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Full text of "History of higher education of women in the South prior to 1860."

IC-NRLF 




17 am 



HISTORY OF HIGHER 

EDUCATION OF WOMEN 

IN THE SOUTH 

PRIOR TO I860 



RS.I.M.E.BLANDIN 



LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Class 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

PRIOR TO 1860 



N- 



HISTORY OF HIGHER 

EDUCATION OF WOMEN 

IN THE SOUTH 

PRIOR TO i860 



By 

MRS. I. M. E. BLANDIN 




OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



NEW YORK AND WASHINGTON 

THE NEALE PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1909 






8EWEHAL 



COPYRIGHT, 1909, 
By The Neale Publishing Company 



*fjBR^ 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

i SOUTHERN CIVILIZATION n 

n SYSTEM OF SCHOOLS 16 

ni URSULINE CONVENT, 1727 1908 ... 20 
iv SALEM ACADEMY, WINSTON-SALEM, NORTH 

CAROLINA, 1802 1908 31 

v EARLY SCHOOLS IN ALABAMA ... . 56 

vi ACADEMIES FOR GIRLS ...... 63 

vn ACADEMIES IN AND AROUND TUSCALOOSA . 69 

vin ACADEMIES CONTINUED 75 

ix ALABAMA FEMALE INSTITUTE, TUSCALOOSA, 

ALABAMA, 1833 1888 80 

x MARION FEMALE SEMINARY, MARION, ALA- 
BAMA, 1835 I 98 86 

xi LIVINGSTON FEMALE ACADEMY, LIVING- 
STON, ALABAMA, 1840 1908 .... 100 
xii SOME OTHER INSTITUTES, SEMINARIES AND 

COLLEGES 119 

xiii SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA .. 126 

xiv FIRST SCHOOL IN GEORGIA FOR GIRLS . . 129 
xv LAGRANGE FEMALE COLLEGE, LAGRANGE, 

GEORGIA, 18331903 139 

xvi EARLY SCHOOLS OF KENTUCKY . . . . 153 
xvii EARLY SCHOOLS OF LOUISIANA . . . 161 
xviii THE WOMAN'S COLLEGE, FREDERICK, MARY- 
LAND, 1840 1908 172 



19262? 



8 CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

xix FRANKLIN ACADEMY, COLUMBUS, MISSIS- 
SIPPI, 1821 1908 185 

xx SCHOOLS IN MISSOURI. MARY INSTITUTE, 

ST. Louis, MISSOURI, 1859 1908 . . 204 
xxi EARLY SCHOOLS IN NORTH CAROLINA . . 217 
xxii EDGEWORTH FEMALE SEMINARY, GREENS- 
BORO, NORTH CAROLINA, 1840 1871 . . 232 
xxiii EARLY SCHOOLS IN SOUTH CAROLINA . . 251 
xxiv FIRST ACADEMIES IN TENNESSEE . . . 273 
xxv INSTITUTES AND COLLEGES. COLUMBIA IN- 
STITUTE, COLUMBIA, TENNESSEE, 1836 

1908 282 

xxvi EARLY SCHOOLS IN TEXAS 296 

xxvii EARLY SCHOOLS IN VIRGINIA . . . .310 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 
LIFOR 




PREFACE 

COLLEGES and universities were provided for the 
training and culture of men long centuries before such 
opportunities were accorded to women ; but at last men 
began to realize the truth of the sentiment expressed 
in one of the earliest acts of the legislative council of 
the Territory of Orleans, " that the prosperity of every 
State depends greatly on the education of the female 
sex, in so much that the dignity of their condition is 
the strongest characteristic which distinguishes civil- 
ized from savage society." However, some sections 
of our country were slow to recognize this truth, and 
the first half of the nineteenth century was well-nigh 
passed before girls were allowed to attend any but the 
" common or district school," and the expression of a 
desire to learn Latin or higher mathematics was con- 
sidered an evidence of unsound mind. 

Finally, women demanded a recognition of their 
right to educational advantages equal to those pro- 
vided for men. In some States women canvassed the 
country to arouse interest in the education of women, 
and to collect money to establish schools for women of 
a higher grade than the common school. Indeed, 
" they fought for every step of the way toward the 
recognition of their right to educational advantages 
equal to those provided for men." 

Such, however, was never the case at the South; 
for in every part of the South, from its earliest settle- 
ment, men recognized their obligations to their 
daughters as well as to their sons, and schools for 
girls were established all over the South as soon as 
conditions would warrant their maintenance. 

Well aware of the fact that the simple assertion of 
this truth can be doubted, is doubted, and oftentimes 
denied, the author has undertaken the task of collect- 

9 



10 PREFACE 

ing the strongest proof that can be offered that con- 
tained in the acts of the legislatures of the States, in 
catalogues of the schools, in data preserved in libraries 
of historical associations, and in letters written by 
people connected with such schools. The facts thus 
obtained are presented in the sketches of the different 
schools, and enough facts from every section of the 
South have been gathered to show that the interest in 
the education of women was not confined to any 
locality or State but was widespread. 

The author returns thanks to all who answered let- 
ters of inquiry or in any way assisted her; especially 
to Messrs. R. E. Steiner, Jr., and Flowers Steiner of 
Montgomery, Alabama, and to Mr. W. C. Richardson 
of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Also to Miss Courtney Hol- 
lins of Nashville, Tennessee, for valuable assistance in 
securing data for Nashville Academy. 

The author fully appreciates the value of the great 
advantages enjoyed by Southern women as a free-will 
offering, and deems it an act of justice only that the 
record of such nobility of character should be made 
available for reference and put in a more durable form 
than it has been heretofore. 



History of Higher Education of 
Women in the South 



CHAPTER I 

Southern Civilization 

SINCE the South was largely settled by colonists 
from continental Europe, and for more than a century 
these colonies were under European dominion, it be- 
comes necessary, in order to present a truthful and in- 
telligent view of Southern life, its customs, manners, 
trend of thought, or the educational ideas and methods, 
to consider European civilization and the agents by 
which it was evolved from the chaos that ensued on the 
dissolution of the Roman Empire. 

This civilization presents a marked contrast to the 
civilization of antiquity; the latter were characterized 
by remarkable unity; they seemed the result of some 
one fact, the expression of some one idea; whereas, 
the civilization of modern Europe is diversified, con- 
fused, stormy. " All the principles of social organiza- 
tion are found existing together within it: powers 
temporal, powers spiritual, the theocratic, monarchic, 
aristocratic, and democratic elements, all classes of so- 
ciety, all social situations are jumbled together and 
visible within it; as well as infinite gradations of lib- 
erty, wealth, and influence." ("Guizot's History of 
Civilization," pp. 37-41.) 

These various elements were in a constant struggle 
among themselves, but their inability to exterminate 
one another compelled them to enter into a sort of 
mutual understanding. This understanding was 
brought about by a new division of property which, 
together with the maxims and manners to which it 

11 



12 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

gave rise, introduced a species of government formerly 
unknown, which attempted to establish a federative 
system. This peculiar system is now distinguished 
as the Feudal System. " It rested upon the same prin- 
ciples as those on which is based the federative system 
of the United States. This system gave birth to ele- 
vated ideas and feelings in the mind, to moral wants, 
to grand developments of character and passion. It 
jealously guarded individual rights, especially those of 
landed proprietors, fostered the family spirit, and made 
known the importance of women and the value of wife 
and mother." 

Though these feudal lords were almost always en- 
gaged in war, yet a " crowd of noble sentiments, of 
splendid achievements, and beautiful developments of 
humanity were evidently germinated in the bosom of 
the feudal life." (" Guizot's History of Civilization," 
pp. 98, 99, 100.) 

However, the real dawning of the morning that suc- 
ceeded the long night was the inauguration of the 
Crusades. These were the first common enterprise in 
which the European nations ever engaged the first 
European event. The Crusaders returned with much 
information, enlarged views and new ideas; their 
prejudices were removed, their manners, tastes, and 
amusements more refined. 

The same spirit that had induced so many gentlemen 
to take arms in defense of the oppressed pilgrims in 
the Holy Land incited others to declare themselves the 
patrons and avengers of injured innocence at home. 
Thus arose that peculiar institution chivalry whose 
characteristic qualities were valor, humanity, courtesy, 
justice, honor. Its effects were not confined to the 
knightly class, but showed themselves in other ranks 
of society. More gentle and polished manners were 
introduced when courtesy was recommended as the 
most amiable of knightly virtues; women were treated 
with deference and respect, and their status in society 
elevated. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 13 

A scrupulous adherence to truth, with the most 
religious attention to the fulfillment of every engage- 
ment, became the distinguishing characteristic of a 
gentleman, because chivalry was regarded as the school 
of honor, and inculcated the most delicate sensibility 
with respect to these points. 

The impetus given to commerce by the Crusades en- 
abled the seaport cities to amass great wealth and 
caused others to spring into existence. This wealth 
enabled them to acquire liberty, and with it such 
privileges as rendered them respectable and independ- 
ent communities. Thus in every State was formed 
a new order of citizens, to whom commerce presented 
itself as their proper object, and opened to them a 
certain path to wealth and distinction. 

The church, through all these changes, possessed 
a definite form, activity and strength; she had move- 
ment and order, energy and system, and the promises 
that address themselves to the hopes of humanity re- 
specting the future. The church has given to the de- 
velopment of the human mind an extent and variety 
never possessed elsewhere. Her great error was the 
denial of the rights of the individual the claim of 
transmitting faith from the highest authority down- 
ward, throughout the whole religious body, without 
allowing to any one the right of examining the grounds 
of faith for himself. This encroachment on the rights 
and liberty of individuals was not allowed to continue 
without a challenge, and the vast effort made by the 
human mind to achieve its freedom is known as the 
Reformation. If it did not accomplish a complete 
emancipation of the human mind, it procured a new 
and great increase of liberty. 

Through these agencies, at the dawn of the seven- 
teenth century European civilization possessed broader 
and more enlightened views, greater political freedom, 
more refined manners, and greater religious liberty 
than ever before; but the war between advanced re- 
publican ideas of government and the doctrine of the 



14 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

divine right of kings and the claim to extensive prerog- 
atives must yet be fought, and the world had not yet 
learned religious toleration. 

The political and religious upheavals that resulted 
from the promulgation of these doctrines sent thou- 
sands of the best citizens of Europe to the wilderness 
of America. These people were not serfs nor peas- 
ants, but intelligent men of the middle class, and men 
of culture in whose veins coursed the best blood of 
Europe. Many of them found the way to the South- 
ern States, where they established a civilization that 
possessed many of the best features of feudalism and 
chivalry. In North Carolina the Scotch, Irish, and 
Moravians made large settlements; the Huguenots 
found homes in South Carolina, and many Scotch and 
English settled in Georgia. 

To avoid the consequence of the dispute between 
England and her American colonies, many of the best 
and most intelligent citizens of Virginia, the Carolinas, 
and Georgia sought homes in the Southwest, where 
they established communities distinguished for thrift 
and the observance of law and order. 

" A company of immigrants from New Jersey made 
a settlement on the Homochitto River, now known as 
Kingston, Mississippi. This settlement begun by men 
of intelligence, energy, and high moral character, be- 
came prosperous and rich, densely populated, highly 
cultivated, distinguished for its churches and schools, 
its hospitality and refinement, and in the course of 
years it sent its thrifty colonies into many counties, 
carrying with them the characteristics of the parent 
hive." (" Claiborne's Mississippi," pp. 102-107.) 

The same author says : " The Natchez district was 
proverbial for its immunity from crime and criminals, 
though remote from the provincial government at 
Pensacola and no court of record nearer. There is no 
British record of judicial proceedings in the Natchez 
district, and as there was considerable wealth in land, 
slaves, cattle, and merchandise the good order that 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 15 

prevailed must be ascribed to the superior character of 
the early immigrants. The intelligent and cultivated 
class predominated and gave tone to the community." 
Similar testimonies as to the character of many 
other settlements could be adduced. These testimonies 
were made by the historians of those times, men unin- 
fluenced by sectional feeling or prejudice, and they 
warrant the assertion that a large proportion of the 
early settlers of the Southern States were men of in- 
telligence and moral worth, law-abiding citizens. 



16 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER II 
System of Schools 

THE Southern people fully recognized the impor- 
tance of education, and according to their ideas made 
generous provision for schools. The following ex- 
tract from a speech by Dr. J. L. M. Curry confirms 
this statement: "In 1860 the North had a popula- 
tion of 19,000,000 whites, 205 colleges, 1,407 profes- 
sors, 29,044 students. In the same year, the South 
had a population of 8,000,000 white, 262 colleges, 
1,488 professors, 37,055 students. During the same 
year the North expended on colleges $514,688, the 
South $1,622,419." (Birmingham, Alabama, Age- 
Herald.) 

In 1617 Virginia began to work out a plan for the 
education of the " People of the Plantation," which 
culminated in the establishment of William and Mary 
College and provided for schools to be correlated with 
this institution of higher learning. This " University 
System " that is, an institution of higher learning in 
each State and at least one academy in each county 
was adopted by each of the Southern States. These 
academies were maintained in part by grants of land 
in Kentucky and Tennessee; by legislative appropria- 
tions in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. (" Boone's His- 
tory of Education in the United States," pp. 86-87.) 
In Alabama the revenues from toll bridges, escheated 
property, and a certain percentage of the dividend of 
State banks were appropriated to the maintenance of 
academies. 

Every Southern State made provision for common 
schools. The first constitution of Georgia made pro- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 17 

vision for a general common-school education. (Con- 
stitution of 1777, Art. 8.) In 1821 the Legislature of 
Georgia appropriated $250,000 for common schools. 
Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Louisi- 
ana, Mississippi, and Tennessee each spent annually 
on common schools from one-fourth to three-fourths 
of a million dollars. ("Boone's History of Educa- 
tion in the United States," pp. 348, 349.) The com- 
mon-school fund was increased by the establishment 
of a " literary fund " by legislative enactment in Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. These 
funds were augmented from time to time from vari- 
ous sources. 

In 1806 Tennessee granted 100,000 acres of land to 
academies and colleges, and one-thirtieth of the re- 
maining unoccupied territory to common schools. In 
1821 Kentucky and Louisiana made large grants of 
land to these schools. In the former one-half the net 
profits of the Bank of the Commonwealth were made 
a " literary fund " to be distributed annually for main- 
tenance of common schools. 

In 1837 Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Missouri, 
North Carolina, and South Carolina applied the 
whole of their shares of the surplus revenue to the 
maintenance of common schools in the respective 
States. ("Boone's History of Education in the 
United States," pp. 86, 87, 91.) This alone aggre- 
gated three and a half millions. Alabama and 
Mississippi were organized on the " sixteenth plan " ; 
that is, every sixteenth section of land must be appro- 
priated to the support of common schools. This fund 
in some sections was sufficient to maintain good schools 
and provide free text-books. The proceeds of the sale 
of these lands form the basis of the school fund of 
these States. 

It was estimated in 1855 (See DeBow's Review, 
Vol. XVIII, p. 664) that for many years prior to 1860 
the South paid annually five million dollars to the 
North for books and instruction. 



IB HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

In addition to what the State appropriated for edu- 
cational purposes, much was done by private enterprise 
and denominational zeal. As early as 1655 Captain 
John Moon bequeathed a sum of money for the sup- 
port of a free school in Isle of Wight County in Vir- 
ginia. Two years later Mr. King bequeathed one 
hundred acres of land to the same county for the 
same purpose. (Isle of Wight Records.) 

The prevailing sentiment at the South opposed 
secular education and favored church schools; there- 
fore the control of the academies soon passed from 
the State to the various denominations, and many 
seminaries and institutes were established by different 
denominations. 

The Southern people were also opposed to co-educa- 
tion, hence girls were not admitted to the academies 
and colleges ; but they were not neglected. At a very 
early period schools, seminaries, and institutes the 
last two, colleges in all but name were established 
especially for them. 

The criticism is sometimes made that these schools 
sink into insignificance when compared with the col- 
leges for women of the present day. The same might 
be said of the schools for men the high schools and 
colleges of the present day are far in advance of any 
colleges fifty years ago. However, the principal dif- 
ference between the colleges for men and women fifty 
years ago was substitution of French for Greek and the 
addition of music and art to the curriculum of the col- 
leges for women. Judged by the test that has been 
applied for two thousand years, " By their fruits shall 
ye know them," these colleges were excellent schools. 
The women who were trained in them acquitted them- 
selves admirably in every station of life, from the 
highest to the most ordinary vocations of women. 
They have commanded the admiration of cultured peo- 
ple at home and abroad, by their intelligence, their 
accomplishments, and refined and gentle manners. 

When/ the antecedents of the Southern colonists 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 19 

and the character of the colonists themselves are con- 
sidered it is not strange that in the South was estab- 
lished the first school in the United States, the second 
oldest school for girls on the continent of America, 
the Ursuline Convent in New Orleans. 



20 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER III 
Ursuline Convent, 1727-1908 

LA SALLE'S scheme of planting a colony in Louisi- 
ana, and others along the Mississippi River until the 
Great Lakes were reached, thus making an empire 
worthy of the " Grand Monarch/' filled all France, 
from court to peasantry, with enthusiasm, but his 
failure and the stirring events nearer home that de- 
manded immediate attention prevented the prosecution 
of this scheme. After the peace of Ryswick the all- 
important consideration was to take possession of the 
valley of the Mississippi before the English claimed 
it. Accordingly, plans for colonization were vigor- 
ously prosecuted. In January, 1699, Fort Maurepas 
was built on the Back Bay of Biloxi, where Ocean 
Springs now is, and the first settlement in Louisiana 
was begun. 

After more than twenty-seven years of labor and 
toil Louisiana consisted of the following settlements: 
New Orleans and the plantations in its vicinity, Fort 
Rosalie (now Natchez), and Fort Maurepas in Mis- 
sissippi; Mobile and Fort Tombecbe and Fort Tou- 
louse in Alabama. 

The Spaniards claimed Florida, where they had 
made two settlements St. Augustine and Pensacola. 
The English had settled three Southern colonies 
Maryland, Virginia, and Carolina ; the last colony was 
not divided into North and South Carolina until 1729. 
Thus what is now the Southern States was still in 
possession of the red man until the eighteenth cen- 
tury had well-nigh passed. 

After the death of Iberville, Bienville was made 
Governor of Louisiana. He fully realized that 'in or- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 21 

der to insure the prosperity of the colony the colonists 
must be self-sustaining and self-reliant. They must 
become Americans, not continue to be Frenchmen 
living in America. He fully realized this would never 
be accomplished as long as the children were sent to 
France to be educated. Hence he urged the home 
government to establish a college in Louisiana. The 
government refused on the ground that Louisiana was 
not populous enough to warrant the expense. 

Governor Bienville then attempted to obtain the 
services of some of the " Soeurs Crises " to teach the 
girls of the colony. This plan proved impracticable; 
but Bienville, undaunted by his failures, next applied 
to Father Beaubois, a Superior of the Jesuits who had 
recently come to evangelize the outlying districts of 
Orleans Island and the Indian tribes of the Territory. 
Father Beaubois suggested the Ursulines of Rouen 
as likely to be able to supply teachers. 

Application was made to them immediately. Father 
Beaubois, acting under the authority of Mgr. Jean de 
la Croix de St. Valier, Bishop of Quebec, negotiated 
with the Company of the Indies, which agreed to main- 
tain six nuns, to pay their passage, and that of four ser- 
vants to serve them during their voyage, and, further, 
to pay the passage of those who might wish for any 
motive to return to France. 

It was agreed that one of the nuns should be house- 
keeper of the hospital and should occupy herself with 
all the temporal concerns ; that two others should con- 
tinually be at the service of the sick ; that there should 
be one for the school for the poor, and another should 
serve as substitute to any of the others in case of 
sickness or the like. When the nuns might do so ad- 
vantageously, they were to take, if they thought proper, 
boarding pupils. 

On the 1 2th of January, 1727, all the nuns destined 
for the Louisiana monastery assembled in the infirm- 
ary of the Ursuline Convent in Rouen to meet for 
the first time the superior, Mother Maria Tranchepain 



23 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

de St. Augustine, who had been set over the new es- 
tablishment by the Bishop of Quebec, in whose diocese 
Louisiana then was. The names of the first sisters 
were: Soeur Marguerite de St. Jean 1'Evangeliste, 
professe de la Communeaute de Rouen; Soeur Mari- 
anne Boulanger de St. Angelique de Rouen; Soeur 
Magdeleine de Mahieu de St. Francis de Xavier, pro- 
fesse de la Communeaute du Havre; Soeur Renee 
Guiquel de Ste. Marie, professe de Vannes; Soeur 
Marguerite de Salaon de Ste. Therese de Ploermel; 
Soeur Cecile Cavalier de Ste. Joseph, professe de la 
Communeaute d'Elbouf ; Soeur Marianne Daiu de Ste. 
Marthe, professe de la Communeaute de Hennebon; 
Soeur Marie Hochard de St. Stanislas, novice; Soeur 
Claude MafTy, seculiere de Choeur; Soeur Anne, se- 
culiere converse. These sisters were accompanied to 
New Orleans by Fathers Tartarin and Doutrebleau, 
very worthy missionaries of the Society of Jesus. 

On the 22d of February, 1727, they embarked on 
the Gironde at Port 1'Orient, but contrary winds de- 
tained them in the harbor until the following day. 
The mother superior describes the passage as most 
perilous, and we can well believe her statement, for it 
was not until the 7th of August that they reached New 
Orleans. Some distance below the city they left the 
ship and entered small craft, to hasten up the river, 
and thus an opportunity was given for that hospitable 
reception thus recorded by the superior : " When we 
were 8 or 10 leagues from New Orleans we com- 
menced to meet habitations. There was no one but 
stopped us to make us enter his house, and everywhere 
we were received with a joy beyond all expression. 
On every side they promised us boarding pupils, and 
some wished to give them to us already." She con- 
tinues : " The inhabitants of New Orleans wish that 
we should lack nothing; they vie with one another in 
hospitality toward us. This generosity charges us 
with obligation to almost everybody. Among our 
most devoted friends are M. le Commandant and his 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 23 

lady, who are persons full of merit, and their society 
is very agreeable." 

The welcome given by Father Beaubois and the re- 
ception of the nuns is thus described in the " Ursu- 
lines in Louisiana " (p. 12) : 

" The delight of Father Beaubois on the arrival of 
the nuns, whom he had given up as lost, cannot be de- 
scribed. When the first greetings were over he con- 
ducted them to the poor church, to thank God for 
having rescued them from the dangers of the deep, 
and thence to his own house, where they sat down to a 
comfortable breakfast at u o'clock. Whether they 
walked processionally or were conveyed in the car- 
riages of the commandant does not appear. But, 
breakfast over, they were anxious to be conducted, as 
soon as convenient, to their own house. The monas- 
tery the Company of the Indies was building was far 
from completion, but the best house in the colony, 
Bienville's country house, was offered for their tem- 
porary abode. This, then, into which they entered 
on the evening of August 7, 1727, was the first con- 
vent on the delta of the Mississippi, the oldest, indeed, 
from St. Lawrence to the Gulf, by some seventy years. 
It was situated in the square now bounded by Bien- 
ville, Chartres, Douane (custom-house), and Decatur 
streets. It was two stories high; the flat roof could 
be used as a belvedere or gallery. Six doors gave 
air and entrance to the apartments of the ground floor. 
There were many windows, but instead of glass the 
sashes were covered with fine, thin linen, which let 
in as much light as glass and more air. The ground 
about the house was cleared : it had a garden in front 
and a poultry yard in the rear, but the whole estab- 
lishment was in the depth of the forest; the streets, 
marked by the surveyor some years before, had not 
yet been cut through as far as Bienville street, on 
which the nuns' garden opened: on all sides were 
forest trees of prodigious height and size. From the 
roof the nuns could look abroad on a scene of weird 



24 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

and solemn splendor. The surrounding wilderness, 
with its spreading live oaks and ghastly cypresses, 
cut up by glassy, meandering bayous, was the refuge 
and home of reptiles, wild beasts, vultures, herons, and 
many wondrous specimens of the fauna of Louisiana." 

Almost immediately our good nuns began to teach 
the children, to instruct the Indian and the negro 
races, and to care for the sick. The Governor wished 
them to add a Magdalen asylum to their good works; 
but it is doubtful if they were able to undertake this 
work of mercy for the abandoned women of the col- 
ony. They received under their protection the or- 
phans of the Frenchmen recently massacred by the 
Natchez, and the " filles-a-la-cassete " (girls with 
trunks or caskets), several installments of whom the 
King sent out as wives for his soldiers. And later 
these good nuns received large numbers of the exiled 
Acadians. ("Ursulines in Louisiana," p. 13.) 

The instruction of the children was allotted to 
Soeur Madeleine Mahieu de St. Francis Xavier. She 
was the first woman engaged in the systematic in- 
struction of girls in the colony, and the first of the 
company of nuns to be called to her reward (July 6. 
1728). In a circular letter issued in her honor the 
mother superior makes the following statement : " She 
solicited me many times that she might have the care 
of instructing savages and negresses, but that being 
already promised to another sister I granted her the 
instruction of the day pupils (externes). She took 
delight in them, and nothing contented her more than 
to see their number increase, and the more ignorant 
these children were the more devoted she was to 
them." 

The boarding department was under the supervision 
of Soeur Marguerite Judde. She died on the I4th of 
August, 1731, and she is thus characterized by the 
superior : " Her love for poverty was so great that she 
never wished to keep for herself any of the boarding 
money, or the payments parents made her." (" Tran- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 25 

chepain de St. Augustine," p. 43.) Some idea of the 
extent of her duties may be gained from the statement 
in May, 1728, less than a year after the arrival of the 
Ursulines, the nuns had twenty boarders, among them 
girls of fifteen who never had heard mass and whom 
they took great pains to instruct, that when they went 
home they might establish religion in their families. 
("Ursulines in Louisiana," p. 12.) 

The nuns were first domiciled in Bienville's country 
house, but they did not remain there long. The fol- 
lowing account of their change of location is given in 
" Ursulines in Louisiana " (p. 14) : 

" Tradition asserts that the nuns did not remain 
long in Bienville's house. A plantation and some 
slaves had been given to them by the Indian Com- 
pany, to which they removed, probably, as soon as 
they were able to erect a temporary dwelling. Bien- 
ville's house, though the largest in the colony, soon 
became too small for the numbers placed under their 
charge. Not a stone upon a stone remains of these 
two oldest convents on the delta. The first fell a 
prey to a conflagration which spread from the house 
of a Spaniard on Good Friday, 1788, to nearly 900 
houses, leaving thousands homeless. What the second 
was like it has not been possible to ascertain, but its 
site was on a short street, flanked by cotton presses, and 
opening on the levee, called Nun street, in commem- 
oration of the nuns who once prayed and taught within 
its limits. A long, straggling street, thickly fringed 
with very unpretentious houses, runs through the old 
Ursuline plantation, and recalls its ancient owners 
by its title, Religious street. Time has not left the 
slightest vestige of these old monasteries or the 
fine old trees and well-kept gardens that surrounded 
them." 

The third convent of Louisiana stands quite within 
the ancient city limits of the capital, on the square 
bounded by Chartres, Ursuline, Hospital, and Old 
Levee streets, on a line with the first, Bienville's 



26 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

house, but at the opposite end of the city. It was be- 
gun in 1727 and finished in 1734, and is to-day the 
oldest house in the Mississippi Valley, and perhaps the 
strongest. Built of the very best materials, in the Tus- 
can composite style, its walls are several feet thick; 
the beams and rafters, which the saw never touched, 
seem as strong as when they left the forest ; the shut- 
ters are of iron, and the bolts and bars and hinges are 
not surpassed for size and strength by those of any 
prison. The builders made it strong enough to stand 
a siege, for in those days an attack from the Indians 
or the English was by no means improbable. 

The Ursulines made another removal in 1824. In 
1831 their old convent became, for a brief time, the 
statehouse, and in 1834 was granted by them for the 
perpetual use of the archbishop, and since that time 
it has been his seat. (Cable, " The Creoles of Louisi- 
ana.") 

The writer of " The Ursulines in Louisiana " con- 
cludes the narrative as follows : 

" From the beginning the Ursulines were treated 
with the greatest kindness by the mother country and 
the colonists, and their wants were most liberally sup- 
plied. In 1740 they figure in the budget of the colony 
for 12,000 livres for the support of twelve religious 
and their orphans. Most of the ladies of the colony 
were educated at the Ursuline Convent (few went to 
Europe to be educated after its establishment), and 
their domestic virtues have won the warmest en- 
comiums. As daughters, wives, and mothers the Cre- 
oles did honor to their rearing. Their sweetness, mod- 
esty, grace, and industry were appreciated by the 
strangers who came hither to govern their country 
and had seen all of grace and beauty that Europe could 
show. To these matrons of Gallic blood the modesty 
and charm of maidenhood seemed to cling ; and their 
daughters were not unworthy of such mothers. Most 
of the Governors who came to the colony bore off 
Creole brides. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 27 

" The Ursuline schools always maintained a high de- 
gree of excellence. It is uncertain whether the schools 
of Boston, New York, or Philadelphia of those days 
were nearly so well provided with educational facili- 
ties as New Orleans while under the sway of France 
and Spain. Indeed, in sending out teachers these coun- 
tries gave the colony of their best. I have read with 
delight the letters of the first mother superior of the 
Ursulines, and those of her young disciple, Madeleine 
Hachard, and can testify that these ladies wrote their 
native language with a grace and elegance which few 
of the ' teachers ' who expatiate on the ' benighted ' 
times of old can equal. And no better evidence of 
the scholarship of the first teachers that enlightened the 
youth of Louisiana, and ameliorated the lot of the 
savage and the slave, by teaching them of a heaven 
prepared for them, of a Father who loves them, of 
a Saviour who redeemed them, rescuing them from 
the bondage of Satan, and imparting to them, for 
Christ's sake, that blessed freedom wherewith He 
hath made them free, can be found than the characters 
of the pupils trained in the Ursuline Convent." 

When Louisiana was transferred from the dominion 
of France to that of Spain the Ursulines were much 
disturbed and very apprehensive as to their future. 
The Spanish Governor hastened to allay these fears, 
and pledged the protection and favor of the govern- 
ment. ' You will assist the government in laboring 
for the preservation of morals, and the government 
will uphold you." When Louisiana became a part of 
the United States the Ursulines were much alarmed 
lest a Protestant government, one supposedly hostile 
and intolerant toward Catholics, would close their 
house. This transfer necessitated a change in church 
jurisdiction. Louisiana was transferred from the ju- 
risdiction of the Bishop of Cuba to that of the Bishop 
of Maryland, Rev. John Carroll. 

The superioress wrote to Bishop Carroll, stating 
her apprehensions. Bishop Carroll sent the letter to 



28 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

President Jefferson, who answered it with the fol- 
lowing letter: 

"Washington, May 15, 1804. 

"To the Sister Therese de St. Xavier Farjon, Su- 
perioress, and to Nuns of the Order of St. Ursula 
at New Orleans : 

" I have received, Holy Sisters, the letter you have 
written me, wherein you express anxiety for the prop- 
erty invested in your Institution by the former Govern- 
ment of Louisiana. The principles of the Constitution 
and Government of the United States are a sure guar- 
antee that it will be preserved to you sacred and in- 
violate, and that your Institution will be permitted to 
govern itself according to its own voluntary rules, 
without any interference from the civil authority. 

" Whatever diversity of shade may appear in the re- 
ligious opinions of our fellow-citizens, the charitable 
objects of your Institution cannot be indifferent to 
any: and its furtherance of the wholesome purpose 
of society, by training up its younger members in the 
way they should go, cannot fail to insure it the pat- 
ronage of the government it is under. Be assured it 
will meet with all the protection which my office can 
give it. 

" I salute you, Holy Sisters, with friendship and re- 
spect. 

" THOMAS JEFFERSON." 

This autograph letter and one from President Madi- 
son, and many interesting documents, are carefully 
preserved in the archives of the Convent. In 1803 
the number of Sisters was 1 1 and the number of board- 
ing pupils 170. 

After remaining in their third home, the Arch- 
bishop's palace, for 100 years, the Ursulines removed 
in 1824 to their present location. This convent is 
situated on an extensive plantation about two miles 
below New Orleans. The establishment is so very 
large that many have affirmed that had they not visited 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 29 

it they could not have formed a just estimate of its 
vastness, or of the various advantages it possesses for 
educational purposes. 

The main building and each of the two wings in 
the rear are laid off into three stories, two of which 
are surrounded by broad galleries, where the pupils 
can take out-door exercise when the weather does not 
permit of recreation in the play-grounds or in the park. 
The lawn is bordered with beautiful crape myrtle, 
and the park is shaded by majestic pecan trees, over 
a century old. In front of the main building is a 
flower garden, and farther on, to the right and left, 
is an orange grove. A variety of other fruit and 
shade trees are also on the grounds. The milk and 
vegetables, etc., consumed in the establishment, being 
produced on the plantation, it is found easy to supply 
the pupils with an abundance of wholesome food. 

The various apartments are spacious, well venti- 
lated, and commodious, and great attention is paid to 
the rules of hygiene. It is a fact worthy of note that 
even during the terrible epidemic of 1878 there 
was not a single case of yellow fever within the 
enclosure. 

A suite of bathing rooms, twenty-five in number, 
is attached to the establishment. Each room is pri- 
vate, and is furnished with an abundant supply of hot 
and cold water. 

The program of studies in this institution has 
been modified as often as required, to correspond to 
the progress of the times and the demand of society. 
At present it embraces French and English grammar, 
rhetoric, literature, logic, ancient and modern history, 
geography, astronomy, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, 
trigonometry, book-keeping, physics, botany, geology, 
physiology and chemistry. Lessons in penmanship, 
reading and elocution are daily given. 

The Academy possesses a library containing over 
four thousand volumes, philosophical and chemical 
apparatus, a telescope, a large assortment of the most 



30 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

improved globes and maps, and a fine collection of 
minerals, etc. 

The musical and art departments are well equipped 
and under competent supervision. 

Equal attention is paid to the French and English 
languages, both being taught by theory and practice. 
The recreation hours are alternately superintended 
by American and French " religious " ; and during 
these hours the pupils are required to converse in the 
language of the sister who presides. Consequently, 
the young ladies who observe this point of their rule, 
and follow the course of grammar and literature 
adopted in the establishment, acquire a thorough 
knowledge of both languages, and speak them with 
fluency and elegance. 

The old-fashioned custom of training girls in cor- 
rect and polite behavior still prevails in this estab- 
lishment. Wreaths and gold and silver medals are 
awarded for polite and amiable conduct and neatness. 

On April 24, 1900, about one hundred ladies, in- 
cluding representatives from the graduating classes 
as far back as 1835, 1847, 1850, etc., assembled in 
the chapel of the convent to organize an alumnae 
association. The meeting was opened with prayer by 
the Rev. Father Denoyal, chaplain of the Ursuline 
Convent, who also later delivered an eloquent address. 
After prayer the meeting was called to order by the 
superioress of the Convent, Rev. Mother St. Stanis- 
laus. 

(The latter part of this sketch was prepared from 
the catalogue of Ursuline Academy for 1901-1902, 
and the Ursuline Alumnae, both kindly furnished by 
the mother superioress.) 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 31 



CHAPTER IV 

Salem Academy, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 
1802-1908 

IN 1752 a party of Moravian settlers entered the 
" Old North State," having received a liberal offer 
from Lord Granville if they would settle upon his 
estates in the " New World/' The tract which they 
settled was around the spot now occupied by the 
flourishing city of Winston-Salem, at that time an 
unbroken wilderness. The first settlement was lo- 
cated about six miles north of what is now Winston- 
Salem. 

The Moravians, since the days of John Huss, have 
paid much attention to education. A prominent ar- 
ticle of their faith is that in order to make good men 
and women it is necessary to begin work upon the 
children, and that, too, at a very early age. Hence, 
as soon as they build a church they build a school- 
house. Fifty years elapsed before they could put 
their faith into practice in North Carolina. However, 
in 1802 they founded Salem Academy, a school for 
girls. It is one of the five institutions of higher learn- 
ing in the United States which are the property of 
the American Moravian Church and are conducted 
under the supervision of the executive boards of its 
provinces North and South. 

The European system of grading now being widely 
used by American schools was the original basis of 
the system of the Academy. The scholastic work was 
divided into three departments : preparatory, requiring 
four years; academic, occupying four years, and the 
post-graduate course, whose length depends upon the 
pursuits of the pupil. 



32 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

The curriculum, from the organization, has included 
music and art, and industrial art, which embraced 
lessons in cooking and housewifery, plain sewing, em- 
broidery, lace-making, and drawn work. During the 
early period of the school the course in music con- 
sisted of lessons on the piano and singing lessons in 
class; the work in art was confined to drawing, and 
painting in water-colors. 

Primitive as this may seem now, it was very valu- 
able in those days, and many a plain, unpretentious 
home in the Southland was adorned with these sketches 
made at Salem, and the monotony of work relieved 
by the daughter's simple ballads. 

From time to time the curriculum has been extended 
to meet the demands of the time, until now it em- 
braces the regular academic and collegiate courses, 
comprehensive courses in music and art, departments 
of elocution and languages, and commercial and in- 
dustrial departments. 

Buildings have also been added, until there are ten 
large buildings, which are situated in a very beautiful 
park of thirty acres. 

" No effort could accurately portray the permanent 
role which the Salem Academy for girls and women 
has played in the educational development, not only of 
North Carolina and the South, but of the whole coun- 
try. Thousands of alumnae sent out since its in- 
ception, representing the ablest educators, the most 
refined and cultivated women noble and grand in 
purpose bless nearly every community in America. 
The Salem Academy has ever stood paramount with 
the higher education of the country, and its aim has 
always been to afford a broad and liberal culture for 
women: to furnish to young women an education in 
classics, mathematics, and sciences equal to that ob- 
tained in our best colleges for young men, and to 
add to these a special training in social culture, music, 
art, and conversation which shall better qualify her 
to enjoy and do well her life-work. The aim has 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 33 

been, not only to give the broadest and highest moral, 
intellectual, and physical culture, but also to preserve 
and perfect every characteristic of complete woman- 
hood." (From a sketch written by Rev. J. H. Clewell, 
published in " The City of Winston-Salem.") 

The Academy was not established, nor is it now 
conducted, for purposes of gain, but as a means of 
Christian usefulness. The principal has no pecuniary 
interest in the school, being simply the agent of the 
church, by the authorities of which he is selected for 
this department of its activity; and while this institu- 
tion is under the auspices of the Moravian Church, 
the strictest adherence to non-sectarian principles is 
observed. 

The charges for board and tuition have always been 
so moderate that the advantages offered by the Acad- 
emy have been placed within the reach of thousands of 
girls whose limited means would have debarred them 
from collegiate training. 

Early in the century the school became famous, 
and girls rode hundreds of miles on horseback to at- 
tend school at this academy. When Salem was reached 
the horses were sold and the saddles hung in the sad- 
dle-room to remain four years. At the end of the 
course of study the fathers returned to Salem, pur- 
chased horses, the saddles were taken down, and the 
company bade farewell to the school-home, and went 
forth to encounter the stern realities of life. Many 
of these girls filled high social positions; twice pupils 
of Salem Academy have presided in the White House, 
and almost every gubernatorial mansion in the South 
has had a pupil from the Academy as the lady of the 
house. Among the wives of distinguished military 
men may be noted those of Stonewall Jackson and 
General Hill. 

Never since the Academy was opened, over one 
hundred years ago, have its doors been closed. Dur- 
ing the War between the States it was considered a 
safe place of refuge, and it was filled to its utmost 



34 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

capacity all through those dark days. When the hos- 
tile armies in turn filled the town, the principal al- 
ways secured a guard for the building and its hundreds 
of precious young lives. 

The patronage has always been good ; at the present 
time there are over 400 persons connected with the 
school. This patronage is drawn from all sections 
of the United States and from foreign countries. The 
corps of instructors numbers 35 and the alumnae 
14,000. 

Although the school has been so popular, and its 
aim has always been to maintain a high standard of 
scholarship, it was not incorporated until February 3, 
1866; the act of incorporation granted the power to 
confer " such degrees, or marks of literary distinc- 
tion, or diplomas, as are usually conferred in colleges 
and seminaries of learning." 

The Academy has had eleven principals, viz: 
Messrs. Kranach, Steiner, Reichel, Bleek, Jacobson, E. 
De Schweini, Grunet, Zorn, R. De Schweinitz, Rond- 
thaler, and Clewell. 

" Salem Academy celebrated its centennial in June, 
1902. This celebration marks an epoch in the history 
of the " Old North State," and it is difficult to ex- 
actly estimate its value on succeeding years. Dr. 
Kemp J. Battle delivered an address on " North Caro- 
lina in 1800 " ; Senator Clarke of Montana, an ad- 
dress on "The United States in 1800"; while on 
" Alumnae Day " the different alumnae branches 
were presented, and several of the old alumnae gave 
reminiscences of the old Academy. 

" Mrs. Donald McLean of New York, Miss Louisa 
B. Poppenheim of Charleston, South Carolina, Mrs. 
Pierce of the New York Tribune, and Mrs. Johnson 
of New York made addresses. 

" The most popular visitors were Governor Chas. 
Aycock, known as the " Educational Governor," and 
Senator Ransom. 

" The day of the Governor's arrival the city 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 35 

turned out en masse. He was met at the station 
by the representative citizens men and women and 
escorted through the city; in fact, he was always es- 
corted by an admiring crowd. Many prominent ed- 
ucators were present, among them President Mclver 
of the State Normal College (Greensboro), President 
Venable of the University of North Carolina, Dean 
Penniman of the University of Pennsylvania, and 
several others who showed their appreciation of the 
institution. 

" One evening was given up to a series of tableaux, 
representing the principal events in the history of 
North Carolina during the past century. There were 
many elaborate musical programs, but the most inter- 
esting ceremony of the week was the real commence- 
ment day, when thirty girls, in their classic white caps 
and gowns, marched into the chapel carrying their 
daisy chain, and when they had received their diplo- 
mas, filed out again under the trees to hear the Gov- 
ernor's address and to assist in laying the corner-stone 
of the Alumnae Hall. 

" The social functions of the week were many 
and most elaborate, including balls, receptions, 
luncheons, etc., for Winston-Salem is full of refine- 
ment and wealth, a most desirable combination. The 
alumnae served a luncheon to 500 guests in the Acad- 
emy Chapel. During the afternoon several distin- 
guished guests were called on for speeches, and there 
was an air of ease and grace throughout the enter- 
tainment. On Commencement Day Dr. and Mrs. 
Clewell entertained about 500 ladies and gentlemen, 
including the Governor and his staff, with a similar 
feast in the same place." (A sketch by Miss L. B. 
Poppenheim, in The Keystone.) 

The Ursuline Convent, New Orleans, Louisiana, is 
the only other school for girls in the Southern States 
that has had a continuous activity for a cen- 
tury. 

(The material for this sketch was obtained from a 



36 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

sketch by Dr. Clewell, catalogues, and papers sent by 
him to the writer.) 

Nazareth Academy, 1808-1908 

When Bishop Flaget was appointed pioneer Bishop 
of the West, in 1808, he conceived the idea of forming 
a band of women to educate the children of his dio- 
cese. He chose as the director of this new community 
his friend and companion, Rev. John B. David, su- 
perior of the newly created theological seminary of 
St. Thomas. A farm located amidst the picturesque 
knobs of Nelson county was secured, and Father 
David and the seminarians built a log cabin on it 
about nine miles from Bardstown, and here the Sis- 
ters of Charity of Nazareth began to teach the chil- 
dren of the sturdy farmers who lived around the 
Episcopal residence, which was also a log cabin, De- 
cember i. Before Easter three others had joined the 
order. As soon as the Bishop's plan became known 
Sister Teresa Carico and Sister Elizabeth Wells of- 
fered for the work, and before the end of the first 
month Sister Catherine Spalding joined the commu- 
nity. 

This little band of five women patiently endured 
the hardships, and faithfully performed the tasks that 
fell to the lot of pioneer women. They supported 
themselves, and in addition to the labor of teaching 
and nursing the sick, they spun and wove and made 
garments for themselves and the seminarians, and 
worked in the fields. The little school prospered, and 
in 1814 Nazareth Academy was established; and al- 
though many other educational institutions have been 
established since Nazareth was founded, it has retained 
its early prestige, and keeps abreast in all essentials. 

The community came out of those days of trial 
victoriously, and after a decade they numbered thirty- 
five, including sisters, postulants, and novices ; and the 
number of pupils thirty. They now felt encouraged 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 37 

to seek a more extensive field of labor, and selected 
a tract of land lying two and half miles north of 
Bardstown, owned by Mr. William Hynes, which the 
donation of Sister Scholastica O'Connell enabled them 
to buy. A frame house, the dwelling of the former 
occupant, was converted into a schoolhouse and no- 
vitiate ; the log cabin near served for a chapel, in which 
Father David celebrated the first mass ever said on 
the premises. 

June n, 1822, was truly a joyful day, the day on 
which the sisters took possession of their new home. 
The new site was called Nazareth also, and from this 
date Nazareth Academy became a boarding-school 
only. Since the purchase of the farm the school has 
had no further endowment; the income derived from 
tuition has been devoted to improvement and expan- 
sion. Within six years after the removal $20,000 had 
been spent in improving the place, and in eight years 
the number of pupils had increased from thirty to 
one hundred and twenty. Not only has the parent 
school been maintained, but as many as sixty-seven 
branch schools have been established in the West and 
South. Teachers for all these schools are furnished 
by a normal school conducted at Nazareth, where all 
these teachers are trained. 

Nazareth Academy was chartered by the Kentucky 
Legislature in 1829, under the title of " Nazareth Lit- 
erary and Benevolent Institution," and was given the 
usual powers and privileges. Under this charter the 
institution is managed by the community, under the 
general supervision of a board of seven trustees, of 
whom the Bishop of Louisville is moderator. 

The most prominent of the early members of the 
order were Mother Catherine Spaldinsr, Sister Ellen 
O'Connell, and Sister Harriet Gardiner. Mother 
Catherine Spalding, a member of the talented Ken- 
tucky family of that name, and a cousin of Archbishop 
Spalding, seventh archbishop of Baltimore, joined the 
community in the first month of its existence; and 



38 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

shortly afterward was elected mother superior of the 
order, a position she held for twenty-four years. She 
was the pivot on which the affairs of the growing 
sisterhood turned for many years. She had the at- 
tributes of mind that peculiarly fitted her for leader- 
ship purity of intention and an indomitable will. 
She was noted for her clear convictions of duty and 
her faithful performance of its demands. 

Mother Frances Gardiner succeeded Mother Cath- 
erine, and for thirty-five years was mother superior 
of the community. She had a great talent for admin- 
istration, and successfully managed the affairs of the 
institution. 

A name held in great esteem by Catholics of Ken- 
tucky is Mother Columba Carroll. She was a pupil 
of Nazareth, and was trained intellectually by "Sister 
Ellen O'Connell and spiritually by the saintly Sister 
Columba Tarleton. She was Sister Ellen O'Connell's 
successor as directress of studies, and held this posi- 
tion for thirty-five years. Mother Columba possessed 
extraordinary zeal and tact in ruling the sisterhood. 

Sister Ellen O'Connell was the first directress of 
studies, and held this position thirty-five years, dating 
from the first opening of the school at St. Thomas. 
She imparted to the course from the beginning that 
strength and thoroughness which soon made Nazareth 
prominent and attracted pupils from a distance. Her 
sister, Sister Scolastica O'Connell, was the first music 
teacher in the school. 

When a member of the sisterhood of Nazareth lives 
to see the fiftieth anniversary of the day she devoted 
herself to God in the service of the young poor the 
day is celebrated as a golden jubilee. The Community 
Annals record twenty-one golden jubilees since the 
celebration of the first, that of Sister Elizabeth Sut- 
tle, December I, 1866. Sister Martha Drnry, one 
of the original five that started at " Old Nazareth," 
lived to see her diamond anniversary. The 4th of 
November, 1896, will be long remembered by those 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 39 

who were present at the golden jubilee of Mother 
Helena Tormey and Sister Alexia Macky. The most 
impressive ceremony of the day was the Pontifical 
Mass. The Mestag Mass, composed for Nazareth 
Convent, was artistically rendered with organ and 
full orchestra accompaniment. All the priests whose 
parochial schools are taught by the Sisters of Charity 
of Nazareth had been invited to attend, and when 
dinner was served there were, including the Bishop, 
exactly fifty priests present. 

Mother Helena was chosen to succeed Mother Co- 
lumba as mother superior, a charge rendered more 
difficult on account of the eminent qualifications of her 
predecessors. During her administration the com- 
munity prospered, new houses were opened in the East 
and the South, and the membership of the sisterhood 
increased every day. 

Sister Alexia devoted her life to the orphans, and 
for nearly fifty years rose at half-past four that she 
might be ready for the labors of the day. 

On the twentieth of June, 1896, the venerable 
daughters of Nazareth assembled to organize an alum- 
nae association. Mrs. E. Miles, nee Bradford, was 
elected president, and Mrs. E. Snowden, nee Tarleton, 
counsellor. Among those in attendance at this meet- 
ing were three generations of one family. Miss Mar- 
garet Fossick, who had received her laurels but an 
hour ago, her mother, Mrs. T. L. Fossick, nee 
O'Reilly, who was graduated in 1871, and her great- 
aunt, Mrs. R. Davis, nee O'Reilly, of the class of 1853. 
The circular setting forth the plan called out enthusias- 
tic responses from all parts of the country, and even 
from beyond the sea, where several of Nazareth's 
daughters now reside. Some ninety to one hundred 
of the alumnae assembled at Nazareth, June 15, 1896. 

An interesting feature of the alumnae meeting of 
1897 was tne reading of a letter to the alumnae by 
Eliza Kinkead, who represented the sixteenth member 
of her family who had been pupils of this institution, 



40 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

written by her great-aunt, Mrs. H. Pridle, a former 
graduate her great-great-grand-aunt having been 
one of Nazareth's earliest pupils and first graduates. 

The meeting of the alumnae in 1899 was remarkable 
for the number of those present whose school days 
at Nazareth had ended fifty, sixty, even seventy years 
before. Among this number was the venerable Mrs. 
Elizabeth Henshaw, a representative of the class of 
1829, but not a graduate. Seventy years had passed 
since she bade farewell to school days, and still she 
was hale and hearty. 

Mrs. Rudd Alexander and Mrs. Emily Snowden, 
both of Louisville, were graduated in 1839, and were 
the oldest living graduates of Nazareth. Others num- 
bered forty, fifty years since they had left the classic 
shades of Nazareth. 

The course of instruction extends through seven 
years, ranging from primary to collegiate grades, and 
having normal, business, and domestic science depart- 
ments; also the departments of music and art. A 
large, well-trained faculty has always been maintained, 
and a library (containing 5000 volumes), a museum, 
and laboratories furnish good facilities for teaching. 
The patronage has always been large, the attendance 
having been frequently over two hundred in a year, 
and has come from Kentucky and the Southern States 
generally, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas, 
and Alabama having been and are still well repre- 
sented. The average number of graduates in recent 
years has been about twelve, and the total number of 
alumnae is about seven hundred. The latter are quite 
widely distributed throughout the Union, and many 
of them occupy prominent positions in teaching and 
other professions, especially in the West. 

(Lewis's History of Higher Education in Kentucky. 
Catalogues and correspondence.) 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 41 



Loretta Academy, Loretta, Kentucky, 1812-1908 

The Loretta Order is a plant of no foreign growth. 
A tiny seed sown amid the virgin forests of Kentucky, 
it germinated and flourished in the New World, and 
recognizes America as its native soil. In 1812 Rev. 
Charles Nerinckx, a devoted missionary priest of Bel- 
gium, lately attached to the diocese and greatly inter- 
ested in education, started a small school near the site 
of the present Academy. At first Miss Anne Rhodes 
was the only teacher. A few months later she was 
joined by Misses Christine Stuart and Anna Haven; 
Misses Mary Rhodes and Nellie Morgan were very- 
soon added to the number. The school prospered, 
and the ladies in charge wishing to become a perma- 
nent religious body, applied to Rome, through their 
founder, to obtain this boon. Pope Pius VII. readily 
granted this favor, and in 1816, the new order having 
received a formal recognition from the Holy See, 
was taken under the special protection of the Propa- 
ganda. From this small beginning of 1812 the teach- 
ing force has increased to thirty, and colonies of 
Sisters have gone forth from the mother-house and 
established themselves in various parts of the United 
States. These branch houses now number forty-five, 
and the teachers employed are provided by a normal 
school at Loretta, and the faculties of the various 
schools wherever located are appointed by the superior 
of the order. 

The first three postulants were received by Father 
Nerinckx, who styled them " Friends of Mary at the 
Foot of the Cross." They were consecrated at St. 
Charles Church in Marion County, Kentucky, April 
25, 1812. 

Loretta Academy was incorporated in 1829 by the 
Kentucky Legislature, and empowered to grant di- 
plomas, and at once the Academy took a position as 
one of the leading schools of the country, and as 



42 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

such has been patronized by representative families 
from different parts of the United States and Mexico. 

The Academy and other buildings are located on a 
tract of fifteen hundred acres. This is partly laid out 
in orchards and gardens, while other sections are used 
for raising grain and various food products. Much 
of the land is covered with magnificent forest trees, 
interspersed by winding brooks and murmuring water- 
falls, thus affording the pupils facilities for delightful 
rambles. 

The Academy is a commodious building, four stories 
in height, with all modern improvements, such as 
steam heat, gas, etc. The study hall, refectory, class, 
recreation, and music-rooms are cheerful and inviting. 
Large airy dormitories occupy the second floor, com- 
municating with bath and toilet-rooms supplied with 
hot and cold water. 

The other principal buildings at Loretta are the 
church, convent, visitors' house, chaplain's residence, 
novitiate, steam laundry, workmen's dwelling, and 
last but most interesting, a small brick building erected 
by the Rev. S. T. Badin, the pioneer priest of Ken- 
tucky. This house was afterward used by Bishop 
Flaget as an Episcopal residence and seminary, and is 
now reserved for gentlemen guests at Loretta. 

The course of study may be completed in four vears. 
The languages taught are French, German, and Span- 
ish by native teachers, and Latin and Greek. Music 
in all its branches is taught on the plan of the best 
conservatories under the direction of teachers of ac- 
knowledged ability. A large concert hall and numer- 
ous music-rooms are equipped with pianos, organs, 
harps, and the smaller musical instruments for lessons 
or practice. 

In the art department every advantage is offered 
to pupils interested in this pursuit. Instructions are 
given in object drawing, crayon, pastel, oil, china, 
and water colors, and in various branches of decora- 
tive art. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 43 

Miss Mary Jane Lancaster was the first graduate 
of Loretta, and the only one of that year. Her di- 
ploma, which is still in existence, bears the date of 
July 16, 1837. The names of the directors of the 
school at that time are also on the diploma ; they were, 
Mother Isabella Clarke, Generose Mattingly, secre- 
tary, and Sister Bridget Spalding, directress of studies ; 
Bishop Flaget, Ordinary of the Diocese of Louisville. 

The Museum contains a well-arranged collection of 
specimens illustrative of the sciences: botany, min- 
eralogy, zoology, and geology. Two laboratories, 
chemical and physical, are also a part of the equipment. 

A well-selected library of several thousand volumes 
forms a part of the furnishing of the Academy, and 
here are a number of periodicals and late papers. 

Elisabeth Academy, Old Washington, Mississippi, 

1818 

Salem Academy celebrated the one hundredth com- 
mencement in June, 1902, and Nazareth Academy cel- 
ebrated her diamond jubilee in June, 1897, and it is 
now ninety-three years since the Academy was es- 
tablished at " Old Nazareth," but it was reserved for 
Mississippi to be the first State to provide collegiate 
training for women. This was accomplished when 
Elizabeth Academy, at " Old Washington," was es- 
tablished in 1817. Because of the name " Academy " 
some have refused to recognize this school as a col- 
lege. It is not the name, but the powers granted by 
the charter and the curriculum taught that differen- 
tiates a college. By the terms of its charter Elizabeth 
Academy was a college, and there is ample credible 
testimony that a college course of study was taught. 
In addition to this proof, Dr. W. T. Harris, Commis- 
sioner of Education, remarked after reading the his- 
tory of this school as given in " History of Education 
in Mississippi," by Edward Mayes, LL. D. : "That 
school was a college in all but name." 



44 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

This institution was celebrated in its day for the 
thoroughness of its work and for its large measure 
of success. It is also memorable for several other 
facts. It was the first school for girls exclusively, 
incorporated by either the Territorial or the State 
Legislature of Mississippi. It was the first school in 
Mississippi or any other State to aspire to the dignity 
of a college, and it was the first college for girls es- 
tablished by the Methodist Church anywhere, and 
the first fruits of Protestantism in the extreme 
South. 

This institution was situated near Washington, 
Adams County, one-half mile from the town, and 
near Jefferson College. The land and buildings were 
donated to the Methodist Church by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Roach, afterward Mrs. Greenfield, in 1818, and the 
school began its work in November, 1818. The 
formal act of incorporation was passed February 17, 
1819. This act provides that the Academy should be 
under the superintendence of John Menefee, David 
Rawlings, Alexander Covington, John W. Bryant, and 
Beverly R. Grayson and their successors, who shall 
constitute a board politic and corporate, by the name 
and style of " the Trustees of the Elizabeth Female 
Academy," and they and their successors are made 
capable of receiving and acquiring real and personal 
estate, either by donation or purchase, for the bene- 
fit of the institution, not exceeding $100,000. 

These trustees were enabled to grant diplomas or 
other certificates or to confer degrees. All vacancies 
in said board shall be filled by the members of the 
Methodist Mississippi Annual Conference. The con- 
dition was that the Conference should maintain a 
high school for the education of girls. On these 
terms the Conference accepted the donation, and in 
token of gratitude for the gift, the institution was 
called by the Christian name of the donor. 

The building, in style of Spanish architecture of 
colonial times, was two and a half stories high, the 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 45 

first of brick and the others of frame. A fire con- 
sumed it more than twenty years ago, leaving only 
the solid masonry as a memorial of the educational 
ambition and spiritual consecration of early Missis- 
sippi Methodism. Some of the grandest women of 
the Southwest received their well-earned diplomas 
within those now scarred walls, and went out to pre- 
side over their own model and magnificent homes. 
The early catalogues contain the names of fair daugh- 
ters who afterward became the accomplished matrons 
of historic families. For ten years the Elizabeth Acad- 
emy was the only college for girls in the Southwest; 
all others have been the followers and beneficiaries 
of this brave heroine. 

The Academy opened its doors to pupils November 
12, 1818, under the presidency of Chillon F. Stiles, 
with Mrs Jane B. Sanderson as governess. Of the 
first president and first lady principal of that first 
college for young ladies in all the Southwest, the 
distinguished Dr. William Winans thus writes most 
interestingly in his autobiography: 

" Chillon F. Stiles was a man of high intellectual 
and moral character, and eminent for piety. The 
governess was Mrs. Jane B. Sanderson, a Presbyterian 
lady of fine manners and an excellent teacher, but 
subject to great and frequent depression of spirits. 
This resulted, no doubt, from the shock she had re- 
ceived from the murder of her husband a few years 
previously, by a robber. Though a Presbyterian, and 
stanch to her sect, she acted her part with so much 
prudence and liberality as to give entire satisfaction 
to her Methodist employers and patrons. 

" Some of the most improving, as well as the most 
agreeable, hours of relaxation from my official duties 
were at the Academy in the society of Brother Stiles, 
who combined in an eminent degree, sociability of 
disposition, good sense, extensive information on vari- 
ous subjects, and fervent piety, rendering him an 
agreeable and instructive companion. He was the only 



46 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

person I ever knew who owed his adoption of a re- 
ligious course of life to the instrumentality of Free 
Masonry. He was awakened to a sense of his sinful- 
ness in the process of initiation into that fraternity. 
Up to that time he had been a gay man of the world, 
and a skeptic, if not an infidel in regard to the Chris- 
tian religion. But so powerful and effective was the 
influence upon him by something in his initiation, that 
from that hour he turned to God with purpose of heart, 
soon entered into peace, and thenceforth walked before 
God in newness of life, till his pilgrimage terminated in 
a triumphant death. 

" Mr. Stiles was succeeded in the^presidency by Rev. 
John C. Burruss, an elegant gentleman, a finished 
scholar, and an eloquent preacher. The school greatly 
prospered under his administration, as it continued to 
do under his immediate successor, Rev. B. M. Drake, 
a name that ever lived among us as the synonym for 
consecrated scholarship, perfect propriety, unaffected 
piety, and singular sincerity. In 1833 Dr. Drake re- 
signed to devote himself entirely to pastoral work, and 
was succeeded by Rev. J. P. Thomas, and in 1836 he 
gave way to Rev. Bradford Frazee of Louisville, 
Kentucky. Rev. R. D. Smith, well known throughout 
the Southwest for his rare devotion, was called to 
the president's chair in 1839." 

Some of the by-laws adopted by the board of trus- 
tees for the government and regulation of the Acad- 
emy recall in a measure the rigid and elaborate rules 
prescribed by Mr. Wesley for the school in Kings- 
wood. A few are given : 

" The president of the Academy . . . shall be 
reputed for piety and learning, and for order and 
economy in the government of his family. If married 
he shall not be less than thirty; if not married, not 
less than fifty years of age. 

" The governess shall be pious, learned, and of grave 
and dignified deportment. She shall have charge of 
the school, its order, discipline, and instructions, and 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 47 

the general deportment and behavior of the pupils 
who board in or out of commons. 



" OF PATRONESSES 

" On the last day of every academic year the board 
of trustees shall choose three respectable matrons, who 
shall be acting patronesses of the Academy. It shall 
be the duty of the patronesses to visit the school as 
often as they think necessary, and inspect the sleep- 
ing-rooms, dress, and deportment of the pupils, and 
generally the economy and management of the Acad- 
emy, and report the same in writing to the board of 
trustees for correction, if needed. 

" ON APPROPRIATION OF TIME 

" All pupils boarding in commons shall convene in 
the large school-room at sunrise in the morning, and 
at eight o'clock in the evening for prayers. 

