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We live not alone in the present but also in the past and future. The 
radius that circumscribes our lives must necessarily extend backward indefi- 
nitely and forward infinitely. We can never look out thoucrhtfully at our im- 
mediate surroundings but a course of reasonino- will start up l.-adin;,' us to 
inquire the causes that produced the development around us, and at tlie same 
time we are led to conjecture the results to follow causes now in operation. 
We are thus linked indissolubly with the past and the future. 

" Now for my life," says Sir Thomas Hrowne, "it is a miracle of thirty 
years, which to relate were not a history, but a piece of poetry, ant! would 
sound to common ears like a fable. '■• '^ Men that look upon my outside, 
perusing only my condition and fortune, do err in my altitude ; for 1 am above 
Atlas his shoulders. I take my circle to be above three hundred and si.xty. 
Though the number of the arc do measure my body, it comprchcndcth nf)t 
my mind." 

If, then, the past is not simply a stepping-stone to the future, but a part 
of our very selves, we can not afford to ignore it, or separate it from ourselves, 
as a member might be lopped off from our bodies ; for though the body thus 
maimed might perform many and perhaps most of its functions, still it could 
never again be called complete. 

We. therefore, present this volume to our patrons in Hennepin county, 
not as something extrinsic, to which we would attract their notice and secure 
their favor, but as a part of themselves, and an important pan, which it is the 
province of the historian to re-invigorate and restore to its rightful owner. 
Moveover, we can not but hope that we shall thus confc.-r much pleasure. 
The recounting of events wliich have transpired in our own neighborhood is 
the most interesting of all history. There is a fascination in tlur study ol the 
intermingled fact and fiction of the past which is heightened by a familiarity 
with the localities described. The writer remembers the glow of enthusiasm 
with which he once stood at the entrance of the old fort at Ticonderoga. and 
repeated the words of Ethan Allen : " In the name of the Cireat Jehovah and 
the Continental Congress, etc." "The river which (lows through our native 
village acquires a new interest when, in imagination, we see the Indian canoe 
on its surface and the skin-covered tepee on its banks, as in days of yor<,'. 
Log cabins, straw roofs, and the rude " betterments " of. th(! hardy pioneer, 
are the next changes on the scene, followed soon by mushroom towns, some 
of which perish as quickly as they spring up, while others astonish us by 
their rapid growth ; cities are built, and moss and ivy, the evidences of a;,'e. 
soon accumulate. The log cabin and all the incijjient steps of first settlement 
are things of the past ; "The place which knew them shall know them no more 

iv PliEFACE. 

Our purpose is to present these pictures in their natural succession, 
arousing the enthusiasm of the reader, if possible, giving him a more vig- 
orous enjoyment of the present by linking it with the past. The compass of 
the work is wide, extending over a long period of time, embracing the accounts 
of early explorers, also reaching back among the legends of the past, and 
approaching the events of to-day, almost undesignedly casting a prophetic 
"lance forward at what must be the future after such a beofinniu":- 

St. Anthony Falls and the environs present an exceptionally ricli held 
for a work of this character. By situation, it was the highway of travel for 
Indian and white man, explorer, missionary, voyageur and trader. This was 
the favorite hunting ground as well as the battle-field of our savage predeces- 
sors. Here, too, they calmed their barbarous hearts, and bowed in worship 
of the Manitou, whose abode was at the great wat(M--fall. 

Incidents connected with the early settlement derive interest from the 
military reservation, and are unique in character. While reviewing these 
events and entc;r])risi-s inaugurated for the development of the county, we 
come to regret that we can not claim tlie prestige belonging to the aristocracy 
of early settlers. 

To <five in detail all the \arious sources from which the facts here "iven 
have been obtained, would be tedious if not impracticable, h may be suffi- 
cient to say that it fairly presents the history of our remarkable development 
and a faithful picture of our present condition. We must, however, express 
our obligations to a host of living witnesses, from wliom a large portion of th(^ 
facts have; been obtained and doubtful points vtn-ifHjd ; they have our hearty 
thanks. Material has been drawn largely from the columns of news])apers, 
which have given, from time to time, a record of passing events. The contri- 
bution of Rev. I'-dward 1). Neill will be of great permanent value in imperish- 
able print, and will be greatly ])ri7.ed by hisiographers everywhere. \\ (; have 
also drawn upon the accumulation of facts in the possession of the Minnesota 
Historical .Society, for a valuable pa])er by its secretary, Mr. j. Fletcher Wil- 
liams. Ihe value of a reservoir ol historical data at the capital of the state, 
for such purposes, was fully a])pr(cialcd, and the maintenance of such a 
centre of information can not l)e too strongly ailvocated. 

In conclusicjn, \\■^^. have an obligation lo express to our patrons, and are 
pleased to acknowledge a liberal patronage and more; than ordinary courtesy 
toward our employ(,'es ; for all of which we teiulcr our heart)- thanks. H(j|)ing 
that those who have subscribc;d for and art; al)out to receixc this \t)lume, will 
favf)r it with a kind reception, and take as much interest in re.uling as we 
have in compiling the history of lb nnr]iin couniy. we are, \i'ry respectfully, 


CIIA.S. M. 1-()()TF. 




Preface, . . - in 

MAP, - - - • °P1'- 1 


Exi>lorfrs and Pionrors of Miniit'SOt;i— l\i-v. 

Edward Duftiekl Neill, - - 1-128 

Outliiu's of the History of Minnesota from 

1858 to 1881— J. Fletcher Williams, - 129-160 

Fort Snelling, - - " 161-166 

Hennepin County History, - - 167-187 

War Record, - - - " 

Riehlicld, - - " " 

Blooniington, - - - ' 

Eden Prairie, - - - ' 

MinnelonUa, - - " " 

Excelsior, - - ' " 


Minnetrista, - - " " 


Independence, - - ' ' 


Medina, - " ' ' 


Crystal Lake, - - " ' 





























Corcoran, - - ~ " 

Maple Grove, - - - - 

Plymouth, - - - - 

Minneapolis, Town of, 

Saint Anthony, Town of, 

MinneaiKilis, City of, - 


Minneapolis, City, I'.i.iKraphies, - 499-663 










j Din-elory, 
278-284 I Ixi)K.\, 


COO liOfi 



- MLXXi: S OTA. 



N?rth Star Publishing Co 






Miniiesohi's Central Position.— D'Avagour's Prediction.— Nicolefs Visit to Green 
R.iy, — First Wliite Men in Minnesota.— Notices of Groselliers ami Radisson.- 
Hiirons Flee to Minnesota.— Visited by Frenchmen.— Father Menard Disap- 
pears. —Grosel I iers Visits Hudson's Bay.— Fatlier Allouez Describes the Sioux 
Mission at L^ Pointe.— Fatlier Marquette.— Sioux at Sautt St. Marie.— Jesuit 
Missions Fiiil.— Grosellieis Visits England.— Captain Gillani, o£ Boston, at Hud- 
son's Bay.— Letter of Mother Superior of Ursulines., at Quebec.— Death of 

The Dakotahs, called by the Ojibways, Nado- 
waysioux, or Sioux (Soos), as abbreviatsd by the 
French, used to claim superiority over other peo- 
ple, because, their sacred men asserted that the 
mouth of the Minnesota Elver was immediately 
over the centre of the earth, and below the centre 
of the heavens. 

While this teaching is very different from that 
of the modern astronomer, it is certainly true, 
that the region west of Lake Superior, extending 
through the valley of the Miimesota, to the Mis- 
souri River, is one of the most healthful and fer- 
til<^ regions beneath tlie skies, and may prove to 
be the centre of the republic of the United States 
of America. Baron D'Avagour, a brave officer, 
who was killed in fighting the Turks, while he 
was Governor of Canada, in a dispatch to the 
French Government, dated August 14th, 1663, 
after referring to Lake Huron, wrote, that beyond 
" is met another, called Lake Superior, the waters 
of which, it is believed, flow into Is'ew Spain, and 
this, uccorduig to general opinion, ought to he the 
centre of the country." 

As early as 1635, one of Champlain's interpre- 
ters, Jean JTicolet (Nicolay), who came to Cana- 
da in 1618, reached the western shores of Lake 
Michigan. Li the summer of 1634 he ascended 

ttCm-^mf. in tlio ypur ISSI, by Geo. G. WARSEa «nj C 

Entered accirdini: 

the St. Lawrence, with a party of Ilurons, and 
probably during the next winter was trading at 
Green Bay, in Wisconsin. On the ninth of De- 
cember, 1635, he had returned to Canada, and on 
the 7th of October, 1637, was married at Quebec, 
and the next month, went to Three Rivers, where 
he lived until 1642, when he died. Of him it is 
said, in a letter written in 1640, that he had pen- 
etrated farthest into those distant countries, and 
that if he had proceeded " three days more on a 
great river which flows from that lake [Green 
Bay] he would have found the sea.'' 

The first white men in Mumesota, of whom we 
have any record, were, according to Garneau, two 
persons of Huguenot aftinities, Medard Chouart, 
known as Sieur Groselliers, and Pierre d'Esprit, 
called Sieur Radisson. 

Groselliers (pronounced Gro-zay-yay) was bom 
near Ferte-sous-Jouan-e, eleven miles east of 
Meaux, in France, and when about sixteen years 
of age, in the year 1641, came to Canada. The fur 
trade was the great avenue to prosperity, and in 
1646, he was among the Huron Indians, who tlien 
dwelt upon the eastern shore of Lake Huron, 
bartering for peltries. On the second of Septem- 
ber, 1647, at Quebec, he was married to Helen, 
the widow of Claude Etienne, who was the daugh- 
ter of a pilot, Abraham Martin, whose baptismal 
name is still attached to the suburbs of that city, 
the " Plains of Abraham," made famous by the 
death there, of General Wolfe, of the- English 
army, in 1759, and of General Montgomery, of 
the Continental army, in December, 1775, at the 

'. M. FooTK, in the office of tlie Libniri.m of Congress, at Waaliin^on, D. G. 


commencement of the " War for IndepenJeiice." 
His son, Mellaril, was bom in 16o7, and the next 
year Ids mother died. The second wife of Gro- 
selliei-s was Jilarguerite Ilayet(IIayay) Radisson, 
the sister of his associate, in the exijloration of 
the region west of Lake Superior. 

Radisson was horn at St. Main. and. while a 
boy. went to Paris, and from tlieiice to Canada, 
and in 1G.5(5. at Three lUvers, married Elizabeth, 
the dangliier of Madeleine Ilainault. and. after 
her death, the daughter of Sir David Kirk or 
Kerkt, a zealous Huguenot, became his wife. 

The Iroquois of New York, about the year 10-5(), 
drove the Ilurons from their villages, and forced 
them to take refuge with tlieir friends the Tinon- 
tates. called by the French. Petuns. they 
cultivated tol)acco. In time the Ilurons and 
their allies, the Ottawas (Ottaw-waws), w^ere 
again driven by the Iroquois, and ixfter .successive 
wanderings, were found on tlie west side of Lake 
ilichigan. In time they readied the Mississippi, 
and a.scending above the 'Wisconsin, they found 
the Iowa River, on the west side, which they fol- 
lowed, and dwelt for a time with the Ayoes 
(loways) wlio were very friendly; but being ac- 
customed to a country of lakes and forests, they 
were not satisfied with the vast prairies. Kctiirn- 
ing to the Mississippi, they ascended this river, 
in search .of a better land, and were met by some 
of the Sioux or Dakotalis, and conducted to their 
villages, where they were well received. The 
Sioux, delighted with the axes, knives and awls 
of European manufacture, which had been pre- 
sented to them, allowed the refugees to settle 
upon an i.sland in the iMississijii)!. below the 
mouth of the St. t'roix River, called Itald Island 
from the absence of trees, about nine miles from 
the site of the i)resent city of Hastings. Possessed 
of firearms, tlie Ilurons ami Ottawas asserted 
their sujieriority. anil determineil to conijuer the 
country for them.selvcs, and having incurred the 
hostility of the Sioux, were obliged to llee from 
the isle in the Mississipi.i. Descending lielow 
Lake IVjiin. they reaclieil the Jilack Uiver, and 
ascending it, found an nnoccu)>ied country around 
its sources and lliat of the Chippeway. In this 
region the Hiirons established themselves, while 
their allies, the Ottawas, moved eastward, till 
they found the shores of Lake Sn)ierior, and set- 
tled at Chagouamikon (Sha-gah-wah-mik-ong) 

near what is now Bayfield. In the year 1659, 
Groselliers and Radisson arrived at Chagouamik- 
on, and determined to visit the Ilurons and Pe- 
tuns, with whom the former had ti-aded when 
they resided east of I..ake Huron. After a six 
days' journey, in a southwesterly direction, they 
reached their retreat toward the sources of the 
Black. Chippewa, and "Wisconsin Rivers. From 
this point they journeyed north, and passed the 
winter of 1659-60 among the '• Xadouechiouec," 
or Sioux villages in the Mille Lacs (Mil Lak) re- 
gion. From the Ilurons they learned of a beau- 
tiful river, wide, large, deep, and comparable with 
the Saint Lawrence, tlie great Mississippi, which 
flows through the city of ^Minneapolis, and wliose 
sources are in northern ^linnesota. 

Xortheast of ilille Lacs, toward the extremity 
of Lake Superior, they met the " Poualak," or 
Assiniboines of the prairie, a separated band of 
the Sioux, who, as wood was scarce and small, 
made lire with coal (cliarbnu de terre) and dwelt 
in tents of skins ; although some of the more in- 
dustrious built cabins of clay (terre grasse), like 
the swallows build their nests. 

The spring and summer of 1660, (iroselliers and 
Radisson passed in trading around Lake Superior. 
On the 19th of August they returned to Mon- 
treal, with three hundred Indians and sixty ca- 
noes loaded with •' a wealth of skins." 

" Furs of bison and of lieaver. 
Furs of sable and of ermine." 

The citizens were deeply stirred by the travelers' 
tales of the vastiiess and ricliiiess of the region 
they had visited, and their many romantic adven- 
tures. In a lew days. tlic.\ beuau their return to 
the far West, accniiipanied by six Eieiiclnueu and 
two priests, one of whom was the Jesuit. UeiieMe- 
j nard. His hair whitened by age. and his mind 
ripened liy long experience, he f eemed the man 
for tlie mission. Two hours after midnight, of the 
day before departure, the venerable niissioiiary 
Iiennerl at '' Tliree Rivers,'" the following letter 
to a friend : 

'Rkvkkkxd E.viiiKU : 

" The peace of Christ lie with you : I write to 
you jiroljably the last, which I hope will be the 
seal of our friendship until eternity. Lovo whom 
the Lord Jesus did not disdain to lovi;, though 
the greatest of sinners; for ho loves wiiom Le 



loads with his cross. Let your friendsliip, my 
good Fatlier, be useful to me by the desirable 
fruits of your daily sacrifice. 

" In three or four mouths you may remember 
me at the memento for the dead, on account of 
my old age, my weak constitution and the hard- 
ships I lay under amongst these tribes. Never- 
theless, I am in peace, for 1 have not been led to 
this mission by any temporal motive, but I think 
it was by the voice of God. I was to resist the 
grace of God by not coming. Eternal remorse 
would have tormented me, had I not come when 
1 had the opportunity. 

" We have been a little surprized, not being 
able to provide ourselves with vestments and oth- 
er things, but he who feeds the little birds, and 
clothes the lilies of the fields, will take care of 
his servants; and though it should happen we 
should die of want, we would esteem ourselves 
happy. I am burdened with business. "What I 
can do is to recommend our journey to your daily 
sacrifice, and to embrace you with the same sen- 
timents of heart as I hope to do in eternity. 
" My Reverend Father, 

Your most huml)le and affectionate 
servant in Jesus Christ. 

"From the Three Rivers, this 26th August, 2 

o'clock after midnight, 1660."' 

On the loth of October, the party with which 
he journeyed reached a bay on Lake Superior, 
where he found some of the Ottawas, who had 
fled from the Iroquois of New York. For more 
than eight months, surrounded by a few French 
voyageurs, he lived, to use his words. " in a kind 
of small hermitage, a cabin built of fir Inanclies 
piled one on another, not so much to shield us 
from the rigor of the season as to correct my im- 
agination, and persuade me I was sheltered."' 

During the summer of 1661, he resolved to visit 
the Ilurons, who had fled eastward from the Sioux 
of Minnesota, and encamped amid the marshes of 
Northern Wisconsin. Some Frenchmen, who had 
been among the Hurons, in vain attempted to dis- 
suade him from the journey. To their entreaties 
he replied, •• I must go, if it cost me my life. I 
can not suffer souls to perish on the ground of 
saving the bodily life of a miserable old man like 
myself. What! Are we to serve God only when 
there is nothing to suffer, and no risk of life?" 

Upon De risle"s map of Louisiana, published 
nearly two centuries ago, there appears the Lake 
of the Ottawas, and the Lake of the Old or De- 
serted Settlement, west of Green Bay, and south 
of Lake Superior. The Lake of the Old Planta- 
tion is supposed to have been the spot occupied 
by the Hurons at the time when Menard attempt- 
ed to visit them. One way of access to this seclu- 
ded spot was from Lake Superior to the head- 
waters of the Ontanagon River, and then by a port- 
age, to the lake. It could also be reached from 
the headwaters of the Wisconsin, Black and Chip- 
pewa Rivers, and some have said that ^Menard 
descended the Wisconsin and ascended the Black 

Perrot, who lived at the same time, writes : 
" Father Menard, who was sent as missionary 
among the Outaouas [Utaw-waws] accompanied 
by certain Frenchmen who were going to trade 
with that people, was left by all who were with 
him, except one, who rendered to him imtil death, 
all of the services and help that he could have 
hoped. The Father followed the Outaoiuts [Utaw- 
waws] to the Lake of the lUinoets [lUino-ay, now 
Michigan] and in their flight to the Louisianne, 
[Mississippi] to above the Black River. There 
this missionary had but one Frenchman for a 
companion. This Frenchman carefully followed 
the route, and made a portage at the same place 
as the Outaouas. He found himself in a rapid, 
one day, that was carrying him away in his canoe. 
The Father, to assist, debarked from his own, but 
did not find a good path to come to him. He en- 
tered one that had been made by beasts, and de- 
siring to return, became confused in a labyrinth 
of trees, and was lost. The Frenchman, after 
having ascended the rapids with great labor, 
awaited the good Father, and, as he did not come, 
resolved to search for him. With all his might, 
for several days, he called his name in the woods, 
hoping to find him, but it was useless. He met, 
however, a Sakis [Sauk] who was carrying the 
camp-kettle of the missionary, and who gave him 
some intelligence. He assured him that he had 
found his foot -prints at some distance, but that 
he had not seen the Father. lie told him, also, 
that he had found the tracks of several, who were 
going towards the Scioux. He declared that he 
supposed that the Scioux might have killed or 
captured him. Indeed, several years afterwards, 


there were found among this triVie. his breviary 
and cassock, wliich they exposed at their festivals, 
making offerings to them of food." 

In a journal of the Jesuits. Menard, about the 
seventh oreiglilli of Ititil. is said to have 
been lost. 

(iroselliers ((Jro-zay-yay). while Menard was 
endeavoring to reach the retreat of the Ilurons 
which he had made known to tlie authorities of 
Canada, was pushing through the country of the 
Assineboines, on the northwest shore of Lake 
Superior, and at length. i)robably by Lake Alem- 
pigon. or ><epigou, reached Hudson's Bay, and 
early in May, 1662, returned to Montreal, and 
surprised its citizens with his tale of new discov- 
eries toward the Sea of the North. 

The Hurons did not remain long toward the 
sources of the Black River, after ^Menard's disap- 
pearance, and deserting their plantations, joined 
their allies, tlie Ottawas. at La Pointe. now Bay- 
field, on Lake Superior. "While here, they deter- 
mined to send a war party of one hundred against 
the Sioux of Mille Lacs (MilLak) region. At 
length they met their foes, who drove them into 
one of the thousand marshes of the water-shed 
between Lake Superior and tlie ^fississippi, where 
they hid themselves among the tail grasses. The 
Sioux, suspecting that they might attempt to es- 
cape in the uiglit, cut up beaver .skins into strips, 
and hung thereon little bells, which they had ob- 
tained from the Frencli traders. The Ilurons. 
emerging from their watery lading place, stumbled 
over the unseen cords, ringing the bells, and the 
Sioux instantly attacked, killing all but one. 

Aliout tlie year Kiiw. four Frenchmen visited 
the Sioux of Minnesota, from the W'est end of 
Lake Sui)erior. accompanied by an Ottawa cliief, 
and in tlu; sumnicr of the same year, a llotilla of 
canoes laden with peltries, came down to ilou- 
treal. Upon their return, on the eiglith of Au- 
gust, the Jesuit Father, AUouez. accompanied the 
traders, and. by the iirst of October, reached Clie- 
goimegon Bay. on or near tlic site of tlic mudciii 
town of Ba>licl(l, (in Lake Superior, when- lie 
found tlie refugee Ilurons and Ottawas. While 
on an excursion to ]..ake Alcnipigon, now ?<e- 
pigon, tliis missionary saw, near the mouth of 
Saint Louis Kiver, in Minnesota, some of tlie 
Sioux, lie writes : " There is a tribe to the west 
of Uiis, toward the great river called Messipi. 

They are forty or fifty leagues from here, in a 
country of prairies, abounding hi all kinds of 
game. They have fields, in which they do not 
sow Indian corn, but only tobacco. Providence 
has provided them with a species of marsh rice, 
which, toward the end of summer, they go to col- 
lect in certain small lakes, that are covered with 
it. They presented me with some when I was at 
the extremity of Lake Tracy [Superior], where I 
saw them. They do not use the gun, but only 
the bow and arrow with great dexterity. Their 
cabins are not covered with bark, but with deer- 
skins well dried, and stitched together so that the 
cold does not enter. These people are above all 
other savage and warlike. In our presence they 
.seem abashed, and were motionless as statues. 
They speak a language entirely unknown to us, 
and the savages about here do not undei-stand 

The mission at La Pointe was not encouraging, 
and ^Vllouez, •■ weary of their obstinate unbelief,"' 
departed, but Marquette succeeded him for abrief 

The " Relatm^s" of the Jesuits for 1670-71, 
allude to the Sioux or Dakotahs, and their attack 
upon the refugees at La Pointe : 

■■ There are certain peojile called Nadoussi, 
dreaded by their neighbors, and although they 
only use the bow and arrow, they use it with so 
much skill and dexterity, that in a moment they 
till the air. After the Parthian method, they 
turn their heads hi llight, and discharge their ar- 
rows so rapidly that they are to be feared no less 
in their retreat than in their attack. 

•• They dwell on thi^ shores and around the 
great river .Messipi, of which we shall speak. 
They number no less than liftren populous towns, 
and yet they know not how to ciiltivate the earth 
by see<ling it. contenting themselves with a sort 
of marsh rye, which we call wild oats. 

'• For sixty leagues from the extremity of the 
upjier lakes, towards sunset, and, as it were, in 
the iciitic of the western nations, they have all 
uniliil their force h\ a general league, which has 
been made against tlicni. as against a common 

•■ They speak a peculiar language, entirely dis- 
tinct from tliat of the Algompuns and Ilurons, 
whom they generally surpass in generosity, since 
they often content themselves with the glory of 


liaviuR obtained the victory, and release the pris- 
oners they have taken in battle. 

" Our Outouacs of the Point of the Holy Ghost 
[La Pointe, now Bayfield] had to tlie present time 
kept up a kind of peace with them, but affairs 
having become embroiled during last whiter, and 
some murders ha\ing been committed on both 
sides, our savages had reason to apprehend that 
the storm would soon burst upon them, and jiidged 
that it was safer for them to leave the place, which 
in fact they did in the spring."' 

Marquette, on tlie 13th of September, I66I1, 
writes : " The Kadouessi are the Iroquois of this 
country. * * * they lie northwest of the Mission 
of the Holy (Jhost [La Pointe, the modern Bay- 
field] and we have not yet visited them, having 
confined ourselves to the conversion of the Otta- 

Soon after this, hostilities began between the 
Sioux and the Ilurons and Ottawas of La Pointe, 
and the former compelled their foes to seek an- 
other resting place, toward the eastern extremity 
of Lake Superior, and at length they pitched 
their tents at JSIackinaw. 

In 1674, some Sioux warriors came down to 
Sault Saint ^larie. to make a treaty of peace with 
adjacent tribes. A friend of the Abbe de Galli- 
nee wrote that a council was had at the fort to 
which "the Xadouessioux sent twelve deputies. 
and the others forty. During the conference, 
one of the latter, knife in hand, drew near the 
breast of one of the Nadouessioux, who showed 
surprise at the movement ; when the Indian with 
the knife reproached him for cowardice. The 
Nadouessioux said he was not afraid, when the 
other planted the knife in his heart, and killed 
him. All the savages then engaged in conflict, 
and the I^fadouessioux bravely defended tliem- 
selves, but, ovei^whelmed by nimibers, nine of 
them were killed. The two who survived rushed 
into the chapel, and closed the door. Here they 
found munitions of war, and fired guns at their 
enemies, who became anxious to burn down the 
cliapel, but the Jesuits would not permit it, be- 
cause they had their skins stored between its roof 
and ceiling. In this extremity, a Jesuit, Louis 
Le Boeme, advised that a cannon should be point- 
ed at the door, which was discharged, and the two 
brave Sioux were killed." 

Governor Frontenac of Canada, was indignant 

at the occurrence, and in a letter to Colbert, one 
of the Ministers of Louis the Fourteenth, speaks 
in condemnation of this discharge of a camion liy 
a Brother attached to the Jesuit ]\Iission. 

From tills period, the missions of the Church of 
Rome, near Lake Superior, began to wane. Shea, 
a devout historian of that church, writes: •■ In 
1680, Father Enjalran was apparently alone at 
Green Bay, and Pierson at Mackinaw ; the latter 
mission still comprising the two villages, Huron 
aud Kiskakon. Of the other missions, neither 
Le Clerq nor Hennepin, the Recollect, writers of 
the West at this time, makes any mention, or in 
any way alludes to their existence, and La Hon- 
tan mentions the .Jesuit missions only to ridicule 

The Pigeon River, a part of the northern boun- 
dary of ^limiesota, was called on the French maps 
GroselUer"s River, after the first explorer of Alin- 
nesota, whose career, with his associate Radisson, 
became quite prominent in connection with the 
Hudson Bay region. 

A disagreement occurring between Groselliers 
and his partners in Quebec, he proceeded to Paris, 
and from thence to London, where he was intro- 
duced to the nephew of Charles I., who led tlie 
cavalry charge against Fairfax and Cromwell at 
Xaseby, afterwards commander of the English 
fleet. The Prince listened witli pleasure to the 
narrative of travel, and endorsed the plans for 
prosecuting the fur trade and seeking a north- 
west passage to Asia. The scientific men of Eng- 
land were also full of the enterprise, in the hope 
that it would increase a knowledge of nature. 
The Secretary of the Royal Society wrote to Rob- 
ert Boyle, the distinguished philosopher, a too 
sanguine letter. His words were : " Surely I need 
not tell you from hence what is said here, v,Hh 
great joy, of the discovery of a northwest passage; 
and by two Englishmen and one Frenchuian 
represented to his Majesty at Oxford, and an- 
swered by the grant of a vessel to sail into Hud- 
son's Bay and channel into the South Sea." 

The ship Xonsuch was fitted out, in charge of 
Captain Zachary Gillam, a son of one of the early 
settlers of Boston ; and in this vessel Groselliers 
and Radisson left the Thames, in June, 1668, and 
in September reached a tributary of Hudson's 
Bay. The next year, by way of Boston, they re- 
turned to England, and in 1670, a trading com- 



pany was chartered, still known among venerable 
English corporations as " The Hudson's Bay 

The IJeverend Mother of the Int-arnation. Su- 
perior of the I isulines of (Quebec, in a letter of 
the 27th of August, 1670, writes thus : 

" It was about this time tliat a Frenchman of 
our Touraine, named des {iroselliers. married in 
this country, and as he had not been successful 
in making a fortune, was seized witli a fancy to 
go to New England to better his condition. lie 
excited a hope among the English that he had 
found a passage to the Sea of the North. With 
this exi)ectation, he was sent as an envoy to Eng- 
knd. where there was given to him, a vessel, 
with crew and every thing necessary for the voy- 
age. AVith these advantages, he put to sea. and 
in place of the usual route, wliich others had ta- 
ken in vain, he sailed in another direction, and 
searched so wide, that he found the grand Bay of 
the Xorth. He found large pojuilation. and lilled 
his ship or ships with peltries of great value. * * * 

lie has taken possession of this great region for 
the King of England, and for his personal benefit 
A publication for the benefit of tliis Frencli ad- 
venturer, has been made in England. lie was 
a youth when he arrived here, and his wife and 
children are yet here.'' 

Talon. Intendent f)f .Justice in Canada, in a dis- 
patch to Colbert, Minister of the Colonial Dejjart- 
ment of France, wrote on the 10th of November, 
1670, that he has received intelligence that two 
English vessels are approaching Hudson's iJay, 
and adds : '■ After reflecting on all the nations 
that might have penetrated as far north as that, 
I can alight on only the EngUsh, who, under the 
guidance of a man named Des Grozellers. for- 
merly an inhabitant of Canada, might possibly 
have attempted that navigation." 

After years of service on the shores of Hudson's 
Bay, either witli English or French trading com- 
pames, the old explorer died in Canada, and it has 
been said that his son went to England, where he 
was living in 1G96, in receipt of a pension. 




Sagard, A D. 1836, on Copper Mines. — Boncher, A D. 1640, Descnbes LaJtc Stipe 
nor Copper.— Jesuit ReUtitins, A. D lGGfi-G7.— Copper on Isle Rojiils.— Ilalf- 
Breed Voyageiir Goes to France with Talon.— Jolliet and Ferrot Scorch for 
Copper. — Sr. Lusson Plants ttie French Arms at Sault St, Marie. — Copper at 
uutanatjon and Head of Lake Superior, 

Before ■white men had explored the slioies of 
Lake Superior, Indians had broiiglit to tlie tra- 
ding posts of tlie St. Lawrence River, specimens of 
copper from that region. Sagard, in liis History 
of Canada, publislied in 1636, at Paris, writes ; 
'•There are mines of copper wliicli miglit be made 
profitable, if tliere were inliabitants and worlv- 
men wlio would labor faitlifiilly. Tliat would be 
done if colonies were established. About eighty 
or one hundred leagues from the Ilurons, tliere 
is a mine of copper, from wliich Truchemont 
Brusle showed me an ingot, on his return from a 
voyage which he made to the neighboring nation." 

Pierre Boucher, grandfather of Sieur de la Ve- 
rendrye, the explorer of the lakes of the northern 
boundary of Minnesota, in a volume published 
A. D. 1640, also at Paris, writes : " In Lake Su- 
perior there is a great island, fifly or one hundred 
leagues in circumference, in which there is a very 
beautiful mine of copper. There are other places 
In those quarters, where there are similar mines ; 
so I learned from four or five Frenchmen, who 
lately returned. They were gone three years, 
without finding an opportunity to return; they 
told me that they had seen an ingot of copper all 
refined which was on the coast, and weighed more 
than eight hundred pounds, according to their es- 
timate. They said that the savages, on passing 
it, made a fire on it. after which they cut off pie- 
ces with their axes." 

In the Jesuit Relations of 1666-67, there is this 
description of Isle Royale : " Advancing to a 
place called the Grand Anse. we meet with an 
island, three leagues from land, wliich is cele- 
brated for the metal which is found there, and 
for the thunder which takes place there; for they 
say it always thunders there. 

" But farther towards tlie west on the same 
north shore, is the island most famous for copper, 
Jliuong (Isle Royale). This island is twenty-five 
leagues in length ; it is seven from the mainland, 
and sixty from the head of the lake. Nearly all 
around the island, on the water's edge, pieces of 
copper are found mixed witli pebbles, but espe- 
cially on the side wliich is opposite the south, 
and principally in a certain bay, which is near 
the northeast exposure to the great lake. * * * 

" Advancing to tlie head of the lake (Pon du 
Lac) and returning one day "s journey by the south 
coast, there is seen on the edge of the water, a 
rock of copper weighing seven or eight hundred 
pounds, and is so hard that steel can hardly cut it, 
but when it is heated it cuts as easily as lead. 
Near Point Chagouamigong [Sha - gah - wall - mik- 
ong, near Bayfield] where a mission was establish- 
ed rocks of copper and plates of the same metal 
were found. * * * Returning still toward the 
mouth of the lake, following the coast on the south 
as twenty leagues from the jilace last mentioned, 
we enter the river called Nantaouagan [Ontona- 
gon] on which is a hill where stones and copper 
fall into the water or upon the earth. They are 
readily found. 

'• Tliree years since we received a piece which 
was brought from this place, which weighed a 
hundred pounds, and we sent it to Quebec to Mr. 
Talon. It is not certain exactly where this was 
broken from. We think it was from the forks of 
the river ; others, that it was from near the lake, 
and dug up." 

Talon, Intendent of Justice in Canada, visited 
France, taking a half-breed voyageur with him, 
and while in Paris, wrote on the 26th of Febru- 
ary. 1660, to Colbert, the Minister of the Marine 
Department, •■ that this voyageur had penetrated 
among the western nations farther than any other 
Frenchman, and had seen the copper mine on 
Lake Huron. [SuperiorV] The man oifers to go 



to that mine, and explore, either by sea, or by 
lake anil river, the conmnmicatiDH supposed to 
exist between Canada and the i^outli Sea, or to 
the regions of Iludson's Bay." 

As soon as Talon returned to Canada he com- 
uiissioned .Jolliet and IVre [I'ermt] to search for 
the mines of copper on the upper Lakes. Jolliet 
received an outfit of four hundred livres, and four 
canoes, and Perrot one thousand livres. Minis- 
ister Colbert wrote from Paris to Talon, in Peb- 
ruarj', 1671. approving of the search for copper. 
in these words : " The resolution you have taken 
to send Sieur de La Salle toward the south, and 
Sieur de St. Lusson to tlie nortli. to discover the 
South Sea passiige, is very good, but the principal 
thing you i)Ught to apply yourself in discoveries 
of this nature, is to look for the cop])pr mine. 

'■ AVere tliis mine discovered, and its utility 
evident, it would be an assured means to attract 
several Frenchmen from old. to New France." 

On tlie nth of June. IHTI. Saint Lusson at Sault 
St. Marie, jilanted tlie arms of France, in the jires- 
ence of Nicholas Perrot, who acted as interpreter 
on the occasion; tlie Sieur Jolliet : Pierre Moreau 
or Sieur de la Tauphie ; a soldier of the garrison 
of (Quebec, and several other Frenchmen. 

Talon, in announcing Saint Lu.sson's explora- 
tions to Colbert, on the' 2d of November. ItSTl. 
wrote from tjuebec : ■■ Tlie copper which I send 
from Lake Superior and the river Nantaouagan 
[Ontonagon] proves that there is a mine on the 
iKirder of some stream, which produces tliis ma- 
terial as pure as one could wish. .More than 
twenty Frenchmen liave seen one lump at the 
lake, which they estimate weighs more than eight 
hundred i>ouii(ls. Tlie .Icsuit Fathers among tlie 
Outiiouas [( )u-taw-wawsj use an anvil of this ma- 
terial, which weighs about one hundred pounds. 
There will bi; no rest imtil the souice from whence 
these detacheil ]iiin|is come is discovered. 

" The river Nanlaouagau lOnlouagonJ apiears 

between two high hills, the plain above which 
feeds the lakes, and receives a great deal of snow, 
which, in melting, forms torrents which the 
borders of this river, composed of solid gravel, 
which is rolled down by it. 

"The gravel at llie bottom of tliis. hardens it- 
self, and assumes dilTerent shapes, such as those 
pebbles which I send to Mr. Uellinzany. My 
opinion is that these pebbles, rounded and carried 
off by the rapid waters, then have a tendency to 
become copper, by tlie iiillueuce of tlie sun"s rays 
wdiich they absorb, and to form oilier nuggets of 
metal similar to those which 1 send to Sfeiir de 
Uellinzauy. found by the Sieur de Saint I.,us:oil, 
about four hundred leagues, at some distance from 
the mouth of the river. 

•■ lie hoped by the frec|uent journeys of the 
savages, and French who are beginning to travel 
by these routes, to discern the source of uroduc- 

(rovernor Denonville. of Canada, sixteen years 
after the above circumstances, wrote : •■ The coiv 
per. a saiiiidc of which 1 sent M. .\riioii. is fiiiiud 
at the head of Lake Sujierior. The body of the 
mine has not yet been discovered. I have seen 
one of our voyageurs who assures me that, some 
lifteen months ago he saw a lump of two hundred 
weight, as yellow asgohl. in a liNcr which falls 
into Lake Superior. AVhen heated, it could be 
cut with an axe ; but the superstitious Indians, 
regarding this boulder as a good spirit, would 
never iiermil him to take any of it away. His 
opinion is that the frost undermined this piece, 
and tlial the mine is ill that river, lie lias prom- 
ised to search for it on his way back." 

Li the year 173(i. there was some correspond- 
ence with the authorities in Fiance relative to 
the discovery of copper at La Pointe. but. jiracti- 
cally, little was done by the French, in developing 
the mineral wealth of Lake Superior. 




Du Luth's Relatives. — Randin Visits Extremity of Lalie Superior. — Du Luth 
Plants King's Arms. — Post at Kaministigoya. — Pierre MoreaF, alias La Taupine. 
^La Salle's Visit. — A Pilot Deserts to the Sioux Country. — uaffart, Du Luth's 
Interpreter.— Descent of the River St. Croix.— Meets Father Hennepin.— Crit. 
icised by La Salle, — Trades with New England. —Visits France. — In Command 
at Mackinaw. — Frenchmen Murdered at Keweenaw.— Du Luth Arrests and 
Shouts Murderers. — Builds Fort above Detroit. — With Indian Allies in the 
Seneca War.— Du Luth's Brother.— Cadillac Defends the Brandy Trade— Du 
Luth Disapproves of Selling Brandy to the Indians. — In Command at Fort 
Frontenac— Death. 

Ill the year 1678, several prominent merchants 
of Quebec antl ;Montreal. with the support of 
Governor Frontenac of Canathi, formed a com- 
pany to open trade with the Sioux of Minnesota, 
and a nephew of Patron, one of these merchants, 
a brother - in - hiw of Sieur de Lusigny, an officer 
of the Governor's Guards, named Daniel Grey- 
solon Du Luth [Doo-loo], a native of St. Germain 
en Laye, a few miles from Paris, although Lahon- 
tan speaks of him as from Lyons, was made the 
leader of the expedition. At the battle of Seneffe 
against the Prince of Orange, he was a gendarme, 
and one of the King's guards. 

Du Luth was also a cousin of Henry Tonty , wlio 
had been in the revolution at Xaples, to throw off 
the Spanish dependence. Du Luth's name is va- 
riously spelled in the documents of his day. Plen- 
nepin writes, '-Du Luth;" others, "Dulhut." 
" Du Lhu," " Du Lut." " De Luth,'' " Du Lud." 

The temptation to procure valuable furs from 
the Lake Superior region, contrary to the letter 
of the Canadian law, was very great ; and more 
than one Governor winked at the contraband 
trade. Kandin, who visited the extremity of 
Lake Superior, distributed presents to the Sioux 
and Ottawas in the name of Governor Frontenac, 
to secure the trade, and after his death, Du Luth 
was sent to complete what he had begun. With 
a party of twenty, seventeen Freuclimen and 
three Indians, he left Quebec on the first of 
September, 1678, and on the fifth of April. 1679, 
Du Luth writes to Governor Frontenac. that he 
is in the woods, about nine miles from Sault St. 
Marie, at the entrance of Lake Superior, and 

adds that : he '• will not stir from the Kadous- 
sioux. until further orders, and. peace being con- 
cluded, he will set up the King's Arms ; lest the 
English and other Europeans settled towards 
Ciilifornia, take possession of the country." 

On the second of .July. 167ii, he caused his 
Majesty's Arms to be planted in the great -village 
of the Xadoussioux. called Kathio, where no 
Frenchman had ever been, and at Songaskicous 
and Ilouetbatons, one hundred and twenty leagues 
distiint from the former, where he also set up the 
King's Arms. In a letter to Seignalay, published 
for the first time by Harrisse, he writes that it 
was in the village of Izatys [Issati]. Upon Fran- 
quelin's map, the Mississippi branches into the 
Tiiitonha [Teeton Sioux] country, and not farfrom 
here, he alleges, was seen a tree upon which was 
this legend: " Arms of the King cut on this tree 
in the year 1679.'' 

lie established a post at Kamauistigoya, which 
waa distant fifteen leagues from the Grand Port- 
age at the western extremity of Lake Superior ; 
and here, on the fifteenth of September, he held 
a council with the Assenipoulaks [Assiiieboines] 
and other tribes, and urged them to be at peace 
with the Sioux. During this summer, he dis- 
patched Pien-e Moreau, a celebrated voyageur, 
nicknamed La Taupiiie, with letters to Governor 
Frontenac, and valuable furs to the merchants. 
Ilis arrival at Quebec, created some excitement. 
It was charged that the Governor corresponded 
with Du Luth, and that he passed the beaver, 
sent by him, in the name of merchants in his in- 
terest. The Intendant of Justice, Du Chesneau, 
wrote to the Minister of the Colonial Department 
of France, that " the man named La Taupine, a 
famous coureur des bois, who set out in the month 
of September of last year, 1678, to go to the Ou- 
tawacs, with goods, and who has alw ays been in- 
terested with the Governor, having returned this 
year, and I, being advised that he had traded in 



two days, one hundred and fifty beaver rol>es in 
one village of this tribe, araoiintin},' to nearly nine 
hundred lieavers. wliirli is a matter of public no- 
toriety : anil that he left with Dii Lut two men 
whom he had with him. considered myself bound 
to have him arrested, and to interroirate him ; but 
baviiij; iireseiiteil ine with a license from the (iov- 
eriior. pemiitlins liLm and his comrades, named 
Lamoiide and Dupuy. to repair to the Outawac. 
to execute his secret orders. I had him set at 
liberty : and immediately on his fioiuR out. Sieur 
I'revost . To\m Mayor of Quebec, came at the heiid 
of some soldiers to force the prison, in case he 
was still there, pursuant to his orders from the 
Governor, in these terms : •■ Sieur I'revost. Mayor 
of (Quebec, is ordered, in case the Intendant arrest 
I'ierre Moreau «//«.< La Taujune. whom we have 
sent to t^ueljec as bearer of our disi>at(hes. uixin 
pretext of Ids having been in the bush, to set him 
forthwith at liberty, anil to employ every means 
for this pur))Ose. at his peril. Done at .Montreal, 
theotli September. ]t;7i>."' 

La Taiipine. in due time returned to Lake Su- 
perior with another consignment of merchandise. 
The interjireter of I)u Lulli. and trader with the 
Sioux, was KalTart. who hail been a soldier under 
La Salle at Fort Frontenac. ami li:id iliscrted. 

La Salle was commissioned in KiTs. by the 
King of France, to ex])lore the AVesl. and trade in 
cilioja. or liiifTalo skins, and on condition that he 
did not trallic with the Ottauwaws. who carried 
their beaver to Montreal. 

On the li'th of .Viigiist. li>79. he arrived at 
Mackinaw, in the "(Irillin." the lirst sailing ves- 
wl on the great Lakes of Hie West, ami Iroiii 
thence went to (Jreen Hay. wliere. in the face of 
his conunission. he traded foj- beaver. ].,oailing 
his ves.sel with iieltries, he sent it back to Niag- 
ara, while he. in canoes, proceeded with his ex- 
])edition t/> the Illinois Hiver. The ship was 
never heard of. and for a timesuppo.sed to be lost, 
but La Salle afteiward learned from a I'awnee 
iKiy fourteen or lifteen years of age, who was 
broiighl prisoner to his fort on the Illinois by some 
Indians, thai the |iilot of the " (irilliii " had been 
among the tribes of the I'pper Missmiri. lie hail 
a.scended the Mississippi with four otlicis in two 
birch canoes with goods and some hand grenades, 
taken from the ship, with the intention of join 
ing l)u \a\{\\. who had for months been trading 

with the Sioux ; and if their efforts were unsuc- 
cessful, they expected to push on to the English, 
at Hudson's Hay. 'Wliile asceniling the JSIissis- 
sipiii they were attackf^l by Indians, and the pilot 
and one other only sur\ived. and they were sold 
to the Indians on the Missouri. 

In the month of June, 16b0. L)u l.iilli. accom- 
panied by Faffart. an interpreter, with four 
h'renchmen. also a ('hii)peway and a Sioux, with 
two canoes, entered a river, the month o'f which 
is eight leagues from the head of Lake Suiierior 
on the South side, named Nemitsakouat. t?each- 
ing its head waiters, by a short portiige, of half a 
league, he reached a lake which was the source 
of the .Saint Croix Hiver. and by this, he and his 
companions were the lirst Europeans to journey 
in a canoe from Lake Sui>erior to the Mississippi. 

1a\ Salle writes, that Du Ia\\.\\. Ihnling that 
the Sioux were on a hunt in the Mississippi val- 
ley, below the Saint Croix, and that .Vccault. Au- 
gelle and Ilemiepin. who liail come up from the 
Illinois a few weeks before, were with them, de- 
scended until he fonnd them. In the same letter 
be disregards tlie truth in order to disiiarage his 
rival, and writes: 

"Thirty-eight or I'orty leagues aliove the Chip- 
peway they found the river by which the Sieur 
l)u Luth did descend to the Missis.sippi. He had 
been three years, contrary to orders, with a com- 
pany of twenty "coureurs du bois" on Lake Su- 
perior: he hail borne himself bravely, proclaiming 
everx where llial at tlie liiiid of his brave fellows 
he did not fear the (irand I'revost. and that he 
would compel an anmesty. 

•■ Willie he was al Lake the .Xailoue- 
sioux. enticed by the presents that the late Sieur 
lianiliii had made on the part of Count Fronte- 
nac, and IheSauteui-s [Ojibways]. who are the sav- 
ages who carry the peltries to .Montreal, and who 
dwell on Lake Sui)erior. wishing to obey the re- 
peated orders of the Count, made a i)eacp to 
unite the Sauteurs and l''rench.and to trade with 
the Nadouesioux, situateil about sixty leagues to 
the west of Lake Sujierior. I )ii Lulh. to disguise 
his desertion, sei/.ed the oiiporl unity to make 
siinie reputation for himself, sending two messen- 
gers to the Coinit to negotiate a truce, during 
wnich period their comrades negotiated still bet- 
ter for beaver. 

Several conferences were held with the Xa- 



donessionx, and as he needed an interpreter, he led 
off one of mine, named Faffart, formerly a sol- 
dier at Fort Frontenac. During this period there 
were frequent visits between the Sauteurs [Ojib- 
ways] and Xadouesioux. and supposing that it 
might increase the number of beaver skins, he 
sent Faffart by land, vi'itli the Xadouesioux and 
Sauteurs [Ojibways]. The young man on his re- 
turn, having given an account of the quantity of 
beaver in that region, he wished to proceed thither 
liimself , and, guided by a Sauteur and a Nadoue- 
sioux. and four Frenchmen, he ascended the river 
Xemitsakouat, where, by a short portage, he de- 
scended that stream, whereon he passed through 
forty leagues of rapids [Upper St. Croix River], 
and lindiug that the Xadouesioux were below with 
my men and the Father, who had come down 
again from the village of the Nadouesioux, he 
discovered them. They went up again to the 
village, and from thence they all together came 
dowTi. They returned by the river Ouisconsing, 
and came back to Montreal, where Du Luth in- 
sults the commissaries, and the deputy of the 
'procuieur general,' named d'Auteuil. Count 
Frontenac had him arrested and imprisoned in 
the castle of Qtiebee, with the intention of return- 
ing him to France for tlie amnesty accorded to 
the coureurs des bois, did not release him."' 

At this very period, another party charges 
Frontenac as being Du Luth's particular friend. 

Du Luth. during the fall of 16S1. was engaged 
in the beaver trade at ilontreal and Quebec. 
Du Chesneau, the Intendant of Justica for Can- 
ada, on the 13th of November. 1G81, wrote to the 
Marquis de Siegnelay^ in Paris: "Not content 
with the profits to be derived from the countries 
under the King's dominion, the desire of maldng 
money everywhere, has led the (rovernor [Fron- 
tenac], Boisseau, Du Lut and Patron, his uncle, 
to send canoes loaded with peltries, to the En- 
glish. It is said sixty thousand livres' worth has 
been sent thither:"' and he further stated that 
there was a very general report that within live 
or six days, Frontenac and his associates had di- 
vided the money received from the beavers sent 
to New England. 

At a conference in Qtiebec of some of the dis- 
tinguished men in that city, relative to difficulties 
with the Iroquois, held on the lnth of October, 
1682, Du Luth was present. From thence he went 

to France, and. early in 168.S. consulted with the 
jSIinister of Marine at Versailles relative to the 
interests of trade in the Hudson's Bay and Lake 
Superior region. Upon his return to Canada, he 
departed for Mackinaw. Governor De la Barre, 
on the 9th of November, 1683, wrote to the French 
Government that the Indians west and north of 
Lake Superior, "when they heard by expresses 
sent them by Du Lhut, of his arrival at Missili- 
makinak, that he was coming, sent him word to 
come qiuckly and they would unite with him to 
prevent others going thither. If I stop that pass 
as I hope, and as it is necessary to do, as the Eng- 
lish of the Bay [Hudson's] excite against us the 
savages, whom Sieur Du Lhut alone can quiet." 
^^'llile stationed at ^lackinaw he was a ijartici- 
pant in a tragic occurrence. During the summer 
of 16S3 Jacques le Maire and Colin Berthot. while 
on their way to trade at Keweenaw, on Lake Su- 
perior, were surprised by three Indians, robbed, 
and murdered. Du Luth was prompt to arrest 
and punish the assassins. In a letter from Mack- 
inaw, dated ^Vpril 12, 1684. to the Governor of 
Canada, he writes: ■' Be pleased to know. Sir, 
that on the 2-tth of October last, I was told that 
Folle Avoine. accomplice in the niiu'der and rob- 
bery of the two Frenchmen, had arrived at Sault 
Ste. Jilarie with fifteen families of the Sauteurs 
[Ojibways] who had fled from Chagoamigon [La 
Pointe] on accoimt of an attack which they, to- 
gether with the people of the land, made last 
Spring upon the Nadouecioux [Dakotahs.] 

" He believed himself safe at the Sault, on ac- 
coiuit of the number of allies and relatives he had 
there. Eev. Father Albauel informed me that 
the French at the Saut, being only twelve in num- 
ber, had not arrested him. believing themselves 
too weak to contend with such numbers, espe- 
cially as the Sauteurs had declared that they 
would not allow the French to redden the land 
of their fathers with the blood of their brothers. 

"On receiving this information, I immediately 
resolved to take with me six Frenchmen, and em- 
bark at the dawii of the next day for Sault Ste. 
ilarie. and if possiljle obtain possession of the 
murderer. I made known my design to the Rev. 
Father Engalran, and, at my request, as he had 
some business to arrange with Eev. Father Al- 
bauel, he placed himself in my canoe. 

" Having arrived within a league of the \ iUage 



of the Saut. the Kev. Father, the Chevalier de 
Fourcille, Cardoniiierre, and I disembarked. I 
caused the canoe, in which were IJaiiliaud. Le 
Mere. La Fortune, and Macons. to proiecil. wliile 
we went across tlie wood to the house of tlie Rev. 
Father, fearins that the savapres. seeing me. might 
suspect the object of my visit, and cause Folle 
Avoiiie to escape. Fhially. to cut tlie matter 
short, 1 arrested him. and caused him to be 
guarded day and night by six Frenclmicn. 

•• I tlieii called a <-ouncil. al wliicli 1 requested 
all the .savages of the jilace to be present, where 
I repeated what 1 liad often said to the llurons 
and Ottawas since tlie deiiarlure of M. l'ere[lVr- 
rotj, giving them llie message you ordered me. 
Sir, that in case there shotdd be among them an\ 
spirits so evil disposed as to follow the cxaniiile 
of who have murdered the French on Lake 
,Su]>erior and I.,ake Michigan, they must se]iiirat;' 
the guilty from the innocent, as I did not wish 
the whole nation to suffer, unless they protected 
the guilty. » * * The savages held several 
councils, to whidi I was invited, b-.t Iheir only 
object seemed to be to excidjiate the jirisoner. in 
order that 1 might release him. 

■• All united in accusing Achiganaga and his 
children, assuring themselves with the belief tliul 
M. I'ere, [I'errol] with his detachment would not 
be able to arrest tliem. and wishing to persuade 
me thai tliey aiiiirelicnded lliat all the Frenclinien 
miglil bi* killed. 

•'I answered them. « * * • As to the aiilici- 
pated death of M. i'ere [IVrrot]. as well as of the 
other Frenehnien. that would not embarrass me. 
since 1 believed neither the allies nor the nation 
of Achiganaga would wish to have a w;ir with us 
t<i sustain an action so dark as that of which wi 
were sjieaking. Having only to attack a few 
murderers, or. at most, of their own family. 
1 was certain that the French would liave them 
dead or alive.' 

■' This was the answer tln-y had from me during 
the three days that the councils lasted ; after 
which 1 embarked, at ten o'clock in tlie morning, 
sustained liy only Iwehe Frenchmeti, to show a 
few unruly persons who boasted of taking the 
prisoner away from me. that the I'rench did not 
fear them. 

"Daily I rei-eived accounts of theniunberof 
savages that ,\chiganaga drew from his nation to 

Eiaonan [Keweenaw] under pretext of going to 
war in the spring against the Xadouecioux, to 
avenge the death of one of his relatives, son of Ou- 
euaus. but really to protect himself against us. 
in case we should become convinced that his chil- 
dren had killed the I'reiichmen. This precaution 
placed me between hope and fear respecting the 
expedition which .M. I'ere |l'errot| had under- 

"On the ::4th of Xcjveniber. [HisM]. he came 
across the wood at ten o'clock at night, to tell me 
that he had arrested Achiganaga and foiu-of his 
children. He .said they were not all guilty of the 
murder, liut had thought proper, in this affair, to 
follow the custom of the savages, which is to seize 
all the relatives. Folle Avoine. whom I had ar- 
restecl. he considered the most guilty, being with- 
out doulit the originator of the mischief. 

" 1 immediately gave orders that Folle Avoine 
should be more closely conlined. ami not allowed 
to siieak to any one : foi- I had also learned that 
he had a brother, sister, and uncle in the village 
of the Kiskakons. 

■■ M. I'ere inforineil me that he had released the 
youngest son of Achiganaga. aged about thirteen 
or fourteen years, that he might make known to 
their nation and the Sauteurs [OjiliwaysJ. who are 
al >»ocke and in the neighborhood, the reason 
why the French ha<l arrested his father and bro- 
thers. M. I'cre bade him assure the savages that 
if any one wished to complain of what he had 
done, he would wait for them with a tirm step ; for 
he considered liiniself in a conililion to set them 
at defiance, having found at Kiaonau | Keweenaw] 
eighteen Frenchmen who had wintereil there. 

••On the li'Mli. al da>lireak. .\l. I'ere I'mliarked 
I al the Saull. with four good men whom 1 gave 

him. to go and meet the luisonei^s. lie left llicm 
I four leagues from there, under a guard of twelve 

Frenchmen : ami at two o'clock in the afternoon. 

they arrived. I ha<l jireiiared a room in my house 
I for the prisoners, in which they were placed under 

a strong guard, and were not allowed to converse 

with any one. 

"On the liiilh. 1 eciniinenced proceedings; and 
this. sir. is tlu? coiiise 1 pursued. 1 gave notice 
t4) all the chiefs and others, to apjiear at the 
council which I had apiMiinted. and gave to Folle 
Avoine the privilege of selecting two of his rela- 



tives to STi)>port bis interests ; and to the otlier 
prisoners I made the same offer. 

" The council being assembled, I sent for Folle 
Avoine to be interrogated, and caused his answers 
to be written, and afterwards they were read to 
him, and inquiry made whether they were not, 
word for word, what he had said. He was then 
removed under a safe guard. I used the same 
form with the two eldest sons of Acbiganaga, and, 
as Folle Avoine bad indirectly charged the father 
with being accessory to the murder, I sent for 
him and also for Folle Avoine, and bringing them 
into the council, confronted the four. 

" Folle Avoine and the two sons of Acbiganaga 
accused each other of committing the murder, 
without denying that they were participators in 
the crime. Acbiganaga alone strongly maintained 
that he knew nothing of the design of Folle 
Avoine, nor of his children, and called on them 
to say if be had advised them to kill the French- 
men. Tbey answered, ' Xo.' 

" This confrontation, which the savages did not 
expect, surprised them; and, seeing the prisoners 
had convicted themselves of the murder, the 
Chiefs said: 'It is enough; you accuse your- 
selves; the French are masters of your bodies.' 

" Tlie next day I held another council, in which 
I said there could be no doubt that the French- 
men had been niurdered, that the murderers were 
known, and that they knew what was the prac- 
tice among themselves upon such occasions. To 
all this they .".aid nothing, which obliged us on 
the following day to bold another council in the 
cabin of Brochet, where, after having spoken, and 
seeing that tbey would make no decision, and that 
all my councils ended only in reducing tobacco to 
ashes, I told them that, since they did not wish to 
decide, I should take the responsibility, and that 
the next day I would let them know the deter- 
mination of the French and myself. 

"It is proper. Sir, you should know that I ob- 
served all these forms only to see if they would 
feel it their duty to render to us the same justice 
that tbey do to each other, havmg had divers ex- 
amples in which when the tribes of those who 
had committed the murder did not wish to go to 
war with the tribe aggrieved, tlie nearest rela- 
tions of the mm'derers killed them themselves; 
that is to say, man for man. 

" On the 29th of Xovember. I gathered together 

the French that were here. and. after the interro- 
gations and answers of the accused had been read 
to them, the guilt of the three appeared so evi- 
dent, fi-om their own confessions, that tlie vote 
was unanimous that all should die. But as the 
French who remained at Kiaonan to pass the win- 
ter had written to Father Engalran and to myself, 
to beg us to treat the affair with all possible len- 
iency, the savages declaring that if they made 
the prisoners die tbey would avenge themselves, 
I told the gentlemen who were with me in coun- 
cil that, this lieing a case without a precedent, I 
l)elieved it was expedient for the safety of the 
French who would pass the winter in the Lake 
Superior coimtry to put to death only two, as that 
of the third might In'ing about grievous conse- 
quences, while the putting to death, man for 
man, could give the savages no complaint, since 
this is their custom. M. de la Tour, chief of the 
Fathers, who had served much, sustained my 
opinions by strong reasoning, and all decided that 
two shoidd be shot, namely, Folle Avoine and 
the older of the two brothers, while the younger 
should be released, and hold his life, Sir, as a gift 
from you. 

" I tl;en returned to the cabin of Brochet with 
Messrs. Boisguillot, Fere, De Repentigny, De 
Manthet, De la Ferte, and Marons, wliere were 
all tlie chiefs of the Outawas du Sable, Outawas 
Sinagos, Baskakons, Sauteurs, D Aclnliny, a part 
of the Ilurons, and Ouniamens, the chief of the 
Amikoys. I informed them of our decision * 

* * that, the Frenchmen having been killed by 
the different nations, one of each must die, and 
that the same death they had caused the Frencli 
to suffer they must also suffer. * * * This 
decision to put the murderers to death was a hard 
stroke to them all, for none had believed that I 
would dare to luidertake it. * * * I then left 
tlie council and asked the Kev. Fathers if they 
wished to baptize the prisoners, which they did. 

"An hour after, I put myself at the head of 
forty-two Frenchmen, and, in sight of more than 
four hundred savages, and within two hundred 
paces of their fort, I caused the two murderers 
to be shot. The impossibility of keeping them 
until spring made me hasten their death. * * 

* When M. I'ere made the arrest, those who bad 
committed the murder confessed it; and when he 
asked them what they had done with our goods. 



they answered that they were almost all con- 
cealed, lie proceeded to the place of conceal- 
uit'ut. and was very mucli surprised, as wcic also 
the Trench with him, to lind Iheni, in lifleen or 
twenty different places. By the carelessness of 
tiie savages, the tobacco ;ui<l powder were entire- 
ly deslniyed. having been placed in the pinery, 
under the roots of trees, and being soaked in the 
water caused by ten or twelve days* continuous 
rain, which inundated all the lower country. 
Tlie season for snow and ice having come, they 
had all the trouble in the world to gel out tlie 
bales of cloth. 

"They then went to se;' the bodies, but could 
not remove them, these miserable \\ retclies hav- 
ing thrown them into a marsh, and thrust them 
down into holes wliich they had made. Not sat- 
isfied with tliis. they had also piled branches of 
trees upon the bodies, to prevent them from lloat- 
ing wlien the water sliould rise in the spring, 
hoping by this precaution the French would find 
no trace of those who were killed, but would tliink 
them drowned ; as they reported that they had 
found in the lake on the other side of the Portage, 
a boat with the sides all broken in. which they 
believed to be a French boat. 

"Tliose goods which the Frencli were able to 
secure, they took to Kiaouau [Keweenaw], where 
were a number of Frenchmen who had gone there 
to pass tlie wiuler. who knew notliingof the deatli 
of Colin Uerlliot and Jacques le Maire, until M. 
Fere arrived. 

" The ten who formed M. Pere"s detachment 
having conferred together concerning the means 
they should take to prevent a toUil loss, decided 
to sell the goods to the highest bidder. The sale 
was made for 110(t livres, which was to be paid in 
beavers, to -M. de la Cliesiiaye, to wlioin I send 
tlie names of the purch.sers. 

•■The savages who were present wlim Ailiiga- 
riaga and liis children were arrested wishi'd to 
liass the calumet to .M. I'ere. :iud give bim cap- 
tives to satisfy liiui I'ni- the iiiiinlcr (■(nuiuilled on 
tlie two Frenclinien ; but lie knew their inten- 
tion, and would not accejit their olTer. He told 
them neitlier a liundred captives nor a Innidred 
jiacks of beaver would give back the blood of hi . 
lirotliers; that the luiirderers must l)e given up 
to me, and I would s< e what I would do. 

" I caused M. Fere to repeat these tilings in the 

council, that in future the savages need not think 
by presents to save those who commit similar 
deeds, liesides. sir. }il. Fere showed plainly by 
his conduct, that he is not strongly inelined to 
favor the savages, as w as reported. Indeed. I do 
not know any one whom they fear more, yet who 
Hatters them less or knows them better. 

"The criminals being in two different places, 
M. Fere being obliged to kee]) four of them, sent 
Messrs. de Repeutigny. Manthet, and six other 
Frenchmen, to arrest the two who were eight 
leagues in the woods. Among others. M. de Ue- 
pentigny and .M. ili Manthet showed that they 
feared nothing when their honor called them. 

'• M. de la ("lievrolicre has also served well in 
person, and by his advice, having pointed out 
where the prisoners were. Achiganaga, who had 
adopted him as a son, had told him where he 
should hunt during the winter. ***** 
It still remained for me to give to Achiganaga and 
his three children the means to return to his 
family. Their home from which they were taken 
was nearly twenly-si.x leagues from here. Know- 
ing their necessity, I told them >iiu would not bo 
satisfied in giving them life ; you wished to pre- 
serve it. liy giving them all that was necessary to 
prevent them from dying with hunger and cold 
by the way, and that your gift was made by my 
hands. I gave them blankets, tobacco, meal, 
hatchets, knives, twine to make nets for beavers, 
and two bags of corn, to sujiply them till they 
could kill game. 

" They departed two days after, the most con- 
tented creatures in the world, but God was nol ; 
for when only two days' .iourney from here, the 
old Achiganaga fell sick of the (luinsy, and died, 
and his children r- turned, ^\'llell the news of his 
death arrived, the greater part of the savages of 
this place [Mackinaw] attributed it to the Frenc'i, 
saying we had caused him to die. 1 let them 
talk, and laughed at tliem. It is only about two 
monlhssinee thecliildrenof Achiganaga retur: e I 
to Kiaoiian." 

Some of those opposed to Du Liitli and Fron- 
tenac, jircjiidieed the King of I'rance relative to 
the Iran.sjiction we have described, and in a letter 
to the (;overnor of Canada, the King writes : " It 
appears to me that one of the prin<'ipal causes of 
the war arises from one l)u l>utli liaviiig caused 
two to be killed who hail a.ssa.ssinated two French- 



men on Lake Superior ; and you sufliciently see 
now much this man's voyage, which can not pro- 
duce any advantage to the colony, and which was 
permitted only in the interest of some private 
persons, has contributed to distract the peace of 
the colony." 

Du Luth and his young brother appear to have 
traded at the western extremity of Lake Superior, 
and on the north shore, to Lake Xipegon. 

In June, 16S4. (iovernor De la Barre sent Guil- 
letand Ilebertfrom Montreal to request DuLuth 
and Durantaye to bring down voyageurs and In- 
dians to assist in an expedition against the Iro- 
quois of Xew York. Early in September, they 
reported on the St. Lawrence, with one hundred 
and fifty coureui's des bois and three hundred and 
fifty Indians ; but as a treaty bad just been made 
with the Senecas, they returned. 

De la Barre 's successor, Governor Denonville, 
in a dispatch to the French Government, dated 
November 1:2th, lliSo, alludes to Du Luth being 
in the far West, in these words : ■• I likewse sent 
to M. De la Durantaye. who is at Lake Superior 
under orders from M. De la Barre, and to Sieur 
Du Luth, who is also at a gi-eat distance in an- 
other direction, and all so far beyond reach that 
neither the one nor tlie other can hear news from 
me this year ; so that, not being able to see them 
at soonest, before next July. I considered it best 
not to thmk of undertaking anything during the 
whole of next year, especially as a great numljer 
of our best men are among the ( )utaouacs, and 
can not return before the ensuing summer. * * * 
In regard to Sieur Du Luth, I sent him orders to 
repair here, so that I may learn the number of 
savages on whom I may depend. lie is accredit- 
ed among them, and rendered great services to 
M. De la Barre by a large number of savages he 
brought to Niagara, "nho would have attacked 
the Senecas, was it not for an express order from 
M. De la Barre to the contrary."" 

In 1686, while at Mackinaw, he was orderea to 
establish a post on the Detroit, near Lake Erie. 
A portion of the order reads as f jllows : " After 
having given all the orders that you may judge 
necessary for the safety of this post, and having 
well secured the obedience of the Indians, you 
will return to Michilimackinac, tliere to await 
Rev. Father Eugelran, by whom I will commu- 
nicate what I wish of you, there." 

The design of this post was to block the pas- 
sage of tlie English to the upper lakes. Before 
it was estabUshed, in the fall of 1686, Thomas 
Eoseboom. a daring trader from Albany, on the 
Hudson, had found his way to tlie vicinity of 
^Mackinaw, and by the proffer of l)randy, weak- 
ened the allegiance of the tril)es to the French. 

A canoe coming to Mackinaw with dispatches 
for the French and their allies, to march to the 
Seneca country, in New York, perceived this New 
York trader and associates. an<l. giving the alarm, 
they were met by three hundred coureurs du 
bois and captured. 

In the spring of 1687 Du Luth, Durantaye, 
and Tonty all left the vicinity of Detroit for Ni- 
agara, and as they were coasting along Lake Erie 
they met another English trader, a Scotchman 
by birth, and by name Major Patrick McGregor, 
a person of some influence, going with a number 
of traders to ^Mackinaw. IIa\ing taken him pris- 
oner, he was sent with Eoseboom to Montreal. 

Du Luth, Tonty, and Durantaye arrived at Ni- 
agara on the 27th of Jime, 1687, with one hun- 
dred and seventy French voyageurs, besides In- 
dians, and on the 10th of July joined the army of 
Denonville at the mouth of the Genesee Elver, 
and on the 13th Du Luth and his associates had 
a skirmish near a Seneca village, now the site of 
the town of \'ictor. twenty miles southeast of the 
city of Eochester, New York. Governor Denon- 
ville, in a report, writes: " On the 13th, about 4 
o'clock in the afternoon, having passed through 
two dangerous defiles, we arrived at the third, 
where we were vigorously attacked by eight hun- 
dred Senecas, two hundred of whom fired, wish- 
ing to attack our rear, while the rest would attack 
oiu" front, but the resistance, made produced 
such a great consternation that they saon resolved 
to fly. * * * We witnessed the p.ahif ul sight 
of the usual cruelties of the savages, who cut the 
dead into quarters, as is done in slaughter houses, 
in order to put them into the kettle. The greater 
number were opened while still warm, that the 
lilood might be drunk, (^ur rascally Otaoas dis- 
tinguished themselves particularly by these bar- 
barities. * * * We had five or six men killed 
on the spot, French and Indians, and about 
twenty wounded, among the first of wliom was the 
Rev. Father Angelran, superior of all the Otaoan 
Missions, by a very severe gu n-shot. It is a great 


exflohebs Axn pioyEEns of jiixyESOTA. 

misfortuiK* that tliis wound will inevcnt him go- 
jng back asraiii. for lie is a man of caiiacity." 

In the order to Du Lutli assigning him to duty 
at the post on the .site of the modern Fort Gra- 
tiot, above tlie city of Detroit, the (iovenior of 
Canada saitl: " If you can so arrange your affairs 
that your brother can be near you in the Spring. 
I shall be very glad. lie is an intelligent lad. 
and might be a great assistance to you; he miglit 
also be very servicealile lo us."" 

This la<l, Greysolon de la Tourette, during the 
winter of 16S6-7 was trading among the Assina- 
iMiinesand other tribes at tlie west end of Lake 
Superior. but. upon receiving a disi)atch. hastened 
to his brotlier. journeying in a canoe without any 
escort from Mackinaw. lie did not arrive until 
after the battle with the Senccas. (iovernorl)eii- 
onville. on the 2oth of .Vugust, l(i.S7, wrote: 

••l)u Luth"s brother, who has recently arrived 
from the rivers above the Lake of the Allem]ii- 
gons fXipegon]. assures me that he saw more tlian 
fifteen hundred persons come to tnule with him. 
and they were very sorry he had not goods sulli- 
cient to satisfy them. They are of the tribes ac- 
customed to resort to the English at I'ort Nelson 
and River Bourbon, where, they say. they <lid not 
go this year, through Sieur l)u Llms iuiliience." 
After the battle in the vicinity of Rochester, 
New Voik, Du Luth, with his celebrated cousin. 
Henry Tonty, returned together as far as the post 
above the jiresent city of Detroit. Michigan, but 
this i)oint. after KiSS. was not again oc(;uiiieil. 

From this period Dm Lutli becomes less prom- 
inent. At the time when the Jesuits attempted 
to exclude bramly from the Indian cuiinlry a bit- 
ter controversy arose between tliem and the 
traders. Cadillac, a Gascon by birth, command- 
ing Fort l)uade,at Mackinaw, on .Viigust 3,169o, 
wrote to Count Frontenac: " \ow. what reason 
can we assign that tlie savagi's should not drink 
brandy bought with their nun money as well as 
we'/ Is it i>rohibited to prevent them from be- 
coming inloxicatiMl? Or is it because the use of 
brandy reduces them to extreme .misery, placing 
it out of their power to make war by depriving 
them of clothing and arras? If such rei)resenta- 
lions in reganl to the Indians have been made to 
the Count, they are very false, as every one knows 
who is aeipiainti'd with the ways of llie savages. 
* * • It is bad laitli to rcjiresenl lo the Count 

that the sale of brandy reduces the savage to a 
state of nudity, aifd by that means places it out 
of his power to make war, since he never goes to 
w-ar in any other c(mdition. * * * Perhaps it 
will be said that the sale of brandy makes the 
labors of the missionaries unfruitful. It is neces- 
sary to examine this proposition. If the mission- 
aries care for oidy the extension of commerce, 
pursuing the course they have hitherto. I agree 
to it; but if it is the use of brandy that hinders 
the advancement of tlie cause of (iod. I deny it, 
for it is a fact which no one can deny that there 
are a great number of savages who never drink 
brandy, yet who are not. for that, better Chris- 

"All the Sioux, the most numerous of all the 
trilies. who inhabit tlie region along the shore of 
Lake Sujierior. do not even like the smell of 
liraiidy. Ai'e they more advaiired in leligioii for 
that? They do not wish to have the subject men- 
tioned, and when the missionaries address them 
they only laugh at the fooHshness of preaching. 
Yet these priests boldly fling before the eyes of 
ICuroiieans. whole volumes filled with glowing 
descriptions of the conversion of souls by thou- 
sands in this country, causing the poor missiona- 
ries from Europe, to run to mai'tyrdom as flies to 
sugar and honey." 

Du Luth. or Du Lliiit. as he wrote his iianie, 
during tliis discussion, was found upon the side 
of order and good morals. His attestation is as 
follows : '■ I certify that at dilVerent periods 1 
have lived about ten years among the Ottawa 
nation, from the time that 1 made an exploration 
to the Nadouecionx jieojile until Fort Saint .lo- 
sejih was established by order of the Monsieur 
Mar(|uis Denonville. (Jovernor (ieneral, at the 
heail of tlie Detroit of Lake Erie, which is in the 
Irocpiois country, and which I had the honor to 
command. During this jieriod. I have seen that 
the trade In eau-de-vie (brandy) jiroduced great 
disoriler. the father killing the son. and the son 
throwing his mother into the lire: and I maintain 
llial. morally sjieaking. it is imiiossible to exiiort 
brandy to the woods and distant missions, with- 
out danger of its leailing to misery." 

(iovenior Frontena<'. in an expediljon against 
the Oneidas of New ^'ork. arrived at Fort Fron- 
tenac. on the l!ith of .Iul> . Hill."), and Captain I)u 
Liilh uas left in coiiiniaii<l with forty soliliers, 



ancl masons and carpenters, with orders to erect 
new buildings. In about four ■weeks he erected 
a biiilduig one hundred and twenty feet in length, 
containing officers' quarters, store-rooms, a bakery 
and a chapel. Early in 1G07 he was still in com- 
mand of the post, and in a report it is mentioned 
that " everybody was then in good health, except 
Captain Dvillmt the commander, who was imwell 
of the gout." 

It was just before this period, that as a member 
of the Koman Catholic Clnufh. he was firmly 
impressed that he had been helped by prayers 
which he addressed to a deceased Irociuois girl, 
who had died in tlie odor of sanctity, and, as a 
thank offering, signed the following certificate : 
"I, the subscriber, certify to all whom it may 
concern, that having been tormented by the gout, 
for the space of twenty-three years, and w ilh such 

severe pains, that it gave me no rest for the spac 
of three months at a time, I addressed myself to 
Catherine Tegahkouita, an Iroquois virgin de- 
ceased at the Sault Samt Louis, in the reputation 
of sanctity, and I promised her to visit her tomb, 
if God should give me health, through her uiter- 
cession. I have been as perfectly cured at the 
end of one novena, which I made in her honor, 
tliat after five months, I have not perceived the 
slightest touch of my gout. Given at Fort Fron- 
tenac, tliis ISth day of August, 1696." 

As soon as cold weather returned, his old mal- 
ady again appeared. Ilediedearlyin A. I). 1710. 
Marquis de Vaudreuil, (iovernor of Canada, un- 
der date of first of May of that year, wrote to 
Count Pontchartrain, Colonial ]SIinister at Paris, 
" Captain I)u Lud died this winter. lie was a 
very honest man." 





falls of St. Anthony Vi»il<-'1 l.y Vrhitf Mfn.-U Salle Givntho First Description 
of I'lipw Mi!oi»i!i|il>i Vnlloy.— Accault, Iho Uadcr, Accompanied V.y AuccUc 
«nd Hcnneiiin. lit Falls of Saint Antliony.— Hennepin Declared UnrcliaUo by 
U Salle.-Hi» Early Ufe.-His FiRt Book Criticised by Abbe Beruou and 
Tronson. — Deceplivc Map. — Firrt Mcetins with SiouM.;— Astonislimcnt at 
Readine His Bteviar)'. -Sioux Name for fiuns— Aecault and Kcunepin at 
Uke Pepln.-U-ave the KiviT B.h.iv Saint Paul.-Al Millc Lacs.-A Sweating 
Cabin.-Sioux Wonder at Mariner's Conipasj.-Fears of an Iron Pot.— Making 
a Dictionary.-Iurant Baptised- Route to the Pacific-Hennepin Descends 
Rum River.- rin.t Visit to Fiills of Saint Anthony. -On a Buffalo Hunt.— Meets 
Du Luth.-Retums to Mille Uc».— With Du Uth at F.illsofSt. Anthony.— 
Retnrns to France.— Sulisequent Life.- His Books Examined.— Denies in First 
B(..k His Descent to the (;ulf of Mexico.— Di»i)Ute with Du Luth at Falls of St, 
Anthony-PalronaEO of Du Luth.— Tril>ute to Du Lnth.— Hennepin's Answer 
to Cnticiims.- Denounced by Dllierville and Father Oravicr.- Residence in 

In the summer of 1(580, Michael Accault ( Ako), 
Ileiuit'piii. the Piaiicisoau iiiissiimaiy. Augelle, 
Uu Luth, and Fafl'art all visited the Falls of 
Saint Anthony. 

Tlie first dcscTijitioii of the valley of the upper 
Mississippi was written lay La Salle, at Fort 
Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, on the 22d of Au- 
gust. 1(JK2. a month before Hennepin, in Paris, 
obtained a license to ))riut, and some time before 
the Franciscan's first work, was issued from the 

La Salle's knowledge must have been received 
from Michael Accault. tlie leader of the expedi- 
tion, Augelle, his comrade, or tlie clerical attache, 
the Franciscan. Hennepin. 

It differs fmiii nciiiiciiiirs narrative in its free- 
dom from bombast, ami if its slateiiiciits are to 
be credited, the Fianciscan must be looked on as 
one given to exaggeration. The careful student, 
however, soon learns to be cautious in receiving 
the Ktatemenl of any of the early explorers and 
ecclesiastics of the Northwest. The Franciscan 
depreciated tlie Jesuit missionary, and La Salle 
<lid not hesitate to misrepresent I)ii Liitli and 
others for his own (exaltation. La Salle makes 
statements which we deem to be wide of the 
truth wlicii his prcjiidicfs are aiDiisfd. 

At the very time that the Intciiilaiil of .Iiistice 
in Canada is crmiplaining that (Jovemor Fronte- 
nac is a friend and correspondent of Du Lulli, 

La Salle writes to his friends in Paris. thatBu 
Luth is looked upon as an outlaw by the governor. 

"While othcial documents prove that Du Luth 
was in Minnesota a year before Accault and asso- 
ciates, yet La Salle writes: " Moreover, the Na- 
donesioux is not a region which he has discov- 
ered. It is known that it was discovered a long 
timeliefore, and that the Pev. Father Henneiiin 
and Michael Accault were there before him." 

La Salle in this communication describes Ac- 
cault as one well acquainted with the language 
and names of the Indians of the Illinois region, 
and also " cool, brave, and prudent," and the head 
of the party of explfiraliim. 

We now proceeil w illi the first description of 
the country above the Wisconsin, to which is 
given, for the first and only time, by any writer, 
the Sioux name, Meschetz Odeba, perhaps in- 
tended for :SIeslideke "Wakpa. Piver of the Foxes. 

He describes the I'ppcr :SIississippi in these 
words : " Following the windings of the Missis- 
sijipi, they found the river Ouisconsing, AViscon- 
siug, or Meschetz Odeba, which Hows between 
Bay of Puaiis and the (iraiul river. * * * About 
twenty-three or twenty-four leagues to the ntuth 
or northwest of the mouth of the Ouisconsing. 
* * * they fouiiil tlie I'.lack river, called by the 
Nadouesioux, Chabadeba IChiijia W;ikpa, Beaver 
river] not very large, the month of which is bor- 
dered on the two shores \<\ iiMcrs. 

" Ascending about lliii ty leagues, almost at the 
same point of the compass, is the Buffalo river 
[Chippewa], as large at its mouth as that of the 
Illinois. They follow it ten or twelve leagues, 
where it is deep, sniiill iiml without rapids, bor- 
dered by hills which widen out from time to time 
to form prairies." 

About threeo'clock in the afternoon of the lUh 
of Ajiril. lliKO. the travelers were met Iwy a war 
parly of one hiimlred Sioux in thirty-three birch 
bark canoes. •■ Michael Accault, who was the 



leader," says La Salle, " presented tlie Calumet." 
The Indians were presented by Accault witli 
twenty knives and a fathom and a half of tobacco 
and some goods. Proceeding with the Indians 
ten days, on the 22d of April the isles in the Mis- 
sissippi were reached, where the Sioux had killed 
some Maskoutens, and they halted to weep over 
the death of two of their own number ; and to 
assuage their grief, Accault gave them in trade a 
box of goods and twenty-four hatchets. 

When they were eight leagues below the Falls 
of Saint Anthony, they resolved to go by land to 
their village, sixty leagues distant. Tliey were 
well received ; the only strife among the villages 
was that which resulted from the desire to have 
a Frenchman in their midst. La Salle also states 
that it was not correct to give the impression that 
Du Lnth had rescued his men frt)m captivity, for 
they could not be properly called prisoners. 

He continues: "In going up the Mississippi 
again, frn-enty leagues above that river [Saint 
CroixJ is found the falls, which those I sent, and 
who passing there first, named Saint Anthony. 
It is thirty or forty feet high, and the river is nar- 
rower here than elsewhere. There is a small 
island in the midst of the chute, and the two 
banks of the river are not bordered by high hills, 
which gradually diminish at this point, but the 
country on each side is covered witli thin woods, 
such as oaks and other hard woods, scattered wide 

"The canoes were carried three or four hun- 
dred steps, and eight leagues above was found 
the west [east?] bank of the river of the Nadoue- 
sioux, ending in a lake named Issati, which ex- 
pands into a great marsh, where the wild rice 
grows toward the mouth." 

In the latter part of his letter La Salle uses the 
following language relative to his old chaplain: 

" 1 believed that it was appropriate to make for 
you the narrative of the adventures of this canoe, 
because I doubt not that they will speak of it, and 
if you wish to confer with the Father Louis Hen- 
nepin, llecollect, who has returned to France, you 
must know him a little, because he will not fail 
to exaggerate all things; it is his character, and 
to me he has written as if he were about to be 
burned when he was not even in danger, but he 
believes that it is honorable to act in tliis niaiuicr. 

and he speaks more conformalily to that which 
he wishes than to that which he knows." 

Hennepin was bom in Ath, an inland to^-n of 
the Netherlands. From boyhood he longed to 
visit foreign lands, and it is not to be wondered 
at that he assumed the priest's garb, for next to 
the soldier's life, it suited one of wandering pro- 

At one time he is on a begging expedition to 
some of the towns on the sea coast. In a few 
months he occupies the post of chaplain at an 
hospital, where he shrives the dying and admin- 
isters extreme unction. From the quiet of the 
hospital he proceeds to the camp, and is present 
at the battle of Seneffe, which occurred in the 
year 1674. 

His whole mind, from the time that he became 
a priest, appears to have been on ■• things seen 
and temporal," rather than on those that are " un- 
seen and eternal." While on duty at some of the 
ports of the Straits of Dover, he exliibited the 
characteristic of an ancient Athenian more than 
that of a professed successor of the Apostles. 
lie sought out the society of strangers " who 
spent their time in nothing else but either to tell 
or to hear some new thing." With pert'ect non- 
chalance he confesses that notwithstanding the 
nauseatmg fumes of tobacco, he used to slip be- 
hind the doors of sailors' taverns, and spend days, 
without regard to the loss of his meals, listening 
to the adventures and hair-breadth escapes of the 
mariners in lands beyond the sea. 

In the year 1676, he received a welcome order 
from his Superior, requiring him to embark for 
Canada. Unaccustomed to the world, and arbi- 
trary hi his disposition, he rendered the cabin of 
the ship in which he sailed any thing but heav- 
enly. As in modern days, the passengers in a 
vessel to the new world were composed of hete- 
rogeneous materials. There were young women 
going out in search for brothers or husbands, ec- 
clesiastics, and those engaged in the then new, 
but profitable, commerce in furs. One of his 
fellow passengers was the talented and enterpri- 
prising, though unfortunate. La Salle, with whom 
lie was afterwards associated. If he is to be 
creilited, his intercourse with La Salle was not 
very pleasant on ship-board. The young women, 
tired of being cooped up in the narrow accommo- 
dations of the ship, when tlie evening was fair 



soiiglit the der-k. and eiiRaperl in the rude dances 
of the French peasantry of tliat age. Hennepin, 
feeling that it was improper, began to assume 
the air of tlie priest, and forliade the sport. La 
Salle, feeling that his interference was vnicalled 
for, called him a pedant, and took the side of the 
girls, and during the voyage there were stormy 

Good humor appeare to have been restored 
when they left the ship, for Hennepin would oth- 
erwise have not been the companion of La Salle 
in his great western journey. 

So.iourning for a short period at Quebec, the 
adventure-loving Pranciscan is permitted to go 
to a mission station on or near tlte site of the 
present town of Kingston, Canada West. 

Here there was much to gratify his love of 
novelty, and he passed considerable time in ram- 
bling among the Iroquois of Xew York. In 1678 
he returned to (^)uebec, and was orilered to join 
the expedition of Robert La Salle. 

On the (5th of December Father Hennepin and 
a portion of the exploring party had entered the 
Niagara river. In the vicinity of the Falls, the 
winter was passed, and while tlie artisans were 
preparing a ship above the Falls, to navigate the 
great lakes, the Recollect whiled away the hours, 
in studying the maimers and customs of Ihe Sen- 
eca Indians, and in admiring the sublimest han- 
diwork of God on the globe. 

On the 7lh of .Vugust, HiTlt, the ship being 
completely rigged, unfurled its sails to the breezes 
of Lake Erie. The vessel was named the " Grif- 
fin." ill honor of the arms of Frontenac. (Governor 
of Canada, tlie lirst ship of European construc- 
tion tliat had ever ploughed the waters of the 
great inland seas of Xorth America. 

After encountering a violent and dangerous 
storm on one of the lakes, during which they had 
given up all hope of escaping .shipwreck, on the 
L'Tth of the nmiitli, they were safely moored in 
the haibor of ■■ Missiliniackinack." From thence 
the party proceeded to Green Bay, wliere they 
left the ship, procured canoes, and continued 
along llie coast of Lake Michigan. Hy the mid- 
dle r)f .lauuaiT. lliHl. La Salle had conducted his 
exi)edition to the Illinois River, and, on an emi- 
nence ne^r Lake Peoria, he commenced, witli 
much Iieaviness of heart, the ere<1ii)ii of a fort. 

which he called ('reveca?ur. on account of the 
many disappointments he had exiierienced. 

On the last of February. .Vccanlt. .Vugelle. and 
Hennepin left to ascend the ilississipi)i. 

The lirst work bearing the name of the Rev- 
erend Father Louis Hennepin, Franciscan Mis- 
sionary of the Recollect order, was entitled, " De- 
scription de la Louisiane," and in 1683 published 
in Paris. 

As soon as the book appeared it was criticised. 
Abbe Beniou. on the 29th of February. 1684, 
writes from Rome about the '-italtry book"(mes- 
hcant livrei of Fallier Hennepin. About a year 
before the pious Tronson. under date of March 
13, 1683, wrote to a friend: " I have interviewed 
the P. Recollect, who pirtench to have descended 
the Mississippi river to the liulf of Mexico. 1 do 
not know that one will belkve what lie spcukii any 
more than that which is in the printed relation of 
P. Louis, whicli I send you that you may make 
your own rellections." 

On the map accompanying his lirst book, he 
boldly marks a Recollect ^Mission many miles 
north of tlie point he had visited. In the I'trecht 
edition of 1697 this deliberate fraud is erased. 

Throughout the work he assumes, that he was 
the leader of the expedition, and magiiilies trilles 
into tragedies. For instance, Mr. La Salle writes 
that ilichael Accault, also written Ako, who was 
the leader, presented the Sioux with the calu- 
met ;■■ but Hennepin makes the occurrence more 

He writes : " Our prayers were heard, w hen on 
the nth of April, 1680, about two o'clock in the 
afternoon, we suddenly iierceived thirty -three 
bark canoes maimed by a hundred and twenty 
Indians coming dowii with very great speed, on a 
war party, against the ]\Iiainis, Illinois and .Mani- 
as. These Indians surrounded us, and while at 
a distance, discharged some arrows at us, but as 
they approached our canoe, the old men seeing us 
with the calumet of jieace in our hands, prevent- 
ed the young men from killing us. These sava- 
ges leaping from their canoes, some on land, 
others into the water, with frightful cries and 
yells aiiiHoached us, and as wo niadfc no resist- 
ance, being only three against so great a number, 
one of them wrenched our callimet from our 
hands, while oni- canoe and theirs were tied to 
tlie shore. W'f lirst |ire.seiilcd to tliciu a Jijcce of 



French tobacco, better for smoking than theirs- 
and the eldest among them uttered tlie words' 
" Mlamiha, Miamiha." 

"As we did not understand tlieir language, we 
took a little stick, and by signs which we made 
on the sand, showed them that tlieir enemies, the 
^liamis, whom they sought, had fled across the 
river Colbert [JSIississippi] to johi the Ishuois ; 
when they saw themselves discovered and unable 
to surprise their enemies, three or four old men 
laying theu' hands on my head, wept in a mourn- 
ful tone. 

" With a spare handkerchief I had left I \rtped 
away their tears, but they would not smoke our 
Calumet. They made us cross the river with 
great cries, while all shouted with tears in their 
eyes ; they made us row before them, and we 
heard yells capable of striking the most resolute 
with terror. After landing our canoe and goods, 
part of which had already been taken, we made a 
lire to boil our kettle, and we gave them two large 
wild turkeys which we had killed. These Indians 
having called an assembly to deliberate what they 
were to do with us, the two -head chiefs of the 
party approaching, showed us by signs that the 
warriors wished to tomahawk us. Tlus com- 
pelled me to go to the war chiefs with one young 
man, leaving the other by our property, and 
throw into their midst six axes, flfteen knives 
and six fathom of our lilack tobacco; and then 
bringing down my head, I showed them with au 
axe that they might kill me. if they thought 
proper. This present appeased man>- individual 
members, who gave us some beaver to eat, put- 
ting the three tirst morsels into out mouths, accor- 
dmg to the custom of the coiuitry, and Ijlowing on 
the meat, which was too hot, before putthig the 
bark dish before us to let us eat as we liked. We 
spent the night in anxiety, because, before reti- 
ring at night, they had returned us our peace 

" Our two boatmen were resolved to sell their 
lives dearly, and to resist if attacked ; their arms 
and swords were ready. As for my own part, I 
determined to allow myself to be killed without 
any resistance ; as I was going to announce to 
them a God who had been foully accused, un- 
justly condemned, and cruelly crucilied, without 
showing the least aversion to those wlio ])ut him 
to death. We watched in turu, in our anxiety, 

so as not to be surprised asleep. The next morn- 
ing, a chief named Narrhetoba asked for the 
peace calumet, lilled it with \\illow bark, and all 
smoked. It was then signilied that the white 
men were to return with them to then- villages." 

In his narrative the Franciscan remarks, " I 
foiuid it difficidt to say my office before these 
Indians. j\iany seeing me move my lips, said in 
a fierce tone, ' Ouakanche.' Michael, all out of 
countenance, told me, that if I continued to say 
my breviary, we should all three be killed, and 
the Picard begged me at least to pray apart, so as 
not to provoke them. I followed the latter's 
advice, but the more I concealed myself the more 
I had the Indians at my heels ; for when I en- 
tered the wood, they thought I was going to hide 
some goods under ground, so that I knew not on 
what side to turn to pray, for they never let me 
out of sight. This obliged me to beg pardon of 
my canoe -men, assuring them I could not dis- 
pense with saying my office. By the word, ' Ou- 
akanche,' the Indians meant that the book I was 
reading was a spirit, but by their gesture they 
nevertheless showed a kind of aversion, so that 
to accustom them to it, I chanted the litany of 
the Blessed A'irgin in the canoe, with my book 
opened. They thought that the breviary was a 
spirit which taught me to sing for their diversion ; 
for these people are naturally fond of singing." 

Tills is the first mention of a Dahkotah word 
in a European book. The savages were annoyed 
rather tliau enraged, at seeing the white man 
reading a book, and exclaimed, " Wakan-de !" 
this is wonderful or supernatural. The war 
party was composed of several bands of the M'de- 
wahkantouwan Dahkotahs, and there was a di- 
versity of opinion in relation to the disposition 
that should be made of the white men. The 
relatives of those who liad l)eeii killed by the 
Miamis, were in favor of taking their scalps, but 
others were anxious to retain the favor of the 
French, and open a trading intercourse. 

Perceiving one of the canoe-men shoot a wild 
turkey, they called the gun, " Manza Ouackange," 
iron that has understanding; more correctly, 
" Maza Wakande," this is the supernatural metal. 

Aquipaguetin, one of the head men, resorted 
to the following device to obtain merchandise. 
Says the Father, " This wily savage had the 
bones of some distinguished relative, which ho 



presented with great care iii some skins dressed 
and adorned with several rows of black and red 
porcupine (luills. From time to time he assem- 
l)led liis men to give it a smoke, and made us 
come several days to cover the bones with goods, 
and by a present wipe away the tears he had shed 
for him. and for his own son killed by the Miamis. 
To appease this captious man, we threw on the 
bones several fathoms of tobacco, axes, knives, 
beads, and some black ;inil white wampum brace- 
lets. * * * We slept at the point of the Lake 
of Tears [Lake Pepin], which we so called from 
the tears wliich this chief shed all night long, or 
by one of liis sons A\hom he caused to weep when 
he grew tired." 

The next day, after four or five leagues' sail, a 
chief came, and telling them to leave their canoes, 
he pulled up three piles of grass for seats. Then 
taking a piece of cedar full of httle holes, he 
placed a stick into one, whicli he revolved between 
the palms of his hands, until he kindled a fire, 
and informed the Frendimen that they would be 
at MiWe Lac in six days. On the nineteenth day 
after their captivity, they arrived in the vicinity 
of Saint I'aul. not far, it is jnobable, from the 
marshy ground on which the Kaposia band once 
lived, and now called Pig's Eye. 

The journal remarks. " Having arrived on the 
ninetecntli day of our navigation, live leagues 
below .St. Anthony's Falls, these Indians landed 
us in a bay, broke our canoe to pieces, and se- 
creted tlieir own in the reeds." 

They then fdllowed the trail to Mille Lac, sixty 
leagues distant. As they approached their villa- 
ges, the various bands began to show their spoils. 
The tobacco was liigldy prized, and led to some 
contention. Tlie clialic(! of the Father, which 
glistened in the sun, tliey were afraid to touch, 
sui)posing it was "wakan." After five days' 
walk tliey reached the Issati IDahkolnh] settle- 
ments in tlie valley of the Uiun or Knife river. 
The different bands each conducted a Frenchman 
to tlieir village, tlie chief Aipiipaguetin taking 
charge of Hennepin. After man liiiig througli 
llie niarslies towards the sources of Uum river, 
live wives of 'he chief, in three bark canoes, met 
them and look tlieni a short league to an island 
wliere their cabins were. 

An aged Indian kiiidly nibbed down tlie way- 
worn Franciscan; placing him on a bear-skui 

near the fire, he anointed his legs and the soles 
of his feet with wildcat oil. 

The son of the chief took great pleasure in car- 
rying upon his bare back the priest's robe with 
dead meu"s bones enveloped. It was called Pere 
Louis Chinnen. In the Dahkotah language Shln- 
na or Shinnan signifies a buffalo robe. 

Hennepiiis description of his hfe on the island 
is in these words : 

" The day after our arrival, Aquipaguetin, who 
was the head of a large family, covered me with 
a robe made of ten large dressed beaver skins, 
trimmed with porcupine quills. This Indian 
showed me five or six of his wives, telling them, 
as I afterwards learned, that they shoul'' in fu- 
ture regard me as one of their children. 

" He set before me a bark dish fidl of fish, and 
seeing that I could not rise from the ground, he 
had a small sweating-cabin made, in which he 
made me enter ■with four Indians. This cabin he 
covered with buffalo skins, and inside he put 
stones red-hot. He made me a sign to do as the 
others before beginning to sweat, but I merely 
concealed my nakedness with a handkerchief. 
As soon as tliese Indians had several times 
breathed out quite violently, he began to sing vo- 
ciferously, the others putting their hands on me 
and ndjbing me while they wept bitterly. I be- 
gan to faint, but I came out and could scarcely 
take my habit to put on. 'When he made me 
sweat thus three times a week, I felt as strong as 

The mariner's compass was a constant source 
of wonder and aiiiazcmcnt. Atiuipaguetin hav- 
ing assembled the braves, would ask Hennepin 
to sliow his conljiass. Perceiving that the needle 
turned, the chief harangued his men, and told 
them that the Europeans were spirits, capable of 
doing any thing. 

In the Franciscan's possession was an iron pot 
with feet like lions", which the Indians would not 
touch unless their hands were wrapped in buffalo 
skins. The women looked ii)>on it as "wakan," 
and would not enter the cabin where it was. 

" The chiefs of these savages, seeing that I was 
desirous to learn, freciuently made me write, 
naiiiliig all tlie parts of the liiiiiiau body ; and as 
I would not imt on paper certain indelicate words, 
at which they do not blush, they were heartily 



They often asked the Franciscan questions, to 
answer whicli it was necessary to refer to his lex- 
icon. Tliis appeared very strange, and, as they 
had no word for paper, tliey said, " Tliat white 
thing must be a spirit whlcli tells Pere Louis all 
we say." 

Hennepin remarks : " Tliese Intlians often 
asked me how many wives and children I had, 
and how old I was, that is, how many winters ; 
for so these natives always count. Xever illu- 
mined by the Ught of faith, they were surprised 
at my answer. Pointing to our two Frenchmen, 
whom I was then visiting, at a point three leagues 
from our village, I told them that a man among 
us could only have one wife ; that as for me, I 
had promised the Master of life to live as they 
saw me, and to come and live with them to teach 
them to be like the French. 

" But that gross people, till then lawless and 
faithless, turned all I said into ridicule. ' How," 
said they, ' would you have these two men with 
thee have wives? Ours would not live with them. 
for they have hair all over their face, and we have 
none there or elsewhere.' In fact, they were 
never better pleased with me than when I was 
shaved, and from a complaisance, certamly not 
criminal, I shaved every week. 

" As often as I went to visit the cabins, I found 
a sick child, whose father's name was Mamenisi. 
Michael Ako would not accompany me ; the 
Picard dii Gay alone followed me to act as spon- 
sor, or. rather, to witness the baptism. 

" I christened the child Antohiette, in honor of 
St. Anthony of Padua, as well as for the Picard's 
name, which was Anthony Auguelle. He was a 
native of Amiens, and nephew of the Procurator- 
General of the Premonstratensians both now at 
Paris. Having poured natural water on the head 
and uttered tliese words : ' Creature of God, I 
baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of 
tlie Son, and of the Holy Ghost,' I took half an 
altar cloth which I had vn-ested from the hands 
^f an Indian who liad stolen it from me, and put 
it on the body of the baptized child; for as I 
could not say mass for want of wine and vest^ 
ihents, this piece of linen eoidd not be put to bet- 
ter use than to enshroud the first Christian child 
among these tribes. I do not know whether tlie 
softness of the linen had refreshed her, but she 
was the next day smiling in her mother's arms, 

who believed that I had cured the chUd ; but she 
died soon after, to my great consolation. 

'• During my stay among them, there arrived 
foiu- savages, who said they were come alone five 
himtUed leagues from the west, and had been four 
months upon the way. They assured us there 
was no such place as the Straits of Anian, and 
that they had traveled without resting, except to 
sleep, and had not seen or passed over any great 
lake, by which phrase they always mean the sea. 

" They further informed us that the nation of 
the Assenipoulacs [Assiniboines] who lie nortli- 
east of Issati, was not above six or seven days' 
journey ; that none of the nations, within their 
knowledge, who he to the east or northwest, had 
any great lake about their countries, wliicli were 
very large, but only rivers, which came from the 
north. Tliey further assured us that there were 
very few forests in tlie countries through which 
they passed, insomuch that now and then they 
were forced to make fires of buffaloes' dung to 
boil their food. All these circumstances make it 
appear that there is no such place as the Straits 
of Anian, as we usually see them set down on the 
maps. And whatever efforts have been made for 
many yearn past by the EngUsli and Dutch, to 
find out a passage to the Frozen Sea, they have 
not yet been able to effect it. But by the help of 
my discovery aud tlie assistance of God. I doubt 
not but a passage may still be found, and that an 
easy one too. 

'• For example, we may be transported into the 
Pacific Sea by rivers wliich are large and capable 
of carrying great vessels, and frmn thence it is 
very easy to go to China and Japan, loithoiU cross- 
ing the equinoctial line; and, in all prohahihty, 
Japan, is on tlie same continent as America." 

Hennepin in his first book, thus describes his 
first visit to the Falls of St. Anthony : '• In the 
beginning of July. 1680, we descended the [Rum] 
River in a canoe southward, with the great chief 
Ouasicoude [Wauzeekootay] that is to say Pierced 
Pme, with about eighty cabins composed of more 
than a liimdred and thirty families and about 
tw'O hundred and fifty warriors. Scarcely would 
the Indians give me a place in their little flotilla, 
for they had only old canoes. They went fom- 
leagues lower down, to get birch bark to make 
some more. Having made a hole in the ground, 
to hide our silver chaUce and our papers, till our 



return from the liiint. and keeping only our bre- 
viary, so as not to be loaded, I stood on the bank 
of the lake formed by the river we had called St. 
Francis [now Hum] and stretched out my hand 
to the canoes as they rapidly passed in succession. 

'•Our Krenclmieu also liad one forthemselves. 
which the Indians had given them. They would 
not take me in, Michael Ako saying that he had 
taken me long enough to satisfy him. I was hurt 
at this answer, seeing myself thus abandoned by 
Christians, to whom I had always done good, as 
they both often acknowledged ; but God never 
having abamloned me on that painful voyage, in- 
spired two Indians to take me in their little 
canoe, where I had no other employment than to 
bale out with a little bark tray, the water which 
entered by little holes. This 1 did not do with- 
out getting all wet. This boat might, indeed, be 
called a death box, for its lightness and fragility. 
These canoes do not generally weigh over fifty 
pounds, the least motion of the body upsets them, 
unless you are long accustomed to that kind of 

'■ On disembarking in the evening, the I'icard. 
as an excuse, told me that tlieir canoe was half- 
rotten, and that had ve been three in it, vie 
sliould have run a great of remaining on the 
way. * * * Four days after our departure for 
the buffalo hunt, we halted eight leagues above 
St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, on an eminence 
opposite the mouth of tlie IJiver St. Francis] Rum] 
* * * The Picard and myself went to look for 
haws, gooseberries, and little wild fruit, wliicli 
often did us more harm than good. Tliis obliged 
us to go alone, as Michael Ako refused, in a 
wretched canoe, to Ouisconsui river, which was 
more than a liMiKbcd leagues oil, to see wlielher 
the Sieur de la Salle had sent to that place a re- 
inforcement of men. with powder, lead, ami 
other nniinlions, as lie had |ironiised us. 

"The Indians would ikjI lia\c suffered this 
voyage had not one of the llnee remained with 
them. They wished me to stay, but Michael 
Ako absolutely refused. As we were making tlic 
portage of our canoe at St. Anthony of Padua's 
Falls, we perceived live or six of our Indians who 
liad taken the start; one of them was uj) in an 
oak op|)osite the great fall, weei)ing bitterly, with 
a rich dressed beaver robe, whitened inside, and 
trimmed witli i)orcupine quills, which he was 

offering as a sacrifice to the falls; which is, in it- 
self, admirable and frightful, I heard him while 
shedding copious tears, say as he spoke to the 
great cataract, ' Thou who art a spirit, grant that 
our nation may pass here quietly, without acci- 
dent ; may kill buffalo in abundance ; conciuer 
our eueuiies, and bring in slaves, some of whom 
we will put to death before thee. The Messenec(iz 
(so they call the tiibe named by the French Outa- 
gamis) have killed our kindred ; grant that we 
may avenge them,' This robe offered in sacrifice, 
served one of our Frenchmen, who took it as we 

It is certaiidy wonderful, that Hennepin, who 
knew nothing of the Sioux language a few weeks 
before, should understand the prayer offered at 
the Falls without the aid of an interpreter. 

The narrator continues : " A league beyond 
St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, the Picard was 
obliged to land and get his powder horn, which he 
had left at the Falls. * * * As we descended 
the river Colbert [^Mississippi] we found some of 
our Indians on tlie islands loaded with buffalo 
meat, some of which they gave us. Two hours 
after landing, fifteen or sixteen warriors whom we 
had left above St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, en- 
tered, tomakawk in liand. upset tlie cabin of those 
who had in\ited us. took all the meat and bear 
oil they found, and greased themselves from head 
to foot," 

This was done because the others had violated 
the rules for the buffalo hunt. With the Indians 
Hennepin went down the river sixty leagues, and 
then «-ent up the river again, and met buffalo, 
lie continues : 

" Wliile seeking the Cuisconsin Kiver. that 
savage father. Aciuipaguctin. whom I had left, 
and who 1 liclicvcd more than two lauidred 
leagues off. ou the lltliof duly, Kiso. ai>peared 
with the warriors." After this, Hennepin and 
I'icard continued to go np the river almost eighty 

There is great confMsion here, as the reader 
will see. AVhen at the mouth of the Hum l{iver, 
he speaks of the \\iscorisin as more than a hun- 
dred leagues oft. lie Iloats down the river sixty 
leagues ; then he ascended, but does not state the 
distance; then he ascends eighly leagues. 

He continues : " The Indians whom he had left 
with Alichael Ako at PulTalo |('hiiipcway] Hiver, 



with the flotilla of canoes loaded wth meat, came 
down. * * * AH the Indian women had their 
stock of meat at tlie moutli of Buffalo River and 
on the islands, and again we went down the Col- 
bert [Mississippi] about eighty leagues. * ♦ * 
We had another alarm in our camp : the old men 
on duty on the top of the mountains ainiounced 
that they saw two warriors in the distance ; all 
the bowmen hastened lliere with speed, each try- 
ing to outstrip tlie others ; but they brought back 
only two of their enemies, who came to tell them 
that a party of their people were hunting at the 
extremity of Lake Conde [Superior] and had found 
four Spirits (so they call the French) who, by 
means of a slave, had expressed a wish to come 
on, knowing ns to be among them. * * * On 
the 25th of July, IbSO, as we were ascending the 
river Colbert, after the buffalo hunt, to the In- 
dian villages, we met Sieur du Luth. who came 
to the INadouessious with five French soldiers. 
They joined us about two hundred and twenty 
leagues distant from the country of the Indians 
who had taken us. As we had some knowledge 
of the language, they begged us to accompany 
them to the villages of these tribes, to which I 
readily agreed, knowing that these two French- 
men had not approached the sacrament for two 

Here again the number of leagues is confusing, 
and it is impossible to believe that Du Luth and 
his interpreter Faffart, who had been trading 
with the Sioux for more than a year, needed the 
help of Hennepin, who had been about three 
months with these people. 

AVe are not told by what route Hennepin and 
Du Lnth reached Lake Issati or Mille Lacs, but 
Hennepin says they arrived there on the lUh of 
August, 1680, and he adds. " Toward the end of 
September, having no implements to begin an 
establishment, we resolved to tell tliese people, 
that for tlieir benefit, we would have to return to 
the French settlements. The grand Chief of the 
Issati or Nadouessiouz consented, and traced in 
pencil on paper I gave him, the route I should 
take for four hundred leagues. With this chart, 
we set out, eight Frenchmen, in two canoes, and 
descended the river St. Francis and Colbert [Rum 
and ^Mississippi]. Two of owe men took two bea- 
ver robes at St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, which 
the Indians had hung in sacrifice on the trees." 

The second work of Hennepin, an enlargement 
of the first, appeared at I'trecht in the year 1697, 
ten years after La Salle's death. During the in- 
terval between the pid)lication of the first and 
second book, he had passed three years as Super- 
intendent of the Recollects at Reny in the province 
of Artois. when Fatlier Ilyacintli Lefevre, a friend 
of La Salle, and Conunissary Provincial of Recol- 
lects at Paris, wished him to returu to Canada. 
He refused, and was ordered to go to Rome, and 
upon his coming back was sent to a convent at 
St. Omer, and there received a dispatch from the 
Minister of State in France to return to the coun- 
tries of the King of Spain, of which he was a 
subject. This order, he asserts, he afterwards 
learned was forged. 

In the preface to the English edition of the 
Xew Discovery, published in lliys. in London, he 
writes : 

" The pretended reason of that violent order 
was because 1 refused to return into America, 
where I had been already eleven years ; though 
the particular laws of our Order oblige none of us 
to go beyond sea against his will. I would have, 
however, returned very willingly had I not known 
the malice of M. La Salle, who would have ex- 
posed me to perish, as he did one of the men who 
accompanied me in my discovery. God knows 
that I am sorry for his unfortunate death ; but 
the judgments of the Almighty are always just, 
for the gentleman was lulled by one of his own 
men, who were at last sensible that he exposed 
them to visible dangers without any necessity and 
for his private designs." 

After this he was for about five years at Gosse- 
lies, in Brabant, as Confessor in a convent, and 
from thence removed to his native place, Ath, in 
Belgium, where, according to his narrative in the 
preface to the " Kouveau Decouverte," he was 
again persecuted. Then Father Payez, Gnmd 
Commissary of Recollects at Louvaiu, being in- 
formed that the King of Spain and the Elector of 
Bavaria recommended the step, consented that 
he should enter the service of William the Third 
of Great Britain, who had been very kind to the 
Roman Catholics of Netherlands. By order of 
Payez he was sent to Antwerp to take the lay 
habit in the convent there, and subsequently 
went to Utrecht, where he finished his second 
book known as the New Discovery. 



His first volume, printed in 1683. contains 312 
pages, witli an appendix of 107 pages, on tlie 
Customs of tlie Savages, while the Utrecht book 
of 1697 contains oOf) pages without an appendix. 

On page 249 of the Xew Discovery, he begins 
an account of a voyage alleged to have been made 
to the moutli of the Mississippi, and occupies 
over sixty pages in tlie narrative. Tlie opening 
sentences give as a reason for concealing to this 
time his discovery, that La SaUe would have re- 
ported Irim to his Superiors for presuming to go 
down instead of ascending tlie stream toward the 
north, as had been agreed ; and that the two with 
him threatened that if he did not consent to de- 
scend the ri\'er, they would leave him on shore 
during the night, and pursue their own course. 

He asserts that he left the Gulf of Mexico, to 
return, on the 1st of April, and on the 24th left 
the Arkansas ; but a week after this, he declares 
he landed with the Sioux at the marsh about two 
miles below the city of Saint Paul. 

The account has been and is still a puzzle to 
the historical student. In our review of his first 
book we have noticed that as early as 16.S3. he 
claimed to have descended the .Mississippi. In 
the I'treeht publication he declares that while at 
Quebec, upon his return to France, he gave to 
Father Valentine Rmix. (!ommissary of Recol- 
lects, his journal, upon the iiromise tliat it would 
be kept secret, and tliat tliis Father made a copy 
of his whole voyage, including the visit to the 
(iulf of Mexico ; but in his Description of Louis- 
iana. IIeniiei)in wrote, " We had some design of 
going to tlie mouth of the river Colbert, wliich 
more probably empties into tlie Gulf of Me.xico 
than into the Red Sea, but the tribes that seized 
us gave us no time to sail up and down the river." 

Tlic additions in Ids Utrecht book to magnify 
liis importance and detract from others, are 
many. As Sparks and I'arkman have pointed 
out tlie |)lagiaiisms of tliis edition, a reference 
here is unnecessary. 

Du Lulli. who left (Quebec in 167.S. and had 
been in northern Minnesota, with an interpreter, 
for a year, alter lie met .\ko and Ilenneiiin. be- 
comes of secondary importance, in the eyes of 
the Franciscan. 

In the Description of Louisiana, on page 2S9. 
Hennepin speaks of jiassing Die l'"al]s of Saint 
Anthony, niion his reluin to ('ana<la. in tliese 

few words : ■• Two of our men seized two beaver 
robes at the Falls of St. Anthony of I'adua, 
which the Indians had in sacrifice, fastened to 
trees." But in the Utrecht edition, commencing 
on page 416, tliere is much added concerning Du 
Lnth. After using the language of the edition 
of 1683, already quoted it adds: '-Hereupon 
there arose a dispute l)etween Sieur du Luth and 
myself. I commended what they had done, say- 
ing, ' The savages might judge by it that they 
disliked the superstition of these people.' The 
Sieur du Luth, on the contrary-, said that they 
ought to have left the robes where the savages 
placed them, for they would not fail to avenge 
the insult we had put upon them by this action, 
and that it was feared that tliey would attack us 
on this journey. I confessed he had some foun- 
dation for what he said, and that he spoke accor- 
d'ng to the rules of prudence. But one of tlie 
two men flatly replied, the two robes suited them, 
and tliey cared nothuig for the savages and their 
superstitions. The Sieur du Luth at these words 
was so greatly enraged that he nearly struck the 
one who uttered them, but 1 intervened and set- 
tled the dispute. The Picard and Michael Ako 
ranged themselves on the side of those who had 
taken the robes in question, which might have 
resulted badly. 

" I argued with Sieur du Luth that the savages 
would not attack us. because I was per.suaded 
that their great chief Ouasiccuide would have our 
interests at heart, and he had great credit with 
his nation. The matter terminated pleasantly. 

" When we arrived near the river Ouisconsin, 
we halted to smoke tlie meat of the buf[alo we 
had killed on the journey. During our stay, three 
savages of the nation we had left, came by the 
side of our canoe to tell us that their great chief 
Ouasicoude, having learned that another chief of 
tliese people wislied to pursue and kill us, and 
that he entered the cabin wliere he was consult- 
ing, and had struck him on the head witli such 
violence as to scatter his brains upon his associ- 
ates; thus iireventing the executing of tliis inju- 
rious lirojeel. 

■■ W'v regaled tlie three savages, liaving a great 
aliinidance of food at that time. The Sieur du 
Luth. after the savages had left, was as enraged 
as before, and feared that they would )iursue and 
attack lis on our voyage. He would liave juished 



the matter further, hut seeing that one man would 
resist, and was not in tlie humor to he imposed 
upon, he moderated, and I appeased tliem in tlie 
end with the assurance that God would not aban- 
don us in distress, and, provided we confided in 
Ilim, he would deliver us frfim our foes, because 
He is the protector of men and angels."' 

After describing a conference with the Sioux. 
he adds, "Thus the savages were very kind, 
without mentioning the beaver robes. The chief 
Ouasicoude told me to offer a fathom of Marti- 
nico tobacco to the chief Aquipaguetin, who had 
adopted me as a son. This had an admirable 
effect upon the barbarians, who went off shouting 
several times the word ' Louis,' [Ouis or We] 
which, as he said, means the sun. Without van- 
ity, I must say that my name will be for a long 
time among these people. 

"The savages having left us, to go to war 
against the Messorites, the Maroha, the IlUnois, 
and other nations which live toward the lower 
part of the Mississippi, and are irreconcilable foes 
of the people of the North, the Sieur du Luth, 
who upon many occasions gave me marks of his 
friendship, could not forbear to tell our men that 
I had all the reason in the world to believe that 
the Viceroy of Canada would give me a favorable 
reception, should we arrive before winter, and 
that he wished with all his heart that he had been 
among as many natives as myself." 

The style of Louis Hennepin is unmistakable 
in this extract, and it is amusing to read his pa- 
tronage of one of the fearless explorers of the 
Northwest, a cousin of Tonty, favored by Fron- 
tenac, and who was in itiirmesota a year before 
his arrival. 

In 1691, six years before the Utrecht edition of 
Ileiniepin, another Recollect Franciscan had pub- 
Ushed a book at Paris, called " The First Estab- 
lishment of the Faith in New France," in which 
is the following tribute to Du Luth, whom Hen- 
nepin strives to make a subordinate : "In the last 
years of M. de Frontenac"s administration, Sieur 
DuLuth,a man of talent and experience, opened 
a way to the missionary and tlie Gospel in many 
different nations, turning toward the north of 
that lake [Superior] where he even built a fort, 
lie advanced as far as the Lake of the Issati, 
called Lake Buade, from the family name of M. 

de Frontenac, planting the arms of his Majesty 
in several nations on the right and left." 

In the second volume of his last book, which is 
called " A Continuance of the New Discovery of 
a vast Country in America," etc., Hennepin no- 
ticed some criticisms. 

To the objection that his work was dedicated 
to William the Third of Great Britain, he replies : 
" My King, his most Catholic Majesty, his Elec- 
toral Highness of Bavaria, the consent m writing 
of the Superior of my order, the integrity of my 
faith, and the regular observance of my vows, 
which his Britannic Majesty allows me, are the 
best warrants of the uprightness of my inten- 

To the query, how he could travel so far upon 
the Mississippi in so little time, he answers with 
a bold face, " That we may, with a canoe and a 
pair of oars, go twenty, twenty-flve, or thirty 
leagues every day, and more too, if there be oc- 
casion. And though we had gone but ten leagues 
a day, yet in thirty days we might easily have 
gone three hundred leagues. It during the time 
we spent from the river of the Illinois to the 
mouth of the Meschasipi, in the Gulf of Mexico, 
we had used a little more haste, we might have 
gone the same twice over." 

To the objection, that he said, he nad passed 
eleven years in America, when he had been there 
but about four, he evasively replies, that " reck- 
oning from the year 1674, when I first set out, to 
the year 168S, when I printed the second edition 
of my ' Louisiana,' it appears that I have spent 
fifteen years either in travels or printing my 

To those who objected to the statement in his 
first book, in the dedication to Louis the Four- 
teenth, that the Sioux always call the sun Louis, 
he writes : " I repeat what I have said before, 
that being among the Issati and Nadouessans, by 
whom I was made a slave in America, I never 
heard them call the sun any other than Louis. 
It is true these savages call also the moon Louis, 
but with this distinction, that they give the moon 
the name of Louis Bastache, which in their lan- 
guage signifies, the sun that shines in the night." 

The Utrecht edition called forth much censure, 
and no one in France doubted that Hennepin 
was the author. DTberville, Governor of Lou- 
isiana, while in Paris, wrote on July 3d 1699, to 



the ilinister of ilarine and Colonies of France. 
in these words : " Very much vexed at tlie Rec- 
ollect, whose false narratives had deceived every 
one. and caused our suffering and total failure of 
our enterprise, by the time consumed in the 
search of things w'hich alone existed in his imag- 

The Rev. Fallier James Gravier. in a letter 
from a fort on the (Julf of Mexico, near the iSIis- 
sissippi. dated February Ifitli. 1701, expressed the 
sentiment of liis limes when he speaks of Hen- 
nepin " wlio presented to King William, the Rela- 
tion of the Mississippi, where he never was, and 
after a thousand falsehoods and ridiculous boasts, 

* * * he makes Mr. de la Salle appear in his 
Relation, wounded with two balls in the head, 
turn toward the Recollect Father Anastase, to 
ask him for absolution, having been killed in- 
stantly, without uttering a word ■ and other like 
false stories." 

Hennepin gradually faded out of sight. Bru- 
iiet mentions a letter written by J. B. Dubos, 
from Rome, dated March 1st, 1701, which men- 
tions that Hennepin was living on the Capitoline 
Hill, in the celebrated convent of Ara Coeli. and 
was a favorite of Cardinal Spada. The time and 
place of his death has not been ascertained. 





Early Life. — Searches for Copper.— Interpreter at Sault St. Marie, Employeil l>y 
La Salle.— Btfilils Stocltade ut L:ike Pepin. — Hosiite Indians Relinked. —A 
Silver Ostensorium Given to a Jesuit Cliapel.— Perrot in the Battle aeainst 
Senec:is, in New York.— Second Visit to Sioux Country — Taking Possession by 
"Proces Verlial." — Discovery of Lead Mines. — Attends Council at Montreal. — 
Establislies a Post near Detroit, in Michigan.— Perrofs Death, and his Wife. 

Nicholas Perrot, sometimes written Pere, was 
one of tlie most energetic of the class in Canada 
known as ■•coureurs des bois," or forest rangers. 
Born in Ii)-14, at an early age he was identified 
with the fur trade of the great inland lakes. As 
early as lUGo, he was among the Outagamies 
[Foxes], and in 1667 was at Green Bay. In 1669, 
he was appointed by Talon to go to the lake re- 
gion in search of copper mines. At Uie formal 
taking possession of that country in the name of 
the King of France, at Sault St. Marie, on the 
14th of May, liiTl, he acted as interpreter. In 
1677, he seems to have lieen employed at Fort 
Frontenac. La Salle was made very sick the 
next year, from eating a salad, and one Nicholas 
Perrot, called Joly Cceur (Jolly Soul) was sus- 
pected of ha'.ing mingled poison with the food. 
After this he .was associated with Dii Lnth in 
the execution of .two Indians, as we have seen. 
In 1684, he was appointed by IJe la Barre, the 
Governor of Canada, as Commandant for the 
West, and left Montreal with twenty men. Ar- 
riving at Green Bay in Wisconsin, some Indians 
told him that they had visited countries toward 
the setting sun, where they obtained the blue 
and green stones suspended from their ears and 
noses, and that they saw horses and men like 
Frenchmen, probably the Spaniards of New Mex- 
ico ; and others said that they had obtained hatch- 
ets from persons who lived in a house that walked 
on the water, near the mouth of the river of the 
Assiniboines, alluding to the English established 
at Hudson's Bay. Proceeding to the portage be- 
tween the Fox and Wisconsin, thirteen Ilurons 
were met, who were bitterly opposed to the es- 
tablishment of a post near the Sioux. After the 

Mississippi was reached, a party of Winnebagoes 
was employed to notify the tribes of Northern 
Iowa that the French had ascended the river, 
and wished to meet tliem. It was further agreed 
that prairie fires would be kmdled from time to 
time, so that the Indians could follow the French. 

