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History of Hillsborough 



Author of "History of the St. Lawrence River," "The 
River of Broken Waters: The Merrimack," "Amos- 
keag Manufacturing Company," "Woodranger 
Tales," "Ruel Durkee," "Legends of Yes- 
terday," "Far East and New America," 
Etc., Etc., Etc. 


Samuel W. Holm an, William H. Story, 

Frank E. Merrill, Fred Brockway, 

George W. Haslet, 
Committee on Publication. 

History and Description. 

Manchester, N. H. 
John B. Clarke Company, Printers. 


Copyrighted 1921. 
By G. Waldo Browne. 













Tovn of Hillsborough. 


BE Arznis -Del 

From a Drawing by B. E. Annis. 
Outline Map of the Town. 


At last, after thirty-eight years of anticipation, the written 
History of Hillshorough has come to be a reality. Without apol- 
ogy for its delay, which in many respects was unavoidable ; with- 
out excuse for its many errors, which inevitably apply to a work 
of this kind ; but in the same good faith with which it was under- 
taken, and with sincere appreciation for the co-operation given 
him by the publication committee and citizens, the author now 
offers his work to the public, the best he could do under the 
circumstances. The data has been secured from varied sources, 
and much of it at the cost of time that has seemed wasted. The 
historical narrative is, the undersigned believes, to be as free 
from mistakes as any work of its kind. The errors are mainly 
those that relate to names, and these are largely due to the care- 
lessness with which they have been recorded^ For instance, 
among the Revolutionary patriots appears the name of "Judge" 
Hall, anon "Jude" Hall, credited to Amherst, to Kingston, and 
then to Hillsborough, making it difficult to determine who he 
really was and where he lived. Since writing this history I have 
learned that he was born in Exeter, was a slave a part of his 
life ; that he lived a short time in Hillsborough ; served three 
enlistments in the Revolution, and was considered a brave and 
patriotic soldier. He was known in this state until his death as 
"Old Rock." 

This statement applies in many cases to the records of those 
who served in the wars. Mr. Smith, in his "Annals," written 
only a little over half a century following the Revolution, says 
he does not doubt that over thirty served to the credit of the 
town. The undersigned, at this late date, has been able to trace 
over ninety, and believes there were still others. The records of 
the recent wars are more complete, but even these that are offi- 
cial lack an occasional name. 

The first action taken by the town relative to writing and pub- 
lishing its history was taken at the annual meeting March 13, 
1883, when the following committee was chosen to act in the 



matter: John C. Campbell, John B. Smith, Jubal H. Eaton, 
Edgar Hazen and Charles W. Conn. This board selected the 
following persons to prepare and publish a History of Hills- 
borough: Brooks K. Webber, James F. Grimes, Cornelius Cool- 
edge, John Goodell, and Frank H. Pierce, which action was 
ratified by the town. 

Dr. John Goodell was authorized "to gather data and prepare 
a town history in proper shape for the printer." No doubt work 
was begun soon after this and continued through the succeed- 
ing years as rapidly as it was possible for a busy man — espe- 
cially a country doctor — to find the time. But twenty years 
passed without bringing any apparent results. Some of the com- 
mittee had died, while Mr. Webber declined to serve longer, so 
at the town meeting March 10, 1903, Hon. John B. Smith, George 
Haslet and Samuel W. Holman, Esq., were appointed to fill the 
vacancies. Even then no progress seems to have been made, and 
at succeeding elections the town voted to dismiss the articles in 
the warrant without action. 

Eventually the last of the original committee had passed away, 
and those selected to carry out the work were Samuel W. Hol- 
man, Esq., George W. Haslet, William H. Story, Frank E. Mer- 
rill and Fred Brockway. This committee employed the un- 
dersigned to prepare the history and work was begun at once. 
Had not the great World War made prices pertaining to the 
publication almost prohibitive the History would have been 
completed at least three years ago. 

During this delay the author knows that considerable impa- 
tience (not altogether without reason he will confess) and fault- 
finding has been manifested, but only God and the author knows 
the vexatious procrastinations and difficulties that accompany the 
preparation of a town history. A certain good man, in a spirit 
of despair over some disappointment that ill became his cloth, ex- 
claimed: "Would that mine enemy might write a book!" More 
pertinent might have been his remark, providing his reason was 
sufficient to make it as impressive as possible, had he said : 
"Would that mine enemy might write a Town History!" 

The super-critical may think too much space has been devoted 
to the military history of the town, to the loss of the triumphs 


of peace. But it must be remembered that the records of war 
are written in letters of crimson that burn bright on the pages 
of time ; the annals of peace touched with the arts of love live in 
the cloister of the heart rather than on the pen. Again, when 
you come to think of it, the warrior is the peacemaker ; the states- 
man, patriot so called, the one who foments the strife, but seldom 
participates in it. Scanning the personnel of the "Spirit of '76," 
we find a Henry, Hancock, Adams, Otis, Franklin, Jefferson, 
Paine, Carroll, and others, "Tongues of the Revolution," who 
urged on the coming conflict, but not one of whom met the foe 
on the battlefield. This was left to her Washington, Greene, 
Gates, Arnold, Stark, Marion, Allen, and others, "Silent 
Tongues," to win the golden prize on the fields of Mars and 
camps of Valley Forge. What is true of this war is confirmed 
by all others. In the final reckoning it is the man with the 
sword who lays on the altar of sacrifice the laurel of Peace. So 
the history of Hillsborough has been embellished by the deeds 
of her martyred Baldwin, heroic Andrews, gallant Pierce, fiery 
McNiel, and many others. The winning of their victory was 
for you and for me. 

Sources from which this History of Hillsborough has been 
drawn are too numerous to be even mentioned here. Unfortu- 
nately the original documents and records of the grant and set- 
tlement of Old Number Seven cannot be found today, though 
they were known to be in existence as late as 181 5, in the pos- 
session of Sarson Belcher, a son-in-law of Colonel John Hill and 
the executor of his will. These papers also contained records of 
the towns of Weare, Peterborough, New Boston and Rindge. 
The early records of these towns were recorded at Cambridge, 

Fortunately the Town Books, which contain the records since 
the incorporation, are as complete as can be found among the 
archives of almost any town. Hillsborough has been favored 
with having clerks in both town and church affairs, who have 
recorded the doings of her citizens with care. These records 
are in a fairly good state of preservation, particularly those re- 
lating to public proceedings. It is only the proprietors' records 
that are missing. 


Scarcely less than to the Town Records is the historian of the 
town indebted to the editors and compilers of the Provincial, 
State, and Town Papers. 

"The Military History of New Hampshire," by Hon. Chandler 
E. Potter, is valuable for its accounts of the military actions of 
the citizens of the town. 

The Press of Hillsborough, in its regularly issued newspapers 
for more than half a century is a source of information covering 
considerable of the proceedings of the town day by day. It is 
to be regretted that the Town Library, or even the newspaper of- 
fice, has not a complete file. The undersigned was fortunate in 
finding here and there some of the missing volumes. 

"The Annals of Hillsborough," a published address by Charles 
J. Smith, delivered at the hundredth anniversary of the first set- 
tlement of the town, contains much information that would have 
been impossible to obtain elsewhere at this date. Though a young 
man of twenty-one at that time, he showed a work of wide re- 
search that would have done credit to an older person. Lyman 
W. Densmore's account of the "Old" Meeting House at the 
Centre is another valuable monogram covering that particular 
subject. The author is also indebted to an excellent article by 
Rev. Harry Brickett, M. A., in the "History of Hillsborough 
County." Besides these, many miscellaneous pamphlets and 
sketches have been consulted, not the least among these being 
an article written by Colonel Frank H. Pierce, a nephew of ex- 
President Franklin Pierce. 

Among the individuals who have so kindly rendered such 
assistance as they could, to all of whom the author expresses his 
sincere thanks, he feels under the most obligation to the papers 
left by the late Dr. John Goodell, who should have been the his- 
torian of the town. At least two of his articles have been em- 
bodied in this work, with credit given to him. Last, but not 
least, I desire to return my thanks to the Committee on Publi- 

A companion volume is to follow this, devoted to Biographical 
Sketches and Genealogies of about five hundred families. 



Chapter. Page. 

Foreword 7 

I. A General Survey of the Town, Past and 

Present 17 

II. In the Days of the Colonists 28 

III. Founders of Number Seven 39 

IV. Pioneering in Old Number Seven 55 

V. The Interval of Indian Wars 71 

VI. The Second Settlement 81 

VII. The War for Independence 94 

VIII. Reconstruction Period 152 

IX. The Story of Campbell's Gore 180 

X. The Town Church 1 88 

XL "The Old Meeting House" 207 

XII. An Old-Time Town Meeting 223 

XIII. Military History, 1781 to i860 242 

XIV. Hillsborough in the Civil War 267 

XV. Highways, Byways and Bridges 295 

XVI. Stage Coach Days 313 

XVII. The Farms and Farmers of Yesterday 321 

XVIII. The Baptist Church 333 

XIX. The Congregational Church at Bridge Village 347 

XX. The Methodist Church 356 

XXI. The Catholic Church and Other Denomina- 

tions 363 

XXII. Story of the Schools 365 

XXIII. Industrial Pursuits 376 

XXIV. Miscellaneous Enterprises 385 

XXV. Professional, Fraternal and Social History. . 407 

XXVI. Political History 448 

XXVII. The Hamlets of Hillsborough 461 

XXVIII. Byways of History 477 

XXIX. The Recent Wars 494 

XXX. Official Roster cqq 

Personal Index c X q 

General Index err 



Hillsborough Bridge Village Frontispiece 

Map of Hillsborough Page 5 

Steel Bridge, Henniker Road Opp Page 33 

North Branch Contoocook River " 33 

Gleason's Falls Bridge " " 48 

Loon Pond " " 64 

Contention Pond " 64 

The Merrill Homestead " " 80 

Plan of Hillsborough, 1765 " " 88 

The Old Bridge and Mills " " 96 

Old School House, River Street " 112 

Taggart Block, 1866 " " 112 

West Main Street " " 128 

Central Square " " 128 

Bible Hill Burial Ground " " 144 

The Jones Bridges " " 160 

Kitchen in Old Gilbert House " " 176 

John Gilbert Homestead " " 176 

Old Town House and Congregational Church, 

Centre " " 193 

Interior, Old Town House " " 208 

High School Building " " 224 

Twin Bridges " " 240 

McNiel Leading His Men at Chippewa " " 249 

Fire Station " " 256 

Baker's Block " " 256 

Muster Day as an Oldtime Artist Saw It " " 264 

The Brockway Homestead " " 272 

Maplewood Farm, Homestead of Walter E. Gay. " " 288 

The New Stone Bridge " " 304 

The Vendue, Manahan, Auctioneer " " 320 

Old Baptist Church " " 336 

Chapel, Lower Village " " 336 

Smith Memorial Church " " 347 

Governor Smith Residence " " 352 




St. Mary's Church Opp. Page 360 

Methodist Episcopal Church " " 360 

Old Academy, Hillsborough Bridge, About 1880 " " 368 

Hillsborough Woolen Mills " " 376 

Contoocook Mills " " 376 

Valley Hotel, 1921 " " 401 

American House " " 417 

Rumrill Block " " 417 

First National Bank Building " " 432 

Odd Fellows' Block, Central Square " " 432 

Merrill's Orchestra " " 440 

Front Room in President Pierce House " " 448 

The Old Oven, Pierce Barbecue " " 454 

Congregational Church, Centre Village " " 461 

Barnes House, Centre " " 461 

President Pierce Mansion " " 465 

Captain Carr Homestead, Lower Village " " 480 

The Old Pound " " 480 

Memorial Tablet to Soldiers of the World War " " 497 





A General Survey of the Town, Past and Present. 

Grant of the Township — The Aborigines — Boundary of the Town — 
Area — Rivers — Loon Pond — Legend of the Lily — Indian Name — 
Contention Pond — A Disappearing River — Campbell or Gould 
Pond — Landscape — Stowe Mountain — The Centre Village — View 
from the Hills — Lowest Point in Town — Soil — Crops — Flora — 
Fauna — Birds — Origin of the Town Name — Honor to Its Founder, 
John Hill — Various ways of Spelling the Name. 

The courts of Massachusetts January 16, 1735-36, granted to 
Col. John Hill, Boston, Mass., a man of considerable wealth and 
influence, who was interested in the settlements of other town- 
ships in New Hampshire, a tract of country "about six miles 
square," in the heart of a primeval wilderness then unsurveyed 
and unexplored by a white man. At least this seems to have been 
the intent of the instrument issued to him, but a body of men 
styled "Plymouth Gentlemen" apparently had already acquired 
about one-eighth of this territory, which he promptly obtained by 
the payment of certain sums of money by himself and a Boston 
trader named Gershom Keyes. Before giving a history of these 
transactions and the following events, it seems pertinent to 
describe briefly in the past and present tense the country about to 
be opened by the incoming settlers. 



Over this scene, the Thessally of New England, had roamed 
from time immemorial the aboriginal inhabitants, fishing in its 
streams, hunting on its hillsides and in its valleys, when not at 
war with some rival tribe. These Indians belonged to a con- 
federacy known as the "Penacooks." Tradition gives no account 
of this immediate vicinity having been a battleground between 
the early races, but beyond doubt the warcry rang over its solitude 
with frequency and the signal fires of the warlike people lighted 
time and again the hilltops. 

Mr. Charles J. Smith,* in his centennial discourse of the town, 
1841, in commenting upon this natural situation, says very truly: 
"The country for many miles around was a dreary wilderness, 
where the untutored savage roamed in undisturbed security 
through the thick forests, or glided in his light canoe over the 
lonely, silent waters. . . The forests were alive with every species 
of wild game ; the waters abounded with salmon, trout, pickerel, 
and other specimens of the finny tribes delightful to the palate. 
The whole northern and western parts of the county of Hills- 
borough was then an uncovered solitude, untrodden by civilized 
man — wild and uncultivated as when it came from the Creator's 
hand." Let this be as it may, at the appearance of the vanguard 
of settlement under the guidance of Colonel Hill and Gershom 
Keyes, saying nothing of the warlike deeds that followed, com- 
parative peace reigned over this region. 

Considering the territory as it represents the town to-day, it is 
in latitude 43°5' north, and in longitude 5°5' east of Washington. 
Beginning at the northeast corner next to Henniker the line runs 
5°3o' from due west, while the opposite line has the same 
deflection, so that with the lines on the north and the south 
running at about the same angle gives the town the shape of a 
diamond upon the map in the extreme northwest corner of the 
county. It is bounded on the east by Henniker ; on the south by 
Deering and Antrim ; on the west by Windsor and Washington ; 
on the north by Washington and Bradford. In area it comprises 
27,320 acres of which 15,945 acres, more than half, was improved 

*Mr. Smith was at that time a law student in the office of Hon. Franklin 
Pierce, and his work enlarged and amplified from his address, was the first and 
most successful effort towards giving a historical sketch of the town. For further 
particulars of this author see Vol. II., Genealogical sketches of the families. — 


land, according to the surveys of 1870. With no great elevation, 
the landscape is diversified by hills and valleys, so much so that it 
has been thought by many that its name came from this fact, 
though it was really given in honor of its founder and early 

Hillsborough is well favored with running waters. The largest 
and most important of its rivers is the Contoocook, which crosses 
its territory in a northeasterly direction near the corner of the 
towns of Deering and Antrim, where the confluence of the 
streams known as the South and North Branch unite to form this 
river. The larger of these tributaries, the South Branch, has its 
source in the swamps of the highlands of Rindge. This stream 
is increased by numerous smaller water-ways flowing from the 
eastern slopes of the Monadnock Mountain, with the drainage 
of the towns along its course. The North Branch rises in Horse 
Shoe or Half Moon Pond on the west slope of Lovell's Mountain, 
in Washington, and after deploying in Stoddard so as to form 
Long Pond, it winds through the town of Antrim, christening a 
village with its name, flows into this town above Lower Village, 
and after receiving the offering of Hillsborough River just below 
the last-named hamlet, it joins South Branch, as has already been 
mentioned, to help build the dusky hunter's Contoocook, "Great 
Place for Crows." 

The tributary of North Branch designated as Hillsborough 
River, in early times Called North Branch, enters the town on the 
northwest to find a somewhat tortuous course for about seven 
miles before joining the larger stream. It receives several small 
streams as tributaries, the largest of which is Shedd Brook, which 
receives the drainage of the eastern slopes of Washington and 
Windsor. This stream and its tributary from Black Pond in 
Windsor affords the water power at Upper Village. Three or 
four small streams unite among the hills of the eastern section to 
enter Gould Pond, the outlet of which finds its way into the 
Contoocook in the vicinity of the Henniker line. 

The Contoocook River, which receives the drainage of an 
extent of territory comprising more than 734 square miles of 
country, becomes an important waterway among the rivers of 
the state. Carrying an unfailing supply of water and following 


a tortuous and rapid course which gives it an amount of power 
capable of running a great number of water wheels or affording 
privileges for creating a vast voltage of electrical force, it has 
been the incentive in building up enterprises of various kinds 
along its banks. A good example of what has been done is to be 
seen at Bridge Village with its wooden mill, hosiery, underwear, 
lumber mills and other manufactures. After leaving this village 
it wanders in a northeasterly direction into the town of Henniker, 
and from thence through the northwest corner of Hopkinton, by 
its water power there laying the foundation for the industries of 
the village that gets its name from this stream. It finally joins 
the Merrimack, as one of its important tributaries, at the inter- 
vales of Penacook, where it became known to the Indians as 
"the crooked place." Another designation bestowed upon it by 
the red men was that of "the long river," while the early settlers 
frequently spoke of it as "the great river." In some of the earlier 
records it is referred to as "the Connecticut River." The Con- 
toocook and its tributaries flow from the water sheds of thirty- 
two different towns situated in five counties and has an available 
horse power of over twelve thousand, a little more than one-half 
of which is utilized. From its starting point in the little pond on 
Rindge highlands to the meadows of the Brave Lands where it 
joins its fortunes with the Merrimack River, the Contoocook has 
a descent of over eight hundred feet. 

The largest and most picturesque body of still water in town 
is the Indian's Che-sehunk-auke, meaning "great place for loons/' 
which was immediately Englished by the white settlers as "Loon 
Pond," as they found a large number of that fowl in this vicinity. 
It lies a little northwest of the centre of the town, is two miles 
in length and three-fourths of a mile in breadth, at its widest 
place. In these days of enlarged ideas it is not surprising that it 
is occasionally mentioned in the local vocabulary as a "lake." Its 
waters are deep, clear and cool in the hottest summer day. In its 
primeval days it was well stocked with fish, pickerel, perch, pouts, 
etc. ; to-day there are bass, pickerel, perch and pouts. 

In the summer season considerable of its surface is jeweled 
with that sweet and beautiful flower, the water lily. The Indians 
had a legend that a beautiful maid, Winnewawa, sought escape 


from love's cruel disappointment by plunging beneath its placid 
bosom, and lo ! wherever a ripple stirred the water a white lily, 
typical of her life and beauty, blossomed and has blossomed ever 
since, so that whoever looked in this mirror of waters saw her 
sweet vision reflected as a reminder of her. 

Let the legend be true or merely a fancy, Loon Pond was a 
frequent meeting-place of the Indians in their journeys hither 
and yon, for it must be known that the wildwood was as familiar 
to them as the country is to-day to their civilized successors. 
Over its burnished surface have flitted the light skiffs of the dusky 
fisherman, or flown with a wilder speed flotillas of canoes manned 
by warring factions fighting for life and liberty as dear to them 
as to us. Under the sheen of the lover's moon, wafted with the 
silence of shadows over its silvery pathway, has come and 
vanished the white canoe of the Indian maid, while disappeared 
long since from the overhanging curtain of its shores the dark- 
hued lover, wooing his forest mate. 

In place of these now comes the summer vacationist seeking 
rest and quiet from the city's busy round of duty. As well as 
being a beautiful resort for the pleasure-seeker, the water of 
Loon Pond is now conveyed by artificial conduits to Bridge 
Village, and there becomes the natural beverage used in the 
homes, while it is utilized as a means of protection in case of fire. 

Loon Pond formerly had two outlets, one a tributary to Beard 
Brook, now known as Hillsborough River, and the other a smaller 
stream, running into Contention Pond, but which became dry 
some time ago, while the former outlet owing to the drain made 
upon this pond of its flood by man to meet his need, has so far 
lost its volume that during most of the year its bed is quite dry, 
and the time does not seem far distant when this silvery thread 
connecting the two bodies of water shall have completely faded 
from the landscape. Loon Pond has no considerable inlet, but is 
fed by springs. Contention Pond, so named from a protracted 
and bitter contention over certain boundary lines relating to it, 
lies less than a mile northwest from Loon Pond, and though 
more niggardly considered than the other has considerable natural 
attraction, being once a favorite resort of the beaver, and was 
known to the Indians as "great place for beavers. " 


Campbell Pond, so called for its discover, Daniel Campbell, 
Esq., of Amherst, who made the survey of the township at the 
time of its incorporation, is the third and last sheet of water in 
the town that deserves mention. This is near the Henniker line, 
and seen from Monroe Hill is a beautiful gem in one of the 
fairest landscape views in town. It is better known to-day as 
Gould Pond. 

If the surface of the town is very uneven, like most of New 
Hampshire towns, there is not an elevation that really deserves 
the name of mountain. The highest point of land is in the north- 
west section, dignified by the name of Stowe's Mountain. This 
elevation perpetuates the memory of Dea. Joel Stowe, who lived 
on the southeast slope for many years. The highest dwelling on 
this sunny height, also the highest in town, was the home of 
Justus Pike, but sometime since fallen to ruin. From his thres- 
hold a fine view of the surrounding country was unfolded to the 
gaze. Here, to-day, he who cares to wend his way thither, looks 
down with pleasure and,admiration, if he is on good terms with 
God and mankind, upon one of the grandest panoramas of 
diversified landscapes to be seen in southern New Hampshire 
where no outlook offers a disappointment. This eminence of land 
rises 1,200 above sea level. 

It is "high ground" at "the Centre," where it pleased some of 
the earliest comers to believe the spot was to be the hub around 
which the township was to revolve. In truth this place was the 
capital for many years, until the coming of a new power dis- 
mantled the old and the rumble of the factory wheel proclaimed 
the building of a rival hamlet. If the early builders were dis- 
appointed in their dreams, none of the beauties of the landscape 
went with the changing current of population, so the scene has 
not lost a star in its firmament nor a rock from its broken slopes. 
Going eastward towards Henniker the country winds over hills 
that afford a sightly cyclorama of country. On a clear day in 
summer the horizon is fret-worked by a circle of hills and moun- 
tains, beginning on the northeast with the Blue Hills of Strafford, 
Pawtuckaway Mountain of Deerfield, and Nottingham, Unca- 
noonucs, the twins of Goffstown, the Deering Hills, Pack Monad- 
nock and Crotchet Mountain in the southwest, Gibson's and 


Hedgehog highlands, Lovell's Mountain in Washington, Suna- 
pee's long blue ridge, Kearsarge's great dome, Cardigan's bald 
head, Mount Carr's arched bow, Franconia's lofty sentinels over- 
watched by the Old Man of the Mountains, while above al\ of 
these and hundreds of lesser peaks Mount Washington lifts in the 
white haze of the distance its snowy forehead. 

The lowest altitude in Hillsborough is the valley a little east 
of Bridge Village, known in the early vernacular as "Falls Vil- 
lage" ; the highest is Stowe Mountain; the mean altitude of the 
town one thousand feet. 

Like all New England towns the soil of Hillsborough varies 
according to altitude and presence or lack of water. Along the 
rivers and smaller streams are frequently found an alluvial soil, 
but there are no level tracts of any size, and little pine or light 
land in town. The early settlers had generally a keen eye for the 
most promising sections suited to cultivation, and many of their 
farms were laid out on the fertile side hills. As a rule the soil 
is hard to cultivate, but it yields a reasonable return. Among the 
grains, corn, wheat, oats, barley and rye have been successfully 
raised, while potatoes and garden vegetables thrive well. It lies 
in a good apple belt, and much of the early growth of timber 
consisting of rock maple there have been large sugar orchards in 
town, but these have nearly vanished now. 

The flora of this vicinity was not unlike that of the neighbor- 
ing towns, and consisted of mixed growths of hard and soft woods. 
Foremost among the latter, and one of the greatest assets of the 
town, was the pine, the last specimens of these "noblemen of the 
forests" disappearing long since, while their descendants are being 
too closely pursued by the modern sawmill to ever rival their 
ancestry either in size or quality. The magnificent monarchs of 
the woods, as well as attracting the pioneer, appealed to the greed 
of the king of England, though it proved a thorn in the flesh 
rather than a blessing to him in his turbulent fortunes. In the 
days of the early settlers hemlock, spruce, fir balsam, several kinds 
of oak, beech, ash, elm, several specimens of birch and as many of 
maples abounded. Then there were the butternut, cherry, with 
a dozen of smaller growths, not the least to the Indian being the 
sumach. Here and there an aged sycamore — a sycamore is always 


aged — lifted its depleted crest high into the air a suitable pillar 
for some owl to make its perch, while it doled forth its weird 
greeting to the coming night. 

The poplar was quite common on the rocky slopes of the 
highlands, a companion of the hornbeam and lever wood, while 
along the banks of the streams and in the swampy places the wil- 
low and alder abounded, the first heralding the coming of spring 
with its white tassels and the latter marking the advance of the 
seasons into the days of frost by its red clusters of ripening buds. 
An occasional apple tree, more than any other of the forest 
people, foretold the coming of the new order of men. 

Besides the charm of flowers that was bestowed upon many 
of the trees both in the seasons of buds and fruits, there was a 
liberal gift of wild blossoms which gemmed the hillsides and low- 
lands, the daffodil modestly illuminating some sunny spot even 
before the snow had vanished from the shady dell, the trailing 
arbutus with its pink buds and fragrant flowers, the violets that 
adorn our fields with a gentle beauty, the wake robin, the anemone 
or wind flower, the strawberry beautiful in its flowering period 
and the days when its rich, luscious fruit gives it first rank among 
the wild kindred of the fruit and flower. Less favored with 
notice is the checkerberry with its fragrant leaf and round red 
globes of fruit. More beautiful and fragrant than these is the 
swamp pink, while later comes the queen of her season the water 
lily, followed by the cardinal flower, the arrow head, the iris, 
called frequently blue flag, until the autumn is made gay and 
cheerful by the golden rod and aster, till the frost weed with its 
gorgeous flowering stalks lends the final touch to Nature's round 
of leaf and blossom. So through our valleys and on our hills, 
each vested with its own peculiar grace — 

"Everywhere about us they are glowing, 

Some like stars to tell us spring is born ; 
Others their blue eyes with tears o'ern owing, 
Stand like Ruth amid the golden corn." 

The list of herbs and plants that are useful and valuable for 
their medicinal qualities are the pennyroyal, mints, spikenard, 
sarsaparilla, lobelia, cohosh, called by the red man papoose root, 
elecampane, with others quite as worthy of mention. 


In the days of "the forest primeval" wild animals were 
numerous in this vicinity, the most lordly of these being the 
moose, whose flesh was highly esteemed as food. More common 
was the deer, the one creature of the denizens of the wildwood 
that the pioneers sought to protect on account of its value as meat 
for the table. Common at the outset and remaining after many 
of the other animals had disappeared was the bear, sometimes 
troublesome and anon retreating into the deeper forest as the 
settlers enlarged their clearings. They were especially dangerous 
to cattle and sheep, often slaughtering whole flocks during the 
season. The region about Stowe Mountain was noted as a 
rendezvous for them. From hence also came the wildcat much 
dreaded where there were children. Bounties were paid for 
the destruction of these stealthy vindictive marauders of 
the woods until within about a hundred years. Among the out- 
laws of the wilderness and more hated than any of the others was 
the wolf, whose hunger call was feared by the unarmed and 
belated traveler. On his head, too, a bounty was paid until the 
last of his kind had vanished. 

Pleasanter types of animals were the otter and the beaver 
both of which must have been plenty in the days of yore. Loon 
Pond might just as well and as appropriately been called Beaver 
Pond, so numerous were these industrious creatures in that 
vicinity, where traces of their work are still to be seen. In build- 
ing their curiously constructed dams, ponds were frequently 
brought into existence where none had existed, while those that 
already rested like mirrors on Nature's breast were enlarged by 
them. The openings called meadows by the early settlers which 
afforded such rich pasturage for their neat kine were made by 
them. The mink and the muskrat lived along the streams, a few 
of their descendants being with us to-day, while the fox is 
another denizen of the early scenes that has outlived the shifting 
years to still fly over our hills before the fleet-footed hound of 
the hunter as his ancestors fled in early days before some dusky 
Robin Hood. Other dumb inhabitants of the woods, which are 
conspicious to-day, are the grey, red, striped and flying squirrels, 
rabbits, woodchucks and the lowly hedgehog. 


The eagle frequently seen in those days, and easily the king 
of the air, has practically vanished, though its far-removed cousin 
the hawk, still haunts the sky occasionally, especially if there is 
a yard of well fed chickens under its range of vision. The crow 
was here when the white man came waiting for his planting of 
corn, finding the new-comer less generous than the Indian who 
gladly set apart certain allowances for this dark-hued visitant of 
the silent wood and open sky. The partridge drummed its wel- 
come to the earliest pioneer as it had played its symphony to the 
race already here. The owl was the bird of wisdom to the red 
man, figuring conspicuously in many a council of war or treaty 
of peace. The wild bee, of all the insects, .afforded the Indian 
the greatest satisfaction in yielding up its stores of honey. The 
noblest of all the feathered denizens of the wilderness, living 
shyly in its thickets, was the wild turkey. When in full plumage 
he was remarkably beautiful, and it was a grand sight to see the 
leader of a flock of a dozen or more, an old gobbler that may 
have seen a decade of summers and winters, marshal in single file 
his brood along some forest aisle, forever on the alert for danger 
and at a single note of alarm sending his followers into covert in 
the twinkling of an eye. Often weighing between thirty and forty 
pounds, next to beaver tail, the most delicious meat obtainable 
in those days, small wonder he and his flock were hunted with 
zeal by the Indians. These, with wild ducks, swans and geese 
that nested and brooded by the shores of the pristine sheets of 
waters, disappeared almost before the coming of the whites. 
This short catalogue included practically all of their kind, and 
among them all the nearest approach to a songster was the whip- 
poor-will, sending up its mournful monotone from near some 
stagnant water at the close of a summer day. 

About the time of the advent of the white man upon his new 
possessions the wild pigeon came in mighty flocks, seeming to 
number thousands upon thousands, flying in great clouds across 
the sky, miles wide and so dense that the sunlight would be shut 
out for hours together. These were migratory birds, coming 
from the southland, and keeping up their annual visitations for 
about a hundred years, when they abruptly ceased their summer 
calls, having followed man westward in his march of civilization. 
They were caught by wholesale in nets and made good eating. 


As singular as it may seem, nearly all of the birds with us. 
now came with or since our forefathers, a few early comers hav- 
ing departed from our midst, as if they did not like our company. 
The most noticeable of these being the bobolink, as he was 
fraternally called. 

A long list of the creatures of field and forest, earth and air, 
might be given, but in this respect Hillsborough does not differ 
materially from her surrounding towns, and it does not seem 
necessary to enlarge upon this subject in a work of this kind. 

The town gets its name from that of its founder, Col. John 
Hill of Boston, and was not christened as the county was for the 
Earl of Hillsborough, England. The name was originally spelled 
without the j — Hillborough. In written and spoken language the 
name has been variously rendered as Hillsburg, Hillsberry, Hills- 
bury, Hillborough and finally Hillsborough. A few years ago, 
in answer to a petition sent to Washington, the government 
sanctioned the omission of the last three letters, so in the postal 
directory it became Hillsboro. The railroad had already recog- 
nized this form of spelling, but the name has never been legally 
changed so on all official documents it is given as Hillsborough, 
and in this form it is a better balanced word. 

In the Days of the Colonists. 

New Hampshire Colonists of Four Nativities — None Related to the 
Others — The London Fishermen, Who Game First to This Province 
— The Puritans, the Massachusetts Bay Colony — The Yorkshire 
Farmers, Who Settled in the Merrimack Valley — The Scotch-Irish, 
Founders of Londonderry, N. H. — Pioneers of Hillsborough From 
the Last Two Classes — Crowded in the Wilderness ! — The Gardner 
Survey — A Descendant of the Surveyor Living in Hillsborough — 
King Philip's War — A Hundred Years of Conflict — King William's 
War — Queen Anne's War — Indian Warfare — Scouting Parties — 
The Contoocook Valley Scout — Its Memorial, Lovell's Mountain — 
Lovewell's War — "Peace of Boston" — Boundary Dispute — Grants 
of Townships — From the Merrimack to the Connecticut — Two 
Tiers of Towns Twelve Miles Wide — List of Grants — Frontier Line 
Across the State — Hillsborough on the Border — Only Hunters and 
Indian Scouts in This Vicinity — Contoocook a Favorite Retreat — 
The Lost Legion — Indian Relics Found Here — Pompanoosick, Last 
of His Race — Original Records of the Town's Settlement Lost — 
Colonel Hill's Grant— The Isaac Little Deed — Church Deed to 
Joseph Mason — Rival Factions Seek to Govern New Hampshire — 
Origin of the Name — Provincial Government — After This Local 

Colonization in New Hampshire came from four sources, 
each independent of one another and entirely dissimilar. Con- 
temporary with the settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth, if 
not earlier, came certain hardy colonists from London and 
Central England, who established themselves on the coast at the 
mouth of the Pascataqua River, soon pushing their way inland 
until they had effected permanent colonies at Dover, Strawberry 
Bank (Portsmouth), Hampton, Exeter, and elsewhere, laying to 
a considerable extent the foundation of New England's civic and 
military power. Of this party the history of Western New 
Hampshire, including especially Hillsborough County, has very 
little association. Neither do the Pilgrims figure to any extent 
in her colonization. 



Fifteen years following the wintry advent of the Pilgrims 
began to appear upon the scene about Boston and northward a 
body of men and women who styled themselves "The Massachu- 
setts Bay Colonists," better known as "The Puritans." Within a 
few years yet another class, with no distinctive designation or 
real grievance at heart as an incentive to found homes in the 
wilderness of a new country, entered the field of conquest. This 
honest company, seeking to improve its social and fiancial con- 
dition, for the want of a better name might be called "The York- 
shire Yeomanry," as it came largely from that district. 

Coming later than any of the preceding bodies, and flying 
before such civil and religious persecution as seldom falls to the 
lot of men, were a goodly number of immigrants with a Scottish 
lineage but acknowledging Ireland as their birthplace. These 
pioneers began their colonization in New England in 1718, nearly 
a hundred of them coming to Londonderry, N. H., in the spring 
of 1719- To distinguish these people from those coming from 
Southern Ireland, the historian has designated them as "Scotch- 
Irish.-" In writing the history of Hillsborough these sturdy 
settlers and their descendants occupy a first place, with the 
Yorkshire husbandmen coming a good second, followed by a few 
of the Puritanical faith. 

As inconsistent as it may be and seem, within five years of 
their arrival the colonists of Massachusetts Bay began to com- 
plain of being crowded ! With a view of enlarging their planta- 
tion, a survey of the Merrimack River was made in the summer 
of 1638, and the first rude plan of the inland country returned to 
the courts of Massachusetts by John Gardner, who had a descen- 
dant living in Hillsborough, which fact links the history of our 
town very clearly with the early colonization of the state. The 
people began to look northward for homes, and actual settlers 
pushed as far north as Old Dunstable, when an outbreak with the 
Indians checked the advance. This struggle became known as 
King Philip's War, and lasted from 1662 to 1678, in which the 
Indians of Southern New England were so completely crushed 
that they never rallied sufficiently to offer further resistance. 
This was a purely colonial struggle between the incoming white 
man and the outgoing red man. 


However, if the outcome had been highly satisfactory to the 
Puritan and Pilgrim, the strife had only been begun. In the 
north a new element entered into the conflict, prolonging it for 
more than three-fourths of a century, making the entire warfare, 
with brief intervals of peace, one of a hundred years' duration. 
One explanation for this is the fact that during the long period 
England and France were almost continually at war, and without 
failure these quarrels were transmitted to their colonies in 
America. Thus the colonists of Canada or New France, and 
New England were constantly pitted against each other, with the 
unsophisticated red men as the targets of war. 

The beginning of the conflict between the French and the 
English in this country was better known as "King William's 
War," though often referred to as "St. Castin's War/' from the 
fact this French leader had aroused the English colonists by his 
steady and persistent encroachments on their territory. At this 
time the Governor of New France began to systematically organ- 
ize and train the so-called Christian Indians to wage a predatory 
warfare upon the colonists of New England. This war ended 
with the peace of Ryswick, September 20, 1697, without actually 
settling any of the mooted points between the Old World nations. 

Less than five years of restless peace followed, when May 
4, 1762, England declared war against France and Spain, and 
what was known in Europe as the "War of Spanish Succession" 
ensued. In America this struggle was styled "Queen Anne's 
War," and it lasted until the "Peace of Utrecht," in April, 1713. 
By the terms of this settlement Great Britain obtained New 
Foundland, Acadia and Hudson Bay Territory, and it was be- 
lieved permanent peace had been secured. 

If the European Powers had succeeded in closing the drama 
of arms for a time, the colonists in America continued to wage 
their intermittent warfare upon local issues. On the one hand 
was usually a dispute relative to some boundary line, as witness 
the cause of King William's War. Not so inclined to make for 
themselves permanent settlements as the English, with a wonder- 
ful ability to cover a vast extent of country with a few numbers, 
the French established their outposts and claimed nearly half the 
territory now included in the United States. The fisheries of the 


Atlantic coast was a bone of contention long after the earlier 
quarrels had been adjusted. Then, there was the rich fur trade, 
a matter of no slight interest, and which both the French and the 
English wanted to monopolize. In order to accomplish this pur- 
pose, the French built their forts in the distant wilderness, and 
sent their voyageurs on long journeys into the pathless regions 
of "summer snows," until checked in a measure by that mighty 
corporation of the English known as "The Hudson Bay Com- 
pany." Last, but not least in its sinister influence among the 
colonists, was the difference in religious views. With all of these 
influences at work it is not strange if the two parties were ever 
lying in wait for each other, and always the unfortunate red man, 
his untutored mind embittered with real and fancied wrongs, was 
the uncertain and disturbing element hovering over the scenes like 
a shadowy Nemesis. 

So, while the Old World bivouacked her armies, the colonists 
of New France constructed their missionary strongholds in the 
wilderness, and encouraged their dusky neophytes to carry terror 
to the hearts of the Pioneers of New England by a series of 
attacks upon their defenseless homes, applying the torch to their 
dwellings and slaying the tender and bleeding and helpless in 
cold blood, or bearing them away to a fate worse than death. 
Driven to frenzy by these repeated cruelties, which if not checked 
would result in complete disaster, the English from time to time 
sent numerous — over twenty— scouting parties over the great belt 
of country lying between the warring factions, now and then 
bringing back bloody trophies of the wartrail. One of these ex- 
peditions passed down the valley of the Contoocook through the 
present territory of Hillsborough, where then the only beacon 
light was the signal fire of the dusky enemy, and gave the name 
of the leader to Lovell's Mountain. 

The climax in these warlike marches was reached, when 
Harmon at the head of his scouts in the summer of 1724 routed 
the religious garrison of the French at Norridgewock, near where 
now stands the town of Farmington, Me., and completed their 
work by killing the insistent missionary, Father Rasle. This 
crushing blow was followed by Lovewell's memorable expedi- 
tions, the third and last of which culminated May 5, 1725, in 


the life and death struggle with the Sokoki Indians on the shores 
of Uncannebe in the valley of the Saco River not far from the 
site of the town of Fryeburg, Me. This battle, while disastrous 
to the immediate parties engaged in it, brought about "The Peace 
of Boston," signed by certain Abnaki chiefs, and giving to the 
English the longest cessation of hostilities they had ever enjoyed. 

As if their other troubles were not sufficient, a dispute had 
arisen between the colonists of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire in regard to the boundary line. It had been stated in the 
charter of the Massachusett Bay Company that the northern 
boundary of its grant should be a line three miles north of the 
Merrimack "as the river runs in any and every part thereof." 
As far as the early surveyors had penetrated the river had flowed 
from the west, and that was the reason it was supposed to be its 
continuous course. When it became evident that a mistake had 
been made, rather than yield to its sister province, towards whom 
there was anything but a kindly feeling, east was made to stand 
for north, and Massachusetts claimed all territory to the west of 
the river and a strip three miles wide on the east, continuing to 
three miles north of the head of the stream, "wherever that might 
be." This claim was stubbornly fought in and out of the courts 
for nearly a hundred years, and it was pushed with renewed 
activity the moment the difficulties with the French and Indians 
had been checked. 

Aware that her demands upon the debatable country lying to 
the west of the Merrimack River was to be seriously combated 
by the court of New Hampshire, and believing in the old saying 
that "possession is nine points in law," Massachusetts began to 
grant townships and homesteads in that section to those who 
would promise to become actual settlers. In doing this she gave 
two reasons: One was to form a cordon of settlements on a more 
northern frontier than before, as a protection against any possible 
uprising from the Indians in the future, and the other excuse was 
to reward her soldiers in the previous wars. Acting upon this 
assumption a belt of territory three miles wide and six miles long 
was granted in April, 1735, to the survivors and heirs of that 
body of troops led by Capt. William Tyng in the winter of 1702- 
1703 known as the "Snow-shoe Scouts," the grant made under 


Photograph by Maxah.w. 



the name of Tyng Township. Another township on the east side 
was granted to Lovewell's men under the title of "Lovewell's 
Town." The first grant is now included in the City of Man- 
chester, and the second in the Town of Pembroke. 

On the west side of the Merrimack the lower province was 
more ambitious, as she was supposed and had need to be. In 
this direction she caused to be mapped out two tiers of towns 
between the above-named river and the Connecticut, the northern 
line running from Penacook, now Concord, to the "Great Falls" 
of the last river, and now known as Bellows Falls. This band of 
wild country was twelve miles in width, the townships being each 
six miles square. The names and dates of the grants of the 
lower section is as follows : 

Bow, May 10. 1727 ; Amherst, as Narragansett, No. 3, December 18, 
1728 ; Boscawen, as Contoocook, Dec. 8, 1732 ; Goffstown, as Narrag-an- 
sett, No. 4, Feb. 9, 1733-4; Bedford, as Narragansett, No. 5, February 
12, 1733-4 ; Lyndeborongh, as Salem-Canada, June 19. 1735 ; Dumbar- 
ton, as Starkstown, June 19, 1735; We a re, as Beverly-Canada, June 
19, 1735; New Boston, January 14, 1735-6. 

In the second tier eight towns were granted in the succeeding 
order : 

No. 1 Warner, January 16, 1735-6 ; No. 2, Bradford, January 16, 
1735-6; No. 3, Walpole, November, 1736; No. 4, Alstead ; No. 5, Hop- 
kinton ; No. 6, Henniker ; No. 7, Hillsborough ; No. 8, Washington ; — 
all of the five last-named granted January 16, 1735-6. 

The frontier line at this period if drawn from east to west 
would have extended from Rochester through Barrington to 
Boscawen, then known as Contoocook, Concord, then called Rum- 
ford, through Hopkinton, Henniker, Hillsborough and Peterbor- 
ough to Swanzey, Keene, Winchester, and Hinsdale. The entire 
northern and western country to the valley of the St. Lawrence 
was an unbroken wilderness, save for a few families located 
upon the "Great Meadows" of Westmoreland or near the garrison 
at Number Four, now known as Charlestown. 

Contemporary with the grants of these towns it is not certain 
there was a single inhabitant within the entire extent of territory, 
though tradition does credit two squatters with having erected 
rude cabins and making small clearings. One of these named 


Keyes had pitched his tent within the grant of Weare, and the 
other within the bounds of old No. 7, as Hillsborough was 
originally known. Mention of this couple will be more definitely 
made later on. 

As late as 1713, but a little over twenty years before these 
grants were made the only settlement in Hillsborough County was 
in that part of Old Dunstable now included in Nashua. But 
within seven or eight years adventurous settlers had penetrated 
into the deeper woods and established homes in Hollis, Litchfield, 
Merrimack, and Amherst. From these outposts hunters and 
trappers, eager to secure the pelts of the bear, deer, beaver, or 
other fur-bearing animals, ranged the valleys of the Pascataquog 
and Contoocook rivers. Thus from 171 5 to 1735 the beautiful 
valley of the Contoocook, if not inhabited by an actual settler, 
was well known to scouts and hunters, who saw in the densely 
wooded intervales and the heavily timbered uplands bright pros- 
pects for the future husbandman. 

The Contoocook River was a favorite stream among the 
Indians, and its name is a memory of them, one meaning being 
"great place for crows." The Penacook family or tribe, whose 
chief lodgment was near where this river united with the Merri- 
mack, held sway over the country, the dusky warriors flitting 
hither and yon like shadows in the forest. Along this stream 
they had hunted and fished from time immemorial — unnumbered 
generations. Over this route went and came many of the war- 
parties sent out by their sachem to meet their enemies in life and 
death grapples. It was somewhere in this vicinity that the ancient 
and half-mythical chieftain, Kenewa, went forth to battle with 
the fiery Mohawks in one of their invasions, to disappear as com- 
pletely as did Varus and his Roman legions in the dark Germanic 

Many relics, such as spoons or ladles, spear-heads, arrow 
points, tomahawks, pestles and mortars used in grinding maize, 
with similar devices fashioned out of stone by the rude yet cun- 
ning hand of the dusky artisan have been found, showing that at 
one time they must have been numerous in this vicinity. Almost 
within the memory of the oldest inhabitant has come hither the 
aged Pompanoosick, last of the renowned chieftains of his race, 

«<___„.,_ _^ „, , r ,,_ T »_ TT >» 


to bid his farewell to the scenes of his ancestors, the unbidden 
tears springing to his bronzed cheek in spite of the stoicism of 
generations of warriors. 

These warlike denizens of wood and water, flitting hither 
and thither in the dim aisles of the old forest or gliding like 
shadows along the winding river, left a history written only in 
the deeds of their conquerors, and not always with, a fairness 
that has done them justice. As has been stated, at this period 
few were left to molest the people who had taken up their land 
without hesitation or compunction. 

Owing to the loss or disappearance of certain records and 
private papers belonging to the original proprietor of this town- 
ship, there is some uncertainty in regard to the action in the grant 
or grants of the territory comprising the present town of Hills- 
borough. The courts of Massachusetts on January 16, 1735-6, 
granted to Col. John Hill, of Boston, a man of considerable 
ability, wealth and influence, who was interested in the settlements 
of other townships in New Hampshire, a tract of country "about 
six mile square" in the heart of an unsurveyed wilderness. 

This conveyance does not state that others were interested 
in this grant, nor even that Col. John Hill had a partner, and yet 
before the close of the year papers were drawn up which seem to 
show that a body of men, the list headed by the name of Isaac 
Little, and known as the "People of Plymouth" had obtained a 
grant of "eight-sixty thirds" of this land, as witness the following 
instruments executed by these grantees : 

Deed of Conveyance of Isaac Little and Others. 

To all People to whom these presents shall or may come Greeting 

Know ye that we Isaac Little of Pembroke John Cushing Junr 
of Scituate and James Warren of Plymouth all in the County of 
Plymouth Esq" Thomas Church of Little Compton Job Almy of Tiv- 
erton and Charles Church of Bristol all in the County of Bristol Esq' 
and Shuball Goreham of Barnstable Esq r and the said Charles Church 
as assignee of Joseph Mason of Swansey in the County of Bristol 
Esq r for a valuable consideration to us paid by John Hill Gen* and 
Gershom Keyes Trader both of Boston in the County of Suffolk and 
therefore do by these present fully and absolutely Grant bargain sell 
aliene transfer convey and confirm to them the said John Hill and 
Gershom Keyes in equal halves or Shares and to their heirs and as- 


signs forever eight Single Shares or eight Sixty third parts of a new 
Township lying on the Line of Towns between Connecticot and Mer- 
rimack Rivers being the Township Number Seven bounding East on 
the Township Number Six and West on the Township Number Eight 
into which township we have been admitted in pursuance or conse- 
quence of our Petition preferred to the Great and Generall Court of 
the Province of the Massachusetts Bay namely by the Committee of 
said Generall Court as also our associates of which the said John 
Hill and Gershom Keyes are a part To have and to hold The said 
Eight rights or Shares or Eight Sixty thirds parts of said Township 
Number Seven to them the said John Hill and Gershom Keyes and to 
their heirs and assigns forever free and clear from all incumbrances 
by us made or suffered to be made and done to be held by them the 
said Keyes and Hill and their heirs executors and administrators or 
assigns in equal halves or Shares as aforesaid always subject to the 
Terms and conditions of Settlement 

In Wittness whereof we hare hereunto set our hands and Seals 
this 22d day of December Anno Dom : 1736 

Isaac Little and Seal 
John Gushing- Junr and Seal 
James Warren and Seal 
Thomas Church and Seal 
Job Almy and Seal 
Charles Church and Seal 
Shuball Gorham And Seal 
Signed Sealed and Delivered in presence of us 

Richard Hubbard 
Luke Hardy 
Suffolk ss Boston Decern 30 1736 

Isa^ic Little John Gushing Junr James Warren Thomas Church 
Job Almy Charles Church and Shubel Gorham Esq rs the above Sub- 
sribers personally appearing freely acknowledged the foregoing in- 
strument to be their Act and Deed 

William Dudley J; P: 
Reed ye Day above said the instrument by which it appears the 
aforesaid Charles Church Esq 1- assignee to Joseph Mason Esq 1 " and the 
same is annexed 

John Hill 

Gershom Keyes 
(Middlesex Co. Deeds, vol. 38, p. 24.) 

