. ) 

Mr. Carter's letter of acceptance was dated Feb. 5, 1880. Feb. 11th, 
letters missive, signed by the members of the above named committee, 
were sent to various churches. Feb. 18, 1880, pursuant to the letters 
missive, an ecclesiastical council convened in the house of worship in 
Quechee village. Rev. E. B. Chamberlin called the council to order ; 
Rev. A. B. Dascomb was chosen moderator, and offered prayer ; after 
which Rev. E. B. Cliamberlin was chosen scribe. 

After the usual preliminary proceedings, the council voted to proceed 
to the installation of Mr. Carter ; and the moderator, the scribe, and 
pastor-elect were appointed to arrange the order of exercises for the in- 

The order of exercises was duly observed, after which the council 

Mr. Carter continued pastor of the church until September 22, 1887, 
when he was dismissed. He was the twenty-fourth minister emyloyed 
by the church and society in Quechee during a period of about fifty- 
seven years. The pastorate of Mr. Carter extended over a period of 
seven years and seven months. The number of members received into 
the church during his pastorate was sixty-seven. 

The total number of church members, as exhibited by the church 
record, to ISBV, is 300, of which number about 100 were admitted dur- 
ing the first five years of the existence of the church. The unclerical, 
unmethodical, manner of keeping the church records subsequent to 
1837 is a reproach to those whose duty it was to make a clear, correct 
and plainly legible record. The status of the church is given but 
twice,' viz., in May, 1845, and in June, 1846. That of May is as fol- 

' I have said that the membership of the church is given but twice, to wit : May, 
1845, and June, 1846. I have discovered under the head of " Miscellany," the fol- 
lowing note: "1862, May ist, report 3, M.Ms. 2g, fms — total, 32. Absent 5; 73 
in S.S," which means that the number of church members, at that time, was 32 ; 
males, 3; females, 29. Number of Sabbath-school scholars, 73. 


lows : Whole number of members 52 ; resident, 43; non-resident, 9 ; 
females, 30; males, 13. That of June, 1846, is as follows : Whole 
number, 65; resident members, 56; non-resident, 9; males, 21; females, 
44 ; received by letter, 11 ; by profession, 4 ; dismissed by letter, 2 ; 
net increase, 13. 

There were but a few cases of discipline during a period of thirty- 
seven years, 1830-186'/. Five persons only were excommunicated. 
Owing to the incoherent manner of keeping the records, it is impossi- 
ble to determine the names of the clerks and the deacons of the church. 
It seems evident, however, that Slmbel Russ officiated as clerk for 
7nore than thirty years from Jan'y, 1832. Among the deacons, were 
Elihu Woodward, George XJdall, Elisha Kinney, John Chase and 
Solomon Crandall. 


Religious services were held in Olcott, from the earliest settlement 
(1886), in private houses and in the school house, mainly under the 
direction of the Christian young men at Dartmouth College, with the 
aid of the neighboring pastors. In December, 1887, it was thought 
that the work could be better carried on by a church organization, and 
at a meeting of all interested, it was unanimously voted to form a 
Union Evangelical Church. A lot of land, at first offered for a Con- 
gregational church, was donated to the proposed church. A creed, 
covenant and rules of order were adopted and letters were secured by 
several members, to such church; but, before the organization was 
completed, the withdrawal of the Methodist members led to the aban- 
donment of the union enterprise. 

The remaining members at a meeting held Aug. 9th, 1888, voted to 
form a Congregational church. The gift of land was renewed to this 
church. A council of the neighboring churches at Hartford, Quechee 
and Norwich, Vt., and Hanover, Lebanon and West Lebanon, N. H., met 
Oct. 14th, 1888, and after reviewing the proceedings of the church pro- 
ceeded to recognize it as " The United Church of Christ " in Olcott. 
It comprised eleven members. The devotional exercises were con- 
ducted by Revs. E. T. Farrill, scribe, and R. C. Lansing. The mem- 
bers were received and addressed by Rev. S. P. Leeds, moderator. The 
prayer of recognition was by Rev. C. E. Havens, and the right-hand of 
fellowship by Rev. S. I. Briant, with a response by Rev. A. S. Chase, 
who is serving as pastor. Union services have been held in Cushman's 
Hall since the Spring of 1888, and a Sunday-school with Edward Goss 

as superintendent. 




The first Presbyterian church collected in this region was organized 
in Hanover, N. H., in January, 1111, by Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, the 
first president of Dartmouth College. In his pastorate in Lebanon, 
Ct., Dr. Wheelock was a Congregationalist. When he came to Han- 
over he deemed it expedient in the organization of the new church to 
adopt the Presbyterian form of government. The benefactions pro- 
cured by Dr. Wheelock to increase the means of improvement were 
contributed by friends of religion and humanity in different parts of 
America, in England, and in Scotland. The money collected in Eng- 
land was put into the hands of a board of trustees, of whom the Earl 
of Dartmouth was at the head; and that collected in Scotland was com- 
mitted to the society for promoting Christian knowledge. The Scotch 
fund for the education of Indians, in connection with Moor's Charity 
School, was therefore controlled by Presbyterians, and a cordial sym- 
pathy with the donors was regarded as essential to the highest success 
of their benefaction. 

The original membership of this church was twenty-seven, and com- 
posed of persons on both sides of Connecticut river; or, in fact, it was 
a church consisting of two branches, one of them being in Hanover, 
and the other in Hartford. Worship was held alternately in Hanover, 
and in Dothan parish, in Hartford. Dr. Wheelock officiated as pastor 
until his death, April 24th, 1779. He was succeeded by his son-in-laAV, 
Rev. Sylvanus Ripley, Professor of Theology in Dartmouth College, 
who continued in the pastorate till his death, February 5th, 1787. In 
1782, Rev. John Smith, D. D., became associate pastor, and continued 
in that capacity until his death, April 30th, 1809, at the age of 59. 

The first meeting-house was erected in Hanover in 1796, and in 
Dothan about 1798. Previous to the erection of the meeting-house in 
Hanover, meetings were held in private houses, and then in the college 
chapel. At Dothan, meetings were held for some time in the house of 
Thomas Hazen, where Leonard Hazen now lives. The Presbyterian 
Society built an extension to Mr. Hazen's house, to provide a larger 
apartment for church services. The Society at Dothan never possessed 
a bell. For many years the people were summoned to meeting by the 
unharmonious but far-reaching notes of a conch-shell, which was blown 


by Mr. Hazen while be lived. After he passed away no one was found 
competent to fill his place in sounding it. 

Toward the close of the last century a controversy arose. As early 
as 1784, Dr. Eden Burroughs, pastor at Hanover Centre, renounced 
Presbytery and a schism took place in his church. The tendency of the 
region did not favor the more prelatical form of government. Nearly 
all the churches were organizing under the Congregational form of 
government. Personal questions relating to the policy in the college 
government, became associated in the said chui'ch polity, and the dis- 
cussions were of a very earnest nature.' 

Dr. Worcester declined to accept the professorship tendered to him 
and Roswell Shurtleff was elected to that chair in 1804. This appoint- 
ment put a new face upon the controversy. A majority of the church 
members resided in Hartford. It was in their power to control all the 
plans of those who resided in Hanover. Along correspondence ensued; 
various propositions were made by the minority, but all were rejected, 
that portion of the church and congregation who resided in Hanover, 
with few exceptions, desired tl at Prof. Shurtleff should ofiiciate as 
colleague to Dr. Smith. This request was preferred to him in September, 
1804. He declined the invitation. Then the Hanover branch requested 
the Hartford branch to allow Prof. Shurtleff to receive " ordination at 
large," and take pastoral charge of the Hanover people, while Dr. Smith 
should continue to officiate in Hartford. This proposition was decliced. 
Then the Hanover branch petitioned for a mutual council to determine 
whether two churches should be formed, by a local division, — one in 
Hanover and one in Hartford. This petition was rejected. Thereupon 
the Hanover peoiole called an ex parte council to advise with them con- 
cerning their difficulties. The council recommended a division. This 
result was not accepted by the Hartford people. The trustees were 
requested to interpose their official power and settle the dispute. They 
so far succeeded as to secure a mutual council, w-ho said : ''We judge 

'Judge Nathaniel Niles, a trustee of the college as early as 1793, writes of the 
inception of this controversy as follows: — " Althoiigh they thought themselves 
Presbyterians, they often found it convenient to have church meetings. They met 
on the occasion of the election of Dr. Worcester, as professor of Divinity, and 
passed several votes expressive of their being and designing to continue to be Pres- 
byterians, and that Dr. Smith was, and that they chose he should continue to be 
their pastor. This was an offensive disappointment to the body of professors and 
others on the Plain. They had on some account become dissatisfied with Dr. Smith, 
both as pastor and teacher, and though they loved him as a man and a neighbor, 
and having expected that the professor of Theology would be both teacher and 
pastor, and the election of Dr. Worcester being highly pleasing to them, they found 
themselves highly disappointed in their hopes by these votes, which they suspected 
had been passed with a view to prevent the pastor-elect from accepting the appoint- 
ment, and still to hold them unpleasantly confined under the administration of Dr. 


it expedient that there be but one church at present in connection with 
Dartmouth College, denominated as formerly, consisting of two bran- 
ches, one on the east side and the other on the west side of Connecticut 
river, under the same covenant as heretofore ; that each branch, also, 
have the exclusive privilege of employing and settling a minister of 
their own choice," with other exclusive rights and powers to be enjoyed 
by each branch, as though it constituted a distinct and separate church. 
This decree was variously interpreted ; the Hartford branch claimed, 
under its provisions, supremacy in the government of the entire church ; 
and the Hanover branch claimed independency, from the same authority, 
and proceeded to adopt a congregational form of government.^ 

On the 5th of July, 1805, the Congregational church in Dartmouth 
College was organized by Rev. Isaiah Potter, of Lebanon, Rev. Asa 
Burton, of Thetford, Vt., and Rev. Sylvanus Dame, of Orford. Prof. 
Shurtleif was invited to act as pastor of the new church. He accepted 
and remained in that relation until 1827. Prof. Shurtleff was the 
representative of the new order ; Prest. Wheelock, the younger, of the 
old order, which, by the new movement, became limited to Dothan 
parish on the west side of Connecticut river. President Wheelock, 
Prof. Smith and a number of Hanover people continued in the old 
church and for many years came to Dothan to communion. During his 
later life and troubles with the college. Dr. Wheelock had warmer 
friends and adherents in Hartford than in Hanover. It was through 
his influence with the Hartford branch of the church that the petitions, 
propositions and overtures made by the Hanover branch for a dissolu- 
tion of the union were rejected, and a separate existence denied them. 
Dr. Wheelock refused his consent for the reason that his influence and 
power would be materially weakened by placing him in the minority of 
the Hanover church. " He regarded the ecclesiastical feud as the fruit- 
ful source of all his woes. It was a nucleus about which other ofificial 
difiiculties clustered * * * Here was planted a seed which grew and 
became a mighty tree whose branches, in some sense, overshadowed the 
whole land ! " 

"From 1804 to 1814, the controversy was chiefly local, disturbing the 
harmony of the village church, and impeding the vigorous administra- 
tion of the college, both in the faculty and board of trust. At the lat- 
ter date, the public became interested in the quarrel and began to take 
sides as their political or religious preferences inclined. During the 
whole of the year 1815 the press in New Hampshire probably devoted 
as much space to Dartmouth college as to political matters. In 

'Sanborn's History of New Hampshire, p. 271. 


some instances the leading journals of the state devoted five or six col- 
umns to original articles pertaining to the college controversy. The 
parties mutually charged each other with bigotiy, intolerance and hy- 
pocricy. The dispute soon became political in its character, and feder- 
alists and republicans became earnest defenders of particular forms of 
ecclesiastical government. The republicans in this case vsrere generally 
Presbyterians and the federalists Congregationalists. The former as- 
sailed, the latter defended the action of the majority of the faculty and 

Gov. Hill of New Hampshire, in his support of Thos. Jefferson, en- 
tered into a bitter crusade against the Congregational churches and. 
ministers in the state of New Hampshire. It suited well with his pur- 
pose that he should espouse the cause of Dr. Wheelock. It was thus 
carried into all the fierceness of New Hampshire political strife and as- 
sumed in the end the formidable proportions of rival colleges and pi es- 
idents, and all that was involved in the Dartmouth college case in which 
Webster's defence of alma mater and vested rights are so memorable. 

From a sketch of President Francis Brown, by Rev. Henry Wood, 
the following paragraph relating to the controvery is selected : 

" Never has a cause been litigated in our country more important 
from the principle to be established, and the interest remotely involved. 
The existence, not only of this, but of all seminaries for education, and 
of all corporate bodies whatever, was suspended upon the present de- 
cision. The permanence of all the institutions of our country, whether 
charitable, literary, or religious, and indeed the very character of the 
nation in its future stages, were connected with this adjudication upon 
a point of constitutional law." 

Referring to the importance of this case, Prof. Sanborn says : 

" After the lapse of fifty years we are astonished at the evidence of 
party feeling which the college controversy elicited. When it passed from 
the academic shades of Hanover and entered the halls of legislation it be- 
came a mere political question, and the common and vulgar weapons of 
party warfare Avere used by the combatants. Imaginary foes, called by 
one party bigots, fanatics, and aristocrats, and by the other infidels, 
agrarians, and jacobins, were set up and hurled down by political and 
literary knights on many a hard-fought field." In consideration of the 
fact that this case grew out of the ecclesiastical strife betwen the two 
branches of the church of Christ, the one in Hanover, and the other in 
Hartford, one may exclaim, '' Behold how great a matter a little fire 
kindleth '. " 

The pastorate of Prof. Smith ceased with his death in 1809. Novem- 
ber 1st, 1809, Rev. Eden Burroughs took upon himself the charge of 
the church. The following entry, in his own handwriting, appears in 
the church records : 

^ Sanborn's Xew Hampshire, p. 273. 


" Took upon me the charge of the church of Christ at Dartmouth 
college Nov. 1st, 1809, and removed with my family into Hartford, in 
the State of Vermont, on the 30th day of October (1810) following." 

Sometime about the last of May, 1811, the following notification was 
sent to the Rev. Prof. Shurtleff, to be published in the assembly on the 
Sabbath, viz : 

"As the reverend Londonderry Presbyteiy proposes at their ad- 
journed meeting at this place, (Dothan) to consider the grounds and 
progress of the difficulties which have and do subsist at the church of 
Dartmouth College in its relations and concerns with those who were 
formerly members and left the same ; it is hereby desired that any who 
have objections to any of the measures and proceedings of said church 
in regard to the above, or the conduct of any of its members, appear 
and offer their objections to the said reverend Presbytery at their said 

(Signed) EDEN BURROUGHS, pastor. 

I shall now make some quotations from the records of the church : — 

" At a meeting of the Church of Christ at Dartmouth College held in 
the meeting-house in the vicinity of said college, Nov. 15, 1811 : 

Voted, and chose Maj. Wm. H. Woodward to the office of an elder in 
this church. 

Voted — To invite the reverend Prof. Moore to become the pastor of 
this church to take the particular pastoral care of that part of the 
church who reside east of the Connecticut river, and that the reverend 
Dr. Burroughs and Maj. Woodward be a committee to wait on the said 
Prof. Moore with the above request ; and, that our said committee con- 
fer with the said Prof. Moore and agree with him upon the circum- 
stances under which he may comply with the above invitation." 

" On the 23d of February, 1812, Maj. Wm. Woodward and David In- 
graham were set apart and consecrated to the office of elders in this 

'• In 1817, Wm. H. Woodward was elected clerk to keep the records 
on the east side of Connecticut river, and Hezekiah Hazen to keep the 
records on the west side of said river." 

"At a church meeting holden at the meeting-house Sept. 26, 1813, 
voted unanimously that Rev. J. W. Woodward be requested to act as 
moderator of this church for the time being." 

"At a church meeting holden at the meeting-house May 10, 1822, 
voted to invite the Rev. James W. Woodward to take the pastoral care 
of this church for the time being." 

"June 9th, the Rev. J. W. Woodwai'd gave his answer, 'that he ac- 
cepted of the invitation to perform all the duties of a pastor which 
would not interfere with the duties of his office at the Scientific Acad- 
emy at Norwich, and the distance he was placed from us.' " 

" At a meeting of this church Oct. 2, 1825, voted that the Rev. Ben- 
nett Tyler, L. L. D., be the moderator of this church." 

' Mr. Burroughs died at Dothan, May 22, 1813, at the age of 76. His remains 
rest in the cemetery at Christian Street, in the east part of the town. He preached 
the first election sermon before the General Assembly of Vermont in October, 1778 
at Woodstock. 


" August 7th, 1826 — At a church meeting at the meeting house, it 
was unanimously voted to invite Mr. Abram Brown to settle here to be 
our minister. Sept. 27th, Mr. Brown w^as ordained pastor of this 
church. Present — Rev. Samuel Goddard, North ch. in Norwich : Rev. 
James R. Wheelock, South ch. in Norwich ; Rev. Samuel Bascom, Sha- 
ron : Rev. Josiah Towne, Hanover; Rev. Caleb Cutler, Lebanon; Rev. 
Austin Hazen, South ch. in Hartford ; Rev. Theopilus Packard, D. D., 
Rev. John Dutton, Rev. Samuel Marsh, Rev. Fayette Sheppard. and 
Rev. Bennet Tyler, L. L. D., invited to sit with council. 

Ordination exercises — Introductory prayer, Rev. Josiah Towne ; ser- 
mon, Rev Bennet Tyler; ordination prayer, Rev. Samuel Goddard; 
charge, Rev. Samuel Bascom: right hand of fellowship, Rev. Austin 
Hazen; address to church and peojDle, Rev. J. R Wheelock; conclud- 
ing prayer. Rev. Calvin Cutler. 


" Mr. Brown was dismissed Sept. 22, 1829. After Mr. Brown left the 
church had no moderator nor clerk until Feb. 3d, 1830, when Rev. Aus- 
tin Hazen was installed pastor. The following pastors and delegates 
were present at the council and installation : — North ch. in Norwich, 
Rev. Samuel Goddard ; South ch. in Norwich, Rev. J. W. Woodward ; 
delegate, Jacob Burton; Sharon, Abij ah Burbank, delegate ; Pomfret, 
Rev. Joseph Marsh : Hartland, Rev. Samuel Delano ; Hanover, Rev. 
Nathan Lord ; Royalton, Rev. A. C. Washburn." 

Mr. Hazen was dismissed Jan. 24, 1837. He removed to Berlin, where 
he died in office in 1855. During the pastorate of Mr. Hazen the church 
had a protracted difficulty with a refractory member, Capt. Dan Hazen, 
who, in the premises, had asked for a letter of recommendation for him- 
self and wife to the South church in Norwich, for the reason that •'• his 
feelings had been injured by some of the members of the church— that 
the brethren had lost confidence in him, and that he should enjoy him- 
self better somewhere else." His request and complaint were referred 
to various committees, in and out of the church, and finally he was paci- 
fied, and peace prevailed for a short period ; but it was a calm before a 
storm. May 21, 1837, Joseph Crandall, a member of the church, entered 
a complaint against Mr. Hazen containing two counts ; first, that he 
had laid violent hands on the son of Mr. Crandall, and traduced his 
character ; secondly, that he refused to settle a book account with said 
Joseph Crandall. This resulted in the suspension of Mr. Hazen from 
communion ; whereupon, he asked for a mutual council, which was 
granted, and the matter was referred to a committee consisting of the 
pastors and delegates from the churches in Sharon, Strafford and Dart- 
mouth College. Dm'ing the deliberation of the council Mr. Hazen and 
Mr. Crandall adjusted their difficulties, and Mr. Hazen was restored to 
communion. He then renewed his request for a letter, and being pressed 
for his reasons for wishing to leave, presented the following in writing 


'■'■First — I do not believe the government of the church is according 
to the word of God. 

Secondly — I have no heart to try to do anything cohere there is 
no confidence in me. This from a poor., sinfxd, depraved and de- 
graded brother.''' 

The church voted that the reasons were unsatisfactory, and refused 
to grant a letter. In March, 1839, Mr. Hazen reiterated his request for 
a letter, with the reasons above named. March 6, 1839, Dea. Julius 
Hazen preferred a complaint against Mr. Hazen for living in constant 
neglect of the ordinances of the church. This complaint was disregarded 
by the church, but Mr. Hazen's letter was referred to an ecclesiastical 

It is evident that Mr. Hazen, in this juncture of the trouble, occu- 
pied the vantage ground, at least in respect to the first reason he had 
given for desiring to dissolve his connection with the church, which 
was, in this matter, pursuing the same policy to perpetuate a reluctant 
union with themselves, that had characterized their action toward the 
Hanover branch of the church. Mr. Hazen was not alone in the opin- 
ion he entertained respecting the policy of the church. There was a 
growing tendency in favor of the more democratic form of government 
of the Congregational church. Dr. Burroughs had renounced Presby- 
tery as early as 1784, and notwithstanding he had subsequently ac- 
cepted the pastorate of the Presbyterian church in Dothan, this step 
simply evidenced his catholicity of sentiment. The renunciation of 
Presbytery by the Hanover church was a supercession compatible with 
the progressive spirit of the times. Furthermore, the church at Do- 
than occupied an isolated position, that is, it had no connection with 
any Presbytery. It was at this time under the pastoral care of a reg- 
ularly ordained Congregational minister, installed over the church by a 
purely congregational council. It had so far gravitated towards Con- 
gregationalism, as to refer cases of discipline to the church for adjudi- 

In this condition of things, the church commendably decided to lay 
aside the remaining peculiarities of Presbyterianism in order to accom- 
modate the views of Mr. Hazen and certain others, and remove any 
prejudices that existed in some minds, and give the church strictly and 
entirely a Congregational character. Accordingly, the following action 
was taken by the church, four days prior to the meeting of the ecclesi- 
astical council : — 

"1839, April 5lli. Ai a fu]l meeting of the church, according to no- 
tice i^reviously given, for Ihe purpose of chaDgingits forms, usages and 


customs from that of Presbyterian to that of the Congregational form 
of government, it was voted : — 

' That hereafter, instead of referring cases of church discipline to the 
elders of the church, they should be referred to the church for decision. 
After which vote the elders individually wished to be released from 
their office, and it was voted that their request should be granted.' " 

The ecclesiastical council above referred to met in Doth an, April 9th, 
18:^9. It was composed of Rev. Samuel Goddard, pastor, and Deacon 
Dutton, delegate, from the North Norwich church ; Deacon Samuel Tracy 
from tbe White River village church, and Rev. H. "Wood, from the Han- 
over church. A comprehensive statement of all the difficulties that had 
occurred was made to the council, which, after a proper consideration 
of the evidence adduced, reported : 

'' That it was sorry to have witnessed anything like a spirit of crimi- 
nation on the part of the church against Mi-. Hazen, in respect to past 
proceedings of the church. In difficult cases even good men may differ 
in their judgment: with the best feelings and intentions they may en- 
tertain different opinions on the matters before them. In such cases 
instead of charging our brethren with improper motives we should 
cherish the charity which helpeth all things and thinketh no evil, leav- 
ing the motives to the judgment of God who alone knows the heart." 
Council then intimated that " individuals may have spoken unkindly of 
Mr. Hazen and been too inquisitive about little things in his private 
concerns : this deserves reproof ^ Mr. Hazen erred in leaving worship 
before he had asked and received a regular dismission His objections 
to the church as Presbyterian were without foundation since it was ev- 
ident that the church had but few features of Presbyterianism and 
these quite harmless, though perhaps inconvenient, and we think the 
objections removed when the church consented to abandon its peculiar- 
ities to accommodate Mr. Hazen's views and desires. Council advised 
all parties to endeavor to live together in christian forbearance and 
unity, but. in case the above result was not accepted by both parties, 
then, for the honor of religion and the peace of the church, a letter of 
dismission should be given Mr. Hazen. Council commended the church 
for having exhibited an enlarged and liberal spirit worthy of all praise, 
in laying aside the remaining peculiarities of Presbyterianism, &c. 

November 21st, 1838, Rev. Cary Russell was installed pastor of the 

church. He was dismissed January 2d, 1844. He was the last pastor. 

The council that dismissed him recommended that letters of dismissal 

be granted to all who desired to unite with other churches in fellowship 

with this. Nov. 14th, 1844, the following communication was handed 

to the moderator: — 

" To Dea. Julius Hazen, moderator of the church in North Hartford : — 
You are hereby requested to notify a meeting of the church on Fri- 
day the 22d, inst., at 6 o'clock, p. m., at the school house in Dothan, to 
see if the church will vote to place themselves under the pastoral care 
of Rev. Mr. Lord at "White River village and give letters of recommen- 
dation to those who may wish to go to other places." 


At the meeting held pursuant to the above roll-call, no action was 
taken concerning a dissolution of the church. It was. however, voted 
" that the delinquents on Mr. Russell's salary ought to pay their assess- 
ments." On Tuesday, Dec. 9, 1844, it was voted to place the church 
under the pastoral care of Rev. Mr. Lord, and Wm. Savage and Dea. 
Allen Hazen were chosen a committee to notify Mr. Lord. On the 23d 
of March, 1847, another meeting was held, at which Rev. Wm. Claggett, 
of West Hartford, was appointed moderator of the church. August 31, 
1847, at an adjourned meeting, it was voted to dissolve the chuich, giv- 
ing the clerk authority to grant letters of recommendation to those who 
might call for them in due time. 

Thus was dissolved a church that had existed for uj) wards of seventy 
years. It embraced some of the most eminent divines of the countrj^ 
some of the most prominent men of the town, some of the most devout 
Christians of the age. It was the parent of the church and society in 
AVest Hartford ; it gave new life to the church in White River village in 
the decade between 1835 and 1845, and its Christian influence will extend 
through all time, and only be fully known when time shall be no more : 
when the seal of the great record of human actions shall be broken be- 
fore the throne of God, and every man shall be called to render an ac- 
count of his stewardship on earth. The practical work of this church 
was finished many years since, but its influence survives. Its members 
have gone forth to strengthen other churches near and far. Something 
of sadness gathers about a light departed, a church that has ceasf d to 
be, but — 

'■ Many shall rise up in the great day and call it blessed." 

In this connection, I will say that Hartford has sent forth a large 
number of Congregational ministers. The following list embraces those 
who were native and to the manor born: Austin Hazen Wright, Harvey 
F. Leavitt, James Marsh, Abraham Marsh, John Safford Parsons, J. De 
Forrest Richards, Cyrus S. Richards, Joseph Tracy, Ira Tracy, Myron 
Tracy, John Dutton, Nathaniel Button, Daniel O. Gillett, Daniel Gibbs, 
Austin Hazen, Allen Hazen, Austin Hazen 2d, William S. Hazen, Nor- 
man Hazen, Henry A. Hazen, Benjamin Ela, George D. Marsh, Henry 
D. L. Thurston, Fred L. Allen, Ebenezer Carter Tracy, Lewis Green. 

" Some of these have served their kind, in deed and word, faithfully 
and well. Three have been missionaries of the American Board in Chi- 
na, Persia and India. President James Marsh has left the impress of 
his richly cultivated mind and elaborate scholarship upon all those who 
enjoyed his acquaintance as a teacher, a pastor, or a friend ; and also 
upon the religious philosophy and belles lettres of the country. Joseph 


Tracy is widely known as the editor of the Vt. Chronicle, Recorder and 
Observer, the sagacious manager of the Massachusetts Colonization So- 
ciety, the founder of Liberia College, the historian of the American 
Board, and the " Great Awakening ; " and, generally, as an acute thinker 
and able writer. Ebenezer Carter Tracy, the founder and chief edi- 
tor of the Vt. Chronicle, (in 1826) filled his position for many years 
laboriously, and was one of the finest models of a religious editor the 
world ever knew. He was always candid, courteous, truthful and wise. 
Through the paper he so ably edited he disseminated the principles that 
marked his personal, exalted Christian life, and Congregationalism in 
Vermont owes more to him than to any other mdividual for its main- 
tainance and predominance as a form of chui'ch government." 



There were no regular ministrations in Hartford, according to the 
forms of the Catholic church, prior to 1870. During the time of the 
construction of the Vermont Central railroad through the town — 1845-7 
— a large number of Irishmen were employed on that work. Many of 
these, together with others who were employed in the building of the 
Passumpsic railroad, became permanent settlers in the town, the larger 
number being located in White River Junction. This class of our popu- 
lation being Roman Catholics in their religious belief, there were fre- 
quent visitations by Catholic priests to the laity here for many years 
before the creation of a parish. About the year 1870, Rev. M. Pigeon, 
a Canadian priest, was sent to reside in Hartford. He lived here until 
May, 1880, when he was sent to Underbill, Vt. Father Pigeon bought 
the old Mosely house, in White River Junction, in 1870, and converted 
it into a chapel, which was used until the erection of the present church 
edifice in 1873, when the chapel was converted into a residence for the 
priest. After the departure of Father Pigeon, Rev. Daniel Sullivan from 
Burlington became pastor of the Catholic congregation. Father Sulli- 
van remained about eighteen months. He was succeeded by Rev. Den- 
nis Lynch from Brandon, who officiated as pastor until September 4th, 
1884, when he was replaced by the present pastoi". Father James Booth 
Whitaker from St. Dennis' church, Montreal. 

The church or parish property in White River Junction cost, in 1870, 
the sum of $1800. Improvements, and the rapid increase in the prices 
of real estate, give to this property at the present time a valuation not 
far from $7000. This includes a school building, and also a church 
burying ground in use since 1872. The church edifice is a neat and 
pretty structure containing 128 pews, with a seating capacity for at least 
400 persons. The church was dedicated to St. Antony, by which title 
it is known. The number of families constituting the whole parish is 
220, of which about sixty are located in White River Junction. The 
congregation is probably the largest in the town. The school building- 
is closely adjacent to the church edifice. The number of pupils in the 
parochial schools is now nearly sixty. The Sabbath school has some 
over 120 pupils. 



The first Methodist preaching in the town of Hartford, so far as I 
have been able to learn, was in the year 1811, but as early as the year 
1800, the town was included in a district, of which Shadrack Bostwick 
was the presiding Elder. This fact is established by a certificate given 
under the hand of Mr. Bostwick, of which the following is a true copy, 

" This is to certify that Isaac Turner, of the town of Hartford, county 
of Windsor, state of Vermont, is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and regularly contributes to the support of the ministry of that 
order. Given under mv hand this 12th day of March, A. D. 1800. 


Presiding Elder in said church and district, including the town afore- 

Inasmuch as there were many Methodists in this region, it seems 
probable that the ordinances of baptism, marriage, and the burial of the 
dead were, occasionally, at least, administered in the town either by the 
presiding elder or by some itinerant deacon or preacher, prior to 1811. 

In support of the opinion that there was Methodist preaching in the 
town as early as 1811, I will here present a copy of a certificate of con- 
secration made by Bishop Asbury in 1808, and filed in the town clerk's 
office of Hartford in 1811, viz : 

" Know all men by these presents : that I Francis Asbury, Bishop of 
the Methodist Episcopal church in America, under the protection of 
Almighty God, and with a single eye to his glory, by the imjDosition of 
my hand and prayer, have this day set apart Eleazer Wells, for the 
office of Deacon in said Methodist Episcopal church — a man whom I 
judge to be well qualified for that work — and do hereby recommend him to 
all whom it may concern, as a proper person to a proper person to admin- 
ister the ordinance of Baptism, marriage, and the burial of the dead, in 
the absence of an Elder, and to feed the flocks of Christ so long as his 
spirit and practice are such as become the gospel of Christ, and he con- 
tinueth to hold fast the form of sacred words according to the estab- 
lished doctrine of the Gospel. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 
nineteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and eight. Done at N. London. 


Hartford, August 25th, 1811. 

The foregoing is a true copy of the original certificate. 

Attest, FREEGRACE LEAVITT, Town Clerk. 

The foregoing certificate Avas given to Mr. Wells as a jiassjDort upon 
which he could travel as an itinerant, and also, as an indorsement of his 
religious persuasion and christian character that Avould not only ensuie 
to him a favorable reception and friendly greeting by members of his 


own sect, but serve as a safeguard against undue interference in his 
spiritual work, by those who might be disposed to question his creden- 

Mr. Wells had been a resident of Hartford prior to the date of his 
confirmation. On the 2d day of May, 1809, he was married to Olive 
Bartholomew, a sister of the late Noah and Sheldon Bartholomew, and, 
as apj)ears by the date of the record of this certificate, was residing in 
the town, or preaching here in 1811. Hence, we have good reason for 
believing that he preached in the town during the years immediately 
following his investment with the ofl&ce of deacon, but no one now 
residing in town is able to tell how many years thereafter, nor by whom 
he was succeeded prior to 1845. There is authority for saying that as 
early as 1841, Hartford belonged to the " Sharon, Norwich and Strafford 
circuit," and that there was at that time Methodist jDreaching in the old 
brick school house in the district known as " Jericho." 

In 1845 the first Methodist meeting-house was built in Jericho during 
the pastorate of F. T. Mbee, who planned the house and assisted in 
building it. It cost about $1000 and would seat about two hundred 
persons. The building committee were Noah Bartholomew, Truman 
H. Savage and probably Mr. Albee. The number of members at that 
time was about twenty-five. Regular preaching services were main- 
tained for a little more than twenty years, until death and emigration 
had so thinned the ranks as to render further efforts to maintain services 
apparently useless, and therefore they were discontinued, and the 
remaining members of the church resorted to other places for worship. 
In 1874 the meeting-house was sold and removed to North Hartland, 
where it is now being used for business purposes. The proceeds of the 
sale were invested in building a meeting-house in Hartland. 

In 1877 Methodist preaching was commenced in White River Junc- 
tion, in the hall of the hotel which was loaned by the owner for that 
purpose. The preacher in charge was the Rev. A. J. Hough. During 
the second year of Mr. Hough's pastorate (August 10, 1878), the hotel 
was burned, leaving the society houseless. In the autumn of 1878 a 
meeting-house was built, 35x60 in size, at a cost of $2,700. The building 
committee were Darius Russ, H. E. Tinker, and A. C. Martin. This 
house has a seating capacity of about 400, and is a neat, airy and appro- 
priate structure, and to the great credit of the society every dollar of 
the expense incurred in building it was paid prior to the dedication of 
the same in 1885. 