" The hours of teaching shall be from nine o'clock 
in the morning until noon; and from two o'clock in 
the afternoon until five; but in May, June, and July 
they shall begin one hour sooner in the morning and 
continue until noon; and from three o'clock in the 
afternoon until six, Friday evenings excepted, when 
the school shall be dismissed at five. 



" No pupil shall be allowed to receive ceremonious 
visits. All boarders in commons shall wear a plain 
dress and uniform bonnets. No pupil shall be per- 
mitted to wear beads, jewelry, artificial flowers, curls, 
feathers, or any superfluous decoration. No pupil 
shall be allowed to attend balls, dancing parties, the- 
atrical performances, or festive entertainments." 

What would the women trained in such a school 



48 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

think of the college training and manners of the pres- 
ent day, should they be permitted to return to wit- 
ness it? 

STUDIES OF THE SENIOR CLASS 

First Session Chemistry, natural philosophy, moral 
philosophy, botany; Latin, ^Esop's Fables, Sacra His- 
toria, Viri Roma Illustres. Second Session In- 
tellectual philosophy, evidences of Christianity, my- 
thology, general history, Latin, Cccsar's Bella Gallica. 

Students who have completed the full course above 
shall be entitled to the honors of the institution, with 
a diploma on parchment for the degree of Domina 
Scientiarum. Those who have pursued with honor 
the whole course of study shall be entitled to remain 
one academic year, free of charge for tuition, and be 
associated in an honorary class, to be engaged in the 
pursuit of science and polite literature, and ornamen- 
tal studies, after which they shall be entitled to an 
honorary diploma. 

In Mrs. Thayer's report to the board of trustees 
she gives some of the principles of teaching used in 
the Academy. 

" By your regulations I am required to teach the 
principles of the Government of the United States. 
On that subject I have found no book suitable to 
place in the hands of young ladies. This deficiency 
has been supplied, to the best of my ability, by familiar 
lectures, in which I have made The Federalist my text- 
book of politics. 

" In arithmetic, we begin with Colburn's introduc- 
tion. The system, of which this work gives the ele- 
mentary principles, is founded on the maxim that chil- 
dren should be instructed in every science just as fast 
as they are able to understand it. In conformity to 
this principle the pupil is led progressively and by a 
process so easy and gradual to the more complex and 
difficult combinations of numbers, that he finds him- 
self familiar with the subject and enjoys a satisfac- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 49 

tion in his study which he could never realize in per- 
forming the mechanical operation of ciphering by ar- 
tificial rules. 

" Geography and drawing are commenced simul- 
taneously. Our first lesson in geography consists 
in drawing, as well as we are able, a map of the acad- 
emy grounds. We draw next the little village in the 
suburbs of which we are located, first laying down a 
scale of miles and adapting our map to it in size. 
When this is well understood we proceed to delineate 
a map of the United States, and repeat the exercise 
until the whole or any part may be drawn with ac- 
curacy and dispatch without a copy. In our recita- 
tions no map is used by the pupil but the one she is 
able to draw from memory alone." 

In conclusion Mrs. Thayer says : 

" The time has been when the education of females 
was limited to those branches in which their imme- 
diate occupations lie. But, happy for the present age, 
and happy too, for posterity, the public sentiment has 
undergone a change in favor of female cultivation. 
Without undervaluing personal accomplishment, or 
disregarding domestic duties, we are permitted to 
aspire to the dignity of intellectual beings, and, as 
was beautifully expressed by a gentleman who ad- 
dressed us at the close of our * examinations/ * The 
whole map of knowledge is spread before the female 
scholar, and no Gades of the ancients is set up as the 
limits of discovery/ ' 

The coming of Mrs. Thayer in the fall of 1825 was 
an epoch in the history of the Academy, and her ad- 
ministration marked an era. She was a remarkably 
accomplished woman, with a genius for administra- 
tion. Of her Dr. Winans, president of the board of 
trustees, says: 

" In the evening I returned to Brother Burruss's, 
where I met Sister C. M. Thayer, who has come to 
take charge of Elizabeth Female Academy. She is 
a woman of middle size, of coarse features, some 



50 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

of the stiffness of Yankee manners, but of an intelli- 
gent and pleasant expression of countenance; free in 
conversation and various and abundant in informa- 
tion." 

Rev. John C. Burruss, the president of the Acad- 
emy, said: 

"Mrs. Thayer is a most extraordinary woman; 
I have never seen such a teacher." 

She was a grand-niece of General Warren, the hero 
of Bunker Hill, educated in Boston, warmly recom- 
mended by Dr. Wilbur Fisk, and before coming to 
Mississippi had made great reputation as an author 
and teacher. She had taught for a while with Rev. 
Valentine Cook on Green River, Kentucky, and had 
published a volume of essays and poems that attracted 
wide attention. 

The editor of the Southern Galaxy, a paper pub- 
lished in Natchez, attended the semi-annual examina- 
tions at Elizabeth Academy in the spring of 1829, 
and highly commended the institution, and also the 
unquestioned capacity of the governess, Mrs. Thayer. 
He said of the recitations of the preparatory depart- 
ment : " They were, to say the least of them, interest- 
ing. The reading was spirited and correct." Of the 
academic department he said : " The proficiency ex- 
hibited in natural and mental philosophy and chemis- 
try by the higher classes reflects great credit upon 
the capacity and industry of the students, as well as 
the highest encomium upon the government of the 
institution. If at this stage of the examination we 
were delighted, when we heard the class in mathe- 
matics we were astonished ; and certainly it is a mat- 
ter of astonishment to witness little girls of twelve 
years of age treat the most abstruse problems of 
Euclid as playthings. Nor were they dependent upon 
memory alone, and we will give our reasons for think- 
ing so. During one of the solutions upon the black- 
board we forget which it was it was suggested that 
the young lady was in error. ' No, ma'am/ replied 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 51 

the pupil, with great promptitude and self-possession; 
1 1 am correct. The bases of a parallelogram must 
be equal/ The principle is indeed a simple one, but 
the readiness with which it was adduced in argument, 
and that too under embarrassing circumstances, was 
to us a most conclusive evidence of an extraordinary 
discipline of mind." 

The eloquent literary address delivered on this oc- 
casion by Duncan S. Walker is published in full in 
this issue of the Galaxy. In the same issue of the 
paper, March 26, 1829, is this communication: 

" To The Editor of The Southern Galaxy. 

" Sir: The following lines are the production of a 
pupil in the Elizabeth Female Academy at Washing- 
ton. If you think them worthy of a place in your 
paper, their insertion may aid the cause of female ed- 
ucation, by awakening emulation among your young 
readers, though their youthful author only intended 
them for the eyes of her preceptress. C. M. T. 

"'What is Beauty? 
Tis not the finest form, the fairest face 

That loveliness imply: 
'Tis not the witching smile, the pleasing grace, 

That charms just Reason's eye. 

" ' No, 'tis the sunshine of the spotless mind, 

The warmest, truest heart, 
That leaves all lower, grosser things behind, 
And acts the noblest part. 

" ' That sunshine beaming o'er the radiant face, 

With virtue's purest glow, 
Will give the plainest lineaments a grace 
That beauty cannot show. 

" ' This face, this heart alone can boast a charm 

To please just Reason's eye, 
And this can stern Adversity disarm 
And even Time defy.'" 

The annual examination in early summer was a 



52 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

greater occasion than the semi-annual of which an ac- 
count has just been given. 

From 1828 to 1832 Rev. Dr. B. M. Drake was pres- 
ident, with Mrs. Thayer as governess. An elaborate 
notice of the commencement which embraced August 
21, 1829, was published in the papers of the young 
State " the first detailed account of such an event 
in Mississippi." 

A board of visitors appointed by the trustees, con- 
sisting of such distinguished men as Robert L. Walker, 
J. P. H. Claiborne, and Dr. J. W. Monette, was pres- 
ent and made report as follows: 

" The most unqualified praise would be no more 
than justice for the splendid evidence of their close 
attention and assiduity, as exhibited on this occasion; 
and we take pleasure in giving it as our opinion, that 
such honorable proof of female literary and scienti- 
fic acquirements has seldom been exhibited in this or 
any other country. And while it proves the order and 
discipline with which science and literature are pur- 
sued by the pupils, it proves no less the flourishing 
condition and the merited patronage the institution 
enjoys. Nothing reflects more honor upon the pres- 
ent age than the liberality displayed in the education 
of females; nor can anything evince more clearly the 
justness with which female education is appreciated 
in the South than this exhibition, and the interest 
manifested by the large and respectable audience dur- 
ing the whole of the exercise. The literary and scien- 
tific character of the governess, Mrs. Thayer, is too 
well known to admit of commendation from us." 

In addition to these notices, the essay of Miss Anna 
W. Boyd, who graduated with the honors of her class, 
appears in full. 

It will be interesting to many yet living to give 
the names of the graduates and those distinguished in 
the several classes: 

Graduates Miss Anna W. Boyd, Ireland ; Miss Su- 
san Smith, Adams County; Miss Mary C. Hewett, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 53 

Washington, Mississippi; Miss Mary J. Patterson, 
Port Gibson; Miss Sarah Chew, Adams County; Miss 
Eliza A. Fox, Natchez. 

Honorary distinctions were conferred upon the fol- 
lowing pupils for proficiency in study and correct 
moral deportment : 

First Class Miss Ellen V. Keavy, Pinckneyville, 
Louisiana; Miss Martha D. Richardson, Washita, 
Louisiana ; Miss Mary A. Fretwell, Natchez, Miss Ma- 
ria L. Newman, Washington, Mississippi. Second 
Class Miss Martha Crosby, Wilkinson County; Miss 
Sarah M. Forman, Washington, Mississippi ; Miss 
Catherine O. Newman, Washington, Mississippi ; Miss 
Susan C. Robertson, Port Gibson. Third Class- 
Miss Mary Scott, Alexander, Louisiana; Miss Char- 
lotte C. Scott, Alexander, Louisiana; Miss Mary E. 
Gordon, Alexander, Louisiana; Miss Emily Smith, 
Adams County ; Miss Emily Vick, Vicksburg. Fourth 
Class Miss Charlotte Wolcott, Vicksburg; Miss 
Mary A. Chandler, Pinckneyville, Louisiana. Fifth 
Class Miss Mary E. Roberts, Washington, Missis- 
sippi ; Miss Matilda J. Nevitt, Adams County. Sixth 
Class Miss Laura J. A. King, Adams County; Miss 
Martha B. Brabston, Washington, Mississippi. 

Mrs. Thayer resigned her position in 1832, and was 
followed by Mrs. Susan Brewer, with Miss Rowena 
Crane as assistant. 

In 1833 the study of piano music was introduced, 
and thenceforward was a part of the course regularly 
taught. 

In 1839 Miss Lucy A. Stillman was principal gover- 
ness, and Miss Mary B. Currie music teacher. 

In the Mississippi Free Trader of March 10, 1842, 
appeared the following notice: 

" ELIZABETH FEMALE ACADEMY. 

" There is probably no subject dearer to the patriot 
and Christian philanthropist than that of female edu- 



54 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

cation. According to his view, both national and in- 
dividual happiness and prosperity are immediately and 
inseparably connected with the proper intellectual 
training and moral culture of the female mind. This 
conclusion is not the result of a long train of phili- 
sophical or logical deductions, but is immediately in- 
ferred from the important position that woman holds 
in the social compact and from the many endearing 
relations she sustains in life. I was led to these re- 
flections from witnessing the semi-annual examina- 
tions of the pupils of the Elizabeth Female Academy 
at Washington, Mississippi, which took place on 
Thursday and Friday last. 

" This examination did equal credit to the zeal and 
ability of the teachers, and the industry and mental 
resources of the pupils. They showed an extensive 
and accurate knowledge of the most important 
branches of mental and physical science, as well as 
great skill and taste in several of the more strictly 
ornamental branches of education. A delightful va- 
riety was given to the whole examination by the per- 
formances of a very fine class in music. 

" The institution is admitted by all who know its 
history to be more ably conducted by its present tal- 
ented and highly accomplished principal, Mrs. Camp- 
bell, and more deserving of patronage than it has been 
since the administration of Mrs. Thayer. 

" At the close of the examination a very appro- 
priate and eloquent address was delivered to the young 
ladies by Rev. D. C. Page of Natchez. 

" PHILANTHROPOS." 

The next year, 1843, was the last year of the ex- 
istence of the Academy ; many changes had taken place 
in the conditions of the country. Washington was 
no longer a place of importance, and its population 
was yearly decreasing, while other towns, Port Gib- 
son, Woo'dville, and Natchez, were thriving towns. 
Other schools had been organized, and it was deemed 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 55 

best to close the school. The Academy was abandoned, 
and by the terms of the grant its property reverted 
to the heirs of the donor. 

Chancellor Mayes says of this institution : " For 
twenty-five years it did noble work. In the decade 
from 1819 to 1829 its boarders amounted in number 
annually from twenty-eight to sixty-three." 

Mrs. John Lane, Mrs. C. K. Marshall, Mrs. Kava- 
naugh, wife of Bishop Kavanaugh; Mrs. B. M. Drake, 
and many elect ladies of the Southwest were educated 
at that mother of female colleges. On its foundations 
others have been built, and are to-day doing great 
work for the Church and the world. 

(The material for this sketch was obtained from 
articles written by Bishop Galloway, for the Nash- 
ville Christian Advocate, and from " History of Edu- 
cation in Mississippi," by Edward Mayes, LL.D.) 



56 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER V 
Early Schools in Alabama 

WHEN Sieur d'Iberville was sent to establish a 
French Empire on the American continent his first 
landing was made on Alabama soil, his first explora- 
tions were made in Mobile Bay. He built his first 
fort, Fort de Maurepas, on the " back bay of Biloxi," 
about where Ocean Springs now stands; but in a few 
years he abandoned Fort de Maurepas and located 
his capital at " Twenty-one mile bluff " on the Ala- 
bama River, and named this fort " Fort Louis de la 
Louisane," and around it the colonists built their 
houses, and " Old Mobile " was the capital of Louisi- 
ana for many years. 

Governor Bienville strenuously endeavored to es- 
tablish a school in " Old Mobile," but failed ; however, 
he did not abandon the idea of having a school in the 
colony, but no school was ever established in Mobile 
or elsewhere in Alabama during French occupation, 
from 1702 to 1763. 

Neither is there any record/ of a school during 
British dominion, though the government did allow 
fifty pounds a year for the pay of a schoolmaster. 
No records of schools under Spanish rule remain ex- 
tant, if any such schools ever were established. It is 
true the priests, both Spanish and French, kept schools 
for religious not literary instruction of the Indians, 
but no schools for the colonists. 

The records, deeds, transfers of property, and other 
legal documents made during foreign supremacy in 
Alabama indisputably attest the illiteracy of the colo- 
nists. These papers are signed with an X (cross) in- 
stead of the written name. 




OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 57 

A century passed after the first settlement of Ala- 
bama before a school was opened or a Protestant 
church established, but a new era dawned toward the 
close of the eighteenth century, when citizens of other 
States began to seek homes in Alabama. So rapidly 
did this population increase that only a few years 
elapsed before the English-speaking citizens far out- 
numbered the foreign population, and for these Eng- 
lish-speaking citizens schools were a necessity. 

The first school opened in the State was taught by 
a Mr. Pierce at the " Boat Yard " on the " cut off " 
above Mobile. Mr. Pierce was one of those " pioneers 
of the mind " so frequently found in the Southern 
States in frontier settlements during the early part of 
the nineteenth century. No portrait or pen picture of 
him has been preserved, save, " He was a typical 
Connecticut Yankee," whatever that may mean. His 
schoolhouse was a log cabin, with a door in one end, 
a huge fire-place at the other, a window on each side, 
closed by board shutters. 

The furniture consisted of puncheon benches, and 
a shelf around the wall, between the windows and 
the door. This shelf served as a depository for books 
and dinner buckets, also for a writing-desk. On a 
shelf just outside the door the water-bucket was placed, 
and on a nail beside it hung a long-handled gourd, 
which served as a drinking-cup. 

The pupils belonged to several nationalities French, 
Spanish, American, Indian, and half-breeds of several 
different amalgamations. They were of all shades of 
complexion, from the fairest blonde to the ebony hue. 
They diligently conned their lessons, and the sound 
thereof loudly proclaimed the fact that the school 
teacher had arrived. 

The subjects taught were spelling, reading, writing, 
and " ciphering." Books were scarce, and Webster's 
Spell ing-Book served as speller and reading-book. 
Slates also were scarce ; one often served a family of 
three or four. Copy-books were home-made, and con- 



58 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

sisted of a quire or half quire of fools-cap paper cov- 
ered with a sheet of coarse brown paper. Pens were 
made of goose quills. 

Primitive as this school was, it is notable because 
it ushered in a century of enlightenment. 

No records of schools of the " Pierce type " are 
extant, but attention must have been given to edu- 
cation, and these schools must have multiplied rapidly, 
because the Legislature of Mississippi Territory, of 
which Alabama was then a part, granted a charter to 
Washington Academy, located in St. Stephens, in 
1811, only eight years after the first school began. 
The next year, 1812, Green Academy in Huntsville 
was chartered. 

These academies were supported, at least in part, by 
public funds; for in 1814 the Legislature appropriated 
$1,000 for their use. Another academy, St. Stephens, 
was chartered in 1817 by the Territorial Legislature of 
Alabama, and the same Legislature appropriated 10 
per cent, of the profits of the banks to the use of the 
three academies Washington, St. Stephens, and 
Green. 

When the Alabama Territory was formed, none of 
the academies for girls chartered by the Legislature 
of Mississippi Territory were within the limits of 
Alabama. 

The School System of Alabama 

The children of Alabama were not dependent on 
private schools for the means of education. Alabama 
was a Territory only two years, and by provision of 
the act admitting Alabama as a State into the Union 
of States, the sixteenth section of every township was 
set apart for use of schools ; also two townships were 
set apart for support of a " seminarv of learning." 

Without delay the work of establishing a system of 
schools was begun. The General Assembly, during its 
first session (1819), passed an act appointing commis- 
sioners to take charge of the school lands. The duties 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 59 

of these commissioners was clearly defined by act of 
Legislature in 1820. One clause of this act directs 
that the lands be divided into farms of not less than 
forty acres, and not more than one hundred and sixty 
acres. For many years each Legislature spent much 
time in discussing educational measures, and in en- 
deavoring to perfect the school system. 

In 1821 the Legislature passed an act requiring the 
appointment of township trustees, and defining their 
duties. The principal duty, of course, was to employ 
teachers, but they were also required to supervise the 
building of schoolhouses, to see that the furniture, 
books, and stationery were kept in good order. 

Again the school law was amended in 1821, by adop- 
tion of an act requiring the examination of teachers, 
and forbidding the trustees to employ any teacher who 
could not pass a satisfactory examination in the studies 
of the usual academic course, and who did not have a 
good moral character. Much emphasis was laid on 
this last requirement. 

The expectation was, that the " sixteenth section " 
fund would be sufficient to pay the whole expense of 
the schools ; that is, teachers' salaries, building school- 
houses, furnishing them, and also providing books, 
slates, and stationery. 

In sections where the land was rich and adapted to 
agriculture the fund was ample for all these expenses, 
and provided the means for a common-school educa- 
tion for every child in the township. 

These schools prospered in what is now known as 
the agricultural section of the State, but in the now- 
called mineral sections the fund was greatly inadequate 
to the demand. The last named sections needed the 
fund far more than the agricultural sections did. and 
the great question was, how to equalize the school 
fund? 

While providing for common schools, the General 
Assembly did not forget to provide for the establish- 
ment of the university system one institution of 



60 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

higher learning or university, and an academy in each 
county; for in 1820 the University of Alabama was 
established by act of Legislature. The two townships 
set apart by Congress for the benefit of a " seminary 
of higher learning " were applied to this university, 
which was located at Tuscaloosa ; the fund being held 
in trust by the State. The same Legislature made 
provision for the support of the three academies al- 
ready established. 

University for Women 

The General Assembly, while making provision for 
the education of boys and men, was not unmindful of 
the claims of girls and women to equal educational 
advantages. This recognition was incorporated in the 
same act that established the University of Alabama 
for men. One section of this act provided for the 
establishment of a " branch of said university " for 
" female education." 

This bill passed with very little opposition ; the only 
question raised was whether the State was financially 
able to equip and support two institutions of " higher 
learning." However, this consideration did not seem 
to trouble the masses of the people very much, for so 
deep-seated and so widespread was the interest in the 
education of girls, that just two years after the pass- 
age of the bill to establish the university, on December 
24, 1822, the section of the original bill providing for 
the establishment of a " branch of the university " for 
" female education " was amended by adoption of sec- 
tion 17, which reads as follows: 

" There shall be also established three branches of 
said university for female education, to be located at 
such places as may be deemed by the Legislature most 
for the public good, and the Legislature shall proceed 
to locate and fix the sites of said branches at the same 
time and by the same manner of election that the site 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 61 

of the principal university is to be located, and said 
branches shall each be governed by twelve directors to 
be elected by the board of trustees of the University, 
and government thereof shall be in all respects accord- 
ing to the by-laws of the University, framed and or- 
dained for that purpose." 

It is true this grand scheme for higher education 
of women was never put into operation, neither was 
the act ever repealed ; hence it is reasonable to suppose 
the men of that and succeeding generations neither 
regretted their acts of justice and generosity nor 
abandoned their lofty ideals. 

The writer has made diligent search for some ex- 
planation of the failure to put into effect the statute 
establishing a university for women, but has failed to 
find any mention of the subject subsequent to the adop- 
tion of the act. Probably the financial embarrassment 
that so long delayed the completion of the University 
buildings and the opening of the school rendered the 
realization of the " seventeenth section " an utter im- 
possibility. 

For a short time, a few years, the finances of Ala- 
bama were in a flourishing condition, so much so, that 
the expenses of the State government were borne by 
the surplus of the State banks, and the people were 
exempt from taxation. But reverses, failures, and 
panics came, and so much embarrassed was the State, 
and so deplorable the condition of the people, that 
Congress, at the urgent insistence of Hon. William R. 
King, Senator from Alabama, passed a bill for the re- 
lief of the State. 

But even before this state of affairs culminated, the 
trustees of the University found themselves greatly 
embarrassed by lack of funds; the income from the 
university lands proved greatly inadequate to the 
amount necessary for the support of one school. This 
deficiency was caused by the mistake of the commis- 
sioners in selecting the two townships set apart for the 



62 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

University, in what is now known as the " mineral 
belt " of the State. At that time its true value was 
wholly unknown. 

Though this grand scheme never materialized, every 
daughter of Alabama can have the proud consciousness 
of the fact that the men of Alabama fully recognized 
the justice of making provision for the education of 
their daughters as well as for their sons. The fact is, 
that the very first Legislature of Alabama (1819-20) 
by the same " act of Legislature " proposed to provide 
" a Seminary of Higher Learning " for men and 
women alike, but not co-educational as the word is now 
understood. 

This action on the part of the General Assembly of 
Alabama is unique in the history of the establishment 
of State Universities. As yet, the subject of 
" woman's rights " and co-educational advantages for 
boys and girls had not claimed public attention, there- 
fore no pressure was brought to bear upon the men 
who projected this scheme. Furthermore, this act 
places them in the rank of advanced thinkers and just 
and honorable men. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 63 

CHAPTER VI 
Academies for Girls 

HAVING established the " sixteenth section " schools, 
and so far as legislative enactment would do it, estab- 
lished a " Seminary of Higher Learning " for men and 
women, the next work was to provide for the connect- 
ing link in the system to provide for academies. 
Naturally these would be first located in the most 
populous sections of the State. These sections were in 
the southern part of the State, around Mobile, and 
thence along the lower Alabama River ; the " Bigbee 
Settlements " on the western border, and the settle- 
ments in the valley of the Tennessee River. 

The settlers of this last named section were largely 
from that Scotch-Irish stock that has played so con- 
spicuous a part in the development of the South. They 
were noted for their intelligence and culture. In this 
section there were several thriving towns. Of these, 
Athens, in Limestone County, ranked second in popu- 
lation; the population was constantly increasing, and 
already several schools of primary and grammar- 
school grades had been established, and an academy 
was much needed. 

Some enterprising citizens, among them the men 
whose names appear in the charter as trustees, called 
a meeting of the citizens to consider the educational 
needs of the town. After some discussion a resolu- 
tion to establish an academy for girls was adopted, 
and 

Athens Female Academy 

was opened October, 1822, and on December 9, 1822, 
just a few days before the " section 17," which estab- 
lished a university for women, was adopted, a charter 



64 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

was granted to this first academy in Alabama exclu- 
sively for girls. 

The trustees were Robert Beaty, John D. Carroll, 
Beverly Hughes, Daniel Coleman, Andrew Foster, 
John W. Smith, and Joshua Martin. 

The corporation was declared perpetual, and em- 
powered to buy and sell or otherwise dispose of the 
property of the Academy as might seem best to the 
trustees; and these trustees were empowered to make 
such regulations for the government of the Academy 
as were not repugnant to the law of the State or of 
the United States. 

Daniel Coleman and Joshua L. Martin were very 
active in the interest of the Academy. These men be- 
came quite prominent in the history of Alabama. 
Judge Martin rendered valuable service to the State 
at a time when the judiciary as well as the executive 
department needed strong and fearless men of unim- 
peachable integrity. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that Athens took the initiative in so important an en- 
terprise as the establishment of an academy for girls. 

A few years after the incorporation of the Academy, 
provision a teacher and one piano was made for a 
course in music. Some time after this addition was 
made, the advantages of the Academy were extended 
to a course in drawing. Music was elective and an 
extra, but drawing was taught to the whole school free 
of extra charge. 

A number of the distinguished men of Alabama 
were natives of Limestone County, and many of their 
wives were educated at the Athens Academy. This 
Academy had a long and a prosperous career, and was 
finally merged into the Athens Female Institute. 

Tuscumbia Female Academy, 1826 

Encouraged by the success of the Athens Academy, 
the citizens of Tuscumbia decided to organize an 
academy for girls and applied for a charter. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 65 

The trustees named in the charter were Thomas 
Wooldridge, Alexander A. Campbell, William H. 
Wharton, and Robert B. Marshall. 

The corporation was declared perpetual, and the 
usual powers concerning acquiring, holding, and dis- 
posing of property granted. Also the power to make 
any regulation deemed advisable, provided it was not 
repugnant to the constitution and laws of the State 
and of the United States. 

A music department was added to the usual academic 
curriculum at the organization of the school. For a 
time the school flourished, but misfortune came, and 
after six years it became necessary to amend the char- 
ter, to avoid closing the school. 

The charter was approved January 13, 1826, and on 
January 13, 1832, the following amendment was ap- 
proved : " Whereas, the trustees of Tuscumbia 
Academy appointed and incorporated by an act to 
which this is an amendment, have ceased to act as such, 
and a majority of the surviving said trustees having 
removed from the State, without having appointed or 
elected successors, be it enacted that Philip G. Godby, 
Sterling R. Cockrill, William H. Wharton, Branham 
Murrill, David Dreshler, and Micajah Tarver, and 
their successors appointed or elected, shall be a body 
politic and corporate by the name of Trustees of Tus- 
cumbia Female Academy. Second and third section^ 
of act to which this is an amendment are hereby re- 
vived. The powers granted to these trustees are the 
same as those granted by the original charter." 

The Academy thus revived continued with varying 
success, until closed by the War between the States. 
It was never reopened. The building was repaired 
and remodeled, and used for the Public School of Tus- 
cumbia. 

Financial Troubles 
During the first decade of Alabama history schools 



66 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

did not flourish nor their number increase as the people 
had expected and as was very desirable. 

The " sixteenth section " lands were not good agri- 
cultural lands in many parts of the State, and the 
commissioner found it very difficult to maintain the 
schools even when supplemented by tuition fees. The 
lack of funds prevented the completion of the univer- 
sity buildings, and perhaps the same reason prevented 
the establishment of many academies. However, dur- 
ing this decade several academies for boys were estab- 
lished and two for girls. This did not discourage the 
friends of education of girls or incline its advocates 
to abandon the cause. On the contrary, they deter- 
mined to make more strenuous efforts, and accordingly 
the General Assembly prepared a " memorial to Con- 
gress in behalf of academies for girls." 

Memorial to Congress 

The work of establishing schools for girls progressed 
slowly, though interest in the cause never died, as is 
manifest from the following Memorial by the General 
Assembly to the Congress of the United States. It 
was entitled: "Memorial (Joint) Regulating a 
grant of lands by Congress of United States, for use 
of a Female Academy in each County of the State." 

" The Senate and House of Representatives of the 
State of Alabama, in General Assembly convened, 
respectfully represent to the Congress of the United 
States: That your memorialists have witnessed with 
great pleasure the munificence and liberality of your 
honorable body in the promotion of education by grant 
of 1 6th section for use of common schools in every 
township, and of other lands for the advancement of 
an asylum for the use of deaf and dumb, and for the 
establishment and maintenance of a university, and 
whilst they have been greatly benefited and much 
pleased with such liberality in the promotion of objects 
so intimately and essentially interwoven with the moral 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 67 

and political prospects of the country, they respectfully 
suggest that another subject of equal or superior 
claims upon your liberality and munificence has not 
received the attention due to the importance which 
properly belongs to it, either from our own citizens or 
their Representatives in the National Legislature, to 
wit : the proper and necessary education of the females 
of this free and happy Republic. Your memorialists 
beg the indulgence of your honorable body, in remark- 
ing that the ornaments of this and every other country, 
so -far as relates to talents, learning, and virtue, rest 
their claims mainly on the early impressions made by 
mothers. That it seldom happens that impressions 
derived from this source are calculated to sap the 
foundations of morality or to injure in the smallest 
degree the best interests of society, but, on the contrary, 
the education, information, and examples drawn from 
them exalt and ennoble our character, and constitute 
the foundation and prop of our most estimable virtues 
and consequent prosperity in life. Your memorialists 
derive much pleasure from the reflection that the peo- 
ple of this State have aroused from their lethargy upon 
this all-important subject, and are now making exer- 
tions to compensate in some measure for their former 
apathy, by laudable attempts on their part to promote 
female education. But your memorialists would here 
remark that common schools are not places at which 
females can receive more than the first rudiments of 
education, and the importance of institutions exclu- 
sively for the use of female education must be admitted 
by all. 

" Your memorialists therefore respectfully request, 
that your honorable body will grant to the State of 
Alabama as much as two sections of land for each 
county and to be exclusively applied to the erection 
and support of an academy in each county of the State 
for the education of females. Your memorialists 
sincerely believe that by the selection of the best un- 
appropriated lands and prudent management of the 



68 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

same, that no portion of the public land has been here- 
tofore, or will be hereafter applied in a manner to 
accomplish more good: Therefore, be it resolved, 
That our Senators be instructed, and our Representa- 
tives requested to use their best exertions to obtain 
the object of this memorial. And be it further re- 
solved, That it shall be the duty of the Governor to 
transmit, as early as may be, a copy of this memorial 
to each of our Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress, and one to the President of the United States. 
Approved January 13, 1830." 

This memorial did not receive attention from Con- 
gress, but the people had awakened from their apathy, 
and academies began to multiply rapidly. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 69 



CHAPTER VII 
Academies In and Around Tuscaloosa 

THE State University had been located in Tus- 
caloosa, and when Cahaba proved an undesirable loca- 
tion for the capital of the State, Tuscaloosa was chosen 
as the best location for the capital. Thus the little 
town became a place of much importance and man> 
interests centered there. 

Before the first decade of Statehood had passed, the 
Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists had estab- 
lished churches in the town, and were earnestly advo- 
cating the establishment of schools. 

Common schools had been established, and in 1829 
Mr. Edward Sims, an energetic business man. an 
ardent Methodist, and a strong advocate of higher 
education of women, as a step in that direction built 
a large brick house which he offered to the Methodist 
Conference for an academy for girls as long as the 
Conference would keep a school in it. 

A school called " Sims's Female Academy " was 
opened in the building in October, 1829, and on Janu- 
ary 15, 1830, a charter for this school was approved 
by the Legislature of Alabama. This charter, after 
granting the usual judiciary powers, and declaring the 
corporation perpetual, and giving the trustees power 
to establish and break the common seal at will, also 
empowered the trustees to make such by-laws as would 
not be repugnant to the laws and constitution of the 
State and of the United States ; and provided that the 
trustees should not at any time hold property of greater 
value than twenty thousand dollars; and provided no 
religious tenets to the exclusion of others should be 
taught. This charter also prohibited the trustees from 



70 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

dealing in notes, or bills of exchange, or exercising 
banking powers. 

There is a strange inconsistency between Mr. Sims's 
avowed intention of establishing a Methodist academy 
and the positive statement in the charter that the tenets 
of any one church should not be taught to the exclu- 
sion of others. It is very certain that Mr. Sims was 
disappointed, and the Sims's Academy passed out of 
existence in 1830, after continuing only one year. 

It is very uncertain whether the Methodist Confer- 
ence ever accepted Mr. Sims's offer, but if it did, its 
connection with the school very soon ceased. 

Since this school continued for so short a time, little 
is known of it, no records are extant, nothing to show 
what the curriculum was, except the name " Acad- 
emy." 

When Mr. Sims decided to close the school he sold 
the building to Dr. Leach, and it is still known as 
the " Leach Place/' 

Tuscaloosa Female Association 

About the same time the Sims's Academy was char- 
tered, at the session of the Legislature of 1830 there 
was chartered an association called " The Tuscaloosa 
Female Association," whose object was the " promo- 
tion of female education, and a higher standard of 
morals in the community." 

This association thought an undenominational 
school preferable to a denominational school. Mr. 
Sims did not oppose their plans, but to some extent co- 
operated with this association in establishing the Tus- 
caloosa Female Academy, which was chartered Janu- 
ary 15, 1831. 

The first provision of this charter was: Presi- 
dent and trustees and stockholders of the association 
founded in Tuscaloosa, in 1830, are hereby created a 
body politic and corporate in law, with powers to 
establish in Tuscaloosa a female academy according 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 71 

to any plan and system they may see fit. They may 
have a common seal, changeable at pleasure." 

The usual powers concerning acquisition and dis- 
posal of property were granted, and the following ad- 
ditional powers : " And finally to do all such things, 
by themselves, their agents, trustees or servants as may 
be necessary and proper to carry into effect said Female 
Academy. The affairs of the corporation are to be 
transacted by the president and the trustees. Corpora- 
tion property to be exempt from taxation." 

Ideas concerning morals have so changed that the 
next provision of the charter seems rather a strange 
one to twentieth century people; but in the early part 
of the nineteenth century it was not uncommon to call 
in the aid of the lottery for educational and civic pur- 
poses. " Said corporation shall have power to raise 
by lottery in one or more classes upon such scheme as 
they may devise, any sum or sums of money not ex- 
ceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), to be applied 
to the use of said Academy." Having granted this 
power it was only consistent that they should make 
the following prohibition : " Said Academy shall be 
purely literary and scientific; and trustees are prohib- 
ited from the adoption of any system of education 
which shall provide for the inculcation of the peculiar 
tenets or doctrine of any religious denomination." 

The trustees, thus granted almost unlimited powers, 
and provided with a lottery, indulged in " great ex- 
pectations." 

In the Tuscaloosa Gazette of September 10, 1830, 
under heading, " Tuscaloosa Female Academy," A. 
Ready, Esq., secretary of the board of trustees, made 
the following announcement : " A union between the 
' Tuscaloosa Female Educational Society ' and ' Sims's 
Academy ' has been effected. The first session of the 
Tuscaloosa Female Academy commenced on Friday, 
September 6, 1830, under management of Miss 
Brewer, Miss Howe, and Mrs. Robinson. Mr. A. 
Pfister and Mrs. Patrick have charge of the music 



73 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

department. The board is making arrangements for 
the erection of a suitable edifice." 

This beginning was a favorable augury for the suc- 
cess of the school. Music was a great attraction, as 
every one was anxious for his daughter to have a 
musical education. Mr. Pfister had a favorable repu- 
tation as a music teacher, and he also taught French, 
which was another popular study. 

Notwithstanding the favorable conditions under 
which the academy began, its career, for some unex- 
plained reason it did not meet the expectations of its 
friends and they agreed to promote the establishment 
of the Alabama Female Institute. (This institution 
will be treated under another chapter.) 

Wesley an Academy 

This Academy, as its name implies, was under 
Methodist direction, but there is no evidence that it 
was ever the property of the Methodist Conference 
or was controlled by it. Its existence was largely due 
to the energy and zeal of Mr. Edward Sims, who be- 
gan to plan for the establishment of a Methodist 
academy for girls, as soon as the Tuscaloosa Female 
Academy was fairly under way. What pressure was 
brought to bear upon him to induce him to abandon 
the establishment of a Methodist school, when the Sims 
Academy was established, or why the charter of the 
school he had projected so positively forbade its being 
a Methodist school, cannot now be ascertained; but 
certain it is, that, though he relinquished his scheme, 
and united with the Tuscaloosa Female Educational 
Association " in establishing an undenominational 
school, The Tuscaloosa Female Academy, he never 
entirely abandoned his intention of establishing" a 
Methodist academy for girls. He made a decided 
effort to have the Alabama Institute a Methodist 
school, but failing in that attempt, he purchased the 
McLester residence, a large brick building in the 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 73 

suburbs of the town, and in it the Wesleyan Academy 
was opened in 1834. Its charter was approved in 

1835- 

At last Mr. Sims's long desired school was estab- 
lished, and the following announcement was made, 
July 10, 1836: 

" The Wesleyan Female Academy will be prepared 
by opening of fall session to accommodate one hun- 
dred and fifty pupils. After all our enlarging our fear 
is we shall not have room for all who will apply. The 
main building and the boarding-house are now 
finished, and the large brick building will be finished 
in a few weeks. Other buildings and the grounds 
will undergo thorough repair. 

" Signed, J. FOSTER/' 

Miss Chapman was the principal and Mr. Pfister 
had charge of the music department. 

Mr. Sims offered this school also to the Methodist 
Conference, but whether it was accepted or not the 
record does not say. However, it had a brief exist- 
ence. Tuscaloosa was too small to support so many 
schools, and one of them exclusively a Methodist 
school. The buildings were sold to Mrs. R. E. Fitts 
for $6,000, and Mr. Sims abandoned the idea of a 
Methodist school. 



Washington and Lafayette Academy 

This academy was chartered about the same time as 
the Wesleyan, 1835, an< ^ attained its greatest popular- 
ity in 1837, when Alexander M. Robinson was prin- 
cipal. It continued to flourish for six or seven years, 
and then its popularity began to wane, and about 1846 
it was closed and the buildings sold for a private 
residence. John S. Boale purchased the property and 
thoroughly renovated it, and presented it to his 
daughter, Mrs. Eddins. In 1905 Sloan purchased it 



74 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

and converted it into a veritable palace, and it is now 
the handsomest residence in Tuscaloosa. 

Location of Schools: The Athenaeum was on 
East Major street; The Institute, Ninth street and 
Twenty-second avenue; Washington and Lafayette, 
Tenth street and Twenty-fourth avenue; Wesleyan 
Academy, Fourth street and Twenty-fourth and 
Twenty-fifth avenues. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 75 

CHAPTER VIII 
Academies Continued 

THE interest in the establishment of academies for 
girls seems to have revived during the thirties; and 
from that time until 1860 twenty-one academies ex- 
clusively for girls and sixty-six academies for 
boys and girls were chartered ; besides these there were 
seven academies for girls whose charters granted the 
privilege of conferring certificates or diplomas, and ten 
for boys and girls granting such privilege. 
The academies exclusively for girls were : 

Somerville, Morgan County, chartered January 

21, 1824; 
Moulton, Jackson County, chartered January 21, 

1832; 

Wesleyan, Tuscaloosa, December 15, 1835; 
Talladega, Talladega, January 5, 1836; 
Demopolis, Demopolis, December 23, 1836; 
Hayneville, Lowndes County, December 15, 

1835; 

Gainsville, Sumter County, December 23, 1837; 
Farmer's, Carterville, Butler County, December 

23, 1837; 

Livingston, Sumter County, January 15, 1840; 
Spring Grove, Russell County, January 15, 1840: 
Warcoochee, January 15, 1840; 
Dayton Association, Marengo County, February 

14, 1843 ; 

Florence, Limestone County, March 24, 1848; 
Uchee, Russell County, March 3, 1848; 
Newbern, Green County, March i, 1848; 
Carrollton, Pickens County, February 12, 1850; 
Citronelle, Mobile County, February 5, 1858; 
Palmyra, Barbour County, January n, 1860; 



76 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Newbern, Green County, February 9, 1852. 

Academies granting honors: 

Northport, Tuscaloosa, December 15, 1835; 
Jacksonville, Calhoun County, January 28, 1837; 
Turnbull, Monroe County, February i, 1843; 
Aberfoil, February 15, 1843; 
Claiborn, Wilcox County, January 13, 1844; 
Mesopotamia, Eutaw, Green County, January 17, 

, 1845; 

Gainsville, Sumter County, February 8, 1854; 
Mountain Home, Lawrence County, February 9 

1852; 
Irwinton, Barbour County, 1835. 

Eufaula Female Academy, Eufaula, Alabama, 1844 

Eufaula was first settled in 1833, an d incorporated 
as Irwinton in 1837. The Irwinton Academy for 
girls was incorporated in 1836. By requirement of 
its charter it was to be strictly a literary school, and 
peculiar tenets of every denomination were prohibited. 
The usual privileges of buying, selling, and disposing 
of property were granted, but the amount of property 
that could be owned by the corporation was limited to 
twenty thousand dollars. This charter was approved 
January 9, 1836, but was amended December 22, 1836. 
This amendment referred mostly to property rights, 
but it also empowered the trustees to confer honors on 
graduates. In December of the same year an academy 
for boys was chartered, and in 1841 these academies 
were consolidated and the charter for this school was 
approved December 20, 1841. 

The name was changed from Irwinton to Eufaula 
in 1843, an d in 1844 t^ e Eufaula Female Academy 
was established. The " act to incorporate the Irwin- 
ton Female Academy," also the " act to consolidate 
Irwinton Male and Female Academy," were repealed. 
This act was approved January 17, 1844. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 77 

The school question was by no means settled, for 
the next year another change was made, and the 
several acts incorporating the Eufaula Female 
Academy and the Alabama Military and Scientific 
Institute were repealed and all property belong- 
ing to said corporation, also all property belong- 
ing to the late Eufaula Male and Female Academy of 
Irwinton, was vested in the body corporate of the Male 
and Female Academy. This act was approved Janu- 
ary 27, 1845. J ust wnv a ^ these changes were made 
does not now appear; one fact is well substantiated 
at no time were the so-called male and female acad- 
emies co-educational. 

The last arrangement seems to have lasted until the 
academy was merged into the public school, the build- 
ings being used for the public school of Eufaula. 

The interest in education seems to have been great, 
for in spite of the many changes Eufaula always has 
had good schools. A few years after the Eufaula 
Male and Female Academy was chartered the Metho- 
dist Church established a college in Eufaula, which 
flourished for a number of years; and was finally 
merged into the Eufaula High School. 



Union Female College Alabama Brenau, 

In 1853 the citizens of Eufaula decided to establish 
an undenominational school for the higher education 
of women, and in 1854 they put this determination into 
practical effect by the opening of what was known 
as Union Female College for more than fifty years. 
This school belongs now to the Odd Fellows, the 
Masons, and the city of Eufaula. The founders ex- 
perienced much difficulty in maintaining the high 
standard they had planned, and to complete for patron- 
age with institutions maintained by the treasury of 
the State and denominational support. 

The decline began in the seventies, but under able 
and persevering presidents it was able to keep its doors 



78 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

open, with varying degres of success, until 1905, when 
for lack of patronage and means the school was 
abandoned, as its friends thought, for all time. 

Just at this time Presidents VanHoose and Pearce, 
of Brenau College-Conservatory, Gainsville, Georgia, 
decided to extend the sphere of usefulnes of Brenau 
in other States. One of the first cities to attract their 
attention was beautiful Eufaula, situated on the 
Chattahoochee. When the citizens of Eufaula learned 
that there was a possibility of inducing these gentle 
men to undertake the task of founding an institution, 
they responded instantly to the opportunity. 

A subscription of $1,500 was quickly raised for the 
purpose of putting the old buildings in first-class re- 
pair, and a lease of ten years, free of charge, was 
offered the Brenau association. The offer was ac- 
cepted. 

The old building of the Union Female College had 
been christened " Minerva Hall," on account of the 
quaint wooden figure of a woman which crowns the 
building, and which, somewhat facetiously, was 
christened " Minerva " by the students. This figure 
has stood guard over the College for more than fifty 
years, and has a sacred place in the memory of many 
an old-time student. By the terms of the original 
charter the property was given to the control of three 
fraternal orders, the Masons, Odd Fellows, and the 
Sons of Temperance, and the board of trustees was 
composed of members elected by these orders. 

When the Sons of Temperance ceased to exist its 
interest was transferred to the city of Eufaula. 

For many years this institution was recognized as 
one of the foremost institutions of learning for women 
in the eastern section of the State. It did not close 
its doors during the War between the States, and dur- 
ing the Reconstruction period, when educational af r 
fairs were in a chaotic state, it was a real blessing to 
have this well-established school of high grade to 
which girls could be sent, and where they could study 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 79 

free from the interruptions of political or religious dis- 
cussions ; for by the terms of the charter no tenets of 
any religious sect were to be taught; and the College 
has always been non-denominational, though all de- 
nominations are represented by members of the faculty 
and board of trustees. 

The present management has restored the school to 
its former popularity and efficiency, and in some re- 
spects the school enjoys a greater popularity than ever 
before. The music department has been much en- 
larged, and the pupils attain a higher proficiency than 
ever before. New departments have been introduced 
and new buildings erected to meet the educational 
demands of the present day. 

Several degrees are now conferred, whereas for- 
merly only one the A. B. was granted. 

During the commencement in June, 1908, the 
alumnae held a reunion and the essays of the olden 
time were read, and compared favorably with those 
of the present students ; also papers were read and dis- 
cussions held which were calculated to show that the 
old-time training was thorough and lasting. 



80 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER IX 

Alabama Female Institute, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 
1833-1888 

THE friends of this school proposed to raise the 
standard of education for girls, to extend the curric- 
ulum, and to establish a school of collegiate grade. 
The Institute was the heir of the Tuscaloosa Academy, 
and thus owned commodious buildings and a suitable 
equipment for the departments of music, art, and 
natural science, as well as a boarding department. 
The school opened November, 1833, but was not 
chartered until January 9, 1835. 

This charter empowered the trustees to grant such 
rewards and confer such honors on graduates as might 
be deemed expedient, and conferred the usual powers 
relating to purchase and disposal of property, but 
made no stipulation as to amount of property. 

The merging of one school into another seems to 
have been authorized by the Legislature, for one sec- 
tion of the charter granted to the Alabama Female In- 
stitute reads as follows : " The lots, grounds, and 
buildings erected by the trustees of the Tuscaloosa 
Female Academy now the property of the trustees 
named in this charter, together with all other buildings 
they may erect or grounds they may purchase for the 
exclusive use of the said female institution, shall be 
exempt from taxation whatever." 

From this statement it would seem that the trustees 
of the Tuscaloosa Female Academy had made exten- 
sive preparation for maintaining their school ; and it 
would be quite interesting if the causes of the merging 
of one school into another could now be known. 

The first, Sims' s Academy, continued only one year, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 81 

and was merged into the Tuscaloosa Female Academy, 
which had an existence of three years and was merged 
into the Alabama Institute. 

It is almost certain that the curricula of the first 
and second were nearly identical, and the teachers the 
same for both, therefore the character of the schools 
could have had little to do with the change. 

However, the Institute was very popular and quite 
successful as to numbers. According to an old cata- 
logue, 1836, only three years after its commencement, 
there were 10 teachers connected with the school, and 
184 pupils; 60 in the primary department and 124 in 
the advanced department. 

The trustees of the Institute for the year ending 
July 14, 1836, were Hon. Peter Martin, president; 
Wiley J. Bearing, secretary ; John O. Cummins, treas- 
urer; John F. Wallace, James H. Bearing, H. C. Kid- 
der, William H. Williams just the same, with the 
exception of John J. Webster, who had retired, as the 
trustees named in the charter, January 9, 1835. 

The following extract from an old catalogue will 
show something of the views of educators of that early 
time: 

" This institution proceeds upon the principle that 
education does not consist merely in acquiring knowl- 
edge, or in unfolding the reasoning powers, or facul- 
ties, or in cultivating the moral feelings, or in forming 
the manners, or in developing the physical powers; 
but in the pursuit of all these objects combined or 
rather, in rendering the mind the fittest possible instru- 
ment for discovering, applying, and obeying the laws 
under which God has placed the universe; if either of 
these objects be pursued exclusively, the result is, the 
character is not well balanced. 

" The object of this institution is, to aid young 
ladies to educate themselves to answer the great end 
of their being to enjoy and impart happiness. 

" The system of government is really one of self- 
government, induced by the principles of moral recti- 



82 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

tude. The interests of teachers and pupils are one and 
the same, and the co-operation of both to promote the 
general good renders the business of instruction and 
study, of communicating and receiving instruction 
peculiarly delightful." 

The health of the pupils was a prime consideration 
with the management; provision for exercise in the 
open air, and suitable recreation hours was made. 
" Calisthenics, designed to give ease, grace, and elas- 
ticity of motion, and erect forms, and bodily and men- 
tal vigor, is a daily exercise in the institution. Indeed, 
the entire arrangements, both general and particular, 
are conducive to health/' 

From an old catalogue the following classification 
and curriculum have been copied : 

" After completing the primary studies, the pupils 
are arranged in three classes: junior, middle, and 
senior; pupils ,who pass a satisfactory examination 
may enter either class. 

" Junior Class : English grammar exercises, 
analyzing, critical reading of the poets, transpositions, 
etc. Watts on the Mind, ancient geography, intro- 
ductory lessons in botany, political economy, algebra, 
rhetoric commenced, philosophy of natural history, 
ancient and modern history Worcester's Elements of 
History, with Goldsmith's Greece, Rome, and Eng- 
land and Grimshazv's France. 

" Middle Class : Geometry Euclid or Legendre; 
natural history Olmstead's; chemistry, astronomy, 
botany, physiology, evidences of Christianity, eccles- 
iastical history. 

"Senior Class: Geometry finished; rhetoric 
concluded; mental philosophy Upham's; Logic 
Whateley's; moral philosophy Wayland's; natural 
theology, Milton's Paradise Lost, analogy of natural 
and revealed religion." 

Latin was studied throughout the course, and 
usually French also ; vocal music, drawing and needle- 
work were taught to the whole school without extra 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 83 

charge, and competent teachers for modern languages 
and music were employed. Reading, spelling (until 
the pupils were proficient in spelling), composition, 
writing, and vocal music were daily exercises through- 
out the course; also calisthenics and such other exer- 
cises as tended to advance a " moral, intellectual, 
physical, and polite education." A part of every Fri- 
day afternoon was devoted to ornamental needle- 
work. 

The equipment included a philosophical and a chem- 
ical apparatus, and a telescope, maps and globes, but 
just how complete this equipment was cannot now be 
known. 

It was the original intention of the founders of the 
State University to establish a " branch of the Uni- 
versity for female education," but this intention was 
never put into effect. However, a few years after the; 
establishment of the Alabama Institute the regents of 
the University decided to extend the advantages of 
the University to this school, by allowing its classes 
to attend such lectures of the professors of the Univer- 
sity as the principal of the school should select, especi- 
ally those lectures on natural science and mathematics. 

The first principal of this school was Rev. W. H. 
Williams; his principal teachers were Miss Maria Belle 
Brooks (afterward Mrs. Stafford) and Miss Abby 
Fitch (afterward Mrs. Searcy). 

In 1842 Professor and Mrs. Caroline Lee Hentz 
took charge of the school. 

In 1852 Miss Lavinia Moore was principal and the 
assistant teachers of the collegiate department were 
Miss Mary W. Humphreys, Miss Martha A. Inge, and 
Miss Sarah W. Bigelow. 

Professor and Mrs. Stafford again became principals 
in 1856. A few years later they associated with them- 
selves, Mrs. W. C. Richardson, and Mrs. R. E. Rodes, 
widow of General Rodes. They retained charge of 
the Institute without interruption, except during a few 
months while Tuscaloosa was occupied by Federal 



84 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

troops, until Professor Stafford's death. Mrs. Staf- 
ford continued in charge until 1888, when she sold the 
property to the city of Tuscaloosa for public school 
purposes and left the State. 

(The information on which this sketch is founded 
was furnished by Hon. W. C. Richardson of Tus- 
caloosa, also the catalogues; the charter is on record 
in the Acts of Legislature of 1834-5.) 

The Athenaeum, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1835-1908 

This school has had many and various vicissitudes 
during its existence from 1835 to the present time. 
When it was organized the Baptist denomination had 
not established a school for girls in Tuscaloosa, and 
was anxious to do so. They bought the large com- 
modious brick house then recently built by Dr. Drick, 
and situated in the suburbs, and opened a school, with 
Rev. James Dagg, principal. Dr. Alva Woods, presi- 
dent of the University of Alabama, was president of 
the board of trustees. Mr. Dagg did not enter upon 
his duties immediately, and until his arrival the school 
was conducted by one of the professors, Rev. J. C. 
Koeney of South Carolina. 

The school did not prosper as its founders had 
hoped. The Baptist denomination made strenuous 
efforts to maintain this school, and from time to time 
changed the principal, in the hope of finding some one 
who could make it popular. 

The last principal who had it in charge under the 
original management was Professor Saunders and his 
wife, who had charge from 1859 to ^65 ; then Dr. 
J. H. Foster and Rev. Eldred Teague leased the build- 
ing and conducted a school for boys. After a year or 
two the building was sold to Chancellor Landon C. 
Garland for a private residence. When Dr. Garland 
left Tuscaloosa he sold the building to the North 
Alabama Conference, and it became known as the 
Methodist College and was restored to its original pur- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 85 

pose, a school of high grade for girls. After a year 
or two the Conference sold it to Rev. B. F. Larrabee, 
who endeavored to have a first-class school ; but not 
succeeding as he had hoped to do, he sold out to Prof. 
Alonzo Hill, who continued the school with more or 
less success until his death, when his widow leased the 
building to a Mr. Perry, who continued for a year or 
two, and cancelled the lease; then Mrs. Hill sold the 
building to the North Alabama Conference, or rather 
to a member of the Conference, who donated it to the 
Conference. It is still the property of the Conference 
and under its supervision. 

After the last transfer the charter was amended. 
This amendment of February 7, 1860, granted all the 
powers and privileges usually conferred on colleges in 
the United States, and changed the name from Athen- 
aeum to Tuscaloosa Female College. 

The school opened under the new management Octo- 
ber, 1860, with Rev. W. G. Melton, president. Since 
that time the buildings have been completely renovated, 
and two large buildings erected; apparatus bought, a 
modern gymnasium fitted up, several hundred volumes 
added to the library, and the equipment for a thorough 
course in music and art supplied; the curriculum ex- 
tended to embrace a commercial course ; in short, it is 
a modern school. Dr. Melton resigned in 1901, but 
the school has continued to flourish under the manage- 
ment of B. F. Giles. 



86 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER X 

Marion Female Seminary , Marion, Alabama, 
1835-1908 

THIS was the name given to the school established 
by the " Society for Promotion of Education," and 
after the Baptists withdrew in 1838 this school con- 
tinued without any other charter privileges than those 
granted to the association. 

In 1841 William E. Jones was the owner of the 
stock of this association, and he applied for a charter 
for the school and for management of the stock. This 
charter granted him the power to sell to parties shares 
in this seminary not exceeding fifty dollars each nor 
less than that sum. " The purchasers of these shares 
shall be known as the ' Marion Female Association/ 
and by that name and style shall be entitled to buy, sell 
or dispose of the shares of said Association ; they shall 
have judiciary powers, and make such regulations as 
are not repugnant to the constitution and laws of this 
State and United States. The amount of property 
shall not exceed five thousand ($5,000) more than the 
value of said property and building of said Associa- 
tion. Purchaser of stock shall be liable to amount of 
stock he owns and no more. All stock or shares of 
said seminary shall be a separate and not a joint in- 
terest or property." The property was exempt from 
taxation, and certificates of stock were assignable. 
This charter was approved January 9, 1841. The 
stockholders were the trustees. 

An amendment which empowered the trustees to 
grant diplomas, certificates, or other evidences of 
scholarship; and to own property to the amount 
of fifty thousand dollars, and confirming the name 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 87 

" Marion Female Seminary,'* was approved Decem- 
ber 14, 1841. 

This school has three departments, primary, aca- 
demic, and collegiate, and schools of music, art, elocu- 
tion, and physical culture. The equipment includes a 
library, chemical and physical apparatus, a cabinet of 
minerals and fossils. The art department has a liberal 
assortment of models, studies, and other facilities for 
art study. The building is not large, but it has been 
remodeled and made up to date, and is lighted with 
electricity. Only fifty boarders can be accommodated 
in it. 

Recently a business department has been added to 
the school. It includes stenography, typewriting, and 
telegraphy. Also a large, well-ventilated gymnasium 
has been added to the equipment. 

This school has had an unbroken and fairly pros- 
perous career, and though its annual enrollment has 
never been large, the names of hundreds of women who 
have been useful and honored citizens are enrolled 
among its alumnae. 

Centenary Institute, Summer -sfield, Alabama, 1838 

The beginning of this Institute dates back to 1829, 
when the Valley Creek Academy was established. 
The charter of this school, which was approved Janu- 
ary 6, 1829, authorized the sale of the sixteenth sec- 
tion in which the school was situated and the proceeds 
of the sale to be applied to the said school. The pur- 
chaser of this sixteenth section was T. J. Goldsby, and 
the patent issued for the protection of said purchaser 
is still in the possession of his descendants. 

The school was a success as a local institution, but 
the trustees, two-thirds of whom were Methodists, ad- 
vocated the establishment of a school of a higher grade, 
and in order to celebrate the centennial of Methodism, 
they projected a Centenary Institute; or rather, two 
schools under that name. Accordingly, they enlarged 



88 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

the building used for the boys' academy, and purchased 
several acres, and built a large two-story brick build- 
ing with wings, for the girls' school. This school was 
known as the Centenary. Its first session opened 
October, 1838, and the attendance was good, quite as 
large as its friends expected, but not as large as they 
hoped to make it. 

The first president did not meet expectations, and in 
1843 tne board elected Rev. A. H. Mitchell of Georgia, 
who took charge of the school October, 1843, an d con- 
tinued in charge until 1856, when he returned to the 
regular pastorate. 

During the time of his administration the school 
flourished as to numbers, and the standard of scholar- 
ship was high. During this period many sons and 
daughters of Methodist preachers were trained for 
their life-work. 

Rev. W. A. Montgomery and Dr. Rivers each for a 
few years was president of Centenary, and from 1865 
Prof. William Vaughn, now of Vanderbilt, was presi- 
dent until 1872, when he resigned to go to Franklin, 
Tennessee. 

After Professor Vaughn left the school became a 
local school again, and in a few years was merged into 
the public school. However, the buildings were 
owned by the Alabama Conference, and when the Ala- 
bama Conference decided to establish an Orphan Home 
the building was appropriated to that purpose. 

This orphanage was especially interesting to Dr. 
Mitchell, who had always felt a deep interest in Cen- 
tenary from his first connection with it, and his last 
work was supervising the building of a fence around 
the farm. He contracted a severe cold while thus 
engaged, and from it he never rallied. This work of 
love proved too arduous for a man of ninety-five. 

The charter of this institution was twice amended. 
In 1843 five trustees were added to the board of 
trustees, and by the amendment approved January 6, 
1845, tne trustees were authorized and empowered to 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 89 

grant diplomas and confer degrees under the same 
rules and regulations governing all other institutions 
of a similar character. 

The first diplomas were granted June, 1845, when a 
class of nine young ladies graduated. They repre- 
sented the nine muses. Miss Lucinda Swift repre- 
sented Clio, muse of history, and Miss Sallie Smith 
of Orrville represented Euterpe, muse of music. 
These two are the only ones surviving ; the others have 
been graduated from life's school and have joined the 
throng beyond. 

The first president was a Mr. Horton, who was not 
a success as a teacher of girls, and Mr. D. I. Harrison 
was appointed to supply his place until a president 
could be found. This president was Rev. A. H. 
Mitchell, who remained fourteen years. Then Mr. 
J. N. Montgomery was president until the War be- 
tween the States began, when he raised a regiment and 
went to the front, and was succeeded by Dr. R. H. 
Rivers. In 1865 Dr. R. K. Hargrove succeeded him. 
Prof. J. W. Vaughn was his successor, and then Rev. 
A. D. McVoy took charge and remained a number of 
years. The school was declining all the time, and at 
last was only a small local school, which was sup- 
planted by the public school and the building was 
closed for several years. 

(The material for this sketch was obtained from the 
Acts of the Legislature, 1838, 1840, 1845, an< 3 from 
letters from Rev. A. H. Mitchell, D.D. ^Mrs. B. M. 
Woolsey, nee Swift, gave the information concerning 
the first graduating class.) 

Dallas Academy, Selma, Alabama, 1839-1908 

In 1838 certain public-spirited ladies of Selma, feel- 
ing the importance of having good schools for their 
children, organized what was known as the " Ladies' 
Education Society " of Selma, and began to raise 
money to establish a school of high grade. Among 



90 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

the most diligent of these may be mentioned Mrs. 
William Treadwell, Mrs. Phillip J. Weaver, Mrs. Wil- 
liam Waddell, Mrs. Elias Parkman, Mrs. Isaiah Mor- 
gan, Mrs. Hugh Ferguson, Mrs. Robert L. Downman, 
Mrs. Robert Patteson, Mrs. John F. Conoley, Mrs. 
Andrew Hunter, Mrs. Stephen Maples, and Mrs. 
Uriah Griggs. In 1839 tne Society was incorporated 
by the General Assembly with the following gentlemen 
as trustees: Nicholas Childers, Robert N. Philpot, 
John W. Lapsley, Elias Parkman, John W. Jones, 
Jeremiah Pitman, and Harris Brantly. 