Deed of Joseph Mason to Charles Church. 

To all Persons to whom these presents may come know ye that 
where as I Joseph Mason of Swansey in the County of Bristol Esq. 
was one of the Subscribers to a petition Signed by Isaac Little and 


others for a Township in some of the unappropriated Lands of the 
Province which petition was so far granted that said petitioners might 
have one of the Townships in the Line of Towns and in as much as 
it is so very remote from where I now dwell I do by these presents 
bargain Sell and confirm unto Charles Church of Bristol in the County 
of Bristol Esqr and to his heirs and assigns for ever all my right and 
title to said Township be the same more or less having- received a 
valluable consideration for said right or Share in said Township 

In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 
twenty Seventh day of December Annoque Domini One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Thirty Six 

Joseph Mason and Seal 
In presence of us John Mason Barbara Mason. 

Recorded May 9, 1737 
(Middlesex Co. Deeds, Vol. 38, p. 24.) 

To understand the perplexing situations that follow it should 
be remembered that the settlement of New England while begun 
under a single grant was very soon divided and rival factions 
came to the front. One of these, known as the Masonian Pro- 
prietors, secured, in a measure, the ownership of much of the 
northern area, including most of New Hampshire and a part of 
Maine, under the title of Laconia. The parties interested in this 
plantation were influential men of London. The rights of the 
Massachusetts grantees apparently were not considered. Under 
this condition New Hampshire, which had no charter from the 
English parliament and whose governors were appointed by the 
King, was known as a "royal province." Of this class were also 
New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina and 
Georgia. Almost all of these were originally proprietary govern- 
ments, and fell into the hands of the King when these proprietors 
relinquished or for any reason lost their claims. 

Distinct from this purchase of "Laconia," but somewhat sim- 
ilar in purpose, certain gentlemen of wealth and influence under 
the name of the "Plymouth Company" had obtained from the 
English courtsa grant covering five colonies or territorial settle- 
ments designated as Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, 
New Haven, Providence, Rhode Island and New Hampshire. It 
was with members of this body of speculators that Colonel Hill 
had to deal. During the long years of colonization and frontier 


perils ever the question of right of domain over New Hampshire 
by the Massachusetts Bay Company was agitated.* 

The provincial government of New Hampshire in 1745, 
during the interval of the first settlement in Hillsborough consisted 
of a royal governor, council and assembly. Benning Wentworth 
was governor and his council was composed of ten gentlemen, 
who represented the wealth and aristocracy of the day. The 
assembly, as it was convened on January 24, 1745, had represen- 
tatives from thirteen towns, viz. : Portsmouth, three members ; 
Dover, three; Hampton and Hampton Falls, three together; 
Exeter, two ; and one for each of the following towns, Stratham, 
New Castle, Rye, Kingston, Greenland, New Market, Newington, 
Durham and Londonderry. The representative from Newington 
was dismissed, but later another person was chosen to fill the 
vacancy. It will be seen that the populous (if such a term could 
be used at that period) portion of the province was very limited 
in its area, and did not come very far towards the western section 
of the territory. 

*The name New Hampshire comes from two words meaning "borne place"; 
that is, the syllable Ham is the Scotch form for "home," and slura denotes a place 
or locality. In England it was broadened so as to have a signification very 
nearly to our "county." The letter "p" seems to have been added in the 16th 
century. So, from representing a solitary homestead or farmhouse, it was made 
to cover a village (hamlet), town, province and anon a state, a very applicable name 
and one that commands our respect. — Author. 


Founders of Number Seven. 

Easier to Get the Grant of a Town Than to Find Settlers — First Con- 
veyance of Land Made to Samuel Gibson of Boston — Other Pur- 
chasers of Lots — Deeds to Isaac Baldwin — Deed to John Traill 
and Jeremiah Green— Deed of Keyes to Huntington — A Title that 
Outlived Many of the Others — Keyes to Samuel Brown — Boundary 
Dispute Finally Submitted to the King and Council — Line Fixed 
in 1740 — Hard Lines on Colonel Hill — But He Was not the Only 
Sufferer — Petition of Samuel Brown — Contains an Important 
Date Relating to the Time of Settlement — Court Allows Him Re- 
dress — Undaunted Colonel Hill Continues His Battle — Deeds and 
Mortgages Relating to the Settlement of the Town. 

All grants of territory in New England imposed upon the 
grantees certain obligations which they were in duty bound to 
perform. While Messrs. Hill and Keyes had not found it very 
difficult to secure the grant of Number Seven, by purchase of the 
Plymouth grantees and by action of the court, it was not so easy 
a task to find persons willing to take up lots in the unknown 
woods so far removed from Boston which even then was the 
"hub" of New England, though the colonists of the new country 
had come hither imbued with the spirit of adventure and pre- 
pared to meet hardships of almost any degree that they might 
establish themselves in a free land. 

Colonel Hill was a man of wide and influential acquaintance, 
while his partner had become familiar with the region by an 
actual attempt at settlement. The first man they seemed to have 
found willing to make the venture was Samuel Gibson, a sturdy 
Scotchman not long since come to Boston. So the first convey- 
ance of land in the grant of which record has been found, and 
which was dated nearly two years after the initial grant, and 
attendant movement, under date of December 29, 1737, reads as 
follows : 

John Hill Esq. & Gershom Keyes, Trader, both of Boston for 
£ 100 convey to Samuel Gibson of Boston, Labourer, a Certain Lott of 



Land in a Township Granted to Isaac Little Esq r and others of Old 
Plymouth Colony and their Associates which Township is Called No. 7 
in the line of Towns between Merrimack & Connecticut River said lott 
of land Contains Seventy Acres and lyeth in the north range being the 
house lot No. 49 which was surveyed by Joseph Wilder Jun r Bounds 
north on Lott No. 48 and South on Lott No. 50, it butts on undevided 
land, it began at a Stake and Stones at the north west angle, from 
thence ran east one hundred and Sixty to a grey oak at the north East 
angle, from thence it ran South Seventy rods to a stake and Stones 
to the South east Seventy rods to a stake and Stones 
to the South east angle from thence it ran west one hundred and 
Sixty rods to a Stake and Stones to the South west angle and from 
thence it ran straight to where it began. Also One hundred acres 
more lying in Common and undivided land being the sixtieth part of 
Six thousand acres lying in equal wedth upon the westerly side of 
said Township No. 7. Said Six thousand acres adjoining on a Town- 
ship Called No. 8 and to be an Equal wedth acrost the Township No. 7. 
To Have and to Hold, etc. 

Providing that before June 1, 1740 said Samuel Gibson shall settle 
said lot No. 49 according to the Grant of the great & General Court 
which is that the Said Samuel Gibson his heirs, Executors or Admin- 
istrators Shall build a Dwelling house of eighteen feet square & Seven 
feet wide & seven Feet Stud at the least and fence in and break up 
for plowing or clear and Stock with English grass five acres of Land 
upon the aforesaid Lot Number 49 and Settle a family thereon at or 
before the first day of June anno Domini 1740 afore mentioned. 
Likewise pay the sixtieth part of Settling a minister in said Township 
of which Conditions if the said Samuel Gibson . . . shall fail . . . 
then the aforesaid Deed .... to be null and void and of none Effect. 

September 23, 1738, apparently not satisfied with the amount 
of land he had secured, Mr. Gibson acquired an additional interest 
in the township upon the same conditions as the preceding instru- 

Now that a beginning had been made it seemed easier to find 
customers, and deeds of conveyance are found quite frequently 
among the early records. As these were usually made under the 
same stipulation and condition, though the prices varied, it does 
not appear necessary to give the conveyances in full. It will be 
noticed that at this early date considerable discrimination was 
made in reference to the values of the lots even if unimproved. 
At that time it was customary to deed lots sufficiently large for 
homesteads, and then convey them portions of "common 


land" so called. Frequently these last were lowlands or meadows 
where wild grass could be secured to feed the stock during 
winter. Often these sections had been cleared by the beavers 
damming the waters and the overflow killing out the trees. In 
pioneer days some of these localities yielded a great burden of 
fairly good fodder for the cattle. The following were purchasers 
of lots in the township : 

Alexander Turner, of Worcester, Mass., husbandman, bought 
"a farm for £100 containing fifty two acres, which Lott is number 
thirty two. . . and one hundred lying in common and undivided 
lands," August 5, 1738. 

James Meyer, of Boston, purchased November 21, 1738, "a 
farm containing two hundred acres . . . Sied Farm on the South 
side of the great river lyes." Mr. Meyer was a "Shaymaker," 
and he paid £60, upon the same condition of settlement. 

Jabez Huntington, Norwich, Conn., purchased November 22, 
1738, "a certain Lott of land containing seventy acres and is 
House Lot Number 50. . . Also one hundred Acres more lying 
in Common and undevided land." 

James Maxwell, of Stow, Mass., husbandman, bought for 
£100 "Lott No. 20 of fifty acres. . . their being an allowance of 
a highway a crost the west End and south side. Also one hundred 
acres lying in common an undivided land." 

The succeeding conveyance varies so much from the others 
that it is given in full: 

Baldwin Deeds. 

John Hill Esq. & Gershom Keyes, Trader, both of Boston con- 
vey to Isaac Baldwin of Sudbury, Housewright, for £ 100 a certain 
Lot of Land in a Township granted to Isaac Little Esqr and others of 
old Plymouth Colony and their Associates which Township is called 
No. 7 in the Line of Towns between Merrimack and Connecticut 
River Said Lot of Land contains fifty Acres and forty rods being 
the House Lot No. 6 which was Surveyed by Joseph Wilder Junr and 
bounds Northwest on undivided land and South East on Lot No. 5. 
It butts Eastwardly on Lott No. 7. and Southwest on No. 9 It be- 
gan at a Beach at the North East Angle thence it ran South Forty 
Degrees and thirty minutes west one hundred and eighty rods to a 
beach to the Southwest Angle from thence it ran East forty Degrees 
and thirty minits South fifty rods to a stake and Stones — to the South- 
east Angle, from thence it ran North forty Degrees and thirty min- 
its East one hundred and eighty rods to a Stake and Stones to the 


North East Angle and from Thence it ran straight to where it began. 
Also one hundred Acres more lying in Common and undivided Land 
being the Sixtieth part of Six thousand acres lying in equal wedth 
upon the Westly Side of Said' Township No. 7 Said Six thousand Acres 
in adjoining on a Township called No. 8 and to be of an equal 
wedth acrost the Township called NO. 7 To have and to hold Dated 
Dec. 5, 1739 

Witness Stephen Willis 
Josiah Flagg 

Provided that before June 1, 1740, said Isaac Baldwin shall settle 

according to the Grant of the great General Court which is that 
the said Isaac Baldwin his heirs Executors or Administrators shall 
build a Dwelling house of eighteen feet Square and Seven feet stud 
at the least and fence in and break up for plowing or clear and 
Stock with English grass five acres of Land upon aforesaid Lot Num- 
ber Six and Settle a family thereon at or before the first day of 
June anno Domini 1740 aforesaid and mentioned Likewise pay the 
Sixtieth part of Settling a minister in said Township of which 
Conditions if the said Isaac Baldwin . . . shall fail . . . then the 
aforesaid Deed . . . to be null and void and of none Effect. 

In less than two weeks the grantee of the foregoing lot made 
another purchase, as witness the following deed : 

To All People to whom these Presents shall come Greeting. 

Know Ye that we John Hill Esquire and Gershom Keyes, Trader, 
both of Boston in the County of Suffolk and Province of Massachu- 
setts Bay in New England, for and in consideration of five pounds to 
us in hand, well and truly paid by Isaac Baldwin of Sudbury in the 
County of Middlesex Housewright, the receipt whereof we hereby 
acknowledge, have given, granted, bargained, Sold, aliened, Euseokied, 
released, quitclaimed and confirmed, and by these Presents do freely, 
clearly and Absolutely give, grant, bargain, Sell, aliene, Ouseokie, 
release, quitclaim and confirm unto the said Isaac Baldwin, and to 
his heirs and Assigns forever, a certain Lot of Land, containing eighty 
six acres and one hundred and twenty eight Bods, and it is the Lot 
Number two. In a Township called Hillsberry, or No. 7, in said 
Line of Towns between merrimack River and Connecticut river, said 
Township was granted to Isaac Little Esquire and others of Old 
Plymouth Colony and their Associates. Said Lot is bounded North- 
west, on the Lot No. 1, and undivided Land, and Southeast on the lot 
No. 32 and undivided Land, it begins at a Stake and Stones, the South- 
west Angle and from thence it Buns East one hundred Bods to a 
Stake and Stones, and then it turns an obtuse Angle and runs East 
fourty Degrees and thirty minutes North, one hundred and Sixty six 


Bods to a Stake and Stones, in the meadow being the North East 
Angle, and from thence it turns and runs North fourty degrees and 
thirty minutes West seventy rods to a Stake and Stones, being a North 
east Angle, and from thence it runs strait to where it begun. To have 
and to hold the aforesaid Lot No. 2, with the Buildings, Fences, and 
Improvements, Appurtenances, Privileges and Commodities to the said 
Lot belonging (Except hereby all after divisions) unto him the said 
Isaac Baldwin, and to his heirs and Assigns forever, to his and their 
only, sole, and proper use, benefit and behoof from henceforth and 
for ever, absolutely without any manner of Condition, Bedemption. or 
Bevocation in any wise, so that to and from all right, Estate, Title, 
Interest, Beclaims, Challenge or Demand whatsoever, to be by us the 
said John Hill and Gershom Keyes our heirs or assigns at any time 
hereafter had made or claimed of in or to the said granted and re- 
leased Land and Premises, we and they and Each of them shall and 
will be utterly debarred and forever excluded of, and from the Same, 
by force and vertue of these Presents. 

In Witness whereof we the said John Hill and Gershom Keyes 
have hereunto set our hands seals this sixth day of December Anno 
Domini, one thousand and seven hundred and thirty nine, and in the 
thirteenth year of the Beign of our Sovereign Lord, George the 
Second by the Grace of God of Great Brittain, France and Ireland. 
King, Defender of the Faith &c. 

John Hill and Seal 
Gershom Keyes and Seal. 
Witness by William Moore, Jona Chandler 

— Middlesex County Deeds, Vo. 40, p. 343. 

The sales of land in Township No. 7 seemed then to move 
slowly for the next deed is dated April 2, 1740, and conveyed for 
seven hundred pounds a larger tract to — 

John Trail, Merchant, and Jeremiah Green, distiller, both of Bos- 
ton, "A certain Farm containing fourteen hundred acres of Land, 
lying In the North East Corner of the Township Number Seven in the 
County of Middlesex in the Line of Town's which Township was 
granted to Isaac Little the Esquire and Others of the Plymouth Col- 
ony and their Associates, said Land is bounded as f olloweth vizt. : 
beginning at the North East Corner of said Farm, which is the north 
corner of said Township, from thence it runs on the North line of 
said Township, South Eighty four degrees and thirty west four hun- 
dred and fifty one Bods, from thence iSouth fifteen Degrees East four 
hundred and ninety seven Bods, by Land now belonging to Samuel 
Brown, from thence North eighty four degrees and thirty minutes 


and thirty minutes East Four hundred and fifty One Rods by Land 
belonging to said John Hill to the east line of said Township and 
from thence North fifteen Degrees West four hundred and ninety 
seven Rods on said East line to the first mentiond bounds." 

This deed has attached the surveyor's plan of the tract, and 
is the only one that has such an instrument. It is unfortunate 
that while the name of the surveyor, Joseph Wilder, Jr., is fre- 
quently mentioned, the plan of his survey has not been found, 
and it is probable that it disappeared with other of Colonel Hill's 
papers that would prove of great value in making it easy to locate 
these early lots now. Though there is nothing to show it, Colonel 
Hill and his associates early made a division between themselves 
of their new possessions. 

Before the giving of the above deeds by Colonel Hill his 
partner made the following conveyance : 

Deed of Keyes to Huntington. 

•Gershom Keyes of Boston, merchant, for £918 — 9s. conveys to 
Joshua Huntington, merchant, Norwich, Conn., all that my part or 
parcel of land which is lying and being in the Township Number 
Seven in the County of Middlesex and is by Estimation six hundred 
and eighty Acres and one hundred and twenty rods of land bounded 
as followeth beginning on the Southeast Side of the great river and 
bounds on the Lots Number 43 and 63 and partly on the River and 
then on a farm and on the Lot Number 44 and then on the river 
to the Town-line It began at a Stake by the river the Southeast 
Corner of the Lot Number 44 and from thence it runs East 32 De- 
grees South 40 rods to the Southeast corner of the lot 44 from 
thence it runs North on the lot and the farm two hundred and sixty 
Hods to stake the Northeast Corner of the farm and from thence 
it runs west thirty two Deg° North one hundred and sixty five rods 
to the river and then runs South fifteen Degrees East forty Rods to 
the Southeast corner of the Lot 43 and from thence East fifteen De- 
grees -South eighty rods across the heads of the lots Number 43 and 
63 to the Town line & from thence with the Town line to the south- 
east Corner of the Town and of this town and from thence west 
five Degrees and thirty minits South with the Town line to the river 

where it began Item with the Moiety or half part of a large Tract 
of land containing one thousand and eight hundred acres which I 
have in Common w«> Major John Hill of Boston in the County of 
Suffolk excepting one hundred Acres of said Eighteen hundred Acres 

to be taken off from said Tract on the west side to be of an equal 
wedth all of the whole length or bredth of said Eighteen hundred 


acres is bounded out as followeth and is lying in the Township Num- 
ber Seven in the County of Middlesex it is abutting East on the Town 
Line and West on the undevided lands it butts North on the farm 
and south partly on the Lot Number thirty three and partly on a 
farm and on the lot Number sixty two and on the river it began at 
a pitch pine tree the south East angle and from thence it runs North 
fifteen Degrees West Six hundred and twenty two Rods to a Stake 
and Stones The North East angle and from thence it runs West five 
Deg° and thirty Minits South five hundred and five rods to the 
Letter D and E on a Beach tree thence it runs South fifteen Degrees 
six hundred Rods to the Letter F on a iSpruce tree the southwest 
angle and from thence East on a Lot Number 33 one hundred and 
sixty rods on a farm and from thence it runs North on the head of 
the Lots Number 61 and 62 eighty eight rods and from thence it 
runs East ten Degrees North one hundred and eighty rods to the 
river and on the River to whence it first began be the same more or 
less To have and to hold. 

Dated Nov. 24, 1738. 
Witnessed by Samuel Brown, 
Sophia Thomas. 

— ^Middlesex Co. Deeds, Vol. 29, p. 449. 

Deed of Reyes to Brown. 

Gershom Keyes of Boston, Trader, for £500 conveys to Samuel 
Brown of Leicester, Worcester County. A certain farm of land con- 
taining one thousand Acres lying in the township Number Seven in 
the Line of Towns which Township was granted to Isaac Little Esq. 
and others of the old Plymouth Colony Said farm lies upon the North 
side of said Township The Courses and Bounds of Said Farm are as 
followeth Vizt beginning at North East Corner upon the Line of the 
North side of said of said Township four hundred fifty one rods from 
the North Side of Said Township from thence to extend upon the said 
Township Line S 64° : 30' W two hundred Seventy eight rods from 
thence S 15° : 00' E Six hundred and twenty rods by undevided land 
from thence N 84° : 30° E two hundred thirty three rods by undivided 
land to the West line of a farm called number three from thence N 
15° : 00' W two hundred and sixty rods by the said line of the farm 
Number three to the Northwest Corner of it from thence N 84° : 3(f 
E forty five rods to the southern Corner of this farm now describing 
and from thence N 15° : 00' W three-hundred and sixty rods by a 
farm containing one thousand acres to the first mentioned corner 
To have and to hold 

Dated Dec. 20, 1759. Wife Sarah released dower. 
Witnessed by Joseph Badger, Sophia Thomas. 


In 1737, when Messrs. Hill and Keyes were trying to find 
settlers for their grant then assumed to be in Middlesex County, 
Province of Massachusetts, a board of fifteen commissioners were 
appointed by the King to settle the dispute. But it proved easier 
to select the commission than to get its members together, though 
finally nine of them met at Salem, Mass., to try and come to an 
understanding. This was a fitting place for the conference, as 
the legislature of the rival provinces were at that identical time in 
session within a few miles of this meeting place : one at Hampton 
Falls, N. H., and the other at Salisbury, Mass. The represen- 
tatives of the former province, without seeming to realize the 
actual rights and prerogatives that belonged to them, offered to 
arbitrate by fixing the line starting at the Atlantic Ocean three 
miles north of the mouth of the Merrimack River, and running 
due west pass through the village of Amesbury, Mass., cross the 
river a little south of Reed's Ferry, in the town of Merrimack, 
N. H., keeping on westward so as to run a little north of Monad- 
nock and south of Keene. The Massachusetts men were still per- 
sistent in claiming the three mile strip on the east bank of the 
Merrimack to the Junction of the Pemigewasset and Winnepesau- 
kee rivers, in what is now the city of Franklin, N. H., and from 
thence due west to cross the Connecticut River about one and one- 
half miles below Windsor, Vt. 

The commission seems to have been quite reasonable, but 
Governor Jonathan Belcher, who had jurisdiction over both pro- 
vinces, was determined to carry out the wishes of Massachusetts. 
Accordingly, when the matter had been well threshed out, and it 
was decided to offer both interpretations to the King and Council, 
with the condition that each legislature of the rival provinces 
should have six weeks in which to frame any objection it might 
have against the opposing plan, Governor Belcher, prorogued the 
New Hampshire Assembly for six weeks, but kept the Massa- 
chusetts Assembly open. The commission, with a higher sense of 
justice than Governor Belcher, upon reassembling waited for the 
New Hampshire court to act if it chose. This aroused intense 
feelings on the part of the Governor's friends, but it finally was 
made plain to the King and his advisers that it must be a poor 
cause which required such doubtful tactics to win. At any rate, 
the King in Council, on August 5, 1740, adjudged and decreed: 


"That the Northern Boundary of the said Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, are, and be, a similar Curve line ; Pusuing 
the course of the Merrimack River at three Miles Distance on 
the North side thereof, beginning at the Atlantic Ocean & Ending 
at a Point due North of a place (in a plan returned by s'd 
Commissioners) called Pawtucket Falls, & a strait line drawn 
from thence due West cross the sd river till it meet with His 
Majesties other Governments." 

This decision was a great disappointment to Massachusetts, 
as she lost over thirty townships and parts of townships which 
had been granted to her people and in many settlements already 
begun. These inhabitants, as a rule, were her staunch supporters 
and partisans, and they immediately joined with the mother pro- 
vince in an effort to have this action revoked. But before any- 
thing could be accomplished, the Indians renewed hostilities, and 
another war with France, called "King George's War," or "Go- 
vernor Shirley's War" broke out. In fact, there was little rest 
from the strife until the close of the French and Indian War in 
1763. By that time the internal disturbances which resulted in 
the Revolutionary War with the mother country put an end to 
the controversy for another long period. Thus jolted and jarred 
by one interference or another, the boundary dispute was not 
actually settled until within fifty years ago. 

In all of this delay, litigation and bitterness of feeling Hills- 
borough had no part, except so far as it affected the two men who 
had begun its settlement under a Massachusetts title though the 
courts eventually decided it was New Hampshire territory. If 
anticipating this, and realizing that their claim was void or void- 
able under the new dispensation, the enterprising leaders of the 
undertaking to establish a town in the wilderness were fully re- 
solved to hold their domains by having actual settlers within its 
territory before the dispute was actually settled. So, with a 
courage that was commendable, they set themselves about the 
Herculean task. 

Something of the vexations and loss of the undertaking is 
shown in the case of Samuel Brown already having been noted as 
buying, in 1739, one thousand acres of land of Colonel Hill for 
five hundred pounds. Later, selling the same to another party 


for an advance of fifty pounds, he seems to have brought himself 
trouble financially, as witness the following: 

Petition of Samuel Brown, 1768. 1 

To His Exelency Francis Barnard Esqr Captain General & Com- 
mander in Cheif in & Over his Majesties Province of the Massachu- 
setts Bay the Honourable the Council and House of Representatives 
in General Court assembled Jany 1768. 

The petition of Samuel Brown of Stockbridge Humbly Sheweth 

That Whereas the General Assembly of this Province Some Time 
before the Year A. D. 1739 Granted to the people of Plymouth a 
Township of Land Called NO. 7, in the Line of Towns. Since Called 
by the Name of Hillsburg which Township was Since Sold To Coll. 
John Hills & Gershom Keyes than of Boston by Said Grantees, & 
Hills & Keyes afore Sd became Obliged to Do the Duty of Settlement 
in Sd Township as Injoynd by the General Assembly as the Condi- 
tion of Sd Grant in pursuance whereof Said Hills & Keyes (Soon after 
built a meeting- house & mill or mills in Sd Township & also Gave 
a Considerable part of Sd Township to a proper Number of persons 
to go on & settle the Same according the Courts act whereby the 
whole Duty of Settlement was Securd to be Done & Save the Remain- 
ing part of Sd Lands of Sd Township free of Charges after which 
(viz) in the year A. D. 1739, your Petitioner in Consideration of the 
afore mentioned things Respecting the (Settlement of Sd Township 
being done & also Esteeming the Grant of General Court a Good 
Title, Your Petitioner Purchased One Thousand Acres of land of 
Sd Keyes as being free of Duty at the Price of £500' Cash in hand of 
the than Currancy of the province and soon after Sold the Same 
for £550, the same Currancy and warranted the Same, but Since that 
time the line between the Province & New Hampshire being Settled. 
Sd Township by Sd Line is Taken from this province & included in 
Newhampshire and although Some part of Sd Township has been Re- 
leased to Sundry Persons, by the proprietors of Newhampshire. 
Yet they uterly Refuse to Release any to your petitioner, but hold 
that Individual Tract of land one Thousand Acres aforementioned 
from your petitioner although full & proper Application has been 
made therefor, wherefore your petitioner is Damaged the Valine of 
£550. as afore sd & now Obliged to pay ye Same with Sink of money 
& interest to this time & Till it be paid which to this time by the 
Computation of one of our prinsaple Gentlemen in the Law amounts 
to the Sum of more than Two thousand pounds old Tennor, where- 
fore Your Petitioner Humbly Praj r s Your Exelency & Honnours would 
be pleased to take your petitioners Case into your wise & Juditious 
Consideration & Grant to him an Equivalent in Lands in the West- 

1 N. H. State Papers, Vol. 24, pp. 140-2. 

Photograph by Manahan. 



ern part of the province or Some other way make up to your peti- 
tioner his Damages as in your Great wisdom & Goodness Your Exel- 
ency & honnours Shall think fitt and your Petitioner as in Duty 
bound Shall Ever pray &c 

Sam Brown 

The Court's Reply.* 

In the House of Representatives Febr 3 1768 

It Appearing by a Report of a Comtee of this Court made in the 
year 1765 Accepted by the House & Concurred by the Honble Board 
tho not Signed by his Excely the Governor there was allowed to Colo 
Hill & others Seventeen Hundred Acres of Land Lost by running the 
line of New Hampshire A Thousand Acres part thereof of right be- 
longs to the petr Saml Brown his heirs & Assigns One thousand Acres 
of the Unappropriated Lands of the province lying in the County of 
Hampshire or Berkshire to be laid out in one peice adjoining to some 
former Grant and that he return a plan thereof In twelve months 
for Confirmation 

Sent up for Concurrence T Cushing Spkr 

In Council Feb' 4th 1768 

Read & Concurred Jno Cotton D. Secr'y 

Consented to Era. Bernard 

(Mass. Archives, Vol. 118, p. 323.) 

Deeds and Mortgages Relating to the Settlement of 


The following abstracts of Deeds and Mortgages given by 
Messrs. Hill and Keyes to certain individuals interested in the 
settlement of the town have been copied from Middlesex County, 
Mass., Records, and have an important bearing on the settlement 
of the grant of Number Seven : 

Messrs. Hill and Keyes to David Baldwin. 

Gershom Keyes of Boston, Trader for £ 600, conveys to David 
Baldwin of Sudbury, Gent., my farm of 300 acres that I lately pur- 
chased from Jonathan Butterfield of Chelmsford which was granted 
to him by the General Court, Dec. 1737, bounded and Described as 
follows that is to Say adjoyning to the Township Number seven in 
the Line of Towns, beginning at a hemlock Tree marked with the 
Letter A, standing in the south line of the said Township Number 
seven, three miles from the south east Corner and from thence run- 
ning south eleven Degrees and thirty Minutes west by a Line of 

*N. H. State Papers, Vol. 24, pp. 140-2. 


marked trees, three hundred and twenty rods to a Stake and Stones 
to the Letter B from thence east five Degrees and thirty Minutes 
north one hundred and Sixty rods by a Line of marked Trees to a 
hemlock tree to the Letter C from thence north eleven Degrees and 
thirty Minutes East three hundred and Twenty rods by a Line of 
marked Trees to a Stake and heap of Stones in the aforesaid Town 
to the Letter D and from thence with said Line to where it began 
in the lines aforesaid, ten acres is allowed for a Sway of Chain, als* 
six acres lying in the aforesaid Township Number seven on the west 
Side of the southerly Branch of Contoocook river Bounded south on 
the aforesaid Farm east on the said Branch north on a farm belong- 
ing to William Moore and west on Lot No forty six in said Town- 
ship No seven also Ninety four acres to be Taken of from the south 
end of the House lotts Number forty five, forty seven and Number 
forty six upon an equal Wedth. in the afore mentioned Township 
number seven, said three lotts adjoyn on the south line of said Town- 
ship with all the Rights etc. 

Dated Jan. 4, 1741. Witnessed by Isaac Baldwin, Francis 
Keyes. — Vol. 42, p. 398. 

Messrs. Hill and Keyes to Samuel Gibson. 

John Hill, Esq. & Gershom Keyes, Trader, both of Boston for 
100 £ convey to Samuel Gibson of Boston, Labourer, a Certain Lott 
of Land in a Township Granted to Isaac Little Esq r and others of Old 
Plymouth Colony and their Associates which Township is Called No 
7, in the line of Towns between Merrimack & Connecticut Biver said 
lott of land Contains Seventy acres and lyeth in the north range 
being the house lott N° 49 which was Surveyed by Joseph Wilder 
Jun r Bounds north on Lott No 48, and South on lott N° 50. it butts on 
undevided land it began at a Stake and 'Stones at the north west 
angle thence it ran east one hundred and Sixty rods to a grey oak 
at the north East angle, from thence it ran South Seventy rods to 
a Stake and Stones to the South east angle from thence it ran west 
one hundred and Sixty rods to a Stake and Stones to the South west 
angle and from thence it ran Streight to where it began Also one 
hundred acres more lying in Common and undivided land being the 
sixtieth part of iSix thousand acres lying in equal wedth upon the 
westerly side of Said Township No 7. . Said Six thousand acres ad- 
joyning on a Township Called No 8. and to be of an Equal Wedth 
across the Township No 7 To Have and to Hold". 

Dated Dec. 29, 1737. Same conditions as Baldwin deed 

40:326. Witnessed by William Knox, Francis Keyes. — Vol. 42, 

P- 398. 

'also (sic) 


Messrs. Hill and Keves to Jabez Huntington. 

John Hill, Esq., and Gershom Keyes, Trader, both of Boston, for 
£ 100, convey to Jabez Huntington of Norwich, Conn., "A Certain 
Lott of land Containing seventy acres and is the House Lott Num- 
ber 50 lying- and being in a Township called Number Seven in the 
line of Towns which runs across the country from Merrimack River 
to Connecticut River which Township was granted to Isaac Little 
Esq 1- and others of old Plymouth Colony and their associates Said 
lot of land is butted and bounded as followeth lying in the North 
range of lots and bounds north on the lot N° 49 South on the Lot N° 
51 East & West on undivided land it begins at a stake and Stones 
the Northwest angle and thence it runs South Seventy rods to a 
a Stake and Stone to the South east angle from thence it ran west 
one hundred and sixty rods to a stake and stones the southwest 
angle and from thence North to where it began Said lot was Sur- 
veyed by Joseph Wilder Jun' Also one hundred Acres more lying in 
Common and undivided land being the sixtieth part of Six thousand 
acres lying in equal Wedth upon the Westerly Side of Said Township 
and to be of an equal wedth across Said Township N° 7 Said Six 
thousand acres is adjoining on the Township N° 8 To have and to 

Same condition as in Baldwin deed 40 .326. Dated Nov., 22, 
1738. Witnesses Samuel Adams Jr. Samuel Adams. — Vol. 39, 
P- 447- 

Messrs. Hill and Keyes to James Maxwell. 

John Hill Esq r & Gershom Reyes, Trader, both of Boston for 
£ 100, convey to James Maxwell of Stow, husbandman, "A Certain 
Lott of land In a township granted to Isaac Little Esq r and others 
of old Plimouth Colony and their associates which Township is 
Called N° 7 In the Line of towns Between Merrimack and Connecti- 
cut River said Lott Contains fifty acres being the house Lott N° 
20 which was Surveyed by Joseph Wilder Junr and Bounds north on 
N 19 and South on Lott N" 21 it buts East on Lott N° 29 and west 
No 13 it began at a stake and Stones at the north west angle thence 
it run East one hundred and sixty five Rods to a beach to the north 
East angle from thence it ran South fifty five Rods to a stake and 
stones to the South East angle from thence it ran west one hundred 
and Sixty-five rods to a stake and Stones to the South west angle 
and from thence it ran Strait to where it begun — fifty five rods their 
being an allowance for a highway across the west End and south 
side — Also one hundred acres more Lying in Common and undivided 
Land being the Sixtyeth Part of Six thousand acres Lying In Equal 
wedth upon the westerly side of said township No 7. said Six thous- 


and acres adjoying on a township Called N° 8 and to be of an Equal 
wedth a Crost the township No 7 To Have and To Hold" 

Same condition as in Baldwin deed, 40:326. Dated Nov. 1, 
1739. Witnessed by John Tuckerman, Jr., Lydia Hall. — Vol. 40, 
p. 456. 

Gershom keyes to John Hill. 
Dec. 22, 1739, Gershom Keyes of Boston, Trader, mortgages to 
John Hill of Boston, Esq. for security for the payment of £360, "a 
fifty acre House Lot lying by the Meeting house with a House and 
Barn erected thereon lying in a Township called Hillsbury or Number 
Seven in the line of Towns which Township was granted to Isaac 
Little Esq r and others of old Plymouth Colony with all the said 
Keyes's Interest in the Saw Mill and Dam erected on Contoocook River 
in said Township with the benefit of half the Stream and all the 
Appurtenances whatsoever belonging to said Mill whereof he is one 
half owner together with all his other Lands in said Township in 
Common with said Hill yet to be divided whereof the said Keyes is 
one half owner at this day (excepting and reserving all his Interest 
in fifty nine house Lots that are to be Settled with Six thousand acres, 
upon an equal wedth lying on the west Side of Said Township Number 
seven also the said Keyes doth except and reserve all his Interest in 
four farms lying upon the East side of said Township and one lying 
upon the river below the sawmill containing Six hundred and eighty 
acres all the Said farms were Surveyed by Joseph Wilder Jun r ) to 
gether with all and singular Houses Edifices Buildings Easements 
fences on all the said Keyes's interest in said Township Standing, 
Ways Passages Waters Watercourses Rights Members Profits privileges 
and appurtenances whatsoever thereunto belonging xxx To have and 
to hold" 

Signed by Gershom Keyes and wife Sarah who released her 
dower. Witnessed by Solomon Keyes and Francis Keyes. — Vol. 
40, p. 360. 

Messrs. Hill and Keyes to Alexander Turner. 
John Hill Esq. & Gershom Keyes, Trader, both of Boston for £100, 
convey to Alexander Turner of Worcester, husbandman, "A farm con- 
taining fifty two Acres lying in the Township called number seven in 
the line of Towns which was granted to Isaac Little and others of old 
Plymouth Colony and their associates which Lott is number thirty 
two in said Township and measured and bounded as followeth, Viz. 
north partly on the undevided land and partly on Lott number one 
and south on Lott number 31. abuts west on the lott number 17. and 
east on N°. 33. it begins at a Stake and iStones on the north west angle 
thence it runs east one hundred and sixty five rods to a Stake and 
Stones to the north east angle from thence it runs south fifty two 


Rods to a Beach to the south east Angle from thence it runs west one 
hundred and Sixty five Rods to a Stake and Stones to the south west 
Angle and from thence it runs to where it began being the House lott 
and surveyed by Joseph Wilder Jun r also one hundred Acres more 
lying in common and undevided lands being the sixtieth part of six 
thousand acres adjoyning on a Township called number 8 and to be of 
an equall weadth upon the westerly side of said Township No 7 To 
have and to hold." 

Same condition as Baldwin deed 40:326. Dated Aug. 25, 

1738. Witnessed by John Healy, Jona Chandler. — Vol. 41, p. 240. 

Messrs. Hill and Keyes to James Mayes. 
John Hill Esq. and Gershom Keyes, Trader, both of Boston, for 
£50 convey to James Mayes of Boston, "Shay-maker," "a Farm con- 
taining two hundred Acres lying in a Township granted to Isaac 
Little, Esq r and others of old Plimouth Colony and their associates 
which Township is called Number Seven in the Line of Towns between 
Merrimack and Connecticut Rivers Said Farm lies on the South East 
Side of the great river* and is bounded as follows viz* Northeast on 
the River South East on a Farm butts Southwest on the Lot Number 
44 & Northeast on undivided land and begins at an Hemlock Standing 
by the River and from thence it runs East thirty two degrees South 
one hundred and Sixty two Rods to a Beech Tree to the Southeast 
angle from thence it runs North thirty two degrees East Two hundred 
rods to a Stake and Stones to the North East angle from thence it 
runs west thirty two degrees North one hundred and Sixty Seven rods 
to the river to the Northwest Angle and from thence it runs on the 
River to the Hemlock on the river Bank where it began, To have and 
to Hold" 

Same condition as in Baldwin deed, 40:326. Dated Nov. 21, 
1738. Witnessed by Sophia Thomas, Lucretia Keyes. — Vol. 40, 

P- 370- 

Messrs. Hill and Keyes to John Trail. 

John Hill Esq. and Gershom Keyes, Trader, both of Boston, 
for £700 convey to John Trail, merchant, and Jeremiah Green- 
distiller, both of Boston, 

"A certain Farm, containing fourteen hundred Acres of Land, ly- 
ing In the North East Corner of the Township Number Seven in the 
County of Middlesex in the Line of Towrie's, which Township was 
granted to Isaac Little Esquire and Others of the old Plimouth Colony 
and their Associates said Land is bounded as followeth, viz* beginning 
at the North East Corner of said Farm, which is the north East Corner 

*The Contoocook. 


of said Township, from thence it runs on the North line of said 
Township, South Eighty four degrees and thirty minutes west four 
hundred and fifty One Rods from thence South, fifteen Degrees East 
four hundred and ninety seven Rods by land now belonging to Samuel 
Brown, from thence North, Eighty four degrees and thirty Minutes 
East. Four hundred and fifty One Rods by Land belonging to said 
John Hill to the East line of said Township and from thence North 
fifteen Degrees West, four hundred and ninety seven Rods on said 
East line to the first mentioned Corner bounds." 

Elizabeth Hill, wife of John, and Sarah Keyes, wife of Ger- 
shom released dowers. Dated April 2, 1740. Witnessed by 
Ebenezer Flagg, Francis Keyes. — Vol. 40, p. 498. 

Messrs. Hill and Keyes to Samuel Gibson. 

John Hill, Esq., and Gershom Keyes, Trader, both of Boston, 
for £100, convey to Samuel Gibson of Boston 

"A Certain Lott of Land in a Township Granted to Isaac Little 
Esq r and Others of Old Plymouth Colony and their associates which 
Township is Called N° 7 in the Line of Towns between Merrimack and 
Connecticut River Said Lott of Land Contains fifty acres being the 
house lott No 35 which was Surveyed by Joseph Wilder Jun r Bounds 
north on the lott N° 34 and South on lott N° 36 it butts East on a 
farm and west on the lott N° 30 it begins at a Stake and Stones at 
the northwest angle and from thence it runs East One hundred and 
Sixty five rods — to a Stake and Stones to the northeast angle from 
thence it runs South fifty rods to a stake and stones to the southeast 
angle from thence it runs west one hundred and Sixty five rods to a 
Stake and Stones to the South west angle and from thence it runs 
North to where it began Also one hundred acres more lying in Com- 
mon and undevided land being the Sixtieth part of Six thousand acres 
lying in equal wedth upon the westerly Side of Said Township N° 7 
Said Six Thousand Acres adjoyning to a Township Called N° 8 and to 
be of an equal Wedth a Cross the Township No 7. To have and to 

Same condition as Baldwin deed 40:326. Witnessed by 
Sophia Thomas, Lucretia Keyes. Dated Sept. 23, 1738. — Vol. 
42, p. 393- 

Messrs. Hill and Keyes to Anthony Caverly. 

Gershom Keyes of Boston, Trader, as security for the pay- 
ment of £1000, mortgage to Anthony Caverly of Boston, distiller, 
mortgaged a 50 acre house lot in Hillsberry Jan. 20, 1739. Same 
property mortgaged to John Hill 40:360. Description exactly the 

Pioneering in Old Number Seven. 

An Error in Date— Hillsborough Settled Earlier Than Usually Believed 
— First Arrivals — A Stirring Scene — The Pioneers — Names of the 
New-Comers — No Evidence There Was a Woman Among Them — 
Philip and Mary Kiley, Pioneers of Pioneers — A Yoke of Oxen? — 
First Night "Under the Shadows of a Great Rock" — Locations of 
Lots of First Settlers — Hillsborough, the Outpost of Civilization 
■ — The First Mill on the Contoocook — The Meeting House — Cabin 
Homes — Work In the Clearings — Mr. Keyes Borrows Money and 
the Dates of His Securities Proves the Time of the Settlement of 
Number Seven — Deeds by Keyes to Caverly — Old and New Styles 
of the Calendar — The Meeting House Bell — Only Two Inhabitants 
During the Winter — Eeturn of the Colonists the Following Spring 
— A Midnight Adventure — The Second Arrival — A Prayer of 
Thanksgiving — First Home — The Summer's Work — Coming of Mrs. 
Gibson with Four Children — Robert Fletcher Settles on West Hill 
— First Bride in Town — First Birth in Town — Little John Has a 
Fair Rival for Honors — First Death in Town — The Shadow of War 
— A Border Ballad — Indian Attack at Henniker — Flight of the 
Pioneers of Number Seven — A Deserted Town. 

Hillsborough observed its centennial anniversary in 1841, but 
from documentary evidence available now this observation should 
have taken place, dating from the day the woodman's ax first 
proclaimed the coming of a new race to inhabit these wilds, at 
least three years before that date, or if it is preferable to consider 
the beginning of a settlement when women and children appeared 
upon the scene to complete the home circle, two years earlier. 

However this may be considered it is certain that as soon as the 
spring of 1738 had fairly opened, half a dozen sturdy husbandmen 
appeared in the valley of the Contoocook not far from where the 
present industrial activities of Bridge Village are centered. With 
what feelings of mingled loneliness and determination to carry 
out their self-imposed task of fulfilling the obligations of Colonel 
Hill and themselves to lay the foundation of a town in this un- 
broken wilderness, may be imagined but has not been described. 
Standing at the foot of the falls, where they seemed to have ap- 



proached their field of future conquest, the river swollen by the 
spring freshets — greater in volume than it has been in recent 
years — tumbling, foaming, roaring in between and over the huge 
bowlders, with the banks overhung with lichen-covered bushes 
bare of leaves but tasseled with white and yellow fringes of last 
summer's foliage, back from the banks' majestic pines and lordly 
oaks, graceful elms and widespreading maples, little wonder if 
they stood with uncovered heads for sometime in silence. 

Then the leader spread out upon the trunk of a fallen tree the 
rude map or plan of the territory whither they had come — some 
of them one hundred and fifty miles — to make their homes. To 
the uninitiated it would have afforded little guidance or satisfac- 
tion. It is true the river was defined, even the waterfall and the 
bend where it swerved in its tortuous course. 

"We must cross the river," declared the leader and spokes- 
man, "and as the day is nearly spent build us a bough house for 
the night. If I am not mistaken we shall be better able to ford 
the stream a little distance below here." 

It is to be regretted that the names of all of these pioneers 
cannot be given. Mr. Charles J. Smith in his excellent address 
delivered at the centennial celebration already mentioned gives the 
names of the first settlers of Number 7 as Samuel Gibson, James 
McColley and his wife Margaret Moore, Robert McClure and 
James Lyon, all from Litchfield. But the information obtainable 
at that time jumbled somewhat the arrivals for the first and 
second year. It also ignores the leading spirits in the under- 
taking. The pioneer of these pioneers was Gershom Keyes, who 
had already experienced the hardships of opening up the wilder- 
ness in the grant of Halestown, now known as Weare. He had a 
greater pecuniary interest in the venture than any other man, 
next to John Hill, and was here to-day, not with any fixed idea 
of making a home, but to "build a meeting house and to erect 
Dwellings before June 1, 1740," as all the titles called for. 
Following him were Samuel Gibson, Isaac Baldwin, Andrew 
Bixby, and James Mayer, all of Boston; Alexander Turner of 
Worcester, James Maxwell of Stow, who was also there to look 
after the interest of Jabez Huntington of Norwich, Conn. ; James 
McColley, Robert McClure and James Lyon of Litchfield. Mrs. 


McColley may have been among these first-comers, but it is very 

While the information concerning him during those years is 
meagre, it is quite certain John Carson was among the earliest 
comers to Number Seven. He was an adventurous Scotchman, 
who had come to New England only a short time before. 
He was a capable man, of great powers of endurance, and what 
was of equal importance to Gershom Keyes and his associate, he 
was a carpenter and millwright. He remained here until finally 
the little band of pioneers decided to abandon their interests here, 
at least until the Indian troubles had been settled. According to 
tradition, with such articles of value as they could not take with 
them, Carson buried the mill crank in the mud near by the river 
bank, and marched away with the self-exiled pioneers. 

When the cloud of war was lifting, John Carson wandered 
back to the wilderness comprised in the grant of Francestown at 
a spot since known as "Meadow Point," where he builded him a 
small cabin of logs as early as 1758. Nor was he alone, for his 
family seems to have been with him. Carson never came back 
to Number Seven, except to take away the mill crank which he 
concealed from the prying eyes of the red men in the retreat from 
the first settlement. 

While it does not diminish the honorable record of this little 
band of pioneers, probably the earliest to seek permanent homes 
in the Contoocook valley, mention should be made of yet others 
who had come still earlier to found them a home in this region of 
rivers, and had settled not so far away but the sound of the ax, 
the pioneer's first weapon of offense in a peaceful occupation, 
would mingle the clarion note of the new-comers. The names of 
this couple were Philip and Mary Raleigh or Riley as the old 
records give it. If Mr. Raleigh came as a squatter or grantee no 
evidence has been found to show. But there is ample proof to 
place his name and that of his good wife among the first, if not 
the very first, to make a home in Hillsborough. There is little, 
however, to show that they associated very much with the gran- 
tees of the town. See Genealogical sketches in Vol. II for a more 
extended account of the family. 