Mr. Hough remained pastor for three years and was succeeded in 
1880 by L. O. Sherburne, who remained three years. Mr Hough then 


returned for a period of three years, at the end of which time Rev. R 
L. Bruce became pastor and is now (1887) in charge. During the year' 
1886 a vestry was finished, also horse sheds, all of which cost abaut 
$700. The present church membership is forty-four. The few in 
numbers of this church and society, in the pi'esence of obstacles of an 
almost discouraging nature, have risen above every difficulty and have 
accomplished good work in the vineyard of the Divine Master. No 
people have been more fortunate than they in the assignment of pastors 
made to them, and to no other church is the future seemingly more prom- 
ising of progress and prosperity. 

The following statistics will prove interesting : 

" The first Methodist preaching in Eastern Vermont was by the cele 
brated Nicholas Snethen, who was appointed to the Yershire circuit in 
1796. A class was formed there, another followed in Barnard, and a 
third was soon started in Barre, where the first Methodist meeting-house 
in the Vermont Conference was built in 1801. From these humble 
beginnings the work gradually and steadily spread until to-day the 
Vermont Conference includes the greater part of the state, portions of 
Chittenden, Addison, Rutland and Bennington counties being in the 
Troy Conference. In 1846 the Vermont Conference had over 8000 
members ; ten years later about the same ; in 1866, 10,615 ; in 1876, 
12,810 ; and in 1886, 12,874 members and probationers. There are in 
the Conference 140 church edifices worth over $450,000, and 98 parson- 
ages worth over $120,000. 

Methodist preaching was first commenced in Quechee in the summer 
of 1882, by Rev. A. S. Maxham, who was then stationed at Hartland 
Mr. Maxham first went to Quechee as an experiment, and meeting with 
a very cordial reception he continued to preach there until the spring 
of 1884, when he was removed by the expiration of his term of service 
at Hartland, and Quechee was united with White River Junction. Rev. 
A. J. Hough then became the pastor and preached there until the 
spring of 1886, when he too w^as removed by his term of service at the 
Junction. During all this time there had been more or less talk about 
building a church, but nothing definate had been accomplished in that 
direction. In the spring of 1886 Rev. R. L. Bruce was appointed pas- 
tor of the charge ; he soon became convinced that the interests of the 
church at Quechee demanded the erection of a house of worship. In 
January, 1887, under the inspiration of a very generous offer by one of 
the members, a subscription paper was started for that purpose. The 
results exceeded the most sanguine expectation. An eligible site was 
presented by a lady friend ; plans were procured of B. D. Price of Phila- 
delphia ; a donation of $300 was secured from the board of church ex- 
tension, an d as soon as the ground was free from frost in the spring the 
work of laying the foundation was commenced. On account of the lo- 


cation it was necessary to lay a wall at the rear end fifteen feet high and 
six feet thick at the bottom. The front wall is twelve feet high and five 
feet thick at the bottom. The entire cost of stone work was $235.00. 
The contract for the carpenter work was let to Mr. J. M. Quimby, of 
White River Junction, and it is but simple justice to him to say that 
every part of it was done in the most thorough and workmanlike man- 
ner. The house is 28x45 feet, Avith octagonal recess four feet deep at 
the rear, for the pulpit ; it is fourteen feet posted above the basement 
and finished to twenty feet in the centre inside. The tower is about 
sixty feet high and 9x9 feet at the base. It contains a fine-toned bell, 
cast by H. H. McShane of Baltimore, Md., weighing 518 pounds, the 
gift of two members of the church. Both the tower and roof are slated. 
The interior is handsomely finished in brown ash, which is filled and 
finished with two coats of white shellac. The walls are painted two 
coats, inside and out, and the ceiling kalsomined. A nice ingrain car- 
pet, furnished by the ladies of the society, covers the floor. The house 
is lighted with a Bailey ten light reflector, and heated with a furnace. 
It is seated with A. H. Andrews & Go's patent assembly settee, a very 
handsome and comfortable seat, requiring no cushions. The windows 
are of cathedral glass and have diamond lights of colored glass at the 
top. The basement is 28x32 feet, and twelve feet posted, and is fin- 
ished in pine, with plain glass windows. It has closets and various 
conveniences. Besides the bell, the organ, pulpit, sofa, chairs, lamps, 
and street lamp were individual gifts. The entire cost of the building 
and furnishing, including lot and plans, was $2,317.13. The building 
alone cost 1,452.22. On level ground, without basement and built in 
ordinary style, it would cost $1600 to $1800. It is pronounced by all 
who have seen it, to be a gem of neatness within and without. The dedica- 
tory sermon was preached by. Rev. A. J. Hough. Of the entire cost, less 
than $300 is at present unprovided for and it is confidently expected 
that the entire amount will be raised before Jan. 1, 1889. The sacrifi- 
ces of the members of the church and the liberality of their friends in 
the accomplishment of the results thus far attained have been remarka- 
ble and worthy of the highest commendation. 


Among what were known as the " Minor Sects,'''' none were earlier or 
more numerously represented in Hartford than were the Baptists. The 
earliest recorded certificate of religious persuasion, made in compliaiace 
with the act of the General Assembly in 1783, in favor of n citizen of 
Hartford, reads as follows : — 


•' Tliese may certify that Mr. Benjamin Burtch of Hartford in the County, of 
Windsor, and State of Vermont, is a member of the Baptist Society in Wood- 

Attest: JOSEPH CALL, Deacon of Baptist, Ch., Woodstock."' 

Hartford, March ye 18, 1786. 

Among other certificates found in our town records are the following: 

" Bridgewater, December ye 19, 1791. 

These may certify, all that it may concern, that William Porter of Hartford 
is a member of the Baptist church of Christ, in Woodstock and Bridgewater, 
therefore Let the oppressed go free. 


Minister of the Gospel." 

" This may certify that Hezekiah Lincoln, Gersham Dunham, Juniah Chap- 
man, Justin Smith, David Whitcomb, Daiiiel Hazen, Asa Pixley, Putnam Wil- 
son, Philip Si^rague, William Pixley, Joel Richards and Philemon Hazen, each 
and every of them, belong to the Calvinistic Society composed of the North of 
Hartford and South of Norwich, and pay for the support of preacliing here, and 
each professes the principles above described. 

Attest: SYLVANUS SMITH, Moderator." 

January 7, 1795. 

The first evidence to be found in our town records relating to the 

presence of a Baptist minister in the town, is contained in the following 

certificate, viz : — 

" Hartford, 8th October, 1809. 

This certifies that nuptials between Nathaniel Hammond and Polly Ball, both 
of this town, were celebrated by me. 

Attest: URIAH SMITH, V. D. M." 

Mr. Smith, who was a native of Plainfield, N. H., was set apart by 
solemn ordination to the ministry by a council composed of the Baptist 
churches of Woodstock, Windsor, and Plainfield and Newport, (N. H.) 
convened in Plainfield, June 24, 1804, but there is no evidence that he 
was ever permanently settled in Hartford. 

A Baptist church existed in the eastern part of the town in 1806. I am 
unable to learn whether this body was Anti-Mission, Brethren, Calvin- 
istic, Campbellite, Free-Christian, Free- Will, Kegular Baptist, Eiver 
Brethren, Seventh Day, or Six Principle. It is probable, however, that 
it was Calvinistic in dogma. The male members of the church were 
David Colburn, Amos Kobinson, Thomas Holbrook, Jabez Baldwin, 
Stewart Haw, Salan Colburn, Charles Pinneo, Paul Clark, Benjamin 
Clark, Amasa Watkins, William Merrill, Abraham Hoit, Benjamin Bug- 
bee, Isaac Williams, Mitchell Clark, Andrew Pinneo, Joseph Chapman, 
Jacob Clifford, Daniel Robinson, Hyde Clark, Jacob Colburn, Luther 
Cora, William Hoit, Thomas Moxley, Neal Rust, John Hunter, Phineas 
Rust and Samuel Rust. 

This church was probably a member of the "Woodstock Association" 
of Baptist churches, which was formed in 1788, and of which Rev. Tim- 
othy Grow was the presiding elder. The Baptists in Hartford had no 



stated place for public worship, nor were they regularly supplied with 
j)reachers. Itinerant preachers conducted the religious meetings, and 
administered the ordinances of baptism, marriage, the Lord's supper, 
and the burial of the dead, performing these duties whenever and wher- 
ever occasion required. Although the Baptists continued to hold meet- 
ings in the town until 1820, there was no Baptist church then in exist- 
ence in the town. 


" The Disciples were called Cliristians first in Autioch,'' Acts XL 26. 

Generically the name Christians is given to those who believe in the 
Christian religion. In a theological sense Christians are those who 
really believe the gospel, imbibe the spirit, are influenced by the grace 
and obedient to the will of Christ. Believers in the Christian religion 
include Protestants, Roman Catholics, the Greek, Armenian, Nestorian, 
Coptic, Syrian and Abysinnian churches, though the members of the last 
named church are Christians only in form. The denominations of 
Christians are as follows : — Bible Christians, Christian Connection, 
Christians of St. John (Mendoeano), Christians of St. Thomas (Nesto- 
rian), Syrian Christians, and United Christians. 

" The ' Christian Connection,' or Christians, oftentimes erroneously 
pronounced Christ-ians, is a religious denomination that originated in 
the United States about the year 1800. This sect recognizes no indivi- 
dual as its leader or founder, no one to whom they refer as an authority 
for articles of faith, and rules of practice. In New England, where the 
Christian denomination seems first to have attracted attention by any 
public demonstration or organization as a distinct sect, it was composed 
chiefly of individuals who separated from the Calvinistic Baptists. Soon 
after the formation of their first churches, several large churches of the 
Calvinistic Baptists declared themselves independent of the Baptist 
association and united with the Christians. In the Southern states, the 
first association of this sect consisted mostly of seceders from the 
Methodists, and, in the western states, from the Presbyterians. The 
leading purposes of this sect, at first, appear to have been not so much 
to establish any peculiar and distinctive doctrines as to assert, for 
individuals and churchmen, more liberty and independence in relation 
to matters of faith and practice, to shake off the authority of human 
creeds and the shackles of prescribed modes and forms, to make the 
Bible their only guide, claiming for every man the right to pledge, for 
himself, what are its requirements, and in practice to follow more 
strictly the simplicity of the apostles and primitive Christians. They 


profess to deprecate what they consider an undue influence of a mere 
sectarian spirit, a tenacious adherence to particular dogmas, as an in- 
fringement of Christian liberty, as adverse to the genius of the gospel 
and the practical influence of true religion." 

" The principle upon which their churches were at first constituted, 
and upon which they still stand, are the following : — The Scriptures are 
taken to be the only rule of faith and practice, each individual being at 
liberty to determine, for himself, in relation to these matters, what they 
enjoin ; no member is subject to the loss of church fellowship on 
account of his sincere and conscientious belief, so long as he manifestly 
Jeads a pious and devout life. The name Christian to be adapted to 
the exclusion of all sectarian names, as the most appropriate designa- 
tion of the body and its members. The only condition of admission as 
a member of a church is a personal profession of the Christian religion, 
accompanied with satisfactory evidence of sincerity and piety, and a 
determination to live according to the divine rule of the gospel of Christ. 
Each church is considered an independent body, possessing exclusive 
authority to regulate and govern its own affairs." — See ' Encyclopedia 
of Religious Knowledge,' pp. 862, 363. 

There never was an organized Christian church in Hartford. This 
denomination held meetings in the neighborhood of Jericho, many years 
ago. It seems probable that James Spencer was the first Christian 
minister who preached in the town. He lived in this town for several 
years. After Mr. Spencer came Jasper Hazen, who lived and preached 
in the town as early as 1810, probably with regular appointments. In 
the town records I find the following entiy : — 

" Hartford, 26 December, 1810 : — Now there was in the church of 
Christ, at Hartford, Vt., certain teachers and preachers, and they 
ministered to the Lord and fasted, and they felt an impression of the 
Holy Ghost to set apart Jasper Hazen to the work of the ministry. 
These are therefore to certify that he was this day set apart publicly 
according to the New Testament, by fasting, prayer, and laying on of 
hands of us. — Elias Cobb, Uriah Smith, James Spooner, and Frederic 
Plummer, Elders." 

Mr. Hazen removed to Woodstock in 1815, and subsequently there 
was nothing more than an occasional sermon until Eev. Moses Kidder 
began filling regular appointments in Quechee Village, in 1843. In 1845 
the Christian Society of Quechee Village and vicinity was organized, 
but there was no independent church formed ; the members there form- 
ing a branch of the Christian Church in Woodstock, During the first 
year of Mr. Kidder's ministry in Quechee, meetings were held in Bar- 
ron's hall. During the year 1844 a meeting-house was erected there. 
On the first of January, 1845, the society was formed and a constitution 


adopted, as appears by the following extract from the records of the 
society : — 

" AVe the undersigned inhabitants of Quechee Village and vicinity do 
hereby associate together and form ourselves into a society for the pur- 
pose of supporting the gospel, and maintenance of public worship, and 
to hold and keep in repair a house of public worship, agreeably to the 
eighty-first chapter of the Revised Statutes, by the name of the Christian 
Society of Quechee Village, and do hereby establish the following writ- 
ten articles as a Constitution of said society." 

The second article of the constitution provided that the first meeting 
of the society should be held in the new meeting-house on the 20th of 
January, 1845, for legal organization. The Constitution was signed by 
the following named persons : — Theodore Gallup, P. A. Sumner, Elias 
Williams, Lester Richardson, Charles Tinkham, Harvey Thomas, Nelson 
Humphrey, Lionel Richardson, Daniel N. Dutton, John Porter, and 
Nathaniel Thomas. 

The meeting-house was opened for meetings on the 1st of January, 
1845. On the 20th January, the society was organized by the choice of 
Elias Williams, as chairman, and Harvey Thomas, as clerk. The Pru- 
dential Committee then chosen consisted of F. A. Sumner, Lester 
Richardson and Theodore Gallup.' Mr. Kidder continued to preach 
for said society one-half of the time for four years. After that his 
brother, Abiah Kidder, then residing in Pomfret, supplied the pulpit 
one-half the time for about one year. He was succeeded by Lewis 
Phillips for about the same time. There Avas no more stated preaching 
after Mr. Phillips left. On the 5th of December, 1863, the following 
notice was sent to the clerk of the Society: — 

" To Harvey Thomas, Clerk of the Christian Society of Quechee 
Village: — We the undersigned members of said Society, hei'eby request 
you to warn a meeting of said Society for the purpose of altering the 
Constitution of said Society so as to authorize the Clerk of said Society 
to sell and convey the meeting house and the land connected therewith 
to any person or persons he may choose to. 



Pursuant to this notice, a meeting of the Society was held in the 
counting-room of J. C. Parker, December 14th, 1863, when it was voted 

'The pew-holders in the meeting-house were as follows : — Theodore Gallup, 
Nathaniel Thomas, Harvey Thomas, Lionel Richardson, Francis A. Sumner, 
Nelson Humphrey, John Porter, Charles Tinkham, Charles Brown, Daniel H. 
Dutton, Daniel Taft and Sons, Elias Williams, Abel Barron, Theophilus Gushing, 
George Holbrook, Joel Simons, Widow Abigail Strong, Albert G. Dewey, Thomas 
Rowell, John P. Strong, Charles R. Whitman, James Boyd, Jacob Dimick, Joseph 
K. Edgerton, J. C. Parker. — The total number of pews was forty-six. Preaching 
was supported by voluntary subscriptions only. 


to change the Constitution agreeable to the warning. The meeting- 
house was sold to parties in Quechee Village and vicinity, and occupied 
as a hall until its destruction by fire. 

It appears in the records of the Congregational church in Dothan, 
that several members of that church went over to the Christians, among 
whom were Daniel Hazen, Olive Hazen, and Diadama Bartholomew. 
April 17th, 1811. the following draught was communicated to the 
church and congregation in Dothan, viz : — 

" To Olive, wife of Daniel Hazen, and Diadama Bartholomew, once 
members in covenant : Whereas, you, and each of you, after having sol- 
emnly professed to give yourselves to the Lord, and to us by the will 
of God ; and after having taken the vows of God upon you to walk with 
us in all the ordinances and commandments of the Lord, and to seek 
the peace and welfare of this church so long as God should continue 
your lot among us, you have departed from what, in our view, is the 
faith once delivered to the saints, by joining yourselves in fellowship 
with such as teach doctrines which are not according to Godliness : 
We do now declare you to have gone out from us, and that you are no 
more of us, and that the hand of fellowship and christian and brotherly 
care, and watch over you are from henceforth withdrawn." 

(Signed) EDEN BURROUGHS, pastor. 

The farcical nature of the foregoing communication must have elic- 
ited a smile of derision in angelic circles. The spirit of intolerance, un- 
charitableness and bigotry evinced by the church toward the dissenting 
members was inconsistent with the principles of the christian religion. 
The indocile members were amenable to no other charge than that of 
recantation. Yet, they were anathematized by the church and treated in 
an unchristian manner. Dr. Burroughs, the pastor of said church, whose 
voice was dominant in urging, and whose hand indited the letter of ex- 
communication, was more amenable to condemnation than were the dis- 
senting members. He had not only renounced Presbytery, and em- 
braced Congregationalism, but he had subsequently assumed the pas- 
torate of the Presbyterian church at Dothan. The differences between 
Presbyterianism and Congregationalism were no bar to a change of 
church relationship, when this clergyman found the change desirable ; 
and some years later, the church that had, under his leadership, anath- 
ematized two inoffensive women for changing their church relationship, 
renounced Presbytery and went over to Congregationalism. In a word, 
the church that had withdrawn the haixd o/ fellowship, and all chris- 
tian and brotherly care, from two members who had joined the Chris- 
tians, openly acknowledged the inconsistency of their conduct, and the 
untenability of their position, and vindicated the wisdom of their 


former companions, by renouncing Presbytery for something, no better 
than the Christian church, which they had so lately declared heretical in 


In the grants of land made under the New Hampshire charters, three 
rights in each township were reseived for religious purposes. One of 
these was a Glebe for the Church of England, as by law established, or, 
in other words, for the support of an Episcopal clergy in the then col- 
ony of New Hampshire. Gov. Wentworth was an Episcopalian, but 
the numbers of that sect, then on the grants, was exceedingly small. 
They were indeed a minor sect, as they have to this time remained, and 
will continue to remain. A great majority of the colonists were Con- 
gregationalists, and that denomination was by the colonial government 
considered and treated as the established religion, consequently the one 
right in each township reserved for the first settled minister fell into 
possession of the Congregationalists, and became in fee, the property of 
the ministers of that denomination. 

Prompted by the expectation that both the Glebe and the Propaga- 
ting right would ultimately enable them to support their own minis- 
ters, and erect churches. Episcopalians were induced to remove into 
the newly chartered townships of Vermont ; but the predominance of 
the Congregationalists, and the prejudices entertained against the 
Episcopalians, militated against the progress of this sect to such an 
extent, that during the session of the General Assembly in Kutland, in 
the autumn of 1794, an attempt was made to sequester the lands of the 
Propagating Society to the use of the University of Vermont. Fu,iiing 
in this, the advocates of the measure took steps toward diverting boih 
the Glebe and the society lands from their intended use. As a result, 
laws were enacted which confiscated the whole property of the Episco- 
pal church, in Vermont, to the State. 

The first general convention of the Episcopal Diocese in Vermont was 
held in Arlington in September, 1790. Twenty-one lay and clerical del- 
egates were in attendance. This convention requested two of its mem- 
bers, Messrs. Gifford and Todd, to endeavor to obtain an act of the 
Legislature for the purpose of securing possession of their lands — the 
society and Glebe lands. 

' Owing to the negligence of Rev. Mr. Flanders, rector of the Episcopal church in 
Hartford, to furnish me with data concerning his church, I am unable to present 
any facts relating to the history of that church in this town. 


(Mr. Todd was then a member of the Legislature from ArHngton.) No 
effort was made by these laymen in the Legislature that year. 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts was 
incorporated by a charter granted by William III of England, in the 
thirteenth year of his reign, ^^1702), in order that a better provision 
might be made foV the preaching of the gospel, and the maintenance of 
an orthodox clergy in the colonies of Great Britain. "This society took 
an early notice of the grants made to it by Gov. Wentworth. In July, 
1762, an acceptance of the donation was expressed. On the 20th of May, 
1785, the society instructed their secretary to write to some one or more 
members of the Church of England in each of the States of America, in 
which the society had property to take all proper care in securing said 
property ; and further, to inform such persons that the society intended 
to make over all such property to the use of the Episcopal church in 
this country."— Peters' Eeports, Vol. IV., pp. 482-483. 

In June, 1785, the Legislature of Vermont held a session in Nor^^ich. 
In pursuance of an act passed at that session, a charter was issued to 
President Wheelock of Dartmouth College for a tract of laud six miles 
square. This grant was named Wheelock. In October of that year, 
during the session of the Legislature in Windsor, President Wheelock 
proposed to the Legislature of Vermont the sequestration for the use of 
said college of the rights of land reserved for the Propagation Society, 
and for the purpose of Glebes, etc. The business was referred to the 
next session of the Legislature. At the next session, in the ensuing 
February, the matter was disposed of by the resolution : " That the 
proposals from Dartmouth College are such as cannot be accepted." — 
Am. Quar. Eeg., Vol. XIII, p. 395. 

The committee appointed in October, 1786, on the subject of Dart- 
mouth College, gave, in their report, the following opinion respecting 
the fee of the lands granted to the Propagation Society: " In the opin- 
ion of this committee, the lands formerly claimed by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, in consequence of the revo- 
lution, are now become the property of the citizens of Vermont." In 
October, 1787, an act was passed, authorizing the selectmen of the sev- 
eral towns to take care of and improve the Glebe and society lands for 
the space of seven years, and to apply the incomes to the improvement 
of the lands. An exception was made of those Glebes which might be 
in the actual possession of Episcopal ministers. — W-'illiams' Hist. Vt., 
Vol. II, Chap X. 

At the convention of the Episcopal church in Vermont, in 1793, Rev. 
Dr. Edward Bass, of Newburyport, Mass., was elected bishop of Ver- 


mont, but he was not consecrated. At a special convention of the dio- 
cese holden in Manchester, Feb. 27, 1794, Col. John A. Graham of Rut- 
land, nominated for bishop the Rev. Samuel Peters, L. L. D., and he 
was elected. Dr. Peters was then residing in London. Col. Graham 
was sent to England to secure the consecration of Dr. Peters, and also, 
as agent and attorney of the church in Vermont to procure a convey- 
ance of the land of the Propagation Society within this State to himself 
and certain other gentlemen. Mr. Graham failed in his mission. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury declined to consecrate Dr. Peters, and the 
Propagation Society declined to convey their lands to Col. Graham. — 
Documtintary Hist. Prot. Epis. Ch. in Vt., pp. 16-46. 

I deem it proper for the information of my readers to lay before them 
an account of the action taken by the Legislature of Vermont respect- 
ing the Society and Glebe reservations in the New Hampshire grants, 
also of the action taken by the Propagation Society, as well as the efforts 
put forth by the Episcopalians to secure to themselves the possession 
of both the Glebe and society lands, this being a part of the history of 
the church, as well as of the time. I will, therefore, insert here so much 
of the journal of the session of 1794, as relates to the two bills passed 
that session concerning the sequestration of the society and Glebe lands 
to the use of the State : 

" On Friday, October 17, 1794, on motion of Ira Allen, Resolved, 
That His Excellency the Governor and Council be requested to join the 
House in Grand Committee to-morrow morning, to take into considera- 
tion the propriety of disposing of the land in the several towns of this 
State, reserved for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." 
On the 18th of October, agreeable to the order of the day, the gove^'^.or 
and council and the house joined in grand committee to consider the 
propriety of disposing of the rights reserved for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts. After the charter of the town of Rutland, 
issued by Gov. Wentworth, and the treaty of peace concluded between 
the United States and Great Britain, in 1783, were read, the committee 
adjourned until October 21. The committee met pursuant to adjourn- 
ment, and resolved : " That it is the opinion of this committee that the 
lands in this State, granted by the late Governor Wentworth of New 
Hampshire to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, does of right belong to this State." 

On motion of L-a Allen a committee of one from each county was ap- 
pointed to report their opinion to the grand committee, as to what use 
should be made of the rights granted to the Propagation Society. This 
committee reported their opinion to be that the Legislature had sole 
right to dispose of the right in each town called the propagation right, 
and that they be disposed of for the use and benefit of common schools, 
in the several towns in which they lie. Also, that for the better im- 


provement of the Glebe lands, the selectmen of the several towns should 
take possession of the same. On Wednesday, Oct. 29th, a bill entitled 
an act directing the uses of the rights of land in this State heretofore 
granted by the British Government, as Glebes, for the benefit of the 
Church of England was read a second time. On the question, will the 
House accept said bill ; it passed in the afiirmitive. Yeas, 100, nays, 
15. The bill directing the appropriation of the society lands was also 
read and adopted. These bills then went to the Governor and Council 
for concurrence. They were returned to the House October 30th, 1794, 
and became laws. The law relating to Glebes gave the selectmen of 
those towns in which there were Glebe rights, power to take possession 
of them, to lease them for a term of years, not exceeding fourteen, and 
to distribute the income in case there was more than one religious 
teacher in the respective towns, for the support of such teachers in 
proportion to the number of ratable polls belonging to the respective 
congregations and residents in such towns. The law relating to the 
Propagation lands, provided that the selectmen should take possession 
of said lands and lease them out, and the rents and profits should be 
distributed in the several school districts, annually, in proportion to the 
number of ratable polls in such district, the lease to be perpetual. 

The first e£fort made to take possession of the Glebe-lands was a suit 
in ejectment brought by the selectmen of Manchester to recover the 
Glebe, which was in the hands of Eev. Daniel Barber. The ground ta- 
ken by the prosecution was, that the Glebe grants were void because 
the grantees named in the charter were not in existence to receive. 
Against this it was contended, that, at the time of the grants, the church 
of England had a corporate existence. The court, Patterson, judge, 
decided in favor of the defendant, pronouncing the act of 1794 uncon- 
stitutional and void. No appeal was taken from this decision. In 
obedience to this decision of the IT. S. Circuit Court, the Legislature in 
1799 passed an act repealing the act of 1794. The Glebe rights in 
those towns in which there was an Episcopal church were at once leased. 

In 1802, the Legislature, setting in Burlington, again considered the 
subject of sequestering the Glebe reservations. The question was refer- 
red to a committee, who reported as their opinion " that the Glebe 
lands are vested in and at the disposal of the State, and that said lands 
ought to be granted and appropriated to and for the use of county 
grammar schools, in the several counties in which they lie " The sub- 
ject was referred to the next session of the Legislature, wheit, after an 
effort to sequester the Glebe lands for the use of schools, the subject 
was dismissed. 


In 1805, the General Assembly held its session in Danville, Vt. At 
this session the situation of the Glebe lands was again considered, and 
a committee was appointed to whom were referred several petitions on 
that subject. This committee reported a bill entitled, " An act direct- 
ing the disposal of the Glebe lands in this State." The report was ac- 
cepted, and on Saturday, November 2d, the bill was passed in the 
affirmative ; yeas, 95, nays, 63. On the 5th, it was approved by the 
Governor and Council and became a law. By this law the several 
rights of land in Vermont, granted under the authority of the British 
Government to the Church of England, were granted, severally, to the 
respective towns in which such lands laid, to their respective use and 
uses forever, in the manner following: — 

" It shall be the duty of the selectmen, in the respective towns, in the 
name and behalf, and at the expense of such towns, if necessary to sue 
for and recover the possession of such lands, and the same to lease out, 
according to their best judgment, reserving an annual rent therefor, 
which shall be paid into the treasury of such town, and appropriated to 
the use of schools therein, and shall be applied in the same manner as 
moneys arising from school lands are, by law directed to be applied." — 
Laws of Vt., compiled by William Slade, Jr., p. 198.' 

In the Episcopal convention of 1805 held in Arlington, a resolution 
was passed directing the standing committee to take measures for pro- 
curing a conveyance of , the lands originally granted to the Propagation 
society. A resolution was passed requesting Bishop Moore, of New 
York, to take the church in Vermont under his care. He consented 
with a view of giving more efficacy to the petition for a conveyance of 
said lands. — Episcopal Recorder, Max'ch 7, 1835. 

The petition was not heeded, and it was determined at the ucal ap- 
plication to ask for a power of Attorney, but nothing was done till the 
return of peace, though the business was not wholly neglected. The 
Convention of the church held in Middlebury in 1810, formed and 
adopted a new constitution. This was a convention of the clerical and 
lay delegates of the churches of the Eastern Diocese, consisting of the 
churches of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont. In 1810, Rev. Alexander V. Griswold of Rhode Island was 
elected Bishop of the Eastern Diocese, and was canonically consecrated 
by Bishops White, Provost and Jarvis, in Trinity church, in the City 
of New York, on the 29th day of May, 1811. 

In July, 1808, Rev. Charles Stewart, a missionary in Canada, and sub- 
sequently bishop of Quebec, tendered his services to the church to pro- 
cure from the Propagation Society a conveyance of their lands. In July, 

' Sherman Dewey, Representative from Hartford, voted in the affirmative. 


1815, Dr. Stewart, after visiting Vermont, set off for Europe, bearing a 
petition from the church. In December following, the society j^assed a 
resolution to grant to the church a power of attorney, but this was not 
received until 1817. This paper, with others, were put into the hands of 
Daniel Chipman, attorney for the chui'ch, who took two years for 
the examination of the case before commencing any process. Then he 
brought a suit for land in New Haven, which was defended by a grant 
of money from the State, and in March, 1823, decided in the Supreme 
Court of the TJhited States in favor of the church. Mr. Hopkinson, of 
Philadelphia, argued the case for the society, and Daniel Webster, of 
Boston, for the defendants. 

The agents of the church met in Middlebury, April 30, 1823, to take 
measures to lease the lands, when it was unanimously agreed to lease 
them to the tenants then in occupation — the buildings and betterments 
made on the lands by the tenant to be his, and the land leased to him at 
a rent proportional to the value of the land without reference to the 
buildings and betterments made by him — conditional, however, upon 
the surrender of his lease from the town. — Agents' Report, June 26th, 

In the year 1810, an action of ejectment was brought by the town of 
Pawlet against Daniel Clark and others to recover possession of the 
Glebe lot in that town. In 1815 this suit was decided by the Supreme 
Court of the United States in Washington, in favor of the town. This 
case was argued in 1814, by Messrs. Pitkin and Webster for the town, 
and by Mr. Sheperd for the defendants. At the February term, 1815, 
Mr. Justice Story delivered the opinion of the majority of the court. — 
See Documentary Hist. Church in Yt., pp. 137-140. 

This suit involved all the Glebe reservations in the New Hampshire 
grants. The decision of the Supreme Court sustained the act of the 
General Assembly of 1805, and all controversy between the State and 
the church was thus terminated. Nevertheless the church deemed the 
action of the Supreme court a great wrong. It was not till 1831 -3, that 
the long series of difficulties which the church had to encounter were in 
the main removed. Judgments had been rendered in favor of the soci- 
ety in all cases carried into court to that time. 

By mutual consent and permission of the Convention of the Eastern 
Diocese and of the conventions of the several States composing said 
diocese, the Protestant Episcopal church in Vermont was separated 
from the Eastern Diocese in 1832, and became an independent and dis- 
tinct Episcopal jurisdiction under the name of the •' Diocese of Ver- 


mont." On Thursday, May 31, 1832, the Rev. John H. Hopkins was 
duly elected bishop of the Episcopal church in Vermont. 

On retiring from the Eastern Diocese, Bishop Griswold delivered an 
address before the convention of said diocese, in Trinity Church in Bos- 
ton, Sept. 26, 1832, in which he said of the church in Vermont: 
"Eighteen years ago they had but one, or at most two, officiating clergy- 
men ; now they have twelve. Then they had not one church edifice ; now 
they have twelve new ones which are consecrated, and five or six more 
which are building. Then they had three organized parishes ; in their 
late convention twenty-four were represented. Thousands of dollars 
they have expended in obtaining possession of the lands which belong 
to this church ; now, as we hope, the business is settled and these ex- 
pensive litigations at an end." 

Owing to the non-fulfillment of a promise made by the rector of the 
Episcopal church in Hartford I am without reliable data concerning 
the history of his church. Whether he acted ex mero motu, or ex 
necessitate rei. I am unable to say, but I should purchase expecta- 
tion, in this case, at a dear rate, if the public were left to infer that the 
absence of said history was attributable to ill-intention or indifference 
on my part. 

In the absence of other information concerning the Episcopal sect in 

Hartford in early times I will quote a letter written by Rev. Ranna 

Cossit, an Episcopal missionary, about the year IVVS, viz.: 

' ' There were church people settled scattering for above 150 miles ou Con- 
necticut river. The nearest of these to any clergyman is 130 miles. * * * 
Twenty-four miles above Springfield, Vt. , Dr. Wheelock hath a college and in- 
forms the church people that he will supply them with ministers. There is a 
considerable number of church people opposite Dr. Wheelock, on New "^^ork 
side of the river and some on the same side with him, who constantly meet to 
read prayers among themselves." 

Mr. Cossit returned to England for holy orders in December, 1772, 
and was ordained there in 1773, by the bishop of London. • He re- 
turned to this country and settled in Claremont, N. H., as the first 
Episcopal minister of that place. He removed from Claremont to 
Cape Breton in 1785. 

The following table exhibits the names of the present occupants of 

the propagating lands in Hartford; the number of acres leased by each; 

the rent paid by each lessee, and the value of each leased lot : 

Lessees. No. Acres. Rental. Value. 