In 1844 William Johnson, a wealthy citizen, 
donated to the Ladies' Educational Society a lot. By 
the united efforts of the Society and the Masonic 
fraternity a brick house was erected, the first floor for 
school purposes, and the second for a Masonic lodge. 

Professor Lucius B. Johnson and his wife were em- 
ployed, and opened the school, calling it Dallas Male 
and Female Academy. The school soon grew so large 
as to require the whole building, and the trustees 
bought the interest of the Masons. 

In 1845 it was deemed best to change the plan. The 
new institution was incorporated as the Dallas Male 
and Female Academy with a new board of trustees. 
The act incorporating the Ladies' Educational Society 
was repealed, and their property rights and privileges 
were transferred to the new board of trustees. This 
board was made self-perpetuating by the act of incor- 
poration and has so continued until the present time. 
The building was still inadequate to the demands of 
the school. 

The charter of this school was amended January 25, 
1845. This amendment granted the power to grant 
diplomas and to confer degrees, and all the privileges 
usually enjoyed by institutions of like grade in the 
United States. 

The Society, continuing as a voluntary organiza- 
tion, began to raise money for another building, by 
giving concerts and other entertainments. They re- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 91 

ceived large subscriptions from the public-spirited men 
of the place, and the donation of another lot by the 
same benevolent citizen, William Johnson. The pres- 
ent Dallas Academy stands on this lot. The original 
brick building was used for boys, and the new build- 
ing for girls. 

Some Northern teachers were brought out and other 
teachers from among our own people were employed, 
and thus an excellent corps was organized. Among 
the latter were two Misses Meek, sisters of Prof. A. B. 
Meek of the State University. Each year a teacher 
of instrumental and a teacher of vocal music and an 
instructor in military tactics were employed. Success 
crowned the efforts of the able principal and his wife 
and the efficient corps of teachers. The school at- 
tracted citizens to the place and thus increased its 
business and prosperity. 

These were the flourishing days of Dallas Academy. 
Rigid discipline was maintained and a high grade of 
scholarship required. The sessions lasted nine months 
and were closed with public examinations, continued 
morning and evening for a week, with military drills 
and concerts at night. Large numbers of people came 
from different parts of the State to witness these clos- 
ing exercises. It is stated that as many as four thou- 
sand persons were present on one occasion. The 
crowds were so great that the exercises were held in 
the city warehouses, the buildings being entirely too 
small. " Hundreds of the best men and women in 
Alabama and other States," says " Hardy's History of 
Selma," " graduated during this period of Dallas Acad- 
emy, and remember with gratitude until this day 
Prof. Lucius B. Johnson, and his wife, Harriet B. 
Johnson." 

In 1851 the Johnsons, under strong inducements, 
left Selma to establish a school in Camden, Alabama, 
and Dallas Academy was placed under the charge of 
Rev. A. R. Holcombe. Under the administration of 
the Rev. Mr. Holcombe the school waned, its popular- 



92 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

ity and patronage declined, its classes withdrew, and 
with them the income, until the trustees found them- 
selves in debt, and were compelled to sell the brick 
building and lot to Col. P. J. Weaver, to refund the 
money he had advanced for them. 

In October, 1853, Professor Johnson and his wife 
returned to Selma to take charge of Dallas Academy. 
Professor Johnson died soon after his arrival, a victim 
of yellow fever. Mrs. Johnson continued the school 
and conducted it successfully until 1864, when she re- 
tired to private life. She died in Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, in 1887, closing a long and useful life, cherished 
in the memories of many Alabamians of the present 
day. 

In 1866 the trustees began to prepare to reopen the 
school that had been temporarily suspended. The re- 
maining building was repaired and suitably furnished. 

Prof. W. B. Seals of Columbus, Georgia, was placed 
in charge of the Academy, and continued with good 
classes for two years. Dependent upon tuition fees 
for the support of himself and family, and the pay- 
ment of assistant teachers, Professor Seals did not find 
the place sufficiently remunerative, and resigned the 
position at the close of the session of 1868. 

In May, 1868, Dr. Albert Barnes Sears, agent of 
the fund donated by George Peabody, for the benefit 
of education in the Southern States, visited Selma, and 
after consultation with some of the prominent citizens 
made the following proposition : " The Trustees of 
the Peabody fund will pay $2,000 if the people of 
Selma will raise $4,000, or more, to provide free edu- 
cation for all the white children of the city, in the com- 
mon English branches for one year, the school to be 
under the control of some committee of men that shall 
fairly represent the public interests of the schools, to 
be appointed by the citizens who contribute to the 
fund." 

On the 1 4th of May a public meeting was held to 
consider the above proposition, at which it was re- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 93 

solved to make an effort to establish free schools in 
Selma. A committee consisting of Messrs. Joseph 
Hardie, Geo. O. Baker, Geo. Peacock, Ed. Woods, 
and B. Eliasburg, was appointed to draft resolutions 
expressive of the sense of the meeting, which after 
consultation reported in substance that there should be 
established in Selma two good schools, one for boys 
and one for girls, and that the sum of $4,000 at least 
would be required to be subscribed to effect the object 
desired. The report was adopted by the meeting. On 
May 15 another public meeting was held. The com- 
mittee on subscriptions reported progress showing that 
the citizens were responding liberally to the calls. The 
trustees of Dallas Academy, through their president, 
the Hon. J. R. John, proposed to co-operate with the 
movement in such manner as might be deemed best, 
to render the grounds and building, known as Dallas 
Academy, available in its aid. 

On the 1 3th of June the subscription having 
amounted to a sum deemed sufficient to warrant the 
inauguration of the proposed system of schools, a 
meeting of the subscribers was held for the purpose 
of selecting " a body of men that would fairly repre- 
sent the public in respect to schools " in accordance 
with the terms of the proposition made by Dr. Sears. 
The selection resulted in the choice of the following 
men : Jos. R. John, Jos. Hardie, Geo. O. Baker, Geo. 
Peacock, Chas. M. Shelly, A. G. Mabry, James M. 
Dedman, Edward Woods, John White, James W. 
Lapsley, and S. C. Pierce. Of these, Messrs. John, 
Baker, Woods, and Mabry were already members of 
the board of trustees of Dallas Male and Female Acad- 
emy. The remaining gentlemen above named were suc- 
cessively elected to members of the board of trustees 
of Dallas Male and Female Academy, one to fill a 
vacancy caused by death, and the remainder to fill 
vacancies caused by resignations to make room for 
them. In this manner the new board acquired the 
property, powers, rights, and immunities conferred by 



94. HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

the act of incorporation in compliance with terms of 
the charter of Dallas Male and Female Academy. The 
new board thus created organized on the 22nd of 
June, 1868, by the election of the following officers 
and the adoption of its by-laws, viz: Jos. R. John, 
president; Ed. Woods, secretary; Jos. Hardie, treas- 
urer. 

The Board proceeded to appoint a building commit- 
tee to secure accommodations for the new free graded 
school, now for the first time to be established in 
Selma. This committee, after various efforts, decided 
to enlarge the accommodations of the Dallas Academy 
building by erecting another of the same dimensions 
alongside the original building, thus increasing the 
capacity to double the original size; and to rent a 
building in East Selma for a branch school. The 
board next proceeded to elect the following teachers: 
Capt. N. D. Cross, principal and superintendent; Mr. 
G. M. Callen, principal of the boys' department; Miss 
Ella Thompson, principal of the girls' department ; and 
eight assistant teachers; and Mrs. Moore, teacher of 
vocal music. As the building was not completed, the 
boys' school was opened in the basement of the Metho- 
dist Church, and the girls' school in the basement of 
the First Presbyterian Church, October n, 1868. 

In 1869 the city of Selma was made a separate 
school district under the general control of the State 
Board of Education and a special superintendent, and 
thenceforward became a part of the public-school sys- 
tem of the State. An arrangement was made with 
the City Council and City Board of Education, by 
which the board of trustees should control and manage 
the school, under the general supervision of the City 
Superintendent arid the City Board of Education. 
This arrangement has continued until the present time, 
and has always worked harmoniously and satisfac- 
torily. 

The school has been maintained by special tax, the 
State appropriation, and tuition fees. The income 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 95 

from public monies has never been sufficient to make 
the school entirely free. In 1873 the high school was 
organized with twenty pupils, mainly girls under 
charge of Miss Julia Nixon. In 1878 diplomas were 
conferred on a class of six. Since that time this honor 
has been conferred on about one hundred and thirty. 

The board of trustees has been wise and fortunate 
in the selection of principals and teachers for the 
school. Since 1868 there have been three principals 
Captain Cross, three years; Prof. Woodward, eleven 
years; Prof. Hardaway, twenty years. Through all 
this time they have been assisted by the very best 
teachers to be found, several of whom have been in the 
school for many years. One teacher, Miss Emily F. 
Furguson, has taught continuously since 1868. 

The combined labors of the trustees, principals, and 
teachers has made Dallas Academy the pride of Selma, 
and an honor to those who have brought it to its pres- 
sent efficiency and usefulness. 

Judson Female Institute, Marion, Alabama, 1839-1908 

When Alabama became a State much interest in 
education already existed, and the new State began 
with commendable zeal to organize a school system, 
and to establish academies and other seminaries for the 
benefit of girls ; but, before the close of the first decade, 
this zeal was much decreased difficulties had proved 
much greater than had been foreseen, and many which 
the people could not anticipate had arisen. However, 
the people were not discouraged, and in the larger 
towns " Female Associations for the Promotion of 
Education " were organized. These associations were 
called " female " not because they were composed of 
women, for as many men as women belonged to 
them, but because the prime object of their organiza- 
tion was the advancement of the education of girls. 

In 1833 such an association was formed in Marion, 
Alabama, and a charter was obtained. This charter 



96 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

empowered the stockholders to establish a school for 
girls, of any grade desired. As a matter of course all 
denominations belonged to this association, and all 
patronized the school established in 1835. 

This harmonious arrangement was not destined to 
continue very long. The Baptists were the first to tire 
of it, and withdraw. In 1833 the Alabama Baptist 
State Convention, a corporate body, had established 
" a Seminary for Young Men," afterward known as 
Howard College, and at the session of 1837 the sub- 
ject of education occupied much time and attention, 
and after mature deliberation the Convention decided 
to establish a school for girls, to be located in Marion. 
Therefore, the Baptists withdrew from the " Society 
for the Promotion of Education," and the school 
established by the Society, and began preparations for 
the accommodation of their own school. The first 
session of this school the " Judson Female Institute " 
began January 7, 1839, in a modest two-story 
wooden building thirty by forty, and having two 
wings. Rev. Milo P. Jewett was the first president ; 
General Ed. D. King, president of the board of 
trustees ; William Hornbuckle, secretary, and Langston 
Goree, treasurer. 

A small beginning was made with forty-seven pupils 
and six teachers; the third session closed with one 
hundred and fifty-seven pupils. In two and one half 
years a house answering all the demands of the time 
had been constructed, which was unsurpassed by any 
school building for girls in the South at that time. It 
was supplied with apparatus, a library, a cabinet of 
minerals, music-rooms and an art studio. This build- 
ing was destroyed by fire, but was soon replaced by 
three handsome three-story brick buildings, joined by 
two-story wings, forming a structure two hundred and 
forty by one hundred and twenty feet. This building 
was also destroyed by fire, but was replaced by build- 
ings on a larger and more elegant plan, and greatly 
superior to those which preceded them. Meanwhile, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 97 

thanks to the public spirit and liberality of the citizens 
of Marion, the exercises of the school were not sus- 
pended. All the classes were taught as usual during 
the erection of this building. 

When first organized this school adopted a uniform 
dress for the students, and the graduates have always 
worn plain white dresses, without trimming or orna- 
ment. 

On May 24, 1906, the sixty-eighth commencement 
was held. To the graduating class and to the great 
audience assembled in Alumnae Hall, President Patrick 
read the first graduating essay ever read at the Judson 
the graduating essay that was read in the remote 
year of 1841, by Miss Carolina Frances Smith of 
Lowndes County. To them was shown the first 
diploma issued from the Judson, the diploma issued to 
Miss Smith. Every word of it was written by hand, 
and it was signed by that famous educator, Milo P. 
Jewett, who became the first president of Vassar Col- 
lege. Mr. Patrick also showed an oil portrait, life 
size, of Miss Smith, Judson's first graduate. 

On the evening of May 24, 1906, the thirty-six 
graduates marched down the aisles of Alumnae Hall 
to the stage, while the great pipe organ pealed a stately 
march. To begin the exercises the large audience 
arose and sang " Praise God from Whom all blessings 
flow." A beautiful and touching prayer, by Rev. S. M. 
Provence, followed. Then the graduating class sang 
" The Lord is my Shepherd." 

Diplomas were awarded to each of the following- 
graduates : Literary president, Mayo Provence ; vice- 
president, Jane Elizabeth Massey; treasurer, Annie 
Lorena Warren. Degrees Bachelor of Arts, Mayo 
Provence; Bachelor of Science, Elva Goodhue; 
Bachelor of Literature, Margaret Ansley, Warre 
Boyd, Janie Ida Bean, Mamie Crew, Inez Webb Col- 
lins, Hattie Eloise Collins, Mary Lou Dean, Loucile 
Donald, Louise Davie, Frances Ruby Holley, Ethel 
Yvette Hill, Ruth Hobson, Rosa Ramsey, Carrie 



98 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Spigener, Mabel Catherine Hauff, Annie Vinceil 
Strong, Evalyn Thompson, Annie Lorena Watts. 
Bonnie Pearl Watts, Jane Elizabeth Masse, Harriet 
Cecil Hampton. Music Pianoforte, Bessie Inez 
Burk, Ida Holley, Margaret Bacon; voice, Harriet 
Hosmer Reynolds; violin, Annelu Burns; organ, 
Maude Robinson; elocution, Ruth Hobson, Carrie 
Spigener, Cecyle Clyde Metcalf, Ethel Salter. Art 
Annie Vonceil Strong, Edna Middleton. The presi- 
dent of the class, Miss Mayo Provence, was the recipi- 
ent of the highest honor of her class. 

The Judson is the property of the Alabama Baptist 
Convention. Its interests are committed to a board of 
trustees elected by the convention, to whom the board 
annually reports. This board assumes the responsi- 
bility of all expenses, so that no officer or teacher is 
pecuniarily interested in its income. The manage- 
ment of the affairs of the school is entrusted to a presi- 
dent, who is elected by the board, and whose term of 
office is determined by the condition of mutual satis- 
faction between the contracting parties. 

At the annual meeting of the board in 1906 the an- 
nual report of President Patrick was received with 
general satisfaction by the board, for in it was out- 
lined the remarkable growth of the Judson during the 
past ten years. 

After a thorough examination of the books and 
management, and in view of the fact that about sixty 
pupils have been turned away every fall for three years, 
the trustees decided to build an annex on the north 
side of the dormitory, similar to the one on the south 
side; also to beg-in work immediately on the Carnegie 
Library, the building to cost $15,000 furnished by Mr. 
Carnegie; the College has raised $15,000 endowment 
fund. It was also definitely decided to build a house 
for the president that will be in keeping with the form 
and importance of the Judson. 

The board of trustees in 1906 consisted of fourteen 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 99 

ministers and laymen of the Baptist Church of Ala- 
bama, B. F. E. Ellis, Orrville, president. 

The Judson had been in operation well-nigh three 
years before a charter was applied for. The trustees 
named in this charter were Edwin D. King, James S. 
Goree, Larkin Y. Tavnat, A. C. Eland, Langston 
Goree, Francis Lowery, John Lockhart, William E. 
Blasingame. The usual powers concerning the own- 
ing and disposal of property were granted, but the 
amount of property owned by the institution was 
restricted to fifty thousand dollars. Trustees were em- 
powered to grant diplomas, certificates, or other evi- 
dences of scholarship as they may prescribe. This 
charter was approved January 9, 1841. 



100 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER XI 

Livingston Female Academy, Livingston, Alabama, 
1840-1908 

THIS academy was incorporated January 15, 1840, 
and without cessation of regular exercises has con- 
tinued until the present time. The full course of in- 
struction includes three departments: primary, inter- 
mediate, and collegiate. In the first two departments 
are three classes each. In the collegiate department, 
four. One year is required for each class, or ten years 
for the entire course. Latin and French are required ; 
German and Greek are elective. 

For the benefit of graduates of this and other in- 
stitutions the collegiate course will be supplemented by 
an elective course of higher grades whenever the neces- 
sity arises. 

In this course it will be the aim to bring the standard 
of scholarship as nearly as possible to that recom- 
mended by the Committee of Ten appointed by the 
National Educational Association. 

To meet the demands for trained teachers for the 
public schools of the State the Legislature of 1882-83 
made a yearly appropriation of $2,000 for the support 
of the Normal School, and $500 for the purchase of 
school appliances. The Livingston Academy being an 
undenominational school, the directors were empow- 
ered to establish in connection with it a normal depart- 
ment to enable young women to prepare for teaching 
in the public schools of the State. As the Academy 
was well organized, or graded, and supplied with many 
excellent appliances, this arrangement enabled the 
normal department to begin work without delay. The 
name was changed to Normal College and a new 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 101 

charter was granted February 28, 1883. The Acad- 
emy became the literary department of the Normal 
College; and an industrial department, including 
stenography, typewriting, telegraphy, a printing de- 
partment, and a dressmaking and fitting department 
have been added to the other advantages offered by the 
Normal College. Vocal music in classes, and draw- 
ing, both free-hand and outline, are taught in all de- 
partments. 

The boarding department and music department 
(special lessons) and art department (including draw- 
ing and painting) belong to the principal. 

A unique feature of this school is the " annual ex- 
cursion." During the winter of 1881 the plan of 
school excursions was inaugurated by sending the first 
to the Atlanta Exposition. The success of the trip 
caused the principal, Miss Tutwiler, to decide in favor 
of an annual trip if a sufficient number of the parents 
desired it for their daughters. Almost the whole 
school visited the New Orleans Exposition. In 1887 
a party of twenty-six pupils and two teachers, chap- 
eroned by Miss Tutwiler, made an excursion of ten 
days to Washington City. The graduating class of 
1895 decided not to have graduating costumes, not 
even a white fan, gloves, or ribbons, but to wear the 
simple uniform they wore every Sunday, and to ask 
their parents to give each of them $25 to be used for 
an educational excursion. They visited Tuscaloosa 
during the commencement week of the University, met 
many prominent citizens and distinguished Ala- 
bamians, and visited places of interest; then on to 
Birmingham, where they visited the rolling mills, fur- 
naces, and other places of interest ; then on to Chatta- 
nooga, Lookout Mountain, and Mounteagle, where 
they spent two weeks, keeping house for themselves 
in a cottage belonging to Miss Tutwiler. The neces- 
sary cost of these excursions is $25. 

The College buildings were burned to the ground 
Christmas night, 1894, but the exercises of the school 



102 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

were not interrupted for a single day. Two commo- 
dious buildings, close together, one for the boarding 
department the other for sole use of the school, have 
been erected. 

The Normal College has had only one principal, 
Miss Julia Strudwick Tutwiler, who was principal of 
the Livingston Academy when the normal department 
was established. A library, and reading-room sup- 
plied with current literature, a laboratory, a museum, 
a telegraph office, and a printing-press afford facilities 
for teaching. 

Athens Female Institute, 1842-1908 

It had been obvious for some time to the leading 
men of Athens that in order to maintain her prestige 
Athens must provide schools of a higher grade than 
the academy for girls. Indeed, this sentiment largely 
pervaded the community, but the Methodists seemed 
to take the lead in its discussion. 

Thus the way was prepared for action when the 
Tennessee Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church (at that time that part of Alabama lying north 
of the Tennessee River belonged to the Tennessee 
Conference) met in Athens, in October, 1842, and 
after mature deliberation the enterprise was projected. 
In 1843 a charter was obtained from the legislature 
of Alabama incorporating the " Female Institute " 
of the Tennessee Conference. The dignity and high 
character of the undertaking was amply manifested 
in the selection of the trustees named in the charter, 
men prominent in church and state. The lofty aim 
of the institution was further shown in the election 
of the learned and sweet-spirited Dr. R. H. Rivers 
as its first president. 

Gradually the boundaries of the conferences were 
made to coincide with the boundaries of the State, 
and in 1869 the North Alabama Conference was or- 
ganized, embracing the northern portion of Alabama, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH IPS 

in which Athens is situated, thus acquiring all the 
church property in this section formerly belonging to 
the Tennessee Conference. In this way the Institute 
became the property of the North Alabama Conference. 
In 1872 the charter was amended, changing the 
name to the " Athens Female Institute," and again 
was amended in 1889, changing the name to " Athens 
College for Women." These amendments included 
other changes, as extending the curriculum, enlarging 
the powers of the trustees, and defining property 
rights. 

Several additions have been made to the beautiful 
Ionic structure erected by the founders; one of these, 
a spacious chapel ; another, a large two-story building 
for accommodation of the music department. Re- 
cently the whole building has been remodeled and 
made modern in its appointments, and refurnished. 
The entire structure is of brick, the main building 
being three stories high. 

The course of study embraces kindergarten, pri- 
mary, intermediate, academic, and collegiate depart- 
ments; the last requiring four years. The languages 
taught are Latin, Greek, French, and German. To 
these courses are added the schools of music, art, 
voice culture, elocution, and business. 

Two literary societies, a current events club, a chorus 
club, an orchestra, musical recitals, and lectures by 
the best platform speakers are some of the means of 
culture used to render the course interesting and 
practical. 

The College has been a church school from the be- 
ginning, hence the Bible is studied throughout the 
course, and a regular course of Bible study forms a 
part of the work of the collegiate course. 

The College has an honorable history and a future 
full of promise. It is enshrined in the hearts of thou- 
sands, and there are mothers all over the South who 
reflect with thanksgiving upon the gracious influences 
shed upon them while students in its classic halls, 



104 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

and remember with loving kindness the advice and 
training received from the long line of eminent and 
worthy presidents, whose lives were a benediction. 

For several years the College has been under the 
supervision of Miss Mary Moore, a woman eminently 
fitted for the position. Under her guidance the stand- 
ard has been raised, the equipment enlarged, and the 
efficiency of the College greatly enhanced. The great 
need of this College is an ample endowment; with this 
advantage it could take rank with the first colleges 
in the country. 

(The material for this sketch was obtained from 
catalogues, acts of Legislature, and correspondence.) 

Alabama Central Female College, Tuscaloosa. 1845 

Although the Baptists had established one school 
for girls which had not been as successful as they 
had anticipated, they were willing to make another 
venture whenever an opportunity should present it- 
self. The opportune time came when Montgomery 
became the capital of the State. When this came to 
pass, the Legislature gave the old Capitol to the L^ni- 
versity. The trustees of the University soon realized 
they had " a white elephant " on their hands, and 
gladly leased the building to a syndicate for ninety- 
nine years, on condition that it should be kept open 
and a school kept in it. 

The charter granted to this syndicate demanded that 
two-thirds of the syndicate should be members of the 
Baptist denomination, and limited the amount of stock 
to $300,000; hence this college is locally known as 
" The Baptist College," though its charter name is 
" Alabama Central College." 

The provision of the charter necessarily places it 
under the control of the Baptist Church, though the 
Baptists maintain it is not a denominational school : 
as a proof of this contention, the teachers, other than 
the principal, who has always been a member of the 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 105 

Baptist Church, have been drawn from all denomina- 
tions. 

Among- the many presidents who have had charge 
of this College during its existence of sixty-one years 
are the following: Professors Bacon, Browne, Lan- 
neau, Samuel B. Foster, Yancey, and Dr. Murfee. 

Auburn Masonic Female College, Auburn, Alabama, 
1852-1908 

This school had its beginning in the forties, and 
exact records are not extant ; however, tradition says 
it was successfully managed by Mr. Pelot Lloyd, and 
became so popular at home and abroad that more 
commodious buildings became necessary. 

In 1852 it became the property of the Masonic 
Lodge of Auburn, and a new charter was approved 
February 10, 1852. 

The judiciary powers granted by this charter were 
the same as were usually granted to institutions of 
learning, and the trustees were empowered to con- 
fer degrees and to grant diplomas to graduates, and 
issue certificates of scholarship. One clause of this 
charter forbids the sale of liquor within two miles of 
the College. This seems a peculiar precaution for a 
school for girls. 

The rieht to elect trustees was vested in the Ma- 
sonic Lodge in Auburn, and the trustees named in 
the charter were to hold office until the Lodge should 
see fit to appoint their successors. 

Under the name and title of Auburn Female Col- 
lege the school seemed to take on new life. Mr. 
Lloyd was still in charge, and Mrs. Agnes Clower 
was the first music teacher employed by the College. 
General Holtzclaw of Montgomery delivered the first 
baccalaureate address, June, 1854. 

After a few years the Masonic Lodee relinquished 
the management of the school and it became a pre- 
paratory school for boys. At this juncture Judge 



106 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

John Harper, a wealthy, liberal, and public-spirited 
citizen, donated a beautiful grove contiguous to the 
old school building, and a $6,000 brick house was 
erected. This building was of the best material and 
workmanship, as time and hard usage have proven. 
It withstood the cyclone that swept over the town in 
1870, and the less violent, but equally destructive, at- 
tacks of the jack-knives of a generation of school 
boys. 

This school continued until the exigencies of the 
War between the States converted it into a hospital 
for Confederate soldiers, and for some time after 
peace was declared it served as a refuge for weary, 
travel-worn soldiers. 

For a short time it was degraded from its original 
purpose and converted into a factory for furniture 
for a time only, for the citizens, aroused from their 
lethargy and determined to restore the old building 
to its former use, re-established the school. Both 
boys and girls were admitted to this re-established 
school. The discipline was rigid, the teaching thor- 
ough; the examinations were conducted publicly; and 
visitors were often requested to quiz the pupils. 

During the half century that had elapsed since the 
establishment of the school many changes had been 
made, and the building had been used for several 
purposes. Another, and the last change up to date, 
was made in 1900, when the school became again a 
school for girls, the name was partially restored, and 
it became known as the Auburn Female Institute. 

The graduates of this Institute are admitted to the 
junior class of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 
also located in Auburn. 

When the last change was made the old building 
had served its purpose and its usefulness was passed, 
and it was torn down and a modern schoolhouse 
erected near the site of the old schoolhouse. The 
same grand old oaks beneath whose shades some of 
the noblest men of Alabama played " town-ball " and 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 107 

marbles, shelter the school girls of the present day 
as they indulge in the pastimes so dear to the modern 
girl. 

In 1900 Prof. G. W. Duncan was principal; his as- 
sistants, Misses Potterfield and Martin. 

(The material for this sketch was furnished by 
Miss O'Hara of Auburn, Alabama.) 

Orrville Institute, Dallas County, Alabama, 1852 

This school was established by James R. Malone, 
and was in a flourishing condition some years before 
application was made for a charter. The trustees 
named in the charter were Wiley Thomas, James F. 
Orr, Henry Cobb, Edward B. Halloway, John McEl- 
ray, James White, Felix G. Adams, Lewis B. Moseley, 
Abner Y. Howell, P. T. Woodall, James D. McElray, 
B. E. Cobb, John A. Norwood, and Alfred Averzt. 
" These trustees were authorized, with the consent and 
concurrence of James R. Malone, but not otherwise, 
to make such rules and regulations for the government 
of said institution as they deem expedient, provided 
such regulations are not in conflict with the constitu- 
tion of the State and of the United States. If James 
R. Malone should sell his interest to said trustees, 
then they shall have full and exclusive control of said 
institution. 

" This institution shall not hold property to exceed 
$10,000, exclusive of buildings, apparatus and library. 
The principal, James R. Malone, and his associate 
teachers and their successors, who shall be styled the 
faculty of Orrville Institute, shall have power to or- 
ganize said institution on a college basis, and the same 
is hereby declared to be a college proper, and said 
faculty of said institution shall be empowered to con- 
fer degrees, honors and diplomas, arid have all the 
rights and privileges and immunities of all regular 
colleges." 

This charter was approved February 9, 1852. 



108 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

The College continued in active operation until 
closed by the exigencies of war. The buildings re- 
mained intact, and when schools were reopened after 
the War between the States they were turned over 
to the use of the public schools. 

East Alabama Female College, Tuskegee, 1852 

According to the terms of the charter of the Col- 
lege, which was, granted January 27, 1852, the faculty 
of said college may instruct in all the arts and sciences 
usually taught in similar institutions, and grant di- 
plomas and confer all degrees of literary distinction 
which can be conferred by other institutions of learn- 
ing in the United States. 

One section of the charter is a stringent law against 
the sale of liquor within three miles of the College. 

No license shall be received in justification for a 
violation of this law. 

The property was limited to $130,000 exclusive of 
apparatus and library ; the grounds to fifteen acres. 



Baptist Female Institute at Moulton, Alabama, 

The trustees of this Institution were appointed by 
the Muscle Shoals Association, No. 13. They were 
empowered to grant diplomas, and to make such regu- 
lations as were not contrary to the constitution of the 
State or of the United States. A two-thirds vote 
was necessary to elect a principal. 

No law concerning sale of liquor, but a fine of 
$1,000 was imposed on any bowling-alley within three 
miles of the institution one-half allowed to the pros- 
ecutor and one-half placed in the county treasury. 

This school was closed by Federal troops, the build- 
ings destroyed, and never rebuilt. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 109 



Salem Female Academy, Jefferson County, Alabama, 

1852 

This academy was maintained by a stock company, 
and the trustees elected by stockholders. The shares 
were $25 each, and one share entitled to one vote, 
either in person or by proxy. The stock was trans- 
ferable, but limited to $20,000. 

The trustees had full power to decide as to the 
competency and number of teachers, to make rates 
of tuition, and to grant diplomas on adequate attain- 
ments as well as certificates or other evidences of 
scholarship, and in short do any and every thing neces- 
sary and proper to promote the objects of said institu- 
tion, or which other institutions of like kind may 
lawfully do. This charter was approved February 
10, 1852. 

Rehoboth Academy, Rehoboth, Wilcox County, Ala- 
bama, 1852 

The corporation of this academy was perpetual, but 
it was not a stock company. 

The trustees had the same powers as the trustees 
of Salem Academy. This charter was approved Feb- 
ruary 9, 1852. 

Isbell College, Talladega, Alabama, 1847-1908 

In 1847 the Presbyterians of Talladega County re- 
solved to establish a school for girls in the town of 
Talladega, where their own daughters and as many 
others as would patronize the school could obtain col- 
legiate training. 

They appointed a board of trustees to carry out 
the measure. The names of these trustees are a guar- 
antee to all Alabamians that the school was excellent 
in all its apppointments ; they were Lewis E. Parsons, 



110 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Alexander White, Dr. J. E. Knox, Rev. A. B. Mc- 
Corkle, Major James, General William B. McClellen, 
Andrew Cunningham, Thomas Cameron, and Colonel 
Henry Rutledge. 

These trustees obtained a charter which empowered 
them to establish a school on a college basis, and they 
erected suitable buildings, which cost $20,000. The 
buildings were completed in 1849, an d in October of 
that year the school opened under the management of 
President Hoyt, a Presbyterian minister. 

In 1854 the trustees made a proposition to the Synod 
of Alabama to transfer the school and the buildings 
to the Synod and change the name from Presbyterian 
Collegiate Institute to Synodical Institute. The prop- 
osition was accepted, and in 1856 the transfer was 
made, and from that time the Institute was under 
the control of a board of trustees appointed by the 
Synod, who made reports to the Synod at its annual 
sessions. In 1888 the Presbyterian Church in Talla- 
dega requested the Synod to transfer the Institute to 
the church. After two years' negotiation this was 
done, and the transfer was made in 1890* and the name 
changed to Isbell College. 

The departments are, literary, consisting of an aca- 
demic and a collegiate course, requiring eight years 
to complete both ; music and art. 

The buildings originally were large two-story brick 
buildings. They have been enlarged and improved, 
and facilities required to conduct these departments 
according to modern ideas have been added. The 
College is still in a flourishing condition. 

East Alabama Female Institute, Talladega, 1849 

In 1849 the Masonic fraternity of Talladega re- 
solved to establish a school of high grade for girls, 
which would not be denominational in its teaching. 
In 1850 the corner-stone was laid with appropriate 
ceremonies, and the building hurried to completion. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 111 

This building, which cost $25,000, was placed in 
the center of a twenty-acre lot, which was divided 
into a campus, a park, and a farm. The building 
stands on the top of a hill, which is terraced down 
to the level of the street. The terrace immediately 
around the house is laid out for a flower garden, the 
one below is planted in grass and shaded by live- 
oak trees. 

The school opened in October, 1851, under manage- 
ment of Professor Patrick, president, and Professor 
Thomas Cook associate president, with a corps of 
competent teachers. The departments of music and 
art were well equipped; the former was in charge 
of Professor J. W. Blandin, a graduate of the Con- 
servatory of Music in Boston; the art department 
was in charge of Mrs. Shelly. 

The Masons did not realize their expectations in 
the success of this college, and in 1854 they sold the 
property to the Alabama Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South. The school did not suc- 
ceed under this management, and in 1858 the Confer- 
ence closed the school and rented the property to Dr. 
Joseph H. Johnson of Cave Springs, Georgia, who 
opened a school for the deaf, October i, 1858. 

In 1860 the State bought the property for $16,000, 
and in February, 1860, the State Institution for the 
Deaf and Dumb was organized. In 1866 the School 
for the Blind was added, and in 1887 the Academy 
for the Blind was established, all under the supervision 
of Dr. Johnson, who continued in charge until his 
death, when he was succeeded by his son. 

When the State bought the property it was en- 
larged and a herd of Jersey cattle placed on the farm. 
This farm supplies the school with vegetables and 
milk and butter, and affords a means for training 
in practical agriculture and dairy work. 

The departments of the school are furnished with 
suitable appliances for teaching, and the teachers are 
experts in the different lines of work. 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

In 1890 the State bought an adjoining tract of land, 
erected suitable buildings, and in 1892 opened a sepa- 
rate school for deaf and dumb and blind children of 
the African race. 

(The material for this sketch was furnished by Mr. 
L. L. Lewis of Talladega, and obtained from cata- 
logues sent by him.) 

Oak Bowery Female College, Oak Bowery, Alabama, 

1850 

This school began as Oak Bowery Academy, whose 
charter was approved December 25, 1837. By terms 
of the charter the corporation was perpetual and en- 
titled to a common seal alterable at pleasure, and 
the property rights and judiciary powers were 
defined. 

The first amendment to this charter was approved 
February i, 1843, an d read as follows: "After the 
passage of this act the Oak Bowery Academy shall 
be known as Chambers Collegiate Institute. Henry 
C. Marcell, J. Alma Pelot, and their successors, to- 
gether with the present board of trustees, shall have 
the power to confer degrees and fill vacancies both in 
the board of trustees and professors, provided no va- 
cancy shall be filled unless there be present and voting 
a majority of the trustees." 

The second amendment was approved February 4, 
1850. An entirely new board of trustees is named 
in this act, most of them Methodist preachers, and 
they and their successors are declared a body cor- 
porate by the name and style of the " Oak Bowery 
Female College/' under the direction of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South. 

The College was in charge of a first-class faculty, 
and did efficient work of a high order. It was not 
closed by the exigencies of war, but continued ef- 
fective some years after the war closed, when it was 
merged into the public-school system. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 115 



Alabama Conference College, Tuskegee, 1854-1908 

This College was chartered in 1854, under the name 
of Tuskegee College. The usual powers concerning 
honors, diplomas, and literary distinctions were 
granted; the amount of property was limited to $130.- 
ooo and the land to fifteen acres. 

Rev. A. A. Lipscome was the first president, and 
continued in office until the close of the War between 
the States. It was not closed during the war ; indeed, 
it was quite prosperous until the Reconstruction 
caused utter financial ruin. 

At one time the closing of the College seemed in- 
evitable in spite of the utmost endeavors of its friends. 
Rev. J. W. Rush, Rev. M. S. Andrews, and Rev. 
Henry D. Moore particularly exerted themselves in 
its behalf. The Methodists were anxious to build up 
this College. They had already donated to the State 
two colleges the East Alabama College for men at 
Auburn, and LaGrange College at Florence; the first 
became the A. & M. College, the second the State 
Normal. 

After strenuous efforts they succeeded in paying the 
debt on the College, and in 1872 they applied for a 
new charter. 

By the terms of this charter the property limitations 
were removed ; the College was recognized as the 
property of the Methodist Episcopal Church South; 
and the name was changed from Tuskegee College 
to Alabama Conference Female College. John Mas- 
sey, A.M., LL.D., was elected president and a new 
board of trustees was also elected. 

The attendance at the opening of the next session 
was encouraging, and since that time the numbers 
steadily increased. Only a few years after Dr. Massey 
took charge it became necessary to enlarge the build- 
ing, and in a few years it became necessary to erect 
another building, and still another to meet the demands 



114 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

of the school. The school now has suitable buildings 
for all its departments, well equipped laboratories, 
and gymnasium, and studios for music and art. The 
curriculum has been changed to accord with modern 
ideas of a college course. 

The literary departments of this institution were 
from the beginning and are, primary, preparatory, and 
the college proper. This gives the advantage of send- 
ing all the girls of a family to the same school. Though 
entirely separate they are under the same manage- 
ment. 

The alumnae, now numbering hundreds, have 
formed an alumnae association, which meets during 
commencement week, in Alumnae Hall in the College. 

(Facts contained in this sketch are taken from ad- 
vertisements in papers, and from Acts of Legislature, 

1854.) 

Montevallo Female Institute, Montevallo, Alabama 

By act of the General Assembly of Alabama, ap- 
proved February 6, 1858 (Acts of Alabama, 1857-58, 
page 88), the_" Montevallo Male and Female In- 
stitutes of the Union Synod of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church of Alabama " was incorporated. 
Among the powers granted were, " grant diplomas, 
and confer all the degrees of literary distinction usually 
granted in similar male and female institutes of learn- 
ing in the United States." 

These institutes, for there were two separate and 
distinct schools, began work October, 1857. The girls 
were taught in the building now used for the Monte- 
vallo Industrial School ; the boys in a building which 
has been converted into a private residence. 

Dr. Roach was the first president ; he was succeeded 
by Rev. A. J. C. Hail. 

The Synod ceased to operate the school in 1864, 
and during the latter part of the War the building 
used for the girls' institute, now the chapel of the 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 115 

Industrial School, was used as quarters for soldiers 
camped in Montevallo. 

Shortly after the War the Synod turned over the 
chapel and lot to Rev. W. H. Meredith, who with his 
wife continued the Montevallo Female Institute till 
about 1875, after which time Mrs. Meredith continued 
to teach a mixed school until 1887 or 1888. The In- 
stitute was considered a high-grade school, and af- 
forded an opportunity for advanced study that many 
otherwise would not have had. 

In 1888 the Alabama Industrial School for Girls 
was established in the old buildings of the Institute. 
Rev. Frank Peterson was the first and only principal. 

Greenville College, Greenville, Butler County, Florida 

This institution was organized on a regular college 
basis February 5, 1860. 

Clayton College, Barbour County, Alabama 

This was also declared a college by its charter, and 
all the powers and privileges of a college granted to 
it. Its property rights and judicial powers were clearly 
defined, but the amount of property exclusive of 
buildings and equipment was limited to $50,000. This 
charter was approved February 10, 1860. 

Only four days after this charter was approved, a 
charter was granted to Woodlawn Institute, Marengo 
County. This was also empowered to confer degrees 
and grant diplomas. 

Hamner Hall Seminary, Montgomery, Alabama, 1860 

This school was established by the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. It opened October, 1859, and its char- 
ter was approved February 10, 1860. It was situated 
in the western suburb of Montgomery in a large, 
beautiful grove of oaks. Ample provision was made 



116 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

for accommodating boarders, and for a few years it 
prospered. Soon after the close of the War between 
the States the boarding department was discontinued, 
but the school continued until about 1890, when it 
ceased to be profitable. 

There were two other high-grade schools for girls 
opened about the same time as Hamner Hall the 
school of the Misses Follansbee on Perry street, and 
Mrs. Chilton's school on Sayre street. The last was 
closed on account of the ill health of Mrs. Chilton, 
and the building rented to the Public School Trustees. 
The school of the Misses Follansbee continued until 
about 1890. These schools did efficient work and are 
gratefully remembered by many of the leading women 
of Montgomery. 

Canebrake Female Institute, Uniontown, Perry 
County, Florida 

This was chartered February 4, 1850. Though 
called an institute, it was a college and had the power 
to confer degrees. The school opened under favorable 
auspices October, 1849, an< ^ continued until 1862, 
when the building was burned and never rebuilt. 

Though a small college, it was fairly well equipped. 
It was furnished with chemical and physical apparatus, 
and globes, charts and a telescope ; also musical instru- 
ments. 

The prime object of its organization was to give 
an opportunity to the girls of the Canebrake section 
to obtain collegiate training free from the evils of a 
large boarding-school; and this it effectually did dur- 
ing its short existence. 

Chunnanugga Ridge Institute, 1846 

This was another small college that did good work 
until closed by the exigencies of war. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 117 

Its charter was approved January i, 1846. The 
amount of property allowed by this charter was limited 
to $20,000, exclusive of building and equipment. This 
charter was amended to give full collegiate powers to 
the College, and allowing property to the amount of 
$100,000. 

Courtland Masonic Institute, Laivrence County, 
Alabama 

This was the property of Courtland Lodge, No. 37. 
Trustees were elected by the Lodge. The charter, 
dated February 8, 1854, granted the power to grant 
rewards of scholarship. . 

Gainsville Institute, Sumter County, Alabama 

The Institute could confer degrees and grant di- 
plomas. Charter dated February 8, 1854. 

Forest Hill Seminary, Talladega County, Alabama 

This had the same powers as Gainsville Institute. 
Amount of property, exclusive of library and appa- 
ratus, was not to exceed $50,000. Date of charter, 
February, 1855. 

East Alabama College, Tuskegee, Macon County 

This was under auspices of the Baptist Church. It 
was burned about the close of the War between the 
States, and never rebuilt. Charter granted January 
27, 1852. 

Robinson Institute, Autauga County, Alabama 

The charter approved January 2 1,1845, was amended 
February u, 1850, by changing the name to McGehee 
College, with all'the powers and privileges of a college, 



118 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

and a normal department was added to the College. 
This was the only college established in Alabama by 
the Protestant Methodist denomination. 



Glenville College 
Charter dated February i, 1852. 

Lowndesborough Institute, Lowndesborough, Lowndes 
County, Alabama 

Charter dated January 29, 1852. 

Gaston Institute, Sumter County 

The trustees had power " to make such rules and 
regulations and prescribe such forms for granting di- 
plomas, certificates, or other evidences of scholarship 
as they may choose." Charter dated February 4, 
1852. 

DadevilU Masonic Seminary, Dadeville, Tallapoosa 
County, Alabama 

This was under control of Tohopeka Lodge, No. 71, 
and Chapter No. 45, of Dadeville. It had all the 
powers and privileges of a regular college. Charter 
approved February 4, 1852. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 119 



CHAPTER XII 
Some Other Institutes, Seminaries, and Colleges 

LITTLE is known of many institutes, seminaries, and 
colleges that once were efficient schools, except what 
can be found in the " Acts of the Legislature." Among 
these are: 

Columbia Institute, Henry County. Charter ap- 
proved February i, 1843. 

Robinson Institute, Autauga County. Date of char- 
ter January 21, 1845. 

Central Masonic Institute, Dallas County. Date 
of charter January 13, 1846; power to grant diplomas 
and confer degrees granted January 29, 1850. 

Orion Institute, Prospect Ridge, Pike County. 
Charter granted January 25, 1845; repealed February 
10, 1848. 

Union Franconia Institute, Pickens County. Char- 
tered March i, 1848. 

Pickensville Institute, Pickens County. Chartered 
January 29, 1848. 

Dayton Literary Association changed to Masonic 
Institute, Dayton, Marengo County, January 24, 1848. 

Hayneville Institute, Lowndes County. Chartered 
February 5, 1848. 

Montevallo Collegiate Institute, Montevallo, Shelby 
County. Chartered February 6, 1848. 

Mobile High School, Mobile. Chartered February 
3, 1850. 

Wilcox Institute, Camden, Wilcox County. Char- 
tered January 31, 1850; amendment granting power 
to confer degrees and grant diplomas, February 2, 
1852. 

Carrollton Academy given power to confer degrees 



120 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

and grant diplomas, January 26, 1850. Seal of the 
Academy and the signature make them valid. Carroll- 
ton is in Pickens County. 

Octavia Walton Le Vert Normal College, 1860 

This college was located in Dadeville, Tallapoosa 
County, Alabama, and began its career under favor- 
able auspices. It was named for Madam Octavia Wal- 
ton Le Vert, who was very popular in Alabama. 
Strange as it may seem to some that any attention 
was paid to normal training of teachers prior to the 
advent of the public-school system, nevertheless it is 
true that this college was organized and chartered 
for that very purpose. However, there was scarcely 
time to show what the work would be before it was 
closed by the War between the States. 

Synodical Female College, Florence, Alabama, 1854 

Florence is situated on the Tennessee River, and is 
one of the oldest towns in the State of Alabama, hav- 
ing been laid out under the direction of The Cypress 
Land Company, in 1818, by an Italian, Mr. Sinoni, 
who named the new town in honor of his native city, 
Florence, Italy. The population increased slowly; 
even as late as 1870 it was only 2,000; notwithstand- 
ing, the interest in education was always great. The 
first school was taught by Mr. Charles Sullivan; his 
successor was Rev. Wallan, an Episcopal clergyman. 

Later Mrs. Caroline Lee Hentz had a large and 
flourishing school for young ladies. She employed a 
German professor of music, a native Frenchman to 
teach French, and competent teachers of art. After 
her departure in 1842, the Florence Female Academy 
was organized, but not chartered until 1848. The 
curriculum was the usual academic course of study, 
with departments of music and art. 

When the town was laid out The Cypress Land 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

Company gave two large lots in the center of the 
town for school buildings one for boys and one 
for girls. On the one donated for a girls' school the 
citizens built a large, rather imposing structure sur- 
rounded by a board colonnade whose colonial columns 
were two stories high. In this building the Synodical 
Female College commenced its existence in October, 
1854. It was chartered December 13, 1855; the bill 
was vetoed by Governor Winston, but passed by the 
constitutional majority. 

The incorporators were William Mitchell, Robert 
M. Patton, James Irvine, Richard W. Walker, Syd- 
ney C. Posey, Neal Rowell, Thos. Kirkman, Samuel 
D. Weakly, Charles Gookin, Benjamin F. Foster, John 
S. Kennedy, William K. Key, Benjamin Taylor, 
Boyles E. Bourland, John T. Edgar, A. Smith, A. A. 
Doak, and R. B. McMillan. These trustees were em- 
powered to hold real and personal property in trust 
in perpetuity for use of said college and for the Pres- 
byterian Synod of Nashville, Tennessee, and all 
powers concerning property usually conferred upon 
trustees were granted to this board; also all legal 
title to property heretofore donated or conveyed to 
the Synod of Nashville by the president and trustees 
of the Florence Female Academy or by the mayor and 
aldermen of Florence, or by any others, was vested in 
the President and Trustees of Florence Synodical 
Female College. In addition, the power was given 
to confer diplomas upon graduating pupils, and to do 
all other necessary and proper things for the promotion 
of education in said college. 

Mrs. David, corresponding secretary of the Ala- 
bama Division of U. D. C., has kindly furnished the 
following sketch of this old school: 

" This was for many years one of the largest and 
most popular of the many colleges for girls in the 
South. At that time our schools were all supplied 
with Northern teachers, there were no Southern teach- 
ers, except men; therefore, all the teachers in this 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

school, except the president, were Northern women. 
When satisfactory they were retained for years. 

" The first president was a Mr. Stebbins ; a man 
highly esteemed. He was connected with the school 
for several years. He was followed by a Mr. Nicholls, 
a red-headed, high-tempered, disagreeable man who 
was a terror to the girls; in fact, little else than a 
bear ; therefore his stay was short. 

" The next president was Mr. Rogers from Georgia, 
a fine man and excellent president. He presided dur- 
ing the most prosperous years of the school. During 
this time every department was conducted by compe- 
tent teachers. There was a German professor of 
music, Professor Neumayer, with competent assistants. 
Music was never more successfully taught ; the piano, 
violin, guitar, pipe organ, and harp were skilfully 
taught. The professor was proud of his class, and 
the frequent musicals and concerts given in the chapel 
were enjoyed by large and appreciative audiences. 
Light operas were rendered, when the girls dressed in 
the required costumes. A native Frenchman, Monsieur 
De Soto, taught French, and creditable recitations 
were given, and compositions read in French, at the 
entertainments of the school, and these were frequent. 

" There was always a large class in art, to whom 
everything in art of that day was taught. Beautiful 
work in oil paintings done by the pupils of these 
classes to-day beautify the homes of the old pupils in 
many of our States. 

" The president of the board of trustees, Hon. 
Robert M. Patton, afterward Governor, who devoted 
much time and thought to the school, and was de- 
votedly loved by all the pupils, was once invited to 
the art-room, where he was informed that the art 
pupils intended to paint his portrait, and then and 
there he had the first sitting. Each girl gave some 
strokes to this portrait, and when it was finished they 
presented it to him. It was ever afterward one of his 
most highly prized treasures. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 123 

" Every pupil dreaded the examinations, at which 
time the chapel was filled to overflowing. Business 
of the town was almost suspended, and everybody at- 
tended the exercises. There was then none of the 
humbuggery about written examinations of the pres- 
ent day ; the classes were called up to take seats on the 
stage and were examined on the work done during 
six or twelve months, and each girl was required to 
stand while reciting. 

" After the teachers had finished their questioning 
an invitation was given to any one in the audience 
who wished to ask questions to do so. This invitation 
was always accepted, and the girls were truly thankful 
if only one accepted. 

" The pupils were drilled in spelling through the 
entire course, and were really taught to spell, and of 
course to read. Few children can now either spell or 
read well. 

" I remember especially among the teachers in the 
school two beautiful and elegant women from the 
North. They were of the English style in appearance 
large, handsome women, having beautiful fair com- 
plexions, luxuriant black hair, and large brown eyes 
the Misses Reynolds. They were delightful women 
in society, useful in church and Sunday-school, and 
their services were highly valued. They were excel- 
lent teachers, a blessing in the school-room, and much 
loved by their pupils. Everything breaks down in 
time, and after many years these teachers were not 
satisfactory, and they returned to their Northern 
homes and friends, and wrote a book against the South 
called ' Peter Still/ When compared with this pro- 
duction, * Uncle Tom's Cabin ' was tame indeed. 

" Peter Still, the hero, was the overseer of course 
a Northern man on a plantation where the Misses 
Reynolds had visited, been hospitably entertained, 
treated royally. ' It was ever thus ' with the Southern 
people. 

" Dr. Rogers resigned the presidency on account 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

of the ill health of his wife, and was succeeded by 
Dr. William N. Mitchell, who had been for many 
years the Presbyterian minister in Florence. The 
school was large and flourishing under his administra- 
tion, until his health failed and he resigned. Mr. J. 
S. Anderson next took charge, and had a large school 
of lovely girls, from all over the South ; however, 
he remained only a few years and resigned and bought 
property in Huntsville, and for many years had a 
large and flourishing school in that city. 

" Mr. Frierson succeeded as president. The school 
did not prosper under his administration. His health 
failed and he remained only a short time. 

" Dr. Bardwell, a lovely Christian gentleman, then 
took charge. He was a Presbyterian minister, and 
very acceptable as a teacher and presiding officer, 
but his health failed and in a year or two he died. 

" The impression that misfortune came to ministers 
who abandoned the regular work of the ministry for 
any other work seemed to prevail in the community, 
and the trustees made a decided departure from the 
long established custom of electing a minister to pre- 
side over the school, and elected Miss Sally Collier 
president. 

" The school continued during the War between 
the States, as the invading armies did not enter that 
portion of the State. 

" During the Reconstruction period the school be- 
gan to decline; and the trustees, anxious to restore 
it to its pristine greatness, decided that an addition 
to the first building would be advantageous. They 
borrowed money to make the improvement, and thus 
encumbered the property with debt, which they have 
not been able to liquidate. 

" After the establishment of the State Normal and 
the public school, the attendance steadily decreased 
until it was thought advisable to close the doors for- 
ever. 

" A year or two ago the property was sold to a 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 125 

Northern man, for a very small sum, and he has now 
sold a portion of it to the government for a very 
large sum." 

(The material for this sketch was taken from the 
Acts of Legislature, 1855; the remainder is a sketch 
by Mrs. McDavid.) 



126 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER XIII 
Schools in Florida 

ACCORDING to information obtained from the Cath- 
olic Historical Association there were no schools in 
Florida, during Spanish dominion, except schools for 
the Indians, taught by the fathers of the monastery of 
St. Francis in St. Augustine. 

During British occupation, from 1763 to 1783, at- 
tention was principally directed to warlike affairs. 
Neither did Spain pay any attention to education when 
she assumed control the second time. 

From the organization of the territorial government 
by the United States, in 1822, to 1842, the unsettled 
condition of the country, produced by the Seminole 
War, prevented progress in the arts of peace. All 
the schools in Florida prior to 1850 were common 
schools. 

The first step taken by Florida toward the estab- 
lishment of schools for higher education is found in 
the Act of the Legislature, January 24, 1851, in which 
it is provided : " That two seminaries of learning shall 
be established, one on the east, the other on the west 
side of the Suwanee River, the purpose of which shall 
be the instruction of persons, both male and female, 
in the art of teaching all the various branches that 
pertain to a good common-school education; and, 
next, to give instruction in the mechanical arts in hus- 
bandry, and in agricultural chemistry, in the mechan- 
ical arts, in the fundamental laws, and in what regards 
the rights and duties of citizenship. . . . Lectures on 
chemistry, comparative anatomy, astronomy, and the 
mechanic arts, agricultural chemistry, or any branch of 
literature that the board of education may direct, may 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 187 

be delivered to those attending the seminary in such 
manner, and at such time, and on such conditions as 
the board of education may prescribe." 

One of these schools was established in Tallahassee, 
the other in Ocala subsequently removed to Gains- 
ville. They were until the formation of the State 
constitution, in 1868, and for a decade following, 
the only public educational institutions of collegiate 
grade. 

On November 24, 18^6, the board of trustees of 
Florida Institute (owned by the city of Tallahassee) 
offered to the Legislature of Florida the college build- 
ing with its appliances, to be given at an appraised 
value, and the remainder in money, $10,000 in all, 
to locate the State Seminary in Tallahassee. The prop- 
osition was accepted March 27, 1857. Until June 14, 
1858, this university received boys only, then it was 
resolved, " That the board provide for the instruction 
of females from and after the first day of October 
next." 

August 28, 1858, the board accepted a deed of con- 
veyance from the president of Leon Female Academy 
of two lot's in the north addition of Tallahassee, and 
the college has ever since maintained a female de- 
partment. It was taught in the academy building until 
1882, when the two schools were merged. 

By an Act of 1861 the Seminary was authorized to 
assume a collegiate standard as a basis of its organ- 
ization. At the annual meeting, June 5, 1901, the 
board of education resolved " that the official title of 
the school now located in the city of Tallahassee, and 
formerly known as the ' Seminary West of the Suwa- 
nee,' or the ' West Florida Seminary/ shall, from and 
after this date, be the Florida State College." 

The buildings are College Hall, two dormitories, 
Westcott Memorial Chapel, and Gymnasium. 

The equipment consists of Library of several thou- 
sand volumes and the University Library, physical, 
chemical, biological, physiological, and histological 



128 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

laboratories, museum, and mathematical instruments, 
and a telescope. 

To prepare for this college a high school has been 
established. The course of the high school requires 
three years. It offers two courses, classical and com- 
mercial, and diplomas are awarded to those com- 
pleting either. 

The Alumni and Alumnae each have an association. 
Each holds annual convocations during commencement 
week. 

There are two debating societies the Platonic and 
the Anaxagorean ; each has a hall and each gives pub- 
lic debates during commencement week. 

In a note appended to the catalogue of the State 
College the President says, " Florida has never fallen 
into the old routine of instruction " meaning, I sup- 
pose, the establishment of separate schools for girls; 
also, " Florida can boast of good schools for both 
white and black." 

The only distinctly girls' school of which the writer 
could find any record is Leesburg Institute, established 
by Florida Conference of M. E. Church South, in Lees- 
burg, Florida. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 129 



CHAPTER XIV 
First School in Georgia for Girls 

THE first immigrants who came to Georgia after 
its settlement by Oglethorpe were the Salzburgers. 
They were cordially welcomed and permitted to se- 
lect lands. The land selected was twenty miles from 
Savannah, and here they settled a village and called 
it Ebenezer. As soon as they built their houses of 
pine boards, sixteen by twenty, they built a tabernacle 
for public worship; then a schoolhouse. Few records 
of this school have been preserved, but it is certain 
that both boys and girls attended it. The records of 
the early Lutheran school that are now extant show 
that they did not favor mixed schools, and it is pre- 
sumable that this school was not a mixed school. 
They brought their teacher with them, and their pub- 
lic library at Ebenezer contained books in thirteen 
languages. (Letter from Mrs. Gignilliat.) This 
school continued until the colonists were driven from 
their homes by the British forces when Savannah was 
captured. 

Doubtless there were other schools for girls estab- 
lished in Georgia during the eighteenth century, but 
no record of them remains. Notwithstanding Georgia 
was settled by intelligent and cultured people, they 
were for some reason decidedly opposed to granting 
a charter to a school exclusively for girls, and though 
bills for such charters were many times introduced in 
the Georgia Legislature, not one was ever passed prior 
to 1827. However, the Georgia people were not un- 
mindful of the importance of schools, and they made 
provision for common schools and established acad- 
emies, some of which had a department for girls. A 



130 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



few of them were endowed and are reaping the benefit 
of that endowment even now. 

The first school for girls of which any record re- 
mains was that of Madam Dugas at Washington, 
Wilkes County. Madame Dugas was one of the 
refugees from the San Domingo massacre of 1791. 
That she was a woman of great refinement and well 
educated is the testimony of a daughter of one of her 
pupils. 

The school began in 1792, but in what month is 
not known. It became a very popular boarding-school. 
The only record obtainable is found in the " Report 
of the Academy Commissioners of Wilkes County 
Academy," located in the town of Washington. This 
notice is: " In March, 1806, Madam Dugas asked the 
commissioners to patronize her school, and to ap- 
point a day to visit and examine her pupils ; the min- 
utes show that the visit was made." This is all that 
can be learned of the history of the school. 

The next school for girls was College Temple at 
Newnan, taught by Mr. M. P. Kellogg. It was es- 
tablished about 1820, and was conducted on a college 
basis, but was never chartered, and had only one 
president, and when he died the school was discon- 
tinued. 

Among institutes, seminaries and colleges that were 
organized in Georgia prior to 1860 may be mentioned: 
Culloden Seminary, at Culloden, Monroe County; 
Monroe College, Baptist, Forsyth, Monroe County; 
private academy taught by Early Cleveland, Forsyth, 
Monroe County; Georgia Masonic Female College, 
Covington; Girls' High School, Appling. Columbus 
County, organized in the thirties : Levert Female Col- 
lege, Talbotton, Talbot County; Mrs. Warne's Acad- 
emy, Sparta, Hancock County ; Harmony Grove Acad- 
emy, Jackson County; Methodist College in Madison, 
Morgan County; Baptist College also in Madison; 
Americus Female College, Americus; Warrenton 
Academy, Warrenton; Georgia Episcopal Institute, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 131 

Montpelier Springs; several seminaries for girls in 
Augusta; LaGrange Institute, founded in 1845, m ~ 
corporated in 1846, conducted on a college basis; La- 
Grange Female Seminary, established in 1843, by 
Rev. John E. Dawson plan of instruction strictly 
collegiate; furnished with chemical and philosophical 
apparatus, minerals, and a small library. 

Clinton Female Institute, Clinton, Jones County, 
Georgia 

In 1833 R CV - Thomas B. Slade established Clinton 
Female Institute, at Clinton, Jones County, Georgia. 
This school continued there in much prosperity until 
he accepted a professorship in the Georgia Female 
College, which opened January, 1839. 

After much persuasion Mr. Slade consented to close 
his school and transfer as much of the patronage of 
his school to the Georgia College as he could. Many 
of his pupils followed him to Macon, and formed the 
majority of those present on that memorable opening 
day. He also took his own apparatus, chemical and 
physical, and his pianos; and his music teacher, Miss 
Maria Lord, and her assistant, Miss Martha Massey, 
were also employed as teachers in the College. 

The pupils from Mr. Slack's school formed the 
first graduating class of the Georgia College a fact 
not generally known, and never mentioned in any of 
the catalogues of Wesleyan. 

The president, Rev. George Pierce, and Rev. T. B. 
Slade resigned their places, at the close of the second 
session of the College, about eighteen months after 
the opening. 

At the earnest solicitation of the trustees of Mer- 
cer University, Mr. Slade accepted the position of 
principal of a school in Penfield. This school was 
deemed essential to the welfare of Mercer. 

This school did not prosper, and again Mr. Slade 
packed his equipment, and this time he went to Colum- 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

bus and opened a private school, The Columbus In- 
stitute. This school flourished until closed by the War 
between the States, in 1863. 

A quotation from an obituary notice will serve to 
show the character of the man and his methods. 

" In all his enterprises he never asked and never 
received pecuniary assistance from any one. He paid 
his own way, put up his own buildings, hired and al- 
ways paid his own teachers, bought his own pianos, 
and supplied amply and fully all apparatus illustrating 
natural sciences. He never electioneered for pupils, 
and no pupil was ever rejected because she was un- 
able to pay her tuition fee. 

"Mr. Slade was one of the pioneers in the higher 
education of women in Georgia, and the good influence 
of himself and his most estimable wife runs like a 
thread of gold through many lives that bless our 
country." 

(This account of Mr. Slade's school was kindly sent 
by his daughter, Mrs. J. E. Gignilliat. It is the only 
information obtainable of the Clinton Institute and 
the Institute in Columbus.) 