After entering Lake Pepin, near its mouth, on 
the east side, Perrot found a place suitable for a 
post, where there was wood. The stockade was 
built at the foot of a bluff beyond which was a 
large prairie. La Potherie makes this statement, 
which is repeated by Penicaut, who writes of 
Lake Pepui : "To the right and left of its shores 
there are also prairies. In that on the right on 
the bank of the lake, there is a fort, which was 
built by Nicholas Perrot, whose name it yet [1700] 

Soon after he was established, it was announced 
that a band of Aiouez [loways] was encamped 
above, and on the way to visit the post. The 
French ascended in canoes to meet them, but as 
they drew nigh, the Indian women ran up the 
bluffs, and hid in the woods ; but twenty of the 
braves mustered courage to advance and greet 
Perrot, and bore him to the chief's lodge. The 
chief, bending over Perrot, began to weep, and 
allowed the moisture to fall upon his visitor. 
After he had exhausted himself, the principal 
men of the party repeated the slabl.ierhig process. 
Then buffalo tongues were boiled in an earthen 
pot, and after being cut into small pieces, the 
.chief took a piece, and, as a mark of respect, 
placed it in Perrot's mouth. 

During the winter of 1684-85, the French tra- 
ded in Minnesota. 

At the end of the beaver hunt, the Ayoes 
[loways] came to the post, but Perrot was absent 
visiting the Nadouaissioux. and they sent a chief 
to notify him of their arrival. Four Illinois met 
him on the way, and were anxious for the return 
of four children held by the French. When the 



Sioux, who were at war with the Illinois, per- 
ceived them, they wished to seize their canoes, 
but the Frencli voyageurs wlio were Knai'ding 
them, pushed into the middle of tlie river, and 
tlie French at the post coming to their assistance, 
a reconciliation was effected, and four of the 
Sioux took the Illinois upon their shoulders, and 
l)ore them to the shore. 

An order having been received from Denon- 
ville. Governor of Canada, to bring the Miamis. 
and other tribes, to the rendezvous at Niagara, 
to go on an expedition against the Senecas, Per- 
rot entrusting the i)ost at Lake Pepin to a few 
Frenchmen, visited the Miamis, who were dwel- 
ling lielow on the Mississippi, and with no guide 
but Indian camp lires. went sixty miles into the 
country beyond the river. 

Upon his return, he perceivea a great smoke, 
and at first thought that it was a war party pro- 
ceeding to the Sioux country. Fortunately he 
met a Ma.skouten chief, who had been at the post 
to see him. and he gave the intelligence, that the 
Outagamies [Foxes]. Kikapous [Kickapoos]. and 
.Mascoutechs [MaskoulensJ. and olli("rs. from the 
region of Green Hay, had determined to pillage 
the post, kill the French, and then go to war 
against the Sioux. Hurrying on. he reached the 
fort, and learned that on that very day three 
spies ha<l been there and seen that there were 
oidy six Frenchmen in charge. 

The next day two more spies apiwared. but 
I'errot had taken the precaution to put loaded 
guns at the door of each hut, and caused liis men 
fre()uently to change their clothes. To the query. 
• llow many Fiencli weie there?" the reply was 
given, " Forty, and that more were daily expected, 
who had been on a Imffalo hmit. and that the 
guns were well loaded and knives well sharpened." 
They were then told to go back to their camp 
and bring a chief of each nation rei)re.sented, and 
that if Indians, in large numbers, came near, they 
would l>e lired at. In accordance with this mes- 
sage six chiefs presented themselves, After their 
bows and arrows were taken away they were in- 
vited to I'errofs cabin, who gave something to 
i-al and tobacco to smoke. Looking at I'errofs 
loaded gims they asked. '• If he was afraid of liis 
rhildrenV" He replied, he was not. They con- 
tinued, " Von are dis])leased." He answered, 
" I have good reason t( I be. The Spirit has wanied 

me of your designs; you will take my things 
away and put me in the kettle, and proceed 
against the Nadoiiaissioux. The Spirit told me 
to be on my guard, and he would help me." At 
this they were astonished, and confessed that an 
attack was meditated. That night the chiefs 
slept in the stockade, and early the next morn- 
ing a part of the hostile force was encamped in 
the vicinity, and wished to trade. Perrot had 
now only a force of fifteen men. and seizing the 
chiefs, he told them he would break their heads 
if they did not disperse the Indians. One of the 
chiefs then stood up on the gate of the fort and 
said to the warriors. " Do not advance, young 
men. or you are dead. The Spirit has warned 
Metaminens[PerrotJ of your designs." They fol- 
lowed the advice, and afterwards Perrot present- 
ed them with two guns, two kettles, and some 
tobacco, to close the door of war against the Na- 
(louaissioux, and the chiefs were all permitted to 
make a brief visit to the post. 

Returning to Green Bay in 16S6, he passed much 
time in collecting allies for the exi>edition against 
the Iro()uois in Xew York. During iliis year he 
gave to the Jesuit chapel at Dcpcre. live miles 
above (Jreen Bay. a church utensil of silver, lif- 
teen inches high, still in existence. The stand- 
ard, nine inches in height, supports a radiated 
circlet closed with glass on both sides and sur- 
mounted with a cross. This vessel, weighing 
about twenty ounces, was intended to show the 
consecrated wafer of the mass, and is called a 
soleil, monstrance, or ostensorium. 

.V round the oval base of the rim is the follow- 
ing inscription: 









In 1SII2 some wurkincii in digging at (Jreen 
Hay, Wisconsin, on (lie old Langlade e.state dis- 



covered tliis relic, which is now kept in tlie vault 
of the Roman Catholic bishop of that diocese. 

During the spring of 1687 Perrot, witli l)e Lu- 
th and Tonty, was witli tlie Indian allies and the 
French in the expedition against the Senecas of 
the Genessee Valley in New York. 

The next year Denonville, Governor of Canada, 
again sent Perrot with forty Frenchmen to the 
Sioux who, says Potherie, " were very distant, 
and who would not trade with us as easily as 
the other tribes, the Outagamis [Foxes] having 
boasted of having cut off the passage thereto." 

When Perrot arrived at Mackinaw, the tribes 
of that region were much excited at the hostility 
of the Outagamis [Foxes] toward the Sauteurs 
[Chippeways]. As soon as Perrot and his party 
reached Green Bay a deputation of the Foxes 
sought an interview. lie told them that he had 
nothing to do with this quarrel with the Chippe- 
ways. In justification, they said that a party of 
their young men, in going to war against the 
Nadouaissioux, had found a young man and three 
Chippeway girls. 

Perrot was silent, and continued his journey 
towards the Nadouaissioux. Soon he was met by 
five chiefs of the Foxes in a canoe, wlio begged 
him to go to their village. Perrot consented, and 
when he went into a chiefs lodge they placed be- 
fore him broiled venison, and raw meat for the 
rest of the French. He refused to eat because, 
said he, " that meat did not give him any spirit, 
but he woulu take some when the Outagamis 
[Foxes] were more reasonable." He then eluded 
them for not having gone, as requested by the 
Governor of Canada, to the Detroit of Lake 
Erie, and during the absence of the French fight- 
ing with the Chippeways. Having ordered them 
to go on their beaver hunt and only fight against 
the Iroquois, he left a few Frenchmen to trade 
and proceeded on his journey to the Sioux coun- 
try. Arriving at the portage between the Fox and 
Wisconsin Rivers they were impeded by ice, but 
with the aid of some Pottawattomies they trans- 
ported their goods to the AVisconsin. which they 
found no longer frozen. The Chippeways were 
informed that their daughters had been taken 
from the Foxes, and a deputation came to take 
them back, but being attacked by the Foxes, who 
did not know their errand, they fled without se- 
curing the three girls. Perrot then ascended the 

Mississippi to the post which in 1684 he had 
erected, just above the mouth, and on the east 
side of Lake Pepin. 

As soon as the rivers were navigable, the Na- 
douaissioux came down and escorted Perrot to 
one of their villages, where he was welcomed 
witli much enthusiasm. He was carried upon a 
beaver robe, followed by a long line of warriors, 
each bearing a pipe, and singing. After taking 
him around the village, he was borne to the chief's 
lodge, when several came in to weep over his head, 
with the same tenderness that the Ayoes (loways) 
dill, when Perrot several years before arrived at 
Lake Pepin. '• These weepings," says an old 
chronicler " do not weaken their soids. They are 
very good warriors, and reported the bravest in 
that region. They are at war with all the tribes 
at present except the Saulteurs [Cliippeways] and 
Ayoes [loways], and even with these they have 
quarrels. At the break of day the Nadouaissioux 
bathe, even to the youngest. Tliey have very fine 
forms, but the women are not comely, and they 
look upon them as slaves. They are jealous and 
suspicious about them, and they are the cause 
of quarrels and blood-shedding. 

" The Sioux are very dextrous with their ca- 
noes, and they fight unto deatli if surroiuuled, 
Their country is full of swamps, which shelter 
them in summer from being molested. One must 
be a Nadouaissioux, to find the way to their vil- 

While Perrot was absent in New York, fightr 
ing the Senecas, a Sioux chief knowing that few 
Frenchmen were left at Lake Pepin, came with 
one hundred warriors, and endeavored to pillage 
it. Of this complaint was made, and the guilty 
leader was near being put to death by his associ- 
ates. Amicable relations having been formed, 
preparations were made by Perrot to return to 
his post. As they were going away, one of the 
Frenchmen complained that a box of his goods 
had been stolen. Perrot ordered a voyageur to 
bring a cup of water, and into it he po\ired some 
brandy. He then addressed the Indians ajid told 
them he would dry up their marshes if the goods 
were not restored; and then he set on fire the 
brandy in the cup, The savages were astonished 
and terrilied, and supposed that he possessed su- 
pernatural powers ; and in a little while the goods 



were found and restored to the owner, and the 
French descended to their stockade. 

The Foxes, while Perrot was in the Sioux 
country, chanseii their village, and settled on the 
Alississippi. Coniiiif; u\< to visit I'erml. tliey 
asked liim to establisli friendly relations lietween 
them and the Sioux. At the time some Sioux 
were at the jiost tradiufi furs, and at first they 
supposed the French were plotting with the 
Foxes. Peri-ot. however, eased them by lu-esenl- 
ing the calumet and saying that the French con- 
sidered tlie Oiitagamis [Foxes] as brothers, and 
tlieii adduig: ■•Smoke in my ]>ii)e; this is the 
manner with which Onoutio [(iovenior of Can- 
a<la] feeds his children." The Sioux replied that 
they wislied the Foxes to smoke first. This was 
reluctantly done, and the Sioux smoked, but 
would not conclude a definite i)eace until they 
consulted their chiefs. This was not concluded, 
because Perrot. before the chiefs came down, 
received orders to return to Canada. 

About this tinic. iii the presence of Father Jo- 
8ei)h James JMarest. a Jesuit missionary. Hoisguil- 
lot. a trader on the Wisconsin and Mississippi. Lc 
Sueur, who afterward built a post below the Saint 
Croix Kiver. about nhie miles fmm Hastings, the 
following document was prepared: 

" Nicholas Perrot. commanding for the King at 
the post of the Xadouessioux. commLssioned by 
the .Marquis Denonville. (iovernor and Lieuten- 
ant tiovenior of all New France, to manage the 
interests of commerce among all the Indian tribes 
and jjcople of the Hay des Puants [Green Bay]. 
Nadouessioux. .Mascoutens. ami other western na- 
tions of the rjijier ilississippi. auil to lake pns- 
sessiou in the King's name of all the ]ilaccs wlieri' 
lie has lieretotore been and wliillicr he will go: 

" We this day. the eighth of .May. one thousand 
six hundred and eighty-nine, do. in the presence 
of the Heverend Father Marest. of the Society of 
Jesus, Jlissionary auiong the Xadouessl<iux, of 
Alonsieurde IJoisguiJIot. commandiMg the French 
in the neighborhood of tlu^ Ouiskonche. ou tlie 
Mississippi, Aiigustin Legardeur, Ksipiire. Sieiir 
de Caumout. and of Messieum Le Sueur. Ilcbert. 
Lemire and lilcin. 

"Declare to all whom it may concern, that, be- 
ing come from the Hay fles I'uiuits. ami to the 
Lake of the ()uiskou<'hes. we did Iransjxirt our- 
selves to the country of the Nadouessioux, on the 

border of the river St. Croix, and at the mouth 
of the river St. Pierre, on the bank of which were 
the Mantantans. and further up to the interior, 
as far as the Mem-hokalonx [.Med-ay-wah-kawn- 
twawn]. with whom dwell the majority of the 
Songeskitons [Se-see-twawnsJ and other Xadou- 
essioux who are to the northwest of the ^lissis- 
sippi. to take )iossession. for and in the name of 
the King, of the countries and rivet's inhabited by 
the said trilies. and of which they are proprietors. 
The present act done in our presence, signed with 
our hand, and subscribe(l."" 

The three Chipi)eway girls of whom mention 
has been made were still with the Foxes, and 
Perrot took them with hiui to Mackniaw. uiiou 
his retinii to Canada. 

A\liile there, tlie ( )tt a was held some prisoners 
upon an island not far from the mainland. The 
.Jesuit Fathers went over and tiied to save the 
captives from harsh treatment, but were unsuc- 
cessfid. The canoes appeared at length near each 
other, one man iiaddling in each, while the war- 
riors were answering the shouts of the prisoners, 
who each held a white stick in his hand. As 
they neared the shore the chief of the party made 
a sjieech to the Indians who lived on the shore, 
and giving a hi.story of the camiiaign. told them 
that they were masters of the inisoners. The 
warriors then came on land. and. according to 
custom, abandoned the spoils. An old man then 
ordered nine men to conduct the i)risoners to a 
sei)arate place. The women and the young men 
formed a line with big sticks. 'J'lie young pris- 
oners soon found their feel, but the old men were 
so badly used they spat blood, and they were con- 
dcinnril lo lii' liurni'cl al Uie .Maniilion. 

The Jesuit Fathers and the French ollicers 
were much embarrassed, and fear(>(l thai the Iro- 
quois would complain of tlic little care wliicli had 
been used to )iir\cnl cruelly. 

Perrot. in this emcrifencN . walkid to the iilai'c 
where the iirisoners were singing the death dirge. 
in ex]ieclalion of being buiiu'il. and told them to 
sit down anil be silent. A few Otiauwaws rudely 
tolil them to sing on. but Perrot forbade. He 
then went back to the Council, where the old men 
had rendercil jndL'Uiciil . and ordered one iirisoner 
to be burned at .Mackinaw . oni' al Sanlt St. Marie 
and anothi-r al (ireen Hay. rndaunted he spoke 
as follows: " 1 cimie lo cut the strings of the 



dogs. I will not suffer them to be eaten . I have 
pity on them, since my Father, Onontio, has com- 
manded me. You Outaouaks [OttawawsJ are 
like tame bears, who will not recognize them who 
has brought them up. You have forgotten Onon- 
tio's protection. When he asks your obedience, 
you want to rule over him. and eat the flesh of 
those children he does n(.>t wish to give to you. 
Take care, that, if oyu swallow them, Onontio 
will tear them with violence from between your 
teeth. I speak as a brother, and I think I am 
showing pity to your children, by cutting the 
bonds of your prisoners." 

His boldness had the desired effect. The pris- 
oners were released, and two of them were sent 
with him to Montreal, to be returned to the Iro- 

On the 22nd of May, 1690, with one hundred 
and forty-three voyageurs and six Indians, Fer- 
ret left Montreal as an escort of Sieur de Lou- 
vigny La Forte, a half-pay captain, appointed to 
succeed Durantaye at Mackinaw, by Frontenac, 
the new Governor of Canada, who in October of 
the previous year had arrived, to take the place 
of Denouville. 

Perrot, as he approached Mackinaw, went in 
advance to notify the French of the coming of 
the commander of the post. As he came in siglit 
of the settlement, he hoisted the white flag with 
the fleur de lis and the voyageurs shouted, '• Long 
live the king! " Louvigny soon appeared and was 
received by one hundred " coureur des bois " 
imder arms. 

From Mackinaw, Ferrot proceeded to Green 
Bay, and a party of Miainis there begged him to 
make a trading establishment on tlie Mississippi 
towards the Ouiskonsing (Wisconsin.) Thecliief 
made him a present of a piece of lead from a 
mine which he had found in a small stream which 
flows into the ilississippi. Ferrot promised to 
visit him within twenty days, and the cliief tlien 
returned to his village below the d'Ouiskonche 
(iWsconsin) River. 

Having at length reached his post on Lake 

Fepin, he was Informed that the Sioux were 

forming a large war party against the Outaga- 

mis (Foxes) and other aUies of the French. He 

gave notice of bis arrival to a party of about four 

hundred Sioux who were on the Mississippi. 

They arrested the massengers and came to tlie 
post for the purpose of plunder. Perrot asked 
them why they acted in this manner, and said 
that the Foxes, Jliamis, Kickapoos, Illinois, and 
Alaskoutens had united in a war party against 
them, but that he had persuaded them to give it 
up, and now he wished them to return to their 
families and to their beaver. The Sioux declared 
that they had started on the war-path, and that 
they were ready to die. After they had traded 
their furs, they sent for Ferrot to come to their 
camp, and begged that he would not hinder them 
from seai'ching for their foes. Perrot tried to dis- 
suade them, but they insisted that the Spirit had 
given them men to eat, at three days' journey 
from the post Then more powerful influences 
were used. After giving them two kettles and 
some merchandise, Poerrt spoke thus: " I love 
your life, and I am sure you will be defeated. 
Yoiu- Evil Spirit has deceived you. If you kill 
the Outagamis, or their allies, you must strike me 
first; if you kill them, you kill me just the same, 
for I hold them under one wing and you under 
the other." After this he extended the calumet, 
which they at first refused; but at length a chief 
said he was right, and, making invocations to the 
sun, wished Ferrot to take him back to his arms. 
Tliis was granted, on condition that he would 
give up his weapons of war. Tlie chief then tied 
them to a pole in the centre of the fort, tin-ning 
them toward the sun. He then persuaded the 
other chiefs to give up the expedition, and, send- 
ing for Perrot, he placed the calumet before him, 
one end in the earth aud the other on a small 
forked twig to hold it firm. Then he took from 
his own sack a pair of his cleanest moccasins, and 
taking off Perrot's shoes, put on these. After he 
had made him eat, presenting the calumet, lie 
said: " We listen to you now. Do for us as you 
do for our enemies, aud prevent them from kill- 
ing us, and we will separate for the beavei- hunt. 
The sun is the witness of our obedience." 

After this, Ferrot descended the Mississippi 
and revealed to the Maskoutens, who had come to 
meet him, how he had pacified the Sioux. He, 
about this period, in accordance witli lii.s prom- 
ise, visited the lead mines. He found the ore 
abundant " but the lead hard to work because it 
lay between rocks which required blowing up. 
It had very little dross and was easily melted." 



Penicaut, who ascended the Mississippi in 1700, 
WTOte that twenty leagues below the Wisconsin, 
on both sides of tlie Mississippi, were mines of 
lead called " Nicolas Perrofs." Early French 
maps indicate as the locality of lead mines the 
site of modem towns, Galena, in Illmois, and Du- 
bnqiie. in Iowa. 

In August. Ii)!t8. about two hundred French- 
men from Mackinaw, with delegates from the 
tribes of the West, arrived at Montreal to at- 
tend a grand council called by Governor Fronte- 
nac, and among these was Perrot. 

On the .Sunday in .Sei)tember the ginernor 

gave the Indians a great feast, after which they 
and the traders began to return to the wilder- 
ness. Perrot was ordered by Frontenac to es- 
tablish a new post for the IMiamis in ^Michigan, 
in the neighborhood of the Kalamazoo River. 

Two years later he is present again, m August, 
at a council in ^loiitreal, then returned to the 
"West, and in 1099 is recalled from Green Bay. 
In 1701 he was at Montreal acting as interpreter, 
and appears to have died before 1718: his wife 
was iladeline llaclos, and his residence was in 
the Seigneury of Becancourt, not far from Three 
Rivers, on the St. Lawrence. LA HONTAN'S FABULOUS VUl'AOi:. 




La Hoiitan, a G.-wcon by Birth, — Early Life.— Description of Vox ami Wisconsin 
Rivers —Indian Feast.— Alleged Ascent of Long River.- Bobe Exposes the 
Deception.— Route to the Pacific. 

The " Travels" of Baron La Hontan appeared 
in A. D. 1703. both at London and at ILigiie, and 
were as salealjle and readable as those of Ilemiepin, 
which were on the counters of booksellers at the 
same time. 

La Hontan, a Gascon by Ijirth, and in style of 
writing, when about seventeen years of age, ar- 
rived in Canada, in 1683, as a private soldier, and 
was with Gov. L)e la Barre in his expedition of 
1684, toward Niagara, and was also in the battle 
near Rochester, New York, in 1687, at which Du 
Lnth and Perrot, explorers of Minnesota, were 

In 1688 he appears to have been sent to Fort 
St. Joseph, which was built by Du Luth, on the 
St. Clare River, near the site of Fort Gratiot, 
Michigan. It is possible that he may have accom- 
panied Perrot to Lake Pepin, who came about 
this time to reoccupy liis old post. 

From the following extracts it will be seen that 
his style is graphic, and that he probably had been 
in 1688 in the valley of the Wisconsin. At Mack- 
inaw, after his return from his pretended voyage 
of the Long River, he writes: 

" I left here on the 24th September, with my 
men and five Outaouas, good hunters, whom I 
have before mentioned to you as having been of 
good service to me. All my brave men being 
provided with good canoes, filled with provisions 
and ammunition, together with goods for the In- 
dian trade, I took advantage of a north wind, and 
in three days entered the Bay of the Pouteouata- 
mis, distant from here about forty leagues. The 
entrance to the bay is full of islands. It is ten 
leagues wide and twenty-five in length. 

" On the 29th we entered a river, which is quite 
deep, whose waters are so affected by the lake 
that they often rise and fall three feet in twelve 

hours. Tliis is an observation that I made dur- 
ing these three or four days that I passed here. 
The Sakis, the Poutouatamis, and a few of the 
Malominis have their villages on the border of this 
river, and the Jesuits have a house there. In the 
place there is carried on quite a commerce in furs 
and Indian corn, which the Indians tratBc with 
the ' coureurs des bois' that go and come, for it is 
their nearest and most convenient passage to the 

" The lands here are very fertile, and produce, 
almost without culture, the wheat of our Europe, 
peas, beans, and any quantity of fruit imknown 
in France. 

" The moment I landed, the warriors of three 
nations came by turns to my cabin to entertain 
me with the pipe and chief dance ; the first m 
proof of peace and friendship, the second to indi- 
cate their esteem and consideration for me. In 
retiu-n, I gave them several yards of tobacco, and 
beads, with which they trimmed their capots. The 
next morning, I was asked as a guest, to one of 
the feasts of this nation, and after having sent my 
dishes, which is the custom, I went towards noon. 
They began to compliment me of my arrival, and 
after hearing them, they all, one after the other, 
began to sing and dance, in a manner that I will 
detail to you when I have more leisure. These 
songs and dances lasted two hours, and were sea- 
soned with whoops of joy, and qinbbles that they 
have woven into their ridiculous musique. Then 
the captives waited upon us. The whole troop 
were seated in the Oriental custom. Each one 
had his portion Ijefore him, like our monks in 
their refectories. They commenced by placing 
four dishes before me. The first consisted of two 
wliite fish simply boiled in water. The second 
was chopped meats with the boiled tongue of a 
bear ; the third a beaver's tail, all roasted. They 
made me drink also of a synip, mixed with water, 
made out of the maple tree. The feast lasted two 



ho\irs, after wliieli, I requested a chief of the 
nation to sing for me ; for it is the custom, when 
we have business with them, to employ an inferior 
for self in all the ceremonies they iierfonu. I 
gave him several jiieces of lohaceo, to oblige him 
to keep the i>art y till ilark. The next day and the 
day following. I attended the feasts of the other 
nations, where I observed the same formalities." 

lie alleges that, on the 23d of October, he 
reached the Mississippi River, and, ascending, on 
the 3d of November he entered into a river, a 
tributary from the west, that was almost without 
a current, and at its mouth filled with rushes. 
lie then describes a journey of five hundred miles 
up this stream. He declares he found upon its 
banks three great nations, the Eokoros, Ivssa- 
napes, and Gnacsitares, and because he ascended 
it for sixty days, he named it Long TJiver. 

For years his wondrous story wasljelieved. and 
geographers hastened to trace it upon theii' maps. 
But in time tlie voyage up the Long River was 
discovered to be a fabrication. There is extant 
a letter of Hobe, a l^riest of the Congregation of 
the Mission, dated Versailles. March lo, 1710, and 
addressed to De L'Isle, the geographer of the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris, which exposes the 

He writes: " It seems to me that you might 
give tlie name of Bourbonia to these vast conn- 
tries which are between the Missotni. Mississijipi, 
and the Western Ocean. Would it not be welj to 
effaj'e that great river which La Ilontan says he 

" All the Canadians, and even the Governor 
General, liave told me that this river is unknown. 
If it existed, the French, wlio are on llie Illinois. 
and at Ouabaclie, would know of it. Tlie last 
volume of the ' Lettrcs Kdiliantes' of the Jesuits, 
in which tliere is a very lirie relation of the Illinois 
Country, does not speak of it, any more than the 
letters which I received this year, wliicli tell won- 
ders of the beauty and goodness of llie country. 
They send nie some quite pretty work, made by 
tlie wife of one of the principal chiefs. 

'•Tliey tell me. that among tlie Siioux, of the 
Mississippi, tliere are always I'lciichnicn trading: 
that the course oi Ihc Mississipiii is from udilh 
to west, and from west to south; that it is known 
thai toward thi^ source of Dw .Mississippi there is 
a river iu the highlands that leads tu the western 

ocean; that the Indians say that they liave seen 
bearded men with caps, who gather gold-dust on 
the seashore, but that it is very far from this 
country, and that they pass through many nations 
unknown to the French. 

•• I have a memoir of La Motte Cadillac, furm- 
erly Governor of ^lissilimackinack. who says that 
if St. Peters [ilinnesotaj Uiver is ascended to its 
source they will, according to all appearance, find 
in the highland another river leading to the West- 
ern Ocean. 

" For the last two years I have tormented 
exceedingly the Governor-tieneral, M. Raudot, 
and M. Duche, to move them to discover this 
ocean. If I succeed, as I hope, we shall hear 
tidings before three years, and 1 shall have the 
pleasure and the consolation of having rendered 
a good service to Geography, to Religion and to 
the Stotc." 

Charlevoix, in his History of New France, al- 
ludmg to La lIontan"s voyage, writes: " The 
voyage up the Long River is as fabulous as the 
Island of Barrataria, of which Sanclio Panza was 
governor. Nevertheless, in i'rauce and else- 
where, most people have received these memoirs 
as the fruits of the travels of a gentleman who 
wrote badly, altliougli ijuite lightly, and who had 
no religion, but who described pretty sincerely 
what he had seen. The consequence is that the 
comi>ilers of historical and geographical diction- 
aries have almost always followed and cited them 
in preference to more faithful records." 

Even in modern times, Nicollet, emiiloycil by 
the United Slates to explore the I'ppcr Mississ- 
ipiii. has the following in his rejiort: 

"Having procured a copy of La Ilontan's 
book, in which there is a roughly made map of 
his Long River, I was stnick with the resem- 
blance of its course as laid down with that of 
Cannon River, which I had previously sketched 
in my own lield-book. I .soon convinced myself 
that the i)rincipal statements of the Baron in rcf- 
I'leiice to the country and the few details he gives 
111' the physical character of the tlir river, coin- 
cide remarkably with what I had laid down as 
bi'longing to Cannon Hivcr. Tlieii the lakes and 
swamps corrcsiMinilcd; traces of IndJan villages 
menlioni'd by him miglit be found by a growth 
of wild grass that jiiopagates itself around all old 
Indian settlemenUs." 





U Sueur Visits lake Pcpin.-Stationed nl la Pointc-EstaMishes a Post on an 
Island Above Lake Pepin. -Island Described by Fenicant.-Kirsl S onx Chief 
at Montreal.-Ojibway Chiefs- Si.eeches.-Speecli of Sioux Chief-Teeoskah- 
tny's Death.— Le Sneur Goes to France.— Posts West of Mackinaw Abandoned 
— Le Sueur's License Revoked.— Second Visit to France- Arrives in Gulf of 
Mexico with D'Iber\ille.— Ascends the Mississippi.— Lead Mines.— Canadians 
Fleeing from the Sioux.— At the Mouth of the Wisconsin.— Sioux Robbers,— Elk 
Hunting.- Lake Pepin Described — Rattlcsnakes.-U Place Killad.— St. Croix 
River Named After a Frenchman.— Lc Sueur Reaches St. Pierre, now Minne- 
sota River— Enters Mankahto, or Blue Earth. River.- Sioux of the Plains.— 
Fort L'Uuillier Completed.— Conferences with Sioux Bands — Assinaboines a 
Separated Sioux Band.-An Indian Feast. -Names of the Sioux Bands.-Char- 
levoix's Account.-Le Sueur Goes with D'Iberville to France.-D'IberviUe's 
Memorial.- Early Census ol Indian Tribes. —Prnicaufs Account of Fort L'Huil 
lier.-Le Sueur's Departure from the Fort.-D'Evacie Lett in Oiarge.- Return' 
to Mobile —Juchereau at Mouth of Wisconsin. -Bondor a Montreal Merchant — 
Sioux Attack Miainis.— Boudor Robbed by the Sioux. 

Le Sueur was a native of Canada, and a rela- 
tive of D'lbendlle, tlie early Governor of Louis- 
iana. He came to Lake Pepin in 1683, ■\vitli 
Nicholas Perrot, and his name also appears at- 
tached to the document prepared in i\Iay, 1689, 
after Perrot had re-occupied his post just above 
the entrance of the lake, on the east side. 

In 1692, he was sent by Governor Frontenac of 
Canada, to La Pointe, on Lake Superior, and in a 
dispatch of 1693, to the French Government, is 
the following : '• Le Sueur, another voyageur, is 
to remain at Chagouamagon [La Pointe] to en- 
deavor to maintain the peace lately concluded be- 
tiveen the Saulteiu-s [Chippeways] and Sioux. 
This is of the greatest consequence, as it is now 
the sole pass by which access can be had to the 
latter nation, whose trade is very profitable ; the 
country to the south being occupied by the Foxes 
and :Maskoutens. who sexeral times plundered the 
French, on the ground they were carrying ammu- 
nition to the Sioux, their ancient enemies." 

Entering the Sioux country in 1694. he estab- 
lished a jiost upon a prairie island in the .Missis- 
sippi, about nine miles below the present town of 
Hastings, according to Bellin and others. Peni- 
caut, who accompanied him in the exploration of 
the Minnesota, writes, " At the extremity of the 
lake [Pepin] you come to the Isle Pelee, so called 
because there are no trees on it. It is on this island 

that the French from Canada established their 
fort and storehouse, and they also -ninter here, 
because game is very abundant. In the month of 
Septemlier they bring their store of meat, obtained 
by hunting, and after having skinned and cleaned 
it, hang it upon a crib of raised scaffolding, in 
order that the extreme cold, which lasts from 
September to March, may preserve it from spoil- 
ing. During the whole winter they do not go out 
except for water, when they have to break the ice 
every day, and the abin is generally built upon 
the bank, so as not to have far to go. "When 
spring arrives, the savages come to the island, 
bringing their merchandize." 

On the fifteenth of July. 169.5. Le Sueur arrived 
at Montn^al with a party of Ojibways, and tlie 
first Dakotah brave that had ever visited Canada. 

The Indians were much impressed witli the 
power of France by the marching of a detach- 
ment of seven hundred picked men, under Chev- 
alier Cresafi, who were on their way to La Chine. 

On the eighteenth, Frontenac, in the presence 
of Callieres and other persons of distinction, gave 
them an audience. 

The first speaker was the chief of the Ojibway 
band at La Pohite. Shingowahbay, who said: 

" That he was come to pay his respects to Onon- 
tio [the title given the Governor of CanaiUi] in the 
name of the young warriors of Point Chngouami- 
gon, and to thank him for having given them 
some Frenchmen to dwell with them; to testify 
their sorrow for one Jobin, a Frenchman, who 
was killed at a feast, accidentally, and not ma- 
liciously. We come to ask a favor of you, which 
is to let us act. We are allies of the Scion. Some 
Outagamies, or Mascoutins, have been killed. 
The Scion came to mourn with us. Let us act. 
Father; let us take revenge. 

" Le Sueur alone, who is acquainted with the 
language of the one and the other, can serve us. 
We ask that he return with us." 



Another speaker of the Ojibways was Le Bro- 


Teeoskahtay, the Dalikntah chief, before he 
spoke, spread out a beaver robe, and, laying an- 
other witli a toliacc'o poucli and otter skin, began 
to weep bitterly. After drying his tears, he said: 

■■ .Vll of the nations had a father, who afforded 
them protection; all of them have iron. But he 
was a bastard in quest of a father; he was come 
to see him, and hopes that he will take pity on 

lie then placed upon the beaver robe twenty- 
two arrows, at each arrow naming a Dahkotah 
village that desired Frontenac"s protection. Re- 
suming his speech, he remarked: 

" It is not on account of what I bring that I 
hope him who rules the eartli will have pity on 
me. I learned from the Sauteurs that he wanted 
nothing; that he was the Master of the Iron; that 
he had a big heart, into which he could receive 
all the nations. Tliis has induced me to abandon 
my people and come to seek his protection, and 
to beseech bim to receive me among the number 
of his children. Take courage. Great Captain, 
and reject me not; despise me not. tliough 1 ap- 
pear poor in your eyes. All tlie nations here 
present know that I am rich, and the little they 
offer here is taken from my lands." 

Count Frontenac in rei)ly told the chief that he 
would receive the Dahkotahs as his children, on 
condition that tliey would be obedient, and that 
he would send back Le Sueur with him. 

Teeoskahtay, Uiking hold of the governor's 
knees, wept, and said: ''Take pity on us; we 
are well aware tliat we are not al>le to speak, be- 
ing cliildren; but Le Sueur, who understands our 
language, and has seen all our villages, will next 
year inform you what will have been achieved ]>\ 
the Sioux nations represented by those arrows be- 
fore you." 

Having finished, a Dahkotah woman, the wife 
of a great chief wliom Le Sueur liad purchased 
from captivity at Mackinaw, approaclied tliose in 
aulliorily, and, with downcast eyes, embraced 
their knees, weeping and saying: 

" I thank thee. Father; it is by thy means 1 
have bi-en libcraled, and am no longer caiitivc." 

Then Teeoskahtay resumed: 

" I speak like a man penetrated with joy. Tlie 
Great Cajitain; lie who is the Master of Iron, as- 

sures me of his protection, .and I promise him that 

if he condescends to restore my children, now 
prisoneis among the Foxes, Ottawas and llurous, 
I will return hither, and bring with me the twen- 
ty-two villages whom lie has just restored to life 
by promising to send them Iron.'" 
j On the 14th of August, two weeks after the 
Ojibway chief left for his home on Lake Superior. 
Nicholas Perrot arrived with a deputation of 
Sauks, Foxes, ^lenomonees, Miamis of Maramek 
and Potto watomies. 

Two days after, they had a council with the 
governor, who tlius spoke to a Fox brave: 

'■ I see that yon are a young man; your nation 
has quite turned away from my wishes; it has 
pillaged some of my young men. whom it has 
treated as slaves. I know that your father, who 
loved the French, had no hand in the indignity. 
You only imitate the example of your father 
who had sense, when you do not co-operate 
with those of your tribe who are wishing to go 
over to my enemies, after they grossly insulted 
me and defeated the Sioux, whom I now consider 
my son. I pity the Sioux; I pity tlie dead whose 
loss I deplore. Perrot goes tip tliere. and he will 
speak to your nation from me for the release of 
their prisoners; let them attend to hmi." 

Teeoslikahtay never returned to his native land. 
■While in Jilontreal he was taken sick, and in 
thirty-three days he ceased to breatlie; and. fol- 
lowed by white men, his body was interred in the 
wliite man's grave. 

Le Sueur instead of going back to Minnesota 
that year, as was expected, went to France and 
received a license, in Ifift". to open certain mines 
supjiosed to exist in Minnesota. The ship in 
wliich he was returning was captured by the Eng- 
lisli, and he was taken to England. After his 
release he went back to France, and, in lG!t8, ob- 
tained a new commission for mining. 

AVliile Le Sueur was in Europe, the Uahkotas 
waged war against tlie Foxes and Miamis. In 
retaliation, tlie latter raised a war paiiy and en- 
tered the land of the Dalikotahs. Finding their 
foes intrenilicil. and assisted by " coureurs des 
bois," tliey were indignant; and on tlieir return 
they had a skiniiisli with some Frenclimen, who 
were carrying goods to the Dahkotahs. 

Shortly after, they met Perrot, and were about 
to burn him to death, when prevented by some 



friendly Foxes. The Miamis, after this, were 
disposed to be friendly to the Iroquois. In 1696, 
the year previous, the authorities at Quebec de- 
cided that it was expedient to abandon all the 
posts west of Mackinaw, and withdraw the French 
from Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

The voyageurs were not disposed to leave the 
country, and the governor wrote to Pontchar- 
train for instructions, in October, 1698. In his 
dispatch he remarks: 

"In this conjuncture, and under all these cir- 
cumstances, we consider it our duty to postpone, 
until new instructions from the court, the execu- 
tion of Sieur Le Sueur's entei-prise for the mines, 
though the promise had already been given him 
to send two canoes in advance to Missilimackinac, 
for the purpose of purchasing there some pro- 
visions and other necessaries for his voyage, and 
that he would be permitted to go and join them 
early in the spring with the rest of his hands. 
AVhat led us to adopt this resolntion has been, 
that the French who remained to trade off with 
the Five Nations the remainder of their merch- 
andise, might, on seeing entirely new comers 
arriving there, consider themselves entitled to 
dispense with coming down, and perhaps adopt 
the resolution to settle there; whilst, seeing no 
arrival there, with permission to do what is for- 
bidden, the reflection they will be able to make 
during the winter, and the apprehension of being 
guilty of crime, may oblige them to return in the 

" This would be very desirable, in consequence 
of the great difficulty there will be in constraining 
them to it, should they be mcUnedto lift the mask 
altogether and become buccaneers; or should 
Sieur Le Sueur, as he easily could do, furnish 
them with goods for their beaver and smaller 
peltary, wliich he might send down by the retiun of 
other Frenchmen, whose sole desire is to obey, and 
who have remained only because of the impossi- 
bility of getting their effects down. This would 
rather induce those who would continue to lead a 
vagabond life to remain there, as the goods they 
would receive from Le Sueur"s people would afford 
them the means of doing so." 

In reply to this communication, Louis XH'. 
answered that — 

" His majesty has approved that the late Sieur 
de Frontenac and De Champigny suspended the 

execution of the license granted to the man named 
Le Sueur to proceed, with fifty men, to explore 
some mines on the banks of the Mississippi. He 
has revoked said license, and desires tliat the said 
Le Sueur, or any other person, be prevented from 
leaving the colony on pretence of going in search 
of mines, without his majesty's express permis- 

Le Sueur, undaimted by these drawbacks to the 
prosecution of a favorite project, again visited 

Fortunately for Le Sueur, D'Iberville. who was 
a friend, and closely connected by marriage, was 
appointed governor of the new territory of Louis- 
iana. In the month of December he arrived from 
France, with thirty workmen, to proceed to the 
supposed mines in Minnesota. 

On the thirteenth of July, 1700. with a felucca, 
two canoes, and nineteen men, having ascended 
the Mississippi, he had reached the mouth of the 
Jilissouri, and six leagues above this he passed the 
Illinois. He there met three Canadians, who 
came to join him, with a letter from Father Mar- 
est, who had once attempted a mission among the 
Dahkotahs, dated July 13, Mission Immaculate 
Conception of the Holy Virgin, in Illinois. 

" I have the honor to write, in order to inform 
you that the Saugiestas have been defeated by the 
Scioux and Ayavois [lowas]. The people have 
formed an alliance with the Quincapous [Kicka- 
poos], some of the Mecoutins, Renards [Foxes], 
and Metesigamias, and gone to revenge them- 
selves, not on the Scioux, for they are too much 
afraid of them, but perhaps on the Ayavois, or 
very likely upon the Paoutees, or more probably 
upon the Osages, for these suspect nothing, and 
the others are on their guard. 

" As you will probably meet these allied na- 
tions, you ought to take precaution against their 
plans, and not allow them to board your vessel, 
since thty are traitors, and utterly faithkss. I pray 
God to accompany you in all your designs." 

Twenty-two leaguesabove the Illinois, he passed 
a small stream which he called the River of Oxen, 
and nine leagues beyond this he passed a small 
river on the west side, where he met four Cana- 
dians descending the Mississippi, on their way to 
the Illinois. On the 30th of July, nine leagues 
above tlie last-named river, he met seventeen 
Scioux, in seven canoes, who were going to re- 



venge the death of three Scioiix. one of whom had 
been burned, and tlie others killed, at Tamarois, 
a few days hefV)re his arrival in that village. As 
he had promised the ehief of the Illinois to ap- 
pease the Scioux who should go to war agaiust 
his nation, he made a present to the chief of the 
parly to engage him to turn haek. lie told them 
the King of i'rance did not \\ish them to make 
tills river more bloody, and that he was sent to tell 
them that, if they obeyed the king's word, they 
would reieive in future all things necessary for 
them. The chief answered that he accepted the 
present, that is to say, that he would do as had 
been told him. 

From the 30th of July to the 2oth of August. Le 
Sueur advanced litl>-llireeaud one-fom-th leagues 
to a small river which he called the Kiver of the 
Mine. At the mouth it nuis from the nortli, but 
it turns to the norllieast. On the right seven 
leagues, there is a lead mine in a prairie, one and 
a half leagues. Tlie river is only navigable in 
high \\atcr. that is to say. from early spring till 
the month of June. 

From the 2oth to the :i7tli he made ten leagues, 
pas.sed two small rivers, and made himself ac- 
iiuainled witli a mine of lead, from which he took 
a supply. From the 27th to the Hdtli he made 
eleven and a half leagues, and met five ( 'anadians. 
one (if whom had been dangerously wounded in 
the head. They were naked, and hail no ammu- 
nition except a miserable gun, with live or six 
loatls of ]>owder and balls. They said they were 
descending from the Scioux to go l<i Tamarois. 
and, when seventy leagues above, they jiereeived 
nine canoes in the Mississippi, in which were 
ninety savages, who robbed and cruelly beat them. 
This party were going to war against the Scioux. 
and were comjiosed of four difierent nations, the 
Oulagamies [Foxes], Poutouwalamis | I'nttowalta- 
mies]. and I'nans fWiiniebagoes], who dwell in a 
country eighty leagues east of the Mississiiijii 
from wliere Le Sueur then was. 

The Canadians determined to follow the detach- 
ment, which was i(im|iosed of twenty-eight men. 
This day they madi; seven ami a half leagues. 
On the 1st of September he passed the Wiscon.sin 
river. It nnis into the Mississippi from the north- 
east. It is nearly one and a half miles wide. At 
about s<-venty-live leagues up this river, on the 
right, ascending, there is a i)orUige of nmre than 

a league. The half of this portage is shaking 
ground, and at the end of it is a small river which 
descends Into a bay called AVinnebago Bay. It is 
inhabited l)y a great number of nations who cany 
their furs to Canada, ilousiem- Le Sueur came 
by the Wisconsin river to the Mississippi, for the 
first lime, in KiSS, (in his way to the Scioux coun- 
try, where he had already passed seven years at 
different periods. The Mississippi, opposite the 
mouth of the Wisconsin, is less than half a mile 
wide. From the 1st of September to the oth. our 
voyageur advanced fourteen leagues. He passed 
the river " Aux Cauots." which comes from the 
northeast, and then the Quincapous. named from 
a nation which once dwelt upon its lianks. 

From the oth to the 'Jth he made ten and a half 
leagues, and passed the rivers Cachee and Aux 
Ailes. The same day he perceived canoes, (llled 
with savages, descending the river, and the five 
Canadians recognized them as the party who had 
robbed them. They placed senthiels in the wood, 
for fear of being surprised by land, and when 
they had aiijiroacbed witliin hearing, they cried to 
them that if they approached farther they would 
fire. They then drew up by an island, at half the 
distance of a gun shot. Soon, four of the jirinci- 
pal men of the band a)iproached in a canoe, and 
asked if it was forgotten that they were our 
i)retliren. and with what design we had taken 
arms when we perceived them. Le Sueur replied 
that he had cause to distrust them, since they had 
rol)bed five of his party. Nevertheless, for the 
surety of his trade, being forced to be at )>eiice 
with all the tribes, he demanded no redress for 
the robliery, but added merely that the king, their 
master and his, wished that his subjects should 
navigate that river without insult, and tliat they 
had better beware how they acted. 

The Indian whci had spoken was silent, but an- 
other said tliey had lieen attacked by the Scioux, 
and that if they did not have pity on them, and 
give them a little jKiwder. they should not be able 
to reach their villages. The consideration of a 
missionaiy. who was to go up among the Scioux, 
and whom these savages might meet, induced 
them to give two iiouuds of iiowder. 

M. Le Sueur made the same day three leagues; 
jiassed a stream on the west, and afterward an- 
other river on the east, which is ua\igable at all 
times, ami wliich the Imhaiis call Hed Uivcr. 



On the 10th, at daybreak, they heard an elk 
whistle, on the other side of the river. A Cana- 
dian crossed in a small 8cioux canoe, which they 
had found, and shortly returned with the body of 
the animal, whicli was very easily killed, "qnand 
il est en rut," that is, from the beginning of Sep- 
tember imtil the end of October. The hunters at 
this time made a whistle of a piece of wood, or 
reed, and when they hear an elk whistle they an- 
swer it. The animal, believing it to be another 
elk, approaches, and is killed with ease. 

From the 10th to the 1-tth, >I. Le Sueur made 
seventeen and a half leagues, passing the rivers 
Raisin and Paquilenettes (perhaps the "Wazi Ozu 
and Buffalo.) The same day he left, on the east 
side of the Mississippi, a beautiful and large river, 
which descends from the very far north, and 
called Bon Secours (Chippeway), on account of the 
great quantity of buffalo, elk, bears and deers 
which are found there. Three leagues up this 
river there is a mine of lead, and seven leagues 
above, on the same side, they found another long 
river, in the vicinity of which there is "a copper 
mine, from which he had taken a lump of sixty 
poinuls in a former voyage. In order to make 
these mines of any account, peace must be ob- 
tained between the Scioux and Ouatagamis (Fox- 
es), because the latter, who dwell on the east side 
of the Mississippi, pass this road continually when 
going to war against the Sioux. 

Penicaut, in his journal, gives a brief descrip- 
tion of the Mississippi between the Wisconsin 
and Lake Pepin. lie writes: '-Above the Wis- 
consin, and ten leagues higher on the same side, 
begins a great prairie extending for sixty leagues 
along the bank; this prairie is called Atix Ailes. 
Opposite to Aux Ailes, on the left, there is 
another prairie facing it called Paquilanet which 
is not so long by a great deal. Twenty leagues 
above these prairies is found Lake Bon Secours " 
[Good Help, now Pepin.] 

In this region, at one and a half leagues on the 
northwest side, commenced a lake, which is six 
leagues long and more than one broad, called 
Lake Pepin. It is bounded on the west by a 
chain of mountains; on the east is seen a prairie; 
and on the northwest of the lake there is another 
prairie two leagues long and one wide. In the 
neighborhood is a chain of mountains quite two 
hundred feet high, and more than one and a half 

miles long. In these are found several caves, to 
which the bears retire in winter. Most of the 
caverns are more than seventy feet in extent, and 
two hundred feet high. There are several of 
which the entrance is very narrow, and quite 
closed up with saltpetre. It would be dangerous 
to enter them in summer, for they are filled with 
rattlesnakes, the bile of which is very dangerous. 
Le Sueur saw some of these snakes which were 
six feet in length, but generally they are about 
four feet. They have teeth resembling those of 
the pike, and their gums are full of small vessels, 
in which their poison is placed. The Scioux say 
they take it every mornin ', and cast it away at 
night.- They have at the tail a kind of scale which 
makes a noise, and this is called the rattle. 

Le Sueur made on this day seven and a half 
leagues, and passed another river, called lliam- 
bouxecate Ouataba, or the River of Flat Rock. 
[The Sioux call the Cannon river Inyanbosndata.] 

On the loth he crossed a small river, and saw 
in the neighborhood several canoes, fdled with 
Indians, descending the Mississippi. He sup- 
posed they were Scioux, because he could not dis- 
tinguish whether the canoes were large or small. 
The arms were placed in readiness, and soon they 
heard the cry of the savages, which they are ac- 
customed to raise when they rush upon their en- 
emies. He caused them to be answered in the 
same manner; and after having placed all the 
men behind the trees, he ordered them not to fire 
until they were commanded. He remained on 
shore to see what movement the savages would 
make, and perceiving that they placed two on 
shore, on the other side, where from an eminence 
they could ascertain the strength of his forces, he 
caused the men to pass and repass from the shore 
to the wood, in order to make them believe that 
they were numerous. This ruse succeeded, for 
as soon as the two descended from the eminence 
the chief of the party came, bearing the calumet, 
which is a signal of peace among the Indians. 
They said that having never seen the French navi- 
gate the river with bo.itslike the felucca, they had 
supposed them to be English, and for that reason 
they had raised the war cry, and aiTanged them- • 
selves on the other side of the Mississippi; but 
having recognized their flag, they had come with- 
out fear to inform them, that one of their num- 
ber, who was crazy, had accidentally killed a 



Frenchman, and that tliey wonld ro and biinRliis 
comrade, who would tell how the mischief had 

The Frenchman they bronght was Denis, a Ca- 
nadian, and he rei>orted that liis companion was 
accidentally killed. His name was Laplace, a de- 
serting soldier from Canada, who had taken ref- 
uge in tliis country. 

Le Sueur replied, that Onontio (the inune they 
give to all the governors of Canada), being their 
father and his, they ought not to seek justification 
elsewhere than before him: and he advised them 
to go and see him as soon as itossiiile. and liej; 
him to wipe off the blood of this Frcndnnan from 
their faces. 

The party was composed of forty-seven men of 
different nations, who dwell far to the east, about 
the forty-fourth degree of latitude. Le Sueur, 
discovering wlio the chiefs were, said the king 
whom they had si)()ken of in Canada, had sent 
him to talie possession of the north of the river: 
and that he W'ished the nations who dwell on it. 
as well as those luider his priitectiim. to live in 

He made tliis day tliree and three-fourths 
leagues; and on the 16th of September, he left a 
large river on the east side, nunud St. Croix, he- 
cause a Frenchiitaii nf Hint name was .•<JiipiL-recled 
ut its mouth. It comes from the north-northwest. 
Four leagues higher, in going up. is found a small 
lake, at the mouth of which is a very large mass 
of copper. It is on the edge of the water, in a 
small ridge of sandy earth, on the west of tliis 
lake. [One of La Salles men was named St. 

From the Kith to the litth, he advanced thir- 
teen and three-fourths leagues. .\ftiT having 
made from Tamarois two hundred aud nine- and a 
half leagues, he left the navigation n| ilie .Missis- 
sippi, to enter the river St. I'iene. im ihc west 
aide. IJy the 1st of October, he ha<l niadi' iji this 
river forly-four and one-fourlli leagues. After he 
entered Hlue river, thus iiameil on account of the 
muiesof blue earth fiiiind at its mouth, he found- 
ed his )»ost. situated in forty-four ilegrees. thir- 
teen minutes north latitude. He met at this 
place nine Scioiix, who told liim that the river 
behmged to the Scioiix of the west, llie Ayavois 
(lowas) and OtwUitas (Ottoes). who lived a little 
farther off; that it was not their custom to hunt 

on ground belonging to others, unless invited to 
do so by the owntirs. and that when they would 
come to the fort to obtain provisions, they would 
be in danger of being killed in ascending or de- 
scending the rivers, v.hich were narrow, and that 
if they wmdd show their pity, he niiuit establish 
himself on the Mississijrpi, near the mouth of the St. 
I'ierre. where the Ayavois. the Otoctatas, and the 
other ScioHX could go as well as they. 

Having linished their speech, they leaned over 
the head of Le Sueur, according to their custom, 
crying out. '■Ouaechissou ouaepanimanalio." that 
is to .say. '• Have pity upon us." Le Sueur had 
foreseen that the estabhshment of Hlue Earth 
river would not please the Scioux of the East, 
who ^\■ere. so to sjjeak. masters of the other Scioux 
and of the nations which will be hereafter men- 
tioned, because they were tlie Jirst with whom trade 
was commenced, and in consequence of wliich they 
had already quite a number of guns. 

As he had commenced his operations not only 
with a view to the trade of beaver but also to 
gain a knowledge of the mines which he had pre- 
viously discovered, he told them that he was sor- 
ry that he had not known tlieir intentions sooner, 
and that it was just, since he came expressly for 
them, that he should establish himself on their 
land, but that the season was too far advanced 
for him to return. He then made them a present 
of powder, balls and knives, and an armful of to- 
bacco, to entice them to assemble, as soon as ])os- 
sible. near the fort he was about to construct, 
that when they should be all assembled he might 
tell them the iiilention of the king, their and his 

The Scioux of the West, according to the state- 
ment of the Eastern Scioux, have more than a 
thousand lodges. They do not use canoes, nor 
cultivate the earth, nor gather wild rice. They 
remain generally on the jiiairies which are be- 
tween the I'pper Mississippi and .Missouri rivers, 
and live entirely by the chase. The Scioux gen- 
erally .say they have three souls, and that after 
death, that which has done well goes to the warm 
country, that which has done evil to the cold 
regions, and the other guards the body. Poly- 
gamy is common among them. They are very 
jealous, and sometimes fight in duel for their 
wives. They manage the bow a<linirably, and 
have been .seen several times to kill ducks on the 



wing. They make their lodges of a number of 
buffalo skins interlaced and sewed, and carry 
them ^\■berever they go. They are all great smo- 
kers, but their manner of smoking differs from 
that of other Indians. There are some Seioux 
who swallow all the smoke of the tobacco, and 
others who, after having kept it some time in 
their mouth, cause it to issue from the nose. In 
each lodge there are usually two or three men 
with their families. 

On the third of October, they received at the 
fort several Seioux, among whom was Wahkan- 
tape, chief of the village. Soon two Canadians 
arrived who had been hunting, and who had been 
robbed by the Seioux of the East, who had raised 
their guns against the establishment which JI. 
Le Sueur had made on Blue Earth river. 

On tlie fourteenth the fort was finished and 
named Fort L'lliullier, and on tlie twenty-second 
two Canadians were sent out to invite the Aya- 
vois and Otoctatas to come and establish a vil- 
lage near the fort, because these Indians are in- 
dustrious and accustomed to cultivate the earth, 
and they hoped to get provisions from them, and 
to make them work in the mines. 

On the twenty-fourth, six Seioux Oujalespoi- 
tons wished to go into the fort, but were told 
that they did not receive men who had killed 
Frenchmen. This is the term used when they 
have insulted them. The next day they came to 
the lodge of Le Sueur to beg him to have pity on 
them. They wished, according to custom, to 
weep over his head and make him a present of 
packs of beavers, wliich he refused. He told 
them he was surprised that people who had rob- 
bed should come to him ; to which they replied 
that they had heard it said that two Frenchmen 
had been robbed, but none from tlieir village had 
been present at that wicked action. 

Le Sueur answered, that he knew it was tlie 
Mendeoucantons and not the Oujalespoitoiis : 
" but,"' continued he, '-yon are Seioux; it is the 
Seioux who have robbed me, and if I were to fol- 
low your maimer of acting I should break your 
heads ; for is it not true, that when a stranger 
(it is thus they call the Indians who are not 
Seioux) has insulted a Seioux, Mendeoucanton. 
Oujalespoitons, or others — all the villages revenge 
upon the first one they meet?" 

As they had notlung to answer to what he said 

to them, they wept and repeated, according to 
custom, " Ouaecliissou ! ouaepanimanabo !" Le 
Sueur told them to cease crying, and added that 
tlie French had good hearts, and that they had 
come into the country to have pity on them. At 
the same time he made them a i)resent, saying to 
them. •• Carry back your beavers and say to all 
the Seioux. that they will have from me no more 
powder or lead, and they will no longer smoke 
any long \)']]m until they have made satisfaction 
for robbuig the Frenchman. 

The same day the Canadians, who had l)een 
sent off on the 2-'d. arrived w-ithout having found 
the road which led to the Ayavois and Otoctatas. 
On the 2oth, Le Sueur went to the river with 
three canoes, which he filled with green and blue 
earth. It is taken from the hills near which are 
very abundant mines of copper, some of which 
was worked at Paris in 1696, by L'lluillier. one 
of the chief collectors of the king. Stones were 
also found there which would be curious, if 

On the ninth of November, eight Mantanton 
Seioux arrived, who had been sent by their chiefs 
to say that the. 3Ien(koitcantrms tcere still at thiir 
lake oil the euM of the MlssUKipiji. and they could 
not come for a long time ; and that for a single 
village which had no good sense, the others ought 
not to bear the punishment ; and that they were 
willing to make reparation if tliey knew how. 
Le Sueur replied that he was glad that they had 
a disposition to do so. 

On the loth the two Mantanton Seioux, who 
liail been sent expiessly to say that all of the 
Seioux of the east, and part of those of the west, 
were joined together to come to the French, be- 
cause they had heard that the Christianaux and 
the Assinipoils were making war on them. 
These two nations dwell almve the fort on the 
east side, more than eighty leagues on the I'pper 

The Assinipoils speak Seioux, and are certainly 
of that nation. It is oidy a few years since that 
they l)e(;ame enemies. The enmity thus origi- 
nated: The Christianaux. having the use of arms 
before the Seioux, through the English at Hud- 
son's Bay, they constantly warred upon the As- 
sinipoils, who were their nearest neiglibors. 
The latter, being weak, sued for jieace, and to 
render it more lasting, married the Christianaux 



women. The other Scioux, who had not made 
the compact, continued the war: and. seeing some 
Christianaux with tlie Assinii>oils. broke their 
heads. The Christianaux furnished the Assini- 
poils with arms and merchandise. 

On the 16th the Scioux returned to their vil- 
lage, and it was rei)()rted that the A> avois and 
Otoctatas were gone to estjiblish themselves to- 
wards the Missouri River, near the Jilaha. who 
dwell in that region. On tlie 26tli the Mantan- 
tons and Oujalespoitons arrived at tlie fort: and. 
after they had ent^amjied in the woods. Wah 
kantape came to beg Le Sneiir to go to liis 
lodge. II>^ there found sixteen men witli women 
and children, with their faces daubed with blaclv. 
In the midiUc of the lodge were several buffalo 
skins winch were sewed for a carpet. After mo- 
tioning liim to .sit down, tliey wept for the fourtli 
of an lioiir. and tlie chief gave Idm some wild 
rice to eat (as was their custom), putting the 
first three spoonsful to his mouth. After whicli. 
he sjiid all ))resent were relatives of Tioscate. 
wlioni Le Sueur took to C'aiuuUi in lO'.i.). ami wbd 
died there in KJliil. 

At the mention of Tioscate they bcj^an to wecji 
again, and wipe their tears and heads upon the 
shoulders of Le Sueur. Then Wahkantape again 
spoke, and sai<t that Tinscate begge(| him to for- 
get the insult ihine t<i the Freiichnien by the 
Jlendeoucantons. and take pity on his brethren 
by giving them powder and balls whereby they 
could defend tlieniselves. and gain a living for 
their wives and diildreii. wlio languish in a coun- 
try full of game, because they had not the means 
of killing them. •• Look." added the cliief. •• He- 
hold thy children, thy l)retliren, and thy sisters: 
it is to thee to see whether thou wishest them to 
die. They will live if thou givesl them powder 
ami liall; lliey will ilie if thou refusest." 

IjC Sueur graiite<l them their recpiest. but as 
tlie Scioux never answer on the spot. es])ecially 
in niatlersof importance, and as he had to speak 
to them aliout Ids establishmi-nt he went out of 
the lodge withoid saying a word. The chief and 
all those within folldwed him as far as the door 
of the fort; and when he had gone in. they went 
around it three times, crying with all their 
strength." Atheouanan! '" that isldsay. •' Father. 
liave pity on us." [Ate unyanpi. means Our 

The next day, he assembled in the fort the 
principal men of both villages; and as it is not 
pt)ssible to subdue the Scioux or to hinder them 
from going to war. iniless it be by inducing them 
to cultivate the earth, he said to them that if 
they wished to render themselves worthy of the 
protection of the king, they must abandon their 
erring life, and fiii'iu a village near his dwelling, 
where they wonlil be shielded from the insults of 
of their enemies; and that they might be hai)py 
and not luuigry. he would give them all the corn 
necessary to plant a large piece of ground; that 
the king, their and his chief, in sending him, had 
forbidden him to purchase beaver skins, knowing 
that this kind of Innding separates them and ex- 
poses them to their enemies; and that in conse- 
quence of this he had come to establish himself 
on Hlue Ttiver and viciiuty. where they had many 
times assured him were many kinds of lieasts, 
for the skins of which he would give them all 
things necessary; that they ought to reflect that 
they could not <ln without French goods, and that 
theoidy way not to waul tlieui was. nut to go to 
war with our allied naticms. 

.\s it is customary willi the Tudjaiis to accom- 
pany their word with a ])reseiit pnii)orti(ined to 
the alTair treated of. he gave them fifty pouiKls of 
powder, as many balls, six guns, ten axes, twelve 
armsful of tobacco, and a hatehet iiijie. 

On the first of December, the Maiitaiildiis in- 
vited Le Sueur to a great feast. Of foiu- of their 
lodges they had made one. in which were one 
hundred men seated around, and e\ery one his 
dish before him. .Vfter the meal. Wahkantape, 
the chief, made them all smoke, one after another, 
in the hatchet pipe whiih had bi'en given them. 
Tie then made a jireseul to Le Sueiu' of a slave 
and a saek of wil<l rice, and said to him. showing 
hi III his men: ■• lieiiolil ijic remains of this great 
village, wliicli thou hast aforeliiiies seen so nu- 
merous! .\ll the olheis have been killed in war; 
and the few nu'ii whom thou seest in this lodge, 
acccjit the present thou liast made them, and are 
resolved to obey the great chief of all nations, of 
whom tlioii hast sjiokeii to us. Thou oughtest 
not to regard us as Scioux. but as Freneh, and in- 
stead of saying the Scioux are miserable, and have 
no mind, and are lit for nothing but to rob and 
steal from the l'"reiK-h, thou shall say my breth- 
ren are miserable and have no iiiiml. and we must 



try to procure some for them. They rob us. hut 
I will take care that they do not lack iron, that is 
to say, all kinds of goods. If thou dost this, I as- 
sure thee that in a little time the Mantantons will 
become Frenchmen, and they will have none of 
those vices, with which thou reproachest us." 

Having finished his speech, he covered his face 
with his garment, and the others imitated him. 
They wept over their companions who had died 
in W'ar, and chanted an adieu to their country in 
a tone so gloomy, that one could not keep from 
partaking of their sorrow. 

Wahkantape then made them smoke again, and 
distributed the presents, and said that he was go- 
mg to the Mendeoucantons, to inform them of the 
resolution, and invite them to do the same. 

On the twelfth, three ^lendeoucauton chiefs, 
and a large number of Indians of the same vil- 
lage, arrived at the fort, and the next day gave 
satisfaction for robbing the Frenchmen. They 
brought four hiuidred pounds of beaver skins, and 
promised that the summer following, after their 
canoes were built and they had gathered their 
wild rice, that they would come and establish 
themselves near the French. The same day they 
returned to their village east of the Mississippi. 


Mantantons— That is to say. Village of the 
Great Lake which empties into a small one. 

Mendeouacantons— Village of Spirit Lake. 

QuiOPETONS — Village of the Lake willi one 

PsiouJiANiTONs — Village of "Wild Eice Gath- 

OuADEBATONs — The Rivcr Village. 

OUAETE3IANETONS — Village of the Tribe who 
dwell on the Point of the Lake. 

SoNGASQuiTONs — The Brave Village, 


ToucHOUAESiNTONs — The Village of the Pole. 

PsiNCHATONs— Village of the Red M'ild Rice. ' 

Ou.TALESPOlTONs — Village divided into many 
small Bands. 

PsiNOUTANiiiNiiiXTONS — The Great Wild 
Rice Village. 

TiNTANGAouGHiATONs — The Graud Lodge I 
Village. 1 

OxJAEPETONS — Village of the Leaf. 

OuGHETCiEODATONs — Duug Village. 

OuAPEONTETONs — Village of those who shoot 
in the Large Pine. 

HlNHANETONS — Village of the Red Stone 

The above catalogue of villages concludes the 
extract that La-IIarpe has made from Le Sueur's 

In the narrative of ^Major Long's second expe- 
dition, there are just as many villages of the Gens 
du Lac, or iPdewakantonwan Scioirx mentioned, 
though the names are diilerent. After leaving 
the Mille Lac region, the divisions evidently were 
different, and the villages known by new names. 

Charlevoix, who visited the valley of the Lower 
ilississippi in 1722. says that Le Sueur spent a 
winter in his fort on the banks of the Blue Earth, 
and that in the following April he went up to the 
mine, about a mile above. In twenty-tno days 
they obtained more than thirty thousand pounds 
of the substance, four thousand of which were se- 
lected and sent to France. 

On the tenth of February, 1702, Le Sueur came 
back to the post on the Gulf of Mexico, and found 
D'lljerville absent, who, however, areived on the 
eighteenth of the next month, with a ship from 
France, loaded with supplies. After a few weeks, 
the Governor of Louisiana sailed again for the 
old coimtry, Le Sueur being a fellow passenger. 

On board of the ship. DTberville wrote a mem- 
orial upon the Mississippi valley, with sugges- 
tions for carrying on commerce therein, which 
contains many facts furnished by Le Sueur. A 
cojiy of the manuscript was in possession of the 
Historical Society of Minnesota, from which are 
the following extracts: 

"If the Sioux remain in their own coimtry, 
they are useless to us. being too distant. We 
could have no commerce with them except that 
of the beaver. M. Le Sueur, who goes to France 
to give an account of this country, is the proper per- 
son to make these movements. He estimates the 
Sioux at four thousand families, who could settle 
upon the Missouri. 

" He has spoken to me of another which he 
calls the Mahas, comimsed of more than twelve 
hundred families. The Ayooues (loways) and the 
Octoctatas, tlieir neighbors, are about three 
hundred famiUes. They occupy the lauds be- 



tween the Mississippi and the Missouri, about 
one hundred leagues from the Illinois. These 
savages do not know the iise of arms, and a de- 
scent might be made upon them in a river, which 
is beyond the AVabash on the west. * * * 

"The Assiniboucl. Qnenistinos. and people of 
the nortli. who are ujion the rivers which fall into 
the Mississippi, and trade at Fort Xelson (Hud- 
sou Bay), are about four hundred. We could 
prevent them from going there if we wish." 

'• In four or live years we can establish a com- 
merce witli tlicse savages of sixty or eighty thou- 
sand buffalo skins; more thmi one hundred deer 
skins, which will iiroduce. delivered in France, 
more than two million four hundred thousand 
li^Tes yearly. One might obtain for a buffalo 
skin four or five pounds of wool, which sells for 
twenty sous, two pounds of coarse hair at ten 

" Besides, from smaller i)ellnes, two hundred 
thousand li\Tes can be made yearly." 

In tlie third Volume of the "History and Sta- 
tistics of the Indian Tribes," prepared under the 
direction of the Commissioner of Indian affairs, 
by Mr. .Schoolcraft, a manuscript, a copy of which 
was in i)ossession of ( ieneral ( 'ass. is referred to as 
containing the first enumeration of the Indians of 
the Mi.ssissiiipi A'alley. The following was made 
thirty-four years earlier by D'Iberville: 

"The Sioux Families, 4.000 

Malias, 12.000 

Octata and Ayoues, 300 [Kansas], 1,500 

Missouri, 1,.500 

Akansas, &c 200 

Maiiton [Maiidanj. 100 

I'auisfrawnee] 2.000 

Illinois, of the great village and Cania- 

roua [Tamaroa], 800 

Jlleosigamea [Metcliigamias] 200 

KikapouH and Mascoiitens, .... 4oO 

Miamis, . , 500 

Chactas, 4.000 

Chicachas, 2.000 

Mobil lens and Chohomes, 3o0 

(;onca<pies [Coiicha.s], 2.000 

Ouma [Iloumas], l'")0 

Cdlapissa 2o0 

IJayogoula 100 

People of the Fork, 200 

Counica, &c. [Tonicas], 300 

Xadeches, 1,500 

Belochy. [BiloxiJ I'ascoboula 100 

Total. 23,850 

"" The savage tribes located in the places I have 
marked out. make it necessary to establish three 
posts on the Mississippi, one at the Arkansas, 
another at the Wabash (Ohio), and the third at 
the ^lissouri. At each post it would be proper 
to have an ollicer with a detachment of ten sol- 
diers with a sergeant and corporal. All French- 
men should be allowed to settle there with their 
families, and trade with the Indians, and they 
might establish tamieries for properly dressing 
the buffalo and deer skins for transportation. 

" Xo Frenchman shall he allow(d to follow the 
Indians on their hunts, as it tends to tecjj iheni 
hunters, as is seen in Canada, and when they are 
in the woods, they do not desire to become tillers 
of tlie soil. ******* 

" I have said nothing in this memoir of which 
I have not iiersonal knowliMlge or the most relia- 
ble sources. The uiost of what I propose is 
founded upon personal retlection in relation to 
what might be done for the defence and advance- 
ment of the colony. ***** 
* * * It will be absolutely necessary 
that the king should dellne the limits of this 
country in relation to the govennnent of Canada. 
It is important that the connnandant of the 
Mississippi should have a rejiort of those who 
inhabit the rivers that fall into the Mississippi, 
and ]irincipally those of the river Illinois. 

" The Canadians intimate to the savages that 
they ought not to listen to us but to the governor 
of Canada, who always speaks to them with large 
presents, that the governor of .Mississippi is mean 
and never sends them any thing. This is true, 
and what 1 cannot do. It is imprudent to accus- 
tom the savages to be spoken to by iiresents. for. 
with so many, it would cost the king more than 
the revenue derived from the trade. AVhen they 
come to us. it will be necessary tn bring them in 
subjection, make them no presents, and compel 
them to (Id what we wish, as if they tcej-c French- 

"The Spanianls have divided the Indians into 
parlies on this iioint. and we can do the same. 
AVlieu one nation does wrong, we can cease to 



trade witli them, and threaten to draw down tlie 
hostility of otlier Indians. We rectify the diffi- 
culty by having missionaries, who will bring 
them into obedience secretly. 

"The Illinois and Masooiitens have detained 
the French canoes they find upon the Mississippi, 
saying that the governors of Canada have given 
them permission. I do not know whether this is 
so, but if true, it follows that we have not the 
liberty to send any one on the Mississippi. 

" M. Le Sueur would have been taken if he 
had not been the strongest. Only one of the 
canoes lie sent to the Sioux was plundered."' * * * 

Penicaufs account varies in some particulars 
from that of La Ilarpe's. He calls the Mahkahto 
Green River instead of Blue and writes: '■ We 
took our route by its mouth and ascended it forty 
leagues, when we found another river falling in- 
to the Saint Pierre, which we entered. We 
sailed this the Green River because it is of that 
color by reason of a green earth which loosening 
itself from from tlie copper mines, becomes dis- 
solved and makes it green. 

" A league up this river, we foimd a point 
of land a quarter of a league distant from the 
woods, and it was upon this point that M. Le 
Sueur resolved to build his fort, because we could 
not go any higher on account of the ice, it being 
the last day of September. Half of our people 
went hunting whilst the others worked on the 
fort. We killed four hundred buffaloes, which 
were our provisions for the whiter, and which we 
placed upon scaffolds in our fort, after having 
skimied and cleaned and quartered them. We 
also made cabins in tlie fort, and a magazine to 
keep our goods. After having drawn up our 
shallop within the inclosure of the fort, we spent 
the winter in our caljins. 

" When we were working in our fort in the 
beginning seven French traders from Canada 
took refuge there. They had been pillaged and 
stripped naked by the Sioux, a wandering nation 
living only by hunting and plundering. Among 
these seven persons there was a Canadian gen- 
tleman of Le Sueur'sacquaintance, whom he rec- 
ognized at once, and gave him some clothes, as 
he did also to all the rest, and whatever else was 
necessary for them. They remained with us 
during the entire winter at our fort, where we 
had not food enough for all, except buffalo meat 

which we had not even salt to eat with. We had 
a good deal of trouble the first two weeks in ac- 
customing ourselves to it, having fever and di- 
arrhoea and becoming so tired of it as to hate the 
smell. But by degrees our bodies became adapt- 
ed to it so well that at the end of six weeks there 
was not one of us who could not eat six pounds 
of meat a day, and drink four bowls of broth. 
As soon as we were accustomed to this kind of 
living it made us very fat, and then there was no 
more sickness. 

" When spring arrived we went to work in the 
copper mine. This was the beginning of April of 
this year [1701.] We took with us twelve labor- 
ers and four hunters. This mine was situated 
about tlu'ee-quarters of a league from our post. 
We took from the mine in twenty days more than 
twenty thousand pounds weight of ore, of which 
we only selected four thousand pounds of the 
finest, which il. Le Sueur, who was a very good 
judge of it, had carried to the fort, and which has 
since been sent to France, though I have not 
learned the result. 

'•This mine is situated at the beginning of a 
very long mountain, which is upon the bank of 
the river, so that boats can go right to the mouth 
of the mine itself. At this place is the green 
earth, which is a foot and a half in thickness, 
and above it is a layer of earth as firm and 
hard as stone, and black and burnt like coal by 
the exhalation from the mine. The copper is 
scratched out with a knife. There are no trees 
upon this mountaui. * * * After twenty-two 
days' work, we returned to our fort. When the 
Sioux, who belong to the nation of savages who 
pillaged the Canadians, came they brought us 
merchandize of furs. 

"They had more than four hundred beaver 
robes, each robe made of nine skins sewed to- 
gether. M. Le Sueur purchased these and many 
other skins which he bargained for, in the week 
he traded with the savages. * * * * 
We sell in return wares which come very dear to 
the buyers, especially tobacco from Brazil, in the 
proportion of a hundred crowns the pound; two 
little horn-handled knives, and four leaden bul- 
lets are equal to ten crowns in exchange for 
skins ; and so with the rest. 

" In the beginning of May, we launched our 
shallop in the water, and loaded it with green 



earth that liad hepii taken out of the river, and 
witli the furs wf liad traded for, of which we had 
three canoes full. M. Le Sueur before going 
held council with il. l)"Evaque [or Eraque] the 
Canadian gentleman, and the three great chiefs 
of the Sioux, three lirothers. and told them that 
as lie had to return to the sea. he desired them 
to live in peace with M. D'Evaque. whom he left 
m command at Fort L"IIuillier, with twelve 
Frenclmieu. M. I.e Sueur ma<le a considerable 
present to tlie three brothers, chiefs of the sava- 
ges, desiring them to never aliandon the French. 
Afterward we the twelve men whom he had chosen 
to go down to the sea witli him embarked. In set- 
ting out, M. Le Sueur promised to M. D'Evaque 
and the twelve Frenchmen who remaiiied with 
him to guard the fort, to send up munitions of 
war from the Illinois country as soon as he should 
arrive there ; which he did, for on getting there 
he sent off to him a canoe loaded with two thou- 
sand pounds of lead and powder, with three of 
om' jieople in charge." 

Le Sueur arrived at the French fort on the 
Gulf of Mexico in safety, and in a few weeks, in 
the spring of 17(il. sailed for France, with his 
kinsman. iJ'lberville, the first governor of Lou- 

In the spring of the next year 11702) D"Evaque 
came to ^lobile and reported to l)"ll)erville. who 
had come back from France, that he had been 
attacked by the Foxes and Alaskoutens. who killed 
three Frenchmen wlio were working near Fort 
L"IInillier. and that, being out of jjowder and 
lead, he had l)een obliged to (ronceal the goods 
wliich were left and abandon the post. At the 
AVisconsin Hiver he had met .Juchereau. foriuerly 
criminal judge in Montreal, with thirty-live 
men, on his way to establish a taniKny for buffalo 
skins at the Wabasli, and tliat at the Illinois he 
met the canoe of sui)plies sent by Jiienville. 
I)'Il)en'ille's brother. 

La Motte Cadillac, ill command ;il I iilroil. in 
a letter written on August 31st, ITo:;. lUlndis tn 
Le Sueur's expe(litiou in these words: '■ Last 
year they sent .\Ir. Hoiidor. a Montreal ineivliant, 
into tlie country of the Sioux to join Le Su- 
eur. He succeeded so well in that journey he 
transported thither twenty-five or thirty tlion.s- 
and pounds of merchandize with which to trade 
in all the country of tlie Ontawas. Tliis proved 

to liim an unfortunate investment, as he has 
lieen robbed of a part of tlie goods by the Outa- 
gainies. The occasion of the robbery by one of 
our own allies was as follows. 1 speak with a 
full knowledge of the factsas they occurred while 
T was at Michinimackiauc. From time immemo- 
rial our allies have been at war with tlie Sioux, 
and on my arrival there in conformity to the or- 
der of il. Frontenac, the most able man who has 
ever come into Canada, I attempted to negotiate 
a truce between the Sioux and all our allies. 
Succeeding in this negotiation I took the occa- 
sion to turn their arms against the Iroquois with 
whom we were then at war. and soon after I ef- 
fected a treaty of jieace between the Sioux and 
the French and theirallies which lasted two years. 

"At the end of tlia time the Sioux came, in 
great numbers, to the villages of the Miamis, un- 
der pretense of ratifying the treaty. They were 
well received by the Miamis, and. after spending 
i several days in their villages, departed, apparent- 
ly perfectly satisfied with their good reception, as 
they certainly had every reason to be. 

'■ Tlie Miamis, believing them already far dis- 
tant, slept ipiietly; but the Sioux, who had pre- 
meditated the attack, returned the same night to 
the principal vilhiui' of the Miamis, where most 
of the tribe were coinxn'gated. and. taking them 
by suriirise, slaughtered nearly three thousandi ?) 
and i>ut the rest to flight.. 

" This perfectly infuriated all tue nations. 
They came with their complaints, begging me to 
join with them and externiinatc the Sioux. But 
the war we tlieii had on our hands did not iieriuit 
it, so it lircaiuc necessary to play the orator in a 
long harangue. In conchision I advised tliem to 
' weep their dead, and wraj) them rip. and leave 
them to sleep i-olill\ fill the day of vengeance 
should come;' telling flicm we must sweep the 
land on this side of the iroipiois, as it was neces- 
sary to extingiiisli even their memory, after which 
the allied tribes could more easily avenge the 
alidiioiis cici'd that the Sioux had just conmiitted 
ujiou flieiii. In short, I managed fliem so well 
that the affair was settled in the manner that I 

■■ Hut the twenty-live iicrmits still existed, and 
the cupidity of the French indiiceil them to go 
among the Sioux to trade for beaver. Our allies 
complained liitterly of this, .saying it was injust- 



ice to them, as they had taken up arms in our 
quarrel against the Iroquois, wliile the Freneli 
traders were carrying munitions of war to tlie 
Sioux to enaljle them to kill the rest of our allies 
as they liad the Miamis. 

" I immediately informed M. Frontenac, and M. 
Champigny having read the commuiucation. and 
commanded that an ordinance be pulj) ished at ^lon- 
treal forbidding the traders to go into the country 
of the Sioux for the purpose of traffic under penalty 
of a thousand francs fine, the confiscation of the 
goods, and other arbitrary penalties. The ordi- 
nance was sent to me and faithfully executed. 
The same year [1699] I descended to Quebec, 
having asked to be relieved. Since that time, in 
spite of this prohibition, the French have con- 
tinued to trade with the Sioux, but not without 
being subject to affronts and indignities from our 
allies themselves which bring dishonor on the 
French name. * * * I do not consider it best 
any longer to allow the traders to carry on com- 
merce with the Sioux, under any pretext what- 

ever, especially as M. Boudor has just been 
robbed by the Fox nation, and M. Jucheraux has 
given a thousand crowns, in goods, for the right 
of passage through the country of the allies to 
his habitation. 

" The allies say that Le Sueur has gone to the 
Sioux on the Mississippi; that they are resolved 
to oppose liim, and if he offers any resistance they 
will not be answerable for the consequences. 
It would be well, therefore, to give Le Sueur 
warning by the Governor of Mississippi. 

" The Sauteurs [Cliippeways] being friendly 
with the Sioux wislied to give passage through 
their country to M. Boudor and others, permit- 
ting them to carry arms and other munitions of 
war to this nation: but tlie other nations being 
opposed to it, differences have arisen between 
them which have resulted in the robbery of M. 
Boudor. This has given occasion to the Sau- 
teurs to make an outbreak upon the Sacs and 
Foxes, killing thirty or forty of them. So there 
is war among the people." 





B«-EstablLshment of Markinaw.— Sieur de Louvicny at Macliinaw,— De Ligner>- 
at Mackinaw.— Louvigny Attacks ihc Foxes. — Pu Lulli's Poft Rooceupicd.— 
Saint FieiTO at La Points on Lake Su|»crior.— Preparations for a Jesuit Mission 
unon^ llie Sioux.— La Pemere Boucher's Expedition to Lake Pepin — De 
Conor and GuiEuas, Jesuit Missionaries —Visit to Foxes anil Winnebagoes. — 
Wisconsin River De*cnbi-d-— Fort Beauliarnois Built. — Fireworks Displayed.— 
Hi^h Water at Lake Pepin.— De Conor Visits Mackinaw.- BoucherviUe, Mont, 
brun and Oui^as Captured by Indians— Montbrun's Escape. — BoucherviUe s 
Presents to Indians.— Exapeerateil Account of Father Guiguas* Capture.— Iiis- 
patches Concertiinp Fort Beaulmrnois.— .Sieur de la Jcnieraye. — Saint Pierre at 
Port Beauhamois.— Trouble between Sioux and Foxes —Sioux Visit Quebec. — 
De Lusienan Visits the Sioux C.iuntry.— Saint Pierre Noticed in the Tr.<vels 
of Jonathan Cari'er and Lieutenant Pike. 

After the Fox Indians drove away Le Sueur's 
men, in 1702, from the Makahto, or Blue Earth 
river, tlie moichaiits of Montreal and Quebec did 
not encourage traile w ilh the tribes beyond Mack- 

D"Aigreult, a French officer, sent to inspect 
that post, in the summer of 1708, reported that 
he arrived there, on the 19th of August, and 
found there but fourteen or fifteen Frenchmen. 
He also wrote: " Since there are now only a few 
wanderers at Michilimackinack. the greater part 
of the furs of the savages of the north goes to tlie 
English trading posts on Hudson's Bay. The 
Oulawas are unable to make this trade by them- 
selves, because the northern savages are timid, 
and will not come near them, as they have often 
been plundered. It is, therefore, necessary that 
the French be allowed to seek these northern 
tribes at the mouth of their own river, which 
empties into Lake Superior." 

Louis de la Port*, the Sieur De Louvigny, in 
1«!)(», accoini>aiiied by Nicliolas Perrot, witli a de- 
tachment of one liundrcd and seventy Canadians 
and Indians, came to Mackinaw, ami uutil Ui'.U 
was in command, when he was recalled. 

In 171:;, Father Josepli .1. Man-sl the Jesuit 
missionary wrote, " If this country ever needs 
M. Louvigny it is now ; the savages say it is ab- 
solutely neces.sary tliat he sliould come for the 
safety of tlie country, to unite tlie tribes ami to 
defend those whom the war has caused to return 
to Michiliiuacinac. • * * * * * 

I do not know what course the Pottawatomies 
will lake, ncir even what course they will pursue 
wlio are here, if M. Louvigny does not come, es- 
pecially if the Fo.xes were to attack them or us." 

The next July, 'M. Lignery urged upon the au- 
thorities the establishment of a garrison of trained 
soldiers at ilackinaw, and the Intendant of Can- 
ada wrote to the King of France : 

" Michilimackinac might be re-established, 
without expense to his ^lajesty, either by sur- 
rendering the trade of the post to such individu- 
als as will oliligate themselves to pay all the ex- 
penses of twenty-two sok.iers and two officers; to 
funiisli munitions of war for the defense of the 
fort, and to make presents to the savages. 

" Or the of the post might be paid by 
the sale of permits, if the King should not tliink 
lirojx'r to grant an exclusive commerce. It is ab- 
solutely necessary to know the wishes of the King 
concerning these two propositions : ami as M. 
Lignery is at Michilimackinac. it will not be any 
greater injury to the colony to defer the re-estal)- 
inent of this post, than it has been for eight or 
ten years past." 

The war with England ensueil. and in ^Vpiil. 
1713, the treaty of I'trcdit was latilicil. Fianct^ 
hail now move leisure to atteml to llie Imliiin 
tribes of the A\'est. 

Kai'ly ill 171 I. Mackinaw was re-occn)iied. and 
on the fointei'iith of Maicli, 1711). an expedition 
miller Lienlenant Louvigny, left Quebec. His 
arriviil at ^Mackinaw, where he had been long ex- 
liecti'd, gave conlidence to the voyageurs, and 
fiiendly Indians, and with a force of eight hun- 
dred men, he proceeded against the Foxes in 
Wisconsin. He brought with him two pieces of 
cannon and a grenade mortar, and besieged the 
fort of tlie Foxes, which he stated contained five 
hundred warriors, and three thousand men, a 
declaration which can scarcely be credited. After 



three days of skirmishing, he prepared to mine 
the fort, when the Foxes capitulated. 

The paddles of the liirch bark canoes and the 
gay songs of the voyageurs now began to be heard 
once more on the waters of Lake Superior and its 
tributaries. In 1717, the post erected by Du 
Luth, on Lake Superior near the northern boun- 
dary of Minnesota, was re-occupied by Lt. Ilo- 
bertel de la Koue. 

In view of the troubles among the tribes of the 
northwest, in the month of September, 171(S, Cap- 
tain St. Pierre, who had great influence with the 
Indians of AVisconsin and Minnesota, was sent 
with Ensign Linetot and some soldiers to re-oc- 
cupy La Pointe on Lake Superior, now Bayfield, 
in the northwestern part of Wisconsin. The 
chiefs of the band there, and at Keweenaw, 
had threatened war against the Foxes, who had 
killed some of their number. 

When the Jesuit Charlevoix returned to France 
after an examination of the resources of Canada 
and Louisiana, he urged that an attempt should 
be made to reacli the Pacific Ocean by an inland 
route, and suggested that an expedition should 
proceed from the mouth of the Missouri and fol- 
low that stream, or that a post should be estab- 
lished among the Sioux which should be the point 
of departure. The latter was accepted, and in 
1722 an allowance was made by the French CJov- 
ernment, of twelve hundred Uvres, for two Jes- 
uit missionaries to accompany those who should 
establish the new post. D'Avagour. Superin- 
tendent of Missions, in May, 1723, requested the 
authorities to grant a separate canoe for the con- 
veyance of the goods of the proposed mission, 
and as it was necessary to send a commandant 
to persuade the Indians to receive the mission- 
aries, he recommended Sieur Pachot, an officer of 

A dispatch from Canada to the French govern- 
ment, dated October 11, 1723, announced that 
Father de la Chasse, Superior of the Jesuits, ex- 
pected that, the next spring. Father Guymoneau. 
and another missionary from I'aris, would go to 
the Sioux, but that they had been hindered by the 
Sioux a few months before killing seven French- 
men, on their way to Louisiana. The aged 
Jesuit, Joseph J. Marest, who had been on Lake 
• Pepin in 1689 with Perrot^and was now in ^lon- 
treal, said that it was the wandering Sioux who 

had Idlled the French, but he thought the sta- 
tionary Sioux would receive Christian instruction. 

The hostility of the Foxes had also prevented 
the establishment of a fort and mission among the 

On the seventh of JunT', 172(i, peace was con- 
cluded by De Lignery with the Sauks, Foxes, and 
Winnebagoes at Green Bay; and Linetot, who 
had succeeded Saint Pierre in command at La 
Pointe. was ordered, by presents and the promise 
of a missionary, to endeavor to detach the Dah- 
kotahs from their alliance with the Foxes. At 
this time Linetot made arrangements for peace 
between the Ojibways and IJahkotas, and sent 
two Frenchmen to dwell in the villages of the 
latter, with a promise that, if they ceased to fight 
the Ojibways, they should have regular trade, 
and a "black robe" reside in their country. 

Traders and missionaries now began to prepare 
for visiting the Sioux, and in the spring of 1727 
the Governor of Canada wrote that the fathers, 
appointed for the Sioux mission, desired a case of 
mathematical instruments, a universal astro- 
nomic dial, a spirit level, chain and stakes, and a 
telescope of six or seven feet tube. 

On the sixteenth of June, 1727, the expedition 
for the Sioux country left ^lontreal in charge of 
the Sieur de la Perriere who was son of the dis- 
tinguished anc} respected Canadian, Pierre Bou- 
cher, the Governor of Three Kivers. 

La Perriere had served in Nevrfoxmdland and 
been associated with Ilertel de Rouville in raids 
into New England, and gained an unenviable no- 
toriety as the leader of the savages, while Rou- 
ville led the French in attacks upon towns like 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, where the Indians ex- 
ultingly killed the Puritan pastor, scalped his 
loving wife, and dashed out his infant's brains 
against a rock. He was accompanied by his 
lirother and other relatives. Two Jesuit fathers, 
De Giinor and Pierre Michel Guignas, were also 
of the party. 

In Shea's " Early French Voyages" there was 
printed, for the first time, a letter from Father 
Guignas, from the Brevoort manuscripts, written 
on May 29, 1728, at Fort Beauharnois, on Lake 
Pepin, which contains facts of much interest. 

He writes: " The Scioux convoy left the end 
of Montreal Island on the 10th of the month of 
June last year, at 11 a. m., and reached Michili- 



mackinac the liiM of tlie mmitli of July. Tliis 
post is two limulred and fifty-one loaRues from 
Montreal, almost due west, at 45 degrees 4t) min- 
utes north latitude. 

" AVe spent the rest of the month at this post. 
in the hope of receiving from day to day some 
news from Montreal, and in the design of 
strengthening ourselves against the alleged ex- 
treme ditliculties of getting a free passage tlirough 
the Foxes. At last, seeing nothing, we set out 
on our march, the first of the month of August, 
and. after seventy-three leagues quite pleasant 
sail along the northerly side of Lake Michigan. 
naming to the southeast, we reached tlie Hay 
[Green] on tlie 8th of the same month, at 5:30 r. 
Ji. This post is at 44 degrees 43 minutes north 

'• We stopped there two days, and on the 11th 
in the morning, we emliarked, in a very great 
impatience to reach the Foxes. On the third day 
after our departure from the bay, quite late in 
the afternoon, in fact somewhat in the night, the 
chiefs of the Puans [Winnebagoes] came out three 
leagues from their village to meet the French, 
with their peace calumets and some bear meat as 
a refreshment, and the next day we were received 
by that small nation, amid several discharges of 
a few guns, and with great demonstrations. 

" They asked us with so good a grace to do 
them the honor to stay some time with them that 
we granted them the rest of the day from noon, 
and the following day. There may be in all the 
village, sixty to eighty men. but all tlie iiien and 
women of very tall stat ure. and well made. They 
are on the bank of a very ))retty little lake, in a 
most agreeable spot for its situatinn and tlie 
goodness of the soil, nineteen leagues from the 
bay and eight leagues from the Foxes. 

'• Karly the next morning, the loth of the month 
of August, the convoy preferred to continue its 
route, with quite pleasant weather, but a storm 
coming on in the aftemoon.wearrived quite wet. 
stillin tlic rain, at tin- cabins of the Foxes, a nation 
somuch dreailed.aiid re.illy so little lobe dreaded. 
From all that we could see, it is composed of 
two liiindred men at most, but there is a ))erfect 
hive of children. es))ecially lioys from ten to 
fourteen years old, well formed. 

'• They are cabined on a little eminence on the 
bank of a small river that bears their name, ex- 

tremely tortuous or winding, so that you are con- 
stantly boxing the compass. Yet it is apparently 
quite wide, with a chain of hills on both sides, 
but there is only one miserable little channel 
amid this extent of apparent bed. which is a kind 
of marsh full of rushes and wild rice of almost 
imjienetrable thickness. They have nothing but 
mere bark cabins, without any kind of palisade or 
other fortilication. As soon as the French ca- 
noes touched their shore tliey ran down with 
their peace calumets, lighted in spite of the rain, 
and all smoked. 

" AVe stayed among them the r%it of this day, 
and all the next, to know what were their designs 
and ideas as to the French post among the Sioux. 
The Sieur Reaurae, interiireter of Indian lan- 
guages at the Bay. acted eliiciently there, and 
with devotion to the King's service. Even if my 
testimony. Sir, should be deemed not impartial. I 
must have the honor to tell you that Kev. Fatlier 
Chardon. an old missionary, was of very great as- 
sistance there, and the presence of three mission- 
aries reassured these cut-throats and assassins of 
the French more tlian all the speeches of the best 
orators could have done. 

" A general council was convened in one of tlie 
cabins, they were addressed in decided friendly 
tenus, and they replied in the same way. A 
small present was made to them. On their side 
they gave some quite handsome di.shes, lined with 
dry meat. 

On the following Sunday. 17th of the month 
of August, very early in the morning, Father 
Chardon .set out, with Sieur Reaume, to return 
to the Bay. and the Sioux expedition, greatly re- 
joiceil to have so easily got over this dilliculty, 
which had everywhere been represented as so in- 
surmountable, got under way to endeavor to 
reach its journey's end. 

" Xever was navigation more tedious than 
what we subsequently made from uncertainty as 
to our course, No one knew it, and we got 
astray every moment on water and on land for 
want of a guide and jiilots. We kept on. as it 
were feeling our way for eight days, for it wa-s 
only on the ninth, about three o'clock p. m.. that 
we arrived, by acciilent. believing ourselves still 
far off, at the portage of the Ouisconsin, whicli is 
forty-five leagues from the Foxes, counting all 
the twists and turns of this abominable river. 



This portage is half a league in length, and half 
of that is a kind of marsh full of mud, 

" The Ouiseonsin is quite a handsome river, 
but far below what we had been told, apparently, 
as those wlio gave the description of it in Canada 
saw it only in the high waters of spring. It is a 
shallow river on a bed of quicksand, wliicli forms 
bars almost everywhere, and these often change 
place. Its shores are either steep, bare mountains 
or low points with sandy base. Its course is from 
'northeast to southwest. From the portage to its 
mouth in the Mississippi, I estimated thirty-eight 
leagues. The portage is at 43 deg. 24 min. north 

" The Mississippi from tlie mouth of the Ouis- 
eonsin ascending, goes northwest. This beauti- 
ful river extends between two chains of high, 
bare and very sterile mountains, constantly a 
league, three-quarters of a league, or where it is 
narrowest, half a league apart. Its centre is oc- 
cupied by a chain of well wooded islands, so that 
regarding from the heights above, you would 
think you saw an endless valley watered on the 
right and left by two large rivers ; sometimes, too, 
you coidd discern no river. These islands are 
overflowed every year, and would be adapted to 
raising rice. Fifty-eight leagues from the mouth 
of the Ouiseonsin, accordhig to my calcidation. 
ascending the Mississippi, is Lake Pepin, which 
is nothing else but the river itself, destitute of 
islands at that point, where it may be half a 
league wide. This river, in what I traversed of 
it, is shallow, and has shoals in several places, be- 
cause its bed is moving sands, like that of the 

"On the 17th of September, 1727, at noon, we 
reached this lake, which had been chosen as the 
bourne of our voyage. We planted ourselves on 
the shore about the middle of the north side, on 
a low point, where the soil is excellent. The 
wood is very dense there, but is already thiinied 
in consequence of the rigor and length ui the 
winter, which has been severe for the climate, 
for we are here on the parallel of 43 deg. 41 min. 
It is true that the difference of the winter is 
great compared to tliat of Quebec and Montreal, 
for all that some poor judges say. 

" From the day after our landing we put our 
axes to the wood: on the fourth day following 
the fort was entirely finished. It is a square plat 

of one hundred feet, surrounded by pickets twelve 
feet long, with two good bastions. For so small 
a space there are large buildings quite distinct and 
not huddled together, each thirty, thirty-eight, 
and twenty-five feet long by sixteen feet wide. 

" All would go well there if the spot were riot 
inundated, but this year [1728], on the loth of 
the montli of April, we were obliged to camp out 
and the water ascended to the height of two feet 
and eight inches in the houses, and it is idle to 
say that it was the quantity of snow tliat fell 
this year. Tlie snow in tlie vicinity had melted 
long before, and there was only a foot and a lialf 
from the 8th of February to the loth of March; 
yon could not use snow-slioes. 

'■ I have great reason to tliiidc that this spot is 
inundated more or less every year; I liave always 
thought so, but they were not oliliged to believe 
me, as old people who said that they had lived in 
this region fifteen or twenty years declared that 
it was never overflowed. AVe could not enter 
our much-devastated houses until the 30tli of 
April, and the disorder is even now scarcely re- 

" Before the end of October [1 727] all the houses 
vi'ere finished and fm'nished, and each one found 
himself tranquilly lodged at home. They then 
thought only of going out to explore the hills and 
rivers and to see those herds of all kinds of deer 
of which they tell such stories in Canada. They 
must have retired, or diminislied greatly, since 
the time tlie old rdj/iii/tHrs left tlie country; they 
are no longer in .such great numbers, and are 
killed with difiiculty. 

" After beatuig the field, for some time, all re- 
assembled at the foil, and thought of enjoying a 
little the fruit of their labors. On the 4th of Xo- 
vember we did not forget it was the (ieneral's 
birthday. Mass was said for him [Beauharnois, 
tiovernor-General of Canada] in the morning, 
and they were well disposed to celebrate the day 
in the evening, but the tardiness of the jiyro- 
technists and the inconstancy of the weather 
caused them to postpone the celebration to the 
14th of the same month, when they set off some 
very fine rockets and made the air ring with an 
hundred shouts of Vive k Boy! and Vive Charles 
de Bmuharniiin! It was on this occasion that the 
wine of the Sioux was broached; it was par exr 



cellence. although there are no wines here finer 
than in Canada. 

■'■\Vliat contributed mtirli to the amusement. 
was the terror of some cabins of Indians, wlio 
were at tlie time around the fort. AVhen tliese 
poor people saw the fireworks in the air, and the 
stars fall from heaven, the women and children 
began to take flight, and the most courageous of 
the men to crj' mercy, and imjilore us very earn- 
estly to stop the surprising play of tlial wonder- 
fid medicine. 

" As soon as we arrived among them, they as- 
sembled, in a few dayn, around the French fort to 
the number of ninety-five cabins, which might 
make in all one himdred and fifty men; for there 
are at most two men in their portaljle cabins of 
dressed skins, and in many there is only one 
This is all we have seen excci)t a band of about 
sixty men, who came on the 2Gth of the month of 
February, who were of those nations called Sioux 
of the Prairies. 

" At the end of November, the Indians set out 
for their winter quarters. They do not, indeed, 
go far, and we saw some of them all through the 
winter; but from the second of the month of 
April last, when some cabins repasse<l here to go 
in search of them, [he] sought them in vain, du- 
ring a week, for more than sixty leagues of the 
Mississippi. lie [La PerriereV] arrived yesterday 
without any tidings of tliem. 

" Altliough 1 said above, tliat the Sioux were 
alarmed at the rockets, which they took for new 
plicnomcna. it must not be supposed from that 
they were less intelligent than other Indians we 
know. They seem to me more .so ; at least they 
are much gayer and open, apparently, and far 
more dextrous thieves, great dancers, and great 
merlicine men. The men are almost all large and 
well made, but the women are very ugly and dis- 
gu.sting, which does not. however, check debauch- 
ery among them, and is perhaps an eiTcct of it."' 

In the summer of \'2H the Jesuit De Gonor 
left tlii^ fort on Lake Pepin, anil, by way of Mack- 
inaw, returned to Canada. The Foxes had now 
become very tr<>ul)lesiime. and l)c Ligncry and 
Ileaujeu marched against their stronghold, to find 
they had retreated to the Mississippi Kiver. 

On the iL'lh of October. IJoucherville. his bro- 
ther Mdiillirini. a young cadet of entcnirising 
spirit, the Jesuit Guignas, aud other Frenchmen, 

eleven in all. left Fort Pepin to go to Canada, by 
way of the Illinois River. They were captured 
by the Mascoutens and Kickapoos. and detained 
at the river " An Bcpuf. " which .stream was prob- 
ably the one mentioned by Le Sueur as twenty- 
two leagues above the Illinois River, although the 
same name was g'ven by Hennepin to the Chii> 
pewa River, just below Lake Pepin. They were 
lield as prisoners, wilh the view of delivering 
them to the Foxes. Tlie night before the deliv- 
ery the Sieur Montbrun and his brotlier and an- 
other Frenchman escaped. Montbrun, leaving 
his sick brother in the Illinois country, journeyed 
to Canada and informed the authorities. 

Boucherville and Guignas remained prisoners 
for several months, and the former did not reach 
Detroit until June, 1729, The account of expen- 
ditures ma<le during his captivity is interesting as 
showing the value of merchandize at that time. 
It reads as follows; 

" Memorandum of the goods that Monsieur de 
Houcherville was obliged to fmiiish in the ser- 
vice of the King, from the time of his detention 
among the Kickapoos. on the 12th of October, 
172S, until his return to Detroit, in the year 1729, 
in the month of June. On arriving at the Kick- 
apoo village, he made a i)resent to the young men 
to secure their opposition to some evil minded 
old warriors — 
Two barrels of powder, each lifly iiounds 

at Montreal price, valued at the sum of loO liv. 
One hundred pounds of lead and balls 

makhig the sum of 50 liv. 

Four pounds of verniillinn. al 12 francs 

the pound 48 fr. 

Four coats, braided, at twenty francs. . . 80 fr. 
Six dozen knives at four francs the dozen 24 fr. 
Four hundred Hints, one hundred gun- 
worms, two hundred rauiniils and one 
huu<lred and fifty files, the total at the 

maker's ))rii-es 90 liv. 

After the Kickapoos refused to deliver them to 
the llenards | Foxes) they wi'-hed .some favors, and 
I was obliged to give thcan llic following which 
wnulil allow llicm to weep over and cover tlicir 

Two brai<lcMl coats (re 20 fr. each 40fr. 

Two woolen blankets (<J 15 fr 30 

Onehundreil jiounds of powder (n 30 sous 75 
One himdi'ed pounds of lead (^ 10 sous. . 26 



Two pounds of vermillion (A 12 fr 24fr. 

Moreover, given to the Kenards to cover 
their dead and prepare them for peace, 

fifty pounds of powder, making 75 

One hundred pounds of lead (w 10 sous. 50 

Two pounds of vermillion @ 12 fr 24 

During the winter a considerable party was 
sent to strike hands with the IlUuois. Given at 
that time : 

Two blue blankets @ 15 fr 30 

Four men"s shirts (a 6 f r 24 

Four pairs of long-necked bottles @ 6 fr 24 

Four dozen of knives ((i 4 f r .^. . . . 16 

Gun-worms, files, ramrods, and flints, es- 
timated 40 

Given to engage tlie Kickapogs to establish 
themselves upon a neighboring isle, to protect 
from the treachery of the Renards — 

Four blankets, @ lof 60f 

Two pairs of bottles, 6f 24 

Two poimds of vermillion, 12f 24 

Foin- dozen butcher knives, 6f 24 

Two woolen blankets, @ 15f 30 

Four pairs of bottles, @ 6f 24 

Four shirts, (oi 6f 24 

Four dozen of knives, @ 4f 16 

Tlie Kenards having betrayed and killed their 
brothers, the Kickapoos, I seized the favorable 
opportunity, and to encourage the latter to avenge 
themselves, I gave — 
Twenty.-five poundsof powder, (a) SOsous 37f.l0s. 

Twenty-five pounds of lead, @ 10s I2f.l0s. 

Two guns at 30 livres each 60f 

One half pound of vermillion 6f 

Flints, guns, worms and knives 20f 

The Illinois coming to the Kikapoos vil- 
lage, I supported them at my expense, 
and gave them powder, balls and shirts 

valued at 'iOf 

In departing from the Kikapoos village, I 
gave them the rest of the goods for 

their good treatment, estimated at 80f 

In a letter, written by a priest, at jS'ew Orleans, 
on July 12, 1730, is the following exaggerated ac- 
count of the capture of Father tUiignas: •• We 
always felt a distrust of the Fox Indians, although 
they did not longer dare to undertake anything, 
since Father Guignas has detached from their al- 
liance the tribes of the Kikapous and Maskouthis. 
You know, my Reverend Father, that, being in 

Canada, he had the courage to penetrate even to 
the Sioux near the sources of the ^lississippi, at 
the distance of eight hundred leagues from Xew 
Orleans and five hundred from (jueljec. Obliged 
to abandon this important mission by the unfor- 
tunate result of the enterprise against the Foxes, 
he descended the river to repair to the Illinois. 
On the 15th of October in the year 1728 he was 
arrested when half way by the Kiekapous and 
Maskoutins. For four months he was a captive 
among the Indians, where he had much to suffer 
and everything to fear. The time at last came 
when he was to be burned alive, when he was 
adopted by an old man whose family saved his 
Ufe and procured his liberty. 

'•Our missionaries who are among the Illinois 
were no sooner acquainted with the situation 
than they procured him all the alleviation they 
were able. Everything which he received he em- 
ployed to conciliate the Indians, and succeeded 
to the extent of engaging them to conduct him to 
the Illinois to make peace with the French and 
Indians of this region. Seven or eight months 
after this peace was concluded, the Maskoutins 
and Kikapous returned again to the Illinois coun- 
try, and took back Father (Juignas to spend the 
winter, from whence, in all probability, he will 
return to Canada." 

In dispatches sent to France, in October, 1729, 
by the Canadian government, the following refer- 
ence is made to Fort Beauharnois : " Tliey agree 
that the fort built among the Scioux, on the bor- 
der of Lake Pepin, appears to be badly situated 
on account of the freshets, but the Indians assure 
that the waters rose higher in 1728 than it ever 
did before. When Sieur de Laperriere located it 
at that place it was on the assurance of the In- 
dians that the waters did not rise so higli." In 
reference to the absence of Indians, is the fol- 
lowing : 

"It is very true that these Indians did leave 
shortly after on a hunting excursion, as they are 
in the habit of doing, for their own support and 
that of their families, who have only that means 
of livelihood, as tliey do not cultivate tlie soil at 
all. M. de Beauharnois has just been informed 
that their absence was occasioned only by having 
fallen in while hunting with a number of prairie 
Scioux, by whom they were invited to occompany 
them on a war expedition against the .Malias, 



which invitation tliey accepted, and returned 
only in tlie month of Ju)y following. 

'•The interests of religion, of the service, and 
of the colony, are involved in the maintenance of 
this establishment, which has been the more nec- 
essary as there is no doubt but the Foxes, when 
routed, would have found an asylum among the 
Scioux had not the French been settled there, 
and the docility and submission manifested by 
the Foxes can not be attributed to any cause ex- 
cept the attention entertained by the Scioux for 
the French, and the offers which the former 
made the latter, of which the Foxes were fully 

" It is necessary to retain the Scioux in these 
favorable dispositions, in order to keep the Foxes 
in check and counteract the measures they might 
adopt to gain over the Scioux, who will invaria- 
bly reject their propositions so long as the French 
remain in the country, and their trading post 
shall continue there. Hut, despite all these ad- 
vantages and the importance of preserving that 
establishment, M. de IJeauharnois cannot take 
any steps until he has news of the French who 
asked his permission this summer to go up there 
with a canoe load of goods, and until assured that 
those who wintered there have not disnuiullcd 
the fort, and that tlie Scioux continue in the same 
sentiments. Besitles. it does not seem very easy, 
in the jiresent conjuncture, to maintain that i)ost 
unless there is a solid peace with the Foxes; on 
the other hand, the greatest portion of the tra- 
ders, who applied in 1727 for the establishment 
of that ])ost, have withdrawn, and will not send 
thither any more, as the rupttwe with tlie Foxes, 
through whose country it is necessary to pass in 
order to reach the Scioux in canoe, has led them 
to abandon the idea. IJnt the one and the other might be remedied. The Foxes will, in all 
j)rol)ability, come or send next year to sue for 
peace; therefore, if it be granted to them on ad- 
vantageous conditions, there nceil l)e no appre- 
hension when going to llie Sioux, and anollicr 
company could be formed, less niMnenius than 
the first, through whom, or some responsible iiiei- 
cliants able to affonl the oullit, a new treat> 
could be made, whereby these difficulties would 
be soon obviated. One only trouble remains, and 
tliat is, to send a commanding and siib-oflicer, 
and some soldiers, up there, whirh arc atisojiitfly 

necessary for the maintenance of good order at 
that post; the missionaries would not go there 
without a commandant. This article, which re- 
gards the service, and the expense of which nnisl 
be on his majesty's account, obliges tliem to ap- 
ply for orders. They will, as far as lies in their 
power, induce the traders to meet that expense, 
which will possibly amount to 1000 livres or 
1500 livres a year for the commandant, and in 
proportion for the officer under him; but, as in 
the beginnuig of an establishment the expenses 
exceed the profits, it is improbable that any coni- 
imny of merchants will assume the outlay, and 
in this case they demand orders on this point, as 
well as his majesty's opinion as to the necessity 
of presers'iug so useful a post, and a nation which 
has already afforded proofs of its lidelity and at- 

'• These orders could be sent them by the way 
of He Royale, or by the first merchantmen that 
will sail for Quebec. The time required to re- 
ceive intelligence of the occurrences in the Scioux 
country, will admit of their waiting for these 
orders l)ef(n'e doing anything." 

Sieur de la .lemeraye. a relative of Sieiir de la 
Perriere lioucher. with a few French, during the 
troubles remained in the Sioux country. After 
peace was established with the Foxes, Legardeur 
Saint Pierre was in conunand at Fort Beauhar- 
nois, and Father CUiignas again attempted to es- 
tablish a Sioux mission. In a conununicaticm 
dated llilh of October, 173(i, by the Canadian au- 
thorities is the following: "In regard to the 
Scioux, Saint Pierre, who comniaiided at that 
post, and Fatlier (Juignas. the missionary, have 
writlen to Sieur de Beauhaniois on the tenth and 
eleventh of last April, that these Indians a))- 
peared well intentioned toward the French, and 
had no other liar tlian that of being abandoned 
by them. Sieur de Beauhaniois annexes an ex- 
tract of these letters, and although tlie Siioux 
seem very friendly . tlie result only can tell whether 
this lidelity is to be absolutely depemled upon, 
for the iiiirestiaiutMl and inconsistent spirit which 
i-om|ioses the Indian character may easily change 
it. They have not come over this siiinnier as yet, 
but M. de la St. Pierre is to get them to do so 
next year, and to have an eye on their proceed- 

The 11 ply to this coniiniinication from Louis 



XV. dated Versailles, May 10th, 1737, was in 
these words : " As respects the Scioiix. according; 
to what the commandant aud missionary at thai 
post have written to Sieur de Beaidiarnois rela- 
tive to the disposition of these Indians, nothing 
appears to be wanting on that point. 

'• But their delay in coming down to Montreal 
since the time they have promised to do so, must 
render their sentiments somewhat suspected, and 
notlihig but facts can determine whether their 
tidelily can be absolutely relied on. But what 
must still further increase the uneasiness to be 
entertained in their regard is the attack on the 
convoy of M. de Verandrie, especially if this officer 
has adopted the course lie had informed the 
Marquis de Beauharnois he should take to have 
revenge tlierefor." 

The particulars of the attack alluded to will be 
found in the next chapter. Soon after this the 
Foxes again became troublesome, and the post on 
Lake Pepin was for a time abandoned Ijy the 
French. A dispatch in 1741 uses this language : 
" The Marquis de Beauharnois' opinion respect- 
ing the war against the Foxes, has been the more 
readily approved by the Baron de Longeuil, 
Messieurs De la Chassaigne, La Come, de Lig- 
nery. LaXoue, and Duplessis-Fabert, whom he 
had assembled at his house, as it appears from 
all the letters that the Count has written for sev- 
eral years, that he has nothing so much at heart as 
the destruction of that Indian nation, which can 
not be prevailed on by the presents and the good 
treatment of the French, to hve in peace, not- 
withstanding all its promises. 

"Besides, it is notorious that the Foxes have a 
secret understanding with the Iroquois, to secure 
a retreat among the latter, in case they be obliged 
to abandon their villages. They have one already 
secured among the Sioux of the prairies, with 
whom they are allied ; so that, should they be 

advised beforeliand of the design of the French 
to wage war against Iheni. it would be easy for 
them to retire to the one or the other before their 
passage could be intersected or themselves at- 
tacked in their villages." 

In the summer of 1743, a deputation of the 
Sioux came down to Quebec, to ask that trade 
might be resumed. Tliree years after this, four 
Sioux chiefs came to Quebec, and asked that a 
commandant might be sent to Fort Beauharnois ; 
which was not granted. 

During the winter of 174-5-6, De Lusignan vis- 
ited the Sioux coimtry. ordered by the govern- 
ment to hunt up the "coureurs des bois." and 
withdraw them from the country. They started 
to return with him, but learning that they would 
be arrested at ilackinaw, for violation of law, 
they ran away. While at the villages of the Sioux 
of the lakes aud jiliiins, the chiefs brought to 
this officer nineteen of their young men, bound 
with cords, who had killed three Frenchmen, at 
the Illinois. While he remained with them, they 
made peace with the Ojibways of La Pointe, 
with whom they had been at war for some time. 
On his return, four chiefs accompanied him to 
Montreal, to solicit pardon for their young braves. 

The lessees of the trading-post lost many of 
tlieir peltries that winter in consequence of a fire. 

Reminiscences of St. Pierre's residence at Lake 
Pepin were long preserved. Carver, in 17(5(5, ''ob- 
served the ruins of a Freiidi factory, where, it 
is said. Captain St. Pierre resided, and carried on 
a great trade willi the Nadoucssics before the re- 
duction of Canada."" 

Pike, in 1.S0.5, wrote in his journal: " .Just be- 
low Pt. Le Sable, the French, who had driven tlie 
Rcnards [Foxes] from ^\lsoonsin, and chased 
tliem up the Mississippi, built a stockade on this 
lake, as a barrier against the savages. It became 
a noted factory for the Sioux." 






Convereation of Vrrciidryc with Father De Oonor. — Parentacp and Early T.ife. — 
Old Indian Map I'rt-scrvpd. — VcrpD'lryi-'s Son and Ncflinw Exi-lorc Pit'i-"ii 
River and Rracli liainy lake— Father Messayora Companion.— Fort St. Pierre 
Established.- Uke of the Woods Reached and Fort St. Charles Built.— De la 
Jenieraye's Map. — Fort on the Asainalioine River.— Verendrye's Son, Father 
Ouncau and Asaociates Killed hy Sioux, on Ma&sncre Isle, in Lake ol'the W^mkK 
— Fort lA Reine — Vervndrye's Eldest Son, with Others. Reaches the JHissouti 
River.- Discovers the Rocky Mi'untains— Returns to Like of the Woods.— 
Exploration of Saskatchewan River.— Sieur dc la Verendrye Jr.— Verendrye 
the Father, made Captain of the Order of St, Louis.— His Death.— The Swedish 
Traveler. Kali)i, >'otiees Verendrye.- Boupainville Describes Verendrye's Ex- 
plorations. —Legar<leur de St. Pierre at Fort La Reine — Fort Jonquiere Est.'.h- 
lished.— De la Come Succeeds St. Pierre - St. Pierre Me<-ts W.xshington at 
French Creek, in Pennsylvania.— Killed in Battle, near Lake George. 

Early in tlie year 1728. two travelers met at 
the secluded jiost of 2*Iackinaw. tine was named 
De Gonor, a Jesuit Father, who with (iuignas, 
had gone with the expeililion. that the September 
before had built Fort IJeauliarnois on the sliores 
of Lake Pepin, the other was Pierre Gualtier Va- 
rennes. the Sieur de la 'N'erendrye the commander 
of the post on Lake Xepigon of the north shore 
of Lake Suiierior. and a relative of the Sieur de 
la Perriere, the commander at Lake Pepin. 

^'erendrye was the son of Rene Gualtier Va- 
rennes who for twenty-two years was the eliief 
magistrate at Three Rivers, whose wife was Ma- 
rie Boucher, the daughter of his predecessor 
whom he had married when she was twelve years 
of age. Ill' became a cadet in 1 ')'.»", and in 1704 
accompanied an expedition to New England. 
The next year he was in Newfoundland and the 
year following he went to France, joined a regi- 
ment of Brittany and was in tlie conflict at Mal- 
plaquet when the French trooiis were defeated 
by the Duke of Marlborough, ^\■lll•ll ln' returned 
to Canada he was obliged to accept tlie jinsition 
of ensign notwithstanding tlie gallant manner in 
which he had behaved. In time lie became iden- 
tifieil with the Lake Superior legion. AVIiile at 
Lak(! Nepigtin the Indians assurecl liiin lliat there 
was a communication largely by water to the 
Pacilic Ocean. One, named Oduigachs, drew a 
rude ma]> of llie country, which is still preserved 
among the French archives. Pigeon River is 

marked tliereou Manlnhavagane, and the River 
St. Louis is marked R. fond du L. Superior, and 
the Indians aiii)ear to have passed from its head- 
waters to R;iiii\- Lake. Fpon the western ex- 
tremity is marked the River of the West. 

De Gonor conversed much upon the route to 
the I'acific with Verendrye. and promised to use 
his influence with the Canadian authorities to 
advance the project of exploration. 

Charles De Beauharnois, the Governor of Can- 
ada, gave Verendrye a respectful hearing, and 
carefully exaniineil the map of the region west of 
the great lakes, which had been drawn by Ochar 
gachs (Otchaga). the Indian guide. Orders were 
soon given to lit out an expedition of fifty men. 
It left Montreal in 17.'U. under the conduct of his 
sons and uepliew De la Jemeraye. he not joining 
the party till 1733, in consequence of the deten- 
tions of business. 

In the autumn of 1731. the party reached Rainy 
Lake, by the Nantouagan, or Groselliers ri\cr, 
now calleil Pigeon. Father .Messayer. who had 
been stationed on Lake Superior, at the (irosel- 
liers river, w^as taken as a spiritual guide. At 
the fiidt of Rainy Lake a post was erecteii and 
calleil Fort St. Pierre, and the next year, having 
crossed Minittie, Or Lake of the Woods, they es- 
tablislied Fort St. Charles on its southwestern 
bank. Five leagues from Lake Winnipeg they 
established a post on the Assinaboine. .\ii un- 
published map of these discoveries by De la .Iciu- 
eraye still exists at Paris. The river Winnipeg, 
calleil by them Maurepas, in honor of tlie luiiiis- 
ter of France in 1734, was protected by a fort of 
(lie same name. 

About this time their advance was stopped by 
the exhaustion of suiii>lies. but on the IJtli of 
April, 1735, an arrangement was made for a sec- 
ond equipment, and a fourtli son johied the expe- 

In June, 1730, while twenty-one of the exTpedi- 



tion were camped upon an isle in the Lake of the 
Woods, they were surprised by a band of Sioux 
hostile to the French allies, the Cristinaux, and 
all killed. The island, upon this accoimt, is 
called Massacre Island. A few days after, a 
party of five Canadian voyageurs discovered their 
dead bodies and scalped heads. Father Ouneau, 
the missionary, was found upon one knee, an ar- 
row in his head, his breast bare, his left hand 
touching the ground, and the right hand raised. 

Among the slaughtered was also a son of \'er- 
endrye, who had a tomahawk in his back, and his 
body adorned with garters and bracelets of porcu- 
pine. The father was at the foot of the Lake of 
the Woods when he received the news of his son's 
murder, and about the same time heard of the 
death of his enterprising nephew, Dufrost de la 
Jemeraye, the son of his sister JNIarie Reine de 
Varennes, and brother of iladame Youville, the 
foundress of the Hospitallers at Montreal. 

It was under the guidance of the latter that 
the party had, in 1731, mastered the difficulties 
of the Nantaouagon, or Groselliers river. 

On the 3d of October, 1738, they built an ad- 
vanced post, Fort La lieine, on the river Assmi- 
boels, now Assinaboine, which they called St 
Charles, and beyond was a branch called St. 
Pierre. These two rivers received the baptismal 
name of A'erendrye. which was Pierre, and (iov- 
ernor I'eauharnois, which was Chifi'les. The post 
became the centre of trade and point of departure 
for explorations, either north or south. 

It was by ascending the Assinaboine, and liy 
the present trail from its tributary. Mouse river, 
they reached the country of the Alantanes, and in 
1741, came to the upper Missouri, passed the Yel- 
low Stone, and at length arrived at the Rockj' 
Mountains. The party was led by tlie eldest sou 
and his brother, the chevalier. Tliey left the 
Lake of the Woods on the 29th of April, 1742, 
came in sight of the Rocky Mountains on the 1st 
of January, 1743, and on the 12th ascended them. 
On the route they fell in with the Beaux Ilom- 
mes, Pioya, Petits Renards. and Arc tribes, and 
stopped among the Snake tribe, but could go no 
farther in a southerly direction, owing to a war 
between the Arcs and Snakes. 