Downing, Portus 30 $5 00 $500 00 

Mossey, David 30 5 00 300 00 

Newton, Solon, Est 12 3 00 120 00 

Sprague, Israel 6 100 60 00 

Toughv, Martin 50 6 00 700 00 

West. M. H., Jr 24 4 00 500 00 

Wliitman& Cowen 190 3125 750 00 

Totals 342 $54 25 $2930 00 


The rent derived from the above named lands is now paid to Geo. R. 
Chapman, Woodstock, Vt, 


The first Universalist society in the town was organized at a meeting 
held in Grover's Hall, White River Junction, May 3, 1878. After 
some discussion it was voted to organize a society to be known as the 
" P"'irst Universalist Society of White River Junction." A constitu- 
tion was adopted and the organization completed, by the election of the 
following officers: Moderator, E. H. Bagley ; clerk, A. J. Rollins; 
treasurer, H. H. Hanchett ; collector, Fred Hanchett. 

Executive Committee, White River Junction, A. C. Bean, S. A. Pot- 
ter, A. T. Pierce ; Hartford, village, Mrs. C. S. Hamilton, Mrs. S. M. 
Pingree; West Lebanon, N. H., J. M. Ralstone. 

Trustees, W. W. Barnes, Irvin Russ, David H. Moore. 

In September, 1878, the society commenced, the woi'k of building 
their present church edifice, which was completed and dedicated in 
June, 1879. The building committee consisted of Messrs. E, H. Bag- 
ley, Irvin Russ and Allen L. Pease. The architect and builder was 
Mr. Irvin Russ. The cost of the structure was about $2500. 

The societj^'s records have been indifferently kept, both as regards 
facts and dates. There is no record of the dedicatory exercises, nor of 
the exact time of their occurrence. The pastors of the church and 
society thus far have been as follows : J. C. Farnsworth, Wm. E. 
Copeland, George W. Barnes, and the present pastor, Walter Dole. 
There are about twenty familes in the parish, nearly all of which live 
within a radius of one mile of their place of worship. The choir com- 
prises Mr. N. S. Eddy, Mr. S. H. Potter, Mrs. S. H. Potter, Miss Win- 
nie Barnes, Mrs. Dr. Watson and Miss Olea Bean. Both vocal and 
instrumental music are of a high order. 


This is a religious sect of recent origin. Its beginning was in the 
year 1842-3. They recognize William Miller as their leader, to whom 
they refer as an authority. They believe in and preach the speedy 
second coming of Christ. Miller prophesied that the second coming of 
our Lord would occur in the year 1848. He preached in this section 
first in Pomfret in the autumn of 1842, and a large number were then 
converted to his faith or belief, and many of his converts in Pomfret, 
and surrounding towns, were so deeply affected by the expectation that 
his prophecy would be fulfilled, that they relinquished nearly all Avorld- 
ly business of a secular nature, and gave away their property. Some 


went so far as to declare that, if all earthly things failed to end as pre- 
dicted by Miller, they would no longer take the Holy Bible as the rule 
of faith and manners, nor repose faith in God as a Supreme Being ! So 
great was the excitement created by the preaching of Miller that many 
of his folloAvers became hopelessly insane; and when the utter falla- 
ciousness of his predictions became evident, many of his convei'ts who 
had previously been exemplary members of some religious body, be- 
came apostates and bitter adversaries of Christianity, and finally lapsed 
into spiritualism, or some other phase of infidelitJ^ For some years 
subsequent to 1843, there were several of this class of people in Hart- 
ford. They were called "Millerites." Those who now hold to the 
doctrine that the second coming of Christ is not far distant, are known 
as Second Adventists. 

On the 16th of August, 1887, certain members of this sect purchased 
of Orren A. Taft, six acres of land lying on the west side of Connecti- 
cut river about one mile above White River Junction, and closely ad- 
jacent to the Passumpsic railroad. This place was selected for an 
Advent camp-meeting ground. The first camp-meeting held on this 
ground commenced August 8th and ended September 11th, 1887. This 
meeting attracted a large attendance of people, who found the location 
pleasant, the preaching entertaining and instructive, and the exercises 
in general interesting. Order, proper decorum and solemnity charac- 
terized the occasion. All who attended the services were favorably 
impressed by the candid, intelligent exposition of the tenets and belief 
of the Adventists made by their preachers. The earnestness, serious- 
ness and whole deportment of the Adventists, during this n.zztt^g, 
proved that they were not nominal Christians, and that their worship 
was influenced by a Christian spirit. No room was left for unkindly 
comments or invidious criticism. 

On the 3d of September, 1887, an organization was effected under 
the name of the " White River Junction Campmeeting Association," 
for the purpose of holding public worship and religious meetings by 
Advent Campmeetings. The articles of association were signed by 
John Couch, R. N. Stetson, Wm. Guild, Luther E. Lord, P. G. Lord, 
Daniel Johnson, Wm. C. Bugbee, Ezra Willej^, David H. Bragg, Ballard 
B. Chedell, L. C. McKinsley, Myron H. Wilmot, and E. A. Stockman, 
corporators. Royal N. Stetson was elected President and Wm. Guild 
Secretary. The ground purchased is to be known under the title of 
"The White River Junction Advent Ground." 



This sect existed in Hartford for several years. Its beginning was 
about the year 1820. Their meetings were held in private houses, un- 
der the cover of darkness. Their form of worship Avas chai'acterized 
by scenes at once ludicrous and immoral. They endeavored to exclude 
from their meetings all who did not endorse their tenets and practice, 
but they could not, for a long time at least, conceal their flagrant 
violations of law and order, and were compelled to discontinue their 
meetings in this town. This body was not in any respect like the New 
England Fathers who bore the same title, but a small sect that later 
arose and assumed the same name. 



Most of the early settlers of Hartford came here from Connecticut, 
in which State liberal provisions were, at that period, made for the sup- 
port of common schools. They possessed nothing more than a common 
school education, Avhich was then limited to English reading, writing, 
and arithmetic. But though they had received but little education, 
and had l)ut little time to devote to reading and study, they were not 
unappreciative of the advantages resulting from these, hence, they made 
the most liberal provisions in their power for the establishment and 
support of common schools and other institutions of leai'ning. They 
attached equal importance to the support of schools and the gospel. 

The subject of education has been a theme upon which there has been 
but little, if any, division of sentiment, or fluctuation of interest among 
the inhabitants of the town, and the same may be said ot the people of 
Vermont in general. In framing the constitution of the State, our 
fathers were not unmindful of the importance of making liberal provis- 
ions for promoting the cause of common education. Section 40 of the 
constitution says : — " A school or schools shall be established in each 
town by the legislature for the convenient instruction of youth * * * 
One grammar school in each county, and one university in tl " 'Ttate, 
ought to be established by direction of the General Assembly." 

On the 31st of October, 1797, an act for the support of schools was 
passed by the General Assembly of Vermont. The first clause of sec- 
tion one of said act reads as follows: — " That each organized town in this 
State shall keep and support a school or schools for the instruction of 
youth in English reading, writing, and arithmetic." 

Our governors have not failed to recommend to the General Assembly 
to cherish with guardian care our primary schools, and to make suitable 
provisions for maintaining the same. In his speech to the General 
Assembly in 180(J, Governor Tichenor said: — "In every attempt to 
promote the interests of science, the education of youth, or to render 
respectable the institutions and precepts of Christianity, we shall be in 
the discharge of a duty highly useful in a christian country, and every 
way interesting to a free people." In 1810, Governor Galusha said to 
the General Assembly: — " Your attention, gentlemen ought not to be 


wholly confined to the higher institutions of literature; neither should 
the means of knowledge be restricted to one class of people, but liberally- 
imparted to all." In 1821, Governor Skinner said to the General As- 
sembly: — "A general diffusion of useful knowledge, and an improved 
state of science afford the best security to civil and religious liberty * * * 
A diligent and persevering attention to the education of our children, is 
that without which we cannot expect the people will long retain a 
republican form of government." Like sentiments have been reiterated 
in the messages of succeeding governors, and their recommendations 
and suggestions have been followed by wise and progi*essive legislation 
to foster the interests of literature, the sciences, seminaries, and com- 
mon schools. 

During the long pending controvers}^ betAveen the " Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," and those Avho desired to 
sequester the lands set apart by the several charters to the use of said 
society, for the support of schools in Vermont, those who favored the 
sequestration claimed that the use of the rental of said lands for the sup- 
port of schools, would be of greater benefit to the public than the rental 
could be for religious purposes. While denying this proposition, the 
Propagating Society paid an eloquent tribute to the benefits of secular 

Our forefathers entertained the same enlightened views concerning 
the principle of popular education that were expressed by the patriots 
of the French Revolution of 1789. The laws, conceived, prepared, sus- 
tained and executed in regard to primary instruction, were the noblest, 
wisest creations of the age in which they lived. By the side of the hum- 
ble parish church was erected the modest school-house where the chil- 
dren of the rich and the poor alike resorted for knowledge, " that other 
bread of the soul which was to support them through the rough trials 
of life." 

Public instruction in Vermont is divided generally into four kinds: 
Primary or common schools, so-called ; high schools, more recently called 
academies ; Normal schools, and colleges ; or, where professional educa- 
tion is added, universities. These four classes of institutions convey 
four gradations of education. The primary schools are of three kinds ; 
the public or common schools, the parochial or church schools, and pri- 
vate or individual schools. In these primary schools the children of the 
people in general, whatever their condition, are educated in those ele- 
ments of knowledge which are considered most useful in common life — 



ranging according to the age and capacity of pupils, from spelling and 
definition, reading, writing, grammar, including composition, elements 
of drawing, geography. United States history, history of Vermont, men- 
tal and written arithmetic, natural historj', music, elements of natural 
philosophy, and of algebra, analysis of language and declamation. 

The object of high schools and academies is to give some knowl- 
edge of higher studies, such as mathematics, history, or the classics. 
The object of colleges is to afford what is termed a thorough classical 
education, being a course of instruction in the sciences, the classics, phil- 
osophy, and belles lettres. To this course is generally added a supple- 
mentary one in law, medicine and theology, open to volunteer students 
for professional life. When a college has classes in these subjects it 
is termed a university, an institution in which, it is presumed, all 
branches of study are taught. In addition to these means of instruction, 
there are three normal schools in which those who design to teach school 
can obtain professional training in the subjects to be taught ; the sci- 
ence of the mind, and the best methods of teaching. The sources of 
income for school purposes are the interest of the United States deposit 
money, the rent of lands set apart for the support of common schools, 
the income from funds donated to the State and to towns by individ- 
uals, and town and district taxes. 

In 1836, Vermont received on deposit from the United States govern- 
ment, the sum of $669,086.79, being its share of the surplus revenue, 
divided, and loaned to the several States. The Legislature enacted that 
the money be apportioned to the several towns, in proportion to the 
population as shown by the census of 1830, and that each town elect 
trustees to loan and care for the same, who should be accountable for 
the return of said money, or any part thereof, to the State treasury, 
whenever called for by the treasurer, upon the requisition of the United 
States, or for the purj^ose of a new apportionment. Also, that the inter- 
est of said money loaned to the several towns, should be appropriated 
to the support of common schools ; provided, that, if a town has other 
school funds, the income of which is sufficient to support schools in all 
the districts in such town for six months in each year, such town may 
appropriate the income received from its share of such money to the 
support of schools, or to any other purpose. 

The first division of the surplus revenue to towns in Vermont, 
occurred in 1838. Hartford then received about $4780. The town then 
voted to divide the interest of this fund equally among all the school 
districts in the town. The first trustees of that fund, chosen by this 


town, were John Porter, William Savage and Lewis Lyman. The pres- 
ent and sole trustee of the fund is Hon. Wm. S. Dewey of Quechee vil- 
lage. In 1852, the town purchased the toll bridge at White Kiver vil- 
lage, and borrowed the public money to pay for said bridge, in which 
property it is still invested. On the census of 1880 the amount appor- 
tioned to Hartford was $5,948.14. Since 1883, the interest devoted to 
schools has been, annually, $357.15. 

The first action taken by Hartford relative to the school land, was 
under date of March 19, 1769, when the proprietors chose Lieut. John 
Strong to take care of said land and rent it out in order to make it 
profitable to the town. In 1770, Dr. Wheelock asked the proprietors of 
the town to donate the Glebe lands of the town to Dartmouth college. 
At a town meeting held in the dwelling house of Joel Marsh, at West 
Hartford, March 13, 1770, for the purpose of considering Dr. Wheelock's 
proposition, it was voted " that we will do nothing in respect to the 
school to be erected by Dr. Wheelock." 

Dr. Wheelock was more successful in his appeals to the generosity of 
several land-owners of Hartford. In the year 1771, Messrs. Abel Marsh, 
Israel Gillett, John Gillett, Erf us Baldwin, William Bramble and Eben- 
ezer Bliss, each donated land to Dartmouth College ; in all,- six lots, con- 
taining 450 acres. In 1783, Eleazer Robinson donated 100 acres to the 
same institution. Referring to the land record book of 1771, I find 
recorded, under date of January 4th, a deed given by Israel Gillett to 
Dr. Wheelock and the trustees of Dartmouth College, which is quoted 
here, pro forma, for the benefit of all who are interested in such docu- 
ments : — 

" To all i^eople to whom these presents shall come, Greeting: — 

Whereas, it has pleased his excellency John Went worth, Esq., Governor and 
Commander-in-Chief of the Province of New Hampshire, with the advice of his 
Majesty's Council for said Province, for the benefit and instruction of Indian 
youth begun, and for several years last past, carried on by Eleazer Wheelock, D. 
D., as well as the liberal education of any others who will accept the same, to 
erect and constitute a college in the west part of said province by the name of 
Dartmouth College, and by a charter under the great seal of said j^rovince, to 
endow the same with many noble franchises and privileges, as well as to make 
generous donations toward a fund for supporting the same: therefore, in consid- 
eration of the extensive charity of the design, and in addition to said fund, I, 
Israel Gillett, of Hartford, in the County of Cumberland and State of New York, 
yeoman, have given, granted, and by these presents do absolutely give, grant, 
convey and confirm to the Trustees of Dartmouth College, and to their succes- 
sors in that trust for the use and benefit of said college, one hundred acres of un- 
divided land, in Hartford, in the county of Cumberland, in the province of New 
York, to be laid out to the right which was originally granted to Daniel Reding- 
ton, as by the charter and schedule of said townshii) may appear." 

The first mention made, in the town records, of the number of schol- 
ars in any one district, or of school districts, is under date of March 11, 


1805, wherein Daniel Ransom, clerk of the 3d district (Quechee) re- 
ported the number of scholars, over four and under eighteen years of 
age, in said district, to be sixty-five. A return made March 13th, 1805, 
by Zerah Brooks, clerk of the " Christian street " district gave the num- 
ber of scholars, over four and under eighteen, to be thirty-two. Prob- 
ably there were, at that time, but three districts in the town, that is to 
say, there were but three schools in the town, and these, for conven- 
ience sake, were designated by numbers, though as yet they were not 

In March, 1806, a committee consisting of Daniel Marsh, Reuben 
Tenney, Daniel Ransom, Josiah Tilden and Abel Barron, was chosen 
to divide the town into school districts. This committee reported, in 
town meeting, March, 1807, that they had divided the town into seven- 
teen districts. Geographically the districts were located as follows : — 
No. 1, centre of the town ; (2) Thomas Pitkin' ; (3) Christopher 
Pease's, (Quechee) ; (4) James Burtch's ; (5) Abel Camp's, (West 
Hartford) ; (6) David Ingraham's ; (7) Wm Pixley's, (Jericho) ; (8) 
Dothan meeting-house ; (9) Israel Gillet's, (Christian St.) ; (10) Luther 
Powell's, (Centerville) ; (11) Capt. Dorr's, (Lyman's Point) ; (12) Joel 
Brink's, (Rustown) ; (13) Mitchell Clark's, (W. R. Junction) ; (14) 
south side of White River, (Geo. Pease's) ; (15) at the brick school 
house, (James Udall's) ; (16) Joel Dimick's and Cadweii Thelps', 
(Arthur Hazen's; ; (17) White River village, north side of the river. 

The earliest records of the leases of lands for the use of schools, in- 
cluding all sequestered for that purpose, are found in Volumes 2 and 3 
of Land Records. Among the lots set apart to the Ministerial Right, 
or for the first settled minister, was lot No. 31, a hundred acre lot in 
the second division of land made by the proprietors. The first settled 
minister. Rev. Thomas Gross, sold this lot to John Dutton in 1786, by 
whom it was sold to Joseph Marsh, Oct. 13th, 1788. In 1792, the se- 
lectmen of the town took jDossession of said lot, and leased it by a com- 
mitiee for the benefit of schools, it being the first lease found on record. 
The lease reads as follows, viz : — 

"This indented lease made this 19th day of Sept. 1792, by and be- 
tween Joshua Hazen, David Wright and Amos Robinson, all of Hart- 
ford, in the county of Windsor, and State of Vermont, a committee ap- 
pointed by s'd Town of Hartford to take care of and to lease the 
school lands in said Town of Hartford, on the one part, and Jonas 
Bruce of s'd Hartford on the other part, Witnesseth : that we the said 
Joshua Hazen, David Wright, and Amos Robinson, for the considera- 
tion hereafter mentioned, and by virtue of the powder in us vested b}^ s'd 
Town of Hartford, do by these presents demise, lease and to farm let to 
the said Jonas Bruce, his heirs and assigns, one certain hundred acre 


lot in s'd Town of Hartford, and is 'No. 31 ' in the second division of 
hundred acre lots in said Town, which was drawn or pitched to the 
School Right in s'd Town. For him the said Jonas Bruce his heirs or 
assigns to have, hold, us3, occuj^y and improve according to the rules of 
good husbandry for and during the full term of Nine Hundred and 
Ninety-nine years from the date hereof, thence to be complete and 
ended ; the said Bruce at the end of six years from this date to pay into 
the Treasury of s'd Town of Hartford five pounds ($24.20) then in a 
year after that five pounds ten shillings, then a year after that six 
pounds, and to continue to pay six pounds yearly to the end of the term 
of 999 years, the payment to be made in neat stock or grain at money 
price ; and on the first failure of the payment of the yearly rents as 
aforesaid the s'd Bruce, his heirs and assigns to forfeit all right or title 
to the said letten premises, and the same to revert back to the said 
Town of Hartford. In witness whereof the parties have hereinto set 
their hands, and seals. — (signed) Joshua Hazen, Amos Robinson, Jonas 

The foregoing form was observed by said committee in making sub- 
sequent leases, whether of Propagating, Church of England, or other 
sequestered lands. In a book, entitled, " A Journal of the Town of 
Hartford," now known as " The Selectmen's Book," on page one may be 
found a record of sundr}^ demands in favor of the town for the use of 
supporting schools, included in which are ten notes against Charles and 
John Pinneo, amounting to $1*75. On page seven of said book, is the 
following entrj" : — " Hartford April 1801, Received of Benjamin Pixley 
eigLt dollars and thirty-four cents as a rent for one-half of the school 

The lot named was 'No. 14,' of the first division of hundred acre lots, 
and was leased Dec. 30, 1794, one-half to said Pixly, the balance to 
Putnam Wilson. The first payment of rent to be made by each in 
four years from Dec. 25, 1795, was fifty shillings, with an annual rise 
of ten shillings to four pounds ten shillings, the maximum rent there- 
after. Lot 'No. 14,' above named, was pitched to the school right, June 
27, 1781. It is located on what is known as the Goshen road, and em- 
braces sixty acres, now leased and occupied by Charles Hatch, the bal- 
ance being leased to another party. 

Lot ' No. 6,' in the first hundred acre division, is on the north side of 
AVhite River, and was laid out to the Glebe Right. A lease of the 
west half was given to Hezekiah Hazen, in 1809, and of the east half to 
Billa Gillett, in 1807, for the use of schools. Lot 'No. 6 ' adjoins the 
Propagating lot ' No. 15,' of one hundred acres, and the present lease 
holders are Reuben Loveland (50 acres), M. Hazen, West (30 acres). 
These two lots are embraced in that portion of the town familiarly 
known as " Church Hill." 



The first school in West Hartford was taught in the dwelling house 
of Reuben Hazen, in the summer of 1795. The winter term of 1796 
was taught by Lionel Udall. Mr. Udall was a severe disciplinarian, and 
the boys of that period who were under the vigilant eye of this teacher 
were given to understand that respect was better procured by exacting 
it than by soliciting it. Corporeal punishment was deemed requi. tte 
and proper to keep the urchins in the path of duty, and Mr. Udall ex- 
ercised his prerogative in that direction, as could have been established 
by the mouths and backs of many witnesses. The first school-house in 
West Hartford was built on the bank of White river, near the present 
home of the Misses Ballard. This school-house was I'emoved and con- 
verted into a dwelling-house, which now constitutes the ell portion of 
the dwelling-house directly fronting the meeting-house. The little 
brick school-house, now standing on the bank of the river, opposite the 
residence of Mrs. Allen Hayes, was built in 1820, and John T. Pratt 
taught the first school in it. It was in use until the fall of 1884, Avhen 
it was vacated for the handsome and commodious school-house which 
was erected that year. The . old school-house, in common with others 
of its class, was a perfect death-trap. Many children therein contracted 
diseases incident to an ill-ventilated, over-crowded room, tllher too hot 
or too cold, which resulted fatally. 

It seems, however, to be almost sacrilegious to pull down the old- 
time school-houses, around which cluster a thousand pleasant memories 
of our youthful days. They were the scenes of a multitude of events 
of a varied character, of associations durable as life. The old school- 
house at West Hartford was used for many years as a place for holding 
religious services on the Sabbath day, and, after the church was built, 
it continued to be the place for prayer meetings. It was also used as a 
place for holding singing and spelling schools, lyceums, law-suits, trials 
before justices and jui-ies, lectures, etc. From acquaintances made and 
friendships formed within its walls, resulted many marriages — some of 
a happy, others of an unhappy nature. 

We now have better school-houses, and, perhaps, greater facilities for 
acquiring a common school education than were enjoyed by the children 
of half a century ago, but more commodious and more healthful school- 
rooms, with the greater degree of comfort and pleasure afforded by im- 
proved systemSj have not given to the world a more perfect manhood 
or womanhood than existed under the system that prevailed a century 
ago. The enterprise that has formed states, churches, schools, and 
colleges, that has reared cities, built railroads, established telegraph 


lines, promoted rapid ocean transit, and brought our country to its 
present degree of prosperity, has been that of men who Avere educated 
under old time systems, established with high religious as well as edu- 
cational aims, and on the principle that " Knowledge and Virtue are the 
nuiin pillars of a free government," 

The teachers of fifty years ago, to whom we owe a great veneration, 
seem to have been inspired with a desire to improve both the minds and 
the hearts of their pupils, and to impress upon them the conviction that 
they should strive to become useful and virtuous members of society, 
and that their condition would l)e improved, and their usefulness greatly 
increased by the acquisition of useful knowledge and sound information. 
They stimulated their pupils to a course of industry and perseverance, 
that would serve to advance them to the honors and emoluments of 
public employment ; or, if not ambitioiis of public distinction, to im- 
prove their worldly condition and bring themselves into associations 
with the learned and the good. 

The spirit that animated the old time teachers is illustrated in a 

monologue written by Mrs. L. F. Camp, entitled " Old Time Scholars." 

The scene is a country school- house; Time, afternoon, as the scholars 

are preparing to resume their Ijooks, when the teacher addresses them 

as follows: — 

" Boys, to Toiir studies once again, 
For, if you live, you'll soon be men; 
'Tis my ambition you should be 
So learned and good tliat all may see 
]My labors have not been in vain, 
What I did teach was for your gain; 
'Twill be my pride to see you fill 
Places of trust at public will. " 
" Girls, too, store knowledge grain by grain, 
Which joined with virtue can but gain 
The praise none ever need disdain, 
Nor seek for tliat indeed in vain. 
And be content whate'er your lot, 
As flowers that bloom in lowly spot. 
Modest and sweet are often sought 
While others gayer are forgot." 
Thus spoke the master to those youth, 
And they received it as the truth, 
For they had learned ne'er to despise 
His kindly woi'ds and counsels wise." 

Tradition says that the first school in White River village, was kept 
in Josiah Tilden's barn, on the south side of the river, about the year 
1800; but with the exception of the school commenced in West Hart- 
ford, there is no recorded evidence that there was any other school in 
the town prior to 1805. Nevertheless, it seems probable that there 
were several schools in the town as early as the year 1800; the popula- 
tion that year being 1094; of which number there must have been at 
least 200 persons over four and under eighteen years of age. 


After the division of the town into school districts in 1807, a school- 
house was built in district 'No. 14,' by Asa and Josiah Tilden and 
Wharam Loomis. This house stood on the ground now occupied by the 
dwelling-house of the late Frank Blaisdell. In 1850, that portion of 
district 'No. 14' in which said school-house was located, was divided 
between 'No. 13' and 'No. 17.' In 1856, this school-house was sold 
at auction, since which time there has been no school in that portion 
of district '17,' south of the bridge. By the division of the toAvn in 
1807, 'No. 17,' included all the inhabitants living between Lyman's 
Point (White River Junction) and Stephen Tilden's (now Wm, But- 
ton's residence). At first, the school-house in 'No. 17,' stood just 
west of the present (Hartford) cemetery. In 1817 a portion of ' No. 
17' was set off to foi'm^ 'No. 11,' and this house was removed to 
Lyman's Point and placed on land just opposite to the residence of 
Asaph Taft, but some years later it gave way to a new house. After 
the consolidation of districts ' Nos. 13 ' and ' 11 ' in 1884-5, this school- 
house was sold to Noah B. Hazen, who converted it into the dwelling- 
house now (1887) occupied by the Methodist pastor. Rev. R. L. Bruce. 
In 1818, district 'No. 17' built a school-house on land belonging to 
Bani Udall, near the present dwelling-house of Charles W. Pease. This 
house was in use until 1848, when the disti'ict bought what was known 
as the "Hartford Academy,'" paying for the same $337:50, and this 
has since been turned one-quarter around, remodeled and an annex 
28x30 made. 



In October, 1839, an academy was incorporated, under the name of 
"Hartford Academy." It was located in White River village. This 
institution had but a brief existence. Its close proximity to other and 
much better patronized schools precluded the possibility of permanent 
success, or a long continued existence. In 1848, district '17' pur- 
chased the academy building for a school-house. In 1846, the first 
superintendents of common schools were appointed. The following 
named gentlemen have served the town as superintendents in the years 
named : 

1846-7, John K. Lord and Rev. John Dudley; 1848, '49, '50, Revs. John Dud- 
ley, Josiah Merrill and William Claggett ; 1851, Leonard Lovering ; 1852, Henry 
■Walcott ; 1853, Rev. J. Merrill ; 1854, Revs. J. Merrill, Heman Rood and Wm. 
Claggett ; 1855-56, Samuel J. Allen, M. D. ; 1857, Revs. Heman Rood and Wm. 

' Dr. Bancroft, the very capable superintendent of the New Hampshire State 
Insane Asylum, was a teacher in this seminary for about one year before the 
building was sold to district " 17." 


Claggett ; 185S, Daniel Needham ; 1859, Edwin Goodell; 1860, "61, Samuel E. 
Pino-ree : 1863, "63, '64, George Tenney ; 1865, S. E. Pingi-ee : 1866, Rev. J. W. 
Kingsburv: 1867. Charles H. Tenney, M. D.; 1868, William H. Downing; 1869, 
Charles H. Tennev; 1870 to 1881, inclusive, N. B. Hazen; 1882-3, N. W. White ; 
1884-5-6, J. G. Harvey ; 1887, N. B. Hazen ; 1888, W. H. Currier. Vocation of 
incumbents: Ministers of the Gospel, six; lawyers, three ; physicians, three ; 
farmers, five ; jewelers, one; school teachers, one ; total number nineteen, in 
forty -tlu-ee years. 

In 1861, the superintendent's annual reports were first i^rinted ; 500 
copies were then printed. The clearest, most comprehensive and inter- 
esting report made by any superintendent, was that made by Rev. J. W. 
Kingsbury in March, 1867. Alluding to the condition of the school- 
houses in the town, Mr. Kingsbury said : 

" Oui- school houses cry loudly for reform. Their very walls and timbers 
gi-oan and lament and cry out to the citizen and stranger! A very few school 
houses are comparatively suitable and convenient. Ill-constructed, ill- ventilated 
and inconvenient school houses, with poor teaching' secm-ed at cheap rates, will 
assuredly yield a poor crop of scholars, while the opposite mode of management 
that shall give to the scholars a good room, weU- ventilated, and the best of in- 
struction, will send forth those who shall do honor, to themselves and the schools 
from whence they came, and repay an hundred fold to our country and the 
world, all that has ever been expended in their behalf. Children are sent to 
school to be educated in the largest and most liberal sense of the term, and the 
very builduigs and grounds have a part in that educating process." 

In 1878, at the annual March meeting, the town appointed a commit- 
tee to consider the advantages of a central school or schools and report 

' There is a growing sentiment among the thoughtful, that teaching should be 
a profession ; that the teachers of our primary schools should have professional 
training to fit them to enter upon the vocation of teaching, and when further qual- 
ified bv experience, thev should be employed in preference to undisciplined, inex- 
perienced persons, who have no other incentive to enter upon the vocation of 
teaching than that of pecuniary profit; in a word, who undertake the work as a 
temporary expedient for supporting themselves. 

When the great importance of the teachers' mission is considered, it must be 
apparent that it is necessary for the highest welfare of children that they shall be 
placed under the tuition of those who are thoroughly imbued with a high sense 
of their important duties and responsibilities. Teachers should possess qualifica- 
tions other than those that fit them to teach children to read, write and cipher. 
In the school-room the teacher fills the place of a parent, and under bis examples, 
precepts and guidance, the minds and hearts of his pupils are moulded and di- 
rected for time and for eternity. "Knowledge," said Daniel Webster, "does 
not comprise all which is contained in the large term of education. The feelings 
are to be disciplined, the passions are to be restrained; true and worthy motives 
are to be inspired ; a profound religious feeling is to be instilled and pure moral- 
ity inculcated under all circumstances. All this is comprised in education." 

"in a circular addressed by Mr. Guizot, minister of public instruction in France, 
in 1S32, to the teachers of the communes, he enters with paternal solicitude into 
the most insignificant details of the relations of the teacher with children and 
parents; rebukes sectarian spirit; stretches forth his hand with touching famili- 
arity to the village school teacher, elevates him in the eyes of all, and especially 
in liis own eyes, and fills him with the importance of his mission. His words are 
worthy of a place in this connection : — 

" No sectarian or party spirit in your school ; the teacher must rise above the 
fleeting quarrels which agitate society. Faith in Providence, the sanctity of duty, 
submission to parental authority, res'pect for the laws, the rights of all — such are 
the sentiments he must seek to develope." 


some practical plan for establishing the same, and the estimated ex- 
pense. Nothing was accomplished bj the committee. In 1879, the 
town voted to purchase and hold text-books. N. B. Safford and T. W. 
Gilson were chosen text-book committee, and N. B. Hazeu, text-book 
agent, and the agent was directed to draw from the town treasury a sum 
not to exceed $600 for the purchase of books. In 1880, the town author- 
ized the text-book committee to draw $100 annually from the treasury 
for the purpose of supplying the requirements and keeping up the sys- 
tem. In 1881 the town voted to subscribe for theHemmenway Gazetteer 
of Vermont. In 1882, the town appointed a committee consisting of 
Revs. S. I. Briant, N. F. Carter, and R. Miller and N. B. Hazen, to con 
sider the practicability and desirability of adopting the town system of 
schools. The committee reported favorably to the town system (March 
1883), but it was voted 105 to 81 to indefinitely postpone the subject. 
In 1884 the subject was passed over. In 1885, after a lengthy discus- 
sion, the vote stood ayes 51, noes 219. In 1886, the subject was again 
considered. No arguments were presented by the friends to the town 
system, but much opposition was manifested, and the vote stood yeas 
40, nays 181. 

The Prudential Committees of the several school v'^strictsfor the year 
ending February 17th, 1886, was as follows : — 

No. 1. C. O. Fogg; No. 2, Owen McCabe; No. 3, Dan'l L. Gushing; No. 4, 
Trumbull Hunt; No. 5, Wm. H. Tucker, Jr.; No. 7, Geo. T. Hazen; No. 8, I. G. 
Sprague; No. 9, Edward Gillett: No. 10, Geo. H. Fviller; No. 12, Frank Huntoou; 
No. 13, Henry Carroll; Geo. W. Kenney; Alex. W. Davis; No. 14, Benianiin 
Wood; No. 15, W. H. Seaver; No. 17, 'S. I. Briant; C. W. Pease; Mrs. E. 

The three following forms are those used by the selectmen and treas- 
urer of the town in connection with the school fund. They exhibit the 
amount of moneys received from all sources for school purposes; the 
division of the same by the selectmen, and the distribution made of the 
moneys to the several school districts of the town for the year 1887. 
These tables are introduced here for the information of young men who 
are liable to be chosen to fill town offices, and therefore should become 
familiar with the system observed in this matter. These things, of a 
practical nature, appertaining to the every-day affairs of life, should 
be more generally understood. Every boy and girl should be educated 
in a way that will make them good and useful citizens, and fit them to 
fill those responsible positions in life to which they may rightfully 
aspire, and honorably seek to attain, only when duly and truly prepared, 
worthy, and well qualified. 




Occupants of Lands. Acres. Value. Rent. 

Received of Barron, A. T 42 §200 00 $6 00 

Beaudette, C 1 50 400 00 6 00 

Clarke, Z. B 12 200 00 75 

Gilmore, Patrick 60 800 00 4 50 

Hackett. Kimball 13 200 00 75 

Hatch, Charles 60 700 00 13 56 

Hazen, Carlos 16 400 00 3 20 

Hazen, Cvrus 24 200 00 4 80 

Hazen, Willis 16 150 00 1 75 

Howard, Austin 40 400 00 4 25 

Hunt. Trumbull 60 1000 00 12 00 

Loveland. Reuben 50 300 00 3 00 

McCabe. Barnev 18 500 00 6 00 

Newton, George 51 750 00 10 44 

Parker. J. C 39* 200 00 12 00 

Shattuck, Joseph 62+ 300 00 2 75 

Shattuck, Paschal 90 600 00 5 50 

Shattuck, Wniis 62+ 300 00 2 75 

Wood,GeorgeC 30 150 00 3 00 

Total 826+ §8050 00 $108 00 

Received of State Treasurer proportion of income arising from the 

Huntington Fund 99 39 

Selectmen's order for school fund 2219 06 

Interest on the surplus revenue 357 13 

On hand from last year undivided 52 

§2784 10 

No. District. Part of District. Aggregate Am't of Money to Am't of Money to Am't of Public 
Attendance. part of District. Aggregate Moneygivento 

Attendance. District. 