In 1829 or 1830 Dr. Brown had a school for young 
ladies at Scottsboro, a small place near Milledge- 
ville, which was well patronized. 

There was also a school for young ladies, estab- 
lished in Fort Gaines in the thirties by Mr. Taylor, 
who made music a prominent feature of his school. 
He had a number of pianos and a large pipe organ 
brought from Germany. This school, though well 
patronized, did not last long. 

(This also is from a letter from Mrs. Gignilliat.) 

Wesleyan, Macon, Georgia, 1839-1908 

In 1835 Hon. Daniel Chandler, an alumnus of the 
University of Georgia, delivered an address on fe- 
male education before the Demosthenian and Phi 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 133 

Kappa Societies of the University. It was so highly 
esteemed that the Phi Kappa Society requested a copy 
for publication; five thousand copies were printed and 
it was widely circulated. Through its inspiration the 
Wesleyan sprung into existence. The proposition to 
establish a college for women received favorable con- 
sideration from men in high position in church and 
state. As a majority of these belonged to the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, when the annual session of the 
Georgia Conference convened the projectors of the 
College offered to place it under the charge of the 
Conference, and this offer was cordially accepted. Dr. 
Lovick Pierce was appointed traveling agent, and other 
agents were appointed. 

The institution was chartered by the Legislature of 
Georgia, in 1836, as Georgia Female College. 

The Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
at the session of 1836 appointed the following board 
of trustees : James O. Andrews, John W. Tall}'-, Wil- 
liam Arnold, Samuel K. Hodges, Lovick Pierce, Ig- 
natius A. Few, Alexander Speer, Thomas Samford, 
William J. Parks, George F. Pierce, Elijah Sinclair, 
Henry G. Lamar, Jere Cowles, Ossian Gregory, Rob- 
ert Collins, E. Hamilton, George Jewett, Henry Solo- 
mon, Augustus B. Longstreet, Walter T. Colquitt, 
Jas. A. Nesbitt, Robert Augustus Beall. The board 
held many meetings and had many interesting discus- 
sions as to the plan of the building and the ways and 
means, the ceremony of laying the corner-stone, the 
course of study, etc. 

Two years after their organization, in June, 1838, 
the trustees elected a president of the College and one 
professor, and in November following, the other pro- 
fessors and officers. The College, crowning Encamp- 
ment Hill, since known as College Hill, was opened 
to the public and beean its appropriate work January 
7, 1839, with tn e following faculty: Rev. G. F. Pierce, 
president, and professor of English literature; Rev. 
W. H. Ellison, professor of mathematics; Rev. T. B. 



134 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Slade, professor of natural science ; Rev. S. Mattison. 
principal of preparatory department; B. B. Hopkins, 
tutor; John Euhink, professor in music; Miss Lord, 
first assistant in music; Miss Massey, second assistant 
in music; Mrs. Shelton, matron; Mrs. Kingman, de- 
partment of domestic science ; A. R. Freeman, steward. 

The following notice of the opening of the College 
is taken from the " History of Macon " by John C. 
Butler, Esq. : 

. " It was an occasion of great interest and deep 
and thrilling excitement. A large and respectable 
number of citizens of Macon assembled in the Col- 
lege chapel to witness the opening scene. The hopes 
of the friends of the College, and speculations of its 
enemies, and the eager delight of the congregated 
pupils, all conspired to invest the service with an in- 
terest additional to its intrinsic importance." 

On the first day ninety young ladies enrolled their 
names as pupils ; during the term the number increased 
to one hundred and sixty-eight. 

Notwithstanding Dr. Pierce had traveled two years 
as agent to collect funds to build the College and put 
it in operation, the College was encumbered with a 
large debt when it was opened. Dr. Pierce encoun- 
tered many difficulties and met many objections to 
the enterprise that would be considered ridiculous at 
the present time. On one occasion he was urging 
the claims of the College upon a gentleman of large 
means and liberal views as to the education of his 
sons, and received the reply : " No, I will not give 
you a dollar. All that a woman needs to know is how 
to read the New Testament, and to spin and weave 
clothing for her family." Another man said : " I will 
not give you a cent for any such purpose. I would 
not have one of your graduates for a wife, for I 
could never build even a pig-pen without her criticizing 
it, and saying that it was not put up on mathematical 
principles." 

These prejudices did not die, and when the College 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 135 

was about to enter on its fourth year, President El- 
lison and Professor Darby deemed it wise to issue 
a circular combating them. A question constantly 
asked was, " Will the study of conic sections and spher- 
ical trigonometry aid a woman in making a pudding, 
or in performing any other household duty, and if 
not, what is their use?" The answer given to this 
was an eloquent vindication of " woman's right " to 
the highest form of culture, including even the dry 
subject of conic sections and spherical trigonometry. 
This state of feeling made it impossible to get sub- 
scriptions for the enterprise, and at the end of five 
years the College was irretrievably bankrupt. Most 
of the friends of the College surrendered the enter- 
prise as an entire failure : but two of the number, Rev. 
Samuel Anthony and William H. Ellison, determined 
to make an effort to continue the school. They con- 
sulted their friend Mr. William Scott, who suggested 
that they should allow the sale to proceed, and that 
they would find five other men who would assist them 
in buying the property. The claim of the contractor, 
Mr. Elam Alexander, was $10,000; this was divided 
into shares of $i,coo, and five men took one share each 
and two men took two shares each. The plan was car- 
ried out, and the property became legally the property 
of these men, who gave it to the Annual Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

They offered the building to the trustees for what 
it had cost them.. Rev. Samuel Anthony was appointed 
agent, and by many and laborious efforts he succeeded 
in collecting about $2,000. Mr. James A. Everett 
proposed to pay the remainder on condition that the 
trustees would give him four perpetual scholarships. 
The trustees accepted the proposition and secured a 
title to the College building leg-ally and lawfully. 

Thus the Georgia Female College passed out of ex- 
istence. The College was given to the Annual Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the 
name changed to Wesleyan Female College. The 



136 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

president and faculty resigned and were immediately 
elected to fill like places in the Wesleyan. Thus the 
College, without loss of time in its great work, passed 
under a new jurisdiction and set out on a new career. 
The new board of trustees was almost identical with 
the old, almost every surviving member of the old 
being retained in the new. Several women were added 
to the faculty at this time, and ever since the faculty 
has been largely composed of women. The College 
was kept open during the War between the States 
and went on regularly with its work, with the excep- 
tion of two or three weeks, when General Sherman 
passed by on his way to the sea, and of two or three 
days when General Wilson took possession of the 
city. During the winter of 1873 the exercises were 
suspended for six weeks on account of an epidemic 
of small-pox. With these exceptions the regular ex- 
ercises of the school have not been interrupted since 
the opening in 1839 until the present time. 

During the collegiate year of 1859-60 the Alum- 
naean Association was formed. This association holds 
triennial reunions. These occasions have been highly 
enjoyable. The following ladies have been president 
of the association : Mrs. Harriet H. Boring, Mrs. M. 
H. de Graffenreid, Mrs. A. B. Clayton, Mrs. Alice 
C. Cobb, Mrs. Eugenia Fitzgerald, Mrs. C. E. Benson, 
Mrs. L. V. Farrar, Mrs. W. R. Rogers. 

Bishop George F Pierce was the first president of 
the Georgia Female College, Dr. William H. Ellison 
the second and also the first president of Wesleyan 
College. During the sixty years of its existence the 
College has had five presidents. 

Degrees While the charter of the College author- 
izes the trustees to confer all degrees usually con- 
ferred by universities and colleges, they have only ex- 
ercised that authority by conferring the following de- 
grees: Degree Artium Baccalaureae, upon regular 
graduates, and as an honorary degree. Degree Lit- 
erarum Baccalaureae, conferred on all who complete 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 187 

regular course with Latin language, but no modern 
language. Degree Artium Magistrae. This degree 
was conferred upon all regular graduates of ten years' 
standing, up to 1886, when the custom was discon- 
tinued. It may be conferred upon distinguished lit- 
erary ladies, and upon candidates after careful examin- 
ation in a prescribed course of study. Degree Ar- 
tium Pingendi et Lineandi Baccalaureae is conferred 
upon those who complete a full course in Art Depart- 
ment. Degree Musica Baccalaureae is conferred upon 
those who accomplish the prescribed course in Music 
Department. 

THE SENEY BENEFACTION 

In the year 1881 Mr. George Ingraham Seney of 
Brooklyn, New York, whose mother was an alumna of 
Wesleyan, donated $125,000 to the College. Fifty 
thousand of this amount was designated by him as a 
permanent endowment fund for two chairs, one to be 
called the " Lovick Pierce Chair of Mathematics and 
Astronomy " ; the other was named by the trustees 
" Seney Chair of Mental and Moral Science/' in honor 
of the donor. Five thousand was designated by the 
donor as a fund for furniture and grounds for a li- 
brary; while $70,000 was placed at the disposal of 
the trustees, and used by them for building and im- 
provement. 

In order to show the appreciation of the noble 
Christian character of Mr. Seney, and of his generous 
gift to the institution, Wesleyan has adopted his 
birthday, which occurs on the I2th of May, as a regu- 
lar College anniversary, to be known in the College 
calendar as " Benefactor's Day," and to be observed 
with suitable literary and musical exercises. 

The origin of the Everett scholarships has already 
been mentioned. These scholarships are not under the 
control of the trustees or faculty, but are controlled 
by the founder, Mr. James A. Everett, of Fort Valley, 
Georgia. They secure to the holder board and tuition 



138 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

in all departments of instruction. There are no regu- 
larly endowed scholarships yielding revenue for the 
gratuitous instruction of pupils, but the " lessee " of 
the College gives free tuition in the " regular course," 
to all the daughters of all ministers who live by the 
ministry, and to all worthy girls in needy circum- 
stances who desire to prepare themselves to teach. 

Free scholarships in tuition are offered to one pupil 
each year in the Alexander School, and the high school 
of the city of Macon, and to one pupil in the Bibb 
County public schools; the pupils holding the highest 
rank in their respective schools receiving the scholar- 
ships as a reward of merit. The awards are made 
annually and for one year. 

(This sketch was prepared from catalogues.) 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 139 



CHAPTER XV 

La Grange Female College, La Grange, Georgia, 
1833-1908 

THIS institution commenced its work under the 
name of La Grange Female Academy, in 1833, under 
the supervision of Rev. Thomas Stanley, a Methodist 
minister. He taught successfully until his death in 
J 835, when his wife, Mrs. Ellen Stanley, took charge 
of the school until the close of the session. She was 
succeeded by Mr. John Park, who continued until 
1842. During that year Mr. Joseph T. Montgomery 
leased the Academy from the trustees, and took charge 
of the school January, 1843, beginning with thirteen 
pupils. In less than two years the enrollment was 
more than one hundred and increasing rapidly. 

Mr. Montgomery wished to make it a school of high 
grade, and a new charter was obtained granting the 
privilege of conferring degrees, and La Grange Fe- 
male Institute was organized with increased facilities 
and extended charter privileges. 

In 1846 the first three graduates of the new school 
commenced the roster of alumnae which now contains 
hundreds of names. Besides those who have com- 
pleted the curriculum, received diplomas and had their 
names recorded as children of their alma mater, hun- 
dreds of others receiving here wholesome instruction 
and fit preparation for after life have gone forth to 
bless the world. 

The College continuing to grow, it was deemed 
necessary to increase its teaching facilities and to ex- 
tend its charter privileges. On July 4, 1852, the cor- 
ner-stone of old La Grange College was laid with ap- 
propriate ceremonies by the Masonic fraternity of La 



140 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Grange; and in June or July, 1853, the first class was 
graduated in the new chapel. 

Mr. Montgomery had associated with him his 
brothers, Mr. Hugh T. Montgomery and Rev. T. F. 
Montgomery. In December, 1856, the Messrs. Mont- 
gomery sold their entire property to the Georgia Con- 
ference of the M. E. Church South. 

On March 28, 1860, the college building, with 
pianos, library, apparatus, and many minor requisites 
for a well-furnished school for girls were entirely 
consumed. In less than thirty days $20,000 had been 
subscribed and the work of rebuilding commenced. 
Before the building was completed the War between 
the States began, and financial ruin was the result. 

In the division of the Georgia Conference this prop- 
erty was given to the North Georgia Conference, and 
was formally accepted at the Annual Conference held 
at Augusta, Georgia, December, 1867. The walls 
were then unfinished, and somewhat dilapidated by 
exposure to the rains and frosts of seven winters. For 
thirteen long years the Rev. J. R. Mayson labored 
faithfully and energetically to rebuild the walls. The 
friends of the enterprise were loyal and liberal even 
in their poverty, and in Mareh, 1875, the work of 
completion commenced and was finished in 1879. 
Since that time the College has made steady, healthy 
progress, under the presidency of Rev. J. R. Mayson, 
and then of Dr. J. W. Heidt. 

In 1885 Dr. Heidt resigned and Rufus W. Smith 
was elected president. 

In 1887 the increasing patronage required more 
boarding room, and College Home was doubled in 
size at a cost of $10,000. In 1891 the second annex 
to College Home was built, and other improvements 
made at a cost of $5,000. In 1892 Mr. William S. 
Witham endowed the " Laura Haygood Witham Loan 
Fund," with a donation of $10,000. The proceeds 
of this fund are to be used in educating dependent 
young ladies. In 1894 the College added a $4,000 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 141 

pipe organ to the advantages of its music department. 
In 1897 about $2,000 were spent in improving the 
college grounds, home chapel, and college auditorium. 
These facts and figures show that this valuable prop- 
erty, estimated at $100,000, is making rapid progress 
in material growth and improvement. Its record of 
literary, moral, and religious status is no less en- 
couraging. During the past five years its graduates, 
with two or three exceptions, have gone forth Chris- 
tian women. During the past session the entire 
patronage of the boarding-department found the 
" pearl of great price."- Over half of the alumnae are 
engaged in successful teaching. In 1898 the prospects 
were brighter than ever before. 

(From letters, catalogue, and sketch furnished by 
the president, Rufus W. Smith.) 

Southern Female College, College Park, Georgia, 
1843-1908 

The first session of this school began January, 1843, 
under the management of Rev. John E. Dawson, 
D. D., whose aim was to establish a college of high 
order for women. On account of failing health he 
retired from the presidency during the year and was 
succeeded by Milton E. Bacon, A. M. Through his 
efforts the College was chartered under the name of 
La Grange Female Seminary, in 1845. I n I ^5 tms 
charter was amended and the name changed to La 
Grange Collegiate Seminary for Young Ladies, Pro- 
fessor Bacon being the sole incorporator. In 1852 
the name was changed by Act of Legislature to South- 
ern and Western College, all the rights, privileges, 
and powers of the old corporation passing over to the 
new. In 1854, by Act of Legislature, the name was 
changed by Mr. Bacon to Southern Female College 
of La Grange, and all the rights and privileges trans- 
ferred and confirmed. In 1857, by Act of Legisla- 
ture, the charter was again amended, and that provi- 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

sion of the original charter limiting the franchise to 
a period of thirty years was repealed and its existence 
made perpetual. 

Professor Bacon erected the buildings and conducted 
the College as an " individual enterprise." Never 
knight espoused a cause and followed it with more 
ability, zeal, and chivalry than Mr. Bacon undertook 
the education of girls, when it was a novel and doubt- 
ful experiment. The faded and stained parchments 
of the early records of the College, containing his 
printed addresses and circulars in advocacy of the edu- 
cation of girls, glow with noble enthusiasm as he com- 
bats prejudice against his noble work and outlines the 
ideal woman, consecrated and cultured. Under his 
administration the College prospered wonderfully, 
maintained high standards, received patronage from 
all over the South, and achieved wide celebrity. 

In 1855 President Bacon retired from the school 
and removed to Mississippi. He was succeeded by 
Hon. John A. Foster, A. M., who was joined by Rev. 
Henry E. Brooks from Alabama, in 1856. As asso- 
ciate presidents they conducted the school through 
1856-57. In 1857 I. F. Cox, A. M., became president. 
When he volunteered with the La Grange Home 
Guards for the War between the States the community 
asked for his detail, and arrangements were made for 
him to teach in the basement of the Baptist Church, 
as the College had been seized and was used for a 
Confederate hospital. From 1860-63 Rev. W. H. 
Roberts, D. D., was associate president, and for a year 
or two sole president. From 1855 to 1864 the West- 
ern Baptist Association owned a one-half interest in 
the school. In 1864 the College building, while oc- 
cupied by the Confederates, was accidentally burned, 
and as the Southern government was then in ruins 
and soon dissolved, it could make no recompense. 
With the exception of some insurance paid in Con- 
federate money that soon became worthless, the loss 
was total, and Mr. Cox was the chief loser. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

The distressing condition of the country during the 
period of Reconstruction and recurring panic added 
to the calamity of the College. With fortitude and 
indomitable energy President Cox resolutely set to 
work to overcome what seemed insurmountable 
obstacles in the way of rebuilding and refurnishing the 
institution. Alone, except with the aid of his wife, 
he undertook the arduous work as a private enterprise. 
The story of toil, self-denial, and struggle will never 
be fully told on earth. 

After teaching for several years in rented buildings, 
first in one place and then in another, he purchased 
in 1871, in his own name, a new site, paid for part of 
the cost in cash, borrowed money at high rates of in- 
terest, began the erection of buildings, and by degrees 
paid off all claims. In recognition of his labors and 
services for the College, and as a tribute to his per- 
severance and success, the public gradually inaugu- 
rated the custom of calling the institution " Cox Col- 
lege," by which name it is now more generally known 
than by its formal title. 

The chapel on the south side of the grounds, erected 
in 1877, besides being a monument to the enterprise 
of President Cox, which indeed may be said of the 
entire College, is also memorable evidence of the 
generosity of the citizens of LaGrange and surround- 
ing section, who largely aided in the construction of 
that edifice by individual subscriptions amounting to 
$2,345. Citizens also gave in 1872 about $800 in 
contributions for the construction of the school build- 
ing on the north side of the premises. These gifts 
have been highly appreciated, and enabled the College 
to show its gratitude to the community in many sub- 
stantial ways. At the time of President Cox's tragic 
death, which occurred from apoplexy in the midst of 
the commencement exercises, June, 1887, he left the 
College free from debt, equipped with handsome build- 
ings, supplied with the best teaching appliances, and 
strengthened by a large and able faculty. President 



144 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Cox bequeathed the College to his family, who im- 
mediately assumed charge. The administration was 
as follows : Mrs. I. F. Cox, " Mother of the Col- 
lege " ; Charles C. Cox, principal of the literary de- 
partment; Misses Sallie and Alice Cox, directors of 
music and disciplinarians in the College home; Mr. 
W. S. Cox, business manager, and Miss M. E. Stakely, 
secretary. 

In 1888 President Cox married the youngest 
daughter of Milton E. Bacon, and the descendants of 
the two men who established the College in fame and 
prosperity as a private enterprise are united in per- 
petuating, promoting, and extending the life-work of 
their parents as a sacred trust and labor of love. 

The semi-centennial celebration, during the com- 
mencement of 1893, was a notable occasion. The 
orator was Hon. Henry Watterson. The alumnae 
reunion was especially impressive. Upon the stage 
were seated grandmothers, with their daughters and 
grandchildren, who offered tributes of love and praise 
to their alma mater. It was a memorable scene as 
the representatives of the classes from 1893 back to 
1845 came forward to read their papers, now pre- 
served among the historical records. 

Feeling that it had done its full duty in the field 
where it had labored so long and pleasantly, the Col- 
lege decided, in the summer of 1895, to remove to 
College Park, Atlanta, where it believes it may occupy 
a wide territory of usefulness and honor. It pur- 
chased for cash its extensive property and holds it free 
of debt; has enlarged its work and increased its pat- 
ronage. The removal was largely effected by the 
labors of Mr. W. L. Stanton and Dr. J. B. Hawthorne, 
and by the co-operation of the board of advisers at 
large. The old charter has been transferred and con- 
firmed for the College. 

President Bacon usually prefaced the annual cata- 
logues with remarks in behalf of the education of 
women. His discussion of the utilitarian objections 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 145 

to the education of women, in the catalogue of 1845, 
is interesting as an exposition of the prevailing senti- 
ment on that subject in Georgia in his day. 

" If, in alleging that the education of women is un- 
necessary, reference is had exclusively to its agency 
in coining dimes and dollars, no argument need be 
adduced. So contracted a view could not be affected 
by an exhibition of its most evident benefits. The 
same objections may be urged against food and dress. 
The plainest diet and the coarsest apparel may subserve 
the necessities of man; but the means used to elevate 
his condition form the mainspring of civilized life. 
It perpetuates the degradation of the savage, that he 
is contented when the wants of nature are satisfied; 
but it is the character of civilized man to aim at higher 
attainments in his mental, moral, and physical condi- 
tion, and to find happiness on loftier aspirations and 
nobler employments. 

" The well-informed man who confines his views of 
education simply to its pecuniary benefits does not 
consider the happiness which his own acquirements 
afford. Like the free air around him, though the 
source of life and health, he has ever enjoyed its 
gratuitous support with scarcely a reflection of its 
existence." 

While Professor Bacon entered with whole soul 
into the arena for woman's cause, he deprecated 
the ante-bellum Northern conception of the ideal of 
womanhood that partakes of masculinity and 
" woman's rights." 

For several years after its organization, the school 
opened its sessions in January, sometimes in February, 
and continued work until the last of October or No- 
vember. These sessions closed with public examina- 
tions and the usual graduating exercises. 

During Professor Bacon's administration there were 
in 1850 13 officers of the College and 160 pupils; in 
1851 there were 210 pupils, no being music pupils; 
in 1852 there were 217 pupils, and in 1853, 220. The 



146 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

patronage was drawn from Georgia, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, and Texas. Of late years no less than ten 
States are usually represented in the boarding-depart- 
ment, and students are enrolled from Canada to Mex- 
ico and Cuba, and from all over the United States. 
The average yearly enrollment has been 200, of whom 
nearly one-half have been boarders. During the first 
session after the removal of the College to College 
Park (1895-6), there were in attendance over 200 
pupils from a distance, representing eleven States and 
one foreign country 146 music pupils, 52 in art, and 
40 in elocution. 

The College is located in a suburb of Atlanta, the 
situation furnishing on the one hand the freedom and 
peace of rural life and on the other embracing the ap- 
proved attractions of a city. The campus includes 
about forty acres, of which twelve at the front are 
devoted to the cultivation of choice ornamental plants, 
many being quite rare, while the remaining area is 
used as experiment grounds for fruits and vegetables. 
The main building is constructed of stone, brick, and 
slate, and supplied with all modern conveniences. A 
gymnasium is properly equipped, recreation grounds 
for tennis and other games are laid off, and an in- 
firmary or retreat is conducted by an experienced 
nurse. The teaching appliances include a library of 
five thousand volumes; a museum of natural history 
and industrial chemistry with about seven thousand 
five hundred specimens; physical and chemical labora- 
tories; a four-inch telescope with other astronomical 
outfit; also well-furnished studios for art and music. 

All primary work has been discontinued, and the 
time is devoted exclusively to college work. This 
work is divided into, I. College of Liberal Arts, which 
is organized into the following schools : Mathematics, 
English, Latin, Greek, modern languages, natural 
sciences, history and Bible philosophy, and elocution. 
II. College of Fine Arts: This department of the 
College consists of music, drawing, and painting. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 147 

III. College of Practical Arts: This department is 
divided into commercial arts; book-keeping, penman- 
ship, phonography, and typewriting. IV. Household 
Arts: This department includes dressmaking, cook- 
ery, home decoration and embroidery. 

Music, painting, and elocution are specialties for 
which this college has long been distinguished, and its 
summer concert tours have attracted much attention. 

A Christian atmosphere pervades the school. At 
daily twilight prayers all the hundreds of pupils who 
have ever attended the College are remembered in 
prayer. Many of the old pupils send back requests for 
prayer as they enter upon new duties and trials. A 
religious meeting is conducted every Sunday evening 
by the teachers of the College. Bible study is promi- 
nent in college work. The degrees conferred are A. B., 
A. M., B. L. The aim of this school, above all things, 
is to prepare for home life. 
(From catalogues sent by Dr. Cox.) 

Andrew College for Girls, Cuthbert, Georgia, 1854- 

1908 

Andrew College is the property of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, and is controlled by the South 
Georgia Conference, being the only college for girls 
belonging wholly to this Conference. 

Andrew was founded in 1854, very largely through 
the heroic efforts and sacrifices of Rev. Jno. H. Cald- 
well, who spent much time and money in securing the 
erection of the first buildings of the College. 

A. A. Allen was the first president, and at the end 
of the first year of his presidency was succeeded by a 
man who afterward became a noted figure in Georgia 
Methodism, Rev. Weyman H. Potter. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Oliver P. Anthony, who in turn was 
succeeded by Rev. Morgan Calloway, whose adminis- 
tration continued to the opening of the War between 
the States, when he gave up the work of the school- 



148 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

room to take the field of active military service. The 
College was practically closed, its buildings for a part 
of the time being used as a Confederate hospital. Mean- 
while, the ladies conducted a private school in connec- 
tion with the College. In 1866 the College proper 
was again opened, and Dr. A. L. Hamilton was elected 
president. Under his able administration and man- 
agement the College grew rapidly in influence and 
reputation. After finishing his fifth year as president 
of the College, Dr. Hamilton resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. B. McGehee and Capt. A. H. Flewel- 
len as joint presidents. 

In 1872 Dr. McGehee resigned and Captain Flewel- 
len continued at the head of the College until 1887, 
when Dr. Hamilton was again called to preside over 
the affairs of Andrew. He remained at this post till 
the early spring of 1881, when death closed his earthly 
labors. The trustees placed Mrs. Hamilton in charge 
for the remainder of that session. 

In the fall of 1881 Dr. Howard Key was called to 
take up the work of the lamented Hamilton. For ten 
years the College enjoyed much prosperity under his 
management, and its patronage was widely extended. 
His successor, Rev. P. S. Twitty, held the office for 
four years, and of all men who have labored for the 
College, none have had greater obstacles to surmount 
than he met when in 1892, near the close of a pros- 
perous year, the entire buildings and nearly all the 
equipments were destroyed by fire. In the midst of 
financial depression, by persistent labors, with the 
assistance of the South Georgia Conference, he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining funds to build the present struc- 
ture, one of the best in the State. In 1895 he was 
succeeded by Rev. Homer Bush, who continues in 
office. 

Cuthbert has a very high elevation, being the high- 
est place between Macon and Montgomery. This 
renders it free from malaria and causes it to have a 
health record unsurpassed. Andrew is a Christian 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 149 

school. The managers believe that any education 
claiming to be complete must develop not only the 
physical, mental, and moral side of our being but 
must also give special attention to the spiritual. The 
Bible is taught as a regular text-book in all four of the 
College classes not in the least with a purpose of 
inculcating sectarian bias, but for the sole end of de- 
veloping a high type and healthful form of Christian 
character. 

The corps of instructors is composed of teachers of 
successful experience, whose educational advantages 
have been the best to be obtained. 

A large three-story building has recently been added 
to the equipment. Some of the appointments are large 
grounds, a tennis court, croquet sets, a natatorium, a 
well-selected library, a well-supplied reading-room, and 
laboratories. 

Lucy Cobb Institute, Athens, Georgia, 1858-1908 

Early in the year 1857 there appeared in the Athens 
Watchman a striking article on the subject of " The 
Education of Our Girls." The article called atten- 
tion to the fact that the State provided at Athens every 
advantage of culture and education for the boys, but 
had made no provision for the girls. It proceeded to 
show that woman had received from her Creator the 
" same intellectual constitution as man, and had the 
same right to intellectual culture and development." 
The article was signed " Mother," and it was a most 
earnest plea for equal advantages of education for boys 
and girls. It caught the eye of Gen. T. R. R. Cobb, 
at that time one of the leading lawyers and most pro- 
gressive men of the town. He had several intelligent 
and promising young daughters, and he immediately 
realized the necessity of providing such a school in the 
town as would obviate the necessity of sending girls 
out of the State to be educated. No sooner did he see 
that a thing ought to be done than he went to work 



150 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

to do it. Being a leader in almost every enterprise 
in the town, he soon succeeded in raising a sufficient 
amount of money to purchase the land and to have the 
present school building erected. He believed that 
everything that was worth doing at all was worth do- 
ing well, so that the building was designed and built 
in the very best manner. After its completion the 
equipment was the very best that could be procured. 
The parlors, bedrooms, dining-halls, and school halls 
were all furnished in the most comfortable and attrac- 
tive manner. 

" Lucy Cobb " was designed as a home for her 
pupils, and essentially a home it was then and has 
been ever since. A faculty of the very best teachers 
was employed, and in 1858 the doors of the institute 
were thrown open to young women of the South. 
Just about the time of the opening of the school, Lucy 
Cobb, the eldest daughter of Gen. T. R. R. Cobb, died, 
and the trustees, who had been chosen by the stock- 
holders of the school, met and unanimously decided to 
name it in honor of her, the daughter of the 
founder. 

The school, from its beginning, became popular, 
and was then, as it is now, patronized by the best 
families of the South. Even during the War between 
the States, when business was interrupted, railroad 
communication destroyed, fortunes threatened, this 
school was full. 

During its history of forty-five years the following 
principals and presidents have presided over its inter- 
ests and affairs: R. M. Wright, 1859-1860; W. H. 
Muller, 1860-1862; Madam S. Sosnowski, 1862-1869; 
Rev. Mr. Jacobs, 1869-1870; Mrs. A. E. Wright, 
1870-1873; Mrs. A. E. Wright and Rev. P. A. Heard, 
associate principals, 1873-1880. For the past twenty- 
three years Lucy Cobb has been under the manage- 
ment of Miss M. Rutherford and Mrs. M. A. Lips- 
comb, nieces of Gen. T. R. R. Cobb, the founder, and, 
what seems a coincidence, the daughters of the mother 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 151 

whose article on " The Education of Our Girls " first 
attracted the notice of General Cobb. 

Year by year the curriculum of the Institute has 
been advanced, until it is abreast with the leading- col- 
leges for young women in the land. Within the last 
few years a beautiful addition to the school has been 
made, the Seney-Stovall Chapel, a gift from Mr. 
George I. Seney of New York. It is admirably 
adapted to all commencement exercises and entertain- 
ments. Mr. Seney placed in it a large pipe organ. 
The Art Department is also indebted to Mr. Seney 
for eighteen large paintings, the work of eminent 
artists. These paintings are placed in the parlors and 
reading-rooms, where they are a constant source of 
pleasure and inspiration to the students. One of them 
is a portrait of " Aunt Dot," by E. L. Henry, who was 
sent out from New York to paint the portrait of this 
faithful retainer of the Institute; and another a family 
servant of the principal. The artist has admirably 
portrayed the kindliness, honesty, and faithfulness of 
a representative Southern slave as she stands in char- 
acteristic attitude, ready for duty when called upon 
to serve. 

There is a pleasant piece of history connected 
with Mr. Seney 's interest in the Lucy Cobb and his 
numerous gifts to it. When it became apparent 
that a new chapel was necessary for the advance- 
ment of the school, Miss Rutherford, who was 
then principal, began to devise means to procure the 
necessary funds to build it. The citizens of Athens 
were called upon for contributions. Many responded, 
but the sum collected was not sufficient. Finally, one 
day Miss Rutherford called the school together and 
asked if each girl would not make an individual effort 
to procure the needed funds outside of Athens. The 
pupils were enthusiastic, and wrote to various friends 
and the leading philanthropists of the North and South 
for aid, and many responded with gifts from five dol- 
lars up to five hundred. Gen. Henry R. Jackson of 



152 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Savannah, Georgia, was one of the most liberal con- 
tributors. A beautiful and girlish letter from the 
hand of Miss Nellie Stovall, telling the needs of the 
school, touched the heart of Mr. George I. Seney, and 
the Seney-Stovall Chapel, which stands to-day as a 
monument to a cultured Southern woman and to this 
great philanthropist, is the result. 

The school is without endowment, but the present 
principal is endeavoring to secure an educational fund 
which will enable her to make loans to deserving and 
ambitious young women on condition that when they 
become self-supporting they return the funds, thus 
making these funds a constant benefaction. 

The course of study is divided into primary, inter- 
mediate, and collegiate; the last two requiring four 
years each for completion. The Institute provides a 
course of lectures supplementary to its regular course. 
These lectures will be given by the professors of the 
University of Georgia and by specialists in the lecture 
field. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 153 



CHAPTER XVI 
Early Schools of Kentucky 

INTEREST in the history of education in Kentucky, 
from the early settlement to 1820, centers in the de- 
velopment of the splendid system of higher education, 
a State University and a subsidiary academy in each 
county. These academies were quite fully developed, 
and reached their culmination during this period; 
while Transylvania University was fairly established. 
This system made no provision for the education of 
girls; in fact, they were entirely excluded from these 
schools. The only schools open to them were the " old 
field " schools ; perchance, in some neighborhoods, a 
school supported by a few families. For a consider- 
able period the only schools in the State claiming to 
give girls a grammar-school course were those of Rev. 
John Lyle, at Paris, and of Mrs. Keats, at Washing- 
ton, Mason County. 

Rev. John Lyle's School, Paris, Kentucky 

Rev. John Lyle was one of the Presbyterian min- 
isters prominent in the early history of Kentucky. He 
attempted to supply the great lack of educational facil- 
ities for girls by opening, in 1806, at Paris, the first 
seminary for girls in Kentucky. Mr. Lyle proved a suc- 
cessful teacher, and soon had a school of 200 or more 
pupils. He continued his school until 1810, when he 
withdrew from the seminary because some persons con- 
nected with the school refused to allow the Bible to be 
read publicly in the school. His withdrawal seems 
to have broken up the school, as nothing more is 
known concerning it. 



154 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



Mrs. Louisa Fitzherbert Keats's School, Washington, 
Kentucky 

In 1807 Mrs. Keats opened a school for girls at 
Washington, the most important town in Mason 
County. It is said the daughters and wives of many 
of the distinguished men of the State received their 
scholastic training in this school, which was very 
popular at that time. For some unknown reason it 
was closed in 1812. 

Lafayette Seminary, Lexington, Kentucky 

" This Seminary was established in 1821 at Lexing- 
ton. An annual announcement of the Seminary for 
1825 says it was visited by Lafayette on May 16, 1825. 
It had then 9 instructors and 135 pupils, and in the 
four years previous had had altogether 366 pupils. It 
claimed to furnish every facility ' for making thor- 
ough and accomplished scholars/ ' (Lewis's " His- 
tory of Higher Education in Kentucky.") 

Science Hill, Kentucky, 1825-1908 

Since the days of John Wesley, Methodists have 
been interested in education, hence it is no surprise to 
find that Rev. John Tevis, a member of the Kentucky 
Conference, and his wife opened a school for girls 
at Science Hill, March 25, 1825. It was and still is 
a private enterprise, without a dollar of endowment, 
having no support from any source but from its pupils. 
Although Mr. Tevis was associated with Mrs. Tevis 
in conducting the school, and rendered efficient services 
in its behalf, yet from the inception of the enterprise 
the burden was borne by Mrs. Tevis, and to her must 
be attributed the largest share of its success. After 
the death of Mr. Tevis, in 1861, she conducted the 
school alone until 1879, when Dr. W. T. Poynter pur- 
chased it. Mrs. Tevis remained at Science Hill until 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 155 

her death in 1880. She was a gifted woman, far 
ahead of her time, and had a strong and fine influence 
over her pupils, who remember her with great admira- 
tion and affection. Her life was strong and helpful, 
her old age was lovely; to the last she was full of 
energy, full of interest in past and present, full of 
faith and hope and love. 

Prior to the War between the States many hundreds 
of girls attended school at Science Hill, often remain- 
ing four or five years without returning home, as steam 
had not then annihilated distance. During the war 
many girls from the South remained with Mrs. Tevis 
two or three years, some never hearing from home 
during that time. They remained at the expense of 
that noble-spirited woman. After the war the South- 
ern patronage was greatly diminished, owing largely 
to the impoverishment caused by the war. 

Science Hill was the third academy for girls estab- 
lished in Kentucky, and the second oldest academy 
(Protestant) that has continued to the present day. 
The school was small at first, the enrollment for the 
first term being but 20, four of whom were boarders ; 
but gradually the prejudice in Kentucky against higher 
education for girls was overcome, a reputation was 
established, and the rooms were crowded the matric- 
ulation being limited only by the accommodations that 
could be offered. The catalogue of 1859 shows an 
enrollment of 370. 

Science Hill celebrated the closing of her seventy- 
fifth year June 3, 4, 5, 1900, with a diamond jubilee 
a grand reunion of former pupils. They assembled 
from nearly all the Southern States and many of the 
Northern and Western, 800 being present the last day. 
Ladies were present who had attended the school in 
1831, '33, '35 and so on. When they parted sixty- 
four years before they were in the bloom of youth, 
bright with anticipations for the future; now they 
were faded, white-haired pilgrims nearly at the jour- 
ney's end. 



156 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

The school was always a preparatory school, the 
course offered comprising the usual English studies, 
music, and French. 

When Dr. Poynter took charge of the school he 
changed the course to make it a secondary school in 
the fullest sense of the term, its requirements being 
made to conform to those laid down by the Committee 
of Ten. The school is correlated with Wellesley and 
Vassar, but its diploma admits to other colleges of first 
rank. A diploma admits to the freshman class of 
these colleges, and the course in music prepares for the 
fifth grade in the New England Conservatory. 

The faculty is composed of college-trained women, 
each a specialist in her department. The music teach- 
ers are also skilled musicians. No Sham is the motto 
of teachers and pupils. The school has had only two 
principals. Mrs. Tevis was principal for fifty-four 
years, and since that time Mrs. Poynter has had 
charge, though she was assisted by Dr. Poynter until 
his death. Few institutions have been so favored. 
The school is now known as an " English and Classical 
School for Girls." 

The buildings at first consisted of one dwelling- 
house, and as there were no funds save the profits of 
the school, the enlargement was gradual ; but after the 
reputation was established new buildings were added 
every vacation, until the equipment was ample for 
the accommodation of three or four hundred girls. 
The last building added during Mrs. Tevis's regime 
was the large chapel, opened in 1860. The buildings 
have been remodeled to conform to modern ideas of 
comfort and convenience, and the library and scientific 
apparatus and other means of instruction have been 
enlarged and otherwise adapted to the requirements of 
modern teaching. Almost all the records of the school 
during Mrs. Tevis's administration have been lost, but 
it is known that more than 2,000 pupils had been edu- 
cated in the school in Mr. Tevis's lifetime, and more 
than 3,000 up to 1875. The average attendance in 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 157 

recent years is 130 and in many instances the pupils 
are the daughters and even the granddaughters of 
former graduates. 

(From catalogues, and letters from Mrs. Poynter.) 

Beaumont College, Harrodsburg, Kentucky, 1841- 

1908 

The college now known as Beaumont College had 
its origin in 1841, when Prof. S. G. Mullins bought 
the property and founded Greenville Springs College, 
which he conducted as president till the close of the 
collegiate year, in June, 1856. 

In the summer of 1856 the College was bought by 
Dr. C. E. Williams and his son, Prof. Augustus Wil- 
liams. In September of the same year (1856) Prof. 
John A. Williams as president changed the name of 
the school to " Daughters' College," and conducted it 
with marked success as such till the summer of 1893. 
In 1894 the College, with all its grounds, buildings, 
and appurtenances was bought by Th. Smith, who as 
its president changed the name to Beaumont College. 
Professor Smith opened the school in September, 1894, 
since which time he has continued in charge. The 
curriculum is a broader and more comprehensive one 
than it has had in its previous history. The aim of 
Professor Smith is to make the work more distinctively 
university work than is usually done in schools for 
girls. 

Beaumont College provides good facilities for teach- 
ing art, music, elocution, and physical culture; but 
especial stress is given to music. In addition to the 
conservatory course, a normal course in piano, organ 
and singing is offered. Like its predecessors, Beau- 
mont College is entirely a private enterprise. It is 
an accredited school of the University of Tennessee, 
and prepares for the best American and German Uni- 
versities. 

(This sketch was furnished by Professor Smith, 



158 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

who also sent a catalogue from which a few addi- 
tional facts were taken.) 

Caldwell College, Danville, Kentucky, 1859-1908 

Schools for girls were established in Danville at an 
early period of its history, the first of these being 
founded by Rev. J. K. Burch, who was for a time a 
professor in a theological department attached to 
Center College. None of these schools had a first- 
class equipment and their duration was short. Very 
soon after its establishment, Danville became an edu- 
cational center for young men, especially among the 
Presbyterians, who also endeavored to provide equal 
advantages for their daughters. A united and deter- 
mined effort toward the accomplishment of this pur- 
pose was made in 1856. In this enterprise the more 
intelligent citizens of the town of Danville and Boyle 
County were interested, but the Presbyterians were the 
prime movers. After much canvassing and many ear- 
nest, eloquent addresses had been delivered in favor of 
the higher education of women, an amount sufficient to 
purchase a lot and erect a building was raised. In 
1859 Prof. A. E. Sloan of Alabama was elected prin- 
cipal. At his suggestion another building equal in size 
to the first was erected, and school opened in 1860 with 
a large attendance and every prospect of success. 

The original name of the institution was Henderson 
Institute, but in consideration of the great liberality 
of Mr. Charles Caldwell the name was changed to 
Caldwell Institute; and under this name a charter 
was obtained for the enterprise, placing it under the 
management of the two Presbyterian churches. A 
disagreement between these Presbyterian churches con- 
cerning the issues of the War of 1861-65 and the 
withdrawal of the Southern patronage, on which the 
management had largely depended, made it necessary 
to close the school in 1862. It remained closed two 
years, then a Mr. Hart opened school and taught two 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 159 

years, when the original management elected Rev. 
L. G. Barbour principal. He conducted a good school 
for eight years, and resigned to accept a chair in the 
newly established Central University. The lack of 
co-operation between the controlling Presbyterian 
churches had for some time greatly impaired the use- 
fulness of the school. They had become divided by 
the issues of the war, and now decided not to occupy 
the property conjointly. Finally an arrangement was 
made by which the Second Presbyterian Church as- 
sumed the indebtedness of $20,000 and control of the 
school. Since that time the elders of that church 
have acted as trustees. 

Prof. W. P. Hussey of Boston, Massachusetts, suc- 
ceeded Dr. Barbour as principal of the school. His 
enthusiasm infused new life into the school, and his 
plans to raise the standard and enlarge the scope of 
the work were favorably received. His first step was 
to induce the trustees to apply for a new charter, which 
changed the name to Caldwell College, a distinctive 
name which defined the character of the school. 

In 1876 the buildings were destroyed by fire. Noth- 
ing remained but the ground, which was sold as town 
lots. With the funds thus obtained another lot was 
purchased, a building erected, and school was re- 
opened in 1880 under the management of Rev. John 
Montgomery, president. Mr. Montgomery conducted 
a fairly successful school for six years, and during his 
superintendency the material equipment was increased 
by the addition of a brick chapel. In 1886 Miss C. A. 
Campbell succeeded Mr. Montgomery, and was a suc- 
cessful manager for eleven years. During her admin- 
istration a large building containing four large recita- 
tion-rooms and a gymnasium was added to the equip- 
ment. A new charter was obtained granting the 
power to confer degrees, a power the college did not 
have under the old charter, the standard raised, and 
the course of study enlarged, the aim being to make it 
equal to that of the colleges for men. 



160 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Miss Campbell was succeeded by Rev. J. D. Ely, 
who seems to be maintaining the prosperity of the in- 
stitution. A recent catalogue announces that all mod- 
ern conveniences have been added to the building, and 
a well-ordered home is offered to the boarders. 
Professor Ely has extended the preparatory course one 
year, thus making the time required for the full course 
seven instead of six years. The College offers four 
courses : a classical course, which entitles the graduate 
to A.B. degree; a scientific course, which entitles to 
B.S. degree; a seminary course, which entitles to a 
diploma. An elective course has been arranged for 
those who cannot complete the degree courses. A 
normal course has been added for the benefit of those 
preparing to teach. 

The other departments of the school are the schools 
of modern languages, music, art, elocution, physical 
culture, and business; the last includes stenography, 
typewriting, book-keeping and telegraphy. 

The institution was originally established to provide 
facilities for higher education for women, and Presi- 
dent Ely thus states the present purpose of the institu- 
tion : " . . . nor shall we retrench in any effort to make 
it one of the leading institutions in the State for the 
higher education of women. The idea should be to 
afford the highest and broadest intellectual training, 
and at the same time preserve the essential character- 
istics of a refined Christian home. Our aim will be 
to give a broad and generous culture, founded upon 
Christian principles, so that those seeking its advan- 
tages shall become intelligent and cultured Christian 



women." 



(The facts contained in this sketch have been ob- 
tained from Lewis's " History of Higher Education 
in Kentucky/' from catalogues, and correspondence.) 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 161 



CHAPTER XVII 

Early Schools in Louisiana 

ALTHOUGH the colonists did not give much atten- 
tion to the establishment of schools during the French 
or the Spanish supremacy, yet a school for girls the 
Ursuline Convent was established in 1727; this 
school claims the distinction of being the first school 
for girls ever established in the United States. 

The educational apathy seems to have been dispelled, 
to some extent, by the transfer from European 
dominion to republican rule; for the first Territorial 
Legislature, notwithstanding the commotion produced 
by the transfer, passed " An Act to institute an uni- 
versity in the Territory of Orleans." This Univer- 
sity was to be called and known by the name of " The 
University of Orleans." Section IV of this Act re- 
quired the regents of the University to establish, as 
speedily as may be, within each county, one or more 
academies for the instruction of youth in the French 
and English languages." 

The next section is introduced by a short preamble : 
" And whereas the prosperity of every State depends 
greatly on the education of the female sex, in so much 
that the dignity of their condition is the strongest char- 
acteristic which distinguishes civilized from savage 
society; Be it further enacted, That the said regents 
shall establish such a number of academies in this 
Territory as they may judge fit for the instruction of 
the youth of the female sex in the English and French 
languages, and in such branches of polite literature and 
such liberal arts and accomplishments as may be suit- 
able to the age and sex of the pupils." 

These schools were not free schools, and therefore 



162 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

did not meet the approval of Governor William C. C. 
Claiborne, and no action was taken until 1806, when 
an Act establishing free schools was passed. Still the 
authorities were in no hurry to put in force the provi- 
sions of the act; not before 1811, when the Legislature 
made the first appropriations to the academies, allow- 
ing $2,000 to each of twelve counties for buildings, 
and $500 for salaries, is there any record of academies. 
Even then there is no mention of academies for girls, 
under State control, but this deficiency was supplied 
by private enterprise; but as these schools were not 
chartered and no records were kept, it is difficult al- 
most impossible to find any details of them. 

On March 6, 1819, the Academy of Natchitoches 
was chartered by a total of forty-eight incorporators, 
who were empowered to elect from their own number 
five trustees. The charter required the establishment 
of a school for boys and one for girls ; in both French 
and English were to be taught, and such other lan- 
guages, ancient and modern, as the funds would ad- 
mit, as well as the usual academic studies. 

The Academy of Ouachita, Ouachita, Louisiana, 
was opened in 1811, but the location of the building 
proved very unsatisfactory, and in 1824 the building 
was sold and suitable quarters in a convenient place 
secured. After the change the school was known as 
Ouachita Academy. The provisions of the charter re- 
garding funds leads to the conclusion that this charter 
also provided for a school for girls. 

The Academy of Covington was another school of 
the same class and established by a similar charter; 
but Clinton Female Academy was distinctively a school 
for girls. It was incorporated March n, 1830, and 
put under the trusteeship of seven trustees. Nothing 
was said as to the scope of studies, neither were the 
duties of these trustees defined ; they were simply em- 
powered " to direct and establish plans of education 
in said academy if deemed necessary by the board." 

Ouachita Female Academy, Ouachita, Louisiana, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 163 

was incorporated on March 12, 1837; the seven 
trustees were simply empowered to " direct and estab- 
lish plans of education, if deemed necessary by the 
board." 

An appropriation annually for five years was made 
to Clinton Female Academy and to Ouachita Female 
Academy, on condition that ten indigent children re- 
ceive instruction each year. 

Covington Female Seminary was incorporated 
March 13, 1837. An appropriation of $4,000 was 
granted, conditioned on maintaining and instructing 
four indigent females, to be taken from each of the 
parishes of the senatorial district. 

On March 7, 1838, Johnson Female Academy, of 
Donaldsonville, and Greensburgh Female Academy 
were incorporated. An appropriation of $1,000 an- 
nually for five years was given, on condition that the 
Johnson Academy should board and instruct five in- 
digent children from the fifth senatorial district; and 
the Greensburgh Seminary should board and instruct 
ten poor children during that period. 

Minden Female Seminary was incorporated March 
12, 1838, and an appropriation of $1,000 annually for 
five years was made, conditioned on free instruction 
of ten children. 

Union Male and Female Academy was incorporated 
March 8, 1841, and received an appropriation of 
$1,500 without stipulations. 

Silliman Female Collegiate Institute, 1852-1908 

This institution is located in the suburbs of Clinton, 
the site of East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, 120 miles 
north of New Orleans and about 100 miles south of 
Vicksburg. 

The institution began under the management of <\ 
joint stock company, chartered in 1852 by the Louisi- 
ana Legislature. In 1856 Mr. Silliman donated to the 
Presbytery of Louisiana 102 shares (being a majority 



164 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

of the stock) valued at $5,000. The interests of the 
Presbytery continued until 1866, when the institution, 
having become embarrassed under the joint manage- 
ment, was sold and the entire interest, valued at 
$10,000, was purchased by Mr. William Silliman, and 
by him donated to the Presbytery in 1866. 

In October of the same year Mr. Silliman made an- 
other donation of $20,000 to constitute an endowment, 
the interest only to be used for education of girls, 
under the direction of the Presbytery's local board of 
trustees. 

By will, Mr. David Pipes left $500 as a fund toward 
building a concert hall for the institution. 

Mrs. A. R. Dickinson had established a school in 
Plaquemine, Louisiana, but it did not succeed, and she 
transferred the fund to Silliman Institute, the interest 
of which is to be used to pay the board of daughters 
of Presbyterian ministers. In honor of the donors of 
these funds the building recently added to the college 
was named " Pipes-Dickinson Annex." 

The institution has been successively presided over 
by Rev. H. Mosely, Rev. A. G. Payne, Rev. James 
Stratton, Mr. Edwin Fay, Mrs. E. H. Fay, George 
G. Ramsay, and Rev. Frank W. Lewis, D.D. Rev. 
H. H. Brownlee was elected August, 1906, to preside 
in the future. 

There are four departments, as follows: 

I. Primary and Preparatory Department. 

II. Collegiate Department. In this department 
there are seven schools, or sub-departments, separate 
and distinct, and the pupil may, at her option, become 
a candidate for graduation in any one, or in all. i. 
School of English Language and Literature, compris- 
ing analysis and composition, rhetoric, English litera- 
ture, parallel readings. 2. School of History, com- 
prising history of England ; history of France ; general 
history. 3. School of Mathematics, comprising 
arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry plane 
and spherical; analytical geometry. 4. School of 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 165 

Natural Science, comprising physiology, botany, phys- 
ical geography, physics, chemistry, astronomy, 
geology. 5. School of Ethics, comprising mental and 
moral science, logic, evidences of Christianity, civil 
government. 6. School of Ancient Languages, com- 
prising Latin and Greek. 7. School of Modern Lan- 
guages, comprising French and German. 

III. Department of Fine Arts. 8. School of Music 
instruction given on the piano, organ, violin, guitar, 
and mandolin. The cultivation of the voice, singing 
at sight, part singing, thorough bass, harmony, ora- 
torio and chorus practice. 9. School of Drawing and 
Painting. It is the aim of this school to give a prac- 
tical knowledge of the arts of form, color, and design, 
and to awaken in students true appreciation of artistic 
work. The studio is well supplied with casts and 
studies. 10. School of Physical Culture and Expres- 
sion. Physical culture has for its aim the harmonious 
development of the entire body. To secure the 
" sound mind in the sound body " so necessary for 
happiness and success. The course of physical train- 
ing includes Delsarte, Swedish, and light gymnastics. 
The aim of the Department of Expression is primarily 
the development of personal power. It has in view 
the physical, mental, and moral development of the 
pupil, and also the thorough appreciation and correct 
interpretation of good literature. 

IV. Business Department. The course of study in- 
cludes shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping, and com- 
mercial law. 

The buildings were originally erected at a cost of 
$30,000; in 1894 an annex one hundred by fifty feet 
was completed at a cost of about $15,000. 

The school is well supplied with charts, maps, and 
globes ; the chemical and physical laboratories are well 
furnished and additions are constantly being made. 
The reading-room is well supplied with religious and 
secular newspapers, and the leading magazines, and 
will be open every day except Sunday. 



166 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



The Sigma Phi Literary Society, an association 
organized and conducted by the young ladies, holds 
weekly meetings. It is regarded as a valuable auxil- 
iary to the usual methods of instruction, cultivat- 
ing ease of speech and composition, and love of 
higher literary culture. Lambda Delta Fraternity 
was organized in 1906. Its aims are social 
culture. 

Each year arrangements are made for lectures, read- 
ings and musicales. 

Though the school is under Presbyterian control, it 
is avowedly and conscientiously non-sectarian in its 
aims and purposes. However, it takes its place in full- 
est sympathy with Christian morals and culture, and 
all proper means are used to direct the young -to the 
Saviour, without interfering with denominational pref- 
erences. 

A certificate of proficiency is given in each study at 
the intermediate and final examinations when the 
student has passed successfully upon the work of the 
previous half session. A certificate of distinction is 
given at the final examinations to each student whose 
general average of scholarship for the past year is 
as much or more than 9 (10 being the highest grade) 
and her name is placed on the " Honor Roll." A 
diploma, with the title of " Graduate " in each partic- 
ular school, is awarded after satisfactory examination 
in all the studies of that school. This includes the 
schools of Music and Art. The degrees are B.S., B.L.. 
B.A., and M.A. 

(From catalogues sent by the president, Rev. H. H. 
Brownlee.) 

Keachle Female College, Keachie, Louisiana, 
1856-1908 

This college was founded in 1856 by the Baptist 
denomination. Like the Silliman Institute at Clinton 
founded by the Presbyterians, and Mansfield founded 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 167 

by the Methodists, this college has had various vicissi- 
tudes, but it is still doing the work for which it was 
originally organized a college for women. The work 
was suspended during the War between the States, and 
the building used as a hospital for Confederate sol- 
diers. After the war it became Keachie College, a 
co-educational institution. In 1887 the name was 
changed to Keachie Male and Female College. In 
1899 ^ was rechartered, and the name changed to 
Louisiana Female College, becoming then a school 
for girls and young women exclusively, as was first 
intended. 

Rev. J. H. Tucker was president from 1857 to 1861 ; 
exercises suspended from 1861 to 1865; Rev. Peter 
Crawford was president from 1865 t I ^7 I > Rev. J. 
H. Tucker from 1871 to 1881 ; Rev. T. N. Coleman 
from 1 88 1 to 1886; Rev. P. Fountain from 1886 to 
1889; Rev. C. W. Taukies from 1889 to 1899; Rev. 
G. W. Thigpen from 1899 to present time. 

The course of study is distributed into separate 
schools of Latin, Greek ; English ; history ; philosophy ; 
mathematics ; geology and biology ; natural philosophy 
and chemistry; modern languages; music; art. 

Candidates for the B. A. degree may substitute 
French and German for Greek. Those for the B. L. 
degree may take two years of Latin in place of Ger- 
man. 

The school has well equipped studios for music and 
art; and makes quite a feature of needlework. 

(The material for this sketch is taken from a letter 
from Dr. Thigpen, and a catalogue sent by him.) 

There was a college in Minden, founded about the 
same time as the three colleges already mentioned ; it 
was suspended during the War between the States, 
and never reopened as a college, and when the pres- 
ent school system was organized the building was 
used for the Minden High School. (From a private 
letter.) 



168 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



Mansfield Female College, Mansfield, Louisiana, 
1854-1908 

In 1854, when this fertile section of the country was 
rapidly settling up and attracting the attention of the 
emigrant from older States, Dr. Thweatt saw the 
need for an institution of high grade at some point 
west of the Mississippi. He came to the parish of 
Caddo, and met Rev. William E. Doty, a liberal and 
intelligent man, and of ardent temperament and en- 
thusiastic nature like himself, who was possessed with 
considerable wealth and influence. They set out to- 
gether on a prospecting tour for a location of a fe- 
male college. When they reached Mansfield, DeSoto 
Parish, they found an ideal location. They selected 
the site where the College now stands, on an elevated 
plateau forming the watershed between the Red and 
Sabine rivers a location free from malaria, with a 
dry sandy soil, and a rich agricultural country on all 
sides. 

Dr. Thweatt resolved to build a college here with 
ample facilities for the education of the daughters 
of the land. He immediately entered upon an active 
canvass of the subject before the people, without, at 
first, much success; but his earnestness and zeal soon 
inspired them with an interest in the subject. His 
efforts in behalf of the founding of this institution were 
met by liberal voluntary contributions on the part of 
the citizens of Mansfield and surrounding country, 
amounting in the aggregate to quite $30,000. 

The foundation stone of this splendid college edifice 
was laid the latter part of the year 1854. Mean- 
while, the school was opened in a commodious frame 
structure, now standing in the rear of the College 
building, and used as a dining-hall. In 1856 the main 
building as it now stands was completed and opened 
for the intended purpose of a college. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 169 

The first president of this institution said of the 
establishment of the College : " In the enlightened 
wisdom and by the munificent liberality of the citizens 
of Mansfield, this Institution was projected." By their 
magnanimity, generosity, and public spirit these 
grounds and this college building were presented to 
the Louisiana Annual Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, and placed under its direc- 
tion and control in the month of January, 1855. The 
institution was adopted by the Conference, which as- 
sumed control of its affairs. Its founder, Rev. H. C. 
Thweatt, a graduate of the University of Virginia, 
was made its first president. 

The Act of the General Assembly No. 88 of the 
session of 1855 which granted a charter to this col- 
lege, was approved on March 9, 1855. 

The subscriptions had not all been paid when the 
War between the States began, and then could not be 
collected ; therefore the College was sold to pay these 
unpaid balances, and Mr. Lewis Phillips, then a resi- 
dent of Mansfield, became the purchaser. During the 
greater portion of the four years of struggle the school 
was closed and its campus a tented field. But before 
the smoke of battle had cleared, in 1864, Dr. John C. 
Keener, afterward Bishop Keener, purchased the 
property, and freed it of debt and gave it to the 
Louisiana Conference. Dr. Charles B. Stuart was 
made president. Since then the College has been under 
the presidency of Rev. Thomas Armstrong, to 1880; 
J. Lane Borden, to 1883; Rev. F. M. Grace, to 1889; 
Rev. A. D. McVoy, to 1896. In 1896 President 
Sligh was elected to the presidency, and has retained 
the place ever since. 

President Sligh came to this institution with the 
prestige of eminent scholarship, and years of experi- 
ence as a successful educator. A new era seems to 
have opened with his coming. All the buildings have 
been put in good condition, a new assembly hall has 



170 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

been built, water works and bath-rooms have been 
added. Other buildings are in contemplation to meet 
the growing demand. 

The buildings now are the original three-story brick 
building; the primary department, the conservatory 
of music, and the session hall form each a separate 
building; and a new three-story brick building con- 
nected with the main building by a hallway. 

The library now contains about sixteen hundred 
books, and is well supplied with magazines and papers, 
and also a few late books. 

The Cadmean and Clionian Literary Societies, hav- 
ing for their object the promotion of literary and 
ethical culture among the students, have added much 
to the interest in literary research, and have stimulated 
some to do original work of real merit. 

The plan of instruction embraces a primary and 
preparatory course of seven grades, followed by col- 
lege course. College course. The course of study 
is arranged according to the requirements of the 
Board of Education of M. E. Church South. The 
regular plan of instruction, as given in this depart- 
ment, embraces ten schools, as follows: 

I. School of English Including English, philol- 
ogy, literature, rhetoric, old English (Anglo-Saxon) 
and history. II. School of Greek Including Greek 
language and literature and the history of Greece. 
III. School of Latin Including Latin language and 
literature and history of Rome. IV. School of Modern 
Languages Including French and German languages 
and literature, with history of France and Germany. 
V. School of Mathematics Including pure mathe- 
matics, mechanics and astronomy. VI. School of 
Natural Science Including botany, physics, chemis- 
try, natural history, geology, and biology. VII. 
School of Philosophy Including logic, psychology, 
ethics, and political economy. VIII. School of Elo- 
cution Including physical training, respiration, vo- 
cal culture, articulation, orthoepy, gesture, the laws of 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 171 

inflection, analysis in reading, dramatic and practi- 
cal reading, artistic and oratorical recitations. IX. 
School of Commercial Law and Business Forms In- 
cluding bookkeeping and the laws of business. X. 
School of Art Including drawing, painting, wood- 
carving, designing, and pottery. XL School of Mu- 
sic Including vocal and instrumental music and voice 
culture, science of music. 

The course of Bible study is divided into four years. 

The degrees conferred are A. B., B. S., A. M., 
M. E. L. 

(This sketch is taken from a catalogue furnished by 
President T. S. Sligh.) 



172 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER XVIII 

The Woman's College, Frederick, Maryland, 
1840-1908 

THE Maryland Legislature granted a charter to the 
Frederick Female Seminary in 1840, and gave to the 
corporation full collegiate powers. The trustees were 
authorized to raise $50,000 to carry out the purposes of 
the charter, and the requisite amount being obtained 
the first building was erected in 1843, an d the Semi- 
nary was thereupon organized with the late Professor 
Hiram Winchester as the first president. His ability, 
energy, and scholarly excellence did much to make 
the institution a success. 

In the course of a few years it was found neces- 
sary to erect a second building equal in dimensions 
to the first. The Seminary was well patronized, and 
became a powerful influence for good in this and the 
surrounding communities. 