On the 19th of May, 1744, they had returned to 
the upper Missouri, and. in tlie country of the 
Petite Cerise tribe, tliey planted on an eminence 

a leaden plate of the arms of France, and raised 
a monument of stones, which they called Beau- 
harnois. They returned to the Lake of the Woods 
on the 2d of July. 

Xorth of the Assiniboine they proceeded to 
Lake Dauphin, Swan's Lake, explored the riv- 
er " Des Biches,"' and ascended even to the 
fork of the Saskatchewan, which they called Pos- 
koiac. Two fijrts were subsequently established,- 
one near Lake Dauplnn and the other on the 
river '■ des Biches," called Fort Bourbon. The 
northern route, by the Saskatchewan, was thought 
to have some advantage over tlie ^Missouri, be- 
cause there was no danger of meeting with the 

Governor Beauharnois having been prejudiced 
against Verendrye by envious persons, De Noy- 
elles was appointed to take command of the 
posts. During these difficulties, we find Sieur de 
la Verendrye, Jr., engaged in other duties. In 
August, 1747, he arrives from ^Mackinaw at Mon- 
treal, and in the autumn of that year he accom- 
panies St. Pierre to Mackinaw, and brings back 
the convoy to Montreal. In February, 1748, with 
five Canadians, five Cristenaux, two Ottawas, and 
one Sauteur, he attacked the ^Mohawks near 
Schenectady, and returned to Montreal with two 
scalps, one that of a chief. On June 2(ltli. 1748, 
it is recorded that Chevalier de la Verendrye de- 
parted from ^Montreal for the head of Lake Supe- 
rior. Margry states that he perished at sea in 
November, 1764, by the wreck of the " Auguste." 

Fortunately, Galissioniere the successor of 
Beauharnois, altliough deforme<l and insignifi- 
cant in appearance, was fair minded, a lover of 
science, especially botany, and anxious to push 
discoveries toward tlie I'acific. Verendrye the 
father was restored to favor, and made Captain 
of the Order of St. Louis, and ordered to resume 
explorations, but he died on December fith, 1749, 
while planning a tour up the Saskatchewan. 

The Swedish Professor, Kalm.met himin Can- 
ada, not long before his decease, and had inter- 
esting conversations with him about the furrows 
on the plains of the Missouri, which he errone- 
ously conjectured indicated the former abode of 
an agricultural people. These ruts are familiar 
to modern travelers, and may be only buffalo 

Father Coquard, wno had been associated with 


KXVL01{En,-i AM) ri(JSEEli.-6 UF ^lI^'^^EbUTA. 

Verendrye. says that tliey first met the Mantanes. 
and next the Brocliets. After these were the 
Gros Ventres, tlie Crows, the Flat Heads, the 
Black Feet, and Dog Feet, who were established 
on the Missouri, even up to the falls, and that 
about tliirty leajj^ues beyond they found a narrow 
pass in the mountains. 

Bougainville gives a mure full account: he says: 
"He who most advanced this discovery was 
the Sieur de la X'eranderie. He went from Fort 
la Reine to the Missouri. He met on the banks 
of this river the JSIandans, or "White Beards, wlio 
had seven villages witli pine stockades, strenglli- 
ened by a ditch. Next to tliese were the Kinon- 
gewiniris. or the Brocliets, in three villages, and 
toward the upper part of the river were three 
villages of the Maliantas. All along the mouth 
of the AVabeik, or Shell Kiver, were situated 
twenty-three villages of the Panis. To the south- 
west of this river, on the banks of the Onanaradc- 
ba. or La Graisse. are Die Ilectaiies or Snake 
tribe. They extend to the base of a chain of 
mountains which runs north northeast. Soutli 
of tills is the river Karoskioii. or Cerise Pelee, 
which is supposed to flow to California. 

•• He found in the immense region watered by 
the Missouri, and in tlie vicinity of forty leagues, 
the Mahantas. tlie Owiliniock. or Beaux lloni- 
mes. four villages; opposite the Brocliets the Black 
Feet, three villages of a hundred lodges each; op. 
posite the Mandansare thef)spekakaerenons(pies. 
or Flat Hea Is. Iniir \illages; ojiposite tli.) Panis 
are tlie Arcs of Cristinaux. and I'tasibaoutcliatas 
of Assiniboel, three villages; following these tlio 
Makescli. or Little Foxes, tw^o villages; the Pi- 
wassa. or great talkers, three villages; the Ka- 
kokoscliena, or (iens de la Pie, live villages; the 
Kiskipisounouini,, or the Garter tribe, seven vil- 

Galassoniere was sncceedeil by .lonquiere in 
the governorship of Canada, who proved to be a 
gra.sping. ))eevish. and very miserly iierson. For 
the sons of \'ereiidrye he had no symi>alliy. and 
forming a clique to prolit by their father s toils. 

he determined to send two expeditions toward 
the Pacilic Ocean, one by the ilissouri and the 
other by the Saskatchewan. 

Father Coquard. one of the companions of Ve- 
rendrye, was consulted as to the probability of 
finding a pass in the Kocky ilountaius, through 
which they might, in canoes, reach the great 
lake of .salt water, perhaps Pugefs Sound. 

The enterprise was at length confided to two 
experienced olhcers, Lamarque de Marin and 
Jacques Legardeur de Saint Pierre. The former 
was assigned the way. by the Missouri, and to 
the latter was given the more northern route; 
but Saint Pierre in some way excited the hostil- 
ity of the Cristinaux. who attempted to kill him, 
and burned Fort la Peine. His lieutenant, Bou- 
cher de Niverville, who had been sent to establish 
a post toward the source of the Saskatchewan, 
failed on account of sickness. Some of his men. 
hnwever, pushed on to the Rocky Mountains, 
and in llUA established Fort Jonqniere. Henry 
says St. Pierre established Fort Bourbon. 

In 1753. Saint Pierre was succeeded in the 
command of the posts of the West, by de la 
Coine. and sent to French Creek, in Pennsylva- 
nia. He had been but a few days there when he 
received a visit from Washington, just entering 
uiioii manhood, bearing a letter from tioveruor 
Dinwiddle of Virginia, complaining of the en 
croachments of the French. 

Soon the clash of arms between France and 
Kiiglaiid liegan, and SainI Pierre, at the head of 
the Indian allies, fell near Lake George, in Sep- 
tember, 175.), in a battle with the Knglish, After 
the seven years" war was concluded, by the treaty 
of Paris, the French reliiKiuished all their posts 
in the .Northwest, and the work begun by Veren- 
drye, was. in 1805, completed by Lewis and 
Clarke; and the N'orthern Pacific Hallway is fast 
approaching the passes of the Rocky ^Mountains, 
through the valley of I he Yellow Stone, and from 
iheiice to the great land-locked bay of the ocean, 
I'ligel's Sound. 





English Influence Increasing.— Le Due Robbed at Lake Superior.— St. Pierre at 
Mackinaw. — Escape o( Indian Prisoners. — La Ronde and Verendrye. — Influence 
of Sieur Marin. — St. Pierre Recalled from Winnipeg Region.— Interview with 
Washington. — Langlade Urges Attack Upon Troops of Braddock.— Saint Pierre 
Killed in Battle. — Marin's Boldness. — Rogers, a Partisan Ranger. Commands at 
Mackinaw. — At Ticonderoga.— French Deliver up the Posts in Canada, —Capt. 
Balfour Takes Possession of Mackinaw and Green Bay. — Lieut. Gorrcll in Com. 
mand at Green Bay.— Sioux Visit Green Bay. — Pennensha a French Trader 
Among the Sioux. — Treaty of Paris. 

English influence produced increasing dissatis- 
faction among tlie Indians tliat were beyond 
Mackinaw. Not only were the voyageurs robbed 
and maltreated at Sault St. Marie and other points 
on Lake Superior, but even the commandant at 
Mackinaw was exposed to insolence, and there 
was no security anywhere. 

On the twenty-third of August, 1747, Philip Le 
Due arrived at Mackinaw from Lake Superior, 
stating that he had been robbed of his goods at 
Kamanistigoya, and that the Ojibways of the 
lake were favorably disposed toward the English. 
The Dahkotahs were also becoming imruly in the 
absence of French officers. 

In a few weeks after Le Due's robbery, St. 
Pierre left Montreal to become commandant at 
Mackinaw, and \'ercheres was appointed for the 
post at Green Bay. In the language of a docu- 
ment of the day, St. Pierre was •' a very good 
officer, much esteemed among all the nations of 
those parts ; none more loved and feared." On 
his arrival, the savages were so cross, that he ad- 
vised that no Frenchman should come to trade. 

By promptness and boldness, he secured the 
Indians who had murdered some Frenchmen. 
and obtained the respect of the tribes. While 
the three murderers were being conveyed in a 
canoe down the St. Lawrence to Quebec, in charge 
of a sergeant and seven soldiers, the savages, with 
characteristic cunning, though manacled, suc- 
ceeded in killing or drowning the guard. Cutting 
their irons with an axe, they sought the woods, 
and escaped to their own coimtry. "Thus." 
vniteii Galassoniere, in 1748, to Count Maurepas, 

was lost in a great measure the fruit of Sieur St. 
Pierre's good management, and of all tlie fatigue 
I endiu-ed to get the nations who surrendered 
these rascals to listen to reason." 

On the twenty-first of June of the next year, 
La Ronde started to La Pointe, and Verendrye 
for West Sea, or Fon du Lac, Minnesota. 

Lender the influence of Sieur Marin, who was 
in command at (ireen Bay hi 17-53. peaceful re- 
lations were m a measure restored between the 
French and Indians. 

As the war between England and France deep- 
ened, the officers of the distant French posts 
were called in and stationed nearer the enemy. 
Legardeur St. Pierre, was brought from the Lake 
Winnipeg region, and. in December, 17.53, was in 
command of a rude post near Erie. Pennsylvania. 
Langlade, di Green Bay, Wisconsiu, arrived early 
in July. 1755, at Fort Duquesne. With Beauyeu 
and De Lignery. who had Vieen engaged in fight- 
ing the Fox Indians, he left that fort, at nine 
o'clock of the moniing of the 9th of July, and, a 
little after noon, came near the English, who had 
halted on the soutli shore of the Monongahela, 
and were at dinner, witli their arms stacked. ]5y 
the urgent entreaty of Langlade, the western 
half-breed, Beauyeu, tlie officer in command or- 
dered an attack, and Braddock was overwhelmed, 
and Washington was obliged to say, " We have 
been beaten, shamefully beaten, by a handful of 

Under Baron Dieskau, St. Pierre commanded 
the Indians, in September, 1755, during the cam- 
paign near Lake George, where he fell gallantly 
fighting the English, as did his commander. 
The Rev. Claude Coquard, alluding to the French 
defeat, in a letter to his brother, remarks: 

" We lost, on that occasion, a brave officer, M. 
de St. Pierre, and had liis advice, as well as that 
of several other Canadian otticers, been followed. 
Jonckson [Johnson] was irretrievably destroyed. 



and we sliould have been spared the trouble we 
have had tliis year." 

Other officers wlio had been stationed on the 
bordere of ^Minnesota also distinguished them- 
selves during tlie French war. Tlie Marquis 
Montcalm, in camp at Ticonderoga, on the twen- 
ty-seventh of Jidy. 17-57, writes to Vaudreuil, 
Governor of Canada: 

" Lieutenant Marin, of the (Colonial troops, who 
has exhibited a rare audacity, did not consider 
himself bound lo lialt, altliougli his detachment 
of about four hundred men was reduced to about 
two hundred, the balance having been sent back 
on account of inability to follow. He earned off 
a palrol of ten men, and swei)l away an ordinary 
guard of fifty like a wafer; went up to the en- 
emy's camp, mider Fort Lydias (Edward), where 
he was exposed to a severe fne, and retreated like 
a warrior. He was unwilling to amuse himself 
making prisoners; he brought in only one, and 
thirty-two scalps, and must have killed many men 
of the enemy, in tlie midst of whose ranks it was 
neither wise nor juMideiit to go in search of scalps. 
The Indians generally all behaved well. * * * 
The Outaouais, who arrived with me. ami whom 
1 designed to go on a scouting party towards the 
lake, liiid conceived a project of administering a 
corrective to the English barges. * * * On 
the day before yesterday, your brother formed a 
detacliment to accompany them. 1 ai'rived at liis 
camp on the evening of the same day. Lieuten- 
ant de Corbiere. of the ( "olonial troops, was re- 
turning, in consequence of a misumlerstiniding. 
and as I knew tlie zeal and intelligence of that 
officer, I made him set out with a new instruc- 
tion to join Messrs de Langlade and Ilertel de 
Cliantly. Tliey remained in anibnsli all day and 
niglit yesterday; at break of day the I'ji^lish ap- 
peared on Lake St. Sacrament, to the iiuinher of 
twenty-two liarges, under the coninian ! of Sieur 
I'arker. The whoops of our Indians impresseil 
them with such terror tliat they made but feeble 
resistance, aiul only two barges escaped." 

After De Corliiere's victory on Lake Cham- 
plain, a kirge Kreiicli army was collected at Ti- 
conderoga, with which there were many Indians 
from the tribes of the Xorthwest. and the loways 
appeared for tlie first time in the east. 

It isaii interesting fact that lli(? English offi- 
cers who were in fre«iuent engagements willi St. 

Pierre, Lusignan, Marin, Langlade, and otliers, 
became tlie pioneers of tlie British, a few years 
afterwards, in tlie occupation of the outposts of 
the lakes, and in tlie exploration of Jilinnesota. 

Rogers, the celebrated caiitain of rangers, sub- 
sequently commander of ilackinaw, and Jona- 
than Carver, the first British explorer of Minne- 
sota, were lioth on duty near Lake Cliamplain. tlie 
latter narrowly escaping at the battle of Fort 

On Christmas eve, 1T.J7, Rogers approached 
Fort Ticonderoga, to fire tlie outhouses, but was 
prevented by discharge of the cannons of the 
Fren li. 

He contented himself with killing fifteen beeves, 
on the horns of one of which he left this laconic 
and amusing note, addressed to the commander 
of the post: 

'• I am obliged to j'ou, Sir, for the repose you 
have allowed me to take; I tlmuk you for the fresh 
mcdl you liare sent me. I request you to present 
my compliments to the ilarquis du Montcalm."' 

On the thirteenth of March, 1758, Durantaye, 
formerly at ilackinaw, had a skirmish with Rog- 
ers. Bcitli had been trained on the frontier, and 
they met '• as Greek met (Jreek." The contiict 
was fierce, and the French victorious. The In- 
dian allies, finding a scalp of a chief underneath 
an ofllcer's jacket, were furious, and took one 
hundred and fourteen scalps in return, \nien 
the French retmned, they supposed that Captain 
Rogers was among the killed. 

At (^ueliec, when ^lontcalm and Wolfe fell, 
there were Ojibways present assisting the French 

The Indians, returning from the expeditions 
against the English, were attacked with small- 
pox, and many died at .Mackinaw. 

On the eighth of September, Ktiii, the French 
delivered up all their posts in Canada. A few 
<lays after tlie capitulation at Montreal, Major 
Rogers was sent with i'^nglish troops, to garrison 
llie posts of the distant Northwest. 

On the eighth of September, 1761, a year after 
the surrender, Caiitaiii Balfour, of the eightieth 
regiment of the British army, left Detroit, with 
a detachment to Uike po8ses,sion of the French 
forts at Mackinaw and Green Bay. Twenty-five 
soldiers were left at .Mackinaw, in coniniaiid of 
Lieutenant Leslie, and the rest sailed to (irec^n 
Bay, iiiKler Lieutenant (iorrell of the Royal 



Americans, where they arrived on the twelfth of 
October. The fort had been abandoned for sev- 
eral years, and was in a dilapidated condition. 
In charge of it there was left a lieutenant, a cor- 
poral, and fifteen soldiers. Two English traders 
arrived at the same time, ^IcKay from Albany, 
and Goddard from Montreal. 

Gorrell in his journal alludes to the Miiuiesota 
Sioux. He writes — 

" On March 1, 176.S, twelve warriors of the Sous 
came here. It is certamly the greatest nation of 
Indians ever yet found. Not above two tliousand 
of them were ever armed with firearms ; the rest 
depending entirely on bows and arrows, which 
they use with more skill than any other Indian 
nation in America. They can shoot the wildest 
and largest beasts in the woods at seventy or one 
hundred yards distant. They are remarkable for 
their dancing, and the other nations take the 
fashions from them. ***** Tliis nation 
is always at war with the Chippewas, those who 
destroyed Mishamakinak. They told me witli 
warmth that if ever the Chippewas or any other 
Indians wished to obstract the passage of the 
traders coming up, to send them word, and they 
would come and cut them off from the face of 
the earth ; as all Indians were their slaves or dogs. 
I told them I was glad to see them, and hoped to 
have a lasting peace with them. Tliey then gave 
me a letter wrote in French, and two belts of 
wampum from their king, in which he expressed 
great joy on hearing of there being English at 
his post. Tlie letter was WTitten by a French 
trader whom I had allowed to go among them 
last fall, w ith a pmniise of his behaving well ; 
whicli he did, better than any Canadian I ever 
knew. ***** With regard to traders, I 
would not allow any to go amongst them, as I 

then understood they lay out of the government 
of Canada, but made no doubt they would have 
traders from the Mississippi in the spring. They 
went away extremely well pleased. June 14th, 
1763, the traders came down from the Sack coun- 
try, and confirmed the news of Landsing and his 
son being killed by the French. There came with 
the traders some Puans, and four young men with 
one chief of the Avoy [loway] nation, to demand 
traders. ***** 

" On the nineteenth, a deputation of AVinneba- 
goes. Sacs, Foxes and Menominees arrived with 
a Frenchman named Pemiensha. This Pennen- 
sha is the same man who wrote the letter the 
Sous brought with them in French, and at the 
same time held council w ith that great nation in 
favour of the English, by whicli he much promo- 
ted the interest of the latter, as appeared by the 
behaviour of the Sous. He brought with him a 
pipe from the Sous, desiring that as the road is 
now clear, they would by no means allow the 
Chippewas to obstruct it, or give the English any 
disturbance, or prevent the traders from coming 
up to them. If they did so they would send all 
their warriors and cut them off." 

In July, 1763, there arrived at Green Bay, 
Bruce, Fisher; and Koseboom of Albany, to en- 
gage in the Indian trade. 

By the treaty of Paris of 1763, France ceded to 
tJreat Britain all of the country east of the ]Mis- 
sissippi, and to Spain the whole of Louisiana, so 
that the latter power for a time held the whole 
region between the ^lississippi River and the I'a- 
ciflc Ocean, and that portion of the city of Min- 
neapolis known as the East Division was then 
governed by the Biitish, wliile the West Division 
was subject to the Spanish code. 





Carver's Early Life.— In the Battle near Lake George— Arrives nt Maekiniuv.— 
01(1 Fort at Green Buy. — Winnel>aeo Villatre. — Description of Prairie du Chien. 
Earthworks on Banks of Lake Pepin.— Sioux Bands Desctilied.- Cave and 
Burial Place ni Suburbs of St. Paul.— The Kalis of Saint Anthony.— Burial 
Rites of tLe Moujt.— Speech of a Sioux Chief.— Schiller's Poem ot the Death 
SonE. — Sir John Herschcl's Translatioii,— Sir E. Bulwer Lyttons Version ■■- 
Correspondence of Sir William Johnson ".Carver's Project for Openinu a Route 
to the Pacific. -.-Supiiosed Urigin of the Sioux. --.Carver's Claim to Lands Ex- 
amined.--.All«-Eed Deed. --.Testimony of Kev. Samuel Peters.— Communication 
from Gen. Leavenworth— -Report of U. S. Senate Committee, 

Jonathan Carver was a native of Conneeticnt 
His grandfather, William Caner. was a native of 
Wifjan. Lancasliire, Kngland. ami a captain in 
King William's army diirinf; the caniiiaitjn in 
Ireland, and for meritoiions services receivetl an 
appointment as an ollicer of the colony of Con- 

His father was a justice of the jieace in the 
new world, and in 1732, the subject of this sketcli 
was bom. At tlie early age of fifteen lie was 
called to moum the death of his father. He then 
commenced the study of medicine, but his roving 
disposition could not bear the conlines of a doc- 
tor's office, and feeling, perhaps, that his genius 
woidd be crampeil by pestle and mortar, at the 
age of eiglilecn he ))iircliase(l an ensign's comniis- 
sioii in one of the I'eginicnls raised tliiriiig the 
Frencli war. He was of nieiliiim stature, anil of 
strong minil and (piick iierceptions. 

Jn the year 1757, lie was cajitain uniler Colonel 
Williams in tiie battle near Lake (ieorge. where 
Saint I'ierre was killed, and narrowly escaped 
with his life. 

After the peace of 171)3, between France and 
Kngland was declareil, Car\'er conceived the jiro- 
ject of ex]>loriiig the Northwest. I-eaviiig IJoston 
in the nionlh of .June. I'liii, he arrived at Macki- 
naw, then the most distant IMtish jMist. in the 
month of August. Having obtained a credit on 
some French an<l Knglish traders from Major 
Rogers, the officer in coniniiind. lie started with 
them on the third day of .September. I'nrsuing 
the usual route to (ireen Hay. they arrived there 
on the eighteeiilh. 

The French fort at that time was standing, 
though much decayed. It was, some years pre- 
vious to his arrival, garrisoned for a short time 
by an officer and thirty English soliliers. but they 
having been captured by the Menominees. it was 

In comiiany with the traders, he left (ireen 
Bay on the twentieth, and ascending Fox river, 
arrived on the twenty-fifth at an isliind at the 
east end of Lake Winnebago, containing about 
lifty acres. 

Here he found a Whmebiigo village of fifty 
houses. lie asserts that a woniiin was in aiithoi- 
ity. In the month of October the party was at 
the portage of the Wisconsin, and descending 
that stream, they arrived, on the ninth at a town 
of the Sauks. AVhile here he visited some lead 
mines about iifteen miles distant. An abundance 
of lead was also seen in the village, that hatlbeen 
brought from the mines. 

On the tenth they arrived at the first village of 
the " Ottigaumies" [Foxes] about live miles be- 
fore the \Visconsin joins the Mississippi, he per- 
ceived the remnants of auotlier village, and 
learned that it had been deserted about thirty 
years before, and that tlie inhabitants soon after 
their removal, built a town on the Mississippi, 
near the month of the " Ouisconsin," at a place 
called by the French La Prairie lesChiens, which 
siguilieil the Dog I'hiins. It was a large town, 
and contained about three hiiudreil families. 
The houses were built after the Incliiiu manner, 
and pleasantly situated on a dry rich soil. 

He saw here iiwiiiy houses of a good size anil 
shape. This town \\:is the great mart where all 
the adjacent tribes, and where those who inhabit 
the most remote branches of the Mississippi, an- 
nually assemble about the latter end of May, 
bringing with tliem their furs to dispose of to the 
traders. Hut it is not always that they conclude 
llifir .sale here. This was (leteiiiiiueil by a gen 



eral coimcil of the chiefs, who consulted whether 
it would be more conducive to their interest to 
sell their goods at this place, or to carry them 
on to Louisiana or JNIackinaw. 

At a small stream called Yellow River, oppo- 
site Prairie du Chien, the traders who had tluis 
far accompanied Cai-ver took up their residence 
for the winter. 

From this point he proceeded in a canoe, with 
a Canadian voyageur and a ilohawk Indian as 
companions. Just before reaching Lake Pepin, 
while his attendants were one day preparing din- 
ner, he walked out and was struck with the pecu- 
liar appearance of the surface of the country, and 
thought it was the site of some vast artiiicial 
earth-work. It is a fact worthy of remembrance, 
that he was the lirst to call the attention of the 
civilized world to the existence of ancient monu- 
ments in the Mississippi valley. AVe give his ovra. 
description : 

'• On the first of November I reached Lake 
Pepin, a few miles below which I landed, and, 
whilst the servants were preparing my dinner, I 
ascended the bank to view the coimtry. I had 
not proceeded far before I came to a fine, level, 
open plain, on which I perceived, at a little dis- 
tance, a partial elevation that had the apjiearance 
of entrenchment. On a nearer inspection I had 
greater reason to suppose that it had really been 
intended for this many centuries ago. Xotwith- 
standing it was now covered with grass, I could 
plainly see that it had once been a breastwork of 
about four feet in height, extending the best part 
of a mile, and sufficiently capacious to cover five 
thousand men. Its form was somewhat circular 
and its fianks reached to the river. 

" Though much defaced by time, every angle 
was distinguishable, and appeared as regular and 
fashioned with as much mihtary skill as if planned 
by Vauban himself. The ditch was not visible, 
but I thought, on examining more curiously, that 
I could perceive there certainly had been one. 
From its situation, also, I am convinced that it 
must have been designed for that purpose. It 
fronted the country, and the rear was covered by 
the river, nor was there any rising ground for a 
considerable way that commanded it ; a few 
straggling lakes were alone to be seen near it. 
In many places smaJl tracks were worn across it 
by the feet of the elks or deer, and from the depth 

of the bed of earth by which it was covered, I was 
able to draw certain. conclusions of its great anti- 
quity. I examined all the angles, and every part 
with great attention, and have often blamed my- 
self since, for not encamping on the spot, and 
drawing an exact plan of it. To show that this 
description is not the offspring of a heated imag- 
ination, or the chimerical tale of a mistaken trav- 
eler, I find, on inquiry since my retiu'n, that 
Mons. St. Pierre, and several traders have at dif- 
ferent times, taken notice of similar appearances, 
upon which they have formed the same conjec- 
tures, but without examining them so minutely 
as I did. How a work of this kind could exist in 
a country that has hitherto (according to the gen- 
erally received opinion) been the seat of war to 
untutored Indians alone, whose whole stock of 
mihtary knowledge has only, till within two cen- 
turies, amounted to dramng the bow, and whose 
only breastwork even at present is the thicket, I 
know not. I have given as exact an accoimt as 
possible of this singular appearance, and leave to 
future explorers of those distant regions, to dis- 
cover whether it is a production of nature or art. 
Perhaps the hints I have here given might lead 
to a more perfect investigation of it, and give us 
very different ideas of the ancient state of realms 
that we at present believe to have been, from the 
earliest period, only the habitations of savages." 

Lake Pepin excited his admiration, as it has 
that of every traveler since his day. and here he 
remarks : " I observed tlie ruins of a French fac- 
tory, where it is said Captain St. Pierre resided, 
and carried on a very great trade with the Nau- 
dowessies, before the reduction of Canada." 

Carver's first acquaintance with the Dahkotahs 
commenced near the river St. Croix. It would 
seem that the erection of trading posts on Lake 
Pepin had enticed them from their old residence 
on Rum river and ^lille Lacs. 

He says: "Near the river St. Croix reside 
bands of the Naudowessie Indians, called the 
River Bands. This nation is composed at pres- 
ent of eleven bands. They were originally 
twelve, but the Assinipoils, some years ago, re- 
volting and separating themselves from the oth- 
ers, there remain at this time eleven. Those I 
met here are termed the River Bands, because 
they chiefly dwell near tlie banks of this river; 
the other eight are generally distinguished by the 



title (it Xaddwessies of the I'lains, and inhabit a 
couutry more to the westward. The names of 
the former are Neliogatawouahs, the Mawtaw- 
bainitowalis. and Sliasliweeiilowahs. 

Arriving at wliat is now a sulmrb of the cap- 
ital of Minnesota, he eontiiuies: •• About thir- 
teen miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, at 
which 1 arrived the tenth day after 1 left Lake 
Pejiiu. is a remarkable cave, of an ama'/ins; deptli. 
The Indians teim it "Wakon-teebe [Wakan-tipi]. 
The entrance into it is aboiit ten feet wide, the 
height of it live feet. The arch within is fifteen 
feet high and about thirty feet broad; the l)ottom 
consists of fine, clear sand. About thirty feet 
from the entrance begins a lake, the water of 
wliich is transi)arent. and extends to an unsearch- 
able distance, for the darkness of the cave pre- 
ents all attemiits to acquire a knowledge of it.] 
I threw a small i)eljble towards the nterior part 
of it with my utmost strength. I could hear that 
it fell into the water, and, notwithstandhig it was 
of a small size, it caused an astonishing and ter- 
rible noise, that revei-beraled througli all those 
gloomy regions. 1 found in this cave many In- 
dian hieroglyphics, \\ liiili aiijieared \ eiy ancient, 
for time had nearly covered llieni witli moss, so 
that it was with ditliculty I could trace tliem. 
They were cut in a rude maimer upon the inside 
of the wall, wliicli was composed of a stone so ex- 
tremely soft that it might lie easily penetrated 
with a kiufe; a stone everywhere to be found 
near the Missjissippi. 

" At a little distance from this dreary cavern, 
is the burying-place of several bands of the Xau- 
dowessie Indians. Tliough these peoi)le have no 
fixed residence, being in tents, and seldom but a 
few months in one spot, yet they always bring 
the bones of the dead to this jtlace. 

"Ten miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, 
the river St. Pierre, called by the natives Wada- 
paw Alenesotor, falls into the ^lississippi from the 
we^il. It is not mentioned by leather IJeunepin, 
though a large, fair river. This omission, I con- 
sider, must have proceeded from a small island 
[I'ike'.s] that is situated exactly in its entrance." 

When he reaeheil the Minni^sota river, the ice 
became so troublesome tliat he left his canoe in 
the neighborhood of what is now St. Anthony, 
and walked to St. Anthony, in comiiany with a 
young Winnebago chief, who had never seen the 

curling waters. The chief, on reaching the emi- 
nence some distance below C'heever's, began to 
invoke his gods, and offer oblations to the spirit 
in the waters. 

•In t)ie middle of the Falls stands a small 
island, about forty feet broad and somewhat lon- 
ger, on which grow a few cragged hemlock and 
si)ruce trees, and about half way between this 
island and the eastern shore is a rock, lying at 
the very edge of the Falls, in an oblique position, 
that appeared to be about five or six feet broad, 
and thirty or forty long. At a little distance be- 
low the Falls stands a small Lsland of about an 
aci'c and a lialf. on which grow a great nimiber of 
oak trees." 

From this description, it would ajipear that the 
little island, now some distance below the Falls, 
was once in the very midst, and shows that a con- 
stant recession has been going on, and that in 
<'iges long past they were not far from the .Minne- 
sota river. 

No description is more glowing tliau Carvers 
of the country adjacent: 

'■ The country around them is extremely beau- 
tiful. It is not an uninterrupted plain, where the 
eye finds no relief, but composed of many gentle 
ascents, which in the summer are covered with 
the finest verdure, and interspersed with little 
groves that give a pleasing variety to the pros- 
pect. On the whole, when the Falls are inclu- 
ded, whicli may be seen at a distance of foiu' 
miles, a more pleasing and iiicturescnie view, I 
Vielieve, cannot be found throughout the uni- 

'• He arrived at the Falls on the seventeenlli of 
November, 1766, and ajipcars to have ascended as 
far as Elk river. 

On the twenty-fifth of November, he had re- 
turned to the iilace oiijiosite the Minnesota, where 
he had left his canoe, and this stream as yet not 
being ob.structed with ice, he commenced its as- 
cent, with the colors of Great lirilain fiying at 
the stern »)f his canoe. There is no doubt that 
he entered this river, but how far he explored it 
cannot be ascertained. He speaks of the llai)ids 
near Shakojiay, and asserts thai he went as far as 
two hundred miles licvond jNIendota. He re- 

" On tlie seventli of December, I arrived at the 
utmost of my travels towards the West, where I 



met a large party of the Xaudowessie Indians, 
among whom I resided some months." 

After speaking of the upper bands of the Dah- 
kotahs and their allies, he adds that he " left the 
"habitations of the hospitable Indians the latter 
end of April, 17G7, Init did not part from them 
for several days, as I was accompanied on my 
journey by near three himdred of them to the 
mouth of the river St. Pierre. At this season 
these bands annually go to the great cave (Day- 
ton's Bluff) before mentioned. 

When he arrived at the great cave, and the In- 
dians liad deposited the remains of their deceased 
friends in the burial-place that stands adjacent 
to it, they held their great council to wliicli lie 
was admitted. 

When the Xaudowessies brought their dead for 
interment to the great cave (St. Paul), I attempted 
to get an hisight into the remaining burial rites, 
but whether it was on accoimt of the stencli 
which arose from so many dead bodies, or whether 
they chose to keep this part of their custom secret 
from me, I could not discover. I found, however, 
that they considered my curiosity as ill-timetl, 
and therefore I withdrew. * * 

One formality among the Xaudowessies in 
mourning for the dead is very different from any 
mode I observed in the other nations througli 
which I passed. The men, to show how great 
their sorrow is, pierce the flesh of their arms 
above the elbows with arrows, and tlie women 
cut and gash their legs with broken flints till tlie 
blood flows very plentifully. * * 

After the breath is departed, the body is 
dressed in tlie same attire it usually wore, his 
face is painted, and he is seated in an erect pos- 
ture on a mat or skin, placed in the middle of the 
hut, with his weapons by his side. His relatives 
seated around, each iii tuni harangues the de- 
ceased; and if he has been a great warrior, re- 
counts his heroic actions, nearly to the following 
purport, which in the Indian language is extreme- 
ly poetical and pleasing 

" You still sit among us, brother, your person 
retains its usual resemblance, and continues sim- 
ilar to ours, witliout any visible deficiency, ex- 
cept it has lost the power of action! But whither 
is that breath flown, which a few hours ago sent 
up smoke to the Great Spirit? AViiy are those 
Ups silent, that lately delivered to us expressions 

and pleasing language? Why are those feet mo- 
tionless, that a few liours ago were fleeter than 
tlie deer on yonder mountains? AMiy useless 
hang those arms, that could climb the tallest tree 
or draw the toughest bow? Alas, every part of 
tliat frame wliich we lately beheld with admira- 
tion and wonder has now become as inanimate as 
it was three hundred years ago! We wiU not, 
liowevef, bemoan thee as if thou wast forever 
lost to us, or that thy name would be buried in 
oblivion; thy soul yet lives in the great coimiry 
of spirits, with those of thy nation that have gone 
before thee; and though we are left behind to 
perpetuate tliy fame, we will one day join thee. 

" Actuated by the respect we bore thee whilst 
living, we now come to tender thee the last act of 
liindness m our power; that thy body might not 
lie neglected on the plain, and become a prey to 
tlie beasts of the field or fowls of the air, and we 
will take care to lay it with those of thy predeces- 
sors that have gone before thee; hoping at the 
same time that thy spirit will feed with their 
spirits, and be ready to receive ours wlien we 
shall also arrive at tlie great country of souls." 

Por this speech Carver is principally indebted 
to his imagination, but it is well conceived, and 
suggested one of Scliiller's poems, which Gcethe 
considered one of his best, and wished •• he had 
made a dozen such." 

Sir E. Lytton Bulwerthe distinguished novelist, 
and Sir John Ilerschel tlie eminent astronomer, 
liave each given a translation of Schiller's " Song 
of the Xadowessee Chief." 


See on his mat — as if of yore, 

All life-like sits he here ! 
With that same aspect which he wore 

"When light to him was dear 

But where the right hand's strength ? and where 
The breath that loved to breathe 

To the Great Spirit, aloft in air. 
The peace pipe's lusty wreath ? 

And where the hawk-like eye, alas ! 

That wont the deer pursue, 
Along the waves of rippling grass. 

Or fields that shone with dew ? 



Are these the limber, boimdiiig feet 
That swept tlie winter's snows ? 

"What stateliest stag so fast and lleet ? 
Their speed outstripped the roe's ! 

These arms, tliat then the steady bow 

Could .supiilc lidiii it's jiride. 
How stark and lielplcss hang they now 

Adowu the stiffened side ! 

Yet weal to liim — at jieaoe he stays 

Wherever fall the snows ; 
AVhere o'er the meadows springs the maize 

That mortal never sows. 

Wherij birds are blithe on every brake — 
■\Vliere orests teem with deer — 

Where glide the lisli througli every lake — 
One chase from year to year ! 

With spirits now he feasts above ; 

All left us to revere 
The deeds we honor willi niir love, 

The dust we bury here. 

Here bring the last gift ; loud and shrill 
Wail death dirge for tlie brave ; 

What i)leased liim most in life, may still 
Give pleasure in the grave. 

We 1 ly the axe beneath his head 

He swung when strength was strong — 

The bear on which liis baufiuets fed, 
The way fnuii railh is long. 

,\jiil li ic. new sliarpcncil, jilace tlie knife 

Tliat .severed from the clay. 
From which tlie axe liad spoiled the life, 

Tlie conquered scalp away. 

Tlie paints that deck tlic dead, bcslnw ; 

Yes, place them in his hand, 
Thiit red the kingly slia<le may glow 

Amid the siiiiit land. 

silt JOHN iiicnscnKi/s tuanslation. 

Se:', where ii))oii the mat he sits 

Erect, before his door, 
Willi just the same majestic air 

That once in life he wore. 

But where is fled his strength of limb. 

The whirhvuid of his breath, 
To the Great Spirit, when he sent 

The peace pipe's mounting wreath? 

Where are those falcon eyes, which late 

Along the plain could trace, 
Along the grass's dewy waves 

The reindeer's printed pace? 

Those legs, which once with matchless speed, 

Flew through the drifted snow, 
Sun^assed the stag's unwearied course, 

Outran the mountain roe? 

Those arms, once used with might and main. 

The stubborn bow to twang? 
See, see. their nerves are slack at last. 

All motionless they hang. 

"Tis well with him, for he is gone 

AVhere snow no more is foiuid, 
A^Hiere the gay thorn's perpetual bloom 

Decks all the held around. 

AVhere wild birds sing from every spray, 

Where deer ccme sweeping by, 
"Wliere fish from every lake afford 

A iileiitifiil suiiply. 

With spirits now he feasts above, 

And leaves us here alone. 
To celebrate his valiant derds. 

And round his grave to moan. 

Sound tlic dcalli song, bring furtli the gifts, 

Tiic last gifts of the dead, — 
Let all which yet may yield him joy 

Within his grave be laid. 

The lialclK't |ilari' ln'iieatli his liiad 

Still reil witli hostili^ blood; 
And add. because the way is long, 

Tlie bear's fat limbs for food. 

The scalping knife beside liiiii lay. 

With paints id' gorgeous dye. 
That in the land of souls his form 

May shine triuiniihantly. 

Il a|ipcais fioiu dtlicr s<ini"ces that Tarver'.s 
visit lo the Dahkotalis was of .some elTect in bring- 
ing about friendly intercourse between them and 
the commander of the I^iglisli force at Mackinaw. 



The earliest mention of the Dahkotas, in any 
public British documents that we linow of, is in 
the correspondence between Sir William Johnson, 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for tlie Colony 
of New York, and General Gage, in command of 
the forces. 

On the eleventh of September, less than six 
montlis after Carver's speech at Dayton's Bluff, 
and the departure of a number of chiefs to the 
English fort at Mackinaw, Johnson writes to 
General Gage: '• Though I wrote to you some 
days ago, yet I would not mind saying something 
again on the score of the vast expenses incurred, 
and, as I understand, still incurring at Michili- 
mackinac, chiefly on pretence of making a peace 
between the Sioux and Chippeweighs, witli which 
I think we have very little to do, in good policy 
or otherwise.'' 

Sir AVilliam Jolmson, in a letter to Lord Hills- 
borough, one of his Majesty's ministers, dated 
August seventeenth, 1768, again refers to the 

" Much greater part of those who go a trading 
are men of such circumstances and disposition as 
to venture their jiersons everywhere for extrava- 
gant gains, yet the consequences to the public 
are not to be slighted, as we may be led into a 
general quarrel through their means. The In- 
dians in the part adjacent to Michilimackinac 
have been treated with at a very great expense 
for some time previous. 

"Major Rodgers brings a considerable charge 
against the former for mediating a peace between 
some tribes of the Sioux and some of the Chippe- 
weighs, which, had it been attended with success, 
would only have been interesting to a very few 
French, and others, that had goods in that part 
of the Indian country, but tlie contrary has hap- 
pened, and tliey are now more violent, and war 
against one another." 

Though a wilderness of over one thousand miles 
intervened between tlie Falls of St. Anthony and 
the white settlements of the English, Carver was 
fully impressed with the idea that the State now 
organized under the name of Minnesota, on ac- 
count of its beauty and fertility, would attract 

Speaking of the advantages of the country, lie 
says that the future population will be "able to 
convey their produce to the seaports with great 

facility, the current of the river from its source 
to its entrance into the GuLf of Mexico being ex- 
tremely favourable for doing this in small craft 
This might also m time he fdcilitatcd by canals or 
shorter cuts, and a communication opened by ^cater 
with Kew York by way of the Lalccs." 

The suliject of this sketch was also confident 
that a route would be discovered by way of the 
Minnesota river, whicli "would open a passage 
to China and the English settlements in the East 

Carver, having returned to England, interested 
"Wliitworth, a member of parliament, in the 
northern route. Had not the American Revolu- 
tion commenced, they proposed to have built a 
fort at Lake Pepin, to have proceeded up the 
^liimesota until they found, as they supposed 
they could, a branch of the Missouri, and from 
tlience, journeying over tlie summit of lands im- 
lil they came to a river which they called Oregon, 
thoy expected to descend to the Pacific. 

Carver, in common with other travelers, had 
lis theory in relation to the origin of the Dahko- 
talis. He supposed that they came from Asia. 
He remark?! " But tliir: might have been at dif- 
ferent times and from various parts — from Tar- 
tary, China. Japan, for the inhabitants of these 
places resemble each other. * * * 

" It is very evident that some of the names and 
customs of the American Indians resemble those 
of the Tartars, and I make no doubt but that in 
some future era, and this not far distant, it will 
be reduced to certainty tliat during some of the 
wars between the Tartars and Chinese a part of 
the inhabitants of the northern provinces were 
driven from their native country, and took refuge 
ill some of tlie isles before mentioned, and from 
thence found their way into America. * * * 

" Many words are used both by the Chinese and 
the Indians which liave a resemblance to each 
other, not only in their sound, but in their signi- 
fication. The Chinese call a slave Shungo; and 
the Naudowessio Indians, whose language, from 
their little intercourse with the Europeans, is 
least corrupted, term a dog Shungusli [Shoan- 
kah]. The f.)rm':r denominate one siiecies of their 
tea Shoushong; the latter call their tobacco Shou- 
sas-sau [Chanshasha], Many other of the words 
used by the Indians contain the syllaliles che, 
chaw, and chu, after the dialect of the Chinese." 



Tlip comparison of languages has become a rich 
source of liis'.' rical knowledge, yet many of the 
analogies traced :i:e fanciful. The remark of 
Ilurabolt in " Cosmos" 1? worthy of remembrance. 
'■As the structure of ^Vmtrican idioms appears 
remarkably strange to nations speaking the mod- 
ern languages of Western Europe, and who readily 
suffer themselves to he led away by some acci- 
dental analogies of sound, theologians have gen- 
erally believed that they could trace an affinity 
with the Hebrew. Spanish colonists with the 
Basque and the or French settlers with 
(iaelic, Erse, or the ]5as Breton. I one day met 
on the coast of Peru, a Spanish naval officer and 
an Entrlish whaling captain, tlie foriticr of whom 
declared that he had lieard Basque sjioken at Ta- 
hiti; the other, Gaelic or Erse at the Sandwich 

Carver became very poor while in England, 
and was a clerk in a lotterj-office. He died in 
1780, and left a widow, two sons, and five daught- 
ers, in New England, and also a child by another 
wife that he had married in (ireat Britain 

After his death a claim was urged for the land 
upon which the capital of Minnesota now stands- 
and for many miles a<ljacent. As there are still 
many persons who l)elieve that they Imve some 
right through certain deeds purporting to be from is a matter worthy of an 

Car\'er says nothing in his book of travels in re- 
lation to a grant from the Dahkotahs, but after 
he was buried, it was asserted that there was a 
deed belonging to him in existence, conveying 
valuable lands, and tliat said deed was executed 
at the cave now in the eastern suburbs of Saint 


" To Jonathan Carver, u chief under tlie most 
mighty and putent (;eiirge the Thiid. King of the 
English and other nations, the fame of wliose 
warriors hiis reached our ears, and has now been 
fully told us by our (jood hmtlifr Jmmthnn. afore- 
said, wlioin we rejoice to have cume among us, 
and bring us g<H)d news from his country. 

" We, chiefs of tlie Naudowessies, who have 
hereunto set our seals, do by these presents, for 
onrselves and heirs forever, in return for tlie aid 
and oilier good services done by the said Jona- 

than to ourselves and allies, give grant and con- 
vey to him, the said Jonathan, and to his heirs 
and assigns forever, the whole of a certain tract 
or territory of land, bounded as follows, viz: from 
the Falls of St. Anthony, miming on the east 
bank of the Mississippi, nearly southeast, as far 
as Lake Pepiu. where the Chippewa joins the 
Mississippi, and from thence eastward five days 
travel, accomiting twenty English miles per day; 
and from thence again to the Falls of St. Anthony, 
on a direct straight line. We do for ourselves, 
heirs, and assigns, forever give niito the said Jo- 
nathan, his heirs and assigns, with all the trees, 
rocks, and rivers therein, reserving the sole lib- 
erty of hunting and fishing on land not planted 
or improved by tlie said Jonathan, his heirs and 
assigns, to which we have affixed our respective 

" At the Great Cave. May 1st. 1707. 



The original deed was never exhibited by the 
assignees of the heirs. By his English wife Car- 
ver had one child, a daughter Martha, who was 
cared for by Sir Richard and Lady Pearson. In 
time she eloped and married a sailor. A mercan- 
tile firm in Londmi, thinking that money could 
be made, induced the newly married couple, the 
day after the wedding, to convey the grant to 
them, with the understanding that they were to 
have a tenth of the profits. 

Tlie merchants despatched an agent by the 
name of Clarke to go to the Dahkotahs, and ob- 
tain a new deed; but on his way he was murdered 
in the state of New York. 

In the year 1794, the heirs of Carver's Ameri- 
can wife, in consideration of fifty tliousand pounds 
sterling, conveyed their interest in the Carver 
grant to Edward Houghton ol' ^'l■lnlllul. In the 
year l.SOO. Samnel I'eters, wlio had been a lory 
and an Ejiiscoiial minister during the Kevolu- 
tionary war, alleges, in a petition to Congress, 
that he had also purchased of the heirs oi' Carver 
their rights to the grant. 

Before the Senate commiltce. tlic .saiin' ,\ear, 
he testified as follows: 

"In the year 1774, I arrived there (London), 
anil met Caiitain ('ar\er. In 177.">. Carver had a 
hearing before the king, iiraying his majesty's 
approval of a deed of Imnl ilaled .May first, 17r>7, 



and sold and granted to him by the Jv'audowissies. 
The result was his majesty approved of the exer- 
tions and bravery of Captain Carver among tlie 
Indian nations, near the Falls of St. Anthony, in 
the Mississippi, gave to said Carver 1371?. 13s. M. 
sterling, and ordered a frigate to be prepared, 
and a transport ship to carry one hundred and 
fifty men, under command of Captain Carver, witli 
four others as a committee, to sail the next June 
to Nevs' Orleans, and then to ascend the Missis- 
sippi, to take possession of said territory conveyed 
to Captain Carver ; but the battle of Bunker Hill 

In 1821, General Leavenworth, having made 
inquiries of the Dahkotahs, in relation to the 
alleged claim, addressed the following to tlie 
commissioner of the land otHce : 

" Sir: — Agreeably to your recpiest, I have the 
honour to inform you what I have understood 
from the Indians of the Sioux Nation, as well as 
some facts within my own knowledge, as to what 
is commonly termed Carver's Grant. The grant 
purports to be made by the chiefs of the Sioux 
of the Plahis, and one of the chiefs uses the sign 
of a serpent, and the other of a turtle, purport- 
ing that their names are derived from those ani- 

"The land lies on the east side of the Mississ- 
ippi. The Indians do not recognize or acknowl 
edge the grant to V)e valid, and they among otliers 
assign the following reasons: 

"1. The Sioux of the Plains never owned a 
foot of land on the east side of the Mississippi. 
The Sionx Nation is divided into two grand di- 
visions, viz: The Sioux of the Lake; or perhaps 
more literally Sioux of the Elver, and Sioux of 
the Plain. The fcn-mer subsists by luniting and 
fishing, and usually move from place to place by 
water, in canoes, during the summer season, and 
travel on the ice in the winter, when not on 
their hunting excursions. The latter subsist en- 
tirely by hunting, and have no canoes, nor do 
they know but little about the use of them. They 
reside in the large prairies west of the Mississippi, 
and follow the buffalo, upon which they entirely 
subsist; these are called Sioux of the Plain, and 
never owned land east of the Mississippi. 

" 2. The Indians say they have no knowledge 
of any such chiefs as those who haye signed tlie 
grant to Carver, either amongst the Sioux of the 

River or the Sioux of the Plain. They say that 
if Captain Carver did ever obtain a deed or 
grant, it was signed by some foolish young men 
wlio were not chiefs and who were not author- 
ized to make a grant. Among the Sioux of the 
River there are no such names. 

" 3. They say the Indians never received any- 
thing for the laud, and they have no intention to 
part with it without a consideration. From my 
knowledge of the Indians. I am induced to think 
they would not make so considerable a grant, and 
have it to go into full effect without receiving a 
substantial consideration. 

'• i. They have, and ever have had, the pos- 
session of the land, and intend to keep it. I 
know that they are very particular in making 
every person who wishes to cut timber on that 
tract obtain their permission to do so, and to ob- 
tain payment for it. In the month of May last, 
some Frenchmen brought a large raft of red cedar 
timber out of the Chippewa River, which timber 
was cut on the tract before mentioned. The In- 
dians at one of the villages on the Mississippi, 
where the principal chief resided, compelled the 
Frenchmen to land the raft, and would not per- 
mit them to pass until they had received jiay for 
the timber, and the Frenchmen were compelled 
to leave their raft with the Indians until they 
went to Prairie dn Chien, and olitained the nec- 
essary articles, and made the payment required." 

On the twenty-third of January, 1823, the Com- 
mittee of Public Lands made a report on the 
claim to the Senate, which, to every disinterested 
person, is entirely satisfactory. After stating 
the facts of the petition, the report continues: 

" The Rev. Samuel Peters, in his petition, fur- 
ther states that Lefei, the present Emiierin- of 
the Sioux and Naudowessies, and Red Wing, a 
sachem, the heirs and successors of the two grand 
chiefs wlio signed the said deed to Captain Car- 
ver, have given satisfactory and positive proof 
that they allowed their ancestors' deed to be gen- 
uine, good, and valid, and that Captain Carver's 
heirs and assigns are the owners of said territory, 
and may occupy it free of all molestation. 

The committee have examined and considered 
the claims thus exhibited l)y the petitioners, and 
remark that the original deed is not i)i-oduced, nor 
any competent legal evidence offered of its execu- 
tion ; nor is there any prooi' that tlie persons, who 



it is alleged made tlie deed, were the chiefs of 
said tribe, nor that (if chiefs) they had authority 
to grant and give away the laud belonging to their 
tribe. The paper annexed to the petition, as a 
copy of said deed, has no "iibscribing witnesses ; 
and it would seem iaiiiossible, at this remote pe- 
riod, to ascertain the important fact, that the per- 
sons who signed the ieed comprehended and 
understood the meaning and effect of their act. 

'• The want of proof as to these facts, would 
interpose in the wa) of the claimants insuperable 
difficulties. But. in the opinion of the committee, 
the claim is not such as the United States are 
under any obligation to allow, even if the deed 
were proved in legal form. 

" The British government, before the time when 
the alleged deed bears date, had deemed it pru- 
dent and necessary for the preservation of peace 
with the Indian tribes under their sovereignty, 
protection and dominion, to prevent British sub- 
jects from purchasing lands from the Indians, 
and this rule of policy was made known and en- 
forced by the proclamation of the king of Great 
Britain, of seventh October, 1763, wliicli contains 
an prohibition. 

" Captain Carver, aware of the law, and know- 
ing that such a contract could not vest the legal 
title in him, applied to the British govermnent to 
ratify and confirm the Indian grant, and, though 
it was competent for that government then to 
conlirni the grant, and vest the title of said laud 

in him. yet, fr<im some cause, that government 
did not think proper to do it. 

" The territory has since become the property 
of the United States, and an Indian grant not 
good against the British government, would ap- 
pear to be not binding uoon the United States 

" "What benefit the British government derived 
from the services of Captain Carver, by his trav- 
els and residence among the Indians, that gov- 
ernment alone could determine, and alone could 
judge what remuneration those services deserved. 

" One fact appears from the declaration of Mr. 
Peters, in his statement in writing, among the 
papers exhibited, namely, that the British gov- 
ernment did give Captain Carver the sum of one 
thousand three lunidred and seventy-five pounds 
six shillings and eight pence sterling. To the 
United States, however, Captain Carver rendered 
no services which could be assumed as any ecpiit- 
able ground for the support of the petitioners' 

'• The committee being of opinion that the 
I'nited Slates are not bounil in law and equity to 
confirm the said alleged Indian grant, recom- 
mend the adoption of the resolution: 

" ' Resolved, That the prayer of the petitioners 
ought not to be granted." ' 

Lord Balmerston stated in 1839, that no trace 
could be found in the records of the British 
office of state jiajiers, showing any ratification of 
the Carver grant. 





Tra<ling Posts at the beginning of Nineteenth Century. — Sandy Lake Port. — 
Leech Lake Port.— William Morrison, before Schoolcraft at Itasca Lake.— Divi- 
sion of Northwest Territory. — Organization of Indiana, Michigan and Upper 
Louisiana. — Notices of Wo<id, Prazer, Fisher, Cameron, Paribault.— Early 
Traders.— Pike's Council at Mouth of Minnesota River.- Grant for Military 
Posts,— Encampment at Palls of St. Anthony.— Block House near Swan River. 
—Visit to Sandy and Leech Lakes.— British Plag Shot at and Lowered — 
Thompson, Topographer of Northwest Company. — Pike at Dickson's Trading 
Post —Returns to Mendota— Pails to find Carver's Cave. — Conlerence with 
Little Crow. —Cameron sells Liquor to Indians. 

At the beginmng of the present century, the 
region now kno'svn as iliimesota, contained no 
■white men, except a few engaged in the fur trade. 
In the treaty effected by Hon. John Jay, Great 
Britain agreed to withdraw lier troops from all 
posts and places within certain boundary lines, 
on or before the first of June, 179G. )>ut all Brit- 
ish settlers and traders might remain for one 
year, and enjoy all their former privileges, with- 
out being obliged to be citizens of the United 
States of America. 

In the year ISOO, the trading posts of ilinnesota 
were chiefly held by the Northwest Company, 
and their chief traders resided at Sandy Lake, 
Leech Lake, and Fon du Lac, on St. Louis River. 
In the year 1794, this company built a stockade 
one hundred feet square, on the southeast end of 
Sandy Lake. There were bastions pierced for 
small arms, in the southeast and in the northwest 
comer. The pickets which surroiuided the post 
were thirteen feet high. On the north side there 
was a gate ten by nine feet ; on the west side, one 
six by five feet, and on the east side a tliird gate 
six by five feet. Travelers entering the main 
gate, saw on the left a one story liuilding twenty 
feet square, the residence of the superintendent. 
and on the left of the east gate, a building twenty- 
live by fifteen, the quarters of the voyagenis. 
Entering the western gate, on tlie left was a stone 
house, twenty by thirty feet, and a house twenty 
by forty feet, used as a store, and a workshop, 
and a residence for clerks. On the south sliore 
of Leecli Lake there was another establishment, 
a little larger. The stockade was one hundred 

and fifty feet square. The main building was 
sixty by twenty-five feet, and one and a half sti.:ry 
in height, where resided the Director of tlie fur 
trade of the Fond du Lac department of theNortli- 
west Company. In the centre was a small store, 
twelve and a half feet stjuare, and near the main 
gate was flagstaff fifty feet in height, from 
which used to float the flag of Great Britain. 

William Morrison was, in 1802, the trader at 
Leech Lake, and in 1804 he was at Elk Lake, the 
source of the ^Mississippi, thirty-two years after- 
wards named by Schoolcraft, Lake Itasca. 

The entire force of the Northwest Company, 
west of Lake Superior, in 1805, consisted of three 
accountants, nineteen clerks, two intei-preters, 
eighty-flve canoe men, and with them were 
twenty-nine Indian or half-breed women, and 
about fifty children. 

On the seventh of :May, ISOO, the Northwest 
Territory, which included all of the western 
country east of tlie Mississippi, was divided. 
The portion not designated as Oliio, was organ- 
ized as the Territory of Indiana. 

On the twentieth of December, 1803, the 
province of Louisiana, of which tliat portion of 
Minnesota west of the Mississippi was a part, 
was officially delivered up by the French, who 
had just obtained it from the Spaniards, accord- 
ing to treaty stipulations. 

To the transfer of Louisiana by France, after 
twenty days' possession, Spain at first objected ; 
but in 1804 withdrew all opposition. 

President Jefferson now deemed it an oliject 
of paramount importance for the United States 
to explore the country so recently acquired, and 
make the acquaintance of the tribes residing 
therein; and steps were taken tor an expedition 
to the upper Mississippi. 

Early in March, 1804, Captain Stoddard, of tlie 
United States army, arrived at St. Louis, llie 
agent of the I'rcnch llepublic, to receive from 


EXPLORERS Ayn PioyEERs OF MI^■^■EiiorA. 

the Spanish aiitliorities tlie possession of the 
country, which he Immediately transferred to the 
United States. 

As tlie (lid settlers, on the tenth of March, saw 
the ancient Hag of Spain displaced by that of the 
United States, the tears coursed down their 

On the twentieth of the same month, the terri- 
tory of Upper Louisiana was constituted, com- 
pri.sins the present states of Arkansas, Missouri, 
Iowa, and a hu'fie portion of Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of .January, 1805, the terri- 
tory of Michigan was organized. 

The first American officer who visited Minne- 
sota, on business of a i>ublic nature, was one who 
was an ornament to his profession, and in energy 
and endurance a true representative of the citi- 
zens of the I'nited States. We refer to the 
gallant Zebulon :^Iontgomery Pike, a native of 
iNew Jersey, who aftenvards fell in battle at 
York, Upper Canada, and whose loss was justly 
niounied by the whole nation. 

When a young lieuten;Mit, he was ordered by 
General Wilkinson to visit the region now known 
as Minnesota, and expel the British traders who 
were found violating the laws of the Inited 
States, and form alliances with the Indians. 
With only a few (•(HiiuKin soldiers, he was obliged 
to do the work of several men. At times he 
would i)recede his party for miles to reconnoitre, 
and then he would do the <luty of hunter. 

During the day he would perform the part of 
surveyor, geologist, and astronomer, and at night, 
though liiMiLrry and fatigued, his lofty enthu- 
siasm kept him awake mitil he copied the notes, 
and ])lotted the courses of the day. 

On the 4th day of September, 1805, Pike ar- 
rived at Prairie du Chien, from St. Louis, and 
wa.s iK)litely treated by three traders, all born un- 
der the flag of the Ignited States. One was named 
Wood, another Frazer, a native of Vermont, 
who, when a young man became a clerk of one 
Hlakely, of Montreal, and thus became a fur 
trader. Tlie third was Henry Fisher, a captain 
of the Militia, and Justice of the Peace, whose 
wife was a dauKhtcr of (Joutier de \'erville. 
Fi.sher was said to liave been a nciihcw nf Pres- 
rlent Monroe, anil later in life lrade(l at the 
sources of the .Minnesota. One of his daughters 
was the mother of .losi ph Holettc. Ji.. a mem- 

ber of the early ^linnesota Legislative assem- 
blies. On the eighth of the month Lieutenant 
I'ike left Prairie du Chien, in twobatteaux, with 
Sergeant Henry Kennerman, Corporals William 
E, M.ack and Samuel JSradley, and ten privates. 

At La Crosse, Frazer, of Prairie du Chien, 
overtook him. and at Sandy point of Lake Pejiin 
lie found a trader, a Scotchman by the name <if 
.Murdoch Camci'dn. witli his son, and a young 
man named John Hudsdell, On the twunl.\- 
first he breakfasted with the Kaposia band ol 
Sioux, who then dwelt at the marsh below i)ay- 
ton's Bluff, a few miles below St. Paul. The 
same day he passed three miles from Mendota 
the encam)iment of J. B. Faribault, a trader and 
native of Lower Canada, then about thirty years 
of age, in which vicinity he continued for more 
than fifty years, ile married Pelagic the daugh- 
ter of Francis Kiiuiie by an Lidian woman, 
and his eldest son, Alexander, bom soon after 
l^ike's visit, was the founder of the town of 

Arriving at the conlluen'^e of the Minnosota 
and the Mississippi Bivers, Pike and his soldiers 
encamped on the Northeast point of the island 
which still bears his name. The next day was 
Sunday, and he visited Cameron, at his trading 
post on the Minnesota lUver. a short distance 
above Mendota. 

On Jlouday, the 'JM of September, at noon, 
he held a Council with the Sioux, under a cover- 
ing made by suspending sails, and gave an ad- 
mirable talk, a portion of which was as follows : 

" Brothers. I am happy to meet you here, at 
this (■(iiiiicil I'nc uliirli your latli<'r lias sent me to 
kindle, ami to take you by tlie liauils. as our chil- 
dren. "We having but lately ac(|uire(l from Uw 
Sjianisli. the extensive territory of Louisiana, our 
general has thought jiroper to send out a iiuinbcr 
of his warriors to \isit all his red children ; to tell 
tliein his will, and to hear what re(inest they may 
have to make of their father. I am hajipy the 
choice fell on me to come this road, as I find 
my brothers, the Sioux, ready to listen to my 

"Brothers, it is the wish of our govciinuriit to 
establish military posts on the Ipiier Mississippi, 
at such places as might be thought exi)edient. I 
have, therefore, examined the country, and have 
liilc'licd on iiic jiioiith of the liver St. Croix, this 


place, and the Falls of St. Anthony ; I therefore 
wish you to grant to the United States, nine 
miles square, at St. Croix, and at this place, fnuu 
a league below the confluence of the St. Peter's 
and Mississippi, to a league above St. Anthony, 
extending three leagues on each side of the river ; 
and as we are a people who are accustomed to 
have all our acts written down, in order to have 
them handed to our children, I have drawn up a 
form of an agreement, which we will both sign, 
in the presence of the traders now present. After 
we know the tenns, we will fill it up, and have it 
read and interpreted to you. 

'■ Brothers, those posts are intended as a bene- 
fit to you. The old chiefs now present must see 
that their situation improves by a communication 
with the whites. It is the intention of the United 
States to establish at those posts factories, m 
which the Indians may- procure all their things 
at a cheaper and better rate tlian they do now, or 
than your traders can afford to sell them to you, 
as they aie single men, who come from far in 
small boats; but your fathers are many and 
strong, and will come with a strong arm, in large 
boats. There will also be chiefs here, who can 
attend to the wants of their brothers, without 
their sending or going all the way to St. Louis, 
and will see the traders that go up your rivers, 
and know that they are good men. * * * * 
'• Brothers, I now present you with some of 
your father's tobacco, and some other trifling 
things, as a memorandum of my good will, and 
before my departure I will give you some liquor 
to clear your throats.'" 

The traders, Cameron and Frazer, sat with 
Pike. His interpmter was Pierre Kosseau. 
Among the Chiefs present were Le Petit Cor- 
beau (Little Crow), and AVay-ago Enagee, and 
L'Orignal Leve or Rising Moose. It was with 
diflScuIty that the chiefs signed the following 
agreement; not that they objected to the lan- 
guage, but because they thouglit their word 
should be taken, withiuit any mark ; but Pike 
overcame their objection, by saying that he wished 
them to sign it on his account. 

" Whereas, at a conference held between the 
United Slates of America and the Sioux na- 
tion of Indians, Lieutenant Z. M. Pike, of the 
army of the United States, and the chiefs and 
warriors of said tribe, have agreed to the follow- 

uig articles, which, when ratified and approved of 
by the proper authority, shall be binding on both 
parties : 

^Vi:t. 1 . That the Sioux nation grant >mto the 
United States, for the purpose of establishment 
of military posts, nine miles square, at the mouth 
of the St. Croix, also from below the confluence 
of the Mississippi and St. Peter's, up the Missis- 
sippi to include the Falls of St. Anthony, extend- 
ing nine miles on each side of the river ; that the 
Sioux Nation grants to the United States the full 
sovereignty and power over said district forever. 
AuT. 2. That in consideration of the above 
grants, the United States shall pay [filled up by 
the Senate with 2,000 dollars]. 

Art. 3. The United States promise, on their 
part, to permit the Sioux to pass and repass, hunt, 
or make other use of the said districts, as they 
have formerly done, without any other exception 
than those specified in article first. 

In testimony whereof, we, the undersigned, 
have hereunto set our hands and seals, at the 
mouth of the river St. Peter's, on the 23d day of 
September, 1805. 

Z. M. PIKE, [L. S.] 
1st Lieutenant and agent at the aViove conference. 

mark " 

The following entries ft-om Pike's Journal, des- 
criptive of the region around the city of Minne- 
apolis, seventy-five years ago, are worthy of pres- 

"SEPT.26th,77un-.9dn)/.—Eml)arked at the usual 
hour, and after much labor in passing through 
the rapids, arrived at the foot of the Falls about 
three or four o'clock ; unloaded my boat, and had 
the principal part of her cargo carried over the 
portage. With the other boat, however, full 
loaded, they were not al)le to get over the last 
shoot, and encamped aljout six yards below. I 
pitched my tent and encamped above the shoot. 
The rapids mentioned in this day's march, might 
properly be called a continuation of the Falls of 
St. Anthony, for they are equally entitled to this 
' appeUation, with the Falls of the Delaware and 



Susquehanna. Killed one deer. Distance nine 

Sept. i2Tth. Friday. Brought over the residue 
of my loading this morning. Two men arrived 
from Mr. Frazer. on St. Peters, for my dispatches. 
This business, closing and sealing, appeared like 
a adieu to the civilized world. Sent a large 
packet to the General, and a letter to Mrs. Pike, 
with a short note to Mr. Frazer. Two young 
Indians hrouglit my Hag across by land, who ar- 
rived yesterday, just as we came in sight of the 
Fall. I made them a present for their punctual- 
ity and expedition, and the danger they were ex- 
posed to from the jouniey. Carried ourboatsout 
of the river, as far as the bottom of the hill. 

Sept. 2Hth. Suturdu y.—liroug\\\ my barge over, 
and put her in the river above the Falls. While 
we were engaged with her tliree-fourths miles 
from camp, seven iTidians painted lilack, appeared 
on the heights. We had left our guns at the 
camp and were entirely defenceless. It occurred 
tome that tliey were the small party of Sioux who 
were obstinate, and would go to war, when the 
other part of the bands came in ; these they 
proved to be ; they were better armed than any I 
liad ever seen ; having guns, Ijows. arrows, clubs, 
spears, and some of them even a case of pistols. 
1 was at that time giving my men a dram ; and 
giving the cuj) of li(|iior to the first, he drank it 
off ; t)Ut I was more cautious with tlie remainder. 
I sent my interpreter to camp with them, to wait 
my coming ; wishing to i)iirchase oue of tlieir war 
clubs, it Ijeing made of elk horn, and decorated 
■«ith inlaid work. This and a set of bows and 
arrows I wshed to get as a curiosity. But the 
liquor I had given him begau to operate, he came 
back for me. but refusing to go till I brought my 
boat, he returned, and (I suppose being oftended) 
borrowed a canoe and crossed the river. In the 
afternoon got the otlier boat near tlie tup of tlic 
hill, when the i)rops gave way and slie slid all the 
way down to the bottom, but fortunately without 
injuring any person. It raining very hard, we 
left her. Killed one goose and a racoon. 

Seit. 29tli, Sund<iy.—1 killed a reniarka'dy 
large racoon. Got our large Iwat over the port- 
age, and put her in the river, at the upper land- 
ing; thiB nighl the men gave sunicicnl proof of 
thtir I'atigiif. liy all thniwing themselves dnwii to 
sleeii, preferring rest to supi>er. This day I had 

but fifteen men out of twenty-two ; the others 
were sick. This voyage could have been per- 
formed with great convenience, if we had taken 
our departure in June. But the proper time 
would be to leave the Illinois as soon as the ice 
would permit, when the river would be of a good 

Sept. 30th, Monday. — Loaded my boat, moved 
over and encamped on the Island. The large boats 
loading likewise, we went over and i)ut on board. 
In the mean time, I took a survey of the Falls. 
Portage, etc. If it be possible to pass the Falls 
in high water, of which I am doubtfid, it must 
be on tho East side, about thirty yards from 
shore ; as there are three layers of rocks, one be- 
low the other. The pitch ofE of either, is not 
more than five feet ; but of this I can say more 
on my return. 

On the tenth of October, the expedition 
reached some arge island below Sauk Kapids. 
where in 1797, Porlier and Joseph Eemalle had 
wintered. Six days after this, he reached the 
Rapids in Morrison county, which still bears his 
name, and he writes: "When we arose in the 
morning, found that snow had fallen during the 
night, the ground was covered and it continued 
to snow. This, indeed, was but poor encourage- 
ment for attacking the Rapids, in which we were 
certain to wade to oiu' necks. I was determined, 
however, if possible to make la riviere de Cor- 
beau, [Crow Wing River], the highest point was 
made by traders in their bark canoes. We em- 
barked, and after four h(nirs work, became so 
benumbed with cold that our limbs were perfectly 
useless. We put to shore on the opposite side of 
the river, about two-thirds of the way uj) the 
rapids. Built a large fire ; and then discovered 
that our boats were nearly half full of water; 
both having sprung large leaks so as to oblige me 
to keep three hands bailing. My sergeant (Ken- 
nerman) one of the stoutest men I ever knew, 
broke a blood-vessel and vomited nearly two 
quarts of blood. One of ray corporals (Bradley) 
also evacuated nearly a pint of blood, when he 
attemi)ted to void his urine. These imhappy 
circumstances, in addition to the inability of 
four other men whom we were obliged to leave 
on shore, convinced nie. that if 1 liail no regard 
for my own heallh ami constitution. I sho\dd 
have some for those poor fellows, who were kill- 



ing tliemselves to obey my orders. After we had 
breakfast and refreshed ourselves, we went down 
to our boats on the rocks, where I was obliged to 
leave them. I then informed my men tliat we 
would return to the camp and there leave some 
of the party and our large boats. This informa- 
tion was pleasing, and the attempt to reach the 
camp soon accomplished. My reasons for this 
step have partly been already stated. The nec- 
essity of unloading and refitting my boats, the 
beauty and convenience of the spot for buildmg 
huts, the fine piiie trees for peroques, and the 
quantity of game, were additional inducements. 
■We immediately unloaded our boats and secured 
their cargoes. In the evening I went out upon a 
small, but beautiful creek, which emptied into 
the Falls, for the purpose of selecting pine trees 
to make canoes. Saw five deer, and killed one 
buck weighing one hundred and thirty-seven 
pounds. By my leaving men at this place, and 
from the great quantities of game in its vicinity, 
I was ensured plenty of provision for my return 
voyage. In the party left behind was one himter, 
to be continually employed, who would keep our 
stock of salt provisions good. Distance two 
hundred and thirty-three and a half miles above 
tlie Falls of St. Anthony. | 

Having left his large boats and some sokUers 
at this point, he proceeded to the vicinity of 
Swan River where he erected a block house, and 
on the thii-ty-first of October he writes: "En- 
closed my little work completely with pickets. 
Hauled up my two boats an 1 turned them over 
on each side of the gateways ; by wliich means 
a defence was made to the river, and had it not 
been for various political reasons, I would have 
laughed at the attack of eight hundred or a 
thousand savages, if all my party were within. 
For, except accidents, it would only have afford- 
ed amusement, the Indians having no idea of 
taking a jilace by storm. Found myself power- 
fully attacked with the fantastics of the brain, 
called ennui, at the mention of which I had 
hitherto scoffed ; but my books being packed up, 
I was like a person entranced, and could easily 
conceive why so many persons wlio have been 
confined to remote places, acquire the habit of 
drinking to excess, and many other vicious prac- 
tices, which have been adopted merely to pass 

During the next month he himted the buffalo 
wliich were then in that vicinity. On the third 
of December he received a visit from Robert 
Dickson, afterwards noted in the history of the 
country, who was then trading about sixty miles 
below, on the Mississippi. 

On the tentli of December with some sleds he 
continued liis journey nortliward, and on the last 
day of the year passed Pine River. On the third 
of January, 1806, he reached the trading post at 
Red Cedar, now Cass Lake, and was quite indig- 
nant at finding the British Hag floating from the 
staff. The night after this his tent caught on 
fire, and he lost some valuable and necessary 
ckthing. On tlie evening of the eighth he reach- 
ed Sandy Lake and was hospitably received by 
Grant, the trader in charge. He writes . 

"Jan. 9th, r/iwrsda?/.— Marched the coi-poral 
early, in order that our men should receive 
assurance of our safety and success. He carried 
with him a small keg of spirits, a present from 
^Ir. Grant. Tlie establishment of this place was 
formed twelve years smce, by the North-west 
Company, and was formerly under the cliarge of 
a Mr. Charles Brusky. It has attained at iiresent 
such regularity, as to permit the superintendent 
to live tolerably comfortable. They have horses 
they procured from Red River, of the Indians; 
raise plenty of Irish potatoes, catch jiike, suckers, 
pickerel, and wliite fish in abundance. They 
have also beaver, deer, and moose ; but the pro- 
vision they chiefly depend upon is wild oats, of 
which they purchase great quantities from the 
savages, giving at the rate of about one dollar 
and a half per bushel. But fl jur, pork, and salt, 
are almost interdicted to persons not principals 
in the trade. Flour sells at half a dollar; .salt a 
dollar; pork eiglity cents; sugar half a dollar; 
and tea four dollars and fifty cents per pound. 
The sugar is obtained from the Indians, and is 
made from the maple tree." 

He remained at Sandy Lake ten days, and on 
the last day two men of the Northwest Company 
arrived with letters from Fon du Lac Superior, 
one of which was from Athapuscow, and had 
been since May on the route. 

On the twentieth of .lanuary began his journey 
to Leech Lake, which he reached on tlic first of 
February, and was hospitably received liy Hugh 



MeGillis. theliead of tlic Xoitliwcst Company at 
tliis ])i>st. 

A ^^I'. Aiiilprsoii, in tlie employ of Kobeit 
I)ickson. was residing at thewestendof the lake. 
AVliile here lie lioisted the American flag in the 
fort. Tlie English yacht still flying at the top of 
the flagstaff, he directcMl tlie Indians and his sol- 
diers to shoot at it. Tliey soon broke the iron 
pin to which it was fastened, and it fell to the 
ground. He was informed liy a venerable old 
OjiliWiiy cliief. called Sweet, that the Sioux dwelt 
there when he was a youth. On tlie tenth of 
February, at ten o'clock, he left I^eecli I^ake with 
Coii)onil IJradley, the trader ^^c(;illis and two of 
his men. and at sunset arrived at lied Cedar, now 
Cass Lake. At this place, in 1798, Thompson, 
employed by the Northwest Comjiaiiy for three 
years, in topograpliical surveys, made some ob- 
servations, lie believed that a line from the 
Lake of the AVoods would touch the sources of 
tlie Mississipj)!. Pike, at this ixiiiit. was very 
kindly treated by a Canadian named Hoy. and his 
Ojibway squaw. On his return home, he reached 
Clear River on the seventh of April, where he 
found his canoe and men. and at night was at 
Grand Rapids. Dickson's tradingpost. He talked 
until four o'clock the next morning with this 
person and another trader named I'orlier. He 
forbade while there, the traders (ireignor [(Jrig- 
non] and La Jenuesse, to sell any more liciuor to 
Indians, who had become ver\ (linukcii and un- 
ruly. On the tenth he again reached the Falls 
of Saint Autliony. He writes in his journal as 
follows : 

Arnii, nth. Frklmj. — Although it .snowed very 
hard we brought over both boats, and descended 
the river to the island at the entrance of the St. 
Peter's. I sent to the chiefs and informed them 
I had something to communicate to ilinn. The 
Fils de Pinrho immediately waited on me, and 
informed me that he would inovidc a [ilace for 
the purpose. About suiidown I was sent for and 
introduced into the council-house, where I found 
a great many chiefs of the Sussitongs. (Jens de 
Feuilles, and the (iens dtt Lac The i'anclongs 
liad not yet come down. Tliey wer<! all awaiting 
for my arrival. There were about one liiindred 
lodges, or six hundred jwoiile; we were saluted 
on our crossing the river with ball as usual. The 
council-liouse was two large lodges, capable of 

containing three huudivd men. In the upper 
were forty chiefs, and as many pipes set against 
the poles, alongside of which 1 had the Santeur's 
pipes arranged. I then informed them in short 
detail, of my transactions with the Santeurs; but 
my interpreters were not capable of making them- 
selves uuderslood. I was therefore obliged to 
omit mentioning every particular relative to the 
rascal who tired on my sentinel, and of the scoun- 
drel who broke the Fols Avoins' canoes, and 
threatened my life; the interpreters, however, in- 
formed them that 1 wanted some of their ininci- 
pal chiefs to go to St. Louis; and that those who 
thought jiroper might descend to the prairie, 
where we would give them more explicit infoi'- 
mation. They all smoked otit of the Santeur's 
pipe, excepting three, who were i)aiiited black, 
and were some of those who lost their relations 
last winter. I invited the Fils do I'inchow, and 
the son of tlic Killcur Rouge, to come over and 
sui> with nic; when Mr. Dickson and myself en- 
deavored to explain what I intemled to have said 
to them, could I have made myself understood; 
that at the prairie we Mould have all things ex- 
plained; that I was desirous of making a better 
report of them than Captain Lewis could do from 
their treatment of him. The former of those 
savages was the jierson who remained around my 
post all last winter, and treated my men so well; 
they endeavored to excuse their iieoj)le. 

"April 12th, SaYurdas/.— Embarked eail\ . Al- 
though my interincter had been freiiuently up the 
river, he could not tell me where the cave (siioken 
of by Carver) could be found ; we carefully 
sought for it, but in vain. At the Indian village, 
a few miles below St. Peter's, w<^ Mere about to 
pass a fe\v lodges, but on receiving a very jiartic- 
ular invitation to come on shore, we landed, and 
were received in a lodge kindly; they presented 
us sugar. I gave the pidprietor a dram. an<l was 
about to depart ■when he deruandiMl a kettle of 
li(pior; on being refused, and after 1 had lell the 
shore, he told nie he did not like the arrange- 
ments, and that he would go to war this suinnier. 
I directed tlie intcrpictcr to tell him that if I 
returned to St. Peter's with tht; trooiis, I would 
settle that affair Mith him. On our arrival at the 
St. Croix, I found the Pettit Corbeaii Mith his 
people, and ilessrs. Fni/.er and AVood. ^\■e had 
a conference, when the Pettit Corbeau made 


many apologies for the misconduct of his people; 
he represented to ns the different manners in 
wiiicli the young warriors liad been inducing him 
to go to war; that he had been mucli blamed for 
dismissing his party last fall; but that lie was de- 
termined to adliere as far as lay in his power to 
our instructions; that he thought it most prudent 
to remain here and restrain the warriors. He 
then presented me witli a beaver rolie and pipe, 
and his message to the general. Tliat he was 
determined to preserve peace, and make the road 
clear; also a remembrance of his promised medal. 
I made a reply, calculated to confirm him in his 
good intentions, and assured him that he should 
not be the less remembered by his father, although 
not present. I was informed tliat, notwithstand- 
ing the instruction of his license, and my par- 
ticular request, Murdoch Cameron had taken 
liquor and sold it to tlie Indians on tlie river St. 
Peter's, and that his partner below had been 

equally imprudent. I pledged myself to prose- 
cute them according to law; for they have been 
the occasion of great confusion, and of much 
injury to the other traders. This day met a 
canoe of Mr. Dickson's loaded with provisions, 
under the charge of ^Ir. Anderson, brotlier of 
the ilr. Andersen at Ijeech Lake. lie politely 
offered me any provision he had on board (for 
which Mr. Dickson had given me an order), but 
not now being in want, I did not accept of any. 
This day, for the first time, I observed the trees 
beginning to bud, and indeed llie climate seemed 
to have changed very materially since we passed 
the Falls of St. Anthony."' 

The strife of political parties growing out of 
the French Revolution, and tlie declaration of 
war against Great Britain in the' year 1S1;2, yiost- 
jioned the military occupation of tlie I'liiicr 
Mississipiji by the United States of America, for 
several years. 



CII^U^TEIl xin. 


Dickson and othrr Ir^tlrn; hosLili:^ — Amcrir-in stncliaflp at Pniiri** dn Cliicn — Fort 
Shelby jnimrndTS to Lt. Col. WilUara McKa>-— Ljyal tradcn Provencallc anj 
riribault— RUing Moose or One-eyed Sioax— Capt, Bulger evacuates Fort 
McKay — lmtel]i;;enco of Feacc. 

Notwithstanding the professions of friendsliip 
made to Pike, in the second war with Great Brit- 
ain, Dickson and others were fuuud bearing arms 
against tlie Republic. 

A year after Pike loft Prairie du Chien, it was 
evident, that under some secret influence, the 
Indian triltes were combining against the United 
States. In the year 1809,Xicholas.Iarrotdeclared 
that the British traders were furnishing the sav- 
ages with guns for hostile purposes. On the first 
of May, 1812. two Indians were apprehended at 
Chicago, who were on their way to meet Dickson 
at (ireen Bay. They had taken the precaution 
to hide letters in their nioccasius, and bury them 
in the ground, and were allowed to proceed after 
a brief detention. Frazer, of Prairie du Chien, 
who liad been with Pike at tlie Council at the 
mouth of the Minnesota Kiver. was at the port- 
age of llie Wisconsin when the Indians delivered 
these lettera. which stated that tlie British flag 
would soon be flying again at Mackinaw. At 
Green Bay, the celebrated warrior, Black Hawk, 
was placed in charge of the Indians who were to 
aid tlie British. The American troops at Macki- 
naw were obliged, on the seventeenth of July, 
1812, to capitulate without firing a single gun. 
One who was made ]irisoiier. writes from Detroit 
to the Secretiiry of A\'ar : 

"The persons who commanded the Indians arc 
Kobert Dickson. Indian trader, and John jVskin, 
Jr.. IiKliau agent, and his .son. The latter two 
were painted and dressed after the manner 
of the Indians. Those who commanded the 
Canadians are John Johnson, Crawford, Pothier, 
Annitiuger. La Croix. Holctlc, I'lanks, Living- 
ston, and other traders, some of whom were lately 
concerned iu smuggling liritish goods into the 

Indian countn', and, in conjunction with others, 
have been using their utmost efforts, several 
mouths before the declaration of war, to excite 
the Indians to take up arms. The least resist- 
ance from the fort would have been attended 
with the destruction of all the persons who fell 
into the hands of the British, as I have been as- 
sured by some of the British traders." 

On the first of May, 1814, Governor Clark, 
with tsvo hundred men, left St. Louis, to build a 
fort at the junction of the AViscousin and ilissis- 
sipiii. Twenty days before he arrived at Prairie 
du Chien, Dickson had started for ilackinaw 
with a band of Dahkotahs and Wiimebagoes. 
The place was left In command of Captain Deace 
and the ^Mackinaw Fencibles. The Dahkotahs 
refusing to co-operate, when the Americans made 
their appearance they fled. The Americans took 
possession of the old Mackinaw house, in which 
they fouiKl nine or ten trunks of papers belong- 
ing to Dickson. From one they look the follow- 
ing extract : 

'• ' Arrived, from below, a few Wiunebagoes 
with scalps. Gave them tobacco, six pounds 
powder and six pounds ball." " 

A fort w'as immediately commenced on the 
site of the old residence of the late IL L. Dous- 
mau, which was composed of two block-houses 
in the angles, and another on the bank of the 
river, with a subterranean communication. In 
honor of the governor of Kentucky it w;'.s named 

The fort was in charge of Lieutenant Perkins, 
and sixty rank and tile, and two gunboats, each 
of which carried a six-pounder; and several 
howitzers were couiinauiled by Captains Yeiser, 
Sullivan, and Aid-de-camp Kennerly. 

The traders at ^Mackinaw, learning that the 
,\meiican3 had built a fort at the I'rairie, and 
knowing that as long as they licld pos.session 
Ihej would bo cut oil from the trade with the 



Dabkotahs, immediately raised an expedition to 
capture tlie garrison. 

The captain was an old trader by the name of 
McKay, and imder bun was a sergeant of ar- 
tillery, with a brass six-pounder, and three or 
four volunteer companies of Canadian voyageurs, 
officered by Captains Griguon, llulette and An- 
derson, with Lieutenants Brisbois and Duncan 
Graham, all dressed in red coats, with a number 
of Indians. 

The Americans had scarcely completed their 
rude fortification, before the British force, guid- 
ed by Joseph Rolette, Sr., descended in canoes 
to a point on the Wisconsin, several miles from 
the Prairie, to which they marched in battle 
array. McKay sent a flag to the Fort demanding 
a surrender. Lieutenant Perkins replied that he 
would defend it to the last. 

A fierce encounter took place, in which the 
Americans were worsted. The officer was 
wounded, several men were killed and one of 
their boats captured, so that it became necessary 
to retreat to St. Louis. Fort Shelby after its 
capture, was called Fort McKay. 

Among the traders a few remained loyal, es- 
pecially Provencalle and J. B. Faribault, traders 
among the Sioux. Faribault was a prisoner 
among the British at the time Lieut. Col. Wm. 
McKay was preparing to attack Fort Shelby, and 
he refused to perform any service, Faribault's 
wife, who was at Prairie du Chien, not knowing 
that her husband was a prisoner in the hands of 
the advancing toe, fled with others to the Sioux 
village, where is now the city of Winona. Fari- 
Ijault was at length released on parole and re- 
turned to his trading post. 

Pike writes of his flag, that " being in doubt 

whether it had been stolen by the Indians, or had 

fallen overboaid and floated away, I sent for my 

friend the Orignal Leve."' He also call'? the 

Chief, Eising Moose, and gives his Sioux name 

Tahamie. He was one of those, who in 180.5, 

signed the agreement, to simender land at the 

junction of the Minnesota and Mississippi Elvers 

to the United States. He had but one eye, 

having lost the other when a boy, belonged to 

the Wapasha band of the Sioux, and proved 

tnie to the flag which had waved on the day he 

sat in council with Pike. 

In the fall of 1814, with another of the same 

nation, he ascended the Missouri imder the pro- 
tection of the distinguished trader, Manual Lisa, 
as far as the Au Jacques or .James P.iver, and 
from thence struck across the country, enlisting 
the Sioux in favour of the I'nited States, and at 
length arrived at Prairie du Chien. On his arri- 
val, Dickson accosted him, and inquired from 
whence he came, and what was his business ; at 
the same time rudely snatching his bundle from 
his shoulder, and searching for letters. The 
" one-eyed warrior "' told him that he was from 
St. Louis, and that he had promised the white 
chiefs there that he would go to Prairie du Chien, 
and that he liad kept his promise 

Dickson then placed him in confinement in 
Fort McKay, as the garrison was called by the 
British, and ordered him to divulge what infor- 
mation he possessed, or he would put him to 
death. But the faithful fellow said he would 
impart nothing, and that he was ready for death 
if he wished to kill him. Finding that confine- 
ment had no effect, Dickson at last liberated him. 
He then left, and visited the bands of Sioux on 
the Upper Mississippi, with which he passed the 
winter. When he returned in the spring, Dick- 
son had gone to Mackinaw, and Capt. A. Bulger, 
of the Royal New Foundland Regiment, was in 
command of the fort. 

On the twenty-third of May, 181.5, Capt. Bul- 
ger, wrote from Fort McKay to Gov. Clark at St. 
Louis: "Official intelligence of peace reached 
me yesterday. I propose evacuating the fort, 
taking with me the guns captured in the fort. * 
* * * I have not the smallest hesitation in 
declaring my decided opinion, tliat the presence 
of a detachment of British and United States 
troops at the same time, would be the means of 
embroiling one party or the other in a fresh rup- 
ture with the Indians, which I presume it is the 
wish of both governments to avoid." 

The next month the "One-Eyed Sioux," with 
three other Indians and a squaw, visited St. Louis, 
and he informed Gov. Clark, that the British 
commander left the cannons in the fort when he 
evacuated, but in a day or two came back, took 
the cannons, and fired the fort with the American 
flag flying, but that he rushed in and saved it 
from being burned. From this time, the British 
flag ceased to float in the Valley of the Missis- 




long's expedition, a. d. i817, rv a six-oaued skiff, to the falls of saint Anthony. 

Curer s Grandsons.— Roque, Sioux Interiirot^r.— Wapa&haw's Village and Its 
Vicinity.— A S-Tcn-d Dance.— Indian Tillago Below Dajlon's Bluff.— Carver's 
Cave.— FountAin Cave.— Falls of St. Anthony Described.— Site or a Fort 

Major Stephen H. Long, of the Engineer Corps 
of the United States Army, learning tliat tJiore 
■was little or no danger to be apprehended from 
the Indians, determined to ascend to tlie Falls of 
Saint Anthony, in a six-oared skiiT presented to 
Lim by Governor Clark, of Saint Louis. His 
party consisted of a Mr. Hempstead, a native of 
Xew London, Connecticut, who had been living 
at Prairie du Cliien, seven soldiers, and a half- 
breed interpreter, named Eoque. A bark canoe 
accompanied them, containing Messrs. Gxm and 
King, grandsons of the celebrated traveler, Jona- 
than Carver. 

On the ninth ot ^uly, 1817, the expedition left 
l^airie du Chien, and on the twelfth arrived at 
" Trempe a I'eau." He -WTites : 

" When we stopped for breakfast, Mr. Hemp- 
stead and myself ascended a high peak to t^ike a 
view of the comitry. It is known by the name 
of the Kettle Hill, havuig obtained this appella- 
tion from the circumstance of its having numer- 
ous piles of stone on its top, most of them 
fragments of the rocky stratifications wliich 
constitute the principal part of the hill, but some 
of them small piles made by the Indians. These 
at a distance liavt; some similitude of kettles 
arranged along upon the ridge and sides of tlie 
hill. From this, or almost any other eminence in 
its neigliborhood, the beauty and grandeur of the 
prospect would balUe the skill of the most inge- 
nious pencil to depict, and that of the most ac- 
complished pen to describe. Hills marshaled 
into a variety of agreeable .shapes, some of them 
towering into lofty pe;iks, while others present 
broad Bumraits embellished with contours and 
slopes in the nmst pleasing manner; chiimpaigns 
and waving valleys; forests, lawns, and jiaiks 
alternating with each other; the humble Missis- 

sippi meandering far below, and occasionally 
losing itself in numberless islands, give variety 
and beauty to the jiicture, while rugged cliffs and 
stupendous precipices here and there present 
themselves as if to add boldness and majesty to 
the scene. In the midst of this beautiful scenery 
is situated a village of the Sioux Intlii ns, on an 
extensive lawn called the Aux Aisle Prairie ; at 
whicli we lay by for a tuort time. On our amval 
the Indians hoisted two .(Vmerican Ihigs, and we 
returned the compliment by discharging our 
blunderbuss and pistols. They then lired several 
guns ahead of us by way of a salute, after which 
we landed and were received with much friend- 
ship. The name of their chief is Wauppaushaw, 
or the Leaf, commonly called by a name of the 
same import in French, La Feuille, or La Fye, 
as it is pronounced in English. He is considered 
one of the most honest and honorable of any of 
the Indians, and endeavors to inculcate into the 
minds of his people the sentiments and principles 
adopted by himself. He was not at home at the 
time I called, and I had no opportmiity of seeing 
him. The Indians, as I suppose, with the ex- 
pectation that I had sometliing to communicate 
to them, assembled themselves at the place 
where I landed and seated themselves upon the 
grass. I inquired if their chief was at home, 
and was answered in the negative. I then told 
them I should be very glad to see him, but as he 
W'ls absent I would call on him again in a few 
days when I sliould return. I further told them 
that our father, the new President, wislieil to ob- 
tain Slime more information relative to his red 
children, and that I was on a tour to acquire any 
intelligence he might stand in need of. With 
this they appeared well satisfied, and permitted 
Mr. H<'mpBtead and myself to go through their 
village. While T \v;us in the wigwam, tme of the 
Bubiinlinate chiefs, whose name was Wazzecootji, 
or Shooter from tlie Pino Tree, volunteered to 



accompany me up the river. I accepted of Ids 
services, and lie was ready to attend me on llie 
tour in a very short time. When we hove iu 
siglit the Indians were engaged in a ceremony 
called the Bear Dance; a ceremony which they 
are in the habit of performing when any young 
man is desirous of bringing himself into particu- 
lar notice, and is considered a kind of initiation 
into the state of manhood. I went on to the 
ground where they had their performances, 
which were ended sooner than usual on account 
of our arrival. There was a kind of flag made 
of tiivm. skin dressed with the hair on, suspended 
on a pole. Upon the flesh side of it were drawn 
certain rude figures indicative of the dream 
which it is necessary the young man should have 
dreamed, before he can be considered a proper 
candidate for this kind of initiation ; with this a 
pipe was suspended by way of sacrifice. Two 
arrows were stuck up at the foot of the pole, 
and fragments of painted feathers, etc., were 
strewed about the ground near to it. These per- 
tained to the religious rites attending the cere- 
mony, which consists in bewailing and self-mor- 
tiflcation, that the Good Spirit may be induced 
to pity them and succor tlieir undertaking. 

" At the distance of two or three hundred 
yards from the flag, is an excavation which they 
call the bear's liole, prepared for the occasion. 
It is about two feet deep, and has two ditches, 
about one foot deep, leading across it at right an- 
gles. The young hero of the farce places himself 
in this hole, to be hunted by the rest of the young 
men, all of whom on this occasion are dressed in 
their best attire and painted in their neatest style. 
The hunters approach the hole in the direction of 
one of the ditches, and discharge their guns, 
which were previously loaded for the purpose 
with blank cartridges, at the one who acts the 
part of the bear; whereupon he leaps from his 
den, having a hoop in each hand, and a wooden 
lance ; the hoops serving as forefeet to aid him 
in characterizing his part, and his lance to defend 
him from his assailants. Thus accoutred he 
dances roimd tlie place, exhibiting various feats 
of activity, while the other Indians pursue him 
and endeavor to trap him as he attempts to re- 
turn to his den, to effect which he is pnvileged to 
use any violence he pleases with impunity against 

his assailants, and even to taking the life of any 
of them. 

" This part of the ceremony is performed three 
times, that the bear may escape from his den 
and return to it again through tliree of the ave- 
nues communicating with if,. On being hmited 
from the fourth or last avenue, the bear must 
make his escape through all hi;, pursuers, if pos- 
sible, and flee to the woods, whei he i ^ t j remam 
through the day. This, however, is seldom or 
never accomplished, as all the yomig men exert 
themselves to the utmost in order to trap him. 
When caught, he must retire to a lodge erected for 
his reception iu the field, where he is to be se- 
cluded from all society through the day, except 
one of his particular friends whom he is allowed 
to take with him as an attendant. Here he 
smokes and performs various other rites wliich 
superstition has led the Indians to believe are sa- 
cred. After this ceremony is ended, the young 
Indian is considered qualified to act any part as 
an efficient member of their community. The 
Indian who has the good fortune to catch the 
bear and overcome him when endeavoring to 
make his escape to the woods, is considered a 
candidate for preferment, and is on the first suit- 
able occasion appointed the leader of a small war 
party, in order that he may further have an op- 
portunity to test his prowess and perform more 
essential service iu behalf of his nation. It is 
accordingly expected that he will kill some of 
their enemies and return with their scalps. I re- 
gretted very much that I had missed the oppor- 
tunity of witnessing this ceremony, which is 
never performed except when prompted by the 
particular dreams of one or other of the young 
men, who is never complimented twice in the 
same manner on account of his dreams." 

On the sixteenth he approached the vicinity of 
where is now the capital of Minnesota, and 
writes : " Set sail at half past four this morning 
with a favorable breeze. Passed an Indian bury- 
ing ground on our left, the first that I have seen 
surrounded by a fence. In the centre a pole is 
erected, at the foot of which religious rites are 
perfoi-med at the burial of an Indian, by the 
particular friends and relatives of the deceased. 
Upon the pole a flag is suspended when any per- 
son of extraordinary merit, or one who is very 
much beloved, is buried. In the enclosure were 



two scaffolds erected also, about six feet high 
and six feet square. Upou one of tlieni were two 
coffins containinfr dead bodies. Passed a Sioux 
village on our right contaiiiing fourteen cabins. 
The uame of the chief is tlie Petit Corbeau, or 
Little Raven. The Indians were all absent on a 
hunting party up the Kiver St. Croix, which 
is but a little distance across the country from 
the village. Of this we were very glad, as this 
band are said to be the most notorious beggars 
of all the Sioux on the ^Mississippi. One of their 
cabins is furnished with loop holes, and is sit- 
uated so near the water that the opposite side 
of the river is witliin musket-shot range from 
the l)uilding. By this means the Petit Oorbeau 
is enabled to exercise a command over the pass- 
age of the river and has in some instances com- 
l)elled traders to land with their goods, and in- 
duced them, probably through fear of offending 
him, to bestow presents to a considerable amount, 
before he would snITer them to pass. The cabins 
are a kind of stockade buildings, and of a better 
appearance than any Indian dwellings I have 
before met with. 

'•Two miles above tlie village, on the same 
Bide of the river, is Carver's Cave, at which we 
stopped to breakfast. However interesting it 
may have been, it does not possess that character 
in a very high degree at jircsent. Wo descend- 
ed it with lighted candles to its lower extremity. 
The entrance is very low and about eight feet 
broad, so tlial a man in order to enter it must be 
completely prostrate. Tlic angle of descent 
within the cave is about 25 deg. The flooring 
is an in<'lined plane of (piicksand, formed of tlie 
rock in wliidi the cavern is formed. Tlie dist- 
ance from its entrance to its inner extremity is 
twenty-four paces, and the width in tlie broadest 
jmrl about nine, and its greatest heiglil about 
seven feet. In shape it resembles a bakers "s oven. 
The cavern was once jirobably much more ex- 
tensive. My interpreter informed me that, since 
his renicnibrance, the entrance was not less 
llian ten feel higli and its length far greater than 
at present. The rock in which it is formed is 
a very wliite sandstone, so friable that the frag- 
ments of it will ahnost cninilile to sand when 
taken into the liand. A few yards below the 
month of the cavern is a very copious spring of 
fine water issuing from the bottom of tlie clifl'. 

" Five miles above this is the Foimtain Cave, 
on the same side of the river, foi-med in the same 
kind of sandstone but of a more pure and line 
quality. It is far more curious and interesting 
than the former. The entrance of the cave is a 
large winding hall about one hundred and fifty 
feet in length, fifteen feet in width, and from 
eight to sixteen feet in height, finely arclied 
overhead, and nearly perpendicular. JS'ext suc- 
ceeds a narrow passage and ditlicidt of entrance, 
which opens into a most lieautifiil circular room, 
finely arched aliove, and about forty feet in di- 
ameter. The cavern then continues a meander- 
ing course, expanding occasionally into small 
rooms of a circular form. We penetrated about 
one hundred and fifty yards, till our candles 
began to fail us, when we returned. To beauti- 
fy and embellish the scene, a fine crystal stream 
flows through the cavern, and cheers the lone- 
some dark retreat with its enlivening murmurs. 
The temperature" of the water in tlio cave was 
4G deg., and that of the air 60 deg. Entering 
this cold retreat from an atmosphere of 89 deg., 
I thought it not prudent to remain in it long 
enough to take its several dimensions and me- 
ander its courses ; particularly as we had to wade 
in water to our knees in many places in order to 
penetrate as far as we went. The fountain sujv 
plies an abundance of water as fine as I ever 
drank. Tliis cavern I was informed by my 
interpreter, has been discovered but a few years. 
That the Indians formerly living in its neighbor- 
hood knew notliing of it till within six years 
past. That it is not the same as that described 
liy Carver is evident, not only from this circum- 
stance, but also from tlie circumstance that in- 
stead of a stagnant pool, and only one accessible 
room of a very different form, this cavern has 
a brook running tlirough it, and at least four 
rooms in succession, one after the otlier. Car- 
ver's Cave is fast filling up with sand, so that 
no water is now found in it. whereas this, from 
the very nature of tlie place, must be enlarging, 
as tlie fountain will carry along willi its current 
all the sand that I'alls into it I'roiii llie roof and 
sides of the cavern.'' 

On the night of the sixteenth, he arrived al the 
Palls of Saint .Vnthony and encamped on the east 
shore just below the cataract. He writes in his 
joiirnul : 



"The place where we encamped last night need- 
ed no enibellishinent to render it romantic in the 
highest degree. The banlis on botli sides of the 
river are about one hundred feet high, decorated 
with trees and sln'ubbery of various kinds. Tlie 
post oal<, liiclior\ . walnut, linden, sugar tree. 
white birch, and the American box ; also various 
evergreens, such as the pine, cedar, juniper, 
etc., added their embellishments to the scene. 
Amongst the shrubery were the prickly ash, 
plum, and cherry tree, the gooseberry, the black 
and red raspberry, the chokeberry, grape vine, 
etc. There were also various kinds of lierbage 
and flowers, among wliieli were tlie wild jiarsley, 
rue, spikenard, etc., red and white roses, uKirning 
glory and various otlier handsome flowers. A 
few yards lielow us was a Ijeautifnl cascade of 
fine spring water, pourmg down from a project- 
ing precipice about one hundred feet higlit. On 
our left was the Mississippi hurrying tlirough its 
channel with great velocity, and alxiut tliree 
quarters of a mile above us, in plain view, was 
the majestic cataract of the Falls of St. Anthony. 
The murmuring of the cascade, the roaring of the 
river, and the thunder of tlie cataract, all contril)- 
uted to render the scene the most interesting and 
magnificient of any I ever before witnessed."' 

'■Tlie perpendicular fall of the water at the 
cataract, was stated by Pike in his journal, as six- 
teen and a half feet, which I found to be true by 
actual measurement. To this height, however, 
four or five feet may be added for the rapid des- 
cent which immediately succeeds to the perpen- 
dicular fall within a few yards below. Immedi- 
ately at the cataract tlie river is divided into two 
parts by an island which extends considerably 
above and below the cataract, and is about Ave 
himdred yards long. The channel on the riglit 
side of the Island is about three times tlie width 
of that on the left. The quanity of water pass- 
ins through them is not, however, in the same 
proportion, as aljout one-tliird part of the whole 
passes through the left channel. In the broadest 
channel, just below the cataract, is a small island 
also, about fifty yards in length and thirty in 
breadth. Both of tliese islands contain tlie same 
kind of rocky formation as theljanks of the river, 
and are nearly as high. Besides these, there are 
immediately at tlie foot of tlie cataract, two 
islands of very inconsiderable size, situated in 

the right channel also. The rapids commence 
several hundred yards above the cataract and 
continue about eight miles below. Tlie fall of 
the water, beginning at the head of the rapids, 
and extending two Innidred and sixty rods down 
tlie river to where the portage road commences, 
below the cataract is, according to Pike, fifty- 
eight feet. If this estimate be correct the whole 
fall from the head to tlie foot of the rapids, is not 
probably much less than one liimdred feet. But 
as I had no instrument sufficiently accurate to 
level, where the view must necessarily be pretty 
extensive, I took no pains to ascertain the extent 
of tlie fall. The mode I adopted to ascertain 
the height of a cataract, was to suspend a line 
and plummet from tlie talile rock on the soutli 
side of the river, which at the same time had 
very little \\ater passing over it as the river was 
unusually low. Tlie rocky formations at tliis 
place were arranged in the followuig order, from 
the surface downward. A coarse kind of lime- 
stone in thin strata containing considerable silex; 
a kind of soft friable stone of a greenish color 
and slaty fracture, probalily containing lime, 
aluminum and silex ; a very lieautiful satratiflca- 
tion of shell limestone, in tliiu plates, extremely 
regular in its formation and containing a vast 
numl)er of shells, all apparently of the same 
kind. Tins formation constitutes the Table Rock 
of the cataract. The next in order is a white or 
yellowish sandstone, so easily crumbled that it 
deserves the name of a sandbank rather than that 
of a rock. It is of various depths, from ten to 
fifty or seventy-five feet, and is of the same char- 
acter with that found at the caves before des- 
cribed. The next in order is a soft friable sand- 
stone, of a greenish color, similar to that resting 
upon the shell limestone. Tliese stratifications 
occupied the whole space from the low water 
mark nearly to the top of tlie bluffs. On the east, 
or rather nortli side of the river, at the Falls, are 
high grounds, at tlie distance of half a mile from 
the river, consideralily more elevated than tlio 
bluffs, and of a hilly aspect. 

Speaking of the blulf at the condueiice o.. ilie 
Mississippi and Jliunesota, lie writes: " .V niililai'y 
work of considerable magnitude miglit lie con- 
structed on the iioiiit, and might be rendered 
sufficiently secure by occupying tlie commanding 
heiglit in the rear in a suitalile manner, as the 



latter would control not only the point, but all 
the neighboring heights, to the full extent of a 
twelve jKiuniiers range. Tlie work on tlie point 
would be necessary to control the navigation of 
the two rivers. But witliout the commanding 
work in the rear, would be liable to be greatly 
annoyed from a height situated directly opposite 

on the otlier side of the Mississippi, which is 
here no more than about two lauulred and fifty 
yards wide. Tliis latter heiglit. liowever, would 
not be eligible for a permanent post, on account 
of the numerous ridges and ravines situated im- 
mediately in its rear." 





Early travelers to Lake Winnipeg — Earliest Map by the Indian Otchaga— Benin's 
allusion to it — Verendrye's Map — De la Jenieraye's Map — Fort La Reine— Fort 
on Red River abandoned — Origin of name Ked Lake — Earl of Selkirk — Ossini- 
boia described— Scotch immigrants at Perahina — Striie of trading companies- 
Earl of Selkirk visits America — Governor Semplc Killed— Romantic life of .John 
Tanner, and his son James — Letter relative to Selkirk's tour through Minne- 

The valley of the Red River of the North is 
not only an importaut portion of ilinnesota, but 
has a most interesting history. 

While there is no evidence that Groselliers, the 
first white man -who explored JSIinnesota, ever 
visited Lake Winnipeg and the Red River, yet he 
met the Assineboines at the head of Lake Supe- 
rior and at Lake Nepigon, while on his way by a 
northeasterly trail to Hudson's Bay, and learned 
something of this region from them. 
I Tlie first person, of whom we have an account, 
•who visited the region, was an Englishman, who 
came in 1692, by way of York River, to Winni- 

■ Ochagachs, or Otchaga, an intelligent Indian, in 
1728, assured Pierre Gualtier de Varenne, known 
in history as the Sieur Verendrye, while he was 
stationed at Lake Nepigon, that there was a 
communication, largely by water, west of Lake 
Superior, to the Great Sea or Pacific Ocean. The 
nide map, drawn by this Indian, was sent to 
France, and is still preserved. Upon it is marked 
Kamanistigouia, the fort first established by Du 
Luth. Pigeon River is called Mantohavagane. 
Lac Sasakanaga is marked, and Rainy Lake is 
named Tecamemiouen. The river St. Louis, of 
Minnesota, is R. fond du L. Superior. The 
French geographer, Bellin, in his " Remarks 
upon the map of North America," published in 
1755, at Paris, alludes to this sketch of Ochagachs, 
and says it is the earUest drawing of the region 
west of Lake Superior, in the Depot de la Marnie. 

After this Verendrye, in 1737, drew a map, 
■which remains unpublished, which shows Red 
Lake in Northern Minnesota, and the point of 
the Big Woods in the Red River Valley. There 

is another sketch in the archives of l^rance, 
drawn by De la Jemeraye. He was a nephew of 
Verendrye, and, under his uncle's orders, he was 
in 1731, the first to advance from the Grand 
Portage of Lake Superior, by way of the Nalao- 
uagan or Groselliers, now Pigeon River, to Rainy 
Lake. On this appears Fort Rouge, on the south 
bank of the Assineboiue at its junction with the 
Red River, and on the Assineboiue, a post estab- 
lished on October 3, 1738, and called Fort La 
Reine. Bellin describes the fort on Red River, 
but asserts that it was abandoned because of its 
vicuiity to Fort La Reine, on the north side of 
the Assinneboine, and only about nine miles by 
a portage, from Swan Lake. Red Lake and Red 
River were so called by the early French explo- 
rers, on accoxmt of the reddish tint of the waters 
after a stoi'm. 

Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, a wealthy, 
kind-hearted but visionary Scotch nobleman, at 
the commencement of the present century formed 
the design of planting a colony of agriculturists 
west of Lake Superior. In the year 1811 he 
obtained a grant of land from the Hudson Bay 
Company called Ossiniboia, which it seems 
strange has been given up by the people of Man- 
itoba. In the autumn of 1812 a few Scotchmen 
'With their families arrived at Pembina, in the 
Red River Valley, by way of Hudson Bay, where 
they passed the winter. In tlie winter of 1813-1-1 
they were again at Fort Daer or Peml)ina. The 
colonists of Red River were rendered very un- 
happy by the strife of rival trading companies. 

In the spring of 1815, McKenzie and Morrison, 
traders of the Northwest company, at Sandy 
Lake, told the Ojibway chief there, that they 
would give him and his band all the goods and 
rum at Leech or Sandy Lakes, if they would an- 
noy the Red River settlers. 

The Earl of Selkirk hearing of the distressed 
condition of his colony, sailed for America, and 



in the fall of l.slo, aniveil at New York City. 
Pmceidiiig to Montreal he foimd a messenger 
who had traveli-d on foot in mid-winter from the 
Ked Elver by way of Red Lake and Fou du Lac, 
of Lake Superior. Ue sent back by this man, 
kind messages to the dispirited settlers, but one 
night he ■was way-laid near Fon du Lac, and 
robbed of liis canoe and dispatches. An Ojib- 
■way chief at Sandy Lake, afterwards testified 
that a trader named Grant offered him rum and 
tobacco, to send persons to intercept a bearer of 
dispatches to Eed River, and soon the messenger 
was brought in by a negro and some Indians. 

Failing to obtam military aid from the 
British authorities in Canada, Selkirk made an 
engagement with foLU" oliicers and eighty privates, 
of the discharged Meuron regiment, t^\'enty of 
the De "Watteville, and a few of the Glengary 
Feucibles, which had served in the late war with 
the United States, to accompany him to Eed 
River. They were to receive monthly wages for 
navigating the boats to Red River, to have lands 
assigned them, and a free passage if they wished 
to return. 

"When he reached Sault St. Maile. he received 
the intelhgence that the colony had again been 
destroyed, and that Semple, a mild, amiable, but 
not altogether judicious man, the chief governor 
of the factories and teiTitories of the Hudson 
Kay company, residing at Red River, had been 

Schoolcraft, in 1832, says he saw at Leech 
Lake, ^lajegabowi, the man who had killed Gov. 
Semple, after he fell wounded from his horse. 

Before he heard of the death of Semple, the 
Earl of Selkirk had made arrangements to visit 
his colony by way of Fon du Lar. on the St. l^ouis 
River, and Red Lake of Miiiuesola, but, lie now 
clianged his mind, and proceedeil with his force 
to Fort AVilliani. the chief trading post of the 
■Niirlh west Company on Lake Superior; and ap- 
prehending the principal partners, warrants of 
commitment w<'rcussue(l. and they were forward- 
ed to the Attorney-General of I'pper Canada. 

While Selkiik was engaged at Fort William, 
a party of emigranUs in charge of Miles WcDon- 
nel, Governor, and Captain U'Orsomen, went 
forward tn reinforce the colony. At Eainy 
Lake they obtained tlie guidance of a man who 
had all the characteristics of an Indian, and yet 

had a bearing which suggested a different origin. 
By his eflicieney and temperate habits, he had se- 
cured the respect of his employers, and on the Earl 
of Selkii-k's arrival at Red River, his attention was 
called to him, and in his welfare lie became 
deeply interested. By repeated conversations 
with him. memories of a different kind of exist- 
ence were aroused, and the liglit of other days 
began to brighten. Though he had forgotten his 
father's name, he furnished suflicient data for 
Selkirk to proceed with a search for his relatives. 
Visiting the United States in 1S17. he published 
a circular in the papers of the Western States, 
which led to the identification of the man. 

It appeared fi-oin his own statement, and 
those of his friends, that his name was John 
Tanner, the son of a minister of the gospel, ^\ In , 
about the year 1790, lived on the Ohio river, near 
the Miami. Shortly after his location there, a 
band of roving Indians passed near the house, 
and foimd John Tanner, then a little boy, filling 
his hat with wahiuts from under a tree. They 
seized him and fled. The party was led by an 
Ottawa whose wife had lost a son. To compen- 
sate for his death, the mother begged that a boy 
of the same age might be captured. 

Adopted by the band, Tanner grew up an 
Indian in his tastes and habits, and was noted 
for bravery. Selkirk was successful in finding 
his relatives. After twenty-eight years of sepa- 
ration, John Tanner in 1818, met his brother 
Edward near Detroit, and went with him to his 
home m Missouri. He soon left his brother, and 
went back to the Indians. For a time he was 
interpreter for llem-y R. Schooleraft, but became 
lazy and ill-natured, and in 1831), skulking behind 
some buslies, he shot and killed Schooleraffs 
brother, and fled to the wilderness, where, .in 
1847, he died. His son, James, was kindly treats 
ed by the missionaries to the Ojibwiiys of Minne- 
sota; l)Ul he walked in the footsteps of Ids father. 
In the year 1851, he attempted to impose upon 
the Presbyterian mini.ster in Saint Paul, and. 
when detected, called upon the Baptist minister, 
who, beUeving him a penitent, cut a hole in the 
ice, and received him into the church by immer- 
sion. In time, the Baptists found liim out, when 
lie became an I'nitarian missionary, and, at last, 
it is said, met a death by violence. 

Lord Si-lkirk was in the lied River \'alley 



during the summer of 1817, and on the eighteenth 
of July concluded a treaty with the Crees and 
Saulteatix, for a tract of land beginning at the 
mouth of the Red River, and extending along 
the same as far as the (Jreat Forks (now Gran-1 
Forks) at the mouth of Red Lake River, and 
along the Assimiiboine River as far as Musk Rat 
River, and extending to the distance of six miles 
from Fort Douglas on every side, and likewise 
from Fort Daer (Pembina) and also from the 
Great Forks, and in other parts extending to the 
distance of two miles from the banks of the said 

Having restored order and confidence, attend- 
ed by three or four persons he crossed the plains 
to the Minnesota River, and from tlience pro- 
ceeded to St. Louis. The Indian agent at 
Prairie du Chien was not pleased with Selkirk's 
trip through Minnesota; and on the sixth of 
February, l.sis, wrote the Governor of Illinois 
under excitement, some groundless suspicions : 

•' What do you suppose, sir, has been the re- 
sult of the passage through my agency of this 
British noblemanV Two entire bands, and part 
of a third, all Sioux, have deserted us and joined 
Dickson, who lias distributed to them large quan- 
tities of Indian presents, together with flags, 
medals, etc. Knowing this, what must have been 
my feelings on hearing that his lordship had met 
with a favourable reception at St. Louis. The 
newspapers announcing his armed, and general 
Scottish appearance, all tend to discompose me ; 
believing as I do, that he is plotting with his 
friend Dickson our destruction — sharpening the 
savage scalping knife, and colonizing a tract of 
coiuitry, so'remote as tliat of the Red River, for 
the purpose, no doubt, of monopolizing the fur 
and peltry trade of this river, the Missouri and 
their waters ; a trade of the first importance to 
our Western States and Territories. A courier 
who had arrived a few days since, confirms the 
belief that Dickson is endeavourhig to undo what 
I have done, and secure to the British govern- 
ment the affections of the Sioux, and subject the 
Northwest Company to his lordship. * * * 

Dickson, as I have before observed, is situated 
near the head of the St. Peter's, to which place 
he transports his goods from Selkirk's Red River 
establishment, in carts made for the purpose. 
The trip is performed in live days, sometimes 
less. He is directed to buUd a fort on the high- 
est land between Lac du Traverse and Red River, 
wiiich he supposes will be the established lines 
This fort will be defended by twenty men, with 
two small pieces of artillery." 

In the year 1820, at Berne, Switzerland, a cir- 
cular was issued, signed, R. May D'Uzistorf, 
Captain, in his Britannic Majesty's ser\dce, and 
agent Plenipotentiary to Lord Selkirk. Like 
many documents to induce emigration, it was so 
highly colored as to prove a delusion and a 
snare. The climate was represented as "mild 
and healthy." " Wood either for building or 
fuel in the greatest plenty,"' and the country 
supplymg " in profusion, whatever can be re- 
quired for the convenience, pleasure or comfort 
of life." Remarkable statements considering 
that every green thing had been devoured the 
year before by grasshoppers. 

Under the influence of these statements, a num- 
ber were induced to embark. In the spring of 
1821, about two hundred persons assembled on 
the banks of the Rhine to proceed to the region 
west of Lake Superior. Having descended tlie 
Rhme to the vicinity of Rotterdam, they went 
aboard the ship ■■ Lord Wellington," and after a 
voyage across the Atlantic, and amid the ice- 
floes of Hudson's Bay, they reached York Fort. 
Here they debarked, and entering batteaux, as- 
cended Nelson River for twenty days, when they 
came to Lake ^\'iniiipeg, and coasting along the 
west shore they reached the Red River of the 
North, to feel that they had been deluded, and 
to long for a milder clime. If they did not sing 
the Switzer's Song of Home, they appreciated its 
.sentiments, and gradually these immigrants re- 
moved to the banks of the Mississippi Rivtr. 
Some settled in Minnesota, and were the first to 
raise cattle, and till the soil. 





A. D. 1S19, TO A. D. 1827. 

Orden for military occupation of Upp«r Mississippi— Lcavenwortli auA Forsyth 
at Prairie duCliien— Birth in Camp— Troops arrive at Mcndnta— Cantonment 
EaUblished— Wheal carri-"'! to Pembina— Notice of Devotion, Prescott, and 
Major Taliaferro— (-"ainp Cold Water Established— Col. Snelling Ukes command 
— Impressive Scene — Officers in 1S20 — Condition ot the Fort in 1)*21— Saint 
Anthony Hill— Alexis Bailly Ukes canle to Pembina— Notice of Beltrami— 
ArTi%-iJ of first Steamboat — ila,i..r Uing's Expedition to Northern Boundary- 
Beltrami visits the northern sources ofthe Mississippi— First flour mill — First 
Sunday School— tircat flood in Is.'fi. African slaves al the Fort— Steamboat 
Arnvala— Duels — Notice of AVilliam Joseph SnellinE— Indian ficht at the Fort — 
Attack upon keel boats — (icneral Gaines' report— Removal of Fifth Regiment — 
Death of Colonel SnellinK. 

The rumor that Lord Selkirk was founding a 
colony on the borders of the United States, and 
that the British trading companies withhi the 
boundaries of what became the territory of Min- 
nesota, convinced the authorities at 'Wasliiugton 
of the importance of a niiUtary occupation of the 
valley of the Upper ^Mississippi. 

By direction of Major General Brown, the fol- 
lowing order, on the tenth of February, 1819, was 
issued : 

"Major General !Macomb, commander of the 
Fifth .Military deixirtment, will without delay, 
concentrate at Detroit tlie Fiftli Kegiment of In- 
fantry, excepting the recruils otherwisi^ directed 
by the general order lierewith transmitted. As 
soon as tlie navigation of the lakes will admit, be 
will cause tlie reginieiil to lie transixirted to Fort 
Howard; from thence, by llie way of the Fox 
and WiscorLsin Rivers, to Prairie du Chien, and, 
after delacliing a siirticieiit number of companies 
to garrison Forts Cniwfurd and .Vriiistrong. the 
remainder will proceed to the nioulli of the River 
St. Peter's, where they will estalilish a post, at 
whicli tlie headquarters of the regiment will be 
located. The regiment, previous to its depar- 
ture, will receive tlie necessary supjilies of cloth- 
ing, provisions, arms, and ammunition. Imme- 
diiite application will bi: made to Hrigadier (ieii- 
eral Jesup, Quartermaster tJeneial. for funds 
necessary to execute the movements letiuired by 
tills order." 

On the thirteenth of April, this additional order 
w!i,s issued, at Detroit : 

"The season having now arrived when the 
lakes may be navigated with safety, a detach- 
ment of the Fifth Kegiment, to consist of Major 
Marston's and Captain Fowle's companies, under 
the command of Major ^Slulilcnburg. will proceed 
to tireen Biiy. Surgeon's Mate, K. M. Byrne, of 
the Fifth Regiment, will accompany the detach- 
ment. The Assistant Deputy Quartermaster 
General will furnish the necessary transport, and 
will send by the same oppurtunity two humlred 
barrels of provisions, wliicli he will draw from the 
contractor at this post. The provisions must be 
examined anil inspected, and properly put up for 
transportation. Colonel Leavenvi-orth will, with- 
out delay, prepare his regiment to move to the 
post on the Mississippi, agreeable to the Divi- 
sion order of the tenth of Febniary. The Assists 
ant Deputy Quartermaster General will furnish 
the necessary transportation, to be ready by the 
first of May next. The Colonel will make requi- 
sition for such stores, aninmiiition, tools and 
imiilements as may be required, and he be able to 
take with him on the expedition. Particular in- 
structions will be given to the Colonel, e.xplaiiung 
the objects of his expedition."' 