1 1 495 §67 69 § 12 92 § 80 61 

2 1 2,787 69 69 72 77 140 46 

3 1 11.807 69 69 308 28 375 97 

4 .8636 1.652 58 46 43 13 101 59 

5 .9473 3,315 64 12 86 55 150 67 

6 .2631 165+ 17 81 4 32 22 13 

7 1 1.878 67 69 49 02 116 71 

8 1 2,122 67 69 55 41 123 10 

9 .9454 3,022 63 99 78 90 142 89 
10 1 1.946+ 67 69 50 82 118 51 

12 1 3.307+ 67 69 86 35 154 04 

13 1 20^518" 67 69 535 72 603 41 

14 1 910 67 69 23 76 91 45 

15 .5 706 33 84 18 43 52 27 

17 1 16,100 67 69 420 37 488 06 

18 .1903 330 12 88 8 62 21 50 




§2,783 37 

§928 00 §1,855 37 
(Total amount of money for school purposes, §2,784 10. Fractional loss in divis- 
ion, 73c.) 

The above is a statement of the division of the school monev as made by us 
this 25th of March, A. D., 1887. 


JOHN H. HAZEN, -Selectmen. 



School money in account with H. C. Pease, Town Treasurer. 
Received of H. C. Pease, Town Treasurer, the several sums affixed to 


oui' names, being the amount of school money divided and due to each 
district and paid on selectmen's order in 1887. 

DLst. To Wliom Paid. , 

No.l O. D. Tewksbmy § 80 61 

2 C.R.Whitman 140 46 

8 C.R.Whitman 375 97 

4 J. H. Hazen 10159 

5 J. H. Hazen. ... 150 67 

6 R. W. Wood. . 22 13 

7 N. B.Hazen 116 71 

8 Leonard Hazen 123 10 

9 C. B. Stone 142 89 

10 A. P. Howe ... .... 118 51 

12 B. McCabe 154 04 

13 George W. Smith 603 41 

14 B.P.Wood .... 91 45 

15 C. R. Whitman 52 27 

17 AllenL. Pease 488 06 

18 Darius Russ 21 50 

Total, $2,783 37 
On hand for next year (73) seventy-three cents. 


In 1876, Arunah Huntington of Brantford, in the Province of Onta- 
rio, and Dominion of Canada, by his last will and testament devised and 
bequeathed to the State of Vermont, as a common school fund, an 
estate valued at over two hundred thousand dollars. The donor of 
this munificent gift, by his noble act, placed himself in the list of 
great public benefactors, and, as the people of Hartford are now bene- 
ficiaries under said will, I deem it eminently proper to place before the 
readers of this history, a brief sketch of the life of Mr. Huntington, 
together with the most salient provisions of said will ; that the memory 
of his noble deed may be preserved through all time, and his name be 
honored as that of one, whose actions were great because they were 
the result of a great and grand design. 

Arunah Huntington was born in Roxbury, Washington Co. , Vermont, Feb- 
ruary 23d, 1794. His father died when he was a child and he lived with his 
grandfather until he was eleven years of age, when he went to live with his 
uncle Downer (supposed to have lived in Sharon) working on a farm until he was 
sixteen years old. He afterwards worked at tanning leather and shoe making, 
teacliing school in the winter months, until about the year 1828, when he had 
saved five hundred dollars, and went to Brantford, Province of Ontario, Canada. 
He there started a shoe making business, employing four or five journeymen, 
boarding them in his own house, and working diligently with them. It became 
profitable, and lie soon had money to invest outside his regular business, and he 
purchased building lots in the then growing city of Brantford. His invest- 
ments proved profitable, and in 1843 he was worth $30,000. 

In 1861, he was worth about $80,000, and having great faith in the finan- 
cial soundness of the United States, he purchased lieavily of American secu- 
rities, at that time much depressed, particularly in Canada, and in this manner 


and by great economy all his life, he finally at his death had amassed a fortime 
of over §200,000. Mr. Himtington for five years before his death, which occurred 
January 10, 1877, was in delicate health, and the executor of his will, for some 
years before his death, assisted him in his affairs. He once went to Europe, but 
had not visited Vermont for many years, and the first that was known of his 
desire to bequeath his property to his native State, was during the latter part of 
the Legislature of 1876, when Governor Fairbanks received a letter from him in 
relation to it. Later, Gov. Fairbanks sent his private secretary to Brantford to 
confer with Mr. Huntington, but he did not arrive there until the day of his 
funeral. Distant relatives contested the wUl for six years, but a final decree 
was obtained giving the personal property and its accumulations to the State. 

Clause 3d of the wall, relating to said bequest, is as follows: — " It is my will 
that my said executor shall, as soon after my decease as may be found conven- 
ient, sell and convert all my said estate into cash, and after paying my funeral 
and testamentary expenses, and of proving and registering this my will, pay and 
deliver the rest and residue thereof to the Government and Legislature of the 
State of Vermont, one of the United States of America, to be disposed of by the 
^id Government and Legislature as they shall deem best, having regard to the 
recommendations hereinafter contained." The first recommendation relates to 
the appointment of three trustees for the control and distribution of said fund. 

Second. — That the capital of said fund be employed in the establisliment of a 
banking institution to be called the "Vermont District School Bank," or of an 
institution for investing the said capital in mortgages or real estate. 

Third. — That the profits to arise from the investment of said fund should be 
added to the principal, until the accumulation should amount to a sum sufficient, 
when distributed, to pay to each county in the State the sum of one hundred 
tliousand dollars. 

Fourth. — "That thereafter the profits arising annually from the investments 
of the said capital, shall be divided by the said trustees, under regulations to be 
framed by the Government and Legislature, equally among the several counties 
composing the State, for the use and benefit of common or district schools." 

At the biennial session of 1878, the Legislature passed the following 
joint resolution, viz : — 

" Whereas, Arunah Huntington, a native of Vermont, and late of Brantford, 
Province of Ontario, Dominion of Canada, deceased, by his last wiU and testa- 
ment, bequeathed to the State of his nativity, as a common school fund, an es- 
tate valued at over §200,000; and 

Whereas, It is due to the memory of the deceased that the State should 
through its legislature, place upon record an expression of its appreciation of his 
generous bequest; therefore, 

Reftolved, That we accept the bequest of the said Arunah Huntington, with 
grateful recognition of his affectionate regard for his native State, and his dona- 
tion, and assume the duties of the trust with a determination to perform them 
with fidelity and zeal." 

November 25, 1882, the General Assembly authorized and empowered 
the State treasurer to settle with the executor of the last will and testa- 
ment of Mr. Huntington, and adjust and settle all claims and liens 
against said fund, and to receive all the property specified in the will, 


etc., etc. Ou the 25th of April, 1883, the executor of said estate, Eben- 
ezer Roy, delivered to State Treasurer DuBois the net proceeds of said 
personal estate, which, after all claims and liens had been adjusted and 
expenses of litigation paid, amounted to $205,111.22. 

Nov. 25, 1884, the General Assembly passed an act relatiag to the 
disposition of the Huntington fund. Section one, authorized the treas- 
urer in his discretion, to convert into cash, from time to time, the secu- 
rities of said fund, and the proceeds might be used for the general pur- 
poses of the State. 

Section 2d, requires the treasurer to amiuallj apportion tlie interest at six per 
cent, on the amount converted to the use of the State, and the income arising 
from unconverted portions of the fund, to the several towns and unorganized 
towns and gores in proportion to the number of inhaliitants in each based on the 
census of 1880. 

Section 8d, directs that the money received by tlie towns shall lie divided by 
them to the schools of the towns for school pvirposes as other public moneys are 
divided bylaw, "but no school or school district which has not maintained 
twenty-four weeks of schooling in the preceding year, shall be entitled to receive 
any share of this fund. 

Section 5th, directs the treasurer to make the first division of income and in- 
terest in the year 1886. The treasurer made the first division in IMarch, 1886, and 
the town of Hartford received the sum of §88.62. 

A very good ci'iterion by which an estimate maj^ be formed of the 
general intelligence of the people of any town is found in the chai-acter 
of the books, newspapers and magazines they read, and in the number 
of such publications taken by the inhabitants individually and col- 
lectively. The present rules and regulations of the post office depart- 
ment preclude the possibility of learning the number of different news- 
papers and magazines that are received and distributed at the five post 
offices in the town at the present time. In 1870, however, I learned 
that the number of copies of newspapers and magazines taken by regular 
subscribers, at each of the four offices was as follows : — 

West Hartford. — Dailies, none; Semi-Weeklies, 2; Weeklies, 111; Quarterly 
Magazines, 2; Free Papers, 107; Monthly Magazines, 1. Total, 223. 

White River Village. — Dailies, 10; Semi- Weeklies, 29; Weeklies, 152; Quarterly 
Magazines, none; Free Papers, 107; Monthly Magazines, 97. Total, 395. 

White River Junction. — Dailies, 7; Semi- Weeklies, 1; Weeklies, 75; Quarterly 
Magazines, none; Free Papers, 31; Monthly Magazines, 67. Total, 181. 

Quechee. — Dailies, 15; Semi- Weeklies, 10: Weeklies. 96; Quarterly Magazines, 
37; Free Papers, 97; Monthly Magazines, 12. Total, 267. 

Free papars were those printed within the County of Windsor. Week- 
ly papers were those printed out of the county, and like the daily and 
semi- weekly papers, were mosth^ published in Boston and New York. 
More than eight-tenths of all the newspapers subscribed for were repub- 
lican in politics. There is a greater diversity of reading matter at 


the present time than ever before, and the number of newspapers now 
taken embraces New York papers, such as the Tribune, the Weekly 
Mail and Express, both republican ; the N. Y. World and Herald, 
democratic ; the Pilot, catholic ; the Boston dailies, including the 
Journal, Advertiser, Record, Traveler, Commercial Bulletin, all republi- 
can ; the Post, Globe and Herald, democratic. These are supplemented 
by our own Vermont dailies, the Rutland Herald, Bui'lington Free 
Press and St. Albans Messenger, all Republican. Prominent among 
the weekly papers taken are the Vermont Journal (Windsor) ; The 
Granite State Free Fress (Lebanon, N. H.); Verynont Watchman 
(Montpelier); Woodstock Standard; Brattlehoro Reformer; Manches- 
ter (N. H.) Union, and the Argus and Patriot (Montpelier). 



The grantees of Hartford, in common with tliose of all the townships 
in Vermont, east of the Green Mountains,were for the most par* citizens 
of Connecticut, and, with a few exceptions, the early settlers came from 
the same State ; therefore, for many years, the Connecticut element in 
the population greatly predominated. In a paper read before the Con- 
necticut Valley Historical Society, by John L. Rice, Esq., of Springfield, 
Mass., in 1879, the speaker said : — 

" Under tlieir libei-al charters the settlers speedily developed a system of town 
governnieut surpassing in its spirit of independence and unbridled democracy, 
even that of its prototype, the Massachusetts and Connecticut town. Their re- 
moteness from the seat of Provincial Governiiient at Portsmouth, the sparseness 
of the population and the consequent danger from the Indians, naturally led to 
this result among a people already, by previous training, deeply imbued with the 
idea of local self-government. The strength of the religious sentiment, and the 
almost universal prevalence of Congregationalism as a form of belief and of 
church polity, greatly intensified this spirit and lent a powerful impulse to all 
its manifestations. * * * The unity of religious and political sentiment among 
them had also been remarked. * * * AH the settlers had brought with them the 
idea that the popular branch of the legislature should be supreme in a constitu- 
tional government, a habit of thought which had gi'own from that of Englishmen 
looking to the Commons as their peculiar guardian against the tyranny of the 
Crown. In Massachusetts, the long conflict between the Assembly and the Ex- 
ecutive had resulted in a deep-rooted prejudice against both the Executive and 
the JucUciary, and the people of that colony, at the time of emigration to the 
grants, had imbibed the belief that a state of perfect security and happiness 
would be theirs if they could be permitted to elect annually all the officers of 
government. The influence of John Adams, and the other political scientists of 
his day, which gradually overcame that belief, arrived too late to affect the 
radicals who went to the grants. They were still intoxicated with the idea that 
the right of suffrage, and the town system, pure and simple, were the panacea 
for all political ills and the sole security of liberty and happiness. The people of 
Connecticut had by their charter the right of suffrage and the privilege of elect- 
ing annually all their officers. Under this system and the peculiar blending of 
church and State which obtained in that colony, they had enjoyed a great degree 
of happiness and security, especially as the great majority of them were of one 
religious faith and practice." 

The vote in Hartford for governor prior to 1803, is not obtainable on 
account of the loss of the town records from 1779 to 1802 inclusive. It 
is evident, however, that the majority vote was given to the Kepublican 


or Anti-Federal candidate, for the reason that the Connecticut element 
in the population predominated, and as before stated that element 
was inimical to the system of centralization, and regarded the federal 
c ompact as leaning too much toward a monarchy ; indeed, they bestowed 
upon the Federalists the title of " British •partisans^'' while they, in 
turn, were derided by the Federalists as the " French party ^^ for the 
reason that the French nation, after throwing off the yoke of royalty, 
had proclaimed a republic " one and indivisible," or one federal govern- 
ment similar to that of the United States. 


The vote of Hartford for governor of Vermont from 1803 to 1886 
inclusive is recorded as follows : — 

1803, Isaac Tichenor, 58: Jonathan Robinson, 92; Paul Brighani, 132. 

1807. Israel Smith, 82: Isaac Tichenor. 74: scattering, 2. 

1809, Jonas Galusha, 144; Isaac Ticlienor, 114; scattering, 7. 

1813. Martin Chittenden, 151: Jonas Galiislia, loo; scattering, 2. 

1820. Richard Skinner. 96: (no other candidate balloted for). 

1823, C. P. Van Ness, 41: DucUev Chase, 19; scattering, 1. 

1826, Ezra Butler, 31; W. Hall, 2: scattering 5. 

1828, Samuel C. Craft, 77; (only candidate balloted for). 

[Note. — At freeman's meeting in 1812, forty-seven men took the freeman's 
oath and voted. Among the number were Thomas Gross, son of the first settled 
minister in Hartford, Rev. Eden Burroughs, pastor of the Presbyterian church 
in Hartford and one of the trustees of Dartmouth College; Daniel O. Gillett, 
Wm. Savage, and Samuel Gage. In 1817, twenty -seven men took the freeman's 
oath and voted. Among the number were Daniel, Ehjah and Thomas J. Hazen, 
Charles Pinneo, Benjamin Porter and Harper Tenney. The voting list on that 
day included the names of thirteen men by the name of Hazen. In 1886 the tax 
list of the town included thirty persons named Hazen, twenty-five of whom 
were voters.] 

1830, Samuel C. Crafts. 156: W. A. Palmer, 24: Ezra Meach, 24. 

1831, W. A. Palmer. 47: S. C. Crafts, 150: Ezra Meach, 25. 

1835, Silas H. Jennison. Lt. Governor, acting chief magistrate. 

1836, Silas H. Jennison. 196: W. C. Bradley, 75. 

1841, Charles Paine, 111: Nathan Smilev, 98: Titus Hutchinson, 15. 

1843, John Mattocks, 205: Daniel Kellogg, 138. 

1844, WiUiam Slade, 259; Daniel Kellogg, 90. 

1846, Horace Eaton, 188; John Smith, 70; L. Bramerd, 20. 

1848, Carlos Coohdge, 213; Paul Dihingham, 93; O. L. Shafter, 77. 

1850, Charles K. Williams, 222: L. B. Peck, 121. 

1852, Erastus Fairbanks, 184: Jno S. Robinson, 62: L. Brainerd, 52. 

1853, Jno S. Robinson, 143. Erastus Fairbanks, 182: L. Brainerd, 23. 

1854, Stephen Rovce, 224: Merritt Clarke, 137: W. R. Shafter, 19. 
1856, Rvland Fletcher, 280: Henrv Keves, 77; Fred Holbrook, 1. 
1858, Hiland Hah. 194: Henrv Keyes,'65. 

1860. Erastus Fairbanks, 272;' Jno G. Saxe, 101; Rob't Harvev, 6. 

1861. Frederick Holbrook. 135: Andrew Tracv. 47; B. H. SmalleV, 10. 
1863, J. G. Smith, 236; T. P. Redfield. 47: Andrew Tracv, 1. 

1865, Paul Dillingham, 158; C. N. Davenport, 22. 
1867, John B. Page, 184: J. L. Edwards, 20. 

1869, Peter T. Washburn, 188: Homer W. Heaton, 38. 

1870, George W. Hendee, Lieut. -Governor, acting in place Gov. Washburn, 

1870, Jno W. Stewart, 136; H. W. Heaton, 24. 



1872, Julius Converse. 377; A. B. Gardner, 91. 

1874, Asahel Peck, 229; W. H. H. Bingham. 74. 

1876, Horace Fairbanks, 303; W. H. H. Bingliam, 127. 

1878, Redfield Proctor, 238; W. H. H. Bingiiani, 91; C. C. Martin. Gr. B., 3. 

1880, Roswell Farnham, 407; E. J. Phelps, 171; M. O. Heath, 4. 

1882, Jolm L. Barstow, 265; G. E. Eaton, 71. 

1884, Samuel E. Pingi-ee, 327; L. W. Redington, 119: W. E. Pingree, 1. 

1886, Ebenezer J. Ormsbee, 277; S. C. Shurtleflf, 114; H. M. Seely, 7. 

1888, W. P. Dillingham, 449; S. C. Shurtleflf, 165; H. M. Seely, 1. 

It ia with feelings of pleasure aud pride that I am able to record the 
fact that a great majority of the inhabitants of Hartford uave, generally 
spealiing, been distinguished for an intelligent understanding and wise 
treatment of all the important political questions or issues that have 
from time to tiijie engaged their attention, whether of a local, or a more 
extended interest. In all measures that have conserved to the honor, 
the dignity, the prosperity and the perpetuity of the national govern- 
ment, they have patriotically acted with devotion to the Union, and in 
obedience to the Constitution. Prior to the Revolution they were loyal 
to the British government, until reason forbade a longer allegiance. 
During the New York and New Hampshire controversies, they were not 
however at first favorable to the independence of Vermont, and her ad- 
mission to the Confederation. During the Revolution they gave both 
moral and physical support to the cause of American independence. (It 
is not knoAvn that there was a tory in the town during the eventful 
period of the Revolution.) They were late in understanding the value 
of the Federal Union, but were among the foremost in defending and 
maintaining it when its existence was threatened in 1820. They then, 
for the first time, became almost a unit in their recognition of the wis- 
dom and prudence of Washington and Hamilton, and plainly saw that 
the Constitution of 1787 contained the requisite remedies for those po- 
litical disorders which had threatened the destruction of all public and 
private credit, upon which depended the perpetuation of the American 
Union. During the thirty years' existence of the whig party — 1825-55 
— the comparative vote of the whigs and democrats in Hartford was as 
three to one. In 1830, when three gubernatorial candidates were started, 
viz: Crafts, national Republican, and Masonic — Palmer, national Repub- 
lican and anti-Masonic, and Meach, the Democratic candidate, the vote 
stood as follows: Crafts, 156; Palmer, 24; Meach, 24; the combined 
republican vote having a majority equal to the vote cast for Crafts. 
(There was no election by the people, but after thirty-two ballotings in 
the General Assembly, Crafts was chosen.) In 1833, the tables were 
turned in favor of Palmer. He had a majority of five in Hartford, and 


after nine trials in the General Assembly, was chosen by a majority of 
one vote.' 

In 1859, a lively contest took place over the election of town repre- 
sentative. The first ballot developed the fact that there were fifteen 
candidates in the field, viz : Republicans, Daniel O. Gillett, N. B. Saf- 
ford, A. G. Dewey, J. C. Brooks, Benjamin Porter, Thaddeus Dutton, 
Allen Hazen, Truman H. Savage, L. Pease and Edward Kneeland; dem- 
ocrats, Selah Smith, Wm. S. Carter, J. K. Edgerton, A. B. Russ and 
John Beard. On the sixth ballot the number was reduced to three, viz: 
Messrs. Safford, Carter and Gillett, who were the only candidates from 
the sixth to the sixteenth ballot. After the eleventh ballot the meeting 
was adjourned until the following day, when voting was resumed, and 
four additional ballots were taken without effecting a choice. The re- 
publicans then decided to unite on a new man, and Edward P. Sprague 
was put in nomination in opposition to Wm. S. Carter, a conservative 
democrat, than whom no man in Hartford was more highly respected 
and beloved. The result was a foregone conclusion. On the seventeenth 
ballot Mr. Sprague was elected by a vote of 166 to 157. It was per- 
fectly obvious that Mr. Carter, though defeated, had received at the 
hands of several republicans a flattering expression of their high regard 
for him as a gentleman and a worthy citizen. 

The number of polls registered in Hartford is 844. The number of 
legal voters exceeds the polls to the number of twenty, probably. It is, 
therefore, evident that the stay-at-home element, on election days, com- 
prises, on an average, three-fifths of the voting population. In other 
words, this number of voters reprehensively shirk the duty and respon- 
sibility incumbent on all citizens who have the right and privilege of the 
franchise. What a spirit of indignation would be excited in the breasts 
of the stay-at home class of voters, provided they were denied the right 
of sufi'rage, for reasons as trivial as the excuses they plead for their 
dereliction or evasion of duty ! The citizens of Hartford, in general, 
favor the system of holding caucuses for the choice of delegates to rep- 
resent them in both State and county conventions ; yet, as a rule, there 
is a surprising paucity of voters in attendance at all caucuses held in 
this town. 

Our fathers fought, bled and died, to secure the right of representa- 
tion with taxation. With an intelligent understanding of all matters of 
public interest and impcirtance gaiued by direct participation, and an 

' In 1S32. no choice of governor was made by the people. Palmer was re-elected 
in the .Assembly at the forty third trial. Many Masonic lodges were about this 
time disban ied, particularly ttie Grand Lodge of Vermont In the presidential 
canvass of 1832, Vermont had her Anti-Masonic candidate, and gave her vote for 
Wm. Wirt — standing before the Union alone and single-handed. — -Beckley. 


equal voice in discussing measures of public polity, they fully compre- 
hended their duty and their responsibility, and patriotically met both, 
even at a saci'ifice of fortune and life. A neglect to attend public meet- 
ings held for discussing measures of importance relating to the public 
weal, and a neglect to attend town and freeman's meeting, and therein 
exercising the right of suffrage, is as reprehensible, in principle, as is 
desertion from the ranks in time of battle. The arbitrp-y and illegal 
methods pursued in the Southern States to deprive colored voters of 
the right of franchise, by intimidation and actual violence, is censured 
and denounced in unmeasured terms by all liberty-loving people, the 
world over. But, if the colored people of the South were free to exer- 
cise the right of suffrage, and voluntarily failed to do so to the same 
extent as do the voters of Hartford, should we not charge them with 
insensibility to one of the dearest blessings attendant upon their eman- 
cipation from slavery, and reasonably feel that, so far as their personal 
condition is involved, they might as well have remained in slavery ; un- 
privileged to participate in legislation, and subject to the will of a few 
masters, as to be invested with the rights of citizenship, and, failing to 
exercise the privileges, and performing the duties thereof, leave the 
legislation affecting their dearest interests, and the honors and emolu- 
ments of offices that should be conferred on and enjoyed by capable 
and worthy citizens, to the hands of a few unscrupulous, political hacks 
and office-seekers ? 


Citizens of Hartford wlio luvve held Civil Offices in the Government of the 

United States. 

Members of Congress — Rrepresentatives, George E. Wales, 1825-1829; Williani 
Strong, 1810-15 and 1819-21; Andrew Ti-acy, 1854. 

Citizens of Hartford who have held Civil Offl,eesin the Oovernment of the State. 

Governor — Samuel E. Pingi-ee, 1885-86. 

Lieutenant Governors— Joseph Marsh, 1778-79, 1788-89; David M. Camp, 
1836-41; Samuel E. Pingree, 1883-84. 

Secretary of State— Charles W. Porter, 1885-86-87-88-89-90. 

Speakers of the General Assembly — George E. Wales, session 1823-24; Andrew 
Tracy, 1842-43-44-45. 

Preachers of Election Sermons before the General Assemby — Rev. Thomas 
Gross, at Woodstock, October 8, 1807; Rev. Daniel Marsh, at Montpelier, October 
14, 1813. 

Members of the Council of Censors. 

Joseph Marsh, 1785; Rev. Thomas Gross, 1806; Elijah Strong, 1813; William 
Strong, 1834. 


Members of Constitutional Conventions. 

John Clark, 1793; Frederic Mather, 1814; Geo. E. Wales, 1823; Wylys Lyman, 

1828; Andrew Tacy, 1886 and 1843; Jolm L. Lovering, 1850; Rev. B. F. Ray, 


State Senators. 

Andrew Tracy, 1839: John Porter, 1843-43: Daniel Needham, 1861; Albert G. 
Dewey, 1869-70-71; J. C. Parker, 1874-75; Daniel L. Cusliing, 1886-87. 

Judges of the Supreme Court. 
Joseph Marsh, (Chief Judge), 1787-1795; WilUam Strong, 1817. 

Judges of the Probate Court. 
James UdaU, 1839-40; George E. Wales, 1843-47; Jolin Porter, 1850-1886. 

County RejJresentatives to General Assembly. 

Joseph Marsh and Joshua Hazen, 1st session, at Benningion, Jan"y 31st to Feb. 

28th, 1782; 3d session, at Windsor, June 13th to Jime 31st, 1783; 8d session, at 

Manchester, Oct. 10th to Oct. 24th, 1783; Joshua Hazen and Stephen Tilden, 1st 

session, Bennington, Feb. 19th to March 9th, 1784; 3d session, at Rutland, Oct 14th 

to 39th, 1784. 

State's Attorneys. 

Wylys Lyman, 1827-31; Samuel E. Pingi-ee, 1867-69. 
Sheriff— William Strong, 1803 to 1810. 

State Railway Commission. 
Samuel E. Pmgree, Chairman, 1886-87-1888-89. 

TOWN OFFICERS, 1761-1887. 

The town was organized, August 26th, 1761, at the first meeting of 
the proprietors. A clerk, treasurer, three selectmen and three collec- 
tors of taxes were then elected. Of the officers elected at and since the 
organization of the town, none will be lierein named excepting clerks, 
treasurers, selectmen, overseers of the poor, superintendents of schools 
and representatives to the General Assembly. 

Town Clerks. 
Prince Tracy, Aug. 36th, 1761, to Mch. 13th, 1765; Benajah Strong, Mch. 13th, 
1765, to Mch. 8th, 1768; EUjah Strong, 1768; John Sti'ong, 1769, '70, '71, '73; Amos 
Robinson, 1773 to 1780; ^ Asa Hazen, 1781 to 1796; James Tracy, 1797 to 1803; 
Freegrace Leavitt, 1803 to 1836; George UdaU, 1837, '38, '39; George E. Whales, 
Mch. 1840 to January 14th, 1860: Justm C. Brooks, 1860-"63; Samuel E. Pingree 
1861; George Tenney, 1863-64 Samuel E. Pmgree, 1865 to 1889. 

Town Treasurers. 
Prince Tracy, Aug. 36th, 1761, to May 16th, 1775; Amos Robinson, 1775 to 
1780; Asa Hazen, 1781 to 1795; Jqnies Tracy, 1796 to 1838; John Grout, 1839 to 
1838; Justin C. Brooks, 1839 to 1874; Horace C. Pease, 1875 to March 5, 1889, at 
w^hich time John L. Bacon was elected treasurer. 

' The loss of the town records from 1778 to 1802, renders it uncertain who were 
the incumbents of this office during that period, but inasmuch as the town clerks 
officiated as the proprietor's clerks and vice versa, for many years, it is probable 
that the list given is correct. 


Select Men. 
Prince Tracy, 1761, '62. '63, '64: William Clark, 1761, '63; John Baldwin, 1761; 
Samuel Williams, 1762; James Flint, 1762: Samuel Terry, 1763; Elijah Strong, 
1764, '65, 1770; Solomon Strong, 1765, '66, '67, '68; Benjamin Wright, 1765, '66, 
'67; Christopher Pease, 1768, '69, '70; John Marsh, 1768, '69, '70; I.5rael Gillett, 
1769, '71, '90; Abel Marsh, 1771; Lionell Udall, 1771, '73; Daniel Pinneo, Elijah 
]\Iarsh, 1772;' Thomas Tracy, 1778: Elkanah Sprague, 1778, '80, '82, '83, '87; 
Benjamin Wright, 1778; Joshua Hazen, 1780, '81, 1801; Joseph Marsh, 1781; Ste- 
phen Tilden, 1780, '81; Amos Robinson, 1783 '83, 1801; David Wright, 1783, '83, 
'96, 1801; unknown, 1784, '85, '86; John Marsh, 1787; unknown, 1788, '89; E. 
Carpenter, 1790; Hezekiah Hazen, 1791, '92, '93; Peter Rider, 1791, '93, '93: Sam- 
uel Udall, 1791, '92, '93; John Gillett, 1794; Paul Pitkin, 1794; Jedediah Strong, 
1794, '95, '96, '97; John Clark, 1797; Oliver Udall, 1797, '98, '99; Benjamin Russ, 
1799, 1806; Daniel Hazen, 1798, '99, 1800; Elisha Marsh, 1798, 1800; Joshua 
"Hazen, 1801; Amos Robinson, David Wright, 1801; Erastus Chapman, 1802, '83; 
William Strong, 1802, '86; Mitchell Clark, 1802; Daniel Marsh, James Tracy, 1803, 
'4, '5; Paul Pitkin; 1804, "5; Charles Pinneo, 1804, "5, "27, "28; Benjamin Russ,, 
1806: Freegrace Leavitt, 1806, '7, '8, '9, '20, '21, '32, '33: Elijah Mason, 1807, '8, '9, 
'10, '11; Philemon Hazen, 1806, "7, '8, "9; Luther Bartholomew, 1810, '11; Elam 
Brooks, 1810, "11, '12, '13, "14, '15, '16; David Trumbull, Nathaniel Thomas, 1813; 
Daniel Marsh, 1813, '14, '15, '16; Hezekiah Hazen, 1813; Daniel Spooner, 1814, 
'15; Reuben Tenney, 1816: James Udall, 1817, '18, '19, '20, '34, '35, '36: Wm. 
Knowlton, 1817, '18; Daniel Newton, 1817, '18, '19; Zerah Brooks, 1819 to 1826 
inclusive; Adino Udall, 1821; George E. Wales, 1832, '23, '24; ShubelRuss, 1822, 
'33, '34; '27, '38, '39, '30, '41, '42, '47; Abel Barron, John Downer, 1835; Wylys 
Lyman, 1836, '27, '38, '39, '30; AUen Hazen, 1839, "30, '31, '33, '33; Nathaniel 
Thomas, 1831, '3, '3; Ira Tenney, 1831; John Porter, 1834, '5, '6, '7, '8, '9, '40,. '3, 
'4; John Strong,1834, '5,^ '6, '7, ,43, '4; Ben Porter, 1837, '8, '9, '40, '1, '3, "5, "6, '7, 
'8, '9, '53, '4, '6; Jonathan Bugbee, 1838, '9, '40, '41; Aaron WiUard, 1843, '7; Lu- 
cius Hazen, 1844, '5, '6, '50, '1, '3: Theophilus Cushing,'1845, '6; John L. Lov- 
ering, 1848, '9, '50, '1, '3, '3, '4; L. B. Dudley, 1848, '9: Nathan Gillett, 1850, '1, 
'3; Norman Tilden, 1853, '4; Charles Tinkham, 1855, '6, '7; W. W. Low, 1855; 
Carlos Hamilton, 1855, '6; O. F. Barron, 1857; Thaddeus Dutton, 1857 to 
1869, 13 years; A. G. Dewey, 1858 to 1865, 8 years; Daniel O. GiUett, 1859 to 
1865, 7 years; Ora Wood, 1866, '7; W. S. Carter, 1868, '9, '70; Nelson G. Hazen, 
1866; Daniel Gushing, William G. Chandler, 1867; C. B. Stone, 1868, '9, '70, '71, 
'73; A. P. Howe, 1870, '1, '3, '3; C. R. Whitman, 1871, '3, '3, '4, '6, '7, '8, '9, 
'80, '1, '3, '3, '4, '5, '6, '7; Darius Russ, 1873; Silas H. Hazen, 1874, '5, .'6; Z. B. 
Clark, 1874, '5; W. Clark, 1875, '6; H. H. Hanchett, 1876, '7, '8, '9; Levi Hazen, 
1877,, '8, '9, '80, '1; E. H. Bagley, 1880. "1, '3; John H. Hazen, 1883, '3, '4, '5, '6, 
'7; Geo. W. Smith" 1883: Jolin Barrows, 1885, '6, '7; E. H. Bagley, Harvey 
Thomas, Jr., G. H. Javage, 1888. John Barrows, Frank L. Hewitt, Arthur H. 
Hazen, 1889. 

Toiim Representatives. 

Stephen Tilden, 1778, '83, '84; Amos Robinson, 1779; Elkanah Sprague, 1780, 
'81; Joshua Hazen, 1783, '5, '6, '7, '8, '90, '1, '3; Elisha Marsh, 1789, '93; John 

' There is no record of the election of selectmen for the years 1773 to 1777. The 
town seems to have been controlled by those in the interest of the New York 


Clark, 1794. "5. "6. 7: AVilliani Strong. 1798, '9: 1801, "2, "14. '15, '16, "17, '18: Ben- 
jamin Russ, 1800: William Perry, 1808, "4: Sherman Dewey, 1805, "6, '7, "8, '9; 
Elijah Mason, 1810; Nathan Gere, 1811, "12; Abel Ban-on, 1818; James Udall, 
1819, '20; George E. Wales, 1821, '2, '3, '4; WyUys Lyman, 1825 to '32; Andrew 
Tracy, 1833 to '37; Jolin Porter, 1838, '39, '40, '1, '4, "7, '8; Shubel Russ, 1842, '8; 
Allen Hazen, 1845, "6, "9: A. G. Dewey, 1850, "1, "63, "64; George Lyman, 1852. "8: 
Lucius Hazen, 1854; Daniel Smith, 1855, '6: Daniel Needham, 1857, '8; Edward 
Sprague, ' 1859, '60; Benjamin Porter, 1861, "2; Wm. G. Chandler 1865, '6; J. C. 
Parker, 1867, '8; Noah B. Saflford, 1869, '70, '71; Stephen M. Pingree, 1872, '73; 
E. C. Watson, 1874, '5; WiUiam Lindsay, 1876, '7; Noah B. Hazen, 1878, '9; 
Dr. S. J. AUen 1880, '1; Daniel L. Gushing, 1882, "3; Allen L. Pease, 18.S4, "5; 
Wm. S. Dewey, 1886, '7; Chas. B. Stone,' 1888-9. 