The first trustees of the Frederick Female Semi- 
nary were Christian Steiner, David Boyd, and Gideon 
Bantz. 

In 1893 the management of the school passed from 
the original board of control to the management of 
the Evangelical Reformed Church, and the name " Wo- 
man's College " was adopted. In connection with the 
College is a conservatory of music and art, and school 
of expression. The equipment includes a library, 
laboratories, gvmnasium, and infirmary. 

(The data of this sketch was kindly furnished by 
Miss Bertha Trail.) 

Patapsco Institute, Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, 1841 

" The Patapsco Female Institute is situated within 
five minutes' walk of the depot of the railroad, in the 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 173 

vicinity of Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, ten miles west 
of Baltimore, with which, as with Washington, there 
is a constant communication, both by railroads and 
turnpikes. The buildings for the accommodation of 
the school are of dressed granite, erected at an ex- 
pense of $27,000. The adjacent grounds, consisting 
of about twelve acres, belonging to the institution, 
are beautifully situated, and afford many advantages 
for health and recreation. 

" The location of the Institute in the mountainous 
region of Elk Ridge, and overlooking the Patapscc 
River and surrounding country, is eminently health- 
ful, and combines in a high degree the beautiful and 
picturesque in scenery." 

On March 4, 1852, Thomas B. Dorsey, president 
of the board of trustees of the Patapsco Female In- 
stitute, requested Mrs. Lincoln Phelps, principal of 
Patapsco Female Institute, to submit to the board a 
written statement of the mode and principles by which 
its operations had been conducted, from which such 
important public benefits had resulted. She responded 
as follows: 

" In compliance with the request of the board of 
trustees, the undersigned, principal of the Patapsco 
Female Institute, proceeds to lay before them the 
following report: 

!< This Institution was organized in 1841 under the 
direction of the present principal, who with six teach- 
ers and twenty pupils came from her school in New 
Jersey to this place, the teachers bringing with them 
the system of discipline, and the pupils the habits of 
study, order, and obedience which had there been 
practiced and acquired. The whole number of board- 
ing pupils the first term was forty-one; there was a 
gradual increase of numbers up to the year 1850, when 
the Institution numbered seventy boarders, which is 
found to be about as many as our buildings can con- 
veniently accommodate. ^ 

" Besides the great improvements made in the in- 



174 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

terior of the building for comfort, accommodation and 
embellishment, much expense has been incurred by the 
principal in the erection of out-buildings, and improve- 
ment of the ground belonging to the Institution. In 
addition to expensive water-works, green-house, laun- 
dry, and servants' house, the principal during the year 
has erected at her own expense a building which affords 
music, drawing, dancing, and lecture-rooms, with suit- 
able private apartments for gentlemen connected with 
the Institution, as professors, or other officers. Many 
thousand loads of stone have been carried off the 
grounds, which are now under high cultivation, and 
ornamented with a rich variety of shrubbery and other 
exotic plants and trees. It is estimated that in ad- 
dition to the expenditure above named, more than 
$20,000 have been expended by the principal in musi- 
cal instruments, scientific apparatus, furniture, etc., 
for the use of the Institution. Such is a brief outline 
of what has been accomplished in respect to render- 
ing this place better fitted and furnished for the pur- 
poses of a Female Collegiate Institute. 

" The organization of the Institution is as follows : 
A principal, vice-principal, chaplain, eight lady teachers 
associated in the care and discipline of the pupils, and 
teachers of common English branches, mathematics, 
Latin, belles-lettres, natural sciences, music, drawing, 
etc. ; a French governess, four professors of music and 
drawing, two domestic superintendents, a matron, and 
secretary, or business-agent. Besides these regular 
and constant teachers and officers, other persons are 
occasionally employed, as professors of dancing, elo- 
cution, lecturers on physical sciences, etc. 

" The number of graduates of the Institute is found 
to be 122. The course of studies here pursued, as 
respects literary and scientific branches, is not less 
extensive than that of the first colleges in the coun- 
try, and scarcely less so in the higher branches of the 
pure and mixed mathematics; in Latin, though fewer 
books are prescribed, our course is thorough and ex- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 175 

tensive; and for the acquisition of modern languages 
and accomplishments great advantages are enjoyed. 
Teaching is, here, thorough and practical, founded 
upon the principles of the philosophy of the mind as 
learned by observation and experience ; and the highest 
principles of morality are combined with the sanction 
of the Christian religion, without bigotry on the one 
hand, or fanaticism on the other. To cultivate, to 
the highest degree, the mind, and elevate the characters 
of the future women of our country, is the object of 
this Institution. 

" It is, furthermore, our aim and object to do all 
we can in influencing the minds of our pupils, to stem 
the torrent of foreign licentiousness which is in danger 
of inundating our country; to teach that fashion and 
pleasure should never be allowed to take precedence 
of morality and duty; that woman's mission is a high 
and holy one, which she, as an immortal being, is 
bound to perform in short, to render our pupils earn- 
est and sincere lovers of truth and virtue, and to in- 
spire them with abhorrence of vice, under whatever 
form of allurement it may approach." 

After setting forth in glowing terms the aims and 
objects of the Institution, and what she, Mrs. Phelps, 
had done to attain the ideal, Mrs. Phelps discusses 
the question which gave rise to the report the with- 
drawal of the annual appropriation by the Legislature 
to the support of this school. She says : 

" Without the fostering care of the State, this In- 
stitution must have been a failure as to the great and 
important objects for which it was designed, and which 
it has now attained. By the liberality of the trustees 
in offering the use of the property on favorable terms, 
the principal was induced to undertake the formidable 
task of building up an Institution, where, hitherto, 
after several attempts, little had been accomplished; 
rendering thereby difficulties greater than if a pre- 
vious character of mediocrity had not been stamped 
upon the school; a disadvantage which even at this 



176 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

day, by development of circumstances, sometimes be- 
comes apparent." 

Though Mrs. Phelps says at the outset that the 
school began in 1841, under her management, in this 
last paragraph she admits it had been in operation 
some time before she took charge; and in another 
paragraph she says, " It is said that when the Institute 
building was erected it was designed to accommodate 
one hundred or more pupils." 

The beginning of this school is really unknown, 
but tradition says it was in existence ten or more years 
before Mrs. Phelps took charge in 1841 ; the records, 
if they ever existed, must have been destroyed when 
the change was made, as nothing but traditions of it 
now exist. 

The normal, or teachers' class, was a pet scheme of 
Mrs. Phelps, and much exploited by her. It was not, 
however, a training class for any and all who might 
wish to prepare for teaching, but a class of young 
women who wished to teach, but who did not have 
the means to defray the necessary expense of the 
training. These young women usually paid their 
board by work in the domestic department of the In- 
stitution, and made a written contract to refund the 
amount of tuition and clothes, if these were furnished, 
but this seldom was the case, with interest. These 
young women seldom failed to meet their obligations in 
full. Occasionally some one failed to pay the whole 
amount, and sometimes payment was long delayed, but 
according to Mrs. Phelps's own statement this very sel- 
dom happened, and a very small amount of indebted- 
ness was lost by her. 

Mrs. Phelps boasted much of her system of dis- 
cipline, which was the " curatress system " ; that is, 
the school was divided into sections of from six to 
ten pupils; each section was under the supervision of 
a teacher called a " curatress." Once a month each 
" curatress " made a written report to the principal, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 177 

which was read before the whole school, " of the kind 
and quantity of work performed, with the general de- 
portment, industry, etc., of the pupils under her 
charge." 

The " monitorial " system was fully carried out. 
Each pupil " was in turn a subordinate officer " ; that 
is, each pupil was required to be a spy and informer. 
These monitors reported weekly to the officers and 
teachers the conduct and deportment of each individual 
pupil, and these reports were read before the assembled 
school. 

The principal of this institution from 1841 to 1856 
was Mrs. Lincoln Phelps, known to the public as 
the author of Lincoln's Botany, of a series of works 
on chemistry, natural philosophy, and sundry works 
on the subject of education. 

Mr. Phelps, who had been the " power behind the 
throne," died in April, 1849. Mrs. Phelps retired 
from control in 1856, and was succeeded by Mr. Rob- 
ert H. Archer, who continued in charge until 1879 or 
1880. However, during the War between the States 
the school was closed, as its patronage was entirely 
from the Southern States. Mr. Archer was succeeded 
by Miss Sarah Randolph, who continued the school 
until 1896, when it had decreased in numbers so much 
it was deemed unwise to continue any longer, and the 
trustees sold the property to parties for a summer 
boarding-house. 

The principal reason for its decline was, as local 
institutions improved, boarding-schools became less and 
less in demand, and the local patronage was not suf- 
ficient to sustain it profitably. 

From the establishment (about 1831) this school 
was an incorporated school and had the right to grant 
diplomas. These were granted for a full course in 
English and proficiency in one foreign language. 

The school sessions were of long duration in those 
days. The annual opening was on the first of October, 





178 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

the annual commencement occurred on the first Wed- 
nesday in August, thus leaving only eight weeks for 
vacation. 

During Mrs. Phelps's regime the text books 
were: 

Preparatory Department Greenleafs Grammar: 
Emerson's Arithmetic, 2d part; Willard's Geography 
for Beginners; Woodbridge and Willard's Rudiments 
of Geography; Willard's Abridgment of American 
History and Historic Guide ; Phelps's Chemistry, Bot- 
any, Geology and Natural Philosophy for Beginners. 

Junior Year Kirkman's Grammar; Emerson's 
Arithmetic, 2d part; Willard and Woodbridge's Uni- 
versal Geography; Willard's Ancient Geography; 
Dillaway's Roman Antiquities; Phelps's Larger Nat- 
ural Philosophy and Chemistry ; Willard's Republic of 
America and Universal History; Newman's Rhetoric; 
Boyd's Rhetoric. 

Middle Year Kirkman's Grammar; Emerson's 
Arithmetic, 3d part; Totten's Algebra; Davies' Alge- 
bra; Davies' Legendre's Geometry; Willard's Univer- 
sal History, Chronographer and Historic Guide ; Bur- 
ritt's Geography of the Heavens; Lincoln's Botany; 
Phelps's Chemistry ; Hedge's Logic ; Legal Classic by 
Hon. J. Phelps; Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric, 
or Kames' Elements of Criticism. 

Senior Year Marsh's Book-keeping; Olmstead's 
Mechanics ; Trigonometry ; Lee's Physiology ; Willard 
on the Circulation of the Blood; Lincoln's Botany; 
Phelps's Chemistry; Wayland's Elements of Moral 
Science ; Brown's Intellectual Philosophy ; Paley's Evi- 
dences of Christianity ; Paley's Natural Theology. 

French, Latin, Italian, and German were the lan- 
guages taught. All the pupils were required to at- 
tend lectures on botany, chemistry, natural philosophy, 
history, and geology. 

This list shows that half the text-books used were 
written by Mr. and Mrs. Phelps and her sister, Mrs. 
Willard of Troy Seminary. As none of these books 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 179 

sold for less than $1.50 and most of them for $2.00 
and $3.00, this was an important item in connection 
with the school and netted a handsome income. 

Much space has been given to this school, because at 
one time it was very popular in all the Southern States, 
and many of its text-books may still be found scat- 
tered through the country, regarded as relics of a happy 
past by a few who still survive, and investigated as cu- 
riosities by a younger generation accustomed to a very 
different style of text-book. Perhaps some of the old 
diplomas may still be in existence, cherished as me- 
mentoes of the past or regarded as curios. 

After Mrs. Phelps's resignation, the text-books, the 
discipline, and the whole regime of the school were 
changed to suit modern ideas Southern ideas. Mrs. 
Phelps boasted that she made Patapsco, " a Northern 
school in all essential features and characteristics," 
and some time before she retired her patrons were 
tired of her system. 

(Mrs. Mackubin, an alumna of Patapsco, kindly 
furnished the catalogue, Mrs. Phelps's report, and gave 
some additional facts, from which this sketch has been 
written. ) 

Kee Mar College, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1851-1908 

Upon an eminence commanding a view of the entire 
Cumberland Valley is located Kee Mar College. From 
its porches may be seen the Blue Ridge, Crampton's 
Gap, and South Mountain. The surrounding country 
is rich in historical association, and famed for its 
healthfulness, and the beauty of its scenery. 

The buildings comprise a main college building, a 
music hall, and a large auditorium. These are all 
heated by steam and lighted by gas and electricity, 
and the sanitary arrangements are complete as science 
can make them. The campus contains ten acres, 
adorned with shrubbery and evergreens, and shaded 
by maples and choice trees of many varieties. The 



180 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

greatest care is taken to promote the health of the 
students, and careful attention is given to physical 
culture and gymnasium work. 

However important physical development is or may 
be, it is at best only the beginning of education. In- 
tellectual training naturally follows, and the means 
which college life affords for development in this di- 
rection are practically three : the faculty, including all 
lectures and means of instruction in general; student 
organization and publications which foster the acquire- 
ment of knowledge ; and libraries and other apparatus 
which are of assistance in illustrating the facts and 
truths taught in the class-room. 

Kee Mar has spared no pains to secure the very best 
faculty. Some of its members have national reputa- 
tions, one an international reputation, on the platform. 
A close relation with the American Society for Exten- 
sion of University Teaching is sustained ; one member 
of its staff is an affiliated teacher. 

Two courses of university extension lectures were 
given during the year 1905-^06 and other lectures were 
heard frequently. 

Two literary organizations The Society of Elaine 
and The Society of Antigone help the students to 
put in practice the knowledge gained in the school- 
room. 

The separate departments of the College have spe- 
cial libraries of well-selected books, adapted to their 
special work, and the reading-room is well supplied 
with reference books and works of general interest. 
The large and excellent library of the city of Hagers- 
town is always available for the use of the students; 
altogether, about 30,000 volumes are at their command 
when needed. 

Painting is taught as an allied department of the 
institution, and history of art is studied as an im- 
portant feature of the curriculum. A splendid col- 
lection of art reproductions brought from Italy add 
interest to the work. A series of over thirty reproduc- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 181 

tions of the Sistine frescoes of the Vatican, made 
under the supervision of John Ruskin, which is prob- 
ably unique of its kind in America, is available for the 
use of students; while a large collection of similar 
reproductions of drawings of the great masters, chiefly 
Leonardo, Angelo, and Raphael, is also in the posses- 
sion of the College. 

Music has always received careful attention in this 
College. The faculty is composed of teachers who 
have received training from the best schools in this 
country and the best conservatories of Europe. Much 
attention is given to voice culture. 

The Margaret Barry School of Expression, founder! 
by one of the best readers in America, and under her 
personal direction, affords an excellent opportunity 
for development of aesthetic culture. 

The capstone of the arch of education is character. 
Intellectual training without proper moral balance can 
only produce dangerous rather than useful members 
of society, and the same is true of aesthetic culture. 
A college that does not insist upon the absolute and 
supreme worth of the moral life is an institution which 
may do great harm, and which cannot accomplish 
great good. Therefore, high ideals are constantly 
kept before the minds of the pupils, and chapel services 
are held every day during the week, and students are 
expected to attend the church to which they belong or 
which their parents select, on Sunday. Vesper services 
conducted by ministers of different denominations are 
held in the college every Sunday. 

Social life is scarcely less important than intellectual 
training; therefore, formal receptions are held during 
the school term, and the laws of polite society observed 
at all times. 

The curriculum embraces the departments of philos- 
ophy, English, Latin language and literature, Greek 
language and literature, history, mathematics, German 
language and literature, French language and litera- 
ture, and natural science. 



182 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

The degrees conferred are A. B. and A. M. ; diplo- 
mas are conferred for literary course, music and art. 

The President of Kee Mar is Bruce Lesher Kersh- 
ner. 

This school has had a continuous and progressive 
career since its organization in 1851, and has adapted 
its equipment, its standard, and its curriculum to the 
demand of the educational ideals of the present 
time. 

The college seal is a reproduction of an intaglio 
found among the ruins of Pompeii. The original in- 
taglio has been in the British Museum, has belonged 
to a king of Saxony, and is at present in the possession 
of Miss Margaret Barry. 

Much space has been given to this school, because 
so few schools of Maryland could be put on record, 
though this is by no means the oldest school in Mary- 
land. 

(The information on which this sketch is based was 
obtained from catalogues sent by the president.) 

Maryland College, Lutherville, Maryland, 1853-1908 

Maryland College for Women was chartered in 
1853 by the Legislature of Maryland. In 1895 a new 
charter was granted, enabling the institution to confer 
the usual collegiate and honorary degrees on women 
of merit and distinction in literature and science. It 
is located at Lutherville, a beautiful village suburban 
to Baltimore, Maryland, on the Northern Central Rail- 
way, in a high, healthy, and beautiful section of coun- 
try. 

The main college building is of stone in a castellated 
style of architecture, presenting a front of 126 feet, 
and a depth of 68 feet, surmounted by a cupola, which 
affords an extensive view of the surrounding country. 
The campus is extensive and retired, occupying eleven 
acres. The grounds in the rear are covered with a 
forest of native oaks ; in front they are laid out in 




OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 183 

walks and promenades, planted in ornamental shrub- 
bery and shade trees. 

The Institution is provided with pianos, organs, 
chemical and philosophical apparatus, maps and charts, 
and a cabinet of minerals, sufficient for the practical 
illustration of the sciences. 

Baltimore is only a few minutes' ride by rail from 
Lutherville, and this center of wealth and culture at- 
tracts the finest talent from all parts of the world, thus 
the best in art and music is accessible to the pupils. 

They have opportunities to hear great dramas, ora- 
torios, operas, symphonies, and lectures, by noted art- 
ists. The Peabody Art Gallery is open all the year 
round, and the private art collection of Mr. Walter 
Walters is open six months each year. These galleries 
afford opportunities of surpassing excellence to lovers 
of art. 

The College has a library of standard authors, and 
a reading-room furnished with choice periodicals and 
scientific and religious journals, magazines, and news- 
papers. 

The Morris and Lyceum Literary Societies afford 
opportunity and stimulus for the cultivation of habits 
of reading and discussion, and literary taste. The 
Current Comment Club meets weekly for recital and 
discussion of current events. 

Collegiate Department This department embraces 
three separate and distinct schools : The English, Latin, 
Classical (or Scientific) and Greek Classical, each cov- 
ering a period of four years. The Greek and Latin 
classical courses each require one modern language; 
the English course requires two modern languages. 
Pupils may become candidates for graduation in either 
of them. The completion of either of them, upon 
satisfactory examination, will entitle the applicant to 
a diploma in that school. The Greek course leads to 
the degree of B. A. ; the Latin course to B. S. ; the 
English course to B. L. Bachelor of Literature. The 
honorary degree of M. A. will be conferred on such 



184 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

persons as may be recommended by the faculty and 
approved by the board of control. A diploma, with 
the title Graduate of Music of Maryland College for 
Women, will be awarded to those who finish the 
course of music prescribed by the institution to the 
entire satisfaction of the faculty. 

The Department of Art offers two courses: i. A 
thorough course for those who expect to pursue art 
as a profession; 2. A course for those who can give 
but little time to the study of art, but who desire some 
knowledge of it for home decoration. All the branches 
of art taught in colleges receive attention. 

Preparatory Department In order to provide for 
those pupils who are unprepared to enter the regular 
college classes, a sub-freshman class is conducted by the 
regular faculty of instructors, offering the advantage of 
preparing for and completing the collegiate course 
under the same direction. 

(This sketch is taken from catalogues sent by the 
president of the College, Rev. J. M. Turner.) 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 185 



CHAPTER XIX 
Franklin Academy, Columbus, Mississippi, 1821-1908 

THIS school, though not strictly a school for girls, 
should be mentioned, because from its establishment in 
1821 there were two entirely distinct schools one for 
boys and one for girls. 

It was a " sixteenth-section " school, and still has 
an income from its sixteenth-section lands. This 
school has been the subject of much legislation and 
much discussion, and its management has been much 
opposed and criticised. At one time great opposition 
arose against the " high school department." It was 
contended that the children of the poor could not at- 
tend school longer than was necessary to complete the 
grammar-school studies, therefore, the money should 
not be used to maintain a school for the benefit of 
the rich, who should maintain a school for their own 
children. To meet this objection, a small fee was 
charged for each of the higher classes. Still the dis- 
satisfaction continued, and it was proposed to close the 
school and distribute the funds among private schools 
of primary grade. This proposition was submitted to 
a vote of the citizens. Two tickets " School," the 
other " No School " were presented ; the school ticket 
was elected, and the school continued its course. 

Fortunately, the city of Columbus was built on about 
two-thirds of its school lands. This gave it an in- 
creasing income, but even then this amount was not 
sufficient for all expenses, and the manner of supple- 
menting this fund was a bone of contention until 
the Academy became a part of the State School system 
in 1869. Since that time it has had its pro rata of the 
State fund, and its own sixteenth-section fund. 



186 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

In 1875 or 1876 the trustees of this school bought 
the " Freedmen's Bureau " building and established a 
school for negro children under the management of 
the Franklin Academy. 

The school has never been closed since it was char- 
tered in 1821 until the present time. It has continued 
its session nine months in every year, being three 
months more than required by law. The establishment 
of this school on the old " Military Road," that Gen- 
eral Jackson had opened through the wilderness, at- 
tracted settlers, a land office was opened, and soon the 
town of Columbus was a thriving, busy mart. The 
community was noted for its intelligence and high- 
toned morality, and has maintained these characteris- 
tics until the present time. 

Mississippi College, Clinton, Mississippi, 1830-1850 

Hampstead Academy was incorporated in 1826, and 
located at Mount Salus, now Clinton, in Hinds County. 
F. A. Hopkins was first principal of the school, which 
began active work in January, 1827. On the fifth of 
February, the same year, an Act of Legislature was 
passed by which the name of the institution was 
changed to Mississippi Academy, and to this institution 
was donated, for a term of five years, the rent of such 
portions of thirty-six sections of land granted by Con- 
gress in 1819, for the aid of an institution of learning, 
as had been leased. 

In April, 1827, the trustees published this announce- 
ment : " The school has been in operation three months, 
and now numbers upwards of thirty students; both 
boys and girls are admitted, but the house is so con- 
structed that the boys and girls are taught in separate 
rooms. The entire building will probably be com- 
pleted this year, and when finished will accommodate 
from 150 to 200 students." An amendment to the 
charter, by which the name and grade of the school 
were changed to Mississippi College, was approved in 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 187 

December, 1830. However, the implication of the 
name did not exist; it was never adopted as a State 
institution, but was under a board of management 
nominated by the citizens of Clinton. 

The Constitutional Flag published an account of a 
commencement in June, 1832, which gives us a glimpse 
of an old time commencement. 



" Male Department : The examination of the pupils 
of this institution closed on Friday, the i^th inst. On 
Monday (forenoon), Thursday, and Friday the stu- 
dents of this department were rigidly examined in 
various studies. The young gentlemen in the classes 
distinguished themselves in a manner highly creditable ; 
such was the spirit of emulation among them that it 
would be difficult to distinguish any one in particular. 
The oratorical society exhibited on Thursday and Tues- 
day nights. This society elicited most unbounded ap- 
plause, and promises a high degree of usefulness, and 
to become a valuable auxiliary in the school. The 
composition (original) was elegant and the elocution 
superior. 

" Female Department : This department is divided 
into four classes, and the studies of each class pre- 
scribed. The first class is distinguished by a red badge, 
the second by a pink badge, the third class, by a blue 
badge, and the fourth by a white badge. 

" On Monday forenoon those studying music were 
examined ; and it would be ungenerous to withhold the 
mead of praise ; their performance met the admiration 
of a large and respectable audience. On Tuesday and 
Wednesday the young ladies were examined in classes. 
Each class, stimulated by a laudable emulation to ex- 
cel, afforded a triumphant refutation of their supposed 
incapacity of high scientific attainments. 

" On Wednesday morning two young ladies were 
graduated. The ceremony of graduating and con- 



188 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

ferring the degrees was truly imposing, and excited 
the most lively interest. After the conferring of the 
degrees, the young ladies were presented with a gold 
medal with a suitable inscription, and a diploma." 

The buildings having been completed, in 1834 the 
institution was organized in two departments, entirely 
separate from each other, and each had its own 
faculty. 

In 1842 the school was placed under the control of 
the Clinton Presbytery, and both departments were 
placed under the same president, though still separate. 
In 1848 the girls' department was again placed under 
separate management; and Dr. Newton, an educator 
of large experience, was president of this department. 
He was assisted by Prof. John P. Mapes and Miss 
Eliza Warren, who had been educated in Europe. 
She was a linguist and musician, and had had much 
experience in teaching. 

The school continued to prosper until 1848, when 
Rev. P. Cotton, president of the College, resigned. 
The affairs of the College began to decline, and in 
1850 the buildings, grounds, and apparatus of the 
College became the property of the Baptist State Con- 
vention. After this transfer the girls' department was 
discontinued. 

(This sketch is taken from " History of Education 
in Mississippi," by Hon. Edward Mayes.) 

Holly Springs Female Institute, 1836 

From its earliest day the educational advantages of 
the city of Holly Springs were of a high order. This 
was especially true in regard to schools for girls. They 
extended unusual facilities for learning, under the 
guidance of enlightened and experienced teachers. 
These benefits attracted the residence of families of 
wealth and refinement, who came from a distance to 
secure the education of their children. They brought 
with them a high standard of religious, moral, and 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 189 

intellectual culture, and gave unusual elevation to the 
society of the place. This was so eminently the case 
that in a very short time the population was over 4,000, 
and its real estate was in demand at high prices. 

In January, 1836 (the same year in which the 
Chickasaw Cession was organized into counties), a 
meeting of the citizens of Holly Springs and its vi- 
cinity was held for the purpose of electing trustees 
for the " Female Academy " of Holly Springs. At 
this meeting a Miss Mosely was employed to teach dur- 
ing the first session, with the rates of tuition fixed at 
$8, $12, and $15, for the first, second, and third 
classes, respectively. The building was south of the 
road to Hernando, and fronting it. It was a modest 
but comfortable structure of hewn logs, with clapboard 
roof, overhung by friendly oak trees. 

A Mr. Cottrell and his wife were elected to take 
charge of the school, and agreed to open their session 
the ist of January, 1837, but for some reason failed 
to do so, and opened a school near Hudsonville in the 
same county. A Mr. Baker and his wife were in- 
stalled as principals for 1837. The school seems to 
have prospered so much that the trustees determined 
to provide larger and more comfortable accommoda- 
tions. 

During this year the town of Holly Springs was 
incorporated. The owners of the land on which it 
was located donated fifty acres to the city, and this 
tract sold for enough money to build an excellent 
court-house and jail and furnish means towards the 
enlargement and improvement of the academy. The 
sum of $10,500 was appropriated to the last purpose 
by the police court, and private subscriptions increased 
the sum to $14,121.59. 

About this time an unsuccessful effort was made to 
engage a Mr. Hollister as principal. Deeming it im- 
portant to have at the head of the institution " a gen- 
tleman of literary abilities and one who has practical 
experience in conducting a female school/' the ses- 



190 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

sion of 1838 was postponed until February, and mean- 
while Colonel Henderson was dispatched on the special 
mission of finding an acceptable man. The result 
was, Mr. Thomas Johnson was selected. 

Notwithstanding the financial calamities of the 
period, there was prosperity throughout this commu- 
nity. The frictions and disorders incident to new 
settlements yielded so promptly to the power of a re- 
fined and cultured element that they seemed hardly to 
have existed. 

The trustees resolved to readjust their plans; it 
was determined to move the academy to a more desir- 
able site. On the Qth of April, 1838, the special com- 
mittee reported the purchase of a lot of four acres 
from Mr. W. S. Randolph. A committee was ap- 
pointed to make contracts and superintend the work. 
It was further resolved to lay the corner-stone on 
the 24th of June with Masonic honors, and Holly 
Springs Lodge, No. 35, was invited to perform the 
ceremony. This program was duly carried out, and 
the academy (now called Holly Springs Collegiate 
Institute) was established on grounds amply capa- 
cious and beautifully located amidst residences well 
improved, and even in some instances ambitious in 
style. The grounds were laid off and shade trees 
planted. Dr. William Hankins testified his interest 
in the enterprise by the gift of an " elegant electrical 
machine." 

In 1838 there were about eighty pupils. The musi- 
cal department was under the care of Mr. and Mrs. 
Kenno, and was well conducted. 

The institution embraced a primary and a colle- 
giate department. The primary were taught orthog- 
raphy, reading, writing, English grammar, geography, 
history, and arithmetic. The collegiate department 
was divided into three classes junior, intermediate, 
and senior and the studies were arranged in this 
order : 

Junior Class Elocution, English, Latin or some 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 191 

modern language, natural philosophy, chemistry, his- 
tory, arithmetic, composition, vocal music. 

Intermediate Class English, rhetoric, Latin or 
some modern language, physiology, outlines of geol- 
ogy, mineralogy, botany, natural history, algebra, vo- 
cal music. 

Senior Class English, Latin or some modern lan- 
guage, optics, astronomy, natural theology, mental and 
moral philosophy, criticism, logic, geometry, composing 
themes, music. 

The Institute was then provided with five teachers 
in the collegiate department, including the president 
and two teachers for art and music. There was a 
sufficient additional force for the primary department. 
The trustees paid no salaries, the principal and as- 
sistants depending entirely upon tuition fees. 

In the Republican of January 12, 1839, President 
Johnson published an open letter to the public urging 
the claims of the Institute. It contains a good presen- 
tation of the advantages of a high education, a fine 
insistence on the desirability of a home education 
rather than a foreign one, and it has this passage of 
interest : 

" The people of Holly Springs have given such evi- 
dence of their convictions on the subject of education 
that we think the public may rely upon their establish- 
ing schools of such a caste as to meet their views, how- 
ever elevated. They have raised by subscription $30,- 
ooo to erect and endow a college for young gentle- 
men, and have already commenced improvements upon 
a liberal scale for its accommodations, part of which 
is already prepared ; the balance is in progress. This 
college is now furnished with a faculty that would 
do honor to any school. 

1 They have appropriated $15,000 to erecting and 
endowing a high order of female school, the principal 
edifice of which is now in progress and will be finished 
early next spring. This edifice is of the Tuscan order, 
64 feet front, two tall stories upon a basement, with a 



192 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

wing extending back 60 feet. When completed it 
will be one of the best buildings for the purpose in the 
Southwest, sufficiently large to accommodate the 
teacher's family, 140 pupils, and 60 boarders. 

" Our object is to impart a sound, substantial, lib- 
eral education, not masculine, but approximating as 
near to it as the peculiarities of the female intellect 
will permit." 

The Institute was granted a charter in 1839, and 
in May of that year Mr. Johnson severed his con- 
nection with the school, and was succeeded by Rev. 
C. Parish, A. M., who remained until 1842. The 
faculty during the latter part of 1839 was composed 
of Rev. C. Parish, A. M., president and professor of 
natural science, mathematics, languages, and belles- 
lettres; Miss Ruth Beach, assistant teacher; Rufus 
Beach, Esq., and daughter, Eliza, teachers of music; 
Mrs. E. Langley, teacher of ornamental branches. 
The students registered January, 1840, were 80 in 
number. 

During the summer of 1841 a Mr. Foster set up a 
rival school, and for some months there was a con- 
tention which school was the true Holly Springs In- 
stitute; at last, in January, 1842, Rev. C. Parish re- 
signed, and was succeeded by Mr. Foster. The board 
accepted the resignation with reluctance, and passed 
very complimentary resolutions on that occasion. Dur- 
ing Mr. Parish's incumbency he graduated several 
young ladies with the degree of M. P. L. possibly 
these letters stand for " Mistress of Polite Literature." 

Mr. Foster leased the institute for five and one-half 
years. A fine cabinet of minerals was provided, and 
a good philosophical apparatus, also a library; and 
part of the grounds was laid out in a botanical gar- 
den. Mr. Foster was remarkably successful for a 
time. 

An account of the closing exercises of the session 
of 1844 ma y be found in the Holly Springs Gazette 
of that date : " On the Thursday, Friday, and Satur- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 19S 

day of the last week in December, 1844, there was a 
public examination; the pupils gave numerous experi- 
ments and illustrations in practical chemistry; they 
conversed publicly in French, and read compositions 
in that tongue ; they were quizzed in mental philosophy, 
in geometry, and in geology; they gave a public con- 
cert, which was creditable to pupils and teachers. In 
all they acquitted themselves with great credit." 

Mr. Foster was succeeded by Rev. James Weatherby, 
who was quite prosperous for two years, and was 
succeeded by Rev. G. W. Sill, who remained ten years, 
and was prosperous from the first of his administra- 
tion ; indeed, the school was at its best during his ad- 
ministration. It had tided over the financial crisis of 
1837-40, the buildings were completed, and the pur- 
poses of the trustees were crowned with success. This 
board of trustees counted among its members some of 
the most intelligent and influential gentlemen in the 
State. 

The Institute was destroyed by the War between 
the States, and never rebuilt, but its work remains; it 
contributed largely to the development of a high order 
of Culture in the community, and to the establishment 
of other fine schools, its natural and direct successors. 

Sharon Female College, Madison County, Mississippi, 

1837 

This institution, located at Sharon, in Madison 
County, was founded by B. W. Minter, J. W. P. Mc- 
Gimsey, E. F. Divine, Kinsman Divine, William 
Joiner, and James M. Baker, with others. The scheme 
was to have a union school, under the direction of the 
Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians ; each of these 
denominations was represented on the board of trus- 
tees and the faculty. The institution was incorporated 
in 1837. The plan of organization was a college for 
men and an academy for girls. These were distinct 
establishments and faculties under one president. As 



194 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

had been anticipated, this union did not last long, 
about six years, when the school for girls was placed 
in the hands of the Methodist Church. It was reor- 
ganized, obtained a new charter, and began an era of 
prosperity under the name of Sharon Female College. 
The following extracts from an advertisement of the 
date September 6, 1843, w ^^ show something of its 
organization : 

" SHARON FEMALE COLLEGE, MADISON COUNTY, 
MISSISSIPPI 

" This institution, under the patronage of the Mis- 
sissippi Annual Conference, will commence its regular 
session on the first Monday of October. 

" Board of Instruction Rev. E. S. Robinson, A. M., 
principal and teacher of ancient languages, mathe- 
matics, and natural sciences; C. W. F. Muller, Esq., 
(a native of France, and a gentleman of thorough edu- 
cation), professor of music and modern languages; 
Mrs. J. A. Robinson, chief governess and teacher of 
botany, history, and ornamental needlework ; name not 
given, second governess, and teacher of drawing, paint- 
ing, and vocal music. A preceptress of the prepara- 
tory department will be selected by October ist. 

" Course of study : Preparatory department Or- 
thography, reading, writing, English grammar, geog- 
raphy, arithmetic, mythology, progressive exercises 
in composition, Bible and its natural history, Latin 
and Greek grammars, Latin tutors and readers, and 
vocal music. Collegiate department Ancient and 
modern languages, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, 
mensuration, syntax and English composition, analy- 
sis, rhetoric, natural philosophy, chemistry, geology, 
mineralogy, botany, astronomy, logic, elements of criti- 
cism, ancient and modern history, ancient geography, 
philosophy of natural history, physiology, mental and 
moral sciences, introduction to the study of the Bible, 
evidences of Christianity, daily use of sacred Scrip- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 195 

tures, music, drawing, painting, wax, coral, and orna- 
mental needlework. 

" The last examination closed the first semi-annual 
session of its existence under the patronage of the 
Mississippi Annual Conference. Its success has equaled 
the highest expectations of its trustees and patrons, 
having closed with more than 80 students, and the 
prospect of large accessions at the opening of the 
next session. 

" J. P. THOMAS, 
"President Board of Trustees." 



In 1845 Mr- Robinson was succeeded by Rev. Pleas- 
ant J. Eckles; in 1854 Rev. J. W. Shelton was elected; 
he resigned after a few months and was succeeded 
by Rev. Mr. Guard, who remained until 1861, when 
he was followed by Rev. William L. C. Hunnicut. 
Mr. Hunnicut very soon enlisted as a chaplain in the 
Confederate Army, and Rev. Samuel Aikin took his 
place in the College ; in 1867 he resigned, and Mr. Hun- 
nicut was re-elected and served until 1869, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. Josiah M. Pugh. President 
Pugh resigned in July, 1870, on account of ill health, 
and Mr. Hunnicut was elected for the third time. 
He served one year and was succeeded by Mr. 
Pugh. 

In 1868 the boarding-house was destroyed by 'fire, 
and this calamity eventually led to the closing of the 
College. In 1872, under President Pugh, the last 
graduating class of Sharon College received their de- 
grees. They were Mattie E. Holliday, Mary J. 
O'Leary, and Emma M. Wiggins. The last named 
was valedictorian. The commencement that year was 
said to be the most brilliant in the history of the 
institution. But it was the last. In July of that year 
President Pugh resigned to take the presidency of 
Marvin College, Texas, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Mr. Moss of Alabama. 

At the close of the year 1873 the College closed its 



196 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

career. The suspension was due to the destruction of 
property during the war and by the war, the general 
upheaval of society, the destruction of the boarding- 
house, and removals of many families and other con- 
ditions that could not be changed. 

(This sketch is taken from " History of Education 
in Mississippi," by Hon. Edward Mayes.) 

Oxford Academy Union College Woman's College, 
Oxford, Mississippi, 1836-1908 

Scarcely had the Indians been expelled from their 
ancestral hunting grounds when the Mississippians be- 
gan to establish schools. Only two years after the 
Chickasaws slowly and sadly wended their way to the 
far West, the Methodists of the little town of Ox- 
ford established a school for girls. In 1838 this school 
was incorporated under the name of Oxford Female 
Academy, and placed under the control of a regular 
board of trustees. 

Miss Charlotte Paine was the first principal, and 
was remarkably successful in the management of the 
school. Her first session closed December, 1839, with 
an enrollment of thirty-four. Three years later the 
music department gave an exhibition recital in the 
court-house of Oxford. Though the numbers were 
simple, the pupils must have applied themselves dili- 
gently to be able to render them in the creditable man- 
ner they did. The style of music preferred in that 
day was simple melody rather than the class that calls 
for showy execution finger gymnastics or the purely 
classical. 

Under the management of several principals the 
school was a decided success; but its friends and pa- 
trons desired something better a higher standard; 
and as at that time the impression prevailed that a de- 
nominational connection was the only sure road to a 
great career, the school was placed under the control 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In 1854 a 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 197 

new charter was obtained and the name changed to 
Union College. 

While the College is under the management of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, no sectarian test 
is made in the selection of teachers, and it is patron- 
ized by all denominations, and is conducted on a 
Christian basis. 

When organized as an academy there were three 
departments literary, musical and art. The literary 
was divided into primary, middle and advanced. The 
following was the course of study for the advanced 
department : " Comstock's Natural Philosophy, Corn- 
stock's Chemistry; Lincoln's Botany; Playfair's Eu- 
clid ; Day's Algebra ; Newman's Rhetoric ; Alexander's 
Evidences; Goodrich's Ecclesiastical History: history 
of England; history of France; Abercrombie's intel- 
lectual Powers ; Abercrombie's Moral Feelings ; Watts 
on the Mind; Burritt's Geography of the Heavens; 
logic; Roman and Grecian antiquities; political econ- 
omy ; composition." The literary course of Union Col- 
lege embraces a preparatory and a collegiate depart- 
ment. The latter requires the usual four years. The 
College offers a short course of two years to those 
who have not time to take the full course. There is 
also a school of fine arts and a school of vocal and 
instrumental music. 

The College is unendowed, and is dependent upon 
tuition fees for its support; these range from $20 to 
$50 for day pupils, per annum. Music, art, and French 
are extras. The average attendance is 1 50 pupils. The 
first class graduated under the charter of 1854 num- 
bered six, and was graduated in 1856. The War of 
1861-65, caused a suspension of five years, but with 
that exception the school has had a continuous ex- 
istence from 1836 to the present time, and has sent 
out hundreds of young women to disseminate the 
truths of Christianity and morality. 

The original building presented much the appear- 
ance of a dwelling-house. It was a two-story brick 



198 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

structure arranged for schoolrooms and music-rooms; 
the boarders were accommodated in private families. 

The Academy was furnished with a complete philo- 
sophical, chemical, and astronomical apparatus, globes, 
and a small library. When the Academy was enlarged 
or advanced to a college, a three-story brick building 
was erected, and the " old academy " was connected 
with it by a corridor. These buildings were valued 
at $50,000 and there was no debt on them. In 1896 
another three-story brick building was added, at a 
cost of $15,000. 

The College added a much larger and more modern 
chemical and philosophical apparatus, and enlarged the 
library. 

The campus of 10 acres, shaded by several hundred 
native trees, affords ample ground for exercise and 
amusement. 

In 1899 some prominent ministers and members of 
the North Mississippi Conference of the M. E. Church 
South, recognizing the great value of the plant and 
the favorable location for a college for women, as 
well as the great need of such an institution within the 
bounds of the Conference, negotiated with the owners 
and purchased the entire plant. 

This school enjoys the distinction of being the old- 
est chartered school for girls in the State that has had 
a continuous existence. All those established at an 
earlier date have passed out of existence. It is now a 
modern college and conservatory. 

Port Gibson Female College, Port Gibson, Mississippi, 
1843-1908 

The town of Port Gibson is located on the Louisville, 
New Orleans, and Texas Railway. It is one of the 
oldest towns in the State, and at a very early period 
in its history began the establishment of schools. In 
1809 the Territorial Legislature chartered the Madi- 
son Academy, then in successful operation under the 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 199 

care of Henry C. Cox. This academy had a success- 
ful career for many years. In 1826 Clinton Academy 
was incorporated, and in 1829 its name was changed to 
Port Gibson Academy, which was more or less success- 
ful until about 1843. ^ n tnat Y ear a number of gentle- 
men established Port Gibson Collegiate Academy. 
This institution was opened for the reception of stu- 
dents in 1844. The first faculty was Mr. John Har- 
vie, A.M., principal; Mrs. Mary A. Harvie, his wife; 
Mr. W. L. Whitney, A.M., Miss Mary J. Smyth, 
Miss Marcia Howe, assistants, and Mr. L. G. Hartge, 
professor of music. 

Provision was made for teaching the usual college 
curriculum, modern languages and music. An exten- 
sive apparatus for teaching natural philosophy and 
chemistry was supplied. 

The building and one block of ground were donated 
by the founder: these were valued at $15,000. The 
management of Mr. Harvie was successful; his term 
of service continued from 1844 to 1859. 

This institution did not receive its charter until 
1854, when it was chartered under the name of Port 
Gibson Female Collegiate Academy. 

In 1859 Rev. Benjamin Jones, a minister of the M. 
E. Church South, was president. How long he re- 
tained the position the record does not say, but he was 
president again in 1871. It is not stated whether he 
retained this position until 1875, when Rev. John A. B. 
Jones was elected. Mr. Jones served seven years, and 
was succeeded by Rev. Thomas C. Bradford, who 
served six years and was succeeded by Rev. Edwin H. 
Mounger, in 1888, who still retains the position. 

In 1869 the College was taken under the patronage 
of the Mississippi Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church South, and the property duly conveyed 
to that body. 

This college was exempt from doing pioneer work, 
for the way had been prepared for it by the fine 
schools mentioned at the beginning of this article. 



200 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

From the first it was successful ; even the turmoils and 
disasters of the War of 1861-65 did not cause a sus- 
pension of exercises. As the academies mentioned 
were merged into it, its existence may be dated from 
1809, and certainly some years earlier, perhaps from 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

Several buildings have been added to the original 
Academy, and the property is now valued at $20,000. 

The degrees conferred are M. E. L. (Mistress of 
English Literature), B. A., M. A. 

Grenada Collegiate Institute, Grenada, Mississippi, 
1851-1908 

This institution had many vicissitudes and changes 
of name before it arrived at its present status and 
name. 

In 1851, before Grenada was in existence, the Yalo- 
busha Baptist Association was an active denomina- 
tional organization, whose circle included all of Yalo- 
busha and parts of Carroll and Choctaw counties. That 
association founded a school of high grade, under the 
name of The Yalobusha Baptist Female Institute. For 
its accommodation they erected the present edifice, at 
a cost of $30,000. The money obtained came from 
voluntary and varying contributions. Dr. W. S. Webb, 
who was teaching school in what is now Grenada, 
was elected president; he accepted and moved his 
school into the building, September, 1851. He was 
very successful, and continued for six years, command- 
ing a large patronage from the surrounding country. 

The school was closed during the War of 1861-65, 
and the buildings used for a hospital. It seems it 
had never been fully paid for, and the creditor pro- 
cured a sale and it passed out of the control of the 
Baptists. The purchaser, Mr. George Ragsdale, leased 
it to a Mrs. Holcombe, who opened a school in the 
building called " Emma Mercer Institute/' She was 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 201 

not successful, and after a few years was succeeded 
by Prof. R. A. Irwin. 

At this period, 1873, the county superintendent of 
public education said in his report to the State super- 
intendent : 

" The Emma Mercer Institute is an institution of 
considerable renown as a female seminary, under the 
management of Prof. R. A. Irwin, a gentleman of high 
moral character, a fine scholar, and a thorough educa- 
tor, being assisted by his wife, a most estimable lady, 
who exercises a maternal supervision over the young 
ladies intrusted to her care; and with the above are 
associated three lady teachers of superior qualifica- 
tions, making in all five, all of whom, combined, 
insure the advancement and best interest in every 
respect of the highest type of mental and moral train- 
ing. The number of young ladies in attendance 
averages 80. " 

The institution was in debt, and about 1873 it was 
sold for $7,000 or $8,000, and bought by a joint stock 
company. The Episcopalians thought of buying it, 
but some fear about the title prevented them. 

The company changed the name to Grenada Female 
College. From this time until 1882 there were fre- 
quent changes of presidents, and the school did not 
prosper; it accomplished little good. 

In 1882 it was purchased by the North Mississippi 
Conference for a nominal sum, and the Rev Thomas 
J. Newell, a member of the Conference, became presi- 
dent and has remained in office ever since. The Con- 
ference obtained a new charter, in 1884, under the 
name of Grenada Collegiate Institute. 

The completion of the college course, without an- 
cient or modern languages, entitles a student to the 
degree of M. E. L. ; the completion of the English 
course and Latin and one modern language entitles 
to the A. M. degree. The institution has no income 
except its earnings. 



202 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



The Central Female Institute, now Hillman College, 
1853-1908 

This school was established by the Baptist Church 
at Clinton, Hinds County, in 1853. Its work was 
not interrupted by the War of 1861-65, and it is 
now pursuing- its fifty-fourth year of uninterrupted 
work. The Baptists planned a building to cost $60,- 
ooo, but it has never been finished. The part that was 
finished before the war cost $4,000, and since that 
time additions have been made as demanded. 

The institution was incorporated in 1853. Estab- 
lished in Clinton, where the Baptists had already 
established Mississippi College, and fostered by that 
denomination, its success was assured from the begin- 
ning. The attendance averages 120 per annum; the 
highest number was 169, in 1859, and the lowest 60, 
in 1865. 

The plan of instruction includes literary, musical, 
ornamental and industrial departments. The literary 
department is divided into primary, preparatory, and 
collegiate schools. In the collegiate department there 
are three courses leading to graduation. The English 
course, without foreign languages, leads to the M. E. L. 
degree; the English course with Latin and Greek, or 
Latin and French, or Latin and German leads to the 
A. B. degree; the English course with one ancient or 
one modern language entitles the student to a di- 
ploma. 

Notwithstanding the $60,000 building has never 
been completed, the Institute has ample room for all 
purposes a large, well-furnished boarding depart- 
ment, well-supplied laboratories, suitably equipped 
studios for music and art, and a valuable museum of 
geological and mineralogical specimens and natural 
history specimens, including fossils, shells, and algae. 

The Institute does not own a library, but the Pres- 
ident owns a library of 1,500 volumes, and the Les- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 203 

bian Society has a large library, both of which are 
accessible to the students. 

Prof. William Duncan was the first president; for 
many years Rev. Walter Hillman has been president. 

At the commencement of 1891 the name was 
changed to Hillman College, as a slight recognition of 
the many and valuable services rendered to the Col- 
lege by Mr. Hillman. 



204 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER XX 

Schools in Missouri 
Mary Institute, St. Louis, Missouri, 1859-1908 

THE Mary Institute was founded under the pro- 
visions of the charter of Washington University, in 
1859, and was thus established as a branch of Wash- 
ington University. The design of its founders was 
to establish a school of so high a grade that the people 
of St. Louis could educate their daughters without 
sending them away from home; and so far as school 
requirements go, this standard has always been main- 
tained. But although the Institute makes a specialty 
of fitting girls for the higher institutions of learning, 
it does not do work that is beyond the most advanced 
high-school grades. 

The Institute was organized in a building erected 
on Lucas Place, at a cost of $25,000; but it gradually 
outgrew these accommodations, and in 1878 a more 
spacious and convenient structure was built on the 
corner of Locust and Beaumont streets, at an expense 
of $70,000. This building, which easily accommodates 
400 pupils, is heated with hot air, well ventilated and 
lighted. It has served a useful purpose, but since it 
was erected the residence portion of the city has ex- 
tended westward, and in order to meet the new condi- 
tions that have thus arisen a still more commodious 
structure has been erected on Lake avenue, near Forest 
Park. The new building is completed in all its ap- 
pointments, and is expected to provide the school an 
adequate and permanent home. 

The Institute is well provided with works of refer- 
ence, maps, charts, and apparatus. The instruction 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 205 

in natural science is accompanied with laboratory work 
with the most modern apparatus. The department 
of botany has special advantages through being incor- 
porated as part of the Shaw School of Botany. 

The equipment of the Institute includes also a 
kitchen, fitted with the appliances used in the best 
cooking schools, in which instruction in cooking and 
domestic science is given to the senior class by a trained 
and competent teacher. The domestic science depart- 
ment also has entire control of the lunch-room, which 
has been established by the Institute in order that 
pupils and teachers may be able to obtain a wholesome 
and palatable meal at midday without leaving the 
school building. 

The school is divided into primary, preparatory, and 
academic departments. Each of these three departments 
is entirely distinct and separate from the other two, 
having its own study and recitation rooms, its own 
methods of work, and its own teachers. 

The primary department is open to children of five, 
who have had no previous instruction. This course 
is completed in three years, and includes singing, draw- 
ing, and calisthenics, in addition to the regular branches 
in the course of study. 

The preparatory department has four classes, which 
follow a course very similar to that prescribed for 
the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades of the pub- 
lic schools. Oral training in French is begun in the 
primary department and continued through two years 
of the preparatory department. German is begun in 
the third year of the preparatory department, thus giv- 
ing a seven-year course. 

The academic department gives substantially the 
same training that is provided in the best high schools. 

All students receive instruction in drawing, singing, 
and calisthenics. 

The certificate of the Institute admits to Smith, Vas- 
sar, Wellesley and Wells ; also to Washington Univer- 
sity and the University of Missouri. 



206 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

The following communication will explain in part 
why the Institute was called " Mary Institute." 

" To the Board of Directors of Washington Univer- 
sity : 

" The undersigned have placed in the hands of Geo. 
Partridge, Esq., four thousand dollars, to aid in the 
completion of the building and purchasing the equip- 
ment for the Female Seminary in Lucas Place on 
condition that the same seminary be called ' Mary In- 
stitute,' and its founding bears the date May n, 1859. 
Signed, Wayman Crow, R. P. McCrury, James 
Smith, George Partridge.'* 

It happened that the name " Mary " was borne by 
some of the members of the families of these gentle- 
men and they thought it the most beautiful and most 
honored name among women. 

(The writer is indebted for much of the material 
for this sketch to Miss Sarah G. Hayes, who kindly 
copied it from the records of Washington University. 
The remainder was taken from catalogues. ) 

Christian College, Columbia, Missouri, 1851-1908 

This college was chartered by an Act of the General 
Assembly of the State of Missouri, January 18. 1851. 
(Laws of Missouri, 1:51, pp. 310-312.) According 
to the terms of this charter, James Shannon, T. B. B. 
Smith, Thomas M. Allen, D. P. Henderson, William 
McClure, W. W. Hudson, Robert S. Barr, Thomas 
D. Grant, Levi T. Smith, Flavel Vivian, John Jami- 
son, W. F. Birch, J. J. Allen, J. C. Fox, Lewis Bryan, 
Elijah Patterson, John S. Phelps, Wayman Grow, 
S. S. Church, and Moses Land were to constitute a 
corporate body with perpetual succession. (Sec. I, 

P- 3 11 -) 

Also, " said College shall be located at such a place 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 207 

within the State as shall be designated by a majority 
of the trustees herein named/' (Sec. 2.) 

At the time of locating the College the trustees, or 
a majority of them, shall determine the name. (Sec. 
3.) After the College has been located and named 
the trustees shall have absolute control of the property 
belonging to the College. (Sec. 3.) Trustees shall 
have power to make all by-laws for the governing of 
the College (Sec. 4.), and to fill all vacancies which 
may occur in their body, and reduce their number to 
nine. As soon as the funds permit a building shall be 
erected. (Sec. 8.) Trustees have power to appoint 
all necessary officers to conduct and manage the insti- 
tution, and to remove them from office, and fix their 
compensation. Also power to grant such literary 
honors as are usually granted by colleges or univer- 
sities in the United States. (Sees. 8-9.) Diplomas 
of this College shall " entitle the possessor to all the 
immunities which by law or usage is allowed to pos- 
sessor of similar diplomas granted by any college or 
university in the United States." (Sec. n.) 
Trustees shall have power to add other departments 
to the College whenever they deem it necessary. ( Sec. 
13.) Neither the number of departments nor the 
course of study is indicated in the charter. 

" As early as 1848 the idea of founding a female 
college in the interests of the Christian Church began 
to take shape in the minds of some of the leaders of 
that body." Christian College owes its existence more, 
perhaps, to D. P. Henderson (a minister of the Chris- 
tian Church of Missouri) than to any one else. 

In 1850 James Shannon, president of Bacon College 
at Harrodsburg, Kentucky, was elected president of 
Missouri State University. President Shannon, as- 
sisted by D. P. Henderson, S. S. Church, and F. M. 
Allen, obtained a charter for Christian College. 
(Baccalaureate address before Christian College, May 
31, 1888, pp. 40-53 of the thirty-seventh annual cata- 
logue of Christian College.) 



208 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

In November, 1849, Dr. Samuel Hatch and Prof. 
Henry White of Bacon College, Harrodsburg, Ken- 
tucky, came to Columbia with the view of inaugurat- 
ing a " Female Collegiate Institute." They, in con- 
nection with Dr. Henderson and President Shannon 
of the -State University, successfully carried their plan 
into execution, and on the recommendation of Dr. 
Shannon, John Augustus Williams of Kentucky was 
elected the first president of the newly founded institu- 
tion. A small house in the town was at first used, 
but so rapidly did the school grow a new building be- 
came necessary. The incomplete residence and 
twenty-nine acres of land, belonging to the estate of 
Dr. J. H. Bennett, were purchased in 1851, and the 
building was opened for the regular session in Sep- 
tember of the same year. 

In 1856 Mr. Williams was succeeded as president by 
Mr. L. B. Wilkes. In 1858 J. K. Rogers was elected 
president and held the office for twenty years. Sev- 
eral times during the War between the States Northern 
soldiers bivouacked near the building, but the College 
was not closed. 

The presidents since Mr. Rogers have been Prof. 
O. S. Bryant of Independence, Missouri ; W. A. Old- 
ham of Lexington, Kentucky ; Mr. F. P. St. Clair, who 
was succeeded a few months later by his widow, Mrs. 
Luella Wilcox St. Clair, the first woman president 
of Christian College. Mrs. St. Clair resigned her 
position four years later and was succeeded by Mrs. 
W. T. Moore. Two years later Mrs. St. Clair be- 
came co-principal with Mrs. Moore. They still hold 
this position. The average attendance of boarding 
pupils is now something over one hundred. There 
are nearly as many day pupils. This college ranks as 
a secondary school ; that is, its diploma admits a pupil 
to the freshman class of the Missouri State University. 
It has been in active service fifty-two years since char- 
tered, and two years prior to the granting of the 
charter. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 209 

(This sketch was taken from a brief sketch of Chris- 
tian College by Mrs. W. T. Moore in the Columbia 
(Missouri) Herald of December 20, 1901.) 

Baptist College for Women, Lexington, Missouri 

This college was incorporated by an Act of General 
Assembly of December 12, 1855, under the name of the 
Baptist Female College. The names of twenty men 
are enrolled in the charter as trustees. These trustees 
were to hold office for one year, then the stockholders 
were to meet and elect from their number twenty 
trustees, each stockholder having one vote for each 
share of stock he held. The charter gives the trustees 
full control of the property of the College, except that 
they may not sell any of the property nor erect any 
additional buildings unless a majority of the stock- 
holders shall request the same to be done. The 
trustees also have full control of the administrative 
affairs of the College. (See Local Laws and Private 
Acts of the State of Missouri, Adjourned Session of 
the 1 8th General Assembly, 1855.) 

The College has been in successful operation from 
the time of its foundation until the present, with the 
exception of the four years of the War between the 
States. It is the oldest existing college for girls 
under the control of the Baptist denomination in Mis- 
souri. According to the catalogue for the session of 
1875-76 (the oldest belonging to the State Historical 
Association of Missouri), the College had then the 
three departments, preparatory, academic, and col- 
legiate, with the extra departments of music, orna- 
mental and fancy work, and post-graduate. The num- 
ber of pupils was 107. This number included some 
day pupils, as the College could accommodate only 60 
boarding pupils. Since then the departments of litera- 
ture, art, elocution, physical culture, and business have 
been added to the former departments. Also addi- 
tional accommodations for boarders have been made, 



210 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

and in 1900 there were 118 pupils. The music depart- 
ment of the College increased so rapidly that it has 
become necessary to reorganize it on a different basis. 
A new building near the main building has been pur- 
chased for the conservatory, and it is proposed to 
charter this department as a separate organization 
under the name of " Missouri Conservatory of Music." 
(See catalogue for 1900.) 

Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri, 1856 

On March 15, 1856, a meeting was held for the 
purpose of establishing a " Baptist Female College " 
in Columbia. The plan of organization was to issue 
stock to subscribers, each share being valued at $100 
and entitling its holder to one vote in the election of 
curators. 

At a meeting held May 26, 1856, the curators were 
elected, and it was decided to open the College in 
September or October, 1856. In June of the same 
year William Rothwell was elected the first president, 
and it was decided to open the College in September. 
The College was chartered January 26, 1857, under 
the name of Columbia Baptist Female College. 

By the provisions of the charter the curators have 
full control of the property of the College, except 
that they cannot mortgage or sell the real estate of the 
College unless the stockholders owning a majority of 
the shares request the same. All property of the Col- 
lege is held free from taxation. The number of cura- 
tors provided for in the charter is not less than seven 
nor more than twelve. They have control of the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of the College. (See Laws 
of Missouri, 1856-57, pp. 227, 228.) 

In 1869 the Missouri Baptist General Association 
took decided steps toward the establishment of a State 
female college, and a committee was appointed to de- 
vise ways and means to carry out this purpose. The 
following year, 1870, the General Association met in 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

St. Louis, and at this meeting the committee reported 
" such an institution a necessity." The report was 
adopted, and the Association invited all communities 
to enter into competition for the location of the school. 
The offer made by the trustees of the Baptist Female 
College of Columbia being deemed the best, was ac- 
cepted, and a committee was appointed to nominate a 
board of curators. This committee in making its re- 
port also presented a bond for $20,000 given by the 
Hon. J. L. Stephens, as a beginning of a suitable en- 
dowment for the College. The bond having been 
accepted, the General Association instructed the cura- 
tors to incorporate the new enterprise under the name 
of Stephens College, in recognition of this generous 
gift of Mr. Stephens. The College at present has real 
estate and school equipment to the value of $125,000. 
(From a sketch of Stephens College in the Columbia 
(Missouri) Herald, December 20, 1901.) 

When the College was organized there were three 
departments, the preparatory, the collegiate and the or- 
namental. The last included music, drawing and 
painting. The course now includes primary and pre- 
paratory departments, English, scientific, classical, and 
post-graduate courses. Also schools of music, ora- 
tory, physical culture, and arts; and a commercial de- 
partment. This is a secondary school. Its graduates 
are admitted into the freshman class of the State Uni- 
versity. 

(See catalogue for 1901.) 

The Elizabeth Aull Seminary, Lexington, Missouri, 
1859-1899 

" The Elizabeth Aull Seminary was founded by the 
lady whose name it bears, in the desire to provide for 
the education of young women according to Christian 
ideals. For this noble purpose Miss Aull gave build- 
ing and grounds." 

The Seminary is under the joint control of Lafayette 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Presbytery of Missouri and the Presbyterian Church 
of Lexington. The church is represented in the man- 
agement by a board of trustees and the Presbytery by 
a " committee of visitors." 

Dr. Lewis G. Barbour, now and for many years an 
honored member of the faculty of Central University 
of Kentucky, was the first president of Elizabeth Aull 
Seminary. He held the office from 1860 until 1865. 
Dr. J. A. Quarles, now of Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, of Virginia, should be mentioned, because, in 
as much as his term of service was twice as long as that 
of any other president, his influence upon the character 
of the school was probably more decided. (From the 
Elisabeth Aull Student, June, 1896.) 

Thirteen trustees are named in the charter. Their 
successors were to be elected by the Presbyterian 
Church at Lexington. Their term of office was three 
years from and after the election which was to be 
held each year on the first Monday in April. The 
board was divided into three classes to be determined 
by lot four in the first class, whose term of office 
was to expire the first Monday in April, 1860; four in 
the second class, whose term of office was to last until 
April, 1 86 1, and five in the third class, whose term of 
office was to last until April, 1862. The trustees were 
given the powers usually conferred upon the trustees 
of a College or Seminary. 

The charter is found in the Laws of the State of 
Missouri passed at the first session of the General 
Assembly, 1859. 