On 'Wednesday, the last day of .Iiine, Col.Leav- 
enwiirth and troops arrived from (iieeii Bay, at 
Prairie du Chien, Scarcely had they reached 
this point wlien Charlotte Seymour, the wife of 
Lt. Xatluin Clark, a native of II;irtford, Ct, 
gave birth to a daughter, whose first baptismal 
name was Charlotte, after her mother, and the 
second Ouisconsin, given by the oflicere in view 
of the fiicl thiit she was burn at the jiiiiclidu of 
that stream with the .Mississippi. 

In time Charlotte Ouisconsin married a young 
Lieutenant, a native of Princeton. New .Jersey, 
anil a graduate of West Point, and still resides 
with her liusliiiiid, (icnenil H, P. \'an Cleve, in 



the city of Minneapolis, living to do good as she 
has opportunity. 

In June, under instructions from tlie War 
Department, Major Thomas Forsyth, connected 
witli tlie office of Indian affairs, left St. Louis 
with two thousand dollars worth of goods to be 
distributed among the Sioux Indians, iii accor- 
dance with the agreement of 1805, already re- 
ferred to, by the late General Pike. 

About nine o'clock of the mornmg of the fifth 
of July, he joined Leavenworth and his command 
at Prairie du Chien. Some time was occupied by 
Leavenworth iiwaitiug the arrival of ordnance, 
provisions and recruits, but on Sunday morning, 
the eighth of August, about eight o'clock, the 
expedition set out for the pomt now known as 
Mendota. The flotilla was quite imposmg; there 
were the Colonel's barge, fourteen batteaux with 
ninety-eight soldiers and officers, two large canal 
or Mackinaw boats, filled with various stores, and 
Forsyth's keel boat, containing goods and pres- 
ents for the Indians. On the twenty-third of 
August, Forsyth reached the mouth of the Min- 
nesota with his boat, and the next morning Col. 
Leavenworth arrived, and selecting a place at 
Mendota, near the present raUroad bridge, he 
ordered the soldiers to cut down trees and make 
a clearing. On the next Saturday Col. Leaven- 
worth, Major Vose, Surgeon PureeU, Lieutenant 
Clark and the wife of Captain Gooding ivited 
the Falls of Sahit Anthony with Forsyth, in 
his keel boat. 

Early in September two more boats and a bat- 
teaux, with officers and one hundred and twenty 
recruits, arrived. 

During the winter of 1820, Laidlow and others, 
in behalf of Lord Selkirk's Scotch settlers at 
Pembina, whose crops had been destroyed by 
grasshoppers, passed the Cantonment, on their 
way to Prairie du Chien, to purchase wheat. 
L'pon the fifteenth of April they began their 
return with their Mackinaw boats, each loaded 
with two himdred bushels of wheat, one hvmdred 
of oats, and thirty of peas, and reached the mouth 
of the Minnesota early in May. Ascending this 
stream to Big Stone Lake, the boats were drawn 
on rollers a mile and a half to Lake Traverse, 
and on the third of June arrived at Pembina and 
cheered the desponding and needy settlers of tlie 
Selkirk colony. 

The first sutler of the post was a Mr. Devotion. 
He brought with him a young man named Phi- 
lander Prescott, who was born in ISOl, at Phelps- 
town, Ontario county, Xew York. At first they 
stopped at Mud Hen Island, in the Mississippi 
below the mouth of the St. Croix River. Coming 
up late in the year 1819, at the site of the pres- 
ent towTi of Hastings they found a keel-boat 
loaded with supplies for the cantonment, in charge 
of Lieut. Oliver, detained by the ice. 

Amid all the changes of the troops, Mr. Pres- 
cott remained nearly all his life in the vicinity of 
the post, to which he came when a mere lad, and 
was at length killed in the Sioux JIassacre. 


In the spring of 1820, Jean Baptiste Faribault 
brought up Leavenworth's horses from Prairie 
du Chien. 

The first Indian Agent at the post was a former 
army officer, Lawrence Taliaferro, pronounced 
Toliver. As he had the confidence of the Gov- 
ernment for twenty-one successive years, he is 
deserving of notice. 

His family was of Italian origin, and among 
the early settlers of Virginia. He was born in 
1704, hi King AVilliam county in that State, and 
when, in 1812, war was declared against Great 
Britain, with four brothers, he entered the army, 
and was commissioned as Lieutenant of the 
Thirtj--fifth Infantry. He behaved gallantly at 
Fort Erie and Sackett's Harbor, and after peace 
was declared, he was retained as a First Lieuten- 
ant of the Third Infantry. In 1816 he was sta- 
tioned at Fort Dearborn, now the site of Chicago. 
Willie on a furlough, he called one day upon 
President Monroe, who told him that a fort would 
be built near the Falls of Saint Autliony, and an 
Indian Agency established, to which he offered 
to appoint him. Ilis commission was dated 
March 2Tth, ISIO, and he proceeded in due time 
to his post. 

On the fifth day of May, 1820, Leavenworth 
left his vrtnter quarters at Mendota, crossed the 
stream and made a summer camp near the 
present military grave yard, which in consequence 
of a fine spring has been called " Camp Cold 
Water." The Indian agency, under Taliaferro, 
remained for a time at tlie old cantonment. 

The conimandhig officer estabUshed a fine 



garden in the bottom lands of tbe Minnesota, 
and on tlie fifteenth of June tlie earliest garden 
peas were eaten. The Ihst distinguished \isitors 
at the new encampment were (iovenior Lewis 
Cass, of Michigan, and llem-y Schoolcraft, who 
arrived in July, by way of Lake Superior and 
Sandy Lake. 

The relations between Col. Leaveinvortli and 
Lidiau Agent Taliaferro were not entirely har- 
monious, growing out of a disagreement of \-iews 
relative to the treatment of the Indians, and on 
the day of the arrival of Governor Cass, Tel- 
iaferro writes to Leavenworth : 

" As it is now understood that I am agent for 
Indian affairs in this country, and you are about 
to leave the upper ^Mississippi, in all probability 
in the course of a month or two, I beg leave to 
suggest, for the sake of a general luulerstanding 
with the Indian tribes in this country, that any 
medals, you may possess, would by being turned 
over to me, cease to be a to!)ic of remark among 
the different Indian tribes under my direction. 
I will pass to you any voucher that may be re- 
quired, and I beg leave to observe that any pro- 
gress in influence is much impeded in conse- 
quence of tliis frequent intercourse witli the gar- 

In a few days, the disastrous effect of Indians 
mi'igling witli the soldiers was exhibited. On 
the third of August, the agent wrote to Leaven- 

" His Excellency Governor Cass during his 
visit to this post remarked to me that the Indians 
jn this quarter were spoiled, and at the same 
time .saiil they should not be pemiitted to enter 
tiie ciimp. An luipleasanl affair lias lately taken 
place ; I mean the stabbing of the old chief 
Mahgossau by his comrade. This was caused, 
doiilitless, by an anxiety to obtain the cliief's 
wliiskey. I beg, therefore, tliat no whiskey 
whatever be given to any Indians, unless it be 
through their jiroper agent. AVliile an overplus 
of whiskey thwarts tlic benificent and humane 
policy of the government, it entails misery upon 
the Indians, and endangers their lives." 

A few days after tliis note was v.ritten Josiah 
Snelling, wliolunl l)een recently promoted to the 
Colonelcy of the Fifth Heginient, arrived with 
his family, relieved Leavenworth, and infused 
new life and energy. A little while before hia 

arrival, the daughter of Captain Gooding was 
married to Lieutenant Green, the Adjutant <if 
the regiment, the first maniage of white persons 
in Minnesota. Mrs. Snelling, a few days after 
her arrival, gave birth to a daughter, the first 
white child Iwrn in .Minnesota, and after a brief 
existence of thirteen uioiitlis, she died and was 
the lirst mterred in the military grave yard, and 
for years the stone winch marked its restmg 
place, was visilile. 

The earliest manuscript in Minnesota, written 
at the Cantonment, is dated October 4. 1820, and 
is in the handwTiting of Colonel Snelling. It 
reads : " In justice to Lawrence Taliaferro, Esq., 
Indian Agent at this post. we. the undersigned, 
oflftcers of the Fifth Kegiment here stationed, 
have presented him tins paper, as a token, not 
only of our individual respect and esteem, but as 
an entire approval of his conduct and deportment 
as a public agent in this quarter. Given at St. 
Peter, this 4tli day of October, 1S20. 

J. Snelling, X. Clark, 

Col. 5th Inf. Lieutenant. 

S. BURBANK, Jos. Hake, 

Br. Major. Lieutenant. 

David I'kkry, Ed. Pckckll, 

Captain. Surgeon, 

D. Gooding, P. R. Green, 

Brevet Captain. Lieut, and Adj I. 

J. rLVMI'TDN, "W. (J. CAMI', 

LieutciKuit. Lt. and Q. M. 

K. A. -McCaiie, H. Wilkins, 

Lieutenant. Lieutenant." 

During the summer of 1«20. a party of the 
Sisseton Sioux killed on the .Missouri, I.sadore 
Poupou. a half-breed, and Joseph ^Vndrews, a 
Canadian engage(I in the fur trade. The Indian 
Agent, through Colin Campbell, as interpreter, 
notified the Sissetous that trade would cease 
with ttieni. until the murderers were delivered. 
At a council held at Big Stone L;die, one of the 
murderers, and the aged father of another, agreed 
to surrender themselves to the connnanding 

On the twelfth of November, accompaiued by 
their friends, they approached the encampment 
in solemn procession, and marched to the centre 
of the parade. First appi;ircd a Sisseton bear- 
ing a British (lag; then the murderer and the de- 
voted father of another, their arms pinioned, and 



large wooden splinters thrust tlirougtli the flesh 
above the elbows indicating tlieir contempt for 
pain and death ; in the rear followed friends and 
relatives, with them chanting the death dirge. 
Having arrived in front of the guard, fire was 
kindled, and the British l!ag burned; then the 
murderer delivered up his medal, and both prison- 
ers were surrounded. Col. Snelling detained the 
old chief, while the murderer was sent to St. 
Louis for trial. 


Col. Snelling built the fort in the shape of a 
lozenge, in view of the projection between the 
two rivers. The first row of barracks was of 
hewn logs, obtained from the jiine forestsof Rum 
Kiver, but the other buildings were of stone. 
Mrs. Van Cleve, the daughter of Lieutenant, 
afterwards Captain Clark, writes : 

■■ In 1S21 the fort, although not complete, was 
fit for occupancy. My father had assigned to 
him the quarters next beyond the steps leading 
to the Commissary's stores, and during the year 
my little sister Juliet was born tliere. At a later 
period my father and Iilajor Garland obtained 
permission to build more commodious quarters 
outside the walls, and the result was the two 
stone houses afterwards occupied by the Indian 
Agent and interpreter, lately destroyed." 

Early in August, a young and intelligent mixed 
blood, Alexis Bailly, in after years a member of 
the legislature of Minnesota, left the cantonment 
with the first drove of cattle for the Selkirk Set- 
tlement, and the next winter returned with Col. 
Robert Dickson and Messrs. Laidlow and ]Mac- 

The next month, a party of Sissetons visited 
the Indian Agent, and told him that tliey had 
started with another of the murderers, to which 
reference has been made, but that on the way he 
had, through fear of being hioig, killed himself. 

This fall, a mill was constructed for the use of 
the garrison, on the west side of St. Anthony 
Falls,under the supen'ision of Lieutenant McCabe. 
During the fall, George Gooding, Captain by 
brevet, resigned, and became Sutler at I'rairie du 
Chien. He was a native of Massachusetts, and 
entered the army as ensign in 1808. In 1810 he 
became a Second Lieutenant, and the next year 
was wounded at Tippecanoe. 

In the middle of October, there embarked on 
the keel-boat " Saucy Jack.'" for Prairie du Chieu, 
Col. Snelling, Lieut. Baxley, ^lajor Taliaferro, 
and Mrs. Gooding, 

EVENTS OF 1822 AND 1823. 

Early in January, 1822, there came to the Fort 
from the Red River of the North, Col. Robert 
Dickson, Laidlow, a Scotch farmer, the superin- 
tendent of Lord Selkirk's experimental farm, and 
one Mackenzie, on their way to Prairie du Chien. 
Dickson returned with a drove of cattle, but 
owing to the hostility of the Sioux liis cattle were 
scattered, and never reached Pembina. 

During the winter of 1823, Agent Taliaferro 
was in Washington. While returning in March, 
he was at a hotel in I'ittsburg. when he received 
a note signed G. C. Beltrami, who was an Italian 
exile, asking permission to accompany him to the 
Indian territory. He was tall and commanding 
in appearance, and gentlemanly in bearing, and 
Taliaferro was so forcibly impressed as to accede 
to the request. After reaching St. Louis they 
embarked on the first steamboat for the Upper 

It was named the Virginia, and was liuilt in 
Pittsburg, twenty-two feet in width, and one 
hundred and eighteen feet in lengtli, iu charge of 
a Captain Crawford. It reached the Fort on the 
tenth of May, and was saluted by the discharge 
of cannon. Among the passengers, liesides the 
^Vgent and the Italian, were ^lajor Biddle, Lieut. 
Russell, and others. 

The arrival of the Virginia is an era in the 
history of the I)ahkotah nation, and will proba- 
bly be transmitted to their posterity as long as 
they exist as a people. They say their sacred 
men, the night before, dreamed of seeing some 
monster of the waters, which frightened them 
very much. 

As tlie boat neared the shore, men, women, 
and children behelil with silent astonishment, 
supposing that it was some enormous water-spirit, 
coughing, pufling out hot breath, and splashing 
water in every direction. When it touched the 
landing their fears prevailed, and tliey retreated 
some distance ; but when the blowing off of 
steam commenced they were completely un- 
nerved : mothers forgetting their children, with 
streaming hair, sought hiding-places ; chiefs, re- 



nouncing their stoicism, scampered away like 
affrighted animals. 

The peace agreement beteen the O jib ways and 
Dahkotahs. made through the influence of Gov- 
ernor Cass, was of brief duration, tlie latter be- 
ing the first to violate the provisions. 

On the fourth of June, Taliaferro, the Indian 
agent among the Uahkotahs, took advantage of 
the presence of a large lunnber of Ojibways to 
renew the agreement for tlie cessation of hostili- 
ties. The council hall of the agent was a large 
room of logs, in which waved conspicuously the 
tlag of the United SUites, surrounded by British 
colors and medals that had been delivered up 
from time to time by Indian chiefs. 

Among the Ualikotah chiefs present were 
A\'apashaw, Little Crow, and I'enneshaw ; of the 
Ojibways there were Kendouswa, Moshomene, 
and Pasheskonoepe. After mutual accusations 
and excuses concerning the infraction of the pre- 
vious treaty, the Dahkotahs lighted tlie calumet, 
they having been the first to infringe upon the 
agreement of 1820. After smoking and jiassing 
the pipe of peace to the Ojibways, who passed 
through the same formalities, they all shook 
hands as a pledge of renewed amity. 

The morning after the council, Flat Mouth, 
the distinguished Ojibway chief, arrived, who 
had left his lodge vowing that he would never be 
at peace with the Dalikotahs. As he stepped from 
his canoe, Penneshaw held out hisliaiid. but was 
repulsed with scorn. Tlie Dahkolah warrior 
immediately gave the alarm, and in a moment 
runners were on their way to the neighboring 
villages to raise a war jiarty. 

On the sixth of June, the Dahkotahs had assem- 
bled, stripped for a fight, and surrounded the 
Ojibways. Tlie latter, fearing tlie worst, con- 
cealed their women and children beliind the old 
barracks wliicli had been used by the troops while 
the fort was beinj; erected. At the solicitation of 
the agent and cdiiimaiider of the furt, the Dahko- 
talis desisted Irum an allackaiKl retired. 

On the seventh, the Ojibways left for their 
lionies; but, in a few hours, while they were 
making a jiorlage at Falls of St. Antliony, they 
were again approached liy the iJalikotahs, who 
would liave altju.'ked them, if a detachment of 
troops had not arrived from the fort. 

A rumor reaching I'enneshaw's village that he 

had been killed at the falls, his mother seized an 
Ojibway maiden, who had been a captive from 
infancy, and, with a tomahawk, cut her in two. 
Upon t"lie return of the son in safety he was much 
gratified at what he considered the prowess of 
his parent. 

On the third of July, 1823, Major Long, of the 
engineers, arrived at the fort in command of an 
expedition to explore the Minnesota River, and 
the region along the northern boundary line of 
the United States. Beltrami, at the request of 
Col. Snelling, was permitted to be of the party, 
and Major Taliaferro kindly gave him a horse 
and equipments. 

The relations of the Italian to Major Long were 
not pleasant, and at I'embiua Beltrami left the 
expedition, and with a '• bois brule "". and two 
Ojibways proceeded and discovered the northern 
sources of the Mississippi, and suggested where 
the western sources would be found ; which was 
verified by Schoolcraft nine years later. About 
the second week in September Beltrami returned 
to tlie fort by way of the ]Mississippi, escorted by 
forty or fifty Ojibways, and on the 2-5tli departed 
for New Orleans, where he published his discov- 
eries in the French language. 

The mill which was constructed in 1821, for 
sawing lumber, at the Falls of St. Anthony, stood 
upon the site of the Holmes and Sidle Mill, in 
^linneapolis, and in 1823 was fitted up for grind- 
ing flour. The following extracts fnmi corres- 
pondence addressed to Lieut. Clark, Commissary 
at Fort Snelling, will be read with interest. 

Under the date of August 5lh, 1823, General 
Gibson writes : '• From a letter addressed by 
Col. Snelling to the Quartermaster General, 
dated the 2d of April, I learn that a large quan- 
tity of wheat would be raised this summer. The 
assistant Coinniissaiy of Subsistence at St. Louis 
has been instrucled to forward sickles and a jiair 
of millstones to St. Peters. 1 f any flour is manu- 
factured from the wheat raised, be jilcased to let 
me know asearly as practicable, that I may deduct 
the quantity manufactured at the post from the 
(piantity advertised to be contracted for." 

In another letter. General (iibson writes : 
" Below you will find the amount charged on the 
books against the garrison at Ft. St. Anthony, 
for certain articles, and forwarded for the use of 
the troops at that post, which you will deduct 



from the payments to be made for flour raised 
and turned over to you for issue : 

One pair bubr millstones §250 11 

337 pounds plaster of Paris 20 22 

Two dozen sickles 18 00 

Total S288 33 

Upon tbe 19tb of January, 1.S24, the General 
writes: " The mode suggested by Col. Snelling, 
of fixing the price to be paid to the troops for the 
flour furnished l)y them is deemed equitable and 
just. You will accordingly pay for the flour 
$3.33 per ban-el." 

Charlotte Ouisconsin Van Cleve, now the oldest 
person living who was connected with the can- 
tonment in 1819, in a piiper read before the De- 
partment of American History of the Mimiesota 
Historical Society in January, 1880, wrote : 

'■ In 1823, Mrs. Snelling and my mother estab- 
lished the first Sunday School in the Northwest. 
It was held in the basement of the commanding 
officer's quarters, and was productive of much 
good. Many of the soldiers, with their families, 
attended. Joe. Brown, since so well know in 
this countiy, then a drummer boy, was one of 
the pupils. A Bible class, for the officers and 
their wives, was formed, and all became so inter- 
ested in the history of the patriarchs, that it fur- 
nished topics of conversation for the week. One 
day after the Smiday School lesson on the death of 
Moses, a member of the class meeting my mother 
on the parade, after exchanging t!ie usual greet- 
ings, said, in saddened tones, ' But don"t >uu feel 
sorry that Moses is dead? ' 

Early in the spring of 1824, the Tully boys 
were rescued from the Sioux and brouglit to the 
fort. They were children of one of the settlers 
of Lord Selkirk's colony, and with their parents 
and others, were on their way from Red River 
Valley to settle near Fort Snelling. 

The party was attacked by Indians, and the 
parents of these children murdered, and the boys 
captured. Through the influence of Col. Snell- 
ing the children were ransomed and brought 
to the fort. Col. Snelling took John and 
my father Andrew, the younger of the two. 
Everyone became interested in the oriihans, and 
we loved Andrew as if he had been our own lit- 
tle brother. John died some two years after his 
arrival at the fort, and Mrs. Snellmg asked me 

when I last saw her If a tomb stone had been 
placed at his grave, she as requested, during a 
visit to the old home some years ago. She said 
she received a promise that it should be done, 
and seemed quite disappointed when I told her it 
had not been attended to." 

Andrew Tully, after being educated at an 
Orphan Asylum in New York City, became a 
carriage maker, and died a few years ago in that 

EVENTS OF THi; YEAR A. D. 1824. 

In the year 1824 the Fort was visited by Gen. 
Scott, on a tour of inspection, and at his sug- 
gestion, its name was changed from Fort St. 
Anthony to Fort Snelluig. The following is an 
extract from his report to the War Department : 

" This work, of which the War Department is 
in possession of a plan, reflects the liighest credit 
on Col. Snelling, his officers and men. The de- 
fenses, and for the most part, the public store- 
houses, shops and quarters being constructed of 
stone, the whole is hkely to endure as long as the 
post shall remain a frontier one. The cost of 
erection to the government has been the amount 
paid for tools and iron, and tlie per diem jiaid 
to soldiers employed as mechanics. I wish to 
suggest to the General in Chief, and through him 
to tlie War Department, the propriety of calling 
this work Fort Snelling, as a just comijliment 
to the meritorious officer under whom it lias 
been erected. The present name, (Fort St. An- 
thony), is foreign to all our associations, and is, 
besides, geographically incorrect, as the work 
stands at the jimction of the Mississippi and 
St. Peter's [Minnesota] Rivers, eight miles be- 
low the gre<it falls of the ^Mississippi, called 
after St. Anthony." 

In 1824, Major Taliaferro proceeded to AVash- 
ington with a delegation of Chippeways and Dah- 
kotahs, headed by Little ('row, the grand father 
of the chief of the same name, who was engaged 
in the late horrible massacre of defenceless 
women and children. The object of the visit, was 
to secure a convocation of all the tribes of the 
Upper Mississippi, at Prairie du Cliein, to define 
their boimdary lines and establish friendly rela- 
tions. When they reached Prairie du Cheiu, 
Wahnatah, a Yankton chief, and also Wapashaw, 
by the whisperings of mean traders, became dis- 



siffected, and wisliwl to turn back. Little Crow, 
perceiving this, stopped all liesitancy by the f<il- 
lowing speech: "My friends, you can do as you 
please. I am no coward, nor can my ears be 
pulled about by evil counsels. We are here and 
should go on. and do some good for our nation. 
I have taken our Father here (Taliaferro) by the 
coat tail, and will follow him until I take by the 
hand, our great American Father." 

■\Vhile on board of a steamer on the Ohio 
River. Marcpee or the Cloud, in ronsequence of a 
bad dream, jumped from the stern of the boat, 
and was supposed to be dro\«ied. but he swam 
ashore and made his way to St. Charles, Mo., 
there to l)e murdered by some Sacs. The re- 
mainder safely arrixed in Washmgton and ac- 
complished the object of the visit. The Dahko- 
tahs returned by way of New York, and while 
there were anxious to pay a visit to certain par- 
ties with Wni. Dickson, a half-breed son of Col 
Robert Dickson, the trader, who in the war of 
1812-1.5 led the Indians of the Xorthwest against 
the United States. 

After this visit Litlle Crow carriccl a new 
double-barreled gun, and said that a medicine 
man by the name of Peters gave it to him for 
signing a certain jiaper, and that he also ])n)m- 
ised he would scud a keel-boat full of goods to 
tliem. The medicine man referred to was the 
Rev. Samuel I'eters, an Ejiiscopal clergyman, 
wlio had made himself obnoxious during tlic 
Revolution b\ his tory sentiments, and was sidj- 
sequently nominated as Bishop of ^'ermont. 

Peters asserted that in ISOO he had iiurchased 
of the heirs of .lonathan Carver the right to a 
tract of L.nd on tlic upjier Missi.ssippi, embracing 
St. Paul, alleged to liave been gi\cu to Carver by 
the Dahkotidis. in I'liT. 

Tlie next year Uicic arrived, inoueof the keel- 
boats from I'rairie du Chien, at Fort SncUing a 
box marked Col. Robert Dickson. On opening, it 
was found to contain a few i)resents from Peters 
to Dickson's Indian wife, a long letter, and a 
copy of Car\'er"a alleged grant, written on i)arch- 

EVENTS or TIIK Yl:.\RS 1S12.') AST) 1826. 

On the 30tli of October, lK2o, seven Indian 
women in canoes, were drawn into the rai)ids 
above the Falls nl' SI. .\nthony. All were saved 

but a lame girl, wlio was dashed over the cata- 
ract, and a month later her body was found at 
Pike's Island in front of the fort. 

Forty years ago, the means of communication 
between Fort Snelling and the civilized world 
were very limited. The mail in winter was usu- 
ally carried by soldiers to Prairie du (^hien. On 
the 26th of January, 1826, there was great joy in 
the fort, caused by the return from furlough ot 
Lieutenants Baxley and Russell, who brought 
with them the first mail received for five months. 
About this period there was also another excite- 
ment, cause by the seizure of liquors in the trad" 
ing house of Alexis Bailey, at Xew Hope, now 

During the months of February and ^larch. in 
this year, snow fell to the depth of two or three 
feet, and there was great suffering among the 
Indians. ( )u one occasion, thirty lodges of Sisse- 
ton and other Sioux were overtakeii by a snow- 
storm on a large prairie. The storm continued 
for three days, and jirovisions grew scarce, for 
the party were seventy in number. At last, the 
stronger men, with the few pairs of snow-shoes 
in their possession, started for a trading post one 
lunidred miles distant. They reached their des- 
tination half alive, and the traders sympathizing 
sent four Canadians with supplies for those left 
behind. After great toil they reached the scene 
of distress, and foimd many dead, and. what was 
more horrible, the living feeding on the corpses 
(if their relatives. .V mother had eaten her dead 
child and a jiortiou of her own father's arms. 
The shock to her nervous system was so great 
that she lost her reason. Her name was Pash- 
uno-ta, and she was Imlli yiunig and good look- 
ing. One day in Septcuilicr, while at Fort Snell- 
ing, she asked Cai)tain Jouett if he knew which 
was the best portion of a man to eat, at the same 
time taking him by the collar of his coat. He 
replied witli great astonishment, "No!" and she 
then said, "Tlie arms." She then asked for a 
piece of his servant to eat, as she was nice and 
fat. A few days after this she dashed hereelf 
from the blulTs near Fort Snelling, into the river. 
Iler bocly was fouiul just above the mouth of the 
^Minnesota, and decently interred by the agent. 

The spring of 1H26 was very ba<-kward. On 
the 2(ith of March snow fell to the dciith of one 
or one and a half feet nn a li'\cl, and drifted in 



heaps from six to fifteen feet in height. On the 
Stli of April, early in the day, there was a violent 
storm, and the ice was still thick in the river. 
During the storm flashes of lightning were seen 
and thnnder heard. On the 10th, the thermome- 
ter was four degrees above zero. On the 14th 
there was rain, and on the next day the St. Peter 
river broke up, but the ice on the Mississippi re- 
mained firm. On the 21st, at noon, the ice began 
to move, and carried away Mr. Faribault's houses 
on the east side of the river. For several days 
the river, was twenty feet above low water mark, 
and all the houses on low lands were swept off. 
On the second of May, the steamboat T^awTenee, 
Captain Reeder, arrived. 

Major Taliaferro had inherited several slaves, 
which he used to hire to officers of the garrison. 
On the 31st of March, his negro boy, WilUam, 
was employed by Col. Snelling, the latter agree- 
ing to clothe him. About this time, 'William at- 
tempted to shoot a hawk, but instead shot a small 
boy, named Henry Cullum, and nearly killed him. 
In May, Captain Plympton, of the Fifth Infantry, 
wished to purchase his negro woman, Eliza, but 
he refused, as it was his intention, ultimately, to 
free his slaves. Another of his negro girls, Har- 
riet, was married at the fort, the Major perform- 
ing the ceremony, to the now historic Dred Scott, 
who was then a slave of Surgeon Emerson. The 
only person that ever purchased a slave, to retain 
in slavery, was Alexis Bailly, who bought a man 
of Major Garland. The Sioux, at first, hud no 
prejudices against negroes. They called them 
" Black Frenchmen," and placing their hands on 
their woolly heads would laugh heartily. 

Tie following is a list of the steamboats that 
had arrived at Fort Snelling, up to ^Nlay 26, 1826 : 

1 Virginia, May 10, 1823 ; 2 Xeville ; 3 Put- 
nam, April 2, 1825 ; 3 ^landan ; 5 Indiana ; 6 Law- 
rence, May 2, 1826 ; 7 Sciota ; 8 EcUpse ; 9 Jo- 
sephine ; 10 Fulton; 11 Red Rover; 12 Black 
Rover; 13 Warrior; 14 Enterprise; 15 Volant. 

Life within the walls of a fort is sometimes the 
exact contrast of a paradise. In the year 1826 a 
Pandora box was opened, among the officers, and 
dissensions began to prevail. One young officer, 
a graduate of West Point, whose father had been 
a professor in Princeton College, fought a duel 
with, and slightly wounded, William Joseph, the 
talsnted son of Colonel SneUing, who was then 

twenty-two years of age, and had been three years 
at West Point. At a Court Martial convened to 
try the officer for violating the xVrticles of War, 
the accused objected to the testimony of Lieut. 
William Alexander, a Tennesseean, not a gradu- 
ate of the ^lilitary Academy, on the ground that 
he was an infidel. Alexander, hurt by this allu- 
sion, challenged the objector, and another duel 
was fought, resulting only in sUght injuries to 
the clothing of the combatants. Inspector Gen- 
eral E. P. Games, after this, visited the fort, and 
in his report of the inspection he wrote: "A 
defect in the discipline of this regiment has ap- 
peared in the character of certain personal con- 
troversies, between the Colonel and several of his 
young officers, the particulars of which I forbear 
to enter into, assured as I am that they will be 
developed in the proceedings of a general court 
martial ordered for the trial of Lieutenant Hun- 
ter and other officers at Jefferson Barracks. 

" From a conversation with the Colonel I can 
have no doubt that he has erred in the course 
pursued by him in reference to some of the con- 
troversies, inasmuch as he has intimated to his 
officers his willingness to sanction in certain cases, 
and even to participate in personal conflicts, con- 
trary to the twenty-fifth, Article of War."' 

The Colonel's son, William Joseph, after this 
passed several years among traders and Indians, 
and became distinguished as a poet and brUUant 

His "Tales of the Northwest," published in 
Boston in 1820, by Ililliard, Gray, Little & Wil- 
kins, is a work of great literary ability, and Catlin 
thought the book was the mostfaitliful pictureof 
Indian Ufe he had read. Some of his poems were 
also of a high order. One of his pieces, deficient 
in dignity, was a caustic satire upon modern 
American poets, and was published under the 
title of " Truth, a Gift for Scribblers." 

Natlianiel P. Willis, who had winced mider 
the last, wrote the following lampoon : 
" Oh, smelling Joseph I Thou art like a cur. 

I'm told thou once did live by hunting fur : 

Of bigger dogs thou smellest, and, in sooth, 

Of one extreme, perhaps, can tell the truth. 

'Tis a wise shift, and shows tliou know'st thy 

To leave the ' Xortli AVest tales,' and take to 
smelling ours." 



In 1832 a second edition of " Truth " appeared 
•with additions and emendations. In this ap- 
peared the following pasquinade upon WilLis : 

'■I live by bunting fur, thou say'st, so let it be, 
But tell me, Natty I Had I hunted Ihee, 
Had not my time been thrown away, young sir, 
And eke my powder ? Puppies have no fur. 

Our tails V Thou owniest thee to a tail, 
I've scanned thee o'er and o'er 
But. though I guessed the species right, 
I was not sure before. 

Our savages, authentic travelers say, 
To natural fools, religious liomage pay, 
Eadst thou been born in wigwam's smoke, and 

died in, 
Nat ! thine apotheosis had been certain." 

Snelling died at Chelsea, Mass., December six- 
teenth, 1848, a victim to the appetite w hich en- 
enslaved Bobert Burns. 

In the year lS2f3. a small party of Ojibways 
(Chippeways) came to see the Indian Agent, 
and three of them ventured to visit tlie Colum- 
bia Fur Company's trading liouse, two miles 
from the Fort. While there, they became 
aware of their danger, and desired two of the 
white men attached to the establishment to 
accompany them Ijacli, thinking that their pres- 
ence might be some protection. They were in 
error. As they passed a little copse, three Dah- 
kotahs sjirangfrom behind alogwith the speed of 
light, lired tlicir pieces into the face <>f the fore- 
most, and then fled. The guns must have been 
double loaded, for the man's liead was literally 
blown from his shoulders, and his white com- 
panions were spattered with brains and blood. 
The survivors gained the Fort without further 
molestation. Their comrade was buried on the 
spot where lie fell. A staff was set up on liis 
grave, wliich became a landmark, and received 
the name of The Murder Pole. The murderers 
boasted of their achievement and with impunity. 
They and their tribe thought tliat they had struck 
a fair blow on their ancient enemies, in a becom- 
ing manner. It was only said, lliat Toopunkah 
Zeze of the village of the linlture aux FiciTit:, 
and two others, had each acquire<l a riglit to 
■wear skunk skins on their heels and war-eagles' 
feathers on their heads. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1827. 

On the twenty-eighth of May, 1827, the Ojib- 
way chief at Sandy Lake, Kee-wee-zais-hish 
called by the English, Flat Mouth with seven 
warriors and some womer. and children, in all 
amoiuiling to twenty-four, arrived about sunrise 
at Fort Snelling. "Walking to the gates of the 
.^ rison, they asked the protection of Colonel 
Snelling and Taliaferro, the Indian agent. They 
were told, that as long as they remained under 
the United States flag, they were secure, and 
were ordered to encanii) within musket shot of 
the high stone walls of the fort. 

During the afternoon, aDahkotah, Toopunkah 
Zeze, from a village near the first rapids of the 
^Minnesota, visited the Ojibway camp. They 
were cordially received, and a feast of meat and 
com and sugar, was soon made ready. The 
wooden plates emptied of their contents, they 
engaged in conversation, and whiffed the peace 

That night, some officers and their friends were 
spending a pleasant evening at the head-quarters 
of Captain Clark, which was in one of the stone 
houses which used to stand outside of the walls 
of the f(U'l. As Cajitaiu Cruger was walking on 
the porch, a bullet whizzed by. ami rajiid firing 
was heard. 

As the Dahkotahs, or Sioux, left the Ojibway 
camp, notwithstanding their friendly talk, they 
tupneil and discharged their guns with deadly aim 
upon their entertainers, and ran oft with a sluuit 
of satisfaction. The report was heard by the 
sentinel of the fort, and he cried, repeatedly, 
'■ Corporal of the guard !'' and soon at the gates, 
were the Ojibways, with their women and the 
wounded, telling their tale of woe in wild and in- 
coherent language. Two had been killed and six 
wounded. Among others, was a little girl about 
seven years old, who was pierced through both 
thighs with r. bullet. Surgeon AIcMahon made 
every effort to save her life, but without avail. 

Flat ^loulh, the chief, remimled Colonel Snel- 
ling "that he had been attacked while under the 
]irotection of the Ignited States flag, and early the 
next ninniiiig, Caiitain Clark, \\ith one hundred 
soldier:-, jiroceeded towards hand's Knd, a tra- of the Columbia Fur Company, on the 
iliunesota, a mile above the former residence of 



Franklin Steele, where tlie Dabkotahs were sup- 
posed to be. The soldiers had just left the large 
gate of the fort, when a party of Dahkotahs, in 
battle array, appeared on one of the prairie 
hills. After some parleying they turned their 
backs, and being pursued, thirty-two were cap- 
tured near the trading-post. 

Colonel Snelling ordered the prisoners to be 
brought before the Ojibways, and two being 
pointed out as participants in tlie slaughter of the 
preceding night, they were delivered to the 
aggrieved party to deal with in accordance with 
their customs. They were led out to the plain 
in front of the gate of tlie fort, and when placed 
nearly without the range of tlie Ojibway guns, 
they were told to run for their lives. With tlie 
rapidity of deer they bounded away, but the Ojib- 
way bullet Hew faster, and after a few steps, they 
fell gasping on the ground, and were soon lifeless. 
Tlien the savage nature displayed itself in all its 
hideousness. Women and children danced for 
joy, and placing their fingers in tlie bullet holes, 
from which the blood oozed, they licked them 
with deliglit. The men tt)re tlie scalps from the 
dead, and seemed to luxuriate in the privilege of 
plunging their knives through the corjises. After 
the execution, the Ojibways returned to the fort, 
and were met by the Colonel. He had prevented 
all over whom his authority extended from wit- 
nessing the scene, and had done his best to con- 
fine the excitement to the Indians. The same 
day a deputation of Dahkotah warriors received 
audience, regretting the violence that had been 
done by their yomig men, and agreeing to deliver 
up the ringleaders. 

At the time appointed, a son of Flat Mouth, 
with those of the Ojibwa party that were not 
wounded, escorted by United States troops, 
marched forth to meet the Dalikotah deputation, 
on the prame just beyond the old residence of 
the Indian agent. With much solemnity two 
more of the guilty were handed over to the 
assaulted. One was fearless, and with firmness 
stripped himself of his clothing and ornaments, 
and distributed them. The other could not face 
death with composure. He was noted for a hid- 
eous hare-lip, and had a bad reputation among 
his fellows. In the spirit of a coward he prayed 
for life, to the mortification of his tribe. The 
same opportunity was presented to them as to the 

first, of running for their lives. At the first fire 
the coward fell a corpse; but his brave compan- 
ion, thoujli wounded, ran on, and had nearly 
reached the goal of safety, when a second liullet 
killed him. The body of the coward now became 
a common object of loathing for both Dahkotahs 
and Ojibways. 

Colonel Snelling told the Ojibways that the 
bodies must lie removed, and then they took tlie 
scalped Dahkotahs, and dragging tliem by the 
heels, threw them off the bluff into the river, a 
hundred and fifty feet beneath. The dreadful 
scene was now over ; and a detaclimeiit of troops 
was sent with the old chief Flat ^Mouth, to escort 
him out of the reach of Dahkotah vengeance. 

An eyewitness wrote : " After tliis catastrophe, 
all the Dahkotahs quitted tlie vicinity of Fort Snel- 
ling, and did not return to it for some months. 
It was said that they formed a conspiracy to de- 
mand a council, and kill the Indian Agent and 
the commanding officer. If this was a fact, they 
had no opportmiity, or wanted the spirit, to exe- 
cute their purpose. 

'• The Flat Mouth's band lingered in the fort 
till their wounded comrade died. He was sensi- 
ble of his condition, and bore his pains with great 
fortitude. When he felt his end approach, he 
desired that his horse might be gaily caparisoned, 
and brought to the hospital window, so that he 
might touch the animal. He then took from his 
medicine bag a large cake of maple sugar, and held 
it forth. It may seeui strange, but it is true, tliat 
the beast ate it from his hand. His features 
were radiant with delight as he fell back on the 
pillow exhausted. Ilis horse had eaten the sugar, 
he said, and he was sure of a favorable reception 
and comfortable quarters in the other world. 
Half an hour after, he breathed his last. We 
tried to discover the details of his superstiticm, 
but could not succeed. It is a suliject on which 
Indians unwillingly discourse." 

In the fall of lS2(i, all the troops at Prairie du 
Chien had been removed to Fort Snelling, the 
commander taking with him two Winnebagoes 
that had been confined in Fort Crawford. After 
the soldiers left the Prairie, the Indians in the 
vicinity were quite insDleul. 

In Jime, 1827, two keel-boats passed I'rairie du 
Chien on the way to Fort Snelling with provis- 
ions. When they reached Wapashaw village, on 



the site of the present town of Winona, the crew 
were orderetl to come ashore by the Dahkotahs. 
Complying, they found themselves surrounded by 
Indians with hostile intentions. Tlie boatmen 
had no fire-arms, but assuming a bold mien and a 
defiant voice, the captain of the keel-boats ordered 
the savages to leave the decks ; which was suc- 
cessful, The boats pushed on, and at Red Wing 
and Kaposia the Indians showed that they were 
not friendly, though they did not molest the 
boats. Before they started on their return from 
Fort Snelling, the men on board, amounting to 
thirty-two. were all provided with muskets and a 
barrel of ball cartridges. 

When the descending keel-boats passed Wapa- 
shaw, the Dahkotas were engaged in the war 
dance, and menaced them, but made no attack. 
IJelow this point one of the boats moved in ad- 
vance of the other, and when near the mouth of 
the Bad Axe, the half-breeds on board descried 
hostile Indians on the banks. As the channel 
neared the shore, the sixteen men on the first 
boat were greeted with the war whoop and a vol- 
ley of rifle balls from the e.xciled Winnebagoes. 
killing two of the crew. Rushing into their ca- 
noes, the Indians made the attempt to board the 
boat, and two were successful. One of these 
stationed himself at the bow of the boat, and 
fired with killing effect on the men below deck. 
An old soldier of the last war with (Jreat Britain, 
called Saucy Jack, at last despatched him, and 
began to rally the fainting spirits on board. Du- 
ring the fight the boat had stuck on a sand-bar. 
With four companions, amid a shower of balls 
from the savages, he ]ilunged into the water and 
j)nslied (iff the boat, and thus moved out of reach 
of the galling shots of the \Vinnebagoes. As 
they floated dowii the river during the night, 
they heard a wail in a canoe behind them, the 
voice of a father ninuniing the death of the son 
who iiad scaled the deck, and was now a corpse 
in possession of the white men. The rear boat 
passed the Bad Axe river late in the night, and 
escaped an attiwk. 

The first keel-lwat arrived at Prairie du Chein. 
with two of their crew dead, four wounded, and 
the Indian tliat had been killed on the biiat. The 
two dead men had lieen residents of the Prairie, 
and now the panic was increased. On the morn- 
ing of the twenty-eighth of June the second 

keel -boat appeared, and among her passengers 
was Joseph Snelling, the talented son of the 
colonel, who wrote a story of deep uiterest, based 
on the facts narrated. 

At a meeting of the citizens it was resolved to 
repair old Fort Crawford, and Thomas McXair 
was appointed captahi. Dirt was thrown around 
the bottem logs of the fortification to prevent its 
being fired, and young Snelling was put in com- 
mand of one of the block-houses. On the next 
day a voyageur named Lover, and the well-known 
trader Duncan Graham, started through the in- 
terior, west of the Mississippi, with intelligence 
of the murders, to Fort Snelling. Intelligence 
of this attack was received at the fort, on the 
evening of the ninth of July, and Col. Snelling 
started in keel boats with foiu- companies to Fort 
Crawford, and on the seventeenth four more 
companies left under Major Fowle. After an 
absence of six weeks, the soldiers, without firing 
a gun at the enemy, returned. 

A few weeks after the attack npon the keel 
boats General Gaines inspected the Fort, and, 
subsequently in a communication to the War 
Dejiartment wrote as follows; 

" The main points of defence against an enemy 
appear to have been in some respects sacrificed, 
in the effort to secure the comfort and conven- 
ience of troops in peace. These are important 
considerations, but on an exposed frontier the 
primary object ought to be security against the 
attack of an enemy. 

'• The l)uildings are too laige, too numerous, 
and extending over a space entirely too great, 
enclosing a large ))arade. five times greater than 
is at all (lesireable in that climate. The build- 
ings for the most part seem well constructed, of 
good stone and other materials, and they contain 
every desirable convenience, comfort and securi- 
ty as barracks and store houses. 

" The work may be rendered very strong and 
adapted to a garrison of two hundred men by re- 
moving one-half the buildings, and with the ma- 
terials of which they are constructed, building a 
tower sufldciently high to command the hill be- 
tween the Mississiiipi and St. Peter's [Minnesota], 
and by a block house on the extreme ])oint, or 
brow of tlie difi', near the commandant's (luarlers, 
to secure most effectually the banks of the river, 
and the boats at the landing. 



" Much credit is due to Colonel Snelling, his 
officers and men, for their immense labors and 
excellent workmanship exliiliited in the construc- 
tion of these barracks and store houses, but this 
has been effected too much at the expense of the 
discipline of the regiment." 

From reports made from 1823 to 1826, the health 
of the troops was good. In the year ending Sep- 
tember thirty, 1823, there were but two deaths ; 
in 1824 only six, and in 182-5 but seven. 

lu 182,i there were three desertions, in 1824 
twenty-two, and in 1825 twenty-nine. Most of 
the deserters were fresh recruits and natives of 
America, Ten of the deserters were foreigners, 
and five of these were bom in Ireland. In 1826 
there were eight companies nimiberuig two liun- 

dred and fourteen soldiers quartered in the Fort- 
During the fall of 1827 the Fifth Regiment was 
relieved by a part of the First, and the next year 
Colonel Snelling proceeded to Wasliington on bus- 
iness, where he died with inflammation of the 
brain. Major General Macomb aimouncing liis 
death in an order, wrote : 

" Colonel Snelling joined the army in early 
youth. In the battle of Tippecanoe, he was 
distinguished for galhmtry and good conduct. 
Subsequently and during the whole late war with 
Great Britain, from the battle of Brownstown to 
the termination of the contest, he was actively 
emyiloyed in the field, with credit to himself, and 
honor to his country." 





ArrlVAl of J. N. Nici>llrl~H«rTiBgp of James Wells— Nicollrt's letter from FalU- 
of St. Anthony— Perils of Martin MiLi-od- Cliippi^wiiy treachery- Sioux Re 
vcDge — Rum River and Stillwater h^ittlo— (Jrog shops iinir the Fort. 

On the second of July 1836, the stccimboat 
Sahit Peter landed suiiiilics, and among its 
passengers was the distinguished French as- 
tronomer, Jean N. Nicollet (Nicoky). ilajnr 
Taliaferro on the twelfth of July, wrote ; 
"Mr. Nicollet, on a visit to the jiost for scientilic 
research, and at present in my family, has shown 
me the late work of Henry K. Schoolcraft on the 
discovery of the source of the Mississippi ; which 
claim is ridiculous in tlie extreme." On the 
twenty-seventh, Nicollet ascended the Mississippi 
on a tour of observation. 

James Wells, a trader, who afterwards was a 
member of the legislature, at the house of Oliver 
Cratte, near the fort, was married on the twelfth 
of September, by Agent Taliaferro, to Jane, a 
daughter of Duncan (iraham. AVells was killed 
in 18G:i, by the Sionx. at the time of the massacre 
in the Minnesota Valley. 

Nicollet in September returned from his trip 
to Leech Lake, and on the twenty-se\eiilh wrote 
the following to Major Taliaferro the Indian 
Agent at the fort, which is supposed to be the 
earliest letter extant written from the nite of the 
city of Minneapolis. As the principal hotel and 
one of the finest avenues of that city bears his 
name it is worthy of preservation. He spelled 
his name sometimes Nicoley. and the luonuncia- 
tion in English, wmild be Xicolay, the same as 
if written Nicollet in French. Tire letter shows 
that he had not mastered tlie English language : 
"St. Antikjny's Falls, liTtli September, ls:j(>. 

Dkau Fkiend:— I arrived last evening about 
dark; all well, nothing lost, nothing broken, 
happy and a vei7 successful journey. Hut I 
done exhausted, and nothing can reUeve me, but 
the pleasure of meeting ymi again under your 
hospitable roof, and to .see all the friends of the 
garri.son who have been .so kind to me. 

" This letter is more particularly to give you 
a very extraordinary tide. Flat JSIouth. the chief 
of Leech Lake and suite, ten in nmnber are with 
me. The day before yesterday I met them again 
at Swan river where they detained me one day. 
I had to bear a new harangue and gave answer. 
All terminated by their own resolution that they 
ought to give you the hand, as well as to the 
Guinas of the Fort (Colonel Davenport.) I 
thought it my duty to acquaint you with it be- 
forehand. Peace or war are at stake of the visit 
tlies iiay you". Please give them a good welcome 
until 1 have reported to you and Colonel Daven- 
port all that has taken place dm'iug my stay 
among the Pillagers. 15ut be assured I have not 
Iresjiassed and that I have behaved as would 
have done a good citizen of the U. S. As to 
Schoolcraft's statement alluding to you, you will 
liave full and complete satisfaction from Flat 
Mouth himself. In haste, your fiieml. .1. N. 


events ok a. d. 1837. 

On the seventeenth of March. 1837, there ar- 
rived .Martin ^McLeod, who became a prominent 
citizen of Minnesota, and the legislature has 
given his name to a county. 

lie left the Red Hiver country on snow .shoes, 
Willi two companions, one a Polander and the 
other an Irishman iiameil Hays, and Pierre Bot- 
tineau as iiilcrpreter. Itcing lost in a violent 
siiiiw stdiiii the l'(ili';ni(l Irisliniaii pcrislied. He 
and his giiiile. liiiltineau. lived for a time on the 
Ilesli of one of their dogs. After being twenty- 
six days without .seeing any one. the survivoi-s 
reachetl tlie trading post of Joseipji \\. ISrown. at 
Lake, and from thence tliey came to 
the f.irt. 

i:vicnts ok a. i>. 1838. 
In tlie niiiiitli of ,\i)ril, eleven Sioux were slain 
in a (laslanllN manner, by a party of Ojibways, 



under the noted and elder Hole-in-the-Day. The 
Chippeways feigned the warmest friendship, and 
at dark lay do^sii in the tents by the side of the 
Sioux, and in tlie iii^lit silently arose and killed 
them. The occurrence took place at the Chippe- 
way River, about thirty miles from Lac qui Parle, 
and the next day the llev. G. li. Pond, the Indian 
missionary, accompanied by a Sioux, \.eut out 
and buried the mutikited and scalpless bodies. 

On the second of August old Hole-in-the-Day, 
and some Ojibways, came to the fort. They 
stopped first at the cabm of Peter Quinn, whose 
wife was a half-breed Chippeway, about a mile 
from the fort. 

The missionary, Samuel W. Pond, told the 
agent that the Sioux, of Lake Calhoun were 
aroused, and on their way to attack the Chippe- 
ways. The agent quieted them for a time, but 
two of the relatives of those slain at Lac qui Parle 
in April, hid themselves near Qumn's house, and 
as Hole-in-the-Day and his associates were pass- 
ing, they fired and killed one Chippeway and 
woimded another. Obequette, a Chippeway from 
Red Lake, succeded, however, in shooting a 
Sioux wliile he was in the act of scali)ing his 
comrade. The Chippeways were brought within 
the fort as soon as possible, and at nine o'clock 
a Sioux was confined in the guard-house as a 

Not^vithstanding the murdered Chippeway had 
been buried in the graveyard of the fort for safety, 
an attempt was made on the part of some of the 
Sioux, to dig it up. On the evening of the sixth, 
lilajor Plympton sent the Chippeways across the 
river to the east side, and ordered them to go 
home as soon as possible. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1839. 

On the twentieth day of June the elder Hole- 
m-the-Day arrived from the Upper Mississippi 
with several hundred Chippeways. Upon their 
return homeward the ilississippi and jSlille Lacs 
band encamped the first night at the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, and some of the Sioux visited them and 
smoked the pipe of peace. 

On the second of July, about sunrise, a son-m- 
law of the chief of the Sioux band, at Lake Cal- 
houn, named Meekaw or Badger, was killed and 
scalped by two Chippeways of the Pillager band, 
relatives of him who lost liis life near Patrick 

Qubin's the year before. The excitement was 
intense among the Sioux, and immediately war 
parties started in pursuit. Ilole-iii-the-Day"s 
band was not sought, but the ilille Lacs and 
Saint Croix Chippeways. The Lake Calhoun 
Sioux, wdth those from the villages on the 
^linnesota, assembled at the Falls of Saint 
jVnthony, and on the morning of the fourth 
of July, came up with the ilille Lacs 
Chippeways on Rum River, before siuirise. Not 
long after the war whoop was raised and the 
Sioux attacked, killing and wounding ninety. 

The Kaposia band of Sioux pursued the Saint 
Croix Chippeways, and on the third of July found 
them in the Penitentiary ravine at Stillwater, 
under the influence of whisky. Aitkin, the old 
trader, was with them. The sight of the 
Sioux tended to make them sober, but in the fight 
twenty-one were killed and twenty-nine were 

Whisky, duruig the year 1839, was freely in- 
troduced, in the face of the law prohibiting it. 
Tlie first boat of the season, the Ariel, came to 
the fort on the fourteenth of April, and brought 
twenty barrels of whisky for Joseph R. Brown, 
and on the twenty-first of May, the Glaucus 
brought six barrels of liquor for David Faribault. 
On the thirtieth of June, some soldiers went to 
Joseph R. Brown's groggery on the opposite side 
of the Mississippi, and that night forty -seven 
\\ere in the guard-house for drunkenness. The 
demoralization then existuig, led to a letter by 
Surgeon Emerson, on duty at the fort, to the Sur- 
geon General of the United States army, in which 
he writes : 

" The whisky is brought here by citizens who 
are pouring in upon us and settling themselves 
on the opposite shore of the JSIississippi river, 
in defiance of our worthy commanding oflirer, 
Major J. Plympton, whose authority they set 
at naught. At this moment there is a 
citizen named Brown, once a soldier in 
the Fifth Infantry, who was discharged at 
this post, while Colonel Snelling commanded, 
and who has been since employed by the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, actually building on the land 
marked out by the land ollicers as the reserve, 
and \vitluu gmishot distance of the fort, a very 
expensive whisky shop." 





Blouxor DalikoUh peopIft-McanlnK of word* Sioux and DalikoUh-Karly villages 
^ResideDCv of Sioux in 1849-The Wi[mehago«s-The Ojibways or Chippcways. 

The three Indian nations who dwelt in this 
region after the organization of Minnesota, were 
the Sioux or Dahkotalis ; the Ojibways or Chip- 
peways ; and the Ilo-tchun-graws or Wiimeba- 


They are an entirely different group fnim the 
Algonquin and Iroquois, who were found by the 
early settlers of the Atlantic States, on the banks 
of the Connecticut, Jlohawk, and Susquehanna 

"When the Babkotahs were first noticed by the 
European adventurers, large numbers were occu- 
pying the !Mille Lacs region of country , and appro- 
priately called by the voyageur, "Teople of the 
Lake," "Gens du Lac." And tradition asserts that 
here was the ancientcentre of this tribe. Though 
we have traces of llieir waning and Imntiiigonthe 
shores of Lake Superior, there is no satisfactory 
evidence of their residence, east of the ilille Lacs 
region, as tliey have no name for Lake Superior. 

Tlie word Dahkotah, by which they love to be 
designated, signifies allied or joined together in 
friendly compact, and is equivalent to " E pluri- 
bus unum," the motto on the seal of the United 

In the history of the mission at ]>u I'ointe, 
Wisconsin, publislicd nearly two I'cnturies ago, a 
a writer, referring lo tlie Dahkolabs, remarks: 

" For sixty leagues from the extremity of the 
Upper Lake, toward sunset; and, as it were in 
tlie centre of the western nations, they have all 
«nt7frf Ihi'ir fonx hy a yritend kugitc.'' 

The Dahkotjihs in tlie earliest documents, and 
even until tlie present day, are called Sioux, Scioux, 
orSoos. The name originated witli the early voy- 
ageurs. For centuries the Ojiliways of Lake 
Superior waged war against the Dahkot^hs; and, 

whenever they spoke of them, called them Nado- 
waysioux, which signifies enemies. 

The French traders, to avoid exciting the atten- 
tion of Indians, while conversing in their pres- 
ence, were accustomed to designate them by 
names, which would not be recognized. 

The Dahkotalis were nicknamed Sioux, a word 
composed of the two last syllables of the Ojibway 
word for foes 

Under the influence of the French traders, the 
eastern Sioux began to wander from the Mille 
Lacs region. A trading post at 0-ton-we-kpa- 
daii, or Rice Creek, above the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, induced some to erect their summer 
dwellings and plant corn there, which took the 
place of wild rice. Those wlio dwelt here were 
called '\\'a-kpa-a-ton-we-dan Those v,-ho dwell on 
the creek. Another division was luiown as the 
Ma-tan-ton- wan . 

Less than a hundred years ago, it is said that 
the eastern Sioux, pressed by the Chippeways, 
and influenced by traders, moved seven mUes 
above Fort Snelliug on the Minnesota River. 


In IS 19 there were seven villages of Jiled-day- 
wah-kawn-twawn Sioux. (1) Below Lake Pepin, 
where the city of Winona is, was the village of 
Wapashaw. This band was called Kee-yu-ksa, 
because with them blood relations intermarried. 
Bounding or AVhiiiping Wind was tlie cliief. (2) 
At the head of Lake Pepin, under a lofty bluff, 
was the Red ^ViMg village, called Ghay-mni-chan 
Hill, wood and water. Shooter was the name 
of till' chief. (;5) Opposite, and a little below the 
Pig's Eye Marsh, was the Kaposia band. The 
word, Kapoja means liglit, given because these 
people are <iuiek travelers. His Scarlet People, 
better known as Litth; Crow, was the chief, and 
isnotorious as llic leader in the massacre of 1862. 

On the Minnesota River, on the south side 



a few miles above Fort Snelling, was Black Dog 
village. The inhabitants were called, Ma-ga-yu- 
tay-shnee. People who do not a geese,' be- 
cause they foimd it profitable to sell game at Fort 
Snelling. Grey Iron was the chief, also known 
as Pa-ma-ya-yaw, IMy head aches. ' 

At Oak Grove, on the north sitle of the nver, 
eight miles above the fort, was (5) Ilay-ya-ta-o- 
ton-waii, or Inland Village, so called because 
they formerly lived at Lake Calkoun. Contigu- 
ous was (6) d-ya-tay-shee-ka, or Bad People, 
Known as Good Roads Band and (7) the largest 
village was Tin-ta-ton-wan, Prairie Village ; 
Shokpay, or Six, was the chief, and is now the 
site of the town of Shakopee. 
West of this division of the Sioux were— 


The War-pay-ku-tay, or leaf shooters, who 
occupied the country south of the ^Minnesota 
around the sources of the Cannon and Blue Earth 


North and west of the last were the War-pay- 
twawns, or People of the Leaf, and their princi- 
pal village was Lac qui Parle. They numbered 
about fifteen hundred. 


To the west and southwest of these bands of 
Sioux were the Se-see-t^vawns (Sissetoans), or 
Swamp Dwellers. Tliis band claimed the land 
west of the Blue Earth to the James River, and 
the guardianship of the Sacred Red Pipestone 
Quarr>'. Their principal village was at Traverse, 
and the number of the band was estimated at 
tiiirty-eight hundred. 


The Ilo-tchun-graws, or Winnebagoes, belong 
to the Dahkotah family of aborigines. Cham- 
plain, although he never visited them, mentions 
them. Nicollet, who had been in his employ, 
visited Green Bay about the year 1635, and an 
early Relation mentions that he saw the Ouini- 
pegous, a people called so, because they came 
from a' distant sea, which some French erron- 
eously called Puants. Another writer speak- 

iing of these "people says: "This people are 
called ' Les Puants ' not because of any bad odor 

.peculiar to them, but because they claim to have 
come from the shores of a far distant lake, 
towards the north, whose waters are salt. They 
call themselves the people ' de I'eau puants,' of 
the putrid or bad water." 

By the treaty of 1837 they were removed to 
Iowa, and by another treaty in October, 1846, 
they came to Minnesota in the spring of 1848, 
to the country between the Long Prairie, 
and Crow Wing Rivers. The agency was located 
on Long Prairie River, forty miles from the 
Mississippi, and in 1849 the tribe numbered 
about twenty-five hundred souls. 

In February 1855, another treaty was made 
with them, and that spring they removed to lands 
on the Blue Earth River. Owing to the panic 
caused by the outbreak of the Sioux in 1862, Con- 
gress, by a special act, without consulting them, 
in 1863, removed them from their fields in Jlin- 
nesota to the Missouri River, and in the words 
of a missionary, "they were, like the Sioux, 
dumped in the desert, one hundred miles above 
Fort Randall" 


The Ojibways or Leapers, when the French 
came to Lake Superior, had their chief settlement 
at Sault St. Marie, and were called by the French 
Saulteurs, and by the Sioux, Ilah-ha-tonwan, 
Dwellers at the Falls or Leaping Waters. 

When Du Luth erected his trading post at the 
western extremity of Lake Superior, they had not 
obtained any foothold in Minnesota, and were 
constantly at war with their hereditary enemes, 
the Nadouaysioux. By the middle of the 
eighteenth century, they had pushed in and occu- 
pied Sandy, Leech, Mille Lacs and other points 
between Lake Superior and the Mississippi, which 
had been dwelling places of the Sioux. In 1820 
the principal villages of Ojibways in Minnesota 
were at Fond du Lac, Leech Lake and Sandy 
Lake. In 1837 they ceded most of their lands. 
Since then, other treaties have been made, until 
in the year 1881, they are confined to a few res- 
ervations, in northern Minnesota and vicinity. 





Jesuit Missioni not pprmanfnt— Pi-cRl)yl(?rian Mission at Mackinaw— Visit of Rev 
A. Co« ani J D. Stevens to F.>rt Sn.'llint: -Notice of Aycrs. Hall, and Boutwell 
— yonnation o( the word ItaAca—Tlie Brothers Pond— Arrival of Pr. William- 
Bon--Presl>\-terian church dt Fort Snelling— Mission at Lake Harriet— Mourn- 
ing for the Dead — Church at Lac-qui jiarle — Father Bavoux — Mission at l,ake 
Pokeffuma— Attack by the Sioux — ('hipjieway attack at Pig's Eye — Death of 
Rev. Sherman Hall— Metho<list Missions Rev. S. W. Pond prepares a Sioux 
Orvumar and Dictionary' Swiss Presbyterian Mission. 

Bancroft the distinguished historian, catching 
the enthusiasm of the nanntives of tlie early 
Jesuits, deiiicts, in lan.guage which glows, tlieir 
missions to the Xortliwest; yet it is erroneous 
to supiwsu that the Jesuits exercised any perma- 
ueut iullueuce on tlie Ahorigines. 

Shea, a devoted member of the Roman Catho- 
lic Church, in his History of Aiuerican Catliohc 
Missions writes: " In ItJSii Father Kugalraii was 
apparently alone at (ireen Bay. and Pierson at 
ilaekinaw. Of the titlier missions neither Le- 
Clerq nnr Ilciiucpin. the BecoUect writers of the 
West at lliis time, make any mention, or iu any 
way allude to their existence." He also saj's 
that "Father ilenard had projected a Sioux 
mission; ^laniuette, Allouez. Druilletes. all en- 
tertained hopes of lealizing it, and had some 
intercourse with that nation, but none of them 
ever succeedcil in estahlishing a mission." 

Father Hennepin wrote: '• Can it he possible, 
that, that pretended prodigiousamountof savage 
converts could escape the sight of a multitude 
of French Canadians who travel every year? 
* « » » How comes it to pass tliat these 
churches so devout and so nimierous, should be 
invisible, when 1 pas.sed through so many 
countries and nations V" 

After tlie American Fur Company wasfonned, 
the island of Mackinaw liecame the residence of 
the principal agent for the .N'ortliWfst, IJoberl 
Stuart a .Si-otcbrnan. and devoted I'rcsbyterian. 

In the month of .lune, 1820, the Rev. Dr. 
.Morse, father of the distingui.shed inventor of 
the telegraph, visilcil and prcadicil at .Mackinaw. 
and in consequence of statements i)ublished by 

him, tipon his return, a Presbyterian Missionary 
Society in the state of New York sent a graduate 
of Union College, the Bev. "W. M. Fen-y, father 
of the present I'nited States Senator from Michi- 
gan, to explore the held. In 1823 he had estab- 
lished a large boarding school composed of 
children of various tribes, and here some were 
educated who became wives of men of intelli- 
gence and influence at the capital of Minnesota. 
After a few years, it was determined by the 
JSIission Board to modify its plans, and in the 
place of a great central station, to send mission- 
aries among the several tribes to teach and tu 

In ])ursuance of this policy, the Bev. Alvan 
Coe, and J. I). Stevens, then a licentiate who 
had been engaged in the Mackinaw Mission, 
made a tour of exploratiou, and arrived on 
September 1, 1829, at Fort Snelling. In the 
journal of ^Major Lawrence Taliaferro, which 
is in possession of the Minnesota Historical 
Society, is the following entry : '■ The Bev. 
Mr. Coe and Stevens reported to be on their way 
to this post, members of the Presbyterian church 
looking out for suital)U' places to iiiiike mission- 
ary establislimciit for the Sioux and Cbippeways, 
iouiiil sclmols, and instruct in the arts ami agri- 

Tlic agent, iilllioiigh not :it tliiit lime a cuinniu- 
nicant of the ("hurch, welcomed these visitors, 
and affordetl them every fiicility in visiting the 
Indians. On Sunday, the nili of September, the 
Bev. Mr. Coe jireached twici^ iu the fort, and the 
next iiiglit held a jirayer meeting at the (piarters 
of the commanding ollicer. ( )ii tlie next Sunday 
he preached again, and on the lltli, witli Mr. 
Stevens and a hired guide, returned to Mackinaw 
by way of the St. Croix river. During this visit 
the agent offered for a Presbyterian mission the 
mill whidi tlien stood on the site of .Minneapolis, 
anil liiiil been erected by tlie government, as well as 



the farm at Lake Calhoun, which was begun to 
teach the Sioux agriculture. 


In 1830, F. Ayer, one of the teachers at Mack- 
inaw, made an exploration as far as La Pouite, 
and returned. 

Upon the 30th day of August, 1831, a Macki- 
naw boat about forty feet long arrived at La 
Pointe, bringing from ilackinaw the principal 
trader, Mr. Warren, Rev. Sherman Hall and wife, 
and Mr. Frederick Ayer, a catechist and teacher. 
Mrs. Hall attracted great attention, as she was 
the first white woman who had visited that 
region. Sherman Hall was born on April 30, 
1801, at Wethersfleld, Vermont, and in 18:28 
graduated at Dartmouth College, and completed 
his theological studies at Andover, Massachu- 
setts, a few weeks before he journeyed to the 
Indian country. 

His classmate at Dartmouth and Andover, the 
Kev W. T. Boutwell still living near Stillwater, 
became his yoke-fellow, but remained for a time 
at Mackinaw, which tliey reached about tlie mid- 
dle of July. In June, 1832, Henry R. School- 
craft, the head of an exploring expedition, invited 
Mr. Boutwell to accompany him to the sources of 
the Mississippi. 

When the expedition reached Lac la Biche or 
Elk Lake, on July 13, 1852, Mr. Schoolcraft, who 
was not a Latin scholar, asked the Latin word for 
tnith, and was told "Veritas." He then wanted 
the word which signified head, and was told 
"caput." To the astonishment of many, School- 
craft struck off the first sylable, of the word 
ver-i-tas and the last sylable of ca-put, and thus 
coined the word Itasca, which he gave to the 
lake, and which some modern writers, with all 
gravity, tell us was the name of a maiden who 
once dwelt on its banks. Upon Jlr. Boutwell's 
return from this expedition he was at first asso- 
ciated with Mr. Hall in the mission at La Pointe. 
In 1833 the mission band wliicli had centered 
at La Pointe diffused their influence. In Octo- 
ber Rev. Mr. Boutwell went to Leech Lake, ]\Ir. 
Ayer opened a school at Yellow Lake, Wiscon- 
sin, and Mr. E. F. Ely, now in Cahfomia, became 
a teacher at Aitkin's tradmg post at Sandy Lake. 


Mr. Bdutwcll, cif Leech Lake Station, on the 

sixth of May, 1834, happened to be on a visit to 
Fort Snelling. While there a steamboat arrived, 
and among the passengers were two yoimg men, 
brothers, natives of Washington, Coimecticut, 
Samuel W. and Gideon II. Pond, who had come, 
constrained by the love of ( nirist, and without con- 
ferring with llesh and blood, to try to improve 
tlie Sioux. 

Samuel, the older brother, the year before, had 
talked with a liquor seller in Galena, lUinoi-s, who 
liad come from the Red River country, and the 
desire was awakened to help the Sioux ; and he 
wrote to his brother to go with him. 

The Re\-. Samuel ^\' . Pond still lives at Shako- 
pee, m the old mission house, the first building of 
sawed lumber erected in the valley of the Mhme- 
sota, aliuve Fort Snelhng. 


About this period, a native of South Carolina, 
a graduate of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, 
tlie Rev. T. S. Wilhamson, M. D., who previous 
to his ordination had been a respectable physi- 
cian in Ohio, was appointed by the American 
Board of Foreign Missions to visit the Dahkotahs 
with tlie view of ascertaining what could be done 
to introduce Christian instruction. Having made 
inquiries at Prairie du Chien and Fort Snelling, 
he reported the field was favorable. 

The Presbyterian and Congregational Churches, 
through tlieir joint Missionary Society, appointed 
the followhig persons to labor in Minnesota: 
Rev. Thomas S. Williamson, M. D., missionary 
and physician; Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary; 
Alexander Huggins, farmer; and their ^^'ives ; 
Miss Sarah Poage, and Lucy Stevens, teachers; 
who were prevented during the year 1834, by the 
state of navigation, from entering upon llieir 

During the winter of 1834-35, a pious officer 
of the army exercised a good inlhience on his 
fellow officers and soldiers under his command. 
In the absence of a chaplain of ordained minis- 
ter, he, like General Ilavelock, of the Britisli 
army in India, was accustomed not only to drill 
the soldiers, but to meet them in bis own (juar- 
ters, and reason with tliem " of righteousness, 
temperance, and judgment to come." 

In the month of May, 1835, Dr. Williamson 
and mission band arrived at Fort Snelling, and 



were hospitably received by the officers of the 
garrison, tlie Tiidiaii Agent, and Mr. Sibley. Agent 
of the (dniiiany at Mendota, who had been in 
the coiintr)' a few months. 

On the twenty-seventh of this nionlli the Rev. 
Dr. AVillianison iniited in marriage at the Fort 
Lieutenant Edward A. Ogden to Eliza Edna, tlie 
daughter of Captain (i." A. Loomis, the first 
marriage service in whicli a clergyman officiated 
111 the present State of Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of June a meeting was lield 
at the Fort to organize a Presbyterian Church, 
sixteen persons who liad been cominmiicants, 
and six wlio made a profession of faith, one of 
whom was Lieutenant Ogden, were enrolled as 

Four elders were elected, among whom were 
Capt. Gustavus Loomis and Samuel ^Y. Pond. 
The next day a lecture preparatory to administer- 
ing the communion, was delivered, and on Sun- 
day, the 14th, the first organized church in the 
A'alley of the I'pper Mississippi assembled for 
the lii-st time in one of the Company rooms of the 
Fort. The services in the morning were conducted 
by Dr. AVilliamson. The afternoon service com- 
menced at 2 o'clock. Tlie sernum of Mr. Stevens 
was upon a most appropriate text, 1st Peter, ii:2o; 
" For ye were as slwep going astray, but are now 
returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your 
souls." A fter the discourse, the sacrament of the 
Lord's supper was administered. 

At a meeting of the Session on the thirty-first 
of .July. Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary, was in- 
vited to preach to the clnn-cli, "so long as the 
duties of his mission will permit, and also to pre- 
side at all the meetings of the Session." Captain 
Gustavus Loomis was elected Stated Clerk of the 
Session, and they resolved t« obseive the monthly 
concert of prayer on the first Monday of each 
month, for the conversion of the world. 

Two points were selected l)y the missionaries 
as projier spheres of labor. Mr. Stevens and 
family proceeded to Lake Harriet, and Dr. AVil- 
liamson and family, in June, proceeded to Lac 
qui Parle. 

As there had never been a (^haiilain at Fort 
Snclling. the Hcv. J. I). Stevens, the missionary 
at Lake Harriet, preached on Sundays to the 
Presbyterian cliurch. there, recently organized. 

AVriting'^on January twenty-seventh, 1836, he 
says, in relation to his field of labor : 

" Yesterday a portion of this band of Indians. , 
wlio had been some time absent from this village.. 
returned. One of the number (a woman i was 
informed that a lirother of hers had died during 
her absence. He was not at this village, but 
with another liand. and tlie information had just 
reached here. In the evening they set up a most 
piteous crying, or rather wailing, which con- 
tinued, with some little cessations, during the 
night. Tlie sister of the deceased brother would 
repeat, times without number, words which may 
be thus translated into English : ' Come, my 
brother, I shall see you no more for ever." The 
night was extremely cold, the thermometer 
standing from ten to twenty below zero. About 
sunrise, next morning, preparation was made for 
performing the ceremony of cutting their flesh, 
in order to give relief to their grief of mind. 
The snow was removed from the frozen ground 
over about as large a space as would be required 
to place a small Indian lodge or wigwam. In the 
centre a very small fire was kindled up, not to 
give warmth, apparently, but to cause a smoke. 
The sister of the deceased, who was the chief 
mourner, came out of her lodge tV)llowed by 
three other women, who repaired to the place 
prepared. They were all barefooted, and nearly 
naked. Here they set up a most bitter lamenta- 
tion and crying, mingling their waihngs with the 
words before mentioned. The principal mourner 
commeiu-i'd gashing or cutting her ankles and 
legs up to the knees with a sharp stone, until her 
legs were covered with gore and flowing blood ; 
then in like manner her arms, shoulders, and 
breast. The others cut themselves in the same 
way, but not so severely. On this poor infatuated 
woman I presume there were more than a hun- 
dred long deep gashes in the flesh. I saw the 
operation, and the blood instantly followed the 
instrument, and flowed down upon the flesh. She 
aii|ieared frantic with grief. Through the pain 
of her wounds, tlie loss of blood, exhaustion of 
strength by fasting, loud and long-continued and 
bitter groans, or the extreme cold ui)on her al- 
most naked and lacerated body, she soon sunk 
upon the frozen gruinid. shaking as witli a violent 
Ut of the ague, and writliing in apparent agony. 
'Surely,' I exclaimed, as I beheld the bloody 



scene, 'the tender mercies of the heathen are 
enielty !' 

'' The little church at the fort begins to mani- 
fest sometliing of a missionary spirit Their con- 
tributions are considerable for so small a nmulier. 
I hope tliey will not only be willing to contrilmte 
liberally of their substance, but will give them- 
selves, at least some of them, to the missionary 

" The surgeon of the military post. Dr. Jarvis, 
has been very assiduous in his attentions to us in 
our sickness, and has very generously made a do- 
nation to our board of twenty-five dollars, being 
tlie amount of his medical services in our family. 

" On the nineteenth instant we commenced a 
school with six full Indian children, at least so in 
all their habits, dress, etc.; not one could speak a 
word of any language biit Sioux. The school has 
since increased to the numl)er of twenty-five. I 
am now collecting and arranging words for a dic- 
tionary. Mr. Pond is assiduously employed in 
preparing a small spellhig-book, which we may 
forward next mail for printing. 

On the fifteenth of September, lcS36, a Presby- 
terian church was organized at Lac-qui-Parle, a 
branch of that in and near Fort SnelUiig, and 
Joseph Renville, a mixed blood of great influ- 
ence, became a communicant. lie had been 
trained in Canada by a Eoman Catholic priest, 
but claimed the right of private judgment, ilr. 
Eenville's wife was the first pure Dahkotah of 
whom we have any record that ever joined tlie 
Church of Christ. This church has never become 
extinct, although its members have been neces- 
sarily nomadic. After the treaty of Traverse des 
Sioux, it was removed to Ilazlewood. Driven 
from thence by the outbreak of l.siiii, it has be- 
came the parent of other churches, in the valley 
of the upper Missouri, over one of which John 
Renville, a descendant of the elder at Lac-qui- 
Parle, is the pastor. 


Father Ravoux, recently from France, a sin- 
cere and earnest priest of the Cliurch of Rome, 
came to Mendota in the autumn of 1841, and 
after a brief sojourn with the Rev. L. Galtier, 
who had erected Saint Paul's chapel, whicli has 
given the name of Samt Paul to the capital of 
Minnesota, he ascended the Minnesota River^ 
and visited Lac-qui-Parle. 

Bishop Loras, of Dubuque, wrote the next year 
of his visit as follows : " Our yomig missionary, 
M. Ravoux, passed the winter on the banks of 
Lac-qui-Parle, \\'ithout any other support than 
Pro%adence, without any other means of couver- 
siiiu than a burning zeal, he has wrought in the 
space of six months, a happy revolution among 
the Sioux. From the time of his arrival he has 
been occupied night and day in the study of their 
language. ***** "When he instructs 
the savages, he speaks to them with so much fire 
whilst showing them a large copper crucifix which 
he carries on his breast, that he makes the strong- 
est impression ujion them." 

The impression, however was evanescent, and 
he soon retired from the liidd, and no more efforts 
were made in this direction by the Church of 
Rome. This young Mr. Ravoux is now the highly 
respected vicar of the Roman Catholic diocese of 
Minnesota, and justly esteemed for his simpUcity 
and unobtrusiveness. 


Pokeguma is one of the " Mille Lacs," or thou- 
sand beautiful lakes for which Minnesota is re- 
markable. It is about fouror five miles hi extent, 
and a mile or more in width. 

This lake is situated on Snake River, about 
twenty miles above the junction of that stream 
with the St. Croix. 

In the year 1836, missionaries came to reside 
among the Ojibways and Pokeguma, to promote 
their temporal and spiritual welfare. Their mis- 
sion house was built on the east side of the lake ; 
but the Indian village was on an island not far 
from the shore. 

In a letter written in 1837, we find the fol- 
lowing : -'The young women and girls now 
make, mend, wash, and iron after our man- 
ner. The men have learned to l)uild log houses, 
drive team, plough, hoe, and handle an American 
axe with some skill in cutting large trees, the 
size of whicli, two years ago. would have afforded 
them a sufllcient reason why lliey should not med- 
dle with them." 

In May, 1841, Jeremiah Russell, who was In- 
dian farmer, sent two Chii)i)eways, accompanied 
by Elam Greeley, of Stillwater, to the Falls of 
Saint Croix for .supplies. On Saturday, the 
fifteenth of the month they arrived tliere, and 



the next daj' a steamboat came up with the 
goods. The captain said a war party of Sioux, 
headed by Little Crow, was advaiieintr. and the 
two Cliippcways prepared to go biick and were 
their friends. 

They had liardly left the Falls, on their re- 
turn, before they .saw a party of Dahkotahs. The 
sentinel of the enemy had not noticed the ap- 
proach of the young men. In the twinkling of 
an eye, these two young Ojibways raised their 
guns, fired, and killed two of Little Crow's sons. 
The discharge (}f the guns revealed to a sentinel, 
that an enemy was near, and as the Ojibways 
were retreating, he Cred, and mortally wounded 
one of the two. 

According to custom, the corpses of the chief's 
sons were dressed, and then set up with their 
faces towards the country of their ancient ene- 
mies. The wounded Ojibway was horribly 
mangled by the infuriated party, and his limbs 
strewn about in every direction. Ilis scalped 
head was plaeeil in a kettle, and suspended in 
front of the two Dahkolali corpses. 

Little Crow, disheartene<l by the loss of his two 
boys, returned with his party to Kaposia. ]hit 
other parties were in the field. 

It was not till Friday, the twenty-first of ^lay, 
that the death of one of the young Ojibways 
sent by Mr. Russell, to the Falls i.i" Saint Croix, 
was known at I'okegunia. 

Mr. Knssell on the next Sunday, accompanied 
by Captain AVilliain Ilolcoml) and a half-breed, 
went to llie mission station to attend a religious 
service, ami while crossing the lake in retiiming, 
the half-breed saiil that it was rumored that the 
Sioux were ai)proacliing. On ^b)nday, the twen- 
ty-fourth, three young men left in a canoe to go 
to the west shore of tli(! lake, ;uid from llience to 
Mllle Lacs, to give intelligence to tlie Ojibways 
tliere. of the skirmish that had already occurred. 
They took with them two Indian girls, about 
twelve years of age. who were pupils of the mis- 
sion school, for the purpose of bringing the canoe 
!)aik to the island. .Inst as the three were hnid- 
ing. twenty or thirty Dahkotidi warriors, with a 
war whooj) emerged from their conceahnenl be- 
hinil tlie trees, and (bed into the canoe. The 
young men inslanllv sjiranginlo llie water, which 

was shallow, returned the fire, and ran into the 
woods, escaping without material injury. 

The little girls, in their fright, waded into the 
lake ; but were pursued. Their parents upon 
the island, heard the death cries of their children. 
Some of the Indians aromid the mission-house 
jumped into their canoes and gained the island. 
Others went into some fortified log huts. Tlie 
attack uiion the canoe, it was afterwards learned, 
was i)reinalure. The jiarty upon that side of the 
lake were ordered not to fire, until the party 
stationed in the woods near the mission began. 

There were in all one hundred and eleven 
Dahkotah warriors, and all llie light was in the 
vicinity of the mission-house, and the Ojibways 
mostly engaged in it were those who had been 
under religious instruction. The rest were upon 
the island. 

The fathers of the murdered girls, burning for 
revenge, left the island in a canoe, and draw ing 
it up on the ahore, hid behind it, and fired upon 
the Dahkotahs and killed one. The Dahkotahs 
advancing \ipon them, they were obliged to 
escape. The canoe was now launched. One lay 
on his back in the bottom; tlie other jihni'.r.'il 
into the water, and. holding the canoe with one 
hand, and swinnning with the other, he towed 
his friend onl of danger. The Dahkotahs, in- 
furiated at their escape, fired volley after volley 
at the swimnie)', but he escaped the balls by 
l)utt ing his head under water whenever he saw 
them take aim, and waiting till ho heard tlie 
discharge, he would then look up and breathe. 

After a fight of two hours, the Dahkotahs re- 
treated, with a loss of two men. At the request 
of the ]iarents, .Mr, K. F. Fly, from whose 
notes the writer has obtained these facts, b.'- 
ing at that time a teacher at the mission. 
went across the lake, with two of his friends, to 
gather the remains of his niurderecl implls. lie 
found the corpses on tlie shore. The heads cut 
off and scalped, with a tomahawk buried in the 
brains of each, were set up in the .sand near the 
bodies. The bodies were i)ierced in the breast, 
anil the right arm of one was taken away. IJe- 
moving the tomahawks, the bodies were brought 
back to the island, and in the afternoon were 
buried in aceonlance w ilh the siiniOe but solenui 
riles of the Church of Christ, by members of the 



The sequel to this story is soon told. The In- | 
diaiis of Pokeguma, after the fight, deserted their 
village, and went to reside w^ith their conntrymen 
near Lake Superior. 

In July of the foUowing year, 1842, a war party 
was formed at Fond du Lac, about forty m num- 
ber, and proceeded towards the Dahkotah country. 
Sneaking, as none but Indians can, they arrived 
mmoticed at the little settlement bek)w Saint 
Paul, commonly called "Pig's Eye," which is 
opposite to what was Kaposia, or Little Crow's 
village. Finding an Indian woman at work in 
the garden of her husband, a Canadian, by the 
name of GameUe, they killed her ; also another 
woman, with her infant, whose head was cut off. 
The Dahkotahs. on tlie opposite side, were mostly 
mtoxicated ; and. flying across in their canoes but 
half prepared, they were worsted in the en- 
counter. They lost thirteen warriors, and one of 
their number, knowii as the Dancer, the O jib- 
ways are said to have skinned. 

Soon after this the Chippeway missions of the 
St. Croix Valley were abandoned. 

In a little while Kev. Mr. Boutwell removed to 
the vicinity of Stillwater, and the missionaries, 
Ayer and Spencer, went to Red Lake and other 
points in Minnesota. 

In 1853 the Rev. Sherman Hall left the Indians 
and became pastor of a Congregational church at 
Sauk Rapids, where he recently died. 


In 1837 the Rev. A. Bnmson commenced a 
Methodist mission at Kaposia, about four miles 
below, and opposite Saint Paul. It was afterwards 
removed across the river to Red Rock. He was 
assisted by the Rev. Thomas W. Pope, and the 
latter was succeeded by the Rev. J. Holton. 

The Rev. Mr. Spates and others also labored 
for a brief period among the Ojibways. 


At the stations the Dahkotah language was dil- 
igently studied. Rev. S. W. Pond had prepared 
a dictionary of three thousand words, and also a 
small grammar. The Rev. S. R. Riggs, who 
joined the mission in 1837, in a letter dated 
February 24, 1841, writes: "Last summer 
after returning from Fort SneUing. I spent live 
weeks in copying again the Sioux vocabulary 
which we had collected and arranged at this sta- 

tion. It contamed then about 5500 words, not 
including the various forms of the verbs. Since 
that time, the words collected by Dr. "Williamson 
and myself, have, I presume, increased the num- 
ber to six thousand. ***** lu this cun- 
nection, I may mention that dm'ing the winter of 
1839-40, Mrs. Riggs, with some assistance, wrote 
an English and Sioiix vocabulary containing 
about three thousand words. One ot Mr. Ren- 
ville's sons and three of his daughteis are en- 
gaged in copjing. In committing tlie grammati- 
cal principles of the language to writing, we have 
done something at this station, but more has been 
done by Mr. S. W. Pond." 

Steadily the number of Indian missionaries 
increased, and in 1851, before the lands of the 
Dahkotahs west of the ]Mississippi were ceded to 
the whites, they were disposed as follows by the 
Dahkotah Presb5'tei'y. 

Lfic-qui-park, Rev. S. R. Riggs, Rev. M. N. 
Adams, Ilissionaries, Jonas Pettijohn. ]\Irs. 
Famiy Pettijohn, Mrs. iMary Ann Riggs, ]\Irs. 
^Mary A. M. Adams, Miss Sarah Rankin. As- 

Traverse cles Sioux, Rev. Robert Hopkins, Mis- 
sionar[i; Mrs. Agnes Hopkins, Alexander G. 
Ilnggins, Mrs. Lydia P. Huggins, Assistiints. 

Shcd-2jay, or Sholpay, Rev. Samuel W. Pond, 
3Iissionary; Mrs. Sarah P. Pond, Assistant. 

Onl- Grove, Rev. Gideon II. Pond and wife. 

Kaposia, Rev. Thomas Williamson, M. D., 
Missionai-y and Physician; Mrs. Margaret P. 
Williamson, Miss Jane S. "Williamson, Assistants. 

Bed Wing, Rev. Jolm F. Alton, Rev. Joseph 
W. Hancock, 3Iissionaries; Mrs. Nancy II. Alton, 
]\Irs. Hancock, Assistants. 

The Rev. Daniel Gavin, the Swiss Presbyte- 
rian ilissionary. spent the winter of 1839 in Lac- 
qui-Parle and was afteiT\anls married to a niece 
of the Rev. J. D. Stevens, of the Lake Harriet 
Mission. Mr. Stevens became the fanner and 
teacher of the "Wapashaw band, and the lii.-l 
white man who lived where the city of "Winona 
has been built. Another missionary from Switz- 
erland, Ihe Rev. Mr. Denton, man-ied a Miss 
Skinner, formerly of the Mackinaw mission. 
During a portion of the year 1839 these Swiss 
missionaries lived with the American mission- 
aries at camp Cold "Water near Fnrt Snelling, 
but their chief field of labor was at Red Wing. 





Origio of the namp Saint Croix— Du Luth, first Explorer— Froncti Post on the St. 
Croix— Pitt, an early pioneer— Early aettlem at Saint Croix Falli- First women 
there — Marine Settlement — Joseph R. Brown's town site— Saint Croix County 
orKaniied- Proprietors of Stillw;iter — A dead Nefro wimian— Pig's Eye, origin 
of name— Rise of Saint Paul -Dr Williamson secures first school tciicher ri>r 
Saint Paul— Peacription of flt^t school room— Saiut Croix County re^trganized 
— Rev. W. T. Boutwell, pioneer clerpjnuan. 

The Saint Croix river, arcordiiif? to Le Sueur, 
named after a Frenchman wlio was ilniwiied at 
its mouth, was one of the earUest throufilifares 
from Lake Superior to tlie Mississippi. The first 
white man who directed canoes upon its ■waters 
was Du Lutli. wlio liad in HiTlt exiilorcil Minne- 
sota. He llius describes liis tour in a letter, first 
publislied by Ilarrisse: •■ In .June. IfiSO, not be- 
ing satisfied, witli liaviiif; math- iii> di.scDvery by 
land, I took two canoes, with an Indian wlio was 
my inteqireter, and four Frenchmen, to seek 
means to make it by water. With tliis view I 
entered a river which empties eight leagues from 
tlie extremity of Lake Superior, on the south 
Bide, wliere, after having cut some trees and 
broken about a hundred beaver dams, I readied 
the uiijier waters of tlie said river, anil then I 
made a portage of half a league to reach a lake. 
the outlet of which fell into a very fine river, 
which t^iok me down into the Mississippi. There 
I Icarneil from eight cabins of .Niidoiiecioux that 
the Rev. Father Louis Hennepin, Hecollect. now 
at the convent of Saint (iermain, with two otlier 
Frenchmen liad been nihlied, and carried off as 
slaves for more than llirce Imndied leagues by 
the Nadoiiecitiux themselves." 

lie then relates how he left two Fniiclinien 
with his goods, and went with his intcrpri'tcr and 
two Frenchmen in a canoe down the Mississippi, 
and after two days and two nights, fomid Henne- 
pin, Accault and Angelle. He told Hennepin 
that he must return with him through the country 
of the Fox tribe, and writes : " I preferred t« re- 
trace my slcjis, manifesting to them [the Sioux] 
the just indignation I felt against them, rather 
than to remain after the violence they had clone 

to the Rev. Father and the other two Freiulimen 
■with him, whom I put in my canoes and brought 
them to Michilimackinack." 

After this, the Saint Croix river became a chan- 
nel for commerce, and Bellin writes, that before 
175.5, the French had erected a fort forty leagues 
from its mouth and twenty from Lake Superior. 

The jiine forests between the Saint Croix and 
Mimiesota had been for several years a tempta- 
tion to energetic men. As early as November, 
1836, a Mr. Pitt went with a boat and a party of 
men to the F;iils of Saint Croix to cut phie tim- 
ber, with the consent of the Chippeways but the 
dissent of the United States authorities. 

In lfs87 while the treaty was beingmade by Com- 
missioners Dodge and Smith at Fort Snelling, on 
one Sunday Franklin Steele, Dr. Fitch, Jeremiah 
Russell, and a Mr. Maginnis left Fort Snelling 
fur file Falls of Saint Croix in a birch bark canoe 
paddlcti by eight men. and reached that point 
about noon on ^londay and commenced a log 
cabin. Steele and Miigiiinis remained here, 
while the others, diviiling into two jiarties, one 
under Fitch, and the other under Russell, search- 
ed for pine land. The first stopped at Sun Uise, 
while Riissel went on to the Snake River. About 
the saiiic time Kolibinet and Jesse B. Taylor 
came to the Falls in the interest of IJ. F. Baker 
who had a stone trading house near Fort Siielliiig, 
since destroyeil by lire. On the fifteenth ol'.Iuly, 
1888, the I'alniyra. Capl. Ilolliunl, arrivcil at 
the Fort, with tlie ollicial notice of the I'iitilica- 
tioii of the treaties ceding the lanils between the 
Saint Croix and .Mississippi. 

She had on board C. A. Tuttle, L. W. Stratton 
and others, with the machinery for the projected 
mills of the Northwest Lumber Conipany at the 
Falls of Saint Croix, and reached that jioiiit on 
the seventeenth, the first steamboat to distiali the 
waters above Lake Saint Croix. The steamer 
Gypsy came to the fort on the twenty-first of 



October., witli goods for the Chippeways, and was 
chartered for four hundred and fifty dollars, to 
carry them up to the Falls of Saint Croix. In 
passuig through the lake, the boat grounded near 
a projected town called Stambaughville, after S. 
C. Stambaugh, the sutler at the fort. On the 
afternoon of the 26th, the goods were landed, as 

The agent of the Improvement Company at the 
falls was Washington Libbey, who left in the fall 
of 1838, and was succeeded by Jeremiah Kussell, 
Strattou actuig as millwright in place of Calvin 
Tuttle. On the twelfth of December, Russell and 
StrattoH walked down the river, cut the first tree 
and built a cabin at Marine, and sold their claim. 

The first women at the Falls of Saint Croix were 
a Mrs. Orr, Mrs. Sackett, and the daughter of a 
Mr. Young. During the winter of 1.S3S-9, Jere- 
miah Russell married a daughter of a respectable 
and gentlemanly trader, Charles H. Oakes. 

Among the first preachers were the Rev. W. T. 
Boutwell and ilr. Seymour, of the Chippeway 
Mission at Pokeguma. The Rev. A. Brunson, of 
Prairie du Chien, who visited this region in 1838, 
wrote that at the mouth of Snake River he fomid 
Franklin Steele, with twenty-five or thirty men, 
cutting timber for a mill, and when he offered to 
preach Mr. Steele gave a cordial assent. 

On the sixteenth of August, Mr. Steele, Li\ing- 
stou, and others, left the Falls of Saint Croix in a 
barge, and went around to Fort SnelHug. 

The steamboat Fayette about the middle of 
May, 1839, landed sutlers' stores at Fort Snell- 
ing and then proceeded with several persons of 
intelligence to the Saint Croix river, who s 'Uled 
at Marine. 

The place was called after Marine in Madison 
county, Illinois, where the company, consisting 
of Judd, Hone and others, was formed to build 
a saw mill in the Saint Croix Valley. The mill 
at Marine commenced to saw lumber, on August 
24, 1839, the first in Minnesota. 

Joseph R. Brown, who since 1838, had lived at 
Chan Wakan, on the west side of Grey Cloud 
Island, this year made a claim near the upper 
end of the city of Stillwater, which he called 
Dahkotah, and was the first to raft lumber down 
the Saint Croix, as well as the first to represent 
the citizens of the valley in the legislature of 

Until the year 1841, the jurisdiction of Craw- 
ford county, AVisconsm, extended over the delta 
of country between the Saint Croix and Missis- 
sippi. Joseph R. Browii having been elected as 
representative of the county, in the territorial 
legislature of Wisconsin, succeeded ui obtaining 
the passage of an act on Kovember twentieth, 
1841, organizing the county of Sauit Croix, with 
Dahkotah designated as the county seat. 

At the time prescribed for holding a court in 
the new county, it is said that the judge of the 
district arrived, and to his surprise, found a 
claim cabin occupied by a Frenchman. Speedily 
retreating, he never came again, and judicial 
proceedings for Saint Croix county ended for 
several years. Phineas Lawrence was the first 
sheriff of this county. 

On the tenth of October, 1843, w^as commenced 
a settlement which has become the town of Still- 
water. The names of the proprietors were Jolm 
McKusick from Maine, Calvin Leach from Ver- 
mont. Elam Greeley from Maine, and Elias 
McKean from Peinisylvania. They immediately 
commenced the erection of a sawmill. 

John H. Fonda, elected on the twenty-second 
of September, as coroner of Crawford county, 
Wisconsm, asserts tliat he was once notified that 
a dead body was lying in the water opposite Pig's 
Eye slough, and immediately proceeded to the 
spot, and on taking it out, recognized it as the 
body of a negro woman belonging to a certain 
captain of the United States army then at Fort 
Crawford. The body was cruelly cut and bruised, 
but no one appearing to recognise it, a verdict of 
" Found dead," was rendered, and the corpse was 
buried. Soon after, it came to light that the 
woman was whipped to death, and thrown into 
the river during the night. 

The year that the Dahkotahs ceded their lands 
east of the Mississippi, a Canadian Frenchman 
by the name of PaiTant, the ideal of an Intlian 
whisky seller, erected a shanty in what is now 
the city of Saint Paul. Ignorant and overbear- 
ing he loved money more than his own soul. 
Destitute ot one eye, and the other resembling 
that of a pig, he was a good representative of 
Caliban. Some one writing from his groggery 
designated it as " Pig's Eye." The reply to the 
letter was directed in gootl faith to " Pig's Eye" 



Some years ago the editor of the Saint Paul 
Press described tlie occasion in tliese ■words : 

" Edmund Brisette, a clerkly Frenclimau for 
those days, who lives, or did live a little while 
ago, on Lake Harriet, was one day seated at a 
table in Parrant's cabin, with pen and paper 
about to write a letter for Parrant (for I'arrant. 
like Charlemagre. could not write) to a friend 
of the latter in Canada. Tlie question of geog- 
raphy puzzled Bri.ssette at the outset of the 
epistle ; where should he date a letter from a 
place W'ithout a name y lie looked uj) in(iuir- 
ingly to Parrant, and met the dead, cold glare of 
the Pig's Eye fixed upon hiiu. with an irresist- 
ible suggestiveness that was in^iiiration to 

In 1842, the late Henry Jackson, of JIahkahto, 
settled at the same spot, and erected the first 
store on the height just above the lower landing, 
Roberts and Siniijson followed, and opened 
small Indian trading shops. In 1846, the site of 
Saint I'aul was chiefly occupied by a few shanties 
owned by " certain lewd fellows of the liaser 
sort," who sold rum to tlie soldier and Indian. 
It was despised by all decent white men, and 
knowni to the Dahkotahs by an expression in 
their tongue which means, the place where they 
sell minne-wakan [supeniaau-al water]. 

The chief of the Kaposiaband in 184G, was shot 
by his own brother in a drunken revel, but sur- 
viving the wound, and apparently alirmed at tlie 
deterioration under the inlluence of the modem 
harpies at Saint Paul, went to Mr. Bmce, Indian 
Agent, at Fort Snelling. and requested a mis- 
sionary. The Indian Agent in liis report to gov- 
ernment, says : 

"The chief of the Little Crow's band, who re- 
sides below this place (Fort Snelling) al)out nine 
miles, in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Whiskey dealers, has requested to have a school 
established at his village, lie says tliey are de- 
termined to reform, and for the future, will try 
to do better. I wrote to Doctor MMlliamson soon 
after the request was made, desiring liim to take 
charge of the school. He has had charge of the 
Inisslon school nt Lac <iui I'arle for some years; 
Is well qualified, and is an excellent phjsician." 

In Xovenilx-r, 184(1, Dr. 'Williamson came from 
Lac qui I'arle, as recpiested, and became a resi- 
dent of Kaposia. AVhile disapproving of their 

practices, he felt a kindly interest in the whites 
of Pig's Eye, which jilace was now beginning to 
be called, after a little log chapel which had been 
erected at the suggestion of llev. L. Galtier, and 
called Saint Paufs. Though a missionary among 
the Dahkotahs, he was the first to take steps to 
promote the education of the whites and half- 
breeds of Minnesota. In the year 1847, he wrote 
to ex-(iovernor Slade, President of the National 
Popular Education Society, in relation to the 
condition of what has subsequently become the 
capital of the state. 

In accordance with his request. Miss II. E. 
Bishop came to his mission-house at Kaposia, 
and, after a short time, was introduced by him 
to the citizens of Saint Paul. The first school- 
house in ilinnesota besides those connected with 
the Indian missions, stood near the site of the 
old Brick Presbyterian church, corner of Saint 
Peter and Third street, and is thus described by 
the teacher : 

•' The school was commenced in a little log 
hovel, covered with bark, and cliinked with mud. 
previovisly used as a blacksmitli shop. On three 
sides of the interior of this hnniMe log cabin, 
pegs were driven into the logs, upon which boards 
were laid for seats. Another seat was made by 
placing one end of a plank between the cracks 
of the logs, and the other upon a chair. This 
was for visitors. A rickety table in 
the centre, and a heu"s nest in one conuT. com- 
pleted the furniture." 

Saint Croix county, in the year 1847, was de- 
tached from Crawford county, "Wisconsin, and 
reorganized for judicial imrjioses, and Stillwater 
made the county seat. In the month of June 
the United States District Coui't held its session 
in tlie store-room of Mr, John McKusick ; Judge 
Charles Dunn presiding. A large number of 
lumbermen had been attracted by the pineries 
in the upjier portion of the valley of Saint Croix, 
and Stillwater was looked upon as the center of 
the lunilicring interest. 

The Hi'V. Mr. lioiitwcll. feeling that lie could 
be more u.serul, left tlie Ojibways, anil took up 
Ills residence near Stillwater, preaching to the 
lumbermen at the Falls of Saint Croix, Marhie 
Mills. Stillwater, and Cottage (irove. In a letter 
speaking of Stillwater, he says, " Ilfie Is a little 
village sprung up like a goiinl, but whether it is 
to perish as soon, tiod uiily knows." 





Wisconsin State Bounilaries — First Bill for the Organization of Minnesota Tprri- 
tory, A. D. 1846 — Cliange of Wisconsin Boundary — Memorial of Saint Croix 
Valley citizens — Various names propose'l tor tlie New Territory — Convention at 
Stillwater — H. H. Sibley elected Delegate to Congress. — Derivation of word 

Three years elapsed from the time that the 
territory of 2iliimesuta was proposetl in Congress, 
to the flnal passage of the organic act. On the 
sixth of August, 1846, an act was passed by Con- 
gress authorizing the citizens of Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory to frame a constitution and form a state 
government. The act fixed the Saint Louis river 
to the rapids, from tlience soutli to tlie Saint 
Croix, and tlience down tliat river to its junction 
with the Mississippi, as the western boimdary. 

On the twenty -third of December, 1846, tlie 
delegate from Wisconsin, ^Morgan L. Alartin, m- 
troduced a bill m Congress for the organization 
of a territory of Minnesota. This bill made its 
western boundary the Sioux and Red River of 
the North. On the third of March, 1847, per- 
mission was granted to Wisconsin to change her 
boundary, so that the western limit would pro- 
ceed due south from the first rapids of the Saint 
Louis river, and fifteen miles east of the most 
easterly point of Lake Saint Croix, thence to the 

A number in the constitutional convention of 
Wisconsin, were anxious that Rum river should 
be a part of her western boundary, whUe citizens 
of the valley of the Saint Croix were desirous 
that the Chippeway river should be the limit of 
Wisconsin. The citizens of Wisconsin Territory, 
in the valley of tlie Saint Croix, and about Fort 
Snelling, wished to be included in the projected 
new territory, and on the twenty-eighth of March, 
1848, a memorial signed by II. II. Sibley, Henry 
M. Rice, Franklin Steele, William R. Marshall, 
and others, was presented to Congress, remon- 
strating against the proposition before the con- 
vention to make Rum river a part of the bound- 
ary line of the contemplated state of Wisconsin. 

On the twenty-ninth of May, 1848, the act to 
admit Wisctmsin changed the boundary line to 
the present, and as first defined in the enabling 
act of 1846. After the bill of JNIr. ifartin was 
introduced into the House of Representatives in 
1846 it was referred to the Committee on Terri- 
tories, of which Mr. Douglas was chairman. On 
the twentieth of January, 1847, he reported in 
favor of the proposed territory with the name 
of Itasca. On the seventeenth of February, be- 
fore the bill passed the House, a discussion arose 
in relation to the proposed name. Mr. Win- 
tlirop of ^Massachusetts proposed Chippewa as a 
substitute, alleging that this tribe was the prin- 
cipal in the proposed territory, which was not 
correct. Mr. J. Thompson of Mississippi disliked 
all Inilian names, and hoped the territory would 
be called Jackson. Mr. Houston of Delaware 
thought that there ought to be one territory 
named after the " Father of his country," and 
proposed Washington. All of the names pro- 
posed were rejected, and the name in the original 
bill inserted. On the last day of the session, 
^larcli third, the bill was called up in the Senate 
and laid on the table. 

When Wisconsin became a state the query 
arose whether the old territorial government did 
niit continue in force west of the Saint Croix 
river. The first meeting on the subject of claim- 
ing territorial privileges was held in the building 
at Saint Paul, known as Jackson's store, near the 
corner of Bench and Jackson streets, on the 
bluff. This meeting was held in July, and a 
convention was proposed to consider their posi- 
tion. The first public meeting was held at Still- 
water on August fourth, and Messrs. Steele and 
Sibley were the only persons present from the 
west side of the Mississippi. This meeting is- 
sued a call f<u' a general convention to lake steps 
to secure an early territorial organization, to 
assemble on the twenty-sixth of the month at 



the same place. Sixty-two delegates answered 
the call, and among those present, were AV. D. 
Phillips. J. "\V. 15ass, A. Lai-pentenr. J. M. Boal. 
and others from Saint Paul. To the convention 
a letter was presented from Mr. C'atlin, who 
claimed to be acting governor, giving his opinion 
that the Wisconsin territorial organization was 
still in force. The meeting also appointed ilr. 
Sihiey to visit "Washmgton and represent their 
views ; but the lion. John II. Tweedy having 
resigned his oflice of delegate to Congress on 
September eighteenth, 1848, Mr. Catlin, who had 
made Stillwater a temporary residence, oji the 
ninth of October issued a proclamation ordering 
a special election at Stillwater on the thirtieth, 
to fill a vacancy occasioned by the resignation. 
At this election Henry 11. Sibley was elected as 
delegate of the citizens of the remaining portion 
of Wisconsin Territory. His credentials were 
presented to the House of Representatives, and 
tlie committee to whom the matter was referred 
presented a majority and minority report; but 
the resolution introduced by the majority passed 
and Mr. Sibley took his seat as a delegate from 
Wisconsin Territory on the lifteentli of January, 

Mr. II. M. Rice, and other gentlemen, visited 
Wasliington during tlie winter, and, uniting with 
Mr. Sililey. used all their energies to olitain the 
organization of a new territory. 

Air. Siljley. in an interesting communication to 
the Minnesota Historical Society, writes : " When 
my credentials as Delegate, were presented by 
Hon. James Wilson, of New Hampshire, to the 

House of Representatives, there was some curi- 
osity manifested among the members, to see what 
kind of a person had lieen elected to represent the 
distant and wild territory claiming representation 
in Congress. I was told by a S^ew England mem- 
ber with wliom I became subsequently quite inti- 
mate, that there was some disappointment when 
I made my appearance, for it was expected that 
the delegate from this remote region woidd make 
his debut, if not in full Indian costume, at least, 
with some peculiarities of dress and manners, 
characteristic of the rude and semi-civilized peo- 
ple who had sent him to the Capitol." 

Tlie territory of Minnesota was named after 
the largest tributary of the Alississippi within its 
limits. The Sioux call the Missouri Minnesho- 
shay. muddy \\ater, but the stream after which 
this region is named, Minne-sota. Some say that 
Sota means clear; others, turbid; Schoolcraft,- 
bluish green. Xicollet wrote. " The adjective 
Sotah is of diflieidt translation. The Canadians 
translated it b\- a pretty equivalent word, brouille, 
perhaps more properly rendered into English by 
blear. I have entered upon this explanation be 
cause the word really means neither clear nor 
turbid, as some authors liave asserted, its true 
meaning being found in the Sioux expression 
Ishtah-sotali, blear-eyed." From the fact that the 
word signilies neither blue nor white, but the 
peculiar appearance of the sky at certain times, 
by some, Aliunesota has been defined to mean the 
sky tinted W'ater, wliich is certainly poetic, and the 
late Rev. Gideon II. Toud thought quite correct. 





Appearance of the Country. A, D. 1849 — Arrival of first Editor — Governor 
Ramsey arrives — Guest of H. H. Sibley — Proclamation issued — Governor 
Ramsey and H. M. Rice move to Saint Paul — Fourth of July Celebration — 
First election — Early «ewspapers — First Courts— First Legislature — Pioneer 
News Carrier's Address— Wedding at Fort Snelling— Territorial Seal— Scalp 
Dance at Stillwater— First Steamboat at Falls of Saint Anthony— Presbyterian 
Chapel burned — Indian council at Fort Snelling — First Steamboat above S^nt 
Anthony — First boat at the Blue Earth River — Congressional election — Visit.of 
Fredrika Bremer — Indian newspaper — Other newspapers — Second Legislature 
— University of Minnesota— Teamster killed bylndians— Sioux Treaties— Third 
Legislature— Land slide at Stillwater — Death of first Editor- Fourth Legislature 
Baldwin School, now Macalester College^Indian fight in Saint Paul. 

On the third of March, 1849, the bill was passed 
by Congress for organizing the territory of 
Minnesota, whose boundary on the west, extended 
to the Missouri River. At this time, the region was 
little more than a wilderness. The west bank of 
the Mississippi, from the Iowa line to Lake 
Itasca, was unceded by the Indians. 

At Wapashaw, was a trading post in charge of 
Alexis Bailly, and here also resided the ancient 
voyageur, of fourscore years, A. Rocque. 

At the foot of Lake Pepin was a store house 
kept by ;Mr. F. S. Richards. On the west shore of 
the lake lived the eccentric Wells, whose wife 
was a bois brule. a daughter of the deceased 
trader, Duncan Graham. 

The two unfinished buildings of stone, on 
the beautiful bank opposite the renowned 
Maiden's Rock, and the surrounding skin lodges 
of his wife's relatives and friends, presented a 
rude but picturesque scene. Above the lake was 
a cluster of bark wigwams, the Uahkotah village 
of Raymneecha, now Red Wing, at wliich was a 
Presbyterian mission house. 

The next settlement was Kaposia, also an In- 
dian village, and the residence of a Presbyterian 
missionary, the Rev. T. S. Williamson, M. D. 
On the east side of the jSiississippi, the first set- 
tlement, at the mouth of the St. Croix, was Point 
Douglas, then as now, a small hamlet. 

At Red Rock, the site of a fonner Methodist 
mission station, there were a few farmers. Saint 
Paul was just emerguig from a collection of In- 
dian whisky shops and birch roofed cabins of 

half-breed voyageurs. Here and there a frame 
tenement was erected, and, under the auspices of 
the Hon. 11. M. Rice, who had obtained an inter- 
est in the town, some warehouses were con- 
structed, and the foundations of the American 
House, a frame hotel, which stood at Third and 
Exchange street, were laid. In 1849, the popu- 
lation had increased to two hundred and fifty 
or three huntlred inhabitants, for rumors had 
gone abroad that it might be mentioned in the 
act, creating the temtory, as the capital 
of Minnesota. More than a month after 
the adjournment of Congress, just at eve, 
on the ninth of April, amid terrific peals of 
thunder and torrents of rain, the weekly steam 
packet, the first to force its way through tlie icy 
barrier of Lake Pepin, rounded the rocky point 
whistling loud and long, as if the bearer of glad 
tidings. Before she was safely moored to the 
landing, the shouts of the excited villagers were 
heard announcing that there was a territory of 
ilinnesota, and that Saint Paul was the seat of 

Every successive steamboat arrival poured out 
on the landing men big with hope, and anxious 
to do something to mould the future of the new 

Xiiie days after the news of the existence of the 
teiTitory of ^linnesota was received, there arrived 
James M. Goodhue with press, type, and printing 
apparatus. A. graduate of Amherst college, and 
a lawyer by profession, he wielded a shai-p pen, 
and wrote editorials, which, more than anything 
else, perhaps, induced immigration. Though a 
man of some faults, one of the counties properly 
bears his name. On the twenty-eighth of Ainil, 
he issued from liis press the first number of the 

On the twenty - seventh of May, Alexander 
Ramsey, the Governor, and family, arrived at 
Saint Paul, butowing to the crowded state of pub- 



lie houses, immediately proceeded in the steamer 
to the establishment of the Fur Company, known 
as ileudota. al the junction of the Minnesota and 
2ilississippi, and beaime the guest of tlie Uou. 11. 
H. Sibley. 

On the first of June. Governor Ramsey, by pro- 
clamation, declared the territory duly orsjanized. 
with the following ollicers : Alexander IJamsey, 
of Pennsylvania, Governor ; C. K. Smith, of Ohio, 
Secretary ; A. Goodrich, of Tennessee. Chief 
Justice ; D. Cooper, of Pennsylvania, and B. B. 
JSlcelier, of Kentucky. Associate Judges ; Joshua 
L. Taylor, Mai-shal ; U. L. iloss, attorney of the 
United States. 

On the eleventh of June, a second proclama- 
tion was issued, dividing the territory into three 
temporary judicial districts. The first comprised 
the county of St. Croix ; the county of La Polnte 
and the region north and west of the Mississippi, 
and north of tlie ^Minnesotaand of a line running 
due west from tlie headwaters of the Miimesota 
to the Missouri river, constituted the second ; 
and the country westof the Mississippi and south 
of the Minnesota, formed Die tliird district. 
.Judge GoocWch was assigned to the first, jNIeeker 
to tlie second, and Cooper to the third. A court 
was ordered to be held at Stillwater on the second 
Monday, at the Falls of St. Anthony on the thu'd, 
and at :Mendota on the fourtli Monday of August. 

Until the twenty -sixth of June, Governor 
Ramsey and family had been guests of lion. IT. 
II. Sibley, at ilendota. On the afternoon of 
that day they arrived at St. Paul, in a birch-liark 
canoe, and became permanent residents at the 
capital. The house first occupied as a guber- 
natorial mansion, was a small frame building tliat 
stood on Third, between Hobert and Jackson 
streets, formerly known as the Xew England 

A few days after, the IbDi. II. JM. Uice and 
family moved from Mendota to St. Paul, and oc- 
cupied the house he had erected on St. Anthony 
street, near the corner of Market. 

On llie lirst of July, a land oilice was estab- 
lished at Stillwater, and A. \m\ Vorlies, after a 
few weeks, became the registei-. 
' The anniversary of oiu' NatiouMl Indeiiendence 
was celebrated in a liei'oming manner at the cap- 
tal. The place selected for the address, was a 
grove that stood on the sites of the City Hall and 

the Baldwin School buUding, and the late Frauk- 
Un Steele was the marshal of the day. 

On the seventh of July, a iiroclamation was is- 
sued, dividing the temtory into seven council 
districts, and ordermg an election to be held on 
the first day of August, for one delegate to rep- 
resent the people in the House of Kepresentatives 
of the United States, for nine councillors and 
eighteen representatives, to constitute the Legis- 
lative Assembly of ^Minnesota. 

In this month, the Hon. H. M. Rice despatch- 
ed a boat laded with Indian goods from the 
the Falls of St. Anthony to Crow Wing, which 
was towed by horses after the maimer of a canal 

The election on the first of August, passed off 
with little excitement, Hon. II, II. Sibley being 
elected delegate to Congress '\\ithout opposition. 
David Lambert, on what might, perhaps, be 
termed the old settlers' ticket, was defeated in 
St. Paul, by James M. Boal. The latter, on the 
night of the election, was honored with a ride 
through town on the axle and fore-wheels of an 
old wagon, which was drawn by his admiring 
but somewhat undisciplined ft-iends. 

J. L. Taylor having declined the oilice of 
United States .Marshal; A. M. Mitchell, of Ohio, 
a graduate of West Point, and colonel of a regi- 
ment of Ohio volunteers in the ^lexicau war. was 
appointed and arii\ed at the capital early in 

There were three papers indilished in the ter- 
ritory soon after its organization. The first was 
the Pioneer, issued on .\pril twenty-eighth, 1S49, 
under most discouraging circumstances. It was 
at first the iuteulion of the witty and reckless 
editor to have called his paper " Tlie Epistle of 
St. Paul." About the same time there was issued 
in Cincinnati, under the auspices of the late Dr. 
A. Randall, of California, the first number of 
the Register. The second number of the paper 
was printed at St. Paul, in .liily, and the olfice 
was on St. Anthony, between ^\ ashingtou and 
Market Streets, About the first of June, James 
Hughes, jiflerwanl of Hudson. Wisconsin, arrived 
with a iiress and materials, and established the 
Minnesota Chronicle. After an existence of a 
few weeks two papers were discontinued; and, 
in theh place, was issued the " Chronicle and 



Register," edited by Nathaiel McLean and John 
P. Owens. 

The first courts, pursuant to proclamation of 
the governor, were lield in the month of August. 
At Stillwater, the court was organized on the 
thirteenth of the month, Judge Goodrich pre- 
siding, and Judge Cooper by courtesy, sitting on 
the bench. On the twentieth, the second judi- 
cial district held a court. The room used was 
the old government mill at Minneapolis. The 
presiding judge was B. B. Meeker; the foreman 
of the grand jury, Franklin Steele. On the last 
Monday of the month, the court for the third 
judicial district was organized in the large stone 
warehouse of the fur company at Mendota. The 
presiding judge was David Cooper. Governor 
Ramsey sat on the right, and Judge Goodrich on 
the left. Hon. II. II. Sibley was the foreman of 
the grand jury. As some of the jurors could not 
speak the English language, W. H. Forbes acted 
as interpreter. The charge of Judge Cooper was 
lucid, scholarly, and dignified. At the request 
of the grand jury it was afterwards published. 

On Monday, the third of September, the first 
Legislative Assembly convened in the " Central 
Hour. "'in Samt Paul, a building at the corner 
of Minnesota and Bench streets, facuig the 
Mississippi river w'hich answered the double 
purpose of capitol and hotel. On the first 
floor of the main building was the Secretar 
ry's ofiice and Representative chamber, and in 
the second story was the library and Council 
chamber. As the fiag was run up the staff in 
front of the house, a numljer of Indians sat on a 
rocky bluff in the vicinity, and gazed at what to 
them was a novel and perhaps saddening scene ; 
for if the tide of immigi-ation sweeps in from the 
Pacific as it has from the Atlantic coast, they 
must soon dwindle. 

The legislature having organized, elected the 
following permanent oflieers : David Olmsted, 
President of Council ; Joseph R. Brown, Secre- 
ary ; II. A. Lambert, Assistant. In the House 
of Representatives, Joseph AV. Furber was elect- 
ed Speaker : W. D. Phillips, Clerk : L. B. Wait, 

On Tuesday afternoon, both houses assembled 
in the dining hall of tl]e liotel, and after prayer 
was offered Ijy Rev. E. D. Neill, Governor Ram- 
sey delivered his message. The message was aljly 

written, and its perusal afforded satisfaction at 
home and abroad. 

The first session of the legislature adjourned on 
the first of November. Among other proceed- 
ings of interest, was the creation of the foUowang 
counties: Itasca, Wapashaw, Dahkotah, Wah- 
nahtah, Mahkahto, Pembina Washington, Ram- 
sey and Benton. The three latter counties com- 
prised tlie country that up to that time had been 
ceded by the Indians on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi, Stillwater was declared the county seat 
of Washington, Sauit Paul, of Ramsey, and '■ the 
seat of justice of the comity of Benton was to be 
withm one-quarter of a mile of a point on the east 
side of the Mississippi, directly opposite the mouth 
of Sauk river." 

E VENTS OF A. D 18.50. 

By the active exertions of the secretary of the 
territory, C. K. Smith, Esq., the Historical 
Society of Minnesota was incorporated at the 
first session of the legislature. Tlie opening an- 
imal address was delivered in the then Methodist 
(now Swedeiiborgian) church at Saint Paul, on 
the first of January, 1850. 

Tlie following account of the proceedings is 
from tlie C'luoniele and Register. "The first 
public exercises of the Minnesota Historical 
Society, took place at the Methodist church. Saint 
Paul, on the first iiist., and passed off highly 
creditable to all concerned. The day was pleasant 
and the attendance large. At the appointed 
hour, the President and both Vice-Presidents of 
the society being absent ; on motion of Hon. C. 
K. Smith, Hon. Chief Justice Goodrich was 
called to the chair. The same gentleman then 
moved that a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Parsons K. Johnson, John A. Wakefield, and B. 
W. Bnmson, be appointed to wait upon the 
Orator of the day. Rev. Mr. Neill, and inform 
him that the audience was waiting to hear his 

" JSIr. Neill was shortly conducted to the pulpit; 
and after an eloquent and approriate prayer by 
the Rev. Mr. Parsons, and music by the band, he 
proceeded to deliver his discourse upon the early 
French missionaries auil Voyageurs into Minne- 
sota. We hope tlie s(jciety will provide for its 
publication at an early day. 

■'After some brief remarks by Rev. Mr. 


j!:xrLui{j!J2iii AMJ riuy±;jbJJis of mixxesota. 

Hobart. upon the objects and ends of history. thi> 
ceremonies were conchuled villi a praviT by 
that gentleman. The audience dispersed highly 
delighted with all that occui-red.'' 

At this early period the Minnesota I'ioneer 
issued a Carrier's New Year's Address, which 
was amusing doggerel. The reference to the 
future greatness and ignoble origin of the capital 
of Minnesota was as follows : — 

The cities on this river must be three, 
Two that are built and one that is to be. 
One, is the mart of all the tropics yield, 
The cane, the orange, and the cotton-field, 
And sends her sliips aVmiad and boasts 
Her trade extended to a thousiind coasts ; 
The other, central for the temi)erate zone. 
Gamers the stores that on the plains are grown, 
A place where steamboats from all quarters, 

To meet and speculate, as 'twere on 'change. 
The third u-ill he, where rivers confluent How 
From the wide spreading north through plains 

of snow ; 
The mart of all that botnidless forests give 
To make mankind mme comfortably Uve, 
Tlie land <if manufacturing industry, 
The workshop of the nation it shall be. 
Propelled by this wide stream, you'll see 
A tliousanil factories at Saint Anthony : 
And the Saint Croix a hundreil mills .shall drive. 
And all its smiling villages sliall thrive ; 
]{ut then 1111/ town -remember that high bench 
With cabins scattered over it, of French ? 
A man named llenrj' Jackson's living there. 
Also a miin— why every one knows L. Robair, 
JJelow Fort Siielling, seven mi'.es or so, 
And three abfive the village of ()1<1 ("row? 
Fig's Fye V Yes ; I'ig's Eye ! That's the spot I 
A very funny name ; is't not V 
Fig's Eye's the spot, toi>laiit my city on. 
Til be reniemliered by, when 1 am gone. 
Fig's Eye converted thou shalt be, like Saul : 
Thy name henceforth shall be Saint Faul. 