Overseers of the Poor. 

The selectmen of the town prior to 1817 : Zebulon Delano, 1817, '18, '19, "20, 
'22, '23, '24, '25, "26, '27, '28, "29, "31, '83, '84; Selectmen 1821,-1835, to 1854 inclu- 
sive, '56, '57, 1874, '5, '6, '7, '8; Hyde Clarke, 1830; Ben Porter, 1855, '58, '59 '60, 
'61; Thaddeus Dutton, 1861 to "71, inclusive; W^m. Clark, 1872, '3; Henry Saf ford 
1879 to 1889. 

selectmen's book. 

A book for the special use of the selectmen of the town, and 
ternif d a " Journal for the Town," was purchased by the selectmen in 
1799, at a cost of $2.33. This book was used as a vade niecum and con- 
tains a registration of selectmen's accounts with the town, auditors' 
reports, orders given and paid to sundry parties, grand lists for 1798-99, 
1800-01, a record of moneys received from rent of school lands, orders 
for equipments and supplies furnished the militia during the war 181 2- 
1814 ; rate bills for taxes, division of school moneys, etc., terminating 
with the auditors' report for the fiscal year ending Feb. 14, 1879. 

The first entry made in this journal is as follows : — 

" AprU 3, 1799. 

We the subscribers this day met and according to the most accurate stating 
which we can make the situation of the Town is as follows, viz: — The sum of 
the Bills against the Collectors, viz: Luther Powell, Paul Pitkin, and Wm. 
Bramble, is ._ $405.68 

The Orders now existing against sd Town 363.68 

Balance §42.00 

DANIEL MARSH f Auditors for the 

Then follows an account of demands in favor of the town for the use 
of supporting schools, which is continued to and concluded on page 7. 

On pages 2 and 3 is recorded the general list for the year 1798, 
embracing 227 individuals, with a tota^ list of 624,447.10, including 
special assessments on mills, etc., of $440 against sundry persons. 

' Spratjue was elected as a comprjmise candidaie on the i6th ballot, against W. 
S. Carter, Democrat. 


On page 4, of said journal, is a record of orders given previous t.o 
1799, including three to Doctor Jonathan Fuller, for doctoring the poor 
of the town, and one to Benj. Pixley, date April 30, 1799, in full for keep- 
ing Urena Dunkin, a Black Girl, and her child, Sam, $23.29. 

On page 5 of the journal, are the following entries : — 

" 1799, October— A tax of half a cent on the dollar raised by the Town. 
Put into the hands of Freegrace Leavitt, Town Collector rate bill sum 82.19 

Billa Gillett, Town Collector bill sum .51.08 

Total $133.27 
" 1800 Orders given by the Select Men on the Treasurer: 

to Mitchel Clark 6 dollars dated April 8— 6 

to freegrace Levit, 1 Dollar 12 cents. " 1, 12 

to Ehshar Marsh for Servis Doen for the town 

as Seltman in 1798. Dated April 13, 1800,— 6 

to Marthew Ransom for (^ide Bords April 13, 1800, 6.69 

to Joseph marsh jr, for Keeping the Black Gal 

one year dated April 29, 1800 39.00 

to Daniel hayson (Hazeu) of three dollars for 

Services Don for the town as ft Selet man for year 1799. 3. 

do Abel Barren Date December 16, 1800. ". 6. 

do 3 to Ashbil Smith differant times 1800 _ . 2.5.50 

Pages 8, 9, 10 and 11 of the journal contain general lists of the town 
for 1799 and 1800, the last copied in full into this work under the sub- 
ject of taxes. 

A record of the auditors' report for the year ending March 26th, 1804, 
is here quoted verbatim : 

" Be it remembered that on this 26tli Day of March 1804, we the subscribers 
Auditors apointed by the Town of Hartford to Audit & adjust the accounts of 
Treasurer & examine into the accounts. Orders, &c Drew on said Treasurer by 
the said Selectmen, after every enquiry that we found the Town on his Receipts 
which he sd Treasurer has reed of the Several Collectors after every Order drew 
by sd Selectmen being exhibeted & Ballanced, tlieir then appeared due from said 
Treasurer to said Town sixty Dollars and Fifty Two cents, money expended on 
the Bridge over Quechy river is the amount of one Hundi-ed & Eighty eight Dol- 
lars & Twenty cents, the money likewise for other Town matters is Two Hundred 
& ten Dollars & Fifty five cents. The Collecters Bills, viz: 

Daniel Ransom bills amounted to $ 157. 

Israel Gillett juur bills " . 73.32 

" " " 159.33 

one Ballance Due from tlie Treasurer dated 7. 

April 1801. $13.54. do 15 Mch 1802 on settlement 55. 58 69.12 

Treasurer's orders being substracted 398.75 

leave as above stated Sixty Dollars & 52 cents $60.52 

now due the said Town as above stated. 

Attest pr us JED'H STRONG ) 

HEZ HAZEN '- Auditors 

The 2 Bills of Daniel Ransom on examining find tliat they amount to Ninety 
eight cents over wbat is stated above. 


Generally speaking, the first constable has been the collector of taxes. 
It is his duty by virtue of statute law. For several years, however, in 
the history of the town, the office of collector has been a separate one 
from that of constable, and even two or more collectors have been elected. 
Prior to 1818, two constables were elected ; in 1818 only one was 
elected ; from 1820 to 1830, two ; excepting the year 1826, when only 
one was elected ; 1834-5, two ; from 1836 to 1851, but one ; 1851, one ; 
from 1852 to 1887, only one each year. 

This town has quite often put up the collection of taxes at auction, 
the lowest bidder being elected constable and collector. In March, 

1825, Reuben Tenney offered to give the town a premium of $15 to se- 
cure the office of collector and constable ; O. H. Nichols offered $22 in 

1826, and $40 in 1832, and both were elected. In March, 1860, Alfred 
Neal was chosen constable on condition that he should collect all taxes 
for $50 pay. In 1862, William L. Bragg, constable, collected all taxes 
for $96 pay. In 1863, the constable collected for $80 pay ; In 1864, 
for $45; in 1865, Wm. L. Bragg collected for $99.50 pay. In 1867-8-9, 
collector received $145.00 yearly. 

In 1870, the collector received two per cent, the lawful commission. 
In 1871, C. R. Whitman was paid $110, and in 1872, $120. In 1873, H. 
N. Savage received $125. In 1874-5, C. R. Whitman received $125 
yearly. H. N. Savage was paid in 1876-7-8-9, $125 annually. In 1880- 
81, $200 annually. In 1882, R. H. Simonds was paid legal commission. 
In 1883, J. G. Lesure was elected constable and collector, but failing to 
qualify, H. N. Savage was elected at a special meeting, and received $250 
for collecting all taxes. In 1884, at March meeting, it was voted that 
all taxes be collected by the treasurer. The constable received in 1885, 
for collecting arrearages of taxes, $10 for the first $100 ; eight per cent, 
for the second $100 ; six per cent, for the third $100 ; four per cent, 
for the fourth $100 ; and the statute rates for all over $400. 

The average per cent, of tax annually raised in town from 1803 to '85, 
is shown in the following resume made up from the records of the town 
[the highway tax from 1827 to 1872 being additional to that required 
by the statutes.] From 1803 to 1812, the average ordinary tax was 0.6 
on the list: 1813-26, ordinary, 2 cents; 1827-42, ordinary, 6.9, high- 


way, 3.4 ; 1843-53, ordinary, 21.2, highway, 6.1; 1854-G3, ordinary, 36.5, 
highway, 7.0; 1864-68, ordinary, 1.51, (no highway); 1869-75, ordinary, 
70, highway, 18.7 ; 1876-85, ordinary, 35.3, highway, 20. In 1885, 6, 7, 
the highway tax was included in the 75 cents raised for debts and cur- 
rent expenses; 1888, total, 50 ; 1889, total 85 cents.' 

An extra tax of eight cents on the grand list was raised in 1828 to pay 
for a bridge built over AVhite river at West Hartford, completed that 
year at a cost of $1431.31 for masonry and carpentry. An extra tax of 
twenty-five cents on the grand list was raised in 1850, to pay for build- 
ing a highway from Woodstock station, on the Vermont Central rai road 
to Taftsville. The heavy rate of taxation from 1860 to 1875 inclusive, 
was levied to liquidate the war debt of the town, aggregating $55,029.91, 
together with the payment made for the lattice bridge built over White 
river at West Hartford, costing $6,110.79, and the lattice bridge built 
over said river at White River Junction, costing, in litigation and con- 
strviction, $13,426.62 ; and the cost of repairing sundry roads and 
bridges which were damaged by the remarkable freshet of October 4, 

The minimum rate of taxation between 1802 and 1887, was one half 
of one per cent, in 1803-4-6-9. The maximum rate was reached in 1865, 
it being 300 cents. In 1864-67-68, the ordinary tax was respectively 100, 
100 and 105 cents. It will be observed that no extra highway tax other 
than that fixed by law was raised prior to 1829, and none from 1864 to 
1869. The average extra highway tax from 1827 to 1873, or foi ty six 
years, was five cents yearly. From 1873 to 1883, it was twenty-five cents 

The following table exhibits the general list of the town by decades, 
from 1781 to 1880, and yearly in '85-86-87, together with the number of 
polls, the deductions made for debts owing, and the lists for State taxes, 
so far as obtainable from existing records : 

' At the March meeting, iSSg, the town voted to make the first constable the 
collector of taxes. By statute law the fee of the constable for the collection of 
taxes is two per cent, on the list. This is decidedly a much more expensive system 
than that of collecting by the treasurer, therefore the practical expediency of 
changing back to the old system may be reasonably questioned. The custom of 
allowing a rebate on all taxes paid to the collector by November ist, has prevailed 
in this town for many years, and has prompted the payment of a large proportion 
of the rate bills on or before the day of freeman's meeting in September. This has 
obviated, to a considerable extent, the necessity of borrowing money to meet 
current expenses. No provision was made at the last town meeting to continue 
this judicious measure. 



Total Total Valua- Total Deduc- List for 

Years. Valuatioti lion Personal Valuation of No. tions Ac- State 

Real Estate. Property less Real & Personal Polls, count of Debts Taxes. 

Exemptions. Estate. Owing. 

1781. J 15,115 00 a § --- $ § 

1791.- 20,395 00 140 

1800__ 25,719 00 186 


1810' 11,445 50 18,56175 30,007 25 192 f §1,714 16 

1820 _ 210,550 80 13,777 00 224,327 80 277 2,797 27 

1830.. 192,410 35 58,738 00 358,148 35 301 4,113 48 

1840.. 216,78140 87,863 75 304,645 15 331 3,708 45 

1850 480,089 00 95.185 00 575,274 00 388 6,528 74 

1860 579,266 00 122.163 00 701,429 00 462 7,938 29 

1870 649,506 00 180,450 00 829,956 00 547 ...... 9,393 56 

1880 . 738,672 25 284,184 00 1.022,856 25 697 11,622 56 

1885 .1,053,830 00 712,581 00 1,766,411 00 751 118,761 87 19.166 11 

1886 1,076,628 00 855.693 00 1,932,321 00 762 122,754 00 20,847 21 

1887 1,080,520 09 841,786 00 1,922,306 00 775 136,860 00 20,773 06 
1888_ .1,103,320 00 902,985 36 2,006.305 00 844 178,852 00 21,751 05 

For the purpose of showing the comparative magnitude of the affairs 
of the town in 1805 and 1885, I quote the auditor's report in full for 
1805, and an abstract of the auditor's report for 1885 : 

REPORT OF 1805. 

"March 7, A. D. 1805.— The subscribers, auditors to settle with the selectmen, 
and treasurer of Hartford, for the year past, find the following to be a true state- 
ment of said town affairs, viz:— 

Collector's bills, viz: Roger Gillett bill, 1804 § 80 13 

Also, for year 1804, Oman Bramble, bill •52 51 

Also fines received of John Clark, Esq 2 00 

Total, 1134 64 

We find paid to Shadrach Noble for keeping Ijlack girl $ 33 12 

Paid to Frances W. Shellis for work on pound "< ^3 

Also to David Bliss " " " '■ 2 50 

Paid Jonatlian Bugbee for pound spikes 2 29 

Paid Mathew Ransom 88 

Paid as fine on judgment of county court 34 19 

Paid Allen Carver for highway 21 00 

Paid Zerah Brooks for services 3 00 

Abatenaent on Israel Gillett's bill for 1803 1 53 

Also abatement on do. for 1803 6 13 

$111 97 
We find a balance due to said town of §87.14. 

On examining the accounts of the following gentlemen, we allow for their ser- 
vices as follows, viz: — 

To James Tracy, treasurer, for four years services as treasurer §12 00 

To s'd Tracy for two years service as selectman 12 50 

To t'harles Penioh (Pinneo) one year service as selectman 6 00 

To Paiil Pitkin, for service as selectman, one year — 6 50 

To s'd Pitkin, for articles provided, and money paid for town 16 59 

The above services reach down to this 7th day of March, A. D. 1805, which, when 
settled, will be in full for all those gentlemen's services to this date." 


Signed, WILLIAM PERRY, - Auditors. 


'Forty -two militia polls exempt, §840; also, four horses exempt, §54 — §52.50 
added after list was taxen. Total number of names on rate bill, 266. Exempt 
from poll tax, 74=§1480. 


auditors' report, 
For the Year Ending February 17, 1885. 

H. C. Pease, Treasurer, Dr. 

To cash on liand Feb. 17, 1884 $ 2,189 40 

Received of H. N. Savage on highway bills : 346 26 

Amount collected by treasurer on tovrn and school tax bills 5,410 29 

Amount paid in by J. P. Aiken 290 42 

Amount borrowed by A. L. Pease, trustee 3,092 00 

Amount paid as contribution by Kellev estate for road 125 00 

do. do. W.Sawyer 25 00 

do. do. W. J. King 25 00 

Received on L. Pitkin's note (interest) 6 00 

" for old stove at town house 5 00 

' ' from S. E. Pingree, from dog license 138 60 

$10,652 97 
H. C. Pease, Treasurer, Cr. 

By orders drawn by selectmen for bridges % 955 83 

do. highways 2,974 00 

do. ordinary expenses 1 ,168 25 

do. land damages .._ 365 00 

do. insane at asylum 520 00 

do. reform school and Garland case 51 44 

do. damage by doge and expenses 37 00 

do. for school books 128 51 

do. town supts. , 2 years 199 26 

do. overseer of the poor 2,196 73 

do. selectmen to town debts & interest 1,319 97 

Cash in treasury 736 98 

$10,652 97 

The ratable property in Hartford in the year 1781 exceeded in value 
that of any other town in Windsor county. In 1870 this town ranked 
the fourth in the county in its grand list, and, in the State, the sixth in 
per capita valuation. In 1880 it ranked the third in its grand list, and 
the third in population in the county, and in the State, the thirteenth in 
its grand li'st, and the eleventh in its population. In 1887 it ranked the 
first in its population, and grand list in Windsor county, and in its 
grand list the eleventh in the State, there being but eighteen towns in 
the State that had a grand list exceeding $16,000. 

The remarkable increase in the valuation of ratable property in the 
interim between 1850 and 1880 is to be attributed, in a large measure, to 
the construction of railroads through the town. It is pertinent to say 
that from 1850 to 1880, the increase in the valuation of the real and per- 
sonal estate of the town was $447,582.25, or nearly 78 per cent., a sum 
equal to the cost of grading the Vermont Central railroad from Hart- 
ford line to Sharon line, and the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers 
railroad from White River Junction to Norwich line. If, in 1840, the 
town had gratuitously contributed the sum of $100,000 to secure the 
construction of a railroad from Boston to Ogdensburg, the investment 
would have been a judicious one, for the reason that the sum named at 


compound interest (six per cent.) would not amount to a sum equal to 

th at representing the increased value of real estate since 1840. 

In 1781 the General Assembly granted a tax on all lands in the State, 

except public rights and college lands. The form of collecting said tax 

is shown by the following copy of the warrant issued to Asa Emerson, 

constable of Hartford : — 

" To the constable of the Town of Hartford. Greeting: — Whereas the General 
Assembly at theh session in Windsor in April, 1781, did gi-ant a tax of ten sliil- 
lings on each hundred acres of land in the Toavti of Hartford, excepting Public 
Rights and College lands. Tliis is therefore to command you to collect of the 
several persons owning lands in the Town of Hartford, Ten sliillings on each 
hundred acres, and in the same proportion for a gi'eater or lesser quantity any 
person or persons may respectively own as aforesaid, and pay the same into 
the treasury on or before the first day of April next, and if any person or persons 
shall refuse or neglect to pay his, her or their just proportion of said tax, you 
are commanded to distrain liis, her or their goods or estate and the same dispose 
of as the law directs and also satisfy your own fees. 

Given at the Treasui'er's office in Sunderland this 2d dav of Nov. 1781. 

Signed. IRA ALLEN Treasurer."' 

In May, 1782, the constable sold such portions of the original rights 
of Joseph Follett and John Spencer as were necessary to satisfy the tax 
and his fees. The lots were laid oif by Benajah Strong and sold at 
public vendue to the highest bidder, Mr. Strong being the purchaser of 
one and Gov. Marsh of the other. 

In October, 1812, the General Assembly at their session in Montpel- 
ier, granted a tax of one cent on each acre of land in the State, except- 
ing public rights, for the purpose of defraying the expenses of govern- 
ment, the tax to be collected in each town by the constable, and paid 
into the treasury in hard money, bills of the Vermont State Bank, Treas- 
urer's notes, orders drawn by the Supreme Court of Judicature or orders 
drawn by the auditor of accounts against the State. The amount assessed 
in Hartford was S270, or on 27,000 acres. In this instance the rate bill 
comprised the names of 213 land owners. The amount of individual tax 
varied from one cent to seven dollars and sixty-five cents. The delin- 
quents numbered thirty-five, some of whom permitted their entire farms 
to be sold at vendue. One of these was Noadiah Gates, a well-to-do 
farmer, whose farm comprised 250 acres, being that now owned by Geo. 
C. Brockway in West Hartford. Of course the owners of said property 
redeemed it in due time. 

A direct tax was laid by the Congress of the United States July 14, 
1798, for the sum of two million dollars. This tax was collected in the 
fourth collection district of Vermont, by Jesse Stoddard of Norwich. 
There were a few delinquents in Hartford. It appears of record that 
several of the delinquents were non-resident of the town, who did not 
appear to pay their tax, in the above named cases, nor did they all 
redeem their lands thus sold. 



a (iexeral list of the tax-payers in the year ihoo, as written in the 

selectmen's book. 


Austin , Abiatlier 

Barron, Benjaiuin 

Brooks Elani 

Beniis, Simeon. 

Barron, Abel 

Bennett, John 

Bralev Jolin 

Bramble, Abel 

Bingham, Elias 

Bint;! lam, Asahel 

Bureh, Mehitabel. 

Bn<;l ;ee, Benjamin 

Bramble, Oman 

Burteh, William 

Burtch , James _ . 

Baley. Jude . _ _ - . . 

Brink. Callev 

Bliss. David 

Bramble, Wm., Jmi... 

Brot)ks, Zerah 

Burtch, Edy 

Bramble, Wm 

Burtch, Benjamin 

Bui;bee, Nathaniel 

Bu<;l)ee, Olvard 

Bartholomew, Noah _ . . 

Bliss, Jabez 

Bartholomew, Luther . 

Bliss. David. Jun 

Bin. Eliphalet 

Bennett, Jonathan 

Bill. Benazah 

Brewer, Joseph 

Cummins, Joseph 

Chapman , Elias 

Cone, John 

Cowen, Allen 

Clark. Mitchell 

Colburn, David, Jun. . . 

Cole, John 

Clark, Paid 

Coats , Thomas 

Colburn, Laton 

Colburn, Abia 

Chapman, Erastus 

Clark, Hyde 

Cooley , Horace 

Chapman, Juniah 

Clark, John 

Delano, Hibbard 

Delano, Zebulon 

Dutton, John 

Dutton, Jesse 

Dutton, Daniel 

Dutton, Asahel 

Dutton, Nathaniel 

Dimock, Philip 

Dimick . Joab 

Dimick, Philip, Jun... 

Dewey, Joshua 

Dewey, John 

Dunham, Gersham 

List. Names. 

74 00 Demmon, Dorcas 

48 00 Dean, Nathan 

110 00 DemuKm, Wm 

26 00 Dewey, James 

202 00 Emerson , Harry 

114 25 Estabrooks, Porter... 

157 00 Eaton, Brio-ham 

146 00 Elmore, John 

95 00 Elmore, William 

83 50 Fermon, Chester 

50 50 Fuller, Seth 

111 50 Fuller, Jonathan 

33 50 Gillett, Roger..... 

333 00 Gillett, John 

326 00 Gillett, Billa 

3 50 Gillett, Israel 

33 50 Gibbs, Harvey 

107 25 Gould, George 

66 2,5 Gilbert, Nathaniel.... 

40 00 How, Stewart 

181 25 Huntington, John 

246 25 Hazen, Asa 

274 00 Ha zen , Hezekiah 

61 50 Hazen, Thomas 

56 00 Hazen, Solomon 

90 00 Hazen, Daniel 

59 50 Hazen Philemon 

1 07 50 Hazen, Reuben 

86 00 Hazen, Mercy 

98 00 Hall, Jacob 

124 75 Holbrook, Thomas 

103 75 Hadlock , John 

33 50 Hager , Lemuel 

26 50 Hunter, John 

175 50 Ingraham, Friend 

26 50 Ingraham, Simeon... 

69 50 Ingraham, David 

222 00 Ingraham, Jeremiah. 

148 50 Ingals. Jonathan 

1 10 00 King, Hophni 

84 00 King, Daniel 

82 50 King, Asahel 

41 00 Jones, David, Jun 

GO 00 Leavitt, Freegrace 

150 25 Lawrence, Elias 

132 00 Lyman, Elias 

68 00 Miller, Peter 

122 50 Marsh, Joseph, Jr 

171 75 Marsh, Joseph. 

77 50 Marsh , Elisha 

130 25 Marsh, Joel... 

90 50 Marsh, Wm.... 

348 00 Marsh. Abram . . 

46 50 Marsh, Daniel 

171 50 Marsh, Milo 

312 00 Marsh, Roger 

104 25 Marsh, Elisha. Jun .. 
50 50 Munsil. Eliakem S 

33 00 Miller, Nathaniel 

196 00 Marsh. Russell 

39 00 Marsh. Eliphalet 

133 00 Newton. Shelden 




































































Newton, David 

Noble, Shacb-ack 

Newman, Samuel 

Noble, Simeon 

Palmer, Roderick R -. 

Powell, Liither 

Pease, Samuel 

Phelps, Cadwell 

Pease, Jesse 

Peak, Lemuel... 

Porter, Eliot 

Pixley, Asa 

Paddock, John . 

Pease, Christopher 

Pixley, Benjamin 

Pixley, William 

Pinneo, Charles and John. 

Peak. Thomas 

Pratt. Lewis 

Powers, William 

Porter. William 

Pease, Benjamin . 

Parker. Ephraim 

Pitkin. Paul 

Perry, WilUam 

Power, Wm. , Juu 

Robinson, Wm 

Rust, Niei 

Robinson, Daniel 

Richards, Joel 

Richardson, Frederick.. _ 

Rust, Phineas 

Rider, Zenas 

Robinson, Amos 

Rust, Lemuel 

Richardson, John 

Richardson, Thomas 

Razey . Joseph , . 

Richardson, Amos 

Rider. Peter 

Rider. Joshua 

Rust . Ben j amin 

Ransom , Matthew 

Ransom, Daniel 

Raymond, Liberty 

Shallis, Francis 

Strong, James 

Savage, Seth 

Shattuck, Ephraim 

Strong, Solomon, Jr 

Sprague , Daniel 

Strong, William 

Savage. Thomas 

Spear, Elijah 

Savage, Francis W 

Smith, Asa 

Smith , Sylvanus . . . 

Sprague, Philip 

Shattuck. Reuben 

Strong, Solomon 


310 00 

68 00 

33 50 

33 50 

26 Oo 

157 00 

198 50 

95 50 

85 50 

40 00 

112 75 

123 75 

148 50 

251 00 

73 00 

201 50 

171 75 

26 50 

26 00 

176 50 

234 00 

33 50 

33 00 

362 50 

33 50 

49 50 
40 50 

180 00 
20 00 
96 .50 
26 50 

88 50 
183 50 
212 00 

86 50 

46 50 

100 50 

46 50 

53 00 

167 50 

214 00 

166 25 

84 00 

71 50 

50 00 
75 50 

127 25 

181 75 
56 50 

134 50 
44 00 
86 50 
194 00 
116 50 
229 50 
132 00 

89 00 
146 75 

63 00 
82 50 


Scott, John , Jr 

Staple. Amos 

Smith. Justin 

Smith. Ashbel 

Strong, Jedediah 

Tenney, Reuben 

Trumbull, David 

Tracy, James 

Tracy, Andrew 

Tracy. Joseph 

Tilden. Stephen. Jun. 

Tdden. Asa 

Turner, Isaac . . . 

Tilden. Josiah 

Taylor. Hezekiah 

Udall. Oliver 

Udall, Sam"l. Jr 

Udall. Samuel 

Waldo. Walter 

Webster, Samuel 

Wilson, Putnam 

Wright, Benjamin 

Wilson. Elias 

Witherell. Obadiah. . . 

Wright. Jonathan 

Whitcomb . David 

Wood. Ephraim 

Wright. David, Jr 

Wilson , Isaac 

Whitney Jonathan.. 

Wright, David 

White, Noadiah 

Woodward, Elihu . . _ 

Webster, Israel 

Webster. William . . . 


























54 50 























200 00 









106 00 











Total ., §26,069 30 


Elias Lvman S 130 00 

Elisha Marsh 80 00 

David Trumbull 150 00 

Peter Miller 70 00 

Marsh & Pitkin 40 00 

Hazen & NeT\i;on 20 00 

Jonathan Fuller 40 00 

Liberty Rajnnond 40 00 

Erastus Chapman 30 00 

Lewis Pratt 30 00 

Jesse Dutton 20 00 

Jedediah Strong 50 00 

WmiamPerry 30 00 

Jesse Pease 30 00 

Total §26,829 30 

Total number of taxpayers 219 

Tax raised on the dollar 005 

Total amount of rate bill S134 15 



Real Estate, 1st class, No. acres 581^. Valuation of $557,275 00 

2d class, No. acres 25,163^, Valuation of 523,245 00 

Total amount of Real Estate $1,080,520 00 

Personal Estate 841,786 00 

Total amount of Real and Personal Estate $1,922,306 00 

Polls— No. 775, assessed at $2 is $ 1,550 00 

Add one per cent, of all Real and Personal Estate 19,223 06 

Total List $20,773 06 

Amount of Rate bill at 75c on the dollar 15,579 80 

The total amount of deduction made on account of debts owing is $136,860. 

The total amount of exemptions is $109,700. 
The whole number of taxpayers in town is 1063, divided as follows : — 
Persons paying less than one dollar, 12. 
Persons paying a fall tax only 384. 
Others paying less than ten dollars, 343. 
Persons paying from $10 to $25, 185. 
Persons paying from $25 to $40, 74. 
Persons paying $40 and over, 65 = 1063. ^ 

The number of corporations and companies in town is 21 ; the number of 
estates is 34; the number of women separately taxed is 115; men and their wives 
or other female relatives associated. 19; the sixty-five persons who pay $40 each 
and upward, pay very nearly one-half the whole rate-bill above named. 

'In iSSS, April ist, the number of polls was 844; number taxpayers, 1136; 
amount deduction account debts owing $178,852; amount manufacturers exempted, 
$280,000; number women taxpayers, 114. 



Not the least among our varied duties is that of making a liberal 
provision for the poor, and the unfortunate of every kind in our midst. 
This town, in common with all other towns in the State, now makes a 
generous provision for the poor, and to aid all who are justly entitled 
to help. The old system of selling the town's poor to the lowest bid- 
der was reprehensible in the extreme. The poor were then often hud- 
dled together like so many cattle, without respect to age, sex, or pre- 
vious condition, and were treated in a way that would, at least, ensure 
to their keepers a fair remuneration when the price bid exceeded one 
dollar per week for each pauper. A spirit of heartlessness character- 
ized the action of the early settlers regarding the poor. Hundreds of 
families were legally warned and driven out of town prior to 1819. 
The banished included the old and the young, the married and the 
single, widows and orphans, all who had not become legally chargeable 
in case aid was needed.' The last families warned out were those of 
Nicholas Hartford, 15th July, 1817, and Benjamin Hart, June 10th, 
1817. As the constables of the town served the warnings, and drew 
fat fees therefor, it is more than probable that they were over-officious 
in the removal of many who should have been permitted to remain. 

The first precept issued by the selectmen of Hartford relating to the 
eviction of people from the town, was that served on one Wilson, under 
date of April 30, 1803, and as the process in this case was similar to 
that pursued in general, I will here quote the same pro forma, viz. : 

State of Vermont ) To either of the constables of Hartford in said County — 
Windsor ss \ Greeting — You are hereby reqviested to summons Joseph 

Wilson now residing in sd Hartford, witli his wife and family, to depart sd 
town. Hereof, fail not but of tliis precept and your doings herein due return 
make according to law. Given under our hands at Hartford, this 25th day of 
April, 1803. 

DANIEL MARSH [ Selectmen. 


W^indsor County ss. At Hartford, 
the 30th day of April, 1803, I served this precept by leaving a true and attested 
copy of the original with my return thereon with a suitable person of discretion. 
Fees 25 cts. 

Attest DANIEL RANSOM, Constable. 

' The citizens of Hartford were particular in having such men for citizens as 
would not be a burden upon the town. The town records show that emigrants had 
much difficulty in obtaining a permanent residence unless they were able to support 



The fli'st record made relating to tlie poor was that of the election of 
Al)ol Marsh, Elijah Strong and Daniel Pinneo, overseers of the poor, at 
a toAvn meeting held at the house of Elijah Strong on the 3d Tuesday 
of May, 1*7 72. The town records from lYVS to 1S02 are not in the 
town clerk's office, nor have they been for several years, consequently 
we have no data regarding the poor, the number, cost, etc., from the 
settlement of the town in 1764 to 1808, excepting what relates to warn- 
ing the poor to leave town, and what is recorded in the "Selectmen's 
Journal," under date of April 30th, 1779. The following is from 
Selectjuen's Journal : 

The first record of an order drawn for the support of the poor was 
in 1779. It was given to Benjamin Pixley, April 30th, for keeping 
Irena Duncan (a colored girl) and her child, a portion of sd year 
($23.90), also, to David Bliss, for keeping a black boy -^2.00. April 
29th, 1800, Joseph Marsh, Jr., was paid $30.00, for keeping Rena Dun- 
can (" the black gal ") one year.' This " black gal," was a town charge 
until March, 1816, when she died. Rena and her child, and one other 
child were all the paupers supported by the town until 1805, when 
Olive Bates was added to the number. In 1806-7 Saphrona Wood and 
Thomas Drew were added to the list. 

The folloAving is a record of a town meeting at which Rena Duncan 
was bid oif by Joseph Marsh, Jr.: 

"At a meeting of the Inliabetance of the Town of Hartford Legally warned and 
holden at the Meeting house in sd Hartford on Tliursday the 26 day of Septem- 
ber. 1799, acted as follows (viz) 

1st. Cliose Gov. Marsh Moderator to govern sd meeting. 

2d. Chose Abel Barron Vaudeii master to bid of Lurana Dunkin to the loest 
Bidder to kep til Next March meeting. Sd Barron bid of sd Lurana to Joseph 
Marsh jun'r at five shilling a week to Board and Cloth. 

3d. Voted to rase a tax of half a cent on a dollar on the List of the year A. D. 

Voted to Dismiss this meeting and it was accordingly Dismissed." 

Let us next turn to the town records, Avhere, under date of Sept. 6, 
1808, we find that at a special town meeting held that day for the pur- 
pose of seeing what the town w^ould do about their public lands, and 
the support of the poor, the town first voted to sell the town's poor, to 
the lowest bidder, and then, and there, proceeded to sell Thomas Drew, 
and he was sold to Timothy Eldridge for one dollar per week ! I find 
no record relating to who were overseers of the poor subsequent to 
1776, until March, 1809, where it is mentioned that the selectmen are 
overseers of the poor. Nothing further appears in the town records on 

' The proper name of this girl was "Lurana Dunkin." She was the daughter of 
Thomas Dunkin, a well-to-do colored man, who owned lot No. lo, of the first fifty- 
acre division, lying on Connecticut river, south of White river. He died in 1777- 
Lurana being his only surving relative, and being 71011 compos mentis, she became a 
town charge. On the 29th of December, 1791, Hezekiah Hazen, Peter Rider and 
Samuel Udall, selectmen of Hartford, deeded lot No. 10 (fifty-two acres) to Mitchell 
Clark, for a consideration of $242.00, " for the support of Lurana Dunkin." 


this point until 181 7, when Zebulon Delano was elected overseer. In 
1811, the town voted to sell Rena Duncan, to Elijah Mason at 82.00 
per week, Molly Ryder to James TJdall at 81.50 per week, and the Sax- 
ton child to Mile Marsh at sixty cents per week. In 1813, it was voted 
to place the town's poor under the special care of the overseers; i.e., not 
to sell them. From this time forward until about 1832, the poor were 
bandied about, like tennis balls, from place to place under the illiberal 
system then in vogue. 