No doubt the lost records of this first settlement of Hillsbor- 
ough would throw light upon scenes of those days which are 
somewhat obscured behind such fragments of description as we 
have left. No written evidence has been found to show under just 
what condition this little party of pioneers appeared at tne curse 
of that May day on the south bank of the Contoocook, but when 
it is remembered that they came not as explorers but as actual 
settlers it is easy to understand that they came prepared to meet 
definite ends. Not only were they expecting to build houses into 
which they were to move their families, but it was a part of their 
contract to erect a meeting house and a saw-mill. The last, of 
necessity, would require certain machinery to make it useful, 
while a few tools, axes, hoes, saws, etc., together with grain, pro- 
visions, seed for the planting, etc., would also be necessary to 
begin operations on the land. Hence, in order to carry on their 
heavy work, it seems certain they must have brought with them 
a yoke of oxen. This we are fain to accept as a fact in explana- 
tion of the rapidity with which they accomplished their under- 

Gershom Keyes must have been somewhat familiar with the 
country, having been with the surveyor, Daniel Campbell, in 
running out the township, and he now led the way across the 
river to the side of the hill overlooking the stream, selecting as 
their camping place for the night beside a huge bowlder which 
was removed within the memory of a few of the oldest inhab- 
itants in town. Sheltered by this and such barriers of brushwood 
as they could hastily cut, they built the fire with which to cook 
their simple supper and finally rolled themselves in their blankets 
to pass their first night in their new domains. The following 
morning it is assumed they were astir early to begin the settle- 
ment of a new town. It is evident they had chosen the locations 
for their future homes so as to be as nearly together as it was 
practical in order to better protect themselves from the depreda- 
tions of a marauding enemy. 

Tradition, if not history, locates James McColley in what 
is now near the centre of Bridge Village, upon the 
site of the Marcy block, standing to-day, and beside the big rock 
already mentioned.* Samuel Gibson built his cabin on the west 

*This big bowlder was removed about 1850. 


hand of the path blazed by this little body of men and leading to 
the highlands soon denominated as "The Centre," a name that 
clings to the hamlet to this day. Mr. Gibson's humble dwelling 
stood on the site of the Baker farm, and the depression in the 
earth left by the pioneer's cellar was distinguishable not many 
years since. Isaac Baldwin's "lott" included the Dutton farm of 
more recent time. The lots belonging to Alexander Turner and 
James Maxfield were located in the vicinity of Bible Hill, as it 
became known afterwards, but in those days was called "West 
Hill." Robert McClure and James Lyon both settled on top of 
the hill now known as the Centre. James Mayer pitched his tent 
between the Gibson lot and McClure's. The location of the 
Bixby lot is more uncertain, and there is a possibility that he did 
not come with this first party, though most of the early writers 
think he did. 

This settlement was, with the exception of the little garrison 
at Number 4, now Charlestown, the most northerly outpost in 
New Hampshire, a fact that wants to be taken into consideration 
when coming to the sequel of the bold venture. The nearest 
settlements on the east and south were Hopkinton and New 

Very little was placed on record, or at least has been pre- 
served, to show where and how the initial blow was struck in 
founding the town. While the lines of the township had been 
run, as has been said, and the homestead lots in the eastern and 
southern section had been laid out, no movement had been made 
to establish a form of government at this early stage. There 
would be time enough for such action when the handful of new- 
comers had established themselves in their new homes. 

It seems reasonable to suppose that the first building — a log 
cabin — was built on the site of James McColley's homestead. Let 
it be understood that this was a community settlement, as all 
pioneer hamlets were to a greater or lesser extent. There was 
much that required the united efforts of all. This was espe- 
cially true in relation to building the meeting house and parsonage, 
while every one joined in toward building the saw mill, though 
some arrangement was made whereby this became the personal 
property of Mr. Keyes. Beyond doubt it stood on the north bank 


of the river nearly if not quite where the Taggart mill stood 
when it was the nucleus around which Bridge Village was built. 
This was the bridge probably above and on the site of the "new 
mill" and a wing dam was built out to the middle of the river, a 
plan that was followed in the erection of most of the early mills, 
where the stream was of considerable size, or different parties 
owned the respective banks. Of course this was a rude structure, 
at first little more than a hewn frame, a rough flooring, a carriage 
for the logs and the old-fashioned up and down saw located near 
the middle of the building. Let it be ever so humble great pride 
was felt in its construction, and more or less quiet rejoicing 
expressed when the first board was sawed from this mill, the first 
to utilize the power of the Contoocook from its source to its 
entrance into that larger stream the Merrimack. A very decisive 
blow had been struck in the beginning of Hillsborough. 

We can readily imagine that the next movement was towards 
the building of a meeting house, which work was greatly facil- 
itated by the mill. A parsonage or house for the prospective 
minister was also built that summer, arising like a beacon of light 
in the heart of the wilderness. This house of worship stood on 
the west side of the road to the Centre on what has since been 
known as "the Clark Farm," and where Mr. George Russell and 
his family now live. The parsonage stood just above the present 
buildings on the place. In addition to these buildings, the mill 
and the meeting house, half a dozen dwellings, humble yet habit- 
able, had been constructed before the gray days of November 
began to remind them of the approaching winter. There were 
no laggards among the pioneers of Hillsborough. 

While constructing these dwellings several clearings of some 
size had been made and corn, potatoes and a few vegetables had 
been grown, while patches of winter rye were sown to furnish 
grain another summer. Altogether they had made a satisfactory 
beginning, and now most of them prepared to return to their 
families. At least two remained through the winter, Robert 
McClure and James Lyon. 

Leaving a description of the experiences of a long, bitter 
winter to the imagination of the reader, we will now offer the 
proof of the undertaking hastily sketched. Gershom Keyes was 


a trader and a speculator and, as we have already said, did not 
pitch his tent in the wilderness expecting to occupy it for any 
length of time. His purpose rather was to encourage the others, 
so the stipulations of the several deeds given might be carried out, 
thinking no doubt to make an honest dollar by the transaction. 
Besides unloading as rapidly as possible his burden of unimproved 
real estate, Mr. Keyes was raising money upon it by borrowing 
upon mortgage notes. On December 22, 1739, which must have 
been soon after his return from Number 7, he gave a mortgage 
deed to John Hill to secure the latter for the sum of £360. In this 
document the mill and certain houses and lots that he owned were 
specifically described. This paper was legally executed and can ' 
be found in Middlesex County Deeds, Vol. 40. Less than a 
month later he gave the following mortgage deed : 

Mortgage Deed by Gershom Keyes. 

Gershom Keyes of Boston, Trader, as security for the pay- 
ment of £1000 mortgage to Anthony Caverly of Boston, distiller, a 
50 acre house lot lying in by t'^e Meeting house with a house and 
Barn erected thereon lying in a Township called Hillsbury or 
Number Seven in the line of Towns, which Township was granted 
to Isaac Little Esq r and others of old Plymouth Colony, with all 
the said Keyes's interest in the Saw Mill and Dam erected on the 
Contoocook River in said Township, with the benefit of half of 
the Stream, and all the appurtenances whatsoever belonging to 
said whereof he is one half owner, together with all his other 
Lands in said Township in Common with John Hill yet to be 
divided whereof the said Keyes is one half owner at this day ; 
(excepting and reserving all his interest in fifty nine house lots 
that are to be settled with Six thousand acres upon an equal width 
lying on the west side of said Township Number Seven also the 
said Keyes doth except and reserve all his interest in four farms 
lying upon the East side of said Township and one lying upon the 
river below the sawmill containing Six hundred and eighty acres 
all the said farms were surveyed by Joseph Wilder Jun r ) to- 
gether with all and singular Houses, Edifices, Buildings Ease- 
ments, fences on all the said Keyes's Interest in said Township 
Standing, Ways Passages Waters Water courses Eights, Mem- 


bers Profits privileges and appurtenances whatsoever thereunto 
belonging .... 

This deed was legally executed and dated January 20, 1739. 
(See Middlesex Co. Deeds, Vol. 40, p. 459.) The italics are our 
own and given to call attention to the fact that Messrs. Hill and 
Keyes must have begun immediately to build a sawmill and then 
a meeting house early in 1739 if not the year before. Further 
proof of this is found in the document executed by "Sam Brown" 
as stated in last chapter, either one of which would seem to 
establish the date of the first settlement of the town beyond 
question. In connection with the date of the mortgage given by 
Mr. Keyes to Mr. Caverly, January 20, 1739, ^ must be under- 
stood that then time was computed in New England by the "Old 
Style" or Julian Year, which began March 25. The " New Style" 
or Gregorian system used to-day was established among the 
Protestant people by the British Parliament in 1752. Thus the 
Keyes's deed was executed really January 20, 1740, only a few 
months before the limit in which the grantees were to make their 

About this time Mr. Keyes seems to have parted with most 
of his interest in the settlement of Number Seven, and Colonel 
Hill again became the main owner, outside of the land that had 
been sold. No doubt he visited the town during the summer and 
time of building the meeting house, though there is no record to 
show it. He did buy a bell for the church, but it was never sent 
there on account of threatened molestations from the Indians, and 
it was finally sent to Groton, Mass., where it did long and faithful 

While the beginning had been auspicious the sanguinary 
proprietor must have felt that although well satisfied with the 
work so far, yet a shadow hung over the forest-girt hamlet and 
that was ever the skulking figure of the savage. If new bidders 
for homes in this corner of the wilderness came forward slowly, 
let it be said that not one of the leaders weakened in his purpose. 

As soon as the winter snow had fairly melted away in the 
forest, early in the following May the little party of Argonauts 
set forth upon their long and arduous journey through the wilder- 
ness to their new homes. The Scotch-Irish portion, at least, 


started from the home of Alexander McColley, a brother to 
James, in Litchfield. James McColley's wife, Margaret Moore, 
was determined to accompany him, though she had two small 
children, one a babe in her arms. Mrs. Gibson concluded to 
remain until later in the season before going. Mrs. McColley 
was the only woman in the party. 

James Lyon had returned a few days previous, to see 
a certain young lady who will figure in the new settlement later 
on. Besides Mr. McColley and Samuel Gibson there were three 
other men in the company. Mr. McColley was taxed that year 
for two cows in Litchfield, but these he left with his brother at 
this time, returning for them later in the season. None of them 
were taxed for horses, so the journey was made on foot. A few 
household goods, with a small supply of provisions, completed the 
outfit of the party. 

The distance lying ahead of them must have been over forty 
miles as the trail ran, and the last dwelling they passed was that 
of an adventurous pioneer in the town of Merrimack, where it is 
probable they stopped over night. Beyond this they entered the 
tenantless woods, where it is not possible for us to comprehend 
the hazard and peril that confronted them. No historian has 
recounted the particulars of that long, lonely journey, where the 
wild creatures peered from their coverts upon what must have 
seemed to them a strange sight, or lingered stealthily on their 
trail. They saw no signs of Indians, but there is a family tradi- 
tion that on the second night an adventure befell the party which 
was not speedily forgotten, while it portended something of the 
experiences ahead and at the same time proved the courage and 
confidence of a woman of the frontier. 

It was the custom for one of the party to maintain a watch 
during the hours of the night, lest they be surprised by nocturnal 
beasts of prey. On this particular occasion it was James Lyon's 
turn at keeping vigil, but growing drowsy toward morning he fell 
asleep at his post. Of course he may not have slept long — prob- 
ably he did not — but it was long enough for a spirited adventure 
to take place. If he was neglectful of his duty, Mrs. McColley, 
awakened by the restlessness of the child in her arms, suddenly 
became conscious of the approach of a stealthy figure through 


the undergrowth, and then she discovered a pair of gleaming 
eyes making two bright spots in the wall of darkness surrounding 
them. The campfire had burned low, while the sky was obscured 
by clouds, so not a star scintillated down through the canopy of 
the forest. A deathlike stillness hung over all, and in imagina- 
tion if not reality Dame McColley saw the lissom form of a 
panther or wildcat crouching in the darkness while it prepared 
to spring upon them ! Nothing daunted by this startling situation, 
knowing that to arouse the men would be to precipitate a crisis 
that might prove disastrous, she reached quickly, but silently, for 
the ever-handy musket resting by the side of her husband. As 
she lifted the weapon she pressed the hammer back, the sharp 
click of lock arousing the cautious brute, which gave a low growl 
of rage, at the same moment stirring the underbrush where it 
crouched. Realizing the importance of prompt action, Mrs. 
McColley took quick aim at one of the blazing orbs, and, with a 
prayer upon her lips, fired point blank at the beast. 

The report of the firearm was blended with a cry of pain 
and madness, while the form of the enraged creature came crash- 
ing through the thicket and struck at her feet ! So closely did the 
brute come that its sharp claws tore a rent in her skirt, and for 
a moment her fate seemed sealed. But the leap of the wounded 
cat had been its death-struggle, and with another snarl of rage 
the creature expired within reach of her hand. 

By this time the men were awake and on their feet, for a 
moment fearing an attack from an unknown enemy. But a few 
words from the brave woman and the body of the dead cat 
explained the cause of the alarm. It is needless to say that the 
campfire was replenished and that James Lyon slept no more at 
his post that night. In fact, though this was no uncommon ex- 
perience, none of them thought of sleeping. 

The third day was drawing to a close — a beautiful spring 
afternoon — as the little party stopped on the bank of a swiftly- 
flowing stream, now running furiously with the aftermath of 

"Are we almost there, James?" asked Mrs. McColley, scan- 
ning sagely his countenance that she might read there some 
inkling of the answer she desired. 

Photograph by Manahan. 


Photograph by Manahan. 



"Almost there, Maggie. Here is where we crossed last year, 
and see, Robert has felled other trees to make a bridge for us to 
cross over. At the top of the hill our journey has been reached. ,, 

"Yes, and look, James ! there he comes to welcome us." 

Fifteen minutes later the entire party, now joined by the 
overjoyed Robert McClure from his lonely cabin where he had 
passed the winter, halted for the last time before the rough, but 
comfort-promising cabin by the big rock, that was to be their 
home, standing under the canopy of an aged oak lifting its arms 
over them like a Druid bearded and saintly. 

"Our home, Maggie," said James McColley, simply; "at 

"At last," she repeated. "James, let us pray." 

Then and there, under that forest sanctuary, the ancient oak, 
was sent up the first humble petition to the Giver of all good ever 
offered in the town, and though others may have come from more 
finished temples of worship it is doubtful if a more devout prayer 
was ever uttered, or under more striking and appropriate environ- 

That evening the first home in Hillsborough enlivened and 
sanctified by the presence of mother and children was founded, 
and we can safely say the beginning was auspicious. 

It is to be regretted that we have only fragmentary records, 
enlivened here and there with flashes of tradition, from which to 
tell the story of the few following years. Built against such a 
background their history would have all the interest of romance. 
There were certainly no laggards among these pioneers, and 
without the loss of a day's time the season's work was begun on 
the succeeding morning, each man going to his abode with a deter- 
mined purpose to make his particular homestead to blossom "like 
a rose in the wilderness," though he may have expressed it in a 
more homely phrase. So the summer waxed and waned, bringing 
back the Massachusetts colonists who had come the year before, 
all except Mr. Keyes. In addition to the original number came a 
Robert Fletcher, who had taken a lot located on West Hill or 
Bible Hill as it has since been called. There are no records of 
others coming, excepting that the first week in September Mrs. 
Samuel Gibson came with her four children, so it could no longer 


be said that Mrs. McColley was the only woman at the settlement. 
Still all honor to Margaret McColley, who had dared to brave the 
perils and the hardships to do her part in the founding of the 
new town. As the oldest of the Gibson children was barely six, 
of youngsters at play there were a merry group. 

While it could not have been an unexpected event to the wise 
ones, and who is not wise in regard to his neighbor's business, in 
the fall James Lyon, as soon as his crops were harvested, hied 
himself away and was gone two weeks, but when he came back 
he was not alone and yet two came as one, and the better half 
was Mary Lyon, the first bride to come to Hillsborough. You 
may be certain there was a grand, if simple, reception when the 
newly wedded couple went to their home at the Centre. There 
were now at least three women in town, and at least three full- 
fledged homes. How honest John Hill's heart must have 
throbbed when he heard the news. 

The winter for 1740-41 came in early, before Thanksgiving, 
but our pioneers had anticipated it by such preparations as they 
could make. The summer had been quite favorable to the growth 
of their crops, and we do not imagine there was any excessive 
suffering. Anyway midwinter was brightened by an event some- 
time expected and yet bringing much rejoicing. This was 
nothing less than the appearance upon the scene of a new mem- 
ber of the McColley family. He was straightway christened 
John, and his after life proves that he was a bright boy, worthy 
of being the joy of any mother's heart. It might now truly be 
said that the population of Number Seven had begun to grow. 

If proudly toasted and boosted as the "uncrowned king," 
Master John McColley was soon to have a fair rival, for four 
months and a day later, May 19, 1741, a child was born into the 
Gibson family, and very appropriately a daughter, who was 
named Elizabeth. Happiness now reigned supreme in at least 
two families. 

The following summer the wives and children of others of 
the men in town must have come hither to make more cheerful 
the bachelor homes. Though there is no evidence to prove it, it 
seems apparent that James McColley's brother John joined the 
numbers. His name disappears from the records of Litchfield, 


though we know he was not dead. The live stock of the brothers 
is no longer on the inventory. By this time Number Seven must 
have had a population approaching forty, counting adults and 

It is not to be supposed that a religious people would allow 
their meeting house to remain unopened during those years, and 
probably services were held at various times under the auspices 
of a Mr. Grayson of Amherst, and possibly other ministers. But 
it is certain there was no settled minister, nor does there seem 
to have been any effort made to settle one. The fact was, as has 
already been hinted, wars and rumors of warfare with the 
Indians ever gave uneasiness to the minds of the colonists. This 
constant threat kept others from joining them, as well as casting 
a gloom over their lives. 

In December, 1741, death for the first time visited the fron- 
tier hamlet, when the infant child of Thomas and Mary Lyon 
found early surcease from life's toil. Three days later the first 
funeral in town was held, and in a biting storm a little form 
was laid away in an unmarked grave in the Centre cemetery, long 
since lost to identification, not stopping long enough here to leave 
more than a date line. 

Three years then passed silently without so much as leaving 
a pen mark on the historic page* though there were two if not 
other births and one life went out during the interval. Word 
was brought up from the lower settlements that war was again 
being waged between the French and English, while far and 
wide the Indians were committing deeds of atrocity. The 
pioneers of Number Seven now realized they had made a mistake 
in settling over such a wide territory. In other places, where the 
hamlets were more compact, garrison houses had been constructed 
whither the inhabitants could flee for safety upon an alarm of 
danger. But this was not practical with the distances that inter- 
vened between the settler fartherest on the west, east and south. 

*It does not seem probable that these earlier citizens of Number Seven at- 
tempted any regular form of government, as this was hardly necessary. Their 
very environments served to unite them in the single endeavor to improve their 
condition. So there were really no records kept of those trying years' experi- 
ences. This was not unusual. Upon the second settlement, made under leas 
hazardous conditions, it was ten years before an effort at incorporation as a 
township was attempted and a board of town officers chosen. With the election 
of a clerk an official record begins. — Author. 


Number Seven had not been planned to be a frontier outpost, 
which it was in reality if not so intended. Mr. Smith says there 
were about twelve families in the town, but this calculation might 
be safely increased by three. But twelve or fifteen or twenty, 
the odds of a few families did not matter. Already word had 
come that settlers not as removed as they had begun to seek the 
protection of more densely populated sections. Everywhere 
among the scattered settlements of Northern New England it 
was the same. "The husbandman cleared and tilled his soil 
under the protection of a guard, uncertain whether the seed he 
committed to the ground might be watered by his blood or that 
of his enemy." A balladist of that period in the quaint language 
peculiar to the time describes vividly the situation: 

"England and France a cruel war, 
Had with each other waged ; 
Woe to the colonies ! for there 
Its bloodiest contest raged. 

The fierce Canadian (Frenchmen they) 

Had set the Indians on; 
'Twas sad to see for many a day, 
The mischief that was done. 

Houses were burnt and cattle slain, 
And smiling fields laid waste ; 

To seek the lurking foe was vain, 
His steps might not be traced ; 

For the dark, trackless woods conceal'd 
Him, issuing whence he seized 

The unwary laborer in his field, 
A captive if he pleased ; 

Or else more merciful dispatched 

Him at a single blow, 
Then his defenceless home attacked, 

And laid his loved ones low ; 

Or led into captivity 

The children and the wife, 
In hardship, pain and misery, 

To drag a weary life. 


Such scenes as these, we understand 

Were acted o'er and o'er, 
Beginning first at Westmoreland, 

Not far from Number Four. 

In both these towns, in Keene likewise, 

Were killed and taken some ; 
And then eight persons by surprise, 

They took in Hopkinton. 

Oh! faces gathered paleness then, 

Hearts trembled with dismay ; — 

Of foes without, the fears within, 
Disturbed them night and day." 

The attack upon the inhabitants of Hopkinton, mentioned 
above, occurred on the morning of April 22, 1746, and brought 
the terror very close to the homes in Number Seven. The report 
said that a party of Indians armed with muskets, tomahawks and 
knives entered one of the fortified houses while its inmates slept, 
the door having been left open by one who had gone out early to 
hunt, and captured eight persons before they could rally to 
resist. Immediately a messenger hastened to warn Colonel Hill's 
colony of the peril of their situation. To add to their trepidation 
that very day a party of red men were seen prowling about the 
Contoocook falls, and to all appearance a warparty. Small 
wonder if even such men as Samuel Gibson, Isaac Baldwin, and 
James McColley, and others, all of them inured in Indian fight- 
ing, thinking of the danger to their families, should quickly decide 
that flight was their only expedient. 

So, in haste and with many misgivings, they buried the 
heavier articles of their households and implements of husbandry, 
to prepare to seek a place of greater safety until the war-cloud 
should blow over. When it should be safe for them to do so, 
they would return to take up the burdens of husbandry where 
they had so suddenly and unexpectedly laid them down. 

The men collected their livestock together and drove the 
cattle and the hogs before them, while the women took charge of 
the children, and along with these the house cats and other pets. 
It was a solemn band of self-exiled pioneers that moved slowly 
down the forest pathway, now well-known to most of them and 


leading to a haven of protection. There were many backward 
glances, and perhaps a few tears in eyes unaccustomed to weep, 
but like the Acadians sent into exile that very summer, each 
carried in his or her heart a prayer for a speedy return to the 
beloved homes they were forced to desert. None of the Acadians 
ever returned to the scenes of their loves and hopes, while of 
these forty-odd fugitives of old Number Seven few, very few, 
ever came back, and these only after long years, to find their 
homes fallen in ruins and the sunlight shut out from their clear- 
ings by a new growth of forest. The Indian had fled to the 
happy hunting grounds of his fathers, but the shadows of solitude 
brooded in silence over a scene once merry with the laughter of 
children and the rejoicings of the inmates of hopeful homes. 


The Interval of Indian Wars. 

Capture of Louisburg by New England Troops — Its Importance Not 
Appreciated by Great Britain — Awakening of a Feeling of Resent- 
ment which Developed the Spirit of '76 — Enemies of '45 Become 
Allies in '76 — Colonel Hill Buys Back His Interest in Number 
Seven — So Saves the Early Settlers from Loss — Seeks Protection 
from the Indians — Petition from the Inhabitants of Merrimack — 
Masonian Proprietors — Colonel Hill Petitions for Relief — Gets 
Quit-Claim Deed to Hillsborough — Has to Allow Reserved Lots — 
Royal Society Land — "Cumberland" — Breaking Out of the Seven 
Years War — Rogers Rangers — Men From Number Seven Who Were 
Active — Result of War and Forecast. 

The war that devastated New England at the time of the 
flight of the pioneers of Number Seven was known abroad as 
"The War of the Austrian Succession," but here as "Shirley's 
War," that being the name of the governor of Massachusetts at 
the time. On account of the capture by the raw New England 
troops under Pepperell of the French stronghold on the Island 
of Breton, it has also been called "Cape Breton War." But the 
name matters little. Though this particular struggle was not an 
Indian war, the red men were everywhere aroused, and the 
English settlers in this county trembled for their safety. Fortu- 
nately the conflict of which we have spoken was short and sharp, 
and in 1747 peace was again declared. Still the respite was 

While the capture of Louisburg by raw New England troops 
seems of small importance to the historian of the mightier con- 
quests of the world, yet it was portentious of future events in 
more ways than one. In the first place it was the beginning of 
that wider endeavor which made England "mistress of the sea." 
Again it suggested to Pitt and other British leaders the reason- 
ableness of wresting Canada from their oldtime enemy France. 
This dream was realized fourteen years later. 



The contempt with which their success at Louisburg, then 
known as the "Dunkirk of America," by the British council 
showed to the New England colonists that their affairs were of 
minor consequence in their homeland. Their loyal love and 
faith received then their first shock, and from that day may be 
dated the beginning of that rebellious spirit which eventually 
found expression in the Revolution. It was also the awakening 
of conquest upon the sea, led by Paul Jones within twenty-five 
years. By an extraordinary outcome of destiny the French, from 
whom they won the victory of Louisburg in '45, were their allies 
in '76, helping them to establish their independence, while the old 
French colonies in the valley of the St. Lawrence remained 
as vassals of Great Britain. Another link that connects Louis- 
burg with the Revolution was the fact that Gridley, the man who 
planned the trenches and parallel lines of that stronghold, laid out 
the fortifications of Bunker Hill. 

The pioneers of Number Seven all returned to their former 
homes, and took up life anew as if the fearful experience was 
only a dream. With his characteristic honesty of purpose Colonel 
Hill came forward and very generously bought out the interests 
of all who had undertaken the founding of his town. Thus he 
was again sole proprietor; that is, as far as his Massachusetts 
title went. Ever on the alert for the safety of the inhabitants of 
the outlying towns, we find him petitioning the governor and 
general court as follows : 

Protection from the Indians, 1744. 

To His Excellancy Benning Wentworth Esq. Capt. General & 
Governor in Chief in and over his Majesty® Province of New Hamp- 
shire, to the Hon.Me his Majesties Council °3T House of Representatives 
in General Court Assembled. 

Jno Hill in behalf of himself & and other proprietors of a Town- 
ship NO. 7 in the line of Towns commonly called Hillborough & another 
Township called Peterborough both in the Province of New Hamp- 
shire, humbly shows That your Petitioners & the other sd proprietors 
have been at great Charge and Expence in settling & bringing forward 
y e s d Townships to their present circumstances, there being near 40 
families that would not be in Each of s d Towns but are discouraged 
by the danger of an Indian War, & are now ready to go on if they 
can be protected in their settlement. Wherefore your Petitioners in 


behalf of himself & the other proprietors pray in Consideration of the 
gTeat Expence they have been at in the settlements and the manifest 
advantage that will accrue to the Province from them, that being 
Frontier Towns thay may be Defended & protected by this Government 
as Your Excellency & Hounds shall seem meet & your Petitioners shall 
ever pray &c. 

John Hill. 

Petition foe Protection from Merrimack, 1747. 

To His Excellancy Benning Wentworth Esqr Gov. &c The Hon. his 
Majestys Council & House of Representatives in the Generall Assembly 
Convened May 13th 1747. 

The Petition of us Subscribers Inhabitants of the Souhegan West 
Humbly Sheweth that there is Settled and now remains in this planta- 
tion thirty five familys in which is about Fifty eight men upwards of 
sixteen years old. That when we began our settlement we ap- 
prehended no danger of our ever being a frontier, there being at that 
time so many above us begun and obligated to fulfill the conditions 
of the Massachusetts grants, which occasioned us to settle scattering, 
only Regarding the advantages of Good and Compact Farms. That 
the difficulty of War happening so early on her Settlements, and the 
Defenceless Condition they was in, has obliged them all, viz : Peters- 
borough, Salem- Canada, New Boston and Hillsborugh (so called) 
Intirely to draw off as well as the forts on the Connecticut River left 
naked. Whereby we are left as much exposed as any of the Frontiers 
on the Merrimack River. 

Wherefore Your Petitioners most Humbly Pray that your Ex- 
cellency & Hours would so far Comiserate our Present Difficult Cir- 
cumstances as to Grant us so many Soldiers as your Excellency & 
Honrs may Judge of Necessity for Our Defence and your Peti rs as in 
Duty bound Shall Pray &c. 

Daniel Wilkins William Howard 

John Shepard Jacob Wellman 

his his 

Joseph X Wilkins David X Hartsorn 

mark mark 

Benj Cheever Andrew Bixbe 

John Davis Andrew Beeton 

James Cofren William Bradford 

Samuel Walton Ebenezer Ellinwood 

William Peabody Thomas Clark 

Solomon Hutchinson John Seetown 

Daniel Wilkins Junr Ebenezer Lyon 

Benjamin Cheever Junr Caleb Stiles 
Israel Towne 


In Council May 13th 1747 read & ordered to be sent Down to the 
HonWe House. 

Theodobe Atkinson Secy. 

Succeeding events prove that the prayer was not heeded, or 
at least the government was powerless to assist the endangered 
inhabitants. Other petitions and supplications were forwarded at 
this and later periods which show the situation as it existed at the 

Masonian Proprietors. 

In 1746 John Tufton Mason, who represented the Masonian 
claimants, sold out his interest for £1,500 to a company that be- 
came known as the Masonian Proprietors. The interest was 
divided into 15 shares owned as follows: 

Theodore Atkinson 3 shares 

Mark H. Wentworth 2 

Richard Wibird 1 share 

John Wentworth 1 " 

George Jaffirey 1 " 

Nathaniel Wentworth 1 " 

Thomas Parker 1 " 

Thomas Wallingford 1 " 

Jotham Odiorne 1 " 

Joshua Pierce 1 " 

Saanuel Moore 1 " 

John Moffatt 1 


Before granting townships 3 shares were added, and 9 new 
members : 

John Range Joseph Blanchard Daniel Pierce 

John Tufton Mason John Tomlinson Matthew Livermore 

William Parker Samuel Selley Clement March 

All were Portsmouth men, excepting Joseph Blanchard. 

Reasonable in their claims, quitclaiming their title to these 
who had come into actual possession, this company soon removed 
the bitterness of feeling which had arisen previously. 


With indefatigable purpose, realizing that his title from 
Massachusetts was void, Colonel Hill early in 1749, according to 
the present calendar, petitioned to the Masonian Proprietors as 
follows : 

Petition of Col. John Hill, 1748-9. 

To the Proprs Purchasers of the Grant made to Capt. Jon Mason 
March 1 in London by the Council of Plimouth Lying on the 
Province of New Hampshire in New England 

I purchased of Sundry Proprs who had their Grant from the 
Massachusetts Government a Township in the line towns (called No. 7 
or Hillboro) & Lately I've been Informed that Township falls within 
the Limits of Sd Masons Grant. Against whome I've no Inclination 
to Dispute- 
Therefore Gentlemen if it be the Case the Sd Lands are Situated 
within your property I would gladly assist you and Acquaint you that, 
free from designs of Injuring any Body but with a view to Serve my 
Country and my Self Have in Bringing forward a Settlement of a 
town in the most usefull man'er for the Public Service ; Have been at 
near 2220; if within your property I would gladly Acquaint you that, 
free from design of Injuring any Body but with a view to Serve my 
Country and my Self Have in Bringing forward a Settlement of a town 
in the most useful maner, if within it is at the Extreme parts of your 
Grant the Attempt of Setting of that Bemote Wilderness, Opening 
Boads Discovering the Country and being a Barricord Previous to the 
entry on ye Lands within, Has bin of Supr Service (be it within your 
Claim) to Any Becompence you have in your Generosity, Accept from 
Sundry of your Near grants & Shall in that way further prosecute any 
Duty of Settlement you think advisable for publick Service on that 
Land and Esteem it a favour for your Quit claim to those Lands that 
I may pursue my Settlement free from debate & with Incouragement 
to Industry Shall Beadily Submitt my self to your Compassion And 
order therein. I am Gentlemen 

Your Most Obedient Humble servant 

John Hill 

The Masonian Proprietors, as they had done in other cases, 
readily granted the request of Colonel Hill and promptly sent him 
the following: 

Quit-Claim to Hillbobough, 1748-9 

Upon Beading & Considering the Bequest & Petition of Coll John 
Hill of Boston Esqr to have a Quit Claim from the Said Proprietors 


of their Big-tit to that Tract of land Commonly called Hillborough to 
him the Said John Hill for the Eeasons Set forth in his Petition on file 
Voted That the Said Proprietors first Reserving to themselves their 
Heirs & assigns the Quantitj r of Seventeen hundred Acres of the said 
tract of land to be laid out as the Said John Hill shall think most 
Convenient for promoting the Settlement there but not to be Subject 
to any Charge or Tax untill improved by Said Proprietors or those 
who hold under them or any of them have and hereby do grant (on 
the Terms & Conditions hereafter mentioned) all their Right Title 
Estate Interest & Property unto the Said Tract of land called & known 
by ye name of Hillborough to him ye Said John Hill his heirs and 
Assigns forever he Returning to the Proprietors a Plan of the Said 
Seventeen Hundred Acres are laid out — also reserving all Pine Trees 
for his Majesty's Use fit for masting for the Royal Navy. 

As there was a long delay in establishing the second settle- 
ment and in making a survey of the township, Colonel Hill's 
reply to the Proprietors was not made until the end of sixteen 
years. Although it does not come here in chronological order, it 
may be better understood if presented at this time. 

John Hill to Masonian Pboprietobs, 1765. 

Boston May 22, 1756. 

I here Inclose a plan of Hillborough the Reservations of 

the Grant of the Proprietors of the Lands purchased of John Tufton 
Mason Esqr are marked and described on Each* Plan — which pleas to 
present to Said proprietors with my Compliments and dutifull 
Begards to them — and Youll Very Much oblige 

Your Most Humble Sert 

John Hill 

P. S. Please to Acquaint me with the Eeceipt of the Same. 
To George Jaffrey Esqr 

Eeserved Lots, 1779. 
State of New 

Hampshire Portsmouth February 22d 1779 Monday ten of 

the clock before noon at the House of Mr. John 

Penhallow improved by him as a store, the Proprietors meet according 

to adjournment . . . Whereas John Hill Esqr hath returned to Said 

Proprietore a Plan of Hillsborough with the reserved Seventeen 

hundred acres to said Proprietors, laid out in form two hundred Acre 

Lotts, numbered on said plan No. 27 No. 28 No 29 No 30, and three 

hundred Acre Lotts numbered 41, 42, 43, which Said Lotts are presumed 

to contain the number of Acres in each Lott as expressed in Said 

* The second plan referred to Peterborough. 



Plan . . . therefore voted that each of the Said two hundred Acre Lotts 
be divided into two equal parts and numbered on Said Plan from 1 to 
8, and that the Said three three hundired Acre Lotts be divided into 
thfree equal parts on the Plan and be numbered 9 to 17, and that a 
draft of all of Said lotts be now drawn to the Rights of each of the 
fifteen Proprietors Shares and the low Lotts No 1 & No. 2 and being 
drawn to said Rights and entered on Record shall be a Severance of 
the Same to Said Proprietors &c 

The Draft of the Said Lotts were drawn as follows Vizt 

1st To John Eindge No. 1 in No. 27 

2nd To Theodore Atkinson Esqr No. 7 in No. 30 

3rd Thomlinson & Mason No. 2 in No. 27 

4th Mark Hg Wentworth Esqr No. 11 in No. 30 

5th Law lott No. 2 No. 8 in No. 30 

6th Solly & March No. 17 in No. 43 

7th Geo : Jaffrey No. 15 in 43 

8 Thos. Packer Esqr No. 14 in No. 42 

9 Pierce & Moore No. 12 in No. 42 

10 Blanchard Meserve & Co No. 5 in No. 29 

11 Jotham Odiorne Esqr No. 6 in No. 40 

12 Richd Wibird Esqr No. 10 in No. 21 

13 Josha Peirce Esqr No. 4 in No. 26 

14 Thos Walingford Esqr No. 16 in No. 43 

15 Law Jott No. 1 No. 13 in No. 42 

16 Jon Wentworth Esqr No. 3 in No. 28 

17 John Moffatt Esqr No. 9 in No. 41 

The lots designated in the preceding document were located 
in the northern part of the town, lots 27, 28, and 41 bordering on 
the town of Bradford. 

In 1753 there remained in the Contoocook valley quite an 
area of wild land that had not been included in any of the grants. 
This was then divided into fifteen shares consisting of two lots 
each, one of intervale land and the other of upland. This ex- 
tensive territory prior to the early stages of the Revolution was 
known as "Royal Society Land," and later on simply as "Society 
Land." Before the closing of the War for Independence there 
seems to have an organization respecting the conduct of the 
ownership of this large tract of ungranted country, though the 
first meeting of this body of which we have any record was held 
on March 25, 1782. 

However this may have been action had already been taken 
regarding the placing of this territory, for we find that Frances- 


town had "absorbed" Lots 8, 9, 10, in 1772; Deering, Nos. 11, 12, 
13, 14, and 15 in 1774; Antrim, Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7 in 1777; 
Hancock, Nos. I, 2, and 3, with most of a "mile square lot" that 
had been granted Col. Joseph Blanchard for assistance to Robert 
Fletcher in surveying the tract in colonial days, in 1779. A 
portion still undivided was added to Greenfield in 1791. 

Even then a section between the river and Crotchet Moun- 
tain remained unchartered until 1842, when the town of Benning- 
ton was incorporated. This whole tract for a considerable period 
was designated as "Cumberland." 

Having secured by honorable means a valid title to his grant, 
which was already proving an expensive investment, Colonel Hill 
now turned his attention resolutely to improving his township. 
But another Indian war was driving at the very heart of New 
England — a war more pronounced, prolonged and more terrific 
than any it had experienced, for this was the life and death 
grapple between the French and Indians on the one hand and the 
English colonists on the other. In the hands of the master of 
this war rested the fortune of New England, French or English. 

While the previous Indian wars had found the New England 
colonists poorly prepared to meet their foes, the "Seven Years' 
War" opened with them in readiness for the enemy that would 
never rest until thoroughly conquered. As early as 1752 several 
attacks were made by the red men, and children, women and 
even men were taken into captivity. The most noted and far- 
reaching in its influence was the surprise of a hunting party of 
four who had been trapped while hunting in what is now Rumney, 
N. H. This quartette consisted of William and John Stark, Ben- 
jamin Eastman and David Stinson, all from the towns in the 
Merrimack valley. 

The surprise took place on the morning of April 28, 1752, 
while two of the number were absent from camp looking after 
their traps. In the course of the attack Stinson was killed, while 
John Stark and Eastman were made prisoners, William Stark 
alone escaping. The captives were taken to St. Francis, where 
they remained until in August a ransom was effected for their 
release. The Stark brothers both became prominent scouts, or- 
ganizers and leaders throughout the war. William was at the 

seven years' war. 79 

head of the New England Rangers with Wolfe in the capture of 
Quebec, while John, in the Revolution, became more distinguished 
as the hero of Bennington. 

Immediately following this affair, expecting others of a simi- 
lar nature to come, such militia laws as then existed were en- 
forced, frequent scouts were made into the wilderness. Bred as 
hunters and trappers, as well as participants in Indian warfare, 
it was nothing strange that these men became thoroughly versed 
in trailing the wily enemy of the forest or meeting his cunning 
devices with others quite as effective. 

Open hostilities began in the spring of 1754 when a body of 
French and Indian troops seized an unfinished English fort at 
the forks of the Monongahela and Allegany rivers on May 17. 
The French, who, as in previous wars, had coerced the Indians 
into it, finished the fort and called it "Fort du Quesne." The 
news of the outbreak spread far and wide over the country, but 
everywhere it found the English as well prepared to meet their 
foes as it was possible under the conditions of the times. It was 
a sanguinary struggle from beginning to end, each party of the 
three drawn into it, the Indians, the French and the English, 
realizing that it meant its fate in New England. 

During this exciting period not a home fire was known to be 
burning in old Number Seven, or Hillsborough, where the red 
men roamed at will on the wartrail, but from the homes to which 
they had fled for the safety of their loved ones, it is safe to say 
that every man who had helped lay the foundation of the town 
in the wilderness, who was physically able to do so, performed 
his part in the long and anxious struggle. 

Among those who participated in the war and who were 
either members of the first body of colonists or were a portion 
of the second comers were Samuel Houston, Simon Beard, Josiah 
Parker and James McNeil of Londonderry, and Merrimack. 
They were among the troops posted in the Connecticut valley to 
protect the scattered inhabitants there and were under the com- 
mand of Major Bellows, doing duty at Walpole and Old Number 
Four, now Charlestown. 

James McNeil was the brother of John McNeil, both of 
whom served under Colonel John Moore in the Louisburg expedi- 


tion in 1745. It was John's son Daniel who moved to Hillsbor- 
ough in 1771, and who was drowned in the Contoocook River at 
the falls near the bridge. His son John served in the war of the 
Revolution, while his grandson, also named John, was in the 
Eleventh regiment in the battle of Chippewa in the war of 1812. 

While it has been claimed with indisputable truth that New 
Hampshire contains no battle-field of any war, yet during this, 
the Seven Years' War, this colony furnished every leader of note 
that fought in that sanguinary struggle; Robert, Richard and 
James Rogers, William, John and Archie Stark, John Moore, 
Joseph Blanchard, Ephraim Stevens, and not least among these 
Capt. Isaac Baldwin and Col. Robert Fletcher and Lt. John Mc- 
Colley of Old Number Seven, now Hillsborough. Under these 
chieftains was formed that bulwark of soldiery which stemmed 
the invasion of the allied foes at the Horicon and saved New 
England to the British — and the Revolution. 

The result of the Seven Years' War was disastrous to 
France. It gave to England the strong right arm of the sea, and 
with this prestige, it gave her India and New France, while start- 
ing her on the way of being the greatest colonizing government in 
the world. But this rapid advance was not without its drawback, 
as it foretold the loss of her most valuable prize, which her wisest 
prophets read in the forecast of the future. 










The Second Settlement. 

When the Clearing of Wild Land Became Popular — Changes in Fifteen 
Years — Philip Riley's Return — A Lost Settler — First Comers in 
the Second Settlement of Number Seven — A Pioneer Woman's 
Experience — Daniel Campbell's Survey of the Township — A 
Frontier Love Affair — Early Families in Second Settlement — Only 
One Who Came Back from the First Attempt, Captain Isaac Bald- 
win — But the Gibsons and McColleys Were Represented — All Were 
Tillers of the Soil— A New Mill Built— A Public Inn Opened— 
Church Meetings Held — Need of Town Government Felt — Taxes 
Already Levied — Petition for a Charter — Colonel Hill Active — 
The Charter — Warning for First Town Meeting — First Election. 

The Seven Years' War, which resulted in the conquest of 
Canada by the British, and the complete overthrow of the 
French power, so desintegrated the Indian alliances that the 
English suffered no more at their hands. During this war the 
New England colonists who had engaged in it, and not many 
escaped a part, in their marches hither and thither had become 
well acquainted with the uninhabited territory waiting the hand 
of improvement, and been so strongly impressed with the 
thousands of fertile acres awaiting the husbandman, that a new 
impetus was given the settlement of the border towns. From this 
day the clearing of wild land and the establishment of homes 
where before the wild beast had found its lair went on without 
serious interruption. 

In the fifteen years that had elapsed since the first settlers 
had abandoned a hopeless undertaking the hand of desolation had 
sprung up, obliterating the cornfields and the plots of green grass. 
The primitive homes had fallen into decay or been burned by the 
prowling red men eager to show the spirit of revenge upon those 
who had come as despoilers of their game ranges. The saw mill 
had tumbled down and the saw rusted on its carriage; the meet- 
ing house remained for a time, as if the savage had too great rever- 
ence for it to apply the torch. In this, they showed more respect, 



if not humanity, than the white man. It is related — how much 
truth there is in the story I cannot say — that one Keyes of Weare, 
in passing that way saw the building standing, and after removing 
the glass, which he buried near by, he set fire to the sacred edifice, 
and if he did not dance while it burned, he looked on with wanton 
glee. He claimed afterwards he had done it so as to cheat the 
Indians of the pleasure. Let him have the benefit of the doubt, 
though where the difference lies is not easy to tell. The glass was 
afterwards found by the builders of the second church, which is 
a sort of circumstantial evidence that he had not lied. The 
parsonage, of all the early buildings, remained to welcome the 

In 1 76 1 the energetic and unintimidated Philip Riley, with 
his good wife, returned from Sudbury, Mass., to pick up the 
threads of his early undertaking where he had so abruptly 
dropped the fabric. He found his cabin standing, though scarcely 
habitable, and his clearing was overgrown with saplings. The ax 
and household utensils which he had hastily hidden from the 
sharp-eyed savages were found as he had left them, — a little 
rusty it may be, but still of use. His ax soon made the wooded 
welkin ring with a joy it had never echoed to before, and Number 
Seven had a close neighbor if not a settler. 

Mr. Matthew Patten in his survey of Henniker under date 
of Sept. 24, 1752, makes this entry in his diary: "Set out and 
Measured three miles and 180 Rods to Contoocook River Being 
four miles from the North West Corner (of Henniker) in all to 
the River, having a Rainy Night Before and a great Shower 
about one of the Clock and Between two and three another Great 
Shower acompaneyed with thunder and was Obliged to Camp at 
Mr. John Maclaughlin's house Just in Number Seven line" (Hills- 

This statement of Mr. Patten locates MacLaughlin near the 
point where the Contoocook River crosses the line from Hillsbor- 
ough into Henniker. As no further mention is made of him he 
was probably only a "trancient" settler. It would be interesting 
to know more of this man. 

Sanguine as ever of success Colonel Hill now became more 
active to open up his grant, the incursions of the Indians forever 


stayed. He made frequent trips between Boston and Number 
Seven, until it was a well known route to him. He was willing 
to offer almost any inducement to begin a new settlement, volun- 
teering to sell the land for fifty cents an acre. Fortunately he 
finally met a man as equal to the task of leading the way as 
Samuel Gibson had been in that earlier period, and as before, 
he found his captain in the race of Scotch-Irish, and his name was 
Daniel McMurphy. He lived in Chester, or Cheshire as it was 
called then, and his wife being willing to accompany him on his 
lonely journey, the couple began to make preparations at once to 
start. So, in the early summer of 1762, twenty-three years after 
the first attempt had been made by the first colony, Daniel Mc- 
Murphy and wife performed the journey from Chester to Num- 
ber Seven, and they selected as the site of their home the clearing 
made by Robert Fletcher on "West Hill." It is true the country 
was being opened on every hand, but as far as they were con- 
cerned in the companionship that could afford them either solace 
or assistance, was only that of Philip Riley and wife, living some 
three miles distant. 

The experience of this hardy couple could not have been 
materially different from that of hundreds of others, the heavier 
of the burden falling, as usual, on the woman. Not only was she 
obliged to help him in his mighty task of breaking the wilderness, 
but hers was the more lonely part. He was obliged to make trips 
away from home, and leave her alone. Upon one occasion it was 
necessary for him to return to their former home in Chester, and 
though he had not intended to be gone more than a week, it was 
fifteen days before he re-appeared to his anxious wife. Her 
feelings of helplessness and loneliness, constantly menaced by 
dangers not easily foreseen and difficult to escape, are not easily 
imagined. In speaking of it in after years she confessed it was 
the most dreary two weeks she had ever experienced. At night- 
fall such a stillness and ominous silence fell upon the scene as to 
almost drive her to despair. On one uncommonly dark and 
dreary night, unable to sleep or to lie quiet, with the dismal howl 
of a distant wolf falling with appalling dread upon the awful 
stillness, and the mournful sighing of the wind through the tree- 
tops, she finally arose from her couch and going to the door of 


her humble hut at midnight, she opened it wide, as if to defy the 
discordant note of the hungry wolf, and shouted at the top of her 
voice a meaningless challenge to the legion of terrors, again and 
again, waiting between each cry for the welcome echo of her own 
voice, resounding from up the shadowy avenues of the dim old 
forest. With such relief of oppression as she had not known for 
days, she returned to her couch to sleep the rest of the night. 
She had silenced the wolf, and even the pine had seemed to take 
on a more cheerful tune to its everlasting monotone. 

For some reason Mr. McMurphy did not remain long in his 
new home. Perhaps those who were expected to join him were 
slower in coming than his impetuous nature could brook. Be that 
as it may, the next year he removed to Hill, where he became a 
prominent and respected citizen. 

In 1763 Colonel Hill employed Daniel Campbell, Esq., of 
Amherst, to survey the town into lots, and this work was done 
with uncommon accuracy, according to the surveys of that 
period. By it Philip Riley found he was not living in Number 
Seven, but in Antrim township. 

In his trips between his home in Boston and Hillsborough 
Colonel Hill sometimes went by the way of Litchfield. On one 
of these occasions he met John McColley and Elizabeth Gibson, 
who it will be remembered were the first children born in the 
town. Knowing this and upon learning that they were lovers, he 
suggested that they get married and settle in his town, promising 
them one hundred acres of land if they would do so. The offer 
was quickly accepted, the two were married, and were among 
the foremost to begin the second settlement on West Hill. With 
them came Samuel and John Gibson, her brothers, then young 
men with their wives. These brothers had come with their 
parents at the first settlement, aged respectively two years and 
two months. 