On the evening of New Year's day, at Fort 
SnelUng, there was an a.ssi-mlilage which is only 
seen on the outposts of civili/jition. In one of 
the stone editices, outside of the wall, belonging 
to the United States, there n-sided a gentlemali 
who had dwelt in Minnesota since the year 1«19, 

and for many years had been in the employ of 

the govenmient, as Indian interpreter. In youth 
he had been a member of the Columbia Fur Com- 
pany, and conforming to the habits of traders, 
had piu-chased a Dahkotah wife who was wholly 
ignorant of the Endisli lauiruage. As a family 
of children gathered around him he recognised 
the relation of husband and father, and consci- 
entiously discharged his duties as a parent. His 
daughter at a proper age was sent to a boarding 
school of some celebrity, and on the night re- 
ferred to was married to an iutelligent young 
American farmer. Among the guests present 
were the othcers of the garrison in full uniform, 
with their wives, the United Slates Agent for 
the Dahkotahs, and family, the bois brules of 
the neigliborhood.and the Indian relatives of the 
mother. The mother did not make her appear- 
ance, but. as the minister proceeded with the 
ceremony, the Dahkotah relatives, wrapped in 
their blankets, gathered in the hall and looked 
in through the door. 

The marriage feast was worthy of the occa- 
sion. In consequence of the numbers, the 
oflicers and those of European extraction partook 
first; then the bois brules of Ojibway and Dah- 
kotah descent; and, finally, the native Ameri- 
cans, who did ample justice to the plentiful sup- 
ply spread before them. 

Governor Tlamsey. Hon. II. H. Sibley, and the 
delegate t« Congress devised at Washington, this 
winter, the territorial seal. Thedesign was Falls 
of St. Anthony in the distance. An ininiigrant 
ploughing the land on the borders of the Indian 
comitry, full of hope, and looking forward to tlie 
lK)ssession of the huntnig grounds beyond. An 
Indian, amazed at the sight of the plough, and 
fleeing on horseback towards the setting siui. 

The motto of the Earl of Dimraven, "Quae 
sursuni volo videre'' (I wish to.see what is above) 
was most appropriati'ly selected by Mr. Sibley, 
but by the blunder of an engraver it ;ippeared on 
the UM-ritorial seal, "yuo sursum vclo vidcre," 
wliieh no scholar could translate. At lejigth wiis 
substituted, "E' Etoile d.i Xonl." "Star of the 
North," while the device of the setting sim 
remained, and this is objectionable, as the State 
of Maine hail already placed the North Star on 
her escutcheon, with the motto " Dirigo," "I 
guide." Perhaps some future legislature may 



direct the first motto to be restored and correctly 

In tlie montii of April, there was a renewal of 
hostilities between the Dahkotahs and Ojibways, 
on lands that liad been ceded to the I' nited States. 
A war prophet at Red Wing, dreamed that he 
onght to raise a war party. Announcing the fact, 
a number expressed their willingness to go on such 
an expedition. Several from the Kaposia village 
also joined the party, under the leadership of a 
worthless Indian, who had been confined in the 
guard-house at Fort SneUing, the year previous, 
for scalpmg his ■nife. 

Passing up the valley of the St. Croix, a rew 
miles above StUlwater the party discovered on the 
snow the marks of a keg and footprints. These 
told them that a man and woman of the Ojibways 
had been to some whisky dealer's, and were re- 
turning. ToUowing their trail, they found on 
Apple river, about twenty miles from Stillwater, 
a band of Ojibways encamped in one lodge. Wait- 
ing till daybreak of Wednesday, April second, the 
Dahkotahs commenced firing on the unsuspecting 
inmates, some of whom were drinking from the 
contents of the whisky keg. The camp was com- 
posed of fifteen, and all were murdered and scalp- 
ed, with the exception of a lad, who was made a 

On Thursday, the victors came to Stillwater, 
and danced the scalp dance around the captive 
boy, in the heat of excitement, strikuig him in the 
face with the scarcely cold and bloody scalps of 
his relatives. The child was then taken to Ka- 
posia, and adopted by the chief. Governor Ram- 
sey immediately took measures to send the boy to 
his friends. At a conference held at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, the boy was delivered up, and, 
on being led out to the kitchen by a Uttle son of 
the Governor, since deceased, to receive refresh- 
ments, he cried bitterly, seemingly more alarmed 
at being left with the whites than he had been 
while a captive at Kaposia. 

From the first of April the waters of the Mis- 
sissippi began to rise, and on the thirteenth, the 
lower floor of the warehouse, then occupied by 
William Constans, at the foot of Jackson street, 
St. Paul, was submerged. Taking advantage of 
the freshet, the steamboat Anthony Wayne, for a 
purse of two hundred dollars, ventured through 
the swift current above Fort Snelling, and reached 

the Falls of St. Anthony. The boat loft the fort 
after dhmer, with Governor Ramsey and other 
guests, also the band of the Sixth Regiment on 
board, and reached the falls between three and 
four o'clock in the afternoon. The whole town, 
men, women and children, lined the shore as the 
boat approached, and welcomed this first arrival, 
with shouts and waving handkerchiefs. 

On the afternoon of May fifteenth, there might 
have been seen, hurrying through the streets of 
Saint Paul, a number of naked and painted braves 
of the Kaposia band of Dahkotahs, ornamented 
with all the atthe of war, and panting for the 
scalps of their enemies. A few hours before, the 
warlike head chief of the Ojibways, young Hole- 
in-the-Day , having secreted his canoe in the retired 
gorge wliich leads to the cave in the upper sub- 
urbs, with two or three associates had crossed the 
river, and, almost in sight of the citizens of the 
town, had attacked a small party of Dahkotahs, 
and murdered and scalped one man. On receipt 
t)f the news. Governor Ramsey granted a parole 
to the thirteen Dahkotahs confined in Fort SneU- 
ing, for participating in the Apple river massacre. 

On the morning of the sixteenth of May, the 
first Protestant church edifice completed in the 
white settlements, a small frame building, built 
for the Prcjsbyterian church, at Saint Paul, was 
destroyed by fire, it lieing the first conflagration 
that had occurred since the organization of the 

One of the most interesting events of the year 
I80O, was the Indian council, at Fort Snelling. 
Governor Ramsey had sent runners to the differ- 
ent bands of the Ojibways and Dahkotahs, to 
meet liim at the fort, for the purpose of en- 
deavourhig to adjust their diflBculties. 

On Wednesday, the twelfth of June, after 
much talking, as is customary at Indian councils, 
the two tribes agreed as they had frequently done 
before, to be friendly, and (iovernor Ramsey 
presenting to each party an ox. the council was 

On Thursday, the Ojibways visited St. Paul 
for the first time, young Hole-m-the-Day being 
dressed in a coat of a captain of United States 
infantry, whicli had been presented to him at the 
fort. On Friday, they left in the steamer Gov- 
ernor Ramsey, which had been built at St. An- 
thony, and just commenced rmuiing between 



that point and Sank Rapids, for their homes in 
the wilderness of the Upper Mississippi. 

Tlie summer of 1850 was the commencement 
of the navigation of the Mninesota Tiiver by 
steamlxiats. AVith tlie exception of a steamer 
tliat made a pleasure excursion as far as Sliokpay, 
in 1841, no large vessels had ever disturbed the 
waters of this stream. In June, the '-Anthony 
Wayne," which a few weeks before had ascended 
to the Falls of St. ^Vnthony, made a trip. On 
the eighteenth of July she made a second trip, 
RoiuR almost to Mahkahto. The " Nominee " 
also navigated the stream for some distance. 

On the twenty-second of July the officers of 
the " Yankee." taking tidvantage of the high 
water, determined to navigate the stream as far 
as jwssible. The boat ascended to near the Cot- 
tonwood river. 

As the time for the general election in Septem- 
ber apjiroached, considerable excitement was 
manifested. As there were no political issues 
before the peojile. i)arties were formiMi based on 
l"ci-sonal preferences. Among those nominated 
for delegate to Congress, by various meetings, 
were II. II. Sibley, the former delegate to Con- 
gress, Pavid Olmsted, at tliat lime engaged in 
the Indian trade, and A. M. Mitchell, the Tnited 
States mai-shal. Mr. Olmsted withdrew his 
name before election day. and the contest was 
between tliose inleresteil in Sibley and Mitchell. 
The friends of eacli beliayed the greatest zeal, 
and neither pains nor money were spared to in- 
sure success. Jlr. Sibley was elected by a small 
njajnrity. Tor the lirst time in the teiritory, 
soldiers at the garrisons voted at this election, 
and there was considerable discussion as to the 
propriety of such a course. 

Miss Fredrika Uremer. the well known 
novelist, visited Miiniesota in llie month of 
<)ct4il)er, and was the guest of (iovernor Hanisey. 

During November, the Dahkotah Tawaxilku 
Kin, or the Dahkotah Friend, a monthly pajK-r, 
was <-<>nuncni'ed, one-half in the Dahkotah and 
one-half in the Knglish language. Its editor was 
the Kev. (ildeon H. I'ond, ii I'resbyterian mis- 
sionary , anil its place of jiublicaliimat Saint I'aul. 
It was published forncarly two years, and. tlidugh 
it failed to attract the attention of the Indian 
mind, it conveyed to the Knglish reader much 

correct information in relation to the habits, the 
belief, and superstitions, of the Dalikotahs. 

On the tenth of December, a new paper, owned 
and edited by Daniel A. Robertson, late Fnited 
States marshal, of Ohio, and called the Minne- 
sota Democrat, made its ajiiiearance. 

During the summer there had been changes in 
the editorial supervision of the "Chronicle and 
Register." For a brief period it was edited by 
L. A. Raljcock, Esq., who was succeeded by W. 
G. Le Dug. 

About the time of the issuing of the Demo- 
crat, C. J. Ilcnuiss. formerly reporter for the 
United States (lazelte, Philadelphia, became the 
editor of the Chronicle. 

The proclamation for a tliaiikssiviii},' day 
was i.ssucil in ISod by the governor, and tlie 
twenty-sixth of December was the time appointed 
and it was generally observed. 


On "Wednesday, January tirst, 1851, the second 
Legislative Assembly assembled in a three-.story 
brick building, since destroyed by lire, that stood 
on St. Anthony street. betwe(>n "Washington and 
Franklin. D. 15. Loouiis was chosen Speaker of 
the Council, and M. E. Ames Speaker of the 
House. This assembly was characterized by 
more bitterness of feeling than any that has 
since convened. The i)receding delegate election 
had been based on j)er.sonal jjrefcrcnces. and 
cliques and factions manifested llicmselves at an 
early perio<l of the session. 

The locating of the penitentiary at Stillwater, 
and the capitol building at St. Paul gave some 
(lissatisfaction. Ry the efforts of J. AV. Xortli, 
Es(i.. a bill creating the University of Minnesota 
at or near the Falls of St. Anthnny. was passed, 
and sigiiccl by the (Iovernor. This institution, 
by the State Constitution, is now the Slate Uni- 

During the session of this Legislature, the pub- 
lication of the " Chronicle and Register " ceased. 

.Miiiut the middle of .May, a war |)arty of Dali- 
kotahs discovered near Swan River, an Ojibway 
with a keg of whLsky. The latter escaped, with 
the loss of his keg. The war party, drinking the 
contents, became intoxicated, and, tiling upon 
some teamrlers they met dii\ ing tlicir wagons 
with goods to the Indian Agciicv , killeil (me of 



them, Andrew Swartz, a resident of St. Paul. 
The news was conveyed to Fort Ripley, and a 
party of sokUers, with IIole-in-the-Day as a guide, 
started in piusiiit of the murderers, but (.Ud not 
succeed tu capturing them. Thi-ough the influ- 
ence of Little Six the Dalikotah chief, whose vil- 
lage was at {and named after liim) Sliok- 
pay, five of the oftienders were arrested and 
placed in tlie guard-house at Fort Snelling. On 
Monday, June ninth, they left the fort in a wagon, 
guarded by twenty-five dragoons, destined for 
Sauk Rapids for trial. As they departed they all 
sang their death song, and the coarse soldiers 
amused themselves by making signs that they 
were gouig to be hung. On the evening of 
the journey the five culprits encamped wth the 
twenty-five dragoons. Handcuffed, they were 
placed ui the tent, and yet at midniglit they all 
escaped, only one being wounded by the guard. 
What was more remarkable, the woimded man 
was tlie first to bring the news to St. Paul. Pro- 
ceeding to Kaposia, his wound was examined by 
the missionary and physician. Dr. Wniiamson ; 
and then, fearing an arrest, he took a canoe and 
paddled up the Minnesota. The excuse oifered 
by the dragoons was, that all the guard but one 
fell asleep. 

The first paper published in Minnesota, beyond 
the capital, was tlie St. Anthony Express, which 
made its appearance diuing tlie last week of 
April or May. 

The most important event of the year 1851 
was the treaty witli tlie Dahkotahs, by winch the 
west side of the Mississippi and the valley of the 
Minnesota River were opened to the hardy Immi- 
grant. The commissioners on the part of the 
United States were Luke Lea, ( 'onnuissioner of 
Indian Affairs, and Governor Ramsey. The 
place of meeting for the upper bands was Trav- 
erse des Sioux. The commission arrived there 
on the last of June, but were obliged to wait 
many days for the assembling of the various bands 
of Dahkotahs. 

On the eighteenth of July, all those expected 
having arrived, the Sissetoans and Wahpaytoan 
Dahkotahs assembled in grand comicil with the 
United States commissioners. After the usual 
feastings and speeches, a treaty was concluded 
on AVeihiesday, July twenty-third. The pipe 
havmg been smoked by the commissioners, Lea 

and Ramsey, it was passed to the chiefs. The 
paper containing the treaty was then read in 
English and translated into the Dahkotah by the 
Rev. S. R. Riggs, Presbyterian Missionary among 
this people. This finished, the chiefs came up 
to the secretary's table and touched the pen; the 
white men present then witnessed the document, 
and nothing remained but the ratification of the 
United States Senate to open that vast country 
for the residence of the hardy immigrant. 

Dm'ing'tlie first week in August, a treaty was 
also concluded beneath an oak bower, on Pilot 
Knob, Mendota, with the M'dewakantonwan and 
Wahpaykootay bands of Dahkotahs. About sixty 
of the chiefs and principal men touched the pen, 
and Little Crow, who had been in the mission- 
school at Lac qui Parle, signed his ovFn name. 
Before they separated, Colonel Lea and Governor 
Ramsey gave them a few words of advice on 
various subjects connected with their future weU- 
being. but particularly on the subject of educa- 
tion and temperance. The treaty was interpret- 
ed to them by the Rev. G. H. Pond, a gentleman 
who was conceded to be a most correct speaker 
of the Dahkotah tongue. 

The day after the treaty these lower bands 
received thirty thousand dollars, whicli, by the 
treaty of 1837, was set apart for education ; but, 
by the misrepresentations of interested half- 
breeds, tha Indians were made to believe that 
it ought to be given to them to be employed as 
they pleased. 

The next week, ^vith their sacks filled with 
money, they thronged the streets of St. Paul, 
pmchasmg whatever pleased their fancy. 

On the seventeenth of September, a new paper 
was commenced in St. Paul, inider the auspices 
of the ""Whigs," and John P. Owens became 
editor, which relation he sustained until the fall 
of 1857. 

The election for members of the legislature 
and county oflacers occuned on the fourteenth of 
October ; and, for the first time, a regular Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed before the people. The 
parties called themselves Democratic and Anti- 
organization, or CoaUtion. 

In the month of November .Jerome Fuller ar- 
rived, and took the place of Judge Goodrich as 
Chief Justice of jNliunesota, who was removed ; 
and, about the same time, Alexander Wilkin was 



appointed secretary of the territory in place of 
C. K. Smith. 

Tlie eighteenth of December, pursuant to 
proclamation, was obsersed as a day of Thanks- 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1S52. 

The third Legislative Assenilil\ commenced its 
sessions in one of the edifices on Tliird below 
Jackson street, which became a portion of the 
Merchants' Hotel, on the seventh of January, 

This session, compared with the previous, 
formed a contrast as great as that between a 
boisterous day in March and a calm June morn- 
ing. The minds of the population were more 
deeply interested in the ratilicatioii of the treaties 
made with the Dahkotahs, than in political dis- 
cussions. Among other legislation of interest 
was the rreation of IIennei)in county. 

On Saturday, the fourteenth of Feltruary, a 
dog-train airived at St. Paul from the north, 
with the distinguished Arctic e.xplorer. Dr. Rae. 
lie liad been in .search of the long-missing Sir 
John Franklin, by way of the Mackenzie rive:-, 
and was iiow on his way to Europe. 

On the fourteenth of ilay, an interesting lusus 
natnrfe occuiTed at Stillwater. On the prairies, 
beyond the elevated bluffs whicli encircle the 
business portion of the town, there is a lake which 
discharges its waters through a ravine, and sup- 
plied McKusick's mill. Owing to heavy rains, 
the hills became saturated with water, and the 
lake very full. Before daylight the citizens heard 
the " voice of many waters," and looking out, saw 
rushing down through the ravine, trees, gi-avel 
and diluvium. Kothing impeded its course, and 
as it issued from the ravine it spread over the 
town site, covering ui> barns and small tenements, 
and, continuing to the lake shore, it materially 
improved the lamling, by a deposit of many tons 
of earth. One of the editors of the day, alluding 
t<i the fact, quaintly remarked, that "it was a 
very extraordinary movement of real estate.'' 

During the Bunnuer, J':iijah Terry, a young 
man wlio had left St. Paul the previous March, 
and went to Teinbina, to act as teai-her to the 
mixed bloods in that vicinity, was murdered mi- 
ller distressing circumstances. With a bois brule 
he had started to the woods on the morning of 

his deatli. to hew timljer. "WTiile there he was 
fired upon liy a small party of Dahkotahs ; a ball 
broke his arm, and he was pierced with aiTows. 
His scalp was wrenched from his head, and was 
afterwards seen among Sisseton Dahkotahs, near 
Big Stone Lake. 

About the last of August, the pioneer editor 
of -Minnesota. James M. (ioodhue. died. 

At the November Term of the I'ldted States 
District Court, of Kamsey county, a Dahkotali, 
named Yu-ha-zee, was tried for the niunkr of a 
German woman. AVith others she was travel- 
ing above Shokpay, when a party of Indians, of 
whom the prisoner was one, met them ; and, 
gathering al)out the wagon, were much excited. 
The prisoner punched the woman first with his 
gun. and. being threatened by one of the party, 
loaik'(l and lin'<l. killing the woman and wound- 
ing one of the men. 

On t lie day of his trial ho was escorted from 
Fort Snelliiig by a company of mounted dragoons 
in full dress. It was an impressive scene to 
witness the poor Indian half hid in his blanket, 
in a buggy with tlie civil ollicer. surrounded with 
all the pomp and circumstance of war. The jury 
found him i,nnlty. On being asked if he had 
anything to say wliy sentence of death sliould 
not be passed, he replied, through the interpreter, 
that the band to which he belonged would remit 
their amiuities if he could be released. To this 
Jtidgo Ilayner, the successor of Judge Fuller, 
reiilied, that he h;id no authority to release 
him; and, ordering him to rise, after some 
appropriate and iniiiressivi' remarks, he pro- 
nounced the (irst senleiu;e of ileath ever pro- 
nounced by a judicial otlicer in Minnesota. The 
prisoner tremlilrii wliile llu' judge spoke, and 
was a piteous spectiicle. By the statute of Min- 
nesota, then, one convicted of murder could not 
be executed >uitil Iwehi' months had elapsed, and 
he was confined until the governor of the ter- 
(u'rity should by warrant order his execution. 

KVKNTS OF A. I). 1S63. 

The fourth Legislative Assembly ronvened on 
the fifth of .lainiary. is'),s. in the two story brick 
eililice at tho corner of Third and ilinnesota 
streets. The Cotmcil chose Martin McLeod as 
presiding ofiieer, and the House ])r. David Day, 



Speaker. Governor Ramsey's message was an 
interesting docimient. 

The Baldwin school, now known asMacalester 
College, was incorporated at this session of the 
legislature, and was opened the following June. 

On the ninth of ^Vpril, a party of Ojibways 
killed a Dahkotah. at tlie village of Shokpay. A 
war party, from Kaposia, then proceeded up the 
valley of the St. Croix, and killed an Ojibway. 
On the morning of the twenty-seventh, a band 
of Ojibway warriors, naked, decked, and fiercely 
gesticulating, might have been seen in the busiest 
street of the capital, in search of their enemies. 
Just at that time a small party of women, and 
one man, who had lost a leg in the battle of Still- 
water, arrived in a canoe from Kaposia, at the 
Jackson street landing. Perceiving the Ojib- 
ways, they retreated to the building then kno«Ti 
as the " Pioneer" office, and the Ojibways dis- 
charging a volley through the windows, wounded 
a Dahkotah woman who soon died. For a short 
time, the infant capital presented a sight 
similar to that witnessed in ancient days in 
Hadley or Deerfield, the then frontier towns of 
Massachusetts. Messengers were despatched to 
Fort Snelling for the dragoons, and a party of 
citizens mounted on Iiorseback, were quickly in 
pursuit of those who with so much boldness had 
sought the streets of St. Paul, as a place to 
avenge their wrongs. The dragnons soon fol- 
lowed, with Indian guides scentmg the track of 
the Ojibways, like bloodhounds. The next day 
they discovered the transgressors, near the Falls 
of St. Croix. The Ojibways manifesting wliat 
was supposed to be an insolent spirit, the order 
was given by the lieutenant in command, to flre, 
and he whose scalp was afterwards daguerreo 

tyiied, and which was engraved for Graham's 
Magazine, wallowed in gore. 

During the summer, the passenger, as he stood 
on the hurricane deck of any of the steamboats, 
might have seen, on a scaffold on the bluffs in 
the rear of Kaposia, a square box covered with a 
coarsely fringed red cloth. Above it was sus- 
pended a piece of the Ojibway "s scalp, whose 
death had caused the affray in the streets of St. 
Paul. Within, was the body of the woman who 
had been shot in the " Pioneer " building, while 
seeking refuge. A scalp suspended over the 
corpse is supposed to be a consolation to the soul, 
and a great protection in the journey to the spirit 

On the accession of Pierce to the presidency of 
the United States, the officers appointed under 
the Taylor and Fillmore administrations were 
removed, and the following gentlemen substitu- 
ted : Governor, W. A. Gorman, of Indiana ; Sec- 
retary, J. T. Rosser, of Virginia ; Chief Justice. 
W. II. Welch, of Minnesota ; Associates, Moses 
Sherburne, of Maine, and A. G. Chatfield, of 
AVisconsin. One of the first ofticial acts of the 
second Governor, was the making of a treaty 
with the Winnebago Indians at Watab, Benton 
coiuity, for an exchange of country. 

On the twenty-ninth of June, D. A. Robertson, 
who by his enthusiasm and earnest advocacy of 
its principles had done nnu-h to organize the 
Democratic party of Minnesota, retired fmrn the 
editorial chair and was succeeded by David Olm- 

At the election held in October, Henry M. 
Rice and Alexander Wilkin were candidates 
for deUgate to Congress. The former was elect- 
ed by a decisive majority. 





Flftti Lepriatyrc— Ex«ution of Yuliaw*— Sixth Ix'iriilaturp— First bridire orerthc 
Miwii«M|'pi-Arclic Kxpl-.n-r— Seventh legislature— In.iian pirl killM iK-ar 
Blofuninpton Ferry— Eighth UuitUturif— Attempt t<i Rcinovo the r;— 
Special Scasion of the Lnn-.liilurc — CoDventioD to frame & State Uinstitutioa— 
AdmtssioD of Minnesota to the UnioD. 

The fifth session of the lefrislatiire was pom- 
meiiced in the building just comi)let€d as the 
Capitol, on Januarj' fourth, 1854. The President 
of the Council was S. 15. Olmstead.and the Speak- 
er of the House of llepreseuliiti\es was N. C. D. 

Governor Gorman delivered his first annual 
message on the tt-ulh, and as his jin-deoessor. 
urged the importance of railway connnunications. 
and dwelt upon the necessity of fostering the in- 
terests of education, and of the lumbermen. 

The e.\citing bill of the session was the act in- 
corporating the ^linnesota and Northwestern 
Railroad Company, introduced by Joseph K. 
IJrown. It was passed after the hour of midnight 
on the last day of the session. Contrary to the 
expectation of his friends, the Governor signed 
the bill. 

On the afternoon of December twenty-seventh, 
the first puldic execution in Minnesota, in accord- 
ance with the forms of law, took place. Yu-ha- 
zee, tlie DahkoUih who had been convicted in 
November, 1852, for tlie murder of a (iernian 
woman, above .Sliokpay, was the individual. 
The scaffold was erected on the open Biiace be- 
tween an inn called the Franklin House and the 
rear of the late Mr. .1. W. Sdby's eiiclnsure 
in St. Paul. About two o'clock, the prisoner, 
dressed in a wliiti; shroud, left the old log pris- 
on, near the court house, and entered a carriage 
with the odicers of the law. Being assisted up 
the steps that led to the scaffold, he made a few 
remarks in his own langiiage, and was then exe- 
cuted. Numerous la<lies sent in a ])ctition to 
the governor, asking tlie pardon of the Indian. 
to whi(;h that officer in declining made an appro- 
priate reply. 

E^'ENTS OF A. D. 1855. 

The sixth session of the legislature convened 
on the third of .lanua'ry, 1855. W. P. Murray 
was elected President of the Council, and James 
S. Norris Speaker of the House. 

About the last of January, the two houses ad- 
journed one day, to attend the exercises occa- 
sioned by the opening of the fii-st bridge of 
any kind, over the mighty Mississippi, from 
Lake Itasca to the (iulf of Mexico. It was at 
Falls of Saint Anthony, and made of wire, and 
at the time of its opening, the i)iitent for the 
land on which the west piers were built, had not 
been issued from the Land Oflice. a striking evi- 
dence of the rapidity with which the city of 
Minneapolis, which now surrounds the Falls, has 

On the twenty-ninth of March, a convention 
was held at Saint Anthony, which led to the 
formation of the Keiiublican party of Minnesota. 
This body took measures for the holding of a 
territorial convention at St. Paid, which con- 
vened on the twenty-fifth of July, and William 
R. ^Marshall was nominated as delegate to Con- 
gress. Shortly after the friends of Mr. Sibley 
nominated Uavid Olmsted and Henry M. Rice, 
the former delegate was also a candidate. The 
contest was animated, and resulted in the elec- 
tion of Mr. Rice. 

Al)out noon of December twelfth, 1855. a four- 
horse vehicle was seen driving rapidly through 
St. Paul, and deep was the interest when it was 
announced thai one of the Arctic exploring party, 
Mr. James Stewart, was on his way to Canada 
with relics of the world - renowned and world- 
mounied Sir John Franklin, (iathering ttigether 
the i)recious fragments found on Montreal Island 
and vicinity, the iiarty had left the region of ice- 
bergs on the ninth of August, and aft<-r a con- 
tinued land journey from that time, h;ul reached 



Saint Paul on that clay, en route to the Hudson 
Bay Company's quarters in Canada. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1856. 

The seventh session of the Legislative Assem- 
bly was begun on the second of January, 1850, 
and again the exciting question was the Minne- 
sota and Northwestern Eaih'oad dimpany. 

John 13. Brisbui was elected President of the 
Council, and Charles Gardner, Speaker of the 

This year was comparatively devoid of interest. 
The citizens of the territory were busily engaged 
in making claims in newly organized coimties, 
and in enlarging the area of civilization. 

On the twelfth of June, several Ojibways 
entered the farm house of ^Ir. WhaUon, who re- 
sided in Ilemiepin county, on the banks of the 
Minnesota, a mile below the Ploomington ferry. 
The wife of the fanner, a friend, and tlu-ee child- 
ren, besides a little Dahkotah girl, who had been 
brought up in the mission-house at Kaposia, and 
so changed in manners that her origin was 
scarcely perceptible, were sitting in the room 
when the Indians, came in. Instantly seizing 
the little Indian maiden, they threw her out of 
the door, killed and scalped her, and fled before 
the men who wera near by, in the field, could 
reach the house. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1857. 

The procurement of a state organization, and 
a grant of lands for railroad purposes, were the 
topics of political interest during the year 1857. 
The eighth Legislative Assembly convened at 
the capitol on the seventh of January, and J. B. 
Brisbin was elected President of the Council, and 
J. "\V. Furber, Speaker of the House. 

A bill changing the seat of government to 
Saijit Peter, on the ilinnesota Eiver, caused 
much discussion. _ -•—.,. 

On Saturday, February twenty -eighth, Mr. 
Balcombe offered a resolution to report the bill 
for the removal of the seat of govenmieut, and 
should Mr. llolette, chairman of the committee, 
fail, that W. -W. Wales, of said committee, report 
a copy of said bill. 

ifr. Setzer, after the readhag of the resolution, 
moved a call of the Comicil, and Mr. llolette was 
found to be absent. The chair ordered the ser- 
geant at arms to report Mr Eolette in his seat. 

Mr. Balcombe moved that further proceecUngs 
imder the call be dispensed with; which did not 
prevaU. From that time imtil the next Thursday 
afternoon, March the fifth, a period of one hun- 
dred and twenty-three hom-s, the Council re- 
mained in their chamber without recess. At that 
time a motion to adjourn prevailed. On Friday 
another motion was made to dispense with the 
call of the Coimcil, which did not prevail. On 
Saturday, the Coimcil met, the president declared 
the call stiU pending. At seven and a half p. m., 
a committee of the House was announced. The 
chair ruled, that no communication from the 
House could be received while a call of the Coun- 
cil was pending, and the .committee withckew. 
A motion was agam made during the last night 
of the session, to dispense with all fm-ther pro- 
ceedings under the call, which prevailed, with 
one vote only in the negative. 

Mr. Ludden then moved that a committee be 
appointed to wait on the Governor, and inquire if 
he had any further comuuinication to make to 
the Council. 

Mr. Lowry moved a call of the Council, which 
was ordered, and the roll being called. Messrs. 
Eolette, Thompson and Tillotson were absent. 

At twelve o'clock at night the president re- 
sumed the chair, and announced that the tune 
limited by law for the contiiuiation of the session 
of the territorial legislature had expu-ed, and he 
therefore declared the CouncU adjourned and the 
seat of government remained at Saint Paul. 

The excitement on the capital question was in- 
tense, and it was a strange scene to see members 
of the Council, eatmg and sleeping m the hall of 
legislation for days, waitmg for the sergeant-at- 
arms to report an absent member in his seat. 

On the ts\-enty-third of February, 1857, an act 
passed the United States Senate, to authorize 
the people of Mimiesota to fonn a constitution, 
preparatory to their admission into the Union 
on an equal footuig with the original states. 

Governor Gorman called a special session 
of the legislature, to take mto consideration 
measures that would give efficiency to the act. 
The extra session cojivened on April twenty- 
sevenlli, and a nx^ssage was transmitted by Sam- 
uel Medary, who had been appointed governor 
in place of W. A. Gorman, whose term of office 



had expired. The extra session adjoiirned on 
the twenty-third of Miiy ; and in accordance 
with the pr()visit)ns of the cnahling act of Con- 
gress, an election was held on the lirsl Monday 
in June, for delegates to a convention which was 
to assemble at the capitol on the second Monday 
in July. The elei'tion resulted, as was thought, 
in giving a majority of delegates to the Republi- 
can iiarty. 

At midnight previous to the day fixed for the 
meeting of the convention, the Republicans iiro- 
ceeded to the capitol, becauso the enabling act 
had not fixed at what hour on the second Mon- 
day the convention should assemble, and fear- 
ing that the l>cniocratic delegates might antiei- 
I)ate them, and elect the ofVicers of the body. 
A little liefore twelve. A. M., on Monday, the 
secretary of the territory entered the speaker's 
rostrum, and began to call the body to order; 
and at the same time a delegate, J. 'W. North, 
who had in his p()s.sessioii a written retpiest from 
the majority of the delegates present, proceeded 
to do the siime thing. The secretary of the ter- 
ritory put a motion to adjourn, and the Demo- 
cratic members i)resent voting in the, allh-mative, 
they left the hall. The Republicans, feeling that 
they were in the majority, remained, and in due 
time organized, and proceeded with the business 
specified in tlie enabling act, to form a constitu- 
tion, and- take all necessary steps for the estab- 
lishment of a state goverinnent, in conformity 
with the Federal Constitution, subject to the 
approval and ratification of the ijeopic of llic 
proposed state. 

After several days the Deniocialic wing also 
o^l^Uli■/,ed i!i the Senate I'liainher at the capitol, 
and, claiming to be the true body, also proceeded 
t« form a constitution. Both parties were re- 
markalily orderly and intellig<'nt. and everything 
was marked by jierfect <leeoruni. Aflerlhcy had 
been in uessiou borne weeks, moiliiaht counsels 

prevailed, and a committee of conference was 
appointed from each body, which resulted in 
both adojiting the constitution framed by the 
Democratic wing, on the twenty-ninth of Aug- 
gust. According to the provision of the consti- 
tution, an election was held for state olTicers 
and the adoption of the constitution, on the 
second Tuesday, the thirteenth of October. The 
constitution was adopted by almost a unanimous 
vote. It provided that the territorial officers 
should retain their ollices until the state was ad- 
mitted into the I'nion, not anticipating the 
long delay which was experienced. 

The first session of the state legislature com- 
menced on the first Wednesday of December, at 
the capitol, in the city of Sauit Paul ; and during 
the month elected Henry M. llice and .James 
Shields as their l?epresentatives in the United 
Stiites Senate. 

EVENTS OF A. 1). 1858. 

On the twenty-ninth of Jaiuiary, lsr)S, Mr. 
Douglas submitted a bill to tlu; United States 
Senate, for the admission of Minnesota intjo the 
Union. On the first of February, a discussion 
arose on the bill, in which Senators Doughis, 
Wilson, Gwin, Hale, Mason, Green, Brown, and 
Crittenden participateil. Rrown, of Mississippi, 
was opposed to the admission of Minnesota, un- 
til Die Kansas question was settled. Mr. Crit- 
tenden, as a So\dhern man, could not endorse ;.ll 
that was said by the Senator from ^Mississi])) i; 
and his words of wisdom and moderation during 
this day's discussion, were worthy of reme.n- 
brance. On April the seventh, the bill passed 
t'.ie Senate with only three dissenting votes; and 
in a short time the House of Representatives 
concurred, and on May the eleventh, the Presi- 
dent ap])roved. and Minnesota was fully rec- 
ognized as one of the United States of America. 






Admission of the State. — Its want of Resources. — The Hard Times. — Commence- 
ment of Railroad BiiiMing.— The State Railroad Bonds Discredited.— " Wdd* 
l;at*' Bankinc Scheme.— The Wriyht County War.— Failure of the State Loan 
Scheme. — Attempted Adjustment of the Dilemma. — Partial return of Good 
Times. — The Political, Campaign of 1860. — Secession Movement. — Prospect of 
War, &c., &c. 

On May 11th, 18.58, the act of Congress admit- 
ting Minnesota to tlie Union, became a law, and 
onr State tool< lier place among the sisterhood of 
repiililics, the thirty-second in the order of admis- 
sion, and liad thenceforth a voice in the national 
councils. On the 2-lth of May, the State officers 
elect were quietly sworn in, in the Executive 
Rooms in the Capitol, and the machinery of the 
State government was put in motion. The out- 
look for the little commonwealth at this time, 
was far from propitious.^ The terrible financial 
revulsion of the previous year had prostrated all 
business, destroyed values, undermined confl- 
denee, depressed the energies and ambition of 
the people, and almost entirely checked immigra- 
tion. I Tliere was but limited agriculture (a large 
portion of the liread-stuffs used being imported), 
little accumulated wealth, and that mostly based 
on real estate, now unsaleable, money command- 
ing two per cent, a month; no established indus- 
tries or manufactures, not a mile of railroad, no 
sound banks or currency, no system for raising 
revenue, and not a cent of money in the State 
treasury. In fact the State was considerably in 
debt. The loan of i;iJO,000 authorized by the 
Legislature the winter previous, was not yet real- 
ized on. Meantime, denominational treasury 

warrants, bearmg interest, were used as currency, 
while town and county " scrip " were generally 
circulated among the people as money. It was 
under such gloomy circumstances as these, that 
the State began its career. 

An adjourned session of the Legislature was 
held in .July, liut little or nothing could be done 
for the relief of the people from the financial strin- 
gency or other troubles surrounding them. Some 
relief was hoped for from the building of the 
land grant railroads, which were generally got 
under way during the summer, but there was not 
as much money disbursed liy the companies or 
contractors, as had been anticipated. The direct- 
ors of the roads hurried their first ten mile sec- 
tions of grading to completion as rapidly as possi- 
ble, and as soon as they were entitled to bonds, 
according to the terms of the constitutional 
amendment, applied to Gov. Sibley for the same. 
He declined to issue them imless the roads would 
give the State first mortgage bonds in equal 
amounts, giving it a priority of lien. This the 
land grant companies refused to accede to, and 
applied to the Supreme Court of the State, for a 
writ of mandamus, to compel Gov. Sibley to issue 
the bonds, as demanded by them. The writ was 
issued on November 12th, and left the Executive 
no alternative in the premises, so the bonds were 
issued. Efforts were at once made to negotiate 
them in the New York market. 

The harvest this year, although a greatly in- 
creased area was sown, was almost a failure, and 
^ (129) 



bread-stuffs were still largely imported. Every- 
body was ill th: most desperate straits financially. 
A winter of gloom rnd depression set in, such as 
has n .ver boei. experienced in the history of the 
Northwest, and, it is scarcely probable, ever will 
be again. The price of labor, for such as could 
get employment at all. touclicil an uupreccdenti'dly 
low figure, though, fortunately. Uie cost of living 
bad declined in the same ratio. Meantime, the ne- 
gotiation of the bonds in New Yorlc. jjroceeded 
very slowiy. Capitidists were very unwilling to 
invest in them, as already some journals in the 
State had predicted the failure and break-down 
of the whole scheme, added to pretty clearly e.\- 
pressed threats that the bonds would be repudi- 
ated. ^\jixious to save the credit of the State, 
and ])revent a disastrous ending of the measure. 
Gov. Sibley wo'it U> New York in i)erson. about 
the close of the year (1858) and gave his best en- 
deavors to aid the pending negotiation of the 
bonds ; but the capitalists there, alarmed at the 
hostile tone of newspapers in the State, finally 
refused to touch them at :.ll. The only recouise 
now left for the holders of the bonds, and those 
interested in the railroad scheme, was to use 
them as a security for tlie issue of bank notes, 
under the recently enacted general banking law. 
Purported Sides at ninety-five cents on llie dollar 
having been certiiied t<j the .'tale Auditor, he re- 
ceived a large number at this figure, and imicured 
for the owners currency in like amount. Meau- 
tinc, work was progressing on the four land grant 

No session of the legislature was held in the 
winter of 1858-'9. The stringency increased 
with i'a<-li month. The newsi)ai>ers of the state 
wliicli survived, were crowded with mortgage 
foreclosure advertisements. Taxes were scarcely 
paid at all, and the warrants, or scrip, of both 
Stale and coun'.Jes, depreciated, in some in- 
Btauces, to forty or fifty cents on the dollar. 
Tliese were soon replaced by the issues of the 
new banks ba.sed ou the state railroad bonds 
which now began to flooil the State, until the 
names "tilencoe,'' " Owutoima," " !>:', ("I'osse' 
and La Crescent," &c., were r^niliar words. 
These issues were regarded with con.'^iilerablc dis- 
trust from the outs"!,. Jiankers ill the state re- 
vived them with mu<'h disrelish, and generally at 
a discount, while outside the state, th:y scarcely 

circulated at all. The Chicago papers, an<l some 
financial jom-nals in New York, classed them as 
'■ wild-cat." Their issue was pushed for a few 
weeks, however, until in the si)riug of 1859 over 
$200,000 of the currency was in circulation. 
There were, in addition to these " railroad banks."' 
several based on ^linuesota 8 per cents, which 
were actually worth jiar. 

During the summer of ]8)i) the reported discov- 
ery of gold on Tra/.er River, and other points in 
British 2s orth America, called the attention of the 
people of Minnesota to tlie importance of an over- 
land route to the Pacific, which might ultimately 
lead the way fora northern railroad route. Meet- 
ings were held, and money was subscribed, to 
etpiip a train to open a wagon road via the north- 
ern bend of the IMissouri River. Col. AVm. II. 
Nobles was placed in command of the expedi- 
tion, which left St. Paul on June U, and ))ro- 
ceeded safely through. Another important step 
towaids settling U\e regions beyond us, was the 
successful navigation of Red River, by a steamer 
launched this season. The Minnesota Stage Com- 
pany also established a line to the Red River. 

The •• Wright county war," as it has been fa- 
cetiously termed, occurred this STmnner. In the 
fall of 18.58, one 11. .V. A\allace was murdered in 
AVright county, and a neighbor, named Oscar F. 
.lackson, was tried for the olTense in the spring 
of 18.59, and acquitted. On April 25, a crowd of 
men assembled, and hung .Jackson to the gable 
end of \\'allace's cabin, (iov. Sibley olTered a re- 
ward for the conviction of any of the lynchers. 
Not long afterwards one Emery Moore was ar- 
rested on charge of being concerned in the out- 
rage, and was taken to Wright Comity for trial, 
but was rescued by a mob. (Jov. Sibley at once 
decided to take vigorous steps to maintain the 
majesty of the law. A military force was called 
out, and tliree companies (iispatched (Aug. 5) to 
Monticello to arrest the rioters. The troops luo- 
ceeded to ^Monticello, reinforced the civil author- 
ities, arrested eleven lynchei-s and rescuers, and 
turned them over to the civil authorities. Hav- 
ing vindicated the supremacy of law.and order, 
the bhxidless expedition returned. 

The financial condition ha<i meantime been 
growing worse. Early iti .Inni', the brokers of 
tlie stabf had combined to dei>reciale llii' " (Jlen 
coe money," as the railroad currency was called, 



and as several sums which had been presented at 
the lianks for redemption, were not redeemed, 
they were protested, and the state auditor was 
compelled to advertise the securities for sale. 
This caused a still further depreciation of the 
money, until shortly it was scarcely current on 
any terms. Meantime all work on the land grant 
lines had been Anally and completely suspended, 
and S2,27.5,on0 of the state bonds had been issued. 
In October, it was stated that the bonds had been 
sold as low as ten cents on the dollar. The cou- 
pons due on Dec. 1, 18.59, were inipaid, and the 
companies holding the bonds declared in default. 
The whole scheme bad thus been brought to a 
complete failure, and was now practically aban- 
doned, while not a mile of road had been com- 

The hard times, and the failure of the real es- 
tate speculative era, had one good result, how- 
ever, which was, to tinn increased attention to 
agriculture. A greatly enlarged area was sown, 
and the agricultural resources of the State began 
to be known as the true source of its wealth. 
For the first time, breadstuffs were exported, and 
immigration began again. 

The fall of this year witnessed a bitter political 
fight. Two years before, the parties had been 
pretty evenly divided. This campaign each one 
spent its full force and energy, and had nomina- 
ted for state ofBcers their most popular men. 
The election took place on Oct. 11. Hon. Alex. 
Ramsey was chosen governor, by a vote of 21,335, 
over Hon. George L. Becker, who received 17,532. 
Tlie legislature which met on Dec. 7, was largely 

The most important work which came before 
this session was some adjustment of the dilemma 
into wliich the state had fallen, through tlie adop- 
tion of the loan amendment. Nearly the entire 
session was consumed in debating various plans 
of extrication without much fruit. The loan 
amendment was expunged, however, and a new 
amendment was framed for submission to the 
people, providing that there should be no further 
issui- of bondr; to the companies; also, that no law 
levying a tax to pay either principal or interest 
on the bonds already issued, should beef any force 
or effect, until ratified by a popular vote. These 
constitutional amendments were adopted by a 
large majority of votes, in the fall of the same 

year. The governor was also directed to foreclose 
the deeds of trust given to secure interest on the 
bonds loaned, and bid off and purchase the prop- 
erty sold, in the name of the state. This was 
done, the following summer, and the state again 
secured the forfeited rights, francliises and land 

The Federal census taken this year (1860), 
showed that the state had a population of 1 72,- 
123. The harvest was a good one, and business 
was considerably revived. Immigration was be- 
ginning to become brisk, and building in the 
towns and cities was perceptibly increasing, while 
the tilled area was receiving great additions. 
It seemed that the " hard times '' bad about 
ceased, and the hope of prosperous days was be- 
ginning to enliven all. But this gleam of sun- 
shhie was of short duration. The memora- 
ble presidential contest of that year, the first in 
which ilinnesota had a voice, was a period of un- 
precedented heat and excitement. The electoral 
vote of Minnesota was cast for Abraham Lincoln 
by a very large majority, he receiving 22,069, 
Douglas, 11,920, Breckenridge 748, and Bell 62. 
It was not long before the disunion cloud arose 
in the slave states, and the mutterings of rebell- 
ion began to be heard. It was a period of doubt 
and forebodings. The currency used generally in 
the state, being largely based on the bonds of 
seceding states, became greatly depreciated. All 
classes suffered much loss, business became de- 
pressed, real estate imsalable, and soon a condi- 
tion of distress ensued, almost equal to the dark- 
est days of the panic, three years before. 

The legislature of 1861 considered the railroad 
question at length, and passed acts designed to 
facilitate the construction of the land grant roads 
by turning over the forfeited franchises of the old 
companies to new organizations, believed to be 
able to complete them. The Lake Superior and 
Mississippi Eailroad Company was also char- 

The secession movement progressed steadily 
during the winter, and it soon became apparent 
to all that war was inevitable. Lincoln was in- 
augurated, but his address promised only coer- 
cion, and coercion war. The feeble and unreal 
movements for compromise and conciliation all 
failed. Jleantime business in this state was daily 
growing worse. Large numbers were out of em- 
ployment, and anticipating still further disaster. 





The War Artuftlly Begun.— Ejccitemeut of Hie Period.— Minnesota Called on for 
One Regiment.- Reeniitini: Vigorously Begun.— The First Regiment Mus- 
tered in for Three Years.— It is Ordered to Washington.- A Second Regiment 
called for and Recruited.— The Fir«t Engaged at Bull Run.— Contributions for 
tbeRelief of the Sick and Wounded.— Progress of Railroad Building.— Third, 
Fourth, and Fifth Regiment* Called For.- Battle of Mill Springs.- Railroad 
Legislation— Battle of Pittsburg l.anding.— A Sixth Regiment Authorized.— 
Currency Trouble*.- Expetlitions to Idaho.— First Railroad Completed.— 
lantr>' of Minnesota Troops in the South.— The Seven Days Fight.— Heavy 
Levies of Men Called For.— Tlic Seventh. Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Regimenta 

Saturday, April 13, 1861. was a dark day in the 
annals of our state. Tlie tcle^^raph hioiiuht the 
ujnvelcome news of the attack on Fort Sumter, 
and it was seen that war was inevitable. The 
bulletin hoards of the newspaper otliees were snr- 
rounded all day with an excited and anxious 
crowd, but courage and deteruiinaticn were every- 
where visible. The next day was the Sabbath, 
bright and balmy. The churches had Vmt meagi-e 
audiences that day. All day knots of angry 
and excited men gathered on tlie streets, con- 
versing on the startling events of the time. 

On ilonday, the proclamation of President 
Lincoln was received, calling for 75,000 volun- 
teers for tliree months' senice, and assigning to 
Minnesota one regiment. tJov. Kamsey, who was 
ill Washington, had already tendered to the Pres- 
ident, in person, a like force. Lt. Gov. Donnelly 
at once issued a proclamation calling on the citi- 
zens of Minnesota to enlist, and Adjt. (ien. 
Acker issued a general order giving tlie needed 
instructions. In all the princiiial towns and cities 
of the state, public meetings were at once held, 
and enlistment stations openeil. A fervid pat- 
riotism pervaded all ranks. "The war'' was the 
sole topic of conversation. Kvery thing else, even 
business, to a large extent, was suspended for the 
time. Never, ami in no other stale, was a \>vo- 
ple BO imbued with warlike zeal. In four or five 
days ten companies, in various localities, hail 
been niised and accepted by Ailjt. (ieneral San- 
born ((ien. Acker having resigned to recruit a 
company.) Port Snelling having ])een designated 

by the war (It'iiiiitinent as a school of instruc- 
tion, the companies were rendezvoused there, 
and by the 2')th w(>re all in their quarters, and 
busily engaged in ilrilling. The regimental olli- 
ceis were announced on the 29th, and on that day. 
two weeks from the time when the president's 
call was received, the " Immortal First," over one 
thousand strong, was mustered into service, for 
three months, with Ex-Gov. Gorman as Colonel. 
Scarcely was this accomplished, when the War 
Department decided that it could only be received 
as a three years regiment, and it became neces- 
sary to at once renew the enlistments on that 
basis. After a few days delay, enough recruits 
were received, and mustered in. to lill a three 
years regiment, and it was accepted on that 
basis. The War Department, contrary to the 
hopes of the men, at first ordered the companies 
to garrison the various posts in and near the state, 
relieving the regulars stationed there, and some 
detachments hail already left for their posts, 
when the need of more trooiis for the ^'irginia 
camiiai^ru became immiiu'Ul. iiinl the order was 
counlermaiulcd and the First Hegiment direcled 
to proceed at once to Washington. The compa- 
nies were (puckly reassembled at Fort Snelling, 
and, on Jtme 22d, left that jiost by boat, arriving 
in Washington on June 2<)th. In the various cities 
through which the First i)assetl, they were re- 
ceived with patriotic demonslrations of respect. 
and it was noticed by the press as a remarkable 
fact that a young commouweallh. unknown and 
almost wilhoiit l>opiilalioii a dozen years before. 
could now send to the of the Iiiiona reg- 
iment of such stalwart and brave soldiers. 

Meantime, the war spirit which had been 
aroused in the State, was not content with send- 
ing one regiment. There were numbers, in fact 
several almost full companies, who had tried to 
gel admission into flu First, but were too late, 
and were anxious to go. This fad ))eing made 



known by Gov. Ramsey on May 3d, to the Secre- 
tary of "War, he at once authorized tlie raising of 
a second regiment, and tlie recruiting for the 
same was proceeded with, with alacrity. The 
regiment was filled to the minunnm, and mustered 
in on June 2(ith, with the gallant Van Cleve as 
Colonel, and rendezvoused at Fort Snelling, for 
the time being, some of the companies, mean- 
time, garrisonmg the forts in and near Minnesota. 

The First Regiment on reaching Washington, 
was, after a few days of camp life at Alexandria, 
pnshed to the front, and took an active part with 
Heintzelman's Division, in McDowell's campaign 
against jSIanassas, acquitting itself well. On 
July 21st, scarcely more than three weeks 
after its arrival in the field, it took part in the 
memorable battle of Bull Run, in which disastrous 
engagement it lost 174 men, of whom 44 were 
killed, 107 wounded, and 23 taken prisoners. The 
gallantry of the men, and their fine conduct in 
the heat of battle, gained the regiment as well as 
our State, great praise ; but the sad news of the 
loss it suffered, filled our citizens with gloom. 
The magnitude and solemnity of the great strug- 
gle in which the nation had engaged, began to be 
realized, while the sympathy and benevolence of 
the citizens of the State, especially the ladies, 
was aroused by the wants of the wounded and 
sick soldiers in the hospitals, and a general move- 
ment made for siich contriliutious of money and 
clothing and delicacies suitable for invalids. 
Nearly ?2,00n in money alone, was promptly con- 
tributed, and sent to the Chaplain of the First. 
This was the commencement of a splendid stream 
of gifts towards the same object, which continued 
to flow during the whole four years of the war, 
the Sanitary and Christian Commissions being 
soon after organized as a means of collecting and 
distributmg relief. In no State, during the strug- 
gle for the T'nion, was found a more patriotic, 
liberal, actively generous people, than in Minne- 

Xot long after the battle of Bull Run, the First 
Regiment went into camp between Poolesville 
and Edwards Ferry, Maryland, for winter quar- 
ters, remaining there several months. 

While these events were occurring, the mate- 
rial progress of our State was receiving an im- 
pulse. Capitalists from Ohio were induced, under 
the legislation of the last winter, to embark in the 

completion of the " Minnesota and Pacific Rail- 
road," from St. Paul to St. Anthony. This line 
had been partially graded three years before, and 
with little labor was made ready fur the super- 
structure. Ties and rails for several miles were 
provided, and track-laying commenced. A loco- 
motive and cars arrived, and the first wheel 
turned by a locomotive in this State, was on Sep- 
tember 19th. At this juncture, unfortunately, a 
disagreement sprang up between the contractors 
and the officers of the road, and resulted in a sus- 
pension of the work for several months. 

Business remained very much depressed all the 
season, a result, in part, of the miserable cur- 
rency used in trade. 

Recruiting for the second regiment did not 
cease luitil September, by which time all the 
companies were filled to the maximum, and the 
battalion was ready for service on southern fields. 
Meantime a company of Sharp-Shooters had been 
recruited by Capt. Peteler, and having been ac- 
cepted (Sept. 3d), left on Oct. 6th for Virginia, 
where they were attached to Berdan's U. S. 

Congress, at its special session, commencing 
July 4th, had authorized the raising of 500,000 
troops. Under this call Minnesota was called on 
for two more regiments, on Sept 17th. There 
were already some partially completed companies, 
and recruiting commenced vigorously in all parts 
of the state. Up to this time all the troops re- 
cruited h'ad been for the infantry service, but in 
order to give all who wished to enlist, their pref- 
erence for the different arms of service, cavalry, 
and artillery organizations were commenced. 
Three companies of cavalr>- were authorized, and 
began to receive recruits, while a battery of light 
artillery was gotten under way. 

On Oct. 3d, Capt. N. J. T. Dana, formerly of 
the regular army, was commissioned as Colonel 
of the First, vice Gorman, who had been pro- 
moted to Brigadier General. 

On Oct. 14. the Second Regiment left for Vir- 
ginia, but at Pittsburgh was ordered to Louis- 
ville, Ky., and soon after went into camp at Leb- 
anon Junction, where they remained some 
weeks, guarding bridges. On Oct. 29th, the Third 
Regiment was announced as organized, and Hen- 
ry C. Lester appointed Colonel. On Nov. 16th the 
Third left for Kentucky, and were employed in 



the same sen-ice as the Second, near wliieh they 
were encamiied for some weeks. The Tourth 
Kejiimenl was lilled nearly at the same time, and 
Atljt. Gen. John 15. Sanborn ai)pointed Colonel. 
It was retained in the slate, doing garrison duty, 
xmtil spring. 

On Oct. lOtli the First Regiment participated in 
the action at Kdwards Ferry, suffering small 
loss, but niakuig a noble record for gallantry. 

Tlie state election occurred on Oct. 9th. I'arti- 
s{iu politics wci-c not much noticeable in this con- 
test. Alex. Ramsey was re-elected for governor, 
by a vote of 1G.274 over F. O. Hamlin, who had 

The three cavaliy companies, commanded re- 
spectively by C'apts. \'on Mindcn, IJrackctt. an<l 
West, were ordered to liinlon IJarracks, Mo., in 
December. <ind incoriiorated into an Inwa troop 
called t'urtis Horse, and subsequently Third Iowa 

The First Uattery Light Artillery, Capt. Munch, 
also left for St. Louis Dec. 1st, and was soon 
after ordered to I'itlsburgh Landing. During 
this niduth a Fifth Hegiment was authorized, and 
considerable progress made in filling it. 

On .lauuary KKli, ].sii2, occurred the memora- 
ble battle of Mill Si)riiigs, in which our Second 
Regiment won a national reputation. Early on 
that day. the enemy, under Gen. ZoUicoffer, at- 
tacked the union forces. Col. \:\n Cleve says in 
his ollicial rejKn-t: '• After proceeiling about half 
a mile, we came upon the enemy, who were posted 
behind a fence along the road, beyond which was 
an open field, broken by ravines. The enemy, 
oj)ening upon us a galling fire, fought desperate- 
ly, and a liand to band fight ensued which lasted 
about thirty minutes. « » * The enemy gave 
way, leaving a laige number of their dead and 
wounded on the field. * • * AVe joined in 
the i)ursuil, which continued till near sunset, 
when we arrived within a mile of their inlrcnch- 
nienls, where we rested upon our aims during 
the night. * ♦ * Six liundred of our regi- 
ment were in the engagement, t^velve of whom 
were killed and thirty-tliice wounded." (ien. 
ZiillicolTcr himself was anmng the enemy slain. 
Private George (J. Strong, of Company D, is 
thought to have killed ISaillie I'eyton, a prnmi- 
nent rebel ollicer. 

The news of the victor>' at Mill Springs, occur- 

ing, as it did. during a period of depression, was 
like a gleam of sunshine, and our Second Regi- 
ment won bright laurels for their gallantry. For 
meritorious service in this engagement. Col. Van 
Cle\e was soon after promoted to Brigadier Gen- 

On Feb. 24th Capt. Alfred Sully was commis- 
sioned colonel of the First Regiment, vice 
Dana, promoted to Brigadier General. 

The legislature of 1H<)2 had many important 
questions luider consideration, prominent among 
which were those measures providing for military 
necessities, and putting the state on a " war I'oot- 
hig."' The work of releasing the land grant rail- 
roads from the entanglements resulting from the 
old five-million loan, and bestowing the fraui his- 
es on real capitalists, ■who would midertake to 
build in good faith, was another of the important 
measures of the session. The latter work was 
successfully accomplished in most cases. On the 
line of the Minnesota & I'aciUc, between St. Paul 
and St. Anthony, work was recommenced and 
pushed vigorously. 

On April (ith tlie battle of Pittsburg Landing 
occurred. The only Minnesota troops engaged 
in this conllict was the First Battery, which was 
in the heat of the action at several points. Sev- 
eral cannoneers were woimded (Capt. ^lunch se- 
verely) two killed, and also a number of horses. 
The battery did splendid service, and "mowed 
the enemy down ■with cannisler."" Capt. (form- 
erly adjutant general) AVm. II. Acker, of the 
Sixteenth Regulars, was killed during this en- 

On March 20tli, the Fifth Regiment wiis de- 
clared organized, and the field olficers were com- 
missioned. Rudolph Borgesrode was appointed 
Colonel. The Sci'oud Sliarpshooters, Captain 
Russell, which had been recruited during the 
winter, soon after left for Washington, arriving 
there April li(>th. On ,\pril 2tlh, the Fourth 
Regiment, and Si'cond liattcry <il' Light .\rlillery. 
Captain llolchkiss, left lor Benton Barracks, and 
were soon pushed to the front in Mississippi. On 
May l;Uh, the Fifth Biginient also left for the 
same destination, excepting coniiiauics B. C, and 
1), who remained behind to garrison forts, and a 
few weeks subse<|uently took a consiijcuous part 
in the Sioux war. 

On .Mav -iith, the call for a sixth regiment was 



made, and recruiting was commenced ver>' acXr 
ively, several skeleton companies, partially filled 
for the Fifth Begiment, being already in the field. 

Congress, at its extra session, commencing 
July 4th, 1861, had authorized the issue of '■ legal 
tender " notes, which were by this date, in large 
circulation. The result of this was to greatly 
enliven business and enhance prices. While gov- 
ernment was expending in our State but a small 
fraction of the enormous sums it was paying out 
in eastern States for materials of war, the results 
were unmistakably felt here. One effect was the 
gradual and ;dmost complete withdrawal of com, 
especially small coin, from circulation. This oc- 
casioned great inconvenience in "making change," 
and various de\ices were used to overcome the 
trouble. Postage stamps came into general use for 
fractional sums, and soon became a decided nui- 
sance. Then many of the cities and towns, as well 
as business firms and banks, issued fractional 
"shiii-plasters" as currency. The country was 
soon flooded with these, and it proved an intolera- 
ble luiisance. The issue by the Treasury Depart- 
ment, soyn after, of " postage ciu'rency," some- 
what relieved the dearth of small change. A 
steady enhancement in the inice of goods, lalwr, 
the cost of living, &c., commenced from this date, 
an inflation which lasted for two or three years. 

The material development of the State pro- 
gressed during this period, notwithstanding the 
burdens and waste of wr ; and the fact that over 
six thousand of our young men were withdrawn 
from productive industry. An increased area 
was sown. Immigration was becoming large, 
especially of Scandinavians. Further efforts were 
also made \i open and extend our area of trade 
towards the northwest. The reported discovery 
of rich gold lields in the region now known as 
Idaho and Montana, led to the formation of a 
company of citizens to proceed thither overland. 
On !May 14th, the expedition left St. Paul, and 
arrived safely at the diggings. Congress had, 
meantime, been appealed to for some protection 
to this emigration movement, and a small appro- 
priation was made for this purjiose, and Captam 
James L. Fisk appointed to organize and com- 
mand any party that might wish to go over. An- 
other expedition was organized and equipped, 
leaving on Jime loth, and made a successful 
journey to the gold fields. These expeditions 

did much towards preparing the way for the 
opening and settlement of the Northwest, and 
were repeated in 1863 and 1864. 

Another important event was the completion of 
the Mimiesota and Pacific Railroad from St. 
Paul to St. Anthony, which was opened for 
tralBc on Jiuie 28 — the first line operated in our 
state. From that date on, railroad Ijuilding was 
rapidly carried on, on several of the lines. 

While thcc3 oncoi-.raging events were m prog- 
ress in our state, her brave troops, in Virginia and 
Mississippi, wero contending against great odds. 
The Fourth and Fifth Kegimeiits and the Second 
Battery, wliose departure for "Dixie"' was noted 
a few hues back, had lieen pushed rapidly to the 
front, and. being a part of the " Army (jf the Mis- 
sissippi," were soon face to face with the enemy, 
in the great Corinth campaign. On May 28th 
the Fifth Regiment had a sharp action with the 
enemy, in winch several were killed, and a num- 
ber woimded, and.won much praise for gallantry. 
On July 12th, near Murfreesboro, Tenn., the 
Third Regiment was attacked by a greatly supe- 
rior force, and after a brave resistance, losmg 
twelve men, its ammunition became exhausted, 
and i*: was compelled to surrender. The men 
were paroled a few weeks later. 

Meantime the First Regiment had taken an 
active part in a campaign of great danger and 
hardship. It had remained in its winter quar- 
ters, near Edward's I'erry, until March, when 
(attached to Sedgv.ick's Division) it proceeded to 
Winchester, from whence they were ordered to 
join the Army of the Potomac near Fortress 
Monroe. In April they took part in the siege of 
Yorktown. From thence they participated iu 
McClellan's great Richmond campaign, and the 
" seven days fight." At Seven Pines, or Fair 
Oaks, on May 31st and June 1st; at Peach Orch- 
ard, June 29th; Savage's Station, Jime 29th; 
Glendale and White Oak Swamp, June 80th; 
Xelson's Farm, June 30th; Malvern Hills, July 
1st, the brave First took an active part, and suf- 
fered severe losses, with great hardship and con- 
tinual fighting. In all these engagements, it lost 
imiety men. At the Battle of Fair Oaks, the 
Second Sharp-Shooters was united with the First 
Begiment, and continued with them during the 
rest of the campaign. 
The disastrous termination of the operations 



by McClellan, and the heavy losses of the army, 
produced a feeUng of great discouragement and 
doul)t throughoiil the North. On July 2. thepres- 
ident called for 3(iO.(i(lii more troops. Still this 
lieavy draft was met cheerfully, and in this State 
vigorous stejis were taken to till our quota. On 
July 24lh. a rousing war meeting was held at the 
Capit^il. which liglitcd anew the tires of jiatriot- 
isni, roused the despondent, and inftised new 
hopes into all. Recniiting commenced vigor- 
ously. But scarcely was the work under way. 
when the call of A\igust 4th. for 3(l(i.U(Ht more 
troops, was issued. It now became evident that 
special exertions would he needed to fill our quo- 
tii by the Ihtli, at wliich time tlie Secretary of 
■\Var had ordered a draft to he made, if not filled. 
Public meetuigs were held at various places, and 
large sums of money were subscribed by individ- 
uals, in addition to local bounties, to stimulate 
enlistments. Great excitement prevailed through- 
out the State for some days— fully equal to the 
patriotic war spirit following the fall of Sumpter. 
and business seemed to be almost suspended ; in 

fact, in many instances, actually was, as the en- 
tire employees of many establishments enlisted. 
To some extent, martial law was enforced in the 
State. The Adjutant (Jeneral. in a pulilished 
proclamation, forbatle citizens (males of military 
age) from leaving the State without a jiass from 
him, nor were they allowed to go from one county 
to another without a permit from the Sheriff. 
The Sixth Kegiment, which was partially tilled 
when the call of July 2d was issued, was quickly 
tilled and organized. A seventh regiment was 
authorized on August 5th. On August Kith the 
eighth was called for ; on August 13th, the ninth; 
and soon after even a tenth. Recruiting for the 
old regiments was also brisk. Four companies 
were received at Fort Snclling in one day. The 
Press of August 19th. says: "On Sunday and 
yesterday, large bodies of men were continually 
I>ouring in."" Over tliree thousand men were 
then at the fort. Tlie work of receiving, muster- 
ing in, clothing and ecpupping these troops, laid 
on the authorities a heavy task. 





The Sioux Massacre —The Events Winch ProhaMy le.l to It.— Discontent of tlie 
Indians.- The Murders at Acton.— Commencement of the Carnage at Red 
Wood.— Awful Scenes.— Harrow Escape of Wliites.-The Battle of Red Wood 
Ferry.— Fiendish Cruelties of the Savages.— Panic and Flight of the Settlers.— 
Condition of Atfairs at Fort Ridgely.— The Alarm Reaches St. Peter.— Rein- 
forcements Set Out from There. -The first Attack on Hew Ulni,— The Savages 
Repulsed.— They Besiege Fort Ridgely— But Fail to Capture It-And Again 
Fall on New Ulm.— Desperate Fighting.- The Town Nearly Burned Down — 
The Savages Withdraw, Unsuccessful.- The Town Evacuated.— End of the first 
" Week of Blood."— Its Results to the State. 

While these exciting events were ooeurriiig, 
and attracting tlie attention of our citizens, a 
fearful storm was gathering in an unexpected 
quarter, and soon burst upon our state with ap- 
palling fury. The Sioux Indians, of -whom sev- 
eral thousand were living on reservations in the 
western portions of Jlinnesota, had been for sev- 
eral weeks (i. e. since about June 14th) collected 
at the Yellow Medicine agency, to receive their 
annual payment. This would have been made 
to them by the proper officer, at that time and 
place, promptly, had nut the necessities of the 
government just at that juncture, prevented tlie 
prompt transmission of the !?70,()00 in gold coin, 
which was to pay the Indians their annuities. 
As soon as it could be got ready, it ^\■as sent, and 
hurried forward by special messengers, night and 
day, arriving just one day too late. Meantime 
the Indians were waiting impatiently for their 
money, and for the provisions and other supplies 
which were to he given them when the payment 
was made. They were almost destitute of food, 
and some were really suffering from hunger. In 
this discontented condition, they were ready to 
listen to liad counsel. ^lahciiuis parties hail whis- 
pered to them tliat the war had destroyed most 
of the young men of the whites; that only old 
men and boys were left; and if so disposed they 
could repossess tliemselves of the land; that they 
were to be cheated out of their money by the 
traders, wliom they had before accused of de- 
frauding them; and other wrongs, real or fan- 
cied, were recited to inllame them. As was 
usual, a small detachment of trooiis had been 

sent to the agency when the Indians first assem- 
bled, to preserve order. This consisted of fifty 
men from Fort Ridgely, mider Capt. Jno. S. 
Marsh, and fifty from Fort Ripley, commanded 
l)y Lieut. T. J. Sheehan. Yet, notwithstanding 
the presence of these soldiers, guarding the ware- 
houses, on Aug. 4th. several hundred Indians 
attacked and broke into one of the buildings, 
and took about one hundred sacks of flour before 
they could be stopped. Tlie missionaries, with 
Major (ialbraitli, the agent, at length quieted 
this outlneak. The agent issued some ammuni- 
tion and goods to them, and persuaded them to 
disperse, and he would send them word when 
the money was ready for them. To this they 
appeared to agree, and apparently left the agency 
and went to then- hunting-grounds. It was now 
supposed that the troulile was over, and the 
troops were allowed, on Aug. 16th, to depart for 
their posts. But it was only the calm before the 
storm. All this time bad blood was brewing, 
and the storm gathering, unnoticed, or at least 
unheeded by the whites. Only a spark was 
needed to explode this magazine of sfivage fury, 
and that, at length came. There is good evi- 
dence to believe that during this interval the In- 
dians were holding councils and " soldier's lodg- 
es, ■' and had concluded that as the forts were 
manned by but a handful of soldiers, it would be 
a good time to rise and sweep away the white 
race from their old hunting-grounds. 

On Sunday, Aug. 17, a party of four Indians, be- 
longing to a band noted for insubordination, were 
in the nei.ghborhood of Acton, Meeker County, 
where the}- had been for several days hunting. 
They w'ere angry and quarrelsome. They came 
to the house of a Mr. Howard Baker, where they 
found him and Ids wife, and a 5Ir. Webster and 
wife. Mr. Robinson Jones and wife and a Miss 
Wilson, neighbors, came in soon after. The In- 
dians had previously had a quarrel with Jones, 



wliicli was now renewed. Tliey then proposed 
slKKitiii}; at a mark with IJaker aiid Jones, which 
was done. Aft«r dischargijig tlieir guns, the 
Indians at once reloaded, and commenced firing 
on tlie whites. Jones and Ids wife, and Baker 
and AVebsler were killed, and iliss Wilson, ilrs. 
Haker and child, and Mi's. AVebsler, were \u\- 
hiirt. The four Indian murderers then stole 
liorses in the nei)iliV)orliood, and rode rapidly, 
dnrinff the night, to the Indian village near the 
agency, ^^here they told what they had done, and 
urged that, as Mood had been spilt, and they 
would suffer the penalty, they must all unite 
and e.xterminate the wlnles. The other Indians 
then armed lliemselves. and at sunrise, Aug. 18, 
the Work of the deatli cimnnenced. at the Lower 
Sioux Agency, near Red AV'ood. It is stnmgly 
as.serted liy other writers, who give good reasons 
for the belief, thai the Indians collected at the 
Agency had all ready demanded on the massacre, 
and commenced it on the isth. witliout knowing 
of the events at Acl4)n. 

The lirst victim to this licllisli plot was .lames 
AV. Lynde, a clerk in the trading house of ^'athan 
ilyrick. He was a man of fine attainments, and 
had written a work on the History and Keligion 
of the Dakotas, which was just reaily for ]iubli- 
cation. Three other persons were killed at llie 
8;une store. At Fr)rbes" trading house, near by, 
(;eorge H.Spencer, the clerk, was ba<lly wounded, 
when his life was saved by the interiMisition of a 
friendly Indian, named Chaska. who protected 
him until he recovered. Otlier white persons in 
anil near the houses at the agency, were either 
killed or wounded, within a few minutes. At 
this jKiint the Indians ceased their carnage, in 
ordt-r to jilundcr the stores aii<l government ware- 
houses, ami this delay enabled liev. S. D. Ilin- 
man and some cillur whites, to escape to Fort 
Ilidgely. spreading the alarm as they went. 

Aft<T a brief lime spcMd by (hi' savages in rob- 
bing tlie stores, they continued theirw.)rkof car- 
nage in ever)' direction. They were soon joined 
by the warriore of the <ither bands, and, to the 
nundier rif two or lliree hundred, spread through 
the .settlements for wveral miles n|) and down 
the river, murdering all the wlnt«'S whom they 
iMinhl hnd. exrepting a few yoiuig wotnem. whom 
they t<Nik eaplive. and in many instances burning 
tlic liouses of the settlers. 

Meantime, the whites at the uiiper. or Yellow 
Jiledicine Agency, some thirty miles distant, were 
in ignorance of these dreadful scenes, and of the 
danger which threatened them. It was not until 
nearly night when .lolin t)lher-l)ay, a Christian 
Indian, brought them the dreadful news, and 
warned them to save their lives. The whites, 
si.\ty-two in niunber, at once took refuge in a 
■warehouse; but lliglit seemed the only safe 
course, and before daylight the ne.xt morning, 
they were on their W'ay across the prairies to- 
wards Henderson, the men on foot, and the wo- 
men and children, with S. B. (iarvie, win) had 
escaped from his warehouse, alter being badly 
wounded, in wagons. The noble Other-Day 
piloted them truly and skillfully. This party, 
after great hardships, arrived safely at the settle- 
ments on the Minnesota river, and thence to St. 
Paul, though .Mr. tiarvie died on the way. The 
two missionaries, Messrs. Williamson and Kiggs, 
also escaped, with their fiimilies, after suffering 
much hardshiii. 

On Monday mnrnnig. August istli. about three 
hours after the Ursl oulbicaU al UM Wood 
agency, a messenger from that place arriveil at 
Fort Bidgely. twelve miles distant, with the 
starlling news. Cajitain Marsh, ('omi)any 1!. 
Fifth lleginicnt. then in cnmmaiiil. at once dis- 
l)atched a courier to Lieutenant Sheehan. Com- 
pany ('. Fifth Kegiment. who. with his detach- 
ment, had left the post the nionnng i>revious on 
his return to Fori Hii'le\. and also to .Major (ial- 
braitli, who had left at llie sami' time tor St. 
Peter, with about lifty recruits, called the ■Ken- 
ville Hangers." en-route for Fort Snelliug. mging 
them tn vet ui II at once. Captain Marsh al onC3 
left for the scene of earnage. with forty-four men 
on foot. After a forced march, he arrived about 
2 o'clock I'. M. at the Icny <.p|iosile tlie .Vgency, 
near which iilace they Immd nine disid bodies. 
They were met here b> K'cx. Mi. Hiniuan, on his 
way to the fori, who cautioned Capl. .Marsh against 
an ambuscade, and warned him to return, as the 
Indians greatly oiilninnbered his force. Captain 
.Marsh, who was a very brave but very rash man. 
would not listen to the advice, declaring that he 
could "whip all the Indians." or something to 
llial cffi'ct. .\rrivingal the feiry, his men were 
drawn up on the bank, in jilain sight, when three 
orfourhundrcd Imlians cunrealed in the thickets 



near by, poured a volley into them. Nearly half 
of his men fell dead or mortally woiuid«l at the 
first file, some of them pierced with twenty bid- 
lets, while several others were wovmded, but 
managed ultimately to escape ; some of them not 
reaching tlie fort for three days. The surs'ivors 
of this sudden attack (Captain Marsh being himself 
uninjured) fell back from the ferry towards tlie 
fort, keeping up a running flglit amidst the thick 
timber on the river bottom, but against terrible 

Rushing up to the fallen soldiers, the savages 
tomahawked tliose still living, and tore the scalps 
from most of them, inflicting also nameless bru- 
talities on their corpses. All the fine Springfield 
muskets carried by the dead, and their ammuni- 
tion, fell into the hands of the redskins, and were 
subsequently used by them, with deadly effect, at 
the sieges of FortKidgely and NewL'lm, and tlie 
battle of Birch Coolie. Tlie remains of the fallen 
heroes were ultimately interred at Fort Ridgely, 
and the legislature, some years subsequently, 
caused a fine monument to be erected there in 
honor of their bravery. 

For some time a hot battle raged in the forest, 
Capt. Marsh and his men retreating towards the 
fort, ciiiitesting the ground, inch by inch. Fmd- 
ing tliat his men were falling fast, and that the 
enemy was gathering in force ahead of him, so as 
to cut him off, he determined to cross the river, 
so as to gain the open prairie on that side, and 
reach the fort, if possible. He had now but thir- 
teen men left. At their head be attempted to 
Wade tlie river, but was drow'ued while so doing. 
His men got over in safety, and made their way 
to tlie fort about dark. Out of the forty-four 
who had left it that morning, twenty-four were 
dead. Thus ended the Battle of Redwood Ferr\ . 
the first engagement of the war. The Indians, it 
is thought, lost only one or two warriors. 

Flushed with this easy victory in their first 
encounter with our troops, the Indians now con- 
sidered that the way was clear for their bloody 
war of extermination. They scattered m every 
direction, carrying death and torture to the homes 
of all tlie .settlers withia reach. For several days 
the work of carnage was awful. No pen can 
describe the horrors of that bloody week. So 
sudden and unexpected was tlie outbreak, and so 
insidious and skulking the mode of warfare of ' 

the savages, that the inhabitants were overtaken at 
their various pursuits and butchered in cold blood, 
without any chance of flight or resistance. Most 
of them were European- imroigrants who had re- 
cently settled on the frontier, and were quite im- 
acquatnted with savage warfare and treachery. 
But few of them possessed effective fire-arms, or 
weapons of any kind, indeed, and even if they 
had these, so sudden and stealthy was the onset, 
that resistance would have been unavailing. The 
savages generally went about on these raids in 
squads of eight or ten, well armed. In many 
instances the treacherous devils would advance 
boldly and with friendly demeanor into houses 
with whose owners they were acquainted, as if 
to ask for food, (as was their custom, for the set- 
tlers had always freely supplied tliem) ; when all 
at once they would shoot down or tomahawk 
the unsuspecting inmates, perhaps the very per- 
sons who had many times fed them when hun- 
gry. In a few instances children, and sometimes 
adults, fled unobserved while this work of death 
was going on, and escaped a like fate by skulking 
in the grass or bushes, from whence they were 
often compelled to witness the cruel tortiu-es 
practiced on the other members of their family, 
or flee for life with the death shrieks of the suffer- 
ing victims ringuig in their ears. Some of those 
who escaped thus, were rescued many days sub- 
sequently, after enduring incredible hardships, 
skulking by day around deserted houses, endeav- 
oring to find food, and wandering by night 
through the trackless waste, towards the settle- 
ments. Delicate women, carrying or leading in- 
fant children, thus traveled scores of miles to 
some place of safety, sometimes womided and 
sick and almost naked. Many perished from 
hunger, exposure or wounds. Others lived, to 
suffer for years from their injuries, Tliere 
were literally hundreds of such incidents as the 
above, and a full naiTative of these adventures 
;uid escapes would fiU volumes. No record can 
ever be made of them, and the fate of many wUl 
never be known mitil the last day. 

The cruel barbarities practiced by the savages 
on their victims, was another sickening feature 
of the massacre, and its bare recital makes one 
shudder. All the fiendish cruelties that their ' 
savage nature and pent up hatred of the pale 
faces could suggest, they wreaked on their vlo- 



tims, a people who hafl always been their friends 
and benefactors. The wounded and dying were 
scalped or tomakawked out of all semblance of 
humanity. The bowels of many were gashed 
open, and their hands and feet, or other members, 
cut off and thrust into them. Children were 
slashed >vith knives, eyes gouged out, ears or 
hands cut off. or skulls smashed with war clubs. 
Some of these survived even such awful wounds. 
Babes were thrust living into stove ovens, and 
tliere left, to roast to death. Pregnant women 
were rijiiied open, and their unborn balies torn 
away, and thmwn into tlieir face, or nailed to a 
door or tree, for their dying gaze to witness. But 
few women, comiiaratively, were killed outright. 
Instant death would have been a more merciful 
fate than they were reserved for. Frequently 
delicate young maidens were tied, or held by the 
fiends, and repeatedly outraged by the band of 
rai>tors, .some actually dying in the hands of their 
tormentors, or if they survived, led into a caj)- 
tivity of horrors. But let us draw a veil over 
these atrocities. 

After the murder of the inmates of a house, 
pillage was the next step, and the torch was then 
generally ajiiilied to it, oftentimes the wounded 
victims, unal)le to escape, being burned to death. 
Day after day the columns of smoke rising here 
and tliere sliowed where tlie various bands of de- 
mons were ]>ly ing tlieir work of destruction, while 
night after night the sky along the frontier was 
lurid with the light of burning homes. Two or 
three tlioiis;nid dwellings were tlius destroyed, in 
ad<Iition to tliree entire towns. Cattle were shot 
from mere wantonness, and others left to staiTe, 
■with no one to attend them, llorees were saved 
for the use of the marauders, hundreds of them 
being stolen, and in many instances the savages 
were observed riding to aM<l fm in line buggies 
and carriages. 

As the liouseK of tlie settlers were generally 
i.Holalcd from each other. IIk; news of tlie out- 
lireak couhl not reach the more remote and scat- 
tered, in sea.son to save them. Along the main 
roads leading to the settlements, the alarm was 
spread by fiigilives. after a ilay or two, and this 
fact enaliled thousaiuls to save their lives who 
would otlier^vis*! have fallen. Abandoning houses, 
crops, cattle— everything, hastily seizing some 

food and clothing, and harnessing their teams, 
they tied towards Xew Ulm. Fort lUdgely, St. 
Peter, ilankato, Henderson, and other towns 
along the river. Some even pressed on to St. 
Paul. Soon the roads were literally crowded 
with a panic-stricken cavalcade, on foot, on 
horseback, in all sorts of vehicles, hurrying along 
with blanched faces and nervous trepidation. 
Many were pursued and shot at (some killed, 
even) while flying, and all had horrid stories to 
relate. Lieut. Gov. Donnelly, on Aug. 26, wrote 
from St. Peter: "You can hardly conceive the 
panic existing along the valley. In Belle Plaine 
I found 600 people crowded in. In this place 
there are between 3,000 and 4,000 refugees. On 
the road between New I'lm and ^Mankiito were 
over 2,000. ^Mankato is also crowded. * * * 
Their property in the mean time abandoned and 
going to ruin.'' The condition of these throngs 
of fugitives, crowded into the small towns, was 

The handful of men who survived the massa- 
cre at Uedowod Ferry, and made their way back 
to Fort Bidgely, found Ibaliiosl already crowdeil 
with panic-stricken fugitives from the sur- 
rounding country. All night these poor settlers 
arrived from every direction, many of tliem 
wounded, having left portions of their families 
murdered, and their homes in llaines. In every 
direction, all night long, the sky was reddened 
with the light of burning houses. It was a night 
of terror and desiiondency. About ten o'clock 
on Tuesday morning, the inmates were gladdened 
with the return of Lieutenant Sheehan and his 
command, who, on being overtaken the evening 
before by the messenger sent out to recall them, 
had made a forced march of sixteen hours. 
Lieutenant SIiccIimii at oin'c tmik coimiiand of 
the post, and in coimcctiou with Sergeant John 
Jones, of the regular army, jxisl ordinance ser- 
geant, took effective measures to put tlie fort in 
a defensible condition. All the civilians wlio 
were lit for duty, were armecl, or i>ut on guard, 
and even the women were employed making cart- 
ridges, running bullets. &c. No attack was made 
that day. however, although ludiaiis were seen 
watching th(^ fort. (The warriors were busy at- 
tacking New rim, as will be seen a little farther 
on.] About noon on Monday, the messengers iuid 
guard in charge of the $70,000 in gold, reached 



Fort Ridgely, and remained there diu'ing the 

Let us now follow Mr. J. C. Dickin.son, of 
Lower Agency, the messenger sent from Red- 
wood to recall Maj. Galbraith from St. Peter. 
Maj. G., so well satisfied was he with the loyal 
promises of the Indians, had left the agency 
witii some volunteers for Fort Suellhig. His 
family were at Yellow Medicine, and escaped 
from that place. He, with the " Renville Ran- 
gers,"" Lieut. O'Gornian, had arrived at St. Peter 
Monday evening, when Mr. Dickinson reached 
there, with the startling news. It was at first 
discredited, but he at once made preparations to 
return, with the Rangers, and a company of vol- 
unteer citizens. He immediately dispatched "VVm. 
II. Shelley, of St. Paul, who was with him, with 
a message to Gov. Ramsey, asking military aid. 
Shelley rode at full speed all night, and reached 
St, Paul, nearly one hundred miles distant, at 10 
o'clock 1'. jr. Tuesday, spreading the news as he 
passed down the valley. Gov. Ramsey at once 
took steps to send troops to the scene of blood. 
But of this anon. 

Monday night was spent by the soldiers and 
citizens at St. Peter in organizing companies, 
searching for arms, making cartridges, etc. Early 
on Tuesday morning, the bells were rung and the 
uihabitants called together. Great excitement 
prevailed, but a company was at once organized. 
Hon. Chas. E. Flandrau, associate justice of the 
Supreme Court, was elected captain, and W. B. 
Dodd, first lieutenant. Teams, wagons, camp 
equipage, etc., were hastily collected. 

iSIajor Galljraith, with the Renville Rangers, 
and others who accomixuiied them, armed as 
well as could be possible, left St. Peter at 6 Ju m., 
and after a hard march, reached Fort Ridgely 
(Forty-tive miles distant) the same evening. Just 
as they arrived at the fort, a furious thunder- 
gust came up. In the darkness and rain they 
got into the fort safely, although hundreds of 
Indians were watching it, and must have seen 
them but for the storm. There were now 250 
fencible men in the fort, and the crowd of fu- 
gitives hourly increasing. These were cared for 
as well as possible, the hospital being fidl of 

Meantime a company of sixteen horsemen left 
St. Peter (Tue.sdayJ for the aid of New Ulm, 

which was reported by fugitives to be m great 
danger. At one o'clock the same day, Hon. Chas. 
E. Flandrau left for the same place with 100 
well armed men, on foot. Let us uow give some 
accomit of the 


This town was on the south bank of the ]Minne- 
sota River, thirty miles, by land, from St. Peter, 
and eighteen miles below Fort Ridgely. It con- 
tained about l.oUO inhabitants, mostly Germans. 
On Monday mornmg, Aug. 18th, a party of citizens 
left 'New Ulm to recruit for volimteers. "When 
some seven or eight miles west of new Ulm, they 
found several dead bodies lying in the road. Con- 
vinced that tiie Indians had risen, they retraced . 
their steps, but on their way back were fired on, 
and several of the party killed. The rest fled to 
town and gave the alarm. At the same time, 
fugitives came in from other directions, near the 
town, all telling horrid tales of butchery. This 
created a great panic in the town, and many fled 
to St. Peter. All that day and night, and next 
day, fugitives conthiued pouring into the place. 
The leading men of the town at once took steps 
to organize for defence. Arms were collected, 
barricades erected, sentinels posted, and every- 
thmg done which could be, to repel an attack. 
These precautions were taken none too soon. 
About four o'clock on Tuesday, a party of mount- 
ed Indians appeared on the prairie above the 
town, and dismounting, advanced on the place. 
The few men who had arms, at once attacked 
them, but most of the people gathered into the 
iiouses in the center of the town, panic stricken. 
Fortunately, soon after the attack commenced, 
the fifteen horsemen from St. Peter arrived, and 
at once began a vigorous defence. The savages 
burned several buildings on the west edge of th 
town, and kept up a hot fire on the people with- 
in the barricade. The St. Peter cavalry soon 
made such a brave advance on the Indians, that 
they were compelled to retire, about dark, sev- 
eral having been killed. During the engagement, 
the whites lost several, killed and wounded, also. 
About nine o'clock, in the midst of a furious 
tliunder-storni. Judge Flandrau, with over one 
hundred men, reached the town, and were 
warmly welcomed. Vigorous efforts to organize 
for defence were at once made. Judge Flan- 



drau was clioseii commander-in-chief, Capt. Dodd, 
provost nuirsliiil, &c. Small reinforcements con- 
tinued til arrive fnini Mankato and otlier points, 
and l)y Thursday. ;toj armed men were guarding 
the town. AVednesday passed without any 
alarms, anil scouting parties were sent out in va- 
rious directions to hury the dead, of which a 
nimd)er were found. Let us now glance at the 
condition of tilings 


.Miiiut lln-ee ocloek on 'Wednesday, the 2oth. 
the first attivck was made on this ])ost, probably 
by the same force who had been at New I'lni the 
evening )irevions. It is thought live hundred 
Indians were engaged in it. ConceaUng them- 
selves in the wooded ravines near the post, the 
savages suddenly advanced on it w itli horrid yells 
and a volley of balls. The suddenness of the on- 
set almost threw the garrison olT llieir guard, and 
two of the soldiei's were killed at the lirsl lire. 
The men speedily rallied, however, and fought 
bravely. Sergeant Jones was (]uickly at his guns. 
two e-poundeiTj and one 24-i)ouuder. but on at- 
temjiting to fire, they w<iuld not go off. On 
di-awiug the charges, he found liieiu stulTed willi 
rags! Some treacherous half-breeds had done 
this dastardly act, and then deserteil lo the 
enemy. Assisted by a citizen. J. ('. AVliijiiile. 
who had served in the Mexican war. and Sergt. 
ilctjrew. of Conipain ('. he soon (xiured several 
rounds of cannister and shell into the thickets. 
amongst the foe, killing ami wounding a number. 
The savages then succeeiled in crawling up be- 
hind some old outbuildings and hay-.stacks, from 
wiiicli they poured furious volleys into llie fort. 
Sergt. Jones soon set these on fire willi shells. 
and drove the savages off. At dusk the light of 
this lire, an<l the noise of llie artillery, impressed 
the iH'ople at New I Im :iiiil other places in the 
vicinity wilh the beliel thai the fort had fallen, 
liul when night closed down, tjie s:ivages with- 
drew. The garrison renuiincil on mvuis all night. 
One gicMl daugei- was the ibyuess of the roofs' 
which could have been ignited with " lire-ar- 
rows." A! watch was kept, and Providence 
favored the beleagiired force, for late at night a 
heavy raiu-sl<irm <ouurienced failing, and contin- 
ued until next day, entirely averting this danger. 
The large Blableu uf the fori, about thirty rods 

distant, were perfectly tilled with goverimient 
mules, and horses brought in by the fugitives. 
These the Indians succeeded in gettmg out and 

The next morning (Thursday) the attiick was 
renewed about o'clock, and lasted hotly for au 
hour, when the savages relreateil. but again at- 
tacked the foit about ti P. .M.. when anotliei' en- 
gagement took place, and lasted about an hour. 
But their efforts to captin-e the fort were useless. 
They found it too well defended. It could have 
been taken by charging into it, but this Indiana 
are afraid to do. ^leantime the garrison was be- 
coming worn out with loss of sleep and continual 
labor and lighting. Nearly live hundred refugees 
were crowded into its small buildings, where 
they were compelled to lie on the Uoor to avoid 
the bullets of the foe, which swept like a hail- 
storm through the windows. To add to the trou- 
ble, many were becoming sick, and the stores 
both of aniniuiiitioii and provisions, and even 
water, were running low. 

That night, as subsei|uenl e\ idcine revealed. 
Little Crow ami his forces rctunicd to the Lower 
.Vgency. where he found the u]iper Indians, whom 
he had .sent for, arrived. This increased his 
force to 450 warriors. Large numbers were also 
marauding among the settlements, as far east as 
Forest City and as far south as Lake Shelek. 
Conlident that with this large force he could take 
both Fort Itidgely and New Ulm, he now moved 
on the former i)ost. 

During the night, however, the garrison had 
strengthened its weak points with great .skill and 
success. ICartliworks had been thrown up. bar- 
ricades erected, out of cordwood. .sacks of giaiu. 
etc.. and other defenses provided, while llie can- 
non were statio I so as to command the most 

exposed points, and the rillemen iiostcd where 
they could do the greatest ex<'cution. About 
noon the Indians aiijieareil in greater nmubers 
than on either previous attack, and commenced 
an assault so determined and furious, it seemeil 
as if they were conlident that this time the post 
must fall. Ihit as they advauceil. yelling like de- 
mons, the gunners sent a st<u-m of grape and can- 
nister amongst them, while the rillemen poured 
volley after volley into them, and the savages re- 
treated from this hot lire. They soon rallie(| and 
took i> of the stables and other onlbuild- 



inss near the fort, and kept vip a terrible fire from 
tliem. A perfect storm of balls poured into tlie 
frame buildings in the fort, sometimes passing 
clear through them. Several soldiers were hit, 
and some civilians (one being killed), though all 
the non-combatants kept well concealed, i inally 
Sergt. Jones was compelled to Are the outbuild- 
ings with shells, and drive the savages out. 
Soon the flames and black smoke rolled up, and, 
with the yells of the Indians, the rattle of small 
arms, and the thunder of the cannon, made an 
exciting scene. For five hours the battle raged 
hotly. Little Crow was heard repeatedly order- 
ing his warriors to charge into the fort, and sev- 
eral times they gathered for that purpose and 
started, but Sergt. Jones would send a storm of 
shell or camiister among them, and drive them 
l)ack. It is thought numbers of them were killed 
in this attack. 

About dark their fire ceased, and the night was 
passed in quiet, but there were few slept around 
the post except the non-combatants. All the men 
were under arms all night, being five nights of 
weary vigil and sleeplessness. The garrison were 
well nigh worn out, and expected another day of 
hard fighting. The sun rose, but no signs of In- 
dians. AVork was continued on the fortifications, 
which were greatly strengthened. While thus 
engaged, a large body of mounted Indians (said 
by Louis Robert, who counted them, to number 
nearly 1 ,000) were seen coming down from the 
Lower Agency on the opposite side of the river. 
They did not, however, cross to the Fort Ridgely 
side, but kept on towards New Ulm. It now 
became evident that the latter place was their 
ol)jective point, and the garrison breathed freer. 
Still, they knew not what a day might bring 
forth, and kept up their working and watching. 
Let us now return to 

NEW tlLM, 

and see how that beleagured to^Ti fared. After 
the battle of Tuesday, 'leJore described, no at- 
tack had been made on the town, though small 
parties of Indians, doul)tless scouts, were once 
or twice seen near the place. This hiterval of 
quiet was spent in erecting barricades, and other 
works of defence, and in taking such stei)s as 
seemed necessary, in case of another attack. 
About ten o'clock A. m. on Saturday, the 23d, 

the Indians (mounted) appeared in great force on 
the prairie above town, and our forces were at 
once posted on the open ground in that direction. 
The Indians first approached slowly, but when 
about a mile from our line, increased their speed, 
and gradually spread out their front, like a fan, 
initil it covered our whole line. On they came at 
full speed, yelling Uke demons. When about 
double rifle-shot off, Col. Flandrau's men, mex- 
perienced in such warfare, fell back on the town, 
the Indians firing on them. The whites com- 
mitted the error of passing the outermost build- 
ings, and not occupying them, an error the sav- 
ages soon took advantage of, as they at once took 
possession of them, and opened a furious fire on 
our men. By the exertions of Col. Flandrau, 
the latter soon ralhed, and commenced a vigorous 
fire from every protected spot, each doing duty 
as best he could, '-on his own hook." They soon 
recovered their coolness, and fought bravely. 
The enemy, from their great numbers, were able 
to surroimd the town, and soon poured into it a 
fire from every direction. The battle became fu- 
rious and general. 

The Indians also succeeded in getting possess- 
ion of the houses on the bluff, which gave them a 
great advantage, commanding, as it did, the inte- 
rior of the town below, but about twenty men of the 
Le Sueur company had occupied the windmill, a 
high biuldiiig in that locaUty, and kept up such a 
hot fire, the Indians could do but little execution on 
that side. They took possession of the lower end 
of the city, however, and, the wind being from 
that direction, fired the houses one by one, ad- 
vancuig thus towards the center of the city, con- 
cealing themselves behind the smoke. The 
greatest danger seemed now to be from this di- 
rection, and a strong force of the best marksmen 
was sent to resist the advance. They fought 
bravely, and checked the enemy considerably. 
The battle here was very hot for several hours. 
About three o'clock the enemy concentrated a 
force on the river side, as if preparing for a grand 
assault. A detaclmient was sent to meet it. The 
Indians came on at full speed, but our men stood 
firm, and sent such volleys among them, that they 
broke and retreated, losing several. Two of our 
best marksmen, however, fell at the same time. 

The battle raged fiuiously and without inter- 
mission imtil dark. Many of our men were 



wounded, several killed. AH had foiight nobly, 
some performing feats of great daring. The en- 
emy had left ten dead on the field, besides many 
killed and wounded carried off, and had gained, 
so far. no great advantage; but if the attack con- 
tinned much longer, the worst result was feared. 
Xight closed on the weary defenders, full of 
doubt and anxiety. 

A consultation was now held among the leading 
men and those in command, as to the " situation." 
One thing that seemed necessary, was to contract 
the lines of defence toward the center of the town 
so that a less number could more readily defend 
any point. To do this it was voted tliat all build- 
ings, except a few in the center of tlie town, must 
be l)urned. To this the inhabitants consented, 
and themselves a))plied the torch to about forty 
buildings. One brick house was left, and loop- 
holed for defence. Including those burned by the 
savages. liKi houses in all were now in ashes. 
Only about twenty-five were still standing. A 
range of rifle-pits were now dug in front of the 
barricade, and all the defences strengthened. 

Wlieii morning dawned (Sunday, August 24th), 
the savages feebly renewed their attack, but they 
soon saw they were foiled. In order to get near 
enough to the barricade or buildings to do any 
execution, they must pass over an open siiace right 
in the face of the defenders rifles, where there 
•was not even a bunch of grass to .skulk behind. 
They kept up a lire at long range for three or four 
hours, but as it made no impression they ceased 
llie attack about noon, and left ii the direction of 
Lower Agency They were seen from Fort Kidge- 
ly tlia afternoon, passing up the river with a long 
train oi wat^ons. jirobably loaiied with their plun- 
der, and many horses and cattle stolen from the 
settlers. Neither Fort IJidgely nor New Ulm 
were again attacked. The brave resistance of the 
whites had balked the red demons at both places. 
Had either of those posts fallen, hundreds of 
women and children, and even of the armed men, 
would have been massacred. ]5ut few would 
have escajied, and there is no doubt hut that the 
victorious savages would have pressed on anil 
tjiken both St. Teter and Mankato. 

In the attack on New Ulm, ten whites were 
killed and about lifty wounded. The few build- 
ings left standing in the ])Iace. were almost tilled 
with the dead and wounded, and with sick people ; 
for disease ha<l by this time commenced to do its 
work. The iirovisions were nearly exhausted, 
and it seemed impossible to hold the place any 
longer. There were no houses adequate to shel- 
ter the two thousand peoi^le now crowded within 
the fortilications. Huiidieds had been for several 
days huddled in cellars and other unsuitable pla- 
ces. On Sunday afternoon, one hundred and 
fifty more volunteers from St. Peter and vicinity, 
arrived, in coinniaiid of E. St. .Tiilien Cox, well 
armed and ecniipped. A council of war was held, 
and it was resolved to evacuate the town. Ac- 
cordingly, on Monday. August 2otli, every inhab- 
itant, some two thousand in number, with a train 
of one hundred and lifty-tliree wagons bearing 
the sick, wounded and feeble, commenced the 
march to Mankato. •■ It was a melancholy spec- 
tacle (says Colonel Flaiidrau, in his report) to see 
two thousand peoi^Ie, who a week before had been 
prosperous and happy, reduced to utter beggary, 
starting on a journey of tliirty miles tlirongh a 
Iio.stile country.'' The volunteer troops guarded 
the train through safely 

One week had now elapsed since the cruel mas- 
sacre liegaii. it was a '-week of blood."' Over 
seven hundred persons had been murdered (many 
think the number exceeds one thousand); two 
hundred had been tiiken captive ; nearly two 
thousand houses burned; thousands of horses 
and cattle stolen, and a fertile region some two 
huiidii'il miles 1(111'.; and one liuiidiTd wide, laid 
waste and depo|Milate(l. Highteeii counties were 
ravagi'il, tliirty thousand peoph' (one-tenth of the 
population of the State) homeless, their crops and 
property going to ruin. Claims were subsequently 
filed by nearly three thousand jier.sons, who lost 
property valued at .■jlJ.-'iOd.OOd. Jhit this does not 
represent the total loss to our State, while lu) sum 
can represent the sorrow and suffering caused by 
the massacre. 





Military Measures to Defend the Frontier, — Want of any Organized Force. — H. H- 
Sibley Appointed to Command an Expedition.— Great Lack of Anns and Am- 
ninnition. — Volunteers Hurry to the Rescue in Large Force.— CoL Sihley fiath- 
ers a Column at St. Peter— And Relieves Fort Ridgely— Great Want of Ammu- 
nition, Transportation, and Supplies — Danger of a Chippewa Outbreak. — Ac- 
count of Indian Raids ill K.aiidiyohi, Meeker, and other Counties. — Siege of 
Hutchinson. — Siege of Fort Abercrombie. — A Mounted Force Provided — The 
Battle of Birch Coolie.— Relief Measures for tlie Refugees. —The State Apro- 
priates $25,000. — Cid. Sibley Opens Negotiations for the Release of Prisoners. — 
They Prove Successful. — Extra Session of tlie Legislature. — B.ittle of Wood 
Lake. — The Savages Defeated. — Release of the Captives, ---Arrest and Trial of 
the Guilty Murderers.— Three hundred and Three Convicted and Sentenced to 
be Hung.---Close of the Indian War."-Departure of more Regiments for the 
War.— Hard Figliting by our Troops in the South.— Execution ol Thirty-eight 
Indian Murderers at Mankato. 

While these exciting events were occurrinE; 
along the frontier, the State authorities had been 
acting with great energy and promptness in or- 
ganizing and equipping a military force to pro- 
ceed against the savages. The suddenness of the 
outlireak found them totally iniprepared for any 
such emergency. The Sixth Regiment was in 
barracks at Fort Snelling, nearly full and par- 
tially organized, but its field officers had not yet 
been appointed, nor had the men received their 
arms. The Seventh, Eighth, Kinth and Tenth 
Regiments were also partially recruited but not 
mustered in. Skeleton companies were at Fort 
SneMing, but none had been organized, and 
the men were undisciplined. Large numbers 
had been let off on fiu'lougli, to complete 
harvesting their crops. All the arms due the 
State had been drawn and issued to the old regi- 
ments. The general government was so hard 
pushed that even lilankets and tents could not be 
furnished to the xiew troops. 

Immediately on receiving the news. Governor 
Ramsey appointed Hon. H. H. Sibley, of Men- 
dota, to the command of such forces at Fort 
Snelling as the commandant there. Colonel B. F. 
Smith, could organize on the instant. Colonel 
Sibley was admiralily ([ualified for such a respon- 
sible duty. Ills long and intimate actiuaintaiice 
with the Indian character and habits, and espe- 
cially with the bands now in rebellion, together 

with his knowledge of military matters, and his 

familiarit)' with the topogi-aphy of the country, 
enabled him to either meet the savages in the field 
successfully, or to treat with them to advantage. 

Four companies of troops, about three hundred 
in all. armed with Belgian rifles and 10.000 cart- 
ridges, were furnished to him ; and they at once 
started on a small steamer for Shakopee, arriving 
there on the 20th. From thence they marched to 
St. Peter. On the 21st. the sLx remaining compa- 
nies of the Sixth Regiment were filled by consol- 
idation and transfers, and sent forward as rapidly 
as possible. On the 21st, Governor Ramsey is- 
sued a proclamation, reciting the news of the out- 
break, and calling on such citizens as had horses 
and arms, to start at once and join the expedition 
moving up the rirer. Considerable numbers did 
so. Companies of horsemen were formed in St. 
Paul, and several other places, and rode forward 
night and day. Small companies of infantry also 
organized m various towns in the central and east- 
ern portion of the State, and made forced marches 
to the relief of the frontier. By the end of the 
first " week of blood " (a very short period, con- 
sidering how unprepared the State was for such 
a war) several thousand armed men were pressing 
fonvard on different routes to meet and drive 
back the savages. These companies were mostly 
distributed at stockades and garrisoned towiis 
along the frontier, where they remained for sev- 
eral weeks, until the worst danger was over. On 
September 9th, Governor Ramsey's message re- 
ports, there were twenty-two militia companies, 
with 2800 men under arms, and volunteer troops 
enough to m.ake -a-jOO men in all. 

Oil Friday, the 22d, Col. Sibley arrived at St. 
Peter, and remained there some three days, get- 
ting his troops u» hand and properly armed. The 
latter was a work of difliculty. .Most of the Sixth 
Regiment were armed with Belgian rilles, many of 
them almost worthless, and none of them very 
reliable. But a small part of the cartridges fur- 



nished were of the right calibre, and mmh time 
was lost " swedgiiig " bullets. Gov. Kamsey had. 
on the 20th. telegraphed to the governor of Wis- 
consin to "borrow" 100.000 cartridges. They 
were promptlj' sent, and reached Col. Sibley at 
Fort Ridgely. Provisions had to be collected, 
and transportation secured. Meantime the peo- 
ple of the State were nervous with anxiety, and 
blamed the commander and State authorities for 
not throwing his half-armed and unorganized 
troojis at once on the .several hundred well armed 
and desperate savages at Xew I'lm or Fort 
Ridgely. Had this been done, a •■ Custer massa- 
cre"' would have resulted, and anotlier rout and 
panic ensued, many fold worse tlian lliat of the 
week i)revious. 

By the 24th, nine companies of the sixth reg- 
iment (of which AVni. Crooks had just been ap- 
pointed colonel) were concentrated at St. Peter. 
There were also some three hundred mounted 
men. and several companies of militia infantry. 
On tlie morning of August 2(;th, Col. Sibley, with 
his entire force, about 1400 men, commenced the 
march to Fort Ridgely. Col. McPhaill, with one 
hundred and eighty mounted men, was sent on 
in advance. These arrived at tlie Fort at dark, 
to tlie great joy of its beleaguered inmates. The 
main force arrived on August 28th. No Indians 
were encountered on the way. Tlie expedition 
wa-s halted at this post for several days, initil nec- 
essary reinforcements and ammunition (which he 
called for from the executive) should arrive, and 
enable him to pursue and successfully act against 
the Indians, who had retreated some distance 
up tlie river.where it was reported they had a 
number of prisoners. 

On August 2.>tli, Col. 15. F. Smith was ordered 
to organize a force of 1000 men. out of detach- 
ments of the seventh, eighth, niulh, and tenth 
n'gimeiits, at Fort Siielling, and dispatch said 
force at once to join Col. Sibley. Tliis force was 
put under cflramand of Lt. Col. Wm. R. Marshall, 
of the Keveiitli regiment, and moved forward as 
soon as it could be jiioperly eijuii)pe(I. reaching 
the exjiedilioii on September 1st. 

The ditliculty of securing transiKirlation for 
these expeditions, wiis a serious drawback to ce- 
lerity of iiioveineiit.s. Finally, n gencnil order 
was iiwued by (he adjiitiint general authorizing 
the commanding ofllcers of detaclmientii in act- 

ual service, to seize and impress citizens teams 
whenever needed. This was done, and enough 
transportation secured in that way, resulting in 
many cases of individual hardship, but this is 
one of the inexorable "necessities of war." 
Another great need which bothered the state au- 
thorities, was the scarcity of serviceable arms. 
Good rilles were few. ilany of the troops 
were very poorly armed, and even of these inferi- 
or guns, enough could not be had. The general 
government was telegraphed to. but couUl supply 
none, in season to do any good. The authcii- 
ties then seized all the gun-shops in the states 
and confiscated their serviceable rilles and mus- 
kets, and ammunition. All the powder and lead 
in the hands of dealers everywhere was seized, 
yielding 3,175 pounds of powder and 1.200 pounds 
of lead. Even this was insuflieieiit. A lead 
pipe, some 3.000 feel long, which had been laid 
in one of the streets oi St. Paid, but was just then 
unused, was dug up and melted into bullets. A 
force of young women were working day and 
night makin;; cartridges. Finally, however, all 
the troops were wel supplied and equipped, and 
no further trouble was felt. It must be remem- 
bered that there were then no railroads in the 
state (except one ten-mile section between St. 
Paul and Minneapolis,) and no telegraph but 
one from St. Paul to La Crosse. All military 
messages and dispatches to the frontier, had to 
be sent by special couriers. 


Meantime, a new danger threatened the people 
of the state. In addition to the powerful Sioux 
nation, there were in Minnesota the Winnebagoes, 
with 400 warriors, and in tli« northern half of the 
stJite, the Chiiipewas, whr coidd musler 2..J00 or 
3.000 warriors. There were good grounds for be- 
lieving that these trilies had been in consultation 
with the Sioux, and that it the latter were suc- 
cessful they would also rise It has'been proved 
that several Winni'bagoes participated in the 
earlier murders near the I'pper and Lower Agen- 
cies, while on the same day a.s the outbreak at 
Redwood, the Chiiipewas commenced plundering 
their agency at .Crow "Wing on the U]iper Miss- 
issipjii, and a.ssembliug armed warriors. They 
acted very turbulent, and defiant, and an out- 
br< ak liel ween them ami the whites waa Immi- 



ment. Indeed, on one occasion, shots were act- 
ually exchanged. The possibility of an outbreak 
by them so weighed on tlie mind of Maj. L. C. 
Walker, their agent, that he committed suicide 
near Monticello, on Aug. 23d. Companies of 
cavalry were authorized by tlie state autliorities 
to protect the country north of St. Paul, and per- 
formed patrol duty for some days. Had the 
Chippewas risen also, nearly tlie wliole state 
would have been laid waste. Even the cities of St. 
Paul, jSIinneapolis, etc. , would have been captured, 
as there were not arms in those places enough to 
have defended them. A company of Home 
Guards was organized in St. Paul as a precau- 
tionary measure. For some days the situation 
was veiy critical, and full of danger. Finally, 
Hon. Wm. P. Dole, the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, Hon. H. M. Rice, Major E. A. C. Hatch, 
Clark W. Thompson, and otlier men who had 
influence with the Ojibways, calmed them down, 
and averted what might have proved an awful 


The coimties along the Minnesota River were 
not tlie only ones ravaged by the red devils during 
that week of blood. McLeod, Monongalia, Kandi- 
yohi, Steams, Meeker, Otter Tail, Douglas, Sib- 
ley, etc., were aU overrun in whole or in part, and 
the inhabitants either butchered or driven away. 
Tlie first blood of the outbreak had ijeen shed at 
Acton, Meeker county. A messenger was sent post 
liaste by the citizens there to inform Gov. Ramsey. 
He arrived at the capitol just at the same time 
that the cornier from St. Peter bore the news 
from Redwood. The Governor issued to Capt. 
Geo. C. Whitcomb, of Forest City, seventy-five 
guns and a small amount of ammunition, to en- 
able them to make a stand. Capt. W. returned" 
with these at once, via Hutchinson, where he left 
some of the guns. On arriving at Forest City 
he found the whole region in a state of panic, the 
inhabitants fleeing, and the Indians killing and 
ravaging the country. A company was at once 
organized and armed, and marched over into 
Monongalia county (smce a part of Kandiyohi), 
where they found the bodies of a number of slain, 
and also of hundreds of cattle kUled in mere wan- 
tonness. They also rescued several persons who 

had been woimded and were hiding. The militia, 
aided by citizens at Forest City, at once began 
erecting a large stockade for defence, in the cen- 
ter of town, in which the inhabitants and refugees 
could take shelter. Hearing that a family at 
Green Lake were in great danger, Capt. Whit- 
comb went to their relief. Near that spot his 
men had a hard skirmish with the Indians, in 
which three of the redskins were left dead on the 
ground, and only one of his own men sUghtly 
wounded. He returned to the stockade that 
niglit, but next day, with a larger party, again 
attempted to reach Green Lake. The Indians 
again attacked him, and after a sharp battle he 
returned without loss to Forest City. That night 
the savages made a fierce attack on the town, 
bunied several buildings, and fired on the stock- 
ade, but fortunately hurting no one. The troops 
returned the fire. About daylight the Indians 
were seen trymg to drive off a number of horses 
and cattle in a corral. The troops salhed out and 
drove them off, killing two, and having two of 
their own number badly wounded. By this time 
Meeker county west of Forest City, and all of 
Kandiyohi and Monongalia counties, were entirely 
deserted by the whites. 

On August 26th, Captain Richard Strout of the 
Tenth Regiment, was ordered to proceed to Glen- 
coe and the region adjacent, to protect it. He 
reached that place about September 1st, and 
found the town had been well fortified and de- 
fended by the miUtia mider command of General 
John H. Stevens, of the state militia, and was 
safe from any Immediate danger. He therefore 
marched, with about seventy-five men, towards 
Acton. On the morning of September 3d, he was 
attacked near that place by about one hundred 
and fifty Indians, and a sharp iiattle ensued. 
The troops were driven back towards Hutchinson, 
fighting all the way, until af teiTioon, when they 
reached that place. Captain Strout lost three 
men killed and fifteen wounded, all of whom were 
brought off the field, and lost most of their equi- 
page, rations, &c.,and several horses and wagons 
abandoned and mired. The Indians must have 
lost several killed. 

At Hutchinson, a large stockade liad been built, 
and a company of about sixty miUtia commanded 
by Captain Harrington, were defending the town. 
About nine the next morning, September 4th, the 



Indians attacked the post. They burned all the 
Louses on the edge of the town and one or t\vo 
more centrally located. Our troops sallied out 
and routed them. lioA\ever. and a succession of 
skirmishes ensued, wliicli lasted all day. 

Meantime, General Stevens had heard of the 
engagement near Acton, and at once sent the 
conijianies of Captain Davis and Lieutenant 
Weinmann to the relief of Hutchinson. They 
arrived about si,\ o'clock on the evening of the 
fight, but the Indians had withdrawn. Several 
jiei-sons in the neighborhood were killed by them, 
and others escaped into the stockade. All the 
signs indicated that the Indians had retreated 
towards the upper Minnesota, taking a large 
drove of stolen horses and cattle w ith Ihem. The 
Indians were not seen again in this vicinity until 
September 23d. when a band of about fifty inva- 
ded ^Meeker and Kandiyohi counties. They killed 
two or three settlers who had returned to their 
farms, but seemed more intent on stealing cattle 
than on killing whites. They were pursued by 
the troops, and sixty-live head of cattle rescued 
from them. 

AV right county does not seem to have been in- 
vaded by the Indians. Fortifications were erect- 
ed by the iuhabitaiils at various points, but no 
depredations were made in that locality, so far as 

AN'estern and southern Stearns ((nintv. how- 
ever, suffered severely from the depredations of 
the red foe. About August 23d, they committed 
murders and other crimes near Paynesville. The 
pciil)le of that town erected a strong stockade, 
and the citizens and refugees from points further 
west, sheltered themselves therein. A part of 
the town was binneci. but no attack was made on 
the i)ost. At .Maine Prairie, St. Joseph's, Sauk 
Centre, Clear Water, Little Falls, and other pla- 
ces, similar stockades were built, and held by a 
few determined citizens. At St. Cloud, wliicli 
was (illed with refugees, strong fortilications were 
built, and preparations made to defend the iilace 
to the utmost, bill no foe ever ajjpeared, fortu- 
nately. A number of persons were iniiidcicd in 
the western and .southern part of Stearns county, 
and houses bunied. 

The southwestern portion of (he Slate was also 
ovemm. anil a number of minders connnitted. 
This district was suuii after placed in commaud 

of Colonel Flandrau, and about five hundred 
militia garrisoned at different points, who soon 
rid the country of Indians. 

The Third Kegiment. which had been paroled, 
after its surrender, at Jliirfreesboro, was now at 
r.ciiton Barracks. JSIi). ( iov. Kamsey telegraphed 
on Aug. 22d to have them sent to this state at 
once, for service against the Indians. The re- 
quest was complied with. The r(>giment received 
its exchange on Aug. 24th, and they arrived in 
St. Paul on vSept. 4th. All their officers were 
still jirisoners in the hands of the rebel.,, and the 
companies were commanded by nou-ioiiiiuissioued 
officers. Maj. Welch, who was not willi the regi- 
ment at its surrender, (having been taken i)ris- 
oner at Hull linn) was in command of the regi- 
ment. Three hundred men were at once sent to 
the frontier, where tliey did good service, being 
the only veteran troops engaged during the war. 

On -Vug, 23d, Gov. Ramsey, in response to 
many petitions, called an extra session of the 
legislature, to meet on Sept. 9th. 


On Aug. 2Hd the Indians coinmenced hostili- 
ties in the valley of the Red Kiver. Fort Aber- 
crombie was then garrisoned by Co. D., Fifth 
Regiment, Capt. J. Van der Ilorck, but about 
half the company was stationed at Georgetown, 
])rotecting the Transportation Company's goods 
at that i)lace. Early on the 23d a b.''nd of 500 
Sissetons and Yanktons crossed the Otter Tail 
River, with the intention of capturing a train of 
gooilsand cattle en route for Red Lake, where a 
treaty was to be made with the Chippewas. The 
train was at once ordered to take refuge in Fort 
Abercrombie. and did so. Most of Ihe citizens 
in the surrouiidiiig region also ri'iiaired to tliat 
post, for safety, but many were killed, or taken 
prisoners. The town of Dayton was destroyed. 

Heinforcements were ordered to Fort Aber- 
crombie as soon as ils danger was learned, but 
the troojis sent out were detained en nnite, to 
l)rotectanil aid threatened places in Stearns and 
Meeker Counties, and did not reach the fcu't. 
Meaiitiiiic it was in great danger, and was ipiite 
sunoiinileil liy tlie enemy. Skirmishes near by 
had takin jilace between detachments of the 
troops and the Indians. On Aug. .'idlh tlu^ latter 
apiicared in large numbers before the fort. A 



large herd of the treaty cattle (172 head) and 
about 100 horses and mules were grazing on the 
prairie near hy. The Indians drove these off. 
and the small garrison could make no resistance. 
On Sept. 3d, at daybreak, the Indians attacked 
the post. A fight was kept up for two or three 
hours, but they were repulsed, with some loss on 
both sides. Active measures were then taken 
to strengthen the post by a stockade of timber. 
On Sept. 6th, a second attack was made, and a 
sharp battle raged until nearly noon. A number 
of the Indians were killed and wounded, but only 
one of our force was killed, and one mortally 
wounded. The Indians hung around the fort, 
occasionally attacking a messenger, or a water- 
ing party, until Sept. 23d, when reinforcements 
arrived via St. Cloud to the great joy of the be- 
leaguered garrison, who had now been besieged 
over three weeks. No farther demonstrations, of 
any force, were made by the Indians. But for 
the brave resistance made by a mere handful of 
soldiers, aided by a few citizens, the post must 
have fallen. 


The want of a mounted force to pursue the In- 
dians was severely felt by Col. Sibley. Ills small 
number of irregu'ar mounted militiamen were 
leaving for their homes. He several times urged 
Gov. Ramsey to provide cavalry, and that official 
in turn asked of the War Department the proper 
authority. This was granted on Sept. 1st, and 
a regiment of mounted rangers at once called for, 
for three months service, v.liich was subsequently 
changed to one year. The regiment was soon 
recruited, and Col. S. McPhaill appointed colonel. 


While waiting at Fort Ridgely for proper sup- 
plies and equipments, and before undertaking 
any offensive campaign against the Indians, Col. 
Sibley sent out, on August 31st, a detachment to 
bury dead bodies, rescue any fugitives that might 
be found, anl make reconnoissances. This de- 
tachment consisted of part of Co. A. sixth regi- 
ment, Capt. II. P. Grant, about seventy moiuited 
men under Capt. Jos. Anderson, and a fatigue 
party — about one hundred and fifty men in all, 
accompanied by seventeen teams. The whole 
force was in command of Maj. Joseph R. Brown, 
■who was perfectly familiar with the country and 

with Indian warfare. On the first day's inarch 
sixteen dead bodies were fomid and buried. The 
next day (Sept. 1) the force separated into two 
detachments. During this day fifty-five mutU- 
ated bodies were buried. In the evening the 
whole force went into camp at Birch Coolie (or 
Coulee) in a spot selected by Maj. Brown. No 
Indians had been seen that day. 

Just before daybreak on the 2d, the camp was 
aroused by a volley of firearms and the yells of 
Indians, who had crawled unperceived within a 
few yards of the encampment. For a few min- 
nutes terrific volleys were poured into the tents, 
cutting them into shreds and wounding or killing 
a number of men and horses. As soon as tliey 
could seize their arms, those who were unhurt 
crawled out, and sheltering themselves as well as 
they could behind wagons, dead horses, etc., re- 
turned the fire. Shortly after daylight the men 
began excavatmg, with such implements as they 
could get, a line of rifle-pits, and in a short time 
had about two hundred feet dug. 

The firing in the still of the morning was heard 
Ijv the sentinels at Fort Ridgely, fifteen miles 
away, and a detachment of troops under Colonel 
McPhaill, at once pushed off to their relief. 
When within three miles of Birch Coolie, they 
were met by such a large force of Indians they 
could not advance, and seLt a courier back for 
reinforcements. ^Meantime, the troops of JSIajor 
Brown's command lay all day in their rifle pits, 
keepmg the savages at bay. The wounded were 
cared for as well as possible, but some died du- 
ring the day. 

As soon tis JilcPhaill's courier reached Fort 
Ridgely, a large force, with some artillery, was 
sent to the relief of his and Brown's troops. 
They came up about daylight, and the whole col- 
umn then pushed on to Birch CooUe, dislodging 
and driving the Indians from their position, after 
keeping our men imder fire for thirty hours, with- • 
out food or drink. 

The camp was an awfid scene, when relieved. 
Twenty-three men had been killed outright or 
mortally woimded, forty-five badly woimded, and 
seventy horses killed. The dead were buried on 
the spot, and tlie wounded carried back to Fort 
Ridgely in wagons. Thus terminated the most 
bloody battle of the war, and one which spread 
gloom over the State. It is not creditable to 



ilinnesota that this battle ground should have 
been allowed to pass into private hands, and be 
plowed over. It should have been reserved l)y the 
State as a historic spot, and marked with a suit- 
able monument. All the bodies, however, were 
subsequently removed, and properly interred else- 


The condition of the poor refugees from the 
ravaged districts, was deplorable in the extreme. 
In St Peter alone, there were in September, as 
many as G.OOO or 7,000 for some days, and at one 
time 8.00(1. In St. Paul tliere were 1.000, and at 
Minneapolis an equal number, and all tlie towns 
had more or less. They' were all destitute of 
money, clothing, employment, &e.. and many 
were sick, wliile not a few were actually insane 
from trouble and grief. The active exertions of 
citizens of St. I'eter alone prevented great suffer- 
ing there, but their means were soon exhausted. 
They then ajiijealed through tlie papers for aid, 
and Governor llamsey appointed commissioners 
to receive and disburse supjilies. About S:20,000 
in money was contiibuted, half of which came 
from eastern cities, w hile large quantities of cloth- 
ing were collected by local relief committees, in 
St. Paul and other places. The Legislature, 
V hen it met. voted $1'.5.000 more. These amounts 
relieved the worst cases of need. In October, 
most of those whose homes had not been des- 
troyed relnrned to them, and the numl)er of des- 
titute rai)idly decreased. Several hundred, how- 
ever, were supported all winter. Fortunately, 
laborers had now become scarce, and wages en- 
hanced, so tliat all could get empldymeMt. Tlie 
buildmg of railroads went along unchecked in 
the midst of all the panic. The AVinona and St. 
Peter Kailroad completed about ten miles of road 
this fall. 