Turning once more to the Selectmen's Journal, we find that Putman 
Proctor Wilson, and family, became town's poor, in 1811. Mr. Wilson 
had formerly occupied one of the leased school-lots, ' No. 14,' but 
subsequently moved to Plainfield, N. H., where be became insane, and 
in 1811, was brought to this town fi'om Plainfield by Luther Bartholo- 
mew. From this date, he and his family were cared for by different 
families — Reuben Hazen's, Ben Pixley's, Hezekiah Hazen's, and others. 
In 1814, it became necessary to place Mr. Wilson in irons, and the 
selectmen employed Jonathan Bugbee, at White River Tillage, to make 
a chain and footlocks for that purpose. In 1816, Feb. 18, the selectmen 
gave an order to David Trumball for sawing plank for said Wilson's 
cage. The cage was constructed, probably, on the premises of Benja- 
min Dutton,^ who kept said Wilson from May 15th, 1815, to 22d Mch., 
1816, and probably until 1820, when, according to the town records, 
CharJes Pinneo's house was made the town poor house. In Mch., 1821, 
the town's poor were disposed of as follows : — '* Put W^ilsonand Charles 
Mattoon (both lunatics) to Sheldon Newton's for one year, at seven 
shillings per week each ; Diadama Bartholomew for same price to Har- 
vey Gibbs ; The widow Carey, and her two children, at Charles Pin- 
neo's, he to find provisions, and the said widow to cook them, and Pin- 
neo to have the first cost of provisions." 

In Mch., 1826, Philemon Hazen bid oif all the town's poor in one lot, 
for one year, for S580, but it is probable that Wilson and Mattoon 
remained at Sheldon Newton's until 1832, and that said Hazen's contract 
expired in Mch. 1827, for the reason that orders were given to several 
different persons in 1827, including two, of SlOO each to Thomas Tracy, 
for keeping four children, " until they are of age.'' In 1831, the town 
purchased Walter Smith's farm for the poor farm. This farm is on the 
west side of White river about two miles south of West Hartford vil- 
lage. It was deeded to the town Oct. 22, 1831, the price being $1400 
for 134 acres, exclusive of sixteen and one-half acres, belonging to Mrs. 
Smith, which the selectmen leased for two years at $45 yearly. April 1, 
1836, the selectmen leased of widow Smith her dower, during her natural 
life, for $35 yearly. In 1832, the selectmen contracted with Lovell 
Hibbard to build a new house thereon, for which he was paid $518, and 

^ Now the home of Charles Hatch. 


for an apartment especially for Put. "Wilson, coniaining a cage, said Hib- 
bard was paid $55 extra. At the March meeting of the town it was 
voted "to set the pauper house into District No. 16, and that year, 1832, 
most of the town's poor were moved into the new house, including Put. 
Wilson and Charles Mattoon, and, I think, another insane person, 
Isaac Perry. These men were raving crazy most of the time, and there, 
caged up like wild beasts in naiTow filthy cells, the writer often saw 
them, and viewing their scanty, ragged attire, their pallets of straw, 
and their pitable condition, was impressed with the conviction that the 
inhuman treatment to which they were subjected, was sufficient of itself 
to make lunatics of all men. Poor old Put. had some rational moments, 
was always pleased to see children, to whom he would sing the old song, 
"Friendship to every willing mind," &c., as often as requested. 

In 1830, Messrs. John Strong, John Grout and Daniel Hazen, were 
chosen a committee to confer with other towns concerning co-operation 
for the support of the poor. If they did their duty, they made no 
public report. In 1852, Hon. John Porter, town agent, sold the Smith 
farm — thirty eight acres to S. B. Dimick for $400, and the balance of 
about 100 acres with buildings, for $1900. The town's poor were not 
removed from this farm until about 1866, when the town purchased, of 
Jonas G. Lamj)here, his farm of 160 acres, together with some stock 
and farm utensils, paying about $5,0U0 therefor. No change has since 
been made. 

The following figures exhibit the cost of supporting the town's poor 
for the years named (including the insane poor at the Vermont asylum, 
Brattleboro), from 1800 to 1885, viz :— 1800, $39.00 ; 1801, $30.33 ; 
1805, $33.12; 1807, $131.35; 1810, $198.03; 1820, $457.70; 1830, 
$814.06 ; 1840, $774.05 ; 1850, $765.97 ; 1860, $1017.57 ; 1864, $2004.- 
30; 1870,11954.06; 1875, $1734.72 ; 1880, $2082.50; 1881, $1783.55; 
1882, $1425.51 ; 1883, $1816.29 ; 1884, $2153.30 : 1885, $1947.09 ; 1886, 
$2291.89 ; 1887, $745.36 ; 1888, $2245.54. The office of overseer of the 
poor is the most important in the administration of town affiairs. Its 
duties are arduous, its responsibilities weighty, and a proper management 
implies a full understanding of the statute laws made and provided for the 
guidance of the i ncumbent of the office. It is, therefore, eminently just 
and proper to make the tenure of this office dependent upon a humane, 
judicious and intelligent management of its affairs, without fear or 
favor. Our citizens have exhibited their good sense by continuing in 
the offices of overseer of the poor, town agent and listers the same men 
year after year. Perhaps the incumbents have not always been wisely 
selected, nor the most capable in point of sound sense and business 
capacity, but the knowledge they gain by experience renders them emi- 
nently serviceable and valuable in the affairs of their respective offices. 


and, for this reason, frequent rotation in these offices is not good policy. 
Perhaps the same may be true as to the office of selectmen. 

The list of overseers of the poor from 1772 to 1887 inclusive, is given 
elsewhere. I find that from 1772 to 1816, inclusive, the care of the 
town's poor was in the hands of the selectmen. In another portion of 
this history may be found a list of the selectmen of the town from 1765 
to 1887, so far as the records enable me to give the incumbents ; there- 
fore, I shall not repeat all of their names here. The first election of 
selectmen took place on the third Tuesday of May, 1772, at a meeting 
held in the house of Elijah Strong. Abel Marsh, Elijah Strong and Dan- 
iel Pinneo were elected. In 1773, John Bennett and Christopher Pease 
were elected. In 1774, Stephen Tilden and Capt. Joseph Marsh. In 
1776, Col. Joel Marsh and Col. Joshua Hazen. From the last named 
date until March, 1809, there is no record concerning who were chosen 
selectmen. In March, 1809, Philemon Hazen, Freegrace Leavitt and 
Elijah Mason were chosen selectmen and overseers of the poor. The 
next mention of overseers of the poor appears under date of March, 
1811, and so on to 1817, when a departure from the former custom was 
made and the office was entrusted to one person for many years there- 


The United Brethren Lodge, No. 21, F. & A. M., of Hartford, Vt., 
celebrated its seventy-fifth anniversary and tenth annual sociable on 
Wednesday, Oct. 12, 1887. In 1878, the brethren of this lodge, ani- 
mated by the noble purpose of enlarging the sphere of brotherly inter- 
course, and fraternal regard, that should characterize the life of all mem- 
bers of the Masonic craft, inaugurated a series of Masonic sociables, to 
be held annually under the auspices of the lodge at its home in White 
River village. 

The first sociable was held on the 8th of March, 1878, and proved to 
be a notable and exceedingly pleasant event. The interest created in 
these sociables has been increasing steadily with each year, and it is safe 
to say that this interest has reached a point beyond the most sanguine 
expectations of all who participated in the inauguration of the plan, 
while those who have had the privilege of participating in the exercises 
of the annual reunions have been more than ever deeply impressed with 
the conviction that Freemasonry, in its better part, makes of the whole 
human race one family of brothers, united by wisdom, labor and love. 

Pleasant and cool weather, and the anticipation of a good time, in- 
duced a large attendance upon the occasion of the tenth annual sociable. 


Seventeen lodges were represented, including brethren from the States 
of New Hampshire, Massachusetts and New York. The very interest- 
ing programme arranged for this anniversary and sociable was fully and 
successfully carried out. At 3.30 p. m., a lodge was opened in due form 
in the thii'd degree in Masons' hall, Bro. Geo. F. Flanders in the east. 
Then followed a neat and pertinent address of welcome to visiting 
brethren by Bro. D. L. Gushing, after which the master's chair was 
taken by Bro. A. L. Pease, secretary of U. B. Lodge, No. 21. 
Next in order came an eloquent and highly interesting address by M. 
W. Alfred A. Hall, of St. Albans, grand master of the grand lodge of 

The worshipful master next introduced Bro. N. W. White, who read 
a historical sketch of United Brethren Lodge, covfring a period of 
seventy-five years. This was listened to with a great expression of in- 
terest, and the historian must have felt highly gratified by the commen- 
dations passed upon his effort. The following is an abstract of the 
sketch : 


Seventy-five years ago the 27th day of August last, a few masons met in the 
town of Norwich, at a private house, the home of William Little, to consider a 
proposition for the organization of a masonic lodge. Reuben Hatch was chosen 
moderator of that little meeting, and William Little secretary. At this meeting 
they nominated for their first offices^ — should they succeed in getting a lodge — 
Reuben Hatch for master, Lyman Fitch for S. W. and Zerah Brooks for J. W. 
They then appointed a committee, consisting of Bros. Enos Lewis, Luther Dyer 
and William Little, to correspond with adjacent lodges, and get their consent for 
tlie organization of a new lodge to be located in the town of Norwich. This com- 
mittee were instructed to report at an adjourned meeting to be held the first Mon- 
day in October following at the same place. 

According to adjournment they met Oct. 5, when the committee reported that 
they had obtained the approbation of Vermont lodge, No. 1, in Windsor, and of 
Warren lodge, No. 23, in Woodstock. They then adjourned to Oct. 20. The 
petition to the grand lodge had been prepared and forwarded prior to this meet- 
ing of Oct. 5, with the signatures of the following named petitioners: Theodore 
Cooley, Roger Gillett, Thomas Gross, Jr., Lyman Lewis, Zebulon Delano, 
Phineas Parkhurst, Jr., Reuben Hatch, Wm. Little, Asa Richardson, Asa Tilden, 
Zerah Brooks, Enos Lewis, Luther Dyer, John Hall, Amos Bugbee, Elijah T. 
Willey, Ephraim Hall, Calvin Seaver, Jasper Johnson, John Tracy, Abel Dunk" 
^ee, Ethan Burnap, O. G. Burton, James Udall, Daniel Spooner, Warren Laird, 
Joseph Styles, George E. Wales, Stephen Underwood, Benjamin Green, Robert 
Nichols, Samuel Sargent, Arthur Latham, Noadiah Kibbee,— thirty-fom- in all. 
This petition was received in the grand lodge, Oct. 5, 1812, and referred to Bros. 
Edward Ellis, Joseph Winslow and Ezra Bliss who reported favorably the next 
day, and the same was adopted by the grand lodge, after changing the name of 
the lodge in the petition from St. John's to United Brethren. 


The meeting held pursuant to adjournment (Oct. 20) was recorded as a regular 
communication of United Brethren lodge, No. 35, at Masons' hall, and was opened 
■with ancient ceremonies m due form. The officers chosen [yro tern, were as fol- 
lows: Lyman Lewis, W. M. ; William Little, S. W.: Enos Lewis, J. W. ; Francis 
Sawyer, treasurer; Roger Gillett, secretary; John Tracy, S. D.; Joshua Ashman 
J. D. ; John HaU, tyler. Other brethren i^resent were Zebulon Delano, Joseph 
Lyman, George Olds, Jr., and Jabez Parkhurst. This was the first meeting held 
under the charter. At this meeting a conunittee, consisting of Lyman Lewis, 
Wm. Little and Jabez Parkliurst was chosen to draft by-laws. Two weeks later 
Nov. 3, a special communication ^vas held to hear and consider the report of the 
committee on by-laws, on which occasion Reuben Hatch filled the station to which 
he was assigned in the charter. Also, at this meeting, we find George E. Wales, 
who figures so conspicuously in the subsequent history of the lodge, and who was 
the first and only member of United Brethren lodge to attain to the Grand East. 
Thus was organized United Brethren lodge and fully launched upon the high tide 
of masonic prosperity. Work flowed in and the communications were attended 
with a promptness and enthusiasm hardly paralleled in later years. The lodge 
continued to hold connnvmications in Norwich until 1815. In July of that year 
George E. Wales iuti'oduced a resolution to j)etition the grand lodge for permis- 
sion to move the lodge to Hartford. The grand lodge sitting in Windsor, Oct. 9, 
1815, granted the petition. Seven days later a communication of the lodge was 
held in White River Village, Hartford, in a house on the south side of White 
River; subsequently, meetings were held on the north side of the rivei', in the 
upper room of Bani UdaU"s hotel — what is now the " Cone store," so-called — in 
which the last meeting, in 1829, was held. 

In August, 1828, occurred the last election of officers before the dissolution of 
the lodge in the great anti-masonic cyclone. The ofiicers Avere as follows : Wyllys 
Lyman, W. M. ; Samuel Nutt, S. W.; Jolm Wright, J. W. ; Zebulon Delano, 
ti-easurer; E. S. Gage, secretary; Jonathan Bugbee, S. S. ; Ehner Tracy, J. D. ; 
Joseph Styles, Tyler; John Tracy, Calvin Seaver, Luther Delano, stewards; John 
Wright, George Roice, Issac Kimball, censors; Daniel Hazen, chaplain. From 
this time until November, 1829, communications were held from time to time, 
but there is no record of meetings dviring the months of June, July, August and 
September, 1829. The record of the last two meetiugs was made on a sheet of 
paper fastened into the lodge record book by wafers on the back of which we 
read, " Proceedings of the last two communications of United Bretlu-en Lodge 
No. 35, Hartford." The first epoch in the liistory of this lodge closed in Novem- 
ber, 1829. The first suggestion concerning the re-organization of the U. B. 
Lodge came from Wm. Pierce, a member of Rising Sun Lodge of Royalton, but 
now a member of U. B. Lodge, though living in Royalton, at the advanced age 
of 87 years. Business brought him to White River Village in 1845, and he then 
suggested to Bani Udall the idea-of resuscitating the lodge. The two agreed to 
consult Judge Wales, who favored their piu-pose, and notified the brethren to 
meet at his office. Mr. Pierce says that thei-e were present at that meeting, George 
E. Wales, Samuel Nutt, John Ti-acy, Bani Udall, Abel Howard, and himself. 
Other meetings were held. Brethren from Royalton came down to assist in 
organizing, and they soon got to work in regular order. The record of organiza- 
tion is as follows : 


" United Brethren Lodge, No. 21, after a suspension of its laboi-sas No. 35, and 
under lease of the Grand Lodge met at Mason's hall, in Hartford, on the 8th day 
of April. 1S.')1. and ])roceeded to reorganize the lodge, and the brethren jiresent 
were. George E. Wales, John Tracy. John Wright, Theophilus Gushing, Oraniel 
Nichols, Samuel Nutt, Arthur Latham, and Bros. Hitchcock, Emmons and Gil- 
ford. On hiotion proceeded to the choice of officers. Chose, Geo. E. Wales, W. 
M.; John Ti-acy, S. W.; John Wright, J. W.; Geo. Lyman, Sec'ty; Roswell 
Sartwell. Treas. ; Samuel Nutt, S. D.: Arthur Latham, J. D. ; Wm. Pierce, tyler; 
The()])hilus Gushing, steward. The lodge opened and closed in due form on the 
first degree of masonry. Attest : GEO. E. WALES, W. M." 

The lodge was now fairly under way. applications for degrees were frequent, 
and thereafter the life of the lodge was a prosperous one. The communica- 
tions of the lodge were held in a hall over the Union store in White River Junction , 
from the date of its reorganization until April, 1858, since which time the lodge 
has been domiciled in White River Village. ' The following is a list of the Past 
Masters of the lodge since organization : 

Reuben Hatch - 1812-13 

George E. Wales 1813-19, 1820-21, 1822-24, 1851-53 

Benjamin Green 1819-20 

Stephen Underwood 1821-22 

Wvllvs Lvman 1824-51 

Samuel Nutt. 1853-54 

John F. Austin 1854-55 

J. S. Farnsworth 1855-57 

James Gilford 1857-60, 1861-62 

S. H. Pierce 1860-61 

Justus W. French 1862-64 

Joseph K. Edgerton.. 1864-67 

Charles H. Tenney 1864-67 

Nelson W. Wliite 1871-73, 1885-86 

Edward Blaisdell 1883-84 

Allen L. Pease 1874-77, 1878-79, 1884-85 

Asaph T. Taft .1877-78 

Joseph P. Aikens 1879-81 

BenK. Wright ..1881-82 

Lowell M. Weeks 1882-83 

Wesley P. Davis : 1883-84 

Charles H. Hackett 1886-87 

Daniel S. WiUard 1887-88 

At 6 o'clock, p. M. , the brethren were called from labor to refreshment, and 
soon after repaired to the dining hall of Pease's hotel, where mine host, Davis, 
treated them to a banquet wliich in quantity and quality fully sustained his rep- 
utation as a first-class caterer to the wants of the inner man, and elicited at the 
same time comments higlily complimentary to the amiable hostess, whose hand 
was evident in the preparation of the dainty menu served on tliis occasion. The 
post-prandial exercises took place in Masons' hall commencing at 7 :30 p. M. , and 
consisted of sentiments and responses, reminiscences, short addresses, etc., under 
the direction of Bro. W. H. S. Whitcomb, of Burlington, toastmaster, who per- 
formed the duties of that office in his usual felicitous style. 

The historian was made a F. & A. M., in 1858, in U. B. L. No. 21. 


A branch of this order entitled Hartford Lodge, No. 1671, was instituted in 
Hartford village June 23, 1879, with the following named charter members, viz: 

' Hall destroyed by fire Jan. 24, 1889. Lodge since located in White River 
Junction, in Odd Fellows hall. 


W. C. Goff, H. H. Peck, H. C. Stevens, J. H. Hunter, C. W. Pease, A. L. Peck, 
Peter Terrill, W. H. Brooks, A. B. French, A. L. Pease, J. P. Aiken, Geo. E. 
Cone, S, J. AUen, Jr., G. L. Tarbell, H. E. Harris, Sumner Nims, B. D. Huse. 
The officers of this lodge then chosen were as follows: — A. L., P. D.: W- 

C. Goff, D.; J. P. Aiken, V. D.; J. H. Hunter, A. D.; C. AV. Pease, R.: H. H. 
Peck, F. R.; A. B. French, T.; Geo. E. Cone,C.; H. C. Stevens, G.; B. D. Huse, 
Guar.; Peter Terrill, S.: S. J. Allen. J., Med. Ex.; Tmstees, A. B. French, W. 
H. Brooks, G. L. TarbeU. 

The lodge now comprises twenty -three members and is in a flourishing condi- 
tion. It is a beneficiary, fraternal institution, and liolds naonthly meetings on 
the fourth Friday of each month. Since the organization of Lodge 1671, three 
members have died, whose families have been promptly paid the death benefit. 


Myrtle Lodge, No. 27, was instituted Sept. 29, 1887; the charter was granted 
same date. The charter members were James G. Harvey, Wesley P. Davis, W. 
H. Laird, C. H. Hackett, David A. Perrin, L. E. Kent and John L. Bacon. 

The first officers were as follows: — W. P. Davis, N. G. ; J. G. Harvey, V. G.; 

D. A. Perrin, R. Sec'y; L. E. Kent, Per Sec'y; J. L. Bacon, Treasurer and acting 
P. G.; G. F. Flanders, R. S. N, G.; G. F. Blanchard, L. S. N. G.; F. S. Hatch, 
R. S. V. G.; Charles Brown, L. S. V. G.; C. H. Hackett, Warden; W. S. Laird, 
Conductor: J. A. Cooper, Inside Guard; C. S. Wilson, Outside Guard; D. S. 
Ashley, R. S. S. : L. A. Gibbs, L. S. S. ; L. D. Wheeler, Chaplam. HaU in Smith's 
block, Main Street, W. R. Junction. 

This society has one of the finest halls in Vermont. The architect was F. A. 
Davis of Lebanon; the builder, W. P. Morse, W. R. Junction. The entii-e wood- 
work is of Southern Pine with oil finish. The walls are handsomely frescoed. 
The fiu-niture is upholstered with old gold and maroon cmshed plush. The car- 
pet is velvet plush. The suite of rooms are light, any, commodious and elegant 
in design and finish. Tlie regalia of the lodge is like that of other subordinate 
lodges — beautiful and highly atti-active. 


A lodge of Good Templars was organized in Hartford village on Wednesday, 
February 18, 1874. The foUowiug account of the proceedings of the first meet- 
ing is copied from the records of the lodge: — 

' ' Pursuant to notice given the following persons met at Masonic Hall on Wed- 
nesday evening, February 18, 1874, for the pui-jjose of organizing a lodge of 
Good Templars, viz: — Mr. and Mrs. S. E. Pingree, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. French, 
Mr. and Mrs. Ephraim Morris, Mr. and Mrs. Jonathan Bugbee, I\Ir. and Mrs. 
A. L. Pease, Mr. and Mrs. E. M. Madden, Miss E. L. Brooks, Mss May French, 
Messrs. Luther Pease, H. H. Bemis, H. C. Pease, W. F. Jolmson, Lewis Burton, 

E. W. Tmkham, H. H. Peck, Alfred Watson. 

After explanations and remarks by the G. W. C. T., Col. Mead and others, 
regarding the object of the society, obligations, etc., Bro. Mead proceeded, with 
the assistance of Brothers Levi Belknap and EUis, to organize a lodge of Good 
Templars to be known as Hardford Lodge, No. 179, I. O. G. T. After being duly 
obligated and initiated the lodge proceeded to the election of officers with the 
following results: — 


W. C. T., S. E. Pingree. W. I. G., Miss Mary French. 

W. V. T., Mrs. E. Morris. W. O. G., E. M. Madden. 

W. S., A. L. Pease. W. D. M., Miss E. L. Brooks. 

W. F. S., E. W. Tinkham. W. A. S., Mrs. J. W. French. 

W. T., Mrs. S. E. Pingi-ee. R. H. S., Mrs. J. Bugbee. 

W. C, H. H. Bemis. L. H. S., Mrs. A. L. Pease. 

W. M., E. W. Morris. P. W. C. T., Luther Pease. 

After election the officers were duly installed by G. W. C. T. Mead, as G. W. 
M. The W. C. T. appointed a conunittee of three members to confer with a like 
number from the Masonic Lodge in reference to renting their hall; also to nego- 
tiate with the proprietor of the (public) house for entrance thereto. 

A. L. PEASE, Secretary. 

During the first eighteen months of its existence this lodge was in a flourishing- 
condition, but by degrees the interest at first manifested in the meetings subsided, 
and, as early as September 6th, 1875, the beginning of the end of the existence of 
the lodge became apparent. The number of members was then fifty-nine. Dec. 
13th, 1875, Mr. E. W. Morris offered the following resolution:—" Resolved, That 
this lodge surrender its charter and dissolve."' This was not carried, but Dec. 
27th, 1875, the lodge unanimously voted to dissolve. 

In January, 1879, a movement was made to organize another lodge of 
Good Templars. On the lOth of January, H. M. Bryant, State .Deputy, 
organized a lodge known as " Friendship Lodge, No. 179." This lodge 
had a short-lived existence. The records of the lodge do not disclose 
the causes that led to its dissolution. It is stated, however, that utility 
to the cause of temperance was not the rule of action with many mem- 
bers of the lodge, and that their conduct brought reproach upon the 
lodge, which hastened its dissolution. 


THE WAR OF 1812. 

War with England was declared by act of Congress of June 18, 1812. 
Two months previous, April 10, 1812, Congress authorized the Presi- 
dent to detach 100,000 militia to be organized and held in readiness to 
march at a minute's notice, and to serve six months after arriving at the 
place of rendezvous. May 28, 1812, the Secretary of War appointed 
3,000 to Vermont. On the 1st of May, 1812, Gov. Galusha ordered and 
directed that this detachment of Vermont militia should foi*m one brig- 
ade to consist of four regiments, to be formed into ten companies each 
— eight of infanti-y, one of artillery, and one of cavalry — and to be fur- 
nished from the several militia divisions, including that to which the 
militia of Hartford belonged. 

There is no evidence in our town records of the existence of a mili- 
tary organization in the town prior to June, 1813. Nevertheless, it is a 
fact that for many years before this time, in conformity to the laws of 
the State, all the able-bodied citizens of the town between the ages of 
18 and 45, were enrolled members of the militia, and that, at least, two 
companies of infantry had existed in the town for several years before 
the war of 1812. The order of Gov. Galusha was responded to promptly, 
and, doubtless, the detached militia that marched to the defence of 
Plattsburgh, comprised members of the militia of Hartford. Nov. 6, 
1812, the Legislature passed " an act to provide for the raising of a vol- 
unteer corps, for the service of the United States," consisting of sixty- 
four companies of infantry, two of artillery, and two of cavalry, to be 
divided into brigades, for which the governor and council appointed the 
necessary officers. 

Among the captains of infantry elected for this corps, was Lionel 
Udall of Hartford. This corps probably consisted of persons who were 
exempt from military duty — "friends to their country, and its Constitu- 
tion, to internal peace, quiet, and good order, ''^ — in brief, a police for the 
suppression of insurrection, repelling invasion, etc. 

I regret that complete rolls of the detached mihtia of Hartford, and 
her volunteers, both officers and privates, in the war of 1812, cannot be 
given in this history. These rolls are not in our State archives, and, if 
they are deposited in Washington, they are not obtainable except by a 
tedious process of circumlocution, which renders the attempt impracti- 


By reference to " Book A " of Hartford town records, I find the first 
and only records to be found relating to military organizations in the 
town. These records were written by Freegrace Leavitt, and are as fol- 
lows : — 

" Hartland, June 26, 1813. — This certifies that the following persons belonging 
to Hartford, viz: — 

William Waite, Timothy Eldridge, 

Bani Udall, Andrew Newton, 

Elihu Ransom, Reuben Demmon, 

Chauncey Gates, Royal Claverly, 

Daniel King, Jr. , Zebina Turner, 

Joshua Cusliman, Jr., Theodore Gallup, 

Abel Dunklee, Jonathan P. BaiTou, 

Daniel O. Gillett, Christopher Pease, Jr. 
Jacob Hall, Jr. 

are equipt members of the first company of cavalry in the squadron in the brig- 
ade of the fourth division of the State of Vermont. 

Hartford, Feb. 12, 1814. ) Attest: H. ROOD, Captain. 

The foregoing is a true copy - 

of the original record. ) Attest: FREEGRACE LEAVITT, Town Clerk." 

Eighth company, first regiment, first brigade, and fourth division, 
Vermont militia, June 1st, 1818. The following ofiicers and soldiers be- 
longing to said company, appeared on the military parade completely 
equipped as the law directs for the annual training in June: — 

Commissioned Officers. 

Adino Udall, 
Urnan Bramble, 

James Udall. 
Sergeants — Elihu King, Absolom Ball. 
Corporals — Bela Wright, David Colburn 3d. 
Music — Jeremiah Rvxst, Alvan Bailey, Winthrop Cilley. 


Joshua Dewey, Jr., David Matson, Jacob Gile, 

Warren Stannard, Thomas King, Thomas Turner, 

Elislia Hutchinson, Matthew Rust, Asa Woodward, Jr. , 

Timothy Lester, Jonathan Pitkin, Jonathan Wilson, 

Levi Coburn, Jason Hager, Joel Dimmick, 

Isaac Burtch, Roswell Marsh, James Wood. 
Amos Richardson, 

A true return. Attest: ADINO UDALL, Capt. 

Hartford, Feb. 12, 1814. ) 

The foregoing is a true copy - Attest: FREEGRACE LEAVITT, Town Clerk, 
of the original return. ) 

State of Vermont '■ ^^^urn of the Militia equipt in the 3d company 4th 
\ division, 1st regiment, 1st brigade. 

Levi Haven, Lewis Savage. Wm. Pixley, 2d, 

Dan Hazen, David Trumbull. Luther Bartholomew, Jr., 

James H. Delano, Harvey D. Noble, OranFox, 

Ezra Hazen, John D. Hazen, Wm. Savage, 

Daniel Newton. Philo Sprag-ue, Daniel Clark, 

Benj. Pixley, Jr., Geo. E. Wales. Elihu Walker, 

Ira Tenney, Harry Richardson, Flavel Nye, 

Hastings Savage, Stilman Hazen, John Thiirstin, 

Abiathan Austin, Jr., Sheldon Newton, Stephen Thurston, 


Jonathan Bufibee, Jr.. Daniel Strong, Jolm Tracy, 

Sheldon Bartholomew, Reuljen Dunham, Osman Pixley, 

Joseph H. Kneeland, Franklin Hazen, John Hazen," 

John Fuller, Samuel Atwell, Silas Dutton. ^41. 

Justin Smith, Lyman Hazen, 

Hartford, June 27, 1813. Attest, Levi Hazen, Cajit. 

Hartford, Feb. 12, 1814. ) 

The foregoing is a tiue - Attest, FREEGRACE LEAVITT, Town Clerk, 
copy of the original return. ) 

An act of the General Assembly, Nov. 9, 1812, directed the mode of 
detaching the militia for service in the war, and required the selectmen 
of each town in the State to furnish the non-commissioaied officers, 
musicians and privates of their respective towns with arms and equip- 
ments, if unable to arm and equip themselves, also a knapsack, and 
blanket to each, also camp utensils, cartridges, flints, rations sufficient 
for each detachment to rendezvous, and transportation for necessary 

By reference to a book known as '' The Selectmen's Book," which is 
used by that board of officers, principally for the record of orders drawn 
by them on the town treasurer for the liquidation of sundry expense 
bills, I find the following items relating to the war of 1812-13-14 : — 

Oct. 5, 1812 — Gave Mr. Benjamin Stead an order on the treasurer for 
one dollar and twelve cents for his cutting and making knapsacks for 
the men detached for the service of the United States. 

February, 1813 — Paid Benjamin Warner one dollar town money for 
digging a grave for the soldier who died at Widow Bennett's. Also 
paid Lake Robinson for the use of his gun by Elisha Hutchinson to 

March 2, 1813 — Gave Mr. Elisha Walker an order for twenty-one 
dollars and fifty cents, it being for cartridge-boxes, bayonet belts, and 
scabbards, strapping, canteens, &c. 

March 6, 1813 — Gave an order to Samuel Horr, for baking bread, 
making knapsacks for soldiers, $2.39. 

March 25, 1813— Gave Frederick Mosher an order on the treasurer 
for nine dollars and thirty cents, it being for articles for Huron Patter- 
son, and two blankets for the drafted militia. 

Gave Levi Bellows an order for twenty- eight dollars and sixty-three 
cents, it being for articles said Bellows found for the detached miiitia 
at Burlington. 

Gave Col. Wm Perry an order for sixteen dollars and one cent, it 
being the amount of his account for serving warnings providing for 
Thomas Patterson, and pork for the detached militia. 

Gave Levi Demmon an order for twelve dollars for the gun bought 
of him for the use of the detached militia, 

April 5, 1813 — Gave Joab Dimmick an order for fifteen dollars, it 
being for a gun bought of him for the detached militia to Burlington. 


Gave Matthew Ransom an order for $1.46, it being for necessaries he 
found Solomon Lombard's family while said Lombard was gone to 
Burlington in the detached militia. 

April 12, 1813 — Gave Eleazer Davis an order for thirteen dollars for 
a gun bayonet bought of him for the detached militia. 

February 23d, 1814 — Gave the selectmen of Norwich an order for 
$20.90, being for one-half of the expense of baggage wagon to carry the 
baggage of the detached militia of Norwich and Hartford to Burlington. 

Dec. 30, 1814 — Gave Horace Cobley an order for $3.00 for a bayonet 
lost and damage to gun in the militia service in Burlington. 

April 13, 181 — Gave Roger Gillett an order on the treasurer for 
$64.40, for which said Gillett paid and took up a note against the select- 
men given for powder bought for this town by Elijah Mason, Elam 
Brooks and Luther Bartholomew (selectmen). 

By the act of Nov. 1813, the Auditor of Accounts against the State 
was authorized to draw orders on the State Treasurer for the pay 
provided for in sec. 10 of the act of Nov, 9, 1812, and also for the ex- 
penses of selectmen incurred under sec. 2 of the same act. The follow- 
ing voucher for supplies furnished by the selectmen of Hartford, was 
found in the Vermont Historical Society's collection of papers relating 
to the military operations of 1812, viz.: — 


September 1812. — The selectmen of Hartford for supplies furnished the militia 
detatched from said town. 

3 bushels wheat, $4.00. Baking bread, 75c $ 4.75 

86ir.s pork, §10.75. 43*ft)S cheese, $3.54. } 

5 gallons of gin at $1.00. f 19.29 

One-half expense 2 horses, wagon, man, etc., and one-half 

expense of one horse wagon, man, etc., in transporting 

baggage to Burlington, 90 miles 20.00 

Received an order on tlie treasurer for the same. $44.04 

Paid, April 1814, DANIEL MARSH, $44.04. 


At the opening of the late civil war Vermont had no military organiza- 
tion of an effective character, — nothing better than a few unskilled com- 
panies of uniformed militia in some of her principal villages. The laws 
of the State requiring the listers to make returns of citizens who were 
subject to do military duty was not properly observed. Consequently, 
when it became evident that a requisition for troops might be made 
upon Vermont, the Go^ ernor of the State found no reliable data as to 
the number of citizens enrolled under the provisions of the law. He 
therefore issued an order, dated January 25th, 1861, requiring the 
officers charged with the duty, to make returns of the enrolled militia, 
and at the same time he issued a general order requiring the command- 


ing oflScers of the uniformed militia companies to adopt measures for 
filling vacancies, and to have their men properly drilled and uniformed. 
But a few companies complied, and but little was accomplished, until 
the people were awakened to a lively sense of their duty and responsi- 
bility by the requisition received by telegraph, from the Secretary of 
war upon the Governor of Vermont, April 15, 1861, for one regiment 
of infantry, being the quota for Vermont of the 75,000 troops called for 
by President Lincoln's proclamation of that date. 