The first catalogue in the library of the Historical 
Association of Missouri shows that there were 137 
pupils during the years 1871-72, and the catalogue for 
1898-99 shows only 58 enrolled. The College has 
suspended, but was in continued existence from its 
foundation until after the session of 1899. There is 
a resolution passed by the board of trustees just before 
the session of 1871-72 that deserves mention. " Re- 
solved, That there shall, from this time forth, be no 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 213 

public exhibitions, no cantatas, in fact nothing ap- 
proaching a theatrical display in the exercise of this 
Seminary." The reason for this resolution was " that 
woman's sphere is the home circle; that she is neither 
fitted nor designed by God for the public life of man " ; 
believing this, " our purpose is to educate her for her 
hallowed privacy. On this account we have entirely 
discarded the custom of parading our girls before the 
common crowd in annual exhibitions/' (Catalogue 
for 1871, 1872.) 

Howard-Payne College, Fayette, Missouri, 1828-1908 

Mr. Green begins his great history of the English 
people by a study of their condition in the forests 
of Germany before the migration to Great Britain. 
Similarly, the history of Howard-Payne College may 
be begun with the establishment of Fayette Academy 
by Mr. Archibald Patterson, in 1828. The Academy 
building was a one-story brick building having two 
rooms, one for the boys and one for the girls. Mr. 
Patterson's great ambition was to establish a college 
of high grade in Fayette, and he labored assiduously 
to accomplish this purpose. Doubtless largely through 
his influence a more imposing edifice than the little 
red-brick schoolhouse was begun. The work pro- 
gressed slowly, and before the building was com- 
pleted Mr. Patterson moved the school into it. The 
building caught fire from a stove in one of the rooms 
of the lower floor and was destroyed February, 1838, 
and the school returned to the little red-brick school- 
house. Mr. Patterson continued the school success- 
fully until the spring of 1844, when he accepted a 
call to Marion College, Palmyra, Missouri. 

Meanwhile, the location of the State University was 
exciting much interest. The citizens, in anticipation 
of this, circulated subscription papers, raised some 
money, and commenced work on a large two-story 
building with four imposing columns in front; but 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

failing to attain their ambition the work lagged and 
the interior was not finished when the contractors 
caused the building to be sold December 6, 1844. Mr. 
William D. Swinney bought it, and in 1847 conveyed 
it to a board of trustees to be held in trust for a public 
institution of learning, to be under the control of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South. 

In the summer of 1844 Dr. William T. Lucky and 
his young wife, Mary Scarritt, became citizens of Fay- 
ette, and in the fall of that year he opened a school in 
the little red schoolhouse, commencing with seven 
pupils. The school was so popular that in less than 
two years the building was crowded, and the family 
accommodations of the town were taxed to accommo- 
date the pupils from abroad. Mr. Lucky taught his 
classes by day, and in his leisure hours and often by 
night assisted in the work on the college building. In 
1845 Mr. Lucky, assisted by his brother-in-law, Mr. 
Nathan Scarritt, organized Howard High School. 
Two years later it was transferred to the control of 
the board of trustees chosen by Mr. Swinney, and thus 
became identified with Southern Methodism in Mis- 
souri. The Annual Conference of M. E. C. South, 
which met in Fayette, 1851, was so favorably im- 
pressed with the school that Rev. J. S. Riggs was ap- 
pointed financial agent to raise funds for a boarding- 
house, which was much needed. In January, 1854, 
the building with the furniture, library, apparatus and 
books of 352 pupils were destroyed by fire. The of- 
ficers of the different churches kindly tendered the use 
of the churches, and such was the administrative 
ability of Dr. Lucky that only one day was lost from 
school work. 

Previous to the fire the boys and girls had been 
taught in different apartments of the same building; 
henceforth they were to be taught in separate build- 
ings. The boys' school became the foundation of 
Central College, which was organized in 1857; while 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 215 

the girls' department was chartered as Howard Female 
College in 1859, by the Legislature of Missouri. 

A heavy debt on the College necessitated its sale in 
1869. It was purchased by Moses U. Payne and 
deeded by him to the " board of curators," " to have 
and hold for the use of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South, in the State of Missouri, subject to the 
discipline, usages, rules, and regulations of the Mis- 
souri Conference of said church, as from time to time 
enacted and declared by said Conference; and that 
said premises be used for female school purposes ex- 
clusively." 

In consideration of the liberality of Rev. Moses U. 
Payne, the board of curators, at its session in June, 
1892, and by authority of the Missouri Conference 
granted at its session in September, 1891, changed the 
name of the institution to Howard-Payne College. 
Thus this school has been in active operation since 
1828; first as a department of an academy, then as a 
department of a high school, and for forty-eight years 
a school for girls exclusively. 

The first graduating class received certificates in 
1849. This was a bright era in the history of the 
school. Gradually the usual departments of a first- 
class seminary had been added and the standard of 
scholarship had been much elevated. Its first class 
was regarded as equal to any in the West. 

During the first fourteen years of its existence more 
than 2,000 pupils received instruction in Howard High 
School; many of these became teachers. The in- 
fluence of this school upon the standard of education, 
particularly the education of girls, has been felt in 
every part of Missouri. 

The first and only principal of Howard High 
School was Dr. Lucky. He was also the first presi- 
dent of Howard College, which office he held two 
years, resigning in 1861. 

The present course of study is arranged as prepara- 



216 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

tory and collegiate, each requiring four years for its 
completion. The Bible has been arranged in a four- 
year course, and all who take the full course are re- 
quired to take this also. Ample provision has been 
made for the departments of music, art, elocution, and 
physical culture. A museum containing an excellent 
collection of minerals, ores, etc., a library containing 
1,200 volumes, and a reading-room furnished with 
current literature afford good facilities for teaching. 

The College grants diplomas conferring the degrees 
of Mistress of Arts and Mistress of English Litera- 
ture ; also diplomas or certificates of graduation in the 
schools of instrumental music, vocal music, expression, 
painting and drawing. Elective courses are offered to 
those not desiring a regular college course, and a nor- 
mal course is offered to those wishing to prepare to 
teach. 






OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 217 



CHAPTER XXI 
Early Schools in North Carolina 

DURING the period of Proprietary government 
(1663-1729) only two or three schools are on record. 
The first report of any schools in the Province was 
made by Dr. John Blair, a missionary to the colony 
in 1704. From his reports we find that the first 
churches Episcopal churches had lay readers to 
supply them with sermons, and these readers were 
teachers in almost every case. Near every parish 
church was a parish school. 

Neither the population nor the churches nor the 
schools increased rapidly. It was not until 1752, 
when the Scotch-Irish began to come in great numbers, 
that the population exceeded 50,000. These Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians brought with them deeper and 
more practical ideas of religion and culture, and 
churches began to multiply. Every Presbyterian 
preacher was a teacher, and schools became the right 
arm of the churches. 

The Moravians came about the same time, and 
churches and schools have been vital points of their 
life. Even their records are meager. Only in con- 
nection with the life and labors of some pastor a 
school is mentioned ; no details ; nothing to show 
whether girls were allowed the benefit of these schools 
or not. 

About 1782 the interest in education had advanced 
so much that the Legislature began to incorporate acad- 
emies. From 1782 to 1799, seventeen years, there 
were thirty-three academies incorporated, but only the 
names of the incorporators, the name of the academy, 
the date, and the property rights can now be ascer- 



218 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

tained, and it is only through the descendants of the 
girls who attended school, by means of old books and 
papers still extant, that anything can bs learned 
about the scholastic advantages of the girls of that 
period. 

Catalogues were not used, paper was scarce and 
very high priced even newspapers were printed on 
sheets 6 by 7 inches. From such sources it has been 
ascertained that some of these charters established two 
schools, one for boys and one for girls. 

The first academy for girls so established was New 
Berne Academy, Craven County, in 1764. 

Bladen Academy was chartered in 1797, and Adams 
Creek, Craven County, in 1798. 

The only incorporated school of the old days in 
Brunswick County was Smithville Academy, chartered 
in 1798. It had numerous trustees, and was author- 
ized to raise $7,000 by lottery. This scheme failed. 
Hon. A. M. Waddell says his mother, daughter of 
Alfred Moore, Jr., and granddaughter of Judge A. 
Moore, attended this school at Smithville. Mrs. 
Clitherall, nee Burgwyn, was the principal in 1820. 
This school was established after the close of the 
Revolutionary War, but prior to 1800. 

In 1805 Union Hill Academy was chartered, and 
in 1809 the trustees of this academy were authorized 
to raise by lottery $5,000 to complete the building and 
to establish an academy for girls at Asheville. 

The Female Academy at Raleigh was established in 
1809. 

Also in 1809 a school for girls was taught by J. 
Mordecai and assistants. The closing examination 
was held in December, on English grammar, history, 
and geography with the use of the globes. Parents, 
guardians and friends of the school were invited to 
attend. A commendation of the management and the 
proficiency of the pupils was published in the local 
paper, signed by over twenty citizens. Music, draw- 
ing and painting were taught under the direction of 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 219 

Mr. Miller. The terms for board and tuition were 
$105 per annum. Many of the young ladies appeared 
in dresses embroidered and made by themselves; and 
other specimens of needlework were displayed. 

In 1 8 10 Miss Frances Bo wen opened a school for 
girls in Kayetteville. 

In February, 1810, Mr. William White, secretary 
of the board of trustees, sent out the following cir- 
cular : " Mrs. Sanbourne will teach music, plain sew- 
ing, and ornamental needlework, embroidery, drawing, 
and painting. The other branches, history, writing, 
reading, arithmetic, English grammar, and geography, 
and French, will be taught by the teachers of the acad- 
emy for boys, until further notice." 

Morgan Academy was chartered in 1783; Morgan- 
ton Academy in 1823 and again in 1844. In the Act 
of 1823 it was recited that " there had been for many 
years an academy at Morganton with a flourishing 
male and female school attached to it." 

Among the teachers for girls at Morganton mention 
is made of the Misses Maria and Harriet Allen from 
Pennsylvania, Miss Mcllwaine, Miss Cowan, and Miss 
Correns. 

The Shocco Female Seminary, Warren County, was 
announced as follows : " Mrs. Lucas informs her 
friends and the public that her school will be resumed 
the first Monday in February. Having associated 
with her an able female assistant, the following 
branches will be taught: Spelling, reading, writing, 
arithmetic, grammar, geography, astronomy, natural 
philosophy, rhetoric, chemistry, logic, history, myth- 
ology, and botany. Board and tuition, $50 per session 
of five months ; music, $20 ; half in advance. Decem- 
ber 5, 1826." 

On the same date appeared the announcement of the 
Hillsboro Female Seminary: 

" The principal informs the patrons of this school 
that in addition to the able female help already em- 



220 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

ployed, he will be assisted by a gentleman in every way 
qualified to teach advanced classes. An apparatus for 
a chemical laboratory, and for use of pupils in natural 
philosophy and astronomy, has been purchased; and a 
foundation for a mineralogical cabinet made. Tuition 
from $10 to $15; music, $24; drawing and painting, 
$10 each; needlework $i per session. 

"WM. M. GREEN, Supt." 

This must have been an Episcopal school, for Mr. 
Green was, some years later, the Bishop of Mississippi. 

In 1827 Rev. Elisha Graves taught a school at Wal- 
nut Grove, twelve miles from Hillsboro. " Every nec- 
essary and useful branch of literature and some orna- 
mental branches " were taught. 

In 1830 Mr. and Mrs. Spencer O'Brien, principals, 
assisted by an able assistant in each department, taught 
the Williamsboro Female Academy. 

In 1830 the Southern Female Classical Seminary, at 
Oxford, Granville County, was " conducted by Mr. 
and Mrs. Hollister, assisted by a young lady every 
way qualified for her work. The course of instruction 
is more extended than heretofore; and more than is 
usually obtained in girls' schools." 

Since its settlement Charlotte has been an educa- 
tional center. Very early in its history there was an 
institution known as the Charlotte Female Institute. 
In 1838 it was in charge of Mr. and Mrs. Spencer, 
who were considered excellent teachers. 

Some other schools in Mecklenburg County, in the 
vicinity of Charlotte, were Providence Whitehall Acad- 
emy, taught in 1852 by Miss H. G. Graham; and 
Providence Female Academy, taught by Miss Sarah J. 
Parks, principal. In 1853 T. M. Kirkpatrick, who 
had been teaching at Davidson Colleee, began Sharon 
Female Academy, seven miles from Charlotte. At his 
death, in 1855, he was succeeded by Miss Eliza Parker. 
In 1855 Miss Susan Rudesill was teaching a school 
for girls at the residence of Mrs. Margaret Greer, in 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

the Paw Creek section. Rev. J. M. Caldwell and his 
wife taught at Sugar Creek several years prior to 1845. 
Then Misses Gould and Chamberlain conducted Clare- 
mont Academy, and in 1852 Miss Mary Ann Frew 
taught there. 

About the same time a Miss Alexander taught a 
girls' school near Charlotte, and in 1853 Miss Brandon 
conducted Mt. Carmel Academy. The next year 
Adolphus Evveite introduced a new system of draw- 
ing. 

Mecklenburg has had an interesting history, and her 
citizens have wielded a powerful influence on the 
destinies of the " Old North State," but much of the 
history of her schools for girls has been lost ; however, 
one interesting fact the name of the first lady 
teacher has been preserved. She was Miss Eliza- 
beth Cummins, who taught a four months' school in 
the county in 1774. 

In the small isolated settlements it was impossible 
to have a regular school, but even then the girls were 
not neglected; some gentlemen would assume the 
responsibility of employing a governess and providing 
a schoolroom, and his neighbors, with his full and 
free consent, would avail themselves of this oppor- 
tunity to send their daughters to school. Such a 
school was established in Chatham County, by Mr. 
Edward Jones, Solicitor-General of the State of North 
Carolina. In course of time the daughters took charge 
of it, and one of them named the school Kelvin, be- 
cause she so much admired the Scotch song, " Let us 
haste to Kelvin Grove, Bonnie Lassie, O." The school 
was removed to Pittsboro, the county-seat, where Miss 
Charlotte Jones married Mr. William H. Harden. 
They continued the Kelvin school until they went to 
Columbia Institute, Tennessee, during the forties. 

Alamance County was settled by Germans and Ger- 
man was the language used. English was not intro- 
duced until 1812, and did not become the principal 
language until 1828. However, schools sprang up in 



222 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Alamance prior to 1740, and there is little doubt that 
there were schools for girls as well as for boys. 

About the same time the Friends (Quakers) had 
schools about Cane Creek and Spring Meeting-house. 
One of these, taught by Mr. Matt Thompson and his 
wife, must have been a school for girls, at least it had 
a department for girls. 

Dr. Kemp Battle had prepared a list of teachers most 
eminent in their day and generation, which has been 
published in the biennial report of the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction of North Carolina. From this 
list the names of women so distinguished and the 
names of schools for girls have been culled. 

At a very early period tradition points to a period 
prior to the Revolutionary War a school was estab- 
lished at Springhill, Lenoir County, and was greatly 
prosperous as late as 1812. 

About the same time Kinston Female Seminary was 
under the charge of the Misses Patrick. Also prior 
to the Revolution Miss Ann Earl had a school of some 
note in Chowan County. 

Between 1800 and 1825 Rev. Gilbert Morgan and 
Mrs. Morgan were principals of a school at Greens- 
boro. This school must have had a department for 
girls, as women did not teach school for boys, and 
mixed schools were not in favor with Southern people, 
The schools at Nashville and Louisville were of this 
type; these schools were taught by John B. Bobbitt 
and Mrs. Bobbitt. During this period Mrs. Robert L. 
Edmonds was principal of Wadesboro Female Semi- 
nary ; and Miss Ann Hall was also principal of a school 
in Wadesboro. 

Between the years 1825 and 1850 the teachers who 
began teaching were: Miss Mary B. Cotta, who es- 
tablished a school of justly deserved repute in Wash- 
ington, Beaufort County, some time in the 30*8. She 
taught there many years, then married Rev. Thomas 
R. Owen. She then returned to Tarboro, where she 
and her husband opened a similar school. After her 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

departure from Washington the school was taught by 
Miss Fanny Owens. Mrs. Harriet Banks taught a 
school in Murfreesboro, Miss Emma J. Taylor in 
Caldwell County, Mrs. Martha Hutsell in Buncombe 
County, Miss Hoye was principal of Edgeworth 
Female Seminary, Miss Maria J. Holmes and Miss 
Charlotte Jones taught in Pittsboro, and Miss Mabel 
Bingham in Fayetteville. 

The Goldsboro Seminary was under the charge of 
Rev. James H. Brant, and Miss Maria L. Spear was 
the principal of Hillsboro Seminary. Miss Mary 
Mann taught a school for girls in Columbia, Tyrrell 
County; Miss Margaret Smith in Milton, Miss Sara 
Kolloch in Greensboro and Hillsboro, Mrs. Charles 
Mock in Davidson, and Misses Sarah and Maria Nash 
taught in Greensboro, but whether in the same school 
with Mr. and Mrs. Morgan or not does not appear. 
Rev. Angus B. McNeill, principal of Spring Vale 
Academy established a school for girls about a quarter 
of a mile from the Academy, and brought Miss Har- 
riet Bizzle from the North to take charge of it. This 
school had a large patronage. After the marriage of 
Miss Bizzle and Mr. McNeill they continued the 
school for some time, and then moved to Carthage in 
Moore County, and taught successfully until the people 
objected to Mrs. McNeill's unreasonable severity of 
discipline. After the departure of the McNeills, Rev. 
Murdock McMillan and Mrs. McMillan took charge 
of Spring Vale Academy. 

About 1850 there was an institute for girls in Buck- 
land, Gates County, of which Samuel E. Smith was 
principal. About 1852 James W. Coston founded a 
seminary for girls at Sunbury; all the teachers were 
from the North and all have been forgotten, even their 
names are unknown, except Miss Mary Williams, 
whose name has been preserved by the following in- 
cident: She and some of the scholars lived in the 
family of Mr. Coston, who was in the habit of prefac- 
ing breakfast with prayers of unreasonable length. 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Once when Miss Mary's appetite was particularly 
sharp, after kneeling until her patience was exhausted, 
she arose with a snap, and exclaimed, " Mr. Coston, 
are you going to pray three weeks ? " 

In 1837 Rev. William McPheeters, D. D., the emi- 
nent principal of Raleigh Academy, took charge of a 
school for girls in Fayetteville, but failing health 
caused him to resign at a very early period in its his- 
tory. Mrs. Carr, widow of Rev. Daniel Carr, of 
Christian (Methodist) Church and editor of the Chris- 
tian Sun, taught a school for girls in Graham, Ala- 
mance County. This school attained some popularity 
and was well attended, though just when it flourished 
does not appear in the records. In 1848, and for 
some years afterward, Rev. Thomas Meredith, founder 
of the Biblical Record, was principal of an institution 
for girls in Raleigh. 

Chalk Level Academy for boys and girls was estab- 
lished in 1835 b y Mr - Doyle Pearson of Person 
County. His sister Elizabeth was principal of the 
department for girls. The school acquired a high 
reputation. The boys' department averaged about 
seventy, and the girls' about one hundred. The build- 
ings were half a mile apart. 

Washington Academy, Washington, Beaufort 
County, was chartered in 1808 and again in 1834. 
Trustees have been regularly elected since the latter 
date. The Academy was wisely made capacious, and 
is now allowed to be used as a part of the graded- 
school system, the trustees retaining the ownership. 
About 1826 Mr. and Mrs. Sanford were principals; 
then Rev. George W. Freeman, afterward D. D., 
rector of the Episcopal Church in Raleigh, and then 
Bishop of Arkansas. He is remembered as an excel- 
lent teacher. After him Miss Richmond from Massa- 
chusetts was employed by a few heads of families to 
take charge of a select school, which she did to their 
great satisfaction. Beginning with 1832, for five 
years Washington secured the services of Mr. May- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 225 

hew, an estimable man and a skilled instructor. 
Among his pupils were Mrs. O'Branch, Miss Marcia 
Rodman, and Mrs. Olivia Myers, and other like ac- 
complished ladies. In the fall of 1843 Mr. William 
Bogart left his school in Edenton, and with great ac- 
ceptability took charge of Washington Academy until 
the War between the States. 

(Much of the data concerning these old schools 
have been furnished by Mrs. H. DeB. Wills, who 
searched through old newspapers and other records for 
the facts here recorded. Much has been taken from 
Mr. Kemp P. Battle's paper, " Partial List of the Most 
Prominent Teachers to 1850." Also some facts from 
" The Church and Private Schools of North Caro- 
lina.") 

Greensboro College for Women, Greensboro, North 
Carolina, 1838-1908 

The necessity of establishing a college for women 
was felt by prominent ministers and intelligent lay- 
men of the Methodist Episcopal Church for several 
years before any direct effort was made to establish 
such an institution. The subject was frequently dis- 
cussed in the annual conferences ; finally definite action 
was brought about by the petition sent by the trustees 
of Greensboro Female College to the Virginia Con- 
ference, which met in Petersburg, January 31, 1836. 
At that time the North Carolina Conference was or- 
ganized, and the churches in North Carolina ceased to 
belong to the Virginia Conference, 

The petition was referred to a committee consisting 
of Rev. Moses Brock, Rev. Peter Doub, and Rev. 
Samuel S. Bryant. After setting forth the necessity 
of a school of high grade for the education of women, 
under the auspices of the North Carolina Conference, 
the committee reported the following resolutions, 
which were adopted: 

" Resolved, i. That the Conference will co-operate 



226 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

with the trustees of ' Green's Female School/ provided 
that one-half the number of the board of trustees shall 
at all times be members of the North Carolina Con- 
ference. 

" Resolved, 2. That the board thus constituted shall 
petition the Legislature of North Carolina for a proper 
charter for a seminary of learning, to be called the 
Greensboro Female College. 

" Resolved, 3. That the Conference appoint Moses 
Brock, John Hand, James Reid, Bennett T. Blake, 
William E. Pell, and Samuel S. Bryant, trustees, to 
carry into effect the object contemplated by the pre- 
vious resolutions. 

" Resolved, 4. That the Bishop be requested to ap- 
point an agent for the purpose of raising funds for 
this object. 

" MOSES BROCK, Chairman." 

In accordance with the foregoing resolutions the ten 
ministers named in the third resolution, and ten lay- 
men, constituting the board of trustees, secured from 
the Legislature a charter granting the rights and priv- 
ileges usually bestowed upon colleges of high grade. 
The charter was ratified December 28, 1838. (T. M. 
Jones, in " Centennial of Methodism in North Caro- 
lina.") 

On account of the severe depression in all lines of 
business it required several years of canvassing to 
raise sufficient funds to erect the building. For the 
accomplishment of this difficult task we are indebted 
to the untiring efforts of S. S. Bryant, Moses Brock, 
James Reid, and Ira T. Wyche, who were agents for 
the College in those trying years. The corner-stone 
was laid in September, 1843. In l8 46 the building 
was completed and ready for occupancy, but the 
trustees did not select a faculty until the following- 
year. In the fall of that year the classes were or- 
ganized and work commenced uftder the administra- 
tion of Rev. Solomon Lea, who had the honor of be- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

ing the first president of the first chartered college for 
women in North Carolina. 

Mr. Lea resigned at the close of the first session, 
and was succeeded by Rev. A. M. Shipp, D. D., of 
South Carolina. For three years the College pros- 
pered under his wise administration and twenty-six 
young women were graduated from the institution. 

Rev. Charles F. Deems, D. D., who succeeded Dr. 
Shipp in 1850, grasped the situation and mastered it 
immediately, and the patronage was largely increased. 
It continued to flourish to the close of his administra- 
tion in 1854. At that time Rev. Turner Myrick Jones, 
afterward Rev. T. M. Jones, D. D., was a professor 
in the College. The board of trustees recognized in 
him the qualities needed in a man to render him suited 
for great enterprises. Fortunately for the College, 
he was elected president and held that position until 
his greatly lamented death in 1890. For thirty-six 
years Dr. Jones labored for the cause of education of 
women as no other man in North Carolina evei 
labored. His valuable life was given to this work. 
While he was president, in 1863, the College buildings 
were destroyed by fire in the midst of its greatest pros- 
perity. The Conference immediately formulated plans 
to rebuild. In 1871 work was begun, and on the 27th 
day of August, 1873, the College was reopened in the 
present commodious building. 

Dr. B. F. Dixon was elected to succeed Dr. Jones. 
For three years the College enjoyed unusually large 
patronage, and ninety-three young ladies were gradu- 
ated during Dr. Dixon's administration. In April, 
1893, Dr. Dixon resigned, and Rev. Frank Reid was 
elected president of the faculty. Dr. Reid came to the 
College in the prime of life, and his first year's work 
proved the wisdom of his election. The fall session 
of 1894 opened with most favorable prospects, but the 
honored president was not destined to see the fruits of 
his labors. On September 24, 1894, this gifted scholar 
and preacher was called from earth to heaven, and left 



228 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

the College family in deep mourning for its beloved 
head. Dred Peacock, at that time a professor in the 
College, was elected to succeed Dr. Reid, and is now 
the president of the faculty. 

Under the present administration the different de- 
partments have been thoroughly reorganized. The 
courses of study have been expanded and enlarged. 
This was rendered possible only by the addition of 
more appliances in the form of laboratories equipped 
with ample chemical and physical apparatus, mathe- 
matical instruments and figures, and new pianos. A 
well-selected library containing more than 6,500 vol- 
umes, besides pamphlets and general magazine and 
periodical literature, has enabled the students to do a 
grade of work unattainable in the average school for 
women. The past six years have been unusually suc- 
cessful, both as regards numbers in attendance and the 
highly satisfactory quality of the work accomplished. 

A very large debt was incurred in erecting the pres- 
ent building, which the Conference tried for years to 
pay. Having failed to do this, the College was finally 
sold at auction for debt. At this juncture a syndicate 
of large-hearted, liberal men was formed to purchase 
it in order that it might be continued as a college for 
women for the Methodist Church in North Carolina. 
These gentlemen still own and control the College. 
They have no desire or expectation of making any 
money out of the investment. 

The building is a three-storied brick structure, and 
stands on the top of a beautiful hill in the center of a 
grove containing forty acres. It is heated by steam 
and lighted by electricity, and connected with the 
water-works of the city. It affords ample accommo- 
dation for one hundred and twenty-five boarders. 

The course of study requires four years for its com- 
pletion, and is divided into freshman, sophomore, 
junior, and senior classes. Latin and either French 
or German are required to secure a diploma, but a 
certificate is given on completion of the course without 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 229 

the study of the languages. Ample provision has been 
made for the departments of music, art, elocution, busi- 
ness, and physical culture. 

During the latter part of 1894 Mrs. Dred Peacock 
established and endowed the Ethel Carr Peacock Read- 
ing-Room. The board of directors immediately fur- 
nished and decorated a room at their own expense. The 
Alumnae Association has established the " Lucy Mc- 
Gee Fund " in loving memory of Lucy McGee Jones, 
wife of Dr. Turner M. Jones, fourth president of the 
College. The annual income will be loaned to worthy 
students of limited means. 

From the opening of the College in 1847 till its 
destruction by fire in 1863, 191 young ladies were 
graduated; graduated elsewhere, between 1863 and 
1874, under the administration of the same president 
(Dr. Jones) and on the same course of study, 51. 
Since the reopening of the College in 1873, 450; mak- 
ing a total of 692. 

The College provides for a systematic course of 
Bible study. 

(This sketch is based on information obtained from 
annual catalogue for nineteen hundred.) 

THE ACTION OF THE ALUMNAE ASSOCIATION OF 
GREENSBORO FEMALE COLLEGE 

The church, in common with other institutions, as 
well as individuals, was embarrassed financially after 
the War between the States, and, in spite of heroic 
struggles, was unable to discharge the debt incurred 
in erecting the new building, and it seemed impossible 
for the church to retain the ownership of this be- 
loved daughter. At this crisis a syndicate of promi- 
nent laymen, actuated by the generous purpose of not 
allowing the College to pass from the control of the 
church, purchased the property in 1882, and held it 
until August 5, 1903, when it became the property of 
the Alumnae Association. The syndicate held the 



230 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

property subject to the control of a board of directors, 
for educational purposes and as a school for the Metho- 
dist Church in North Carolina. 

Though this syndicate did not purpose to make 
money by this investment, it could not afford to hold 
the property and lose money on it. For several years 
the income of the school had not met the expenses, and 
the debt in 1903 amounted to $42,000; therefore, when 
Trinity College offered to buy the plant, the syndicate 
was not averse to selling it. Trinity College, in ac- 
cordance with the idea that only large colleges are 
really helpful and that co-education is the proper 
method, desired to enlarge her facilities and to remove 
every school likely to compete with her desire to con- 
trol the Greensboro College. Arrangements had been 
completed between the managers of Trinity College 
and the syndicate, when on June 19, 1903, the syndi- 
cate announced that the doors of the College were 
closed, and that it would go out of existence as an 
educational institution. This announcement was a 
painful surprise to the citizens of Greensboro and espe- 
cially so to the alumnae of Greensboro College. The 
resident alumnae immediately drafted resolutions to 
be presented to the board of directors of the College, 
praying them to grant the alumnae time to rally their 
forces and formulate plans for saving the College for 
the alumnae and through them for the Methodist 
Church. They received no answer for some time, but 
they saw a notice that there would be a meeting 
August 5 to settle the affairs of the College. Realiz- 
ing that the emergency must be promptly met, they 
called a mass meeting of the citizens of Greensboro. 
The meeting was addressed by Rev. S. B. Turrentine, 
D. D., Governor Aycock, and others prominent in 
church and state; the amount secured was $12,895. 
The alumnae all over the South rallied to the aid of 
the resident alumnae, and by August 5 they had raised 
$52,000, the amount necessary to obtain possession of 
the College, and had pledged themselves to raise 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

$50,000 for an endowment fund. Thus Greensboro 
College belongs to the Alumnae Association. 

In the spring of 1902 Dr. Peacock having suffered 
several years from ill health, resigned the presidency 
of the College and the board of directors elected Mrs. 
Lucy H. Robertson as his successor. Mrs. Robertson 
had been a teacher for twenty-five years, and eighteen 
of those years had been in connection with the College. 
Her management of the school for the session of 
1902-03 was satisfactory, and the Alumnae Associa- 
tion announced that the school would be continued 
under her management. An active canvass for the en- 
dowment fund has been begun, and the Alumnae As- 
sociation feel assured that the ultimate success of the 
school will be secured when this fund is raised. 

(The material for this sketch was obtained from 
catalogues and papers sent by Dr. Dred Peacock, and 
Mrs. Lucy H. Robertson.) 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



"CHAPTER XXII 

Edgeworth Female Seminary, Greensboro, North 
Carolina, 1840-1871 

REV. WILLIAM D. PAISLEY moved to the little vil- 
lage of Greensboro in 1820, and took charge of an 
academy for boys. Later he took charge of an acad- 
emy for girls. This academy stood between the resi- 
dences of Mrs. Dillard and George McDonnell. The 
first teacher, so far as can be ascertained, was Miss 
Judith Mendenhall. According to the Greensboro 
Patriot of February 23, 1831, Miss Ann D. Salmon, of 
Fayetteville, was in charge of this school. She was 
succeeded by a Miss Humphries, who taught a short 
time. In 1836 Miss Mary Ann Hoye, and a young 
lady who afterward became Mrs. Robert Lindsay, took 
charge of the school, which they retained about three 
years. 

Miss Hoye made such a fine impression on the 
daughters of Hon. John M. Morehead, who was Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina, 1841-1845, and one of the 
most illustrious characters of the State, that he became 
interested in the education of girls and determined to 
erect a fine building for a school for girls. In 1840 
he purchased a large tract of land, extending from the 
old homestead of the Mebanes to what is now the prop- 
erty of the Greensboro College for Girls, and from 
Market street on the north to his home, Blandwood, on 
the south. This property is now occupied by the resi- 
dences of Mrs. Scales, widow of Governor A. M. 
Scales, and Mrs. Ellington, widow of Capt. Neil Elling- 
ton. At his own expense Governor Morehead built a 
large four-story building with all the conveniences for 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

a school. As soon as this building was completed 
school was opened in it, in 1840, with Miss Hoye as 
principal. It was a great success from the first. Pu- 
pils from many Southern States were received. It was 
the intention of Mr. Morehead to make it one of the 
finest schools for girls in the whole country, and he 
spared neither time nor money to accomplish this pur- 
pose ; however, it was not a success financially. Among 
the early teachers with Miss Hoye were Misses Emily 
Hubbard and Eliza Rose of the literary department, 
Misses Nash and Kolloch, teachers of music and 
French, Rev. John A. Gretter, teacher of Latin, and 
Profs. Breitz and Brant, music teachers. 

In 1844 Miss Hoye died, and Dr. and Mrs. D. P. 
Weir took charge of the school. Dr. Weir managed 
the business of the institution, and taught chemistry 
and natural philosophy. They held the position for a 
short time. In 1845 Governor Morehead secured the 
services of Rev. Gilbert Morgan and wife. Mr. Mor- 
gan immediately changed the course of study from the 
academic to the collegiate system. According to an 
advertisement in the Greensboro Patriot, under date 
of February I, 1845, their course of study was First 
Department Davies' Arithmetic, Bullion's English, 
Latin and Greek Grammars, Town's Spelling Book 
and Analysis, Webster's 8vo Dictionary, Woodbridge 
and Willard's Geography, with the use of Mitchell's 
Outline Maps ; History of the United States, Book of 
Commerce, Elements of Mythology, with lectures on 
Jewish Antiquities; Watts on the Mind, with lectures 
on Self-Knowledge and Self-Culture; the French. 
Latin or Greek language, with one ornamental branch. 
Second Department Davies' Algebra, Legendre's 
Geometry, Newman's Rhetoric, Lincoln's Botany, 
Paley's Natural Theology, Ancient and Mediaeval 
History, Burritt's Geography of the Heavens, Blair's 
Lectures. Third Department Maffett's Natural 
Philosophy, with experiments, Critical study of the 
English Language as the Vehicle of Thought its 



234 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Etymology, Lexicography and History ; Abercrombie's 
Chapter on Reason, with lectures as a system of Prac- 
tical Logic; Smillie on Natural History, with lectures 
on Astronomy and Physiology ; Alexander's Evidences. 
Fourth Department Philosophy of Mind, Astronomy 
as a Science, Kame's Elements of Criticism, Critical 
Study of Milton and Shakespeare, Constitution of the 
United States, Principles of Interpretation, Wayland's 
Moral Philosophy, Guizot on Civilization, Butler's 
Analogy, Lectures on the Harmony of Truth, or 
Method and Plan of Self-Education. There was also 
a preparatory department, to which girls of seven and 
eight could go for their training for the first collegiate 
class. 

The first term began on the 28th of May, the second 
one, on the I3th of November. At the close of the 
first session the examinations took place before a com- 
mittee of visitors ; the final examinations at the end of 
the year were public. The expenses per session of 
five months were : board, washing, fuel, lights, and in- 
struction in the ordinary branches, $75 ; piano, $20 ; 
guitar, $15; drawing and painting, each $10; Latin, 
Greek and French, each $10; wax work, $10; shell 
work, $5 ; silk and worsted work, $5. 

The school prospered under the management of Mr. 
Morgan. In 1848 there were more than one hundred 
boarders, and a large building was erected for the ac- 
commodation of boarders, and also a building for an 
art studio. Mr. Morgan resigned in 1 849-1850 and 
was succeeded by Prof. Richard Sterling from Hamp- 
ton-Sidney College, Virginia, who served until 1862, 
when the school was closed by the War between the 
States. When Mr. Sterling took charge of the school 
it had reached its greatest enrollment, and had ample 
equipment for the accommodation of boarders, a 
laboratory well supplied with apparatus for scientific 
courses, a music studio well supplied with musical in- 
struments, an art studio, and a good library belonging 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 235 

to the school and a large one belonging- to the prin- 
cipal, which was free to the pupils. The faculty for 
1856-1857 were: Richard Sterling, A. M., principal 
and professor of belles-lettres and physical science; 
Andrew J. Wood, A. B., professor of ancient and 
modern languages; Isaac B. Lake, A. B., professor of 
mathematics and geology; Rev. J. J. Smith, A. M., 
lecturer on moral science; J. Jaques Eyers. professor 
of oil painting and drawing ; Heinrich Schneider, pro- 
fessor of piano and harp; Miss Minna Raven, in- 
structor in piano and vocal music; Miss Bettie Scott, 
instructor in piano and guitar ; Miss M. Lizzie Dusen- 
berry, instructor in piano ; Alfred M. Scales, steward ; 
Mrs. A. M. Scales, matron ; Professor Maurice, French 
department. 

In 1862 J. D. Campbell, A. M., was professor of 
mathematics and rhetoric. He and Mr. Sterling wrote 
and published "Our Own Third Reader" in 1863, 
and in 1866 they published " The Southern Primer." 
Professor Sterling also wrote and published " Sterl- 
ing's Southern Second Reader " in 1866, and " Sterl- 
ing's Fourth Reader" in 1865. All these were pub- 
lished by Sterling, Campbell and Allbright, of Greens- 
boro, North Carolina. 

During the War between the States the building was 
used by the Confederates as a hospital, and after the 
war by the Federals for the same purpose ; hence there 
was no school in the building from 1862 to 1868. In 
the latter year the building was leased to Rev. J. J. M. 
Caldwell, grandson of the distinguished Dr. David 
Caldwell, who opened school September, 1868, and 
continued to manage it until August, 1871. He then 
returned to Rome, Georgia, where he had established 
a school prior to the War between the States. His 
departure closed the school of Edgeworth. For a 
short time the building was occupied by Mr. Julius A. 
Gray, a son-in-law of Governor Morehead. During 
the year 1872 it was burned. 



236 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



Warrenton Female College, Warrenton, North Caro- 
lina, 1841-1873 

Warren County is situated in the section between 
the Roanoke and Tar rivers. This section has been 
noted for the variety of resources, its mild climate, and 
especially for its hospitality and its cultured people. 
Good schools have been maintained in this section since 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. The two 
schools for girls which flourished from 1841 to about 
1865 were known far and wide. The first of these 
was Warrenton Academy, which was founded as early 
as 1841, and was located on the south side of the town. 
The trustees bought the private residence of Mr. Kemp 
Plummer for school purposes, and added to it the old 
Presbyterian Church for a chapel. The first principal 
was Rev. N. Z. Graves, a Presbyterian preacher from 
Vermont. Mr. Julius Wilcox, who was Mrs. Graves's 
brother, was his assistant, and afterward became his 
associate. These men were fine scholars and success- 
ful instructors, and the school became prosperous im- 
mediately. In 1846 Hon. Daniel Turner, who had 
been a Congressman for a short time, was elected prin- 
cipal. He was a man of great ability and fine reputa- 
tion; his wife was a daughter of Francis Scott Key, 
the author of " The Star Spangled Banner."^ Under 
the management of these principals and their assist- 
ants the school rapidly increased in numbers. 

In 1856 Mr. Turner received a fine offer to go to 
California, and gave up the institution to a company 
of citizens of Warren County. These men were mem- 
bers of the Methodist Church South, and immediately 
obtained a charter and changed the name to Warren- 
ton Female College, and from this time the school was 
a Methodist institution. 

After the reorganization, in 18.^6, Rev. Thomas S. 
Campbell, a member of the North Carolina Conference, 
became president. He collected a large and strong 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 237 

faculty, among whom was Edwin E. Parham, M. A., 
who two years afterward became president. Profes- 
sor Parham kept the school open most of the 
time during the War between the States, but left in 
1866. 

The rivalry between the two schools Warrenton 
College and Warrenton Collegiate Institute was 
beneficial to both schools. For several years after the 
reorganization there were more than one hundred 
pupils attending Warrenton College. 

After the buildings of Greensboro College were 
burned, in 1863, Dr. Jones moved his school to Kittrel, 
then to Louisburg, and about 1870 to Warrenton, and 
occupied the buildings of the Warrenton College. 
After Dr. Jones returned to Greensboro, in 1873, the 
school was closed and never reopened as a college. 
Mrs. Mary Williams and Miss Lucy Hawkins have 
been conducting a private school of high grade in the 
buildings for a number of years. 

The course of study of Warrenton College was 
about the same as that of Edgeworth Seminary and 
that of Greensboro College. 

Warrenton Female Collegiate Institute, Warrenton, 
North Carolina 

This school was always a private school. It was 
opened in 1846 by Messrs. Graves and Wilcox, who 
had been principal and associate principal of Warren- 
ton Academy. Luke Graves, A. M., became an asso- 
ciate principal with his brother and Mr. Wilcox about 
1848; in 1853 Edwin L. Barrett took his place, and 
the firm name became Graves, Wilcox & Com- 
pany. In 1859 Mr. Wilcox bought the interest of Mr. 
Graves; he continued as principal until his death in 
1865. 

From that time until 1880, when the last exercises 
of the Collegiate Institute were held, it was under the 
management of Mrs. Wilcox. For a number of years 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

the attendance was 125 girls each year. Its pupils 
are scattered over the whole South, but most of them 
are to be found in Virginia and North Carolina. Its 
diploma graduates number 135, and the gold medal 
graduates 82. 

The course of study required four years for com- 
pletion, and was arranged as first, second, junior, and 
senior years. The course for diploma was : First 
class reading, spelling, geography, arithmetic (Emer- 
son's First Part), history of the United States, natural 
history. Second class Arithmetic (Davies'), geog- 
raphy, penmanship, English grammar, history of the 
United States, spelling, French, composition, reading, 
moral lessons. Junior class Arithmetic, algebra 
(Davies'), French, Latin, Greek, rhetoric, botany, 
natural philosophy, composition, chemistry, reading. 
Senior class Intellectual philosophy (Abercrombie's), 
logic, languages, astronomy, elements of criticism, 
moral philosophy, evidences of Christianity, geology, 
anatomy, physiology, geometry. There was also a 
course for graduation with gold medals, and a some- 
what extensive course in music, drawing, painting, and 
fancy work as extras. The cost of board, lights, fuel, 
washing and tuition in the regular department was 
about eighty-five dollars per session of five months. 
The expense of the extras about the same as in Edge- 
worth Seminary, and other schools for girls of the 
same grade at that time. 

St. Mary's School, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1842- 

1908 

St. Mary's School was founded in May, 1842, by 
the Rev. Albert Smedes, D. D. Desiring to move 
South in search of a milder climate, he consulted with 
Bishop Ives and decided to take charge of a diocesan 
school for girls and to locate it in Raleigh. For thirty- 
six years Dr. Smedes was rector and principal, allow- 
ing nothing to interrupt the work he had undertaken. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 239 

During the War between the States St. Mary's was a 
refuge for those who were driven from their homes. 
It is a tradition, of which all her daughters are proud, 
that all through those years of struggle St. Mary's 
doors were open, sheltering at one time the family of 
the beloved President of the Confederacy. 

On the 25th of April, 1877, the venerated founder of 
St. Mary's was called to his rest, leaving to his son, 
Rev. Bennett Smedes the school for which he had so 
long and faithfully labored. This trust was consid- 
ered a sacred one, and for twenty-two years Dr. 
Smedes, sparing neither expense nor pains, gave his 
every energy to the work. 

In May, 1897, Dr. Smedes proposed to the Diocese 
of North Carolina, at its annual convention, that the 
church take charge of the school which had been the 
lifework of his distinguished father, as of his own. 
This was done, the church purchasing the property 
from the heirs of Mr. Paul Cameron, from whom until 
then it had been rented. In the fall of 1897 a charter 
was granted by the General Assembly of North Caro- 
lina (Chapter 86, Private Laws of 1897), and after- 
ward amended, incorporating the trustees of St. Mary's 
School, consisting of the Bishops of the Dioceses with- 
in the States of North and South Carolina, and clerical 
and lay trustees from each. 

The charter provides (section 8) : " That the fac- 
ulty of said school, with the advice and consent of 
the board of trustees, shall have power to confer all 
such degrees and marks of distinction as are usually 
conferred by colleges and universities." This dis- 
position of St. Mary's had long been the wish of Dr. 
Smedes. Its organization as the school of the church 
completed, Dr. Smedes continued as rector for a year 
and a half, and on February 22, 1899, entered into 
rest. 

From its organization until 1897 the school was a 
preparatory school, and for a number of years it was 
correlated with Vassar. The course of study was ar- 



240 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

ranged for five years, but if a pupil desired to add " ac- 
complishments," as music and art were considered, a 
longer time was required. Dr. Smedes thought a 
pupil could not pursue at one time, with advantage, 
more than four subjects of an advanced grade. A 
four-year course in Latin was required to the attain- 
ment of a diploma, but proficiency in modern lan- 
guages was accepted as a substitute for an advanced 
course in Latin. 

The Church Catechism, Bible history, the Christian 
year as illustrated by the Prayer-book, and ecclesiasti- 
cal history, form a part of the regular course of study. 
The school has always offered good facilities for the 
study of music and art, and these have been en- 
larged and extended to meet the demand of the 
times. 

The main building is of brick, three and a half 
stories high, and is connected with two " rock houses " 
each two stories high, by covered corridors. The 
other buildings are the art building, the chapel, the 
infirmary, and the rectory. The chapel is a beautiful 
Gothic structure, designed by Upjohn, and is furnished 
with a pipe organ of two manuals and sixteen stops, 
the " in memoriam " gift of Mrs. Bennett Smedes. 
It is devoted exclusively to religious purposes. The 
services of the church are celebrated there on week 
days as well as on Sundays. 

In May, 1900, the College was established on an 
equal standard with other colleges for women in the 
South. 

In addition to the preparatory school and the col- 
lege, St. Mary's offers instruction in the schools of 
music, art, elocution, physical culture, and business. 
A kindergarten has been established in a separate build- 
ing but under the same management. Thus St. Mary's 
offers opportunity for study in all the departments of 
knowledge usually pursued in schools for girls, and 
under the present management bids fair to attain suc- 
cess. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 244 



Asheville Female College, Asheville, Buncombe 
County, North Carolina, 1842-1908 

Some time prior to 1842 the Asheville Female 
Seminary was established. Its principals were John 
Dickson, M. D., and Rev. Erasmus Rowley, D. D. 
Under their management it was a very efficient school. 
Some time between 1842 and 1866 it became the prop- 
erty of the Holston Conference, its name was changed 
to Asheville Female College, and a new charter was 
granted. 

In 1866 the property passed over to a joint stock 
company, composed for the most part of Asheville 
citizens. When it became the property of the stock 
company Dr. James S. Kennedy was elected presi- 
dent, and held the position for about ten years. Then 
Rev. J. R. Long served as presiding officer for two 
years. From 1878 to 1879 the institution was sus- 
pended. 

In September, 1879, Rev. James Atkins, A.M., 
D. D., t assumed control and was at its head for ten 
years. Rev. S. N. Barker, of Texas, was president 
1889-1890; and B. E. Atkins, A. M., 1890-1893. In 
the fall of 1893 Dr. James Atkins, who had been presi- 
dent of Emory and Henry College, Virginia, for four 
years, returned, and had control until the summer of 
1896, when he was elected Sunday-school Editor of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South. During the year 
1896-1897 it was kept by Mrs. James Atkins. In 
1897 the property was sold to Archibald A. Jones, 
who had been president of Central Female College, 
Lexington, Missouri, from 1889 to 1897. 

In 1897 the present building was erected by Dr. 
Atkins, at a cost of $30,000. During the eighteen 
years with which he was connected with the school, 
as president of the faculty or of the trustees, it had 
an annual enrollment of about one hundred and fifty, 
and the pupils were from almost every Southern State, 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

and from Massachusetts, Ohio, Illinois, and Nebraska. 
The course of study was equally as high as that of 
any of the schools for girls in the State. 

Mr. Jones has enlarged the faculty, extended the 
curriculum, and increased the expense to a consider- 
able extent. 

The courses advertised in English, Latin, Greek, 
French, German, mathematics, physics, chemistry, ge- 
ology philosophy, and history are as extensive as those 
given by any of the higher institutions for men in 
the State. Music, art, and elocution are extras, and 
cost from $15 to $45. 

(This sketch is condensed from a sketch of the 
school in " Church and Private Schools of North Caro- 
lina," by Charles Lee Raper.) 

The Fayetteville Female Seminary, Fayetteville, 
North Carolina, 1854 

This Seminary was established by a company of 
stockholders, the majority of whom were citizens of 
Fayetteville. The corner-stone was laid June 9, 1854. 
Rev. W. E. Pell, a prominent minister of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church South, was the first president. 
He was succeeded by Mr. W. K. Blake, who was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Thomas Hooper, who retained the po- 
sition until the school was closed by the War be- 
tween the States. 

This school held the same rank as other schools for 
girls established during this period, though its patron- 
age was never large nor its influence never great. 
Since its close as a college the building has been used 
for many and various purposes. It is now used by 
Col. T. J. Drewry for his military academy. 

Thomasville Female College, 1849-1893 

This was a private school from the beginning. Its 
principals were members of different churches. It was 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 343 

opened in 1849 by Mrs. Charles Mock, as a preparatory 
school for Greensboro College. She sold out. to Dr. 
Charles Force Deems, September, 1852. He changed 
the name from Sylva Grove Female Seminary to Glen 
Anna Seminary, in honor of his wife. Glen Anna 
Seminary was opened January, 1853, an d in 1855 Dr. 
Deems secured a regular charter. 

Mr. John W. Thomas became interested in the 
school, and erected a large building for its accommo- 
dation, at a cost of $1,200. In 1858 the school was 
in its new quarters under the management of Mr. 
Thomas, though he did not teach himself. He em- 
ployed a large, well-trained faculty. The school flour- 
ished under his management. In 1860 there were 150 
pupils, and Mr. Thomas, by prudent and discreet man- 
agement, succeeded in keeping the school in operation 
during the war. In 1867 its name was again changed, 
and it was called Thomasville College. Mr. Thomas 
retained the management until his death in 1873, when 
the school was closed for a short time, but reopened 
in 1874, by Prof. H. W. Reinhart, who purchased the 
property. 

Professor Reinhart was sole proprietor until 1884, 
when Rev. J. N. Stallings bought a half interest and 
became co-principal. Soon after this transaction the 
school began to decline, and in 1889 the whole plant, 
faculty, and students were transferred to High Point. 
The school continued to decline until it was closed in 
1893. A new charter was secured March n, 1889, 
and the name changed to High Point Female College. 

This school was in active operation for fifty-four 
years, and had a fairly successful career. During 
one-half of this time the faculty numbered twelve or 
more trained teachers. 

The curriculum was the same and the facilities for 
studying music, art, and fancy work the same as those 
offered by other schools for girls of the same period. 



244 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Floral College, Robe son County, North Carolina, 
1847-1887 

Floral College was located about four miles from 
Maxton, Robeson County, North Carolina. It was 
chartered in 1847, and was in successful operation 
forty years. The buildings one large building, a 
steward's hall, and two smaller buildings were lo- 
cated in a large grove. Centre Presbyterian Church 
was also situated in the same grove, and its pastor, 
Rev. John R. Mclntosh, was one of the first presi- 
dents of the College. For a short time during the War 
between the States the school was closed, but was 
reopened in 1865 under supervision of Rev. Luther 
McKinnon, D. D. 

The College had six presidents; two before it was 
closed by the War between the States and four after 
its reopening in 1865. 

Several teachers succeeded these presidents, each 
of whom had control for a short time. The buildings 
are still used for school purposes, but the school has 
become a county school sustained by local patronage. 
The school closed its effective work in 1887. At that 
time the original incorporators were all dead and the 
institution was heavily in debt. 

Prior to the War between the States it had a yearly 
attendance of one hundred or more pupils. It was 
always under Presbyterian control, and its faculty was 
composed of men and women well prepared to teach. 
Its curriculum was the same as that of other schools 
of the same rank, and has been given under Edge- 
worth Seminary. 

Chowan Baptist Female Institute, 1848-1908 

Murfreesboro has been the center of a large Baptist 
community for a long time, and the Baptists here, 
as elsewhere, have always been active in the way of 
education. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 

In 1848 the Chowan and Portsmouth Associations 
decided to establish a school for the higher education 
of young women. A company was formed, land pur- 
chased, and a house erected, at a cost of $1,225. The 
school opened in October, 1848, with Rev. A. Mc- 
Dowell, D. D., principal. He remained at the head 
for a short time only, and was succeeded by Rev. 
M. R. Forey, who held the position until August, 



Its prosperity was great, and it soon became neces- 
sary to have more room, and a large brick building 
was erected in 1852. 

Rev. William Hooper, D. D., LL. D., was presi- 
dent from 1853 to 1862, when Mr. McDowell, the 
first president, returned and served until his death in 
1 88 1. In 1897, John C. Scarborough, A. B., ex-Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina. 
became president. 

Throughout the fifty-eight years of its existence the 
Institute has never been closed. During this time it 
has sent out about five hundred graduates. For a 
long time the faculty has numbered ten. The course 
of instruction is about the same as that of Greensboro 
College and other schools of that grade in the State. 

Carolina Pewwle College, Ansonville, North Carolina, 
1849-1868 

This school was established at Ansonville in 1849, 
by a joint stock company. The buildings, costing 
$20,000, were erected in 1850, a charter was obtained 
the same year, and the school was formally opened in 
1851. It was very prosperous. The yearly attendance 
was two hundred until the school was closed in 1862. 
It was reopened in 1864, an d was closed as a college 
in 1868. Since that time the buildings have been used 
for a high school. Prof. R. B. Clarke is the present 
principal. The College had four presidents : Rev. Alex- 
ander B. Smith, of Anson County, 1851 to 1852; Rev. 



246 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Tracy R. Walsh, 1852 to 1862; Rev. J. R. Griffith 
of Virginia, 1864 to 1866; Professor James E. Blink- 
inship, 1866 to 1868. 

The curriculum was the same as Edgeworth and 
other colleges for women of that period. 

Oxford Female Seminary, 1851-1908 

Another Baptist college was opened in Oxford, in 
1851. At the Baptist State Convention of 1849 tne 
following report was made : " The necessity of estab- 
lishing a female college for the State, in which suit- 
able testimonial of a high grade of scholarship will be 
awarded, is seriously entertained by many of our 
brethren and is an object worthy of their united and 
zealous efforts." The Convention of 1850 was as- 
sured by the town of Oxford of at least $10,000, if 
the college would be located there. By this same con- 
vention the school was located, and trustees appointed, 
and Elder J. J. Jones selected as agent. He secured 
a charter in March, 1851. Rev. Samuel Wait, D. D., 
was elected president in April, 1851, and the school 
began July 21, the same year. 

At the end of a year the school was reported $9,000 
in debt. The trustees appointed four agents, succes- 
sively, who did not collect enough to pay their own 
salaries. Then Mr. Wait tried to collect, with no bet- 
ter success. In 1857 Mr. Mills offered $5,000 for the 
property and it was accepted. 

From this time Mr. Mills took charge of the finances 
and J. H. Phillips, Rev. R. H. Marsh, Dr. R. H. 
Lewis and others had charge of the literary work. 
In 1880 Mr. Hobgood bought the property, and since 
that time it has been a private school under the name 
of Oxford Seminary. The property is worth $20,000. 
The faculty consists of ten members. Average annual 
enrollment is one hundred and twenty. The curricu- 
lum is the same as Greensboro College, 

(The material of this sketch was obtained from Ra- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 247 

per's " Church and Private Schools of North Caro- 
lina.") 

Davenport College, 1858 

About 1850 the Presbytery of Concord obtained a 
subscription of $10,000 for a girls' college, and soon 
determined to locate their school at Statesville. In 
1853 the Methodists began to investigate the sub- 
ject, and at the Centre Camp Meeting in 1855 raised 
a subscription of $12,000 for a school. 

Col. William Davenport was one of the most liberal 
subscribers, and for him the school was named. With 
the money subscribed they erected a brick building 
and bought sixteen acres of land, and furniture. In 
1857 the trustees offered the whole property to the 
South Carolina Conference. The offer was accepted 
and Rev. H. M. Mood elected president. 

In July, 1858, the school was opened under the 
name of Davenport College. Only fifty-six pupils were 
matriculated the first year. However, Mr. Mood's ad- 
ministration of four years was very successful. He 
resigned in 1862, and was succeeded by Rev. R. N. 
Price, who remained one year and was succeeded by 
Rev. A. G. Stacy. When Stoneman's army invaded 
that part of the country, Mr. Stacy took his school 
into North Carolina. The army occupied the building 
for two days, pillaged and despoiled the library and 
furniture, and left little but the naked buildings. After 
peace came it was reorganized, and has had various de- 
grees of success and many changes. In 1870 the 
General Conference transferred that section of the 
State from the South Carolina to the North Carolina 
Conference. It was expected that the new Conference 
would help support the school, but this expectation was 
not realized. 

The buildings have been consumed by fire, and re- 
built. Several principals have presided over its for- 
tunes. It has ceased to be a boarding-school and be- 
come local. 



MS HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

The average enrollment is about eighty. The last 
principal is Mr. Minick, who took charge in 1889, and 
has kept the school in a fairly prosperous state ever 
since. 

Louisburg Female College, 1826-1908 

In 1826 the Louisburg Academy was chartered. 
This school was probably merged into an institute dur- 
ing the thirties, and continued as a small school until 
1857, when the Louisburg College was chartered. Mr. 
A. M. Ray was in charge from 1845 to l &$6- His 
building was small until the present commodious build- 
ing was erected in 1855-57. Mr. J. P. Nelson was 
president - 1857-58; Columbus Andrews, 1858-61; 
James Southgate, 1861-65. It was closed by the war 
and not reopened until Dr. T. M. Jones removed 
Greensboro Female College to the building in Janu- 
ary, 1866. Dr. Jones had about two hundred boarders, 
the largest number the institution ever had. In June, 
1869, he went to Warrenton, and Rev. F. L. Reid, 
D. D., was president until 1878. From that time until 
1889 the college was closed, and a high school was 
taught in the building. Mr. S. D. Bagley reopened it 
as a college in 1889, and kept it five years. Then Rev. 
J. A. Green was president 1894-1896, and Mathew S. 
Davis from 1896 to the present time. 

In theory the College belongs to a stock company 
of Louisburg, but really it belongs to Mr. Washington 
Duke by virtue of money loaned by him to the school. 

When Mr. Green was in charge it decreased in 
numbers and popularity, but Mr. Davis and his daugh- 
ters have increased the patronage very much. 

Statesville Female College, 1857-1908 

In 1850 the Concord Presbytery contemplated es- 
tablishing a college for girls at Lenoir, but decided to 
locate it at Statesville instead. The College was es- 
tablished in 1857, under whose management does 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 249 

not appear. During the War between the States 
Rev. J. M. M. Caldwell took charge, and continued 
until he went to Greensboro in 1868. Then Rev. E. 
F. Rockwell was president until 1872, then Mrs. Eliza- 
beth N. Grant and Miss Margaret E. Mitchell, daugh- 
ters of Prof. Elisha Mitchell of the University of 
North Carolina, took charge until 1884. It was dur- 
ing this period that the school made its reputation. 

In 1885 Miss Fannie Everett assumed control, and 
maintained its reputation until she retired in 1894. 
From that time until 1896 the school was closed. In 
the fall of 1896 John B. Burwell, A. M., became 
president. The College has again begun to manifest 
life and influence. Mr. Burwell has a faculty of nine 
and offers a course suited to the training of girls, at 
very low terms. The property is worth $30,000. 

Mr. Burwell has had the largest experience in edu- 
cating girls of any living North Carolinian. He was 
co-principal of the Charlotte Female Institute for ten 
years and principal of Peace Institute for eighteen 
years. 

(This sketch is also based on Raper's " Church and 
Private Schools of North Carolina." These sketches 
are not what I hoped to make them, but it is the best 
I could do with the material obtainable. I bought all 
the books I could find bearing on the subject and wrote 
many letters, got catalogues, and got the assistance 
of Mrs, DeBernier Wills, who searched old newspa- 
pers, and had access to private letters and records, still 
I could not obtain just what I wished to make these 
sketches interesting and profitable.) 

Wesleyan Female College, Murfreesboro, North 
Carolina, 1853-1893 

Wesleyan College was opened in 1853. It was a 
very flourishing institution until it was burned August 
5, 1877. During this period as many as 1,500 stu- 
dents matriculated. It was rebuilt in 1881, and Prof. 



250 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

E. E. Parham was president for eleven years. It 
was again destroyed by fire, May 27, 1893, and has 
not been rebuilt. The property belonged to the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church South, and most of the presi- 
dents were members of the North Carolina Conference. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 251 



CHAPTER XXIII 
Early Schools in South Carolina 

FAILING to find any record of the early schools for 
girls in Charleston, a request for such information was 
inserted in the Keystone, and in response to this re- 
quest the following sketch was sent : 

SOME OF CHARLESTON'S MOST NOTED SCHOOLS 

" In glancing over the past and its many changes in 
Charleston, there is, perhaps, no more interesting field 
than that of the schools in which the last two or three 
generations of girls have been trained. Seventy or 
eighty years ago the rival schools were those of 
Madame Talvanne and Miss Datey. Madame Tal- 
vanne kept school in the house on Legare street which 
is now occupied by Judge Simoton; and Miss Datey 
first opened school on Glebe street, in the large square 
brick house known to older generations as the * Bish- 
op's Residence/ it having been the home of the Co- 
lonial bishops, and part of the glebe assigned to St. 
Philip's Church, which still owns it. There was quite 
a rivalry between these two schools, each, as is always 
the case, claiming superiority for the school to which 
she was attached. Both, it is certain, were of recog- 
nized merit. 

" Of Madame Talvanne's personal history, beyond 
that she was a woman of marked characteristics and 
culture, I know but little, therefore, may not be able 
to say as much as should be said of her. Of Miss 
Datey there was almost a romantic side which was 
pathetic. With her family, driven from St. Domingo 
in one of the many insurrections to which that island 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

has been subject, after many wanderings, bereft of 
all, they were stranded in Charleston, without money 
and without friends. There was nothing open to this 
lady but menial service, which she most gladly ac- 
cepted as affording food and shelter. She was em- 
ployed in the Trapier family at Georgetown, and ac- 
cepted her lot with courage and endurance; fortu- 
nately it did not last long. Mrs. Trapier chanced one 
day to see the new * help ' bending over the ironing- 
table, and observing the beauty of her hands and the 
turn of her wrists, promptly decided that this woman 
was not in her proper sphere. She sent for her, and 
after some questioning promoted her to the position 
of governess, which she filled for many years, until 
under the patronage of the Trapiers and other wealthy 
families, who desired their daughters to have the bene- 
fit of instruction from this highly cultured woman, 
she removed to Charleston, and occupied first the house 
on Glebe street, and afterward that known as No. 31 
Legare street, now the residence of Hon. A. T. Smythe. 