IJefore leaving the battle-lield of Pirch Coolie, 
Col. Sibley left the following note attached to a 

" If Little Crow has any i)roposuion to maKe to 
me, let him send a lialf-breed to me, and he shall 
be protected ui and out of caniji. 

" Co\. Com'g Mil. Expedii." 

Col. Sibley bad reason to believe tlml ilieir re- 
peated defeats had discouraged the foe. and ne- 
gotiations could be made with tlie disaffected 
Intlians. and those tired of fighting, for the re- 
lease of tlie iiriscineis. Tliis note bore good fruit 
very soon. 

It was now evident that all the marauilmg 
bands from the interior had been called in, and 
that the Indians would oppose the column on its 
march with all their combined forces. 

Col. Sibley ordered the Third regiment, then 
at Gleucoe. to join his command, and it reached 
Fort Ridgely on Sept. 13th. 

Meantime Col. SiWey's note had been sliown 
Little Crow on his return from the raid mi the 
Big AVoods settlers, and A. J. Campbell, a half- 
breed who acted as his secretary, read it to him. 
Crow at once dictated a reply, blaming Galbraith 
and the traders for wronging them, and enumer- 
ating some grievances which caused the war. 
He requested an answer. This note reached Col. 
Sibley at Fori Ridgely on Sept. 7th. Col. S. at 
once replied demanding that Little Crow .should 
release the prisoners, and he would then treat 
with him. On Sept. liith a reply was received 
froni Crow, saying that the Mdewakantons had 
loO prisoners, and other bands some more. He 
said: "I want to know from yo\i, as a friend, 
what way I can make peace for my people." Col. 
Sibley at once replied, urging Crow to give \ip the 
prisoners, and complaining that he had allowed 
his young men to kill nine more whites since he 
sent the lirst letter. The same courier who 
brought Little Crow's letter also brought one pri- 
vately from tlie chief Wabasha, and Taopi, a 
Christian Indian. They asserted that they were 
forced into (lie war. and were now anxious to 
make jieaii'. and if a chance offered they would 
come in and give themselves up. with all their 
lirisniiers. Col. Sibley replied to this message 
urging tliem to do so, and promising them pro- 
tection, adding that he was now strong enough 
to crush all the In<lians who held oat. 

When this letter was received by Wabasha and 
his friends wlio wished to separate fmni the uihci- 
Indians, a great disi)ute arose aiiKing all the 
liands. Indeed, <lis;iffection and jealousy had 
been brewing ever since the outbreak. The pris- 
oners were in great iieril and might liave been 
murdered. Put at last all worked out well, and 



the friendly and repentant Indians carried the 

The War Department had meantime created 
Minnesota and Dakota into a military depart- 
ment, and appointed Gen. John Pope to the com- 
mand, lie reached St. Paul on Sept. 12th, and 
established his headquarters there. The 


called by the Governor, met on September 9th, 
and adjourned on September 29th. The legisla- 
f (in was mostly in regard to matters growing out 
of the Ind'an war. A Board of Auditors was 
created to adjust claims growing out of the mas- 
sacre, and $75,000 was appropriated to settle 
them. Congress was memorialized to reimburse 
the State for this outlay. A Board of Commis- 
sioners was authorized to collect names of slain, 
and the facts of their death, &c. [This was never 
done.] The sum of $25,000 was voted for the 
relief of indigent refugees. Congress was also 
memorialized for the removal of the Wiimeba- 
goes from the State. 


(the 6th, 7th, 8th, 0th, and lOtli) which had been 
hurried off to the frontier, half organized, were, 
by this time, completely organized and mustered 
in. The Colonels were appointed as follows 
Sixth, Wm. Crooks ; Seventh, Stephen IMiller 
Eighth, Minor T. Thomas ; Ninth, Alex. Wilkin 
Tenth, James II. Baker. 


Col. Sibley, after the arrival of the Third Regi- 
ment and the supplies and ammunition he had 
needed, broke camp, on Sept. 18th, and started in 
pursuit of the Indians at or near Yellow Medi- 
cine. On the morning of Sept. 23d, while en- 
camped near AVood Lake, the Indians suddenly 
attacked the force. The Renville Rangers were 
thrown out, and met the enemy bravely. Maj. 
Welch soon had the Third Regiment in hue, and 
they poured steady volleys into the advancing line 
of Indians, as did also the Sixth Regiment, under 
Maj. McLaren. The figlit then became general. 
Lieutenant Colonel Marshall charged the enemy 
with three companies of the Seventh and A 
■jf the SLxth, and put them to rout. The bat- 
tle had lasted an hoiu- and a half. Our loss was 
four killed and fifty wounded; among the latter, 

Maj. Welch. The Indians lost quite a number — 
thirty, it is said — fifteen being found dead on the 
field. After burying the dead. Col. Sibley marched 
toward Lac qui Parle, near which phice Wabasha 
had notified him he would meet him and deliver 
up the prisoners. 


On September 26th the column arrived at the 
camp where the friendly Indians had the prison- 
ers, and made their own near by. It was oppo- 
site the mouth of the Chippewa River, and \\as 
named by our men "Camp Release." Col. Sibley 
without delay visited the Indians and demanded 
the captives. They were at once produced, 
nearly two hundred and fifty in number. Many 
wept with joy at their release ; others had grown 
almost indifferent. These poor people — mostly 
women and children — were sent as soon as possi- 
ble to their friends, if the latter were still living. 

The Indians who had given themselves up were 
at once placed under guard nntil they could be 
examined as to their guilt. During the next few 
days a number came in and gave themselves up, 
and some smaller parties were captured soon 
after by our troops under Lt. Col. ^Marshall, so 
that soon our force had over 2,000 Indian war- 
riors in their hands. Col. Sibley at once organized 
a military commission, composed of Col. Crooks, 
Lt. Col. Marshall, and Capt. Grant, with I. V. 
D. Heard as judge advocate, to examine all evi- 
dence against the Indians, and indicate the guilty 
ones. Another commission of five officers was 
appointed to try the accused. 

These commissions ccmtinued at work luitil 
November 5th, by which time they had found 
three hundred and twenty-one Indians guilty of 
murder, ravishing, and other crimes, and sen- 
tenced three hundred and three to death. These 
were at once removed to South Bend, there to 
await the orders of the president. The other 
Indians and their familis were taken to Fort 
Snelling and confined all winter in a stockade. 


Meantime Little Crow and the still hostile In- 
dians had retreated into Dakota, and before win- 
ter reached Devil's Lake, where they remained 
until the next season. As the war in this State 
was now practically over, most of the settlers 
whose homes had not been destroyed returned to 



them. The Third Minnesota regiment, and the 
Twenty-Dfth Wis. and Twenty-seventli Iowa. 
were sent south before -winter, but the Sixth, 
Seventh. Eijililh. Xintli. and Tenth Minn., with 
the Mounted Kangcrs. were retained for home 
service, and were stationed in detachments in a 
cordon of posts reat-liing from the south line of 
the SRite across the frontier to St. Cloud. The 
country l)etween the garrisons was carefnll\ 
scout<>d and patrolled, so that no hostile Indians 
could the line. On Xovember 2oth, Gen. 
Pope removed liis lieadqnarters toMihvankee, and 
I5rig. tien. Sibley (lor such he was made after 
the battle of Wood Lake) remained in command 
at St. Paul. The winter passed without any 


had not been idle meantime. On Sept. tth the 
Fifth Regiment was in the battle at Corinth, and 
under lire some time. One account says: " The 
ground in front of us was covered with killed and 
wounded rebels." The Fifth suffered a loss of 
six kille<l, eighteen woinided and three missing. 
The Fourth Regiment was also in the same light, 
and, during two days" lighting, three killed 
and nine wounded. The Fourth Regiment was 
also hotly engaged at the battle of luka, on Sept. 
lOth. It lost three killed, four wounded, two 

At Corinth. Oct. 3d an<l 4th. the Foiuth also 
J)ore an active share, losing three killed an<l five 
wounded. " The regiment bore itself most gal- 
lantly," sjiys an ofTicial rejjort. In the same cn- 
ra;.;ements the Fifth ,\iinncM)ta also shared, ex- 
pending about fifty rounds of ammunition, with 
which they made deadly work among the enemy, 
losing six killed, sixteen woiuided, and four miss- 
ing. Tlie First Battery weie also in tliis en- 

gagement, and did good work, having only one 
man wounded. 


also bore its share during this period. At the 
Battle of Antietam, on Sept. 17th, it was closely 
engaged, and left ninety men dead or mor- 
tally wounded on the field. Their bodies now 
rest in the national cemetery there. 

The First also participated in the battle of 
Fredericksl)urg,on December 11th, 12th, null and 
Ittli. during which it lost nine wounded and one 


The three luuidred and three Indian murderers 
were kept at South Bend a short time and then 
removed to Mankato. where they were confined 
in a stone warehouse strongly guarded. JMean- 
time, some (so called) " philanthropists," iirinci- 
pally (Quakers, at Philadeli>hia and other eastern 
cities, interfered in the matter, and got up a 
strong pressure on President Lincoln to pardon 
the guilty wretches. This was resisted by the 
prominent men and ofiicials of Minnesota, the 
people of the State almost unanimously demand- 
ing their execution, and threatening, if it were 
not done, to apply lyndi law to them. President 
Lincoln selected thirty -nine of the murderers, 
and (on December tuhi orilered (ieneral Sibley to 
execute them. This was carried into effect on 
I)ecend)er 2i>th, at Mankato. (one, meantime, 
(lying of disease). Thirty-eight of tlie savages 
were swung off of one scaffold, in the presence of 
a large concourse of people. The rest of the mur- 
derers were imprisoned until spring, then taken 
to Davenport, L)wa, where they were confined a 
few months, after which they were reniovcil to a 
reservation on the Missouri river, and set at 





Events of the Year 1863.— Sratlcrin? RaiJs on the Frontier.— A Scalp Bounty 
Offered.— Removal of the Sioux and Winnebafoes.— Gen. Sibley's Expedition 
of IS63.— Brave Conduct of the Third, Fourth and Fifth Reeiments— The First 
at Gettysbure.— Death of Little Crow.— Gen. Sibley s Column Attacked by the 
Sioux.— Remarkable DrousHl in 1 SC3-<H.— Thi ee More Reeimenls sent South. 
—Return of the First Regiment.— Gen. Sibley's Expedition in 1861.— Heavy 
Dralts for Men.— Inflation and High Prices.- Battles in which Minnesota 
Troops Took Fart.- Union Victories.- Close of the War.— Return of our 
Troops.— The State's Share in the Conflict.— A new Era of Material Prosperity 

Tlie winter of 1862-'63 was spent by Gen. Sib- 
ley in making preparations for an expedition to 
tlie JSIissouri Eiver, to pursue and punish the 
hostile Sioux. A third battery of light artillery 
was recruited for this purpose, and John Jones, 
the gallant defender of Fort Ridgely, appointed 
captain. At the session of the legislature, Gov. 
Ramsey was elected U. S. Senator, but did not 
vacate the gubernatorial chair until June 30th. 

Early in tlie spring, small parties of Sioux be- 
gan to make predatory incursions into the state, 
and these raids continued all summer. Some 
twenty persons were killed, in all, and a num- 
ber of horses stolen. The Indians were pur- 
sued by troops in every case, and a number of 
them killed. A reward of S2.5 was offered by 
the Adjutant General for Sioux scalps, and 
afterwards raised to §200. 

In May, the Sioux were removed from the 
state, together with the Winnt^liagoes, and sent 
to a new reservation on the Missouri Eiver. 
Efforts were made to get rid of the Chippewas, 
but were not successful. 

Gen. Sibley in :May concentrated three thous- 
and troops at Camp Pope, on the upper Minnesota 
River, for his expedition. These were: the Sixth, 
Seventh, and Tenth Infantry, Capt. Jones' Bat- 
tery, and the Mounted Rangers. On June 17th, 
the fc-pedition started on its march. Gen. Ste- 
phen Miller was meantime in command of the 
department here. Gen. Alfred Sully was at the 
same time moving up the Missouri River with 
another expedition. 
On June 22d, the War Department authorized 

the formation of a three years battalion of six 
companies of cavalry, for service against the In- 
dians, to be commanded by Major E. A. C. Hatch. 
This was soon recruited, and in active duty at 
the various posts in this department. 


The summer of 1863 was one of hard service 
and brilliant renown to our regiments in the 
South. On May 3d, the Fourth Regiment was in 
hot action in the battle at the crossing of Big 
Black river, with a loss of three killed. One of 
its officers planted the Union flag on the Capitol 
at Jackson. At Champion Hills (May 16th) it 
lost one killed. On May 22d, at Vicksburg, it 
again suffered severely, losing twelve killed and 
forty-two wounded. The Third Regiment was 
also m the same campaign. On May 19th, the 
Fifth Regiment near Vicksburg, lost one killed 
and five wounded. 

The severest loss of any of our regiments in 
the war, however, was that suffered by the First 
Regiment at Gettysburg, on July 3d. It took 
part in the hottest of that memorable action, and 
made a movement in the face of an awful fire 
from the rebels. In a few minutes it lost sixty- 
eight killed, 149 wounded, 90 missing, and when 
it emerged from the baptism of fire, had only 87 
men in its ranks. The news of this terrible car- 
nage wiis received with profound sympathy by 
the people of the State, mingled with thankful- 
ness, however, for the great victory won there, 
and at Vicksburg, on the same day. 


During June, a band of seventeen Indians 
gieatjy annoyed the settlers in Meeker and Kandi- 
yohi counties, killing several. On July 3d, a man 
named Kathan Lampson, and his son Chauncy, 
were hunting near Hutcliinson, when they espied 
two Sioux. A fight ensued, in which Mr. Lamp- 
sou was badly wounded, when his son, by a fortu- 



)iate shot . killeil one <if the Imliaiis. The dead body 
of the hitter was taken to Iliilehmsou. From its 
appearance, and certain marks, it was supposed 
to be Little Crow. It was scalped, and the re- 
mains buried, -Not l^nR after, an Indian was 
captured in Dakota, which proved to be Wo-n-i- 
na-2)C. Little Crow's son. He confessed that the 
Indian killed b\- Lampson was his father, and 
that he was w ilh liini at the time. The remains 
of the celebrated chioftain. whose name for 
months was a terror to our ]ieoi)le. were then 
e.xhumed.aiid tlie skeleton jneserved. The scalp 
and ami bones are in the museum of the Histori- 
cal Society, at St. Paul. 

Gen. Sibley's expedition reached tlie Coteau of 
the Missouri on July :24, and on that day, at a 
place called " liig Mound. " was attacked by 
about one thous;ind Indians. A sharp engage- 
ment ensued, in which twenty-one Indians were 
killed, and only two of our troops. On July 26, 
at •• Deail IJulTalo Lake," the Siou.x again attacked 
his column, but were repulsed, with a loss on our 
side of one man. On July 28, at " Stony Lake." 
about two thousand Indians again gave battle, 
but were routed, Avitli considerable loss. The 
expedition piirsued the s-avages to the Missouri 
river, across which they escaped. It returned to 
the state about Se]it, 1st. Gen, Sully's column 
had several engagements with the Indians, chas- 
tising them severely. 

The summer of 1S63 was memorable for an in- 
tense drouth, which continued until the close of 
1K64. During these two seasons almost no rain 
fell, yet the harvests were good. The woret re- 
sult was on the river, which was unjirecedenlly 
low, and business was badly interfered with, and 
the lumbering interest was, for the same rea.son, 
greatly deiiresse<l. 

OnSe;)t. in and 2o, at (liickaniauga, theSecoud 
Regiment was holly engagiil. and snUVreil a loss 
of thirty-live killed and <ine hundred and thirteen 

Karly in October, the Seventh, Ninth, and 
Tenth Hegimenls were relieved from dnty here 
and sent to St. Louis, from whence they went to 
the front. 

On Oct. 1211), the Wai' I )eiiartni(nt. having 
called for two hundred thousand mine trooi)s, 
authorized the Second IJegiment of cavaliy to 

take the place of the Mounted Rangers, whose 
term of service had expired. 

On Oct. 14 the First Regiment was engaged at 
Bristow's Statitm, and lost one killed and nine- 
teen wounded, capturing two hundred prisonei-s 
and several guns. 

At the state election this fall, Gen, Stephen 
Miller was elected governor, by a vote of lit,628 
over Henry T, "Wells, who had 12.739, 

On >i'ov. 23, the Second Regiment was in the 
action at Missi(m Ridge, and suffered a of 
five killed and thirty-four wounded. 

The provost marehals of the state made an en- 
rollment of all the male citizens this fall, pre- 
I)aratory to the draft. Resistance was made in 
some cases, but no serious disturbances took 
place, as in other states. 

EARLY IX 1864, 

the regiments which enlisted in 1861, and had re- 
enlisted as •■ veterans." were allowed to return to 
the State on furlough. They were received 
in the varit)us towns oi the State with the 
most lively demonstrations of pride and grati- 
tude, and bancpieted and petted as the brave 
heroes deserved. 

On April 2Sth the First regiment, whose term 
of service had expired, was mustered out at Fort 
Snelling. Rarely one hundred of the 1080 men 
who had stood on the same parade ground three 
years before, were in the ranks. Out of some re- 
enlisted men and recrnits a battalion was formed, 
called the -'First Rattalion," which did good ser- 
vice during the next year. 

On March 3()th the Third regiment had a 
action at a jilaco called Filzhugb's Woods, near 
Augusta, Ark. Seven were killed and sixteen 
wounded, (ien. Andrews, commanding, had his 
horse shot under him. 

OnJnue 6th an ••xpedilion left Fort Ridgely 
in pursuit of the hostile Sioux on the ^lissouri 
River, under command of (Jen Sully. It con- 
sisted of the Eighlh Minn, (mounted), six compa- 
nies of the Second Cavalry, three sections of 
Jones' Raltery, and liracketl's Rattalion of cav- 
alry, which had re-enlisted and was now organ- 
ized as a .separate connnand. 

On June 14, the Sixth Hegiment left Fort Snel- 
ling for the sonlh. and was soiin :itli'i' lilac-cd in 
the Sixtccnlh -Viinv ('dips, in which was also the 



Fifth, Seventh, Ninth and Tenth Minnesota reg- 
iments. The Fiftli had, not long previously, 
taken a part in tlie disastrous Red Kiver cam- 
paign, and tlie Ninth had borne a share in the 

mifortunate Gimtown expedition (June 10), where | 

it suffered a loss of seven liilled, thirty-three 

wounded, and two hundred and forty-six taken j 


On Feb. 1 the War Department had made a 
call for two hundred thousand men, and on 
March 14 another call for the same nimiber, fol- 
lowed by one in April for eighty-Tive thousand. 
The quota of our state under these heavy calls 
was about five thousand men, and on Jilay 26 
drafting commenced to fill the quotas of some 
districts which were delinquent. The desire of 
some towns and districts to escape a draft led to 
the issuing of bonds, with the proceeds of which 
they paid high bounties and procured recnuts. 
Subscriptions were raised in some districts for 
the same purpose. A class of middle men, called 
recruit, or bounty, agents, sprang up, who, in 
bidding for recruits, sometimes gave as high as 
S700 or §800 for men to fill quotas. Under this 
stimulus recniitmg went on pretty lively, while a 
considerable number of men were drafted and 
sent to fill old regiments. On July 18th came an- 
other call for five hundred thousand, and this 
again produced a new struggle to fill quotas. 
The entire number of men apportioned to our 
state up to this time was 21,442. 

That these frequent and liea\'y drafts for men 
produced a f eeUng of doubt and despondency can 
not be denied. It was now the fourth year of the 
•war, and its end still seemed far off, while its rapa- 
cious maw appeared to literally swallow up the 
enormous levies which the people in their pride 
and patriotism promptly furnished at each call. 
There was mourning in nearly every household 
for some " unretuniing brave," and suffering m 
the families of enlisted men. 

The inflation of the currency also produced 
an indieard-of rise in the price of living. On 
June 1 gold was loO. On July lith it had reached 
285 — the highest point during the war. All other 
values advanced accordingly. There was some 
silver lining to the dark cloud, though. The 
great advance in goods literally made the for- 
tunes of many dealers. Even real estate began 
to show life, while there was an ease in the money 

market which reminded one of 1857. Several of 
our railroads were now in active progress, and 
labor was in great demand. The continued 
drouth and low water was a serious drawback, 
however. Prayers were put up in most of the 
churches for rain. 

Small raids were made by the Sioux several 
times during the summer, iiud several persons 
killed, but these attacks occasioned but Uttle 

On July 13th, our Fifth, Seventh, Ninth and 
Tenth Regiments were in the Battle of Tupelo, 
and all suffered some loss. The Seventh had 
nine killed and fifty-two wounded. Col. Wilkin, 
of the Ninth, was killed — one of the bravest and 
finest officers who left our state. 

Under the call of July 23d, an eleventh regi- 
ment of infantry was authorized, and filled very 
quickly. James GilfiUan, formerly of the Sev- 
enth, was appointed colonel. The Eleventh left 
the state on Sept. 22d, for Tennessee, where it 
performed guard duty for several months. 

A battalion of heavy infantry was also re- 
cnuted, which was soon increased to a full regi- 
iment. Wm. Colville, late of the First Regiment, 
was placed in command. The regiment served 
for several months at Chattanooga, Temi. 

The bullets of the enemy were not so disas- 
trous to some of our regiments, as the malaria 
of southern swamps. Our Sixth Regiment at 
Helena, and the Third at Pine Bluff, Ark., were 
both decimated by disease. Sometimes only a 
handful of men were found well enough for duty. 

On October 5th, the Fourth Regiment was in a 
heavy action at Altoona, and caijtured two flags. 
Their loss was killed, 13; wounded, 31. 

On December 7th, the Eighth Regiment took 
part in an engagement near !Murfreesboro, Tenn- 
essee, in wliich it lost 14 killed and 76 woimded, 
in a charge on the enemy's batteries. 

On December 16th, the Fifth, Seventh. Ninth 
and Tenth Regiments took part in the great bat- 
tle of Nashville, between Thomas's and Hood's 
armies. All sufiiered loss, though fortunately 
not severe. 

On December 19th, another call was made, for 
300,000 troops, and the recruiting and bounty 
business grew more intense than ever, and con- 
tinued all winter. 

During this time, the patriotic people of our 



State were contributing with generous liberality 
to the Sanitary and ("liristian Commissions, to 
various relief movements, to si)efial hospital 
funds of our various regiments, for tlie support 
of destitute soldiers" families, and individual cases 
of distress without number. No State in the 
Tnion did more, proportioned to their means, in 
these works, than the iieople of Miimesota. 

THK YEAK 1865 

opened with more encouraging prospects. The 
large forces of the I'nion army were gaining sub- 
stantial victories. The successes of Slieridan in tlic 
Shenandoah A'alley. Sherman in his historic 
march to the sea. " crushing the confederacy like 
an eggshell,"' and Grant, doggedly consuming 
the enemy at Petersburg, were fast shattering 
the rebellion. In the siege of Spanish Fort, at 
Jlobih-. in Ayiril, llii; Fifth. Sixth, Seventh. 
Xinlh. and Tentli Mimiesota A'olunteers bore an 
active and honorable part. 

Not \nimingled with tears were the rejoicings 
over these victories. Every battle bidlelin brought 
sorrow and mourning to many homes in our state 
On April ;^d came the great news of the fall of 
Riclimond. and on April 8th, while the people 
celebrating this event, the dispatch of (Jeneral 
(irant announcing the unconditional surrender of 
Lee and his army was received, setting nearly 
everjbody crazy with joy. On April l.ilh the 
provost marshals received an order to cease draft- 
ing and recruiting, and the war was i)racli(ally 
over. One of its saddest results was yet to come 
— the death of President Lincoln, on .\pril loth. 
This calamity was duly observed in all tlic towns 
of the State, on Ajiril liith. by susjiensidn of 
business, and religious services. Th<-se gloomy 
feelings were soon dispelled, lidwcver. l)y the 


early in tlie summer, and tlieir muster out at Fori 
Snelling. .\s eacli of these l>odies of brave men 
returneil, they were received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of joy as a gratefid i)eople 
could devise, (juielly our soldiers "hung up 
their bruised arms." anil were soon again ab- 
8orb((l into the body of the jieople. In all, .Min- 
nesota Lad f uruislied to the armies of the repub- 

lic 2.5.052 men, or idjout one-seventh of its entire 
population at the beginning of the war. Of 
these, it is estimated from the best data obtaina- 
ble, that 2o(H) were killed in battle and died of 
disease during the war, while pnOiably twice as 
many more received woun<ls from which they 
will suffer through life. Many died shortly after 
the war, from tlie elTccts of disease or imjnison- 
ment incurred in service. In her devotion to the 
cause of the Union, oiu- State has a bright record. 

The state Ayis almost free from Tinlian raids 
duiing all this year. Only one of any moment 
o( (lured. On May 2d a family of live persons 
nanic(l .lewett, were murdered near (jarden 
City. A halt breed named Campbell, who aided 
in the raid, was arrested at Mankato several days 
afterward, and hung by a mob. 

The census of 1865, showed a population of 
2o0,()9» — a gratifying increase, considering the 
war of secession and the Indian war as draw- 

With the close of the war a new era of pros- 
perity seemed to have Itegiin in the state. Money 
was abundant, immigration brisk, labor in de- 
mand, and real estate advancing. Our railroads 
were in rapid progress in all directions, and vil- 
lages and towns springing up everywhere. 

On Nov. lltli. at Fort Snelling. Sliakopec and 
Medicine I'.otlle. two Sioux convicted of taking 
part in the massacre of 1802. were hung. They 
had lied to ^Manitoba, and were not caught until 

This fall much excitement was occasioned by 
the reported discovery of gold (piart/ at Lake 
\''ermillion. Several mining companies were 
formed, and veins opened and worked, but the 
yield did not pay, and the mines were soon aban- 

The state election this year was \'ery feebly 
contested. Two well-known old settlers were 
nominated for governor, but the vote was light. 
M'm. U. JIarshall received 17.318 and Henry 
.M.ltice 13.842. .\t the same election an anieud- 
nient to tlii' constitution was voted oiKjiroposing 
to conf<'r the elective franchise on negroes, but 
was defeated. 





i Penod of Inflation.— Rapid Railroad Construction.— Proposed Removal of ttie 
Capltal.—Atlempted Adjustment of the Railroad Bonds.— Legislative Control 
of Frtit'ht Tariffs.— Prairie Fires in 1871.— An Arctic Cyclone—- Impeachment 
of State Treasurer.— The Jay Cooke Panic.— Regulating Railroad Tariffs.— 
Grasshopper Ravages.— Suffering on the Frontier.— Relief Measures Adopted 
by the Legislature.-.Murderous Raid by Missouri Outlaws.— Further Attempts 
to Adjust the Railroad Loan Debt.— End of the Grasshopper Scourge.— Return 
of " Good Times," and Rapid Growth in Prosperity. 

The year 1866 was one of great financial ease. 
The large expenditure of money by tlie govern- 
ment, in the pay of discharged ti'oops, bounties, 
and various vi'ar claims, made money unusually 

The raihoads of the State were pushed this 
year with great vigor. By winter, 315 miles were 
in operation. Tliere was a eontumous line frtim 
St. Cloud, via Owatonna, to AVinona, a distance 
of 245 miles. These roads were an important 
element in aiding the settlement and business 
of tlie State. Formerly the sole dependence for 
travel and freiglit had been on the river, and the 
winter Avas a season of dullness and depression. 
This was now largely changed. 

At the State election in tlie fall of 18G7, Wm. 
E. ilarshall had 34,874 votes, and Charles E. 
Flandrau 29,502. This would uidicate a popula- 
tion of about 820.000, showing a lieavy immigra- 
tion during tlie years 1866 and 1867. At this 
election, a negro suffrage amendment was agam 
voted on and defeated. The follo%\ing year [1868] 
the amendment was a third time voted on, and 
adopted; ayes, 39,493; noes, 30,121. 


At the session of the legislature in 1869, a biU 
was uiti-oduced to remove the seat of government 
to a spot near Big Kandiyohi Lalie. The bill was 
at first regarded as a joke, and it met with small 
opposition, passing both houses with little delay. 
Gov. Marshall vetoed the measure, and an at- 
tempt to pass the act over his veto, failed. 

At this session, the legislature celebrated the 
completion of an all-rail route to the east by a 

visit to Milwaukee, and to the AViscousui legisla- 
ture at Madison. 

At the state election in the fall of 1869, Horace 
Austin (rep.) was elected governor, by a vote of 
27,348, over George L. Otis (dem.), who had 

By the census of 1870, Minnesota was found to 
have 439.706 population. 


At the session of the Legislatiu-e ui 1870, an 
act was passed submitting to the people an 
amendment to the constitution, providing for the 
sale of the five hundred thousand acres of what 
was known as the "Internal Improvement 
Lands," and the use of tlie proceeds in extin- 
guishing the state raihoad loan bonds, in the fol- 
lowhig manner: Two thousand of the lionds 
were to be deposited with the State Land Commis- 
sioner on or before the day of sale, by the hold- 
ers, they agreeing to purchase with them the 
lands at §8.70 per acre, etc. The amendment 
was adopted by a popular vote, but as only 1 ,033 
bonds were deposited by the owners, the measure 

The unusual low water of 1863, '64 and "65 had 
now given way to a series of years of the oppo- 
site extreme. In 187^ occurred great freshets, 
doing much damage, and the water was reported 
" higlier than for twenty years." 

Railroad construction had been pushed with 
great vigor for the last year or two. At the close 
of 1870, there were 1,096 miles in operation, 329 
of v.iiich were built that year. A road had been 
completed to Lake Superior during the season, 
thus connecting the river and lake systems, while 
tlie Xorthern Pacific EaUroad was imder full 

During 1869 and '70, much complaint was made 
by shippers, of imjust charges by the railroads of 



tlie Slate. Governor Austin, iii his message, 
January, 1871, called attention to tlie subject 
ver)- pointedly. An investigation was made by a 
legislative committee, which residted in the en- 
actment of a freight and passenger tariff, and the 
creation of the oliice of Railroad Conniiissioncr. 
The tariff .so tixed ■\\as disregarded by the rail- 
roads, and ill 1871, an action, as a sort of test 
case under that statute, was commenced V)y John 
D. Blake, of Rochester, against the "Winona & 
St. Peter Railroad, for unjnst freight charges. 
The presiding judge decided the act unconstitu- 
tional, but tlie Supreme Court of the State re- 
versed tills decision, when the railroad company 
appealed the case to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. It was not until 1876 that a de- 
cision was rendered, sustaining the right of legis- 
lative control over railroad t^irill's. 

An act was passed by the legislature of 1S71 to 
"Tesi the validity and pro\ide for the ecjuitable 
adjastmc:if" of the Slate railroad bonds, l)y the 
cre-tion of a commission, to ascertain and award 
the amount due on each. The act was voted on 
in Hay following, and rejected by the people. 
Anoiher important measure passed at the same 
SGSsion, was an act dividing up the 500.000 acres 
of Internal Improvement Land, among various 
railroad comjiauies. This was vetoed by Gov. 
Austin. Two years later the constitution was 
amended so that no act disposing of these lands, 
sliould be valiii. luiless approved by a vote of the 

In the fall of 1871. destructive fires, driven by 
liigh winds, swept over a number of frontier coun- 
ties, la.stiiig several days, and inllicting great 
damage on the settlers. Hundreds lost their 
liouses, cr<>i)s, hay. fences, etc. and several per- 
son;', were liurned to death. During the summer, 
many liad also lost their crops by destructive hail 
storms. (Jov. Austin ajipealed to the i)eople of 
tlie Stale. ))y proclamation, for ai<l forthe sufTer- 
erfl. llr; received in response, $14,000 in money, 
and clothing, i>rovlslons, etc., worth SI 1 ,000 more, 
while the next legislature appropriated §20.000 
fur the iiuriHise of i)nnliasing seed wheat for 
those who iiad lost their cr<)i)H. 

In Noveral)er, 1H71, Horace Au.stin was re- 
clecteil fJoveniiir. by a vole of 4o,83.S; over AV. 
Young, who had ao,oy2. 

From lh70 to 1S73, was a period of great infla- 
tion and speculation. The money market was 
uninecedeuledly easy, and real estate partook of 
the same excitement as characterized the flush 
times of 1S56 and 1857. Railroad building was 
carried on to a remarkable extent, and the entire 
State was enjoying an unusual period of material 
progress and development. 

The winter of 1872-3 was an unusually early 
and severe one. On January 7th, 8th and S)th, 
1873. occurred an ■• Arctic Cyclone", or " Polar 
AVave ", of a violence and intensity never before 
experienced in this State. The worst effects were 
felt in the prairie region. Gov. Austin, in a spe- 
cial message to the legislature, reported that sev- 
enty lives were lost, thirty-one persons suffered 
loss of limbs, and about three hundred cattle and 
horses perished. The legislature voted f 5.000 as 
a reUef fund to aid sufferers. 

During the session of 1873, charges of corrupt 
conduct and misdemeanors in oflice, w-ere made 
against Wm. Seeger, Stale Treasurer. On Jlarch 
•")th, the House of Representatives impeached him. 
and the Senate, on being presented with the arti- 
cles, appointed May 20th as the date to sit as a 
Court of Impeachment. Prior to tliat date. .Mr. 
Seeger resigned his oliice. and t;ov. Austin ac- 
cepted the resignation. "When the Senate met 
on May 20th, this fact left that body uncertain 
whether to proceed with the trial or not. On 
,May 22d, Mr. Seeger sent in a written plea of 
" guilty" to all the charges. A resolution was 
then adopted by the Senate, declaring that the 
judgment of the court was, that he be removed 
from oflice. aiul dis(piali(ied to hold and enjoy any 
oflice of honor, trust or prolit in this State. 

On September lOth, 187.!, tlie news was circu- 
lated in this State, of the failure of Jay Cooke's 
banking house in Philadelphia, occ^isioning a 
linancial panic. Its {'fleets here were far dif- 
ferent from those of the panic of 1857. There 
was some stringency in the money market, rail- 
road building ceased, and real estate was very 
iluU for several years, but not a bank in the Slate 
clo.sud its doors, and but few mercantile houses 
failed, Iminigralioii was large, good harvests 
added annually to the wealth of the State, aud 
it advanced steadily in pro.spurity. 




During the summer of 1873, a species of grass- 
liopper, called tlie "Eocliy Mouutain Locust," 
made its appearance in myriads, in some of tlie 
south-western counties, almost totally destroying 
tlie crops. Hundreds of families were teft in 
great destitution. These facts being reported by 
the press, an energetic movement was made in 
the towns and cities in the eastern portion of the 
state, to send reUef to the sufferers, and large 
quantities of clothing, provisions, medical sup- 
plies, etc., were collected and distributed to them, 
beside quite an amount of money. 

At the state election this year, Cushman K. 
Davis was elected governor, by a vote of 40,741, 
over Ara Barton, who had 3o,245. 

■\^^len the Legislature of 1874 assembled, it 
promptly voted $5,000 for the temporary relief of 
the frontier settlers, and on ISlarch 2nd, a further 
sum of §25,000 for the purchase of seed grain. 
With the aid thus furnished, the settlers planted 
their crops again, but soon the ground was fairly 
alive with young grasshoppers, hatched from eggs 
deposited the year previous. As soon as these 
were large enough, they laid bare the region 
about them, then fell on other localities near by, 
and thus destroyed the crops in a number of coun- 
ties again. Tlie people were once more in a 
state of great destitution. 

Gov. Davis addressed a circular to the com- 
missioners of the counties not ravaged by the lo- 
custs, asking them to advance money propor- 
tioned to their property, for a relief fund. Con- 
tributions were also solicited from the people of 
the state. By the latter, $18,959 was raised, to- 
gether with very large quantities of clothing and 
provisions, and forwarded to the sufferers. Even 
with this aid, there was much suffering the next 

The Legislature of 1875, immediately on as- 
sembling, appropriated ?20,000 for immediate 
relief, and later in the session, $75,000 for the 
purchase of seed grain. Only §49,000 of this was 
used. The farmers again planted their crops, in 
hope, but early in the summer they were, for a 
third time, destroyed. The situation now became 
serious. All the state was beginning to foel the 
effects of this calamity, though the portions yet 
imliarmed kept up an active collection and for- 

warding of suppUes for the destitute. AVithoiit 
this benevolent work, the suffering would have 
been severe. 

By the state census this year, the population 
of ilinuesota was fomid to be 597,407. At the 
state election, JohnS. PUlsbury was elected Gov- 
ernor, by a vote of 47,073, over D. L. Buell, who 
had 35,275. 

The season of 1876 saw the grasshopper devas- 
tations repeated, and over a larger area than be- 
fore. The crops were more or less a failure, 
and again an appeal was made to the benevolent 
people of the rest of the State for aid, which was 
liberally and cheerfully responded to. 

On September Otli, a daring crime was pei-pe- 
trated at Xorthfield. A band of eight outlaws 
from Missouri, attacked the National bank in 
that to\TO, with tlie intention of robbing it. The 
cashier and another citizen weio shot dead, and 
two of the robbers killed \rj persons who hastily 
armed themselves. The rcsi of the desperadoes 
fled, and, after a chase of several days, four of 
them were surrounded in a thicket in Watonwan 
county, where one was killed, and thr:o taken 
prisoners. The latter, who were brother:; named 
Younger, plead guilty of murder, and were sent 
to the State's Prison for life. 

The legislature of 1877 prepared an amend- 
ment to the constitution, providing for biennial 
sessions of that body, and the amendment was 
adopted by the people at the fall election. 

Five acts were passed at the same session, re- 
lating to the grasshopper scourge. One of these 
appropi-iated $100,000 for bounties to pay for the 
destruction of grasshoppers and their eggs. [Tliis 
was never put into effect.] A State loan, to raise 
the money therefor, was also authorized. In ad- 
dition, townships or villages were authorized to 
levy a tax to pay similar boimties. The sum of 
$75,000 was also appropriated to purchase seed 
grain for those who liad lost tlunr crops, anl 
$5,000 was voted for a special relief fund. 

At the same session was passed an act pro^id- 
uig for the redemption of the State railroad 
bonds, by giving for each outstanding bond sur- 
rendered, a new bond for $1,750, at 6 per cent, 
interest. The amendment was defeated at an 
election held on Jime 12th. 

Early ui the summer [1877] the grasshoppers 
appeared in myriads again, and began devouring 



the crops. Tlie farmers endeavored to destroy 
them by fires, ditchuig, and catcliing them in 
pans smeared witli t;ir. ; A day of fasting and 
prayer for riddance from the calamity, was ap- 
pointed by the Governor, and generally obser\-ed 
throughout the State. ' Soon after this, the grass- 
hoijpers dis;ippeared, and a partial harvest was 
secured in the region formerly afflicted by them. 
For five successive seasons, the fanners ui that 
district had lost their crops, more or less entirely. 

In the fall of 1S77, Gov. Pillsbury was re- 
elected Governor, receiving 57,071 votes, over 
Wm. L. Banning, who received 39,147. 

Tlie legislature of 1S78, appiopriatcd SloO.OOO 
to purchase seed grain for destitute settlers, the 
amounts issued, to such, to be repaid by them. 
Over si.x thousand persons, in thirty-four counties, 
received loans under this act. enough to plant 
223,727 acres. Most of these loans were repaid. 

At the same session an act was passed, propo- 
sing a constitutional amendment, offering to the 
holdersof State ntilmail l)onds. Intenial Improve- 
ment Lands, in exchange for sucli bonds. The 

amendment was rejected by the people at the 
next election. 

During the year l.s7s. railroad extension, which 
had been almost suspc mled for four years, was 
renewed again with much vigor, and the mate- 
rial progress of the .Slate was very marked, the 
western comities, especially, developing raiiidly. 

At the election in 1S79, John S. Pillsbury was 
re-elected Governor for a third term, by a vote of 
57,471, over Edniinid liice. who had 42,444, and 
other candidates, who received 6.401. 

On November 1-Jth,, the Ilo.-pital for tlie 
Insane, at St. Peter, was partially destroyed by 
fire, and twenly-seven of the patients lost their 
lives, by burning, or in consequence of exposure 
and fright. 

The census of 1880, showed a population in 
Minnesota, of 780.082. The assessors" returns 
give a valuation of real and personal property, of 
§268,277.874. These figures .show a proud and 
gratifying condition of growth and prosperity in 
tlie slicirt space of tliirly-oiie years, since Minne- 
sota began its political existence. 




A PUin Post— Its Associalioiis— Situation— Clmnnel of Mississippi— Recent Im- 
provements — Department of Dakota — Department Headquarters — Lieut. 
Douglas' Report— Purchase of Reserve— Purpose of Fort— Building— Hard- 
Blnps— Saw Mill— Name— Squatter*— Pilte Island— Reduction of 1853— Sale to 
Mr. Steele— Re-entry by V. S.— Reduction of 1862— Claim of Mr. Steele— Re- 
duction of 1870— New Buildings— General Description. 

If a visitor expects to see a stone foitiflpation, 
bristling witli cannon and prepared for defense 
against intruders by land or water, lie will 
be disappointed in Fort Snelling. If, on the 
other hand, he anticipates a pile of ruins over- 
grown with ivy, the remains of former greatness 
and strength, he will find himself as much 
deceived in that direction. Xo mark of cannon- 
ball or even musket shot exists. The fort has 
never sustained an attack. Some old buildings, 
it is true, are disused and look sadly forsaken, 
their places being supplied by new and more 
modern structures, still it would require some 
stretch of the imagination to construe them in- 
to ruins. One of the officers, however, jokingly 
suggested that ivy be phmted around the tower 
that in old time guarded the main entrance, 
pierced for two tiers of musketry, and a ruin 
be made of it. This was a valuable su.ggestion, 
as in its present condition it performs no useful 
purpose and is an eye-sore to the visitor. Thus 
we see that the fort fails to attract, either by 
its military freshness or by a ruinous condition. 
It is simply a plain military post without dis- 
play. It has, however, served a purpose, and 
is now the historical landmark for the State and 
the Northwest. Here was the flrst settlement, 
the flrst birth, first marriage and first death. 
Here was organized the first church, here was 
the first farming, tirst milling and first enter- 
prise of every kind. Around Fort Snelling clus- 
ter all the early associations of the State. What 
matters it, if it has been a means of fraud on the 

national resources and a continual charge to the 

government V Had the paltry dollars been kept 
back, much would have been lost and the coimtry 
made poorer not richer. As the skillful general 
in the hour of battle wastes ammunition, pro- 
perty of all kinds and even lives of men that in 
a less critical hour he would cherish, to accom- 
plish a result superior in importance to money or 
lives, so the government is often compelled to 
submit to much waste to achieve great ends. 
The fort stands on the Ijluffs of the Mississippi, 
whose pure wliite sandstone affords a strong con- 
trast to the dark water below, as well as to the 
green banks above. The wide gorge through 
which the Father of Waters brings down the 
floods of the North is here greatly increased in 
width, after receiving the waters of its confluent 
the Jlinnesota. Geologists tell us that once the 
Minnesota was the larger river, and that the Mis- 
sissippi was its tributary. They tell us, too, that 
the ^Mississippi once traversed a different course, 
leaving its present channel at the mouth of Bas- 
setfs Creek and, taking a route through the 
Lakes Calhoun and Harriet, flowed into the Min- 
nesota at some point between Shakopee and the 
fort. No historian, however, can confirm the 
testimony of the rocks, and the old fort cannot 
reach back far enough to aid in the research. 
We are indebted to the politeness of Colonel 
John Gibbon, the otticer in command, and to 
Adjutant Harding for the following history of 
the fort, prepared by S. E. Douglas, 2nd Lieut. 
7th Infantry. This will give the facts of the 
fort as it was, and as it is, except the improve- 
ments of the past year. The improvements con- 
sist of a liakery, a commissary store house and a 
stable, added at a cost of about §9000. It will be 
necessary for us, however, to notice some im- 
provements lately made in the reservation, in 
consequence of the establishment of the head- 



FORT ^yELLiyCi. 

(|iiaiteis (if tlic •■ Di'iinrtiiiciit of l);il\ota "' at tins 

The •■ Depart ineiil of Dakota" was created Aug. 
lull. 1S()(). out of the ileiiartnients of the Missouri 
anil I'latte. and Hrcvel Major (ieueral Alfred II. 
Terry assigned to eoniniand. May ISth. IStif). 
(General Terr\ was succeeded by Major General 
AVinlicM S. Hancock. December Sd. 1872. the 
litter was succeeded by ISrevet .Major (ieneral. 
now l^rigadiei- (Hiieral. .\lfred II. Terry. 

Tlie Department of Dakota now includes the 
Territories of .Montana and Dakota, and tlie State 
of Minnesota. Theobject of the department is to 
facilitate the movement of troops, the distribution 
of sui)plies. etc.. etc. The troops in this depart- 
ment are the Second and .Seventli ca\alry. Third. 
Fifth. .Seventh. Eleventh. Seventeenth, Eigh- 
teenth and Twenty-lifth infantr>. The head- 
quarters have been located al St. I'aul since tlie 
creation of the deiiartment. with the exception of 
a short time wlien they were located al Fort 
Snelling. Diirhig the year past, extensive build- 
ings have been erected on the Foil Snelling res- 
ervation with a view to the estabnshiiiciit of the 
headquarters of lliis dcpailiiicnl Ihcie, near the 
military jxisl. These iniiirovements are still in 
progress, and. when comiilete. will add greatlv to 
the beauty and iisefiiliiess of the reservation. 
F'oiirteen buildings built of cream colored brick. 
are nearly complete, and i>reseiit a line a)i|iear- 
ance. They differ in architecture and are large 
and elaboi-ale. The heaihpiarters biiihling is a 
handsome stnictui-e. 

.So much has been said and is still to be said in 
this history in reference to Fort Snelling. that it 
has been thought best to iii>cil Ihc follow ing n- 
jiiirt of the fort : 

FnifT Sn'KI.lino. .Minn.. / 
December Illi. ls;ii. , 

'I'll ihi !' AiljiiiiiiiL Fni-t SiiiUiiiij. Mill, I. 

Siu: -Fursiiant to instructions from the coni- 
inandingollicer. F'ort Snelling. .Minn.. I have the 
honor to submit Ihe following report. \i/.: In 
l.HO."i. Lieulenant /.ebiilon .Monlgomery I'ike. F. 
S. .\riny. was sent out to explore the upper Mi.ssis- 
sip).i river, to expel Jtiilish tiadeis who might be 
found violating I'nited Stales laws, and to make 
tivaties with the Indians. 

On the 21sl of .September, imi.j. he eniampe<l 

on what is now known as Pike Island, at the 
junction of the Mississijipi and Minnesota, (then 
St. Petei-s) livers. Two days after, he obtained 
by treaty with the Sioux Nation, a tract of land 
for a military reservation, which was described 
as follows : ••From below the confluence of the 
Mississipjii and St. Peter, up the ilississippi to 
include tlic l-"alls of St. .\iillioiiy. extending nine 
miles on each side of the river."' Hy this treaty, 
as ratilied by the Senate, the Fnited States stip- 
ulated to pay two llinii>aiid dollars i?2.(l00i for 
the lands thus cedc(l. 

The reserve, thus purchased. li> Lieiiteiiaiit 
Pike, was not used for military purposes until 
Februarx Idtli. IM'.i. at which time, to cause the 
])ower of llic liiited .Slates government to be 
fully acknowledged by the Indians and settlers 
of the Northwest, to |>revent Lord .Selkirk, the 
Hudson IJay ('oiiiiiaii\ and others, from establish- 
ing trading iiosts on rnited States territory, to 
better the condition of the Indians, and to de- 
veloii the resources of the coiiiitiy. it was thought 
expedient to estalilisli a military post near the 
junction of the .Mississipjii and the St. Peters. 
.Vccordiiigly jiart of the •'ith I'. S. lnt'aiitiy. coin- 
inanded by Lieutenant Colonel Henry J.,eaven- 
worth. was despatched to select a site and erect 
a post. They arriveil at the St. Peters in Sep- 
tpinber I l.siHi ami went into cantonment on the 
south side of it. near where the town of Meudola 
now stands. 

The lirst monthly report was rendcrcil for .Sep- 
li'iiibcr. IMli. Dm iiif; the ensuing winter i lHIi)-2(li 
scurvy raged amongst the trooi>s. referring to 
which, (iencral II. II. .Sibley, in his aihlress before 
the Minnesota Historical Society, says : "So sud- 
<h-ii wa^ Ihe allaik. that soldiers a)i)iarentl> 

ill g 1 health when lhe\ irliied at night, were 

I'oiind dcaij in the iiioiniiig. ()iic man who was 
rilicM'd Ironi Ids loiir of sentinel duty, and 
slielched himself upon a bench, when lie was 
called four hours after, to resume his duties, was 
found lifeless. ■■ In .May. 1K2(I. the coimnand left 
llieir ( aiitoiinieiit. crossed the St. Peters, and 
went into summer camp at a spring, near the 
old Maker trading house, and about two miles 
above the present site of I"oit Snelling. This 
was i-alled ■Camp Cold Water." During the 
summer the men were busily engaged in procur- 
ing logs anil other necessary materials for the 



work. All preparations were being made to com- 
mence building the new post, whirli was called 
■•Fort St. Anthony;" the site selected being that 
of the present military cemetery. But in August, 
1820, Colonel .losiah Snelling, -ithU. S. Infantry, 
having arrived and assumed command, selected 
the site where Fort Snelling now stands. 

Work steadily progressed, tlie troops perform- 
ing tlie labor, and on September 10th, ]S20, the 
corner stone of Fort St. Antliony was laid witli 
due ceremony. 

During the following winter Ilts20 "211. the 
buildings of the new post not being lialutable, 
the troops were quartered in the cantonment of 
the preceding winter. 

Tlie first measured distance between Fort St. 
Anthony and Fort Crawford (Prairie du Chien), 
was taken in February, 1822, and was given as 
two hundred and four miles. 

Work on the i>ost was pushed forward with all 
possible .speed. The buildings were made of logs, 
and first occupied in October, 1822. 

The first steamboat, the Virginia, arrived at 
the post in 1 828. 

A saw-mill was built, the fust in Minnesota, 
by troops from the post, in 1822, and the first 
lumber » ver sawed on Hum River, was for u«e in 
tlie construction of the fort, Minneapolis now 
includes the mill-site. 

The post continued to be called Fort St. An- 
thony until 1824, when, upon the recommendation 
of General Scott, U. S. A., who inspected the 
fort, it was named Fort Snelling, in honor of its 

In 1880 stone buildings wei'e erected for a fotn- 
company infantry post, also a stone liospital and 
a stone wall nine feet high surrounding the post. 
These buildings were not actually complete<l, 
liowever, until after tlie Mexican War. 

Notwithstanding the treaty made by Ijieuten- 
ant Pike, the Indian title to the Fort Snelling 
Heservation, did not cease until tlie treaty of 1887, 
which was ratified by the Senate in 1838, and by 
which the Indian claim to all lands east of tlie 
Mississippi, including said reservation, ceased. 

In 183fi, before the Indian title ceased, many 
settlers located on the reservation, on the left 
bank of the Mississippi. 

On October 21st, 1889, the President of the 
I'nited States issued an order, by virtue of the 

act of March 3d, 1807, " An act to prevent .settle- 
ments being made on lands ceded to the United 
States, until authorized by law," directing the 
United States Marshal to remove squatters from 
the Fort Snelling reserve, and if necessary, to call 
on the commanding ofhcer at Fort Snelling for 
troops to assist him in executing his order. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 6th of May. 1840. a few of these 
settlers, having received the necessary notice, 
were forcibly removed by the Marshal, assisted 
by U. S. troops from the fort, 

In 1837, Mr. Faribault presented a claim for 
Pike Island, part of the reservation purchased by 
Lieutenant Pike, in 180-5. This claim was based 
on a treaty made by him with the Dakotas ui 

A military reservation of seven thousand acres, 
at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, was set aside by the 
President, on May 2.5tli, 18-53. In November fol- 
lowing, the President amended his act of May 
2-5th, and reduced the reservation to about six 
tliousand acres. 

The first map of the Fort Snelling reserve was 
made by 1st Lieutenant James W. Abert, Coqis 
Engineer, in October, 18-53, 

Pursuant to the act of March 3d, 18.57, which 
extended tlie provisions of the act of ^larch 19th, 
1819, authorizing the sale of certain military sites, 
the Secretary of AVar sold the Fort Snelling 
reserve, excepting two small tracts, to Mr. Frank- 
lin Steele. 

The articles of agreement between the board 
appointed for the purpose on the part of the 
United States, and Mr. Steele, were dated .lune 
(ith, 18-57, and were approved on the second day 
of July following. The reservation and build- 
ings thereon were sold for ninety thousand dol- 
lars, one-third to be paid on July loth, 18-57, and 
the balance in two equal yearly installments. 
The first payment ($30,000) was actually made, 
July 2-5th, 18.57. on which date Mr. Steele, in pur- 
suance of military authority, took possession of 
said property. The troops were withdrawn from 
the post previous to Mr. Steele's occupancy there- 
of. Mr. Steele having made default in the two 
remaining payments, the United States entered 
into possession and occupancy of the reservation 
and post, on April 23d, 1861. 

By act of August 26th, 1862, the F\irt Snelling 
reservation was reduced and defined as follows : 



•' Beginiiinp: at the inidcUe of the fliaiinel of tlie 
Mississii>iii Hirer below l'ike".s island : tlieiice 
ascending along tlie iliaimel of said river in sueh 
direction as to include all the islands of the 
river to the mouth of IJrown's Creek ; thence up 
Siiid creek to IJice Lake ; tlience tln-ough the 
middle of Rice I«ike to the outlet of Lake Ame- 
lia ; thence through said outlet and the middle 
of Lake Amelia to the outlet of Mother Lake; 
tlience through said outlet and the middle of 
Mother Lake to the outlet of Duck Lake ; thence 
tlirongh said outlet and the middle of Duck Lake 
to the southern extremity of Duck Lake ; thence 
in a line due south to tljc middle of channel of 
the St. Peter's Hiver; thence dow.n said river so 
as to include all the islands to the middle of the 
channel of the Mississippi River: reserving fur- 
ther, for military purposes, a quarter section on 
the right bank of the St. I'eter's River, at the 
present ferry, and also a quarter section on the 
left bank of tlie Mis.sissijjpi River, at the present 
ferry across that stream."' 

Mr. Steele presented, on i'ebruary (ith. 1868, a 
claim against the I'nited States govermiient for 
the possession and occuiiancy by V . S. troops, of 
said post and reservation : which claim exceeded 
in aiiKMuil the original luirchase w ith interest. 

By act of May 7th, 1870, the Secretary of War 
was authorized •' To select and set apart for a 
jiermanent military post, so much of the military 
reservation of Fort Snelling, not less than one 
thousand acres, as the jiublic interest may require 
for that purpose, and tn iiuict the title to said 
reservation, and to settle all claims in relation 
thereto, and for the use and occupation thereof, 
upon principles of equity." In jiursuance of 
which act. the Secretary of \Var set apart for a 
permanent military reservation lifteen hundred 
and thirty-one and Iwcntv hundicdtlis acres, de- 
lined as follows: 

'■ IJegimiing at a point \\ line the snutli line of 
the quarter of tlie northeast quarter of 
section thirty-two, township twenty-eight north. 
of niiige twenty-three west of tlie fourth princii)al 
meridian, intersects the miildleof the main I'hau- 
nel of the Minnesota Hiver: thence west to the 
Houthwest comer of the northwest quarter of sec- 
lion thirty-two. town and range aforesaid ; thence 
n<irtli to the northwest corner of section twenty, 
town andTange aforesaid; thence east to middle 

of the main channel of the Mississippi River; 
thence along the main channel of the Mississippi 
River and the conlhieiice of the Mississippi and 
ilinnesota rivers at the head of Pike Island and 
the middle of the Minnesota River, to the i)lace 
of beginning, indudiiisf the oilicers" quarters, bar- 
racks, ttc." 

A reserve of ten acres giantccl by tlic Initcd 
States to the Catholic Church at Mendota for a 
cemetery, was also reserved. Mr. Steele executed 
full release of all claim whatsoever to this proj)- 
erty. and for the useor occuiialion of all property 
sold to him iier agreement dated June (ith, lbo7; 
in cousideraticin of which, the United States re- 
leased Mr. Steele from all indebtedness on the 
purchase made by him. and granted and con- 
veyed to him the remainder of the so-called Fort 
Snelling reservationf excepting one small tract), 
which is delined as follows : 

•• .\11 of sections nineteen, thirty and thirty- 
one, and all that pari of section eighteen lying 
south of Minnehaha Creek, and all that part of 
section seventeen lying south of Minnehaha 
Creek and west of the Mississippi River; all that 
portion of section twenty, lying east of the main 
channel of the ]Mississip|)i River, including the 
islands east of said main channel, and the south- 
west quarter of the northwest quarter, and all 
that portion of the southwest quarter and of the 
northwest quarter of the southeast (juarter of sec- 
tion twenty-one which lies east or northeast of 
the main channel of the Mississippi River, and 
all those portions of sections twenty-one, twenty- 
two and twenty-eight lying on Pike's Island i so- 
called] being the entii'e island, and all that other 
portion of section twenty-eight which lies east 
and south of the Minnesota Hiver. except Iwt'iity 
acres, being the south half of the southeast quar- 
ter of the northeast quarter of .said section, the 
same being reseivcd for a Catholic (^hurch an<l 
burial ground. «licre the church and burial 
ground nou are; all that iHirtion of the south 
half and ol Ww south half of the north half 
of srction lliirt>-tU(> wliicli lies west iw iiorlli- 
west of the .Minnesota Hiver: all the above 
described lauils being in townshiii twenty-eight 
north, of range tweuty-tlini' west of the fonrth 
principal meriilian. .Vlso all that portion of sec- 
tion thirteen lying .south of .Minnehaha anil Hice 
Lake and east of the creek running between said 



Rice Lake anil Lake Amelia and east of said 
Lake Amelia, ami all land in section twelve that 
may be included in said Ixiundaries. All of sec- 
tion twenty-four lying east of the western bound- 
ary of said reservation (•• reserve selected "") and 
any portion of section twenty-three that lies east 
of the creek joining Jlother Lake and Lake Ame- 
lia, and the east half of section twenty-five and 
the east half of section thirty-six, all in town- 
ship twenty-eight north, of range twenty-four 
west of the fourth meridian. Also all that por- 
tion of section live which lies west or northwest 
of the ^linnesota River ; all of section six ; all 
that portion of section seven which lies north of 
the Minnesota River, and all those portions of 
section eight and eigliteen which lie west and 
north of the Minnesota River: all in townshiii 
twenty-seven north, of range twenty-three west. 

Also the east half of section one. and tlie east 
half of section twelve, and all that portion of the 
east half of section thirteen which lies north and 
east of the ^Minnesota River ; all in^ township 
twenty-seven north, of range twenty-four west. 

The action of the Secretary of War in selecting 
said reservation and buildings and conveying the 
above specified lands to ilr. Steele, was approved 
by the President on January 4th. 1871. 

A stone prison was erected during the war of 
the reliellion. which is now used as a commissary 

The old stone hospital is now used for offices 
and laundress" quarters. The new hospital is 
just completed. 

Fort Snelling is situated on a higli bluff on the 
right bank of tlie Mississii)pi. in latitude 44 deg. 
•52 mill. 4(5 sec. iioith.and longitude 93 deg. 4 min. 
54 sec. west. It is an irregular shaped liastioned 

A wagon road runs entirely around the post, 
and is eight feet below the parade at the gorge, 
but gradually arrives on the same level at the 
shoulder angle. 

The old post is almost enclosed by five build- 
ings, and in form is nearly a rhombus, with a 
tower at each angle. 

A new two-story barracks for six companies of 
infantry and sixteen sets of officers' quarters. 
was built during 1878. The east tower, stone 
wall, and old guard house, have been torn down. 

The commanding officer's quarters have been re- 
modeled during the current year. 

The water is obtained from a spring about 
three-quarters of a mile from the post, by means 
of water wagons. Water is also obtained from 
the Minnesota River, being forced through pipes 
by an engine, into a large tank on the west side 
of the parade ground, but the water thus obtained 
is unfit for drinking purposes. During extreme 
cold weather tlie water pipes freeze up, rendering 
it impossible to refill the tank except dirring the 
open weather. 

There is a post-office, a telegraph office and a 
railroad station at the post. 

The nearest supply depots are at St. Paul, four 
miles distant from the post, by wagon road, and 
six miles by railroad. A bridge is building across 
the ^ilississippi River at the post. 

Forage and fuel are obtained by contract. The 
post and company garden supply vegetables for 
the garrison. 

The armament consists of two three-inch rifled 
cannon, with carriages, model of 1861. The 
present strength of the garrison is sixteen com- 
missioned officers and three hundred and fourteen 
enlisted men. 

It is impossible to obtain from the records of 
the post, the various expenditures for barracks 
and quarters, and repairs of same, for any definite 
period. All that I have been able to obtain is 
that thirty-five thousand dollars (S3o,000) was 
appropriated for barracks and quarters in 1878. 
It is presumed, however, that the required in- 
formation can be obtained at the Quartermaster 
General's office. The work, practically, (with 
few exceptions), has been performed by the labor 
of the troops, and the cost to the Government 
cannot be correctly estimated. 

A site has been selected on the Fort Snelling 
reservation upon which to erect buildings for the 
Headquarters of the Department. 

Tlie records of the post are very incomplete. 
It seems, from all attainable evidence, that the 
records were removed in 1857, when the troops 
were withdrawn, and have not been returned. 
It further appears that these records had not been 
received by the Adjutant General of the army 
prior to July 18th, 1866. The last Board of 
Officers appointed to investigate claims on the 


FOJiT ,s.YA7,/.y.vrv. 

Fort Snelling reservation met i)ursviant to S. O. 
Xo. 278 A. (i. O. dated Octoln-r ITlli. ISTd. I 
liave lieeii >nuil)le to find any jieiieral order re- 
ferring to tlie reservation of lHo3 or IStiii. or re- 
ferring to lands sold in 1857 and 18711. 

The reservation of 1870 was announced in 
General Order No. tw. Adjutant General's office 
of tliat year, and was lirst surveyed by Captain 
I). P. Heap, Cori)s of Engineers, on April 13th. 

1871. A new line for the .southern boundary was 
run by First Lieutenant Edward Maguire. Corps 
of Engineers, on May 7tli. 1877. 

I respectfully submit the foregoing, believing 
it will cover a few of the points required. 

I am. Sir. \'ery Hespectfully Your obedient 
Servant, S. H. DoroLAs. 

Second Lieut. 7th Infantrv. 

Ills 'J' O K Y 




\\lieii Livy wiole the liislon iif Hdiiic he was 
coiiipelleil to admit that facts and lictioii had 
become so intermingled that it was impossible to 
distinguish the one from tlie other. The legends 
of the past were such a mixture of facts, mytho- 
logical superstitions and wild fancies that it was 
a relief to reach the restful word '•constaf (it is 
admitted), and find that there was some ground 
upon which all agreed and could stand with linn 

Though tlie settlement of Hennepin county 
was not determined by the tiiglit of l)irds. and 
thougli there was no barbarous uncle (U' remark- 
alile infants. Romulus and Remus, still there are 
always, in the growth and settlement of any 
countrs'. fancies and superstitious that take the 
form of traditions and bewilder the wisest heads. 
The machinery of the shrewdest Yankee can 
never so completel}' separate a mixture of wheat, 
cockle and pigeon grass that it can be said— here 
we hiive now collected all the wheat, here all the 
cockle and here all the pigeon grass. The histor- 
ian who delays liis separating process until after 
harvest, must have a like experience and will lind 
many a kernel of cockle among his wheat. By 
beginning thus early, before the first settler.s have 
pas.sed away, we must have a decided advantage 
over historians who grope among the rubbish of 
the past, sifting and screening to get the grains 
of fact as pure as possible. "We can talk to-day 

with eye witnesses of the scenes we describe and 
hope thus to collect and preserve in almost unal- 
loyed purity the treasures of history. 

H must not be suppo.sed. however, that the 
compilation necessary to furnish a historx . such 
as is here proposed, is an easy task. Thougli the 
files of -the Press" afford a valuable thesaurus 
of information, still many choice items have 
never found their wa\ to the columns of the 
new spaper and are accidentally unearthed by the 
hist(u-ical expk)rer as lie pokes about, as little 
noticed by the busy citizen as the ragpicker, who 
with .sack and hook is exploring the ash barrel in 
the rear of the merchants' st<ire. Out of a vast 
amount of material gathere<l b\ the persistent 
efforts of these collectors, we jiiirpose to furnish 
to the public such part as ought to be kept in 
miuil by the present and future inhabitants of 
this county, and besides furnish entertainment to 
those who wcMild simjily wiiile awa_\ an hour 
among the interesting things of the past, com- 
paring the old with the new. 


.Vlllioiigli we are eualilcd lo furnish facts that 
cannot be (luestioned in reference to the settle- 
ment of Hennepin county by white men. still 
there are. even in this new cciuntry. many old 
things and many m\steries that can never be e.x- 
plaiueil— mounds built by a people whom we can 
never know, whose history can never be com- 
mitted to jiaper. There are many iiioiuids in this 
county and we here give thein a passing notice. 

.Vrchu'ologists have divided imninih into the 
following classes: •■^Vltaror Sacrificial ilonnds," 
••Mounds of Sepulture" lor burial), -'Temple 
>b>uiids."" and ■• Mounds of Observation." Be- 




sides these they have found mounds that do not 
admit of olassifieation under any of tliese heads— 
niDUiuls of rurious shapt's. having such forms as 
defy conjerture as to tlieir use. 

These wise heads have spent much time in con- 
jecture, and mucli in measurement, with mathe- 
matical instrumciils. to determine data that will 
suit their fanciful theories. 

It is not our purpose in this paper to 
the antiquity of these mounds, or to speculate on 
their character. Little attention has been paid 
to the very nmuerous mounds found in the 
county. It may be safe, however, to class them 
all. at a venture, under the head of Mo>mds of 
Sepulture. The iuvesligalions made have re- 
vealed little except bones, and the e\idence of 
^reat antiquity is not very clear. 

This method of burial was certainly in use in 
recent times among om- Indian tribes. Jonathan 
Carver, in a letter foimd in this volume, speaks 
of visiting a mound near St. Paul, in 1767. and 
witnessing the Indian burial. The custom of this 
iuiagiualive jicdple was to place the bodies of 
tlii-ir dead upon high stagings, ovcilodking lakes, 
rivers or beautiful scenery, which they would 
enjoy if living, and leave them there, until at 
certain intervals, they collected the remains for 
burial in the mounds. Mounds in this county 
are found overlooking the water of all the princi- 
]ial lakes and rivers scattered through its various 
tttwnships. As we can never write the history 
of the builders, we will leave the subject to future 
explorers and more fertile imaginations. 


After the Mound Ihiildeis come the Indians 
in the occui)ation of the county. If, as has been 
claimed, the Mound Builders were the Indians, 
they must have been earlier settlers of tribes now 
extinct or driven further south. TIjc present 
tribes of Indians, at least, come after the Mound 
Huilders. The fanciful names, wild natures and 
ourioiis legends of this people, will always be 
itssociated with much that is i)oetic. grand and 

The early settlers of Minnesota, liowever. will 
hold the. Indian in execration, and so. too. their 
children"s children for many generations, in coii- 
secpieiice of the massacre of IHisl'. We must, 
liowever, refer the reader to the chaiiters. •• llaltits 

of the Tribes " and " Massacre of 1862," found 
earlier in the volume. 


It must be left to the imagination of the reader 
to picture many of the hazardous experiences 
and narrow escapes of the early missionaries, 
which can never be written. Their motto, '• Ad 
mnjofem del ylorkun ", often exposed them to the 
tdinaliawk and scalinng knife of the Indian, or to 
hardships and exposures under which they could 
but die. The indefatigable explorer is still find- 
ing new fads to add to the alrea<1y rich store. 


Again fancy may run riot among the stories of 
tlie "Voyageurs" who. making the love of adven- 
ture their highway to happiness, spent weeks and 
months in dalliance with Indian maidens. Facts 
in regard to these adventures are coming to the 
knowledge of the explorer among the curious 
things of the past. Fancy need not be very wild 
that discovers, on the streets of our great cities, 
half-breeds, bearing unmistakable marks of noble 
parentage. The fact that Frenchmen, frequently 
descendants from noble families, but of broken 
fortunes. cohal)ited w itli the Dakota squaws, rais- 
ing up sometimes large families, is freely admitted. 

These half breeds, while in many instances 
bearing the iininess of nobility in counteiunices, 
having the high cheek bones and coarse hair of 
the natives, were often much more reckless than 
their sires. For. we are assured, that their adven- 
turous sires fre<iuently solemnized by a veritable 
marriage, contracts undertaken at first for the 
diversion of an hour. Their consciences, how- 
ever, w ere riither elastic, for the existence of such 
marriages in tlieir wanderings, seems not to have 
interfered witli others, contractecl at home, or 
with new ones entered into for convenience or 
diversion at some new caniji. 

Tlie i)rogeny belonged neither to the one race 
nor the other, and since they could not be ac- 
kiunvledged, cared for and edncaled by the 
enlightened jiartuer to the conlract without ex- 
posing him to shame, were left to become breeders 
of strife and contentinn among the tribes. This 
is one of the evils tliat iiroves that "The efVcct of 
contact of the suuple minded .savage witli tlie 
deepiT and higher life 111' tlie inllildrr is fraught 
with danger to liolli." 




Fatlier Louis Hennepin, born in Flanders, in 
16-10, became a missionary to Canada, in 1670. He 
acoompanied La Salle in liis exploration of the 
great lakes, the upper Mississippi and its tribu- 
taries. His "Description de la Louisane" pub- 
lished in 1683. and a similar work ptibllshed in 
1697, are said to do more credit to his imagination 
tluui to his priestly character. In sjiite of the 
claim that they contain many falsities, lioth pub- 
lications are esteemed by his supporters and 
the traducers of his veracity. In 1680, he dis- 
covered the Falls of St. Anthony, but robbed 
them of a beautiful Indian name, '■ Kakaljika 
Irara," (severed rock, curling water) and substi- 
tuted the name of his patron saint. Le Sueur 
and Faribault were also distinguished explorers 
coming soon after Father Hennepin. Next comes 
Captain John Uuluth, in 1760, also Nicollet. 
Schoolcraft, Catlin and Featherstonhaugh. Ac- 
counts of these explorers will be found in another 
part of the work. They were valuable contribu- 
tors to the information of their day and also 
contributed to the growth of the territory and 
subsequently, of the State by their glowing de- 
scriptions of its resources and healthful climate. 

Jonathan Carver, in 1767. exhibited here, what 
many a genuine Yankee has done elsewhere, good 
speculating qualities. He was the first of the 
numerous land speculators. He roamed about 
much with a keen eye to the main chance, while 
he at the same time took in the scenery, the fu- 
ture proliabilities, and ventured various prophe- 
cies for the future of the state, predicting that 
what is now St. Paul would soon have eastern 
and western communication. His notes and de- 
scriptions are valuable. 


Passing over the experiences of the earliest 
missionaries. French Jesuits — of whom sufficient 
notice will be found in the preceding early history 
of Minnesota, by Kev. E. L). Neill — we shall no- 
tice briefly the missionaries who. though late, 
compared with Father Hennepin and the Jesuit 
missionaries accompanying the traders and voya- 
geurs, are really early in the progress and settle- 
ment of the county. In a nianuscriitt found flt 
Fort Eidgely. and only iiartially preserved, writ- 
ten by James W. Lynde, one of the first victims 

of the Indian massacre of 1862. are found these 
words in regard to the missionary work; •■ It has 
been,'" says Mr. Lynde. '• a ceasless and imtmng 
effort to promote their welfare "; also, " The in- 
fluence of the mission among the Dakotas has 
ever been of a direct and energetic character. 
The efforts of the mission were directed 
more to the christianizing than to the civilizing 
of the Sioux : but of late the missionaries, though 
their exertions in the former respect are not at 
all abated, have been more earnest in their en- 
deavors to teach the Indians to plant and till."" 
^Ir. Riggs. however, in commenting on this pas- 
sage, claims that ihe fruits of the teaching began 
to show in later years, but that the Bible car- 
ries with it the plow and the hoe. and that the 
missionaries were continually aiming to introduce 
industrial and mainly agricultural habits among 
the Indians. 

Two brothers, who afterwards were ordained 
clergymen, S. W. and G. H. Pond, were the first 
missionaries to settle in the Territory. They 
came, in 1834, from Connecticut. They threw 
great zeal into their work, laboring equally for 
the good of the white man and the red. Their 
earnest lives, their Christian example and instruc- 
tion came to exercise an important moulding in- 
fluence on the moral and religious, and also on 
the material fortunes of the State. Setting out as 
they did, without the patronage of any mission- 
ary association, theirs may be called a purely 
Christian enterprise. S. "\V. Pond, by coiTes- 
pondence from Illinois, where he was located, 
with his brother, Gideon IL. who still lived in 
the old Connecticut home, plainied this private 
missionary work. 

On the east shore of Lake Calhovui they built 
a log liouse. This was the first house erected by 
a private citizen within the county. They did 
the work witli their own hands. 

These men were simply laymen l)ut had been 
well educated. They were soon at work pursu- 
ing acquaintance with the Dakotas, their purpose 
being to secure a thorough knowledge of their 
language and modes of life. Mr. Gideon H. 
Pond was eminently successful in this and ob- 
tained a very complete knowledge of. and was 
regarded as an authority on Dakota habits and 
language. With this in view, he sometimes 


iiisToiiY (IF i/EXXErix cocxr): 

allaclied himself to their Imntiiig parties, making 
long expeditions with these wild tribes. 

Tlie Dakotas were an association of the fiercest 
tribes of Xortli American Indians. Tlie Jesnit 
missionaries had long before abandoned all 
attempts to tame tlieir wild natnres. Mr. Pond 
lias given many thrilling accounts of the devilish 
scenes to which he was a witness in the battles 
between the Dakotas and Cluiipewas. Similar 
.scenes. re-eiia<'le(l in isu^. wlini wliitc settlers 
were the victims of the tomahawk and scalping 
knife, liave given the inlial)itaiits of .Minnesota 
a just abhorrence of the Sioux ainl their savage 
traits. Men are still living who liave taken an 
oatli. as sacred as the iiiicienl oaths of conspir- 
ators, sealed with lilood. to •■Hunt (tnd shool Ind- 
ianx }rliererfi- tluu riiiii/ be foiiinL" Though we 
may call such retaliation nn-christian and even 
murderons. let each man lake home the jirovoca- 
tion and imagine similar (lutragcs perpetrated r)ii 
his own family, before he passes judgment. 

Here isa scene of .\ugusl. 1.s:^n. which wasouc 
of the introductory experiences that taught Mi. 
Pond the character of this fierce |icii|ilc. WC^ivr 
facts condensed from Neills account. 

Peace and friendly inlercliaugcs had taken 
place between the Cjiippewas. or ()jibwa\s. of 
Canada, and the Dakotas. or Sioux, of Minnesota. 
only a few luoiillis before Ihc blnnilv acts, here 
reported, were enacted. This fact slious the 
treacherous character of the tribes and how little 
depeiuh-nce could be placed on llic MunUing cil 
the calumet. Mr. Pond hail joiucil a liunting 
party, consisting, accoidiiig to Indian iiistom. of 
braves, sipiaws and )>a|iooses. During the ab- 
sence of Mr. Pond and a large division of Die 
Indian party, several Chippevvas came to tlic> 
lodges, and were hospitably enlertained and Ireat- 
cil with Indian luarUs of respect, in acc<U(laiic<' 
with the spirit of the existing tiealx. During 
the night, the guests arose and sialped the 
Dakotas. even including wmuen and chilihcn. 
Among the few to escape was a mother with her 
])apoose. In the llight.the child perhaps saved 
the mother's life, for it leceived the death missle 
that might have proved fatal to her. .She notified 
till- other division of the party, and tlie> ipiickly 
returned to witness a dreadful sceni-. Several 
harl been killed, sleeping, while others ha<l evi- 
dently engageil in the death struggle. .Mr. Pond's 

eyes were here opened to the fierce character of 
the people whom he had come to draw by cords 
of love to embrace the "Gospel of jieace." He 
assisted in digging a grave into which they 
gathered the severed limbs, heads and mangled 
liodies of the Dakotas. .\s he turned away, 
sickened, fnmi the sight, it must have reipiired 
a brave heart to hold him to his work. This act 
of bad faith began ;i serii's of similar atrocities, 
undertaken, mi the cnie side or the otlier. by Cliiii- 
pewa or Dakota, in retaliation. In some of these 
attacks, the while settlers were also sulTerers. 
Could .Mr. I'oud ha\e lookeil forward, about 
thirty \ears. and seen the wholesale slaughter of 
18t>2. perpetrated by these same savages, who were 
then friendly to him could he have believed 
that, after the labors of many years, both by him. 
.Mr. Higgs. Dr. Williamson and a host of others, 
sent here to |ireach the (iospel — that these tribes 
would, at a later day. break out with greater 
ferocity than ever, it .seems almost certain that 
lie would have abandoned his work as the .lesiiil 
uiissiouaries had done before him. 

It seems as if oiii' go\ I'luuieiil would ne\ cr 
auaketoa reali/.atiou of the fact that thisanom- 
cil> of tribes, having governments independent 
of the central government at Washington, can 
never be]iroiluctive of good, either to the central 
government, or to tlie wheels within the wheels, 
the tribes tliemselvt>s. 

Treaties were made with the Ojibwasaiid with 
the Dakotas in 1SH7. That with the Ojibwas was 
effected by (iov. Dodge of Wisconsin. .Mthoiigh. 
by the terms of this treatv . the right of the Ind- 
ians to the' laud ceased, still they coutiuiieil in 
roam over it <U' occupy it at will, iiniiiterrupteil 
by the government, since they oflered nohoslilit) 
to the whiles. 'I'lieir 1 ribal wars, however, cou- 
tiiiued. causing at times great uneasiness and 
alanu to the few settlers. We gi\e here a brief 
accijuul (if 

ii\r; 1)1 I 111-; n \ i ii.ks 

of whieli .Ml. I'oud speaks. Ill older to emphasize 
further llie leriMilv of the tribes, ami because 
the scene was laid in this coiintN. 'I'lie line of 
painted warriors marched over what is now the 
most |>opiilons part ol llie exuulv . holding a war 
council w ithiii the teiiitorv now covered by the 
city of .Minneapolis. It haiiiieiied in .Inly. I881I. 

lyniAy battlk;^ asd Ai^ir mi.^^.siusaiues. 


There was a Sioux village on the west shore of 
Lake Calhoun which, from its lodges, was esti- 
mated to contain ahout five hniidred sonls. Tlieir 
old enemies, tlie Chippewas, were encamped in 
strong force further north, on the Hum Hivei'. 
near where Anoka now stands, and so. just out- 
side the limits of the count?'. The distance be- 
tween the camps was ahout twenty -five miles. 
The Chippewas were usually the aggressors in the 
tribal wars and were, according to our judgment, 
more tricky and more ready to break the treaties, 
which the whites liad induced thein to make 
with each other. In the present instance, a parly 
of Chippewas. skulking in the \ icinity of the 
Sioux village at Lake Harriet. eniM)untered Hu- 
pa-co-ka-ma-za, son of the chief and nephew of 
Redbird. killed and scalped him and made good 
their retreat. The murderous act was at once 
reported at the village and the Sioux blood was 
roused to white heat for retaliation. Sununon- 
ing their allies from neighboiing villages, ilie\ 
met for a final council on the east bank of the 
Mississippi just above Nicollet Island. Tliev 
there went thro\igh their Indian mummery and, 
before nightfall, set out, four hundred strong, 
to make a night march and fall <in their enemies 
at dawn. 

The expedition was successsful. They sur- 
prised and defeated a liody of Cliippewas. su^ierior 
to them in number of warriors. The Sioux, how- 
ever, lost heavily and Hedbird and his son were 
amcuig the slain. One squaw is reported to ha\e 
attended tlie marcli of the avengers, to wreak on 
the enemy vengeance for the death of her hus- 
band. They retiu'ued to the village about night, 
the da\ of the battle. Seventy scalps were dis- 
played on the pole in the centre of the village as 
soon as they returned. Xight after night. the\ 
repeated the scalp dance. Mr. Pond, who lived 
on the other side of the lake, described their 
orgies as the heathenish and demoniacal 
ceremonies. They made night hideous for the 
few white settlers. 

It is humiliating to admit that Ihiswasenacleil 
within the territory of the United Stales and 
under United States jurisdiction, within the 
memory of many men now living. How niui-h 
more liumilialing to admit that sucli scenes are 
repeated to-day among tlie many tribes whom it 
pleases our government to recognize as independ- 

ent. The solution of the difticult Indian question 
ought to be. what of late has been offered to the 
Poncas. viz.. the homestead right with an added 
provision, reciniring the breaking up of these 
lawless bands, rendering every Indian amenable, 
like other citizens to the laws, whose protection 
he enjoys and whose bounty lie receives. 

Ni;W MI>MI>N'.\1!IES. 

He\ . Thomas S. Williamson, M.D., a native of 
South Carolina and a graduate of Jefferson Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania, who had been practicing med- 
icine in Ohio previous to his ordination as a cler- 
gyman, was sent out by the American Board of 
( 'onunissioners for Foreign Missions. The Board 
desired to learn tluough him if they had any call 
tor labor here. His report induced them to send 
to his assistance Kev. J. D. Stevens, a native of 
New York, and Alexander Iluggins. a farmer, 
with their wives, also, as tea<'hers. Miss Sarah 
Poage and Miss I^iucy Stevens.. This band of 
recruits arrived at Fort Snelling, in 1835, and 
dui-ing that sunnner Dr. Williamson organized a 
Presbyterian cluu-cli at the fort. Uev. Mr. 
Steveus located and built his Ikuisc at Lake Har- 
riet, near the jiroperty of Eli Pettijohn. The 
rest of the party set out for the post of the trader- 
Kenville, and lo<-ated at Lac ([in Paile. The 
Ponds soon joined hands with the new comers 
and the work went on prosiierously. having the 
support of the American lioanl of Commission- 
ers for Foreign ^lissions. 

In the summer of lS3o, on the second Sabbath 
in June, the organization of the church at Fort 
Snelling took place, the llrst in Heiniepin county. 
The communion was administered on the same 
day. for the first time in Minnesota. Twenty- 
two members recieved the sacred emblems. The 
missionaries from the lake, a few settlers from 
.Xb'iidota and some of the garrison of the fort 
made up this ninnber. The elders of the church 
were Col. tiustavus Looinis, Hon. H. H. Sibley. 
then a young man in charge of the trading post 
at Mendota. A. (J. Huggins and S. W. Pond. 

The F^irst Presbyterian church in Mimieapolis. 
of which D. M. Stewart. 1). 1).. is jiastor. is a 
continuation or perpetuation of the old church at 
the fort. It was reorganized in Minneapolis 
May 'Md. IHoS. but elates its lirst organization at 
Fort Snelling. June Itlb. Is;^.-".. In 1S37. Hev. 



Stephen H. Biggs, a gra<luate of the same college 
as Dr. 'Williamson. Jefferson College. Pennsylva- 
nia, canip witli liis wife to strengthen the mission. 

In the sunmipr of is.'^.i. IJev. J. I). .Stevens, with 
the assistance of the Messrs. Pond, bnilt a house 
in tlie wmids on the west sliore of Lake Harriet. 
In this house, in tlieautunm of that year, a daugli- 
ter was born to Mr. Stevens, tlie first white child 
born in tliis vicinity. In the spring of 1836. 
Gideon II. Pond returned to Connecticut, wliere 
he reniaiiK'il a year, and returned an ordained 
clergyman. He remained at the Lake Harriet 
Mission several years after liis return. Hev. Mr. 
Uiggs. wlio joined the mission, as staled, in 1837, 
moved to Lac i)ui Parle in tlie autumn of the 
same year. .Mr. Stevens remained only to the 
following fall. 1838. when he moved to Wabaslia 
Prairie as Indian farmer. 

The sulise(juent settlement of Henneiiin coun- 
ty was princii)ally from the good old New Eng- 
land stock by men who came to establish family 
altars and build churclies. 

New Knglanders have been lalli'd tlie " Salt 
of llie Earth" in wlialever state tliey liave located. 
They have given tone to society and niodilied 
the government, the religion and tlic politics. 
The men have been men of iilnck and spirit, aiul 
the women strong minded enough to assert their 
imsition and maintain the right, and the rites 
they brouKlit fnim the ICast. They have been 
the salt of -Minnesota. In fact, to follow out the 
figure chemically, salts of all kinds, when dif- 
fused, or held in solution, tend to crystali/.e in 
certain fixed furms. So it is with the New Eng- 
landei-s. Tlieir enterprise carries 1 hem to every 
state. They are found dillused tlirough all 
societies. Wherever Ihey .settle, blood tells, prin- 
ciple pri'vails. they ciyslallize in New j'jigland 
forms. We have New England forms of society. 
edncatiiiii ■aiu\ religion, New England wives, 
mothers and New England homes. In the <'ity 
ipf .Minneapolis alone thi'ie arc lifly-one cliuiclies 
and litty-eigbl cliiiri'h (irganizalions. 

Till- amliitiniis strife for s)ileii<ior in cliiii'cli 
architecture is as infectious, to say tlie least, as 
the more homely (hhmI Samaritan doctrines 
wliicli the vaulted roofs were built to disseminate. 
This infection has reacheil this new country. It 
fxliibils itsidf ill models of architecliiie. alreaily 
completed. aii<l in vast jiiles imw rising to be- 
come rival striK'tures. 



Churches can not grow taster than population 
conies to build and supinirt them. We must 
now sec who the settlers were, that came in to 
build up the churches and establish industries to 
sustain them. The foundation of all industries 
is AyrirKllKir. The cultivation of the soil is the 
only emiiloyment that is directly creative of 
wealth. The farmer takes a i)iece of land which 
yielded nothing without care. His care makes it 
liroductive of hundreds of dollars each year. In 
other words, he creates value from what was val- 
ue-less.while'every other industry riinhihiitcs vithir 
to the country by changes which it effects in the 
material furnislied. Minnesota has come to be 
acknowledged as lln wheat growing state of the 

It will be interesting to note the growth of 
agriculture in this ccmnty. and see who the early 
settlers were, that came to develop it. 

As migratory birds. Hying both north and 
.south over the State, stop here on their way from 
the iioilli. and again, at the iiroiier .season, com- 
ing from the south, .give us a call, so it has been 
with the settlers. They have dropjied in on us 
bciili 111 1111 the north and from the south. Curi- 
ousl>. the first settlers came, like the fall feath- 
ered visitors. I'mni the ikuIIi. They, however, 
only stoii))ed to oil their iiluniage. and moved on 
south. Our subseipient settlers came mainly 
fmm the east, or farther south, and came to Stay. 
We shall .see who both <-lasses were as the cliaiiler 
advances. The early attempts at agricuUiue in 

I leiiiiepiii mix were iinl cliaracleri/.eil by those 

features that mark llic beginnings in cimntries or 
.states, beariiiu; earlier dales of settlement. We 
cannot entertain the reader by descriptions o!' 
crude implements such as w<iodeii plows, but 
must admit that our pioneers were blessed with 
many of the niodein inipidveinents of .scientilic 



We can only claim for the first, courage to try the 
experiment of farming in so inclement a climate, 
during so short a season as the summer was found 
to continue. 

Lieut. Camp was called plucky, for testing it, 
but his first attempt proved successful. lie made 
the experiment, in 1823. at Fort Snelling. His 
success was very important to the future of the 
State, for, though several years passed, before the 
example was followed by others, Plnlander 
Prescott, employed as Indian farmer, imdertook 
farming, near Lake Calhoiui. This was in 
1830, and the first plowing, outside the fort. 
Soon after, others followed. Tlie settlers from the 
■north, came in 1826. A colony, forced from their 
first settlement, near Hudson Bay, by an unusual 
flood, settled under the protecting wmg of Fort 
Snelling. This colony embraced only Swiss. Tlie 
names of a few of them given are Perry, Garvais 
and Massey. Perry is described as a great owner 
of cattle, and was called, in consequence, the 
" Abraham "' of this region. The purpose of gov- 
ernment Military Posts seems to have been inter- 
preted in one way by these settlers, and in (piite 
another by the oflicers of the government. These 
settlers accused the oflicers, of the tV)rt, of exerci- 
sing arbitrary and tyrannical power, and thus 
frustrating one purpose of a fort, viz., affording 
protection and encouragement to settlers. This 
view was sustained by subsequent settlers, who. 
like these Swiss, wished to settle as squatters on 
the reservation. The oflii>er.s of the fort. Iiow- 
ever, had definite orders from the United States 
Marshal, to remove squatters from the Fort 
Snelling Reserve. In accordance with this order, 
instead of fostering this colony, they subjected 
them to persecution, even proceeding so far as to 
burn their buildings. At last, in 183(3-7, they 
were compelled to abandon lands where they had 
made their homes for aliout ten years. ^Ir. Perry 
moved to the present site of St. Paul, taking his 
cattle with him. and remained there until his 
death. Some moved to otlier points in tliis terri- 
tory, and others to the territory of Wisconsin. 
Such treatment of emigrants who settled near the 
fort, operated to discourage rapid settlement. 


The arrival of Col. John II. Stevens, with a 
party of settlers, in April, 1849, was an important 

event. Col. Stevens was the first settler in Min- 
neapolis. The party, consisting of ten, stopped 
first at St. Paul, but soon set out, on foot, to ex- 
amine the Canaan of their hopes, determined to 
make this their future home. Dr. William Dyer, 
a young physician, who subsequently became dis- 
tinguished in his profession, Alfred Courtwright, 
a successful teacher, and seven farmers, with the 
Colonel, constituted the party. 

When they reached Fort Snelling, they, like all 
their predecessors, coveted tlie forbidden fruit — 
the land in the reservation. They pressed on, 
however, and were fully satisfied to settle at St. 
Anthony, where the land was open for occupancy. 
Only two of tliis famous party remained to wit- 
ness the subsequent marvellous growth of this 
county, but from them we learn, the country 
charmed them, beyond any thing they had ever 
seen. They forgot their fatigue in admiration of 
the view before them. The inroads of civilization, 
at that time, were too few to change materially 
the iirimeval character of the scenery. On the 
government reservation, on the west bank, was 
the old mill, and here and there a log house on 
the east side. These were the only marks of civ- 
ilization on the scene. The scenery aljont the 
falls seems to have attracted and delighted the 
visitors as much in its original beauty, as it does 
now. in its practical usefulness. 

The Colonel could not. however, become satis- 
fled so long as he saw the fair lands on the other 
side of the river. He and many others were im- 
patient at the restricti<in on locating upon and 
improving these tempting lands. By some means, 
the restriction was removed in favor of a few, 
among whom was Col. Stevens, who then occupied 
claims within the reservation. The occupancy of 
such settlers, however, was like that of the early 
settlers, the Swiss, from the north, simply that of 
squatters. Col. Stevens Iniilt a log house in the 
whiter of 1849. and occupied it, with his family, 
as soon as it was completed. He was, as stated 
above, the first settler in Minneapolis. A few 
months later, Calvin A. Tuttle, and soon Mr. 
Miller, leaving the east side, joined Mr. Stevens, 
and built houses near him. 

In the spring of 18.50, C. C. Garvey took a claim 
adjoining Col. Stevens on tlie south. The settle- 
ment soon had added to its numbers, Dr. L. 
Fletcher, John Jackins, Edward Murphy, Judge 


ifi.sTdUY or iiKWErix coiwrv. 

Hassett, Charles Iloa;;, .loseiih 11. (aiiney. and 
others. Their cabins were scattered (iver what 
is now Miniieai>(>lis. at intervals of lialf a mile or 
more. They ha<l no churches. Their sjiiritiial 
food was fiii-nislii'd li> lircsiilc iiistiui-tinn. unless. 
which often happened. l!ev. (iidcon 11. I'mid. or 
some one of the missionaries, preached al the 
honse of Tol. Stevens. Camps of Indians were 
often made in their vicinity, cansing interest and 
excitement, even thonsh they created no alarm. 
Still, they were always thievish i)rowlers. even 
when professing the greatest friendship. .V ner- 
vous woman might often lie startleil hy seeing 
the nose of an Indian ur sipiaw llaltened against 
the window jiaiie. 

rill-; i;i;si:i;\ A riDN. 

It iMiist he liiiriie in mind. that, at this time, a 
reservation of land for military purposes, made 
hy a treaty of the I'nited States government with 
the Indians. In isil-'). throngh (Jen. I'iUe. existed. 
coveringall the tenltnry. from the junction of the 
.\Iissl.ssl|ipl and .MInuisota rivers, the site of Fort 
Snelling. up to and ineluding tire falls of St. 
Anthony, e.xtendiug nine miles each side of the 
river. This extensive reservation Inclndcil many 
thousand acres, much mo)'c land than was neces- 
sary for military i)urposes. It was seen. li> ex- 
l>loiei'S. to he very valnahle. and covetous eyes 
were lixed njion it. ."^cpiatlcrs took i>ossesslon. as 
they have often done of land unsurveyed hy gov- 
ernment, trusting that when it came Into market, 
their rights, as on lanils not military, would he 
resix'clecl. In this, however, they were destined 
to meet dlsap|Miintiucnt. The govenunent liail 
thrown ever\ i>ossllile olislacle In the way of their 
ohtalnhig a foothold, fiom the first, and now jiro- 
ceeded with the u^ual formalities of sale. The 
lOals were to he forwarded, on a certain day. from 
Washiugt'in. when llie sales, of laud llMrein de- 
scrihed. would take plai-e, al pnhlie anitlon. to the 
highest lildder. 

Such sales, howevei-. would have licen ruinous 
to those who had ocrnpii'ii elalnis. and made iui- 
lirovcmenls. in full exiieclalloii of the final right 
of prc-emi>tlon, and entry al Ihe usual govern- 
ineiit jirice. There existed, too. a tacit agreement 
helween the sipiatters and Ihe oHicersof the fort, 
that, on the one side, there slioulil In' im interfer- 
ence with their occuiialion. and. nii llie other. 

there sliiiiild he a di\isiiiu of spoils, in case the 
linal decision should lie in their favor. 

S|>eculators were on the alert. They assembled 
III considerable lunuhers at St. I'aiil. Intending to 
liid on the claims. This led to the following or- 
ganlzatioii among the settlers for luiitiial )irntec- 
tioTi : 

Till-: i:(;i Ai. Hu.irr and impak iiai. i'uuiKcTKJN 


The settlers on the reservation had no inten- 
tion of sitting idly hy and seeing their homes .-old 
to intnideis: neither did they imriiose to bill on 
them, themselves, above the usual lu'e-emption 
(irice. one dollar and twenty -five cents per acre. 
Ill this dilenuiia tlie\ called a meeting and estab- 
lislied this ]>and League. This was an associa- 
tion nf claimants on the reservation, organized to 
jirotect their interests by force, if need be. In a 
word, they projiosed to do all the bidding, on the 
lands put iii> at aiiclion. themselves, and to make 
II liuiMissihle for an> venturesome specnlatoi' to 
put in a connler hid. The association nnmhered 
one liiiiidred and Iw eiity-li\ e nieinhcrs. They 
aiipointc'd Thomas \\. I'elrce as bidder for 
all menilieis of the league. The remainder 
were to stand aniiiiiil. to iutiinldate. If a 
speculator should not he intiniidated, but force 
himself in as a bidder. Ihe nuMuliers were 
to snndiJiid lilni. and hustle liiin out of range 
of the sales. This plan was fully matured, 
and would donlitless. have lii-cn c-arried out to 
the letter: for the si>eculalors found the scpiat- 
Icrs I'c.solute. and sustained by i)uhlic opinion. 
and ll was more lliMii Intinialecl. that the militia. 
It called on. would, likewise, side with the set- 
tlers. The speculators apiiealed to (iovernor 
\\'lllls A. (oirnian. for siii)))ort at the coming .siile, 
.■uid askcci It the troops could he called out. The 
(ioNcrnor iironilsed I lie troops, but inlinialcd that 
he should Instruct them how to load. ■ How 
shall Villi Instruct them to load, (iovernory" askecl 
a spccMilalor. ■ liiaiik. Ii_\ !" replied the (iov- 

cinor. The speculators look the hint and the 
lirst op)iortiniil\ to leave. It is prohahle, that 
llils plan of luillclo/lng would have succeeded, 
had not another escape ofl'cicd. 

I'ortunatcly, a better method occiiircd. I'he 
plats did not arrive from Washington. In lime for 
the advertised sale, ami it was. necessarily. )iost- 



poned. Seizing the opportunity, afforded liy this 
delay, a delegation of citizens was sent to Wasli- 
ington, to i)rotest against the measure. l)v. .V. 
E. Ames, Fra(jl<:lin Steele. Judge ileeker. II. T. 
Welles, and others, were delegates. Tliey left 
home on the itth of October. l.s.")4. The eonunis- 
sioner of the general land office infoiined them, 
on application at his oHice. in Washington, that 
the lands must he sold to the highest l)idder. ac- 
cording to the previous notice, to comply with 
the law. On appealing, however, to the Secretary 
of the Interior, a stay of proceedings was oli- 
tained. until the assembling of Congress. 

Dr. Ames spent most of the winter in Wash- 
ington, and oil the Hth of JSIarch, 185o, started 
for home. lie was successful in his undertaking. 
A bill passed Congress, iji consequence of his en- 
deavors, reducing the reservation, and allowing 
settlers the usual privileges of goveriunent land 
entries. Commissioner Wilson made Dr. .\mes 
the messenger, to convey to the land office 
in .Minnesola. tlir laws and regulations, 
under which the subsequent entries weie 
made. The general government had learned, 
liy a i)ainful experience, and under similar cir- 
cumstances, in New York State, where the set- 
tlers on the Holland i)urchase condiined. and in 
Wisccnisin, where the Fox River settlers coni- 
biTied. and in other states, that men united for 
nnilual protection, must be resjx'cted. 

The poor doctor came near i]aying dearly for 
his success. \n Arctic storm caught liim. just 
on the threshold of his home, in southern Miuiie- 
aiiolis. and he nearly perished with cold. 

The news of the reduction of tlie reservation 
had reached home before him. and a general rush 
for locations followeil. In .\pril and ,Ma\ . 18.>), 
the settlers were able to "■ prove up"" and ol>taiu 
title to their lands. Thus ended, in a (juiet and 
orderly way, what might have jiroved a danger- 
ous and even bloody disturbance. Now begins 


The lands on the east side of the river, outside 
the reservation, had been taken, and the previ- 
ous settlement was on that side. The rapid im- 
migration, and the prospective value of lands on 
the west side, led to warm contests among the 
the conrticting claimants. litigations followed 
in great numbers, furnishing to lawyers fat fees, 

their first golden harvest. The rapid influx of 
is.5.5. was the natural conse(pience of the reduc- 
tion of the reservation. The attractive lands on 
the west side, had long tantalized the immigrants 
as well as the older settlers on the river. 

Before our dates advance further, let us look 
back at a few of the 


Lieut. .1. H. F. Kussell, acting Q. M. of the 
regular army at Fort Snelling. who built the old 
government mill and the house near by, in 1822. 

B. F. r.aker. long the principal fur trader, in 
what is now known as Hennepin county. He 
was a famous man in trade and in the chase. He 
built the stone part of the St. Louis House, near 
Fort Siu'lHng. which was burned several years 

Peter t^uinn located here in ]S'SA. and had su- 
pervision of the Indian farms. He came from 
the fur company of I^alirador to Pendiina and 
liiuilly. to thiscoiuits. 

Samuel .1. Finley, son-in-law of Quiun, came 
with him. Claims at St. Anthony, occupied by 
Peter Quinn. Finley and one Joseph Keachi. a 
Canadian voyageur, were, subseipieutly. jmr- 
chased by J'rauklin Steele. 

Xext comes an important person, whose name 
has tigui'ed in the pidilic affairs of this county, 
J. 1!. Drown, lie took a claim near the mouth of 
.Minnehaha Creek, in 1N2I>. His was the tirst 
claim williin the present limits of the county. 
He abandoned it. however, four years later, with- 
out nnich improvement. 

Leaping over a few years, to 1887, we tind two 
very imixirtant names, Franklin Steele and Mar- 
tin Mcl^eod. The former nnide a claim on what 
is now a part of the East Division of Minneapolis, 
and built a small log house near the corner of 
Second Avenue South and Main street. Two 
other log cabins were built the same year, one 
above and one below. 

Martin McLeod came by the northwest plains, 
from the Hudson Bay colonies of Selkirk, to Lac 
Traverse. In company with him. in this rash 
expedition, were Capt. J. Pays, foi'merly of the 
Polish army, and Richard Hays, an Irishman. 
The parly had, for a guide, Pierre Bottineau, 
whose name has become familiar, as a resident of 
St. -Vntliony. His two companions perished in 



the snow, near Cheyeiuie Hiver. but he made his 
waj', with the guide, to tlie house of J. K. Brown, 
iiavinf; been live days witliout food, and twenty- 
six days without .seeing any one except liis party. 
The liospitable reception of Mr. Brown was fully 
appreciated, we may sui)]iose. after the hardships 
of tlie previous twenty-six days on snow-slioes. 

H. P. Kussell arrived at Fort Snelling. in 1839. 
He made tlie jo\u-ney from Lake Pepin, on foot, 
suffering much U\nn want of food. Alexander 
(iraliam acted as liis guide. Mr. Kussell is still 
living. His present residence is on Hennepin 
Avenue, near Twenty-eighth street. 

The development of Minnesota began in 18.'!4. 
During this year, H. H. Sibley, came out as part- 
ner of the American Fur Company, to superin- 
tend their inteiests, from Lake Pepin to the Can- 
ada line. II. M. Kice, X. W. Kittson, Edmund 
Rice, I). Ohnstead,and others, came soon after 
Mr. Sibley, and became identified with the pro- 
gress and growth of the material interests of the 
state. Their names arc found on the map of the 
.state, attached to counties and townships, that 
have thus attenijitcd in honor their memories. 

Tlie treaty with the Chippcwas. which was ef- 
fected liy (ioveruor Dodge, of Wisconsin, in 18.S7. 
ceding the |iiue valley of the St. Croix and its 
tributaries, to the I'nited States, greatly accele- 
rated the development which liegaii three years 
previous. During the same year. also, a deputa- 
tion of Dakotas, at Wasliington. ceded all their 
lands lying east of tlie Mississipiii. These things 
opened the way to 


liliidiiiiiiiiliiii was (irst settled in IH.jI-2, by 
\Villiani Chaiubcrs, .Joseph Dcaii and Reuben 15. 
(iibsoii. They scttlcil above .Nine .Mile Creek. 

E(J/ii J'rairii was tirst settle(l in l«-')i;. by Da- 
vid l.,iviiigston. Hiram .\bbott, the Mitchells, and 

Hiihfidd was settled in 18.j:i,by .Mark iialdwiii. 
Samuel Stoiigh, and 8. S. Crowell. 

Kxrihiiir was settled in IhoS, by a colony 
of about forty families, under tlie guidance of 
(Jeorge Bertram. Mr. Uerlram selected the site, 
on the south side of Lake Miiiiictoiika. in .Tune 
of llie previous year. After the iilautiiig of this 
large and prosi)erou8 colony, the set til men I i>i the 
country surioiiiidiiig went on rapidlv. 

Early in 1852. Simon Stevens and Calvin A. 
Tuttle visited Minnetonka. They are supposed 
to be its lirst white visitors since 1822. lu that 
year. J. H. Brown. .John Snelliug, Samuel Wat- 
kins, and .Mr. Stewart, discovered the lake while 
on an exi)loring tour through this part of the 
county. Mr. Stevens made a claim at this time, 
18o2. just below the outlet of the lake, aud 
built the first saw-mill in Hennepin county west. 
During the year, James Shaver settled on Second 
Lake, and in December following. A. E. (iarri- 
son and a Mr. liobiiison located a claim at the 
present site of Way/.afa. These were the first 
.settlers on its north shore. 

Ill February. LS-V}, Stephen Hull built the lirst 
house at the Xarrows. In April, 1853, William 
Lithgrow settled near the upper Lake. He was 
drowned in the lake, in February. 18-34. 

Near the mouth of the Crow Hiver, a settlement 
was begun in the fall of 1853, by E. H. Kobiuson 
and Mr. Baxter. 

We have thus marked a few of the nuclei of 
settlement. .Most of these settlers were from 
New Englaiiil. 'I'licir early training and eiluca- 
tioii had litteil them for what they were to eii- 
coiuiter. .Vround these centres gathcreil ilie 
rapidly increasing population. Their sterling 
qualities and jiatient courage attracted settlers, 
as iron tilings are attracte<l to a magnet. Thus 
the county has continued to lill u|i. In Is.'j.i. an 
estimate, probalily a geiieroiis one. put the popu- 
lation at 2.00(1. Ill isso. tlie census sliows it 
66,o!iO. It is admitteil that the growth of the 
State of .Minnesota lias been more rapid than that 
of any otlier state, not oiilx in populaliou. Imt in 
wealth, education, and internal iniprovenieuts. 
Ileiiuepiu county is so situated that it ueccssa- 
ril> partook largely of this womlerful growth. 
Indeed, the enterprising cliaiacler of the settlers 
of this county contiilmted largely to the iiiiex- 
ani|iled growth on the part of the state. 

Much is often saiil of the power of that genius 
in i-ertain iiien. which enables them to foresee 
future cities on barren lainls. immense po.ssibili- 
ties in things not \el developed. This jiower. 
however, must be \alueless without the magnetic! 
IKiwer to attract men. couibiiic forci-s. and thus 
luddiice. almost create the result sought. The 
wiinilerful growth of .Minneapolis is proof enough 
ol' tlie character of the men who lia\e settled 



here, and the progress throughout the county has 
been hirgely due to the progress at Minneapohs. 
The organization of tlie Hennepin county Ag- 
ricultiH'al Society took place in 1858. Its pur- 
]iose was to encoiu'age improvements in agricul- 
ture and stock in the county. The first officers, 
aiipoinled September 7tli. 18.53. were, J. W. Dow, 
President; J. II. Canuey. Secretary; Col. John 
n. Stevens, Chairman of the Executive Commit- 
tee. Seconding these efforts for improvement. 
Col. Stevens imported some Devonshire cattle, at 
considerable expense, and little ultimate profit to 
himself. These efforts led to and initiated the 
improvements since made in methods of agricid- 
ture and stock-raising in the county. 


The taxable property of Hennepin county, in 
1862, according to Goveronor Ramsey's message, 
was S13,'529. In 1880, only twenty-nine years 
later, the official records show the assessed valu- 
ation, $38,183,474. From the records of 1879, are 
taken the following statistics : Wild Hay. tons. 
26, 168 ; Timotliy Seed, bushels, 109 ; Apple Trees, 
growing, 127,088 ; Apple Trees, bearing, 20,99-5 ; 
Apples, Irashels, 7,714 ; Grape-vines, bearuig, 
().o85; (irapes, lbs.. 1.5,.510; Strawberries, qts.. 
29,586 ; Tobacco, lbs., 913 ; Maple Sugar, lbs., 
19,723; Maple Syrup, gals., 1,306; Sheep, num- 
ber sheared, 7.326; "Wool, lbs., 496,272 ; Cheese, 
lbs., 4,66-5 ; Bees, number of hives. 878 ; Honey, 
lbs., 14,283; Milch Cows, 6,6-58; other Cattle, 
2,155; Hogs, 6,888 ; Horses, 7,717 ; Mules. 211. 



We have thus far named those settlers who 
came to make claims, and have thus become iden- 
tified, more or Iess,with the agricultural progress 

of the county. Other inducements Vnought here 
another class of settlers, to build mills and inau- 
gurate manufactories. The Falls of St. Anthony 
affords the greatest and most available water 
power in the Ignited States. Resides, there are 
other minor falls in the county, utilized to some 

The first improvement, of any kind, in Henne- 
pin county, consisted in the building of the old 
government mill and a house near it, in the 
spring of 1822. Lieut. ,1. B. F. Russell, built 
them, acting in his capacity of Q. M. in the reg- 
ular army. This was the first mill in Minnesota. 

In July, 1847, Wm. A. Cheever bought of Mr. 
Steele, on the east side, nine-tenths of the water- 
power. He made the purchase for Eastern cajii- 
taUsts, among whom were Robert Rantoul and 
Caleb Cushiiig. 

Ard. Godfrey came from ^Maine. in the fall of 

1847, to build Mr. Steele's mill. John McDonald 
and Ira Burroughs came at the same time, and 
were engaged in the same enterprise. Robert 
W. Cummhigs, Henry Angell, Capt. John Tap- 
per, and William Dugas went up the Swan River 
to cut timber for the new mill. Daniel Stanch- 
field took another party and opened another lum- 
bering camp, on Rum River. lu the spring of 

1848, the mill was ready, and the sawing began. 
In September, two saws were runinng. The set- 
tlers now began building frame houses. The 
lumber, from the mills. hel|ied on the settlement 
of the county. 

An unusual freshet occurred in 1849, which 
swept about 6,000,000 feet of logs over the falls. 
Fortunately. Mr. Steele had about 2.000,000 feet 
on the upper streams, secure. These were 
brought down, and the mills continued runnhig. 

In 1852, Simon Stevens built the first saw-mill 
in Hennepin comity, west, on the claim which he 
took at the outlet of Lake ^linnetonka. The 
building of saw-mills was the initial step in the 
great milling interests of this county. In 1848, 
tlie enterprise of mill building took a start from 
the building of a dam from Hennepin Island to 
the east shore, and locating four saw-mills on it. 
In 1856-7, however, the two great incorporated 
companies, that now control the power, took hold 
of its development. '• ZVic St. Anthony Water 
Power Onnpanif took control of the water-power, 
from the centre of the channel, on the west side 



of Hennepin Island, to the east shore. " Tlie 
Miiinca2)oUs Mill Cow^jfoi^ "' took control of the 
rciiiahRler. viz., from the centre to the west shore. 
The lumbering estahlishnifnts have clone more 
lor the gi-o\vth of Minneapolis, and Hennepin 
county, than any other industry. The future 
development of the eounty may depend on other 
manufactories, hut the past must give the credit 
to lumber. 

In 1800, four years later, the report for the 
whole state gives 562 manufacturing establish- 
ments, with S2.SSH.810. capital invested. In 
1874, Minneapolis, alone, produced manufactured 
goods to the amomit of Slo,OOO.OU(). The last 
census, 1SS(I. shows that Minneapolis had. in 
187!). 400 manufacturing establishnienls. employ- 
ing S8,()lo.2.")(» capital, 7,723 bauds, paying, in 
wages. ?3.t) annually, using 18.972 horse- 
imwer. water and steam combined. The value 
of mamifactured goods indduccd in 1879, was 

The Falls of St. Anthony furnish a water- 
power with a fall of 82 feet and a width of 1200 
feet. It is caiialilc of driving twenty times the 
present establishments. Tlie companies in con- 
trol, are ready to make liberal arrangements with 
parties bringing capital to develop further the 
<-apa<-ily of the falls. Full statistics of the man- 
ufactures of .MinneaiMilis will be found in an- 
other chai)ter. 


For several years alter tlie rajiid growth of 
Minneapolis began, the (piestion of transportation 
was a vital one. Though St. I'aul was as liigh a 
p((int as the large steamers ol the Mississijiiii 
coulil reach regularly, tlirough the season, it was 
I'oMud that boats coidd reach Miuueapolis or St. 
Anlhony. as tliat part of the city was then called, 
during a part of the season, in high water, and 
tliat boats of light draft miglit lie de|)eiided ui)on 
for regular transpoilation. during the boating 
season. It will not be possil)le. in this outline 
liistory. to enter into the details of the disen.ssion 
which continued so long over the jxiint. whether 
SI. I'aul or Minneapolis should be regarded as 
the heart of navigation on thc' .Mississippi. \\'e 
lan only meutiou the tacts in regard to the at- 

■ tempts to navigate the river to Minneapolis, and 
also, on the upper Mississipjii. above the falls. 

The first steandioat that came up as far as 
Fort Snelling. arrived at Mendota in 1823. Du- 
ring the same year. Major Stephen II. Long 
explored the Minnesota liiver. and the northern 
frontier. Beltrami, an Italian refugee, explored 
the sources of the Mississippi, and made a map of 
the country. 

The first navigatiou of the river ab(i\-e Fort 
Snelliug, must date from the arrival of the La- 
martine. Capt. Marsh, at noon. May 4th. 18.30. 
The land was made at a iioiut opposite what we 
call " Bridal "N'eil." The Captain attempted to 
force his boat further up the river, but was un- 
aVile to stem the current. May 7th. three days 
later, the "Anthony Wayne." Capt. Rogers, suc- 
ceeded in forcing her way up. in spite of the ra|)id 
current, and landed at the old rafting place, near 
the present location of the lower or iron l)ridge. 
The arrival was justly regarded as a great event, 
as the (piestion of transportation to these ui>per 
regions was beginning to assume a serious nature. 
Speeches were made, by Governor Ramsey and 
other leading citizens. The band played, and the 
occasion was duly honored. Later in the season, 
during the same year, the '-Lady Franklin,'' 
('apt. Smith Harris. came up within a few feet of 
Spirit Island.'' Turmnl gracefully about and drop- 
jied down to the landing." 

Business men now determined to secure regular 
communication. They were liberal in furnishing 
mean:; to forward the plan, and the result of their 
labors was the establishment of a line of steamers. 
On the islh of .luly. 18.')3. the •• Hindoo." a liue 
steanu'rfrom below, landed at Cheever's Flat, ami 
afterwai'ds made regular trips to tliis imint. 

The .Minnesota Hivei- was also navigateil liy 
smaller craft, lusulllcient as this meansof coni- 
muuicalion would be in the i)rcsent advanced 
stage of our growth, it i)erl'ornieil an iniportaut 
imrt in assisting that growth. 


A steamer bearing the distinguished name, 
"(iovernoi- l{ainse>." was titled n\< b\ Cajitaiu 
John Hollius. in ls")(). to navigate the upper 
Mississii>iii. The trial trip si-cnis to have been 
an evcnliul da\ in the coloiix. It took place 
May 2."jlh. 1800, She lau ui' lo Hauheld Island, 



about eight miles, then returned, and freiglited 
for Sauk Rapids. Just at dark, slie left the land- 
ing for her first trip. She ran about a mile, and 
tied up for the night. The next day, Sunday, she 
ran up to Sauk Rapids, discharged her cargo, and 
returned to St. Anthony on Monday. She made 
the return triji in exactly seven hours. After 
this, Capt. RoUins made regular trips, touching 
at intervening jioints. 


The year 1862 was the era of railroads. Tlie 
building and management of the railroads of a 
new country, is a very important matter, and one 
fraught with great danger to the interests of the 
coimtry. The method used in constructing roads, 
is by fiu-nishing private citizens or corporate 
bodies, capital obtained by bonding towns; or 
some method by which the country through which 
the road passes, is put under contribution to de- 
fray the expense. This puts the capital of many 
into the hands of a few. In case the trustees 
prove reckless or unprincipled, the country at 
large must become the sufferer. Miimesota has 
suffered greatly through railroad mismanage- 
ment. This has been true, not simply in build- 
ing and equipping the roads, but in exorbitant 
tariffs. She has been loaded witli delH. and her 
attempts at adjustment have loaded her with 
odium. This county has suffered greatly from 
this cause. Such evils are, however, self-correct- 
ing and Time, the great healer, will remedy all 
evils of the past, when such prosperity follows as 
has followed their construction here. 

In 1862, the railroad from St. Paul to St. An- 
thony opened the county to railroad connuunica- 
tion. To the making of railroads there is no end. 
We shall not attempt to enumerate, in this brief 
article, all the roads and the history of their con- 
struction. A simple statement of the receipts 
and shipments of the principal commodities, by 
the various railroads to and from Mimieapolis. 
during the year ending May 81st. 1880, will show 
the importance of the roads to this county, and 
will furiher iniUcate the extent of the bnsmess 
of the county. ; 

Lumber. 1.4i>7.-0().(Ml(l feet: Flour. ].6.50,630 
bills.: Mill Stuffs. .5.5,746 tons ; Wheat. 76,000 bu.; 
Corn, 113,8.50 bu.: Merchandise, 10,166 cars; 

Oats, .57,200 bu.; Machinery. 743 cars; Live 
Stock, 774 cars ; other articles, 1,623 cars. Total 
shipments of all kinds, 48,447 cars. 


Wheat, 8,103.708 bu.; Corn, 392,200 bu.; Oats. 
262,100 bu.; Bariey. 70,700 bu.; Flaxseed, 124,900 
bu.; Mill Feed. 9.176 tons ; Lumber, 22,770.000 ft.; 
Flour, 110,700 bbls.; Merchandise. 12,643 cars; 
Live Stock, 929 cars ; Machinery. 730 cars ; Bar- 
rel Stock, 1.229 cars; Coal, 2,713 cars; all other 
articles, 4.265 cars. Total of all kinds of freight. 
47,307 cars. 


Hennepin county, as originally organized, had 
for its eastern boundary, the ilississippi River, 
and was held in the embrace of three rivers, tlie 
Mississijipi. iMinnesota. and Crow. These rivers 
formed almost the entire boundary. Carver and 
Wright counties, on the west, completed its 
boundaries. By a subsequent act of legislature. 
St. Anthony was attached. The length of the 
county, north and south, is about thirty -two 
miles. Its greatest breadth is about twenty-eight 
miles. Its area is 354,904.96 acres. The forty- 
fifth parallel of latitude passes through the mid- 
dle. The summers are ver>- warm, and hasten 
vegetation to maturity. The winters are very 
cold. It may serve to assist the mind, to com- 
pare it with other localities of the country, in re- 
ference to latitude and temperature. The forty- 
fifth parallel, which passes through the middle of 
this county, passes through Green Bay. ^^■iscon- 
sin. touches tlie extreme northern limit of Xew 
York, and forms the northern boundary of Ver- 
mont. The winter isothermal line, however. 
strikes considerably north of Xew York and A'er- 
mont. The snow-fall is light, but as thaws are 
infrequent, enough usually accumulates to insure 
sleighing through the winter. Tlie same is true 
of this as of all northern I'limates ; the winter is 
made jolly by extra sociability. 

The surface of the country is undulating, 
though in no part moimtainous or hilly. Tlie 
county belongs to the southern slope of the state, 
and to the Mississipiii valley. The elevation above 
the level of the sea varies from 663 feet at the 
crossing of the C. M. & St. P. R. R. on the 
Minnesota River, to 940 feet at Long Lake sta- 
tion. The elevation of the Mississippi River at" 



NicDllet Islaiui is 791 feet, ami lialt a mile lielow 
tlie Falls of St. AiitlKiny 71 lA feel. 


This county is favored with alxindaiice of 
water to sui>ply all tlie fund ions that water ever 

First, for Xariyntioii. The Missis.siiii)i lias 
afforded navigation lioth above and below the 
Falls. The Minnesota i)eniiits navigation along 
the southern b(uin<larv of the county. 

Second. WaU r I'lunr. The immense power 
of the Falls of St. .\nthony. alone, gives this 
county greater facilities for manufacture, than 
can be found elsewhei'e in the I'nited States. 
There are minor water powers on the smaller 
streams and lakes. 

The largest llimring establishments in the 
world, and other bran<-hes of manufacture, de- 
rive tlieir power from tliese great falls. In 
early times travellers have expended their 
elixiuence in (lescrii>tions of their beauty, but to- 
day, if we describe the features <'orrectly. we 
must admit that the iiicturesijue scenery has 
largely disai>pcared and given place to practical 
business. If we echo the sentiments of this am- 
bitious people, we must dwell on the wealth in 
machinery and manufactures that now environs 
tlie falls, ami not lament over the bcaut> that 
has gone. The description of these vast estab- 
lishments is reserved for a snbseciuent cliaiitei-. 

Tliird. liunniny loyn to the numerous saw-mills. 

Fourtli. lii'<udtj (if ScciKi-ii. On the inaii we 
can count over two hundred lakes in Henne- 
pin county. .\s wc ride through Ihc c-(iuntr>. 
they seem iiinunicrable. 'i'licy arc umstly clear 
and dee)), with gravelly margins, and discharge 
their waters into the large liouiidar\ rixcrs. 
througli numerous beaiililul creeks and ri\ iilets. 
The largest is Lake Minmtonka. Manx ot tijc 
lakes, on account of tln'ii' great bc'aut> . arc jilaccs 
of summer resort. 

Fifth. 7/<((Wi. 'riie hcalthfidiiiss of the state 
is thought to be due. to some extent to its large 
amount of water surface. Doubtless this, taken 
witli its great distiuice inland. i> a vcr\ lualthrul 
feature for Ilenneiiin count>. 