About a dozen families came in 1764, most of them from 
Massachusetts, and from this time the work of improvement went 
merrily ahead. Other families followed until three years later 
there were twenty, if not more, families in town, the following 
being an incomplete record : 

Lieut. John McColley, who took up his homestead on the 
road, from the Centre to Washington. 


Samuel Gibson, who had married Elizabeth Stewart, 

John Gibson, who had married Elizabeth McMullen. 

Capt. Samuel Bradford, Sen., who had moved hither from 
Middleton, Mass., to settle in 1766, his house being the first 
public hostelry in Hillsborough. He built the first saw and grist 
mill in that part of the town, located on Beard Brook, remains of 
which were to be seen as late as 1850. He was active in forming 
the first company of militia in town, and was its Captain. He 
died in August, 1776, respected by all who knew him. The first 
town meeting was held at his house. He had a son, Samuel, Jr., 
who was prominent in public affairs. 

Lieut. Samuel Bradford, a native of Middleton, Mass., but 
coming to settle on West Hill in 1764, was probably a cousin of 
"Captain Sam, Jr." He received his commission in the 16th 
Regiment, N. H. Militia, serving under Capt. Isaac Baldwin. He 
served in the Revolutionary War, but removed to Antrim, where 
he died. 

Jonathan Durant, from Billerica, Mass., He settled on the 
farm in the northwest section of the town. 

Joshua Easty, or Estey as it is now spelled, came here with 
Captain Bradford, from Middleton, and left descendants. 

Timothy Wilkins settled in 1764 on a farm owned in 1841 
by Ebenezer Jones. He was from Carlisle, Mass., where he 
eventually returned and died. 

William Williams was from Sudbury, Mass., and he lived 
on the where he died in 

William Pope was another native of Sudbury, Mass., coming 
to Hillborough previous to 1766, and settling on the Worthly 
farm. He was interested in the raising of apples ; he and his wife 
were active in forming the first church society ; he was a member 
of the first board of Selectmen and was Town Clerk in 1780. He 
removed to Clarendon, Vt, where he died. 

Benjamin Lovejoy came from Amherst in 1765, to settle 
on the Jones farm, but in 1778 he removed from this town to 
Westminster, Vt., where he lived until his death. 


Jonathan Sargent was from Bradford, Mass. 

Isaac Andrews, who became not only the founder of one of 
the leading families here, but was himself an active and influential 
man in the new town, came from Carlisle in 1764 and came with 
his friend and neighbor. 

William Taggart, or Taggard as it was spelled in those days, 
belonged to a Scotch-Irish family of Londonderry, where his 
father, James Taggart, was constable as early as 1737. At the 
time of the incorporation of Derryfield, 1753, he was living in 
that section which was taken to form the latter township. From 
that town William came to Hillsborough before the Revolution. 

Moses Steel was also from Londonderry, of Scottish an- 
cestry, His grandfather, Thomas Steel, was among the original 
proprietors of Londonderry, and came hither from the north of 
Ireland in 1718. Moses was probably the son of Thomas, Jr., 
and Martha Steel, and came here when a young man. 

Capt. Isaac Baldwin, of whom we have already spoken, and 
of whom we shall have considerable more to say in succeeding 

Immediately the new-comers began to hold religious meetings 
in private houses in winter, and barns in summer. At these 
meetings such civil conduct of public affairs as became necessary, 
were instituted. As Cromwell said of his Ironsides: 

"I raised such men as had the fear of God before them, and 
made some conscience of what they did, and from that day for- 
ward I must say to you they were never beaten." The type of 
such men as these settled the slopes of Hillsborough from Con- 
cord End to Stowe Mountain. 

The first settlers thought only of tilling the soil as a means 
of sustenance. In truth, it was all they could do, until the time 
had come to open other industries. They gave no thought to the 
power of the river to lift them into prosperity. They had no use 
for its tumbling waters, to them a source of inconvenience in 
crossing the angry stream, as they must in intercourse with their 
fellow-beings living elsewhere. They sought rather for the hill- 
sides, where the sunlight could send its earliest beams and help 
quicken the crops. The valleys in those days were not inviting 


spots, not only on account of their being so hidden from the eyes 
of the world, but as much from their dampness. So such 
elevated places as constituted the hamlet of Bible Hill, the Centre, 
and others attracted them. On these hilltops were laid the 
foundation of New England's welfare. 

Eventually the change came, just as change after change has 
followed in the footsteps of succeeding days, and are continuing 
to come and go. Mills were needed, and the possibilities of the 
river began to assert themselves. 

Finally it was felt that the time had come when a movement 
should be made to secure the incorporation of a town. Accord- 
ingly a meeting of the heads of the freeholders in the territory 
was called at the house of Isaac Andrews, Esq., on West Hill, 
Isaac Baldwin was made moderator and Isaac Andrews, clerk. 
It was found that there were twenty-two qualified to vote in the 
territory comprised in the grant of Colonel Hill, and by unanimous 
decision it was voted to ask for a charter, and Squire Andrews 
was chosen as agent to act for the community. He was a man to 
attend promptly to his duties, and he immediately employed the 
Rev. John Scales, the first minister of Hopkinton and who had 
occasionally preached here, to draft a petition to the Governor 
and Council. The following is a copy of the instrument, with the 
names of its signers: 

Petition fob an Act of Incorporation. 

To His Excellency John Wentworth Esq Captain General, Governor 
and! commander in chief In and over his Majestys Province of 
New Hampshire, And to the Honourable his Majestys Council of 
said Province. 

The Petition of the subscribers Inhabitants of a Township called 
Hillsborough in the Province aforesaid, Humbly sheweth, That we 
have been subjected to the payment of Province and County Taxes as 
fully as the inhabitants Of towns in this Province, but have not en- 
joyed equal privileges. We are humbly of opinion that, Collecting of 
Taxes would be facilitated to us, good order maintained, the culture 
of our land Encouraged, and many inconveniences removed and good 
purposes answered by an incorporation. Therefore we pray that said 
Township Butted and Bounded as follows viz. Beginning at the 
southeast corner of a Beach Tree marked Seven, from thence South 
Eighty four degrees & 30 minutes west about six miles by the Society 


Lands so called to a Beach tree marked 7 & 8, from thence north fif- 
teen degTees West about six miles by common Land so called to a 
Beach Tree marked 7 & 8 from thence Xorth Eighty four degres & 
30 minutes East about six miles to a Beach tree marked 7, from 
thenee about six miles by the Town of Henniker to the Bounds first 
mentioned may be erected and incorporated a Body politic infran- 
chised with the same powers & privileges that other Towns in this 
Province have and enjoy, And your Petitioners as in Duty bound will 
ever Pray. 

Jonathan Duren William Jones 

Timothy Wilkins Benjamin Lovejoy, Jr. 

Abijah Lovejoy John Gibson 

John Sargent William Pope 

John Steel Williams Williams 

Archibald Taggart Isaac Baldwin 

James Gibson Daniel McNeall 

William Taggart Joseph Clark 

John McCalley Isaac Andrews 

George Bemaine Alexander MeClintock 

William Clark Samuel Bradford 

Though his name does not appear on the petition, not being 
a resident, Colonel Hill was the first to suggest this move, and 
naturally as its founder he felt anxious to have his name affixed 
to the territory in which he had taken so much interest and spent 
so much money in developing, so he offered Governor Wentworth 
a fee that in our money would amount to fifty dollars for signing 
the charter, providing the new town should be given the name of 
Hillborough. Though of late frequently spoken of as "Hill's 
Town," the place still retained the signification of Number Seven. 
The Governor was favorably impressed by Hill's request, and as 
Hillborough the new town is designated in the Charter, and this 
name has never been legally changed. Still within ten years it 
was being termed Hillsborough, perhaps because it was more 
easily uttered, and as such it was soon referred to in the records. 
It might seem that the addition of the "s" was in a measure 
brought about by the fact that the county was so known in honor 
of the Earl of Hillsborough, Great Britain. It was perfectly 
natural that strangers should suppose the spelling of the town 
would be the same, and the town's people accepted it without 





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town charter. 89 


George the Third by the Grace 
rrovence of of God of Great Britain France 

New Hampshire and Ireland 

i#$j>$$$$$0$0§#0$0$$0$ King Defender of the Faith and 

o- 8 soforth 

<j. TO 

JL. b. % To all People to whom these 

•Q" % presents shall come 

Whereas our Loyal Subjects Inhabitance of a Tract 
-of Land within our prouince of New Hampshire afore Said, 
Commonly Called and known by the Name of Hillborough 
Containing by estimation about six miles Square — have 
humbly Petitioned and requested us that they may be Erected 
and Incorporated into a Township, and infranchised with the 
same Powers and priviledges which other towns within our said 
prouince by Law have and Enjoy and it appearing unto us to 
be conducive to the General Good of our said Prouince as well 
as of the said Inhabitance in perticuler, by maintaining Good 
order & encouraging the culture of the Land that the Same Should 
be done Know Ye that that we our speceal Grace certain knoledge 
and for the encoragement and promotion of the Good Purposes 
& Ends aforesaid by and with advice of our trusty and well 
beloued John Wentworth Esquire our Gouernor and Commander 
in Chief of our Said Province and o four Council of the same 
have erected and ordained and by these Presents for us our Heirs 
and Successors do will and ordain that the Inhabitance of the 
said tract of Land & others who shall Improue and Inhabit there 
on hereafter the Same being buted and bounded as follows. Viz. 
Beginning at the South East Corner at a Beech Tree marked. 7. 
from thence South Eighty Four Degrees and thirty minutes west 
about six miles by the Society Lands so Called to a Beech tree 
marked. 7. and 8., from thence North Fiftean degres west about 
six miles by Common Land Land so Called to a beech Tree 7. 
and 8 marked, from thence North Eighty Four degrees and 
Thirty minuts East about Six miles to a Beech Tree marked 7 ; 
from thence about six miles by the Town of Henniker to the 
bounds first mentioned be and they are hereby declared to be be a 
Town Corporate by the Name of Hillborough to have Continu- 


ance for Ever with all the Powers and authorities Priviledges, lm- 
munitiees and Franchises which any other towns in said province 
by Law hold hold & enjoy to the said Inhabitance or those who 
shall hereafter inhabit there, and to their Successors for Ever 
aloways reserving to us our Heirs and Successors all white Pine 
Trees that are or shall be found being and growing within and 
upon said Tract of Land fit for the use of our Royal Navy Re- 
serving also to us our Heirs and Successors the power of Devid- 
ing Said town when it shall appear necessary & Convenient for 
the Inhabitance thereof Provided nevertheless and 'tis hereby 
declared that this Charter and Grant is Not intended and shall 
and shall Not in any manner be Construed to affect the private 
property of the soil with in the Limits aforesaid and as the 
several towns within our Said Province are by the Laws thereof 
enabled and authoriz assemble and by the majority of the voters, 
present to chuse all officers & transact such affairs as in the Said 
Laws are declared. We do by these presents nominate and ap- 
point Mr. Isaac Baldwin H H to call the first Meeting of said 
Inhaitants to be held within the said Town at any time within 
thirty Days from the Date hereof, giving Legal Notice of the 
time and design of holding such meeting; after which the annual 
meeting for said Town ; Shall be held for the choice of said 
officers and the porposes aforesaid on the last thursday of March 

In Testimony whereof we have Caused the Seal of our Said 
prouince to be hereunto affixed Witness our aforsaid Gouerner & 
Gomander in Cheif the fourth day of Nouember in the Thirteenth 
year of our Reign annoqus Domini 1772 

J. Wentworth By 

By his Excell CJ8 Command 

with advice of Council 

Theodore Atkinson Sec. 17 

prouince of New Hampshire 14th novenf" 1772 

Recorded in the Sec 178 office Book 4th Page 120 

Theodore Atkinson Se 17 . 

Coppy Examened p r Isaac Andrews Town Clark 



Under authority of the foregoing instrument Isaac Baldwin 
issued the following warrant : 

Hillborough Novem r 24th 1772 

At A church meeting it was voted unanimously that M r 
Jonathan Barnes take the Charge and oversight of the Church 
and flock of Christ in this town aforesaid, and that he settle with 
us in the work of the Gospell Ministry according to the platform 
of Church Disapline Comanly Called Cambridge platform so far 
as it agrees with the word of God or the Sacred Scripture .... 

Voted : that they will Give him thirty pounds, Lawf ull money by way 
of Settlement, and they give him thirty pounds Lawfull money a 
year for the first fore years, and that they will give him thirty 
five pounds Lawfull a year for the next four year and then forty 
pounds a year untill there be 70 famelys in town, and when there 
is Seventy famelys in town he is to be Intietled to fifty pounds a 
year Sooner or Later, and is to be fifty pounds a year from the 
time of .70 famelys Coming in to town till there be ,90 famelies, 
and after there is 90 families itisto be sixty pounds a year untill 
there is won hundred and ten families in town and after their is 
-110-famelies in town it is to be sixty pounds thirteen shillings 
and fore pence anerely so long as he shall continue in the ministry 
among us, and furthermore that we will allow him two or three 

Sabbaths in a year to visit his frinds 

the Sam Day Directly after the Church meeting the Town meet 
and concored with the Church in Giving Mr Jonathan Barnes a 
Call to Setle them in the work of the Gospell Ministry and would 
Give him a Settlement as Salary above mentioned and there was 
Not one opposing 

John Sargent Timothy wilkins 

Nehemiah wilkins Joseph Clark 

Anthony moriss Benj n Lovejoy 

Willm Williams Sam" Bradford 

archable Taggart John mead 

Jonathan Durant George booth 

Isaac Andrews Joshua Esty 

will™ Pope 

Baxter how 
willm Jones 
andrew wilkins 
Sam" Bradford 3d 
Isaac Baldwin 

Sam 1 Bradford Jun' 
timothy Bradford 

Sam 11 Bard ford 
Isaac Andrews 
Isaac Baldwin 

>■ the church 

Chose as a Oommitty 
to present there call 
to the person elect 

* the Congregation 

92 history of hillsborough. 

Warrant for First Town Meeting. 

Provens of New Hampsheir i to the Constable of the town of 

and County of Hillborough j Hillborough in Said County Greeting 

In his maiestys Name you are hereby Kequiered forthwith to warn 
the freeholders and other inhabitanee of said Hillborough that are 
Duly Qualified to Vote in town meeting to meet at the House of Sam 11 
Bradford Jun r in said town on thursday the 25th Day march instant 
persuant to our Charter from the Governor and Counsel, at ten of the 
Clock in the fore Noon for the following porposes : uiz : 

1st to Chuse a moderator, town Clark, Selectmen and all Comen and 
ordenary town offecers 

2ly to see if the town will agree to buld a meeting house for the 
Publick worship of God in said town 

3ly to see where the town will agree to set said house, and also to 
gains the dementains how Large to buld, and Chuse a Comety to 
buld said house, see when it shall be bult 

Aly to see if they will Ratify Establish and Confirm the several maters 
and things voted at their meeting held on the 24th Day of Novem' 
Last past 

5ly to see if they will buld a pound, and where to buld it 

6ly what they will Eais to Defray Corant Charges 

lly to hear the town accounts to see if they will alow or Disalow them 
hereof fail not and mak Due Return Given Under my hand and 
seal, this Eighth Day of march A 1773 and in the thirtenth year 
of of the Reign of our soveran Lord George the third King of 
Grate Britain &c 
By order of the selectmen 

Cope atested Isaac Andrews town Clark 

in obediance to the above warant I have warned all the free holders 
and other inhabitanee Qalified acording to Law to Vote to meet at 
time and place above mentioned 

Samii Bradford 3d Constable 
Copy atested Isaac Andrews town Clark 

It will be noticed that the province had already assessed 
taxes on the inhabitants of this isolated community before its 
unification into a township, and no doubt Samuel Bradford had 
teen constable to collect the money, so it will be seen that taxes 


entered into affairs even before official action, which goes to 
prove that taxes cannot be escaped early nor late. It is certain 
that community meetings had been held, as witness the fact that 
Samuel Bradford, 3rd, had been directed to "warn the town 
meeting" as Collector, and also by the vote "to Renew their call 
to Air. Jonathan Barns to settle in the work of the Gospel 
Ministry." These earlier meetings were probably religious meet- 
ings ; that is, the getting together of the inhabitants to establish 
a church. At this early stage it was necessary to have moderators 
and clerks of the meetings, and then collectors to gather in the 
money needed to support public movements. This church history 
will be given in another chapter. 

Colonel Hill showed his good intentions towards the new 
town by giving ten acres of land near the Centre for the site of a 
meeting house, a burial ground and a common. He reserved 
nearly three hundred acres of land as a gift to the first settled 
minister. No doubt he would have assisted the town very much 
more, but he had begun to meet with reverses of fortune, and 
these made it impossible for him to make further benefactions. 

The War for Independence. 

Causes that Led to the American Revolution — Hardships Laid upon 
Trade and Manufacture — Troops Sent to "Protect" the People — 
Stamp Act — Its Enforcement a Day of Mourning — Tolling- of the 
Bells in Hillsborough — "A Liberty Funeral" in Portsmouth — The 
Boston Eiot — First Blood Shed in the Revolution — Tea Party — 
Beginning of Organized Resistance — Pine Tree Act — Patriots of 
the Pines at Riverdale — Capture of Fort William and Mary — Still 
more Troops and Oppression — The Concord and Lexington Fight — 
Action of Citizens of Hillsborough Always Loyal and Harmonious 
— First Committee of Safety in Town — How the News of the 
Concord Fight Was Brought to Hillsborough — Captain Baldwin's 
Volunteers — March to Cambridge — Captain Baldwin's Company at 
Bunker Hill — Battle of Bunker Hill — Fall of Captain Baldwin — 
Major McClary's Fate — List of Larum Men in Hillsborough in 
1776 — Names of Militia Men — Tax List for 1776 — Number of 
Military Age — Association Test and Signers — Excerpts from Town 
Records — Soldiers in the War — Arnold's Expedition — Hillsbor- 
ough's Part in It — Lieutenant Ammi Andrews — Dark Days of the 
Revolution — Battle of Long Island— White Plains — Trenton — 
British Hold New York — Retreat Across the Delaware — The 
Winter at Valley Forge— Burgoyne Prepares to Invade New Eng- 
land — Vermont's Appeal to New Hampshire — The Answer — Stark's 
Independent Command — Battle of Bennington — Hillsborough Men 
at Bennington — Hillsborough Men in the Rhode Island Expedition 
— Absentees from the Army — 'Hillsborough Bounties — Hillsborough 
Men Credited to Other Towns — War Rolls — Soldiers of Hillsbor- 
ough and Abstracts from Their -Records. 

The "Seven Years' War" with the French and Indians had 
barely drawn to a close — a satisfactory conclusion — and the 
pioneers of the second settlement in Hillsborough had not ad- 
vanced very far in their work of breaking the wilderness than the 
rumblings of another and greater storm began to be heard. At 
first these ominous sounds were merely the mutterings of a 
people that felt the hand of oppression being laid upon them ; not 
severely at first, but with increasing heaviness. The underlying 



cause of this hardship placed upon the colonists by the mother- 
land was the fact that England had come out of her long series of 
wars with France, Spain and other nations with a depleted treas- 
ury. Now she came back to New England in actions that spoke 
plainer than words that, as she had fought New England's wars 
and won her victories, the recipient must pay the cost. In doing 
this England forgot, or what was worse ignored, the fact that it 
was the raw New England troops that had given her that French 
stronghold Louisburg; forgot that it was the forest soldiery of 
the colonies that had stemmed the tide of French invasion on the 
shores of the Horicon and saved to her New England ; forgot 
that it was New England troops that had made the capture of 
Quebec and Canada possible. 

Anyway, immediately the arms of New England were not 
needed to help fight her battles, England began to replenish her 
treasury from the scanty stores of her dependents. It can be 
truthfully said that she had been doing this quietly and stealthily 
for more than a quarter of a century. All of the exports of the 
colonists had to be carried to her markets, and did they import 
goods straightway a duty was imposed which made them unduly 
expensive. More galling than all of this were the restrictions 
laid upon home manufactures, and so minute and far-reaching 
that they became tyrannical. Her own Pitt frankly acknowl- 
edged that "the colonies are not allowed to manufacture a hob- 
nail." Parliament in 1750 forbade the colonists from the manu- 
facture of steel and refused to let them erect iron works. The 
manufacture of cloth was restricted, and the very clothes on their 
backs were ordered to be bought in the old country. Perhaps 
not easily aroused the inhabitants here quietly submitted, excus- 
ing the act by the claim that New England, having been benefited 
by the overthrow of the French and Indians, should be willing 
to bear their portion of the cost. 

The powers overseas did not stop there, and this fact reflects 
the spirit of the times. The colonists were making such rapid 
strides in growth and prosperity, and there were those in Great 
Britain, overzealous for their king, who began to whisper that it 
would not be long before the American colonies would be looking 
for their freedom from the mother government. In the expecta- 
tion of checking any such movement troops were sent here under 


pretence of protecting the people, the expense of supporting these 
soldiers thrown upon the very ones they were ordered to over 
awe. Then followed the Stamp Act of 1764, which was expected 
to "execute itself." The fallacy of this effort was soon shown. 
The American people, while scattered and unorganized, began to 
awaken to their situation. The result was heavy duties upon 
goods which were evaded by contraband trade ; English cloths 
gave place to domestic manufactures ; the rich sacrificed their 
luxuries ; the poor, their comforts. The interruption of trade 
injured England, while the Stamp Act called forth such organiza- 
tions as "The Sons of Liberty." 

The day upon which this obnoxious measure was to go into 
effect, November 1, 1765, was proclaimed to be a day of mourning. 
Even in obscure little Hillsborough feelings of resentment pre- 
vailed, the inhabitants moved moodily about their work. In 
Portsmouth a public funeral was held, and the coffin supposed 
to contain the object of the ceremonies, inscribed, "Liberty aged 
145, stampt," was borne slowly and solemnly to the burial plot, 
followed by a long line of mourners. Upon reaching the place 
the procession halted, the inscription was replaced by that of 
"Liberty revived," when the throng marched back with a quicker 
and prouder step. 

In New Hampshire business papers were exchanged without 
any regard to the law demanding stamps, and everywhere the 
feeling was so intense and vehement that on March 18, 1766, the 
act was repealed, followed by a day of rejoicing among the 
colonists. But this respite was of short duration, and when the 
sun set again it left the night blacker than ever. Pitt and other 
friends in England, who had made a gallant fight for the American 
cause, were now overruled. More missed than all of the others, 
Pitt, the champion of freedom in America, whose voice had 
"rung across the seas and continents in defense of personal 
liberty had become weak ; the eagle eye which could gaze un- 
blenched upon the sun of power, had lost its lustre ; that manly 
form, whose presence could awe the most august legislative body 
on earth, was bowed with age and disease. Pitt was no longer 
master of the occasion." Under the changed condition a bill was 
passed to tax the colonists for the glass, paper, painter's colors 
and the tea one and all used. 






This act was followed by the landing at Boston of seven 
hundred British troops from Halifax. If it were thought they 
would be needed to enforce the new hardship about to be placed 
upon the people, their presence served to arouse, not to intimi- 
date, them. Mobs overran the streets of Boston, and led to riots. 
Four men, the first to sacrifice their lives in the cause of Amer- 
ican liberty, were shot down by the British soldiers. Beginning 
to understand the quicksand upon which they were building, the 
English statesmen sought to retreat by repealing the duties except 
upon tea. This was retained to show that the mother country 
had not lost her power as yet. Every schoolboy knows the result. 
In Boston the tea was destroyed by a party of men at night. At 
Portsmouth it was reshipped without disorder. Everywhere the 
colonists were strongly opposed to the hardship of "taxation with- 
out representation." Some, generally men of wealth who felt it 
was for their personal interest to do so, dared to uphold the king. 
This party, styled Loyalists or Tories, were not numerous 
enough to create much trouble, once the sentiment of freedom 
was fairly awakened. 

The leaders, seeing the political breakers ahead, consulted 
with each other and it was decided to create a Continental Con- 
gress as soon as possible to meet in Philadelphia, then the most 
central and important city in the country. Colonial assemblies in 
several provinces appointed "Committees of Correspondence," 
whose duty it was to ascertain the state of public opinion and keep 
their constituents informed. Determined not to be behind the 
others, in May, 1774, New Hampshire appointed a similar body. 
Learning of the move on foot the royal Governor appeared and 
ordered the sheriff to dissolve the assembly, hoping thus to defeat 
the object of the gathering. Retiring without showing any resent- 
ment the members adjourned to another building, where it was 
voted to ask all the towns in the province to send delegates to 
Exeter for the purpose of choosing two representatives to the 
general congress about to convene in Philadelphia. There is no 
vote on record to show that Hillsborough responded to this ap- 
peal, though it is not only possible but probable that Captain Isaac 
Baldwin and Lieutenant Samuel Bradford attended. Nathaniel 
Folsom and John Sullivan were chosen delegates to represent 


New Hampshire in the proposed congress, which met in the 
following September. 

In the midst of this patriotic uprising an incident took place 
which brought the storm of resentment very close to the people 
of Hillsborough. 

It will be remembered that in the charter of Hillsborough, as 
in other towns, there was a reservation made of all pine trees 
suitable to be used in the Royal Navy of Great Britain. So, 
before the pioneer was allowed to begin his work of clearing the 
land he had been granted, the King's agent was sent to mark those 
pines of sufficient size to make masts for 74-gun ships of war 
with what was known as "The King's Arrow." This symbol was 
really a huge, inverted V about four feet in length and cut deep 
into the bark. Should one dare to molest one of these reserves 
it would cost him dear. During the winter, when the snow lay 
deep upon the earth, men were employed by the provincial govern- 
ment to cut these trees and team them to the nearest point where 
they could be prepared for the purpose designed, and then trans- 
ported to the nearest port. The majority of these lumbermen 
and teams were from the towns along the coast, the leader of 
them having made a contract to deliver so many trees for a 
certain sum. The men would build for themselves cabins in the 
wilderness, where a number of these trees were to be found. 
Many of the giants were drawn in the round log from sixty to 
one hundred feet in length all the way to Newburyport, a favorite 
destination for the majority. Along the Contoocook what was 
the "Mast Yard" was an objective point, which spot was near the 
railroad station which keeps alive the name. These huge logs 
were generally floated down the river. 

It is related that one of these mighty monarchs of the forest 
was cut in the Contoocook valley which required fifty-five yokes 
of oxen to draw to the river bank. There is no record to show 
how large it was at the foot, but at the top of a hundred and ten- 
foot log it measured three feet in diameter! Is it any wonder 
the man who had secured this prize for his king, boasted loudly 
of his undertaking. Captain Chamberlain did not dare risk his 
giant captive to the rocky course of the Contoocook, so he hauled 
it with his big team all the way to Concord, where it was rolled 


into the Merrimack. But it had been a trying passage so far, 
uphill and down, sometimes the lives of his best oxen imperiled 
when working their way over some sharp summit or down a rocky 
declivity, but the master mover breathed easily as he saw his 
mighty trophy borne merrily in the swollen waters of the Merri- 
mack. All did go the king's benefit until Amoskeag Falls were 
reached. Here, as the great monster swung over the jagged 
brink of the cataract it caught on the ragged edge of rock. For 
a moment it hung half suspended above the boiling flood, and then 
it snapped in twain like a pipe stem! Captain Chamberlain, who 
had been following on horseback along the bank of the river, 
witnessed this mishap with a look of horror. Throwing up his 
hands he shouted, so his voice was heard above the roar of the 
cataract, "My God! I'm a ruined man!" Putting spurs to his 
horse, he rode madly down the valley, and was never seen in this 
vicinity again, very much to the disappointment of the workmen 
whom he was owing for all their hard work. 

Occasionally one of these forest monarchs escaped the king's 
lumbermen and lived on for a hundred years or more, to be 
remembered by the generation just gone before us. Mr. Joseph 
Barnard of Hopkinton described one of these relics which stood 
in his day. The top of this tree had been blown off fifty feet 
above the ground, and it was finally cut down by coon hunters. 
Fifteen feet from its base it measured fifteen feet in circum- 
ference. It was estimated to have contained more than six 
thousand feet of lumber. It was supposed to have been more than 
400 years old, and so was standing when Columbus discovered 

This reservation of the best pine trees for the use of the 
royal government became no small bone of contention between 
the colonists and the British officials. In fact it was one of the 
causes that finally led to the open rebellion of the men of New 

Some innocently, others wilfully it may be, now and then cut 
some of the pines marked with the king's arrow. As often as 
they were detected these offenders were haled into court and made 
to pay a fine. In some cases these fines were large and paid 
under protest. 


I have not found that any culprits were caught in this town, 
but a deputy "Surveyor of the King's Woods" making a raid 
upon the mills in Pascataquog valley early in the spring of 1772, 
among others at mills elsewhere, laid an attachment upon nearly 
three hundred logs at Clement's mills at Oil Mills village, now 
Riverdale, and swore a good round oath that the offenders should 
be punished to the fullest extent of the law, if they did not pay 
the fine that might be exacted of them. 

The "culprits" at other mills went forward and paid the fines 
assessed against them and retained the logs, which were really 
theirs by right of domain. But the men of Clement's mills 
resolved that they would not humble themselves to the British 
officer. So they paid no attention to the notice, and quietly 
awaited the result. 

In due course of time a warrant was made out agains^ 
Ebenezer Mudgett, known to be one of the leaders in the affairs, 
and placed in the hands of Sheriff Benjamin Whiting of Hollis 
to serve. This redoutable( ?) officer, took along his deputy, 
John Quigley of Francestown, and this precious pair, both prov- 
ing tories when the war broke out, went in quest of their victim. 
They had no trouble in finding Mr. Mudgett, and with better 
grace than they had expected the prisoner accompanied them to 
the village inn kept by one Aaron Quimby. 

It was then nearly night, and Mr. Mudgett declared that he 
would furnish any reasonable bail before morning. So, elated 
over the ease with which they had secured the principal offender, 
and deciding the whole crowd was a set of "hoodlums with no 
more spine than rabbits," they sought their couches at an early 
hour so as to take a good start in the morning. 

Meanwhile the friends of Mudgett had arranged to carry 
out a dare-devil plot that possibly had been premeditated for 
sometime. Anyway, while the sheriff was sleeping peacefully in 
the quiet hours of morning, dreaming no doubt of the fat fee he 
would receive for his work, the door was thrown open and in 
stalked half a dozen grim-visaged men intent on his harm ! Before 
he could offer resistance, if he had had the mind to do so, he was 
dragged from his warm nest into the cold air, to be given a severe 
drubbing. If he begged off, and he showed himself to be an 


arrant coward, the blows fell thicker and faster, while no one 
answered his appeals for help. Finally he was hustled out of 
the house and tossed upon the bare back of his horse, seated so 
he was looking backward instead of ahead. Here he was bound 
by greenhide thongs. The horse had been ignominiously shorn 
of its mane and tail and decorated with pine boughs. 

In this lamentable condition for a High Sheriff the victim 
was escorted out of town, amid the jeers and hoots of his per- 
secutors and the eye-witnesses to this audacious performance, all 
of which shocked a few more sober-minded of the village people, 
who foresaw direful results from this reckless adventure. Of 
course the sheriff within a few days entered his complaint and the 
perpetrators of the outrage were haled into court. But already 
public opinion was with the audacious culprits — at least so 
strongly had the tide set in that direction that a decision was not 
reached in the first trial, and armed resistance elsewhere put an 
end to the proceedings so that judgment was never rendered, the 
incident passing into history as one of the opening acts of the 
war which was inevitable. 

Great Britain, already awakening to the possibility of the 
coming outbreak, but still blindly resolved to hold it in abeyance 
by sheer defiance, prohibited the exportation of gunpowder to 
America, and a ship of war was sent forthwith to take possession 
of Fort William and Mary, the key to Portsmouth. If news 
flew slowly in those days, this movement was anticipated by the 
inhabitants about the vicinity, and under the leadership of Captain 
Thomas Pickering, with those staunch supporters Major John 
Sullivan and John Langdon, a body of men surprised the officers 
of the fort on the night of December 15, 1774, took the com- 
mander and five soldiers prisoners, and carried away one hundred 
barrels of gunpowder, ammunition afterwards used at Bunker 
Hill. The next day another company removed fifteen cannon, 
with small arms and stores from the fort, all of which was suc- 
cessfully secreted at different places in adjoining towns. This 
bold act was one of the most daring achievements in the Revo- 

The next hostile movement by the enemy was taken in the 
following spring, or within four months of the capture of Fort 


William and Mary. The British government acted upon the 
principle that the King of England "had, hath and of right ought 
to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of 
sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of 
America in all cases whatsoever.'" On the other hand the 
colonists maintained there should be no taxation without repre- 
sentation. In some respects the older country yielded,, and the 
burden of the expense was lightened, but so long as a penny was 
demanded the now thoroughly aroused colonists claimed the un- 
derlying intention remained unchanged, and that additional hard- 
ship might be placed upon them at any time, a declaration that 
could not be honestly denied. Unable to ensnare the colonies with 
their promises, while still keeping armed forces upon New Eng- 
land soil, Great Britain finally resolved to subdue the people she 
could not coerce, a fatal mistake as she eventually learned.* 

The opening of the year 1775, the darkest in the history of 
the New England colonists, found Boston invested with three 
thousand royal troops under General Gage. This fact, taken 
with the demoralized condition of the situations elsewhere and 
the pervading feeling of the coming conflict overshadowing the 
people caused a stagnation in business affairs, with an uncer- 
tainty of the result that the bravest dared not contemplate with 
confidence . . . The inhabitants of beleaguered Boston began 
to suffer for food and begged for assistance from their friends. 
While sending food and supplies to their distressed countrymen, 
the pioneers of liberty were secretly and silently gathering such 
stores of food and ammunition as they could for the inevitable 
strife. Concord, Mass., was selected as the headquarters for the 
munitions of war and a body of provincial militia was raised 
to protect same. 

General Gage considered it to be a fine beginning to seize this 

•Professor Sanborn, in his History of New Hampshire, says very truthfully, "There 
can scarcely be a doubt that seven years of patient waiting instead of seven years of 
fighting;, with the ablest statesmen and orators of England as friends of America, 
might have secured to colonists absolute equality of political rights. Had the patriots 
of that age so waited, and so acted, we, their descendants, might today have been 
the subjects of a hereditary monarch. Our counties might have been the property 
of counts and our independent yeomen, who own their farms and till them, who 
choose their pastors and support them, who make their laws and obey them, might 
have been the dependents of some 'born gentleman' like the Duke of Sutherland, who 
with great condescension visits his peasants twice a year and gives them advice, 
builds roads and allows them to walk in them, founds churches and sends them rec- 
tors, provides cottages and requires of the tenants a rent which abridges the com- 
monest comforts of life." — Author. 


store and teach the people, by doing it, a lesson that they might 
profit by it. Accordingly on the 19th of April, 1775, an im- 
portant date in American history, he sent a body of troops to 
chastise these audacious subjects, and incidentally to add to the 
supply of stores at Boston. Upon reaching Lexington this armed 
force, advancing with something of the spirit of troops on dress 
parade, was met by the provincial militia. Major Pitcairn, the 
pompous British commander, rode forward and brandishing his 
sword with an air of bravado, exclaimed: "Disperse, ye rebels! 
Lay down your arms and retire." 

His order was unheeded. Chagrined that this small body of 
untrained men and youths should have dared to hesitate in their 
reply, the British officer ordered his men to fire. Seven men fell 
before that deadly volley, while nine were wounded. This was 
the first blood spilled in the War for American Independence, 
and the reply was the shot that was "heard around the world!" 
Finding themselves outnumbered the patriots retreated, but all 
through the morning kept up a warfare upon the enemy, making 
the supplies they captured cost them dear. Before returning to 
Boston their numbers were reduced by two hundred and seventy- 
three men killed, wounded and missing! The patriots lost eighty- 
eight, not a large number, but enough to arouse the whole country 
and the burning words of Henry, "Give me liberty or give me 
death!," became the watchword everywhere. The news spread 
over New England like wildfire. Hilltops blazed with beacon 
fires ; valleys and hamlets rang with drum beats, and bells were 
rung to awaken the people to their peril. 

Among those who figured in the fight at Concord and Lexing- 
ton, who afterwards became citizens of Hillsborough or were 
ancestors of those already settled in the "town on the hilltops," 
were at least the following, and how many more cannot be easily 
ascertained at this day: 

Ensign Robert Monroe of Captain Parker's company, Lexington. 
Silas Spaulding, Bejamin Pierce, Joshua Durant of Capt. Oliver 
Baron's company. 

Levi Flint of Capt. John Bachiller's company. 

Silas How and David How of Capt. Aaron Hayne's company. 

Abraham Andrews in Capt. Joshua Walker's company at Concord. 


Capt. Joseph Bobbins, Capt. Samuel Farrah, Edward Flint and 
Sergt. David Hartwell at Concord. 

Benjamin Beard of Lt. Oliver Crosby's company. 

Thomas Baldwin, Isaac Beard, Benjamin Dutton and John Bell of 
Capt. Edward Farmer's company. 

Elijah. Danforth of Capt. Jonathan Stickney's company. 

Josiah Gilbert of Stow, Mass. 

John Killom of Cambridge, Mass. 

Corp. Samuel Murdough at Lexington. 

It is difficult to verify all of these names, and there are 
doubtless errors as well as omissions. 

The historian of a town cannot describe to any extent events 
outside of his immediate field of action, so in this work the battles 
of the Revolution can be treated only so far as they concerned 
the fortunes of the men from this place, and even then in a brief 
manner. These general facts can be gleaned from other histories, 
local and national, while we follow the scenes at home which 
others have not done. The steady-going, law-abiding inhabitants 
of Hillsborough were not in the habit of calling a town meeting 
at every trifling matter that came up, so the records are not 
filled with accounts of petty differences and neighborhood 
quarrels. Though men of decided opinions there were no religious 
discussions they could not settle within the sanctuary, nor po- 
litical sentiment they could not agree to leave to another day. 
Hence not a town meeting was held wherein any part of the 
business transacted was not promptly decided without argument. 
The course of action followed by the town during the seven years 
War for Independence is characterized by calm consideration of 
the affairs of the day, always tempered with an honest handling 
of each question regarding the well-being of its townsmen and its 
duty to its country. 

At the annual meeting March 30, 1775, it was voted to pur- 
chase a stock of ammunition. 

June 14, 1775, three days before the battle of Bunker Hill, 
the inhabitants met and chose a Board of Inspection or Committee 
of Safety, as it became better known. The members consisted of 
three of the oldest and staunchest citizens of the town, Captain 
Samuel Bradford, Lieut. Samuel Bradford and Timothy Wilkins. 
This board was re-elected in 1776, but Captain Bradford dying 


in the summer, at a special meeting held September 23, 1776, 
Nathaniel Cooledge, a veteran of the French and Indian wars, was 
chosen to fill the vacancy. 

Removed as this town was from the general routes of public 
information the news that hostilities had begun and war was 
imminent flew hither with the celerity of a winged messenger. 
Nor is this to any great extent a figure of speech. Three or four 
of the men then living in Hillsborough had fought throughout the 
Seven Years' War side by side with the Monroes, Haradons and 
others of the Minute Men of Lexington. The most conspicuous of 
these was Captain Baldwin, and no sooner was the fight over than 
some of the leaders there dispatched a man mounted upon a fleet 
horse to apprise him of the impending danger. It is needless to 
say perhaps that messengers were sent in every direction. 

Though a peace-loving people there was probably not a man 
in town who had not done his part in all previous wars, providing 
he had been old enough to carry a musket. They were equally 
as ready now to shoulder the "old queen's arm" in defence of their 
country. Putnam unhitching his horse from the plow to mount 
him and ride to the front ; Stark leaving the mill log upon its 
carriage to start in hot haste to Cambridge, show no more prompt 
action or clear-cut patriotism than did Capt. Isaac Baldwin when 
told the startling news. He was framing a barn in Deering when 
the tidings from Lexington reached him. Realizing what this 
meant, the hero of more than twenty battles in the French and 
Indian wars laid aside his tools in the midst of his work and 
hastened to his home. Within twenty-four hours he had raised 
a body of volunteers to go with him to the front. Stopping 
barely long enough to express a few hasty good-byes to their 
loved ones, this redoutable little company of patriots, others join- 
ing them as they advanced, started on their way towards the scene 
of war. The names of the members of this Spartan band, as far 
as can be enumerated now, were : 

Ammi Andrews, Samuel Bradford, 

Isaac Baldwin, Captain Silas Cooledge, 

David Brooks, Isaac Andrews, 

Andrew Wilkins, John Brown, 

Airumi Andrews, Jr., Samuel Symonds. 



This number comprised about one-fourth of the able-bodied 
men in town, and at no time was there a smaller number at the 
front. At times there was a larger percentage serving their 

Upon reaching Hollis Captain Baldwin was informed that a 
British fleet had begun an attack on Portsmouth, and feeling it 
his duty to go to the relief of the garrison there, he changed his 
course. But, upon coming to Thornton's Ferry, the rumor was 
denied, and he again pushed on towards Boston. 

This was on Saturday and the following day they reached 
Billerica, Mass., in season to attend divine worship, where they 
listened to a patriotic discourse delivered by Rev. Henry Cum- 
mings. They remained in this town until Monday morning, when 
they resumed their march, arriving at the headquarters of the 
American army at Cambridge, where they were received with a 
hearty welcome. Captain Baldwin was well known to many of 
the officers in command here and a large company, composed 
mainly of men of his vicinity, Hillsborough, Henniker and Hop- 
kinton, was enrolled under him. 

Pay Roll of Capt. Isaac Baldwin's Company at Bunker Hill. 

Isaac Baldwin*, Captain, 

John Hale, Captain, 

John Hale, Lieutenant, 

Stephen Hoit, ditto. 

Andrews Wilkins*, Sergeant, 

Moses Bailey, ditto, 

Reuben Kimball, ditto, 

Henry Blake, Fifer, 

Moses Darling 1 , Private, 

Silas Cooledge*, 

Robert Taggart*, 

Ammy Andrews, Jr.*, 

John Putney, 

Phinehas Kimball, 

Peter Howe,* 

Moses Jones,* 

Ephraim Hadley, 

Duty Stickney, 

Richard Straw, 

Timothy Clemment, 

John Stanley, 

Stephen Hoit, 2d Lieutenant, 
Ammy Andrews,* 2d ditto, 
Ammy Andrews,* Sergeant. 
Moses Kimball, ditto, 
Moses Eastman, Sergeant, 
Moses Connet, ditto, 
John Brown*, Drummer, 
Isaac Andrews*, Private, 
John McNiel,* 
David Brooks*, 
Samuel Simonds*, 
Robert Cunningham, 
Collins Eastman. 
Samuel Hildreth, 
Enoch Eastman, 
Noah Parsons, 
Moses Trussell, 
Joseph Shattuck, 
Joseph Presbe3 r , 
Benjamin Stanley, 
Thomas Hills, 


Thomas Eastman, 

Daniel Cressy, 

Peter Lovejoy, 

Clifford Chafey, 

Asahel Putney, 

Isaac Cates, 

Jonathan Durant*, 

Samuel Bradford, Sergt, 

James Gibson*, 

Joseph Putney, Private, 

George Bemaine*, 

Samuel Barrowcliff. 


A study of the above roll shows that in addition to the ten 
men who enrolled under Captain Baldwin at home eight others 
must have followed him and so joined the army at Cambridge. 
Thus Hillsborough had at least eighteen men then in the army, 
and it is not only possible but probable there were others. 

To the great satisfaction of all Captain Baldwin's company 
was assigned to Col. John Stark's regiment. The night of June 
17th they were quartered at Medford, and were sent with several 
other companies on the following morning to participate in the 
battle of Bunker Hill. 

The story of that memorable day's sanguinary fight has been 
imperfectly told, and it is doubtful if at this distant day New 
Hampshire troops will receive ample credit for the part they per- 
formed. The company whose names have been listed certainly 
acted a valiant part, being from first to last in the thick of the 
battle. Near noon the gallant McClary from Epsom had com- 
mand of this division, and about one o'clock, as he was forming 
his men for an attack, Captain Baldwin fell pierced by a musket 
ball. Two of his townsmen, Lieut. John McNiel and James 
Gibson, witnessing this unfortunate fate of their leader, sprang 
forward and bore him to a more retired position. And there, 
with a little knot of weeping comrades, the life of the hero ebbed 
away, so he breathed his last about sunset. 

Already the tide of battle had set in against the patriots. At 
the beginning of a retreat the brave General McClary had fallen, 
and in the death of Major Andrew McClary and Capt. Isaac 
Baldwin the Americans lost two men, who, if their lives had been 
spared, would have undoubtedly won high distinction in the war. 

Mr. Smith, in describing his untimely death says most truth- 
fully: "The intelligence of Captain Baldwin's death filled the 
peaceful community where he resided with grief and mourning. 

•From Hillsborough. 


He was emphatically the pride of this townsmen. His kind heart, 
cheerful disposition and amiable manners had greatly endeared 
him to his fellow-citizens." 

Captain Baldwin left a widow who, before her marriage, was 
Eunice Jennison of Natick, Mass., and four children, while a fifth 
was born a few weeks after his decease. The fatal bullet was 
extracted by Lieutenant Ammi Andrews, who afterwards pre- 
sented it to the widow as a sad memento of the day. Captain 
Baldwin was interred in a burial ground in Medford, Mass. 

Capt. Isaac Baldwin was born in Sudbury, Mass., in 1736, 
and he was the head of the fifth family that came into the town in 
1766 during the second settlement. As has been already men- 
tioned, he had been very active in the French and Indian War as 
a companion of William and John Stark and Robert Rogers. 
Everett, in his life of John Stark, says that Captain Baldwin had 
been in more than twenty battles, and was a man of undoubted 

A little less than six weeks after Captain Baldwin and his 
men had started for the front, the following return was made 
to the state, and these seem to have been practically all of the 
able-bodied men left at home: 

List of Larum Men in Hillsborough, 1776. 

Rev. Jonathan Barnes, George Booth, 

Capt. Samuel Bradford, Joseph Clark, 

Lieut. David McNeal, Timothy Wilkins. 

Ens. Timothy Bradford, Andrew Bixby, 

Dea. John Meed, Joshua Estey, 

Nathan Cooledge, William Jones, 

William Taggart, Thomas Murdough, 

Capt. Joseph Symonds, William Hutchinson, 
Lieut. Saml. Bradford, (17) 

Association Test. 

Congress on March 14, 1776, owing to evident signs of disaffecta- 
tion among certain persons in the colonies passed the following act : 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the Several Assemblies, Con- 
ventions, and Councils, or Committees of Safety of the United Col- 
onies, immediately to cause all Persons to be disarmed, within their 
Respective Colonies, who are notoriously disaffected to the cause of 



America, or who have not associated, and refuse to associate, to defend 
by Arms, the United Colonies, against the Hostile attempts of the 
British Fleets and Armies. 


Extract from the Minutes 

Charles Thompson, Secy 

In consequence of the above Resolution the General Assembly 
of New Hampshire, as other provinces did, recognized the same 
April 12, 1776, by indorsement and passage of what became 
known as the Association Test: 

In order to carry the underwritten Resolve of the Hon'ble 
Continental Congress into Execution, you are requested to desire 
all males above Twenty one years of age (Lunaticks, Idiots, and 
Negroes excepted) to sign to the Declaration on the Paper; and 
when so done, to make return thereof, together with the Name or 
Names of all who shall refuse to sign the same, to the General 
Assembly or Committee of Safety of this Colony. 

M. Weare, Chairman. 

The Test. 

"We, the Subscribers, do hereby solemnly engage, and promise, that 
we will, to the utmost of our Power, at the Risque of our Lives and 
Fortunes, with Arms, oppose the Hostile Proceedings of the British 
Fleets and Armies against the United American Colonies.' 

Signebs of Association Test. 