" Miss Datey must have been a woman of rare 
character, combining firmness and gentleness in a 
marked degree. Her pupils always spoke of her with 
deepest affection and respect. She was a devout fol- 
lower of the Roman Church, and while she made no 
effort to influence the belief of her pupils, she so im- 
pressed them with her earnest efforts to live worthy of 
her own faith, that they would often, in after years, 
when hearing aspersions against the creed of the Ro- 
man Church, say, ' It isn't so ; Miss Datey would never 
have believed it/ About sixty-five years ago this 
saintly woman closed her school, and took the vows of 
a nun in one of the many orders of her church, and 
thus passed from Charleston forever. 

" The Misses Murden, ladies whose value as educa- 
tors has always been recognized in Charleston, were 
pupils of Madame Talvanne. Every thinking girl who 
attended the school kept by these ladies has always 
felt the value of the ' groundings ' she then received, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 255 

particularly in arithmetic, and the same may be said of 
their pupils and successors of to-day the Misses Sass. 

" Fifty years ago the most flourishing school in 
Charleston was that of Madame DuPre, who was aided 
by her accomplished daughter, Madame Bonnetheau. 
This school was kept at the corner of East Bay and 
Lauriens streets. It was generally considered an ad- 
vanced finishing-school, and would receive more than 
one hundred boarding pupils. Many from adjoining 
States availed themselves of its advantages. 

" The rival of this school was that of the Misses 
Bates, those cultivated ladies who kept school on 
Church street, beloved and revered by all their pupils. 
' Honor ' was the only discipline used. 

" There was a marked change in the style of schools 
when, about 1854, under the patronage of the Hon. 
James L. Petigru, Madame R. A. Togno opened her 
French and English school on Tradd street. This was 
considered the most select school of its day. Applica- 
tion for entrance had to be made one year in advance, 
for the number of pupils was strictly limited. French 
was the language of the school, and woe be to the 
girl who was heard using her English tongue save in 
the English classes, during school hours. The poor, 
shy, trembling girls, who had never been forced to 
rely upon French as a means of expression, felt some- 
what as Robinson Crusoe must have felt on his desert 
island. ' Madame, puis m'en aller ? ' was probably the 
first sentence they found courage to utter. This school 
was not dismissed as a whole, but four or five, or 
perhaps a class, was dismissed at the same time, hence 
the necessity for the request. 

'' There were no desks in use ; the girls sat in classes 
on long benches. A table in the center of the room was 
used when they needed to write. Many were the in- 
novations supposed to have been introduced by 
Madame Togno, and they were the cause of much 
criticism. In the first place, the vacation months had 
been heretofore April and December, as most con- 



254 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

venient to the planters' families. Madame gave no 
vacation in these months, and substituted a vacation 
from July to October a custom now in universal 
use. 

" Over the door of the Tradd street house was the 
sign, ' Pensionat des Demoiselles,' which an old gen- 
tleman in the neighborhood interpreted to mean that 
Madame Togno was the French consul, and called on 
her for advice as such. When she removed to Meet- 
ing street, next to South Carolina Hall, the sign was 
not put up. Here the school was carried on most 
successfully until the fall of Fort Walker, in 1861, 
when Madame removed to Barhamville, near Colum- 
bia, taking many of her pupils with her. She re- 
mained here a year or two until the death of her 
youngest daughter, when she closed her school and 
went through the lines to New York. 

" She by no means forgot her friends at the South, 
many of whom, after the war, received substantial 
proof of her affection for them. 

" A small woman, of most erect carriage, losing not 
a quarter of an inch of her height, full of nervous 
energy, Madame never took a seat, but walked up and 
down in front of her classes during recitation, oc- 
casionally stamping her small foot encased in black 
bottines, to give emphasis to her utterances. Notice of 
Madame Togno's school would not be complete with- 
out mention of that woman so gifted herself, who be- 
yond comparison was enabled to impart her knowl- 
edge to her pupils in a most attractive form Mrs. 
Elizabeth Wotton teaching them so to drink of the 
' Pierian Spring ' that the desire often was to ' drink 
deep or not at all.' A most ardent daughter of the 
South, a firm believer in States' rights, in her eyes 
South Carolina could do no wrong. If any of her 
pupils have been lukewarm in their allegiance to the 
South, the fault does not lie at her door. She did 
her utmost to teach them what was to her view the 
only right view that could be taken. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 255 

" About the time of Madame Togno's advent in 
Charleston, under the auspices of C. G. Memminger, 
Jefferson Bennett, and others, Mr. F. S. Sawyer, with 
a full corps of teachers, was brought from the North 
to establish the normal, or public-school system, which 
still holds sway in Charleston. 

" Madame Petit, for some years prior to the war, 
conducted a very flourishing school, her methods be- 
ing somewhat that of Madame Togno. They may be 
considered the rivals of their day. 

" After the war the two Misses Bates, the only 
remaining members of a large family, returned to 
Charleston and re-opened their school, but owing to 
the death of one, and the advancing years of the 
elder of the sisters, it did not last long. Then, for a 
time, Mrs. Hobson Pinckney, a gentlewoman in every 
sense of the word, divided with Miss Winston the 
honor of conducting the two best schools in Charles- 
ton. 

" The college girl of to-day has perhaps many ad- 
vantages over her mother, but in Charleston the stand- 
ard of study has always been a high one, which is 
evidenced by the gentle, refined old ladies we see all 
around us, who unfortunately are so fast passing away 
that they will soon be only a cherished memory, leaving 
for us an example worthy of imitation of what a high- 
bred woman should be. Had their education not been 
of a high grade they would not have been the women 
they are. Brought up in the homes of refinement, they 
acquired that tact and 'savoir-faire' that only at- 
trition can give. Whence but from this training has 
come that wonderful endurance which has so uncom- 
plainingly borne the many untold privations brought 
about by the misfortunes of our country? Endurance 
which teaches us that the story of the Spartan boy 
and the fox may be an allegory. 

"M. B. W." 

(This sketch is given as written by M. B. W., who 



256 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

kindly sent it in answer to an advertisement for in- 
formation concerning early schools in South Carolina.) 

Presbyterian Seminary, Anderson, South Carolina, 



Certainly as early as 1835, and perhaps earlier, the 
Presbyterian Synod of South Carolina established a 
school for girls at Anderson, known as the Presby- 
terian School. The first principal of the school of 
whom there is any record was a Mr. Leverett; his 
successors were Mr. McElroy, Mr. Pressley, and Mr. 
Jones. These principals were assisted by competent 
teachers. The curriculum embraced the usual Eng- 
lish studies, and French, music, painting, drawing, and 
embroidery. 

For several years no diplomas were given, but about 
1840 the charter was amended and the power to con- 
fer degrees granted. This school was very popular, 
girls from every part of the State attended it; but as 
there was no boarding-department, they boarded with 
the citizens. The school was closed by the War be- 
tween the States. 

(Information in this sketch was obtained from a 
letter written by Mrs. Lulah Ayer Vandiver of An- 
derson, South Carolina.) 

The Johnston Female University, Anderson, South 
Carolina 

About 1850 there was established in Anderson, 
South Carolina, a school for girls quite famous in its 
day in upper Carolina. This school was known as The 
Johnston Female University, and was endowed by 
the Baptists of South Carolina. Dr. Wm. B. Johnston 
was chancellor from its inception until it was broken 
up by the War between the States. Girls from all 
parts of the State attended this school, and there were 
several boarding-houses erected for the exclusive use 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 257 

of these students. The degrees A. B. and A. M. were 
conferred. Judging from some women I know who 
were educated at this school, it must have been a 
school of high grade. 

(Written by Mrs. Lulah Ayer Vandiver.) 

Greenville Female College, Greenville, South Carolina, 
1854-1908 

Greenville is situated in the northwestern part of 
South Carolina, in the Piedmont section of the Blue 
Ridge Mountains. Its pleasant and healthful climate 
renders it a suitable location for a school. 

Greenville College was founded in 1854. It is the 
property of the State Baptist Convention of South 
Carolina. The affairs are managed by a board of 
trustees appointed by the Convention to manage this 
college and Furman University. The board of trus- 
tees appoints an executor for the management of the 
affairs of these institutions. Its officers and teachers 
all receive stipulated salaries, so that no one has 
any personal interest in the pecuniary profits arising 
from its management. Its object is not to make money, 
but to offer its patrons the best possible educational 
advantages. Should any profit arise from enlarged 
attendance it would be promptly applied to the im- 
provement and enlargement of the institution. 

The buildings are on a quiet, retired, and beauti- 
ful elevation in the northwestern portion of the city. 
There are three large three-story brick buildings con- 
nected by three-story brick connections. The build- 
ings have all modern conveniences. 

The collegiate course is divided into the following 
schools : I. School of English and English Literature ; 
II. School of Ancient Languages; III. School of 
Modern Languages; IV. School of Mathematics; V. 
School of Physical Sciences; VI. School of History; 
VII. School of Political Sciences; VIII. School of 
Mental and Moral Sciences and Theistic Studies ; IX. 



258 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

School of Pedagogics ; X. School of Bible Study ; XL 
Conservatory of Music; XII. School of Art; XIII. 
School of Expression and Physical Culture; XIV. 
Business Department. The fourteen schools are sepa- 
rate and distinct, each in charge of a competent teacher 
with necessary assistants. Pupils may become candi- 
dates for graduation in any one or all of these schools, 
though it is hardly possible to pursue successfully more 
than five at the same time. 

Primary and kindergarten departments are under 
the general supervision of the College, but entirely 
separated from the other departments. The Kindergar- 
ten Normal Course is offered for the benefit of those 
interested in child study and desiring to become trained 
kindergartners. Regular diplomas will be given to 
those finishing the course required for graduation. 

(From catalogues.) 

Columbia College for Girls, Columbia, South Carolina, 
1856-1908 

In 1852 the South Carolina Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South appointed a com- 
mittee to receive " any offers that may be made on 
the subject of establishing a college for girls in some 
central or suitable place." The result was the es- 
tablishment of two such colleges one at Spartan- 
burg, the other in Columbia. The work of erecting 
the building of the Columbia College for Girls began 
in January, 1856, and the first session began on the 
first Wednesday of October, 1859, under the presi- 
dency of Rev. Whiteford M. Srnith, D. D. The col- 
lege received immediately a liberal patronage. Dur- 
ing its second session 160 students matriculated. In 
1863 tne institution was forced to close, on account 
of war and debt, and for several years the building 
was occupied as a hotel. In 1873, under the. presi- 
dency of Rev. Samuel B. Jones, D. D., the College was 
again opened to the daughters of Carolina. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 259 

The original building, an excellent example of the 
Italian Renaissance architecture, was enlarged in 1878. 
In 1895, under the presidency of Rev. J. A. Rice, 
D. D., the building was again overhauled, and fitted 
with modern heating and sanitary equipments, and the 
Annex, a large, commodious building, was erected on 
the eastern campus. 

The following have occupied the office of president : 
Rev. Whiteford Smith, D. D., 1859-60; Rev. William 
Martin, 1 860-6 1 ; Rev. H. M. Mood, 1861-64; Rev. S. 
B. Jones, D. D., 1873-76; Hon. J. L. Jones, Ph.D., 
1876-81; Rev. O. A. Darby, D. D., 1881-90; Rev. S. 
B. Jones, D. D., 1890-94; Rev. John A. Rice, A. M., 
D. D., 1894-1900; Rev. W. W. Daniel, D. D., 1900 
to the present day. 

" The great aim of the College is to offer to young- 
women facilities and opportunities for broad and deep 
culture, careful and exact training and thorough edu- 
cation, equal to the best." It has always been the 
policy of the College to raise its standard from time to 
time, as much as the work done in the preparatory 
schools would justify. Under the presidency of Dr. 
John A. Rice the requirements for entrance and gradu- 
ation came abreast with those of the leading colleges 
for men in the State. 

The faculty is composed of thirteen thoroughly 
trained teachers. The course of study is carefully 
graded and arranged on the university plan, allowing 
girls to enter the class for which they are prepared, as 
far as possible, in every department. As at present 
arranged there are thirteen departments of instruction, 
viz. : English language and literature, modern lan- 
guages and literature, ancient languages and literature, 
English Bible, art, music, elocution, physical culture, 
business department. 

In addition to the usual advantages, Columbia Col- 
lege offers some special advantages. It is located at 
the seat of the legislative, judicial, and executive de- 
partments of the State, thus affording object-lessons in 




260 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

the science of government. Columbia is visited by dis- 
tinguished lecturers, tourists, etc. ; thus the pupils are 
brought in touch with the leading men and measures of 
the day. The pupils have access to several large li- 
braries, in addition to the College library and well- 
selected reading-table especially that of the South 
Carolina College, containing 30,000 volumes. The so- 
cial advantages are unsurpassed in the State. The 
College is near all the leading churches in the city, and 
is kept in touch with spiritual forces at work. The 
Columbia Lyceum brings to the city lecturers of na- 
tional renown and musicians of reputation. The de- 
grees conferred are B. A. and B. S. 

(This sketch was compiled from letters and cata- 
logues. ) 

Dr. Marks and the Barhamville School. 

" In 1785 the rice and indigo planters of South Caro- 
lina invited Mr. Humphrey Marks, together with a syn- 
dicate of wealthy men, to come to South Carolina to 
invest money in mortgages on plantations along the 
seaboard. Mr. Humphrey Marks had three sons 
Alexander, who removed early in the nineteenth cen- 
tury to Louisiana and settled in Avoyelles parish and 
gave his name to its shire town or county-seat, Marks- 
ville, on the Red River; the youngest son, Frederic, 
always lived in Columbia; the other son, Dr. Elias 
Marks, was born in Charleston, December 2, 1790, and 
died in Washington, D. C, 1886. 

" Dr. Marks early became a Christian, having been 
converted by an old negro nurse. Some accounts tell 
us that he was a Methodist, while others hold he was 
an Episcopalian. He attended the public schools in 
Charleston, and was graduated at the New York City 
Medical College in 1815. His thesis, being distin- 
guished by publication in the transactions of that Col- 
lege, received special recognition of encouragement 
from the celebrated Dr. Nott of that institution, and 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 261 

he had every prospect of becoming a successful prac- 
titioner. 

" After conducting a drug store a year or so he re- 
turned South, and settled in the new capital, Columbia, 
and opened a school for girls, called in the old phrase- 
ology, ' a female academy.' Dr. Marks was an en- 
thusiast, a gentleman of ingratiating address, and an 
upright, pure-minded man, particularly adapted to the 
education of girls. He said that knowledge consti- 
tuted the essential difference between savage and civi- 
lized man ; that the torch of intellect is to be kindled on 
the altar of domestic affection ; that it burns intensely 
and permanently only when fed by genuine piety. 

" And here, he said, arose the question in what re- 
spect ought the education of the female to differ from 
that of the other sex ? * The education of either sex 
is to be directed to the respective duties which each is 
destined to perform on the great theatre of human 
existence.' 

" He held that the right education of woman is es- 
sential to the general weal ; that it is a legitimate source 
of moral character and political happiness of a peo- 
ple. ' Do we wish that a woman should be pious, re- 
fined, and elevated ; do we desire a flexibility, strength, 
and expansion of mind, essential to the every-day oc- 
currence and vicissitudes of life, and yet not incom- 
patible with all that is lovely and graceful in female 
character? These can proceed only from an intellect 
cultivated in all its parts, from an active, sustained, 
and vigorous exercise of its powers, directing them to 
practicable and valuable ends.' Dr. Marks held that 
there were four difficulties that lay in the way of pur- 
suing an efficient course of education: ' (i) The 
errors in domestic education; (2) the desultory and 
imperfect manner in which an academic course is pur- 
sued ; (3) the desire of blending the advantages of 
fashionable society with those derived from the 
teacher; (4) the incapacity of the teachers themselves/ 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Despite these difficulties, Dr. Marks's school was a 
most successful one and he was universally beloved. 

"About 1817 he married Miss Jane Barham of 
New York City, and the two were principals of the 
Columbia Academy, 1817 to 1820. The building was 
afterward occupied by the Rev. Mr. Gladney, then by 
Mr. Muller, and later by the Misses Reynolds, all of 
whom kept a high school for girls. At that time the 
Marks's school was principally a day school. 

" About 1819 the nearness of the Congaree flats and 
the prevalence of contagious fever in the late summer 
months directed Dr. Marks's attention to the sandhills 
north of Columbia. There about a mile and a half out, 
near the old sandy road that leads to ' sandhill cracker- 
dom,' he erected a building, the plans of which, we 
learn from Dr. Marks's daughter, are believed to have 
been drawn by Mr. Zimmerman. In 1740 this gentle- 
man resided just on the eastern edge of the town, near 
the spot where the Methodist college stands. 

" About 1821 the first ' gable roof range ' was built. 
This was taken down about 1840, and three cottages 
were erected from it. Then the center range was 
built and the south range, and afterward, about 1841, 
the north range. This academy was constructed after 
the plan of Edgeworth School in Maryland, and all 
the elder people thought it was an ideal place for a girl 
to get an education, ' being very healthy and away from 
the boys.' 

" Mrs. Marks was a beautiful woman, a true aid and 
ally in her husband's work. She died about 1828. 
The school in the Sandhills was named for their only 
son, who died in early life. Dr. Marks was now ( 1829) 
a widower with three children and in charge of a large 
family of school girls, and although from the first he 
was surrounded by competent lady teachers, it was 
evident that a lady head of his household was im- 
peratively required. 

" We are told that Providence directed him to the 
one woman who could fully supply this responsible 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 263 

position. Mrs. Julia Warne (nee Pierpont), who was 
in 1830 at the head of a large and flourishing ladies' 
school at Sparta, Georgia, at Dr. Marks's request 
assumed the direction of the household and studies at 
Barhatnville, in 1832. This lady was born at Har- 
winton, Connecticut, March 9, 1/93, and died in 
Washington, D. C, June 21, 1878. She had been one 
of the earliest pupils of the celebrated Emma Willard 
of the Troy Seminary, New York, and was educated 
by her at Middlebury, Vermont, before Mrs. Willard 
moved to Troy. She was the daughter of Robert Pier- 
pont, of Litchfield, Connecticut, who moved to Man- 
chester, Vermont, about 1776. One of Mrs. Julia 
P. Marks's sisters married the Governor of Vermont, 
another became the wife of Dr. Isham, whose grandson 
became a partner of Robert Lincoln, afterward United 
States Minister to Great Britain, and whose son, Pier- 
pont Isham, was a judge of the Supreme Court of 
Vermont. John Pierpont, the poet, was a first cousin 
of Mrs. Marks and resembled her greatly. 

" All of her associations at the North were of the 
highest distinction. We are told she was an enthu- 
siastic educationist, a woman endowed with remark- 
able powers of quiet, unconscious government, of deep 
religious feeling, dignified what we call at the South, 
and mean much when we use the term, a lady. 

" From the first she was welcomed by the Hamp- 
tons, the Prestons, and other prominent people of 
Columbia ; the relations with the Hampton family be- 
ing almost affectionate and fraternal. So with the 
Taylor family, who at times occupied a lovely, breezy 
country-seat on the Camden road to the east of Bar- 
hamville. Judge Cheves also had a place near by, and 
these two families often exchanged visits. Dr. Rey- 
nolds then owned and occupied a place east of Colum- 
bia, afterward purchased bv General Hampton. The 
Howells were not far off. The Trezevants, the family 
of Dr. Shands, rector of Trinity, Mrs. de Bruhl and 
the Bryces were people with whom the Marks family 



264 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

interchanged visits during the early forties. Mrs. 
Warne was married to Dr. Marks in the chapel at Bar - 
hamville in 1833, and continued in active service there 
until June, 1861, when they gave up teaching and 
leased the school to Madame Togno of Charleston. She 
was succeeded as lessee by Madame Sosnowski, who 
was followed by Madame Torriani, a refugee from 
Charleston. From 1865 to 1867 Dr. Marks and his 
family lived on the place. In the latter part of 1867 
they went North, leaving the buildings in charge of a 
negro janitor. February 18, 1869, tne school buildings 
were destroyed by fire. It was a complete loss, as 
there was no insurance. 

" Dr. Marks was a most excellent educator, and the 
fame of his school brought daughters of wealthy 
parents from all over the South ; every State was rep- 
resented. The North also took advantage of the merit 
of the school and its locality. So here were educated 
together the representatives of the politics so diamet- 
rically opposed. 

" From the first coming of Mrs. Julia Pierpont 
Marks (1832) the school became a college with colle- 
giate classes and progressive, systematic methods. 
The best teachers necessarily from the North were 
employed and at high salaries. Between 1850 and 
1 86 1 the annual outlay for teachers was from $12,000 
to $14,000. There was a chaplain, who taught Chris- 
tian Evidences, Paley's Moral Philosophy, Ethics, 
and Butler's Analogy, besides preaching every Sun- 
day. 

" Each year Dr. Marks would engage a chaplain of 
a different denomination, and very often he would take 
the girls in to service in the city of Columbia. A 
gentleman, a graduate of a first-class college, was em- 
ployed to teach the classic languages, the sciences, and 
higher mathematics. There were also two lady 
teachers of mathematics, geography, history, etc. Dr. 
Marks lectured from his notes an hour every day, on 
history. There were two foreign music teachers. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 265 

teachers of painting and drawing, and also a dancing- 
master. 

" Mrs. Marks organized the school into classes twice 
a year, and made out an individual ' list of time/ or 
schedule of studies, for each hour of the day, for each 
pupil, and supervised teachers and scholars alike. She 
always had more trouble with the teachers than with 
the scholars. It was a home school ; each pupil when 
she arrived there was put upon her honor and expected 
to govern herself and report herself. The day was 
divided into recitation periods of three-quarters of an 
hour each, beginning at 8 A. M. and closing at 4 or 5 
p. M. Students were required to attend prayers every 
morning at 7.45. About 8.15 they had breakfast, fol- 
lowed by an intermission of an hour, when classes were 
called and continued until 11.30; then every one went 
to luncheon, when soft gingerbread was served. After 
luncheon recitations continued until 2 o'clock, when 
every one enjoyed a good dinner. Dinner was followed 
by classes until 4 or 5. Prayers were held at night 
as in the morning, and the roll was called as in the 
morning. 

" The pupils studied in their rooms, in the halls, and 
under the trees, but there was perfect discipline and 
good scholastic results. The written examinations 
now so much in vogue were then unknown, though 
exhaustive reviews took their place. The highest 
mark possible was 10. 

" The girls the thoroughbred ones, and they were 
mostly that kind loved Dr. and Mrs. Marks, who 
loved them in return. In 1854, when a malignant dis- 
ease took one life and nearly took another, these kind 
preceptors scarcely slept for weeks; their rooms were 
given up to the sick and their strength exhausted in 
behalf of the suffering ones. 

" * If one had rung the door bell/ said the late Mrs. 
Sophia Reynolds, ' he would have been answered by 
an elderly brown man, who would take the cards and 
usher him in through a wide, carpeted hall and up a 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

broad, carpeted, winding stair, with mahogany balus- 
trades. This led to the upper hall, the counterpart of 
the one below, from which he would enter a large 
parlor into which the morning sun shone cheerfully. 
Here he would see a wood fire burning in an open fire- 
place. He would hear no sound but the notes of musi- 
cal instruments coming from various directions 
through the great building. In a few minutes an old 
gentleman, gray-haired, but brisk in his movements, 
would enter, accompanied by an elderly lady. Then 
the Doctor would offer to show the visitors through 
the school, and after thorough inspection they would 
receive an invitation to dinner. They would go down 
the winding stair into a piazza 120 feet long, from 
which they would enter a small door and ascend a nar- 
row, dark stairway. This led into one of the upper 
rooms of the two-story brick range. 

" * It was a large room, near the center of which 
was a fire-place surrounded by several chairs as if they 
had just been occupied, for the fire was still burning. 
A curtain divided the room through the middle; an- 
other also ran through the middle at right angles to 
the first, so the room was divided into a parlor and 
three bedrooms a very pleasant arrangement. I 
have also heard that the large room was divided into 
four smaller ones two bedrooms and two dressing- 
rooms. This room, which was lighted by six large 
windows, opened into another, also lighted by six win- 
dows, having deep window seats. A curtain divided 
this room into two a parlor and a bedroom. Each 
suite of rooms contained a parlor, because the young 
ladies studied in their rooms instead of in a general 
schoolroom. They always had plenty of fire, and their 
apartments were carpeted and very comfortable. 

" ' Leaving the brick range rooms and passing down 
to the lower floors, the visitor would enter a large, 
long recitation-room. They would see one girl at the 
blackboard, trying to explain an apparently knotty 
problem, the teacher near by keeping her and the class. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 267 

some twenty girls, paying the closest attention. Pass- 
ing out another door, through the long piazza, down 
a few steps and through an open covered way they 
would reach the laboratory. Here they found a class 
of about sixteen girls, also closely attending to the 
explanation, which the teacher was illustrating by ex- 
periments. 

" ' When the class was dismissed the girls walked 
quietly out, but when they reached the covered way 
they ran skipping, sliding, running, and chatting. Then 
another class would take the place of those who had 
just gone out, and so on through the day. At in- 
tervals of three-quarters of an hour the monitress ran 
along the piazza ringing the school bell, the signal for 
the classes to change. For five minutes there would be 
the sound of merry voices and rushing feet, then 
would follow a hush, a silence to be wondered at 
in a house as large and filled with so many young peo- 
ple, but this was a school where work was done, good 
work, thorough work, for education at Barhamville 
was equivalent to practical sense with all the accom- 
plishments acquired by young ladies of that era of time. 
From those dear and consecrated walls, hundreds of 
women went forth, types of the ladies of those days of 
the long ago. Dr. Marks spared no pains, no expense, 
to get good teachers wherever they could be found. 
And these teachers knew how to interest young girls 
in study, and Mrs. Marks knew how to make them 
happy and contented/ 

" Sons and daughters from the same family would 
be sent respectively to the South Carolina College and 
Barhamville. Dr. Marks had many encounters with 
the college students to prevent intercourse between the 
young people. Only brothers and cousins were al- 
lowed to visit the girls, and these relations were often 
declared where there was no blood tie. History re- 
peats itself. 

' The young ladies were allowed to receive their 
brothers and cousins on Friday evenings. Of course 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

there was always great excitement over getting ready 
to receive their company, for certainly every girl had 
a kinsman at the South Carolina College. They all 
entertained in the parlor and sometimes in the library. 
Dr. J. Marion Sims in ' The Story of My Life/ gives 
an account of a serenade given to the girls at Bar- 
hamville, which started in fun, but barely escaped end- 
ing in tragedy. 

" Notwithstanding the tone of this school was high 
and exceedingly refined, this did not prevent the girls 
from harmless tricks. At the table when one or more 
had an unusual hungry fit she would cut a sweet po- 
tato in half, eat the potato on the sly, fill the two holes 
of the skin with bread, ham, etc., fit them together 
and put them in her pocket ' for future reference.' 

" Another bond of unity between the college life of 
those days and that of the present time is ' mess-hall 
biscuit ' they seem to have been always the same, for 
the boys would ride around Barhamville grounds on 
fleet-footed horses and throw these articles of food 
with notes written on them to the girls. 

" The girls had regular May-day parties. At these 
they elected their queen, danced around the May-pole, 
and enjoyed themselves quite as much as college girls 
of the present time. Half of the girls would tie a 
handkerchief on the arm and thus act the part of 
boys. 

" Whenever there were any very good performers 
or musical companies in Columbia Dr. Marks would 
get them to come out to Barhamville and play for the 
young ladies. When Ole Bull, the famous violinist, 
was in the city he played at the Academy before leav- 
ing, and Blind Tom, the wonderful pianist, did the 
same. 

" Another bond of union between the college girl 
of past and present was midnight feasts. 

' There was a rule that lights should be put out at 
nine o'clock, but it is easy to imagine how that was 
obeyed when one of the girls received a box from 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 269 

home. Of course a midnight feast followed, and they 
had all sorts of devices for hiding the lights. On the 
first of April one girl would receive a box of old shoes, 
then she would invite all of her friends to come help 
open the * box from home.' When all were assembled 
and the cover removed it was a great joke, and all had 
a hearty laugh, hearty though smothered, and of 
course each one had to take a pair of shoes, or more 
likely two odd ones, as a souvenir. During these per- 
formances of course they would lock the doors, but if 
the monitress (one of the teachers), knocked, no mat- 
ter at what hour of the night, the door must be opened. 
Should she happen to come there would be a general 
shoving of things under the beds, pushing into closets 
and scrambling into bed with clothes on, followed by 
a wonderful silence. Of course some teachers were 
lenient and would overlook these things, while others 
were very strict and would report the girls on every 
occasion. Then next morning the culprits would have 
to appear before Mrs. Marks, unless the transgression 
was very serious, when Dr. Marks was appealed to. 
The Doctor was decided but not harsh ; Mrs. Marks's 
supervision over the girls was not severe, though she 
too was positive. 

" The spring was indeed a busy time at Barhamville. 
Then the girls received boxes of ready-made clothing 
from home, or more often, boxes of material to be 
made. At that season a good seamstress or dressmaker 
was employed, sometimes for months. The girls were 
allowed to make purchases in Columbia, but were al- 
ways accompanied by a teacher. Unless they preferred 
to walk, they were driven over in one of the two car- 
riages belonging to the school. Indeed, they went to no 
place without being accompanied by a teacher ; not even 
sketching from nature, or to the home of one of the 
professors to gather grapes. Whenever they went out- 
side the academy enclosures they were accompanied 
by a teacher. 

"When the school was at its zenith (1850) the 



270 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

building consisted of a large three-story wooden build- 
ing, with one long two-story brick wing, stretching 
southward, all of which were painted white. There 
was a large vegetable garden and a well-stocked poul- 
try yard on the Barhamville farm, and much of the 
food was raised there. 

" There were two chapels, called the lower and the 
upper chapel. The lower one was fitted up with maps 
and blackboards all around the walls. Here Dr. 
Marks taught history, using the maps and frequently 
illustrating his lectures with drawings on the black- 
board. In the upper chapel desks were placed all 
around the walls, and here Mrs. Marks taught writing. 
Every girl took writing lessons and learned to write 
the famed * Barhamville hand/ well known and easily 
recognized wherever seen. 

"At that time (1850) Dr. Marks was at the head 
of a corps of teachers, about eight in number, gathered 
from the best sources. Professors taught music, paint- 
ing, modern languages, chemistry, philosophy, mathe- 
matics, and English. The pupils numbered one hun- 
dred and twenty, and often many more came from 
Southern homes where wealth and luxury gave ele- 
gance and refinement to genial, generous Southern 
girls. 

" Between 1857 and 1861 the following were a few 
of the members of the faculty lack of space prevents 
the mention of more: Elias Marks, M. D., principal, 
department of history and belles-lettres; Mrs. Marks, 
writing; M. Douvilliers, French, drawing, modern lan- 
guages ; Rev. Mr. Donnelly, Prof. Reynolds, Mr. Alex- 
ander, Mr. Ward, chaplains at different times ; Mr. Or- 
chard, music master; Madame Sosnowski, painting 
and drawing; Madame Feugas, M. Strawinski, danc- 
ing; M. Manget, French. 

" Board and the entire course of studies, exclusive 
of extra studies, which were chemistry, botany, Latin 
and French languages, lessons on piano, harp, guitar, 
and dancing lessons all fancy dances were taught and 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 271 

very gracefully danced by the young ladies, also draw- 
ing and oil painting, was $250 per collegiate year; 
this charge included table board, washing, firewood, 
candles, etc. 

" There were two secret societies at Barhamville ; 
the most prominent of which was the * Tri-une.' The 
organization was very secret, being composed of only 
ten or twelve members. Of course these societies 
were organized with the consent of Dr. Marks. The 
badge of this society consisted of a cross and an anchor 
joined in some fanciful way. Only a very few of them 
are still in existence, and these few are treasured as 
priceless. The graduating badge was a six pointed 
star, similar in shape to the Euphradian Society badge 
of the South Carolina College. At commencement 
time all the relatives and lady friends of the girls 
came to the graduating exercises. The graduates were 
all dressed in white and each girl in turn read her 
essay. 

" The following young ladies were admitted to the 
highest honors of the institute, June 15, 1860: Misses 
Mary A. Dubose, Harriet C. Geiger, Maria L. Garling- 
ton, Eliza E. Johnson, Anna E. Kirtland, Sallie D. 
McCall, Elizabeth W. Verdier, Caro B. H. Yancey. 

" Many famous ladies have been graduated from 
this school, among whom was Miss Pamela Cunning- 
ham, who conceived the idea of purchasing and pre- 
serving Mount Vernon, and was known as the ' South- 
ern Matron/ Barhamville also enjoys the distinction 
of having been the alma mater of Miss Bulloch of 
Georgia, the mother of Theodore Roosevelt. 

" Attached to the institute were a well-selected li- 
brary, philosophical and chemical apparatus, and a 
cabinet of minerals. The laboratory, where chemistry, 
philosophy, and the languages were taught, is still 
standing. It was bought by the late Dr. Frank Greene, 
repaired and fitted for a dwelling. The cottage on 
the hill a little east of the institute was sold to Mr. 
Beard. ' The Spring lot ' south of the school was 



272 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

purchased by Dr. Kendall. * Rose Hill cottage/ on 
the north, was sold during the War between the States 
to Mr. Arthur Middleton, and he sold it, I think, to the 
party who owns it. The third cottage toward Colum- 
bia was sold by Dr. Marks, during the War between 
the States, to a man named Gruber. 

" * Barhamville ' ! How the name calls up hallowed 
associations work, earnest and true, fun and frolic, 
the noble, the beautiful, the generous. Some have 
filled the highest walks of life, some have lived in 
humbler spheres, but the principles taught will ever 
exalt the name of ' Barhamville.' ' 

(This sketch was written by Mrs. Jean H. Wither- 
spoon of Columbia, South Carolina, for The State, 
published in Columbia, South Carolina. It was sent 
to the author of this history by Mr. Dreher, Superin- 
tendent of Public Education, South Carolina.) 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 273 



CHAPTER XXIV 
First Academies in Tennessee 

THE first Territorial Legislature of Tennessee as- 
sembled in Knoxville, August 25, 1794, and on loth 
September " a bill to establish Blount College " was 
passed. The College was named for the Territorial 
Governor. Co-educaton was practiced for a while, and 
this is one of the rare instances of co-education in the 
Southern States prior to the War between the States. 

Barbara Blount, daughter of the Governor, gained 
such high distinction among the young ladies that 
the hill on which the College was built was named 
" Barbara Hill," in her honor. 

Fisk's Female Academy, at Hillam, Overton County, 
was chartered September n, 1806. A "female" 
academy at Knoxville was chartered in 1811, and the 
Female Academy at Maysville, Blount County, was 
chartered in 1813. These were all the "female" 
academies that were chartered in Tennessee before 
the establishment of the Nashville Academy. (Crew's 
"History of Nashville.") 

Nashville Female Academy 

The first school established in Nashville was organ- 
ized on the flag-boat of General James Robertson's 
pioneer fleet, by Mrs. Ann Robertson, and perhaps 
it may seem strange that any one should think of 
teaching children who were hourly exposed to danger 
of death from attacks of Indians, from drowning, 
from tempest, and perhaps from cold or starvation; 
but these stalwart backwoods people were building 
for the future. This unique traveling school landed 



274 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

at Big Salt Lick on Sunday, Arpil 24, 1780, after a 
winter voyage of four months. Thus the city of Nash- 
ville had a school before its citizens had houses, and 
it is not surprising that the city became a center for 
educational enterprises, and famous for its schools 
and the culture of its citizens. 

Other excellent schools were soon opened in the 
rapidly growing town, but people desired something 
better, something of a high order for their girls, and 
early in the year 1816 they began to discuss the ad- 
visability and the possibility of establishing an Acad- 
emy for girls. The formation of a stock company was 
the plan adopted. The organization of this company 
was completed on July 4, 1816. The members of this 
corporation were Joseph T. Ellison, James Jackson, 
James Hanna, John Baird, Stephen Cantrell, Wilkins 
Tannehill (resigned and John Anderson admitted in 
his place), John E. Back, James Trimble, Samuel Clai- 
born, Thomas Childress, Elihu S. Hall, Samuel Elam, 
Thos. J. Read, John Childress, Robert Searcy, David 
Irwin, James Porter, John Nichol, John P. Ewin. 
Willie Barrow, Felix Grundy, George M. Deadrick, 
John C. McLemore, Robert Weakley, Robert White. 
In the charter immediately following, the subsequent 
names, making fifty in all, complete the original stock- 
holders of the Nashville Female Academy: M. C. 
Dunn, Joel Lewis, John Stump, Eli Talbot, John M. 
Smith, Andrew Hynes, Thomas Crutcher, Thomas 
Hill, Wash. L. Hannum, Thomas H. Fletcher, James 
Roane, Thos. Williamson, John Williamson, John 
Harding, Alpha Kingsley, Alex Porter, Thomas Ram- 
sey, Christopher Stump, David Vaughn, G. G. Wash- 
ington, N. B. Tryor, Alfred Balch, George A. Bedford, 
and Matthew Barrow. 

So liberally did these men contribute to this enter- 
prise that years later, when the money invested in the 
school was returned to the descendants of the original 
subscribers, $1,000 came to one family. Yet the 
worldly possessions of that man did not exceed $10,- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 275 

ooo ; in fact, none of these men was wealthy, but they 
realized the importance of a sound education. 

The school's grounds occupied a block, a little be- 
low what is now Tulane Hotel, east of the old Chatta- 
nooga depot, running from Church to McLemore and 
to Cedar street. The lawn, with its grassy turf, shaded 
by magnificent forest trees, was very beautiful. 

There were three separate buildings in front, the 
center one three stones, the others two stories. They 
had a front of 180 feet and extended back 280 feet, and 
were so arranged as to give sunlight to all the rooms. 
This rambling structure was of gray brick. The door- 
ways were colonial. There were no front verandas, 
though at the rear, where were several large additions, 
there were connecting galleries with paved courts. The 
building was handsomely fitted for school purposes. 
It contained a spacious chapel, a recreation hall, and 
other attractive features. No expense was spared by 
Dr. Elliott to make the school first class, and the build- 
ing suited to this purpose. When any new feature was 
presented, if he thought it would add to the cpmfort 
or convenience of the pupils, he immediately adopted 
it regardless of expense. It is estimated that during 
the twenty years of his connection with the school he 
spent $143,000 in improvements. 

The first principals were Dr. Daniel Berry and Mrs. 
Berry, formerly of Salem, Mass., from 1817 to 1819. 
The much-beloved Rev. William Hume was principal 
from the retirement of Dr. Berry until 1833, when his 
death occurred from cholera. Dr. R. A. Lapsley suc- 
ceeded him, and remained until 1838, when he retired 
on account of ill health. Rev. W. A. Scott was next 
principal, and remained until 1840, when Rev. C. D. 
Elliott and Dr. R. A. Lapsley became joint principals. 
Very soon Dr. Lapsley retired and Dr. Elliott became 
sole principal, and so continued until the close of the 
school in 1862. 

In 1840 there were enrolled 198 pupils; in 1860 
there were 513 students, 256 of whom were boarders. 



276 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

So popular was this school and the advantages offered 
so highly esteemed, that girls traveled hundreds of 
miles, making the trip by stage coach, private con- 
veyance, and on horseback, to enjoy the benefits to 
be derived from it. 

Dr. Elliott always employed the very best teachers 
he could find. He imported experts from the East, 
from England, from France, and from Italy. In or- 
der to keep in touch with the best talent and the best 
means of obtaining it, Dr. Elliott corresponded with 
Count Cavour and other prominent personages abroad. 
Sometimes the French and Italian women engaged 
knew not a word of English. They were sent over 
in care of the captain of the vessel, and forwarded 
to their destination. One of the ladies thus brought 
over was Madame Curso. Her daughter, Camille, 
was a young girl when she arrived at the Academy, 
and received her training there. She afterward 
taught music in the Academy, and later achieved 
celebrity as a violinist. Her first husband, a Mr. Tay- 
lor, was also instructor in music at the Academy and 
organist for the First Presbyterian Church. 

Though much attention was paid to music, art, and 
modern languages, the more solid branches were not 
neglected : The standard was high, and the students 
were thoroughly drilled in reading, mathematics, and 
Latin. Much attention was paid to reading, and the 
pupils usually became good readers. A prominent 
teacher of this study was Miss Collins, a Quakeress, 
who was an accomplished instructor and a charming 
woman. She introduced a " phonetic " reader. Doubt- 
less many of her old pupils can readily recall this 
unique character, always dressed in unobtrusive gray, 
and wearing her hair cropped in short ringlets. 

Most prominent of all the faculty, however, from 
length of service, and success, was Miss Lucy 
Lanier. The name of Miss Lanier appears on the di- 
plomas of both mothers and daughters in a number of 
instances. One is that of Miss Emmeline Hill, after- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 277 

ward Mrs. Mortimer Hamilton, in 1831, and on that 
of her daughter, Mrs. Leonora Hamilton Daviess, in 
1859. Miss Lanier was, in commercial phrase, an 
A i teacher. She estimated her pupils according to 
their ability and adapted her teaching to their mental 
calibre. As an instance of her sagacity it is said that 
she singled out Miss Mary Murfree as perhaps the 
brightest mind she ever taught. 

Miss Ann Lanier, Miss Lanier's sister, was also a 
member of the faculty, and the late Miss Fannie 
O'Brian, whose name is so much revered in Nashville, 
was presiding teacher for a number of years. The 
venerable Miss Martha O'Bryan was Dr. Elliott's pri- 
vate secretary, and Mrs. O'Bryan was also connected 
with the domestic department. 

* In the quaint language of that time, the assistant 
teachers were called officially " auxiliary tutoresses," 
and a very large number of these assistants have been 
connected with the school. For many years the faculty 
consisted of thirty-eight members, and during the last 
few years of the " old Academy " even a larger num- 
ber. 

The most cordial relations existed between Dr. El- 
liott and his teachers. He appreciated the nervous 
strain consequent upon teaching, and had a special 
row of rooms reserved for teachers. These rooms 
were aloof from the girls' quarters, hence the teachers 
could have rest and quiet. 

Ten years were required to complete the entire 
course, and many of the pupils have this record to 
their credit two years in the primary department, 
four for the academic, four for the collegiate depart- 
ment. There were two sessions a day, from g to 12 
A. M. and from 2 to 4 P. M., and holidays were rare. 
There was one day's vacation at Christmas. 

While the mind was studiously cultivated, the phys- 
ical development was by no means neglected. The 
lawn afforded a pleasant opportunity for such games 
as " battledore and shuttlecock," " grace hoops," and 



278 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

other games of that period, and the girls were en- 
couraged to indulge in them. However, Dr. Elliott 
was not satisfied with this voluntary exercise, but 
deemed some systematic drill necessary, and imported 
a teacher from Boston to teach calisthenics; and he 
deemed dancing among the girls not promiscuous 
dancing one of the best forms of physical culture, and 
well suited for a school exercise. 

The recreation hall was 120 feet long and 40 feet 
wide, and had a gallery at one end and a platform at 
the other. There was a piano, and a " dancing 
piano " ; the latter ground out polkas, mazurkas, reels, 
and other old-fashioned dances, by turning a crank. 

In this hall the girls danced three-quarters of an hour 
every evening after supper. Much stress was laid on 
dignity and grace of carriage, and awkwardness was 
carefully corrected. 

Courtesy was demanded from every one connected 
with the school, and honor was the atmosphere of the 
school. A matron could not enter a pupil's door with- 
out knocking and waiting for permission; correspon- 
dence was sacred ; no teacher was allowed to accept a 
present with a money value from a pupil, nor correct 
a pupil in the presence of others. There never were 
any run-away matches, nor was a breath of scandal 
connected with the school. 

This school was never endowed, but depended en- 
tirely on tuition fees ; yet annually there were admitted 
five daughters of Masons, five daughters of Odd-Fel- 
lows, and all the daughters of ministers actively en- 
gaged in the ministry. 

Notwithstanding the discipline was very strict, 
the girls were never allowed to speak to acquaintances 
when they took their daily walks or attended McKen- 
dree Church, or other churches, there were red-letter 
days when they were released from restraint. 

One of these days was in 1825, when General La- 
fayette visited Nashville, and was received at the Acad- 
emy; another occurred in 1846, when the girls of the 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 279 

Academy made the gift of a handsome flag to the First 
Regiment of Mexican Volunteers. Another grand 
event was in 1851, when Jennie Lind, the " Swedish 
Nightingale," gave three concerts in Nashville, under 
the management of P. T. Barnum, in the new Adelphi 
Theatre. The tickets were sold at $6 apiece, and the 
best seats were sold at auction at $200 apiece, but ar- 
rangements were made for the boarders to attend the 
concert. A patriotic event was the presentation by 
the school, in June, 1861, of a handsome silk flag 
made by the pupils to the First Regiment of Confed- 
erate Volunteers. 

The annual May-Day picnic was a great event, and 
commencement was a grand occasion. These exer- 
cises required three or four days, as each pretty maiden 
was scheduled to read an original essay, a number 
appearing on each programme, on the installment plan. 
A list of the graduates and the titles of their essays 
was recently published in the Nashville Banner, and 
makes interesting reading. 

The diplomas bore curious Cupid devices with curv- 
ing wings in pen and ink drawings, and many are still 
preserved. They were duly dated, signed, and sealed 
by the faculty and trustees. The following is the quaint 
form used in the inscription : " These presents shall 

certify to all whom they may concern that has 

completed the course of study prescribed by the in- 
stitution, and that her diligence in pursuit of knowl- 
edge and her uniform good conduct whilst a member 
of the Academy may receive their appropriate reward, 
we have granted unto and conferred upon her this 
diploma, as a testimonial of our approbation of her 
correct deportment and of her literary attainments." 

When Fort Donelson was captured the citizens of 
Nashville were dazed. Doubtless many thought the 
end of time had arrived. The news was read at the 
churches Sunday morning. While others were inac- 
tive, Dr. Elliott worked, and by night he had obtained 
cars, and all the boarders of the Academy were safely 



280 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

on their journey home. As soon as the invading army 
entered the city Dr. Elliott and four prominent citi- 
zens were arrested and thrown in the city prison, and 
later sent to Camp Chase; the Academy was stripped 
of its furniture, and the fine pianos were shipped 
North. His family remained for a time in the dis- 
mantled building, but were finally forced to leave it by 
an adverse decision. For one year, 1866, at the close 
of the struggle, a school was carried on in the name 
of the trustees of the Academy, but then discon- 
tinued, the United States Government still occupying 
the " Old Academy," and a suit was pending. This 
suit, when decided, sent Dr. Elliott out a ruined man 
financially, a broken man in prospects, but still the 
possessor of ardent convictions and loyalty to his State. 

The old Academy degenerated into a boarding- 
house, and later was demolished to make room for 
business houses. 

A sketch of the " Old Academy " would scarcely 
be complete without some mention of Dr. Elliott's life 
and character. 

His parents emigrated from Maryland to Butler 
County, Ohio, where Dr. Elliott was born in 1810. 
He was not at all fond of mentioning his birthplace, 
he was such an ardent Southerner. He received his 
collegiate training at Augusta College, Kentucky. 
Afterward he taught in LaGrange College, Georgia, 
for a number of years, and resigned this position to 
take up work in the Nashville Academy, where he 
spent twenty-two years of the prime of his life. 

Dr. Elliott's baptismal name was Collins, but while 
at college he added D. to his name for another initial, 
and to make the alphabetical order correct, C. D. E. 

He attained at one time a fortune, and his yearly 
profit from his school in 1860 was $25,000. His 
home when not residing at the Academy was what is 
now the Protestant Orphan Asylum, then a palatial 
residence surrounded by a large yard enclosed in a 
rustic cedar rail fence, which was one of the owner's 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 281 

prides. When residing there he went to and from the 
Academy in a buggy drawn by a black thoroughbred, 
driven by a faithful retainer. When once convinced 
that a course of action would be a proper course, he 
allowed nothing to turn him from his course. He 
demonstrated this in the case of allowing the boarders 
to dance. The Methodist Church, of which he was 
an ordained minister, dismissed him from her com- 
munion. He neither complained of nor resented this 
action, and during the severance of his church relation- 
ship he joined no other church, but quietly pursued 
the even tenor of his way, allowing the dancing and 
beginning the school exercises with religious service 
and closing with the same, and having family prayers 
before "retiring for the night. A few years later he 
was lovingly reinstated. 

Dr. Elliott believed in the observance of the small 
courtesies of life, and he greeted his pupils with the 
gracious courtesy due to ladies. When school was 
dismissed the pupils formed a line and marched past 
the platform, each making a curtsy, to which he re- 
sponded with a courteous bow. 

To his slaves he was a kind and loving master, and 
the bond of friendship between them was severed only 
by death. 

Dr. Elliott retained his mental vigfor unimpaired un- 
til he passed away, July 31, 1899. He was survived by 
several children, who with many of his old pupils ren- 
dered him loving service in his sweet-spirited old age. 
His faithful servant, Henry Trabue Porterfield, was 
his honorary pall-bearer, following veterans from the 
First Tennessee Regiment, walking close to the cof- 
fin. The pall was a Confederate flag, on which rested 
a beautiful tribute from pupils of the Academy. 

(A long description of the " Old Academy " and a 
sketch of Dr. Elliott was published in the 'Nashville 
Banner in July, 1906, and from that this sketch was 
taken. ) 



282 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER XXV 

Institutes and Colleges 

Columbia Institute, Columbia, Tennessee, 1836-1908 

THE Institute is situated on a terraced hill in the 
suburbs of Columbia. The building is a castellated 
structure, unique in architecture, having been de- 
signed by an English architect, after a foreign model. 
Since the erection of the original building, seventy-two 
years ago, two memorial halls have been erected; the 
first the Museum, a memorial to Bishops Leonidas 
Polk and James Harvey Otey, of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church; the second, Margaretta Bowles Memo- 
rial Hall. 

Columbia Institute was established in 1836 by Bish- 
ops Polk and Otey, who were desirous to establish a 
school for girls, of collegiate grade, which would be 
under the direction of the Episcopal Church. Bishop 
Otey was especially interested in this work. In 1852 
he wrote : *' I have spent the best energies of my soul 
and passed the most vigorous years of my life in its 
[the Institute's] cause, or it would have been hope- 
lessly ruined by its load of debt. For five or six years 
I have labored incessantly, being sometimes absent 
for six months from my home and family in my ef- 
forts to raise funds for its relief. I have worked hard 
and worked long without hope of fee or reward other 
than the humble expectation of being serviceable to the 
people among whom Providence has cast my lot/' 
(See " Higher Education in Tennessee.") 

Another devoted friend of the Institute was Miss 
Margaretta Bowles. Miss Bowles was a lady of leisure 
and culture, who had spent many years and large sums 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 283 

of money in collecting a museum which comprised 
cabinets of minerals, rocks, and fossils; of zoology, 
illustrating all the sub-kingdoms, and especially rich 
in ornithology ; a botanical collection containing speci- 
mens from every part of the world ; an anatomical cab- 
inet and a collection of curios and virtu. The most 
valuable of the last named are the celebrated ala- 
baster vase from the Medici collection, the Portland 
vase, and an Etruscan cist between 2,500 and 3,000 
years old ; a statue of Cupid by Gibson and a few 
original paintings by Cana, Gainsboro, and Carter. 

Miss Bowles also collected a library of 10,000 vol- 
umes, compiled with a view to its educational uses, 
and containing old and rare books. Among these are 
two works of Erasmus, " The Praise of Folly " and 
the New Testament, Froben edition, published in 
1530; the first English translation of " Don Quixote," 
published in London in 1612; the Black Letter Bible 
of 1690; the Breeches Bible of 1582; the Prayer of St. 
Nersetis, in thirty-three languages, published in the 
Arminian Convent of Venice; Boydell's Shakespeare, 
which has now become so rare as to bring $500; and 
Beda's Ecclesiastical History in the original Latin, 
and many other ancient books of equal value and in- 
terest. 

Miss Bowles wished to bequeath this collection to 
some school, and after visiting many schools in the 
South she selected the Institute as the school to which 
she would donate the collection. She also taught 
gratuitously in the Institute for nine years, and be- 
queathed to it all her unentailed estate. 

The building was occupied and much abused by the 
Federal troops during the war between the States. 
As soon as it could be repaired after the withdrawal 
of the troops, school was again begun. With this in- 
termission the school has been in active operation 
since its opening in 1836. It has always been a char- 
tered institution, having the power to confer degrees, 
and has always granted diplomas ; though now it does 



284 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

not claim to be a modern college, but a preparatory 
school. 

The course adopted was the usual A. B. course of 
the colleges for men, modified by substituting French 
for Greek and adding courses in music and art. This 
course has been still further modified by the adop- 
tion of modern methods and the addition of the busi- 
ness and domestic science departments. 

The present principal, Miss Mary A. Bryant, says : 
" We do not claim to be a college, but we are a church 
school. Believing that thoroughness is necessary to 
the formation of Christian character, we endeavor to 
do thorough preparatory work to make a home school 
where the best formative influences are to be found, 
where the education is sound, and the moral and spirit- 
ual culture is uplifting and helpful." 

Hozvard College, Gallatin, Tennessee, 1837-1908 

Howard College was established in 1837. It be- 
came the property of the Odd Fellows and was char- 
tered in 1856. It has had a number of prominent 
educators as its presidents and members of its facul- 
ties. One of the most successful presidents was Prof. 
A. M. Burney, who took charge of the College in 
1882, and administered its affairs until his death in 
1895, leaving it in a flourishing condition. 

The course of study is divided into primary, inter- 
mediate, and collegiate. In addition to the regular 
course, there will be offered a normal course, includ- 
ing school law and theory and practice of teaching". 
The equipment provides for the departments of art, 
music, elocution, and physical culture. 

The degrees conferred are Bachelor of Science and 
Bachelor of Arts. Appropriate degrees will be con- 
ferred upon students who complete the course of study 
in the music, elocution, and art departments, provided 
they are good English scholars and have met the other 
requirements of the school. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 285 

The College buildings and grounds belong to 
Howard Lodge, No. 13, I. O. O. F., at Gallatin, 
Tennessee, and the College is conducted under the 
auspices of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. The re- 
lation of the order to the College is, therefore, that of a 
fostering patron; but it extends the same advantages 
and privilege to all students, regardless of church re- 
lations or section. Free tuition in the literary depart- 
ment is offered to all worthy orphans of the order. 

(This sketch was taken from the catalogue for 1901- 
1902.) 

Clarksville Female Academy, Clarksville } Tennessee, 
1846-1908 

The first exclusively girls' school in Clarksville was 
" Mrs. Killebrew's boarding and day school for young 
ladies." Mrs. Killebrew was the daughter of Rosanna 
and Daniel Barry of Bardstown, Kentucky, where 
Mr. -Barry was a famous teacher of the classics. Many 
most elegant women were educated at this school, 
which continued until 1835. 

In 1833 Dr. L. D. Ring taught a high school for 
girls at the Masonic Hall. It was called " high " be- 
cause he taught the classics, including French. Dr. 
Ring deserves credit for the amount of solid instruc- 
tion he gave the young people who attended his school. 

In 1835 Rev. Mr. Russell and wife taught success- 
fully a female academy in Masonic Hall. This school 
continued a year or two, when Mrs. Whitman taught 
there " The Masonic Female Institute." In 1842 
Mrs. Eugenia Poston, one of the most impressive and 
characteristic educators of Clarksville, taught a 
" school for young ladies." She certainly laid the 
solid foundation of many excellent educations. 

White Hall, a select boarding and literary school 
for young women, six miles in the country, was estab- 
lished and managed by Miss Mollie Ward, with pro- 
ficient assistants. For years she collected and faith- 
fully taught, not only pupils from this, but all Southern 



286 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

States. Wherever her pupils entered, after being 
trained for any length of time under the White Hall 
discipline, they took high standing. There were 
teachers of music, Professors Wendle and Herblin, and 
French Professors, Guillet and Manton,'all graduates 
from the old country. 

Clarksville was advancing in material wealth, 
pioneer days had passed, and there arose a general 
clamor for more permanent and advanced schools. The 
representative people seriously discussed the matter, 
and declared, " We must have improved home schools 
for young people." Under the leadership of Rev. 
Henry Beaumont, a local Methodist preacher, measures 
were taken to establish an academy for girls. The re- 
sult was the Clarksville Female Academy, as a char- 
tered institution of learning, was organized in 1846, 
the charter having been granted by the Tennessee 
Legislature of that year. 

The necessary funds were raised by a stock company, 
chiefly by the efforts of the Methodists of the town 
and vicinity, liberally aided by other denominations, 
and many of no denominational proclivities. The 
Tennessee Annual Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church South took thirty-two shares of stock 
$800 in the institution. The Academy opened 
auspiciously, and was satisfactorily conducted with 
constantly increasing attendance until 1852, when the 
charter was amended, and the institution reorganized. 
In 1854 a new board of directors was elected and the 
capital stock largely increased, and the trustees were 
enabled to enlarge the building. 

During the first decade of its existence the Acad- 
emy had three presidents, and began the second decade 
under the management of Rev. A. L. Hamilton of 
Alabama. From 1856 to 1861 the Academy enjoyed 
great prosperity. The annual enrollment was between 
three and four hundred, between two and three hun- 
dred of whom were boarders. During this period, lec- 
tures, " soirees musicale," and literary evenings with 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 287 

social features added, were in order, and the week of 
examinations at the end of the long term was con- 
cluded with a grand " reception." 

The school was closed by the war and the building 
was used as a hospital for Federal troops. In 1866 
the building was repaired, and school opened October, 
1866, with very good prospects, with Rev. J. B. West, 
D. D., principal. 

In 1882 the old building was replaced by a commo- 
dious modern building, furnished with suitable appli- 
ances for teaching. The course of study is divided 
into primary, including kindergarten; intermediate, 
two years ; academic, two years ; collegiate, four years, 
and post-graduate courses. To these courses are 
added the schools of music, art, elocution, and voice 
culture. When Mrs. Buford took charge of the school 
in 1884 she introduced the university course of Bible 
study. She also raised the standard to suit modern 
requirements. 

The literary society of the Academy in ante bellum 
days was called The Irving, in honor of Washington 
Irving. The literary societies of the present time are, 
the Philolethian motto, " The beaten track is the safe 
one " ; the Hypatian motto, " To be is better than to 
seem." These societies edit The Academian, a period- 
ical that would do credit to any college class. 

The original charter granted the Academy power to 
confer honors, certificates, diplomas, and degrees upon 
all worthy students of the school. The curriculum 
adopted was the curriculum required to obtain the de- 
gree of A. B. The degree of A. M. is conferred upon 
post-graduates. The degree of B. M. (Bachelor of 
Music) is conferred upon those who finish the course 
in music on the piano; the degree of B. P. (Bachelor 
of Painting) is conferred upon those who finish the 
course in painting : the degree of M. E. L. upon those 
who finish an English course. Although not so called, 
the Academy has always been a college. 

("History of Clarksville Academy," by Mrs. 



288 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Nannie H. William. Catalogues and correspond- 
ence. ) 

Rogersville Synodical College, Rogersville, Tennessee, 
1849-1908 

Rogersville Synodical College is a corporation, char- 
tered under the laws of the State of Tennessee, and is 
authorized to confer degrees, diplomas, and other hon- 
orary testimonials, and the possessors of these honors 
shall be entitled to all of the privileges and immunities 
allowed by statute and usage to the recipients of 
like testimonials from other colleges of the State. The 
College is the property of the Synod of Nashville 
(Presbyterian), and is under direct control of a board 
of trustees appointed by the Synod, whose object is 
the maintenance of a first-class college for girls in the 
interest of Christian education. (Catalogue for 1901- 
1902.) 

This school was organized in 1849 by the Odd Fel- 
lows, whose purpose was to establish a non-denomina- 
tional school of collegiate grade for girls. Although 
the school was very successful, the cost of the buildings 
far exceeded the expectation of the founders and they 
determined to sell the property. It was purchased by 
a joint stock company composed of the membership 
of the Old and New School Presbyterians of the town, 
and continued to prosper until the Federal troops oc- 
cupied East Tennessee. After the war the property 
was sold several times before it came into the posses- 
sion of its present owners. 

The school was in a languishing condition until the 
incumbency of Rev. J. W. Bachman, D. D., in 1871-74, 
but since that time its growth has been rapid but 
steady. The buildings have been remodeled and sup- 
plied with modern conveniences. The property is 
valued at $6o,coo and is free from debt. The school 
has had almost uninterrupted prosperity, having never 
been closed since its commencement in 1849. I* nas 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 289 

had a long line of presidents, the first of whom was 
Rev. Wm. D. Jones, D. D., and the thirteenth Rev. 
T. P. Walton, the present incumbent all of them, 
except Prof. H. B. Todd and Mrs. F. A. Ross, minis- 
ters of the Gospel. The school now has prospects for 
greater usefulness and success than ever. 

(Sources of information are Merriam's "Higher 
Education in Tennessee," catalogues, and letters from 
Rev. T. P. Walton.) 

Mary Sharp College, Winchester, Tennessee, 1850- 

1908 

This college was established under the name of The 
Tennessee and Alabama Institute, in Winchester, 
Tennessee, in 1850. Dr. Z. C. Graves was the first 
president. He began under very discouraging circum- 
stances, as the building was not finished for three years 
after the opening of the school, it owned no apparatus 
or " helps " of any kind, and had no funds. After a 
time Mrs. Mary Sharp, a wealthy widow, made a gift 
to the school, and its name was changed to Mary Sharp 
College. 