The Crow is not regardeil as a naxigablc ii\ei. 
though, at one time. Cajit. Kollins uiailc a iiiii. 
with the ••(iov. Uamsev," twentj miles up the 

stream. Its banks are low and wooded, present- 
ing no marked features. The line river scenery 
is on the .Mississiiiiii from the falls to Fort 
Suelling. Throughout this distance, of nine 
miles, the river runs through a gorge about 
eighty rods wide, with high. bare, rocky 
blulfs on each side. This is the grandest 
scenery of the Xorlhwesl. After the great tribu- 
tary, the Minnesota, forms its junction, at Fort 
SnelUng. the gorge widens to alioiil a mile. The 
same rock-ribbed walls are. however, continued. 
If wc Jiass 11)1 the Minnesota, we find the banks 
changed in their character. The bluffs, instead 
of being bare and rocky, are turfed and grow n up 
to small wood. .\t the early settlenient of the 
county, these biuiks were described as simply 
grassy, but the absence of wood was. luobably. 
due to fires sweeping over them. 

Geologists interpret the clayey deposit, west of 
the river, and other debris moved by the icebergs 
of the glacial ]ieriod. as indicating great surface 
changes in the county, as well ;is in the volume 
and course of its rivers. The Minnesota was 
once the largest river, ami tlie Mississippi liowed 
into it. 


The general contour of the county is nearly 
level, with an undulating drift surface. In a 
belt varying from six miles to less than one mile 
in width along the Mississijiiii. the narrowest 
point of which is in N'orth .Minneaiiolis. the drift 
has been modilied by the river, and presents 
almost a level surface, with a soil lighter ami 
more saud> than in ]iaits more rcniDte from the 
river. Co-existent with the line which marks the 
limit of this drift, is that of the sui)i>osed line be- 
tween the SI. I'eler saiiilsl'iiii' and the Sliakopee 
liniestoni' of the Lower .Magiiesian formation. 
The belt iiirluilcd in this line has. a iiearl> uni- 
form llat surlaee. occaslonalI\ diversilicd by a 
kiioll of hard-pan drift. f^xcaNations made at 
dilfereut Jioilits iiicluiled in this belt, ni'ver fail 
to reveal this hard-pan. I'liderlNing this tract, 
is a lainiuateil lu- llaky ela\ . w liich. when burned. 
\ ielilsaii exeelleni ipialily of lirick of thai cieam\ 
lolor known as • Milwaukee brick."" 

The ]irincj)ial out-cropiiing rocks are the Treii- 
tnii liuiestiine and SI. I'dcr sandstone. The 
SliaUopee limestone crops out at Shakopec, on 



the opposite side of the Minnesota River, and is 
believed to exist, covered by the drift, through- 
out Hennepin county. It is known among build- 
ers as " Kasota Stone,"" named from the town 
where it is extensively quarried. It was called 
Shakopee limestone from its beini; lirst noticed 
and classified at the out-crop in Sliakoi)ee. 

The Trenton Limestone is composed of three 
distinct layers— Upper Trenton, Green Shale and 
Lower Trenton. The Lower is the only out' 
cropping stratum in the county. The Green 
Shales are only found on excavating the drift. 
It is quite fossiliferous. and sometimes called, 
incorrectly, soap-stone. Tlie Lower Trenton oc- 
curs along the bluffs of the Mississippi, at and 
below the falls. It is plainly seen in the quarry 
below the University. The upper stratum, eight 
feet, is impure limestone. Under this is a more 
impure stratum, though of similar character. 
Third, four feet eight inches Green Shales. 
Fourth, a little more than two feet of stone used 
for the roughest building. Underlying, the fifth 
layer, is the building stone, fifteen feet in thick- 
ness, used so extensively in the construction of 
the best walls in this and adjoining counties. 
This stone is too argillaceous (clayey) to 1)6 a re- 
liable building material. Its weakness consists 
in the shales interlarded between layers of the 
limestone. Tliis causes, also, a mottled appear- 
ance on the surface of the stone. The dark spots 
are shale, and the lighter colored, limestone. 
Sixth, two feet of Ijhie shale is found. This last 
layer rests upon the St. Peter sandstone. 

The fact that the harder limestone of the lower 
Trenton is super-imposed on the softer St. Peter 
sandstone gives rise to our water falls. The 
action of the water cuts away the underlying St. 
Peter, thus producing after many years" erosion, 
a great fall. The position of the layers also 
threatened at one time the destruction of the 
falls which they had previously produced. Little 
streams had so percolated the sandstone as to 
render it more than probable that the overlying 
limestone wovdd soon l)e imdermined. and the 
the magnificent fall he change into a simple rapid. 
Prompt and efficient measures on the part of 
capitalists, assisted by the general government, 
arrested the danger, and rescued the fall. 


The soil of the county may be distinguished 
as of two classes ; sandy soil, occupying the belt 
before described, near the river, and the grayish 
clay. The changes noticed in the vegetation, 
as one passes through, will indicate the change 
in the soil beneath. Copses of oak and aspen 
show the soil to Ije sand)', while the large sugar 
maples, American elms, bass and red oak point 
out the clayey soil. On the clay also grow the 
butternut, soft maple, bitternut. black ash. white 
ash, poplar, white birch and white oak. 

The principal shrubs are hazel, smooth sumac, 
wolf-berry, thoni, elder, honey-suckle, kiimikin- 
nick, wild rose, prickly ash, and speckled elder, 
ilany water-loving plants abound along the 
numerous lakes. 

Frost grapes, wild plums, American or native 
crab-apples, black and red cherries, june-berries, 
choke-cherries, prickly and smooth wild goose- 
berries, high bush cranberries, high lilackberries, 
l)lack and red raspberries, strawberries and cran- 
berries are the principal wild fruits. 

From the middle of the county westward the 
soil is clay, rolling and heavily timbered. East of 
this is the belt containing the small, sparse tim- 
ber, covering the eastern part of !MapIe Grove 
and Plymouth, the western part of Minneapolis 
and the central portions of Richfield and Bloom- 
ington. with occasional tracts in Minnetonka ;nid 
Eden Prairie. 

The soil and climate favor the production of 
sjiring-wheat. This is grown to the exclusion of 
winter-wheat which winter-kills. The hardness 
of the kernel of Minnesota spring-wheat gives a 
superior qmility to the flour of our mills. Other 
small grains, of ordinary farming, are readily 
produceil. Sorghum has recently become an im- 
portant article of production. The cultivation 
of fruits has been proved practicable although it 
was long suppo.sed impossible to mature choice 
varieties. Peter M. Gideon, of Excelsior, has 
done more than any other man for the improve- 
ment of varieties of fruits. It can almost be 
said that he has done all in this county. He 
struggled for a long time unaided, but now has 
charge of a " State Experimental Farm."" Trees 
were set out on this farm in the spring of 1878. 
Tliere. with the patronage of the state. Mr. Gid- 



eon will oonlinuc his experiniPiils. His jnirpose 
is to produce an apple that is a lonsj keeper, and 
grown on a hardy stock. It is impossible in this 
article to describe his methods. For hardiness, 
necessarily the lirsl re(|usile in this climate, he 
depends on the crab stock. Some valuable va- 
rieties have already been obtained. 


On the same grounds that Minnesota has been 
called the si)orlsman's state, this county might be 
called the sportsman's count \. Its lakes, prairies 
and forests are the natmal haunts of the many 
varieties of game with which the state abounds. 
Gray and prairie wolves, bears, wild cats, rac- 
coons, foxes, deer, rabbits, s(iuirrels, gophers 
(found in such abundance throughout the state, 
as to cause it to be called the - (iopher State '') 
and wood chucks, were all found in abundance, 
within a few years, and many of them abound 
now. Some water animals, sdught for their furs, 
are trapjied. The oltei'. mink, beaver and musk- 
rat furnisli the most valiiiibU' pelts. Grouse' 
(prairie-hens I. i)arlridges, and pigeons, are the 
priuci|>al feathered game, except in the season 
when duiks. biaiil ami wild geese abciund. 

This county shares witli the stale in a multi- 
tude of small birds of brilliant jiluniage. Some 
varieties are iiecuhar to this vicinity. They de- 
light the eye ami ear of the tourists, who frequent 
the charniiug lakes, woods and streams. The 
lakes abound in the usual varieties of fish. Some 
interest has been shown in adding new and im- 
l)roved kinds. 


The cliinatc of this cciuiil) ami those innuc- 
diately adjoining, gave to Minnesota at an early 
day. its reputation lor health and made il the 
asylum for invalids. No other county in the 
state is belter situaterl or more favorably known 
for health. It is very benelicial to invalids suf- 
fering from pulmonary diseases. Instances where 
Ibis climate does not effect a cure for such iu- 
valiils. can usually be explaineil by the fact that 
the disease was allowed to progress too far before 
trying the remedy, or some other circtnnstance. 
lieculiar to the jialieut and not chargeable to the 
climate, interfered. 


The first settlers of this county brought with 
them from New England, not only the fear of 
God. which lead them to build churches, but. as 
the natural concomitant of the Bible is eduaition, 
they brought in their hearts the desire for schools 
ami at once set about educational work. 

lielMienient and social culture were as essential 
to tlieni as tlic vital air. It has been said, and 
truthfully, that the tendency of western life is 
verging toward barbarism. Here, however, cul- 
ture and refinement followed closely on the heels 
of settlement. It is already abreast of the 
boasted East in public education. 

It can be safely said, that the whole state, but 
pre-eminently Hennepin county has made greater 
progress in education during the last twenty-two 
years than any other state or county in the 
United States. The lirst school taught was by 
Miss Electa Bachus, in the summer of 184i». in a 
small shanty on the east side. This was under 
territorial jurisdiction. In the fall of that year, 
the first school house was built in the county. 

The next teacher, was Miss Xancy E. ^liller. 
The first teacher on the west side, was ISIiss 
Mary A. Scolield. The first male teacher, was 
Beuben Clark. Thirty years only have passed 
since one little school was all and siillicient for 
the wants of the community. 

The following is extracted from the otlicial re- 
port of INTii. for the sake of contrast. School 
districts. 1 lo : school houses. 180 : graded schools 
outside of Miiineaiiolis, •'5: scholars eurolled. 
10,245. .V larger proiiortion ol' children of 
school age attend s<'hool in this llian in any 
other state. 

CHAl'TEl! XXXI\'. 


The bill which fixed the boundaries of this 
coiiiitv . i)assed the Territorial Legislature in 1852, 
and was approved March (ith. of the .same year. 

Jl origiiiall\ liiir I a part of I):iknta rounty. 



The bill provided that '-86 much of Dakota 
county as Ues north "of the Minnesota River, west 
of the Mississippi, and east of a line commencing 
at a place known as the Little Kapids. on said 
Minnesota River ; thence in a direct line north by 
west, to the forks of Crow River ; thence down 
said river to its junction witli the Mississippi." 
The bill further provided that Hennepin county 
be attached to Ramsey, for judicial inuposes, 
"Until further provided for." For elective pur- 
poses it was to remain, as then, in conjunction 
with Dakota county, so far as related to the elec- 
tion of a councillor and two representatives, \m- 
til the next apportionment. 

Section 3 of the bill provided that, " When the 
treaty of Mendota, concluded with the Dakota 
Indians, should be ratified V)y the United States 
Senate, the county of Hennepin shall be entitled 
to elect, at the next general election, such county 
and otlier otlicials as the organized comities were 
entitled to." Section 4 provided that the county 
commissioners elected, should be authorized to 
establish the county seat temporarily, " Until the 
same is permanently established by the legisla- 
ture, or authorized votes of the qualified voters of 
said county." 

The county was formally organized on the 21st 
day of October. 18.52. Eleven days previous, an 
election was held at the house of Col. John H. Ste- 
vens, at which 73 votes were polled, representing 
about one-half of the voters residing in the coun- 
ty. Another voting place was fixed at Mendota, 
for the accommodation of those living along the 
Minnesota River. I'revious to the election, a 
mass-meeting was held, at which the following 
ticket was nominated, irrespective of party: 

Representative, Dr. A. E. Ames ; County Com- 
missioners, Alex, iloore, John Jackins, Joseph 
Dean ; County Treasurer. John T, ilann ; Reg- 
ister of Deeds, John II. Stevens ; District Attor- 
ney, Warren Bristol ; Sheriff, Isaac Brown ; Cor- 
oner. David Gorhani ; Judge of Probate, Joel B. 
Bassett; County Surveyor, Charles AV. Christ- 
mas ; Assessors, Edwin Iledderly, EU Pettijohn. 
S. A. Goodrich; Road Commissioner, George 
Parks. The entire ticket was elected without 
opposition, and the parties named liecame the 
first officers of Hennepin county. They were 
nominated and elected without effort on their 
part, and in many histances, against their ex- 

pressed -wish. The first meetmg of the Board of 
County Commissioners was held on the 21st of 
October, 18.52, Alexander Moore being chosen 
chairman. Dr. PI. Fletcher was the first Justice 
of the Peace before the county organization, and 
Edwin Iledderly the first Justice after the county 
organization. Politically, little need be said of 
Hennepin county. In its earher days, and imtil 
the organization of the Republican party, the 
contest for political preferment, was between the 
old Whig and Democratic parties, the latter 
usually being in the ascendency. Now, in con- 
sequence of the death of some of the giants in 
the land, the masses could no longer be held to 
the old lines. The Whig party died with Clay. 
Political chaos throughout the country followed. 
Down went Whig and Know-Xothing, and out of 
the nuns was built the Republican party It is 
not important to give the position of politicians 
in this state during the political chaos. Smce, the 
Republican element has, with a few exceptions in 
local politics, been the ruhng factor. In State 
and National poUtics the county is largely Re- 


of state. Judicial and Legislative officers of Hen- 
nepin county. The first Territcn-ial Legislature 
convened September 3d, 184i>. and adjoiuned 
the first of the following November. The county 
was represented in the Council by John RolUns 
and Martin McLeod, and in the House, by Wm. 
R. :\Iarshall, AVm. Dugas, Fifth District ; Alexis 
Bailey and Gideon II. Pond, Seventh District. 

Second Legislature, Jan. 1st to 3Iarch 31st, 1851. 
—John Rollins, Martin JIcLeod, Council ; John 
W. North, E. Patchen, House, Fifth District: 
Benjamin H. Randall, Seventh District. 

Third Legislature, .Ian. ~th to 3Iarch Hth, 18.52.— 
AVm. L. Earned, Martin McLeod, Council ; Sum- 
ner W. Farnham, John II. 
Randall, House. 

Fourth Legi.'ilature, Jan. oth to March oth. 1853. 
— Wm. L. Lamed, Martin McLeod, Council ; R. 
P. Bassett, G. B. Dutton, A. E. Ames, B. H. 
Randall, House. 

Fifth Legislature, Jan. ith to March -Ith, 185-1. — 
Chas. T. Stevens, Council ; Cephas Gardner, 
Henry S. Phuiimer, Ilezekiah Fletcher, House. 



Sixth Legislature, Jan. 3d to March 3d, 1855. — 
Chas. T. Stevens. Council ; A. M. Fridley, Dan- 
iel Stanclilield. I). M. Hanson. Ihiiise. 

By till- aiiiiiirliiinnu'iit of isoo, the piednct of 
St. Anthony \va.s designated as the Third District, 
and Hennepin, iwesl.i Carver and Davis, as the 
Eleventli. and remained so initil the adoption of 
the state constitution. 

Seventh Li<jishiture. Jan. '2d tit ^fdrch Isl, 1856. 
— J. RoUins. D. >I. Hanson, Council, Third Dist., 
Sumner W. Farnliam, C. AV. Le Boutillier. James 
F. Bradley, Thomas W. Peirce, Arha Cleveland, 
Thomas B. Hunt, Francis Thorndike., 
Eleventh Dist. 


Pursuant to an act of the territorial legislature, 
approved ^larch .Sd, l,S5T,an election was held on 
the first Monday in Jime. to elect delegates to 
the convention, called for the purpose of framing' 
a state constitution. The following are the names 
of Hcnnc|iin couuty delegates: 

lii liiihlirttn u-iiiij. M Dint — D. A. Secomlie. P. 
Wiuell.L. C. Walker. .1. II. Murphy; l]lh Dist.- 
Cyrus Aldrich. Wentworth Hayden, K. L. Bar- 
tholomew. W. F. Bussell. Charles B. Sheldon, 
David Morgan, E. X. Bates. 1). F. Smith. 

Democratic wing, 3d J)ist. — B. B. Meeker. Wm. 
M. Lashells, Calvin A. Tnttle.C. L. Chase : ll^/i 
i>M^— Alfred E. Ames. 

With the adoption of the .state constitution, a 
new api)ortionm('nt named as the Fourth District. 
'• So much of IIcnne)iin as lies west of the Missis- 
sijtpi Hiver": that imrtion east of the river, as 
the Twenty-tiiird District. The result of the 
first fall election, imder the new constitution. 
was, Sin'ile 4th Dist.. Krastus X. Hates. Delano 
T. Smith : ^M Dist., Jonathan Chase. Ilaiisf— 
4th Dist.. K. H. Gihson, George II. Kiith. Wni. 
S. Clioweii : 2M Hist.. Wni. 11. Tow rjscnd. L. C. 

No session ol Ihc legislature was held dniing 
the winter of 18'>K !l, owing to the extra session 
just preceding. .Vt the Oclohcr election, how- 
ever, the following oflicers were elected imni 
Hennepin county, though they never took llicir 
scats: Jlmisf W. I). Wasliliuin. .\. C Austin. 
a. B. .McCirath. and .\. Uonld ; Senate— ^'id, 
David Heaton. 

Second Lvyislatitre, 1859-bO.— Senate, 4th Dist., 
Jesse Bishop. R. L. Bartholomew : 23d Dist., D. 

.\. Heaton: House. 4tli Dist.. J. P. Ahraham, 
Henry B. Mann, A. C. Austin. Irwin Shrewsbury ; 
23d Dist., D. A. Secombe, G. P. Baldwin. 

In l.S()(). another api)ortionment occurred, nam- 
ing Hennepin East as the Fourth District, and 
Hennepin AVest as tlic I'ilih. 

riiird Legislature, 18<>1. — Senate. 4tli Dist.. Da- 
vid Heaton ; 5th Dist., R. J.Baldwin: House. 
4tli Dist., Jared Benson, G. V. Mayhew ; oth Dist. 
F. R. E. Cornell, M'entworth Hayden. 

Fourth L<:yisl((turr. l.S(iL>. -Senate. 4th Dist., 
David IIeat<iu : 5th Dist.. 1!. .1. Baldwin : House, 
4th Dist.. J. H. Allen. Jared Benson : 5tli Dist., 
F. R. E. Cornell. John C. Past. 

Fifth Lryi.iUdiire. 1863.— Senate. 4th Dist.. Da- 
vid Heaton : 5th Dist.. R.J.Baldwin: House, 
4th Dist.. Dwight Woodhnry. II. J. Croswell ; 
5th Dist.. .V. C. Austin. 1!. I',. Mcliratli. 

Sixth Leyislatiirr. 1,S(U. — Senate. 411i Dist.. John 
S. Pillsbury: 5lh Dist., Dorilus Morrison ; House. 
4tli Dist.. Jared Benson, Jonathan Fii'ren : 5th 
Dist., John A. Coleman, (iilbert Graham. 

Seirnth Lcyiitlalvre, lS(i5. — Semite. 4th Dist., 
John S. Pillsbury, Dorihis Morrison: House, 
4th Dist.. F. M. Stowell. Steiijien Hewson : 5th 
Dist.. Cyrus Aldrich. F. li. K. Cornell. 

Eiytillt Liyishdurr. 18(i(>. — (The aiiiiortionnicnt 
this year di<l not atTecl Hennepin, east or west.) 
-Senate. 4th Dist., John S. Pillsburx : 5th Dist.. 
C. II. I'cttit : House, 4th Dist.. K. \V. Ciitln. .\. 
K. Hayden: 5lh TMst.. ,\aron (iould. .loiias H. 

Miilh Lryishilinr. 18(>7.— Senate. Itb Dist.. J. 
S. Pillshiny; 5th Dist.. J. C. Whiliicy: House. 
4th Dist., II. F. MIodgctt ; 5tli Dist.. A. K. .\nies, 
Aaron (ioiilil. .loliii Scboski. 

'J'ddh Lojislnluri. 18()S Senate. Itli Dist.. .Tohn 
S. Pillsbury : 5tli Dist.. C. H. I'ettil ; House. Itli 
Dist.. Sannifl lioss: 5lli Dist.. ( '. 1). Davison. 
Chas. H. Clark. John 11. Ilcchtnian. 

EIrrinlh Liyislrilnri . ISdll. SiMiate. Itli Dist.. 
W illiani Loclircii : 5tli Dist.. f. H. I'l'ttit : House, 
nil Dist.. A. .M. Friille> : 511i Dist.. ('. D. Davi- 
son. .\. H. Hall. Clias. il. Clark. 

IVilflh J^yisdaluri', 187(1. Senate. Ith Dist.. 
William Lochren : 5th Dist.. C. H. I'cttit. 



House, 4th Dist., A. :M. I'lidley, A. E. Hall, E. 
A. Kice, J. II. Poiul. 

Tliirteenth Leyisluiufc, 1871. — Senate. 4tli Dist.. 
John S. Pillsbiiry ; .5th Dist., C. II. Pettit; 
House, A. U. Fridley ; oth Dist., W. D. AVasli- 
buni. A. R. Hall. A. .1. Underwood. 

Apportionmoit of 1871. — Under this apportion- 
ment, Hennepin East became a part of the 2.5th . 
District, and Hennepin West formed the 26th 
and 27th Districts. Tlie 2-5tli District was K'ven 
one senator and two representat,ives. the 2i)tli a 
senator and four representatives, and the 27tli a 
senator and three representatives. 

Fourteenth Legishdur<\ 1872— Senate. 2.)tli Dist., 
A. 0. Morrell ; 2i)tli Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist., Wm. P. Ankeny ; House, 2.5th Dist., Frank- 
lin Whitney, .John H. Strong ; 26th Dist., A. .J. 
Underwood, C. II. Clark, C. F. Adams, Loren 
Fletcher; 27th Dist., A. R. Hall, Z. Demeules. 
F. L. Morse. 

Fifteenth Legislature, 1873.— Senate, 2.5th Dist., 
John S. Pillsbnry ; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 27tli 
Dist., R. B. Langdon ; House, 25th Dist., James 
McCann, Daniel Anderson; 26th Dist., ('. B. 
Tirrell, Loren Fletcher, Chas. II. Clark. C. F. 
Adams; 27th Dist., A.R.Hall, Z. Demeules. 
M. C. Comerford. 

Sixteenth Leyi.fhiture, 1874. — Senate, 2oth Dist., 
John S. Pillslnuy ; 2(ith Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist., R. li. Langdon: House. 2.5th Dist.. C. F. 
Woodbury, Lyman Brown ; 26th Dist.. C. B. Tir- 
rell, Loren Fletcher. C. F. Adams, C. II. Pettit ; 
27th Dist., A. R. Hall. F. L. Morse. John Hccht- 

Seventeenth Lcyishiture, 1875. — Senate, 25th 
Dist., Johns. Pillsbnry; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 
27th Dist.. R. B. Langdon; House, 2.5th Dist, C. 
T. Woodbury, Daniel Anderson: 26th Dist.. C. 
II. Pettit, C. II. Drake, Loren Fletcher, A. In- 
gerson; 27th Dist.. Geo. A. Camp. Frank L. 
Morse, Daniel Bassett. 

Eighteenth Lrgisliilure, 1876.— Senate, 25th Dist., 
J. B. (4ilflllan; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist., R. B. Langdon; House, 2.5th Dist., F. 
Whitney, Daniel Anderson; 26th Dist., C. II. 
Pettit, Leander Gorton, John H; Stevens, C. B. 
Tirrell; 27th Dist., A. M. Reid, Daniel Bassett, 
Frank L. Morse. 

Nineteen th Legislature, 1877.— Senate, 25th Dist. , 

John B. Gillillan; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist., R. B. Langdon; House, 2.5th Dist., D. 
Anderson, G. AV. Putnam; 26th Dist., Geo. H. 
Johnson, L. Fletcher, \V. II. Rouse, J. II. 
Clark; 27th Dist., A. R. Hall, Andrew J. Smith, 
Peter AVeinant. 

Tirentieth Lryixlcitxre, 1878. — Senate, 2.5th Dist., 
John B. Gillillan ; 26th Dist., Charles A. Pills- 
bury ; 27th Dist., R. B. Langdon; House, 2.5th 
Dist., Geo. AV. Putnam. Baldwin Brown ; 26tli 
Dist., AV. H. Johnson, H. G. Hicks. J. H. Clark, 
Ed. McDermott; 27th Dist., Frank L. Morse, 
Peter AVeinant, Harry Ghostly. This Legisla- 
ture adopted bi-ennial sessions. 

Twenty-first Leyishiture, 1879. — (No session, 
official Roster as follows:) Senate, 2.5th Dist., 
J. B. Gillillan : 2i;th Dist., C. A. Pillsbnry : 27th 
Dist., E. M. AVilson; House, 2oth Dist, Jared 
Benson, Daniel Anderson ; 26th Dist., H. G. 
Hicks, W. II. Johnson. A. Tharalson, J. Thomp- 
son, Jr. ; 27th Dist., John Ba.xter, Geo. Huhn, 
A. J. Smith. 

Twenty -first Leyislature, Election of 1880. — 
Senate, 27th Dist, R. B. Langdon; House, 27th 
Dist.. John Baxter, Geo. Huhn, A. Roberts. 


The scales of justice were tirst poised in the old 
goverinnent mill, on the second Monday in -July, 
1849, by Hon. Bradley B. .Meeker. Circuit Judge 
by appointment of Gov. Ramsey ; Taylor Dudley, 
clerk of the court, Franklin Steele, foreman of 
the grand jury. The session lasted one week. 
The tirst session after tlie organization of the 
county, was held in a small house afterwards oc- 
cupied by Anson Nortiiup. This was in 1852. 
Sweet AV. Case was clerk of the court. Dr. Alfred 
E. Ames, foreman of the grand jury. The ses- 
sion was short, only two or three indictments 
being found, and these quashed l)y the judge. 
Following this, in the order given, were .Judges 
A. G. Chatfield, M. Sherburne, Chas. E. Flan- 
drau, James Hall, Edward O. Hamlin, Chas. E. 
A^anderl)urgh, and A. II. Young. Judge A^an- 
derburgh was elected in 1859, and has since filled 
the office. Should lie continue until the expira- 
tion of his present term, it would make for him 
twenty-eight consecutive years. Judge Young 
was appointed Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas for Hennepin county, in May, 1872, by Gov. 



Austin. At tlie fall eleotion following, he was 
elected to the office for the lenn of live years. 
In 1877, was elected Judge of the Fourth Judicial 
District, luider an act of the legislature allowing 
two or more judges in one district. 


('oxintij AwVtortt — [Until IS.jO. the duties now 
allotted to this office were iierfornied by the Reg- 
ister of Deeds.] lloliarl (). llaniUn. Harlow A. 
Gale. Anton (irelhen. Jacol) SchaelVr. Mahloii 
Jilack. Francis S. McDonald. 

lieyistcrs of l)efds — John II. Stevens, Geo. M. 
Huy, Chas. G. Ames, Geo. AV. Cliowen, lloberl 
It. Bryant, James Bryant, L. P. I'lummer. ('has. 

CUi-kx of Coil li —Sweet W. Case, Ileniy \. 
Partridge, Ilohart O. IlamUn, John AV. Plum- 
iner. (ieorge W. Cliowen. John P. Plunimer. D. 
W. Alhaugh. Alliert .M. Jerome, Jacob A. AVol- 
verton. K. J. Davenport. 

Counlit AHonii iin -Wiwven Bristol, D. JI. Han- 
son. Isaac Alwaler. (leu. A. Xourse, James B. 
Lawrence, Jr., Ashley (". Morrill, Win. W. ilc- 
Xair, John B. (iillillan. George K. Robinson. 
John B. (iillillan. David A. Seconibe. John B. 
(iillillan. Jas. W. Lawrence. Wni. K. Hale. 

Shiriffs -Isaac Brown. Benjamin E. Messer. 
lienjarain F. Baker. Kdward Lipi>incott. Richard 
Strout. John A. Armslniirg. AVin. Byrnes. Henry 
G. Hicks, (ieo. II. Johnson. Nathaniel R. 
Thompson. .1. .M. Knslis. 

County 'J'riiisiiii iti - JtAni T. Mann. Allen Har- 
mon, John L. Tenny. David Morgan, Joseph 
Dean. .lolin S. AValker. O. li. King. Jesse G. 
Jones. L. li. Palmer, ^\ . W . Ilnnlinglon. Frank 

f'ounli) iS'«/Tn/o/-.s— Charles W. Cliristmas. Lewis 
IlaiTington, David Charlton, Franklin Cook, C. 
W. Christinas, C. B. Chapman, C. W. Christmas. 
a. W. Cooley. S. H. Baker. Frank Phnnnier. 

Corn»rrn—l)ii\'u\ (iorhani. Henry Menningei-. 
J. C. Williams, F. A. Conwell. C. H. Blecken. 
P. O. Chilstrom. Petrns Nelson, A. C. Fairbairn. 

Courl ('ornmissioiit \s - [Office create<I in IKii.'i.] 

N. H. .Miner. Lanhier Bostwick. X. II. Miner. 
Samuel R. Thayi-r. .\lbee Smith. Freeman P. 

County SiiperinltMleiitii of HdtooU — Until 1801, 

the examination of teachers was conducted by 
commissioners. At a meeting of the Coimty 
Commissioners, September 7th, 1864, a resolution 
was passed authorizing the emi>loyment of a Sn- 
perintendent of Schools for llennei)in c(iunt\. 
.\1 an adjourned meeting, held September l!»th, 
J. T. Piiblile was ajipointed, with a salary of .■?i)Otl 
per year, in isi;.") ii>-:iiipoiiit(Ml : again in IWiti, 
with salary rai.sed to S'.lOd per year. September 
Kill. IS()!). Rev. ('. B. Sheldon was appointed from 
.laiiiiary to .ViH'il. Is'o. At a subsequent meeting 
the Ciiunty Commissioners resolved to authorize. 
Commissioner Barlow to employ an examiner of 
applicants for School Superintendent. Prof. (). 
V. Tousley was selected, and conducled the ex- 
amination in presence of the commissioners, on 
the -5111 of January, 187(1. On the following day, 
January Gth. a ballot was taken by the commis- 
sioners, resnlliug in a tie vote between Charles 
Hoag and Rev. C. B. Sheldon. On the 4th of 
A])ril another ballot was taken, resulting in tlie 
election ot Charles Hoag for a term of two years, 
from April .jtli, 1870; salary S8.50. At a meet- 
ing of the commissioners in 1872, Mr. Iloag was 
re-elected, and salary increased to $l.(Hiii. \\ a 
meeting. January Olli, 18*4, four candidates lue- 
sented themselves — B. B. Barnard. C. Allen. I. 
S. Rankin, and M. Coclirau. Mr. Rankin was 
elected on the third ballot. On the (sih of .Jan- 
uary, 1876, C. AV. Smith was nnanimonsly elect- 
ed, and has been continued in the otlice on an 
increased salary, up to the present time. 

Jmhjix of rmhcife—Joe\ B. Bassett, Dr. .\. l]. 
Ames. E. S. Jones. Lardner Bostwick. N. II. 
llcmiup. Franklin Beebe. E. A. (Jove. P. M. 
Babcock, John P. Rea. 

County C'lniDiist^idiirrK. bs.'j^ In l.s.')S. - [First 
three elected at time of ct)unty organization, 
others at subsei|iiciit elections.] Joscpli Dean. 
Alexander Moore. John Jackins, W. (Jctiliell. 
Henry Towiisend, Alexander G(Hild. <;.(;. Loo- 
mis. David .V. Seconibe. (;. W. Cliowen. Xatlian- 
icl Kellogg. 

18o8 — [County Board conipoMMl of chairmen 
of the several Town Hoards and Wards of St. An- 
thony.] Some strife aroseal this meeting over 
credentials. S. L. Merriman. of Minnetrista. 
was refused a seat . for want of evidence either 
of election or ai)iiointment. James Crowe was 
admitted from the Second Ward of St. Antlinnj. 



The eliairman admitted to seats, with the Towns 
and Wards represented, are liere given : Brook- 
lyn, E. T. Ailing; Bloomington, Martin 'Sic 
Leod ; Corcoran, Israel Dorman ; Dayton, A. ('. 
Kimball ; Excelsior, R. B. McGrath ; Eden Prai- 
rie, Aaron Gonld ; Hamburg, Val. C'hilson ; 
Hassan, Samuel Finical; Independence. Irwin 
Shrewsbury; Maple Gn)ve, A. C. Austin; Min- 
neapolis, R. P. Russell; ^Minuetonka, Fred Bas- 
sett ; Plymouth, Francis Hunt ; Greenwood, X. 
D. Ferrill; Richland, Joel Brewster; St. An- 
thony, First Ward, D. Knobloch ; Second Ward, 
Jas. Crowe; Third Ward, W. il. Ilerron; Fourth 
Ward, J. C. Johnson ; Town of St. Anthony. J. 

B. Gilbert. 

l.So9— Brooklyn. D. C. Smith; Bloomington. 
^hn•tin ^McLeod ; Champlin, W. Ilayden ; Cor- 
coran, P. B. Corcoran; Dayton, AV. W. Cate; 
Eden Prairie, Aaron Gould ; Excelsior, George 
Galpin; Greenwood, X. D. Ferrill; Hassan, 
John Mitchell; Independence, Irwin Shrewbury; 
Minnetonka, Fred. Bassett ; Minneapolis, II. C. 
Keith, Cyrus Aldrich, J. S. Malbon; Maple Plain, 

C. W. Blowers; iledina. J. A. Coleman; Plym- 
outh, J. :SI. Parker; Richfield, Geo. Odell ; St. 
Anthony. G. AV. Thurber, R. ^\^ Cummhigs, J. 
B. Gilbert. At a meeting of the Board, June 
5th, IHtjO. the county was divided into Commis- 
sioners Districts as follows : 

District Xo. 1— Second. Third and Foin'th 
AVards of St. Anthony. 

District Xo. 2— Brooklyn, Crystal Lake, St. 
Anthony town, and First Ward of city. 

District Xo. 8 — Minneapolis. 

District Xo. 4— Minnetrista, Minnetonka, Ply- 
mouth, Excelsior, Eden Prairie, Bloomington 
and Rlchlield. 

District Xo. 5 — Champlin. Dayton. Hassan. 
Corcoran. Maple Grove. Independence. Green- 
wood. Medina. 

Commissiomrs. 1860 — R. AV. Cummings, II. 
Fletcher. D. Schmitz. J. B. Ilinkley, AVm. Finch. 

18(U— A. B. Blakeman. James Sully, Ezra 
Ilanscomb. J. B. Hinkley. AVilliam Finch. 

18«2-3— A. B. Blakeman, II. S. Plummer. 
James Sully, AVm. Finch, J. B. Ilinkley. 
■ 1864— James Sulley, Sewell Phelps, E. AV. 
Grindall, J. B. Hinkley. 

1865— James Sully, Sewell Phelps, II. S. Plum- 

mer, H. II. Hopkins. A. B. Blakeman, J. A. 
Coleman. J. B. Hinkley. 

1866— James Sully, E. AV. (irindall. J. A. 
Coleman. Sewell Phelps. II. II. Hopkins. 

1S67-8— Sewell Phelps, J. A. Coleman, J. 
Sully. J. P. Plummer. 

1869- .James Sully, A. 11. Benson, AA'm. E. 
Evans, Samuel Bartow, David Edwards. 

1870- AVm. E. Evans, David Edwards, Samuel 
Bartow. Ezra Ilanscomb. AA'. E. Jones. 

1871— AVm. E. Jones, David Edwards, Ezra 
Ilanscomb, J. G. McFarlane, James A. Ball. 

1,S72 — AVm. E. .Jones. Ezra Ilanscomb, David 
Edwards. J. G. McFarlane. Benj. Parker. 

1873-4-5— J. G. McFarlane. AVm. Pettit, Benj. 
Parker. David Edwards. AVm. Finch. R. S. 
Stevens, J. E. Mitchell. 

1876— D. Edwards. J. (i. AIcFarlane, L. R. 
Palmer. Horace AVilson. Chas. II. AVard, Stiles 
(iray. Wm. Pettit. 

1877 — D. Edwards, Edwin Iledderly. ('has. II. 
AVard, L. R. Palmer, Horace AVilson. 

1878- L. R. Palmer, Jesse Jones, Charles H. 
AVard, Horace Wilson, M. AA'^. Glenn. 

1879— Horace AViLson, M. AV. Glenn. L. R. Pal- 
. mer, Chas. H. AVard, Jacob Schaefer. 

Xovember, 1880— The following officers were 
elected : Auditor, F. S. McDonald ; Register of 
Deeds, Chas. Robinson; Clerk of Court, E. J. 
Davenport ; County Attorney. W. E. Hale : 
Sheriff. J. M. Eustis ; Surveyor. Frank Plummer ; 
Coroner, Dr. A. C. Fairbairn ; Senate, 27th Dist., 
R. B. Langdon ; House, 27th Dist., John Baxter, 
1 Geo. Huhn, A. Roberts ; County Commissioner, 
! [east side], Baldwin Brown. 

The following official record of Presidential 
i Electors will show the general political bias, as 
I well as the rapid advance in population as indi- 
cated by the increased vote for each term. 

A'ote of 1860, Lincoln, 1,770, Douglas. 705. 
Breckenridge. 44. A'ote of 1864, Lincoln. 1,711. 
McClellen. 1.221. A'ote of 1868, Grant. 3,128. 
Seymour, 1,984. Vote of 1872, Grant. 4.075. 
Greeley. 2.986. A'ote of 1876, Hayes, 5,641, 
Tilden, 4.871. A'ote of 1880, Garfield, 8,086, 
Hancock, 4,104. At this election the vote for 
member of Congress was, AV. D. AVashburn, 
8,134, H. H. Sibley, 3,991. 



( llAPTi:i{ xx.w. 


scurnxiZKii and ff)Hiu;rTi:i) itv hesidext 

.MKMIiEUS Ol- the SE\EI!A:. inMl'WlES. 

Till' dati' (if llic (iri.Miiizatiiiii nl' llic First ]?t'!l- 
inient of Minnesota ^'()lunll•l'^s. Aiiril. 1W>1. 
will imlinate the entlnisiasiu of the slate in re- 
sponding to the eall of the countrv for defeiulers. 
Aiiril llith had heard the Mrst jiun at Fort Sum- 
ter; Ajiril I:M1i had witnessed the surrender of 
tlie fort : Apiil 1 lUi. Aliraliani Lini'dhi liad issuecl 
his famous jiroc-laniation callinj; for To.OOO men. 
more than enou^ih. we all felt sure, to wipe out 
every vestige of rehellion. 

Minnesota, one of the youngest dauRhters in 
the family of states, eomes to the front in April, 
and orjrani/.es her tirst rei;iment. Indeed, this 
regiment did not furnish jilaces enough for men, 
wishing to enlist as privates, lo slmw Iheir patri- 
otism. The country was eleitrilied liy seeing 
this regiment of stalwart m(>n. moving to the front 
in June, nmiiiig frimi a stale of whii-li many citi- 
zens hail not even heard, whose record was yet to 
be made. This young state was not only ijuick 
to respond to the demand for un ii. uudci' llie en- 
thusiasm that pervaded the ciiUMlr\ dining the 
earlier stages of the war. Iml she held nut to the 
last with her ipiola. tlnoiigli all the dark da>s 
that followed. 

When it was ascertained llial "■"j.noii nicii wnulil 
not accomiilish it. successive calls were made — 
sou.ddii. :i(i(i.ii(Hi. .",011.00(1. etc.. until, at last, a 
grand total of nearly S.oOo.uiio had liccn furnished 
to do what it was anticipated a liaiidful ol iiicn 
could ai'coinplish in a few weeks. 

Miiniesota followed up Ihesc successive de- 
mands, until the vcr\ Indians tlionglit lici' terri- 
tory was nearly dejilitid of llghling men. and 
assailed her uniirolected settlers. War was thus 
l)rought lo her own doors, in forms more dreadful 
than Antietjini or (iettyshnrg. The lecords will 
show how well the state liehaved luiiler the liery 
ordeal of war. It helongs to us onlv to transciihe 

to these pages the roll of h r of the coinjt\. 

hoping to assist in iiuninitali/ing the iianjcs nf 

the patriotic and brave defenders of our flag. 
Here they are. rank and lile. Honor them all. 


Adjt Adjutant 

Art Vrlillcr\ 

Bat Battle or Battalion 

Col Colonel 

Capt Captain 

Corp Corporal 

Comsy ( 'ommisiiry 

Cav Cavalry 

captd captured 

destd deserted 

dis ^ discharged 

disalil disability 

inf infantry 

M. ^'. I Miimesota \"olunteer Infantry 

Lieut Lieutenant 

I Maj Major 

I mus musicians 

pro promoted 

Kegt Regiment 

re-en re-enlisted 

reg regular 

res resigned 

sergt .sergeant 

transfd transferred 

\ el veteran 

V. H. C \'etcran IJeservc Corps 

wd w ounded 

wag wagoner 


()rigiuall> coniiuaiiilcd li\ ('olnuel W. .\. (;or- 

Fi'ilil mill Sliii!' 0;h'(v;-.s Ceo. \. Morgan. Col- 
onel, com. Scjil. Jii. isiiii. |iio. from Co. K, res. 
May •'). l.sii:{. 

.lohii N. Chase. .\iliiil:nil. coin. ( Id. L'2. IMil . 
pro. ('apt. Cn. II. Sept. I'l;. IsiiL'. dis. with Hegt. 
.May -I. iMil. 

('has. W. Le lioiilillicr, .\ssl. Suigeon. com. 
.Xl'iil L".i. iMil. lian>ld. Pi .Miiui. Skeleton Hegt. 

v.. I). Neill. Chaplain, com. .\)iril J!i. isiil.res. 
.(illy i:i. isuj. 

.lohii \V. I'ride. Sergt. .Major, com. Mar. 5, 
isiil. pro. from Co. K. dis. with regt. May 4. 1804. 

Ciiiiiliiiini A .lohii Blesse, priv. en. .\pril -'.i. 
IMil. tiansfd. to \'. K. C. Xov. HI. (Ci. 



John McEwen. Corp. en. April 29, 1S61. pro. 
Sergt. ; killed at Antietam, Sept. 17. 1S()2. 

Company C— Chesley B. Tirrell. priv. May i'2. 
1861, transfil. to bat. 

Recndls — Chas. C, Blanclianl. no recoril. 

Wm. Coombs, re-eu trantsfd. to First Battalion. 

Henry Ghostly, no record. 

Andrew McCausland dis. for disab. Jan. 8, 18B8. 

Turner Pribble, dis. to enlist in res. service 
Oct. 28, IStil. 


Henry R. Putnam. Capt., en. April 29, "(il, 
trans, to 12lli U. S. inf. Geo. H. Woods, 1st 
Lieut, en. April 29, "61. pro. Capt. Nov. 28, "til. 
A. Q. M. Dewitt C, Smith, 2d Lieut., en. April 
29, '61, pro, Capt. August 8, '61. trans, to Com- 
pany G, Aug., 1863. resigned for disabl. October, 
1863. Setli L. Hammond, 1st Sergt., en. April 
29, "61, pro. 2d and 1st Lieut., resigned Sept.. "62. 
Christ. B. Heffelfinger, Sergt., en. April. 29, "61, 
pro. 1st Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., Capt,, Aug. 
8, 1863, dis. with regt., May 4. "64. Wm. Har- 
mon, Sergt., en. April 29, "61, pro. 2d Lieut. 
Company 1), 1st Lieut. Company C, dis. witli 
regt. Henry W. Longfellow, Sergt., en. April 
29, "61, dis for disab., May 11. "62. Joseph Young. 
Corp., en. April 29, "61. dis, for disab.. Jan. 3, "63. 
Ellet P. Perkins, Corp, en, April 29, "61. pro.' 
Sergt., color Sergt. .1st Lieut., dis. with regt.. May 
4, "64. re-en. First bat. Isaac N. Hoblitt, Corp.. 
en. April 29, "61. died Nov. 26, "61. of disease. 
Hanford L. Gordon. Corp., en. May 21, "61. dis, 
for disab. Dee. 1, "61. Calvin I). Robinson, Corp.. 
en. Ajiril 29, "61. pro. Sergt., dis. with regt. Ed- 
ward S. Past. Corp.. en. xVpril 29, "61, i)ro. Sergt. 
Major, dis. for wds. at battle Antietam, Sejit. 17, 
"62. (Grange S. King. Corp., en. April 29, "(ii, 
woundedat Bull Run. and left on the lielil. Mor- 
ton Roliinson, nius.. en. June 6. "(il . ]iro. Corp.. 
dis. with regt. Wm. A. Lancaster, wag. en. May 
22, "61, dis.with regt. 

Pi-irofcs— William R. Allen, en. May 16. "61. 
died, July "63. of wds. received at Gettysburg. 
Chas. E. Baker, en. May 29. "61. killed July 2d. "63, 
in battle at (iettysbiu'g. Horace K. Hlake. en. May 
22, '61, dis. with regt. James Bryant, en. May 
29, "61, re-en. in First Bat. March 31, "64. i)ro. 1st 
Lieut, and Captain Company C, dis. with bat. 
Geo. W. Bartlett, en. May 29. "61, dis. with regt. 

John Brown, en. May 16, "61, dis. with regt. 
Henry Bingenheimer, en. May 16, "61, dis. with 
regt. Jacob W. Chaffee, en. April 29, '61, no 
record. Enoch IL Chandler, en. April 29, "61, 
dis. with regt. John Clator, en. May 22. "61, dis. 
for disab. Fell. 7. "•■3. Henry W. Crown, en. May 
1 7, "61 , trans, to invalid corps, March, '64. Francis 

1. Curtis, en. May 26, '61, dis. for disab. Dec. 29, 
"61. Henry A. Dean, en. May 16, '61, killed July 
21, "61, in battle Bull Run. Stephen Donnelly, 
en. May 20, "61. dis. for disab. January 7, '62. 
James F. Dunsmoor, en. May 23, "61, dis. for 
disab. Aug. 1, "61. Cyrus E. Eddy, en. May 17. 
'61. AmiR. Fogerson, en. April29,'61,dis. with 
regt. John O. French, en. April 29, "61, pro, 
Corp., dis. with regt.. May 5, "64. August A. 
Goeppinger, en. April 29, '61, dis. with regt. 
William H. Garvey, en. May 16, '61, no record. 
Alonzo C. Ilaydeu, en. April 29. '61, killed July 

2. "63, in battle at Gettysburg. Elmsley I. Ham- 
ilton, en. April 29. "61, dis. for disab., November 
27, "61. John T. Hoblitt, en. April 29, "61, no 
record. Charles W. Hughes, en. April 29," 61, 
dis. with regt. Archibald E. Howe. en. April 29. 
"1)1. <lis. with regt. AVilliam II. Howe. en. April 
29, "61, dis. with regt. Charles A. Ilntchins, en. 
April 29, "61. dis. for disab. February 20. '63. 
Cyrus M. Hatch, en. April 29. '61, dis. for disab. 
December 5, '62. John IL Haner, en. May 21 . "61 . 
dis. for disab. December 2, '62. Amos C. Jordan, 
en. April 29. "61. trans, to signal corps. August, 

I. "63. James W. Kendall, en. April 29. "61. dis. 
with regt. Irving Lawrence, en. April 29. "61. 
died July 7. '63. of wds. at bat. of Gettysburg- 
(ieorge A. Latlin, en. ilay 17. "61. dis. for disab. 
March 2o, '63. Adin A. Latlin, en. May 17. "61, 
dis. with reg. May 5. "64. Charles II. Mason, en. 
April 29. '61. pro. Sergt., dis. for pro. December 27. 
■Ii2. Henry A. McAllister, en. April 29, '61, died 
Aug. "63. of wds. rec. in liattle at Gettysburg. 
Horace M. Martin, en. April 29. "61. pro. Corp. and 
Sergt.. dis. with regt. Lewis Meeker, en. Aiuil 
29. "1)1. dis. with regt. George Maddock, en. 
.Vpril 29. "61. wounded at Bull Run, and left on 
lield, dis. with regt. William J. Newton, en. 
May 22. "61. dis. for disab. April 2. "62. Francis 

II. Newton, en. May 22, '61. alisent sick, on dis. 
of regt. Thomas B. Nason.en. May 28. pro. Corp., 
dis, with regt. John W. Phunmer, en. April 29, 
"fil, pro. Corp. Sergt., dLi with regt. Robert A. 



Plummer. en. April 29, "61 , dis. with regt. Henry 
C. Plummer, en. May 20, '61, dis. for disab. May 
14. "62. Jose))li Suiitliyman. en. April 29. "(il. 
pro. Corp., (lis. witli regt. Leroy F. Sampson, 
en. May 17. "61, dis. for disab. February 2, '63. 
Mattliew M. Standish, en. May 21, '61, pro. Sergt. 
transfd to X. ('. S. as Com. Sergt. Feb. 16,' 63. 
Charles W. Smith, en. April 27, "61. dis. with 
regt. Alviii 15. Taunt, mi. April 20, "61, dis. for 
disab. Feb. n. 02. I'latt S. Titus, en. May 21 . (il . 
dis. Willi regt. David (i. AVctnnir. en. Aiuil 2it. 
"61, dis. witli regt. Jleiny AVilgus, en. April 2'J. 
"61, dis. per order Nov. 16, "63. James Walsh, 
en. April 2ii. "61 dis. with regt. .John T). 'Whitte- 
more en. >Liy 23, "61. died of wd.rec. in bat. near 
Vieiuia, \n. 

Becruit.s — Tlionnis Hughes, dis. for disab. Dec. 
20, '61. Edward D. Messer. dis. for disab. Dec. 
29, "61. Henry 15. Chase, dis. for disab. Feb. 2, 
"63. Geo. II. Smith, dis. for dis;ib. Feb. 13. "63. 
David Jenkins, dis. for di.sab. Aug, 20, '63. Ran- 
som A. liartlctt. (lis. for disab. Oct. 7. "62. Eben 
S. Xasson. dis. lor disab. Feli. lo. "()3. David M. 
Howe, dis. for disab. Jan. 6, "63. Jo.seph B. Holt, 
dis. for disab. Jan. 9, "62. Frank Rollins, died. 
Aug. 2, "63. of wds. rec. at battle of Gettysluirg. 
George Grandy. dicil July 4. "6.<. cif wds. I'ec. in 
bat. at Gettysburg. .Man\is A. Past died July o.'O.'l. 
of wds. at bat, (iett>.sburg. S. Densmore. transfd. 
to I"irst Bat. K. J. Hamilton, transfd. to First 
Bat. J. I'ratt. transfd. to First Bat. G. S. Sly. 
transfd. to First Bat. O. Ames, transfd. to First 
Bat. J. Hawkcs. transfd. to First Bat. AV.T. .\bra- 
ham, transfd. to First Bat. D. L. Morgan, transfd. 
to First Bat. M. G. Pratt, died April, "64. E. 
Hamilton, no record, .\rlis Curtis, no record. 
Edwin Lambdin, dis. for disab. December 2, "62. 

(■().M|•.\S■^ K. 

(jeorge X. Morgan. (';i|,i.. rn. .\|iril 29. "61. 
pro. Maj.. Octdber 22. Lieut. Col.. ,\ugust 2s. "62. 
Col., Sci)l('mlicr26."ni'.rcs. .Mayo. "63. James IIol- 
ister, 1st Lieut., cu. Aiirl! 29. "(il. res. Xovendicr 
11. "61. (Jeorge I'omcroy. 2d JJeid.. en. Ajiril 
29, "61. pro. ("apt.. ()ct()l)er 22. "61, res. for pro. 
Sei)tember22. "(i2. Lieut. Col. 14(i N. V. Y. John 
X., Ist Sergt.. en. April 29. "61, |>ro. ('apt. 
Company (i, Septendier 26. "62. .lames .M. Shcp- 
ley. Sergt.. en. April 29. "61. pro. 2d Lieut. (Jcto- 
l>er22, "61, Isl Lieut. Company (i. July 19, "(52. 

res. Jan. 13. "63. George Boyd, Sergt. en. April 29, 
"61. pro. 2d Jjieut. and 1st Lieut. Company I.. 
Ajiril lo. "63. dis. with regt. May 4. "64. Hugh 
(i. Ca.ssedy. Sergt. en. May 23, "61, no record. 
AVilliam Lochren, Sergt, en. April 29, "61. pro. 
2d Lieut. Company K, September22. "62. 1st Lieut. 
Com]iany E. July 3. (13, res. December 30, "63. 
■ Francis Kitlel. Corp. en. April 29, "61, pro. Sergt. 
dis. fordisab. December 21. "(i3. Orville D. That- 
cher. Corp. en. April 29, "(11 . dis. with retft.. May. 
■(>4. .Mbiou Ilobsiin. Corp.. en. .Vpril 29. "(il. no 
record. Booth C. Miilvey. Corp.. en. April 29. "61, 
no record. William ^\'. Smiley, Corp., en. May 
23. "(il trans, to gunlioat service. X'ovemberl6,"63. 
William W. AVilson. Corp.. en. April 29, "61. dis. 
for disab. Jidy 23. "(i2. William II. Davenport. 
Mus.. en. April 29, "61, dis. per order, September 
26. "61 . Charles Xorlhrup, wag., en. April 29. "61 . 
dis. witli regt.. May, "(it. 

Friralcs — Asa T. -Vbboll. en. .Vpril 29. '(il. no 
record. John F. Barnard, en. April 29, "61, dis. 
for disab. July 31. "HI. William II. Bassett. en. 
.Vpril 29. "61. iirn. Ciiip. dis. with regt. Albert 
B. Coombs, en. .M;i.\ 2ii. "(il. tiaiislM. in 1". S. En- 
gineers, Oct(jl)er 24, '62. Henry M. Day, en. 
.Vi)ril 29, "61, no record. .Vmos O. Berry, en. 
April 29. ."ol.dis. with regt. Charles A. Berry, 
en. April 29. "61. no record. William E. Candy, 
en. May 23.61. dis. with regt. Lloyd C Dciw.eii 
Ajnil 29, "61, dis. fordisab. '(;,!. lienj, Feuton. en. 
April 29. "(il, dis. with regt. William Fullerton, 
en. May 20, "(il, transfd. in giuilmal service, Nov. 
16, "(53. John Fleetham. en. May 23. "(il dis. for 
disab. March 2o. '(i3. (Jeorge X'. Hollister, en. 
.Vpril 29, 61, trausiil. In 4th U. S, Cav. Oct., "(i2. 
James Ilauscomc. eii. .May 23, '61. no record. 
John Harrington, en. May 23, "61. trans, to 4th 
U. S. Cav., {October, "62. Israel .liickiiis, en. 
.Vpril 29, "61, killed July 2. "(13. al (ieltysliurg. 
Ernest JeiTersou. cm. .Ma\ 23. "(H. im reeoiil. 
William 11. Johnson, eii. May 23. (il. dis. Inr 
(lisabl. March 'St, '63. Edwin Keen. eu. .Vjiril 
29. "61, trans, to giinbnal service, Xovenilier. '(i.f. 
Edwin B. Lowell, en. May 23. "(il. dis. with 
regt. Sanniel F. Leyde, en. .May 23. "(il. trans, 
to gunboat service. Cliarles .MeDnnald. eu. 
.Vliril 29, "(il. no record. Charles .McDonald .Ir.. 
en. .May 23. "(iL trans, to lib C. S. Cav. October. 
"(i2. Keuben .M. .Mayo. en. .Ma> 23, (il. uo 
record. (Jeorge W. Xnrthnip. en. .Vjnil 2:(. "(il. 



trans, to 4th U. S. Cav. October 'P>i. James Pat- 
terson, en. May 23, "61, destd. Marcli, '64. Jolin 
W. Pride, en. April 29, '61, pro. Sergt. Major, 
trans, to N. C. S. March 21, "64, dis. with regt. 
()l)ed Russell, en. April 29, 01. dis. for disabl. 
December 31, "62. Francis Ray, en. May 24. "61, 
dis. with regt. Oscar W. Sears, en. April 29, '61 , 
trans, to invalid corps. October, '63. Samuel B. 
Stites, en. April 29, '61, pro. Corp, Sergt., dis, 
with regt. Stephen B. Sutton, en. April 29, '61. 
dis. with regt. Harvey E. Scott, en. ilay 20, '61. 
wd. and taken prisoner at Savage Station, trans, 
to y. R. C. George 11. Winants, en. April 29, 
'61. dis. for disabl. December 25, '61, Peter 
Welin, en. May 23. "61. died July 29, '63. of wds. 
rec'd. in battle of Gettysburg. William L. 
Wakefield, en. May 23. "61, dis. for disabl. Janu- 
ary 4, '64. John D. White, en. May 26, '61, dis. 
for disabl. January 9, '62. 

i?cci-!(rts— Rufus II. Jefferson, no date, tran. to 
4th U. S. Cav. October, "62. C. G. Sherbrook, no 
record. Adam C. Stites, no record. 11. B. 
O'Brien, no record. E. F. Leigliton, no record. 
W. Bofferding, no record. James D. Weaver, re- 
en. March 24, '64. trans, to First Battalion. 
Willian) W. Ilolden, no record. 


BecruilH—ll. Blackwell, en. March 28, '64, no 
record. Peter J. Bofferding, en. February 18, 
'64, no record. E. Jenkins, en. March 28, '64, 
no record. A. Stanberry, en. Marcli 29, '64, no 


Eccruiis—^. Shook, en. March 3U, 1864, no 
record. Wm. Schmeigart, en. March 23, '64, no 


i?rc)-»i/s— Samuel M. Burgess, en. November 
11, '64, dis. for disabl. February 3, '63. Alfred 
Colliurn, en. November 4. '61, dis. for disab. 
August 23, '62. Lewis Hanson, en. December 
16, '61, deserted October 24, '62. John W. Sul- 
ly, en. November 20, '61, deserted Octolier 24. '62. 
Augustus II. Smith, en. November 2o. '61, killed 
July 2, '63, at Gettysburg. 

The First Regiment Infantry was organized 
April, '61, ordered to Washington, D. C, June 
14, '61. Engaged iji the following battles, sieges 

and skirmishes: First Bull Run, July 21, "61: 
Edward's Ferry, October 22, "61 ; Yorktown. 
May 7, '62; Fair Oaks, June 1, '62; Peach 
Orchard, June 29, "62 ; Savage Station, June 29, 
'62; Glendale, June 30; Nelson's Farm, June 
30, '62; Malvern Hill, July 1, "62; "\'ienna, Sep- 
tember 2, '62; Autietam, September 17, "62: 
First Fredericksburg, December 11, 12 and 13. 
"62 ; Second Fredericksburg, May 3, "63 ; Gettys- 
burg, July 2 and 3, '63, and Bristow Station, Oc- 
tober 14, "63. Discharged at Fort Snelling, Min- 
nesota, May 5, 1864. 


Originally commanded by Colonel Horatio P. 

Horatio P. Van Cleve, Col., com. July 22, '61. 
pro. Brig. Gen. March 21, "62. 


Privates — James Hamilton, en. June 26, "61. 
re-en. December 28, '63, dis. with regt. James 
Rourke, drftd. September 26, '64, dis, by order. 
June 11, '6o. George W. Stewart, en. Febru- 
ary 18, '64, dis \\ith regt. Josiali Weaver, drftd. 
January 28, '65. dis. with regt. 

COMP.\NY c. 

Pc/rcffes— Daniel Black, drftd May 28, '64. dis. 
with regt, July 11. "65. Stephen Grover, drftd. 
November 1 . '64, dis. from hosp. August 2, "65. 


Aklen Kimball, Sergt. en. July 5, '61, dis. for 
disab. October, "62. Edward R. Perkins, Corp., 
en. July 5, '61, dis. for disab. October 16, '62. 
James N. Dudley, mus.. en. July 5, '61. dis. for 
disab. April 19, "62. 

Privates — Lyman Brewster, en. July 5. "61. dis. 
on expiration of term. July 4, '63. Albert R. 
Hall,, en. July 5, '61, pro. Corp. Sergt., wounded 
at Chickamauga, dis. on expiration of term. July 

4. "64. Fred. A. Jennings, en. July 5, "61. dis. for 
disal). March 9, "63. Alexander Landril. en. July 
.5. "61. re-en. December 29, '63, pro. Corp. Sergt. 
di^^. July 11. "65. Eugene B. Nettleton. en. July 

5. "61, pro. Corp., dis. July 4, "64. expiration of 
term. Henry Stoakes, en. July 5, '61. dis. on ex- 
piration of term, July 4, '64. Allen Sexton, en. 
July 5, '61, dis. for disab. November 10, '62. 
George W. Towle, en. July 5, '61, re-en. Dec. 29. 



'63, wounded at Chickamauga, dis. July 11, '65. 
Leonard Town. en. July 5, '61, died at Tuscum- 
bia. Ala.. August •!. '62. George A. Whcaton. 
en. July o, '(il, dis. on expr. of term, July 4tli. 
'64. James Maxwell, drafted May 28. "64. pro. 
Coi"i).. dis. witli regt. Jdliii 13. 1'ani. sub. May 80. 
"64. vlis. with regt. 


7f(>fi-«i7.<f--J()liii .Vdelherger, en. September 
26. "64. dis. l)y onlcr. June 11. "6o. James R. 
15ni\vn. CM. Scptcmhci- 2il, "ill. died in Cliicago of 
a knit'o wd. iec"d. in a row May 18. "6'. .Joseph 
Ebert en. O-tober 26. "64. dis. by order June 11. 
"65, Anthony Ebert. en. October 26, "64, dis. by 
order. June 12. "6"). John Salenting. en. May 26, 
'64, died at Savannah. Ga., December 28, "64. 
John Tliur. en. Ociober 8. "64. dis. by order. May 

26, ■60. Henry Tru.xes. en. September 26, "64, 
dis. by order war dept., June 11, '65. 

Charles II. Friend. Corp.. en. July 8. "61, re-en. 
December 2i». "(18. luo. 2d Lieut.. 1st Lieut, and 
dis. with regt. William Blake, mus.. en. July 8, 
"61. threw away bis drum and took a gun at .Mill 
Spring, dis. for disabl. .Vugust 9. ■62. 

Pnra/ci— Charles J. Atwater. en. .Jul> s. "lil. 
dis. for disabl. June 9. "62. Louis AUers. en. 
July 8, '61. dis. expir. of term. July 7. '64. Ferd 
Birck, en. July Ji. '61. re-en. December 23, '63, 
dis. with regt. Coin-ad Lutz. drftd. November 

27. "64. dis, witli regt. Joseph Fold. sul). May 30. 
■64. dis. by order. June Si. "6.3. Christian Kankin. 
drftd. May 28. "64, dis. from iiospital. July 14, ■65. 
Henry A8troi)e. en. Sejjtember 27. "61, re-en. 
Decendier 23. "63. dis. for disalil.. January 17, 
■6.). William .Mattin. en. July N. "lil. le-en. De- 
i-embcr 29. 'lilt. pici. ('(ii|i. and ilis. with regl. 
.losepli McAlpin. I'll. July K. "61. dis. for disabl. 
June 25. "62. .loseph Molaii. en. Jidy 8, ■61, destd. 
(Jctober lo. 'til. (Jeorge Butherford, en. July 8, 
■01. re-en. Decend)er 23. ■63, wounded at Kene- 
saw Mf., discharged for disiibl. January 17, "65. 

CO.MI'.WV (i. 

I'rhiiiiH V. Bhondiack. en. July 8. "61, killed 
at Mill Spring. January lit, "62. L. IIoiTman en. 
July 8, "61, dis. on exp. of term. July 7. 1864. 
Cliarles Orth. en. July 8, n\. dis. for disjib. May 
3. ^62. Charles Horhbaik. en. July 8, "6J, dis. 

fordisab. November 20, '61. Nicholas Rossbach. 

I en July 8, "61, re-en. December 26, '64, pro. Corp. 
Sergt. dis. with regt. Bateus Webber, en. .luly 
8, "61. wd. at Chi<kanianga. (lis. June 11, 1864. 

' Jacob Wcililiis. en. .luly 8, 61, deserted at Louis- 
ville. October 1. '1)2. 

lifcruitK — Joseph llolTnian. en. .July 15. '61, 
dis. with regt. .lolm Igel. drafted May 30 "64, 
dis with regt. .bilni .Miller, drafted September 
26, '64, dis. by mdei- .tune iu. '1)5. Nicholas 
Bossback. en. Feb 27. '64. I'm. Corp. dis. witli 
regt. Beinliardt Hiebeth. sub. February loth, 
'65, dis. with regt. llenuan Radeutz, en. Sep- 
tember 21. "61. killed at Chickamauga. Sejjtem- 
ber, 20 1863. Henry Striihba<k. en. February 
26, "64, dis. with regt. Peter Schumacker, drafted 
May 27. "64. liis. with regt. AVilliam Schiltz, 
drafted Seplendier 26. "64. dis. by order June 10. 
'65. A\'m. Schuler. drafted September 26, "64, 
dis. by order, June 10, "65. Christian H. Sander, 
en. March 6, ^62, re-en. December ^26. 64, pro. 
Corp. Sgt. dis. with regt. Balthaser Tschudy en. 
December 15. "63. ]iro. Corp. dis. with regiment. 
John W . TscliiKly, en. September 5, '64, dis, by 
order .liinc in. '65. 

(O.Ml'.WV II. 

Jo.seph Burgher, en. .Inly 15. "(il. re-en. Dec. 
18, '63. dis. for disabl. .Iniii' 17. '(i2. K. T. Cressy, 
drftd. September 30. "61. destd. May, "62, retd. 
March 28, "63. dis. on exjir. of term. June 15, "65. 

l•(|,Ml•.\^'^ I. 

FrecTk. C. Sheiilierd. Sergt. en. .Iul> .'-to. '61, 
dis, on expr. of term, July 11, "65. William 
Bending, Corj).. en. .Vugust 12. "ill. re-en. Dec. 
"63, pro. Sergt.. 2d Lieut., dis. .Iul\ 11. "ti5. 

J'rimUs .loliii S. I'.iTlriiiiii. en. .lul\ :ili. "lil. 
capld. by eniin\ :it Cliickamaiiga. ilied in .Vnder- 
sonville i>ris(in. Illiiun Haskell, en. .Inl\ :!0. 'ill. 
trans, to \. \\. (',, .\pril 28, "114. Chailes H. Lay- 
man, en. Sei>tember s. "61. re-en. l)eicud)er. "63, 
dis. with regt. Isaac l,a\ man. en. ."^eptend)er 8, 
'61. wd. at Cliiekamauga. dis. on expr. of term, 
Seplendier 5. "64. ,\lberl I'arker. en. Septem- 
ber 5, '61. wd. at Cliiekainauga, dis. on expr. of 
term, SeiUember 12. "64. Hoderick I'arker. en. 
Septeiubei' 11. "lil, died at Lel)anon. Ky.. March 
1. '112. .John \S'heeler. en. .Iul> 30, "61, re-en. 
December. "63, dis. July 11, '6.j. 



Recruits — George Burton, drftd. March 8, '65, 
dis. with regt. James Crammond, en. February 
24, '64, dis. with regt. Washington Rader, en. 
February 25, "64, dis with regt. Geo. W. Stone, 
en. September 23, "61, r^-en. December, '63, pro. 
Corp. Sergt., dis. with regt. Jonathan B. Serrel, 
en. Februarj' 27. '64, pro. Coi-p., dis. with regt. 
John W. Tewall, en. February 8, '65, dis. witli 


William W. Woodbury, 1st Lieut., en. August 
23, '61, pro. Capt. resigned July, '64. 

Privates — William Hamilton, en. August 26, 
"61, wd. Chickamauga, dis. on expr. of term 
Lyman S. Martin, en. August 30, '61, dis. on 
expr. of term August 30, "64. Chas. W. Strong, 
en. August 26, "61, re-en. December, "64, dis. for 
disabl. November, 10, "63. Lewis- ^^'akefield, en. 
August 21, '61, dis. for disabl. March, '62. Wil- 
liam AVilson, en. August 26, "61, dis. by reason 
of wds. rec'd. at Mill Spring. Godfleld Dien. 
drftd. May 26, '64, dis. from hospital, '6-5. John 
Kiser, drftd: May 28, '64, dis. from hospital, '65. 
Warren Merriman. en. May 28, '64, dis. from 
hospital, "65. 


organized July, "61, ordered to Louisville, Ky.. 
October, "61, and assigned to the army of the 
Ohio. Engaged in the following marches, bat- 
tles, skirmishes and sieges, viz : Mill Spring, 
January 19. '62 ; Siege of Corinth, April, '62 ; 
transferred to the army of the Tennessee, Bragg's 
Raid, Perryville, October 8, '62; skirmishes of 
the Tullahoma compaign, Chickamauga, Septem- 
ber 19 and 20, '63 ; Mission Ridge, Xovemljer 2-3, 
'63 ; Veteranized January, "64. Battles and 
skirmishes of the Atlanta campaign, viz : 
Resaca, June 14. 1.5. and 16, '64; Jonesboro, 
Sherman's march through Georgia and the Caro- 
Unas, Bentonville. ^larch 19, "65. Discharged at 
Fort SnelUng. July 11, "65. 


originally commanded by Col. Henry C. Lester. 
Levi Butler, Surgeon, en. November 11, '61, 
resnd. Septeml)er, '63. Moses R. Greeley, Asst. 
Surgeon, September 5, '62, dis. with regt. 


James P. Howlett, 1st Lieut., ap. regt. Q. M.. 

res. March 2, "64. Adolphus Elliott, 2d Lieut, 
pro. 1st Lieut., dismissed December 1, '62. E. R. 
Jaques, Sergt., re-en. December '64, dis. Septem- 
ber 2, "65. Joseph II. Smith, Sergt., dis. for 
disabl. April 10, "62. Jesse G. .Jones, Corp., 
pro. Com. Sergt. October 5, "63. Alfred B. Rob- 
inson. Mus., dis. for disab., .June, '62. H. F. 
Thompson, Wag., dis. on expr. of term, Sep- 
tember 30, '64. 

Privates — William Atkinson, dis. for disabl. 
March 10, "62. Irenus Atkinson, re-en. Decem- 
ber 23, '63, dis. with regt. William Bisko, died 
at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., September 11, '63. A. B. 
Carson, re-en. December 23, '63, dis. with regt. 
Seldon Coleman, dis. on expr. of term November 
14, '64. M. N. Coleman, dis. on expr. of term 
November 14, '64. A. N. Coleman, dis. on expr. 
of term, November 14, '64. John A. Coleman, 
dis. for disabl. JiUy, '62. II. L. Councilman dis. 
for disabl., March 29, '62. A. N. Doyle, dis. on 
expr. of term, November 14, '64. L. E. Dudley, 
dis. for disabl., February 5, '63. William Foster, 
re-en. December 23, '63, trans, to V. R. C, Jan- 
uary 13, '65. Cornelius Frederick, re-en. Decem- 
ber 23, '63, pro. Corp. and discharged with regt. 
Dudley Green, dis. for disab., October, '62. 
Thomas 11. Green, pro. 1st Lieut, in the 57 V. S. 
Col. Inf., September 28, '64. M. P. Hamilton 
re-en. December 23, '63, dis. with regt. Ezra M. 
Ileald, re-en. December 23, '63, dis. with regt. 
Samuel W. Ileald, died at Columbus, Ky., Sep- 
tember 10, '63. Daniel II. Hunt, trans, to Y. R. 
C, November 18, '63. Abner Hough, pro. 1st 
Sergt., dis. for disabl., February 16, '64. John 
Jones, dis. on expr. of term, November 14, '64. 
W. A. Kemp, re-en. December 23, '63, destd. 
February 3, '65. George S. Maxfleld, re-en. 
December 23, '63, pro. Corp., dis. with regt. 
Jos. B. McCaslin, died at Little Rock, Ark., 
August 8, '64. Patrick ^McDonald, dis. for disabl. 
April 10, '62. George W. Moor, pro. Corp., dis. 
on expr. of term, November 14, '64. J. V. Mont- 
gomery, died at Little Rock, Ark., August 16, '64. 
George Nott, dis. for disabl., July, '62. Josiah 
Oathoudt, no record. Charles W. A. Nudd, pro 
Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut, and Capt., res. 
August, '64. Ezra F. Peabody, no record. Jay 
Pratt, dis. on expr. of term, November 14, '64. 
James C. Price, re-en. December 23, '63, dis. for 
disabl., July 21, '65. James R. Putnam, pro. 2d 



Lieut. Company K. Jamiary fl. "fiS. res. Septem- 
Iter 18. "<il. S. .1. IJaynmntl. dii-d i-n route from ; 
Louisville til Xashville. March HI. "(i2. Edwin 
E. lloss, killed at Wood Lake. Minn.. Sejitemlier 
23, '62. Peter Rosskop, dis. on exjir. of term, | 
Xovember 14, "64. William M. Stiles, re-en. | 
December 'I'A. "63, dis. witli regt. Charles M. 
Sydlinker. dis. on expr. of Icnii. Nov. 14. lit. 

/ffcrK/'/.- -Joseph Uraseh. en. Aiinusl :i9. "(i4. 
dis. by order .Inly 23. "(i.i. C. H. McCansland. 
en. Feliniar\. 2it. "(54. dis. with regl. .John S. | 
Millett, en. Mar. 22, "1)4. dis. by order -J inie 20. "().'). 

7>y"f7f(/ -Henry Dryer, en. .June 2-"i. (U. dis. 
with rejjt. Adam Ilohenstein. en. ,)nne 2o, "tU. 
dis. with rept. Frcclerick Slinlte. en. .June 2o. 
"«4. dis. with re^t. -Vnlhony Trnnip. en. .June 
2-5, 'M, dis. by order June 20. li-i. Joseph Palm, 
en. Jmie 26, ■tj4. died at Pine Bluff, Ark.. Sep- 
tember 23. "ii4. 


Pririilc — (ieorjre Selon, en. Xovember 7. 'tU, 
re-en. Eebrnary 2. "(U. dis. by order A]iril 20. fi.!. 

COMI'.VNY 1'. 

/'niv//c.s - James H. Deremer, en. Xovember 8. 
■'il. re-en. Dee. 20, '(iS. dis. with regt. Baaron 
Fowley. en. Xovember s. "(il. dis. for disab. Feb- 
ruary o, "<>3. -N'eaniiali Warts, en. Xovember S. 
"61, dis. on exp. of term. Xovember 14, "64. 

(d.Mr.VNV <i. 

Pi-ii-«^.s- -Stephen Hhodes. en. Xovember 6, 
"61, pro. Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lienl., dismissed 
from service. James W. Kelsey, drftd. June 27, 
"04. dis. for disab. Septemlier 23, '64. Frank 
Ilalclicr. drlld. .Innc 20. '04. dis. with ic«t. 

((mi'ANV II. 

I'riftili I'eler .Mcurer. recruH. cii. Se|itciiilM'i' 
1, '64. dis. liy onler .Im1\ 2s. o.",. Iliiir\ l":iiie. 
en. '04. dis. willi ii'lcI. 

((IMI'AS^ I. 

Pn'ra**")!- David jiliirUliui ii. en. November 6, 
■«1, died at Snyder's UlnlT. Miss.. Jnh 10, '63. 
Pliilamler Chamberlain, en. Xov. li. "01. trans, to 
Cci. .\. le-en. December "03. dis. with regt. Clias. 
A. Male. en. .November 0. "01. dis. for disabl. 
Kreilk. liedlon. en. November 0." 01. dis. for 
disalil. Novemlier 7. "03. Peter \'ai!ner. lecrnil. 
en. Fel)iMai\ Il."'il.dis. with legl. .\unusliii 

Shoret. drftd. June 2-5. "04, died at Memphis, 
Tenn.. Xovember 29. "64. 


Organized October. 1861, ordered to Xashville, 
Tenn.. March, 1862. captured and paroled at 
Murfreesboro, Tenn.. July. 1802, ordered to St. 
Louis, Mo., thence to Minnesota. Particiiiated 
in the battle of Woml Lake. Sejitemlier, 1S02, 
ordered to l-itlle Hock. Ark.. Xovember, 1863. 
\'eteraiii/.(Ml January 1H04. Engaged in the bat- 
tle of Kit/.hugirs Woods. .March 30. 1.S04: order- 
ed t(i Pine liluff. Ark.. April isot: thence to 
Duvall's HliilV October lso4: mustered out at 
Duvairs lilutl. Seiitendier 2. 180.3; discharged 
at Fort Siielliug. 

lonnll HKOI.MEN'T MINNESOTA I .\ 1"A N'I'K Y. 

origiiiallv commanded by Col, John B. Sanborn. 


Frivatci. — Thomas Criiig, wounded, re-en. De- 
cember 30, "63.]iid. Corp.. dis. July 10. "(ij. Thom- 
as Small, pro. Corp.. killed by acdl. dis. of gun, 
October 12. "02. Hufus P. Wells, jno. Corp., 1st 
Lt. Capt. Co. C.. Jauuaiy 7. 04. dis. with regt. 
('has. Barkow , recruit, en. "04. dis. with regt. 

roMI'AXV K. ENUOI.I.ET) OCI'.. "01. 

\\'illiam Kiiable. Corp.. lu'o. Sergt.. dis. at ex. 
of term. Oct. II. "04. 

/'/•('la^f.s — Martin Luther, died September 23. 
'63. Edward ZiebarUi, dis. at exp. of term, Oc- 
tober II. "04. Charles Ziebarth, re-en. January 
1, "04. pro. Corp.. dis. Jidy bs. "O.V 

c IIMI'AXY ('. EN'Kdl.I.KI) OCT.. "01. 

I'l-ii-dUs- Andrew .1. I.rown. die<I Jan. 14, "03. 
Otis B. Bailey, dis. lor ilisidi. Oct.2. "02. .Moody 
.\. l!aile\. dis. loi- disab.. .Mar<'li 2r>. "03.. Joseph 
(;ci\ctte. re-en.. dis. .Iniie2s. o."). fur disab. John 
.N. Moriell. dis. for di.sab.. Seiitember 12. '(52. 
Benjamin A. Hice, re-en. Jan. 1. "04. pro. Corp.. 
dis. with regt. Dow Hoseidinrg. dis. for disab.. 
December 0. "02. lienjamin Bobinson. dis. on 
exp. of term. Oitober II. '04. .lohn H. Wicli.dis., 
foi- disab.. October 23. '02. Thomas If. Ueeves. 
re-en.. .lanuary I. 01. pm. Cdip. SeigL.dis. with 
regt. .Morris Woesner. re-en.. .lanuary I. '04. 
dis. with regt. O. N. Washburn, died at Farm- 
iiigloii. .Miss,, .\ugust !■"). '02. Carroll Wilkins. 
dis. exp. term. October 1 1 , '04. 




Privates — John Alaltcaii, en. Aug. 30, "64, (lis. 
with regt. Walter L. "Winter, drafted May 27, 
"(34, pro. Corp. dis. with regiment. 


Privates — James Billing.s, en. October 10, '61, 
re-en. January 1, '64, dis. witli regt. Ezra M. 
Timson, en, October 10, '61, re-en. January 1, 
"64, dis. with regiment Emil Candeaux, sub. 
January 6, '65, dis. witli regt. Michael Ilizer, 
drafted December 14, "64, dis. with regt. Leonard 
Lenzen, en. "64, dis. April 23, '65. 


Privates — Richard F. Reeves en. November 
16, '61, re-en. January 1, '64. pro. Corp. dis. with 
regt. R. B. Langdon. en. Seirteniber 2, '64. dis. 
by order June 12, '65. 


Joseph Meyer, Cor|i. dis. August 16. "63 for 
pro. in 12th La. VoFs. 

Privates— Vmuad Brustle, dis, for disab. Sep- 
tember 8, '62. J. F. (irepe, re-en. January 1, '64 
pro. Corp. Sergt. dis. with regt. Wm. F. Iloltz, 
dis. for disab. July 29, '62. Clement Lovely, 
dis. for disab. August 11, "iJ2. Lott Palmer, 
transferred to V. H. C. 


W. J. ^Nlaxlielcl, wag. en. Dfcemlier 20, "01, 
re-en. January 1, "64, dis. July 19, "65. A. L. 
Cummiugs, priv. en. December 20, '61, dis. for 
disab. August 22. "63. 


P77'ra(e— Ephriam Dudley, recruit, en. Septem- 
ber 2, '64, died Oetolter 7, "64. of wds. rec'd. at 
Altooiia. Ga. 


S. M. .Minidllin. Corp., en. Dec. 28, "61. died 
December 16, "62, at (^uincy. 111. 

Pc/iK^f— Christian Brezett, drftd. :May 28, '64, 
dis. with regt. 


organized December 23, "61 ; ordered to Benton 
Barracks. Mo., April 19, "62; assigned to the 
army of the Mississippi, May 4, '62 ; participated 
in the following battles, skirmishes, seiges, and 
marches: Seige of Corinth, April, "62; luka, 
September 19, '62 ; Corinth, Octolier 3 and 4, '62 ; 

seige of A^icksburg. Forty Hills. Raymond, Jack- 
son, Champion Hills. Assault of A'icksburg, cap- 
ture of Vicksburg, July 4, '63 ; transferred from 
Seventeenth to Sixteenth Corps, Mission Ridge, 
November 2o, '63 ; Veteranized, January, '64 ; 
Altoona, July, '64 ; Slierman's march through 
Georgia and the Carolinas, Bentonville, ^March 
20, '65; Mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 19, 
"65 ; discharged at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. 


originally commanded by Colonel Rudoljih Bor- 

Field and Staff Officers — William H. Leonard, 
Surgeon, November 22, '62, pro. from Asst. Sur., 
dis. with regt.. September 6, '65. James F. 
Chaffee. Chaiilain. May 17, "62, res. June. 23, "62. 


Louis Carle, Corp., destd., January 30, '64. 
Pierre Dupre, Wag., destd., July 22, '62. 

Privates — Michael Brouillette, dis. for disab., 
February 5, '63. Clement Dubay, re-en., March 
11, '64, dis. with regt. Baptiste Joinville, re-en., 
February 19. '64, pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Henry 
Kocher, re-en. Fel)niary 19, '64, pro. Corp. dis. 
with regt. 


Pririitfs — John Barlialin, re-en. Fel)ruary 28, 
"64. dis. with regt. Killian Barberich, mortally 
wd. bat. of Nashville, Tenn., December 16. '64. 
died December 21 , '64. Jacob Dill. dis. on exp. of 
term. Michael Fenerker, killed in bat. October 
4, '62. Joseph Herman, dis.fordisab., September 
18, '62. Ferdinand Kern, died at Memphis, Tenn., 
September 22, '<i3. Mathias Logley, wd. October 
'62, dis. for disab., March 31, '63. Julius Motz, 
destd., January 2, '63, Alton prison, dis. on exp. 
of term. Anton Marther, re-eu. JIarch 12, '64, 
pro. Corp. wd.. December 16. "64. dis. with regt. 
Thomas Reilly, tnnisfii. to Co. K., May 1, '62, 
dis. with regt. 


Privates — Peter Bottineau, re-eu. February 
13, '64, pro. Corp dis. with regt. Andrew Israel- 
son, re-en. March 20. 1864, died August 24, '64, 
at Abbeyville, Miss., by wounds. Alfred Jar- 
vis, wounded in battle Corinth, dis. for disab. 
September 30, '62. Simon Paul, re-en. February 



13. '64, pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Severe Reaoh. 
dis. exp. of term Marcli 23, '66. 


James Heaiipre. priv. en. April 24, "62, re-en. 
February 26, "04. di.s with regt. 


Timothy OXeary, Sergt., dis. for disab. De- 
cpnil)er 8, '62. Henry B. Dike, mns., re-en. 
Feliruary 27, "64, dis. witli regt. Thomas Quig- 
ley, wag.. tninsferr.Ml to A'. K. C. October 17. 

Prirntes—'S. J. liiirns. i)ro. liosp. steward, 
transferred to X. C. S. Geo. W. Calvert, pro. 
Corp. Sergt. re-en. March 31, '64, dis with regt. 
John Daly, dis for disab. ilareh 5, "63. Daniel 
Leo, destd. March 14. 63, at Memphis. Mc- 

Xame, pro. Corp., died July 11, "63. .John Mc- 
Laughlin, dested. March 14, "63, at Memphis. 
Patrick Xoon, dis. for disab. Hugh Weir. pris. 
l)aroled dis. by order June 14. 'G-'>. 


Pm-ales— Thomas Reilly, en. March 4. '62, 
transferred to Company F, Mar 31. '64. Thos. 
Walsh, en. January 7. '62, dis. for disab. October 
4, "62. 


Organized May '62; ordered to Pittsburg 
Landing. May ii, "62, a detachment of three com- 
panies remaining in Miiniesota guarding frontier 
posts. I'arlicipatcd in the following marches. 
battles, sieges, and skirmishes : Siege of Corinth, 
April and May, "62. The detachment in Minne- 
sota engaged in ))altle with Indians at Hedwood, 
Minn., .Vug. is, ■()2 ; siege of Fort liidgely, Aug. 
20, 21, 22, '62; Fort Abercrombie, D. T., August 
"62. Hegiinent assigned to Itith ,\rmy Corps. 
Kngaged in the battles of Juka. Sc]it. is, "62; 
Corinth, Oct. 3 and 4, '62; Jackson. Tenn., May 
14, "63 ; siege of Vicksl)urg. assault of V'icksburg, 
May 22, "63; Meclianicsburg, June 3, '63; Rich- 
mond. June l'>. '63; Fort lic Hussy. La., March 
14, "64; Red River F.\iie(lilion, March, Ai)riland 
May, '64 ; Lake Chicat, June 6, "64 ; Tupeh). 
June. '(14; veteranized. July. 'i\i : .Abbcyville. 
August 23, '64 ; nuirched in Septend)er, Hi. from 
Hrowiisville, Ark., to CapeCiiradeau,Mo.; thence 
b\ boat to JefTersou Citv ; thence to Kansas 

state line; thence to St. Louis, Mo.; ordered to 
Xashville, Tenn., Nov., '64 ; engaged in battles 
at Xashville, Dec. lo and 16, "64: Siianish Fort 
and Fort Blakely, April, "6.5. Mustered out at 
Demopolis, Ala, Sept. 6, '65. Discharged at Von 

sixiii iii:(iiMi:xr iNF.wriiV. 

originall> conmiandcd b\ Col. William Crooks. 


Trivdffx — lolui Wright, en. October 1, '62. 
trans, to Thir<l Minnesota l$attery, May 1, "63. 
John Chalmers, eu. ()ct<ilier 1, "62, pro, Corp., 
dis. with regt. 


Orlando C. Merriman. ("apt., res. June 6, '64. 
William (irant. 1st ]/ieut., i)ro. ('apt., June 6, '64, 
dis. with regt. August 19, "6.5. Henry A. Par- 
tridge, 2d Lieut.. ])ro. 1st Lieut. June 6, "64, dis 
on e.xpr. of term. July. "6o. T. H. Wheeler, 1st 
Sergt., pro. 2d Lieut. June 6. "64. died December 
30, "64, at St. Louis. William *Moore. Sergt., 
pro. 2d Lieut.. January 1. '6.). dis. with regt. 
F. X. Fleming. Sergt.. pro. 1st Sergt.. February 
14, '6o, dis with regt. L. 1'. I'lummer, Sergt.. 
trans, to 72d colored regt., as 2d Lieut. P. 
Benjamin, Sergt., dis. with regt. AVilliam 1'. C. 
Hawk, Corp., dis. for disabl. August 16, "(i.) 
Edward R. Xorris, Corp., pro. Sergt.. dis. for 
disabl. September 17, "64. Bela F. Burrill. Corp.. 
dis. with regt. Leonard T. Voung. Corji.. pro. 
Sergt.. dis. Jtdy 2S, "60. Thomas Ilainiey, Cor))., 
pro. Sergt., dis. with regt. .lames Lafans. Corp.. 
dis. with regt. Marcus Browiicll. Corp.. dis. for 
disabl.. October 11, '64. A. B. Robinson, ^lus., 
dis. with regl. .lames TL Jones. Mus.. dis. witli 
regt. F. S. Mitclicll. W-am.. dis. by onli'i'. 
May 3, '60. 

/'/•("rnfp.s— Miles .\llcii, died August 6. "64. at 
Helena. .Vrk. Simeon .\uit. transfd. to \'. It. C.. 
0<'tober 1. "6.'i. Ilaxid .\iiLriis. dis. with regt. 
El)en J. BragdoM. died. ,lauuar\ 3. 'u.'). at Jef- 
ferson Rarrack.i. St. Louis. .Missouri. Henry 
Brewer, died. November L '63. at Fort Snelling. 
L. M. Bartlow. tiausld to V. K. C.. October 1, 
'63. William II. liartlow. i>ro. Corp.. dis. with 
regt. William W. liircli.iiied Novendier 1, "64, at 
Jeffer.son Barracks. .Merrill .\. Hailey, transfd to 
\'. R. ('.. October 1. r,:i. .Mouzo Mirch. died at 



Fort Snelling, December 5, '62. James C. Bran- 
(If 11, (lied July 5, '60, at Montgomery, Alaliama. 
William IJatdorf. died September 3, 'di, at Hele- 
na, Ark. Benjamin Colburn, sick in hospital at 
dls. of regt.. September 7, '65. Francis A. Clay, 
dis. with regt. John Chalmers, transfd. to Com- 
pany A, November 1 , "62. Edwin Cooley , transfd 
to 3d Minn. Batt. Robert Dike, transfd to Y . R. 
C, October 1 , "63. George H. Day, dis. for disab.. 
May 23, 60. Simeon Farringtoii. dis. for disab., 
February, "65. George A. Forbes, transfd. to 3d 
Minn. Batt. George Forsyth, dis. June 2, '62. 
J. L. Flemming. dis. per order, July 24, "60. 
M. A. Getchell, dis. for disab. November 26, '62. 
Jolin Galbralth, dis. for disab. May 31 , "65. Jona- 
than L. Grave, dis. with regt. Charles T. Grave, 
dis. with regt. Eben Howe, dis. for disab., Mardi 
2, '63. Samuel Howe, dls. with regt. Joel F. 
Howe, transfd. to V. R. C, October 1, '63. An- 
drew Huff, pro. Corp. dls. with regt. Charles 
H. Hopper, dis. with regt. Peter W. Howe, dis. 
for disab. March 28, "63. Levi T. Ilauson, dis. 
October 11, '64, at Jefferson Bks. L. C. John- 
son dis. for disab. March 21, '64. Charles K. 
Jenkiiison, transferred to V. R. C. October 1, 
'63. Levi Longfellow, transfd. to N. C. S. as prin- 
cipal musician, dis. with regt. March 1 . "65. < 'has. 
H. Libby. dis. for disab. February 17, "65. A. 
S. Lane, dis. with regt. August 19. "60. Wesley 
Lambert, dis. with regt. August 19, "65. S. C. 
Miller, transfd. to 7th regt. October 14, 1862. 
Eniiis McGary, pro. Ccnp., dis. with regt. Sam- 
uel McLean, dis, for disab. May 9, "63. P. ]Mc- 
Farland, dis. with regt. Robert McLeod, dis, 
for disab. May 9, "63. E. M. Jliinch. dis. for disab. 
March 8, "64, Hiram Millet dis. for disali. March 
2(1, "63, Lewis Miller, dis. with regt. transfd, 
to N. C. S. as principal musician. October 1(1, 64. 
James jMcJlaiuis, dis. at ^Montgomery, Ala, July 
10, 65, Augustus Miller, dis. for disab. May 8, 
"63. Tlios. O. Nevens, dis. with regt. David 
Perkins, died in hospital January 26, "63, at Ft, 
Snelling. Samuel N. Pavitt, dis. for disab. No- 
vember 9, "64. John Rank, dis. with regt. An- 
drew Ramsey, dis. for disab. Jtlarch 20, "63, Da- 
vid Ramsey, dis. with regt. August 19, ls()5. 
Daniel S. Styner, pro. Sergt. dis. with regt. 
Enos P. Stubbs, died October 21, "64, at Helena, 
Arkansas. William R. Shepard, discharged by 
order May 3, '65. John D. Stafford dis, with regt. 

Richard F. Smith, des. Feb. 9, 63. at Camp Pope. 
Silas Somers, died November 9, "64, at Jefferson 
Barracks. Andrew Thompson, pro. Corp., dis. 
with regt. Stephen Talbert, destd. June 2, "63, 
at Camp Pope. Samuel D. Thompson, dis. with 
regt. Darius E. Tidd, destd. January 28, "63, at 
Fort Snelling. John C. Vast, dis. with regt. 
Ephriam Whitney, dis. for disabl. Febraary 1 . "63. 
Franklin Wliitney, destd. January 15, '63, at 
Fort Snelling. Alexander Wood, trans, to Third 
Minnesota Battery. Urich H. Wilson, dis. for 
disabl.. May 3, '65. Herman Wolf, destd. Dec- 
cember 15. '62, while on leave of absence. 
H. M. Young, dis. with regt. Jesse B. Yonng. 
flis. for disabl., March 19, '65. 

Recruits — Darius A. Keyes, en. March 2. "64, 
dis, with regt. Henry A. Kenneston, en. March 
2, "64, dis, with regt. Robert ^Munn, en. March 
2, "64, dis. with regt. Tlieo. A. Norris, en. ^larch 
2, '64, dis. with regt. Jas. H. Shimin, en. March 
2, '64, dis. with regt. John Smithson, en. March 

28, "64. dis. with regt. George Stout, en. March 
2, "64, dis. per order, August 3, '65. C. O. 
Thomas, en. April 2, '64, dis. with regt. C. E. 
Thomas, en. February 24, '64, dis. with regt. 
J. L. Waketiekl, en. February 24, '64. dis. with 
regt. William R. Champlin. en. February 27, "64, 
dis. for disabl.. Jinie 12. "65. James Holloran. 
en. February 25, "64, trans, to Company F., dis. 
with regt. Luther Huff, en. February 27, "64, 
died October 10, "64, at Jefferson Barracks, ilo. 
George D. Ingraham, en. February 6, "64. dis. 
for disabl.. May 18, '65. Peter Jenson, en. Feb- 
ruary 29, '64, dis, for disabl., December 8, "64. 
Selah Label, Jr., en. February 16, '64, trans, to 
Y. H. C., January 10, '65, George E, Longfellow, 
en. March 30, '64, died June 29, '65, at St. Louis. 
Isaac Mendenhall, en. February 27, "64, dis. for 
disabl., October 24, '64. John B. Robhison, en. 
February 29, '64, died August 30, '64, at Helena, 
Ark. Eben M. Rathbone, en. Febniary 26, '64, 
dis. per order, August 2, "65. "William B. Pal- 
mer, en. February 26, "64, dis. for disabl., Fel)ru- 
ary, '65. WilUam C. F"lemming. en. February 

29, "64, died December 23, '64, while on sick 
leave. D. B. Champlin, en. February 26, '64, 
died, August 12, "64, at Helena. Ark. 


Privates — Jolm Barron, dis. for disab. Decem- 


jiJsTom' OF HEsynriy cousty. 

ber 9. '64. Samuel Clark, pro. oorp., (lis. witli 
regt. Thomas Hughes, traiisfd. to iuvaliil corps, 
January 28, '65. John H. Kelley, dis. with regt. 
John Logan, dis. with regt. Ale.x Leighton. dis. 
for disal). April 'l^. "(j;! Samuel McClay. pro. 
Corp., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., dis. with regt. 

Recruits— J ohu Stan-ett, en. Feb. 27, "Ci. pro. 
Corp., dis. with regt. Clinton L. Babcock. en. 
Feb. 29. '64. died Au'.nist Hi. lH(j4. at Helena. 

CO.MrANY I). K.N liOl.I.KI) SK1"T.. 1862. 

Joseph ('. Wliilney. ('apt., com. ('apt. and A. 
Q. M., Vols. , Feb. 23, '65. Shepherd H. King. 1st 
Lt., resigned August 5, "04. Daniel W. Albaugh, 
2d Lt., pro. 1st Lt.. October 7, "64, dis. by order 
December 27, '64. Wm. F. Atkinson, 1st Sergt., 
dis. for disab. October 12. "64. Geo. R. Adams, 
Sergt., died October 12, "64, at Jefferson Barracks, 
Mo. Geo. E. Case. Sergt.. pro. 2d Lt.. October 
7, "64, 1st Lt. January 21. "ijo. dis. with regt. 
Elijah Farrington. Sergt., dis. for disab. Feb. 25, 
'6o. Henry Snyder. Corp., dis. by order. May 24, 
'65. Isaac D. Carr, Corp.. transfd. to V. K. C. 
Nov. 20, '68. Reuben Roljinson, pro. Sergt., dis. 
with regt. Washington Pierce, dis. with regt. 
Henry E. Selder, dis. with regt. Elias G. Brown, 
pro. Sergt.. dis. with. regt. .Inhn Wait. dis. with 
regt. John S. Day. dis. with regt. Geo. \. 
Cressey, Mas., dis. with regt. Hannibal Hodson . 
absent, sick at Xew Orleans when regiment was 
discharged. John F. Bell, Wag., absent, sick at 
Memphis, Tenn.. wlu-n regt. wa.s discharged. 

fniv(fc.<— James Allen, ilis. with regt. (ieorge 
Ames, pro. corj)., ilis. with regt.. October lo. "04. 
William C. Brown, dis. per order, June 27, '65, 
James AV. Baird, dis. with regt. Charles T. 
Beedy, dis. with regt. Asa D. Brown, dis. with 
regt. John O. Bedcn. dis. with rc^t. Frank S. 
Coflin, dis. with regt. F. .M. Caiuian. absent 
sick on dis. of regt. Edgar 1(. (cirustock, dis. 
with regt. Hobert B. Collin, <lis. with regt. S. 
\V. Costellow,died October 2H. lhi) .Memphis. 
George E. Collins, died May 14. 'li'i. at New Or- 
leans. Henry Cin'tis. dis. with regt. M. W. 
Cotes, died July :tl. '1)4. at Helena. .\rk. Uul'us 
E. Draper, dis. for disab.. .Vjiril 25. "65. Thomas 
D. Dudley, dis. with regt. Nelson I)iiliu(|ue. 
dis. with regt. Edwin Edgerly. ilischargeil with 
regiment. Enos \V Kilni.-ui. died Sc|iiciiilicr 

l.S. "64. at Jefferson Barracks. C. P. Fletcher, 
dis. with regt. Julius Farrington. dis. for disab. 
June 23, "65. William B. Franklin, dis. with 
regt. James S. Foster, dis. for disab., October 
24, '64. Austin L. Fenlason. dis. with regt. 
Allen L. Goodrich, on detached service when 
regt. was dis. Charles E. (Jalpin. died Septem- 
ber 13, "64, at Memphis. Joseph Goyette, dis. per 
order. May 19. "(io. All)ert F. (Jrove. dis. with regt. 
Wm. A. Hawkins, dis. with regt. Franz T. 
Heiss. dis. with jegt. E. T. HaniiUon. dis. for 
disab. .March 20, '(iS. Geo. A. Hills, dis. per 
order February 16. "(io. James H. Harmon, dis. 
per order May 25, '65. Edwin Jackson, dis. with 
regt. Chas. W. Johnson, dis. with regt. Jos. 
A. James, dis. with regt. Thos. P. James, trans- 
ferred to 3d Minn. Battery. May 1. '03. Henry 
Jackson, dis. June, 5, "63. Silas Livingston, dis. 
with regt. pro. Corp. Charles Lansing, dis. with 
regt. Levi L. Leathers, dis. with regt. Alfred 
Loftus. absent sick on dis. of regt. Andrew Lay- 
man, dis. with regt. James McConncll. dis. willi 
regt. Wm. W. Mills, dis. with regl. Joliu Mc- 
Kiniball. ilis. with regl. ('has. H. Mooic. dis. 
with regt. Wesley Neill. dis. with regl, Levi 
Neill died November 1 1 . "ti2. al ]\Iankalo. James 
Pratt, dis. per order. .Max lii. 05. Ezra Paine, 
dis. per order, May 17. "05. EcUlie Powers, dis. 
with regt. Dean K. Richardson, dis. with regt. 
Theodore Ray, dis. witli regl. .lolm H. Richard- 
son, dis. per order. .May 3. "lio. Russell W. Rock 
dis. for disab. January 14. 05. Wm. H. Suther- 
land, transferreil lo V. H. C. Xovendier 20, 1H63. 
Arelas Smith, dis. with regt. .\lbioii Slimson, 
dis. with regl. (ieorge Storrs. Irausfd lo \. R. 
C. November 2(1. "o:!. William K. Slinisou. sick 
at Prairie du Cliieii at (li>. of regt. Oscar II. 
Slicjilcy. (lis. jirr order. .Iiiiic 22. "05. Cliiislo- 
pher Swagcrt, dis. for disali. Iroin wds. reed, al 
Birch Coolii'. dale iniknowu. .lohii S. Stoops. 
dis. fordisab.. Octolirr 17. 'ni. Darius 1). Sulli- 
erland. transfd. to Invalid Corps, Nov. 20, '03. 
John C. Shrcwsberry. died December 9, '(i2, at 
Forest <'it\. .Minn. Svlvaiius Stiiison, sick at 
Prairie du Chien on dis. of regt. Isaiah Thomp- 
son, died N'ovember 17. "04. al Jefferson Marracks. 
Mo. Willard S. Wliitiuorc. dis. per onlcr. .May 
10. -(ii. William II. II. Williams. Iransf.l, to .'id 
.Mimi. Halt.. .Ma.\ I. 'i;:!. 

Uirriiils William II. lill^ll. en. .Mari-li s. "lU. 



died May 7, '65, at St. Louis Ilosp-.Xew Orleans. 
La. David C. Uiown. en. February 3, '64. dis. 
\^-ith regt. John W. Brown, en. February 27, '64, 
dis. for disab. , October 21 , '64. Charles A. Gates, 
en. February 9, "64. died October 16, "64, at Jef- 
ferson Barracks. St. Louis. IXelson T. Derby, 
en. February 27, 'tU, dis. with regt. Thomas A. 
Fisher, en. October 7, '63, dis. with regt. Peter 
Filbert, en. February 24, '64, dis. for disab., 
March 9, '65. Charles H. Jordan, en. March 30, 
'64, died November 14. '64. at Chicago. Samuel 
Layman, en. February 9. '64, dis. for disab. Dec. 
20, '64. Charles II. Mulliner, en. February 24, 
"64, dis. for disab., June 11. ''&'■■>■ Josiah Richard- 
son, en. April 15. '63. died October 17. 64, at Jef- 
ferson Barracks. John Roth, en. February 24. 
'64, dis. with regt. Ira Sanford, en. February 24. 
"64, transfd. to Y. R. C, January 15, '65. Michael 
Wolf. en. February 26, '64, died January 18, '65, 
at St. Louis, yU). 


P)-if«te. — Joseph Burchfleld, dis. with regt. 
Nickolas Mauren. pro. Corp., dis. with regt. 


Privates.— T\ieo. D. JSIiller. transfd. to 3d Minn. 
March 17. '64. George Thomas, transfd. to "\'. 
R. C. Jan. 21. '65. Wm. T. Wier. died July 30. 
'64, at Helena. Ark. 

Jfecci(i7s.— Michael Purcell. en. Jan. 4. '64. dis. 
with regiment. 

Sixth Regiment was organized August. '62 : 
ordered upon Indian expedition of "62. Detach- 
ment of 200 engaged in battle at Bircli Coolie 
Sept. 2, '62. Regiment participated in battle 
of Wood Lake. Sept. 22. "62. Regiment garri- 
soning frontier posts from Nov. '62. until May "63, 
when ordered upon Indian expedition. P^ngaged 
with Indians July 24. 26 and 28. "63. stationed 
at frontier posts from Sept. 18, '63, to June 5, 
"64, when ordered to Helena, Ark. Ordered to 
St. Louis, Mo., Nov. '64, then to New Orleans 
January "65. Assigned to 16th Army Corps. 
Participated in engagements of Spanish Fort and 
Fort Blakely, April '65. Discharged at Fort 
Snelling August 19, '65. 


organized August, '62, and originally commanded 
by Colonel Stephen A. Miller. 

Albert A. Ames. asst. Surgeon, en. August 28. 
"62, pro. Sm-geon. July 23. "64. dis. with regt. 
A. A. Tliayer. jiriv.. en. February 11. "65. dis. 
with regt. 


Pr(r((/e.— Caleb Hosford, en. August 9. "62. dis. 
for disab.. September 17. '64. 

The Seventh regiment was organized, August. 
1862 ; ordered upon Indian Expedition of 1862 ; 
engaged in battle of 'Wood Lake, Minnesota. 
September 22. "62 : stationed at frontier posts 
until May, '62. when ordered upon Indian Expe- 
dition ; engaged with Indians. July 24. 26 and 
28. '63 ; ordered to St. Louis. Mo.. October 7, "63 i 
thence to Paducah Ky.. Ajiril. "64: thence to 
Memphis. Tenn.. and assigned to Sixteenth Army 
Corps. June. "64 ; participated in the following 
battles, marches, sieges and skirmishes : Tupelo. 
July. "64 ; Tallahatchie. August 7tli and 8th. 64 : 
march in pursuit of Price, from Brownsville. 
Ark., to Cape Girardeau ; thence by boat to Jef- 
ferson City ; thence to Kansas line ; thence to 
St. Louis, Mo.: battles of Xashville. Tenn.. Dec. 
loth and 16th, '64 ; Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, 
April, "65. Discharged at Fort Snelling, Minn , 
August 16, '65. 


Originally commanded by Colonel Minor T. 
Thomas. Major, Geo. A. Camp: Nov. 20. 1862: 
resigned May 21. 1865. Assistant Surgeon. Wm. 
II. Rause: September 12. 1862: Discharged July 
11, 1S65. 


AVilliam P. Ives. Sergt.. pro. First Sergt. Aug- 
ust 1. "63. dis. with regt. Wm. H. Edwards, 
Sergt.. killed by Indians in Meeker county. Minn.. 
September 11. "63. 

P/iiY(*f.s— Frederick T. Bird, dis. in hospital 
June 23. 65. Albert B. Damon, dis. with regt. 
Joseph Downs, dis. per order June 3, "65. Chris- 
tian Johnson, dis. in hospital August 27, 1865 
Warren T. Sevey, dis. with regt. Chas. Shea, 
dis. with regt. Thomas S. Walker, dis. with 


James F. Bradley. Sergt.. dis. November 16, 
"63. for pro. in Company I. Emerson J. Wood- 



ward, Corp. dis. January 19. "64 for pro. in U. S. 
col'd. Infantrj\ AVui. I). I^ane. niiis. dis. with 

PrivatcK. — Wui. F. IJaglfV, dis. in liiisp. June 
12, "65. Micliael Batterburg, dis. with regiment. 
Joseph Vadner. Jr., dis. with regt. J. L. Jelli- 
son, dis. with regt. 


Michael Xill. priv. en. Octolier 3(i. 'n-2. dis with 


Hubert Weber, Sergt., dis. witli regt. 

Privaks — David 13irt, pro. Corp. dis. with 
regt. Theo. Goris, dis. with regt. Chas. Henry, 
pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Joliii Kreanier. dis. 
with regt. John Kunz. dis. witli regt. Xavier 
Kohler, dis. with regt. Theodore Rosch, killed 
l)y Indians on rear guard to Capt. Fisk's expedi- 
tion September 2. 1804. John Sehemlein, dis. 
with regt. ilikel Schmitz, dis. with regt. Jolui 
Wetzel, dis. with regt. Henry Yentsch. dis. 
with regt. 


Organized August 1. ■<>2 ; stationed at frontier 
posts until May, '64, when ordered upon Indian 
Expedition ; engaged in tlie following battles, 
marches, sieges and skinnislies : Tah-eha-o-ku-tii. 
July 28, "tU; battles of tlie Cedars. Overall's 
Creek; ordered to Clifton, Tennessee ; tlienoe to 
Cincinnati; tlience to Washington: tlience to 
Wilmington; tlience to Xewbern. X. ('.; battle 
of Kingston, March 8, 9, 10, "G-d ; must«red out at 
Charlotte. X. C. July 11. "O.o . dis. at Fort Snel- 


originally commanded by Col. Alexander Wilkin. 

Charles W. Le Boutillier, Surgeon, en. October 
10, "W. died .Vpril H. "tiH. at St. Peter. Minn. 

Joel Hanily. I'rin. mus. en." Xoveniber 10, 'i)2. 
ilied a prisoner al .Viidcrsonville. (ia.. .Vugust 22, 

OOMl'ANV A. liNltOl.LKI) Allil'Sl', "(i2. 

(ieorge A. Camp, Capt.. pro. Maj. Kiglith Hegt.. 
Xovember 20, "62, res. May 2, "Ho. Jonathan 1st Lieut, pro. Capt., res. October '>. '08. 
Harrison Jones, 2d Lieut., pro. 1st Lieut, and 
Capt., dis. with regt. lienjamin P. Schiller, 1st 
Sergt., pro. 2d Lieut. Isl J.,ieut.. Capt. Co. H.. 

December 16, "64, dis. with regt. Leonidas M. 
Lane, Sergt., pro. 2d Lieut., dis. per order May 1.5, 
'65. Henry A. C. Thompson. Sergt.. pris. at Ander- 
sonville 7 mos., dis. with regt. David B. Ellis, 
Sergt., dis. for disab. Xov. 22, '64. Beverly C. Bon- 
ham. Sergt., pris. at Andersonville 7 mos., dis. 
with regt. Abner A. Spencer, Corp., dis. for disab.. 
May 30, 'Ho. Alfred (i. Snow. Corp., pro. Sergt.. 
dis. in hospital, "6o. Charles Ester, Corp., pro. 
Sergt., dis. with regt. Charles Schorrod, Corp., 
died October 29. "64. at Savannah, (ia. Louis C. 
Tenison. Corp.. died, date not on record. Daniel 
Hutehins, Corp., killed June 10, "(54. at Brice 
Cross Roads, Miss. James A. Lennon. Corp.. 
transfd. to Y. R. C. X'ovember 20. "63. James 
.V. Woodcock. Corp. died December 6. "64. at Cairo, 
Ills. William S. O'Brien, Mus. dis. with regt. .Ed- 
mund F. Warren, mus.. dis. with regt. George W. 
White. Wag., died Septoniber 14. '04. al Ander- 
sonville, Ga. 

Privates — Geo. P. Baldwin, pm. CJ. M. Sergt.. 
transfd. to X"'. C. S. Xovember 17, 1K63. dis. for 
disali. X'ovember 20. '64. Hiram A. Barnard, 
died September 10. '04. at Ander.sonville. (ia. 
Miron W. Bartlett. dieil December 14. "62. at Fort 
Ridgely, Minn. Richmond II. Barrows, died 
February 1.5, '65, at Memphis. Tcim. Alon/.o 
Bragdon. dis. per order. May 13. 'li.j. Chas. E. 
IJiirrell. dis. in hosjiital. 'lio. Daniel Cameron. 
dis. for disab. .Vjiril 3, '64. T. Campbell, dis. for 
wound reed, at Brice Cross Roads. John B. 
Chase, died at Vicksburg, date not given. Berton 
F. Cooley.dis. with regt. John M. (^irmack.dis. 
for disab. ,\))ril 1. "63. .Vinos Day. died (3ct. 14. 
'ot. al Savaiinali. (ia. ('has. .\. Dclviii. dis. for 
ilisali. March 23. '64. .Iciemiali Desnion. dis. 
w ith regt. (ieo. A. Domaii. dis. with regt. Jerome 
Dumas, died at Savanah, Ga.. date not given. 
Charles Farron, dis. for disab. Cliarles T. Ful- 
lerton, dis. with regt. Lewis Gormoch, dis. for 
disab. March '2'>. 'o|, (Jeorge (ioodwiii. died 
Oi'lober 3. '(il. at Andersonville. (ia. HiiilcN 
Gooduiii, (lis, with regt. Frank (inodwin, de- 
serted Xovember 7. '63. at Fort Snelling, .Minn. 
Simon (iood win. il is. for disab. April 3, '63. Josepli 
H.i.oiild. laptiired al Ji rice Cross Roads, June 
10. '64. dis. with regt. Josepli (!ray. dis. fordisab., 
date not given, (ieo. W. Hall, dis. with regt. 
Chas. R. Haven, dis. for disab.. .Iinie 2s. 'i;.'). 
Tiliston Heath, transfd. to Y. li. C. October 1, 



'63. David L. Hewitt, dis. with regt. Burdet 
Iluniplirey, dis. for disab. October 9, "62. Geo. 
A. Kenedy; captured at Brice Cross Roads, pris- 
oner 7 mos., dis. with regt. Joseph Kelene, died 
Sept. 8, '62, of wound received at Birch Coolie. 
James II. Leigliton, dis. per order July 10, '65. 
Samuel K. Lewis, dis. for disab. May 8, "63. Wm. 
R. Mangdon, dis. for disab. May 3, "63. Samuel 
M. Mai'oinber. died at Louisville. Ky.. date un- 
knciwii. Thomas Mavy, killed March 81,"6o, in 
battle at Spanish Fort, Ala. Patrick McBride. 
captd. at Brice Cross Roads, prisoner 7 mos., dis. 
With regt. John McCriiiiiuon. dis. with regt. 
James McCost, captd. at Brice Cross Roads, pris- 
oner 7 mos. Lewis McDonald, dis. for disab. 
April 3. "(53. John McDougal, died August 28. 
"64, at Andersonville, Ga. Alon/o D. Meads, 
died January 22, "63, at Fort Ridgely, Minn. 
Samuel ^V^ Merrill, dis. for disability, date 
unknown. James W. Marden. died August 
28th. iKfit. at Andersonville Prison. Ga. 
Carlostiu Morton, d's. for disabl.. April 4, "64 
•Limes Peaver, destd. March 10, "63, while on 
furlough. Samuel Peaver, destd. March 20, "63, 
while on furlough. John W. Pell, dis. with regt. 
John T. Pomeroy, dis. iier order. May 23, 6o. 
(ieorge W. Pomeroy. captd. at Brice Cross Roads, 
pris. 7 mos., dis. with regt. Joseph ^I. Prescott. 
dis. for disabl.. May 24, "64. Joseph Richards, 
died in prison at Savannah, Ga.. date unknown. 
Charles II. Ricker. dis. per order, ilay 19, '65. 
Stephen Rogerson, pro. corp. dis. with regt., 
Henry E. Seelye, dis. per order, May 29, "65. 
George P. Shoppe. died August 5. "64. Memphis. 
Tenn. Paul T. Shoppe. died at Annapolis. ]Md.. 
date not given. James H. Sinclair, dis. with 
regt. Hugh Smith, died October 10, "64. prisoner 
at Savannah, Ga. Charles II. Spencer, captd. at 
Brice Cross Roads, pris. 7 mos., dis. with regt. 
Warren C. Stetson, pro. corp., dis. with regt. Wm. 
J. Stockton, dis. with regt. Jlortimer M. Swin- 
gler, dis. with regt. James E. Styles, pro. Corp. 
dis. with regt. William F. Todd, dis. per order. 
June 5, "65. Sylvanus Weeks, dis. for disabl.. 
May 12, "63- (ieorge Wethern. dis. per order, 
July 11, 65." 


Ifichard Strout, Capt.. dis. (ler order, March 9. 
"64. William A. Clark, 1st Lieut., pro. Capt. 

April 17, '64, died Aug. 21, "65, at Minneapolis. 
Curtis McCane, 2d Lieut., pro. 1st Lieut, dis. per 
order. May 15. "65. Ezra T. Carr, 1st Sergt. wd. 
by Indians at Acton, Minn., dis. for disabl. June 
19, '63. L. A. Babcock, Sergt. died September 
18, "64. while in Andersonville pris. C. J, At- 
water, Sergt., dis. for disabl., February 10, '64. 
Jaques Winter, Corp., pro. Sergt. March 1, '65. 
Austin Knight, Corp., dis. per order, June 14, 
"65. Seneca M. Tarvin, Corp.. trans, to V. R. C. 
George Herrick, Corp., pro. 1st Sergt., dis. with 
regt. Samuel Gowell, Corp.. pro. Sergt., dis. 
with regt. Henry T. Minton, Corp., dis. for 
disabl.. May 23, '64. James A. ^Ames, Mus., dis. 
per order, July 27, "65. S. L. Fillmore, Wag., 
died September 29. '64, at Memphis. 

Priviites. — James Adcock. died August 22, "64 
at Andersonville Ga. William B. Atwater, dis. 
wliile absent from regt. August 1. "65. Wm. H. 
Brown, dis. per order July 10, "65. George W. 
Baldwin, pro. Corp. December 31, '64. Abner C. 
Bennett, died March 17, '63 at Hutchinson, Minn. 
Alex. J. Bothwick. dis. for disab. August 23. "63 
Frank J. Beedle. died September, "63 of wound 
in battle of Acton. Minn. Benedict Brooks, dis. 
per order June 5, "65. Lewis L. Crane, cUs. with 
regt. George S. Cyphers, dis. per order August 
16, "65. James H. Crandall pro. Corp. dis. with 
with regt. E. J. Deerow, died Xov. 1, '64, in 
Milan. Ga. prison. Geo. E. Day, captd. at Brice 
Cross Roads, pris. in Andersonvile, dis. with 
regt. Charles A. Esterly, dis. per order June 
12, '65. Yolney A. Edgerly, transfd. to V. R. C. 
I no date.) Geo. W. Gideon, killed Sept. 3. '66, in 
battle with Indians at Acton, Minn. Alva Getch- 
ell. killed Sept. 3. "62 at Acton. Geo. Goodsell. 
dis. with. regt. Henry Goodale, dis. per order 
May 18, "65. D. C. Handy, dis. per order August 
18, "65. Jasper S. Hawkins, dis. while on detached 
duty 1865. A. H. Hawkins, dis. with regt. C. G. 
Ilalgren, dis. with regt. E. D. Kirst, dis. with regt. 
Samuel A. Lindley. died July 9. "64 in prison at 
Andersonville. Ga. Wm. Lovelle. dis. ]ier order 
July 19. '65. Levi W. ^Slerritt. wounded Sep- 
tember 3, "62, in battle at Acton, Minn., dis. for 
disab. ]May 23, "63. Charles ^Slidgely, dis. per 
order May 31 , "65. William Mogle, dis. per order 
June 22, '65. Robert E. McKenney, transfd. to 
V. R. C. Nov. 1, "63. Alex. McCormiek. dis. per 
order June 7. '65. Thomas Pounder, no record. 



John Parslow. pro. Corp. (lis. with regt. Jas. 
H. Rickerson. dis. with regt. Milton A. Stuhbs. 
pro. Corp. (lis. with regt. Cliarles Smitli died 
March 13. 'tW at Watertown. Minn. Nathan Til- 
ton, died September 28, '64. at .Vndersonville 
prison. Ilirani W. Valentine, dis. with regt. 
X. E. AVeeks. died N(ivenil)er <>. "(ii. at Ilulcliin- 
son. Minn. .lohn K. Weaver, died June 25, "65, 
at Rolla, Jolm U. Waketield. died Aug- 
ust 18. ■ti4, at Memphis. Tenn. Kee Wakefield 
pro. Corp. dis. per order July 17. '><o. Silas .\. 
Seamans, dis. with regt. 


L.M. Caswell, Corp., dis. for disali. Manh 2.!.'ti.i. 

I'rirdhs. — 'Williani Breckon, eaptd. at Briee 
Cross Roads, dis. July HI. "(>.). Pliny S. Conkey. 
cai)td. at Briee"s Cross Roads, Jime 10, "64. Sam- 
uel W. Rice. dis. for disah.. Sejitember 8. "64. 

COMI'.WV 1. 

I'et4-r Lus. jiriv.. en. Ocliiljcr 12. 'H2. pin. Cnrp. 
dis. with regt. 

(D.MI'.WV K. 

W. O. Curtis. Mils., en. Oeluber Hi, "ti2. dis. in 
hospital at Memphis, 'do. Edward Brunell. iiri\ . 
en. Oetober Itj. "()2. dis. for disab. May 27. "f)4. 


organized August. ■(52 ; stationed at frontier posts 
until Sejitember. "«:■{. when ordered to St. Louis, 
Mo.; ordereil to Jefferson City. Mo., and distribut- 
ed among several posts in the interior of the state : 
ordered to St. Louis. May. '1)4 : engaged in the 
following battles, marches, sieges and skirmishes: 
Guntown exjiedition. .Iiine. '<i4 : assigned to Kith 
.\rmy Corps. Jnne. "(U ; Tnpelo. .Inly, "'it : ( )xford 
expedition, .\iigusl. 'f'A : Tallaliat<liie. .\iigust. 
■t>4 ; ni.Mrclii-d in |imMiit nl I'lirc trom r.r<iwns- 
ville, Ark., to Cape (iiiardcaii. .\lo.: thence, by 
boat, to Jetlerson City : thence to Kansas state 
line; thence to St. Louis, liatlles: Nashville, 
Tenn.. December lo and lii, ■()4: Spanish Fort 
and Fort Blakely. .Vpril. "Ho; disdiarged at Fort 
Snelling, Minn., .\ngust 24. "il."). 


Originally connnamhMl b> Col. .lames II. liaker. 

fOMi'ANv K. i:n j(()i,i,i;ii Mii. nj. 

Will. Byrnes. 1st I>t.. dis. with regt. Michael 
Iloy. 2d Lt.. dis. per order .\i>ril i:i. '(!.">. Wm. 

Dunn. Sergt., dis. with regt. Owen Keegan. 
Sergt.. dis. with regt. Thomas McCarron. Corp.. 
pro. Sergt.. dis. with regt. David Shaw, Corp.. 
dis. with regt. Dennis Sheehey , Corp.. eaptd. Jan. 
10, '6.5, dis. July 25, '65, absent. 