Joseph Symonds 
Isaac Andrews 
Archibald Taggart 
Samuel Preston 
Jedidiah Preston 
Timothy Bradford 
John Nichols 
James Taggart 
"William Pope 
Daniel Eolf 
Samuel Bradford 
Samuel Symonds 

William Jones Jr 
John MeClintock 
Alexander MeClintock 
Asa Dresser 
Samuel Jones 
Andrew Bixbe 
William Love 
John Gibson 
John Mead 
Jonathan Barns 
Timothy Wilkins 
Jacob Flint 

Jonathan Durant refuses to sign. 1 

William Pope 

John McCalley 
Daniel Gibson 
John Graham 
William Jones 
William Taggart 
William Hutchinson 
Benjamin Lovejoy 
Lot Jenison 
George Booth 
Nehemiah Wilkins 
Daniel Mc'neall 


Archibald Taggart [ 



This Association Test, as it was called, might well have been 
termed the Declaration of Independence by the people, for it is 
difficult to find an expression of defiance to the enemy more firmly 
stated than in this article. Friends, or Quakers, and non-com- 
batants were exempt from signing it, if it were their wish. A few 
here and there, declined to sign, but there was only one in Hills- 
borough. The exception in Hillsborough was a member of that 
religious body known as Friends, but if so he had already par- 
ticipated in the Battle of Bunker Hill, and he bore arms through- 
out the war. 

The following men were credited as belonging to the training 
band of Hillsborough in 1776: 

Alexander MoClintock, Samuel Murdough, John 'MeClintock, 

William Symonds, James Gibson, William Booth, 

Jonathan Durant, Nathaniel Howard John Gibson, 

Benjamin Kuff, Nehemiah Wilkins, Joseph Tagart, 

Daniel Gibson, Thomas Mnrdough, Jr., Lot Jennison, 

Jedediah Preston, William Love, Jonathan Sargent, 

Benjamin Lovejoy, Abel Wilkins, Andrew Bixby, 

Jonathan Graham, Elias Cheney, Nathan Taylor (24) 

Last five recently added to the list. 

Honered Sir. Among these above named we have about twenty 
guns and seven of them not fit to go into the war. the best of 
our guns are gone in the war either sold or our men with them. 
I should have sent your Honor a List before this time but Could 
not without sending on purpose 

Sr I am your Hons. most Huml Ser 
Isaac Andrews 
June the 3d 1776 

To Honored Col n Stickney living in Concord 

The list of taxpayers at the breaking out of the Revolution 
affords an interesting sidelight upon the inhabitants of the town, 
and is here reproduced from the Town's Book : 

Tax List for 1776. 

Capt. Isaac Andrews, Lieut. Ammi Andrews, 

Widow Mary Bradford, Widow Eunice Baldwin, 

Capt. Joseph Symonds, Lieut. Samuel Bradford, Jr., 

Lieut. Samuel Bradford, Ens. Timothy Bradford, 


Timothy Wilkins, Nathaniel Coolidge, 

George Booth, Jonathan Durant, 

Asa Dresser, Joshua Estey, 

Jacob Flint, Cornet John Grimes, 

John Gibson. James Gibson, 

William Jones, Daniel Gibson, 

Lieut. Baxter Howe, Nathaniel Hayward, 

"William Hutchinson, Lot Jennerson, 

Samuel Jones, William Jones, Jr., 

Benjamin Lovejoy, Dea. John Meade, 

Lieut. Daniel McNiel, Lieut. John McColley, 

Thomas Murdough, Lieut. William Pope, 

John MeClintock, Alexander McClintock 

John Nichols, Daniel Rolf, 

Jedediah Preston, Jonathan Sargent, 

Moses Steele, William Taggart, 

Ens. Archibald Taggart, James Taggart, 

William Taggart, Jr., Nehemiah Wilkins, 

William Love, Andrew Bixby, 

William Booth, David Blanchard, 
Major Raley, Riley or Raleigh. 

An examination of this list made nearly a year after the battle 
of Lexington shows that there were then forty-nine taxpayers in 
town, but two of these were women, the widows of Captain 
Baldwin, killed at Bunker Hill, and Captain Samuel Bradford, 
who died that summer. Of the forty-seven men eighteen were 
over fifty years of age, and beyond the military limit, though this 
did not deter the most of them from entering the service some- 
time during the war. This leaves twenty-nine liable to military 
duty, providing they were able physically, while there must have 
been sixteen youths between sixteen and twenty-one capable of 
doing military duty, for according to the returns of the towns 
made to the province Hillsborough was credited with forty-three 
men between 16 and 50 years able-bodied. At this same time the 
nearby towns numbered respectively as follows : Deering, 40 ; 
Henniker, 76; Hopkinton, 202; New Boston, 118; Weare, 149; 
Francestown, 46; Peterborough, 102; Washington, 35. 

Under date of August 17, 1776, the Rev. Jonathan Barnes, 
"Considering the diffecoltys that we now laber under," relin- 
quished a portion of his salary to the town. 


The same year, 1776, September 2, it was voted to raise 
fifteen pounds in order to purchase a stock of ammunition, and at 
a special meeting December 10, it was voted to raise nine pounds 
for ammunition. 

The pay roll of Capt. Timothy Clement in Col. Peirce Long's 
regiment mustered August 7, 1776, for service at New Castle, 
and mustered out December 7, 1776, gives the names of two 
soldiers from Hillsborough, William Taggart, Sergeant, advanced 
to Master Sergeant, mustered in October 22, and Joseph Taggart, 
mustered in September 13. 

A return of the men enlisted in the First New Hampshire 
regiment, 1776, enlisted for during the war, contains the name of 
Nathaniel Graham, Hillsborough. 

A list of the officers of the different battalions of New 
Hampshire troops serving in the Continental army, with dates of 
their commissions include the names of — 

Baraillai How, 2d Lieutenant of First Battalion, his commis- 
sion dating November 7, 1776; Colonel Joseph Cilley. 

Williams Taggert, Ensign, 2d Battalion, Nathan Hale, 
Colonel. Date of commission, November 7, 1776. 

The rolls of men enlisted for three years or during the war, 
and belonging to the Fourth Regiment of New Hampshire Militia 
to complete the three battalions of the Continental Army, con- 
tained the names of the following five men from Hillsborough : 

Nathaniel Taylor, Thomas Murdough, William Pope, 
Ebenezer Sargent, Joseph Taggart. 

We now come to the most picturesque and remarkable cam- 
paign in the entire war, in which Hillsborough was nobly repre- 
sented. At the beginning of hostilities it was believed among the 
American colonies that a majority of the inhabitants of Canada 
were in sympathy with them, and that it would not require much 
of an effort to secure them as an ally. In order to accomplish 
this purpose it was thought best, if not necessary, to capture the 
French stronghold, Quebec, which was the key to the situation. 
Among the most ardent supporter of this daring project if not its 
author, was that young, fiery American commander, Benedict Ar- 
nold. The idea appealed to General Washington at once, and in 
August, following the battle of Bunker Hill in June, plans were 

From an G'ld Drawing. 


i irNEWYC 

» r f t I 




. « u man N 



laid to undertake the expedition. Planned in secrecy it was 
thought to take Quebec by surprise, and to do this effectually the 
trip was designed to be made overland through the wilderness of 
Maine up the Kennebec River to its source, then over the high- 
lands known to the Indians as "the great carrying place" to the 
headwaters of the River Chaudiere and down that stream to its 
junction with the St. Lawrence about four miles above Quebec. 

The detachment, says the Editor of the State Papers, was 
composed of men enlisted for that duty from the troops stationed 
in the vicinity of Boston, and placed under the command of Col. 
Benedict Arnold, with Lieut.-Col. Roger Enos-as second in com- 
mand. They were relieved from duty in the several organizations 
to which they had belonged, and ordered to Cambridge common 
on the 8th and 9th of September, where they were assigned to two 
battalions of about 1,100 men each. On the evening of the 13th 
they marched to Medford, and sailing from Newburyport on the 
19th reached the Kennebec on the following day, landing about 
three miles below Fort Western, which was the site of the present 
city of Augusta. From that place the detachment marched in 
four divisions, with rations for forty-five days. On the morning 
of the 27th of October Lieutenant-Colonel Enos, listening to the 
discouraging expression of his men, lost faith in the success of 
the expedition. Fearing that his cowardice would make others 
uneasy, Arnold gave him permission to return if he wished, so the 
faint-hearted officer returned to Cambridge at the head of three 
companies. And the worst of it was the fact the retreating troops 
took its share of the rations with them. 

With commendable fortitude the rest of the force pushed on 
with Colonel Arnold, following an old Indian trail through almost 
impenetrable swamps, and wading streams of ice-cold water, for 
winter had set in early in the season. Their provisions were 
exhausted long before they reached the Canadian settlements, 
while their clothes became so dilapidated as to be little protection 
from the rigor of a northern winter, it being evident now that 
they had started too late in the season. Many of the soldiers were 
barefooted for days before they came in sight of Quebec on the 
8th of November. The sufferings of this band of heroes cannot 
be adequately expressed, and could not have been endured only 


by a class of men inured to exposure and hardship and fired with 
a patriotism which prompts its possessor to win the victory or 
perish in the attempt. 

Colonel Arnold, with his band of tattered soldiery, was to 
meet General Montgomery, at the head of a larger body of men, 
who had hastened from Montreal to join in an undertaking that 
he knew was extremely hazardous but which met his hearty 
approval. But if it had been expected of the Canadians to rally 
to the assistance of the American troops, the results proved any- 
thing else. Nothing discouraged by this disappointment the 
American leaders besieged the citadel upon the rock. 

Then a respite followed, while Montgomery planned to sur- 
prise the British by night. Having a personal knowledge of the 
situation of the enemy, this maneuver was engineered largely by 
Arnold, but the intentions of the Americans were betrayed by a 
traitor, so Carleton, the British commander, was prepared to meet 
the desperate assault flung against him early on the morning of 
December 31, 1775. A blinding snowstorm was raging with 
Canadian fury, a fitting night for such a wild venture. Arnold 
led his column along the St. Charles River through the suburb 
of St. Roch. During the bitter fight that ensued he was wounded, 
and the enemy getting in the rear of his troops about four hundred 
were captured, and the rest driven back. 

General Montgomery was even less fortunate than Arnold. 
He sought to gain the city by a narrow defile known as Pres-de- 
villa, near what is now Champlain Street. Here, with a precipice 
running down to the river upon one hand, and on the other the 
scarped rock rising above him, he was confronted by a battery of 
three pounders manned by a squad of Canadians and British 
militiamen. Still believing he was going to effect a surprise, the 
American commander urged his men forward in face of the 
pelting storm, and the yet more deadly hail of grape that instantly 
swept the narrow pass. Montgomery fell, with two officers and 
ten of his brave men, while the others beat a precipitous retreat. 
Over the body of General Montgomery, worthy of a nobler end, 
the falling snow quickly threw a white shroud as if in compassion 
for his untimely fate. 


The command now devolved upon Arnold, who maintained 
a siege until spring, when as the St. Lawrence broke up a British 
warship was seen coming up the river, the Americans abandoned 
all hope of capturing the city. In the retreat that succeeded they 
were attacked by the Indians and about four hundred of the 
American troops were captured. The retreat was now turned 
into a rout. May 6, 1776, repulsed in an attack on Three Rivers 
after a bitter battle, Arnold withdrew to Lake Champlain with 
the remnant of his little army, where he guarded the inland gate- 
way between the Hudson and the St. Lawrence until the following 
autumn. Thus ended in disaster the most memorable military 
expedition in American history through no fault of its leader or 
its men. Had no untoward circumstance turned the tide of 
fortune against him, it would have secured the fame of General 
Arnold for all time. 

In Arnold's detachment there were at least 88 men from 
New Hampshire, as shown by the war rolls, all but eight serving 
under Capt. Henry Dearborn. Of these soldiers three postively 
and probably four were from the little town of Hillsborough. 
The names of this quartette were Lieut. Nathaniel Hutchin(son), 
Ensign Ammi Andrews, Jr., Serg. James Taggart and private 
William Taylor. One member of these four whose place of na- 
tivity is in doubt is Lieutenant Hutchins, who is credited to Hop- 
kinton in some of the rolls. Regarding the other three there is 
no doubt. 

Lieut. Ammi Andrews, the most active of this trio, was born 
in Ipswich, Mass., but came to Hillsborough when a young man 
and settled at the Upper Village. In fact, at one time he owned 
the whole site of the village and much adjacent land. He was 
active in local affairs, and when the Revolution broke out he was 
among the first to join Captain Baldwin's company. After partici- 
pating in the battle of Bunker Hill, with James Taggart and 
William Taylor, he was enrolled in Arnold's troop and endured 
the fatigue and hardships of that memorable march over the 
wintry trail in the vain endeavor to conquer Canada. 

Upon this hazardous expedition, as well as at all times, he 
acquitted himself with great personal valor, and many incidents 
of his bravery are told. Among these is the following deed, 


vouched for by authentic records. While encamped within three 
miles of Quebec, and anxious to ascertain the strength and situa- 
tion of the garrison, Colonel Arnold intimated to a squad of his 
soldiers his desire to effect the capture of a British sentinel. 
Lieutenant Andrews was present, and immediately volunteered his 
services, declaring that he believed it could be accomplished. His 
comrades shook their heads, while Colonel Arnold admonished 
him to be certain of his firearms. "Do you want your man living 
or dead ?" demanded the young officer. "Why, living of course," 
replied Arnold. "Then I do not wish to be encumbered with a 
gun. Have no concern for me. I will be back before morning 
with my man." 

The brave lieutenant immediately prepared to carry out his 
hazardous venture, stealing out of camp under cover of the dark- 
ness and veiled by the same friendly mantle he slowly and 
cautiously scaled the rocky breastwork nature had thrown around 
the stronghold of the enemy. Eventually he came within sound 
of the steady tread of a sentinel pacing back and forth on his 
lonely beat, armed with a musket and alert for the least suspicious 
sound. Creeping upon the sentry, foot by foot, Lieutenant An- 
drews finally reached a point where he had seen the man come a 
short time before. Never dreaming of the close proximity of an 
enemy, the British soldier walked slowly and unconcernedly back 
to his starting point, only to find himself suddenly seized in a 
vise-like grip. "A word and you are a dead man !" whispered the 
captor, as he placed his hand over the sentinel's mouth. A moment 
later the American was hastening towards the brink of the pre- 
cipice with his captive marching before him, slowly but without 
a mishap descending the declivity until the foot was reached. 
Then a three-mile tramp through the snow was made to Arnold's 
camp, where Lieutenant Andrews turned over his prisoner in 
triumph. The exploit was the talk of the camp, while the highly 
elated commander got just the information he wanted. 

Lieutenant Andrews served throughout the war, seeing much 
service and never flinching in doing his duty. When the war was 
over he retired to his spacious home to enjoy the fruits of the 
well-earned peace, living to the extreme old age of ninety-seven 
years, dying March 30, 1833, an honored and useful citizen. 

dark days of the revolution. 117 

Hillsborough Men at Bennington. 

We now come to the discouraging period of the war, the 
summer of 1777, or two years after the battle of Bunker Hill. 
There had been considerable fighting, north and south, and while 
the British had won no signal victory, everywhere it was evident 
they were slowly wearing out the colonists, who had been ill- 
prepared for the conflict. The available funds of the patriots had 
apparently been exhausted, and efforts to furnish further troops 
well-nigh ended. The reason for this forlorn situation can be 
summed up in a few words. March 17, 1776, the enemy evacu- 
ated Boston, and soon after Washington transferred his army to 
New York. July 4, the Declaration of American Independence, 
which first designated the scattered colonies as "The United States 
of America," was signed and the colonists were finally united in 
a common cause. 

The war may be said to have been opened in earnest now, and 
on August 27, the American forces met their first real defeat at 
the battle of Long Island, sustaining a heavy loss in comparison 
to the numbers engaged. Forced to abandon this position the 
surrender of the city of New York to the enemy was inevitable, 
and the British placed in command of their troops stationed there 
Col. William Stark, a brother of John Stark, who had espoused 
the English cause on account of misuse on the part of the New 
Hampshire courts. October 28th the Americans were unsuccess- 
ful at the battle of White Plains. Early in December Washington 
was obliged to retreat beyond the Delaware, his army now 
dwindled to 3,000 men. About this time the British captured 
Rhode Island. On the night of December 25th Washington 
crossed the Delaware River with two thousand men in open boats, 
and falling upon the British at Trenton captured a thousand 
Hessians, thanks largely to New Hampshire troops under Stark. 

January 3, 1777, Washington was again successful, throwing 
a glimmer of light into the hearts of the patriots by the battle of 
Princeton. But his situation was precarious, and the British 
threatening Philadelphia he was compelled to move south, so New 
England was virtually unprotected. To make the prospect yet 
more gloomy, the continental congress had behaved badly, and 
John Stark, than whom no one could have been lost with more 


seriousness to the Americans, returned to his home in the valley 
of the Merrimack and declared he had forsaken the cause until 
justice had been done him. 

Meanwhile a British army of 7,500 strong, commanded by 
General Burgoyne, advanced from Canada by Lake Champlain, 
wresting almost without an effort from the Americans Ticon- 
deroga, Fort Independence and Whitehall. The triumphant 
enemy, confident of an easy conquest, then turned to invade New 

At this critical moment the patriotic leaders of New England 
rose equal to the task before them, though they may not have 
realized the importance of the movement. First, led by Ira Allen 
and others poetically styled the "Green Mountain Boys," them- 
selves closely confronted by this daring menace, resolved to make 
an appeal to their brothers in arms in New Hampshire, many of 
whom they knew personally. In a ringing letter Ira Allen 
addressed the General Court of New Hampshire then in session, 
and which was laid before that body on the 18th of July, only 
twelve days after the surrender of Ticonderoga, in which the 
writer said, "the defenceless inhabitants on the frontier of Ver- 
mont are heartily disposed to defend their liberties — and make a 
frontier for your state with their own. . . . You will naturally 
understand that when we cease to be a frontier your state must 
take it." 

The appeal was not in vain. That sterling patriot, Speaker 
John Langdon, immediately put at "the service of the state" his 
worldly goods which guaranteed the payment of such expenses as 
an undertaking of that kind was certain to incur, closing his 
stirring speech with the prophecy : 

"We can raise a brigade, and our friend Stark, who so nobly 
sustained the honor of our arms at Bunker Hill, may be safely 
entrusted with the command, and we will check Burgoyne." 

With this pledge and prophecy New Hampshire began her 
share in the campaign which placed Bennington among the deci- 
sive battles of the world. 

Not in the history of our country is there another such a 
daring declaration as that voted by this legislative body. By its 
prompt and decisive action an independent body of troops, un- 


sanctioned by the higher court of the country, was created, and 
John Stark, self-exiled from active duty, made its commander. 
Surely a most fitting leader to such an independent command. 
There was no mustering of the men at home, but word was sent 
out for volunteers to meet at Old Number Four, now Charlestown 
to unite under Stark. There may have been magic in his name ; 
there was certainly magnetism in the call, for every man under- 
stood what it meant. The time was short and the means and 
ways of travel meagre, but hither volunteers, singly or in detach- 
ments, hastened with alacrity, until five hundred had reached the 
rendezvous. With these troops Stark went ahead to Manchester, 
Vermont, leaving orders for others to follow. That town was 
reached August 7th, where the New Hampshire volunteers were 
joined by a body of "Green Mountain Boys" under Seth Warner. 
Word was here received that Burgoyne was about to start for 
Bennington. Hence Stark moved with his characteristic prompt- 
ness so that Bennington was reached on the 9th. It is not sur- 
prising that the swiftness and energy of this rally infused new life 
and hope into the hearts of the volunteers who fairly rushed, 
some of them from long distances, to the support of their old 
leader. Burgoyne's advance was correspondingly slow. On the 
16th, before he had reached his destination, he was surprised by 
the little army of Americans at Walloomsac, where the prophecy 
of Langdon was fulfilled by the important victory known in 
history as the "Battle of Bennington," though it was really fought 
some five miles from that town. 

Says Professor Foster, in his admirable account of "Stark's 
Independent Command," "The Bennington campaign brings out 
sharply the strength and weakness of the Revolutionary era, when 
the newly born American nation was passionately devoted to the 
idea of Liberty, but had not yet learned to understand and love 
the idea of union. It was in the next generation that a son of 
one of Stark's captains* knit the two ideas together and kindled 
man's imagination with the conception of liberty and union." 

In that heroic battle for the first time the untried and un- 
trained settlers, fighting for home and liberty, won a decisive 
victory over the veteran soldiery of Europe. Burgoyne gave as 

*Danie] Webster. 


the strength of his force engaged here as one thousand and fifty, 
and as the Americans killed or captured over nine hundred, seized 
several hundred muskets and all the British cannon, "the over- 
whelming character of the victory is apparent." Its effect upon 
the morale of the American troops was greater, however, than its 
immediate physical results. It not only "checked Burgoyne" and 
saved Northern New England, but everywhere the colonists re- 
covered somewhat their lost spirits, and renewed their efforts 
with a confidence unknown before. Not the least among the ad- 
vantages coming from this victory was the national agreement 
of France to join in an alliance with the struggling American 
colonies, which to this date it had not done. Lafayette, on his 
own responsibility, had given his sword to the cause, but France 
had not the confidence in the forlorn conflict to come to the 
rescue until the Battle of Bennington convinced them of the 
inevitable result. 

While Hillsborough had twenty -odd men in the patriot army 
when the call for volunteers to join Stark was sent out, the town 
furnished nine men whose names are so recorded, and it is quite 
likely there were others. The list contains the following names : 

Solomon Andrews, William Booth, Asa Dresser, James Gib- 
son, John Gibson, John McNiel, William Pope, Samuel Preston, 
William Symonds. 

Following the victory at Bennington the spirits of the people 
buoyed up with new-found hope, a call for volunteers was made 
to reinforce that branch of the American army in New York and 
around Albany, N. Y., which was distinguished as the "Northern 
Continental Army." Though this vicinity was already well rep- 
resented, when we take into consideration those soldiers with 
Stark, at least fifteen joined the new troop from Hillsborough 
and adjoining districts. 

Hillsborough Soldiers in the Rhode Island Expedition. 

In the summer of 1778 it was planned to reinforce the 
Continental army in Rhode Island, it being expected that a power- 
ful French fleet commanded by Admiral Count D'Estaing would 
lend cooperation so as to make a successful attack upon the 
British then in control of the situation. Hence the summons for 


troops to engage in this campaign was sent through New 
England, and Hillsborough's part in the undertaking is partially 

shown by the following report of the Selectmen at that time : 

Hillsborough Agust 8, 1778 

By orders Esued from the Commitey of Safety of this State This 
May Sartify that we the Select men of Hillsborough have Dron out of 
Archrbal Taggart hand Constable for the year 1777 Eightty Pounds 
Lawfull money which we have Paid to the Volinteers which Torned out 
of this Town for the Experdishon to Proverdance or Rodisland 

Ten Pounds to John Graham 10,0,0, 

Ten Pounds to Archibel Tagart 10,0,0, 

Ten Pounds to Willm Pope 10,0,0, 

Ten Pounds to William Gammell 10,0,0, 

Ten Pounds to Alexander McCiintock 10,0,0, 

Ten Pounds to Daniel Gibson 10,0,0, 

Ten Pounds to Samuel Preston 10,0,0, 

Ten Pounds to Solomon Andrews 10,0,0, 

Samuel Bradford 1 

_,. „ , > Select men 

Ti m° Bradford f 

Unfortunately the French encountered a furious storm in 
mid-ocean which rendered such havoc that it failed to participate 
in the conflict here, and thus the campaign resulted in a complete 
failure so far as the plans had been laid. But the successes of 
the American troops elsewhere, noticeably that of Monmouth a 
little over a month before, served to keep up the spirits of the 

Additional light is shed upon the part Hillsborough played 
in the sanguinary Rhode Island expedition by the following 
scraps of records : 

Pay Roll of Captain Jonas Bowman's Company in Colonel Moses 
Kelly's Regiment of Volunteers which Regiment marched from the 
State of Xew Hampshire and joined the Continental Army Aug 1778 
On Rhode Island 

William Pope. Ensign Daniel Gibson, Private, 

Samuel Preston, Sergeant, William Gammell, do 

Archibald Taggart, Private, Alexander McCiintock, do 

Tillie How, Corporal, Solomon Andrews, do 

Robert Campbell, Private Joseph Spaulding, do 


Colonel Kelley was from that section of Manchester which then 
belonged within the territory of Goffstown. Lieutenant Bowman was 
from Henniker. 

Hiixsbobough Bounties.* 

Hillsborough August ye 8 1778 

We the Subscribers Volunteers of the Town of Hillsborough for 
the Expedition to Providence have received of the Selectmen Each of 
us Ten Pound We say received by us — 

John Graham (?) Solomon Andrews William Pope 

William Gammell Alexander McClintock Daniel Gibson 

Samuel Preston Archibald Taggart 

September 26th 1778 Reed an order on the treasurer for eighty 
pounds in behalf of the selectmen of Hillsborough 

Wm Taggart 

Campaigns of the First New Hampshire Regiment. 

As more Hillsborough men figured in the checkered fortunes 
of the First New Hampshire Regiment than in any other, it seems 
fitting that we describe somewhat briefly its part in the war. The 
original of this body of troops was formed at Cambridge by the 
Massachusetts Committee of Safety and John Stark, with the 
commission of Colonel, was placed in command. Eight hundred 
men were enlisted "from the tap of the drum." Captain James 
Reed of Keene and Captain Paul Dudley Sargent of Amherst, 
were also given commissions. Colonel Stark's high reputation as 
an officer in the French and Indian War, and having a wide 
acquaintance, he soon raised fourteen companies, while Reed and 
Sargent each raised four companies. A spirit of rivalry im- 
mediately entered into affairs, and when the New Hampshire 
assembly came to act, Stark was made commander of what was 
to be known as the First New Hampshire Regiment. 

Probably all of the Hillsborough soldiers fought under him 
at Bunker Hill, and several were with him during the summer and 
autumn of 1775 when stationed at Winter Hill. After the evacua- 
tion of Boston by the British in March, 1776, Colonel Stark was 

* Original in Pension Bureau, Washington, D. C. 


ordered with his regiment to New York, and during that summer 
participated in an expedition to Canada to the relief of Arnold. 
On the return of this army they marched to Philadelphia and 
formed a part of General Sullivan's brigade under Washington. 

This was one of the critical periods of the American army, 
which had been discouraged by ill success before the more power- 
ful forces of Howe and Cornwallis and compelled to retreat 
across New Jersey leaving that province in the hands of the 
enemy. But a greater reason for this discouragement was the 
poor pay, scanty rations and equipments. To add to the hazards 
of the trying situation the time of the enlistment of the New 
England troops, on whom Washington relied largely, had expired. 
It was natural these ill-clad, poorly fed, and unpaid soldiers 
should hesitate about remaining in an army with such an outlook. 
In this emergency Stark proved himself as efficient as in battle. 
A man of few words he graphically told them of the disastrous 
result should they leave then, and gave his pledge that every man 
should be paid. Upon being assured of this, they promised to 
stay three months longer. 

Encouraged by this action Washington resolved to cross the 
Delaware and attack the British, who believing by the current 
reports that the American army was too weak tp resume the war- 
fare, were resting in fancied security. The patriot army was 
divided into three divisions, one of which, made up mostly of New 
England troops, he was to command. The plan was to cross the 
river nine miles above Trenton on Christmas Eve, 1776, when it 
was believed the enemy would be occupied with their festivities. 
Of the three Washington's was the only division that succeeded in 
crossing the swollen stream in the teeth of the bitter December 
night. Neither rain, nor snow, nor ice could stop the men from 
New England, any more than the surprised enemies could stop 
them at Trenton where the lion's part of the battle was fought by 
Colonel Stark and his men. Washington was able to recross the 
Delaware after having won a victory that aroused the drooping 
spirits of the Americans. The victory at Trenton was followed 
by the battle of Princeton a few days later, in which New 
Hampshire men figured a leading part, and among these were the 
volunteers from Hillsborough. Sullivan, in his reports, declared 


that six hundred Yankees had won the battle, and that nothing 
could stop them. 

Immediately after the battle of Princeton Colonel Stark came 
home to recruit another regiment, a task that probably no other 
man could have accomplished. As usual he succeeded, but his 
men had hardly enlisted when Congress in appointing a Brigadier 
from New Hampshire, as it was in duty bound to do, selected — 
not Stark, whom many believed was entitled to the promotion — 
but Enoch Poor. Stark was offended by this action, and resigned 
his commission. Joseph Cilley of Nottingham was his successor 
in the command of the First regiment, and from this time on the 
men from Hillsborough served under this brave and efficient 
officer, who had served under Stark as Lieutenant Colonel. 

Prior to this Colonel Cilley, then Major and anon Lieutenant 
Colonel, had seen some arduous duty in an expedition to Canada, 
sent to rescue the fleeing army under General Thomas, which 
comprised the remnant of Montgomery's forces that went to 
assist Arnold in the unfortunate attack on Quebec. The Amer- 
ican troops sent to the assistance of the army in Canada under 
General Sullivan left New York on April 22, 1776, going up the 
Hudson River and crossing overland to Ticonderoga, thence down 
Lake Champlain to the River Sorel, and down that stream to the 
St. Lawrence until meeting General Thomas' army, the leader 
having died a few days before Sullivan's timely appearance. Then 
began one of the most memorable retreats in the history of the 
war. In addition to being harassed by the foe disease broke out 
among the troops — many dying of small pox — and the bravery 
and suffering of the men was equaled only by the skillful manner 
in which General Sullivan and his officers conducted the retreat 
to Ticonderoga. When the sorely-tried troops went into camp at 
Crown Point, Colonel Trumbutt, who took a look at them, said: 
"I did not look into a tent or hut in which I did not find either a 
death or a dying man." 

At least four men from Hillsborough participated in this 
arduous campaign, namely: John Glover, who died in the service; 
Lt. Barzilla Howe, Tinnie (Timothy) Howe, and Archibald 


Sickness generally prevailed in the American armies. Wash- 
ington's army of about 20,000 was reduced by fully one-fifth from 
sickness. This prevalence of disease was probably due in a large 
measure to the poor food and scanty raiment of the troops. 

February 22, 1777, Colonel Cilley was promoted to Command 
of the First New Hampshire, Stark's own regiment, and other 
Hillsborough men came under him. He was then at Morristown, 
N. J., with his troops, but he was soon ordered to march with his 
man to Ticonderoga, as a part of General Poor's brigade. This 
move was considered necessary as the British forces in Canada 
were even then advancing from the north by the way of Lake 
Champlain to Crown Point. This was done to try and head off 
the aim of the British to capture New England. 

Colonel Cilley was stationed with his troops on "the Old 
French Lines" in May, having tents for their abodes. Here he 
was joined by Colonels Scammell and Dearborn, with their men, 
composed largely of volunteers from southern New Hampshire. 
Here the American troops were allowed to rest and recuperate in 
this beautiful retreat for a little over a month, when the enemies 
began to make their appearance. On June 17, 1777, the second 
anniversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill, the First New Hamp- 
shire regiment, which had played such a conspicuous part in the 
former fight opened the campaign in that section, but with 
Colonel Cilley in command in place of their beloved Stark. But 
their new leader was a good officer of long experience, brave and 

The British were already mustering their forces to invade 
New England, and the First New Hampshire regiment, along 
with others, had a checkered fortune that summer, meeting the 
enemy in several lively skirmishes, now repelling the enemy, 
anon retreating. A few of the soldiers fell, but none from Hills- 
borough. A few were taken prisoners, among them Colonel 
Cilley's son, a boy of fifteen, who was serving as an aide on his 
father's staff. Another on Colonel Cilley's staff was Adjutant 
Caleb Stark, a son of the regiment's former commander. Ticon- 
deroga had to be abandoned, when Cilley's regiment marched to 
the Hudson River, along the banks of which they saw some hard 
work, though seeing no real fighting for a few days. On the 12th 


of September they marched three miles up the river, and fortified 
on high ground known as Bemis Heights, the enemy being then at 
Saratoga. Our regiment on the 19th participated in the first 
great battle with Burgoyne. 

This was one of the most hotly contested battles of the whole 
war in which Colonels Cilley, Dearborn and Scammell of the 
New Hampshire regiments, with Colonel Daniel Morgan and his 
famous regiment of riflemen, performed such valiant parts, a 
battle that was won by Arnold's valor, but against the orders of 
his superior officer, General Gates, so the hero got rebuke rather 
than praise, received the sting of resentment which rankled in 
his breast until it culminated in his ruin. 

Most of the men of Hillsborough in the service at that time 
were here, and most of Arnold's troops that he led to victory 
were from New England. 

The next move of the brigade under General Sullivan, and 
to which the First New Hampshire belonged was to Whitemarsh, 
about 13 miles from Philadelphia, and finally, on December 16, 
1777, marched to Valley Forge.* 

The Winter at Valley Forge. 

Very little fighting was done by the armies during the winter. 
The American soldiers were poorly prepared ; the British shivered 
under the bitter exactions of this rigorous climate. With plenty 
of gold to buy them the comforts of life the latter sought the 
larger places and passed the long months in riotous luxury. The 
Americans were only too glad to obtain the doubtful shelter of 
huts and camps, while on curtailed rations and in ragged attire 
they eked out a period of suffering and anxious waiting that must 
have discouraged less brave hearts. 

One of the most notable examples of wintry endurances was 
that experience by the remnant of Washington's army in the 
dismal camp at Valley Forge 1777-78. Here the soldiers lived 
in huts thatched with boughs, on a meagre supply of the coarsest 

*Valley Forge is six miles from Norristown, Penn., and is a deep, rugged 
hollow at the mouth of Valley Creek on the west bank of the Schuylkill River, 
flanked by the mountain that runs along this stream. In earlier times, an ad- 
venturous smithy had his forge here, hence the name which bears so much his- 
toric importance. On account of its seclusion, during the winter of 1777-78, the 
gloomiest period of the Revolution, Washington established his winter headquar- 
ters here, during which time he was making his futile appeals to Congress for 


food. It is said there was not a whole pair of shoes nor a decent 
suit of clothes among them. "Barefoot they tracked in blood 
through the snow for firewood and food. All were in rags, and 
many sat shivering through the whole night by the fires, for they 
could not lie on the bare ground." Some died of the hardship 
and privation; a few deserted — not many — and these came back 
in the spring. 

Valley Forge had been chosen as a resort of Washington's 
army for the winter because it was considered one of the safest 
places against an attack of the enemy, but it could here afford 
most easily protection for the Pennsylvania Legislature then sit- 
ting at York, having been driven out of Philadelphia, which was 
occupied by the British army. 1 And this was the same congress 
which had turned a deaf ear to the appeals of the commander in 
chief for relief to his men. Upon receiving a remonstrance from 
this body for daring to ask such a favor ( ?), Washington was led 
to exclaim: 

"For want of a two-days' supply of provisions, an oppor- 
tunity scarcely ever offered of taking an advantage of the enemy, 
that has not been either totally obstructed or greatly impeded. 
Men are confined in hospitals or farmers' houses for want of 
shoes. We have this day (Dec. 23) no less than 2,873 m camp 
unfit for duty because they are barefooted and otherwise naked. 
Our whole strength in continental troops amount to no more than 
8,200 men in camp fit for duty. Since the 4th instant our num- 
bers fit for duty, from hardships and exposures, have decreased 
nearly 2,000 men. Numbers are still obliged to sit all night by 
campfires to keep from freezing. Gentlemen reprobates going 
into winter quarters as much as if they thought the soldiers were 
made of sticks or stones. I can assure these gentlemen that it is 
a much easier and less distressing thing to draw remonstrances in 
a comfortable room, by a good fireside, than to occupy a cold, 
bleak hill, and sleep under frost and snow without clothes or 
blankets. From my soul I pity the men suffering these miseries 
which is neither in my power to relieve nor prevent." 

iThis retreat was reached on the 18th of December, 1777, the trail of the 

forlorn army marked, say the historians, "by the blood of their feet, as the 

battle-worn men marched barefooted over the frozen ground." Within a few 

years, a society has been formed to preserve the grounds as a memorial of that 

trying winter's experience. — Author. 


That is what General Washington said, and thus we have 
the picture of the scenes and conditions which Colonel Cilley and 
his soldiers had to endure until the warm weather of spring. On 
May 6 a great rejoicing prevailed in the camp on account of the 
news of the Alliance of France. Washington ordered all the 
prisoners to be released that were then in confinement in the Con- 
tinental Army. The whole army was drawn up in two lines and 
fired a volley, from right to left of the front, and then from left 
to right of the rear lines ; which was repeated three times. It was 
a day of great rejoicing, especially for Colonel Cilley's regiment 
whose men had suffered severely from sickness, but had now 
largely recovered. 

"In the battle of Monmouth, which followed on June 28, 
Colonel Cilley's regiment was closely engaged, and it behaved 
with such bravery that General Washington bestowed his ap- 
probation upon General Cilley and his men. 

The First New Hampshire regiment saw but little real fight- 
ing during the rest of the season. In fact, it was too much on the 
move, as it marched by various routes through New Jersey, New 
York, to Redding, Conn., where it arrived December 2, built huts 
and went into camp for the winter. The following April the 
troops marched to the highlands of the Hudson, from whence in 
May another move was made to Easton, Penn. General Sullivan 
now came into command of the western army, and the order 
came from Washington to rout the Five Nations, the Indian con- 
federacy in the Genesee valley, where the red men had made great 
strides in agriculture and established a flourishing settlement. 

This was one of the most thrilling campaigns of the entire 
war, but it is not necessary to follow it day by day. Suffice it to 
say that Colonel Cilley and his brave New Hampshire men were 
ever in the front of the expedition. When volunteers were called 
for to carry an important message through the trackless forest, 
three men from the First undertook the arduous and perilous 
work, performing it successfully. When it was thought best to 
undertake the capture of an Indian town, and all others hesitated, 
declaring it was too risky as it would have to be undertaken in 
the night, Colonel Cilley, sitting on his horse and listening im- 
patiently to the conversation with General Sullivan and his offi- 


Photograph by JIaxahan. 



cers, straightened himself in his stirrups and exclaimed in his 
forceful way : 

"General Sullivan, give me leave and I will take the town 
with my regiment alone!" 

Looking keenly at the indomitable colonel a moment, the 
commander gave the order, and Colonel Cilley's bugle call quickly 
brought his regiment into battle array. It was dusk before the 
journey was half accomplished and soon it became so dark the 
soldiers were forced to take hold of each other's hand to keep in 
line and not get separated. The expedition proved less dangerous 
than had been expected, for the Indians had learned of the close 
proximity of the white man and the majority had flown. The 
remnant of the enemies was routed .and their town burned. 

Within a few days the capital of the Five Nations, Big Tree, 
was reached, and the power of this confederacy of Indians, which 
had greatly aided the British since the beginning of the war, was 
forever crushed. The town contained one hundred and twenty- 
two houses and wigwams, while surrounding it were acres of corn 
ripening in the summer sun and great orchards laden with fruit. 
The extent of the acreage of corn will be understood when it is 
told that it took over four thousand soldiers a day and a half to 
harvest it. The order then to destroy the village so as to make 
"a desert of the place" was given, and the most of the troops 
retiring to a hilltop witnessed one of the wildest scenes in all the 
war. Mr. John Scales, in his life of Colonel Cilley says aptly : 

"Soldiers had been stationed at each house with torches. At 
the firing of a signal gun, every house was set on fire, and all 
were consumed with the contents, leaving only huge heaps of 
roasted corn. Colonel Cilley was accustomed to say in after 
years, that the sight of so many buildings on fire, the massy 
clouds oi black smoke, the curling pillars of flame bursting 
through them, formed the most awful and sublime spectacle he 
ever witnessed. 

This campaign, one of the most arduous and the most 
revengeful of the whole war, has been condemned by many writers 
and it does seem to have been hardly in keeping with civilized 
warfare ; but it must be remembered that the Indians had been ex- 
ceedingly troublesome and it doubtless required desperate meas- 


ures to stop them. Be that as it may the onset completely crushed 
the dusky nation so it never recovered from the blow. 

The triumphant avengers returned in anything like the con- 
dition of conquerors. Allowed to carry no more clothing than 
they were wearing, which consisted of a short rifle frock, vest, 
shirt, tow trousers, stockings, shoes and blanket, and marching 
nearly the whole time in the woods among thick underbrush, their 
whole suit became fearfully worn. Many of the men returned 
barefooted, and became very footsore. Thus in rags and tatters 
they arrived at the fort, having completed one of the most re- 
markable campaigns of the Revolutionary War. 

Absentees from the Army. 

A Size Roll of the Absentees Belonging to the First New 
Hampshire Regiment Commanded by Col. Joseph Cilley — 

Among many others are the names and particulars of two 
Hillsborough soldiers who, for some reason unknown, were 
among the missing at the time of the notice: 

John Taylor, Captain Emerson's company, Hillsborough, Aged 25, 
Stature 5. 10 ; complexion, dark ; color of hair, dark ; eyes, 
black; where left, not joyned. 

A Size Roll of the Absentees belonging to the 2nd Battn 
N. H. Troops Commanded by Colo. Nathan Hale, contains the 
name of one Hillsborough soldier, viz. : 

Thomas Murdough, age 20; statue, 5. 10; complexion, light; color 
of eyes, blue ; where left, H. Town ; cause of absence, missing, Note. 
Colonel Hale was at this time a prisoner of war in New York. 

Return of Muster Order. 

Hillsborough July 14, 1779. 

Pursuant to orders Rec d from your Hon. I have herewith ordered 
William Hutcheson to appear at Concord in order for passing muster 
— Beg the favor he may Return to Hillsb h a few days before he 
inarches for Rhodisland — These from your Humble Ser 

Isaac Andrews Capt 

To the Honl Thos Stickney Coll. at Concord in New Hampshire 


Hillsborough Bounties. 

'Hillsborough August ye 9 1778 

We the Subscribers Volunteers of the Town of Hilllsborough for 
the Expedition to Providence have received of the Selectman Each 
of us Ten Pounds We say received by us — 

John Graham (Grimes) (?) Alexander CVfcClintock 

William Gammell Archibald Taggart 

Samuel Preston William Pope 

Solomon Andrews Daniel Gibson 

September 26th 1778 Reed an order on the treasurer for eighty 
pounds in behalf of the selectmen of Hillsborough 

Wm Taggart 

As is usually the case, several men from Hillsborough en- 
listed from other towns, so that we find Henniker credited with 
soldiers from Hillsborough, viz. :* 

George Bemaine, Fry Andrews. 

Two soldiers from this town enlisted in Amherst in Colonel 
Cilley's regiment for a period during the war: 

John Taggart, 1777, Silas Cooledge, 1777. 

Another soldier to enter the service for another town was 
John Bixby, who was credited to Deering. 

A list of names of soldiers raised by the State of New Hamp- 
shire to fill recruit the Continental Army in 1779, contains the 
names of — 

Benjamin Dodge, enlisted July 23, 1779, for one year. 

Stephen Andrews, enlisted July 23, 1779, for one year. 

Among over 20 others who enlisted on July 5, 1779, for six 
months, was Hugh Graham, Hillsborough. 

The following soldiers from Hillsborough belonged to Cap- 
tain Clay's company, in Colonel Poor's regiment: 

Nathan Taylor, Thomas Murdough, William Pope, Ebenezer 
Sargent, Joseph Taggart. 

July 20, 1779, at a special meeting James McCalley, Joseph 
Symonds and Samuel Bradford, Jr., were chosen to secure two 
men for the Continental Army. There is no record to show the 
result of the efforts of this committee. 

*G'riginal in Pension Bureau, Washington, D. C. 


September 4, 1780, the town voted to choose a committee to 
bring the service done in the present war to an average. Then 
the matter rested until another meeting held September 21, when 
Capt. Joseph Symonds, Mr. Zebediah Johnson, Lt. John McClary, 
Lt. Samuel Bradford and Calvin Stevens were chosen to act in 
regard to the matter as follows : 

3d Voted 3d Committee be instructed to make Search for the Val- 
uation or invoices for five years past and if they cannot be found to 
take new ones for the sd five years past. 

4th Voted 3d Committee be instructed to alow the whole of those 
men who ware in the eight months service in the year one thou- 
sand seven hundred and seventy five mens time and all that have 
been in the service Since to be allowed their whole time. 

5th Voted to set the time at Eighty pounds per month. 

Upon further consideration the action on the 4th article was an- 

War Rolls. 

Among the Records of Town Returns given in the State 
Papers Vol. XVI, Revolutionary War Rolls Vol. 3, we find the 
following soldiers credited to Hillsborough : 

Stephen Andrews Nathan Taylor, r 1781, April 6 

Robt. Finne r. 1781 March 22 Thomas Kimball Negro 

Wm. Jones 1782 July 15 

In connection with the above the Pay-Roil for recruits in 
Continental regiments, 1780, contains the names of — 

Joel Jones in the service from June 30, 1760, to December 
31, 6 months and 14 days, which was allowed in full. 

Robert Finney July 1 to December 4 but amount of wages 
including expenses not given though companion soldiers are so 
credited. Recruits mustered by Maj. William Scott. 

Scattered Records. 

The following items are taken from the State Papers, edited 
by Isaac Hammond, and throw some light on the history of the 
men from this town serving in the Revolution. 


State of New Hampshire To the Selectmen of Hillsborough Dr. 

1779 July 15 Paid Hugh Graham a Soldier inlisted in Colo Mooney's 
Reg. Raised for the defence of Ehode Island and mustered 
by Colo Thomas Stickney — by receipt 

Bounty £30 Travel to Providence £15 Total £45, s. d. 
Errors excepted in behalf of the Selectmen of Hillsborough 

P James McCalley 

In Committee on Claims, Exeter April 24 1780 
The above account is right — 

Examd Per Josiah Gilman Jur 

Reed an order on the Treasurer for forty five pounds 

James McCalley 

September 22, 1730, it was voted to assess the inhabitants of 
the town to purchase beef for the American army, to the amount 
of nine thousand seven hundred and two pounds. 

December 8, 1780, 

Voted to hire men to go into the service of the United States 
and in to the service of this state by a tax on the poles and estates 
of the inhabitants of this town and the Land of the non-residents ly- 
ing in town for the future. 

State of New Hampshire To the Selectmen of Hillsborough Dr. 

1779 July 22 To Cash paid Benjamin Dodge a Soldier inlisted in the 
Continental Service for one year 

State bounty £60, s. d. 

28th To Ditto Paid Stephen Andrews do do 


In Committee of claims, Exeter 14th February — 

The above men were mustered by Colo Thomas Stickney and the 
receipts are lodged in this office — 


Reed an order on the Treasurer for one hundred and 
twenty Pounds 

James McCalley 

Copy N. Parker 


Hillsborough June 4, 1781. 

To the Hon'ble and The Secretary for the State of Newhampshire 

a Keturn of the men in the Continental armey before the year 

Stephen Andrews George Bemain Nathan Grimes 

Listed dur the war — 

a Return of the men procured agreeable to an act passed Jany 
11th 1781 

Nathan Taylor 

inlisted for three years 
Robert Finne 

Isaac Andrews 

Calvin Stevens \- Selectmen 

John Dutton 

Hillsborough May 10th 1782 — Pursuant to the act of the General 
Assembly of the State of New Hampshire passed the 21st of March 
1782 — We have now one man in the army who was hired from this 
Town by the Town of Dering for the term of three years, which Term 
has expired, one year last April, who by right is now in our servis. 
His name is Nathaniel Graham — 

one lately hired by this Town, now in the army — his Name is 
Thomas Kimball — one ingaged from this Town into the Bay Servis 
for Town of Marbelhead his Name is Daniel Richardson — one hired 
from this Town in the Bay State for the Town of Reding his name 
is Nathaniel Johnson — also George Bemaine from this Town in the 
Bay servis is by right ours for two years past 

Isaac Andrews 

John Dutton ■ Selectmen 

Arch Taggart 

To the Honl the 

Committee of Safety 

War Measures, 1780. 

September 22, 1780, it was voted to assess the inhabitants of 
the town to purchase beef for the American army to the amount 
of nine thousand, seven hundred and two pounds. 

December 8, 1780, at a special meeting it was voted "to hire 
men to go into the service of the United States and in the ser- 
vice of this state by a tax on poles and estates of the inhabitants 


of this town and the Land of the non-residents lying in town for 
the future." 

In summing up the part Hillsborough performed in the War 
for Independence the records show that this town, without a 
hint of Toryism, was patriotic to a man. From the Concord and 
Lexington fight, on that memorable April morn, when the shot 
was fired which was heard around the world, to the closing scene 
at Yorktown, over ninety men were in the service, and there were 
not many battles in which one or more did not participate. With 
but forty-three men under fifty and youths over sixteen able to 
bear arms at the time of the Battle of Bunker Hill, surely the 
record could not be better. It is probable that at some period or 
other during the long and sanguinary struggle every man bore 
arms who could. 

The records of the soldiers of the Revolution are very meagre 
and unreliable, both as to the names of the persons and the towns 
that should receive credit for their services. The following list 
with terms of service has been prepared after diligent search and 
is believed to be complete and as accurate as can be obtained. 

War Rolls. 