Gov. Fairbanks immediately issued a proclamation for a special ses- 
sion of the Legislature, and also orders for detailing ten companies 
from the uniformed militia, and for furnishing the regiment with its 
outfit. The Legislature assembled at the capitol April 23d, when Gov. 
Fairbanks delivered an address before the joint assembly upon the 
duties of the citizens of Vermont to rally at once for the protection of 
the Union and the integrity of the general government, and then 
informed the assembly that under the call for the militia of the several 
states of the Union, the quota required of Vermont was one regiment 
of seven hundred and eighty officers and privates. 

On the 25th, the Legislature passed an act appropriating $1,000,000 
for arming, &c., the militia of Vermont; and on the 26th, certain other 
acts were passed, for organizing and paying the above named regiment, 
also, " an act to provide for raising six special regiments for immediate 
service for protecting and defending the constitution and Union." The 
responsibility of raising, organizing, equipping, arming and subsisting 
the regiments was placed in the hands of the Governor, with authority 
to draw his warrants on the State treasurer for all expenditures. The 
Legislature adjourned on the 27th, and on the same day a general order 
was issued by the commander-in chief, designating the companies de- 
tailed for the first regiment, and requiring them to hold themselves in 
readiness to march to the place of rendezvous, to be thereafter desig- 
nated, on twenty-four hours' notice. 

On the 2d day of May, the first regiment was mustered in Rutland 
under the command of Col. J. W. Phelps and Lieut. P. T. Washburn, 
and on the 9th it left its encampment for Old Point Comfort. On the 
7th of May commissions were issued for recruiting the 2d and 3d regi- 
ments of volunteers for three years' service, or during the war. These 
regiments were quickly filled and were mustered, the 2d in Burlington, 
and the Sd in St. Johnsbury. The 2d regiment under the command of 
Col. Henry Whiting and Lieut.-Col. G. F. Stannard, left their encamp- 
ment for Washington city, June 24th, and, not one montli later, partici- 
pated in the battle of Bull Run, and there suffered the loss of sixty-six 


men, in killed, wounded and prisoners. The 2d and 3d regiments were 
armed with Enlield ritie muskets. 

The history of the 3d regiment is of greater interest to the people of 
Hartford than that of any other Vermont regiment for the reason that 
Co. F was composed largely of soldiers raised in this town. The 3d 
regiment I'emained in camp in St. Johnsbury until the 24th of July. 
During the time of their encampment in that place, there Avere betweeii 
200 and 300 cases of measles, and about fifty men were unfit for service 
when the regiment was ordered to the front. The regiment, under the 
command of Col. W, F. Smith, and Lieut.- Col. B. N, Hyde, arrived in 
"Washington city July 27th, and was at once ordered forward to Chain 
Bridge. Here the men did important service in making rifle-pits and 
forming intrenchments on the Maryland side of the Potomac, and were 
subsequently sent into Virginia without tents, being near the enemy, 
and for ten consecutive days and nights bivouacked while constructing 
the abattis and earth-works at Fort Marcy. 

Company F went to the front in command of Capt. T. O. Seaver, 
1st Lieut. Samuel E. Pingree and 2d Lieut. Edward A. Chandler. For 
a roster of the volunteers from the town during the civil war the reader 
is i-eferred to the abstract taken from Adjutant General Washburn's 
report, Avhich follows the record of the municipal legislation of the 
town, on this subject. 

During the war of the rebellion, the military record of Hartford 
compared favorably with that of any other town in the State. Every 
encouragement was offered to the general government, every call for 
troops was freely and promptly responded to. There were rebel sym- 
pathizers in the town, but these were men of but little intelligence, and 
were regarded with feelings of pity rather than of contempt. The 
board of selectmen, consisting of A. G. Dewey, Thaddeus Dutton and 
Daniel O. Gillett, was an able and efficient one — the right men in the 
right place, and they were generously and enthusiastically supported 
by the majority of the leading citizens of the town, notably among 
whom were Samuel E. Pingree, William S. Carter, Daniel Needham, 
Dr. J. H. Piatt and Darius Rust. At the request of S. E. Pingree, 
T. O. Seaver was sent to Hartford as a recruiting officer, but not until 
Mr. Pingree and others had succeeded in securing over eighty men for 
service, fifty-seven of whom were citizens of this town. Enlistments 
were commenced May 8th, 1861.' 

^ The original roll of enlistments for Co. F, Third Regt. Vt. Vols, is on file in 
the custody of Hon. S E. Pingree, Town Clerk of Hartford. One hundred and 
thirty-three signatures appear on said roll, of which number 104 were affixed be- 
fore the company was mustered into service ; the balance were added after the 
company went to the front. Many were rejected on surgeon's examination. 



In order to show M'liat action was taken by this town to furnish its 
quota of men for military service during the rebellion, it is deemed 
proper to quote from the records of the town, every act of municipal 
legislation by the town during that eventful period, together with com- 
plete rolls of all men furnished by the town, as shown by the report of 
the Adjutant General of the State. This with the records of the Hart- 
ford Memorial Association, will serve as a valuable memorial for all 
coming time. 

On receipt of the news of the bombardment of Fort Sumpter, the cit- 
izens of the town manifested their patriotism by taking measures to 
form a volunteer company of infantry ready to respond to the first call 
of the President for troops. The following is a copy of the written 
agreement entered into on that occasion and the names of the subscrib- 
ers thereto, viz : — 

We, the undersigned, hereby agree to aid in forming, and to enlist in what- 
ever uniformed Volunteer Company of Infantry shall be organized, or proposed 
to be organized by and pursuant to the directions of the Governor and Adjutant 
General of the State of Vermont, within the limits of the Town of Hartford and 
towns adjoining ; hereby engaging to give our earnest support to the formation 
of such company until the same shall be organized and officered according to 

S. E. Pingree, 

E. W. Morris, 
J. H. Piatt, Jr., 
S. E. Clifford, 

F. Gallagher, 
Geo. F. Bemis, 
Reuben L. Barron, 
Thomas McHugh, 
H. S. Button, 
Chas. B. Carlin, 
Delanney Sharp, 
James Welch, 

N. J. Whitcomb, 
L. A. Rider, 
David N. Winslow, 
Cornelious Robinson, 
Wm. O. Pitkin, 
H. P. Abbott. 
Bernard McCabe, 
Win. P. Winslow^, 
Pliilander Kemp, 

T. C. Curtis, 
Edward Lyman, 
Robert Orr, 
Jas. H. Tracy, Jr., 
S. P. Roberts, (music) 
H. S. Holt, 
Frank G. Morrill, 
Jno. S. Brockway, 
S. H. Hamblet, 
H. B. Porter, 
B. Welch, 
Austin BrockAvay, 
Stillman N. Smith, 
Jas. E. Morse, 
John Lymaugh, 
Thomas H. Fargo, 
Leander Spaulding, 
P. V. Thomas, 
Chas. T. TUdeu, 
Geo. Kibbee, 
Yusebe Faneuf, 

Edward Trask, 
Peter Terrill, 
Jolm Cuthbert, 
Chas. S. Barber, 
H. H. Daniels, 
Horace Badger, 
Frank E. Reed, 
Horace French, 
Hemy Davidson, 
Jared Smith, 
Austin W. Barrett, 
John H. Wildrow, 
Henry C. Alexander, 
Aleck Miles, 
Amos Stevens, 
R. A. Pixley, 
J. W. Norton, 
Louis Brunnell, 
James Gallup, 
Fred E. Blaisdale, 
Edward Richards. 


At a special town meeting held August 16th, 18t52, the town voted 
to ratify the action of the selectmen in offering a bounty of fifty dol- 
lars to each able-bodied man who should, on, or before Aug. 15th, 1862, 
enlist into the service of the United States, the bounty to be paid when 
he was accepted and mustered into service. (Twenty-four men had 



3d do 


4th do 


5th do 


6th do 


7th do 


ah-eady enlisted.) It Avas also voted that the selectmen should continue 

to pay $50.00 bounty, and guarantee the payment of seven dollars per 

month to each soldier, if the State failed to. It having been suggested 

bv the selectmen that the additional number of volunteers called for 

would be at least thirty-three, offers to pay the required bounty were 

made as follows : John Porter, 15.00 each to the first five volunteers. 

A. G. Dewey, $5.00 each to 2d five. 

Daniel Needham, 

Justin Paddleford, 

C. S. Hamilton, 

N. B. Safford, 

Asa Hazen, 

At the annual March meeting, 1863, the town ratified all former 
doings of the selectmen in paying bounties and other expenses in rais- 
ino- and forwarding volunteers for the Seventh and Sixteenth regi- 
ments of Vermont, and making provisions for paying the same. 

At a special meeting held August 8th, 1863, the town instructed the 
selectmen to pay the sum of $300 to each drafted man who might go 
to the war from this town, or furnished an acceptable substitute, to be 
paid on his being mustered in. 

At a special meeting Nov. 28, 1863, the selectmen were instructed to 
raise the quota of men assessed by general order of Nov. 2d inst., and 
pay a bounty not to exceed $300, and pledge the credit of the town for 
the money ; and also, voted to raise an extra tax of fifty cents on the 
dollar toward paying said bounty. 

At the annual town meeting in March, 1864, the town voted to pay 
drafted men who entered the United States service, furnished substi- 
tutes, or paid commutation, $325 each, upon surrendering the dis- 
charges, and becoming legally liable to another draft within thirty days 
— otherwise the sum of $100 each. Also authorized selectmen to offer 
$300 bounty until March, 1865. 

At a special meeting, Aug. 9th, 1864, the selectmen were instructed 
to procure the men to fill the town's quota for the last call for 500,000 
men, the amount of bounty, time of service, and way of raising the 
money to pay bounties being left discretionary with the selectmen. It 
was voted to raise 200 cents on the dollar. 

At the March meeting in 1867, A. G. Dewey, Wm. S. Carter and Col. 
S. E. Pingree were elected a committee to inquire into, and report as to 
who had been paid for going to the war, or sending substitutes ; also as 
to those who went for nothing, and as to how much each class ought to 
be paid 


In due time said committee reported — 1st. " That early in the war 
some fifty-seven men volunteered and were credited to the quota of the 
town and served honorably — receiving no town bounty ; 2d. Soon 
after twenty more volunteered and went in like manner, receiving a 
town bounty of fifty dollars each. 

3d That still later some twenty-five men more were drafted, and 
sent substitutes. 

4th. That three men paid commutation.'' 

The committee recommended that above named receive the following 
sums: — 1st class in order named $100 each 
2d class '• " " 50 each 

3d " " " " 125 each 

4th •' '• " " 100 each, 

and that the amount required for said purpose would not exceed the 
sum of $9200. The report of the committee was tabled. 

The following roster of volunteers from the town during the civil 
war, is taken from Adjutant General Washburn's reports : 


Samuel E. Pingree. — Com. 1st Lieut. Co. F, May 24, 1861 ; Pro. 
Capt. Co. F, Aug. 13, 1861 ; wounded severely April 16, 1862 ; Pro. 
major Sept. 27, 1862 ; Br. Lt. Col. Jan'y 15, 1863 ; mustered out of ser- 
vice July 27th, 1864. 

Horace Frexch. — Private, Co. F. May 10, 1861 ; Sergt., July 16, 
1861 ; 2d Lieut. Co. F, Jan'y 15, 1863 ; Trans, to Co. B, July 25, 1864 ; 
Pro. Capt. Co. K, Mch. 28, 1865 : mustered out of service, July 11, 

Frank E. Kew.— Private, Co. F, May 10, 1861 : Sergt., July 16, 1861 ; 
Regt. Qr. Mr. Sergt. July 1, 1862 ; 2d Lieut. Co. E, Nov. 10, 1862 ; 
1st Lieut. Co B, Jan'y 15, 1863 ; mustered out, July 27, 1864. 

Philip V. Thomas.— Private, Co. F, May 10, 1861 : 1st Sergt., July 
16, 1861 ; resigned Oct. 18, 1862. 

roster of officers FOURTH REGIMENT, THREE YEARS. 

Samuel J. Allen. — Surgeon, commissioned Aug. 15, 1861 ; mustered 
out of service, Sept. 30, 1864. 

James H. Platt. — Com. Capt. Co. B, Aug. 30, 1861 : taken prisoner 
May 30, 1864 ; paroled and mustered out of service, Nov. 21, 1864. 


Sumner H. Lincoln. — Private Co. B, Sept. 17, 1861 : corporal, Oct. 
15, 1861 : adjutant, Feb. 3, 1863 ; wounded. May 5, 1864, and Sept. 19, 
1864 ; major, Oct. 21, 1864 ; Lieut.-Col, Jan. 7, 1865 ; Col, June 4,1865; 
mustered out as Lieut.-Col., June 26, 1865. (The only person who rose 
from a private to a colonel through all the grades in the regiment in 
which he enlisted.) 



Mahlon M. Young. — Com. Capt. Co. H, Feb. 3, 1862 ; killed in action 
at Mariana, Fla., Sept. 27, 1864. 


Eli E. Hart.— Private Co. H, Aug. 7, 1862 ; 1st. Sergt., Oct. 23, 
1863: 2d Lieut., Co. H, Dec. 28, 1863; wounded, June 1, 1864; 1st 
Lieut., Co. M, May 13, 1865; mustered out as 2d Lieut., Co. H, June 
24, 1865. 

Edward Blaisdell. — Private Co. H, Aug. 7, 1862 ; corporal, Dec. 12, 
1862 ; Sergt., May 22, 1863 ; 1st Sergt., June 22, 1864 ; mustered out as 
1st Sergt , June 24, 1864. 


Joseph C. Sa^vter. — Com. Capt. Co. H, Sept. 18, 1862 ; resigned Dec. 
26, 1862. 


Andrew J. Grover. — Com. 1st Lieut. Co. E, Oct. 16, 1861; Capt. Co. 
K, Feb. 1st, 1863 ; wounded. May 5, 1864 ; Pro. major, July 7, 1864 ; 
mustered out Nov. 18, 1864. 

VOLUNTEERS OF OCT. 17, 1863 : 
Name. Co. Regt. When Enlisted. When Discharged. 

Abbott, Nathan A H 11 Aug. 8, '62 

Deserted Sept. 13, 1864. 
Adams, Cyrus A H BB April 17, '63 June 29, '65 

Brigade band. 
Bailey, Wm. W H 11 Aug. 7. '62 July 24, '65 

Wounded; in general hospital, Aug. 31, '64. 
Bartholomew, Albert F 3 June 1, "61 

Died June 28, '64, of wounds received in action. 
Bartholomew, Harvey B 4 Aug. 19, '61 Sept. 30, '64 

Bemis, Geo. F F 3 June 1, "61 

Died May 8, '64, of wounds received in action. 
Buel, Oliver B 6 Dec. 10, '62 

Date of enlistment not given. 
Caraway, Joseph L 11 June 15, '63 May 13, '65 

Carlin, Charles F 3 June 1 , '61 May 15, '68 

Clark, Benj.R H 11 Aug. 7, '62 June 24, '65 

Clement, OHver B 4 Aug. 22, "61 

Wagoner; trans, to Inr. Corps, July 27, '63. 
Courser, Robert B 4 Aug. 10, '61 May 2, '62 

Curtis, Geo. A E 1st Cav. Oct. 11, "61 Oct. 19, '64 

Curtis. Timothv C H 7 Nov. 25, '61 

Pro. Sergt., Oct. 1, '63. 
Cuthibert, John F 3 June 1 , "61 

Killed near Funkstown, Md., July 10, '63. 
Daniels. Hemy H F 3 June 1, '61 

Not accounted for. 
Davidson. Henry , F 3 June 1, '61 

Deserted Jan. 4, '62. 
Demmon , Levi Jr F 3 June 1 , '61 

Deserted July 27, '63. 
Downer, W. H F 3 June 1, '61 

Killed at Lee's Mills, April 16, '62. 



Name. Co. Regt. 

Drake, Henry S H 11 

Sick in general hospital, Aug. 31, '64. 

Dutton. Horace S H 11 

Died in Florence, S. C. 

Field, Wm. A B 6 

French , Arthur M H 11 

Galla.a;her , Francis F 3 

Killed near North Anna river, May 20, '64. 

Gallup, James F 3 

Gi] man, James R B 6 

Gorhani, Isaac. B 4 

Recruit; deserted April 25, '63. 

Greenwood, Jno. F. H 11 

Died Jan. 3, '64. 

Hardy, Geo. W K 4 

Harvey, Jno. S H 11 

HiU, Chas. H....i C 6 

Kibbee, Ed. W K 

Kibbee, George F 

Killed at Lee's Mills, April 16, '62 
Knowles, Crowell M H 

Died at Andersonville, Sept. 16, '6 
Lyman, Edward... F 

Pro. Corp. Aug. 75, '63; died June 35, '64. 
McHugh. Thomas F 

Pro. Corp. ; re-enlisted Dec. 31 , '63. 
Messer, Moses F 

Miles, Alvin N B 

Miner, Joseph C H 



11 • 
1 S. S. 








Morrill, French F 

Killed at Lee's Mills, April 16, '62. 

Norton, Joseph W . . F 

Deserted March 36, '63. 

Orr, Robert F 

Died April 15, 'b3. 

Parker, Sanvl S H 

Died at Florence, S. C, Oct. 26, '64. 

Pierce, Oscar. __ C 6 

Re-enlisted Mch. 31, '64, Pro. Corp. May 12, '65. 

Pierce, Sydney H 11 

Pro. Corp. 

Powers. Chas. C H 11 


Richards, Ed. C F 3 

Rider, Lucien A F 3 

Died of wounds received in action May 15, '64. 
Robinson, Samu'l F F 3 

Rock, Wm. H F 3 

Rowland, Ed. P F 

Not accounted for. 

Sharpe, Delancy F 

Deserted January 2, '62. 

Sleeper, James M B 

Sleeper, Martin V B 

Re-enlisted Feb. 16, '64, Pro. Corp. 

When Enlisted 
Aug. 8, '62 

Aug. 7 
Sept. 16 
Aug. 8 
June 1 
June 1 
Aug. 26 
Mch. 13 
Aug. 7 
Aug. 26 
Aug. 7 
Feb. 25 
Aug. 8 
June 1 
Aug. 27 
Jime 1 
July 31 
Sept. 11 
June 1 
Nov. 20 
Aug. 10 
Mch. 13 
June 1, "61 
June 1, '61 
June 1, '61 
Aug. 4, '62 
Mch. 20, '62 
Aug. 4, '62 
Aug. 9, '62 
Sept. 17, "61 
Nov. 15, '61 
June 1, "61 
June 1, '61 
June 1, "61 
June 1, "61 
Aug. 14, '61 
Aug. 24, '61 


When Discharged. 
June 24, '65 

Aug. 18. •65 
Jan. 1, '62 

Oct. 12, '61 
Dec. 6, '62 

July 13. ^65 
June 24, '65 
Aug. 10, '63 

July 27, '64 
Dec. 24, "64 

Feb.' 21. '65 
Mch. 23, "64 
Sept. 30, '64 
AprH 12, '65 

June 26, '65 
May 13, '65 
June 24, '65 
Sept. 17, '62 

May 24, '62 
Nov. 11, '62 

Apr. 29, 62 
July 13, "65 



When Enlisted. When Discharged 
Aug. 7, '62 June 24, '65 



June 1, "61 
June 1, '61 
Oct. 12, '61 
Aug. 7, '62 
June 1, '61 
1st Cav. Sept. 25, '61 
2d S. S. Oct. 10, '61 
Aug. 20, '61 

Name Co. Re;E 

Smith, Portus B., Corporal-. H 11 

Smith, Stillman N. F 

Pro. Coi'poral. 
Spaulding, Leander, Corporal F 

Stafford, Wni E 

Blacksmith, re-enlisted Dec. 28, '63. 
Strong, Henry B H 

Terrell, Peter F 

Re enlisted Dec. -21, '93. 
Thurston, Valoris E 

Trask. Edward E 

Wounded, in General Hospital Aug. 31, '64. 
Udall, Engedi B K 4 

Died May 24, '62. 
Washburne, H. M B 6 Sept. 30, '61 

Re-enlisted Dec. 15, '63, Pro. Corp. Jan. 1, '65. Pro Sargt, June 19j '65 
Webb, Chas. H H 7 Nov. 25, '61 

Welch, Bartholomew F 3 June 1 , '61 

Deserted March 24, '64. 
Welch, James F 3 June 1, '61 

Weston, Edwin W H 11 Aug-. 8, '62 

Pro. Corp. July 26, '63; Serg't Jan. 23, '64; taken prisoner June 23, '64; died in prison 
Sept. 16, '64. 
Whitcomb, Nelson J F 3 June 1, '61 May 15, '62 

Died in West Hartford. 
Whitcomb, Willis A F 3 June 1,'61 

Died May 19, '62, of wounds i-eceived at Lee's Mills. 
Willard, Wm. E H 11 Aug. 7, '62 

Pro. Corp. Jan. 23, '64. Died Jan 8, '64 from wounds received in action. 
Wright, Alexis F 3 Nov. 26, '61 July 22. '62 

July 11, '65 

Feb. 26, '63 

Aug. 9, "65 

Feb. 6, '64 

July 11, '65 

Nov. 18, '64 

Nov. 9, '64 

June 26, '65 

Feb. 25, '63 

July 27, '64 

White, Henry K H 

Died June 3, '64. 


Aug. 7, '62 




Austin, Abraham C 

Died Apr. 20, '65. 

Babcock , David C D 

Missed in action May 10, '64. 

Babcock, James M H 

Prisoner June 24, '64. 

Baker, William C 

Recruit, trans, to Co. A, June 13, '65. 

Beach, Chas. H E 

Deserted Sept. 11, '64. 

Boyd, Franklin H F 

Killed in Wilderness May 5, '64. 

Boyd, Kingsbury F 

Brown, William . F 

Not accounted for. 
Burdette, James E 

Recruit, trans. Co. B, .June 13, '65. 
Burdick, O. F D 

Sick in General Hospital June 29, '65. 
Chaurain, Benj H 

Died July 12, '64. 
Cooke, Chester V H 

Deserted betore leaving the State. 
Dew, Francis B 

Sick in General Hospital Aug. 21, '64. 
Douse. Lewis 1st Bat. 

Died Mch. 20, '64. 
Faneuf. Eh H 

Died Jan. 5, '65. 


When Enlisted. 
Dec. 30, '63 

When Discharged. 


Dec. 17, '63 


Dec. 4, '63 

June 24, '65 


July 5, '64 

Aug. 5, '65 


Sept. 2, '64 


Dec. 7, '63 


Dec. 7, '63 

July 11, '65 


Dec. 10, '63 


Dec. 25, '63 

Aug. 5, '65 


Dec. 25, '63 


Dec. 5, '63 



June 5, '64 
Jan. 5, '64 

Jime 28, '65 


Dec. 15, '63 


Name. Co. Reg. When Enlisted. When Discharged. 

Fogg. Geo. E F 3 Feb. 16, "64 May 31, "65 

Fo.sia. Joseph F 3 Dec. 24, "63 May 18, "65 

Franklin. S. B H 2d S. S. Dec. 21, "63 July 13, "Oo 

Trans, to Co. H, 4th Vt , Volunteers, Feb. 25, '65. 

Frost, Geo. B F 3 Feb. 10, "64 July 11, "65 

Granger, Joseph . _ D 17 Feb. 4, '64 

Deserted Mch. 16, '64. 

Hagar, Abraham D 5 Dec. 25, "63 Mch. 30, "65 

Hand, Joseph D 17 Nov. 19, •(33 Oct. 26, "64 

Wounded. In General Hospital, Aug. 31, '64. 

Hammer, J. C 9 

Not in 9th, probably a recruit. 

Hammond, Leslie 2d Bat. Aug. 13, '64 

Unassigned recruit. Not accounted for. 

Hill, Hial B 10 Dec. 12. "63 May lo. "es 

Sick in General Hospital, Aug. 31, '64. 

Hodsdon. Thomas C F 3 Jan. 5, "64 

Died Aug. 13, '64, of wounds received at Spottsylvania. 

Hovt, Wm. B E 9 Dec. 17, "63 Aug. 5, '65 

Trans, to Co. B, June 13, '65. 

Hunt, John F 3 Dec. 25, "63 July 29, '65 

Lawrence, M. B D 5 Dec. 25, '63 Mch. 8, "65 

Loud, Geo. W A 9 Dec. 33, '63 Mch. 8, "65 

Missed in action Feb. 2, '64. 

mtcheU, Geo. N H 9 Dec. 29, '63 June 22, "65 

Moses. Alonzo D D 9 Dec. 25, "63 June 22, '65 

Died Sept. 17, '64. 

Norton, Andrew H 3d Bat. Nov. 29, "64 Jtme 15, '65 

Rice, Felix H 11 Feb, 11, "63 Aug. 25, '65 

Trans. Co. B. June 24, '65. 

Robinson, Dan'l M Feb. 1 1 , "63 Aug. 25, "65 

Robinson, John F 3 Nov. 15, "61 Aug. 25, "65 

Not accounted for. 

Shay, John O F 3 June 1, '61 Aug. 25, '65 

' No report of since muster roll. 

Sheehe, Patrick A 9 Dec. 29, *63 Aug. 25, "65 


Smith. Jason A 9 Dec. 31, "63 

Not accounted for. 

Stanhope, Obed . A 9 Dec. 31, "63 July 18, '65 

Waterman, D. P A 9 Dec. 31 , '63 July 18, '65 

Sick in General Hospital, Aug. 31, '64. 

Willard, Frank O H 11 Dec. 10, "63 

Died June V, '64. 

WiUs, Lewis T B 4 Nov. 28, "63 June 19, "65 


Wrisley, Warren W F 17 Mch. 9, "64 June 24, "65 

Wounded, in General Hospital Aug, 31, '64. 


Name. Co. Reg. When Enlisted. When Discharged. 

Arnold, Lyman . G 4 Sept. 7, '64 June 19, "65 

Badger, Horace I 9 Aug. 23, '64 Sept. 24, "64 

Brackett, Thomas... G 4 Sept. 7, '64 June 19, "65 

Brown, Nathan G 16 Sept. 4, "62 Aug. 10, "63 

Burns, Patrick _ _ _ I 9 Sept. 8, "64 

Uuassigned recruit deserted Sept. 11, '64. 


Names. Co. Reg. When Enlisted. When Discharged. 

Cuthbert, Robert J E 1st Cav. Aug. 16, "64 May 30, '65 

Un assigned Recruit. 

Dean. Charles E 1st Ciiv. Aug. 19, '64 

Deserted Sept. 16, '64. 

Edwards, Lawrence G 4 Sept. 7, '64 

Killed at Cedar Creek Oct. 19, '64. 

Faneuf , Dostie F 9 Aug. 10, "64 June 13, '65 

Glidden, Milo H I 8 Mch. 16, '65 

Deserted June 1st, '65. 
Holt, Franklin I 9 Aug. 15, '64 June 13, '65 

Kibbee, A. N I 10 Aug. 10, '64 June 13, '65 

Kimball, J. A B 10 

Not accounted for. 
McKinley. Wm. H._.. E 1st Cav. Sept. 6, '64 June 21, '65 

McLeod, Daniel A 1st Cav. Aug. 16, '64 June 21 , '65 

Munf ae, Francis E 1st Cav. Sept. 1 , '64 June 21 , '65 

Pitkin Levi C I 9 Aug. 15, '64 June 13, '65 

Trans. Co. C, 3d Vt. Vols , Jan. 20, '65. 
Pitkin Wm. O I 9 Aug. 18, '64 Oct. 8, "64 

Pollard, W. H 3d Bat. Aug. 24, '64 June 15, '65 

Porter. Carlos S G 9 Aug. 11, '64 June 13, '65 

Porter, Wm. B G 9 Aug. 22, '64 June 13, '65 

Streeter, Warren G 4 Sept. 7, '64 June 19, '65 

Swinburn, Geo . . . .' G 4 Sept. 7, '64 June 19, '65 

Tamblin, Geo. H G 4 Sept. 3, '64 

Died iMay 22, '65. 
Thomas, John E 1st Cav. Dec. 26, '63 

Assigned to Co. D. Deserted Nov. 12, '64. 
Warren , Wallace B I 9 Aug. 10, "64 June 13, '65 

Williams, Jno E 1st Cav. Nov. 25. '62 Aug. 4, '65 

Trans, to V. R. C. March 2, '64. 
Robinson, D. M C 4 Feb. 13, '65 July 13, '65 


Geo. F. Bemis, Edward K. Caswell, Timothy C. Curtis, Calvin Dyke, 
Marshal P. Felch, Edward F. Gould, Thomas McHugh, Lucien A. Eider, 
Stillman N. Smith, William Stafford, Peter Terrell. 


George Barnes, William S. Carter, Daniel L. Cashing, Wm. S. Dewey, 
Charles B. Stone. 


John Cain, Peter Cole, Alonzo B. Davis, James Davis, Dennis W. 
Downing, Joseph Hippolite, Eugene W. Hubbard, Jerry Lee, Alex. 
McDonald, James McGirnis, John O'Donuell, Jno. J. H. Schmalfeldt, 
Sam'l H. Smith, Theodore H. Smith, Charles T. Tilden, John White, 
Henry Williams. 




Jerome Loucks, Franklin B. Osmore, James Williamson. 



Names. Co. 

Abbott, Isaac W G 

Ball , Alainander G 

Barron ,, R. L. , Sergt G 

Blaisdell, Frank H 

Brockway , Geo. B_ G 

Brooks, Charles G 

Brothers, Wm G 

Brown , Nathan G 

Cargill, Chas. G G 

Carlysle Jno H 

"Wounded. Left at Gettysburg, July 

Case, Chas. E H 

Dana, Cyrenns H 

Davis. Jos. R G 

Downing W. H., Corporal-. G 

Dutton, Benj. C G 

Fisher. Richard G 

Gardner, Chas. S G 

Gilbert, Jas. N G 

Pro. Corporal, Marcli, '63. 

Goss. Loren D .. G 

Gunn. Lyman O.. G 

Hall. John H 

Sick in Gen. Hos., Aug. 10, '63. 

Hazen. Albert E. G 

Pro. Corporal, Feb. U, '63. 

Hazen, Harper G 

Hazen, William G 

Hathaway, H. F G 

Hoisington, Orange H 

Johnson, A. H H 

Kibbee, A. N., Musician G 

Morse, Cyrus W G 

Newton, James H 

Packard, F. R., Sergeant H 

Pease. Chris. C H 

Pierce, Chas G 




When Enlisted. 

When Discharged 





Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Avig. 10, 






Aug. 10, 



3, '63. 




Aug. 10, 
Aug. 10. 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Feb. 13, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Nov. 28, 






Feb. 11, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug, 10, 






Aug. 10, 






Aug. 10, 



When Enlisted. 

When Discharged 















































































Names. Co. 

Pillsbuiy, A. H G 

Porter, Calvin G 

Roberts, Dan'l W G 

Russ, Geo. C G 

Savage, Jasper H., Corporal. G 

Sawyer, Joseph C H 

Saxey, Frank H 

Sleeper, Chas. G H 

Thurston, L. C H 

Died at Brattleboro, Aug. 7, '63. 
Winslow, D. N G 

Wood, John Q G 


Geo. T. Alexander, Miner W. Allen, Silas Birch, Josiah H. Case, Jno. 
T. Cisco, Jesse Gardner, John S. Gates, Abel H. Hazen, Chai-les Hazen, 
David D. Hazen, Henry S. Huntoon, Edward P. Lamphear, Jason Mofiit, 
Edward W. Morris, S. C. Morse, Justin Paddleford, Henry C Pennock, 
Chas. A. Pitkin, William Porter, John Kuss, N. H. Shattuck, T. J. 
Shurtleff, O. D. Tewksbury, Geo. E. Thompson, Chas. T. Tilden. 


Chas. B. Ballard, Noah B. Hazen, Jacob N. Perkins. 


Joseph Bean, Byron Hunt. 


To March 1st, 1S65. 

64 men three years^ service, no bounty. 

20 " " " " September, 1862, $ 1,000 00 

44 " nine months " October, 1862, 2,900 00 

Expenses on the above, 129 84 

34 men, three years' service, July 5, 1864, less one deserted,$200.00 10,875 00 

14 veterans, three years' service, February, 1864, 4,250 00 

5 men, " " " " 1,200 00 

2 " drafted and entered service, March, 1864, 600 00 

7 " three years' service, September 5th, 1864, 4,400 00 

27 " one " " " " 13.167 00 

2 colored men entered in the South ' ' 801 70 

17 men, three years' service in navy, February 15, 1865, 10,000 00 

1 man, 600 00 

Expenses on the above, 606 37 

22 men, drafted and furnished substitutes, 2,200 00 

259 men $52,729 91 

To March, 1866. 

1 three years' service man since 1865, $ 600 00 

2 one year's service men, " " 1,200 00 

3 men who paid commutation, 300 00— $2,100 00 

265 men $54,829 91 



To March, 1S67. 

Two hundred and sixty-seven men furnished by the town in 
1862-63-64. Amount of bounties and costs of which, includ- 
ing bounties paid to men who were drafted, and who fur- 
nished substitutes, 

Paid three men who paid commutation,' 


$54,829 91 
300 00 

$55,129 91 

(ORGANIZED MAY 2, 1885), IN DECEMBER, 1887. 

OFFICERS — 1887. 

A. B. Flanders Chap. 

James A. Cooper O. D. 

Joseph M. Hodet O. G. 

Sidney E. Pierce S. M. 

A. C. Inman Q. M. S, 

A. W. Davis P. C. 

AnthonyC. Ray S. V. C. 

Edgar F. Sisco J. V. C. 

A. B. Voodry Adj't. 

Joseph M. Quimby Q. M. 

James M. Wilson Surg. 

Stephen M. Pingree, Sanford H. Potter, Past Commanders. 

Bernard McCabe, Sanuiel A. Currier, Alpha H. Colby, Relief Committee. 

Stephen M. Pingree, George W. Kenney, David Paine, Finance and Auditing 

Alvin C. Bean, Bernard McCabe, Sidney E. Pierce, Entertaining and Memorial 

Regular meeting first Saturday in each month. 

Muster-in fee, including badge, $1.50. 