This college claims to be a real college, having the 
same curriculum and requiring the same amount of 
work for the degrees of A. B. and A. M. as is required 
in colleges for men. The standard of scholarship has 
always been high, the courses of study comprehensive 
and advanced, the training careful and thorough. The 
course in mathematics is quite severe. The high 
standard and the success of the school is mainly due to 
Dr. Graves, who had great gifts as a teacher; how- 
ever, he had able colleagues, who contributed much to 
the success of the school. Mary Sharp claims that she 
was the first college that made Greek a requisite for 
graduation. She appealed to Hon. John Eaton, Com- 
missioner of Education, to sustain her claim, and he 
answered that no college that had communicated with 



290 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

his office had made Latin and Greek a sine qua non for 
the degree of A. B. prior to 1853. 

While the standard of literary excellence has been 
high, comparatively little attention has been paid to 
music and art ; and so far as the writer could ascertain, 
Mary Sharp has not extended her curriculum so as to 
embrace practical or commercial courses of study. 
Mary Sharp has had three presidents. Dr. Z. C. 
Graves, who was president thirty-nine years, was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. John L. Johnson, D. D., LL. D. ; Dr. 
Johnson resigned in 1891 and was succeeded by Rev. 
Otis Malvin Sutton. Mary Sharp is a Baptist insti- 
tution. It sustains no official relation to the church, 
but two-thirds of its twenty-five trustees must be Bap- 
tists. The College is sustained entirely by tuition fees, 
never having had an endowment fund. 

.(The writer has had a knowledge of the require- 
ments of Mary Sharp for some years, having prepared 
pupils for entrance to the College. For a more de- 
tailed account see Merriam's " History of Higher Edu- 
cation in Tennessee.") 

Cumberland Female College, McMinnville, Tennessee, 
1850-1908 

Cumberland College was organized in 1850 and 
placed under the management and control of the Mid- 
dle Tennessee Synod of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. It was located in the town of McMinnville, 
in Middle Tennessee, at the foot of the Cumberland 
range, which is in full view east and south. The war 
forced the school to close and left of its building noth- 
ing but naked walls. Despite the disheartening pros- 
pect, the building was refitted and the school reopened, 
and it is now on a firmer basis than ever. In 1888 
the board of trustees leased the property and trans- 
ferred the financial management to the Cumberland 
Female College Association for a term of years, re- 
taining for themselves only such duties as the char- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 291 

ter renders obligatory. The College has in all depart- 
ments twelve teachers. It has had five presidents. 
(From catalogue.) 

Brownsville College, Brownsville, Tennessee, 1851 

In 1850 the Baptist Church in Brownsville sub- 
scribed $io,oco for the purpose of securing the loca- 
tion of a college for girls in or near Brownsville. 
What action the Baptist General Convention took in 
this matter is not now known. However, the Browns- 
ville school obtained a charter in 1852 under the legal 
name of West Tennessee Baptist Female College. 

The members of the first board of trustees were ap- 
pointed by the West Tennessee Baptist Convention. 
Thereafter the board was self-perpetuating. The 
school remained the property of the West Tennessee 
Baptist Convention until the latter was merged in the 
Baptist General Convention of Tennessee in 1874. 
Since that time it has been owned by the Brownsville 
Baptist Church, although controlled by the self-per- 
petuating board of trustees. 

The College was opened in September, 1851, with 
Rev. Harvey Ball, professor of languages, in charge. 
Rev. John B. White, A. M., president of Wake For- 
est College, North Carolina, was called to the presi- 
dency, but owing to sickness in his family did not 
definitely enter upon his duties until September, 1853. 
Rev. Dr. William Shelton was president from 1856 to 
1866. During the war the college was suspended and 
Dr. Shelton taught a private school in the buildings. 
Brownsville College was fortunate enough not to 
suffer any loss to her grounds and buildings from war. 

The most elementary instruction is given, at the 
same time calculus, Greek, astronomy, and Anglo- 
Saxon are taught. For Mistress of Arts, the highest 
degree of the institution, successful examinations must 
be passed in the schools of English, Latin, French, 
German, natural science, mental and moral science, 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

mathematics, history, political economy, and civics. 
Greek, calculus, Anglo-Saxon, and Spanish are offered 
as optional studies. 

(Merriam's " Higher Education in Tennessee.") 

Tennessee Female College, Franklin, Tennessee 

Tennessee Female College was established chiefly 
through the efforts of John Marshall, a gifted lawyer 
of Franklin. The school was placed under the patron- 
age of the Tennessee Annual Conference of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church South. "The ownership of the 
property was vested in a stock company. The school 
was chartered in 1856 and opened in 1857. John M. 
Sharp was the first president and a Mr. Callendar the 
second. After the fall of Fort Donelson the school 
was closed, and after the battle of Franklin the college 
buildings were used as a hospital for wounded soldiers. 

The school was opened again in 1865, but did not 
prosper under the management of Mr. Callaghan, and 
in 1868 the property was sold to Dr. R. K. Hargrove 
for $10,000, the amount of its indebtedness. The 
school remained under the management of Dr. Har- 
grove and Professor William J. Vaughn, now of Van- 
derbilt University, for twelve years. They raised the 
standard of the institution above the ordinary schools 
for girls in Tennessee. In 1880 Mrs. M. E. Clark 
leased the property for five years and at the expiration 
of her lease it was purchased by Mr. Thomas Edger- 
ton. In 1886 the buildings were burned. It was re- 
built by a stock company and the school continued 
under the management of Mr. Edgerton. In 1893 the 
school was leased by Rev. Wilbur F. Wilson, under 
whose management it still remains. 

The course of instruction includes primary, inter- 
mediate, and collegiate departments. It also has facili- 
ties for instruction in music and art. 

(Merriam's " Higher Education in Tennessee.") 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 



Soule College, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 1852-1908 

The predecessor of this college was " The Old Acad- 
emy " on the hill. It was chartered in 1830. (See 
Records of Rutherford County.) 

In 1852 the charter of this academy was amended 
so as to grant the power of conferring degrees and all 
the privileges usually granted to colleges, and Soule 
College was established. The buildings were not com- 
pleted until 1853. About the middle of the session of 
1852-53 the school was transferred to the new build- 
ing. The presidents were: Prof. J. R. Finley, 1852- 
1853; Rev. S. D. Baldwin, 1853-1856; Prof. C. W. 
Callendar, 1856-1858; Rev. George E. Naff, 1858 
Feb., 1862. The war suspended the exercises from 
February, 1862, to January, 1866. Rev. J. R. Plum- 
mer, 1866-1868; Rev. D. D. Moore, 1868-1874; Rev. 
J. D. West, 1874-1877; Rev. B. R. Thomson, 1877- 
1889; Rev. Z. C. Graves, 1889-1892; Miss O. V. 
Wardlaw, A. M., 1892 

Mr. Baldwin was the author of " Armageddon." 
Dr. Graves had made a reputation for building up 
schools at Mary Sharp, and the management secured 
his services to restore Soule College to its former 
flourishing state. Thus for a time the school passed 
into the hands of the Baptists; but it was not in the 
nature of human events that a school named Soule 
and baptized in that name, could be merged and sub- 
merged, and after a while it emerged and found its 
proper place under the management of Miss Wardlaw. 

The first graduating class, 1853, consisted of Miss 
Josephine Plummer and Miss Sallie Higgins. Mrs. 
Sue F. Mooney in a letter to the author says of Miss 
Wardlaw's management, " It would be impossible to 
say too much in praise of this administration, both as 
to regime, religion, home life of students and financial 
management. I think it in all these respects a model 
school, and I know whereof I speak." Mrs. Mooney 



294 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

was a member of the second graduating class, a teacher 
in the institution, and has always had much interest in 
the school. 

Preparatory and academic schools are conducted in 
connection with Soule College; and in addition to the 
regular college curriculum there are the departments 
of music, art, and elocution. The degrees conferred 
are A. B. and B. S. and the course in art, music, and 
vocal music leads to a diploma. 

The school again became the property of the M. E. 
Church South in 1904. 

(The information contained in this sketch was ob- 
tained from a letter from Mrs. Mooney, one from Mr. 
De Jarnatt, and a catalogue sent by Miss Wardlaw.) 

Columbia Athenaeum, Columbia, Tennessee, 1852- 

1908 

The Columbia Athenaeum was opened on September 
i, 1852. Its founder, Rev. Franklin G. Smith, a 
graduate of Princeton College, and his no less accom- 
plished wife, Sarah Ann Smith, had previous to this 
time achieved enviable reputation as teachers not only 
in Columbia, but in Lynchburg, Virginia. 

In 1858 the Legislature of the State granted a char- 
ter to the Columbia Athenaeum, giving full university 
privileges, with power to confer degrees. 

In August, 1866, Rev. Franklin G. Smith closed his 
earthly labors, leaving to his wife the direction of the 
school, which trust was successfully administered until 
her decease in January, 1871, when the Athenaeum 
passed under the personal direction of their eldest son, 
Robert D. Smith. The Athenaeum of to-day, there- 
fore, fairly represents and embodies the accumulated 
experience of more than half a century in the care and 
training of the young. While it keeps abreast with 
the progressive tendency of the times, it is pervaded, 
nevertheless, by the traditions of an honorable past 
that renders its policy conservative, as befits the alma 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 295 

mater of our daughters, now numbered by the thou- 
sands, and widely scattered both in this and foreign 
lands. The Athenaeum grounds, comprising about 
sixteen acres of high rolling land, are located at the 
western edge of Columbia, the county-seat of Maury 
County, Tennessee. 

The school buildings occupy a broad eminence com- 
manding an extensive view of the town and surround- 
ing country. They consist of Study Hall, a Doric 
structure; Davis Hall, the boarding department; 
rotunda, pavilion, gymnasium, and rectory. The 
grounds and buildings are valued at $100,000. Be- 
sides the gymnasium building and its numerous appli- 
ances, there are a tennis court and croquet grounds. 
The library contains 10,000 volumes, and is one of the 
appointed depositories of the United States Govern- 
ment publications. The museum contains specimens 
in all departments of natural history. It is a very 
valuable collection, properly classified and labelled. 
Chemical, physical and astronomical apparatus, costing 
$6,000, include all that is necessary for experiments in 
the department of physical science. The art depart- 
ment contains a fine collection of the finest paintings. 
The music department is well equipped. The commer- 
cial and industrial departments are supplied with all 
necessary material for conducting and illustrating 
actual business. 

The course of instruction is divided into a primary 
course of three years, a preparatory course of four 
years, and a collegiate course of four years. The de- 
grees granted are B. A., B. S., and B. Lt. 

The annual enrollment during the fifty years of the 
Athenaeum's history has varied from 125 to 30. In- 
cluding the president the Athenaeum employs twenty- 
three officers and teachers. 



296 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

CHAPTER XXVI 
Early Schools in Texas 

FOR a time both Spaniards and the French claimed 
Texas, but the Spaniards succeeded in establishing 
their claim, and they rapidly increased settlements not 
only in the southern part of Texas, but established 
some settlements in the northern and eastern parts of 
the State. These settlements were called sometimes 
" Presidios " and sometimes " Missions " ; in reality 
they were both. No settlement could be made without 
a " presidio " or garrison for soldiers ; and usually 
wherever a presidio was located a church was built 
near by, and in connection with the church a monastery 
for the priests; the whole, including many acres of 
land, was enclosed by a wall. At each of these " pre- 
sidios " there was a school ; not a literary school, but a 
school to teach the tenets of the Roman Catholic faith ; 
a school for the conversion of the Indians to that faith. 
Church and state were firmly united in Mexico at that 
time, and the church allowed no schools to exist save 
those taught by priests, and if any attempt was made 
to violate the law, the teacher and patrons were liable 
to heavy fine or imprisonment or both. Therefore, 
schoolhouses were seldom if ever built, and schools 
were taught in private residences, or under the trees. 

The first American school in Texas was taught 
under four large oaks which grew near a residence in 
the vicinity of Victoria. 

The text-books were just what any pupil happened 
to have; some of the books were Pike's Arithmetic, 
Murray's Grammar, Smith's Grammar, Peter Parley's 
History, and the Bible; there were a few slates, but no 
blackboard ; however, everybody had a " blue-back 
speller." With this slender equipment the pioneer 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 297 

children were prepared for the stern realities that 
awaited them, and judging from the results obtained, 
they were well prepared. 

After Texas gained her independence schools multi- 
plied rapidly; of course all primary schools were co- 
educational, and the schools of higher grade were co- 
educational or not, according to the views of the sec- 
tion of the State in which they were located. 

The American population usually settled in colonies, 
and when single families immigrated to Texas they 
drifted to the colonies that had emigrated from their 
own section of the country. These colonies retained 
the opinions and practices of the home section on edu- 
cational methods, politics, and religion. Hence in dif- 
ferent sections of Texas widely different views on 
these subjects were entertained. This was particularly 
noticeable in regard to schools. In some sections all 
schools were co-educational, in others separate schools 
for boys and girls were maintained. 

Notwithstanding the Republic of Texas made liberal 
provision for schools, the early schools of a higher 
grade were denominational schools. 

The Methodists entered this field of activity at an 
early date. Rev. Martin Ruter, first missionary to 
Texas, visited Houston in the latter part of 1837, and 
preached before Congress and made a fine impression 
on the officers of the government. Consulting with 
leading men, he laid plans for the establishment of a 
literary institution. However, these plans did not def- 
initely locate the institution in Houston, though that 
seems to have been Dr. Ruter's intention. After his 
death in May, 1838, his friends formed a company, 
and bought a league of land near Rutersville, and 
located the college there. 

The school was opened to pupils in the fall of 1838, 
and its charter was approved February 5, 1840, undei 
the name of Rutersville College, and according to the 
terms of the charter it had the usual powers granted 
to colleges. 



298 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

By the liberality of the Texas Congress and private 
individuals, Rutersville College received a large en- 
dowment of land ; but the trustees had no money, and 
this land was sold and bartered to erect buildings, to 
pay teachers, and pay mechanics. Good buildings 
were erected and the best teachers available employed, 
and thus the endowment was expended, and the people 
had the benefit of a good school, that exerted no in- 
considerable influence throughout central and western 
Texas. 

After the endowment was expended the school be- 
came dependent on tuition fees, and in 1847 ceased to 
be a Conference school, but continued until 1850, when 
it was consolidated with the Monumental Institute, a 
school established on an undenominational basis. 
This school retained the original charter powers of the 
Rutersville College, and the charter was amended 
August 6, 1856, changing the name to Monumental 
and Military Institute, otherwise retaining the same 
powers. This last arrangement continued until 1861, 
when the majority of the men left college halls for the 
army. This so much reduced the number of students 
that the school did not reopen in the fall, and the con- 
ditions during the Reconstruction period were such as 
to forbid any attempt to reopen the college. Thus 
passed out of existence the first college established in 
Texas. 

McKenzie Institute, Clarksville, Texas, 1840-1908 

McKenzie Institute was commenced as a private co- 
educational school by Rev. J. W. P. McKenzie, near 
ClarksVille, Red River County, in 1839 or 1840. It 
soon became very popular, and the annual attendance 
was from 200 to 300. The school had been in active 
work about fifteen years when Mr. McKenzie applied 
for a charter, which was approved February 5, 1854. 
The charter name was McKenzie Institute, but it was 
really a college, as the charter granted the power to 
grant diplomas and confer degrees. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 299 

In 1859 Dr. McKenzie donated the buildings and 
grounds, valued at $40,000, to the trustees for the 
East Texas Conference. In 1860 the charter was 
amended by changing the name to McKenzie College. 
This school was always co-educational. 

The War between the States very materially inter- 
fered with the prosperity of the school, and the attend- 
ance has never been so large since 1860 as it was prior 
to that date. The school is now correlated with the 
Southwestern University, and recognized as a training 
school for that institution. 



Chappell Hill College, Chappell Hill, Texas, 1850-1908 

In 1850 the citizens of Chappell Hill established 
schools for boys and girls. These schools were suc- 
cessful as to numbers, and were taught by the best 
teachers obtainable. While the schools were satisfac- 
tory as grammar schools, the citizens desired some- 
thing higher a more advanced course for their chil- 
dren, and in 1855 Soule College for men and Chappell 
Hill Female College for women were established. 
These colleges were partially endowed, but this fund 
was rendered unavailable by the results of the War 
between the States ; however, the college for girls con- 
tinued to receive pupils, depending solely upon tuition 
fees. The first interruption to the work of the College 
was in 1867, when a visitation of yellow fever caused 
the closing of the school, and for a time it was dis- 
organized; but in 1870 it was reorganized, and still 
continues to do good work, though it is not now rec- 
ognized as a first-class college. 

* 

Paine Institute, Coliad, Texas, 1854 

Another school of high grade established by the 
Methodists was Paine Institute, which was opened to 
pupils in 1854, and was chartered August 6, 1856. By 
the terms of this charter the Institute w r as empowered 



300 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

to grant diplomas and to confer degrees. The school 
became popular immediately but labored under the dis- 
advantage of being in debt, until 1868, when the $2,000 
then due was paid. 

This school had a fair degree of success for more 
than twenty-six years, then it was made a part of the 
public-school system. 

The next year, 1855, the Methodists established 
Paris Female Institute, in Paris, and the Starkville 
Female High School in Starkville. However, pre- 
vious to the establishment of these schools the same 
denomination had established Waco Female Academy 
in 1850. The charter of this school was approved 
December 31, 1850. No mention is made of honors 
in this charter, but it was amended or changed August 
7, 1856, and then the name was changed to Waco 
Female Seminary, and the trustees were empowered 
to grant diplomas and confer degrees. The school 
then became the property of the Methodist Confer- 
ence. 

In the Acts of the Legislature of Texas, Volumes 
VII and VIII, may be found the charters of Waco 
Academy, granted August 15, 1856, and of the Union 
Female Institute, granted February 16, 1858; also the 
act by which the Academy, the Seminary previously 
mentioned, and the Waco Institute were consolidated. 
This act was passed February, 1860, and the name and 
style of the school henceforth was Waco Female Col- 
lege, which under this charter has all the powers and 
privileges usually granted to colleges. 

This school was never endowed, but for many years 
had a large patronage. Notwithstanding, a heavy 
debt was incurred, and in 1895 or 1896 the property 
was sold to liquidate this debt, and the school passed 
out of existence after a successful career of about one- 
half century. 

Another Methodist college for girls was Segiiin Col- 
lege, established in Seguin in 1858, and continued in 
successful operation until 1895, when the patronage 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 301 

began to decrease, and somewhat later it was incor- 
porated in the public-school system. 

Wesley College, San Augustine, Texas, 1842 

As Rutersville College was in the western part of the 
State, almost on the frontier, the Methodists thought 
best to establish a college in the northeastern part of 
the State. Accordingly, in 1842, they asked for a 
charter for a college to be located in San Augustine. 
As was Rutersville, so Wesley College was co-educa- 
tional. For a time it was very popular and gave to 
hundreds of young women an opportunity to acquire 
a collegiate training, which otherwise they could not 
have had. 

The College was not endowed, and depended en- 
tirely on tuition fees for its maintenance. There was 
trouble about the title, and the East Texas Conference 
relinquished all claims to the property; however, the 
school continued under local management and patron- 
age until 1868, when the buildings were destroyed by 
fire during the session of the East Texas Conference 
in San Augustine. 

Baylor College, Belton, Texas, 1845-1908 

While the Methodists were the pioneers and actively 
engaged in establishing schools for boys and girls, the 
Baptists were not idle or indifferent. The first college 
established by them was Baylor College and Baylor 
University. The charter of this institution was 
granted by the Republic of Texas, February i, 1845. 
Thus the establishment of this college antedated the 
admission of Texas into the Union as a State. The 
design of the Baptist fathers in Texas was to establish 
in what was then a frontier region an institution of 
high rank for the education of their sons and 
daughters. 

Baylor College was at first only a department or 



302 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

annex to the University; but this plan did not meet 
the approval of those interested in the school, and after 
a trial of twelve years of co-education the board of 
managers decided to make the departments separate 
schools, and the department for girls was chartered 
under the name of Baylor College, and committed to 
its own board of control and trustees. 

In 1851 Mr. Horace Clark was elected principal of 
the girls' department, and in 1867, when the College 
was established, he became its first president. He held 
this position some ten years. During this time the in- 
stitution gained a State-wide reputation. 

This institution was first located at Independence, 
but in 1885 the State Convention decreed the removal 
of the College to Belton. The citizens of Belton fur- 
nished the building. 

The buildings are a main building, a T-shaped 
structure of cut stone, three stories in height, modern 
in style of architecture, and furnished with modern 
conveniences. Surrounding this building are a num- 
ber of resident cottages, dining-hall, laundry, and en- 
gine-room; and just outside the campus are the 
alumnae cottages, seven in number ; a building for the 
accommodation of the industrial department of the 
college, " Cottage Home/' a building of cement blocks, 
three stories in height ; and a new administration build- 
ing. 

The equipment consists of chemical and philosophi- 
cal apparatus well suited for all experiments and illus- 
trations necessary for the study of the natural 
sciences; a museum, consisting of minerals, fossils, 
botanical and zoological specimens, and articles of his- 
toric or ethnological interest; a library of well-chosen 
books, selected from standard authors ; and each of the 
societies the Historical and Academia has a library, 
one of which is the Effie Smythe Memorial Library 
founded by Mr. T. V. Smythe in memory of his 
daughter Effie, who was a member of the Academia 
Society. There are also a reading-room, a large sup- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 303 

ply of instruments for the music department, and the 
necessary outfit for the art department. 

When Baylor College was a part of Baylor Uni- 
versity of course the curriculum was the same for boys 
and girls. After the separation the standard was not 
lowered, but raised if any change was made. It has 
always been an institution of high rank. 

The motto of the College has always been, " A 
liberal education with true womanliness." Its aim is 
to cultivate the intellect and at the same time to pre- 
serve and perfect the truest womanhood. 

The degrees conferred are Bachelor of Literature, 
Bachelor of Science, and Bachelor of Arts. Diplomas 
and certificates are conferred on pupils of music and 
art who complete the prescribed course in these depart- 
ments. 

The College also offers a post-graduate course, and 
on those who successfully complete this course the de- 
gree of M. A. Mistress of Arts is conferred. 

Baylor claims to be the pioneer in higher education 
of women in Texas, but this claim is not well founded. 
Rutersville College was founded seven years prior to 
the establishment of Baylor, and on the same plan 
co-educational. Though Rutersville did not obtain a 
charter when founded, it did obtain one prior to the 
establishment of Baylor. 

These three colleges Rutersville, 1838, Wesley 
College, 1842, and Baylor College, 1845 were tne 
three pioneer colleges established in Texas. The first 
and second were Methodist institutions. 

The interest in education, especially the education of 
girls, was increasing about as rapidly as the popula- 
tion was increasing, and during the decade from 1850 
to 1860 eleven schools of high grade were established. 
With few exceptions these were discontinued by war. 
Some were merged into the public-school system as 
high schools; one yet remains independent. 



304 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



Margaret Houston Female College, Danger-field, 1856 

While the Methodists were busy establishing schools, 
the Baptists were not idle. They began very early to 
foster the cause of education, and established one col- 
lege in 1845, and another, the Margaret Houston, in 
1856. This college was under the direct supervision 
of the Baptist Convention and a board of fifteen 
trustees ; the teachers were to be known as professors, 
and the property was limited to $300,000. The char- 
ter was approved August i, 1856. 

Undenominational Schools 

From the list of schools chartered by the Legislature 
the following list of schools for girls has been ob- 
tained : 

Union Academy, Washington County, chartered 
February 4, 1840. 

Wheelock Academy, Wheelock, Robertson County, 

1847. 

Mount Vernon Academy, Titus County, January 24, 
1850. 

Richmond Academy, Richmond, Fort Bend County, 
February 13, 1852. 

Bastrop Academy, Bastrop, January 24, 1852. 
This academy was established by an Educational As- 
sociation, and its charter granted the power to grant 
diplomas and confer degrees. 

Linden Academy, December 15, 1853. 

New Danville Masonic Academy, January 24, 1854. 

Comal Union School, San Marcos, Comal County, 
1852. 

Shearn Union School, November 30, 1853. 

Undenominational Institutes and Colleges 
LaGrange Female Institute, LaGrange, Fayette 
County, 1846. 

Galveston Seminary, Galveston, Galveston County, 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 305 

was an interdenominational school, though the Metho- 
dists were the leaders in the movement by which the 
school was established. Notwithstanding the fact that 
the Galveston City Land Company, at its first meeting 
April 13, 1838, set apart one block of land for a col- 
lege for men, and three valuable and eligible lots for 
a seminary for girls, the citizens did not make use of 
this valuable gift for some years after the city had 
attained considerable size. Schools by private indi- 
viduals were taught from 1838 and down to the present 
day, but no school of any importance was established 
in Galveston until 1843, when the Galveston Seminary 
was opened to pupils, with the Misses C. S. and E. M. 
Cobb as principals. The school obtained a charter in 
1849, but it was not until 1857 that the new building 
erected on the ground donated in 1838 was ready for 
use. 

Masonic Female Institute, Marshall, Titus County, 
January 24, 1850. 

Cold Springs Collegiate Institute, Cold Springs, 
1852. Conferred usual degrees. 

Henderson Female College, Henderson, Rusk 
County, 1856. 

Milam Institute, Cameron, Milam County, August 
5, 1856. 

Mound Prairie Institute, 1856. This was a college 
proper, situated a short distance north of Palestine, 
Anderson County. It had " full powers to confer de- 
grees, and the rights and privileges of any college or 
university in the State." 

Private Schools 

Mrs. C. H. Wright, a teacher of many years' experi- 
ence and great reputation, took charge of the Mata- 
gorda Academy. This school had been in existence 
many years, but so far as the record shows never was 
chartered. Notwithstanding, the course was the 
usual academic course. 



306 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Several such schools were taught in Houston, and 
according to the advertisements in the Houston Tele- 
graph, these schools were of high-school grade; the 
modern and ancient languages and higher mathematics 
were taught. However, some were more popular and 
continued longer than others. Among this class was 
the school taught by Mr. A. M. Ruter and Miss C. 
Ruter, which commenced April 7, 1856, and continued 
several years. 

On the ist of October, 1856, Mr. and Mrs. Bolinger 
opened the Houston Male and Female Academy in 
the Masonic Temple on a permanent basis. This 
school seems to have been modeled on the collegiate 
plan; its divisions were primary, junior, middle and 
senior classes. The curriculum was in part : Algebra, 
geometry, natural and moral philosophy, chemistry, 
mensuration, trigonometry, Latin, French. Mr. 
James A. Bolinger, the principal of this school, was a 
native of Kentucky, and had made quite a reputation 
before casting his lot in Houston. His first announce- 
ment informed the citizens that they would have an 
opportunity to give their children a classical education. 
The name was changed to Bolinger Academy, and 
judging from the favorable notices of this Academy in 
the Houston Telegraph it had a successful career until 
closed by the chaos of Reconstruction days. Certainly 
there were some pleasant times connected with it. One 
of these was a May-day picnic in 1858. On this oc- 
casion the different classes were distinguished by 
badges the primary by green, the junior by pink, the 
middle by blue, and the senior by white ; and each class 
had a banner of the same color as its badge. The 
school formed in line on Court-house Square, and 
headed by Fisher's Band, marched to the Tap Road 
Station. A short run landed them in a grove near 
Bray's Bayou. Here eighty speeches by thirty queens 
and fifty knights were made, and ten dialogues recited. 
One of these is especially mentioned. It was supposed 
to be a conversation between a Yankee and a British 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 307 

general; the boys representing these characters were 
Ed. Taylor and John Hale. After this exercise the 
dinner, which had been prepared by the parents of the 
pupils, was served. Unless the speeches were very 
short, the dinner must have been served about the 
middle of the afternoon, and by that time every one 
was very hungry. 

Houston Academy 

This seems to have been a favorite name for schools 
of higher grade than the common schools. Several 
schools established at different times and taught by 
different faculties have borne this name; but the one 
which has been known longest and the only chartered 
school of that name was established by an " Educa- 
tional Association " which was formed in the early part 
of 1853. The members of this Association were Col. 
Ashbel Smith, Messrs. Cornelius Ennis, L. J. Palmer, 
B. A. Shepherd, Wm. J. Hutchins, Wm. M. Rice, 
P. W. Gray, T. W. House, Sr., Henry Sampson, A. J. 
Burke, M. D. Conklin, Wm. Baker, B. B. Botts, L. J. 
Palmer, and some others whose names have not been 
recorded. A number of these men subscribed $1,000 
each, and Mr. Ennis, or rather Mrs. Ennis, gave one 
block of ground instead of the money. The present 
Houston High School stands on the same block of 
ground. 

The Association elected a board of trustees, and of 
this board Mr. B. A. Shepherd was president. These 
trustees applied for a charter, which was approved 
August 29, 1856. This charter empowered the 
trustees to grant diplomas and to confer degrees. 

The building erected was a two-story brick struc- 
ture, and cost $30,000. The school was opened to 
pupils October, 1857, with Col. Ashbel Smith, prin- 
cipal, and a competent corps of teachers. Colonel 
Smith retained the position only a few months, and 
was succeeded by Mr. Petit, who continued in charge 
of the school until June, 1860, when he resigned and 



808 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

was succeeded by Dr. J. R. Hutchison. Dr. Hutchi- 
son was removed by the military authorities of the 
Confederate States, who converted the building into a 
hospital. At the time of this removal Dr. Hutchison's 
enrollment was 150. After Dr. Hutchison left the 
Academy he taught a private school in Turner Hall K 
where he also preached to the Presbyterian congrega- 
tion until their church, which had been destroyed by 
fire, could be rebuilt. 

Although the school commenced in 1857, the school 
building was not completed until 1858. In the mean- 
time the school was taught in rooms in the Masonic 
Temple. In November, 1858, Mr. B. A. Shepherd, 
president of the board of trustees, announced through 
the columns of the Houston Telegraph that the build- 
ing was completed and would be occupied by the school 
December i, 1858. He also gives the views of the 
board and the friends of the institution. " The chief 
object of the Institution will be to impart a thorough 
English and practical education. Mathematics, pure 
and applied, will be taught to those wishing to acquire 
such knowledge, as extensively and as thoroughly as 
in any of the American colleges. Latin, Greek, 
French, and German will also be taught. A small 
chemical apparatus and a few philosophical instru- 
ments have been purchased and others will be bought 
as occasion requires." 

In 1865 the trustees regained possession of the 
building, and in the fall of that year once more school 
began, with Mr. J. A. Hancock as principal. The 
school flourished, and very soon the enrollment was 
150, a large school for the size of the place. 

The school continued fairly prosperous, though other 
schools were established in the city. Some seven or 
eight small schools and two of equal grade with the 
Academy were taught in different parts of the city 
until 1879, when the citizens decided to adopt the pub- 
lic-school system. Then the Academy became the 
high school, and these small schools were city schools. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 309 

Much has been added to the curriculum of the " Old 
Academy," but the lovely old ladies who were the 
graduates of the old school compare very favorably 
with the " sweet girl graduates " to-day. Indeed, it 
would be very difficult to equal the record made by 
the women trained in the schools of the first half of the 
nineteenth century, no matter what the equipment or 
the methods, or courses of study. 

The schools mentioned in these sketches are not all 
the schools established for girls and women in the 
Southern States, but they are a sufficient number, and 
so widely scattered over the country that they will 
show the estimate put upon the education of girls in 
the Southern States before 1860, before modern sys- 
tems were introduced. 



310 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



CHAPTER XXVII 
Early Schools in Virginia 

NOTWITHSTANDING the oft-repeated and generally 
received in some sections of our country statement 
that the Virginia colonists were opposed to schools, the 
very reverse is found to be true, as can be shown from 
old records still extant. Of course they had their own 
ideas concerning education; and being loyal English- 
men, they had no desire to abolish the customs of the 
mother country, or to ignore the teachings and tradi- 
tions of their fathers. They were almost without ex- 
ception loyal, devoted churchmen, whether they were 
Christians or not, and as the church taught the doc- 
trine that the education of children should be directed 
by the church and not by the state, of course they did 
not advocate free schools under state control. 

Governor Berkeley's oft-quoted remark, " God grant 
it may be many years before Virginia will have FREE 
schools," when correctly quoted applies to free schools 
and not to schools in general. 

Schools for girls as well as for boys were established 
in Norfolk, Williamsburg, Isle of Wight and other 
places early in the seventeenth century; yet the usual 
plan pursued was the employment of tutors, which was 
necessary because of the distances between plantations 
and from towns. 

However, Boone in his " Education in the United 
States " admits that within ten years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown arrangements were made to estab- 
lish a college and a training school. A hundred labor- 
ers were sent over and were at work on the building, 
under the supervision of a superintendent appointed 
for the special purpose, and a president was elected 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 311 

Rev. Patrick Copeland. Also, in 1621, a preparatory 
school was opened in Charles City. 

All these plans were completely overthrown by an 
Indian massacre which reduced the population from 
10,000 to 8,coo, and deranged all the affairs of the 
colony. This calamity alone prevented Virginia from 
having the first college in the New World. After a 
time, when the colony recovered from the shock of 
this calamity, they renewed their efforts in behalf of 
education, and schools for boys and girls were estab- 
lished in all the towns, and free schools also. One of 
the earliest of the free schools was established in Isle 
of Wight, in 1655, and another in the same place in 
1658. (Isle of Wight Records.) Notices of such 
schools are found in Williamsburgh Quarterly, Vir- 
ginia Gazette, and Isle of Wight Records. These 
schools began about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and were established at intervals during the re- 
mainder of that century and the next, and even in the 
early part of the nineteenth century. They were en- 
dowed, and this endowment was sufficient to meet the 
demands. Both boys and girls were taught in these 
schools. So far as the record shows, the earliest 
schools exclusively for girls, of a higher grade than 
primary, were established in Norfolk and Richmond. 
Miss Whateley's Boarding School for Young Ladies 
was established in Richmond in 1776. (Virginia 
Gazette.) 

The following notice is given in " Richmond By- 
Gone Days," p. 204: "Haller's Academy, 1798-99. 
Haller was a Swiss or German adventurer who estab- 
lished an academy for girls in Richmond. He em- 
ployed good teachers; the teacher of French was 
Monsieur Fremont, father of Col. J. C. Fremont of 
Rocky Mountain fame." 

During the latter half of the eighteenth century (the 
exact date is not given) Mrs. Anne Maria Mead estab- 
lished a boarding school for girls in Norfolk. This 
became very popular, and most of the prominent Vir- 



312 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

ginia girls as well as many girls from other States were 
educated in this school. The school passed into the 
hands of Mr. Le Fevre, the French teacher employed 
by Mrs. Mead. Later Mr. D. Lee Powell had charge 
of the same school ; then Mr. John H. Powell, and 
some others. At the present day Mr. Charles Wil- 
liamson has practically the same school. 

Lynchburg was laid out in 1787, and very early in 
its history began to give attention to education. The 
Lynchburg Star publishes several notices of schools 
very early in the nineteenth century, but does not men- 
tion whether for boys or girls. However, in 1815 
John and Sarah Pryor opened a school for girls, and 
Mrs. Mary B. Deane also had a school for girls. The 
same year Rev. William S. Reid, a Presbyterian min- 
ister, established a school for girls of high grade. It 
was extensively patronized, and continued for many 
years. 

About 1820 Rev. Franklin G. Smith established the 
Lynchburg Seminary, a school of collegiate grade. In 
1832 or 1833 he took charge of a school in Columbia, 
Tennessee, and then the school gradually declined. 

About 1820 the Methodists, under leadership of 
Bishop John Early, established the Buckingham 
Female Collegiate Institute. It was very prosperous, 
and continued many years. 

There were some other schools whose names only 
have been preserved, as Hayes's school for girls, which 
was flourishing in 1843 date of establishment not 
given. Miss Jane McKenzie's school was also a 
flourishing school of this period. The sister of Edgar 
Allan Poe attended this school early in the nineteenth 
century. George Persico taught a popular school for 
girls 1830-1840. These last mentioned were in Rich- 
mond. 

The interest in education so early manifested by the 
people of Lynchburg did not grow dull, but rather in- 
creased, and in 1829 the Misses M. A. and G. Gordon 
opened a school for girls. In 1848 this school had so 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 313 

increased that they built a large brick house for its 
accommodation, and the name was changed to Lynch- 
burg Female Seminary. 

In 1836 Mrs. Botsford and Mrs. Kirkpatrick each 
had a school for girls. 

About 1850, or perhaps earlier, the Montgomery 
Female College at Christiansburg was established, and 
continued until closed by the War between the States. 

None of these schools issued catalogues, or if they 
did they have not been preserved, as none are now 
extant. Therefore, it is impossible to give the curric- 
ula or, any details of them. 

* 

Virginia Institute, Staunton, Virginia, 1833-1908 

About 1833 or 1834 Mrs. Maria Sheffey "opened a 
school which became in 1843 tne Virginia Female In- 
stitute. The Episcopalians of Virginia deemed a 
diocesan school a necessity, and this school was incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $30,000 in shares of 
$100 each. The corner-stone was laid in May, 1846, 
the Masons and the Sons of Templars uniting in the 
procession. 

The early life of the Institute was not prosperous, 
the cost of a suitable lot and the buildings far exceed- 
ing the original estimate. The board sought relief 
from this financial embarrassment through the Con- 
vention of the Diocese of Virginia. New bonds were 
issued, and the public-spirited men of Staunton con- 
tributed liberally to this fund. Seven thousand dol- 
lars was raised and the diocese became the chief stock- 
holder. 

The Rev. James McElroy and Mrs. Sheffey were the 
first principals. Then Mr. B. B. Minor held the posi- 
tion for a short time. In June, 1848, the position was 
tendered to Rev. R. H. Phillips. In January, 1856, 
it was thought best to rent the property to some one 
who would become responsible for the management of 
the school. Rev. R. H. Phillips assumed the respon- 



314 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

sibility and continued in charge until July, 1861, when 
the State of Virginia impressed the buildings for the 
use of the deaf, dumb and blind pupils whose own in- 
stitution in the town had been taken for a hospital. 

The school was not opened again until the fall of 
1865, when the buildings were restored after a petition 
to the House of Delegates then sitting in Richmond. 

Under the wise and judicious administration of Mr. 
Phillips the school enjoyed a long season of prosperity. 

In 1870 a wing was added to be used for a mus'ic 
hall and studio. In 1874 Bishop Johns became presi- 
dent of the board, and Bishop Whittle, vice-president. 
Buring the next few years additions were made to 
the property and modern improvements were intro- 
duced. 

In i$$, after a faithful service f twenty-nine years, 
Mr. Phillips resigned on account of ill health, and on 
the 3*th *f March, 1880, Mrs. Stuart, widow of Gen. 
J. E. B. Stuart, was asked to take charge of the school. 
For more than eighteen years she held the position, and 
those who have been under her care know her wonder- 
ful fitne c s for it. Born and reared on the frontier, 
being the daughter of Gen. Philip St. George Cooke of 
the old Army, her military bias is great, and her vari- 
ous experiences during the War between the States, 
as the wife of a Confederate general, gave her a 
peculiar training in self-control, courage, and those 
stronger qualities which make up noble character. By 
a wonderful ability to read human nature and capacity 
for choosing, she surrounded herself with women of a 
very high order as teachers. It was her aim to secure 
only those whose gentle qualities of mind and soul 
might influence the young to develop the womanly 
traits for which the Southern woman has always been 
distinguished. 

The Institute is not a college proper, but the solid 
and faithful work done by it gives ample preparation 
for a higher college course. However, a diploma from 
the Institute means years of hard and faithful study. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 315 

Bishop Whittle never signed his name to one unless 
he was satisfied that it was merited. The Institute, 
confers three diplomas one for a course in English 
and Latin and one modern language ; one for English, 
and one for music. 

On February 16, 1898, the board met to consider 
the renewal of Mrs. Stuart's lease for another term of 
five years. This done, the important question of re- 
modeling and adding to the building was discussed 
and plans for raising the money on the property sub- 
mitted and officially acted upon. The plan adopted 
was to issue new bonds upon the property by first 
mortgage, by taking up the old debt. The building 
committee toc*k active steps toward the work decided 
upon, and in April, 1898, the first ground was broken 
for the new hall. The work went on through the 
spring and summer, but the opening day of the fifty- 
fifth session found it incomplete, and it was not until 
Thanksgiving that the new dining-hall was used for 
the first time, and the following Monday " Stuart 
Hall " was opened with its new desks and many com- 
forts. 

Few institutions are so blessed in a board of trustees 
and directors as Virginia Institute. These men are 
among Virginia's strongest characters, spiritually and 
intellectually. They embrace those foremost in church 
and state, and have given generously of their time and 
talent. 

A great sorrow came upon the Institution, the 
shadow of which cast a widespread gloom. Mrs. 
Stuart was called to sustain the greatest loss possible 
to her, in the death of her only daughter, who left 
her the care of three small children, and after deep 
and prayerful thought she decided she must give up 
the work which she had for nineteen years carried on 
so faithfully and successfully. She sent in her resigna- 
tion, but the board refused to accept it. A meeting 
was called April 4, 1899, but the business was so great 
that it lasted until the evening of the 5th. Mrs. 



316 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Stuart again sent in her resignation, which was ac- 
cepted after due deliberation. 

The school is well equipped, having twenty-one 
teachers and four officers, the same faculty Mrs. Stuait 
had with few exceptions. The buildings are four mas- 
sive four-story brick buildings, heated by steam and 
lighted with gas. They contain a chapel, large 
gymnasium, well furnished with necessary apparatus; 
ample music-rooms ; large class-rooms ; schoolrooms ; a 
new auditorium with large stage, art studio, library, 
and infirmary. 

The school organization consists of primary, aca- 
demic and collegiate departments. The academic re- 
quires three years, the collegiate four. In addition to 
these courses, the Institute has the departments of 
music, art, elocution and the commercial course; the 
last consists of book-keeping, stenography, and type- 
writing. 

In the sixty-two years of its existence the 
Institute has had only five principals, Mr. McElroy 
and Mrs. Sheffey, associate principals, Mr. Phillips, 
Mrs. Stuart, and Miss Maria Pendleton Duval, the 
present incumbent. Miss Duval has proved a worthy 
successor of the lamented Mrs. Stuart, and has fair 
prospects for continued success. 

(This sketch was prepared by Miss Duval. Only 
a few items, taken from a catalogue sent by her, have 
been added.) 

Mary Baldwin Seminary, S taunt on, Virginia, 1842- 

1908 

The Valley of Virginia was settled by Scotch-Irish- 
men, who are called in history " the most intelligent, 
industrious, and best educated of the English-speaking 
races." Thomas Carlyle says " a man's religion is 
the chief fact in regard to him." The character of 
these people is given in the statement that they were 
mostly Presbyterians; and they built the church and 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 817 

the schoolhouse side by side. It is not surprising then 
to find a school for girls in this little settlement about 
1796. It was taught by Mrs. McGlassau. Following 
Mrs. McGlassau was Monsieur Labas and his wife, 
who taught in " Hilltop," which afterward became a 
part of the Seminary buildings. His successor, Mr. 
Easterbrook, from New England, taught from 1820 
to 1830 at Hilltop. He was well patronized, but for 
some unknown reason went to Knoxville, Tennessee. 
Following him came Mr. Thatcher, also from New 
England. His school was so large as to require several 
teachers, one of whom was Mrs. Sarah Mosby Taylor, 
teacher of drawing and painting. She was a former 
pupil of Mrs. McGlassau. Mr. Thatcher's closing ex- 
hibitions were the delight and talk of the town. In 
1833 Mr. Robert L. Cook, at the request of the Pres- 
byterians, opened a successful boarding-school, the 
boarders being accommodated in private houses. 
These schools were taught in private or rented houses. 

In 1840 the Presbyterians, with a view to establish- 
ing a permanent school, bought from Mrs. David W. 
Pattison a brick-yard near the church, leveled and 
sodded the ground, planted trees, and enclosed it with 
a neat paling fence, but did not build a schoolhouse. 

In 1842 Rev. Rufus Bailey, assisted by his wife and 
two daughters, inaugurated the Augusta Female Semi- 
nary, with neither lot nor building nor funds. Both 
schoolroom and board were furnished by Mr. William 
Craig in the Peck house on Greenville avenue. That 
same year a plan or constitution of the Augusta Female 
Seminary was adopted, the first article of which reads, 
" The founders of this Institution design it to afford 
the means of a thorough literary and religious educa- 
tion to the female youth of this portion of our coun- 
try." The board of fifteen trustees worked to such 
purpose that on June 15, 1844, tne corner-stone of the 
main building was laid. Dr. B. M. Smith delivered 
the address, and Rev. Francis McFarland, president of 
the board, and Rev. R. R. Howison, pastor-elect of the 



318 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

Staunton Church, offered prayers. Within the stone 
were placed The Staunton Spectator; a copper plate 
inscribed with the names of the trustees, officers and 
pupils, the architect, stone-cutter, mason and carpenter ; 
the Holy Bible, wrapped in oil silk, with the super- 
scription, " The only rule of faith, and the first text- 
book of the Augusta Female Seminary." The pupils 
numbered sixty, one of whom was Miss Mary Julia 
Baldwin. Board was $8 and $9 a month, and tuition 
fees $100 and $130 for a session of ten months; music 
was $20 a session, while French, drawing, and paint- 
ing were $10 each. 

From 1849, when Dr. Bailey resigned, until 1863 the 
principals of the Seminary were Messrs. Matthew and 
Campbell, Miss Reinnelles, and Messrs. Browne, Mar- 
quis and Tinsley. About the time Mr. Tinsley resigned 
Mrs. Elizabeth McClung, a sister of Dr. Archibald Al- 
exander, visited her son-in-law, Mr. J. A. Waddell. She 
wished with her daughter, Miss Agnes, to exercise 
their mutual gift for business, so their host proposed 
they should invite Miss Baldwin to join them and take 
charge of the Seminary. They repudiated the scheme 
as preposterous, despite the promise of twenty 
boarders, the assurance that Miss Baldwin's peculiar 
skill in managing young girls would win pupils, and 
the fact that experienced teachers were easily obtained. 
The trustees met and elected Misses McClung and 
Baldwin joint principals and Mrs. McClung matron. 

In the midst of the War between the States friends 
arose on all sides, and gave or loaned all necessary 
furnishings. Tuition fees were paid in flour ($25 a 
barrel), bacon ($i a pound), or in corn meal, beef, 
potatoes, sorghum molasses, and wood. Whenever 
the cry " The Yankees are coming ! " was made, the 
schoolgirls gleefully hid the cord wood in the cellar, 
the hams in the desks and stoves, and arrayed the flour 
barrels as toilet tables in voluminous white petticoats. 

The first session under Misses McClung and Bald- 
win there were 25 boarders and about 75 day scholars. 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 319 

Miss Baldwin taught, and was assisted by Misses E. E. 
Howard, Emma and Julia Heiskell, M. Alansa Rounds, 
and Prof. Joel Ettinger. The distinguished Dr. 
W. H. McGuffey, of the University of Virginia, as- 
sisted Miss Baldwin in devising a course of study, 
meanwhile assuring her she was choosing too high a 
standard to ever make the Seminary a popular institu- 
tion. 

In 1893 a few of the full graduates met at the re- 
quest of Mrs. Elizabeth Andrew Hill of Georgia (class 
of 1879-80), and formed a temporary organization 
with Miss Nannie Tate as president, Mrs. Hill, secre- 
tary, and Mrs. McCullough, historian. Then the glad 
reunion was held in 1894, the jubilee year of the Semi- 
nary's foundation. 

By an Act of the Legislature of Virginia, passed 
during the session of 1895-96, at the request of the 
board of trustees, the name of the institution was 
changed from Augusta Female Seminary to Mary- 
Baldwin Seminary, as an acknowledgment of their 
high appreciation of the valuable services and unparal- 
leled success of the principal for "thirty- four years. 

To the original Seminary building and the chapel, 
which was the old church, Miss Baldwin added by pur- 
chase and construction " Hill-Top," " Brick House/' 
" Sky-high," and sundry smaller buildings, making this 
establishment one of the most extensive and pleasant 
colleges in the Southland. 

The buildings are lighted with gas and furnished 
with modern conveniences and heating apparatus. The 
equipment includes a gymnasium and swimming-pool, 
a well-selected library, well-furnished studio, forty 
music-rooms, and a laboratory for chemical and phys- 
ical experiments. 

The course of study is divided into primary, prepar- 
atory, academic and university departments. The plan 
of the last department is that of the University of 
Virginia, modified only so far as to adapt it to the 
peculiar requisites of the education of women. The 



320 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

course of study is divided into schools, each constitu- 
ting a complete course on the subject taught. The 
school of business training consists of book-keeping, 
stenography and typewriting. 

The degree of Bachelor of Music is given to the 
graduates of music. The degree B. A. is conferred 
on those who satisfactorily complete the university 
course. 

An event in the session of 1895-96 was the death of 
"Uncle Chess," Chesterfield Bolder, who once be- 
longed to Miss Baldwin's grandfather, and was the 
faithful mail-carrier and guardian of the grounds for 
twenty-five years. He was eighty-eight years old, and 
will descend into history on the strains of the Seminary 
song in the verse ending, " His last words were ' Pretty 
tol'ble ; mail, mum/ ' 

Miss Baldwin controlled the Seminary for a full 
generation, and at the time of her death she was edu- 
cating " her grandchildren," the daughters of her 
former pupils. 

One hundred teachers and officers have been asso- 
ciated with the school, and thousands of pupils, mostly 
from the Southern States, are scattered widely. Some 
are missionaries in distant lands, many are earnest, 
faithful teachers, many more are useful daughters and 
sisters, happy wives and mothers, and each and all 
have tender memories of the school days spent under 
Miss Baldwin's care at the Mary Baldwin Seminary. 

(This article was compiled from a sketch of " Au- 
gusta Female Seminary," prepared by Mrs. McCul- 
lough for the alumnae meeting of 1894, published in 
the Record of the Alumnae Association, and kindly 
sent by Miss Weimar, the present principal.) 

Hollins Institute, 1842-1908 

The question as to the best location of a boarding- 
school for girls is one to which much attention has been 
given in recent years. After an experience of two cen- 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 821 

turies on this continent the general conclusion has 
been reached that country localities, easily accessible 
to cities, are decidedly preferable from many consider- 
ations. This school has these advantages. It is lo- 
cated in Roanoke County, Virginia, seven miles from 
the city of Roanoke, and one and one-half miles from 
Hollins Station on the Norfolk and Western Railway. 
Roanoke County lies in the extreme southwestern sec- 
tion of the great valley of Virginia, between the Blue 
Ridge and Alleghany Mountains. 

The Institute owns a tract of five hundred acres, 
and the buildings are so located that they are excluded 
from the annoyance of close proximity to public thor- 
oughfares. About eighty years ago the premises now 
'held by the Institute were improved and equipped 
with a view to render available valuable mineral waters. 
In 1842 the whole property was purchased for educa- 
tional purposes, and since that time has been so used. 
All the original buildings have been removed, and 
others better adapted to school purposes erected. The 
main buildings (of which there are six) are of brick, 
and contain ample accommodations for a large school. 
They are modern in structure and furnished with all 
the conveniences of the best homes. 

This school opened its first session in the spring of 
1842, under no distinctive name. It was known as the 
" School of Botetourt Springs," and was conducted 
in the interest of both boys and girls. Subsequently, 
as it continued to grow in strength and numbers, it 
was called " The Valley Union Seminary." For ten 
years it prospered on the original plan, and during that 
period sent forth many young men who became promi- 
nent in business and professional life. It was under 
the control of a joint stock company. In the year 
1851, both departments being filled with pupils, the 
company determined from various reasons, the control- 
ling one being inadequacy of accommodations, to sus- 
pend the department for boys, or transfer it to another 
locality. 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

The most potent reason for continuing this school 
for girls only arose from the fact that there was at 
that time no chartered institution for girls in all Vir- 
ginia, city or country no institution with elaborate 
and systematic courses of study. 

The session of 1852-53 opened for girls only, with 
broad and elevated courses of study. The accommo- 
dations were soon all rilled, and since that time the 
school has continued to prosper. The fact that girls 
from many parts of Virginia eagerly entered school 
and took advanced courses of study, many of them 
from uncultured homes, had a startling effect ; for it 
demonstrated the fact that the people were in advance 
of their leaders on the question of higher education 
for women. 

This school continued to overflow with pupils. In 
1855 Mr. John Hollins of Lynchburg, a gentleman of 
wealth, inspired by his pious wife, Mrs. Anne Hollins, 
proposed to the company having charge of the prop- 
erty to place the entire enterprise in the hands of a self- 
perpetuating board of trustees. The company acceded 
to this proposition, and Mr. Hollins placed at their dis- 
posal the sum of $5,000 for further improvements. 
Soon after this arrangement was made Mr. Hollins 
was stricken with paralysis, from which attack he 
never recovered. Mrs. Hollins continued the friend 
of the school, and made several handsome donations, 
and would doubtless have endowed it at her death had 
not her investments been totally swept away by the 
results of the War between the States. 

Until 1870 the school was sustained by Virginia 
patronage alone. Since that time it has drawn pupils 
from other States, about twenty being represented. 

In 1846, while holding a professorship in Richmond 
College, Mr. Charles Lewis Cocke was invited to take 
charge of Valley Union Seminary. The school at 
that time was in great financial difficulties, but under 
Mr. Cocke's management its halls were soon filled 
with students of both sexes, and so continued until 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 323 

1852. By that time Mr. Cocke and his coadjutors be- 
came convinced that co-education was not the best 
way of conducting a school. When the board of trus- 
tees decided that the school was thenceforward to be 
for one sex only, the question arose, for which? and 
then Mr. Cocke, seeing the opportunity for realizing 
the aspiration of his early youth, threw all the weight 
of his influence in favor of making it a school for the 
higher education of women. The speed with which 
all the rooms available were at once occupied by eager 
and enthusiastic students, the numerous applicants for 
admission, necessitating enlargement of accommoda- 
tions every year, all demonstrated how accurately Mr. 
Cocke had discerned the supreme need of the young 
women of Virginia. 

The original scheme of instruction and standard of 
graduation have been maintained during its whole 
career. The doors of this institution have never been 
closed, not even during the War between the States; 
indeed, at no time in its history were its rooms so 
crowded as in the stern time of war. When nearly all 
the schools were closed, Hollins, from its secluded situ- 
ation, was supposed to be a safe retreat from the rav- 
ages of war, and proved an asylum to refugees from 
Maryland and Washington, D. C., and the eastern 
parts of Virginia. 

The establishment and the great success of this 
institution were due to the efforts of Charles Lewis 
Cocke, who, after graduating at Richmond College, 
entered Columbian College, Washington, D. C., from 
which he graduated with the degree of Master of Arts. 
Immediately after his graduation he was elected pro- 
fessor of mathematics in Richmond College. On De- 
cember 31, 1840, he was married to Miss Susanna 
Pleasants, fifth child of Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Pleasants 
of Picquenocque, Henrico County, Virginia. Profes- 
sor Cocke remained with the Richmond College un- 
til 1846, when he was invited to take charge of Valley 
Union Seminary, a co-educational institution. Pro- 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

fessor Cocke's management soon filled the halls with 
students, and so continued until 1852, when Rollins 
Institute was established. 

At the regular meeting of the board, on June 2, 
1900, after due deliberation, the board decided to make 
a deed and convey the real estate and premises owned 
by the board to Charles L. Cocke and the legal repre- 
sentative of Charles H. Cocke, or to such corporation 
as they may designate. They also transferred to the 
grantee, in the deed mentioned, the right to use the 
title " Hollins Institute." 

The General Assembly of Virginia, during its ses- 
sion for 1901, granted a new charter to the corpora- 
tion known as Hollins Institute, and in pursuance of 
the foregoing resolutions a deed was executed grant- 
ing and conveying to the new corporation premises, 
property, and franchises formerly held by the " Trus- 
tees of Hollins Institute." Under this new charter, 
Hollins Institute is empowered to hold funds and prop- 
erty to the amount of $300,000. Extensive and costly 
improvements have been made, wholly, however, by 
private means, and the school is finely equipped. 

Instruction is offered in the following departments: 
English, Latin, Greek, French, German, history and 
political economy, moral science, the English Bible, 
mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, botany, 
physiology and hygiene, music (pianoforte, voice cul- 
ture, organ, violin, theoretical studies), art (drawing, 
painting, history of art), elocution and physical cul- 
ture, stenography, typewriting, and bookkeeping. 
These departments are separate and distinct, each con- 
ducted by a professor, with such assistance as may be 
demanded. Each department being distinct, the pupil 
may, at her option, become a candidate for graduation 
in any one or all of them. 

The degree conferred is A. B. A certificate of dis- 
tinction is given after satisfactory examination in any 
study in which the student does not receive a certificate 
of proficiency or a diploma. A certificate of proficiency 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 325 

is given after satisfactory examination upon certain 
special studies, either not included in the course for 
diploma, or upon certain portions of the regular de- 
partments. A diploma is awarded after satisfactory 
examinations of the prescribed course. The presi- 
dent's medal for scholarship is awarded to a student 
of the regular collegiate department who has three 
senior classes, and has maintained the highest stand in 
daily recitation and examinations, and who has a gen- 
eral average of 90 per cent. 

The two literary societies are Euzelian and Eupian. 
The Euzelian Society founded the Euzelian Scholar- 
ship in 1896, designed to assist deserving but needy 
students in attaining higher training in English and 
other branches of a liberal course of instruction. The 
Eupian Scholarship was founded in 1900, for a simi- 
lar purpose. 

For many years the societies had charge of the li- 
brary, and maintained it. In 1882 the alumnae asso- 
ciation permanently established it for the school at 
large. It is self-supporting, dependent on the fees 
paid by the students. The reading-room is under the 
same management, and is provided with newspapers, 
literary, religions, and scientific magazines, among 
which are French, German, and British periodicals. 

(The material for this sketch was obtained from the 
catalogue of 10,04-05, and from the Hollins Quarterly, 
both sent by Miss Helen Steiner of Montgomery, Ala- 
bama, a student in Hollins Institute.) 

Rowlings Institute, Charlottesville, Virginia, 
185^-1908 

The Albemarle Institute, now Rawlings Institute, 
was established in 1857 by the Albemarle Association 
(Baptist), chiefly through the efforts of Prof. John 
Hart and Dr. A. E. Dickinson. In 1875 Prof. R. H. 
Rawlings purchased a three-fourths interest in the 
property and conducted the school successfully for a 



326 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

number of years. In 1897 Mr. Rawlings donated his 
interest in the property to the Baptist denomination, 
through trustees named by him. These trustees pur- 
chased the remaining interest and now hold the prop- 
erty in trust for the denomination. 

The course of study is divided into two departments, 
preparatory and collegiate. In the latter there are ten 
distinct schools besides the departments of music, art, 
elocution, physical culture, and stenography and type- 
writing. Each student may select one or more of 
these by advice of parent or guardian. The time re- 
quired for graduation in each of these varies from two 
to four years, depending upon the qualifications of the 
pupil at time of entrance. Graduation in eight of the 
ten schools is required for the degree of M. A. 

The degrees are scientific, literary, B. A. and M. A. 
Diplomas are conferred upon all pupils who have 
passed successfully both intermediate and final exam- 
inations of any of the several schools, or have com- 
pleted the prescribed courses in music, physical culture, 
and elocution departments. 

Special arrangements have been made whereby 
young ladies may take exactly the same work at the 
Institute and stand, on the same day, the same exam- 
inations as the University of Virginia in the B. A. 
courses in Latin, French, German, Italian, and Span- 
ish. The examination papers will be submitted to the 
University authorities and passed upon by them, and 
a certificate signed by the professor given to the suc- 
cessful candidate. 

Five gold medals are given by the Institute, viz. : 
scholarship, piano, voice culture, art and physical cul- 
ture, and elocution medals. 

The Browning Medal is given by Dr. J. H. Brown- 
ing of Charlottesville, Virginia. It will be awarded 
to the pupil who shall make the highest general average 
on class-work and examinations in the department of 
elocution, on subjects of lung gymnastics, and physiol- 
ogy and physical culture. The candidates for this 



OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 327 

medal will be required to submit essays on some rele- 
vant subject assigned by the teacher. 

A system of annual scholarships and half scholar- 
ships has been established. The emoluments of these 
are $60 and $30 per year. The donors of these make 
the gifts every year or every year for a specified time. 
Appointment is made by the donor or by the president. 

Two of these scholarships are now available The 
Dr. W. B. Gray Scholarship, established by Dr. W. B. 
Gray of Richmond, Virginia, in memory of his wife. 
Emoluments, $60 a year. Appointment by donor. 
Also the Alphonso and Virginia Carver Scholarship, 
established by Mr. T. P. Carver of Charlottesville, 
Virginia, in honor of his children whose names it bears. 
Emoluments, $60 a year. Appointment by the presi- 
dent. 

There have been started a series of permanent 
scholarships, only one of which has been fully estab- 
lished. Messrs. Bedford Glascock, George B. West. 
B. F. Johnson, and Z. H. Rawlings, donors. 

The equipment consists in part of a commodious and 
well-equipped gymnasium and art hall, music-rooms, a 
reading-room, and a chapel. 

(This sketch has been prepared from catalogues.) 

Martha Washington College, Abingdon, Virginia, 
i86o-ipo8 

This college was projected by the Odd Fellows, in 
1859, but before the buildings were completed they 
transferred the property to the Virginia Conference, 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, and the school was 
organized in 1860 as a Conference school, with Rev. 
W. G. Harris president. The first board of trustees, 
in part, were Messrs. G. W. L. Litchfield, M. Hoof- 
naugh, T. G. McConnel, E. Longley, and Judge N. I. 
Campbell. The first diplomas were granted to the 
class of 1863. 

The school was closed two or three years during the 



HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION 

War between the States, but was opened to pupils 
again in 1865, with Rev. W. G. Harris president 
He retained the position until his death, and was suc- 
ceeded by his daughter, Miss Mattie Harris. 

This school was commenced so short a time before 
the great upheaval, it can scarcely be classed with the 
old schools of the South ; but its very existence is only 
another evidence of the interest taken by Southern 
people in the higher education of women, long before 
other sections aroused to the importance of this work. 
The school continues. It is a modern school with all 
modern equipments and ideas. 



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