ANDREWS, AMMI, Lieutenant. Private in Captain Baldwin's com- 
pany, Colonel John Stark's regiment at Bunker Hill ; Lieutenant 
in Captain Henry Dearborn's company, under Colonel Arnold in 
expedition to Quebec. He must have seen nearly continuous serv- 
ice throughout the war. 

ANDREWS, AMMI, Jr. Enlisted November 21. 1776, for three years ; 
discharged November 21, 177&. He served in the First New Hamp- 
shire regiment under Colonel Cilley, and was therefore at Valley 
Forge, in the Sullivan expedition and other actions in which that 
regiment did a valiant part. He reinlisted in 1782 for during the 
war, credited to Deering. Received bounty by the town July 15, 

ANDREWS, ISAAC, Jr., Major. Served under Stark, at Bennington. 
Was in Captain Hale's company, Colonel Gerrish's regiment in 
the Northern Continental army at Saratoga, 1777. Was in Colonel 
Thomas Stickney's and Colonel David Oilman's regiments. Dis- 
charged December 31, 1782. 

ANDREWS, SOLOMON. At the age of eighteen he volunteered for 
three years or during the war in 1777, in Captain Elijah Clay's 
company, Colonel Nathan Hale's regiment. Previous to this he 
had served with Stark at Bennington. 


ANDREWS, STEPHEN. Enlisted July 8, 1779, when a youth of barely 
sixteen for three years or during the war, in Captain William 
Ellis' company, Colonel Alexander Scammell's regiment, Third 
Battalion, New Hampshire troops. Transferred December 27, 
1779, to Captain Hawkins' company, and later to Captain David 
McGregor's company. His services were credited to Weare. He 
re-inlisted for one year in Hillsborough's quota. 

ANDREWS, JERRY (?). Under this name he is credited to Hillsbor- 
ough, but his record is very obscure. His name was probably 
Jabez, and he was a brother of Stephen, and he came into the serv- 
ice during the closing years of the war.* 

ANDREWS, FRY. Credited to Henniker from Hillsborough in the 
Rhode Island Ex. in 1778. May have seen further service. 

BALDWIN, CAPT. ISAAC. This brave and efficient officer served with 
unfaltering zeal through the French and Indian wars, participat- 
ing in over twenty battles under Rogers and Stark, declares Ever- 
ett in his Life of John Stark. As has been described, immedi- 
ately upon receiving the news of the fight at Concord and Lexing- 
ton, he mustered a company of men from Hillsborough and 
adjoining towns and marched to the front. He gave his life to 
the cause he had so nobly espoused at Bunker Hill. No doubt had 
his life been spared he would have been found among the leaders 
of the Revolution. 

BEMAINE, GEORGE. Teaching the first school in Hillsborough at the 
breaking out of the war, he volunteered at once in the patriot 
army, though I do not find that he was in the battle of Bunker 
Hill. Smith and other early writers say he was killed at the bat- 
tle of White Plains in 1776. This could not have been true, for 
in 17'78 he was in the Continental army serving to the credit of 
Henniker. While filling this enlistment he was with the soldiers 
from Henniker and two others from Hillsboroughf who were in 
Capt. Daniel Wilkin's Co., that ill-starred expedition sent in the 
summer of 1776 to the relief of the unfortunate contingent of 
Americans retreating from that disastrous campaign against 
QuebecJ The Hillsborough records for 1782 claim George Be- 

*Tn an original muster roll in the Pension Bureau at Washington his name 
and that of Solomon Andros appear among the men making the company of New 
Hampshire militia, 1781, commanded by Captain Nathaniel Head, Colonel Raynolds' 
regiment. — Author. 

t John McNiel and Silas Cooledge. 

t This relief corps, after a tedious march into the valley of the St. Lawrence, 
succeeded in reaching on the 19th of May a fort called the "Cedars," where a 
portion of Colonel Bedel's regiment stopped for a few days' needed rest. An at- 
tack being threatened by the Canadians, "Colonel Bedel went to Montreal, forty- 
five miles distant, for reinforcements, leaving the fort under the command of 
Major Isaac Butterfield, who, on the 19th day of May, surrendered his force of 
about 400 men to the British and Indians, about 500 in number, undor the com- 


maine "from this town in the Bay servis is by right ours for two 
years past." An Englishman by birth he yet had an intense 
dislike for his native land, and it is safe to say he did valiant 
part for his adopted country. 

A scholar, a gentleman, a patriot, the memory of George Be- 
maine should be revered by the inhabitants of Hillsborough for all 
time and the site of the house where he taught the first school in 
town should be marked with an enduring memorial. 

BIXBY, JOHN. Marched in Col. Thomas Stickney's regiment of mili- 
tia to the relief of Ticonderoga on the alarm July 5, 1777, but 
news of the evacuation of the garrison stopped the troops after 
a march of seventy miles. On July 20. 1779, he was mustered into 
a regiment of militia completing the Continental Battalions raised 
for the defense of Rhode Island. Though living in Hillsborough 
he was credited to Deering in this campaign. He enlisted for one 
year, and Deering paid this town a bounty of sixty pounds on his 
account December 23, 1779. No doubt but Mr. Bixby saw further 

BOOTH, GEORGE. Served in old French and Indian War and in Ex. 
to Louisburg in 1745. He was blown up by explosion of a mine 
being badly burned and losing sight of one eye. He was an ar- 
dent patriot, but 1 have found no record to show he was at 
the front during the Revolution. 

BOOTH, WILLIAM. Was on the pay roll of Capt. Ebenezer Webster's 
company, the regiment having been made from the New Hamp- 
shire militia in Jul}', 1777, and joined the Northern Continental 
army at Bennington and Stillwater. He also served for a time In 
the First New Hampshire regiment. He belonged to Capt. Bald- 
win's Co., and went to Bunker Hill, but detailed to look after the 
horses so did not participate in the battle. He was noted as a 
scout and woodsman. He was one of a scouting party detailed 
by Oen. Stark to reconnoiter the enemies' position before battle 
of Bennington, and gave the signal which prompted Stark to open 

BRADFORD, ANDREW. Enlisted in 1780 under Capt. William Barron, 
and re-enlisted' in 1782, for three years or during the war. 

BRADFORD, Lieut. SAMUEL. In a petition dated January 2, 1782, he 
stated that he "engaged in the Service of the United States of 
America in Novt 1776 as Lieutenant in the Second New Hampshire 
Regiment and continued in said service until the 13th of Sept. 

mancl of Capt. George Foster. After the surrender the prisoners were treated in 
an inhuman and barbarous manner, stripped nearly naked, and some were mur- 
dered. A reinforcement of 100 men, under Major Sherburne, was captured by the 
enemy, after a desperate fight, on the day following and received the same treat- 
ment. These prisoners were transported to an island in a lake near the "Two 
Mountains," and kept there nearly naked, without shelter and with scant rations, 
for eight days, when they were released on a cartel agreed to between General 
Arnold and Captain Forster. — (Am. Archives.) 


1778." He was at that time sick and received a furlough from 
General Enoch Poore, and he did not again enter the service. 
When the regiments were re-organized he was left out on account 
of his disability. He served in Captain Clay's company, Colonel 
Hale's regiment in 1777. He came to Hillsborough from Amherst 
and removed to Antrim in his later years, where he died. 

BRADFORD, Capt. SAMUEL, Jr. This Samuel was the son of Capt. 
iSamuel Bradford who kept the first hotel, and he was a cousin 
of Lieutenant Samuel. At the organization of Captain Baldwin's 
company to march to Cambridge following the fight at Lexington, 
though only seventeen he enlisted as an orderly sergeant, perform- 
ing a creditable part in the battle of Bunker Hill, being promoted 
to ensign. He remained with the First New Hampshire under 
Stark and Cilley, throughout the war, retiring as Captain. He 
was at Ticonderoga, Trenton, White Plains, Valley Forge, in the 
Snllivan expedition, and in other memorable campaigns. He died 
in Acworth July 23, 1833. 

BROOKS. DAVID. Entered Captain Baldwin's company April 23, 1775, 
and fought under Stark at Bunker Hill. In 1777 he is credited 
to Rindge and he served for two years under Colonel Hale in Cap- 
tain Clay's company. The record of this soldier is very incom- 
plete. It is possible and quite probable that he removed to 
Rindge during the war. 

BROWN, JOHN. A youth by this name served under Captain Baldwin 
as a drummer, and is credited to Hopkinton by some authorities. 
Hardly a town in the province that did not have a soldier by this 

BURBANK, MOSES. Served in Capt. Joshua Abbott's company, Col. 
John Stark's Regiment in the summer of '75 (May 6 to Aug. 1), 
and must have been in battle of Bunker Hill. Was also in Col. 
Loammi Baldwin's Regiment, raised to reinforce Continental 
Army in New York Sept. 20, 1776. Enlisted Feb. 14, to March 31, 
1778, as Sergeant in Col. Timothy Bedel's Regiment for an expe- 
dition against Canada. Served in Rhode Island expedition in fall 
of 1778, and probably elsewhere. 

COOLEDGE, SILAS. Served in Captain Baldwin's company at Bun- 
ker Hill. Enlisted under Capt. William Harper in Col. Isaac 
Wyman's regiment to be sent to reinforce the army in Canada, in 
June, 1776.* In 1777, he enlisted in Colonel Nichols regiment of 
militia, under Cilley, for three years and served in the campaigns 
of the First New Hampshire regiment to the credit of Amherst. 

*In the same battalion as George Bemaine, also from Hillsborough, but not 
in the regiment that surrendered at the "Cedars." — Author. 


CARR, JAMES. Was 1st Lieut, in 8th Co., 2nd New Hampshire Regi- 
ment in 1775. He had served as private in the French and Indian 

CARE, ROBERT. Saw service, but have not found his record. 
CARR, THOMAS (twin of Robert). Served and was present and was 
within 50 feet of the gallows when Major Andre was executed. 

CARTER, JAMES, Sen. Served in Capt. Timothy Walker's Co., Col- 
onel Green's Reg., which marched on the alarm of April 19, 1775, 
and probably saw further service, but all before he came to 

DODGE, BENJAMIN. Lived a part of the time, if not all, in Deering. 
but enlisted July 23, 1779, in Colonel Stickney's regiment for one 
year to the credit of Hillsborough. Do not find any further rec- 

DURANT, JOHN. The only man in town to refuse to sign the Associa- 
tion Test, yet among the first to volunteer in Captain Baldwin's 
company, and he fought at Bunker Hill. October 4, 1775, was en- 
rolled in Captain Hale's company, Col. John Stark's regiment. 

DRESSER, ASA. Private. Volunteered for the campaign to Benning- 
ton July 26, 1777, and served under Stark at the battle of Ben- 
nington, to be disharged September 20, 1777. Following this he 
joined the Northern Continental Army at Bennington and served 
under Captain Ebenezer Webster, Colonel Stickney's regiment. 
Was in the service over two years and it may be longer. When 
the boundary for Windsor was fixed in 1797, he was found to be 
living within that part of Hillsborough included in the new town- 

FARRAR, ISAAC, served in the Revolution, and in the War of 1812. 
He served at one time in Capt. Chase Taylor's Company, Col. 
Thomas Stickney's Regiment, General Stark's Brigade, which 
joined the Northern Continental Army in 1777. 

FISK, ELIJAH. The family records show he served throughout the 
war in a Mass. regiment. He came to Hillsborough in 1782. 

FLINT, JACOB. Enlisted as private (afterwards promoted to Cor- 
poral) in Capt. Timothy Clement's company, Col. David Gilman's 
regiment, April 15, 1776, with six others from Hillsborough. His 
name afterwards appears in a petition for pay due him and 
others, but the record of his service is scanty. Was in Canadian 
expedition summer of 1776. 

FOSTER, EPHRAIM. Volunteered in Col. Thomas Stickney's regi- 
ment, Stark's brigade, and was in the battle of Bennington. No 
further record. 


this soldier is somewhat clouded or contradictory. As a youth 
under 16 he enlisted July 1, 1780, and served five months and 
sixteen days, under Major William Scott to the credit of Hills- 
borough. March 14, 1781, he let himself as a substitute to John 
Wilkins, as witness the following excerpts from the town records. 

Relative to Robert Finney: 

To the Honbie Sennate and hon ble house of Representatives in Grand 
Assembly Conveined for the State of New Hamp 

The Petition of the Select men of Hillsborough in the county of 
Hillsborough and other of the Inhabitants of said Town Humbly 
shews — That the Select m for s d Town in the year 1781, by the names 
of Samuel Bradford and John McColley (Signed a note of hand bearing 
date March ye 14th 1781 thereby promising to pay one John McClin- 
tock or order one hundred and ninety two Bushells of Good Merchant- 
able Indian Corn or as much money as will purchase it, at or before 
the fourteenth day of March then next with Interest till paid 
&c — That the above note was Given to the Said McClintock for the 
hire of a Certain Robert Finney who the said McClintock had procured 
to enlist into the Continatal Army said year as a man for the said 
Town of Hillsborough — That notwithstanding the Said Note was 
given to the s<* McClintock as hire for said Soldier immediately after 
his Muster Diserted and Never Joined the Army at all and your peti- 
tioners vehemently Suspect that this Disertion was advised and 
Countinanced by the s d McClintock That the Town of Hillsborough 
were so Well Satisfyed that the said McClintock was not entitled by 
either Law or Equity to the corn or money promised by the s d note 
that they universally discountinanced the paymint there of and suf- 
fered a suit to be brought against the Signers of the said Note intend- 
ing to dispute the same before the Superior Court of this State but 
by the inattention of one of the Signers to the said Note when the 
tryal came on before the inferior Court for the County of Hillsborough 
which was held at Amherst the 4th day Aug* 1782 — a Default issued, 
and Judgement entered against the Persons who Signed the said note 
for the sum of 47 16 8 d Damage and 3 13 8 d Cost of Court as ap- 
pears of Record — Both which Sums has since been paid to the said 
John McClintock by the said Town of Hillsborough notwithstanding 
the said Tinney never Served in the Army one day in Consequence of 
this Hire — 

Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray that your Honers will Or- 
der the said McClintock to return the said money he has received as 
aforesd or Order a New Legal in such a way or manner as the nature 
of the said Contract made with the s d McClintock may be enquired 
into by some Cours — 'proper to Try the same that Justice may be 



done in the premises — or in any way that shall Seem to your Excell? 
and honers — and Your Petitioners as in Duty Bound shall ever pray 

Dated at Hillsborough Octot> 20th 1785 

Isaac Andrews 

John Dutton 

W m Taggart June 1 


Andrew Bixbe 
William Parker 
Samuel Danforth 
Nehemiah "Wilkins 
William Love 
John Gibson 
Joseph Symonds 
Benj a Dutton 
Jonathan Sargent 
Daniel Rolf 
William Taggart 
John mead 
James mcCalley 
James Jones 
Perkins Andrews 
William Hutchinson 

Otis Howe 
Benja Kimball 
Daniel Killom 
John Shed 
Timothy Gray 
William Symonds 
Samuel Bradford 
David Marshall 
George Booth 
Joshua Estey 
Eliphalet Bradford 
Benj a .Gould 
Paul Cooledge 
Elijah Beard 
William Little 
Samuel Symond 

David Wright 
Jonathan Danforth 
Calvin Stevens 
John moNeall 
Solomon Andrews 
Nath 11 Symonds 
James Dutton 
Uriah Cooledge 
William Booth 
Jedidiah Preston 
John Hartwell 
Ephraim Train 
William Jones 
Isaac Andrews 
Moses Steel 


There is no record that the "General Assembly" took any 
action upon the foregoing petition, but at a legal meeting held on 
June 12, 1786, it was "voted, Joseph Symonds William Taggart 
John Bradford be a Committee to Settle with sd McClintock he 
the sd McClintock paying the one half of what he was Received 
of the town provided it be a final Settlement on account of the 
aforesaid finney." A warrant calling a town meeting to be held 
Aug. 21, 1786, contained the following article: "2ly to see if the 
town will Comply with the proposals which Mr. John McClintock 
for a settlement on acount of Robert Finne — and if not Compeyed 
with to see what method thay will take." on which article it was 
"voted to Serve the Matter Deseresena — rely with the Select- 
men." As no further reference is made to this matter it was 
probably amicably adjusted. 

GAMMELL, WILLIAM. In Rhode Island Expedition 1778 enlisting for 
3 years or during the war. and with American Army at Lake 
Champlain one winter. Private in Capt. Joseph Bowman's 


army, Col. Moses Kelley's Reg. of Vol. which marched from state 
of New Hampshire, and joined Cont. Army August, 1778, in Rhode 
Island Ex., entered Aug. 6, 1778, dis. Aug. 27. 

GIBSON', DANIEL. In Rhode Island Expedition 1778-9. 

GIBSON, JAMES. Served at Fort William and Mary, April 1, 1772, to 
April 1, 1773. At Bunker Hill in Capt. Ebenezer Webster's Com- 
pany, Col. Thomas Stiekney's Regiment, General Stark's Brigade, 
raised out of the regiment of New Hampshire Militia July, 1777, 
which company joined the Northern Continental army at Benning- 
ton and Stillwater. 

GIBSON, JOHN. Under Stark at Bennington. 

GLOVER, HENRY. There were at least two — perhaps three — soldiers 
by this name, and their records are conflicting. It is certain a 
Henry Glover lived in H. at the breaking out of the war, and he 
served in Captain John Moore's Co., Stark's Regt., at Bunker Hill 
as drummer. He was killed in this battle. A soldier by this 
name was credited to New Boston at a later date. Henry Glover's 
name does not appear in the Hillsborough records after 1776, so 
he was probably the one who was killed at Bunker Hill. A Henry 
Glover from this vicinity d. at Fishkill, N. Y., in November, 1779. 

GOULD, BENJAMIN. In the Battle of Bunker Hill and saw further 
service in the Revolution. 

GRAHAM, HUGH. Enlisted for six months July 8, 1779, in Col. 
Tliomas iStiekney's Regiment and served in the Rhode Island Ex- 

GRAHAM, JOHN. In Rhode Island Expedition 1778. Wounded. 

GRAHAM, NATHANIEL. Enlisted for 3 years or during the war in 
1776 under Captain Morrill, 1st. regiment, Nov. 7. Served in the 
campaigns commanded by General Sullivan and saw much fighting 
and hardship. May have lived in Deering, but served to the 
credit of Hillsborough. 

GRIMES, JONATHAN. Enlisted Sept. 8, 1777, for 3 years in Colonel 
Jackson's reg. Mass. vols. See Mass. Rolls, Vol. VI, Page 897. 

HAUL, JUDGE. Enlisted from Hillsborough to the credit of Amherst 
for 3 years in Col. Moses Nichol's Regiment under Col. Cilley 
from the 5th regiment of New Hampshire Militia and seems to 
have served his term. Mr. Spaulding, in his history of Amherst, 
does not credit "Judge Hall" of Hillsborough with this service 
but he does include Jude Hall of Kensington, negro, in Col. 
Richard's Regiment, Cilley commander. The name of either does 
not appear in the inventories of those years, but that is not proof 
that he did not live in Hillsborough, as he may have been a minor 
or a negro, the latter probably being the case. 


HAMLIN, EUROPE. Served with his brothers, Africa and America, 
in the Revolutionary War in his father's company. He also served 
in Capt. William Sawyer's Co. in Shay's Rebellion. All in Mass. 
service. He came to H, in 1798. 

HOITT, THOMAS. Was Ensign in Colonel Stickney's regiment, 
Stark's independent command at Bennington in July and Au- 
gust, 1777. He probably saw further service. 

HOLDEX, CAPT. ISAAC. Born in Harvard, Mass. ; was a Sergeant in 
a company of Capt. Davis which marched in the Lexington 
alarm to Cambridge. He served throughout the Revolution, but 
in the Mass. service, as he did not come to H. until after the 
close of the war. 

HOWE, LIEUT. BARZILLA. Was given commission of Second Lieu- 
tenant under Colonel Stark, November 7, 1776. 'When Stark re- 
signed and Colonel Joseph Cilley* came into command of the First 
New Hampshire regiment, he retained the same position, and 
served during the war. Lieutenant Howe seems to have been a 
brave soldier and he figured in many battles and minor engage- 
ments, among them Bunker Hill, Saratoga, Trenton, Brandy wine, 
Monmouth, Germantown, and was in the Sullivan expedition 
against the Five Nations in that arduous campaign of the summer 
of 1777. 

HOWE, BAXTER. Served in Capt. Josiah Fay's Company, Thirty-Sec- 
ond Massachusetts regiment. Was at Winter Hill, Oct. 7. 1775. 
(See Mass. Rolls Vol. VIII., Page 328.) 

HOWE, PETER. Was sergeant in Col. Thomas Stickney's Regiment, 
which marched from Hopkinton in July, 1777, and joined the 
Northern Continental Army in New York; engaged July 21, and 
discharged Sept. 26, 1777, serving two months and five days. He 
may have seen further service. 

HUTCHINSON, WILLIAM. In Arnold Expedition, which has been de- 
scribed. Probably saw further service during the war. 

JACKSON, GRIDLEY. Served during the Revolution, and at one time 
in the Northern Army, but his records are very incomplete and 
unsatisfactory, though he was on the pension rolls at the time of 
his death. It is probable that he was at the Battle of Bunker 
Hill. There is no evidence to show when he came to H. 

JONES, JOEL. A recruit in 1780. Paid off July 16, 1782, was only 
17 years of age — among soldiers mustered by Major William 
Scott in 1780. Was six-month soldier who re-enlisted at close of 

*Colonel Joseph Cilley, in command of the First New Hampshire regiment, was 
from Nottingham, and became the successor of Stark, who resigned on March 23, 
1777, receiving his promotion April 2, 1777. — Author. 


J ONES, MOSES. At Bunker Hill. Private in Capt. Isaac Baldwin's 
Co., Col. John Stark's Regiment; entered April 23, 1775; dis- 
charged Aug. 1, 1775 ; served 3 months and 16 days. In July, 1777, 
in Capt. Joshua Bayley's Co., Col. Thomas Stickney's Regiment, 
Gen. John Stark's Brigade of N. H. Militia. He marched from 
Hopkinton, July, 1777, and joined the Northern Continental Army. 

JOHNSON, NATHANIEL. Belonged to Hillsborough. Was hired by 
the town of Reading, Mass. for Bay State service. He served at 
least 3 years. See town book, 1782. 

JONES, WILLIAM. Paid off July 16, 1782; returned to credit of 
Hillsborough, July 15, 1782. 

JOHNSON, ZEBIDIAH. He was the father of Nathaniel and came 
<to Hillsborough before the Revolution and entered the service soon 
after the breaking out of the war. He was at one time sergeant 
under Capt. Joseph Parker in Col. Hale's Regiment and 1 joined the 
Northern Continental army at Ticonderoga in 1776. The name 
was sometimes spelled Johnston. He died at Concord, March 23, 
1815, aged 73 years. 

KELLOM, DANIEL. .Served in the Revolution from Wilmington, 
Mass., and afterwards settled in Hillsborough. 

KELLOCVf, THOMAS, Jr. He was a brother of Daniel and served in 
the Revolution from Wilmington, Mass., before he came to Hills- 

LITTLE, JAMBS. Tradition says he served in the Revolution to the 
credit of this town, but have not found the records to prove it. 

LITTLE, WILLIAM. This man was certainly a Revolutionary soldier, 
but it is not certain he served from H., though he was here as 
early as 1780 and possibly in 1779. He lived on the Bear Hill road 
within a short distance of the Henniker line. 

LOVE, WILLIAM. A Scotch-Irish man by birth and coming to Hills- 
borough at the outbreak of the war, there are reasons to think 
that he served in the Revolution from this town, but the writer 
has not been able to verify this statement. 

McCALLEY (McColley), JAMES. In Col. Daniel Moore's regiment of 
volunteers who marched from Lyndeborough in September, 1777, 
and joined the Northern Continental army at Saratoga on the 
Hudson River. 



McCALLEY, JOHN. Enlisted in Lieut. Col. Henry Gerrish's regiment 
that marched from Hopkinton and adjacent towns in September, 
1777, and joined the Northern Continental army at Saratoga. Six 
other Hillsborough men were in this regiment. 

McCLINTOCK, ALEXANDER. Saw service in the French and Indian 
war in 1755-1760. Enlisted in the Kevolutionary Army August 
6, 1778, and mustered out August 27th. In the Rhode Island ex- 

McCLUEE, JAMES. He was the oldest son of Robert, Sen., and served 
two or more years in the war, though it is doubtful if all of this 
service was to the credit of this town, as he removed To Acworth. 
in 1777. 

MoCLURE, ROBERT, Sen. He was born in Ireland and was among 
the first settlers of Old Number 7. Though 60 years of age at the 
time of his enlistment, he was of stalwart frame and served 
throughout the war with conspicuous valor. He served under 
Cols. John Stark and George Reid. 

MoCLURE, ROBERT, Jb. He was the son of the above. He evidently 
performed good service in the war, though his record is not as 
complete as one could wish. 

McNIEL, DANIEL. He was the son of John MoNiel, who served with 
his brother James under Col. Samuel Moore in the Louisburg ex- 
pedition in 1745. Daniel came to Hillsborough in 1771, and served 
at least two years in the army of the Revolution. He was Sec- 
ond Lieutenant in Capt. Henry Dearborn's company in 1776. It 
does not appear that he was at the battle of Bunker Hill, though 
he must have served almost continuously through the earlier 
period of the war. 

McNIEL, DANIEL, Jb. Too young to participate in the first of the 
war, he was active in its closing years, and was in the unfortu- 
nate expedition sent to the relief of that other ill-starred body of 
troops under Arnold, and he suffered the ignominy and hardships 
of the "Cedars." 

McNIEL, JOHN. Scarcely past his 18th birthday, he joined Captain 
Baldwin in the march to the front and fought in the battle of 
Bunker Hill. He was near Captain Baldwin when that officer 
fell mortally wounded. He was with Stark at Bennington, and in 
September, 1777, joined the Northern Continental army at Sar- 
atoga. He was among the victims of an officer's cowardice at the 


MEAD, JOHN. Enlisted in Capt. John Hale's company, Col. Henry 
Gerrish's regiment, N. H. Vols., which marched from Hopkinton 
and vicinity in (September, 1777, and joined the Northern Conti- 
nental army at Saratoga. Discharged October 25, after 27 days' 
service. Be-inlisted July 5, 1780, and discharged October 24, 1780. 

MONROE, THADDEUS. In Captain Hale's company, Colonel Gerrish's 
regiment which joined the Northern Continental army in Septem- 
ber, 1777. His name is given as Eowe in the returns. 

MURDOUGH, SAMUEL. Enlisted in 1777 for three years or during 
the war. Served in Capt. Benjamin Sias' company, Col. David 
Oilman's regiment, which belonged to the Northern Continental 
army in New York. 

MUEDOUGH, THOMAS. Enlisted for three years or during the war 
in the 4th regiment, 3rd battalion, in 1777. He was reported 
absent from his regiment in the fall return of 1778. His com- 
mander, Colonel Hale, was at that time a prisoner of war in 
New York, and it is possible he shared a similar fate. Later rec- 
ords speak of his absence from the ranks. At another time he is 
reported as belonging to Captain Clay's company, Colonel Poor's 

PIEECE, BENJAMIN. Though not at the time a resident of the town, 
owing to the fact that he came to Hillsborough at the close of 
his ten years of service in the American army and became so im- 
portant a factor in its history, it seems eminently fitting he should 
be included in this list. [See sketch.] Associated with so many 
of his fellow patriots, as he was, in this town, "On the 26th of De- 
cember, 1825, it being his sixty-seventh birthday, Gen. Benjamin 
Pierce prepared a festival for his comrades in arms, the survivors 
of the Eevolution; twenty-two of them all inhabitants of Hills- 
boro', assembled at his house. The ages of these veterans ranged 
from fifty-nine up to the patriarchal venerableness of nearly 
ninety. They spent the day in festivity, in calling up remi- 
niscences of the great men whom they had known, and the great 
deeds they had helped to do, and in reviving the old sentiments 
of the era of seventy-six. At nightfall, after a manly and pa- 
thetic farewell from their host, they separated, 'prepared,' as 
the old general expressed it, 'at the first tap of the shrouded drum, 
to move and join their beloved Washington and the rest of their 
comrades who fought and bled at their side.' " 


Fortunately the names of those who were present on this noted 
occasion have been preserved, and are as follows : 

Name. Birthplace. 

Ammi Andrews,* Ispwich, Mass. 

John McColley,* Hillsborough, N. H. - 

James Taggart,f Londonderry, N. H. 

William Johnson,f Billerica, Mass. 

William Gammell,f Boston, Mass. 

James Carr,t Litchfield, N. H. 

William Taggart, Merrimack, N. H. 

William Parker, 'Chelmsford, Mass. 

Thaddeus Monroe,f Billerica, Mass. 

Thaddeus Goodwin,t Leominister, Mass. 
Nathaniel Parmenter,f Spencer, Mass. 

William Dickey.f Londonderry, N. H. 

Daniel Russell, Andover, Mass. 

John Shedd.t Dunstable, N. H. 

Isaac Andrews,f Ispwich, Mass. 

Daniel Killam, Wilmington, Mass. 

Robert Carr, Litchfield, N. H. 

Zachariah Robbins,t Westford, Mass. 

Benjamin Pierce.f Chelmsford, Mass. 

David Livermore, Sudbury, Mass. 

Samuel Morrill, Derryfield, now Manchester, N. H. 59 

Nathaniel Johnston, Andover, Mass. 

POPE, WILLIAM. From the returns given in Hammond's Revolu- 
tionary War Rolls, we glean the following facts of the service 
of this soldier: 

Vol. I, Lieut, of Commissioned Officers in Col. Thomas 
Stickney's Reg., Mar. 5, 177'6, p. 161 ; Continental sol- 
dier enlisted for 3 yrs, or during the war in Col. Stick- 
ney's Reg., p. 568 on muster roll of Capt. Elijah Clay's Co., 
in Col. Nathan Hale's Reg. in 1777, p. 633. 

Vol. II, Ensign in an account of rations due the offi- 
cers in Col. Stickney's Reg., Gen. Stark's Brigade, p. 163 ; 
Ensign on the pay roll of Capt. Ebenezer Webster's Co. in 
Col. Stickney's Reg. July, 1777, p. 164 ; Ensign on the pay 
roll of Capt. James Barman's Co. in Col. Moses Kelly's 
Reg. Aug. 8, 1778, p. 516 ; on list of soldiers in Capt. Clay's 
Co., Col. Poor's Reg. Mar. 12, 1778, p. 610 ; Priv. in 6th Co. 
in Reg. commanded by Col. George Reid in the yrs. 1777, 
1778, 1779, p. 723. 

Vol. IV, on list of subscriptions Vols, who recovered 
their bounty from the Selectmen of Hillsborough, p. 259. 

89 Years 



81 ' 




































SQ < 


*Served i*i French and Indian War. 
fWas in Battle of Bunker Hill. 


PRESTON, SAMUEL. In Rhode Island Expedition and at Bennington. 

RICHARDSON, DANIEL. Served for Marblehead, Mass., in the Bay 
State Service. 

ROLF, JESSE. Served in Capt. Benjamin Emery's company, Colonel 
Baldwin's regiment raised to reinforce the Continental Army at 
New York September 20, 1776. 

BOBBINS, PETER. The pay roll of Capt. James Ford, in Col. Moses 
Nichols' regiment, Stark's brigade, contains his name enlisted 
July 20, 1777, and discharged September 18, nine days allowed for 
travel home. This soldier doubtless saw further service. His 
sons, Curtice and Lyman, were in the War of 1812 at Portsmouth. 

SARGENT, EBENEZER. Mustered in for three years or during the 
war December 17, 1777, in Captain Clay's company, under Colonel 
Poor; December 17, he was assigned to Captain Clough, Colonel 
Cilley's regiment in Sullivan's command. Again, in 1780, he was 
transferred to Colonel George Reid's regiment, so he must have 
seen continuous service during most, if not all, of the war. 

SARGENT, JONATHAN. Served in R. I. expedition. Enlisted July 1, 
1777, in Capt. Simon Marston's Co., Col. Joseph Senter's Reg.; dis- 
charged Jan. 7, 1778 ; served 6 months 7 days. 

SARGENT, SAMUEL. He was a private in Capt. John Parker's Co., 
Col. Timothy Bedell's Keg. raised by N. H. and joined to the 
Northern Division Cont. Army under General Montgomery, 1775. 
Was with troops sent to succor Arnold at Quebec, and discharged 
Dec. 31, or immediately after the disaster of that campaign. Fol- 
lowing the sad experiences of the Canadian campaigns, not the 
least of which was the surrender at the Cedars in 1776, under the 
urgent appeals of Ethan Allen, a battalion was re-enlisted from 
Col. Bedell's men whose term expired Dec. 31, 1775, and Sergt. 
Samuel Sargent was among 53 men who joined from Col. Bedell's 
Reg. and he remained with them until May, 1776. The battalion 
formed a portion of that sturdy band of troops which became 
widely known as the Green Mountain Boys. Samuel Sargent 
ranking then as 1st Lieut, belonged to Captain Estabrook's Co. 
and was among the troops which surrendered at the Cedars May 
21, 1776. He saw further service during the war. 

SHEDD, JOHN, Jr. Served in Capt. Joseph Pettingill's company un- 
der Col. Loammi Baldwin. 

SIMOND (SYMOND) SAMUEL. In Captain Baldwin's company, 
Stark's regiment at Bunker Hill, as per pay roll of August 1, 
1775. On roll of Captain Hale's company October 4, and Capt. 
Timothy Clement's Co., Apr. 15, '76. Was in the Canadian expedi- 


SIMONDS (Symonds) WILLIAM, in Capt. Ebenezer Webster's Co., 
Col. Thomas Stickney's regiment, July 5, 1777, marched to relief 
of garrison at Ticonderoga 70 miles, when news of the evacuation 
reached them. (Three others from Hillsborough were in this 
expedition.) Was 1st Lieutenant in Capt. William Humphrey's 
Co. in the Northern Army. 

SYMONDS, NATHANIEL, son of Deacon Joseph. In Battle of Bun- 
ker Hill. 

SPAULDING, SAMUEL. In Col. Mooney's reg. for defence of R. I. in 
'78 to credit of Deering which town paid 42 £ for said service. 
Paid July 22 & 28, 1779. 

STEELE, MOSES, in Capt. Timothy Clement's Company July 1776, and 
saw further service. 

STEVENS, CALVIN— Was at battle of Bunker Hill and served other- 
wise in war, though his name does not appear in the Revolu- 
tionary War rolls as published in the State Papers. He came to 
Hillsborough in 1776 and besides his service in the army he was 
very active at home. 

TAGGART, ARCHIBALD. In Rhode Island ex. 1778. Entered Capt. 
Clay's company, Col. Hale's regiment for 3 years, Sept. 20, 1777. 
Was ensign. Was paid off and discharged Oct. 25, following. He 
was ensign in Lt. Col. Henry Gerrish's regiment. Capt. John Hale 
of Hopkinton, which marched from Hopkinton and adjacent towns 
in Sept., 1777, to join the Northern Continental Army at Sar- 

TAGGART, CORP, JAMES. Was at Bunker Hill ; under Captain Dear- 
born in Arnold expedition ; remained in the army during the war. 
Was made Second Lieutenant but resigned August 25, 1778. Was 
at Valley Forge. 

TAGGART, JOHN. Served in Captain Wait's company under Colonel 
Cilley, and was in the Sullivan expedition. Rem. to Maine. 

TAGGART, JOSEPH. In Capt. Timothy Cleveland's company, Col. 
Pierce Long at Portsmouth from February 3, 1776, to December 7, 
1776. Enlisted in Fourth regiment, Third battalion in April, 1777, 
for three years or during the war. 

TAGGART, ROBERT. Served in the French and Indian war and was 
at Bunker Hill under Baldwin. 

TAGGART, WILLIAM. Enlisted in Captain Clay's company under 
Colonel Hale. Was made Ensign. 


TAYLOR, JOHN. Enlisted in Captain Emerson's company under Col- 
onel Cilley, but was reported absent, reason not given. He was 
described as dark complexion, dark hair, black eyes, five feet 
ten inches, 25 years old. Served also as private in Mass. Reg. 
(See Mass. Rolls, Vol. XV, page 374.) 

TAYLOR, NATHANIEL. Enlisted November 7, 1776, for during the 
war in Colonel Stickney's regiment, but was transferred in 1777 
to Colonel Hale's regiment, Third battalion of the Continental 
army. Returned April 6, 1781. 

TAYLOR, WILLIAM. At Bunker Hill and in Arnold expedition. 

TOWNE, ARCHELAUS, Jr. He served in the Revolution to the credit 
of Amherst before coming to H. in 1787. His father died in the 
service at Fishkill, N. Y., Nov. 5, 1779. He acted as a scout and 
saw much active duty. 

WHEELER, OLIVER. Enlisted in the 4th Hampshire Co.; served in 
Continental army for term of three months agreeable to order of 
General Court of June 22, 1780i, as returned by Col. Elisha Porter, 
Capt, Hooker's Co. 

WILKINS, ANDREW 7 . Entered the army under Captain Baldwin, 
April 23, 1775, and served until Aug. 1, 3 months and 16 days, par- 
ticipating in the battle of Bunker Hill. Records are not clear 
after that date relative to this soldier. 

WILKINS, ASAPH. Served to the credit of Amherst in Scammel's 
Regiment, Prye's Company, for 3 years. Name appears on the rec- 
ords as Asa. 

came to H. when a young man and was better known as "Bob 
Wilkes." He served throughout the war to the credit of Amherst 
first and then H. He became known to Lafayette and a strong 
friendship existed between them. 

WINCHESTER, SAMUEL, family records show, fought at the Battle 
of Bunker Hill, and may have seen further service. He died in 
Dan vers, Mass., aged 101 years. Elias Cheney, son of Dea. Tris- 
tram Cheney, married 2d Deborah, b. in 1777, in Hillsborough, dau. 
of Samuel Winchester, but have been unable to ascertain how 
much later he lived in this town. Deborah's marriage took place 
about 1797, and her residence is recorded as Hillsborough. 

WYtMAN, STEPHEN. Marched from Deering to Acworth to the as- 
sistance of Ticonderoga, July 1, 1777 ; returned the 3rd day, same 
month, word having been received that the fort had capitulated. 
He was in the muster roll of Capt. Ninian Aiken's Company, Col. 
Daniel Moore's Regiment. He lived in territory that eventually 
was included in Windsor. 

war rolls — concluded. 1 5 1 

Revolutionary Pensioners. 

The following Revolutionary pensioners were living in Hills- 
borough June I, 1840: 

William Dickey, age 85 years ; David Livermore, age 78 
years; Mary Gould, living with George Gould, age 79 years; 
Martha Mann, 79; Thomas Kellom, 80; Daniel Kellom, 84;! 
Nathaniel Parmenter, 85 ; Isaac Farrar, 79 ; Thaddeus Goodwin, 
87; Isaac Andrews, 84; William Parker, 84; Daniel Russell, age 
not given ; Abigail Robbins, living with Charles D. Robbins ; Lucy 
McNiel, living with Solomon McNiel. 

Reconstruction Period. 

Surrender of Cornwallis — End of the Revolutionary War — A Day of 
Rejoicing — The Hardships That Followed War — The Matter of 
Money — When Grain Was Legal Tender — Depreciation of Currency 
— Great Suffering — An Open Rebellion Suppressed — Taxes of Non- 
Residents — Bridge Across the Contoocook River — When Silver Coin 
Was a Boon — "Old" and "New" Tenor English Terms for Money — 
Tax List 1782 — Land Titles — Drawing Town Lots — Change in 
Date of Town Meetings — First Name With a Middle Letter — 
Signing of Constitution— "Bob" Wilkins— State Militia of 1792— 
Hillsborough's Allotment — The Condition of a Country Town — 
The Social Attractions — Wild Animals — 'Wolves — Moose — Wild 
Turkies — Bear Stories — Signs and Portents — Capt. Bowman's 
Warning — Witchcraft — Aunt Jenny's Power Over the People — 
Heads of Families, 1790— Valuation of Hillsborough, 1795— Out of 
the Old Into the New. 

The surrender of Lord Cornwallis in command of the 
British forces established at Yorktown, Va., nearly three months 
before, on October 19, 1781, virtually closed the War for Amer- 
ican Independence. In this battle the French combined with the 
colonists under Washington to bring about this happy ending of 
nearly seven years of warfare. So slowly did the news travel 
in those days that it was nearly a week before the glad tidings 
reached our remote hamlet on the hills. Great rejoicings followed 
and men, women and children joined in the festivities of a 
holiday, the first they had known for a long, long time. Nor did 
it really seem possible that the arch enemy of liberty had been 
overcome and the united colonies were free. The older and wiser 
ones even now shook their heads, for past experiences had shown 
and forecasts of the future admonished them that trials and hard- 
ships still threatened them, if not with powder and bullet with the 
hardships that inevitably follow in the wake of war during the 
reconstruction period. 

Happily Hillsborough had been free of that element de- 
signated as "Tories" all through the struggle. This, to the stu- 



dent of the trying scenes, was somewhat remarkable. At this late 
day we can view dispassionately the influences of that period and 
its outcome, fraught with so much of passion and recklessness. 
It is probably true that no war of such great and lasting results 
was ever fought out under more adverse circumstances or with 
less actual previous preparation or unification of forces or con- 
centration upon leadership. In reality it was a war where and 
when a minority won against not only superior numbers but 
against the wealth of the country. It was natural the men of 
property should be loyal to that government which had stood by 
them in the days of aggression by a foe that never slept, even if 
that government pressed upon them unreasonably. 

The rebellion was poorly conceived and weakly conducted, 
but sprang from the hearts of men who would not brook tyranny, 
the men who were the sons of fathers who had fled from an 
overbearing king to the wilderness of America, not only to wor- 
ship "according to the dictates of their own will," but incidentally 
to set up a form of government the peer of all governments and 
the moulding power of progressive civilization which has outlived 
monarchies and proven that a government of the people by the 
people is the only executive and legislative union that approaches 
perfection and perpetuation. And yet, had a ballot been taken at 
the time of the uprising it is more than likely that the war would 
have been voted down, and if not abandoned been delayed for 
many years — probably forever. For the good of humanity it may 
have been better as it were. Let that be as it may it came and 
passed like a winter storm in the march of time, while we of to- 
day have only a vague conception of the hatred and bitterness 
that was associated with the mere utterance of those antagonistic 
terms "Tory" and "Rebel !" 

Usually the peace that follows war has its burdens that weigh 
heavily for sometime, but it is seldom a victorious force comes 
out the furnace of fate with more serious handicap than the 
irregular chain of colonies stretched along the Atlantic coast from 
New Hampshire to Georgia. A union existed only in name, and 
it was not until 1789 that a sufficient number of this league of 
states had signed the constitution of this new government and 
placed it among the nations of the world — a Republican experi- 


ment. New Hampshire has the honor of casting the vote which 
confirmed the constitution, thus becoming the ninth star in the 
grand galaxy of that banner which has since been augmented to 
forty-eight stars. Professor Fiske very aptly designated this as 
"the critical period of the American republic, which the wisest 
statesmen of the Old World predicted could not long endure." 

All through the trying period of more than twenty years' 
duration, beginning in the early stages of the war, the matter of 
money as an exchange for such commodities as were needed was 
a serious problem. During the war the circulating medium had 
been Continental paper money issued by congress or the bills of 
credit by the state. With no stable government behind it, or 
assured promise of redemption this currency soon began to 
depreciate. To make matters worse, as if value depended on 
quantity, both state and congress issued this apology for "value 
received" in such extravagant amounts that even its commonness 
detracted from its face value. So rapidly was this depreciation 
that in 1777 the wages of the soldiers in the army was nominally 
double what they were two years before. 

Under this threatening situation the New Hampshire legisla- 
ture in the spring of 1777 endeavored to establish the prices of 
the common articles of everyday consumption. Among the prices 
named were the following : 

s. d. 

Wheat per bushel 7, 6. Wool per lb. 

Indian Corn " 3, 6. Cotton " " 

Oats " 2, Beef " " 

Beans " 6, Flannel per yard 

Butter per lb. 0, 10 Molasses per gal. 

Cheese " " 0, & N. E. Rum" " 3, 10 

Within a year Washington was writing "Our affairs are in a 
more distressed, ruinous and deplorable condition than they have 
been since the commencement of the war." Soon after, as if in 
desperation, Congress issued one hundred and thirty-one million 
dollars in Continental bills. The very volume of this vast output 
— for that day — defeated its own aims. Again Washington 
wrote, this time to the President of Congress: "A wagon load of 
money will not purchase a wagon load of provision." 












The depreciation in the currency continued to increase, so 
during the year 1779, the purchasing power of a dollar shrunk 
five-fold; in other words, at the end of the year it required five 
dollars to purchase as much as one dollar twelve months before. 
Naturally this condition discounted the credit of the country, so 
it came out of the war without a bank, without "hard money," 
without credit. It is readily understood that money which could 
not be redeemed was very unstable currency. 

The Historian of Newbury, Vermont, says very truthfully: 
"There was great distress in all parts of the country. Many 
became impoverished by the war ; many left their native towns 
hoping to improve their conditions elsewhere. A few seized upon 
the opportunity to acquire wealth. Taxes were excessively high, 
and those who were so unfortunate as to own wild land, that in 
a few years might be valuable, could not sell then for little more 
than to pay the taxes imposed upon it. Many who owned farms 
were forced to sell them to men with more means than they. So 
many became large land-owners during that period, while a cor- 
responding number came out of the financial ordeal with smaller 
homesteads or none at all." 

So oppressive was the situation upon the common people — 
and the great majority were in that class in those days — that the 
feeling against those in power became intensely bitter, a bitter- 
ness that finally found expression in open rebellion in certain 
sections of the state, so that a civil war seemed eminent. In this 
dilemma Colonel Reid, living in Londonderry which was the 
scene of much of this uprising, was made Bridgadier General and 
ordered to suppress the rebellion by arms if necessary. General 
Reid proved equal to the occasion, and quiet was quickly restored 
though the suffering was not mitigated. 

Still the paper money in circulation continued to grow less 
and less valuable, until January 1, 1780, it required twenty 
paper dollars to equal one in silver, and within nine months this 
ratio had reached the startling comparison of 72 to 1. Money 
is usually plenty when it is depreciated in value, and there was 
enough of it, but this very abundance, as paradoxical as it may 
seem, proved the ruin of many men. 


The little silver in circulation it must be remembered was not 
coined in this country, which did not issue silver until 1792, all 
bore a foreign imprint. It is interesting to note that in a sum of 
money of only one hundred pounds sterling five nations were 
represented. To add to the hardships of a depreciated currency 
a considerable amount of counterfeit coin was thrust upon the 
people. More simple in design than the currency of to-day it was 
much easier to imitate. Hillsborough was comparatively free 
from this evil at that time, though in more recent years, as will 
be described, it had its share of this kind of trouble. 

In this state of uncertain monetary value something had to 
be accepted as a standard, and one of the most commonly accepted 
units was that staple product in those days, a bushel of wheat. 
There was a steady demand for it and it varied but slightly in 
price from year to year. So it became, among the agricultural 
class, the standard by which values were computed. It went to 
pay the taxes ; upon it was regulated the salary of the minister, 
and the wages of the laborer. Thus in those days, the hillsides 
and meadows of the pioneer farmers contributed not only to the 
wealth of the grower in abundance, but they regulated the prices 
of the day. 

Never an easy fee to collect it became no easy matter to 
secure the taxes from the citizens of the town, even though under 
the great stress of the situation money was not always exacted, 
as witness the following quoted from a warrant issued to 
Alexander McClintock in the year 1782, which, after certain con- 
ditions which need not be repeated, goes on to say: "the said 
money must be paid in the following manner, viz.) in silver or 
gold, the Treasurers sertificates for intrist Due on Publick 
Securitys orders on the Treasurer Drawn by the President of the 
Counsel — in favor officers and soldiers in the three and six 
months servis, or in like orders in favour of any town parish 
bountys to soldiers or supplies to their families up to the last of 
the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy nine or in the 
following specific articles — viz — Good new England Rum at two 
shillings pr Gallon. Beef Cattle at the first peread at three pence 
half penny pr pound weight, the second period, at three pence 
pr pound, the third and Last period two pence half pence — pr — 
pound. Mens Neat Leather shoes a Good Quality six shillings 


pr pare, mens yarn Stockings of the best quality five shillings 
pr pair, others in proportion. Cotton and Cotton and Linen 
Cloath, seven eights of a yard wide of the best quality two 
shillings pr yard — Good yard wide tow and Linen Cloath at one 
shilling and six pence pr Yard." After specifying several other 
lines of goods the order ends by saying that the commodities shall 
be delivered. 