Dues, quarterly in advance, twenty-five cents. 


Aiken, Joseph P., A. 4th Vt. V. Inf. 
Bean, Alvin C, 15th N. H. V. Inf. 

Bruce, S. B. O., K, 11th Vt. V. Inf. 
Clifford, Charles L., G, 16th Vt. V. Inf. 
Cooper, James A., E, 21st Mass. V. Inf. 
Carpenter, Wm. B., I, 6th Vt. V. Inf. 
Chambers, Henrv, E, 26th Mass.V. Inf. 
Currier, S. A., " C, 15th N. H. V. Inf. 
Colbv, Alpha H., D. 12th Vt. V. Inf. 
Davis, Alex. W., D, 6th Vt. V. Inf. 
Daley, Edward, A, 9th Vt. V. Inf. 

Durphey, Wm. H., C, 6th Vt. V. Inf. 
Fargo, James C, H, 4th Mass. H. Art. 
Fenton, Barth. G, 6th Vt. V. Inf. 

Flanders, A. B., Chap. 4th R. I. Inf. 
French, Horace, K, 3d Vt. V. Inf. 

Hunter, J. H., E, 5th N. H. V. Inf. 
Hill, Charles H., C, 6th Vt. V. Inf. 

Hodet, J. M., G., unass'g'd Mass. R. 
Inman, A. C, D, 17th Vt. V. Inf. 

Kenney, Geo. W., H, 17th Vt. V. Inf. 
Kent, Lorenzo E., K, 7th Vt. V. Inf. 
Kimball, Ben. F., D, 17th Vt. V. Inf. 
McCabe, Bernard, A, 6th Mass. V. Inf. 

Metcalf, Henry H., C, 6th Vt. V. Inf. 
Pierce, Wm. L., F, 1st Vt. Fr'nt Cav. 

Pierce, Sidney E. 
Pingree Stephen M. 
Paine, David, 
Peck, Henry H., 
Potter, Sanford H., 
Porter. Or vis W., 
Porter, Wm. B., 
Preston, Geo. W. 

H, 11th Vt. V. Inf. 

4th Vt. V. Inf. 

A, 9th Vt. V. Inf. 

I, 2d Vt. V. Inf. 

1st Vt. Cav. 

G, 17th U. S. Inf. 

G. 9th Vt. V. Inf. 

E. 2d Vt. V. Inf. 

Quimby, Joseph M., A, 15th Vt. V. Inf. 
Rollins, A. C, C. 15th N. H. V. Inf. 
Ray, Anthony C, G, 16th Vt. V. Inf. 

Rand, Homer E 
Saxie, Frank, 
Sisco, Edgar F., 
Strong, S. J., 
Trask, Chas. M. 
Terrill, Peter, 
Voodry, Adna B., 
Wilson, James M., 
Wolfe, Austm H. 
Wood, John A., 
Young, Leander, 

P. M. U. S. N. 

H, 16th Vt. V. Inf. 

K, 13th Vt. V. Inf. 

C, 5th N. H. V. Inf. 

Surg. 5th N. H.V. Iirf. 

B, 3d Vt. V. Inf; 

E, 17th Vt. V. Inf. 

P. M. U. S. A. 

B, 14th N. H. V. In. 

G, 16th Vt. V. Inf. 

I, 1st Me. H. Art. 

' A palpable error. According to the report of Adjutant General Washburn, but 
three men paid commutation — viz : Charles B Ballard, Noah B. Hazen and Jacob 
N. Perkins. The total amount paid should be $54,829.91. The total number men 
furnished was 265. 



This association was born of a desire on the part of the surviving 
soldiers of the late civil war, who went from Hartford, to properly 
honor and perpetuate the memory of those of their comrades who, in 
the hour of the nation's greatest peril, enlisted from this town, and lost 
their lives in defence of the Union. It is but simple justice to say that 
those who enlisted from this town were chiefly men of intelligence and 
sustained a good moral character ; and that, in the hour of trial, they 
proved to be brave, true and faithful soldiers. They left their fire- 
sides, their kindred, their business, all that was dear to them, and went 
forth to endure the hardships of military service, in camp and garrison, 
on tented field, and in toilsome marches. They suffered from exposure 
to extremes of heat and cold ; from privations of food and raiment ; 
from disease; from wounds received in many a terrible conflict facing 
a stubborn foe, and many there met death and found graves far away 
from home, with not one loving hand to ease their pathway to the 

" Some home to village graves were borne, 

Love plants the Myitle o'er their tomb ; 
Some far away in graves unknown, 

Sleei) where no flowers of love may bloom. 
Some in the nation's hallowed ground 

Sleep royally their last, long sleep; 
Some lie where no carved stone is found, 

No kindred nigh, no friends to weep." 

The survivors who served out, faithfully, their terms of enlistment, 
returned to their homes, and a useful citizenship, and not a few of 
these have received such honors and gifts from the hands and hearts of 
their felloAv-citizens, as a grateful people may well bestow as the reward 
of patriotism. 

But we owe a great debt, and unstinted honor, to those who fell in 
battle. Their heroic deeds should be transmitted to coming genera- 
tions in song and story, on enduring monuments of marble and in the 

' Hon. P. T. Washburn, Adjutant General of the State, in his reports, Oct. i, 
1865, to Oct. I, 1866, gives a list of at least 125 battles and engagements in which 
Vermont troops took part, between Big Bethel, June 10, 1861, and Appomattox 
Court House, April 9, 1865. An average of one battle or engagement every ten 
days. A Vermont regiment was the first to enter Richmond at its capture April, 

The whole number of volunteers and drafted men furnished by Vermont was 
34,238. The number of wounded was 4,360. The number of deaths in field and 
hospital during the whole war was 5,128. More than one-half of these perished 
during the last year of the war. 

The number of volunteers and drafted men, furnished by Hartford was 267. The 
number killed in engagements and battle was 8 The number of deaths in hospital 
was 5. The number who deserted was 9. The number wounded 10, of whom 5 
died. Killed by accident i. Died in Andersonville prison 2. Died elsewhere 
from sickness 16. Total number of deaths during the war 37. 


continual observance of decoration day. Let us decorate their graves, 

and crown their monuments with flowers emblematical of virtue, heroic 

valor and immortality, and rehearse to our children and grand-children, 

the story of their deeds, that they may be inspired with a sense of their 

obligation to our fallen braves; of the gratitude due to the survivors, 

and their duty to their country in the hour of her peril and danger 

from foes within and foes without. 

" Toll for the noble brave, 
Borne to a gory grave, 

Wreath ye the bier; 
Whisper each deathless name, 
Give them to God and Fame, 

Drop ye love's tear." 

On the 30th May, 1880, a number of veteran soldiers met at the 
Hartford cemetery to decorate the graves of their fallen comrades with 
flowers. After performing this memorial service a brief address was 
made by Col. S. E, Pingree, upon the duties which the surviving sol- 
diers owe to their dead comrades, and upon his motion, a temporary 
organization was made for the purpose of perpetuating the proper 
observance of decoration day, Capt. A. W. Davis, 6th Vt. Regt., was 
chosen president ; Capt. J. Aiken, 4th Vt. Regt., secretary; Col. S. E. 
Pingree, 3d Vt. Regt., Maj. A. J. Grover, 1st Vt. Cav., and Lieut. 
E. H. Nye, 6th Vt., executive committee. This meeting was adjourned 
to meet at the said cemetery the first Saturday in May, 1881, for the 
l^urpose of forming a permanent organization. 

Agreeable to adjournment a meeting was held at the Hartford cem- 
etery May Tth, 1881, Avhen a constitution and by-laws were presented 
by Col. S. E. Pingree, with appropriate remarks thereon, and after due 
consideration the same were referred to a committee consisting of Col. 
S. E. Pingree, G. D. Keyes and B. F. Eaton, with instructions to report 
such amendments and alterations as proper for ratification at the annual 
meeting. May 30th, 1881, The association met at 1 o'clock p. m.. May 
30th, 1881, at the east gate of the cemetery, when the report of the 
committee on the constitution and by-laws was rendered by Col. S. E. 
Pingree, to wit : 

Preamble: — For the due observance of the day which a uationnl cus- 
tom has consecrated to the ofi'ering of floral tribute to tbe uatiMu's 
dead, and for the better and more constant cherishing of ihe uien.oiies 
of our more immediate comrades and townsmen who fell in defem-e f 
their country's integrity and honor, we, the Hartford Memorial As^cnia- 
tion, hereby adopt the following constitution for the general guidai ce 
and government of our organization. 


The officers and committees for the association were : — President, 
Col. Stephen M. Pingree, 4th Vt.; Vice-Presidents, Maj. Andrew J. 
Grover, Lieut. Benjamin F. Eaton; Secretary, Capt. Joseph P. Aiken; 
Treasurer, Henry H. Peck, 2d Vt. 

Committee on Arrangements — Capt. A. W. Davis, Capt. J. P. Aiken 
and H. H. Peck. 

Committee on Floral Decoration — Comrades P. B. Smith, Peter 
Terrill, A. E. Hazen, A. J. Grover and Wm. B. Carpenter. 

Committee to designate soldiers's graves and mark the same — Col. S. 
E Pingree. 

The following list comprises the names of the members, past and 
present of the association, together with the company and regiment in 
which each member enlisted : 

Samuel E. Pingree Co. F, 3d Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Stephen M. Pingree Co. E, 4th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Joseph P. Aiken Co. D, 4th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

G. D. Keyes Co. D, 4th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

J. T. Shepard - Co. G, 4th Regt. Vt. Cavalry. 

S. J. Allen, Surgeon 4th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Henry H. Peck Co. I, 2d Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Horace French Co. F, 3d Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Peter Terril Co. F, 3d Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

A. W. Davis Co. D, 6th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Wm. B. Carpenter Co. D, 6th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Charles G. Sanderson Co. F, 8th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

John G. Lesure Co. G. 8th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

William B. Porter Co. G. 9th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

P B Smith Co. H , 1 1th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Alpha H. Colbv Co. D. 12th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

A. E. Hazen _ / Co. G, 16th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

J H Savage . Co. G, 16th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Frank Blaisdell Co. H, 16th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Anthonv C. Ray Co. G, 16th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Charles "^ Pierce Co. G, 16th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Harper Hazen Co. G, 16th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Jasper H. Savage Co. G, 16th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Charles L. Clifford Co. G, 16th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Geo. A. Griswold Co. A, 10th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

A. C. Inman Co. C, 15th, Co. D, 17th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

David Paine Co. A, 15th and 9th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

Ceorge C. Stevens Co. A, 2d Regt. N. H. Vol. Infantrv. 

Sewell D. Batchelder Co. G, 2d Regt. N. H. Vol. Infantry. 

John H. Hunter Co. E, 5th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantrv. 

Henry Silver - .• Co. I, 17th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

A. J. Grover 1st Regt. Vt. Cavalry. 

J. C. Fargo - - - Co. H, 4th Regt. Mass. Artilleiy. 

Thomas Moran Co. I, 21st Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

D. W. Pierce - -Co. B, 1st Regt. Vt. Cavalry. 

John Dezealer - Co. H, 17th Regt. Vt. Cavalry. 

William J. Gray Co. C, 16th Regt. N. H. Cavalry. 

Josiah L. Elder, major 40th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

H. A. Bennett Co. B, 25th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

E.H.Nye Co. D. 6th Regt. Vt. Vol. Infantry. 

J. H. Modet. _ - Co. G, Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantrv. 

Orrin Watkins Co. H. 7th Regt. N. H. Vol Infantrv. 



The names of those soldiers who served in the Revolutionary war, 
and their respective places of burial have been designated as follows : 

Luther Bartholomew, a pensioner, buried in Christian Street Cemetery. 
Samuel Bailey, buried in the Hartford Cemetery. 
Nathan Cobb, " " " 
Joseph Fenno, " " Centre ville " 
Pliineas Russ, " " Russtown " 

Stej)hen Tilden, " " Centre of Town Cemetery. 
Elihu Woodard, " 

Elijah Kibbie, " " Junction " 

Roger Huntington, member of the 4th Conn. Regt. whose name will appear 
among those of the war of 1812, was buried in the Russtown Cemetery. 
William Chamialin, buried in Quechy Cemetery. 
Burpee Prouty, " " Delano " 

Sherebiah Ballard, " " W. Hartford " 


Sheldon Bartholomew, buried in Christian Street Cemetery. 

John Freeman, fifer in Capt. Plielps" Co., Col. Davis" regt.. Gen. Dearborn's 
army, which took part in the battle of Plattsbui'gh : buried in Hartford ceme- 

Ulysses Johnson, buried in Russtown cemetery. 

Sohman Lombard, of Capt. Ethan Beemis' Co., Col. WiUiams' regt.; buried in 
Quechee cemetery. 

Philip Sprague, buried in Christian Street cemetery. 

James Tracy, " Centre of Town '' 

Josiah Tilden. " " " 

Stephen Tilden, 

George Washburn, corpl. of Capt Merrill's Co., 31st regt., of Gen. Dearborn's 
army; buried at W. R. Junction cemetery. 

Elijah Kibbie, buried beside his father, W. R. Junction cemetery. 

Roger Huntington was enlisted in the 81st regt. for one year, and afterward in 
the 11th for five years, and served unth close of the war; buried in Russtown 

Alva Rider, buried in Centre Town cemetery. 

I. find one name only of those who served in the Mexican war, viz: tha,t of 
Myron T. Strong, of Col. T. B. Ransom's regt., Gen. Franklin Pierce's brigade, 
Gen. Scott's army; buried at Centre of Town cemetery. 


1 Wm. H. Allard. Co. G, 6th Vt. Vols., died March 15, 1864; buried in the 

Hartford cemetery. 

2 Henry C. Alexander, 1st Vt. Bafy, died Jan. 23, 1864; buried in Quechee cem- 


3 Albert L. Bartholomew, corpl. Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., mortally wounded at 

Cold Harbor, Va. ; buried in Christian St. cemetery. 

4 Geo. F. Bemis, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols. , mortally wounded and died in hospital 

May 8, 1864; buried on the field. 

5 Elmer Bragg, 9th N. H. Vols., died Aug. 20, 1864; buried in Quechee ceme- 


6 Frankhn Boyd, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., killed at the Wilderness, Va.; buried on 

the field. 

7 George B. Brockway, Co. H, 16th Vt. Vols., died after the war; bui'ied in the 

Hartford cemetery. 

8 John Cuthbert, Co. F. 3d Vt. Vols., killed at Funkstown, Md., July 10, 1863; 

buried on the field in the same grave with Geo. W. Ball, 4th Vt. Vols. 

9 Charles C. Davis, Co. H, 11th Vt. Vols., died Sept. 30, 1870; buried in Hart- 

ford cemetery. 

10 Wm. H. Downer, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., killed at Yorktown, Va., April 16, '62; 

l)uried on the field. 

11 Horace Dutton. Co. — , regt. Vt. Vols., died in rebel prison: name inscribed 

on Benj. Dutton's mon't., Hartford cemeterv. 


12 Harry Durphy, Co. C, 6th Vt. Vols, diedJune 18, 1864; buried in Quechee 


13 Arthur M.' French, Co. H, 11th Vt. Vols., taken prisoner at the battle of the 

Weldon R. R., Va., June 23, 1864; in prison at Andersonville, Ga., until 
exchanged: died at Annapolis, Md., on liis way home from his captivity, 
Jan. 1. 1865: buried m Hartford cemetery. 

14 Frank Gallagher, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., killed at the battle of No. Anna, Va., 

May 20, '64; buried on the field. 

15 Henry L. Jones, Co. C, 6th Vt. Vols., died July 14, 1864; buried in Quechee 


16 Thomas S. Hodsden, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., mortally wounded May 12, '64, at 

Spottsylvania, Va., died Aug. 13, '64; buried on the field. 

17 George Kibble, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., killed April 16, '62, near Yorktown, Va.; 

buried on the field. 

18 Edward Lyman, corpl. Co. F, 1st U. S. C. S., mortally wounded at the bat- 

tle before Petersburg, Va., died June 25, '64; buried in Hartford cemetery. 

19 Frank Morrill, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., killed at Yorktown, Va., April 16, '62; 

buried on the field. 

20 Albourn Nash, Co. F, 52d Mass. Vols., died March 16, 1860; buried in Hart- 

ford cemetery. 

21 Robert Orr, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., killed at Yorktown, Va., April 16, "62; 

buried on the field. 

22 Edward Richards, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., died of disease contracted in seryice 

in the Peninsular campaign, Sept. 17, '62, having served one year to a day; 
buried in Hartford cemetery. 

23 Leonard Rowland, fifer, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., died at Lee's Mills, Va., May 1, 

"62; buried on the field. 

24 Lucien A. Ryder, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., mortally wounded in the battle of the 

Wilderness, died in hospital. May 15, '64: buried in hospital grounds. 

25 Geo. H. Tambling, Co. G, 4th Vt. Vols., died on the field, remains brought 

home and buried in West Hartford cemetery. 

26 Lorenzo C. Thurston, Corp'l, Co. H, 16th Vt. Vols., died in hospital, Aug. 

7, "63; buried in Hartford cemetery. 

27 James W. Thomas, buried in Quechee cemetery. 

28 Nelson J. Whitcomb, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., died of disease contracted in ser- 

vice; buried in West Hartford cemetery. 

29 Willis Whitcomb, Co. F, 3d Vt. Vols., mortally wounded before Yorktown, 

Va., Apr. 16, '62, and died in hospital. May 19, 1862, and buried on the 
■ field. 

30 John Greenwood, Co. — Regt. — Vt. Vols.; buried in Junction cemetery. 

31 Edward Nash, 1st U. S. S. S., killed May 5, '64; buried on the field. 

32 Mahlon M. Young, killed at Mariana, Fla., Sept. 27, '64; bm-ied on the field. 

33 E. B. Udall, died May 14, "62; buried on the field. 

34 Wm. Hazen, Co. G, i6th Vt. Vols.; buried West Hartford cemetery. 

35 Harvey Bartholomew, Co. B. 4th Vt. Vols.: buried West Hartford cemetery. 

36 Henry O. Washburne, Co. C, 6th Vt. Vols., died Nov. 12, '81; buried in 

Hartford cemetery. 

37 Benjamin Howe, 5th N. H. Vols. ; buried in the Hartford cemetery. 

38 Patrick Kavanaugh, killed on railroad at White River Junction; buried in 

Catholic cemetery. 

39 Thomas Moran, 17th U. S. Infty., died July 21, '83; buried in Hartford cem- 


40 Jasper H. Savage, Co. G, 16th Vt. Vols., died 1884; buried in Christian St. 


41 James B. Gilman, W. Hartford cemetery. 

42 Edwin L. Ballard, Co. K, 16th Vt. Vols., W. Hartford cemetery. 

43 Samuel Johnson Allen, buried in Hartford cemetery, W. R. Junction. 

44 Samuel Marden Wilson, paymaster U. S. Vols.; buried in cemetery, W. 

R. Junction. 

45 Patrick Cavanaugh, 2d U. S. Regulars; buried in Catholic cemetery, W. R. 


46 John Ashey, killed at Meriden, N. H. ; buried in Catholic cemetery, W. R. 


47 Albert Martin, Co. K, 7th Vt. Vols.; buried in Catholic cemetery, W. R. 




The house of Stephen Tilden, located two miles above White Rivei* 
village, on the north side of White river, was designated as an alarm 
post during the Revolutionary war. Not long since I was permitted 
to inspect the old Queen's arms gun which Mr. Tilden kept for the 
purpose of hunting, in times of peace, but which he used during the 
war to alarm the settlement in time of danger, and calling the settlers 
together for action. The first time this gun was used for the last 
named purpose, was on the morning of Oct. 16, 1780, when the Indians 
invaded Royalton. The news of the attack upon that village was an- 
nounced to Mr. Tilden by Dr. Phineas Parkhurst of Lebanon, N. H. 
Dr. Parkhurst, then a young man, had gone to Royalton on the 12th 
July to see his sweetheart. The Indians made an attack on the town 
very early the next morning, and Dr. Parkhurst considered it best to 
take leave of his charmer. On attempting to escape, the disciple of 
^Esculapius lost his hat, but got a bullet in exchange. Though seri- 
ously wounded, he mounted his horse, and putting spurs to the animal, 
eluded capture by out-riding John Gilpin on his way homeward. When 
he arrived opposite to Mr. Tilden's tavern, the doctor shouted the un- 
welcome news, and not many minutes later the old " Queen's Arms " 
rang out the needful warning. A company of militia started to join 
in the defense of Royalton, but failed to reach there in season to be of 
any service. 


[Letter from Roswell Marsh, Esq.] 

(Tlie following letter was written by the late Hon. Roswell Marsh, a grandson of 
Governor Joseph Marsh.) 

Steuben viLLE, O., April 18, 1870. 

Dear Sir: — It is probable I have as much personal and traditional 
knowledge of the early settlement of Hartford as any one now living. 
There are but a few now living older than I am, who were born in Hart- 
ford. I was born in Hartford, in January, 1793, and when I was old 
enough to take a lively interest in whatever related to the early events 
in the town, most of the first settlers were living. My grandfather's 
house was a place of much resort, and early events were the standard 
topic of conversation as grave matters, and for anecdote. * * * * * 

Most of the proprietors were from Lebanon, Ct. The plan for the 
purchase and the division of the town was made in Lebanon, and the 
proprietary meetings were held there for several years. Many of the 
proprietors did not remove to Hartford, but sold out their shares very 
cheap. Some of the best lands were bought for one shilling per acre.' 
Very erroneous ideas existed as to the quality of the land. 

The first settlement was made at the mouth of White River,^ the next 
on the Quechee meadows. Abel and Elisha Marsh settled in Quechee 
in 1772-73. My father, when eighteen years old went up to Quechee 
in the spring of 1774, and raised some corn on an island. The rest of 
the family, including nine other children, moved there in the fall of the 
same year. 

The first grist-mill was built in Quechee by Elisha Marsh. He sold 
the mill in 1812 to Matthew Ransom, a carpenter and joiner who had 
long lived by the burying ground. Daniel Gushing afterwards owned 
the mill. You will find an early deed of a clothier's shop, from Lionel 
Udall to Elisha Marsh. Isaac Marsh carried on the clothing mill until 
he became deranged. Eleazer Harwood, from Pittsford, then bought 
the mill, and after some years sold to Abel Penfield, who sold to a com- 
pany which enlarged the mill and introduced spinning and weaving. 
Liberty Raymond put up the first trip hammer shop in 1814. Daniel 
Ransom, son in-law of Elisha Marsh, had the first store in Quechee. 

' Elijah Strong, who settled at the month of White river in 1764, bought lot (No. 
2), south side of White river down Connecticut river, containing nineteen acres, to- 
gether with 360 acres of undivided land, for the sum of $22.50, or less than six 
cents per acre. Deed Sainuel Porter, of Lebanon, Ct. , to Stephen Tilden, Jr., of 
Leoanon, Ct., Nov. 10, 1761, one proprietor's right (No. 13), on north side of White 
river, containing fifty-nine acres, for 10 shillings, or $2.42—4 cents i mill per acre. 
Deed Henry Piescott to Thomas Savage, March 23, 1769; sixty acres (No. 17) Jo- 
seph Nevvmarch, up Connecticut river, $1 21, or 2 cents per acre. 

^ It is probable that Solomon, brother of Elijah Strong, settled at the Centre of 
the town nearly at the same time that Elijah settled at the mouth of White river. 
The proprietors' first meeting in the town was held in the houseof Solomon Strong, 
Dec. 3, 1764 


William Perry established the first tan-yard. William Birtch, a son-in- 
law of Samuel Udall, established a brick-yard, but failed, and ran away. 
The saw- mill (one mile below Quechee) was built by Abel and Joseph 
Marsh in 1775. They ran the mill alternately a week each, but the 
relations soon became unfriendly. Abel could not sell his lumber as 
his more popular brother could. When Abel left the mill Saturday 
nights he hid all the files, mill bars, etc. They soon dissolved. * * * 

The pine timber on the plains was superior to that on the lower 
meadows, and soon every one who wanted the pine claimed to own a 
lot, and proceeded to cut the best wherever it could be found. The 
plain was soon covered with the tops. In May, 1802, Jesse Peak, by, 
burning a brush heap on a windy day for the purpose of making a 
garden, set a fire to the pine tops, and in six hours had a fire covering 
the whole plain, and up the hill sides as far as there was combustible 
matter. Sodom and Gomorrah must have resembled it ! It was, by far, 
the most sublime sight I ever witnessed. Not a live tree was left, and 
in two or three years the tall pines were heaped across each other often 
five or sis deep. Not half of the timber had been cut. * * * The hill 
west of the town -house was swept by a tornado soon after the settle- 
ment of the town. (Ever since known as " Hurricane Hill.") The grist- 
mill at Sucker City (Centreville) was built about the same time as that 
in Quechee. For some years the two mills ground for Hartford, Hart- 
land, Pomfret, Norwich, Sharon, and Woodstock. In a very hard winter, 
I think in 1783, White and Quechee Rivers were so low and hard frozen 
that the mills could not grind but little grain, and grist accumulated a 
month in advance. A boy from Sharon came to Quechee to mill. Being 
asked why he did not stop at the Sucker mills, he replied : — " They 
don't grind but d — d little there, and what they do grind they don't 
grind but little ! " 

Eliaa Lyman settled at the Point about the year 1790. He built Ly- 
man's bridge. Lewis Lyman and I, rash boys, crossed over and back 
on the timber before the floor was laid, and we had good reasons for re- 
membering it. 

The leading and most influential families of the town were the Hazens, 
Marshes, Tildens, Pitkins, Deweys, Udalls, Gilletts, Strongs, Demmons, 
and Ransoms. Freegrace Leavitt, Capt. William Bramble, Abel Bar- 
ron, and Amos Robinson, were leading men. Seth Cole, a very large 
man, furnished facts drawn from imagination. Zealon Case, a lean, hun- 
gry-looking man, liked a fat turkey, which, with proper dressing and 
bread and vegetables, he considered "a reasonable allowance for one, 
but not enough for two ! " Matthew Ransom, in a moment of passion, 
would bite the skin from his knuckles, and his wife was always "already 
mad." You know something of Ephraim Shattuck's wife, who might 
have presided as the oracle of Delphi. ***** 

There was a minister settled in town before Mr. Gross, and he sold a 
110-acre lot, which is in the James Udall, or Wm. Marsh farm. I think 
his name was Turner. He turned out a very corrupt man. His deed 
will give his name. ****** 

In an old deed once in my possession, the point where the Quechee 
bridge crosses the river was called "Pinneo's Point." A guard to watch 
tories was kept there during the Revolution. Gov. Marsh was active in 
the negotiations long carried on, but never intended to be brought to a 
point, between the British and Vermonters. Capt. Abel Marsh, alias 
" Capt. Snag," was the first military captain. Report said, whenT was 


a boy, that they elected a captain, a lieutenant, an ensign, four "ser- 
geants and live corporals, and had one private left, and they drilled him 
until he lay down all tired out. yj 

The old meeting-house at the Centre of the town was built about 
1790. Eev. Mr. Gross settled there at an early day. Kev. John Button 
was employed to preach a year or two before Mr. Goss, with a view to a 
settlement, and this so nearly resulted that the fact was used in 1806 in 
a law suit against Mr. Goss's title to the ministerial land.' 


" I will not give sleep to mine eyes, nor slumber to my eyelids, until I find out a place 
for the Lord, an liaMtation for the Mighty God of Jacob."— Psalms 132 :4, 5. 

Our Puritan fathers were eminently devout worshippers of the 
Supreme Being. They believed that in the God of Israel they lived, 
moved and had their being. They believed that the Christian religion, 
and religious worship formed the corner stone of civil liberty, and that 
it was their duty and obligation to sustain the public worship of God. 
Although they believed in a " Church without a Bishop, and a State 
without a King," yet, they recognized the fact that, in many respects, 
matters of civil and religious polity were, necessarily, intimately con- 
nected, and that religious freedom was the handmaid of civil liberty. 
Therefore, they first laid the foundation and established the form of 
civil government, after which they proceeded to make provision for the 
maintainance of public worship. They were prompted to build jjlaces 
for public worship by that spirit which manifested itself in the purpose 
of the son of Jesse to provide a habitation for the mighty God of 

According to the records of the town, the first official action tal^en by 
the inhabitants relative to erecting a meeting-house was on the 17th of 
May, 1774, when it was voted " to build a meeting-house as near the 
centre of the town as is convenient for d building spot, and the dimen- 
sions of the house to be thirty-five by fifty feet, and two stories high." 
A committee was chosen to make a survey to find the centre of the 
town, and there "to set down the stake where the meeting house shall 
be." The committee performed their duty, and following upon their 
report the town voted £100 ($484) to build said house which was to be 
completed by Sept. 1, 1775. For some unrecorded reason the work 
of building was delayed, and the ark of God found no resting place 
until some years later. Meetings were held in private houses, and in 
barns, by itinerant preachers, and all made it a point to attend with 
their families, every Sabbath, preaching or no preaching. 

' There are no written records by which the date of the organization of the church 
at Centre of the town can be fixed. It is quite probable that a church existed there 
prior to the ministry of Mr. Gross. 


It seems probable that the first meeting-house was built about 1784 
at the middle of the town, where it now stands. It appears of record 
that a meeting of the inhabitants of the town was held in the house of 
David Bliss, at the middle of the town,on the 9th of Sept., 1783, to con- 
sider the important matter of building a meeting-house. It was then 
decided to build ; and also, as a necessary preliminary step, to petition 
the General Assembly to grant the town liberty to tax their land for the 
purpose of building a meeting house. At its session, in October follow- 
ing the above named meeting, the General Assembly passed an act 
enabling towns and parishes to erect proper houses for public worship, 
and the support of ministers of the Gospel. All the conditions being 
now settled in accordance with the wishes of the inhabitants of the town, 
it is safe to conclude that they proceeded to build their meeting-house 
and that it was completed prior to the installation of Rev. Thomas 
Gross, which occurred June 7th, 1786. 

The architecture of the old meeting-house was very plain, both with- 
in and without. Its dimensions were fifty feet in length, thirty-five in 
width and two stories in height. The entrance way was on the east 
side. The pews were square with high backs. The pulpit, which was 
nearly thirteen feet high, was on the west side of the house. Over the 
pulpit was suspended a bell-shaped sounding board, possessing acous- 
tic properties that gave distinctness to the preacher's words. The gal- 
lery was on both ends and one side fronting the pulpit. There was but 
one row of seats in the gallery and these were occupied by the younger 
portion of the congregation. The house was without means of warm- 
ing it in the winter, and other inclement seasons of the year, but nearly 
every family took one or more foot stoves to meeting. The men, women 
and children were warmly clad in home made garments, and being- 
habituated to much out-of-door life, were capable of withstanding a 
degree of winter temperature that would congeal many modern people, 
who are reared as delicately as hot house plants. 

There is subject enough in the history of this venerable old meeting- 
house for much thought and reflection, as well as for a lively and pleas- 
ing exercise of the imagination. For nearly fifty years it was the only 
church edifice in the town, south of White river, and, for more than 
three-fourths of a century, it served as a place for holding town meet- 
ings of every kind. It was the scene of many funerals, of many mar- 
riages, of christenings, and social church gatherings. Here, at free- 
man's meetings, hundreds of young men took the freeman's oath, and 
for the first time exercised the right of sufi"rage. Here little great men, 
aspirants for town offices, fawned and truckled to attain their heart's 


desires. Here bargains were struck and comproroises were made to 
ensure petty offices to candidates who bartered their modicum of man- 
hood for political pottage. Here, times without number, the freemen 
of the town cast their votes, or gave their voices for the election of 
candidates put in nomination by a clique, or ring, who ursurped the 
px'erogative of the freeman at large, and ignoring the wise maxim that 
" the public good should be prefei'red before private advantage," made 
up a slate comprising such of their townsmen as they conceived could 
be counted on as ready to reciprocate the effort to elevate them 
to positions of consequence, not attainable by virtue of native ability, 
by any degree of subserviency necessary to promote the selfish interests 
of their scheming abettors. Here noisy, senseless buncombe drowned 
the voice of reason and triumphed over common sense. Here close- 
fisted chronic grumblers, stickled for penny-wise and pound foolish leg- 
islation. Here modest worth, and genuine merit, were ignored, while 
ignorance, and oftentimes "inebriated impudence, found favor and sup- 

By way of illustration let us turn for a moment to a Sabbath day 
scene in the olden time. Taking our position near the entrance way 
of the meeting-house, on a Sabbath morning in summer time, an hour 
before the opening of divine service, we shall find pleasant and instruc- 
tive occupation in watr:hing the arrival of the people. Some afoot and 
some on horseback. Many of the worshippers live miles away from the 
meeting house, but they rarely ever stay away from meeting. As the 
people arrive they gather in groups, here and there, and exchange 
kindly and cordial greetings. Each new-comer is welcomed with une- 
quivocal expressions of gladness and good will, indicating the entire 
absence of envy, enmity and dissimulation. Contentment and cheerful- 
ness mark the appearance of the most austere and puritanical here 

The time for opening religious services has arrived, linheralded by 
the din of a bell, or other useless noise. The arrival of the pastor is the 
signal for assembling within the place of worship. The people rever- 
ently seek their respective seats ; the elderly portion occupying the 
high square box pews in the body of the house ; the youth resorting to 
seats in the gallery. The deacons and the tithing mentake their accus- 
tomed places, and assume a staid and dignified demeanor becoming 
those whose duty lay in maintaining order and decorum, especially 
among the youthful members of the congregation. The introductory 
services of invocation and reading the Scriptures, are followed by sing- 
ing a hymn, in the old-fashioned way, line by line. Dea. Freegrace 


Leavitt, or Dea. John Gillett, give out the tune, and sound the key-note 
from a wooden pitch-pipe, and then all join presently in singing in a 
manner truthfully described in the following verses, since composed by 
an aged worshipper : 

" I wish you"d heard the singing — it had the old time ring ; 

The preacher said with fervent voice, ' Let ah the people sing '; 
The tune was Coronation, and the music upward rolled 

"Til I thought I heard the angels striking on their harps of gold, 
My deafness seemed to melt away, my spirit caught the fire ; 

I joined my feeble, trembling vo