PHvaiex.— Wm. Broderick. dis. for disab. July 
26, '64. Alfred Brezett. dis. with regt. Andrew 
Candron. dis. with regt.. ju-o. Corp. Patrick 
Covncy. dis. with regt. Thomas Clifford, dis. 
with regt. Joseph F. Cobb. dis. i)er order May 
Is. H.j. James Connelly, dis. with regt. James 
Coyle. dis. tor disab. .\iirilH. "6;). William Daly. 
dis. with regt. David Dcsjarlugh, dis. per order 
-Viigust SI . "114. liichard Fewer, pro. <j. M. Sergt. 
1st Lt. Co. I. June 2. 'tio. Patrick Glee.son. i>io. 
corii. dis. with regt. Thomas Gaffney, dis. with 
regt. William (.race, deserted .Vpril 25 "tw. at 
Le Suciii-. .Minn. Joseph (iaunia. dis. per order 
March W. "65. Cornelius llavs. destd. May 10, 
"68. at Le Sueur. .Minn. James Hays. dis. with 
regt. Thomas Hawkins, destd. Septeml)er 7. "68. 
at Fort Hidgely. William Hoy. destd. November 
12. '(12. at St. Peter. Peter Haniion. destd. Sep- 
tcnilier 7, "63, at Fort Snelling. .lolm Killila. dis. 
with regt. Thos. McDonoiigh. dis. August 1!'. 
■|>5. absent. Daniel .Molaii. dis. with regt. Dan- 
iel .Murphy, ilis. piT onlfr .lime 5, "65. Michael 
-Mohan, died .March il. ''<A. at St. .Vnthony. 
Michael Moore, dis. jier order March 5. "i)4. Ed- 
ward M<iran. destd. .May 2u. "(i:H. at Le Sueur, 
Minn. Robert McCue. dis. for di.sab. Jan. 4 "64. 
James Nash, wounded at Nashville, dis. "65, ab- 
sent. Edward Nary. dis. with regt. \Viii. 
O'Bryan, dis. with regt. Patrick ( )"Comier. destd. 
June 21, "64, at Memiihis, Tenn. Daniel Page, 
ilis. with regt. Patrick liuinn. destd. September 
7, "1)8. at Fort Snelling. .lames Riley, dis. with 
regt. Luke K'nehe. died ill Minnesota while on 
sick furlough, .loliii l{ead> . dis. with regt. 
Pafk. Sheehan. dis. with regt. Win. Sheehan. 
dis. with regt. .Miih. Suniniers. dis. per or<ler 
-March 1". "61. .lolm Seberrv. dis. with regt. 
Dion Swill, pro. Coi|i. dis. with regt. I'atiick 
White, dis. with regt. 

Iliciiiils. F. li. ( )"|{i ieii. en. .Vpril l.'iil.dis. 
with regt. Daniel Shea. eu. Dec. 26. "68. dis. 
with regt. 


was organized .\iignst "62. Stationed at frontier 



posts until June "63, when ordered upon Indian ex- 
pedition. Engaged with ludiansjuly 24, 26 and 28, 
■(i3. Ordered to St. Louis. Mo.. Octolier "63. 
Tlicnre to Columlins, Ky.. April "lU. Thenee to 
Memphis, Tenn., June "tU. and assii;iie(l to Kith 
Army Corps. Participated in tlie fullowing battles, 
marches, sieges and skirmishes: Battle of Tupelo. 
July 13, '6o, O.xford expedition. August "64. 
Marched in pursuit of Price from Brownsville, 
Ark., to Cape Girardeau, thence by boat to Jeff- 
erson City, thence to Kansas line, thence to St. 
Louis, Mo. Battles of Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15 
and 16. "64, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, April 
"65. Discharged at Fort Snelling Aug. 19, '65. 


originally comnianiled liy Col. James B. (Tiltillan. 
cojiP.^NY F, enk()llp;d .\r(U'sT. "64. 

John W. Plummer, Capt.. dis. with regt. Jas. 
Shaver, 1st Lieut., dis. with regt. William S. 
Chowen, Sergt., dis. with regt. John W. East- 
man, Sergt., dis. with regt. Jonas II. Howe, 
Sergt., dis. with regt. Gilbert J. Merritt. Sergt., 
George A. Plummer, Sergt., dis. with regt. Sol- 
omon Churchill, Corp., dis. with regt. Chester 
E. Evans, Corp., dis. with regt. Frank L. IIol- 
way, Corp.. dis. with regt, J. C. Jaques. Corp.. 
dis. with regt. Danford Redding, Corp.. dis. 
with regt. John J. Spurzeum, Coi-p.. dis. with 
regt. Adolph Weidenbach, Corp.. dis. with regt. 

Privates — James W. Austin, dis. with regt. 
Horace W. Bohanon. dis. with regt. Clark 
S. Bemis, dis. with regt. Martin Biske, dis. 
with regt. Fredei'ick Biske. dis. with regt. 
('harles M. Bickford. dis. with regt. Eben- 
ezer Brandon, dis. with regt. liobert Cham- 
bers, dis. with regt. (4eo. G. Drew. dis. with regt. 
Henry Doyle, dis. with regt. J. W. DeLamater. 
dis. with regt. Wm. .\. Fisher, dis. with regt. 
Edward Fairtield. died January 2S, ■6."). at Gal- 
latin, Tenn. John (Jerber. dis. with regiment. 
Gottleib Geiger. dis. with regt. Daniel (ilatz. dis. 
with regt. L. Gee. dis. with regt. ('has. W. 
Gordon, dis. with regt. Ahmzo Green, dis. with 
regt. Joshua Howe. dis. with regt. Xelson 
Herrick. dis. with regt. Ephriam Harrington, 
dis. with regt. Wm. H. Harrington, dis. viith 
regt. Geo. Iloisington. dis. with regt. E. M. 
Iloisingtou, dis. per order May 31. 65. John M. 

Hamilton, dis. with regt. Alfred G. Jaques, 
dis. with regt. David AV. Jones, dis. April 22, 
"65, at Fort Snelling. Thomas Kirkwood, dis. 
with regt. Michael Larkin. dis. with regiment. 
Morris H. Lamb, dis. with regt. Nathan Long- 
fellow, dis. with regt. Wm. McKinley, dis. with 
regt. Phillip Matter, dis. with regt. John Mat- 
ter, dis. with regt. Ichabod Murphy, dis. with 
regt. John H. McGary. dis. with regt. Chas. 
D. Miller, dis. with regt. Mason Murch, dis. 
with regt. David P. Malbon, dis. with regt. 
Harvey S. Norton, dis. with regt. Joseph W. 
Norris, dis. with regt. Thomas Ohn, dis. with 
regt. Geo. A. Plummer, dis. with regt. Mitch- 
ell Pelky. dis. with regt. Seth Pribble, dis. with 
regt. Geo. C. Phillips, dis. with regt. A. D. 
Pinkerton, dis. with regt. Daniel Palmer, dis. 
with regt. James Quinn, dis. with regt. Amasa 
Richards, dis. with regt. Nicholas Rifenberger, 
dis. with Regiment. John Rifenberger, dis. with 
regt. J. P. Shumvvay, dis. with regt. Z. A. 
Smith, dis. with regt. H. R. Stillman, dis. with 
regt. Chas. R. Stimson, dis. with regt. II. Schu- 
macker, dis. with regt. Timothy Shaw, dis. with 
regt. Daniel Terrell, dis. with regt. Clark A. 
Wright, dis. with regt. W. A. Willey, dis. with 
regt. Lorenzo P. AVarren, dis. April 1865, at 
Fort Snelling. Geo. S. AVoolsey, dis. with regt. 
Wm. Allison, dis. with regt. Bernard Gasper, 
dis. with regt. llnllis Hall, dis. with regt. Carl 
A. Ilamisch, dis. with regt. Chas. C. Midwood, 
dis. with regiment. Frank J. Stickney. dis. with 
regiment. Buford Tourman, discharged with 
regiment. John Lyons, discharged with regt. 

(.•().M1'.\NY (i, EXUOLLEI) .\UGrST, 1864. 

Albert R. Hall, 1st Lieut., dis. with legt. Wm. 
T. Bowen, 2d Lieut., dis. with regt. 

Prirntes. — Arthur B. Chase, dis. with regt. 
Thomas Cunningham, dis. with regt. Horatio 
Hawkins, dis. with regt. Benjamin Keesling. 
dis. with regt. Amasa I). King, dis. with regt. 
John II. Mitchell, dis. for commission, February 
111. "65. C. Plant, dis. with regt. 


was (irganizeil. August. "64. ordered to Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, and engaged in guarding rail- 
road between Nashville and Louisville, until 
muster out of regiment, June, "65. 




originally coniniaiided by Col. Mark W. Downie. 


Charles H. Spear, Asst. Surgeon, en. July 1. 
■(jo, (lis. with regt. John AV. Pride. Sergl. Major. 
en. March :i4. 'M. pro. 2d Lieut. Co. A and (}. 
M., prisoner at Andersonville 8 mos.. (lis. with 
regt. David L. Morgan, Q. M. Sergt.. en. April 
1 , "64. dis. with regt. 


Chesley 15. Tirrell. Lieut., en. May lli. "(>4. 
dis. for disalil. December 14. "1)4. for wds. reed, 
at Petersburg. .Iiiiic is. ti4. Ileiiry tihostly. 
Sergt.. en. December 80. (il . dis. on expr. of term. 
December 2(1, "(U. William A. Joy. Corp.. en. 
March 24. "(U. vet. vol.. pro. Sergt.. 2d Lieut, Co. 
C.. March IH. "6.5, dis. with Hattalion. 

Privote.'i — Charles C. Blanchard. en. >.o\en]lier 
25, "61, dis. on exjir. of term, November 2H. 'Hi. 
Peter G. ]}offering. en. February 18, "ti4. dis. per 
per order, June 28, "6.5. Jeremiah Collins, en. 
Jaimary 1. 'Hi. dis. per order. June 27. 'Ho. Wm. 
Coombs, en. January 1. "154. dis. with Co. ('has. 
A. Coombs, en. September 16, "01, dis. o]i exjir. of 
term. May 20. 'Ro. Turner Pribble. en. Xoveni- 
ber 2o, 'HI. captd. Jiuie 22. ■H4. dis. jicr order. 
July 24, '65. George Sias, en. March 14, '64, 
prisoner at Andersonville. dis. with Co. 

Hccruit — Aaron Gould, en. February 28. "lio. 
dis. with Co. 


Ellet P. Perkins, ("apt., en. May o, "1)4. dis. per 
order, OctoTjer 13. 'ti4. Henry D. (>"]}rien, 2d 
Lieut, en. May 12. "ii4.i)ro. Cajit.Co. A. April 10. 
'Ho, dis. with regt.. July 14. 'Ho. James Hryant. 
1st Sergt., en. March^l. ■64.i>ro. 1st Lieut.. .March 
16, '65, Capt. Co. C, dis. with regt. .Vdam C. 
Stites, Sergt.. en. Sejitember 28. 'H]. dis. on exp. 
of term. September 28, 18(14. \V. W. Ilnldcu, 
Cor|)., en. February 26, '63. pro. 2il Liiut.. 1st 
Lieut., dis. with conip. Archibald Curtis. Corp., 
en. March 24. "64. dis. wilh coiup. William K. 
Schumacher. Cor))., en. March ;tl, HI. pni. Sergt., 
dis. with coiup. (Jeorge W. F. Abraham, Mus. 
en. -March '.W. "lil. died Xdvcnibcr 12, "ill, in .\n- 
der.sonville pris. 

Prii'ttte*— Orville Ames. en. February 25, '(i4, 
supposed to have died July. '6 1, William HotTcr- 


ding. en. February 18, "64, dis. with comp. Da- 
vid Carlton, en. February 26, "63, dis. with comp. 
Sylvester Densmore, en. February 27. "64. died 
November 26, "64. at City Point. \ii. K. M. C. 
Hamilton, en. March 31. "64, dis. in hosp.. June 
19. "65. Eluisly .1. Hamilton, en. February 27, "64. 
inis. at Andersonville, 8 mos.. dis. June 28, "65, 
absent sick. James Hawks, en. February 29, "64, 
dis. with comp. F. W. llohage. en. February 26. 
114. dis. with comp. David L. Morgan, en. March 
M, '(14. pro. Q. M. Sergt. April 1 , "65. dis. wilh regt. 
Job Pratt, March 1, '64, dis. July 13, "65, absent 
sick. Daniel Sullivan, en. November 1. "61, Vet 
Vol.. dis. on exp. of term. May 18, 'H.'>. (iilbert 
E. Sly. en. March 1. '64. died September 21, "64. 
in luis. al Hichmoud. \'a. George (4. Sunbey. en. 
February 27. lU. died December 7, "64. at Anna- 
polis. Md.. of disease contracted in rebel prison. 
Peter Shultz, en. February 20, "(U, dis. July 21. 
"65. absent. Harmon Stackloffe, en. Mar. 28, "64, 
pris. at Ander.sonville 6 mos., dis. '65, absent. 
William Swager. en. March 24. 'Hi. Yet. "N'ol. dis. 
wilh comp. Norman Shook, en. April 1, "64, dis. 
wilh coniiiaiiy. .lames E. Weaver, en. March 24. 
'64. A'et. Vol.. dis. with comp. Theodore Prown. 
en. July 20. '61. dis. on exji. of term. .Inly 2(1. "64. 

li(rniit — Joseph Halleck. i-n. Filniiary 14. "(io. 
dis. per order April 4. 'Ho. 

First 15attallion Infantry. Minn. A'ols.. origi- 
nally consisted of two compnies, organized from 
the re-enlisted veterans, slay-over men and re- 
criuts of the First Regiment. Minnesota Infantry 
Volunteers. Ordered to Washington. D. ('..May 
"64. Joined the Army of tlic Potomac June 10, 
"64. Participated in the follow i ng 1 lattles, marches, 
sieges and skirmishes : Petersburg. A'a.. June 18. 
"(14. Jcrusalcui I'lank Hoads. A'a.. June 22 and 23, 
(14. |)c(|i l!otl(.iii. \'a.. .\ugusl 14, "64. Ilatchci's 
Hun. \'a.. October. 27, "(14. Hatcher's Run. Feb- 
ruary 5, "65. Company C. joinccl .March 27, "lio. 
Took active part in campaign commencing March 
28, "(l.-). and resulting in the capture of Peters- 
burg. \'a.. .\piil 2. 'il"), and the surrender of 
Lee's .\rm,\. .Vpril 9. "(i."). Four new coniiiauies 
joined at Iterksville. Yn.. Ai>ril '(i'l ; marched 
from Uerksville. A'a.. to Washington. D. ('., 
May '11"). 'J'wo new comiianies joined at Wash- 
ington. Ordered to Louisville. Ky.. June "65. 
Mustered out at Jetfersonville. liid.. .Iul> 14, "65. 
Dischargeil at Fort Snclling .Iul\ 2'>. Ho. 




originally rnmmanded by Col. Wm. Colville. 
Christ. ]5. IleftVltinser. Major, com. April 25, '60, 
dis. with regt. 


Privates. — Wm. H. Bartlett, en. September 19, 
'64, dis. with company. .John Gotwold, en. Sep- 
temljer 19, "64, dis. June 2, '6.5, at St. Paul. Kichard 
Hooper, en. September 19, '64, dis. with company. 
Peter Hoppe. en. September 19, "64, dis. with com- 
pany. Gordon .Jackins, en. September 23, "64, dis. 
with company, ilichael Smith, en. September 
29, '64, dis. with company. .John S. Wales, en. 
September 21, "64, dis. "6-5, absent. 


Pc(fo?c.<.— James ^M. GiUaspie, en. September 
19, "64, dis. with company. Henry Miller, en. 
September 19, "64, dis. with company. Henry C. 
Miller, September 22, "64, transfd to Co. E July 
7, '6-5. dis. per order August 28, "6-5, Geo. R. 
Schaffer, en. September 14, "64, dis. witli company. 
Wm. B. Shaffel, en. September 22, "64, dis. with 
company. Xorman Ward, en. September 14, 
pro. Corp. Sergt., dis. with company. 


Irving A. Pnnsmoor, en. Oct. lo. "64. Sergt.. 
dis. with company. E. H. Ogburn, en. Septem- 
ber 2, "64, Sergt., dis. with company. 


John Hnssey, Jr., 2d I^ieut. en. February 17, 
'65, resigned June 26, "65. L. F. Sampson. 1st 
Sergt., en. March, "65, dis. with regt. Romain 
PoTiliot. priv.. dis. with regt. 

The First Regiment Heavy Artillery, organized 
April "65. Ordered to Chattanooga, Tenn., and 
stationed at post until muster out of regiment, 
September "65. 

MARCH, 1862, 

originally commanded by Capt. Francis Peteler. 
Benedict Hipler, First Lieutenant, pro. Capt. 
February 10, "62, resigned July 28, "62. Dudley 
P. Chase, Second Lieutenant, pro. First Lieu- 
tenant February 10. "62. Capt. July 18, "62, died 
of wounds reed, in battle at Chancellorville Va. 
Jackson Steward, Sergt. died June 28, "62, at 
Alexandria, Va. Uriali R. Penny, Corp. dis. 

for disab. April 1, "63. Wm. P. Collins, Corp. 
no record. 

Privates — Lucius Bell, died January 12, 1862. 
Jno. W. Babcock, died May 12. "62, at AVasliing- 
ton. Preston Cooper, deserted April 17. "63. 
Daniel W. Jones, dis. per order May 1862. Jas. 
Kerr, re-en: transferred to 1st Bat. January 1, 
"65. Wm. T. Kerr. dis. on exp. of term. Septem- 
ber 22, "64. Henry McGaffery, re-en. transfd. to 
1st Bat. January 30, "65. Eugene :Moriarty, dis. 
I for disab. February 4, "63. Abraham Maricle, 
I dropped from rolls Aug. 1, "63. Wm. E. Mason, 
' re-en. transfd. to 1st Bat. January 30. 65. Jas. 
M. Powers, dis. for disab. Jan. 14, "63. Dyer 
Pettijohn, re-en, transfil. to 1st Bat. .January 
I 30, "65. Lawrence T. Prescott, no record. Silas 
S. Parmeter, no record. Henry W. Sampson, 
dis. for disab. March 5. "63. Dudley A. Boan, 
recruit, tiansfd. to 1st Bat. Eugene Swartout, 
j transfd. to 1st Bat. January 30, "65. 

' MARCH, 1862. 

, originally commanded by Capt. Mm. F. Russell. 
A. J. Underwood, Sergt., dis. for disabl., Xov- 
I ember 1, "62. J. B. Chaney. Coni.. dis. for disabl. 
' October 18, '62. 

Privates — Samuel B. Beach, veteran. Charles 
H. Spear, C. F. Widstrand, S. R. Churchill. 

The company left St. Paul, Minn.. April 21. 
"62. reported by order of Maj. Gen. McClellan to 
' the first regiment LT. S; S. S., at Yorkto^ii. Ya.. 
May 6, "62. May 22, "62, by special order Xo. 
153, issued by Maj. Gen. McClellan, the company 
was assigned for duty with the First ilumesota 
A'olmiteers. and on duty with that regiment from 

Jime 1, "62, and participating in all the engage- 

; ments and battles of said regiment, luitil its 
[ muster out of the U. S. Service. All the enlisted 
men of the company whose terms had not ex- 
pired, were ti-ansferred to Companies A and B, 
of the First Miiuiesota Infantry, in pursuance of 
special order Xo. 102, Headquarters Army of 
the Potomac, dated April 22. "65. 


originally commanded by Col. Samuel McPhaill. 

George E. DuToit, Hospital Steward, en. De- 
cember 1. "62, dis. with regt. 




Eugfiie M. Wilson, Capt., en. October 9, "62, 
(lis. with fomp.. October 20, "63. James M. 
Paine. 2(i Lieut., en. October 9. '62. (lis. with 
conip. Klislia Cowan. Sergt.. en. October 9. "62.. 
(lis. will) cdnii). .lames H. Wilson. Sergt.. en. 
October 9, "(52. dis. with couip. Stei)lien Pratt, 
Corp., en. October 9. "62, dis. with conip. Ed- 
ward Moree. ('oi')).. en. October 9. '(j2. reduced 
Xoveniber in. "()2, dis. with comp. Archibald 
McGill, Corp., en. Oct. 9, "62, dis. with conip. 
James Sweeny. Wag. en. October 9. "(12. dis. with 

Privates — John 15. Hosenian. en. October 1, ■()2, 
dis. with com]). David Chrisllieb, en. September 
20, "62, dis. witli coniii. Charles Dnprey, en. 
September 2(l. ■|)2. dis. witli comp. Livingston 
Estes, en. Sept. 23. ■(i2. dis. with conip. Wilson 
Gray, en. September 20. ■t>2. dis. with comp. Ed- 
ward Hughes, en. Sei)tciul)(r 2o. ■ii2. dis. with 
comi>. Joshua Harris, en. Sc]iteniber 27, "62. died 
at F(n-t Snelliiig. November 12. ■t)2. Robert H. 
Jefferson, en. September 22. ■()2. dis. with comp. 
Ja.sperN. Johnson, en. September 27. '(12 desrtd. 
March. "(i.S. Emanuel Lavclly.en. September 20. 
■(i2 dis. with comp. Thomas Otterman, en. Sep- 
tember 24. "62, dis. with comp. Charles Pope, en. 
September 27. died at Fort Hipley. Minn.. Sep- 
tember 80. "(53. Isaac X. Hussell. Jr.. en. Sep- 
tember 27, '62, dis. with lonip. Frederick Ray- 
mond, en. Septend)er 20. "t)2.dis. with conip. AVil- 
liam E. Uoth.en. Sc]plciulier29."(i2.dis. withconii). 
Mathew Sullivan, en. September 23, "02, dis. with 
comp. Albert Simon, en. September 27, T>2, dis. 
with comp. Charles S. Plummer. en. September 
25, ■<i2, dis. witli comp. Hobert W. Sanborn, en. 
September 20, ■()2, \)iu. Corp. Sergt., dis. with 
comp. Andrew L. Tennison. en. September 27, 
'62. dis. with comj). (Jcoigc II. Wiaiits. en. Se)!- 
tember 2ii. 'ii2. di.s. with comii. .Michael Wolf. 
en. September 20, '02. dis. Willi conip. 

IlfrriiUs -Alpheiis .lime 19, "03. dis. 
with comp. James Parker, cii. October 17, '(iS. 
dis. with <-oiii|i. 

< (IMI-ANV c. 

.lames Patten, (;orp.. en. ( )ctolM r 17. 1)2. dis. 
with ciiiii|iaiiy. John .Met 'orniick. teamster, en. 
(Jctober 17. "112. dis. with conipaiiy. Clark 
Ellsworth, blacksmilh. en. Odohii 17. '02, dis. 
with conijiuny. 

Privates. — Ezra B. Ames, en. September, 23, 
'62. dis. with company. Wm. P. Burnett, en. 
September 19. 'lij. dis. witlicompany. Ed. C. Coun- 
trsniaii. en. September 2ti. '02, dis. with company. 
John Diddily. en. October 15, '62. dis. with coiii- 
jiaiiy. Hiram W. Dornian. en. Seiiteinber 23, "62, 
dis. with company. Thomas E. Ellsworth, en. 
.September 23. ■62, died October 21, "62,31 Fort 
Snelling. P. P. Farrington. en. September 26. "62, 
dis. with comiiany. Heniy September 
27. "62. dis. with coniiiany. E. Lennenian. en. Sej)- 
tember 23, "62. dis. with company. Sanford Red- 
ding, en. October 15, "62, dis. with company. Adol- 
liliusSclicnck. en. October 14. ■t)2, dis. witlicom- 
pany. Will. H. Sc)iteniber 2."). "(i2. dis. 
with company. .lohn W,\in:iii. en, S{')ilciiiber 23, 
'62. dis. with comiiany. Sainuel Wilson, en. Sep- 
tember 23, "62. dis. with company. 

Hecri(it.i.—llnrvey Bowen, en, March 14, "63, 
dis. with comi)any. Andrew J. Cates, en, Feb- 
ruary 14, "ti3, dis, with company. Samuel .Mni- 
pliy. I'll, .lauiiary 3ll. "63. dis. with coiupaiiy. 

(■(iMr\xv I". 

/i'i<ii((/.s — Horace M. .\vciy. cii. Dccenilier 23, 
"62, dis. with company, .loli Brown, en. May 22, 
"63, dis. with comiiany. Levi llaxilaiiil. en, 
March 22, "63, dis. with company. 


I'rii(il<.i .\le.\. Huiui'll. en. Novfiiilicr 21. "62 
dis. for disabl.. March 1. "63. Samuel Layman 
en. November 22. "62. dis. with Co. William H 
Laiuiniiaii. I'W. Octolicr 28, "62. dis. with Co 
(ieorge J>anipiiian. en. Xovember 22. "<>2. dis, 
with Co, (ieorge Palmer, en. Xovember 22. "62 
dis. witli Co. Charles M. Sliijsoii. cii. Xoveiii 
licr 22. 'ii2. (lis. with ( 'o. 

I'liidli .liin 
■|i2. dis. witli C. 

iiMl'\N> K. 

I'. 1 1\ l:iiiil. en. l)iM-i'iiiliiT 10. 

(iiMrvvv "vr. 

Prlnilis .Inliii linil h. CII. 1 IccciiiIht ■">. '(i2, dis, 
with Co. Peter Laiigle. en. .November 2."), '62, 
dis. with Co. Peter l,eoii:inl. en. .Xovember 20. 
"62. dis. with Co. 

l-iiisT .M(ii N ii:i) II AN(;i:its. 

organized March, "63. Stationed at frontier posts 
until May, "63, when ordered upon Indian expcdi- 



tion. Engaged with Indians. July 24. 211. and 28, 
'63. On return of expedition, stationed at frontier 
posts until mustered out. Mustered out liy 
companies, lietween Octolier 1. T>3 and Deeember 
30. "63. 


originally commanded by !Major A. B. Brackett. 
('. O. .Tolinson. Surgeon, en. February 1, "(12. res. 


Xlcholas Bode, mus. en. October 7. "01. 

Privnles — Henry Moore, en. October 19, "til, 
dis. August 27, "62. for wds. reed, in battle May 
5. "62. Martin V. Pratt, en. October 11. "61, dis. 
on exp. of term. October 28. "()4. Simon liiesgraf , 
en. September 25, "61, dis. on exp. of term, Sep- 
tember2o. "64. i?fc;-«;;.s— Clias. A. Ilutcliings. en. 
March o, "65, Vet. Pro. Corp. dis. with company. 
Isaac N. Iloblitt, en. February 13, "65, dis. on exp. 
of term, February 13, "66. Wm. Kissinger, en. 
February 11, "65, dis. on exp. of term, February, 
11, '66. Chas. F. Longfellow, en. February 14, 
'65, dis. on exp. of term February 14, '66. .John 
F. Smith, en. February 11, "65, dis. on exp .of 
term, February 1 1 , "66. 


Privates — Geo. S. Brown, en. March 64. <lis. 
with company. Henry S. Chase, en. March 22, "64, 
dis. with company. William Finley. en. March 
24, '64, dis. with company. Amos B. Hurley, en. 
March 23, '64, pro. wagoner, dis. with company. 
John 11. Haughley, March 26. "64. dis. with com- 
pany. Walter Keough, en. March 30. "64. dis. with 
company. Columbus Myers, en. March SO, "64, 
dis. with company, James II. Pottle, en. March 
30, "64, dis. with company. Samuel J. Peel, en. 
March 26, "64, dis. with company. Chas. H. 
Waters, en. March 25, "64, dis. with company, 
Samuel A. Wilson, en. April 5, "64, vet. dis. wi'th 
company. Dominick Grutch, en. February 13, 65 
dis. with company. Peter Miller en. February 
13, '65, dis. on exp. of term, February 28, '66. 
John Rust, en. February 13."65, dis. February 
28, "66. Nicholas Thilleau, en. February 11. '65, 
dis. Febi-uary 11, 66. Archibald E. Howe. en. 
February 14. "65. dis. February 27, '66. Peter 
( '. Howe, en February 14, '65, dis. per order June 
2, 1865. 


Henry S. Lindsay, Mus.. en. November28, '61. 
died January 26, "62, in hospital at Camp Benton, 
Mo. John Finnegan, Wag., en. November 20, 
"61, re-en. Dec. 31, '63, dis. per order. 

Prirotes.— Francis W. Carlton, en. November 
1, "61, dis. on exp. of term December 19, '64. 
Wallace E. Lashell, en. November 14. "61, re-en. 
Dec. 31, '63, dis. with company. Oren J. Swan, 
en. Nov. 1, "61, dis. on exp. of term, December 
19, '64. John B. Thompson, en. November 18, 
'61, re-en. December 31, '63, pro. Corp., dis. with 

Recruits.— Vi'm. A'an Eman. en. February 29, 
"64, dis. with company. Ephriam Whitney, en. 
February 29, "64, dis. with company. Geo. B. 
Allen, en. February 13, "65, one year, dis. on exp. 
Bernard Cloutier, one year. dis. on exp. 


Recruits. — Jas. R. Brownell, en. February 10, 
'64, dis. with company. John Connor, en. De- 
cember 15, "63. dis. with company. 


originally 1st. 2d and 3d Companies of this cavalry 
organized Octol)er and November '61. Ordered 
to Benton Barracks, Mo., December "61. Assigned 
to a regiment called Curtis' Horse. Ordered to 
Fort Henry, Tenn.. February "62. Name of 
regiment changed to Fifth Iowa ("avalry, April 
"62, as Companies G, D and K. Engaged in siege 
of Corinth Apiil "62. Ordered to Fort Herman. 
Tenn., August "62. Veteranized February "64. 
Ordered to Department of Northwest, "64. Or- 
dered upon Indian expedition. Engaged with 
Indians July 28, and August "64. Mustered out 
by companies between May "66, and Jime "66. 


originally commanded by ('ol. R. N. ]SIcLaren. 


Pn'ro^es— Frank Brabic, dis. on expr. of term. 
Feb. 13, "65. Charles Stien, dis. on expr. of term, 
'65. Louis Stein, dis. per order, July 11, '65. 


James M. Payne, Capt., en. October 23, '63, 
dis. with Co., December 2, '65. Robert Wood, 
2d Lieut., en. October 24, '63, died November 25, 
"64. at Fort Wadswortli. Archibald McGill, 1st 



Sergt.. Pii. Xovember 20. pro. 2d Lieut.. 1st 
Lieut. Cii. II.. .June (i. ■<)■'). (lis. witli Co.. .Viuil 
28, "60. Hoherl Mcliiatli. Q. M. Sergt. eu. 
Xovember 7, "(iS. dis. with Co. Robert W. San- 
born, Sergt., en. October 23, '63, pro. 2d Lieut., 
dis. with Co. Andrew J. Cates, Sergt., en. Nov- 
ember 2. "(iS, dis. witli Co. Geo. C. Ticknor, 
Corp.. en. December 3, "(53, dis. with Co. David 
X. .Jenkins. Corp.. en. October 28, "(iS, reduced, 
dis. Willi Co. J.,pvi \V. Merritl, Corp.. en Decem- 
ber 12, '63, dis. I'oi- di.sabl., Jiuie, "65. Ancel 
Ticknor, Wag., en. December 3, "63, reduced, 
dis. Willi (!o. Geo. C. Marshall. Blk smth.. en. 
December 7. "ii3. reduced, dis. with Co. 

i'WiK/i.s— William Armstrong, en. Xovember 
7, '63, dis. with comp. Charles S. Bardwell, en. 
Xovember 13. '(iS. pro. Corp., dis. with comp. 
Joshua S. lirvant, en. December 7, "t)3, dis. with 
comp. .\. r. r>ccman, en. Xov., '63, dis. with 
comp. Hicliard Clayton, en. December 22. "63, 
dis. with comp. Thomas Cardman. en. Xovem- 
ber 2. '63. dis. for disab., September 1, '6o. Car- 
los Douglas, en. December 1. '63. dis. with comp. 
John M. Kddy, en. Xovember 7, '63, appointed 
blacksmith, dis. with comji. Llewellyn Goodale, 
en. December 26, "63, dis. with regt. John 
Larington. en. December 2, "63. destd. May 4, '64, 
at Fort .Snelling. I'atrick .McKinney, en. Xovem- 
ber 10. "63. dis. tor disab.. .hily 2o. "6.'). Roderick 
McLennan, en. Xovember 28, "63. dis. with coiiiii. 
Moses V. Olliver. en. Xovember 21. "63. appointed 
trumpeter, dis. with regt. Sanuiel S. Paine, en. 
Xovember 6. "63, ]iro. Chaidain. dis. with regt. 
Kdmond I'hinney. en. December 4. "63. dis. with 
comp. Joseph Sharr, en. Xovenilni 21. "63, dis. 
with comp. Charles II. Decendier 
13, '63, dis. with coni|). James I'. Ticknor. en. 
December 3, '63, pro. Corp.. dis. with regt. Hen- 
jamin Wallace, en. October 2S, '63. dis. with comp. 
(teorgc II. Wymanls. en. Dei-eniber 1"). "63. dis. 
witli comji. Henry C. Williams, en. DciiMiibcr 
16, '63. dis. with comp. .Matthias Weidenbach. 
en. Xovendier 24. "63. died March 17. >>'>. at Kort 
Wadsworth. Cliester C. Ward. en. Ni>\cnilM-r 16. 
"63, dl». with coni)>. 

7fcorMi"<»— (Enrolled February 1 1, '(i."i.i Horatio 
Hceniau. dis.. no record, .\laik .\I. Jbidgcs. dis.. 
no record. Samuel M. Haws. dis.. no recoril. 
Joseph Xaruniore, dis., no riM-ord. Edward 
Stodduid. dis., no recoiii. 


HfcriutK. — I>eaniler ^'. .Vlleii. en. February 14, 
"60. dis. with coiniiaiiy. O.scar I?. Champlin, eu. 
March 30. "64. dis. with company. Geo. 15. "Wniid- 
din, en. February 1 o. "60. dis. with company. 

(■|)MJ".\NY I. 

I'ricc 1!. Ourcus, recruit, eu. March 20. '64, 
dis. with couiiiany. 

(_(I3U'ANV L. 

Kouiiiin .\. Streeter. i>rivatp. en. February 16, 
"64. dis. with coniiiaii\ . 

Second Minnesota ( 'avalry. organized December 
'63, and January '64. Ordered upon Indian ex- 
pedition May "64. Engaged with Indians July 
2S and August "64. Stationed at frontier posts 
until muster out of regiment by companies be- 
tween Xovember "60 and June "66. 


originally commanded by Major E. A. C. Ilalili. 


\\ 111. W. Wilson, Sergt., en. July 6. "63. dis. for 
disal). James N. Dudley, Sergt.. June 30, "63, 
reduci'd. dis. with company. Edward U. Libby, 
Sergt.. I'll. July lo. '63, reded, dis. with company. 
St. Don Palmer. Cor])., en. June 30, "ti3, jn-o. 
Sergt.. dis. with comp. John M. Hiirgan. Corp., 
eu. .Iiily lo. "63. reduced, dis. with comip. Xicli- 
olas Arn.Tnimiieter. June 27, "63. dis. with comp. 

i'/-i"r((/ra.— Miles J. Haver, en. July 17, "63. dis. 
for disab. IMw in lirewster, en. July 15, '63, dis. 
with comp. Nathaniel Chantler, en. July ^■'^. "63, 
dis. with COIIIII. .\iiil. Cruickshanks. cii. June 
30. "63. dis. with niiii]!. Honald Cruickshanks, en. 
June 30, "63, dis. w itli coniii. .lohn .V. Coleman, en. 
June 30. '63, no record given. Clias. II. Cook, en. 
July lo, '63. dis. with comp. Saiu"l P. Hall. en. 

J 30. '63. died Oct. b'). '63. at .Miiinctonka, 

Miiiii. .losi'|ih IlaiiUei'son. cii. .liil> 6. "63, died 
Si'ptciiilicr 10. '63, at .Minneapolis. Charles 
Ogliiirn. en. .Inly 6, '63. dis. with coiup. Thos. 
C. Wakelield.en. June 30, '63, dis. with company. 
Christian Wolter, en. July, '63, dis. with comp. 

/("fci-Mi'ri -Alfred Gervais. en. July 28. '63, dis. 
for disab. March 14. '60. Edwin M. Snow, en. 
February 22, '64, dis. per order, April 6. '66. 
Clias. H. Parrish, en. Feb. 22, '84, dis. for disabl. 
Fii'dcric Hciwcrs. en. Februarv 23. '64. ilis. with 



company. Abe Zimmerman, en. February 23, 
'G4. dis. per order March 29, "66. 


Geo. C. Whitcomb, capt., en. July 7, "63, dis. 
with comp. Thomas R. Briggs, Q. M. Sergt., 
en. July 4, "63, pro. 1st Sergt. dis. with comp. 
James \X. Hankinson, Corp. en. August 7, '63, 
reduced December 1, '63. dischd. for promotion 
February 25, '65. Volney R. "Walters, Corp. en. 
July 16, "63, reduced Decemljer 1, 63, re-appoint- 
ed Corp. July 17, '64, dis. for disah. February 
14, '65. Moses H. Ripley, blksmth. en. August 
4, '63, dis. per order January 27, '66. 

Pncntes — Robert Arcliibald, en. August 10, '63 
dis. with comp. Joseph Bouldice, en. July 14, 
'63. dis. with comp. Octave Boucher, en. .July 
31, '63, dis with comp. Chas. Bohanon, en. Aug- 
ust 7, '63, dis. with comp. Joseph Burnell, en. 
August 3, '63, dis. with comp. Beleana Burnell, 
en. August 3, '63, dis. with comp. Justin A. 
Dayton, en. July 2, '63, dis. with comp. Joseph 
Desjardins, en. July, 29, '63, dis. with company. 
Samuel Ilelthy, en. August 8, '63, deserted Sep- 
tember 15, "65. Wm. McKenzie, en. July 1, '63, 
dis. for disab. September 15. "65. Charles Mid- 
wood, en. July 8, "63, deserted August 63. Lud- 
wig Netzbone, en. July 16, '63, dis. with comp. 
Leroy B. Newton, en. August 7, "63, pro. Sergt. 
dis. Willi comp. Luman Putnam, en. July 1, '63 
died October 3, "63, at ilinneapolis. Michael 
Patnode, en. August 3, "63 dis. with comp. Moses 
Patnode, en. August 3, "63, dis. with company. 
Thomas Peisen, en. July 16, '63. dis. with comp. 
Lewis Riley, en. July 11, "63, dis. with company. 
Albert Roth, en. July 15, "63. dis. with with comp. 
Adolph Roberts, en. August 3, '63, dis. per order 
May 7, '66. Leon Richards, en. August 7, '63, 
dis. with comp. John C. Saddler, en. July 1, '63. 
dis. for disab. July 8, "65. Joseph Scott, en. 
August 3, '63, dis. with comp. Oliver Van- 
Bunker, en. July 1, '63, dis. with comp. Edgar 
Nott, en. July 13, 63. dis. with comp. 

J?fcr»;(.s— John Donlon.en. August 15, "63, dis. 

with comp. .lames Scully, en. September 22, "63, 

dis. with comp. Albert C. Fletcher, en. March 

30, '64, dis. with comp. William E. Roth, en. 

March 26, '64, dis. with comp. La Salle Roth, en. 

March 26, "64, dis. with comp. Isaiah Dougherty, 

en. March 28, '64, dis. per order, March 11, "66. 

Joseph Bruuell, Jr., en. September 21, '63, dis. 
with comp. 


Daniel W. Getchell, Sergt., en. August 22, '63, 
dis. with comp. 

Privates — Frederick IT. Chilson, en. August 31, 
'63. dis. with comp. John Flam, en. August 24, 
'63, dis. with comp. .Jos. Gagne, Jr., en. Sep- 
tember 9, "63. dis. with comp. John Hollander, 
en. September 8, '63, dis. with comp. Peter 
Roshen, en. September 9, "63, dis. with comp. 
Ernest Smith, en. September 11, '68, dis. with 

Rccndts — Philo S. Thayer, en. March 25, "64, 
dis. with comp. William Bushnel, en. March 28, 
'64, dis. per order, March 22, '65. Amos Hoyt, 
en. March 28, "64. dis. per order, March 10, '66. 
Fred'k. Miller, en. April 1,;64, died November 
5, '65. Edward Morse, en. April 1, '64. dis. with 
comp. Charles Eggert, en. April 1, '64. dis. with 
comp. George Slater, en. April 1, "64, dis. for 
disab!. July 3, "65. 


PHvatea — Byron E. Bushnell, en. November 19, 
'63, dis. for disab., March 29, '64. George God- 
frey, en. February 27, "64, dis. with comp. Chris- 
tian Keller, en. March 28, "64, dis. with comp. 
Frederick Biers, en. April 1, '64, dis. with comp. 
Mahlon Cooper, en. April 13, '64, dis. with comp. 


George Boyd, Jr., Capt., en. August 31, "64, dis. 
with comp., May 1, "66. Mark T. Berry, 1st Lieut., 
en. August 31, "64, dis. with comp. Alden M. 
Kimball, 2d Lieut., en. August 31, '64, dis. per 
order. John M. McKeen, Q. M. Sergt., en. Au- 
gust 8, '64, dis. with comp. Nelson H. Miner, 
Com. Sergt., en. August 29, '64, dis. with comp. 
George II. Stetson, Sergt., en. August 4, "64. re- 
duced, dis. with comp. Leonard II. Dodge, Corp., 
en. August 18, '64, pro. Sergt., dis. with comp. 
Francis Day. Corp., en. August S, "64, pro. Sergt. 
dis. with comp. And. McCausland, Corp., en. 
August 29, '64, dis. with comp. Israel S. Parker, 
Corp., en. August 8, '64, dis. with comp. George 
A. Hall, Corp., en. August 4, "64, dis with comp. 
Asa Gould, Coi-p., en. August 29, '64, dis. with 
comp. Gideon B. Stetson, Mus., en. August 4, 
"64, dis. with comp. Israel G. Stetson, Mus., en. 



Aiijnist 4. "H4. (lis. for liisab. Maicli 18. "Gii. Da- 
vid P. Palmer. Farrier, en. -Viitriisl :.'!i, "ii-|. dis. 
with com II. 

Pv/rK/f.s— Thomas .Vrnislroii^'. eii. August 4, 
"l>4. (lis. with coiuii. Cyrus J. ]5raiii;iii. en. Anjf. 
10, '()4, (lis. per order. October 2i>, '(io. Franeis 
Bren. en. August 22. "(U. dis. with eonip. John 
Chastek, en. August 22. "i>4. dis. with coniii. 
John II. Crate, en. August 12. "(34, dis. w ith coniii. 
John Droddy. en. August 22, "64, dis. with comp. 
Jolin Gleeson. en. August 3, '64, dis. with comp. 
Harrison (ioodale. en. August !». "(U. dis. with 
eonip. Patrick 15. Larkin. en. August !l. '(U. dis. 
with comp. Isaa<- Lloyd, en. August !i, "W, dis. 
with comp. Cassius II. Lolidel. en. .Vugust 4, 
"•54. dis. with conij). Nathaniel (i. Leighton, en. 
August 8. "64. dis. with comp. Peter Miller, en. 
August 10, "64, dis. with comp. IJenjaniin Max- 
ell, en. August 24. "64, dis. with comp. Peter 
Haymond, en. August 27. "154. dis. with comp. 
Lawrence Kiley. en. August 4, '64. dis. with comp. 
Peter llusch, en. August 4, "64, dis. w ilh comp. 
John Smitana. en. August 22. ■f)4. sent to Insane i 
Asylum. January 2:<, 'fiii. AVilliam Sturinan, en. ; 
Aug. 23, (U, dis. for disabl. Nov. 8, "05. Geo. D. j 
Tuttle, en. August 4. "(U, dis with comj). Daniel 
T. Thornjison. en. August 2o, "(14, dis. with comp. 
Charles Wolslield. en. August ii, "tU, pro. Corj).. 
dis. with comp. George Young, en. August 20, l 
■64, dis. with comp. 

J?/'cr»(V.s— (Enrolled February 17, '(io ; dis. on 
exp. of term, February 17, "(ifi.] — f?amuel II. IJo- 
baiion, Cliarles Ii. Carlton, Charles S. Plummer, 
William Stanchlield. Justus II. Wylie. Daniel L. 
Carlton. S. L. IJohaiion. 


Priralc — Antninc I'antel. en. .\ugust S. "(it. 
dis. .with comp. 

Independent liattalinii .Minnonlii ('a\alry. or- 
ganiy.ed July. "IWH. Ordered I'l I'embiMa. 1). 
T.. October. "IW ; ordered to Fml .Vlienrondiie. 
I). T.. May. '64; stationed at I'cnl .\bcrcroiubie. 
until nuistereil out. .Mustered mil li\ cnuip.iiiies 
from .\pril to June, Cii. 

niisi' n.^•l■•n■;K^ i.ii^iri ai: i ii,i.i:iiv. 

oriffinally commandeil by ('apt. l-jnil .MumiIi. 

C. C. Cogswell. 1st Sergl.. en. October 2h, til, 

dis. for <Iisabl. .Inly in. 'liii. .\nthony (irethen. 

<}. .\I. Sergt.. en. Novendier 11. "HI. dis. IVu' 

disabl. August o, "62. F. L. Haywood. Sergt., 
en. October 2H, "61, re-en. pro. 2d Lieut., dis. with 
battery. N. K. Hanks, Corp., en. October 28, '61 , 
died June 19, "K. at Corinth. Miss. C. S. Davis. 
Corp.. en. November 11. "til. died by wds. rec'd. 
in battle. April 27. "63. Henry Kippe. Bugler, 
en. October f), "lil, destd. January 11, "62. at St. 
Louis. Peter Germain, Artilicer, en. October 21 , 
"61. dis. March 1, 62, (mustered wrong). John 
JJotTerding. Artificer, en. October 2o, "61. dis. 
March 1. "62. (mustered wrong). C. D. Brown, 
-Vrtilicer. en. October 2s. "61, dis. for disabl. 
July 7. 62. 

P)-i"co/cs— Adolph Butz, en. October Id. "61. 
re.en. December 1, "63, dis. with battery. Jos. 
Coleman, en. Xovember IJ. '61. re-eu. Decem- 
ber 1, "63, discharged with battery. James 
Fall, en. October 28, "61, pro. 2d 1/ieut.. dis. with 
battery. Darwin Gates, en. October 28, '61, dis. 
for disabl. May 1. "62. Charles Ilasselmaiui, en. 
October 29, "61, died July 8, "62, at St. Louis. 
Kenselaer Nevers, en. October 28, '61, re-en. 
January 1 . "64. dis. with battery. Charles Pierce, 
en. (X-tober 11, '61, dis. for disabl. July 21, "62. 
Boyal Plummer, en. October 30, '61, re-en. Janu- 
ary 1, '64, dis. with battery. Bussell Pease, en. 
()<-tober 8. "61. destd. July 3. ■<i2. apprehended 
April 21. "64. dis. June 3(1. "6.'i. Howard Bobin- 
,son. en. October 20, "61, dis. for disabl. July 19. 
'62. Jo.seph Sparks, en. October 28, '61. dis. for 
disabl. "62. Tracy Wilson, en. .\ngust 16. "()3. 
dis. with battery. 


organized October '61. ( )|(1imi'i| Io St. Louis. 
Decendier "lil. thence to I'iltsbuig Landing Feb- 
ruary ■t>2. Kiigaged in the following battles, 
marches, sieges and skirmishes: Shiloh. Ajtril 5 
and 6. "62. siege of Corinth. .\i>ril "62. Corinth 
October 3 and 4. "62. .Maiclied trmii Corinth to 
O.xford, and thence to Memphis, Tenn. 
Assigned to 171h Army Corps. Xovendier '(12. 
■\'eteraniztMl .lainiar\ '6t. Ordereil to Cairo, III., 
thence to Iluntsville. Ala., thence to Ackworth, 
(Ja. Battle of Kenesaw .Mountain, .\tlanta. July 
22 and 2S. SherniaM's caiii|i;hu'ri llirough ( Jeorgia 
and the Carolinas. Itiscliarired al I'oil Mielling 
June 30, "tio. 

sKioNi) UArrioin i.njrr a ii rii.i.KiiV. 
Wni. \. Ilotihkiss. ('apt., en. as private, com. 



Capt. pro. Brevet Major at Stone river, Veteran- 
ized and discharged with battery, September, '65. 
Henry W. Harder, 1st Sergt. en. December 7, '61, 
pro. 2d Lieut. July "62. 1st Lieut. January, '64, 
dis. witli battery. John ]NIcCausland, Com. Sergt. 
en. December 4, "61 , died January 22 '6.5 at Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. Henry W. Towle, Corp. en. 
December 21, '61, re-eu. March 21, '64, dis. with 
battery. Wilber Xickols. Corp. en. October 30, 
'61, dis. for disab. February 15, '63. Edward 
Rogers, Artificer., en. February 14, "62, dis. for 
disab. April 2, "63. John T. Aniell. Artificer. 
en. March 6, '62, re-en. March 24. "64, dis. for 
disab. February 16, '65. 

Privates. — Nicholas Am, en. January B, '62, 
dis. for disab. October 31 , '62. Melchor Blesi, en. 
January 17. '62, died DecemVjer 6, '62. at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Christopher Blake, en. February 
12, '62, dis. for disab. October 3, '62. Gustav 
Darcachy, en. January 20, '62, died January 31, 
'63 in the field. John Gibson, en. January 28, "62 
dis. onexp. of term March 28, '65. Martin Ilosli, 
en. January 11, '62, re-en. March 22, '64, dis. 
with battery. John Kennedy, en. January 4, '62 
dis. for disab. April 21. '63. John L. Kimball, en. 
January 25, "62, dis. for disab. ^lay 22, '(i3'. Alden 
C. Meed, en. December 9, 'HI. dis. for disab. No- 
vember 15, '62. Geo. F. Murphy, en. January 
16, '62, died June 27, '62 at Camp Clear Creek, 
'Miss. John Sojier. en. December 12. '61, re-en. 
March 21, '64, dis. with battery. John C. Stock- 
ton, en. January 25, "62, died "62 at Tuka, Miss. 
Peter Streicher. en. January 28, "()2. died Aug- 
ust 21, "64 in the field. Hilarious Schmidt, en. 
February 5, "62, dis. for disab. January 3, "63. 
John B. Talcott, en. December 12, "61, re-en. 
^larch 21, "64, pro. Cm-p. discharged with battery. 
Mathew Taisey, en. January 4, '62, dis. for disab. 
October 29, "63. Bethuel Then, en. February 
12, '62, died July 30. '62, at Keokuk. la. David 
Vanderen, en. Oclolier 28, "62, dis. on exp. of 
term, JMarch 28, "65. Chas. S. Waldron, en. Jan- 
uary 10, '62, re-en. March 22, 64, dis. with battery. 


organized Decemlier '(il, and commanded by 
Captain Hotchkiss. April 62, reported at Saint 
Louis, Mo., for equipment. Ordered to Corinth 
May "62, arriving there at close of Shiloh battle. 
Participated in siege of Corinth. ^Marched with 

division commanded by Gen. Jeff. C. Davis, as 
re-enforcement to Buell's army in Tennessee. 
Battles of Buell's campaign against Bragg. Per- 
ryville, October 8 and 9, '62, Lancaster, October 
12, '62. Knob Gap. December 20, "62. Stone 
River, five day"s battle, commencing December 
31, '62. During this battle the horses of the bat- 
tery were not unhitched excepting for water at 
night. Capt. Hotchkiss was promoted Brevet 
Major by general tield order, and assigned to 
duty as Chief of Artillery of General Davis' 
Division, with a command of three batteries. 
Battle of Tullahoma. Marched in pursuit 
of enemy towards Rome, Ga., via Stephen- 
son, Ala., crossed Tennessee river at Caperton"s 
Ferry, marched across Sand and Racoon Moun- 
tains and reached Lookout Mountain at Valley 
Head. Crossed Lookout Mountain in the direc- 
tion of Rome, in pursuit of tlie enemy ; returned 
and descended into McLamore"s Cove. En- 
gaged in battle of Chickamauga Septem- 
ber 19 and 20, '63. Mission Ridge, subsequent 
marches and skirmishes to Ringgold. Marched 
with Sherman to relief of Knoxville September 
"63. Spring of "64, battles of Ringgold. Tunnel 
Hill and Buzzard"s Roost. Battery veteranized 
March "64. Battle of Nashville Deceml)er 15 and 
16, '64. Stationed at Chattanooga and Philadel- 
phia, East Tennessee. Discharged at Fort Snel- 
ling September '65. 


Rccviiitg — -John E. Brawley, en. February 24, 
'64, dis. with battery. David X. Carr, en. March 
30, '64, dis. with battery. Samuel H. Clark, en. 
March 31, '64, pro. Corp., dis. with battery. Wil- 
liam H. Garvey, en. Felnuary 29. '64, dis. with 
battery. Charles Pratt, en. Jlarch 31, '64, dis. 
with battery. George M. Wriglit, en. March 31, 
'64, dis. with battery. 

Third Battery Minnesota Light Artillery, or- 
ganized Febniary, 1863 ; ordered iipon Indian 
Expedition of 1863 ; participated in engagements 
with Indians, July 24, 26 and 28, 1863 ; stationed 
at frontier posts until May, 1864, when entered 
upon Indian Expedition of 1864 ; engaged with 
Indians, July 28 and August, 1864 ; upon return 
of expedition, stationed at frontier posts until 
muster out of battery, February 27, 1866. 




CUArTKl! X\X\1. 




This township is sitniitcil in ilu- soutli-eastei'ii 
part of the conntv . ami Imniers cm tlic fast on 
both the Mississijipi anil Minnesota Hivcis. The 
northern ami central iiurlions of the town are 
rolling, and the southwestern undiilatiiii;- The 
(central portion of the town is traversed by the 
sandy belt, which produces copses of small oaks 
and aspens. The remainder of the rolling land 
is well timbered with elm, bass, maple, etc.. trees 
of a larger gi'owth. The south-eastern part, 
bordering on the Fort Snelling Reservation, and 
extending west as far as Wood liake. is a beauti- 
ful prairie. The town contains ncarl> tliirlv 
lakes, many of them of great beauty. Most 
jirominent among tliein. for size and scenery, are 
Amelia ami WUnd Lakes. Aside from tlie Mis- 
sissippi and Minnesota Hivers on tlie east, there 
are two beautiful streams. Minnehaha and Nine 
Mile creeks which How through the town. Minnc- 
lialia Creek, taking its in Lake Miimetonka, 
flows east<^rly through the towns of Miimetonka, 
Minneapolis, and UiiOilield i-eceivingtlie tributary 
waters of lakes Mother, .\nielia and liice. thence 
south-easterly, tnmlilin;; all its langliing waters 
over a i»recipii'e. forming .Mimiehaha Falls, and 
flows into the Mississippi Itiver, above Fort 
Snelling. These waters, but cspcciall) .Minne- 
haha ("reek, are very beautiful, and a great 
attraction to tourists. Nine Mile Creek flows 
across the soulh-wesleru I'.nl nf the to\\?i into 
the Minnesota. 

The Northern Buuudai> of ihc l(i\\iislij|i was 
originally twd miles nortli of the present line. 
running in a straight line fmm Minnelonka to 
the Mi89is.sij>j>i. This line was altered by act of 

legislature in ls»i7-.s. ,\ narrow stri]! was taken 
from its entire northern boundary and attached 
totlie towu.sliip of Minneapolis. It was two miles 
wide at the west and so continued \mtil it inter- 
sected Miuuelialia Creek at the outlet of liice 
Lake, and followed the course of that stream to 
its junction with the Mississippi. 

On the east, the Military Keservation, by 
its original l)oundaries. included more than 
half of this township. The dividing line ex- 
tended west of Lake Harriet. Ky the first re- 
duction. Xovember, 18-53, the lines were so con- 
tracted that the western line passed through lakes 
Mother and .\melia. It includes by its present 
boundaries only about one thousand acres, and 
allows the town several miles on the great rivers. 


In eonseiiuence of its intimate relations to the 
fort and its once forming jiarl of the reservatiitn, 
the history of Hichlield must begin from the ear- 
liest records of explorers, before the settlement of 
the stale. AVe refer to ]irevious chapters in the 
work for this pail of the hi.story, simply remind- 
ing the reader here, that a few of the Swiss set- 
tlers, from the Hudson IJay territory of Lord 
Selkirk, under the leader.ship of Louis Massey, 
settled here in June. 1S27, but were forcibly re- 
moveil by orders from the governnu'id. Xo relic 
now indieales their oei-ujiauc'V. The leader of 
lhe]iarl\. Louis .Massey. is still living at Hudson, 
Wiscousiu. at an advanced age. 7'/i( firsi chiim 
in llie tnwu was thai made on Minnehaha Creek 
by lion. .1. H. Ihown. Louis (iodfrey was the 
lirst settler after the territorial organizalinu. He 
was a Freuclnnau and his wife a Chippewa. 
He lived onsectinu live, where widow Darey now 
resi<les. Hurin;; llie Sinu\ luassaere he lleil to 
Mendota. and died there in 1S7.S. The date of 
his .settlemeid is uncertain, but it is known to 
ha\i- been )irioi- to ls.">i!. Sauniel .'-llouiih made a 



claim in 1852, and resided lieie until his death, 
in 1875. William Finch settled here in 1853, and 
in 1878 removed to California. He lived where 
Mr. Place now resides. James A. Dnnsmoor 
settled in 1853, removed to California, and died in 
1871. Philander Prescott, who has been men- 
tioned as arriving at Fort Snelling in 1819, and as 
Indian farmer in 1830. settled in Richtield, near 
where the Kichfield Mills now are. about 1852. 
lie was interested in the bnildiniT of the mills, 
and prominent in public affairs until his death. 
He was killed, in the massacre of 18(52, by Little 
Six and Medicine Bottle. He was running his 
horse for life, hoping to reach Fort Eidgel>-. The 
murderers were afterwards hung. 

Alany other settlers arrived in 1853. (.'. W . 
Harris, who died in 1868 at Minneapolis ; Henry 
Townsend and his two sons. Henry and Robert ; 
Mr. I>raper, John ^NlcCabe. :Mr. Duggan, and 
others. From this date on, settlers arrived very 
rapidly, until now it is one of the most poijulous 
and prosperous towns in the county. The pres- 
ent population is 1505. The town has 22,988 
acres of land. The assessed valuation of the 
same tor the year 1869, was $150,104; 1875, 
$532,530; 1880, $702,670. Personal property. 
1869, §49,336; 187-J, §98,329; 1880, 5119,61-1. 
Total taxes in 1869, S3,988,- 1875,38,497; 1880, 
§7,818. Horses over two years old, 1869, 333 ; 
1875, 491 ; 1880, 493. Cattle over two years old, 
1869, 655 ; 1875, 856 ; 1880, 790. Sheep, 1869, 
493; 1875, 851; 1880, 1816. Hogs, 1869. 184; 
1875, 255; 1880, 646. Bushels of wheat, 1869. 
49.124; 1875, 43,425 ; 1880. Acreage. 5,698. 


The annual Town meetings were held at the 
school house, near Kichlield Mills, until 1874. 
A. Keith was moderator at the tirst meeting held 
May 1 Ith, '58. witli Alonzo Sawtelle. Clerk. In the 
tirst call for a meeting the name of -'Richland" did 
not seem to please the people, and the first vote 
taken was for the new name of Richfield. The 
Post Office had been called Harmony until Rich- 
tield was adopted. The Supervisors elected were 
Joel Brewster Chairman, Richard Strout, and 
Jesse Richardson ; Town Clerk. Alorizo Sawtelle ; 
Assessor, George Odell ; Overseer of the Poor, 
James A. Dnnsmoor; Justices, R. L. Rar- 
tholomew, Geo. AV. Irwin; Constaljles, Geo. W. 

Townsend and Wm. R. iloffatt ; Collector, Geo. 
W. Townsend ; Overseer of Roads, A. Keith. The 
first Supervisors meeting was held June 3, 1858, 
and the town divided into road districts. June 
14th, 1858, §400 was voted for town expenses. 
September 30th, 1858, Wm. Finch elected county 
Supervisor. April 5th, 1859, voted §100 for 
town expenses. Supervisors elected, Geo. Odell, 
C. I. W. Maynard, AV. W. Woodward. April 3, 
1860, voted §400 for town expenses and autlior- 
ized the building of Pounds. Supervisors, Geo. 
Odell, G. W. Irwin, J. N. Richardson. 

April 2, 1861, voted §150 for town expenses 
and §600 for schools. Supervisors, Geo. Odell, 
R. R. Bryant. T. W. Peirce. W. W. Woodward 
appointed Superintendent of Scliools. 

April 1, 1862, levied 1} mills perdollarfor town 
expenses. Supervisors, Geo. Odell. W. W. Wood- 
ward, R. Robinson. 

April 7, 1863, levied 21 mills per dollar for 
town expenses. Supervisors. W. W. Woodward, 
A. II. Baston, G. W. Brown. 
January 30th, 1864, call for a special meeting, 
which was held February 10th, and by a vote of 
64 to 59 raised S8000 to pay soldiers' bounties 
and that each one slK)uld receive §150, but at 
a special meeting ilarch 23, the amount was 
reduced to §125. 

April otli. 1864. levied 1 1 mills for town expenses, 
and 16 mills to pay interejit on bounty bonds, and 
raised the per diem of town officers from §1,00 
to §1,50. Supervisors, A. II. Baston. G. W. 
Townsend, W. G. Moffatt. 

August 9th, measures were taken to respond to 
the President "s call for 500,000 men, 

January 28th, 1865, it was voted to take no 
action in response to tlie Presidents' call for 300- 
000 men. 

Feliruary 8th. voted to raise, not to exceed 
§8,000, for soldier's liounties, and authorized the 
Supervisors to issue town bonds for that purpose. 

April 4, 1865, levied one mill per dollar for 
town expenses and three cents per dollar to apply 
on town bonds. Supervisors, A. H. Baston, G. W. 
Townsend, E. Groesbeck. 

xVpril 3, 1866, levied one mill per dollar for 
town expenses, and three cents for Bounty bonds, 
and to remit county tax of all soldiers who did 
not receive a local bounty. Supervisors, G. W. 
Townsend, E. J. Woodward, E. Groesbeck. 



April 2. 1867. raised tlie salary of town officers 
.50 per cent above the snin tixeil Ity statute, for as- 
certaining the names of all the soldiei-s credited to 
the town who had not received bounties and to pay 
them ?100 each, and to pay a like sum to Wm. 
Garvey. W. Wilson, E. F. Hall. Richard Xeill 
and John Dague. they having enlisted prior to 
any provision for bomities. One mill i)er dollar 
levied for town'and road expenses. Sn])ervisors 

D. AV. Albaiigh. .). .\. 15iill. .1. X. Richardson. 
July 11, §2.11(1(1 town limids were issued to jiay 

for damages on bridges, and make other rejiairs 
occasioned by a heavy freshet. 

April 7, 1868, IJ per cent was levied for town 
and road expenses. Supervisors. J. X. Richard- 
son. J. A. Bull. R. Towiisend. 

April (), 1869, levied H mills i)er dollar for town 
expenses ; voted that Frank M. Thornton, an ex- 
soldier, be paid SlOO, he having received no local 
bounty. Supervisors. J. A. Bull. Aaron IIiio\er. 
Horace Wilson. 

April o, 1870. three mills jier dollar was levied 
for town expenses. Supervisors, C. H. Clark. 
Aaron Hoover, E. F. Irwin. 

March 14. 1871, elected ('. II. (lark, E. F. 
Irwin and Aaron Hoover. S([pervisors. Xo 
tax for town expenses. 

March 12, 1872, levied 8 mills per dollar for 
town expenses. A majority vote against grant- 
ing a liquor license. Supervisors. C. II. Clark. 

E. F. Irwin. B. P. Schulcr. 

March 11. ^><'i'^. voted o mills per dollar for 
town and road expenses. Supervisors, E. F. 
Irwin, .1. H. Bull- Michael (Jleeson. 

March lo. 1^74. This, and all olh(( (((cclinKs 
were held in Kichardson's Hall, (uitil 1880. 
Supervisors. C. H. Clark. Michael (Jleeson. .Tames 
L. (iarvey. Levied four mills for town and road 
expenses. It not being enough, a special meeting 
was called Sei)lember 1st. and S72."> rais(^d for 
t<iwn and road fund. 

March O. 187.5. Supervisors. C. II. Clark. .Jas. 
L. (iarvey. Volt-d to grant i>:i to -52. 
Raised S2.000 for all town expenses. The statute 
of limitation being two mills on the assessed 
valuation, tbf aUKKUit raised did not reach that 


March 14. \>^'i'>. raised the per diem of town 
(illicers to two dollars. Sixty votes cast against 
liquor license 

with iiniic for it. S((pfivisoi-s. 

B. F. Hansconi. Stephen L. Witbeck. .John Craik. 
At a special meeting .59 votes were cast for, and 
18 against paying the St<ite R. R. Bonds by selling 
the internal improvement lands. 

March 12. 1«78. levied one mill per dollar for 
the erection of a Town Hall. Supervisors, Wra. 
Finch, Thos. Richardson, Chas. Hohag. 

March 11. 1879, levied 2.] mills for building 
Town Hall, care of poor and town exi)enses. 
Supervisors. E. F. Irwin. .lames (iarvey. Chas. 
A. Hohag. The Town Hall was cciniiilctiMl this 

March 9. ifsso. levied 2i mills f(u- all town ex- 
penses. Supervisors, E. F. Irwin. .las. L. (iar- 
vey, Chas. A. Hohag. 


The lirst school in the town was taught, during 
the winter of 18.54-.5, Ijy Miss .Mary Townsend. 
in a log school house. It was built near Wood 
Lake, by five men. H. L. Itartliolomew. C. 
Gregory, (ieorge Gilmcne, C. Co((illard and 
AVilliam Finch. Miss Townsend afterwards mar- 
ried Mr. Getchell. and resides in Los Angeles. 
California. ^liss Craik. nt)w .Mrs. Frank Hans- 
comb, of Minneapolis, taught, in the sunnner of 
18.55, in a school house near Richfield .Mills. This 
school house became a residence, ami is now oc- 
cupied by Mr. Schafner. 

There are now six f((ll and one joint districts 
in town, with seven school houses. District Xo. 
11.h(i((s(' built ill 1.S.59. on section 28; District 
X'o. 17. house moved on section 18. 1871 : District 
Xo. 16. house built on section 8 in 1872: Distriet 
Xo. li. house built in 1S7.) : District Xo. 8, house 
built on section 14 in ls72: District X'o. 109. 
liouse built in section -■'). in IsT"). District Xo. 
88 is a joint district, lying in Richtield and Rloom- 
iiigton townships; house built on section S.5. in 


The town has tour church organizations : .Meth- 
odist Ki)iscoi)al. lia|itisl. Episcopal and ('atholic. 

The Methodist ilciiniiiiiiiitioii began itscxistence 
mider the guidance of licv. .Mills, who held the 
lirsl services in a granary, owned by Heiu'y 
Townsend. Services were next held in the school 
house near Wood Lake, about a quarter of a mile 
south of where the Ifaptisl church now stands. 
It was called ■■Ilannonv .Mission" until;t. 



when it was included in the '• ilinneapolis Cir- 
cuit." In tlie fall of I860, a change was made, 
and a new circuit formed, consisting of appoint- 
ments at Excelsior. Eden Prairie. Chanliassen, 
anil Harmony, or Wood Lake, as it was some- 
times called. In 1869, the neat wooden church 
w-as built on section 22. A parsonage and ceme- 
tery were also located on the church grounds. 

The cemetery is neatly kept and beautifully or- 
namented with evergreen and forest trees. The 
following clergymen have succeeded each other 
in the charge : Revs. Mills. .John Hooper, Elliott, 
George Galpin, Levi Gleasou, J. D. Kich. 1). W. 
Berlin, John Stafford, C. T. Garvin. W. D. Ben- 
nett, J. H. Macomber, Farber, F. H. Tubbs. 

Henry Brooks, and J. M. Marsh. 


of Richlield was organized by Rev. Amory Gale, 
and began its existence by meetings in the school- 
house near Richfield Mills, where ^Ir. Schafner 
now lives. The church, capable of seating two 
hundred people, was built in 1869. Rev. .1. R. 
Manton has been pastor since. He was lioru in 
Providence. Rhode Island. September 2.>sth. 1821, 
graduated at Brown University, in his native city, 
in 1848, and first engaged in the ministry at Glou- 
cester, Mass. Three years after he removed to 
Tennessee, and labored there until 1857. He 
then returned north and had charge of a clunch 
at Quincy. Illinois, until 1860, when he came to 
ilinneapolis and was pastor of the ■■ First 
Baptist Church " of that city mitil 1864. He 
tiieu went to St. Joseph, Missouri, and remained 
until 1868, when he returned to 2*Iinnesota on 
account of ill healtli, and has since been pastor 
of the church in Richfield. He owns a small 
farm and has a very pleasant home on tlie liaiiks 
of Wood Lake. 


In March, 1869, Rev. Knickeibacker l)egan 
holding services, assisted by S. B. Cowdrey as lay 
reader, in the school-house of district 17. As a 
result of those services, a churcli builduig was 
commenced May 20th, 1872, on an acre lot 
donated by James A. Bull. Tlie opening ser- 
vices were held August 11th. 1,S72, by Rev. 
McMasters and Rev. Knickerbacker. The 
church was dedicated as Trinity Chapel by 
Bishop Whipple, September 12th, same year. 

The congregation numliered about twenty-five 
families — the Sabbath-school forty-two chil- 
dren. The latter has been held regularly from 
1869. The Brotherhood of Gethsemane had 
charge of the church imtil 1877, suice which 
time Rev. Charles RoUit has been in charge. 
Services are now held once each month. 


This is a Catholic Mission Church and is located 

! on the south line of the town on section 34. It is 

i under the auspices of St. Joseph's Church, O. 

\ S. B. of Minneapolis and is visited twice a month 

by Father Salzeder or his assistant. The church 

was built in 1874. and is about 28x70 feet. 


This society was organized in 1.S74. by Deputy 
Chowen of Minnetonka. Tliere were twenty-four 
charter members. The first Master was J. A. Bull 
and the first Secretary, Joseph Hamilton who is 
now master. The regular meetings are held once 
a month during summer and once in two weeks in 
the winter. A fine hall was erected in the win- 
; ter of 1879 and '80, near the Waterville Mills. 
It is 26x50 feet, with fourteen feet ceiling, and is 
used for meetings of the Grange, lyceums, 
festivals, parties and for instructive and enter- 
taining occasions. 


The only manufacturing estalilishments are the 
Flouring Mills. These are the ••Richfield Mills" 
and the "Edina Mills." The former was built 
in 1854. by Philander Prescott, Judge Moffatt 
and Eli Pettijohn. The whole property soon 
came into the possession of Mr. Prescott, and he 
remamed sole owner until his tragic death in 
1862. It is situated on Minnehaha Creek, at the 
crossing of the Bloomington road. Tlie property 
has passed through thehands of various owners 
to the present proprietors, Pratt & Baird. The 
mill is now operated by W. .J. Baird & Co. It is 
a turbine wheel mill with four runs of stone and 
a capacity of twenty barrels in ten hours. 


This is commonly called the "Waterville ilill," 
and is situated on section eighteen. It was built 
in 1857. The present owners, Andrew and 
John Craik took the property about 1869, 
and added two runs of stone and other 



improvements. The company manufacture oat 
meal and pearl barley. Tliey are at pres- 
ent the only manut'ai-tnrers of these articles in 
the county. These Mills are both located on 
Minnehaha Creek and derive their power from 
that stream. The ("reek at tlie Kdina Mills has 
a fall of lifteen feel, affording a valuable jiower. 
This mill lias three turbine wheels, two of thirty 
inches in diameter, and one of thirty-six inches 
furnishing a lifty horse i)o\ver. 


Thomas Page has a blacksniilli shop on section 
twenty-two. William Ewiiig has a carriage and 
blacksmith shop combined, near the Edina Mills. 


John .'^. Mann (ipciied llie first store in the 
town. This was a small concern located near 
Prescotfs Mill, opened at the first settlement of 
the town. Mr. JIann, however, failed in business, 
and Mr. Prescott kept a store for several years. 
Only one store remains to be named, that on the 
hill near the mill, kept by J. \. Hicliardsmi. 
Irvin Diinsmoor opened it in ISoii. lie was suc- 
ceeded by Diinsmoor Bros., and they, by Mr. 
liichardson. in 1HT2. This is a well-stocked 
country store. 


Minnehaha Mold is a pupiilai siimiiifr resort 
at Minnehalia Falls. kei>l by J. Jv Hootli. The 
house is r)iiile large and the rooms well furnished. 
It accommodates lifty guests comfortably. The 
barns, sheds and oiit-bnildings are aniiile. It is 
at i>resent under good management. It is apart 
of the estate of the laic Franklin Steele, obtained 
by him under his iiurchase of the Military Reser- 
vation, in 1K57. 

The house was begun in 1S7H. by Mr. Shaw. 
When he abandoned it. Mr. Steele carried mil 
llic plan and coin|ililc I Ihi' work. The picll\ 
new .Minnehalia ih-pot (in the Milwaukee and St. 
Paul Mailiiiad is loealed just nppcisite the hotel, to 
accommodate its guests and visitors tu the falls. 

Minnehalia .Spring Hotel. Tliis house is abdilt 
eighty rods lielow the depnl. Its noticealile fea- 
tures are a line dancing hall and large stables. 
Isidore Henry is the j>iii])iiel<>r. 

The Town Hall was built in Ih7!i. It isalioui 
eighty roils north nt the Baptist Cliiireh. The 

building cost $1500. It is 32x4.5 feet on the 
grounil. In front of llie audience room is an 
entrance hall and cloak room, with a large and 
convenient gallery. In the rear are two rooms 
sixteen feet square, used for public business. 

Pleasure (xarden and (tieen House. J. E. Booth, 
who has been previously lueutioned as jiroiirietor 
of the Minnehaha 1 bmse. has established a green- 
house near Ihe hotel. He lioiight and inclosed 
three acres of land here in 1S77. lie has since 
laid it out tastefully with walks, arbors, etc., etc. 
Flowers and jilants fringe the walks on every 
side. It is called the best landscape garden iu the 
State. A drive-way. starling from the main en- 
trance, follows around near the sides in a circu- 
lar form. The jilat inclosed by the road-way is 
cultivated with beautiful tlowers and foliage 
plants in beds, with seriieiitine walks. In this 
indosure is a large arbor with seals ami a bonlh. 
where refreshmenls may be oblaiued. The space 
outside the drive is also laid out with haiidsoiue 
plants. Opjiosite the entrance and outside the 
iuclosure are the private residence and green- 

Nursery. In the ncirtli middle of the town, on 
section sixteen. .Mr. .\. Mewart has a nursery, 
principally devoted to tree-ciiliure. 

i;i(i(;i:Al'in( Al.. 

(ieorge W. liainl. is a native of Peniisx Ivania. 
born April bitli. Is:!'). In l.s.j7 he removed to 
Minnesota and purchased the farm of 120 acres 
which he now occupies, located on section 18. 
In till- spring of IWid he imported the tirst Siianish 
Merino sheep brought iuln the State. He sold 
the lirst lleece of line wool in .Minneapolis receiv- 
ing ilo cents ]ier pound for the same. He is at 
present giving liis wliole atteiilidii to line ("ots- 
Wdld and Eiiii'dlu grades, and received lirst prizes 
at the .Minneapolis lONpositiou of ISSll. He was 
man led ( ictnliei lllli. lMi-"i. to .Miss Sarah (i. 
( iates. a uati\ e of \eiiiioiil. 

.lohii E. Iloiilh was liorii in I Imldeislield, Voik- 
sliire. England. May 12tli. is.ti;. He remained 
in England, engaged in the luaiiul'acture of fancy 
woolen g<iods. until 1K.")I. when lie eiime to the 
I'nileil States and located in New .lersey. He 
remained in that Stale about six months anil 
removed lo .Mbaiiy, X. Y. Thence, in .Manli. 
Ih.V). to lirodUh n. and froiii there to Toronto. 



Canada. In 1856 he removed to Boston, tlienoe 
to Philadelphia where he was married to Mary 
Beaumont, who died In the fall of the same year. 

In 1858, his health failing, he returned to 
England, where he was engaged as llorist for 
eleven years. In 1859 he was married to Mary 
Morrell, and in l.STO he returned to America, and 
came directly to Minneapolis, engaging as florist 
and gardener for Wyman Elliott. After remain- 
ing with liiui eighteen months, he leased the 
grounds and liot houses for live years and carried 
on the business for himself. In ISTT he pur- 
chased three acres of ground at Miiniehalia, 
which he laid out and improved as a landscape 
garden. This garden is valued at S10,()()0. In 
1880 he leased the Minneliaha hotel and grounds. 
and is now conducting the same. The children 
are, Herbert M., Annie J.. Frederic E., and 
Arthur C. 

James A. Bull, was born in Jefferson county. 
New York, February, 1834. He remained there 
with his parents, until 1859 when he came to Min- 
nesota, and settled on the farm he now occupies. 
He owns 158 acres of fertile land and has im- 
proved it, luitil it now ranks among the best 
farms in this town. Mr. Bull was married in 
1856. to Mary F. Comstock. who bore him one 
child, ]Mary L. Mrs. Bull died in the winter of 
1865. He was married again in "67. to Miss Amy 
L. Cooper ; has four children. James H. Alvah M. 
Coates P. and Anna B. 

Frederick Bush, was Ixmi in Sldckhausen. 
Prussia, Decenilier 12th, 1.S49. lie remained in 
his native country until 1869 when he emigrated 
to America. lie came to Minnesota, and settled 
in Bichfleld. Hennepin county. December, 1S69, 
owns 15 acres on section 15, Township 28. Bauge 
24, where he has a pleasant home. 

John Carey, is the owner of 93| acres of 
land on sections s and 9, Kichfield Township. 45 
acres being under cultivation. He was Inirn in 
Tipperary, Ireland. June 14, 1826, and remained 
there until nearly 20 years of age, when he came 
to America. Resided in New Jersey one year, 
thence removing to Maryland, where he remained 
vmtil 1855, when he came to Minnesota and pur- 
chased the farm he has since occupied. Was 
married to Ann Began, a native of Ireland, in 
1854. They have had twelve children, ten now 

living. Lizzie, James, Mary, Maggie, John, 
Nora, Jeremiah, William, Patrick, Agnes. 

C. C. Chase was born in Haverhill, Mass., May 
16th, 1844. Resided in his native State until 
1874, when he came to Hennepin county, pur- 
ceased twenty acres of land on section 15, town 
of Richfield, where he conducts a market garden. 
Mr. Chase is a practical gardener, and has been 
quite successful in the business. 

George Code owns 200 acres of land, of which 
fifty acres are cultivated, the balance meadow 
and woodland. He was born in Carlow county, 
Ireland, October 29th, 1824. Was engaged in 
farming in his native country until 1849, when 
he emigrated to Canada, locathig at Ottawa, 
where he engaged in farming and lumbering for 
seven years. In 1856 he came to the United 
States, coming directly to MiimeapoUs, w'here he 
resided until 1863. when he purchased the land 
he now owns in Richfield, and has since been en- 
gaged in farming. Was married October 27th, 
1859, to Grace Watt, a native of Ontario, Canada. 
She was born May 15th, 1836. They are the par- 
ents of six children: Robert F., George A., Mai'y, 
AViliiam, Elizabeth, and Joseph W. 

Mary Copley is the owner of eighty-two acres 
of land, forty acres under cultivation. Was born 
in Ireland, March 21st. 1837. Remained in her 
native coiuitry until I860, when she came to New 
York City, and thence to Boston, where she re- 
mained three years. In 1863, removed to St. Paul, 
wlieie she resided until 1868, when she married 
Mr. ( "opley. and has since resided on the farm she 
now occupies. 

Cornelius Couillard. one nf the old settlers of 
Kiclifield, was born at Frankfort. Maine. October 
31st, 1813. At the age of seventeen, learned the 
trade of tanner and currier, following it eight 
years ; then worked in a ship yard. In April. 1854. 
(•;ane to St. Anthony, and engaged in carpenter 
wiirk, and on the old susi)ension l)ridge. In 
August, 18.54, he made a claim of 160 acres, in 
Richfield ; 1855, removed with his family, and 
has since resided there. The whole quarter sec- 
tion has been brought under cultivation. He was 
Married, Sept. 11th, 1834, to Nancy J. Couillard, 
of Maine, who died October 6th, 1875. They had 
nine children : Ellen M., EUery A., Amanda M. 
died August, 1839 ; Annie A., died August 17th, 



]877 : Miiloiuili. died March, 1849 ; Adelbert H., 
Emma 1).. Cliailes A.. Fred. L. 

(iforfre \V. CiiiiiniiiiRs. a native of Maine, was 
lioni Aiiril Mli. ls.")H. Kngaged in fanning until 
ISliT. when he eanie with his parents ti) Bloom- 
ington. Henneiiin ('(Mnity. .\t tlie age of twenty- 
one, lie eniliarUed in dairy liusiness. In ISTS lie 
bouglit the land he now oeeupies. His dairy 
business has been (|uite sueeessful. Was married 
to Miss Alice (Jilchrist. Dec. 2r>t\\. IHT.'j. They 
have three children: .\illiur .V.. (ieoi'ge II.. ami 
Ruth W. 

William .1. Diigiian is the owner of 21-5 acres 
of land. ISd is i)low land, the balance woodland 
and i>asture. lie was born in Tii>perary. Ireland. 
in 1838; came to .Vmerica. with his iiarents, in 
1847. residing in Illinois until bs.JH. wlieii he caine 
to Henneiiin county, and has since resided on the 
farm lie now occupies. This farm was pre-empt- 
ed by his fatlier in Is.iH. In \sn-2 he was one of 
("apt. Xorthup's company who went to the relief 
of Fort Hidgelx. Was married .January 21st. 
1871, to Cordelia Kyle, by whom he has four chil- 
dren ; Mary. Katie. Maggie. John. 

William M. Fwing wasborn in Canada in iNlti. 
Learned the trade of wagon maker, and served 
the government during the rebellion in Canada. 
In 184s. removed to New York: remained one 
year; thence to In ls-")l he came to 
Minnesota, assisted in the survey of Maple Grove 
township, and in naming it. In 1857 he removed 
to Osseo. and was the lirst secretary of the 
coriioration. In Ihij^ he removeil to a farm 
in tlie town of Brooklyn, and resided there 
eight years. lie eidisied in Company C of the 
.Mounted Hangers, serving as clerk in the (Jiiar- 
tciinasler's department, until the company was 
disliauiled. Was married in is 10. to Myra Rogers ; 
by her he had live ehildren. t wo of whom are now 
living, lie has been married three times: has 
four children living. Charles .Vrklaud. Alice 
Myra. Fran<-is Cordelia and Mar\ .Vdelma. 

Patrick Fogarly was liorn in Inland in Islo; 
came lo Ihiscounlry in 1«')7. and settled in Kicli- 
lield township. lie was four years in the employ 
of the government, driving team. In \W2 was 
witli (ieneral .Sibley on his Imlian IC.xpedition. 
I'uicliased the farm on which he has since re- 
sided, in IM).'). lie now has thirty acres under 
cultivation. Was manied in.Iaiiuar\. Imiii. to 

Rridget Carrol, by whom lie has had seven chil- 
dren. Mary. Maggie. Ellen. Bridget. Willie. An- 
nie and Denis. 

George Fortwingler. a native of (ierniany. was 
born November 23d. 182M. llecameto Ihiscoun- 
try in 18-54. resided in Ohio one year, and in 18.5.") 
removed to St. Paul where he remained till Ihtifi, 
wlien lie icmo\ cd tn Bloomiugton, Hennepin 
county. Kept a Imlel at Xine-Mile Creek for two 
years, then purchased the farm he now resides on. 
Was married in IK.").'), to Miss A. Heisslei a native 
of (ierinany. by her he had four cliildicn. (ieorge 
and Caroline, twins. .lulius and .lulieii. twins. 
Ilis wife died and he again married; his second 
wife was .Miss .\. Hen/, by whom he has three 
children, .\melia. Mai>. Olillia. 

.lohn F. (tilmore was born in Ohio. Decem- 
ber -\n\. isiti. While young he accomiianied 
his jiarents tn Illinnis and resided in that 
stale. o<-eupied in leaching school until l,S3!). 
when he went to .Mississippi and engaged in the 
same vocation. In ls4.') he removed to Xewjiort, 
Kentucky, where he was engaged in the nursery 
business for six years. In ls71 lie came t<' .Min- 
nesola. residing at Faribault two years, engaged 
ill the nursery business. He came to Henneiiin 
coiiiily ill 1S7.S and lias since resided in Hichlield. 
Was married Dec. :!d. ISTU. to .Miss Belle Mc- 
Cliire. Their' children arc .\loll\ and William. 

Ilernian .1. (;jertsen is a uali\c of Norway, 
born October •Jiitli. ls:;u. He loHowed farming 
and tisliing in his native country until 18(58 when 
he emigrated to .\iiierica. settling in Isanti coun- 
ty. Minnesota. Came to Hichlield in Is7(l and 
in 1878 he boiii;lit M acres \\ here lie now resides. 
Married Alberliiia Olson of Norway in 
Family record is Nels 1'.. .lolin ('., Ole J., 
Ilciiix .1.. Louis ('.. .\ssoiia .M.. I^unice T., So- 
phia .1.. (ieorge II. Three children have died. 

.Michael (ileesoii was born in Ireland in l.H|(), 
and came to this coiintr\ in IMU. Landed in 
New '^'ork and went to .MassachiiseUs where he 
resided until ls."i.'>. when he came west and set- 
tled ill Ileniiepiii i'oiint> . He made a claim of 
liio acres, which he has since iiu-reased by pur- 
chase to J73 acres. He was married in l.s.')J to 
Mary lioldeii. of Ireland. The> have had nine 
cliildii'ii. .Michai'l. .lames and .lohn. twins. 
Tlinmas. M;ii\ \iiii, l>.niicl. Bridgel. Cornelius. 



Charles ITaeg was born in Germany, July 13, 
1819. He learned the trade of cabinet maker, 
served three years in the German army, and in 
1844, emigrated to the United States. Enlisted 
at ^Milwaukee, Wis., in September. 1845. Mr. 
Haeg enjoys the distinction of being a veteran of 
the Mexican war, serving under General Scott 
during the continuance of the war. In 1848 he 
was stationed at Fort Snelling, and. after a stay 
of six months was removed to Fort Uidgely. In 
ISol he received his discharge, and in Septendjer 
of that year made a claim about five miles north 
of St. Anthony, living there until 18.53, when he 
came to Richliehl. In 18(3.3 he purchased the 
farm on which he has since resided. Was mar- 
ried in 18-50, to Mary Walter, who died in ISiifi, 
leaving live children. Married for his second 
wife Albertina L. Adleman, by whom he has 
seven children all living. 

Andrew N. Hall was horn in Maine Xovember 
1st, 1835. Remained with his parents until 1855 
W'hen he come west and located at Minneapolis, 
residing there until I8(i2, when he returned to 
Maine and enlisted in Company B, of the 2.sth 
regiment Maine Infantry, serving one year. In 
• 1866 he returned to Minneapolis, and purcliased 
a farm of 72 acres in the town of Richfield. Re- 
sided in the city until 1872, since which time he 
has lived on his farm. Was married in 1875. to 
Eliza (."aley. Their children are Albion and Wi\- 

James Hawkes (deceased) was Imrn in York- 
shire, England, May 6tli, 1820. In l,s44 he came 
to America. In 1854 he came to Minnesota and 
pre-empted a farm of 120 acres in Richfield, where 
he resided tmtil his death. Mr. Hawkes formed 
one of the Comi)any who in "62 marched to the re- 
lief of Fort Ridgely under ('apt. Xorthup. In 1863 
he enlisted in the First ^Minnesota Infantry, and 
served in the First Battalion until discharged in 
1865. He was with his company in several of 
most severe engagements of the war. and was 
wounded June 1864, for whicli lie received a pen- 
sion. He was married in 1839 to Mary Ann 
Holdsworths. The family record is Harriet, 
Henry Thomas, David H., John W., EuunaJ. 
Alfred, Charles Lincoln. Five children have 
died. Mr. Hawkes came to his death in ]Minne- 
apolis Sept. 29tb, 1880, by a fall from his wagon. 

He was one of the pioneers of Richfield, and was 
respected by all who knew him. 

Jesse Haywood is a native of England, born 
May 10th. 1840. Remained in England, engaged 
in the Manufacture of woolen Goods until 1872, 
when he came to America, landed at Quebec, 
thence by lake to Duluth, going from there to 
Clay comity, Minnesota, where he purchased a 
half section of land. In 1874 he came to Henne- 
pin county, and has since been engaged as florist 
with Mr. Booth, at Minnehaha. 

Franz J. Ileiss was born in Germany, October 
19th, 1835, and there learned the trade of carpen- 
ter. Emigrated to this country in 1855, and to 
Minnesota in 1859, locating on a farm in Brown 
county. In 1861 he enlisted in the Sixth Minne- 
sota, and served initil the discharge of the regi- 
ment, in 1865. He purchased eighty acres of 
land in Richfield, in 1875, and lias since resided 
there, in the pursuit of farming. In 1871 he was 
married to Salomey Souder, a native of Germany. 
Their children are Frank D., Amelia, Charlie, 
Katie, and Willheim. Frank D. died in 1875. 

Cliarles Iloag, one of Riclifield's representative 
men. and a pioneer of Hennepin county, was born 
June 29, 1808, in New Hampshire. After re- 
ceiving such education as the common scliools of 
his native town afforded, he attended the Wolf- 
t boro Academy and Friends" Boarding School, at 
Providence, R. I. At the age of sixteen he be- 
gan teaching, and followed that profession for 
twenty-seven years, thirteen of \\liicli he was en- 
gaged as Principal of a Grammar School in Phil- 
adelphia. Li 1852 he came to Minnesota ; taught 
school in St. Anthony two terms. In May. 1852, 
he made a claim of 160 acres of land, in what is 
now the city of Minneapolis : was a member of 
the first town council, and to him is due the 
honor of giving to the city its beautiful and ap- 
propriate name, Minneapolis. He was the second 
' treasurer of Hennepin ('ounty, and has held many 
positions of public trust. Is an ardent Odd Fel- 
low, and served one term as Grand .Master of the 
Minnesota Grand Lodge. He claims to be the 
oldest Odd Fellow in the state. Has also occu- 
pied the position of President of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Societies. In 1857 he pur- 
chased the farm he now occupies, which is known 
as the " Diamond Lake Farm," and removed to 
it in 1865. Mr. Iloag was County Superintend- 



entof Schools from ISTO to 1874. Has one daugh- 
ter by liis tirst wife, married to Charles II. Clark, 
who is in the revenue service. Mr. Iloair's first 
wife died in 1871. and in Marcli. Is7:-i. he was 
married to Susan F. Jewell, of Solon. Maine. 

Lama Holuian was born in tlie State of \ev- 
niont in 1817. In 1 8.5.5 she eauie to Minnesota. 
In 1848 she was married to >'. Butterfield who 
was drowned in Lake Minnetonka in 18.59. She 
settled will] her liiisliand in Minnetonka in 18.5o 
and remained tliere until 18H1 wlieii slie removed 
to the farm in Kichlield where slie has since re- 
sided. In I8(i(i. was married til L. Ilolnian. He 
was killed in I'^71. \n-u\ii run over by a heavy 
load of wood. Mrs. Ilcihnan has one son by her 
lirst liiisliand. I' rank .1. Unttertield. 

Orrin lliibbard was born in tlie Slate of New 
Voik. April otli. I88.5. Ill 18.54. moved to Janes- 
ville. Wisconsin, wliere lie remained for eleven 
years, eight of which lie jiassed in the emiilny of 
tlie American Exiuess Company Lnlisted in 
1802 in Ihe 12th Wisconsin Battery and served 
until liis dischargein 18i).5: parliciiiatingin many 
lit tlie hardest fought battles of tlie Rebellion. 
In 1865 he accepted a iiosition as conductor for 
the C. M. & St. P. Ry. Cn.. and has since been en- 
gaged in tliat vocation. In ls77 be bouglit a 
farm in the town of Hichtield and lias imiiroved 
it until it is now (Hie of the linesl farms in this 
part of tlieconnU. He was married in .laniiarv . 
18t)t). Ill Harriet K. Heauiinint. They have had 
four cliililren. Mar\ C. Nellie H.. Sarah H.. de- 
cea.sed. Hattie. died Kebruary. Is77. lie resides 
in Minneai>i)lis at illK Sixth Avenue South. 

K. F. Irwin is a native of New York, born in 
Krie comity Fetiruary 2il. 184(i. In 18.5.5 he came 
with his parents to Minnesota, .settling in the 
town of Hiclilield. Wasocciiiiied in various pur- 
suits mitil lsti2 when he joined llie i-iimp;iiiy 
ciimmaniled bv Caplain Northiip fur llie relief 
nf l'"nit Hjilgely. In I8ii.5 In- bmiL'lil tlir liiriii lie 
has since i)ci-u)pieil. and has imiiroved it until il 
ranks aninng the finesl farms of the town. AVas 
married ((ctnliii 1st. 18<>7. at luwa City. Iowa, 
to -Maiilia ■}. limllaiiil. Tliex Iimm' mii- smi. .Inbn 
ISiirlland. born Februai\ luili. Is7l. 

Leiipiilil Kiesel was born in Haden. (iermany. 
December 12th. lv_'.5. He came In the rniled 
States in 18.5:;. .■md tn .Minnesuta in ls.5i;. Ivnter- 
ed a claim near Cliaska. and alter li\ing tliere 

three years removed to Bloomington. In 1864 
he bought a part of the farm he now occupies in 
Hichlield. Now owns 220 acres, 1-50 acres being 
cultivated. Was married in 18.56 to Madeline 
Leppet. wlio has borne him live children. 

Edward K. King was burn at I'eabody. Mass.. 
.Vugiist. 1st. \s:w. Came in Minnesota in 18.57 
and piirclKised the farm be imw occupies. At 
the time he came to Hichlield there was but little 
improvemenl and few settlers. lie has since built 
a siibslanlial barn ami line ilwelling house at a 
cost of .'s.5.lMi(). ^tarried in Nov. 186.1.. Annie N. 
Couillard. who died August 17tli. 1877. His 
second wife was Miss Katie H. Wniiilinan who 
was boi'u December 22d. 18.57. 

.lohii Kyte is the nwnerof Ubiacres uf land. 7.5 
acres under cultivation. He was born in Ireland 
in 1817 and came In this country in 1845. After 
resiiling in varinus |ihiccs in the Eastern Stales, 
he came to Minneaimlis in ls.5.5. Pre-empted a 
(piarter section of land, bniight as much more, 
and has sini-e been engaged in farming. Has 
live children, all of wlimn are married. 

Michael Malone> was born in the Cnunly of 
(ialway. Ireland. Nci\iniber 2()th. 1845: came to 
New York in 1852. ami two years later removed 
to Wisconsin, wliere hr icsiiled fur litteeii years. 
.Viigiist. 1862. enlisleil in a Wisconsin regiment, 
and served three years under (Jenerals Sherman 
anil .Mi-Pherson. He was iliseluirged .Vugnst. 
1865. and four \ears later lemiived to .Minnesota, 
and has since resided in IJiclitield. where he owns 
160 acres lit land, lb' was married Nnvember. 
1877. to Alberlina Kricksnn. 'I'liex lia\e niie 
daughter, born December ;<1st. Is7s. 

.\Irii iniaii MiM'alie was Imiii in tlie stale of 
New York. December 12lli. I8l:i; i-anie with his 
jiarents to Minnesota in 18.58. and lias since resided 
in the town of Uichlield. In 1862 he was with 
Captain Xnrtliupnn the Pint HidgelveNpeditinn. 
• Inlin MrCabr. his lallirr. was linrii In Irelaml in 
1808 ; i-ame In ,\merira. and resided in the state 
of New York until l85:i. when he came west 
and |iri'-rm|ileil a tarni in liii-liiield. wlirre lie re- 
mained until lii^ ili'iilli. wliicli iii-i-iiiieil in .May. 
Is7s ; be was iiiai neil In Harriet Toles. w Im Imrc 
him six children. Mercy. .Men iiiiaii. ICmilv. .\bii\. 
.\nielia and Elimiia. 

(ieorge Millani was lini II m >rn|ianil .\ugust. 
isl'i. Ili'ianii- In this innntrv in 185:i and ten 



years later to Hennepin county. He has, since 
coming to Kiclifleld been engaged as miller in 
the Eduia ]Mills. In 1872 was married to Miss 
Margaret Jihb. a native of Scotland. Following 
is the family record: Charles A., born August, 
1873; Lily F., born April, 1875, died at the age 
of three years; Annaliella. born May. 1877: and 
Rosella, born April. 1879. 

Howard C. Odell was liorn at Monticello, Indi- 
ana, October 17th, 18-53. and came with his par- 
ents to Minnesota in the fall of 1856 and located 
in tlie town <if Kichfield. He is the son of George 
Odell who has a farm on section 27. Howard is 
employed during the winter in Jilinneapolis and 
in the summer season turns his attention to 
farming. Was married October llth. 1880. to 
Miss Fannie Stanchfield. of Tama City, Iowa. 

Thomas Peters was l)orn in England. Octoljer 
7tli, 1848. His father being a shoemaker. Thomas 
engaged in the same business while in England. 
In 1873 he emigrated to this coiuitry. coming di- 
rectly to St. Paul. Engaged in farming in Ram- 
sey and Dakota counties vmtil 1876, when he 
came to Minnehaha, and was employed at the 
hotel two years ; thence to Hudson, Wisconsin, 
where he was engaged in a hotel for one year : 
then returned to ilumehalia, and has since been 
employed at the hotel. In Oct.. 1871, was married 
to Kate Weaver. Tlieir residence is near tlie junc- 
tion of ^linnelialia Creek witli tlie Mississipjn. 

D. N. Place was liorn in New York city. Jan- 
uary 18th, 1844. At tlie age of fourteen lie sliip- 
ped as seaman, and followed tliat vocation for 
eighteen years ; came to Minnesota in 1869, and 
for three years was engaged in the real estate 
business ; then returned to the pursuit of sailing, 
and served as mate on a voyage to Japan ; then 
served four years as Purser and one year as Cap- 
tain of the schooner Leader, trading on the Pacific 
coast ; was married April lo, 1874. to Frances M. 
Benjamin. They liave liad two children, one 
now living, Charles E. L. 

Patrick A. Ryan, a native of Ireland, was horn 
in 1831, and came to this country in 1S47. Re- 
sided in Pennsylvania and Ohio until 1854 when 
he came to ilinnesota, first settling on a home- 
stead in the town of Hassan, Hennepin county. 
In 1868 he sold his farm and removed to Saint 
Anthony where lie resided until 1874 when he 
purchased the fann he has since occupied in the 

town of Richfield, ilarried Julia Quinn in 1867. 

Edward A. Scales was born in Townsend, 
Massachusetts, April 13tli, 1853, and remained in 
his native town engaged in coopering until 1874 
when lie came to Minnesota and engaged in farm- 
ing at 2klinnehaha. In 1876 he purchased five 
acres of land and has since given his attention to 
market gardening. 

Gilbert Sly was born in the State of Xew York 
November 4th, 1798, and remained in his native 
state engaged in farming until 1866 when he 
came west and purchased of James Davis the 
farm he now occupies in the town of Kichfield. 
Was married in 1822. to Sarah Crane a native of 
Massacliusetts. Tliey have liad twelve children, 
five of whom are now living. Mary E.. Fidelia. 
Elisha, Paulina and W. H. 

J. L. Smiht was Iwrn in Holstein. Denmark, 
July 28th, 1850. In 1873 he emigrated to this 
country and came directly to Minnesota, locating 
on section 14, Richfield, wliere he has since been 
engaged in farming. 

Freeman B. Smith was born in Vermont, July 
loth, 1822. He removed to Champlain, ]^. Y'., 
where lie resided until 1852. For four years he 
held the office of postmaster. In 18-52 he went 
to California and was engaged in gold mining 
for one year. From 1860 till 1867, he was in the 
revenue service at Virginia City, Nevada. In 
April, 1878, he came to Minnesota and has smce 
been engaged in conducting tlie farm of his 
l)iother-in-law, Orrui Hubbard, in the town of 
Richfield. In 1846 married to Sarali E. Beau- 
mont. She was born in New Y'ork, Sept. 24. 1824, 

James Stansfield was born in the State of New 
York, September 3d, 1828, At the age of fifteen 
he went to sea and followed that occupation until 
1849, when he passed one year as steward on the 
Hudson River steamboats. In 1850 went to Cal- 
ifornia, and remained five years. Came to St. 
Anthony in 1855 and engaged in furnisliing 
supplies to steamboats until 1862, when he en- 
gaged in tlie restaurant liusiness, which he con- 
tinued in Minneapolis until 18-59, when he 
engaged in real estate Imsiness, and has followed 
the same extensively. In 1872 he purchased the 
farm in Richfield whicli he has since occupied. 
In 1856 he married Susan Wagner. They have 
, three cliildren living: Frank II., Charles L., and 
' Ella B. 



CIIAI'TKH X.\.\\ll. 


The town of I51()iiiiiiiij,'loii iiccii|iii's llie soulli- 
easteni pint oi the count.v. lyiiif; <iii the Minne- 
sota Kiver, wliicli forms its entire eastern and 
southern lM)undary. A strip of meadow, varying 
from twenty rods to a mile in width, skirts the 
river the wliole lengtli of the town. The hhifls 
are, therefore. Ijaek from the river. Imt here and 
there stretch ont l)are. sandy i)()ints to tlie meadow 
below. Heautiful rolling prairies extend l)a(k 
from the bluffs over tlie whole towiishii). The 
l)hi(Ts are not usually bare, but are covered with 
turf and timber, while the bottom lands, at the 
foot, have in some pai-ts large areas of water. 
The Siiiid belt jtasses through the middle of the 
town, e.\liibiting its usual characteristics, viz.. 
less productive soil, and timber of smaller or 
lighter growth. Heavier timber is found in the 
northwest. Nine Mile Creek has high, sandy 
bluffs covered witli ))rush or timber. The small 
lakes on the prairie east of Nine Mile Creek are I 
now very shallow, without outlet, and ai)pear to 
diminish year by year. They will doubtless 
wholly disapi)ear. Lakes liyland and Hush l)et- 
ter de.serve to be cla.ssed among the beautiful 
lakes of the town. The oidy stream of any size 
within the limits of the town i-' Nine Mile Creek, 
which enters the town near the northwest corner, ! 
takes a southeasterly direction, and (lows into the | 
Minnesota Hiver. 


I'etcr (^uinn was the lirst while man to settle ' 
and cultivate the soil of this town. He was ap- [ 
pointed Indian farmer, in accordance with a 
treaty with tin- Indians, and began his work, in I 

ISlo. on land nov, owned :uid occujiied by .James 
Davis, on section II. lie remained here until 
]Ko4. Kev. (Jiilcon H. I^mkI. the missionary 
among the Dakotas. moved here in 1,S48. and he 
and his Indian bands i.itchcd their tents on the 
banks of the Minnesota Hiver. where Mrs. I'ond 
now lives, lie lived here until his death, which 
occurred in 1878. Martin McLeod settled herein 
184il, where his son. Walter S. McLeod. now re- 
sides, at the mouth of Nine Mile Creek. .loseHi 
Dean came next. He arrived in the winter of 
isol 1'. He had obtained a charter for a ferry 
wliiili he proceeded to establish in comi)any with 
■\Villiani Chambers. He built the loi: house whii'h 
still stands near the ferry. 

\\ illiani Chambers also came in 1851-2 ; made 
a claim, now the farm of William Chadwick. and 
joined Mr. Dean in the ferry entiMjirise. He died 
here in 18(js. 

In lHo2. the following party came from Tllinois 
and made claims near the river, on the western 
prairie. S. .\. (Joodrich. .\. L. (Goodrich. Orville 
Ames, Henry and Martin S.Whalon,and Edwin 
AmesSr. Not one of those men is now living 
in Hloomington. 

We are indeliled |o .Mrs. Kehecca (loodrich for 
the loll,, wing inforuiation in rcgai<i to these 
worthy iiionecrs: S. A. (ioodricli died in Hlooni- 
ington. in IMI.",. .\. L. (ioo.irieh sold his farm 
in ISTil, and now resides in Mimieapolis. ()r\ille 
Ames and M. Whalon died in the service of their 
country, the former in hospital and the latter, it 
is sni.posed. iij ichel prison. Henry Wlialoii 
moved to rrincelon. .Miniiesoln. soon al'ler his 
settlement. Imt relMincd a feu \ears later and 
died at Fort Snclliug. Kdwin .\mes died on his 
claim soon after his arrival, and his widow per- 
fected the title, finite a number settled on the 
prairie east of the creek in Iso.i. Kioui this time 
on the town was rapidly settled. 

The following statistics will show llic popida- 



tion of the town and the rapidity with wliieli it 
has advanced in wealth. 

Tlie population, by census of 1880, was 820. 
The town has 23,20.5 acres of land ; the assessed 
valuation of the same for the year 1869, was $103,- 
693; for the year 1875, $298,163; and for the 
year 1880, S460.o38. The assessed valuation of 
personal property for the year 186it was 841.068; 
1875,847,775; 1880, $52,320. The total amount 
of taxes raised in 1869 was S3,574 ; in 1875, $4,- 
245; in 1880, $3,718. Number of horses over 
two years old, in 1869, 287 ; in 1875, 353 ; in 1880, 
403. Cattle over two years old, in 1869, 581 ; in 
1875, 752 ; in 1880, 592. Sheep in 1869, 309 ; in 
1875,300; in 1880.363. Ilogs in 1869.150; in 
1875, 159; in 1880. 401. Bushels of wheat in 
1869, 47,884; in 1875, 48,055; in 1880. acreage 


The hist town meeting was held at the house 
of 11. B. Gibson, on section 19, May lltli. 1858, 
at which E. B. Stanley was Secretary and Elijah 
Rich, Clerk. Whole nuinl)er of votes cast was 
twenty-five, and the following officers were elect- 
ed: Supervisors, Martin McLeod. A. P. Thomp- 
son, H. B. Gibson. The latter refused loijualify. 
and Allen G. Goodrich was appointed. Town 
Clerk, Elijah Rich; Assessor, Elisha Smith: Col- 
lector and Coustalile, Orville Ames; Overseer of 
the Poor, Joseph Kunison; Justices of the Peace, 
George Cook, E. B. Stanley; Road Overseers, 
Iilartin S. Wlialon. Thomas T. Bazley. AVm. 
Cliadwick. 'N'oted SlOO for town expenses for 
the current year. Resolutions were passed regu- 
lating, the licensing of dogs, hogs running at 
large, height and strength of fences, &c. The 
first Supervisors" meeting was held at the house 
of Elijah Rich, May 23d, 1858. Chairman absent, 
and adjourned to the 28th when the full board 
met and transacted its first regular business. 

April, 1859. Town meeting at the house of R. 
B. Gibson, 34 votes cast. Voted $150 for town 
expenses. Supervisors: Martin McLend. \. P. 
Thompson, I). McCullum. 

April 3d, 1860. Town meeting at R. B. Gib- 
son's. Mrs. Gibson objecting to the racket, 
adjourned to the school house. Thirty-nine votes 
cast. Levied $50 for town expenses and .$75 to 
build a bridge across the slough near Bradbury's, 
and the Supervisors authorized to purchase a 

road-scraper. Supervisors: Samuel Goodrich, 
A. P. Thompson, W. M. Chadwick. At the gen- 
eral election, Xovemlier 6th. 94 votes registered, 
only 68 cast. 

April 2d, 1861. Auuual meeting at school 
house No. 13. Thirty-two votes cast. $100 
voted for town expenses, '^''oted to build a 
pound and to let horses, cattle, etc., run at large 
during the summer months. Supervisors: Sam- 
uel Goodrich, W. M. Chadwick, John Miller. 

April 1, 1862, annual meeting at school house 
No. 13, levied $100 for town expenses. Super- 
visors. John Miller. W. M. Chadwick, I). McCul- 

April 7. 1863, voted $50 for a Pound, and 850 
for town expenses. Voted to change the height 
of fences from four feet six inches to four feet 
three inches. Supervisors John Miller. \V. M. 
Chadwick, James Dean. 

April 5, 1864, voted 8100 for town expenses, 
^'oted to pay a reasonable sum for the use of the 
school house in District 13, for election purposes. 
Voted to change the day for annual meetings, 
from the first Tuesday in April to the second 
Tuesday in March ; which could not be done till 
the passage of a legislative act in later years. 

Special meeting, June 5. 1864, voted to ot)taiu 
a plat, and record a piece of ground for a ceme- 
tery, to be the property of the town ; also to raise 
money to pay the wife of each soldier who had 
nob received a local bciunty. 82.00, and each child 
of the same 81.50 per month, from July 1st. and 
continuing during term of service. 

Special meeting, August 1 , 1864. A resolution 
was lost by 23 to 9, providing for the raising of 
money by town bonds to pay soldiers' bounties to 
fill the Bloomington quota under the President's 
call for 500,000 men. Owing to the action of the 
electore, the town officers were powerless to act. 
and a number of citizens, among whom were 
Wm. Chadwick, John Layman and T. Peteler. 
gave their individual notes to the First National 
Bank of Minneapolis, as .security for money ad- 
vanced to ]iay the bounties of soldiers to fill the 

Special meeting, .January 3, 1865, at the house 
of A. G. Gillet, voted to issue town bonds to pay 
bounties to soldiers to fill the quota under the 
President's call for 300,000 men, the tax for the 
payment not to be levied on the property of those 



who were or had been in the service without re- 
ceiving local bounty. 

Animal nieetiuf;. April 4. at the school house, 
voted Slol) for town cxiu'nses. ^'oted U> pnicure 
abler and pall for the use of tlic lnwo. and raise 
the per dicni of some of the town orticers. Su- 
pervisors Sain'l. (ioodricli. Wni. Kell. James E. 

April 8. "liii. levied one mill i)er dollar for town 
expenses, and voted that tlie cemetery be legal- 
ized by liling the plat, recrording. &c. Supervisors: 
Wm. riiadwick, Joseph Harrison, Abram Palmer. 

.\.I)ril 2. 1867, levied one mill per dollar for 
town expenses, seventeen mills for the payment 
of interest on the bounty bonds, one-half mill to 
improve the town cemetery and iiroviding tliat it 
be free for tlie inhabitants of the town and ^o 
per lot for non-residents. Supervisors: Samuel 
Goodrich, John Layman. Wm. Kell. 

April 7, 1808, levied one mill pi-r dollar for 
town expenses. Supervis(n's: Win. Kell, E. 
I'arker. AVm. Chadwick. 

March 30, 1869. Supervisors" meeting. The 
Treasurers' report showed llial the amount of 
money realized from the sale of bounty bonds 
amounted to and tliat bonds had been 
canceled wliich. including interest, amonnled to 
SI. 394. 17. .Vnd, as the seventeen-mills tax 
amounted to cmisiderable, there was still some 
bounty money in the treasury. An attempt was 
made in 1870 to use this surplus money to build a 
town liouse ; this was found to be illegal, and the 
money was distributed among the soldiers of the 
town who had not received a full bounty. The 
date of tlie annual meeting for 1869 does not ap- 
pear, but it was held at " ('ate"s School House."" 
Levied one mill jier dollar for town expenses. 
The biiililiiiLC ol' a town li:ill was agitated. Su- 
pervisors: \\'mi. Kell. i:. .\. I'inkei'. Will. Cliad- 

A special meeting was held during tlie smiiiner 
for the purpose of purchasing a lot for the town 
hall and to entertain X. ('<. Noithniii's jnoposi- 
tion. to donate land for a town house. 

A))ril ■), 1870. Meeting held at ('ale's School 
House. Voted to use the surplus bounty money 
for llie imrpose of building a town hall, but as 
the bounty money could not be used legally ex- 
cejit for the payment ofbounties, the matter was 
dropped. A'oted a tax of one mill pei ilollai for 

town expenses. Sujiervisors elected were Henry 
Harmon. John M. Cummings, A. P. Thompson. 

An election was held May 31st of this year to 
decide for or against the payment of state R. R. 
bonds by the sale of internal improvement lands. 
aiuK.') votes were east, all in favor of such nietliod 
of payment. 

March It. ISTI. meeting held at district school- 
house No. i:!. \'ote(l S7') to build a pound, and 
one mill ]ier dollar for town expenses. Super- 
visors, lleiiiy Ilariiioii. .V. 1'. Thompson. J. I). 
Scoheld. • 

Mareli IL'. ISTJ. meeting lield at school-house 
Xo. 13. Levied one mill iier dollar for town ex- 
])enses. Supervisors — Ileiirx Ilarinon, J. 1). Sco- 
tield. .Villain I'almer. 

March 11, 1873, town meeting held at Cates" 
school-house. Forty-eight xotes cast. Supervis- 
ors — Henry Harmon. Abram Palmer. Philliii 
Hyiies. ^'oted a tax of one-half mill iier dollar 
for town expenses. 

March 10. 1.S74, meeting at school-house district 
Xo. 13. Levied two mills per dollar for town ex- 
penses. Supervisors — Henry Harmon. .Vbraiii 
Palmer. J. D. Scoheld. 

ilarch 0, I,S7.3, town meeting held at Oak (irove 
Hall. SI.")!! voted for town expenses. Supervis- 
ors—Henry Harmon. .1. 1). Scodeld. .Vbram 

March 11. lS7i>. meeting at Oak (irove Hall. 
;^ was voted for town Supervisors- 
Henry Harmon. Abram Palmer. H. D. Cnnning- 

.March J3, ISTT, le\ led SL'oii for tow ii expenses. 
Supervisors — llenr\ lliiriiiini. .Mnam rainier. 11. 
T). ('niiningham. 

.March Hi. 1878. mcetiiig held al Oak (irove 
Hall. \'oled siioi) for town expenses. 107 xntcs 
cast. Siiiiervisors Henry Harmon. WalliT S. 
.Mclvcod. II. ]). ('iiniiingham. 

.March II. Is7'.i. meeting at Oak (irove Hall. 
.•^liOO Mitcd for town expenses, lo.") votes cast. 
Supervisors — lliinv llaiiiion. W. S. .Mcl.eod. J. 

March 9, isso, meeting held at ( )ak ( ; rove Hall. 
Xinety-nine votes cast. Changeil the ceiuelery 
name from ■' Presbyterian "" to •• liloominglon." 
\'oled S^") for a iioiiml. and i>'2Ui) for town ex- 
penses; also sjiecial tax to iiiipio\e tlic cemetery. 
Supervisors Walters. .Mcl.eoil. Saiiiiie! M<'(."lay. 



Wm. Chadwick. The subject of buildiuff a town 
house and pound has from time to time been 
agitated, but neither of tliem has been built. 


The Bloomington Presbyterian Church is at 
present the only organization in existence in the 
town. Rev. Mr. Pond took measures for its es- 
tablishment immediately after the removal of the 
Indians and the consequent termination of his 
missionary work. In 1855, the organization was 
completed with thirteen members, and services 
were held in the new cliurch. The church was first 
located at the Bloomington Cemetery, on section 
21, but in the spring of 1864, it was removed to 
its present location near the post otlice, and en- 
larged. Three members of the original thirteen 
still survive, Mrs. G.II. Pond, Mary F. Pond and 
Mrs. Chadwick. ]Mr. Pond continued the charge 
until 1873, when he resigned on account of ill 
health, and was succeeded in turn by Rev. M. 
Howell, Rev. Van Emmon, and the present in- 
cumlient. Rev. .J. de Bruyn Kops. Tlie latter 
took charge in 1877. 

The First Baptist Church was organized Janu- 
ary 22d, 1S61, with nine members. The church 
flourished for a time, but, in 1872, only half a 
dozen remained, and those voted to disband. The 
pastors during its continuance were Revs. S. S. 
Utter, A. J. Davis, and Cressy. 


The first scliool lield in the township was at the 
Dakota mission, by Rev. Mr. Pond and his assist- 
ants. Though organized for the Indians, some 
white children of early settlers attended. The 
first public school was taught in a private house 
by Miss Harrison, in 1855, since which time pub- 
lic schools have l)een regularly kept. The town 
is divided in four scliool districts, and has two 
joint districts with Richfield; the school house 
of the latter located in Richfield. That of Dis- 
trict No. 13, known as the Gibson school house, 
on Section 20, finished in 18.59, wastlie first school 
house built. That of district No. 10, long known 
as the Gates school house, was first located on 
section 15, but in 1874 the location was clianged 
to section 16, and the present house built. That 
of district No. 11 is in section 10, and was built 
in 1869. That of district Xo. 14 is on section 32, 

and was built in 1866. 


This Grange was organized ^larcb, 1874, by 
Deputy W. S. Chowen, of Minnetonka, in 
the school-house, district No. 10, with twenty 
charter members. The first master was J. D. 
Layman, and the first secretary Y. Bailey. 
The first meetings were held at the house of 
.James Davis and at Pease's Hall. During the 
first winter a stock company, under the title of 
the '• Oak Grove Hall Association,'" was organ- 
ized, composed only of memers of the Grange, 
for the purpose of building a hall. Shares were 
issued at SIO each, the money was raised, and the 
hall completed during the summer. It stands 
near the postoflice. A Library Association was 
formed March 19th, 1874. called the "Blooming- 
ton Grange Library Association,'' to consist only 
of members of the Grange in good standing. 
Tliirty dollars was invested in books at the out- 
set, and new books have since been added. The 
membership of the Grange is now forty-eight. 


The first hotel in the town was built in 1854, at 
the crossing of Nine Mile Creek, by a Mr. Baillif , 
who kept it a number of years. Next, Albee 
Smith Iniilt the hotel and store at the ferry. In 
1858 Mr. Whitney built a hotel near the creek, 
which was the stopping place for the stage and 
passengers for a long time. It was subsequently 
purchased by N. G. Northrup, who opened a store 
in connection with the hotel. After two years he 
sold to Mr. Moir, the present owner. Owen R. 
Dunbar opened a store in 1876, where the Bloom- 
ington postofflce now is. He was also postmas- 
ter. In 1878 he sold to Mr. Cumming, who 
keeps a small general store and is postmaster. 


The ferry was established in 1852 by Joseph 
Dean and William Chambers. They continued 
it in company until 1855, when Mr. Dean sold his 
interest to A. C. and S. A. Goodrich. In 1868 
Mr. Chambers sold his interest to James Brown, 
who, in 1872, sold to John Cameron. Mr. Cam- 
eron was accidentally killed at the ferry a few 
years later. His widow and Mrs. Rebecca Good- 
rich are now the owners. In 1855 Mr. Dean sold 
I to Albee Smith and others, from St. Paul, his in- 
terest in lands at the ferry, but not including the 
ferry itself, for a town site. The purchasers sur- 



veyed, platted it ami Imilt a hotel. Imt the tnwn 
refused to grow. 

-MILL. sllnl'S. ETC. 

•'The Bloomiiigton FlouriiiR Mill" is located 
on Nine Mile Creek, section 21. M. J. McAfee, 
the present owner, built the dam and mill in 
1876-7. It is a wooden l)uiIdingS0x4(i feet, tliree 
stories hip:!!. It has three runs of stone and one 
set of rollers, and is operated by a twenty-inch 
turbine wheel of the LelTel i^attern. with thirty 
or forty horse power. It has a capacity of twenty 
barrels per da\ . The water power is good. Nu- 
merous springs feed the jxnid. and keep up the 
supply of water, enabling the mill to run steadily 
during the summer months. 

Three blacksmith shojis are located and owned 
as foUows : one near IJloomington Kerry, by Hec- 
tor Chadwiek : one on section twenty, by Joseph 
Pepin, and one at Bloomington post ollice, by A. 

-Mrs. ("ameron keeps a hotel and store near the 
ferry, in a Imilding built by parties from St. I'aul. 


Mi's. Mary Louisa Quiiiii is tlie oldest living set- 
tler in IJlooniington. anil also probably tlie old- 
est settler in the State. She now lives with her 
daughter, Mrs. Margaret Brosseau. Mrs. Qinnn 
was born in the Hocky Mountains, in the fall of 
180(1, anil is the daughter of a Scotchman, named 
Findley and a Hocky Mountain Indian woman. 
who died giving her birtli. On the death of the 
mother, Mr. Findley was left with a family of 
four children. He. therefore, left the Mountains 
and came to Fort (Jarry, where he left the infant 
in the charge of a family until bis return from 
Lachine. Canada. lie took the otlicr children 
with him. but never returned. At I'mt (Jarry 
the baby grew to womanliood. I'eter (juinn, 
who subsetjuently became her husl)and, was one 
of the earliest settlers in this county, with a 
career even more eventful than that nf his wife. 
He was burn in Dublin. Ireland, about 17Wt. was 
c<»rried off by a party of English sailors when a 
school boy. and taken to Vork Factorj, an Esqui- 
maux trading post, on the coast of Labrador. 
Making his escai)e, he lived three years w itii ihc 
Ks<|uimaux. without seeing a white man duiing 
the lime. He was ransomed by a party of Hud- 
son IJa> tra|)l>crs in charge of .Mi. (iiahani. 

(iraham was tlie father of Mrs. Alexander Fari- 
bault of this State. He brought young l^uinnto 
Foil (iarry wliere lie married as stated above. 
He icmaineil in the employ of the Hudson Hay 
Coniiiany a muiibcr of years but was in constant 
dread nf being caught and returned to his origi- 
nal captors. In 1824. he was sent to the trading 
post of the American Fur Company, at Lac qui 
Parle to rescue a white woman, that had been cap- 
tured by the Sioux, and there made arrangements 
to join the American cimipany. He left his wife 
and family for the time at Fort (iarry andaccejjt- 
ed the appointment as their agent at Fort Suell- 
ing. lie arrived at liis new post in 1824. Du- 
ring his absence his wife suffered many hard-