Considerable trouble was caused through the collection of 
taxes from non-resident land-holders, of whom Hillsborough 
seemed to have more than her share. 

Petition fob Authority to Tax Non-Residents, 1780. 

(State of New Hampshire 
To the Honourable the Council and Assembly of Sd State in general 
Court Conveaned 

May it Please your Honors we the Subscribers freeholders in the 
town of Hillsborough in S d State Beg Leave to Petitions that whereas 
the Late John Hill Esq r Boston who was Sole Proprietor in this town 
Did Before the Commencement of the present war Promise to give 
one hundred Acres of Land towards Buildings a Bridge over the Con- 
necticut River So Called in this town which Bridge we should have 
Built foore or five years a goe had it not Ben for this unhappy War 
but at Last we have Compleated s<J Bredg and the Shairs of the s d 
Jho n Hill Est Have Ben Solisted to Make good their fathers Promises, 
but refuses we therefore humbly petition that yoore Honnours would 
order a tax to be Levied on the Non Risidents Land lying in town to 
dyfree the Charges of building s d Bridge as we Labour under heavy 
Burdens in town and s d Bridge will be of grate Sarvis not ondly 
to this town but also to the Publick as s d Bridge cost us two thousand 
three hundred and three poond as Money was Last October and if 
yoore honours shall in yoore wisdom Se fit to grant this, our Petition 
we as duty Bound Shall ever Pray 

Hillisborough the Eighth Day of May Anoq Dod 1761 

Samuel Bradford jur Zebediah Johnson Jacob flint 

wm taggart archibald taggart Joseph taggart 

Calven Stevens George Willy Samu 1 Bradford 

David wright Isaac Andrews william Pope 

Nathaniel Haywood Sam 1 Jones James Jones 

James Dutton Isaac Andrews Jun William Jones 

Benim Jones John Dutton Benjamin Dutton 

thadeus monroe John Shedd Nemiah wilkins 



John Mead 
Lot Jennison 
Jesse Rolf 
Jonathen Durant 
Joshua Easty 
James taggart 
Joseph Symonds 
Daniel Gibson 
John m<Calley 
Andrew Bixby 
Alexander m°Clintock 

timothy Bradford 
Daneeil Eolf 
William Booth 
Andrew Wilkins 
Benjmin Kimball 
William Gammett 
Samuel Symonds 
tristram Cheney 
Willial Hutchinson 
John mcClary 
John moClintock 

William Grout 
Smith Robertson 
Jonathan Sargant 
George Booth 
william taggart Jun r 
Nathanell Colledge 
Robert Taggard 
John Cheney 
John Gibson 
Wm Jones Junr 
Fortunatus Wheeler 

In 1782 it took one hundred dollars in paper money to get 
the value of one dollar in silver. As an illustration the price of 
a meal of pork and potatoes was fifty dollars. The Rev. Mr. 
Barnes' salary was only sufficient to pay for a pig and not a very 
large one at that. We are glad to note that the town made up 
for this deficiency. Rye sold at $75.00 a bushel. Eventually, as 
the country proved that it could meet even this trying ordeal, 
loans from Europe introduced silver in greater volume. Then 
the government began to coin money under its own seal and paper 
currency ceased to circulate. While this kind of money had af- 
forded uncertain relief when it was a last resort, it swiftly fol- 
lowed a downward course, leaving $200,000,000 loss in its wake, 
and then passed out of sight if not memory. 

"Old Tenor" and "New Tenor." 

Frequently in the old records and histories we find such 
terms as "Old Tenor," "Middle Tenor," "New Tenor,"' "Ster- 
ling," "Lawful Money," "Continental Money," and "Bills of 
Credit." A brief explanation of these expressions may interest 
some. The first mentioned was paper issued by Massachusetts 
about 1737, and by Rhode Island in 1740. In 1741 Massachusetts 
put out what became known as "New Tenor," to distinguish it 
from the first, now called "Old Tenor." Between these two was 
issued what was later denominated as "Middle" issue. As these 
became depreciated in purchasing value finally money was issued 
which law stated was a legal tender for debts and dues, hence 
the term "Lawful money." The effort of Congress to bridge the 
financial stream during the Revolution by issuing "Continental" 

TAX LIST, I782. 


money has been spoken of, and when we realize how rapidly and 
completely it lost its value we can appreciated the oft-quoted ex- 
pression of a sometime since "Not worth a continental!" The 
term "sterling" belonged to the English system of fixing standard 
weight and fineness so that it was always worth its face value. 
The terms belonging in the English currency, pounds, shillings 
and pence, continued to be used in this country, more or less, 
until about 1850, though our decimal designations of dollars and 
cents was inaugurated soon after the close of the Revolutionary 
War. Even to-day we occasionally hear such expressions as 
"four pence ha' penny," which was six and one-half cents ; "nine 
pence," meaning twelve and one-half cents ; or "nine shillings," or 
one dollar and a half. 

Tax List, 1782. 
The growth of the town in population and change in the 
names of its inhabitants is shown by a comparison of the tax lists 
for 1776 and 1782, following the close of the Revolution. 







Isaac Andrews 




George Bishop 




Joseph Symonds 




Nehemiah Wilkins 




Samuel Bradford 




Timothy Wilkins 



Otis How 




Smith Bobeson 


Mary Bradford 




Calvin Stevens 



William Jones 



Elephelet Bradford 


Benjamin Jones 



Jacob Flint 


Daniel McNeal 




David Blanchard 




George Wiley 




Isaac Andrews, Jr. 



Daniel Bolf 




Solomon Andrews 



William Booth 




Nathaniel Colledge 




Jonathan Sargent 



Lot Jenison 




David Wright 



William Grout 




Joshua Estey 


Timothy Bradford 




David Clark 


Joseph Garcy 



Jedidiah Preston 




Thadeus ISFRow 




John Glin 


Olever Wheler 




Samuel Bradford, Jr. 



John Hartwell 



William Taggart 



Nathaniel Hawood 




James Taggart 




John Mead 



Archabld Taggart 




John McC alley 




Benjamin Dutton 



Thomas Millor 



John Dutton 


James Dutton 



Andrew Wilkins 




Samuel Symonds 



William Gammel 



Asa Barns 





Daniel Killom 



Siles Colledge 



Timothy Gray- 



Joseph Taggart 



Thomas Murdough, Jr 


Zebediah Johnson 




Jese Kolf 


John McNeal 



Jonathan Danforth 



John McClintock 




John Nichols 




Alexander McClintock 

: 1 



Joseph Nichols 



Samuel Jones 




Benjamin Kimbol 



William Jones, Jr. 




Ephram Train 


James Jones 




paul Colledge 



fortenatus Wheler 



Lemuel Jones 


Thomas Murdough 




Tristram Chaney 


Samuel Murdough 



Equillea Wilkins 



John McClarey 




Daniel Bacon 


Samuel preston 



WiDiam Pope 



Thomas Town 



Ammi Andrews 




Thomas Stickney 



Andrew Bixbe 




Samuel Stuart 



William Love 




James McCalley 



John Gibson 



Thomas Kenn 



John Shed 


James Kerr 



William parker 


Menasa Stow 



Daniel Gibson 



David Green 



William Hutcheson 



James alld 




Moses Steel 



Kimbol & Willson 



William Taggart, Jr. 



The inhabitance total 131 




Valuation N 

. Eesidents. 







William Hill 




John Hill 




Widow (March 




Garven Brown 




Sarson Belcher 




Joshua Hinshaw 




James Bodwin 




Widow More 



John ford 



Joshua Jones 



Widow Luis 
Josiah Stow 



Tufton & Mason Land 
Lord proprietors 




Ebenezer flint 



Daniel M. Miler 



William Walton 



Heirs of Josiah Colledge 



Thomas Killom 



paul D. Sergent 



Heirs of John Carson 



Peabody & Choat 



Coll n Huntington 




Jeremiah Green 






Rachel Johnson 




Jonathan putnam 



John perkins 



Graves & Upton 


Mr Clark 



Widow Gray 



Kimbel & Wilson 



Widow Nick 



Majer Riley 



John Chaney 









Heirs of Abr m Coughrin 



David (M-Clarey 



N Eesidents Total 





While Col. John Hill had dealt squarely and fairly with the 
residents of the town, making sacrifices that all might have good 
titles to their land, there was from the first an uncertainty in the 
situation that gave not a little uneasiness to the inhabitants. The 
Mason heirs had quitclaimed their interest in the Hillsborough 
grant, yet there stalked in the background the shadow of the 
Allen Proprietors, as a certain body of men was known and who 
were the heirs of the late Gov. Samuel Allen, and who had been 
vested with far-reaching rights of territory in his days. These 
gentlemen laid claim to a large portion of the unappropriated 
lands in the Masonian grant. The people in this vicinity were 
greatly excited and committees were chosen to investigate and 
consider the best course to pursue. Accordingly the citizens 
appealed to the General Court for assistance, as witness the 
following : 

Relative to Drawing Town Lots, 1784. 

State of New Hampshire 
To the honorable the Council & House of Representatives now sitting 
at Portsmouth within & for the said state of New Hampshire 
Humbly Shew the Subscribers that at the time of settleing the 
town of Hillsborough in the County of Hillsborough & State aforesaid 
many of your petitioners received Deeds from John Hill Late of Bos- 
ton in the County of Suffolk & Commonwealth of Mass a Esq r Deeesd 
of Lots of in the first Division insaid town & after settleing the Lots 
in the first Division, Drew by virtue of said Deeds which also con- 
veyed them an undivided Share in the residue of said Town other Lots 
in the Second Division annexed to their first Number, & that those 
of your petition who did not purchase from said Hill purchased from 
others who held under him as before as afors d That on the Severance 
of the Second Division as afores d a plan was made of said Division, & 
Entries made by said Hill of the Numbers Drawn to each original 
Lot & the persons Interested Entered into the same have cultivated 
improved & they & those who purchased from them have held and 
possessed the same severally to this Day agreably to the Division 
plans & Drawing afores d that the said Hill at the time possessed him- 
self of the plan & minutes afores d & held the same time in his posses- 
sion untill his Death & from his Decease the same have come to the 
hands & possession of his heirs & Executors who have Suppressed the 
same & now claims the Lands against your petitioner who have 
nothing but oral Testimony to prove the Severance aforesaid or to 
Secure to them the fruits of their Labor for many years past expended 
upon their several possessions wherefore they most Humbly pray that 


on their producing to your honour clear and indisputable proof of the 
facts aforesaid that your honors will by an Act Establish the afore- 
said Severance & Secure to them theif possessions or give them such 
other relief as to your honors in your great wisdom Shall appear Just 
& Equitable 

Robert m^Clurer John McCalley John Gibson 

James mcCalley Andrew Bixbe James Taggart 

L William Pope 

In House of Representatives, February 17, 1785, the fore- 
.going petition was granted. 

Relative to Date of Annual Meeting, 1785. 

State of Newhampshire 

To the HonMe Senate and House of Representatives in General 
assembly Convened at Concord the third Wednesday of octob r Anno 
Domini 1785 

The Petition of the select men & other inhabitants of the Town 
of Hillsborough in the County of Hillsboro 11 and state of New Hamp- 
shire aforesaid — 

Humbly sheweth that our annual meeting being held on the Last 
thursday of march Discommods us sum times it happens to be on the 
Last Day of march the Town officers not being sworn on that Day 
we are obliged to adjourn our annual meeting into april ; which is 
attended with much Difficulty on aect G f taking our invoice early in 
the month of april and by Reason of many Conveyances being made 
between the first Day of april and the time of taking the invoice it 
is Defect matter to take the invoice so that Every person may have 

Your Petition therefore pray that our annual meeting may be 
held on the first monday of march annually for the future insted of 
the Last thursday 

and your petitioners as in Duty bound will ever pray &c — 

October 20th 1785 

Isaac Andrews 

John Dutton L of 

Select men 


Wm. Taggart Juner 

Jedidiah Preston William Parker Beni Kimball 

William Taggart Eliphalet Bradford John Hartwell 

John mead Andrew Bixbe Otis Howe 

David Wright Jonathan Sargent Gorge Booth 

William Booth Daniel Rolf Joshoa Estey 

Joseph Symonds Samuel Bradford James Dutton 

Benjamin Dutton David Marshall Uriah Cooledge 

Jonathan Danforth Benja Gould Samuel Danforth 


Daniel Killam Ephraim Train. James meCalley 

Paul Cooledge William Jones James Jones 

Elijah Beard Isaac Andrews Perkins Andrews 

William Little Calvin Stevens Nehemiah Wilkins 

John Shedd John mcXeall Moses Steel 

William Hutchinson Samuel Symonds William Love 

Timothy Gray Solomon Andrews John gibson 

William Symonds Nathu Symonds 

In House of Representatives, October 31, 1785, the fore- 
going petition was granted. 

The legislature looked with favor upon this request, so the 
following year, 1786, the annual meeting was held on the first 
Monday in March, which came on the 6th instant. In 1788 the 
time was again changed to the second Tuesday in March, as it is 

At this election, 1786, the town voted ten dollars bounty on 
wolves, which proves that this troublesome animal must have 
been very obnoxious. 

In 1787 for the first time a name appears on the tax list with 
a middle letter, viz.: Robert B. Wilkins. In those days middle 
names were seldom known, and it was not until into the 19th 
century that they became what might be termed common. In the 
Revolutionary War Rolls one of Hillsborough's soldiers appears 
as John Caldwell McNiel, though the third name does not seem 
to have been considered necessary at all times. Among the 
grantees of Marlow, 1761, was Samuel Holden Parsons. This 
distinction, if such it deserves to be called, rather belonged to the 
more wealthy class, just as the title "Mister," commonly ab- 
breviated to "Mr.," and now bestowed promiscuously, was in- 
tended as a title of honor to the few rather than respect for the 
many. In those days the term "Goodman" was often used in 
referring to the average person. Mr. was almost invariably 
placed before the name of the minister. 

In those days all men kept their faces smoothly shaven, or 
reasonably so, and the fashion of letting the beard grow to some 
length was made popular by the '49er, who was too busy seeking 
the golden nugget that was to lift him into opulence to stop to 
look after his personal appearance. 


At the meeting of the convention which adopted the national 
constitution in 1788 Hillsborough was classed with Henniker and 
both towns were represented by Lt. Robert Wilkins, often fa- 
miliarly called "Bob" Wilkins. He was a native of Amherst, but 
removed to Henniker with his parents when he was young. He 
was in the battle of Bunker Hill at 16, and was wounded. Re- 
covering he enlisted in Colonel Scammel's regiment, was promoted 
for gallant conduct to a lieutenancy, and served under General 
Lafayette, whom he greatly admired. On the visit of Lafayette 
to Concord in 1825, Bob Wilkins was present, and recognized by 
the distinguished visitor was given a cordial welcome. Lieutenant 
Wilkins died in Boston in August, 1832, aged JJ years. 

On the 5th of September, 1792, a new constitution was adopted 
by the state, and under its provisions a militia was organized. 
By this movement the towns were grouped and so their companies 
should help to form battalions and that two battalions should 
constitute a regiment. In this arrangement Hillsborough was 
classed with Antrim, Deering, Henniker and Campbell's Gore 
(now Windsor), and their companies to make up the first bat- 
talion ; the companies in the town of Hancock, Francestown, 
Greenfield, Lyndeborough and Society Land (now Bennington) 
should form the 2nd battalion, which constituted the Twenty- 
sixth regiment. 

Until the close of the 18th century, when cotton manufacture 
and other industries that began to call the people together so as 
to form industrial centres attracted the attention of many, Hills- 
borough, like other towns removed from the seacoast, where 
fishing was the chief interest, was strictly a farming community. 
The inhabitants were scattered with their homesteads dotting 
hills and valleys. Communication with each other was limited 
both as to distance and conveyance, so they lived largely in the 
associations of their respective families. This must not be un- 
derstood to mean anything like hermit lives, for there was really 
more sociability among them than probably exists to-day, as 
there were diver diversions to call them into public gatherings, in 
their seasons, such as the corn festival, the apple bee, the sewing 
circle, the quilting match, the town fair, election day, Fourth of 
July, Thanksgiving, an occasional auction, singing school, spelling 
bee, prayer meeting, etc., etc., with above all others, the church, 


which called the sections of the town together with unfailing 
certainty on the Sabbath. But for obvious reasons progress was 
slow, when measured by the swiftly-moving forces that are shap- 
ing to-day, for good or ill, human destiny. In a hundred years 
the candle dip that shadowed all it lighted has been supplanted by 
the electric orb ; the plow-horse by the motor car. 

To-day we are protecting the deer, looking not with askance 
upon the bear, and restocking our streams with the finny tribe 
that our would-be sportsmen may enjoy a day's outing in woods 
of a second growth. 


Hillsborough with her sister towns, suffered greatly from 
the depredations of wolves during the years 1782-83-84-85, when 
these everhungry tormentors were vanquished. Cochrane in his 
History of Antrim, says: "During the long winter of 1784-85, 
the winter being very cold and the snow deep, the settlers were 
often awakened in the night by the howling of wolves at the door, 
or about the barns where their little flocks were sheltered. To- 
wards sunset, when the men began to hear their yelping in the 
woods or on the hills, they left work and hurried home. Flocks 
were sheltered and the doors closed at dark." Fortunately this 
condition did not last long. The state offered generous bounties, 
often supplemented by the towns to get rid of these troublesome 
enemies, and finally the dismal wail of these detested denizens of 
the forest ended. 

Bounties were offered for wolf scalps by the town as late as 
1788. Tradition says the last wolf killed in town was about the 
year 1790, and that the slayer was Major Isaac Andrews. He had 
discovered wolf tracks in his sheep-fold, and to rid himself of his 
dangerous visitors, for it proved there were three, he set a fox 
trap for the wary animals. On the third morning he found that 
he had caught one of the wolves, but the old fellow had escaped 
with the encumbrance. The snow lay deep upon the ground, 
and putting on his snow-shoes he gave pursuit, armed with a gun. 
During the chase that succeeded he realized that the other wolves 
were in company with the one lugging the trap, and so crooked 
was this pursuit, that the wolves crossed and recrossed his path 
three or four times, before finally he came upon the entrapped 


animal on the low ground south of the home of Isaac Baldwin. 
Though he realized that the companions of this wolf were 
lying in wait near by he fired at the snarling brute. His first 
shot only seemed to enrage the creature, which struggled 
furiously to reach him. Reloading his weapon as quickly as pos- 
sible, the second charge ended the conquest. The other wolves 
did not appear and Major Baldwin never saw anything more of 
them. A wolf was started from its lair a few years after this, 
and the hunter followed it several days to finally run it down and 
shoot it in Goshen. 

A moose was killed in Antrim, a little over the town line, 
in 1790. Bears were in town quite a number of years after the 
wolves had been exterminated, and the last deer seen was about 
1820, though of late years under the protection of the law they 
have been not uncommon visitors in town. 

Wild turkeys were shot in town as late as 1803, while 
beavers and otters were occasionally seen as recently. The 
meadow south of Loon Pond was at one time flowed by beavers 
who had constructed a high dam at its lower end. 

Bear stories were more popular than any other, even fish 

James Carr, living in the north part of the town was by 
"profession" a bear trapper and he had a string of bear yarns 
that could keep most any live boy awake all night with the telling. 
On an occasion going to his traps in the morning he found one of 
them gone. With his old queen's arm musket he followed the 
track made by an entrapped bear, until at the end of a mile he 
discovered the animal. He laid down his gun, believing he could 
overpower the bear with a club. But he over-rated his chances, 
and while the brute, with one paw sent his missile flying a rod 
away, Mistress Bruin closed her powerful jaw upon Carr's left 
arm. Aroused to desperation now the trapper managed to draw 
a pocket knife and he slashed the bear until it was glad to drop 
his arm, and having freed itself from the trap retreated to a ledge 
near by where it had its den no doubt. Though suffering from 
the wound upon his right arm, Carr now caught his firearm and 
pursued his victim. With his second shot the animal succumbed, 
and the Carr family lived on bear meat for some time to follow. 


Moses Steele once went on a hunting trip with John Burns 
of Antrim, who later removed to New Boston and more recently 
to Whitefield. Steele crossed the river to the north bank while 
his companions remained on the other side. Almost immediately, 
Steele was discovered by a huge bear that started towards him at 
a lumbering pace. Steele turned to fire on the aroused brute but 
cocking his gun the flint fell into the water leaving him at the 
mercy of the animal. Burns was a dead shot and fired across the 
stream, his bullet passing within a hair's breadth of his imperilled 
companion. He killed the bear when it had almost reached Steele. 

Jonathan Sargent, leading his dog by the string, while on a 
hunting trip, called upon the friend by the name of Huse, and 
who lived just over the town line in Henniker. As he was about 
to start for home he heard a great commotion outside the house, 
and upon rushing out found that Mrs. Huse had set the dog upon 
the bear that had appeared on the scene. The dog and the bear 
were having a tough tussle for the mastery, but upon cocking his 
gun he dared not fire for fear of hitting his dog. At that moment 
the fearless woman made a dash to the rescue of the dog, and 
before he could reach the spot she and his pet had killed Mistress 
Bruin, actually kicked the animal to death with her bare feet, as 
the story has been told. The locality is known as "Bear Hill" to 
this day. 

Wild turkeys, the gamest of all game, affording the most 
delicious of meat and the keenest lure of the chase were shot in 
town as late as 1802, the last known victim falling before the aim 
of the unfeeling marksman not far from the south shore of Loon 
Pond. Salmon were abundant in the Contoocook River until the 
dams of the mills on the Merrimack stopped their passage up that 
river and so they disappeared from the tributary streams. 

Signs and Portents. 

Living in a large measure isolated lives, and in such close 
communion with Nature every articulation of their environments 
awoke a feeling of the unreal, any phenomena unusual stirred the 
beholder with a belief that it portended him good or evil, as the 
influence might dictate. So the people of that day were believers 
in signs and omens, warnings and precautions. 


Beekeepers believed that bees would leave if at the death of 
a member of the family of the owner crape was not placed on the 
hive. Nothing must begin on Friday if the doer wished to es- 
cape disappointment or it might be dire disaster. To meet a 
funeral train indicated sickness or death to the person within a 
twelfth month. The howling of a dog portended evil. The find- 
ing of a horse-shoe promise good fortune and to hang same over 
the door was to insure good fortune to the occupants of the 
home. Ringing in ears or burning of the ears warned that some- 
body was talking about you. The birth of twin calves foretold 
death in the family within one year. A rainbow seen in the 
morning, sailors take warning; rainbow at night, sailor's delight. 

The new moon seen over the left shoulder portended harm 
within a month ; seen over the right shoulder augured well for 
the person. The hunter refrained from shooting a snake, believ- 
ing if he did that his gun would ever after miss the mark. To 
break a mirror meant death in the family and seven years of bad 

To put a garment on wrong side out was a sign of good luck 
for the day, unless the wearer should change it when his good 
fortunes would end in some misfortune. Did "the swallow fly low 
this morning it told of rain ere noon. As a specimen of the 
warnings that sometimes came to persons, Mr. Coggswell, in his 
History of Henniker, relates the following incident which has a 
certain interest for residents of this town : 

Capt. Thomas Bowman, under whom many Hillsborough 
soldiers served in the Revolutionary War, on a terribly dark, 
stormy night, shortly after the settlement of the township, was 
wakened from sleep by a loud rap upon his cabin door, and a 
voice exclaimed: "A man has been drowned in the river!" Mr. 
Bowman arose, lighted a pine torch, opened the only door to his 
little cabin, but no one was to be seen. He investigated around 
the door, but no footprints were visible. He entered his cabin, 
looked at his clock, the fingers of which pointed at twelve, and 
thinking it too dark and stormy to venture out, he lay down 
again, but not to sleep. . . In the morning he sought his neigh- 
bors, and together they went down to the ford of the river, where 
they discovered the dead body of a man, who had evidently 


drowned in an attempt to cross the stream. The body proved to 
be that of Nathan Reed, of Hopkinton, who was on his way to 
visit some of his friends in Hillsborough. 

Naturally an illustration of this kind went far to convince 
the beholders of the truth of dreams and omens, and to be con- 
tinually on the watch and guard against mischance. 

Witchcraft and Folklore. 

The educated man removed from the scenes of civilization 
and placed for an indefinite period in the solitude of the wilder- 
ness, in communion only with nature and himself, soon becomes 
imbued with the spirit of loneliness that pervades his environ- 
ments. Locked within himself he comes to look with suspicion 
upon each changing form of life. The silence masters him and 
he sees in each shifting portent a mystery, and reads in each 
mystery a sign. He peoples the space with invisible images, and 
so sees unaccountable shapes in the realm of his vision, until its 
horizon is fringed with the twilight of reason. His own voice 
tells him of his loneliness ; his own hands of his weakness. Alone 
with nature, one or the other must surrender, and invariably it is 
man ; with his kind invincible, alone helpless. So the closer one 
lives to nature the closer he lives to life, which is but a synonym 
for mystery, with the mind forever trying to solve its secrets. 

All pioneer people, isolated to a greater or lesser extent, are 
prone to believe in portents, and to mingle with living objects the 
phantoms of a creative mind. To account for things they have 
neither the time nor the capacity to understand as substantial 
objects they attribute to them the imaginary powers of an un- 
solved mystery. Pioneers are the children of the races of men. 

While at this late day we may wonder that as intelligent and 
open-hearted people as settled in Hillsborough should have fallen 
under the influence of superstition so far as to take any credence 
in witchcraft the evidence of the case compels us to accept the 
fact. Nor was this so very strange, when the social influences of 
the times are taken into consideration. Whoever may have been 
their ancestors, it was an inheritance. Belief in witchcraft and 
demonology is as old as the history of man. Very early in the 
Bible we read the admonition : "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to 
live !" A witch was believed to be a woman who had made a pact 


with the devil to ride through the air to meetings of kindred 
spirits. European history is replete with accounts of the burning 
of witches. As early as the middle of the 17th century there were 
cases of so-called witchcraft in Essex County, Mass. The col- 
onists of New Hampshire fortunately were freer of this uncanny 
belief than Massachusetts and Connecticut. 

The good people of Hillsborough, with their sterling qualities 
and faces set toward the rising sun of progress, were not wholly 
free from this vagary, though it did not reach a violent stage. At 
one time, as Deacon Symonds, or it may have been some other 
good man of the church — we will not spoil a good story by a name 
— was urging his ox team to climb Bible Hill with a huge load of 
pine logs, the load suddenly became stationary. Shout as he 
would to the faithful oxen, and sting them with the sharp brad, 
they could not or would start the sled. His neighbors quickly 
began to gather about the place, one and all devoutly believing 
it was the work of some witch — doubtless "Aunt Jenny," who 
lived in the southwestern part of the town. The deacon was 
rather prone to disbelieve this, but eventually, after nearly half 
an hour's struggling in vain to move the load, he agreed that it 
must be Aunt Jenny had some spite against him and was taking 
this way to "get even with him." It was a puzzling situation. The 
snow was hard-trodden, the road as smooth almost as glass, the 
oxen sharp-shod, the deacon one of the best teamsters in town, 
his cattle the best trained, so there was no reason under the 
light of the sun that the load should not move, except that latent 
and malevolent power of poor old Aunt Jenny. Under the cir- 
cumstances, what could be done? Some suggested one thing, 
others different treatment, until the victim, one of the most sober 
and industrious men on Bible Hill, or any other hill for that 
matter, became quite unstrung. Finally it was proposed that a 
horse shoe be heated to a fiery temperament and thrown under 
the sled runner. 

So a shoe, and it must be a new one, was obtained and laid 
upon the bed of coals in the deacon's own fireplace. When it had 
been heated to the proper pitch one of the young men ran at the 
top of his speed with the red-hot charm held firmly in the jaws 
of a pair of huge tongs. The shoe was then dropped about mid- 


way along the side of the off runner, and left to sizzle and sputter 
as if in combat itself with an evil spirit. Once more the deacon 
shouts to his oxen, this time with a ring of confidence in his 
voice ; once more he plies the cruel spur in the end of his six-foot 
goad ; once more the faithful oxen spring to their yokes as if to 
do or die ! Lo ! the sled moves ! The horse shoe had broken the 
spell. Amid the encouraging cries of the spectators, the load is 
drawn to the top of the hill before the panting oxen are allowed 
to stop. Some of the younger men of the party rush post-haste 
to see if Aunt Jenny was suffering from any burns or pains 
resulting from the conflict with a hot shoe. Deponent doth not 
say if the poor old lady cursed with evil powers was found suffer- 
ing any ill effects from the affair or not, but tradition, which may 
not be true, does say that two horse shoes were found where only 
one had been known to lie. The second, or strictly speaking the 
first, for it had a prior claim to the place, was found to have been 
firmly imbedded and frozen into the ice, with its corks up ! These 
sharp pointed instruments had caught deeply into the wood of the 
shoe to the sled, and been held immovable until the red-hot shoe 
had melted the other free, all of which goes to prove that a horse 
shoe heated very hot has the power to allay the mischief of a 

A young woman had incurred the enmity of Aunt Jenny 
without knowing it, and upon one occasion she remarked to her 
that she was going to ride over to her sister's that afternoon, the 
day was so beautiful. Aunt Jenny, with her peculiar manner of 
speech, replied, "Meb-be ye'll nae gie." The horse the young lady 
was intending to ride was in the barn, and with a laugh at what 
she considered the old woman's foolishness, she ran home to put 
the saddle upon the animal and start so as to get back before the 
day was too far spent. Upon entering the barn the horse, usually 
as docile as a lamb, was dashing madly about, gnashing its teeth 
and withal acting so furious that she dared not enter the build- 
ing. Opening the door a second time, after the horse had be- 
come a little more quiet, the animal resumed its wild antics and 
in the midst of them flew out of a small window and ran down 
the road at a terrific speed. It required half a dozen nearly all of 
the afternoon to catch the creature, and as it was then too late 
for its mistress to go on her journey, it became as docile as ever. 



Aunt Jenny, whose name was Mrs. Jenny Gilchrist, has been 
described as "a small, lean, sallow, shrivelled old woman, whose 
later life had been embittered by some loss or wrong done her in 
her younger years." Surely she must have been an ideal witch. 
The unfortunate woman seems to have been a victim of her own 
evil ogries. One of the sheep of a neighbor's flock showed sign 
one day of symptoms of hydrophobia, and the owner resolved to 
put the creature out of its suffering by the use of a heavy club. 
No sooner had he dealt the fatal blow than Aunt Jenny fell prone 
upon the floor and was taken violently ill. A woman went to 
watch with her that night, but was admonished by friends not to 
leave the sick one out of her sight for a moment, as witches 
were believed never to allow any one to witness their death. Near 
midnight, however, something happened to draw the attention 
of the watcher to another part of the room, and when she looked 
back the spirit of Aunt Jenny had fled. Peace to her ashes ! 

There were other reputed witches in this vicinity, and 
numerous other cases similar to the ones given might be cited 
to prove their existence. But it is not a pleasant phase of life, 
though this delusion under a milder form and different names 
exists to-day with the human race ; always will, till man's mind is 
freed of the grossness of earth. 

Heads of Families. 
The taking of the first census was quite an event in local 
communities and no doubt was not very complete. The following 
was the return for Hillsborough of the census taken in 1790. 

Kerr, Robert 
MoClary, John 
McClintock, John 
McClintock, Alexander 
Wiley, Timothy 
Taggart, Robert 
Eaton, Abnathan 
Clark, Silas 

.(BO* 1 

2 5 .« 

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2<o g 2 





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1 u 









Rolph, Daniel 1 i 

Robinson, Samuel 1 

Richardson, Jonas 1 i 

Symonds, Joseph 1 i 

Symonds, Nathaniel 1 

Sargent, Jonathan 1 3 

Sprague, John 1 j 

Shattuck, Abiel 1 



§•§11 h m n 

.t; <o .5 *< .« >h * .£ >m 

■g s » ° f p a * - ° 

Ayers, William 14 3 

Hartwell, Samuel 13 3 

Jones, Moses 1 IB 

Kendall, Joshua 1 3 

Killam, Daniel 2 3 1 

Kimball, Benjamin 2 3 5 

Little, Ezekiel 1 1 

Little, <George 12 5 

Lacy, Samuel 2 1 

Morrill, John 13 1 

Monroe, Thaddeus 13 1 

Meads, Benjamin 112 

Meads, John 1 1 

Murdough, Samuel 13 3 

Mc Niel, Jane 5 

McXiel, Daniel 12 2 

Nelson, Moses 114 

Nichols, John 2 2 

Nichols, Joseph 12 5 

Preston, Jedidiah 2 3 3 

Parmiter, Nathaniel 12 4 

Bobbins, Peter 2 12 

Robbins, Zaccheus 12 2 


Taggart William 2 2 4 

Taggart, James 1 3 3 

Train, Ephraim 1 3 1 

Wilkins, Nehemiah 13 5 

Jones, Joel 2 2 3 

Wilkins, Andrew 2 3 4 

Wheeler, Oliver 14 5 

Wilkins, Asaph 112 


* * .3 2 « id '3 

fee -S s 5"° 

£ i-H -J ._, .», t, 3 O u B* 

Andrews, Solomon 12 1 

Barnes, Asa 12 5 

Bixby, Andrew 3 1 

Bixby, John 112 

Elliott, Roger 1 1 

Fick, Elijah 13 1 

Gibson, John, Jr. 2 

Gibson, John 2 3 5 

Goodell, David 2 2 3 

Gray, Ephraim 3 13 

Green, David 1 3 

Hutchinson, William 2 13 

Jones, Benjamin 3 3 4 

Jones, Abel 1 3 

Karr, James 12 3 

Karr, Thomas 1 2 

Karr, Thomas, Jr. 1 2 

Livermore, David 112 

Little, William 12 3 

McCally, John 114 

Miller, Thomas 2 2 6 

McNiel, John 2 2 2 

McCally, James 3 3 

Murdough, Thomas 1 2 

Marshall, David 114 

*Pierce, Benjamin 1 13 

Parker, William 12 2 

Patton, Robert 1 1 

Preston, Samuel 2 2 4 

Pope, Samuel 13 2 

Parker, Silas 111 

Richardson, Parker 2 2 3 

Stowe, Mary 1 3 

Stevens, Calvin 14 4 

Smith, John 113 

Shedd, John 112 

Steele, Moses 2 2 

Taylor, Samuel 13 4 

*N0TE. — Besides those listed above, there was one free negro, who lived with 
Benjamin Pierce. 



Town, Enos 
Taggart, Archibald 
Taggart, Joseph 
Talbert, William 
Temple, Benjamin 
Wheeler, Fortunatus 
Miller, Farrar 
Wiley, George 
Love, William 
Jones, William 
Wiley, John 

CD e "O O 

s ° 
■s 2 « •« k: 

SS 111 


ca x 

1 bfi t * 

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CD *d 


8 6.3 























Valuation of Hillsborough for the Year 1795. 

Jacob Spaulding 1 

Jonathan Dwinnell 
Jonathan Knights 
Samuel Ellinwood 1 

Abiel Shattuck 1 

William Shattuck 1 

Ebenezer Harriman 
Zebediah Shattuck 
Timothy Burnham 
Joseph Garey 2 

Thaddeus Munroe 1 

Darius Abbott 1 

Calvin Abbott 
Nathaniel Cooledge 1 
Nathaniel Cooledge, Jr. 
Isaac Chandler, Jr. 
James Taggard 1 

John Nichols 1 

Aaron Foster 1 

Joseph Nichols 1 

Samuel Lacy 
Daniel Holden 1 

Jonathan Sargent 2 

David Green 
David Green Jr. 1 




James Eaton 




George Little 







Isaac Holden 




Timothy Wiley 




Daniel Bennett 




William Coughlin 



John Craige 


Jedidiah Preston 




Joshua Easty 




William Easty 


Johnathan Easty 



Daniel Bolfe 



Smith Robertson 



George Booth 




William Booth 




Edmund Perkins 




Asaph Wilkins 



Moses Nelson 




John Curtis 




Samuel Lacy, Jr. 


Benjamin Kimball 



Abraham Kimball 



Asa Barnes 



Joseph Taggart 












12 10 

13 8 




9 5 


7 8 

1 4 

6 7 

6 5 

15 3 




Joel Stowe 



Reuben Killicut 




Thomas Murdough, Jr 



William Ayer 




Thomas Murdough 


Josiah Stowe 


Samuel Murdough 




Elijah Fish 




Samuel Pope 



Nathaniel Parmenter 



Archelaus Towne 




Stephen Styles 


John Towne 




Elijah Beard 




Abrham Jones 



David Marshall 



Joel Jones 




Edward Sargent 




Daniel Kellom 




William Dickey 




Timothy Gray 




John McNiel 




Samuel Danforth 



William Little 



Paul Cooledge 




John Taylor 



Ephraim Train 




Roger Elliott 



David Bacheldor 



John Smith 




Kneeland Abbott 




Samuel McAdams 




Uriah Cooledge 




Samuel Gibson 




Moses Abbott 


Alexander Cunning- 

Jesse Kendall 





William Hooper 



William Parker 



Calvin Stevens 




John Shedd 



Jones & A Blood 



WUliam Hutchinson 




Benjamin Smith 




Thomas Miller 




Widow McColley 


James Wilson 




Jonathan Danforth 



Thomas Kellom 



Benjamin Gould 



Asa Andrews 




Elisha Goodell 


William Talbert 




Luther Smith 


Andrew Jones 


Bray Wilkins 



Jacob Gould 



Nehemiah Wilkins 




Nathan Howe 




John Dutton 




Samuel Bobbins 



Benjamin Dutton 




Eliphalet Bradford 




Fisher Gay 



John Wiley 


Benjamin Mead 




Joshua Kendall 




John Mead 


Samuel Taylor 




Nathaniel Heywood 




John Gibson 




Joseph Symonds 




Moses Steele 




William Symonds 




William Love 




Samuel Bradford 




John McClary 




Samuel Bradford, 3d 




Benjamin Jones 




Samuel Bradford, Jr. 




Nathan Kendall 



Daniel McNiel 




David Wright 


Isaac Andrews 




Ebenezer Nichols 




John Andrews 




John Gibson, Jr. 


Abraham Andrews 



Enos West 


Photograph by Manahan. 


Photograph by Manahan. 







£ s 


James Miller 




William Fowler 


Benjamin Pierce 




John Sprague 



John McColley 




Isaac Chandler 


Farrah Miller 


Joshua Atherton 

2 10 

William McClary 


John Campbell 


Gideou Knowlton 



Samuel Patten 


William McColley 



John Stewart 


Total valuation of the inhabitants is £258 10 s. 6 d. 

A true Coppey 

Calvin Stevens, 
James Eaton, 
Samuel Bradford, 3d 

Pr Calvin Stevens T Clerk 

Valuation of the Non-Residents, 1795. 

Peter Hill 
David Williams 
Parker Richardson 
Edward Fugger 
Nathan Kerr 
Widow Marsh 

Nathan Austin 

3d Div. West End of No. 44 85 acres 
3d Div. Part of No. 42 50 acres 

3d Div. 50 acres 

3d Div. 14 in 42 10O acres 

60 acres 
2d Div. No. 31 100 acres 

3d Div. No. 10 200 acres 

3d Div. No. 16 West End 30 acres 
3d Div. No. 45, North part 146 acres 

50 acres 

Heirs of Abraham Coughlin 

2d Div. No. 17 50 acres 

Heirs of Sarson Belshor 

2d Div. No. 57 East part 50 acres 
2d Div. No. 52 400 acres 

3d Div. No. 32 20O acres 

3d Div. No. 9 200 acres 

3d Div. No. 14, West part 100 acres 
3d Div. No. 26 South part 100 acres 
3d Div. No. 12 in 42 100 acres 

3d. Div. No. 12 100 acres 

2d Div. No 57 East half 50 acres 
2d Div. No. 45 10O acres 

2d Div. No. 2 100 acres 

2d Div. No. 52 100 acres 

3d Div. No. 31 200 acres 

3d Div. No. 11 200 acres 

3d Div. No. 4 West half 100 acres 

Joseph Henshaw 



































Heirs of James Bowdwin farm 
reabody & Choate 
John Rindge 3d Div. No. 

Tomlinson & Mason 3d Div. 

3d Div, 
3d Div, 
3d Div 
3d Div, 
3d Div 



2 in 47 

8 in 30 

No. 15 in 45 

William Parker 

George Jaffrey 

Pierce & Moore 

Joseph Pierce 

John Moffatt 

George Atkinson 

M. H. J. Wentworth 

Solley & Marsh 3d Div, 

Richard Wibird 3d Div. 

Mr. Bridge 3d Div. No. 33 West part 100 acres 

Widow Moore middle part of the farm 52 acres 

Jeremiah Green 877 acres 

Isaac Jones part of the Green farm 100 acres 

12 in 42 
4 in 28 

9 in 41 
No. 7 in 30 
No. 11 in 41 

17 in 43 

10 in 4 





1,222 acres 
125 acres 

2,700 acres 
100' acres 
100 acres 
110 acres 
100 acres 
100 acres 
100 acres 
100 acres 
100 acres 
100 acres 
100 acres 

Henry iSpaulding 
Joseph Towne 
Brown Burt 
John Perkins 
Ebenezer Weston 
Daniel Nichols 













































192 acres 
3d Div. No. 23 North part 100 acres 
3d Div. No. 6 100 acres 

2d Div. No. 20 and 21 150 acres 

2d Div. No. 55 100 acres 

3d Div. No. 12 North part 63 acres 
3d Div. North part 63 acres 

3d Div. No. 16 100 acres 

3d Div. No. 15 North part 40 acres 
3d Div. No. 6 West part 70 acres 

Total 376 acres 12 4 
Total valuation of Non-Residents amounts to £15 10s lid 

Calvin Stevens 
James Eaton 
Samuel Bradford, 3d 

A true Coppey Pr Calvin Stevens T. Clerk 

The holders of the larger percentage of the non-resident 
land in Hillsborough were creditors of John Hill. Among these 
were Ex-Governor James Bowdoin, 1,400 acres; Oliver Peabody, 
300 acres; Col. Jabez Huntington, Conn., 1,400 acres; Jeremiah 
Green, Boston, 1,700 acres; Lord Proprietors, 1,600 acres; be- 
sides several smaller owners of from fifty to three hundred acres. 

Besides these creditors were the heirs and family creditors 
as follows : William Hill, Esq., son, of North Carolina, 2,842 
acres; Widow March, daughter, 1,426 acres; Mrs. Garven 


Brown, daughter, 1,026 acres; Capt. Sarson Belcher, Boston, and 
Joshua Henshavv, sons-in-law, respectively 1,622 and 1,390 acres. 
In all these amounted to 15,000 acres. 

John Hill had always offered the land in Hillshorough to 
actual settlers at the nominal price of fifty cents an acre, and it 
is very doubtful if his activities here really afforded him any 
great financial benefit. In order to carry on his various specula- 
tions he had been obliged to realize money on the unsold land that 
he had a few years before his death. Upon his decease this land 
passed into the hands of his creditors, as mentioned above. 

In the end many of these properties held by non-residents 
did not prove very profitable. Following the close of the Revolu- 
tion there seems to have been a "cleaning up" of many titles. 
Among these we find a Colonel Wallingford's rights were ad- 
vertised and sold for a small sum by John Costello, of Berwick, 
Me., December 16, 1780. Stephen Holland's title in Hillsborough 
was confiscated and sold in Londonderry, January 4, 1781. Heirs 
of John Hill brought a suit against Joel Stow and Joseph Taggart 
relative to titles to land, and the town chose Benjamin Pierce, 
Esq., agent to defend the town. Nothing seems to have come of 
this claim. The last trace of these titles of non-residents disap- 
peared within the memory of men living to-day. 

The Story of Campbell's Gore. 

Hillsborough's Part in the Settlement of Windsor— When Surveyors 
Fell Short — How the Grant of a Township was Lost — James Camp- 
bell's Plight — His Loss the Gain of Others — Appeals for Incorpora- 
tion Ignored — Hillsborough Expected to Give of Her Territory- 
List of Signers from Both Localities — Objections — Voters in 
Campbell's Gore — Finally an Act of Incorporation — A Title that 
Came Too Late. 

During the interval between the closing of the Revolution 
and the beginning of the new century, when affairs both local and 
national had so far shaped themselves as to form a tangible 
government, here and elsewhere, a matter of interest and im- 
portance to Hillsborough was being agitated by a considerable 
portion of its inhabitants, as well as others who were outsiders. 
The subject was a small section of country lying on the southwest 
border, which had been an object of anxiety, expense and sus- 
pense to a small group of people for over half a century. At this 
distant day it might be difficult to find the original records, and 
the early historians fail to mention it, but it is evident there was 
a promise made if not a grant to James Campbell of London- 
derry and others of that and adjacent towns of a tract of land 
designated as Number Eight, which is frequently mentioned in 
the early deeds of Hillsborough. This tract was better known as 
Campbell's Gore. The reason for this was the fact that when the 
adjoining grants had been made only a very limited section was 
left. No one had stolen a township, nor had any wrong been at- 
tempted, but the loss of territory was due to the fact that in 
mapping out the different townships two surveyors were em- 
ployed, one starting at the Maine line on the east and the other 
at the Connecticut River on the west. This couple in running 
their lines met at Hillsborough or Number Seven, when it was 
found that only a small, three cornered, wedge-shaped gore of 
land was left! The bit of left-over real estate which should 
have been a respectable township to be placed on the map as 



Number Eight, was designated as "Campbell's Gore," an apology 
for a township grant. Of course the honorable surveyors might 
have done worse and not left enough of these hills and valleys on 
which the grantee could have written his name. 

Be that as it may, in the midst of the border wars which so 
startled the few inhabitants of Number Seven that they were 
glad to get away, Mr. Campbell, after more than ten years of 
patient waiting, petitioned the General Court as follows : 

Petition of James Campbell, 1748. 

Portsmouth October 20th 1748 

To the Gentlemen Proprietors of Mason's Right in Lands in ye 
Provs of New Hampshire Gent m 

I the Subscriber in behalf of my selfe and others Inhabitants of 
Chester & Londonderry do petition your favour to grant to such a 
Number of us and in Such manner as shall Seem meet to you a tract 
of Land or Such part thereof as you shall think fit Scituated & ly!ng 
Chiefly to ye North of y e road leading from New Boston So called to 
Hillsborough So called ; and in order thereto, do propose to preferr to 
the Said Proprietors a plan of y e Scituation & extent of the Said tract 
of Land with a List of the men's Names who will be Your Petitioners, 
by y e Second day of November next, in ye mean time pray the Said 
tract of land may nor be otherwise disposed of and you will greatly 
Oblige me & others your friends &c 

James Campbell 

Masonian Papers, Vol. 8, p. 132. 

For some reason no attention was paid to the supplications 
of the grantees of the little plot of land they had fondly hoped to 
possess, notwithstanding the expenses which had been incurred 
in surveys and laying out lots, and the grant of Number Eight 
was unrecognized, so another attempt was made to secure the 
desired territory, which met with no better success. 

Unfortunately the early records of Windsor, and such papers 
as related to the original tract denominated Campbell's Gore, 
were destroyed by fire in 1850, so the historian has to grope his 
way in darkness in trying to ascertain the course of affairs fol- 
lowed by the pioneers. It is certain that, notwithstanding the 
inattention made to their appeals for assistance, several families 
settled here within three years after James Campbell sent his last 


Throughout this period would-be purchasers of land in this 
district seemed quite numerous, as it was looked upon as very- 
desirable land. In keeping with the grasping nature of those in 
control before the Revolution, 28 lots in this small tract of land 
had been reserved for them, two lots to fifteen beneficiaries, the 
two lots needed to make up the full number being taken from 
Bradford. But all of these titles vanished as "scraps of paper" 
when the War for American Independence turned in favor of the 
colonists. There were then about ten families in this section, and 
during the Revolution the handful of inhabitants did their duty, 
the following men serving to the credit of adjoining towns: Joel 
Richards, Stephen Wyman, Thomas Stickney, Jonathan Swett, 
Asa Dresser, Nathan Barker and John Gordon. Doubtless there 
were others. 

The character of the settlers and the situation in the Gore is 
well illustrated by the words of Col. John Goffe, that veteran 
scout and trainer of Rogers and the Starks in their preparation 
for the border wars, who in an appeal to the proprietors in 1779, 
declared them to be "resolute fellows that could give Mason's 
proprietors no better name than Tories." 

The close of the Revolutionary War found the few rugged 
families in Campbell's Gore, if relieved of the sufferings of strife, 
still laboring under certain difficulties from which regularly in- 
corporated towns were free. It is true they were law-abiding 
citizens and hence could get along peacefully without a govern- 
ment, but troubles from many sources arose, not the least being 
that with non-residents, so a petition was signed by a dozen of the 
citizens and sent into the General Court asking for authority to 
tax outsiders, to enable them to build a much needed bridge. 

No attention seems to have been paid to this petition, but 
the inhabitants had already organized themselves into a com- 
munity government, levied taxes, not forgetting on this special 
occasion the outsiders or non-residents who owned land within 
the territory, so the bridge was built, the first one of importance 
in town. After considerable discussion among the inhabitants of 
the southwestern part of Hillsborough and those of the unfortu- 
nate little plot of country granted to a man who had not lived to 
enjoy its fruitage, the following document was sent to the General 
Court in 1790: 


Petition of Inhabitants of Campbell's Gore and Part of Hills- 
borough for Incorporation, 1790: 

To the Honourable Senate, and house of Representatives in Gen- 
eral Assembly convened at Portsmouth, within & for the State of New 
Hampshire — 

The Petition of us the Subscribers being Inhabitants of a track 
of Land, called Campbell's Gore — and also of Sundry of the Inhabi- 
tants, living in the Southwest part of the town of Hillsborough — Most 
humbly Shews— That the said track of Land first Mentioned, con- 
taining but About 3000 Acres, which is to small ever to become a town 
or parish Sufficient to Maintain the Gospel or carry on Publick 
business, and its .Situation is such, that it cannot be Joined to any 
Lands for its Relief, except a track of Land, Lying in the southwest 
part of said Hillsborough on which a number of your Petitioners reside, 
and are desirous of being United with the Inhabitants of Campbell's 
Gore, by an Incorporation vesting them with such town privileges and 
Immunities as other towns in the iState hold and do enjoy — That the 
whole town of Hillsborough contains about 26000 Acres, and the part 
hereby requested to be Joined to the said Gore contains only a'bout 
6000 Acres — That should the prayer of this petition be granted will 
then contain about 20000 Acres, a Quantity Sufficient to afford Ample 
support for a Minister & remain a respectable town, and we cannot 
see any 111 convenience that will attend the granting this Request, 
as the town of Hillsborough have Erected a new Meeting house and 
have Setttled a Minister of the Congregational Standing, the old 
parish of Hillsborough being the greatest Majority carries all Votes 
to their Liking, & we being Presbyterians cannot Join with them- 
Although we have helped to defray all charges, and not willing to 
make any Difficulty in a new Country, and as Opportunity now 
presents to Join said Gore, to be releaved from our present bondage, 
we trust they will make no Opposition in this our request, which we 
hope will appear to your honours very Reasonable & draw a small 
part of your Attention on the Premises — Your petitioners therefore 
most humbly pray, that an Act may pass the Honourable Assembly, 
Incorporating into a town the said Gore, with the Southwesterly part 
of Hillsborough, according to the following Directions and Boundaries 
(Viz) Beginning at the Southeast corner of Lot No 39 in the third 
Division (so called) being the south bounds of said Hillsborough, 
thence North about 15 Deg r West, in the east bounds of the Wester- 
most range of the said third Division, Lots to the Northeast corner 
of Lot No 6 in said Division, thence south Eight Deg r and an half 
West, to the North West corner of said Lot N° 6 thence Northerdly 
about 30 Rods to the Northeast Corner of Lot No 58 in the Second 

1 84 


Division, thence Westerdly in the North bounds of said Lot N° 58, 
N° 27 and N° 16 to the West bounds of said Hillsborough — Then pur- 
suing the North west and South Lines of said Gore as the same are 
now reputed to be, till it shall come to the South west Corner bound 
of said Hillsborough, thence Easterdly in the "South Line of Hills- 
borough to the place of beginning — Your petitioners therefore most 
humbly pray, that a Committee be sent on said premises viewing our 
Situation, and setting of so much as said Boundaries specifies, or any 
other Lines, as they in their Wisdom sees fit — And Your petitioners as 
in Duty bound will ever fervently Pray &c &c &c — 

Dated January 6th, 1790. 

Names of the Signers belonging to Hillsborough : 

David Goodell 
John mcClintock 
John M°Cleary 
Andrew Bixbee 
Moses Steele 
Thomas murdough, 
John Bixbe 
Joseph Taggart 
Alexander m c Clintok 
Fortuns Wheeler 
Solomon Andrews 

William Love 
David Livermore 
Samuel Pope 
Tssachar Andrews 
benjamin Jones 
benjamin Jones Jun 
John Gibson 
Archibald Taggart 
I william Hutching- 
son has nothan 
against being sot- 

Tho miller Miller 

James Miller 

William Tallant 

Samuel Preston 

Robert patten 

I John McNeaill has 
nQthan against be- 
ing Sat of — 

hugh Smith 

Names of the Signers belonging to Campbell's Gore 

Josiah Swett 
David Perkins 
Stephen Wyman 
John Goodell 
Nathan Barker 
Joshua Jones 

Daniel Bixbe 
Josiah Swett Jun 
James Jones 
John Boche 
John Roach Jr 
James Roche 
Jonathan Swett 

Asa Dresser 
Eben r Curtice 
Daniel Gibson 
Henry Bagley 
William Jones 
Daniel Gordon 

In House of Representatives, January 16, 1790, Robert 
Wallace, of Henniker, Ninian Aiken, of Deering, and Capt. 
Daniel Miltimore, of Antrim, were appointed as a committee "to 
view the situation" and report to the next session. Council non- 

Another petition dated May 28, 1790, and signed by eighteen 
men in Hillsborough and sixteen in Campbell's Gore, was sent to 
the court, which was looked upon with favor by the House of 


Representatives, but this called forth the following remonstrance 
against being incorporated with "any part of Washington or 
Stoddard" : 

The Petition of Sundry of the Inhabitants of Campbells Gore, 
humbly Sheweth, that whereas there is a Petition, now laying before 
your Honours the Prayer of which is— that Campbells Gore part of 
Hillsborough and other Lands be Incorporated into a town — the Order 
already taken on said Petition now lays in the Report of your 
Honours Committee and Appointed for a day of hearing, and as it 
Appears to us your Petitioners that if the Report of said Committee 
Should be that we are to be Annexed with any part of Washington or 
Stoddard it would be much more to our Disadvantage, than to be as 
we are — We your petitioners, therefore humbly Pray, that we may 
not be Incorporated into a Town, with any part of Washington or 
Stoddard — All which is humbly submitted to your honours to do as in 
your great Wisdom may see meet — 

And your petitioners as in duty bound shall ever Pray — 
Given at Campbells Gore 
Feb? 23d 1791— 

Jonathan Swett William Jones Jun r Danill Gordon 

David Perkins Sam 1 Bradford Juner Benjamin Jons Jr 

Saml Jones Jun' James Roche John Roche Jr 

Nathan Barker Abiathar Eaton Stephen Wyman 

Josiah Proctor Jur Joel Richards Isace Curtice 

The petition referred to, following its preamble, had said : 

The petition of us the Subscribers, being Inhabitants of a track 
of Land called Campbell Gore — and also of Sundry of the Inhabitants 
living in the South west part of the town of Hillsborough — 

Most humbly Shews — 

That the said track of Land first Mentioned, containing between 
3 and 4000 Acres, which is to small ever to become a town, or parish 
sufficient to maintain the Gospel, or carry on publick business, and its 
Situation is such, that it cannot be Joined to any Lands for its relief, 
except a track of Land, lying in the South West of said Hillsborough, 
on which a number of your petitioners reside, and are desirous of 
being United with the Inhabitants of Campbells Gore by an Incorpora- 
tion vesting them with such town privileges and Immunities as other 
towns in the State hold and do Enjoy — 

That the whole town of Hillsborough contains about the Quantity 
of 26000 — and part hereby requested to be Joined to the said Gore 
Contains only about 6000 Acres— Your petitioners therefore most 
humbly pray, that an act may pass the honourable Assembly — In- 


corporating into a town the said Gore, with the South West part of 
Hillsborough, according to the following Description & Boundaries 
(Viz) Beginning at the South east Corner of Lot N° 39 in the third 
Division (so called) being the south bounds of said Hillsborough 
thence North about 15 Degrees West, in the east bounds of the Wester- 
most range of the said 3 d Division Lots, to the Northeast Corner of 
Lot iN° 6 in said Division, thence south Eight Degree and an half West, 
to the North West Corner of said Lot N° 6, thence Northerdly about 
30 Bods to the North east Corner of Lot N° 58 in the second Division, 
thence Westerdly in the North bounds of Hillsborough, Then pursuing 
the North West and South Lines of said Gore as the same as are now 
reputed to be — till it shall come to the South West cornerbounds of 
said Hillsborough — thence easterdly in the south Lines of Hillsbor- 
ough to place of beginning. 

Voters in Campbell* s Gore, 1791. 

A trew Becord of the inhaberance of Campbels Gore being Voters 
at the Prescent Day 

John Boch Juner Joel Bichards James Boch 

James Jones Nathan Barker Danil Gibson 

Danill Gorden Isaacher Andrews Ebenezer Curtis 

William Jones Jun* Joshua Jones John Curtis 

Benjamin Jones Juner Stephen Wyman Isace Curtis 

Josiah Swett Juner Davod Pirkins David Morrison 

Sam 1 Jones Asa Dresser Henry Bagly 

Josiah Proctr Jonathan Swett Sam 1 Bradford 

Isaac Dodge John Boch Abither Eaton 

A trew Coppy of the above inhabetance 

by me 

Joel Bichards T : Cleark 

Campbels Gore June the 9 y r 1T91 

The number of the inhabitants of Campbell's Gore increased, 
a regular town government was established and seems to have 
flourished fairly well, but it was not until December 27, 1798, 
that a town was incorporated under the name of Windsor. It 
was one of the smallest towns in the state in area, while its in- 
habitants number only sixty-five. June 21, 1797, a small tract 
of land lying next to Washington, known as Wheeler's Gore, had 
been annexed, so the new township contained five thousand, three 
hundred and thirty-five acres. Joshua Lovejoy was authorized 
to issue a warrant for the first town meeting in January, 1799, 
which was held in his house. The soil and physical features of 
the new town were considered favorable for its growth, but its 


pioneers, for reasons of their own, settled far apart, and the 
corporation never had a collection of dwellers of sufficient num- 
bers to deserve the name of a "village." Its isolated situation 
was against any permanent extension of business, and whenever, 
for any reason either by death or removal, a family abandoned 
one of the homesteads no one was ready to continue its cultiva- 
tion, so one by one the farmsteads were deserted, until to-day 
only a very few remain to remind us of the original grantees with 
their trials and disappointment. Its title had come too late. 

The Town Church. 

First Ministers in Hillsborough — Organization of the First Church So- 
ciety — When Meeting Houses were Built by the Town — Religious 
Elements in Town — Congregationalist — Presbyterian — Ancestors 
of the Early Settlers — Yorkshire Men — Scotch Irish — Colonel 
Hill's Gift to the Town— Settling a Minister — Building the Sec- 
ond Meeting House — The Reverend Jonathan Barnes — The Ordi- 
nation— 'Growth of Town— First Warning "to Meet at the Meeting 
House"-^How War Retarded Religious Work— The Glass Saved 
from First Meeting House Used for Second— The People Outgrow 
the Meeting House — Removed for a Larger and Handsomer Edifice. 

The first minister to hold meetings in town in the pioneer 
meeting house of Number Seven was the Rev. Daniel Wilkins of 
Amherst, a sturdy disciple of the gospel. There is no record to 
show how often he came nor if other preachers came to the 
isolated settlement striving to make a place for itself on the map. 
The earliest ministers to visit Hillsborough in the churchless 
days of the second settlement in the wilderness were the Rev. 
Messrs. William Houston of Bedford and Samuel Cotton of 
Litchfield and James Scales of Hopkinton. They assisted in the 
organization in the first church society in 1769, which accepted 
the Congregational mode of church government, though there 
were several earnest Presbyterians among the inhabitants. 

Taking into consideration the formation of the religious 
society in the town and the building of what was practically the 
first meeting house, we cannot or should not fail to remember 
the shadow under which it was accomplished — the shadow of a 
great war and the wonder becomes that they should have per- 
formed their task as well as they did. This is explained in part 
by the words of Mr. Lyman W. Densmore in his excellent 
monograph on the "old" meeting house so called : 

"My readers of New England birth do not require to be 
told that from the earliest settlement of the colonies provision 
for public worship and the building of 'meeting houses' was 



strictly the business of the town as a body politic, and that until 
the increased wealth of the struggling communities justified the 
erection of town halls the practice generally was to hold town 
meetings in them. The term 'church' as applied to houses of 
divine worship, was universally tabooed by public sentiment, the 
rural population being almost entirely non-conformists, and hold- 
ing the practices, as well as the designation of things connected 
with the worship, of the English church in utter abhorrence. 
Hence, always 'meeting house,' never 'church'." 

The early settlers of Hillsborough were composed of repre- 
sentatives of the sturdy yeomanry that composed the predominat- 
ing inhabitants of the Merrimack valley, and the equally sterling 
refugees of northern Ireland, whose ancestors had emigrated 
previously from Scotland. The first class, who were somewhat 
in the majority, without the austerity of the Pilgrim or the 
aristocracy of the Puritan, were men and woman who had come 
to New England mostly from Western England with the avowed 
purpose of founding for themselves homes in the wilderness and 
to better their conditions. Their leading trait was a love of 
liberty, tempered with an unswerving fidelity in their social rela- 
tions. They were preeminently a home-making people. They 
were Protestants of the Orthodox faith. Unlike the two ele- 
ments already mentioned, they did not nurture in their hearts a 
religious grievance, but they came here with a desire to improve 
their condition in life. They were the progressive pioneers of 
New England. Scarcely a town granted in New Hampshire that 
was not made up largely of these people. In the cosmopolitan 
make-up of the English-speaking races these colonists could 
claim a remote kinship with the Pilgrims and Puritans, but far 
enough removed to have moulded a new type of citizenship 

Possessing as rugged virtues as the others, and bearing a 
yoke of religious persecution that made the loads of the Pilgrims 
and Puritans seem light, the Scotch-Irish colonists belonged to an 
entirely different ancestry. A complete analysis of their fore- 
bears would require more space than could be given here. In 
the remote past their distant ancestors had entered Ireland, and 
driving the native population known as Celts from their pathway, 
they crossed the island, giving their names and titles to the race 
they had subjugated to a certain extent. In 626 certain ones of 


this uneasy body of Milesians or Scots crossed over the North 
Channel into Ancient Caledonia to overpower the Picts on the 
highlands and the Saxons on the lowlands, as they had the Celts 
in Ireland. Then the country became known as Scot's Land 
or Scotland. 

Scarcely had the new-comers become located in their adopted 
land than they found themselves environed by perils and hard- 
ships. One-half of the land of a poor nation had been engrossed 
by its lords and bishops. The churches and cathedrals glittered 
with wealth taken from the hovels and cottages of the peasants, 
so the great majority of the people grovelled in poverty. The 
Moses to bring light to the benighted land was a young student at 
Wurtenburg, Patrick Hamilton, who had listened to the inspired 
teachings of Martin Luther. Upon returning to his native coun- 
try to declare the doctrine of the new religion he was met with a 
cordial reception from the "Scotch-Irish," as the newcomers 
into Scotland were denominated for the first time. 

Young Hamilton and scores of others equally as brave and 
patriotic lost their lives, while hundreds of years of bitter battling 
followed. Often the brave Presbyterians were so hard pressed 
that their cause seemed hopeless. But the fire kindled by 
Hamilton would not be quenched, and it was no uncommon spec- 
tacle to see hundreds of the outlawed people coming out from 
their concealment to listen under some wide-spreading tree to the 
fervid pleadings of a spiritual leader upon whose head at that 
moment even, was a heavy reward. In the early part of this long 
interval of semi-darkness a considerable number of the Scottish 
Covenanters returned across the Channel into the north of Ire- 
land, which since the departure of their ancestors had been 
terribly ravaged by the English, so that the land was deserted of 
its inhabitants and despoiled of its wealth. Under this most 
depressing situation, after more than a thousand years, the 
descendants of the early Scots of Ireland returned to the scenes 
of their forefathers. With no open arms to receive them, they 
set about to repair their shattered fortunes. It is well to remem- 
ber that in the long period between the exit of the fathers and the 
return of the sons, the Scots had mingled more freely with the 
Picts and Saxons than they had ever done with the Celts, and 


that over thirty generations of this mixed product had appeared 
and vanished during an interval long enough to have obliterated 
many racial characteristics ; aye, to have created a new race in the 
crucible of destiny. 

If these earnest Presbyterians had hoped to escape persecu- 
tion by their flight to Ireland, they were woefully mistaken. 
Zealous Protestants, in the days of James the Second of England, 
they supported William of Orange against his tyranny. In 
the fierce struggle that ensued they seemed to have been forgotten 
by their English ally, who in truth had all on hand he could 
attend to at home, so the oppressed refugees were obliged to 
intrench themselves within the walls of Old Londonderry. Then 
followed that siege which forms one of the most stirring chapters 
of famine, torture and fortitude that history records, until, when 
it was almost too late, relief came. 

Soon after the closing scene in this drama of warfare, in 
1689, or within twenty-five years, these oppressed people began 
to come to New England. Obtaining a grant of New Hamp- 
shire ten miles square, which they named Londonderry, they 
rapidly settled that section and pushed into the adjoining towns. 
From that vicinity came the Scotch-Irish pioneers of Hillsbor- 
ough and adjacent towns. 

This in brief is the story of the ancestries of the early 
settlers of Hillsborough, and who were now ready to unite in 
forming a church society and building a meeting house. The 
first actual move made with that object in view was the formation 
of a Congregational society in 1769. No doubt the disturbing in- 
fluences of the brooding Revolution to a considerable extent 
delayed decisive action, as the coming war interfered with the 
building of the church. 

Church and State. 

The colonists of Hillsborough and their children, while not 
as rigid in their religious views as the Pilgrims and Puritans, 
were still zealous adherents to the tenets of the church and lived 
devoutedly Christian lives, feeling the influence of their religion 
upon the working days as well as upon the Sabbath. As has 
been remarked by far the largest percentage of them preferred 
the ancient Congregational mode of church government and 


discipline. Out of respect, however, to the minority the leaders 
consented to what was known as "Half Way Covenant," a 
modified form of the Congregational faith. Faded and time- 
eaten sheets of an old record book contains all that comes to us 
of the written words of that important occasion, as follows : 

"In Hillborough. 
"A Convenant was signed & a Church imbodied October 12th 1769. 

Church Covenant. 

"Whereas it hath pleased the great & glorious God of his free 
& rich grace to call & except us sincere & unworthy creatures into 
covenant with his majesty in christ : we do therefore in a deep sense 
of out unworthiness & and with an humble dependance on divine grace 
for assistance & acceptance ; solemnly prefessing our firm belief of the 
christian faith according to the Doctrine of the holy Scripture, avering 
that God whose Name alone is Jehovah, father son and Holy Ghost, to 
be our God and the God of our seed. 

"Particularly we profess the Doctrine of the (not legible) & guilt 
brought upon all the Natural Posterity of the first Adam by his sin in 
eating the forbidden fruit & of the Doctrine of free justification & 
salvation of all if are chosen to salv, by union to save thro his merits, 
meditation & interception without any merits of their own. 

"Also the Doctrine of the Church Membership of the infant Seed 
of Visabl Believers & their Right thro, the gracious grant of God to 
ordances of Baptism & of Baptism by sprinkling is sufficient & Natural 
& that it is ye Duty of all persons who expect ,Sal v by Christ to be 
subject to him & to wak in all his commandents & Ordinances Blaim- 
less We do therefore make afirm Covanant with God & Christ 
acknowledging the Lord Jesus Christ to be our Prophet Priest & King 
promising by his gracious assistance, to submit to his government ; to 
all his Holy Laws & ordinances, to shun all errors with al ungodlyness 
& unrighteousness ; to keep up & practice Religion in our families, to 
bring up out Children in his fear & service, & to Walk before him all 
things according to his word. 

"We also promis to walk together as a Congregational Church in 
the faith & order & fellowship of this Gospel in mutual Love & watch- 
fulness for the regular carrying on of worship & ordinances of God ; 
according to his instruxion & promoting our mutual edification in faith 
& holiness according to the Ruless of Government & Descipline 
mentioned in the Cambridge Platform." 

There is no list of members appended to this document, and 
nothing to indicate of whom or how many it was composed, nor 
is there any record of any church meeting for more than three 


years, when the call was made for Mr. Barnes to preach. How- 
ever, John Mead, h id been chosen to the office of Deacon, and in 
1775, May 15, Tristram Cheney was chosen to the same office. 

Col. John Hill who had so generously aided and encouraged 
the upbuilding of the religious interest and construction of the 
meeting house for the first party of pioneers, was no less friendly 
to this second band. Unfortunately for some of these settlers, as 
well as for himself, he had met with financial reverses so that 
he was unable to lend the assistance he would otherwise have 
given. As it was, he donated, or set apart from his reserve of 
land, about two hundred and fifty acres for the benefit of the 
first settled minister. He also gave the inhabitants a ten-acre 
plot of land for a bi ilding lot and yard as a suitable site for the 
forthcoming meeting house. 

The meeting hoase lot was situated on the summit of a 
commanding elevation of ground nearly three-eights of a mile 
southeast of the exact centre of the town, but geographically as 
well located for the people as could be secured. As far as its 
natural attractions were concerned, a happier location could not 
have been selected. Rising over five hundred feet above the 
banks of the Contoocook River which appeared here and there 
through the rifts in the forest like links of silver on the green 
mantle of the wildwood, the view westward was stopped only by 
the dividing ridge of highlands running parallel with the Con- 
necticut valley ; on the south the beholder saw grand old Monad- 
nock at his best, while swinging towards the east and round to the 
north the panorama embraced "the hundred hills" of the Merri- 
mack valley and the cordon of highlands and mountains more 
than fifty miles away. Small wonder if "Meeting House Hill," 
as it became known, won a wider reputation than local circles, 
and "beautiful for situation was the joy of Hillsborough." 

It was ten years, however, after the coming of Daniel Mc- 
Murphy and his good wife to lay the foundation for the second 
settlement before the inhabitants felt equal to building a house. 
During the interval services were held with as much regularity as 
is possible with one or another of the families. When the weather 
would permit, the meetings were called in some one's barn, where 
a greater space for the audience could be obtained, the women 


being allowed seats in the center. In the colder or stormy 
seasons the worshippers met in one of the dwelling houses. 
There was no settled minister, and the names of only a few of 
those who ministered to the spiritual welfare of the people have 
been preserved. Among these were the names of Rev. Jonathan 
Barnes of Amherst. 

In order to accomplish the permanent establishment of a 
religious society and build a meeting house, it was almost neces- 
sary to effect an organization and to incorporate a township. 
This matter began to be seriously discussed in 1771, and definite 
action was taken the following year, as has been described else- 

November 9, 1772, Mr. Isaac Baldwin,, who had been selected 
by Governor John Wentworth to lead in the organization of the 
new town, issued the warrant for the first town meeting, fixing 
the date as November 24th, in the house of Capt. Samuel Brad- 
ford, innholder. 

Simultaneously with this call there seems to have been 
another for the inhabitants to convene at an earlier hour to con- 
sider the proper course to pursue relative to settling a minister. 
The records of this meeting, dated 5 years after, read as follows : 

Hillsborough, November 24th, 1777. 

At a Church meeting it was, voted unanimously that Mr. Jonathan 
Barnes take the Charge and oversight of the Church and flock of Christ 
in this Town aforesaid and that he settle with us in the work of the 
gospell Menestry according to the platform of Church disapline 
Comanly Called Cambridge platform, so far as it agrees with the word 
of God or the sacred Scripture. 

Voted : that They will give him thirty pounds Lawf ull money by 
way of settlement, and that they will give him thirty five pounds 
Lawful a year for the next four year, and then forty pounds a year 
untill there be 70 famelys in Town, and when there is seventy famelys 
in Town, he is to be intitled to fifty pounds a year wether sooner or 
Later, and is to be fifty pounds a year from the time of 70 famelys 
Coming in to the Town till there be 90 families, and after there is 
90 families, it is to be sixty pounds a year untill there is won hundred 
and ten famelies in Town, and after there is 110 famelies in Town it 
is to be sixty six pounds thirteen shillings and fore pence aneuely so 
long as he shall continue in the minestry among us, and forthermore 
that we will alow him two or three sabbaths in a year to visit his 



The same day Directly after the 
Church meeting the Town meet and 
Concored with the Church in giving 
Mr. Jonathan Barns, a Call to settle 
with them in the work of the Gospell 
Menestry and would Give him a Settle- 
ment as Salerey aboue mentioned and 
there was Not one opposing 
Timothy Wilkins 
Joseph Clark 

Bejn Lovjoy the 

John Mead Congregation 

George Booth 
Isaac Andrews 
Joshua Estey 

Willm Pope 
Saml Bradford Junr 
Timothy Bradford 
willm Jons 
andrew wilkins 
Samll Bradford 3d 
Isaac Baldwin 
John Sargent 
Nehemiah wilkins 
Anthony morin 
Willm Williams 
archable Taggart 
Jonathan Durant 
Baxter how 

Sam 1 ! Bradford 
Isaac Andrews 
Isaac Baldwin 

Chose as a Committy to 
present there Call to 
The person Elect 

The church meeting dissolved the town meeting was called 
to order by the moderator, Mr. Isaac Baldwin, at ten o'clock, the 
same place and day, when the provisions of the Governor in 
granting the town charter were considered and accepted. After 
disposing of the first three articles in the warrant, which related 
to the charter and election of a board of officers for the ensuing 
year, action was taken upon the 4th article, viz. : 

To se if the Town Wil Confirm and Establish what they done 
with Regard to settling Mr. Jonathan Barns in the work of the Gospel 

Voted on the 4th article to Eenew the Call to Mr. Jonathan Barns 
to setle in the work of the Gospel ministry 

Voted that Capt Samll Bradford should keep the Counsel at the 

The town meeting then adjourned to a date in December, 
when the newly elected board of town officials were sworn to 
their duties. 

The preliminaries must have been attended to and Mr. Barnes 
been prepared for the call, as the ordination took place the day 
following the first town meeting. It must have been an un- 
common event, in more ways than one, for the newly fledged 
town, probably the most noteworthy the community had ever 


known. In those days, when ministers were in many instances 
the only publicly educated men in a community, they were 
esteemed as among the elect. Not infrequently they wore 
magnificent wigs and were distinguished for their faultless, if 
not courtly, attire. In many cases, where it was possible, a 
candidate going to the place of ordination was escorted by a large 
proession led by a band playing martial music in military spirit, 
till the marching column had reached the meeting house or the 
scene where the exercises were to take place. Sometimes the 
newly-elected minister preached the ordination sermon, but when 
convenient another divine performed this part of the service. 

Only traditions of that faraway day in 1772 come down to 
us of the manner in which the young minister from Amherst was 
inducted into his noble office, but these are sufficient to show us 
the elaborate preparations that were made for the solemn, yet 
happy, occasion. In order to accomodate the crowd, for every 
able-bodied person within a radius of at least ten miles — and 
many from a longer distance — was expected to be present, Lieut. 
Samuel Bradford's commodious barn at his homestead on Bible 
Hill was made ready for the meeting. The home made brooms 
in dexterous hands swept the floors clean, and when the dust had 
settled the beams and walls were decorated with vines and ever- 
green gathered by the young people eager to do their part, until 
the roughness of the interior of the building was concealed 
beneath the festoons and mantles of foliage. Benches were ar- 
ranged to accomodate the congregation, there being reserved seats 
in the center for the women, while at the upper end was a raised 
dais for the ministers and deacons who were to assist in the in- 
duction of the young pastor into his new pastorate. 

While this work was being done Captain Bradford had sent 
a proper escort to accompany the candidate to receive his honors, 
and when the young minister came upon the scene you may be 
assured he was received with proper decorum that did not de- 
preciate the glad welcome of one and all. It was noticed that he 
appeared somewhat nervous, as if shrinking from the publicity 
of the ordeal, but his handsome features, pale as a student fresh 
from his studies, denoted a firmness of character that won the 
confidence of all. 


The Rev. James Scales of Hopkinton seems to have preached 
the ordination sermon, but beyond this meagre fact we get no 
particulars. But nothing marred the even tenor of the promising 
ceremonies, and with great expectations on the part of his parish- 
ioners Rev. Jonathan Barnes, on that gray November day in 1772, 
came to the pastorate at the call of the church and town, the first 
settled minister in Hillsborough. 

He was a graduate of Harvard College, a young man with 
the spirit and vigor of twenty-three years, earnest and full of 
promise for the future. He had already taken unto himself a 
wife, who was a fit companion and helpmeet for such a man. His 
induction into the ministry here had been on Wednesday, and 
that very week the household goods of the young couple were 
moved hither from Amherst over the road that has since become 
a noted highway of travel. Its condition at that time may be 
understood when it is known that it required three men to main- 
tain the equilibrium of the vehicle bearing the household goods of 
the new minister, and it may be easily imagined these were not 
very abundant. 

Mr. and Mrs. Barnes moved into a house which had been 
provided for them, in 1774, and he took possession of the 260 
acres of land Colonel Hill had so generously allotted the first 
minister, so in case his salary should not prove adequate to sup- 
port his family he could be farmer as well as minister, which he 
proved himself capable of becoming. He was fortunate in that 
respect, as the salary allowed him, of necessity was meagre and 
curiously hedged in with conditions and expectations, as witness 
the quaint language of the vote as recorded in the Town's book. 

Mr. Barnes possessed "a generous, sympathetic heart, and 
an open hand ; need and sorrow found in him a ready helper. 
Earnest and impressive in the pulpit, he was of an unsectarian 
liberality of view, and of a Christian catholicity of feeling towards 
those who could not believe as he did, quite uncommon in his day. 
As a citizen he exerted a commanding influence in maintaining 
social order, preserving unanimity of feeling, and otherwise ad- 
vancing prosperity of the town." The benefit of the service of 
such a person under the situation of that trying period cannot 
be over-estimated. 


Winter was now close at hand, and the religious services 
held by the new minister were of necessity given in a dwelling 
house, most of the time in that of Captain Bradford on Bible Hill. 

It was nothing unusual to hold religious services in barns, 
the weather permitting, and no more earnest audiences have ever 
been found under more attractive environments. But the in- 
habitants of Hillsborough had no intention of letting the situation 
rest under these conditions. During the winter plans were dis- 
cussed relative to building a house of worship the following 
summer. So in the warrant for the town meeting called for 
March 25th, 1773, the following articles appear as the real ob- 
ject of the occasion : 

21y, to see if the town will agree to build a meeting house for the 
Publick worship of God in said town. 

31y. to see where the town will agree to set said house, and also 
to give the Dementions how Large to buld, and Chuse a Comety to 
buld said house, see where it shall be bult. 

Action, for some reason not indicated, was unfavorable, as 
it was — 

Voted the article Concarning bulding meeting house be Dismissed 
for this time 

As far as related to the ministry in the town the voters were 
unanimous in their support : 

Voted, and hereby Do Eatfy Extablish and Confirm all and every 
artele, voted, the 24th of Noumbr Last past as mentioned in this 
warrent Relative to the Revd iMr. Jonathan Barnes as now upon 

The meeting was finally adjourned to the 15th of the follow- 
ing April, but that date falling upon Fast Day another adjourn- 
ment was made to the 4th of May, at which time definite action 
was taken relative to the matter. 

Voted 21y to buld a meeting house this year — the Length 35 feet 
Bredth 30 feet and, 9 feet stud 

Voted to set the meeting house on the Land Colin Hill Gave for 
that purpose 


Voted, to Chuse a Commite for Carying on the work of bulding 
the above said house 

Isaac Andrews 
Voted John McCalley the Cometty 

Timothy wilkins 

Voted to alow Captt Samll Bradford his account for keeping the 
Counsel at the ordenation of the Revd mr. Jonathn Barnes which 
acount was 9 — & — 8 Lawfull money 

Voted to alow the Settlement of the Rvd Jonathan Barnes : which 
was 30—0 — 

At last definite action had been taken in regard to building 
the proposed meeting house and the site fixed by the gift of 
Colonel Hill ratified. The records do not show that any opposi- 
tion to the selection was made by the voters, though it is possible 
there were those who would have preferred to have had the new 
edifice built on Bible Hill, as they readily foresaw that once the 
church was established elsewhere it would lose its chief attraction. 
Still very little, if any, selfishness was displayed in the matter. 
As Mr. Densmore, to whom I am indebted for considerable of my 
information, says : "To them Meeting House Hill was in anticipa- 
tion the Mount Zion, to which their hearts at once began to 
turn, and of which they were ready to say with the Psalmist, 
'Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth is Mount 
Zion' . . . 'and I was glad when they said unto me, come, let 
us go up into the house of the Lord.' For years to come nearly 
all of the tribes of the town did go up, some on horseback, more 
on foot, coming from the most distant parts of the town, some- 
times following the few roads scarcely yet begun, to be rendered 
passable only in coming years, oftener finding their way through 
dense forests in paths marked by blazed trees." 

During the interval that had elapsed between the ratification 
of the town charter and the official selection of the site for the 
meeting house, the selectmen had laid out three roads and eight 
more followed with the location of the church edifice in some way 
connected with their destination. Not always was this clearly 
defined to him unfamiliar with the topography of the country, 
but not to be mistaken by those who had the situation fixed in 
their hearts. 


There does not seem to have been any unnecessary loss of 
time in beginning work upon the new meeting house and before 
fall the frame was raised. But funds were lacking, to carry on 
the work, and at a special meeting held November i, 1773, it 
was — 

Voted, to Raise 30 pounds Lawfull towards bulding the meeting 

Work evidently continued on the structure, and at the annual 
town meeting held at the house of Mr. Baxter How, innholder, 
on March 31, 1774, the 9th article in the warrant read, 

"To see if the town will impower the Committee Chosen for 
Carying on the work of the Meeting House to sell the pew ground 
except one for Mr. barns and Dispose of the Efekts towards 
finishing the House." 

The matter was dismissed at this time, but a special meeting 
was called for April 27, when it was given full consideration. 
It was then — 

Voted — the Comitte to sell the pew Ground at Publick Vandew 
and Dispose of the efects for the use of the House 

Voted the Eeverand Mr. Barnes have the improvement of the 
town's Land at the meeting House this year 

Voted to Vew the Ground at the Meeting House spot for a burying 

Voted : Timothy wilkins Daniel McNeal the Committe to Vew the 
■Ground for a burying and make Return to the town at the Next 

Isaac Andrews Town Clerk 

At the annual meeting it was voted to "set the Pound as 
near to the meeting house as would be convenient." 

The warrant for the next special meeting called for Novem- 
ber 14, 1774, contained an interesting item in the notice " to 
Meet at the Meeting House in said town." Though there is no 
record to prove it in existence it is probable that religious ser- 
vices had already been held in the house, while it was still un- 
finished. It was so occupied whenever the weather would permit, 
and generally the town meetings were held here. It must have 
been far from rain proof, as it is related that on one occasion 
while Mr. Barnes was preaching through a shower his boots were 
filled with water and he was severely drenched. 

a minister's meagre salary. 201 

At this meeting on the 14th of November for the first time 
the designation of "dollar" is given in reckoning the currency of 
the day. Hitherto the currency in circulation had been in the 
English denomination of pounds, shillings and pence. After this 
date the accounts of the country were still computed in English 

It had now been over eighteen months since the first vote 
had been taken relative to building a meeting house, and the 
structure was still far from completion. As slow as the progress 
had been thus far, it moved yet slower in the years to come. 
That was in truth a period when there was a dullness in business 
everywhere. Ominous signs and indications predicted the coming 
of an earnest struggle the real depth and breadth of which no 
man could foresee. The annual meeting for 1775 contained no 
mention of the meeting house. 

A subtle hint at the stringent situation of the day is shown in 
the following record expressed in the quaint language of the 
times : 

August ye 17th 1775 
Hillborough. . this may Sartiphy that Considering the exteron- 
nary diffecoltys that we now labor under I do give to the six dollars 
as a free gift out of the present years Sallory 

In confirmation of the above I hereunto set my Hand 

Jona Barns 

This was exactly two months after the Battle of Bunker 
Hill. Mr. Barnes' generosity did not end with this gift, for he 
gave freely of his meagre pittance, notwithstanding the straitened 
condition of his own family. Mrs. Barnes, who proved herself 
worthy of so noble a man, in later years told the grandmother of 
Mr. Lyman W. Densmore that "their circumstances were so 
narrow that when ministers from abroad were expected as guests 
of her husband, she was compelled to hide her loaves of brown 
bread, the best she could afford, to keep her hungry children from 
picking at them between meals, and making them unpresentable 
at the table ! At another time it took the entire amount of Mr. 
Barnes' salary, as fixed by contract, to buy a pig, with the 
depreciated currency then in use." 


The previous winter had been unusually severe, and at the 
March town meeting a vote was taken to see if the church meet- 
ings should not be held in the dwelling of Deacon John Mead. 
But the motion did not prevail, and the meetings were continued 
in the unfinished meeting house. 

At a special meeting held April 22, 1776, George Booth, 
Samuel Bradford, Jr., and Thomas Murdough were chosen a 
committee "to finish the meeting house." 

Capt. Samuel Bradford, who had been very active in the 
affairs of the church, had died since March and his son and 
namesake now came forward to take his place. 

September 23, 1776, at a special meeting, a committee con- 
sisting of Lt. Daniel McNiel, William Jones, and Ens. Timothy 
Bradford was chosen to see how accounts stood in regard to 
finishing the meeting house. At this same meeting it was meant 
to hold the meetings in the meeting house by refusing to have 
preaching at the house of Capt. Joseph Symonds. At this time 
Lieut. Daniel McNiel, Lieut. Samuel Bradford, and William Pope 
were selected as a Committee to settle with the first committee to 
build the meeting house. 

Here, as far as the records show, the matter rested for this 
year. The gravity of the situation was increasing rather than 
growing more hopeful. With less than fifty rateable polls, the 
number of able-bodied men was considerable less, while from 
among these at one time or another more than a majority were 
in the army. The expense incurred in carrying on the war 
amounted to more than five times as much as the cost of main- 
taining affairs at home. This burden was more than trebled by a 
depreciated currency and the almost total absence of gold. In 
addition to this there were roads to lay out, build or repair, and 
bridges to construct, all of which meant much hard work and 
more or less financial outlay. With all of this there were the 
duties of home, the improvements on the rocky farms, the upkeep 
of the buildings and the ministration to the needs of the family, 
if simple not to be overlooked. 

Despite the cares and anxieties of the perplexing affairs of 
the world, the interest in spiritual matters continued to absorb 
to a considerable extent the minds of the people. Somehow, if 
not by official report (the records show none) the actual condi- 


tions regarding the meeting house was understood and "Vbtted 
to Chuse John McClintock, Nathanel Cooledge and Samuel 
Preston for a committee to finish the meeting house." 

It will be noticed that these were new men for the task, but 
that does not signify that the previous members had been derelict 
in their duties, for they were now in the army. 

May 28, 1777, another committee was chosen to look into the 
situation in connection with the building of the meeting house, 
the board consisting this time of Lt. Daniel McNiel, Lt. Samuel 
Bradford and William Pope "to Settel with the first meeting 
house committee." 

Votted to Raise twenty four Pounds to be Laid out on the meeting 

The committee chosen at this meeting to investigate the ac- 
count of the building committee reported very promptly, as 
follows : 

the Committe Chosen to Settle with the first meeting house Report 
that they find in their hands as follows Viz money four pounds four 
teen shillings and one penny Double tens one thousand, Linseed oil 
one Gallon white Lead four pounds, Spanish white fourteen Pounds, 
board nails Six hundred 

Hillsborough June ye 25, 1777 

Daniel McNeal 
William Pope 
Daniel Bradford 

A true Copy 


William Pope town Clerk 

The work on the meeting house was now happily nearing its 
completion. On the third article in the warrant for a special 
meeting held on September 29, 1778, 

31y to be if the Towne Will Chouse one man and Impour him to 
look up the former meeting house glass which Coin Hill gave to this 
town which glass has been Saut out in Severall Places and Impower 
Him to Prousecute as needs be. 

31y Isaac Andrews Esq Chosen to Loock up the former Meeting 
house glass and So the meeting Desolved 


It will be remembered that the glass to the windows of the 
early meeting house built in 1739 was buried for safety when the 
house was burned. Upon the beginning of the second settlement 
this had evidently been recovered and kept all of this time for 
possible use. 

At the annual meeting hold on March 25, 1779, a request 
from Mr. Barnes for permission to fence and improve the cleared 
land south of the meeting house, leaving room for a highway, 
for some reason was denied. 

March 25, and again April 20, of the same year, it was voted 
to sell the pew grounds at public auction. September 4, 1780, 
the selectmen were impowered to glaze the windows of the meet- 
ing house. At the annual town meeting March 29, 1781, it was — 

Voted to alow Isaac Andrews and Nathaniel Coolidge 14 times as 
their accounts stands at where the work was done by them to finish 
the meeting house. 

This wide margin was allowed on account of the great 
shrinkage in the purchasing power of the currency of that day. 

With this vote the accounts of the first church on Meeting 
House Hill closes as far as the town records are concerned in its 
construction. No doubt it was a source of an honest pride to its 
builders, and the hardships its construction had incurred were 
forgotten. Better yet peace had come to the country, and where 
had flashed the soldier's sword the ploughshare now glistened 
under the guidance of the hands of the husbandman, and peace- 
ful industry and prosperity went hand in hand. A new form of 
government was established and under its benign influence Hills- 
borough, like other New England towns increased in population 
and expanded in religious as well as political liberty. 

For nearly twenty years, considering the first meeting held 
within its unfinished walls to the closing of its doors in 1794, the 
old meeting house received the sober worshippers at its shrine 
Sabbath after Sabbath, while the town's people gathered here to 
conduct the civil affairs of the community. But in all that long 
period it had no facility for heating, and when the weather be- 
came too severe for the devout listeners to withstand the cold 
through two long sermons and singing and praying to match in 
corresponding length of time, they would adjourn to the pastor's 


house. Finally the day came when the audiences had outgrown 
the capacity of the old building, and it may be a pride in some- 
thing more attractive if not more holy gradually discounted the 
virtues of the old house of refuge. 

The historian of the church that was to follow, and from 
whom I have already quoted quite liberally, remarking upon the 
situation says : "it was a commanding elevation something more 
than a quarter of a mile southeast of the geographical centre of 
the town, early designated as the most suitable location for public 
business and divine worship, elevated more than 500 feet above 
the Main street in the Bridge village, commanding a view to the 
eastward, beyond the Merrimack valley, southward nearly to the 
Massachusetts line, including grand old Monadnock in all its 
majesty of proportion, westward to the height of land between 
Merrimack and Connecticut rivers, only limited as to the northern 
outlook by the Bradford hills, it was and is 'beautiful for situa- 
tion, the joy of the sons of Hillsborough' scattered over the face 
of the earth." 

The first meeting house at the Centre was replaced by the 
larger house in 1794. An outcast now the smaller building by 
vote of the town was sold at "vendue" April 28, 1795, Benjamin 
Pierce, Esq., being the highest bidder at twenty-five dollars and 
fifty cents, became its owner. The stipulation was that it should 
be removed before the last day of the following June, but for 
some reason the owner failed to carry out his condition, so the 
town granted him further time, and on September 3, at a special 
meeting it was voted "that the purchasers of the old meeting 
house be permitted to remove the same partly into the grave yard 
and east near the wall," this being the southeast corner of the 
"grave yard." Here the building was fitted up for a "Noon 
House," as it was called. This means that arrangements had 
been made to warm the house on extremely inclement weather in 
winter, and other accomodations made for the comfort and con- 
venience for those who cared to improve the opportunity. This 
innovation was hailed with joy by those who were obliged to ride 
in open vehicles for several miles over the hills in cold or stormy 
weather, while they were glad to eat their lunch during the noon 
intermission, after their journey hither and listening to a two- 


hour sermon with the knowledge that another siege of the same 
kind was ahead of them for the afternoon. Their tin "foot 
stoves" were filled from the coals of the fire in the big fireplace 
and taken back to the church to keep them measureably warm 
while listening to the discourse of the minister. A stove was not 
put into the meeting house until the fall of 1823. 

In 1797 the town voted that William Taggard and Jacob 
Spaulding be allowed the privilege of building a house on the 
common for the benefit of their families on Sundays. This house 
stood where the school house now at the Centre stands. There 
does not seem to be any records to show when the old meeting 
house, now a "Noon House," was destroyed or removed. But 
this was probably about the time a stove was put into the house 
that replaced it and it was torn down. So, its history replete with 
good action and story of the first active church in Hillsborough 
has been handed down to us in fragments and is the foundation 
upon which the religious history of the town stands. 

"The Old Meeting House." 

Story of the Third Meeting House — Need of the "New" House on 
Meeting House Hill — First Action by the Town — Plan Accepted — 
The Building of the House — The Symonds Gift — Provisions for the 
Eaising — An Event in Town History — Description of the Inside 
of the House — The Symonds Monument — Particulars of the 
Symonds Farm — Sale of Meeting House Pews — Plan of Pews — 
Location of House — Horse sheds — 'Officers to Look after Dogs — 
Eev. Jonathan Barnes — The Church and State — Rev. Seth Chapin 
— Not as Liberal as Mr. Barnes in His Eeligious Teaching — His 
Way Became more Thorny — Separation of Church and State — 
Regime of Rev. John Lawton — Many New Members Added to the 
Church — Pirst Sunday School in Town — 'Another "New" Meeting 
House at the Centre — The Old Church Becomes a "Town House" — 
Methodists Hold Services in It — Work of Destruction Begun — 
Abandonment of the "Old" Building as a Town House — Becomes 
the Prey of "Relic" Hunters — Extent of Ruin — Effort Made to 
Preserve the Wreck — Final Fate of the "Old Meeting House." 

Commonly referred to as the "Old Meeting House at the 
Centre" we now come to the history of what was really known in 
its earlier days as the "New Meeting House," and which was the 
second building of the kind on "Meeting House Hill," and the 
third in town. Though there are no definite figures to show what 
the increase in population had been during the existence of the 
house of worship, the return of the rateable polls indicate that 
it must have trebled. 

The tax list for 1776, the first made, contains 49 names, 
most of them heads of families. At the close of the war the 
number had increased to over one hundred, so that the capacity 
of the first meeting house was crowded to its utmost. However, 
as is usually the case, the matter had to be discussed and con- 
sidered for a few years before the result could be reached. In 
the warrant for a special meeting called for November 4, 1788, 
Articles 2, 3 and 4 ran as follows : 



"2iy to see if the town will Build, board and shingle a Meeting 
house in said town in Eighteen Months from the Date; on certain 
proposels that shall be exhibited in said Meeting— or any other way 
that the town shall think more proper 

3iy — To Draft a plan for said house or Chuse a Committe for that 

4i y — to Prescribe Methods for Building sd house and act accord- 
ingly thereon." 

At this meeting is was voted : 

2iy voted to Build a Meeting house within Eighteen Months 
agreeable to the proposels made by Deacon Joseph Symonds — 

3iy — Voted to choose a committee to Draft a plan for said house 
Voted the Committee consist of five Men (Viz) — Rvd Jona 
Barnes Daries Abbot John Dutton Benjamin Pierce Isaac 
Andrews Junr — Committee — 

4iy — Voted to Build said house Sixty two feet in length and fifty 
in wedth with three porches. 

Voted when the plan of said house is drawn to sell the Pew 
ground for the purpose of purchasing Nails, timber of every kind for 
said house Boards Shingles and stones for underpining of said house, 
and that a purchaser of each pew pay Eighteen shillings in cash at a 
Certain time which shall hereafter be affixed by a Committee, and if 
the above mentioned Meterials are not procured at the time that shall 
be set them by the Committee, then the cash to be paid the Committee 
for the purpose of purchasing said Materials and in case the Pew 
grounds Does not more than purchase the Meterials which have been 
[Mentioned — then the purchasers of said pews to turn in Neat Stock or 
grain to pay of the workmen. 

Voted to Choose a Committee to carry on the work of said house. 

Voted the Committee consist of five men (viz) — Major Benj Pierce 
Isaac Andrews Junr John Dutton W m Taggart Paul Cooledge — Com- 

At an adjourned meeting held November 13 the Plan sub- 
mitted by the committee was accepted, and new members added to 
the board to help carry on the work. The new names were — 
Daries Abbot, Otis How, John McCalley, Calvin Stevens. Among 
other things decided it was voted to lessen the number of porches 
by one, and that the house should be "set fronting to the South." 
The omission of a porch as voted was from this side of the 




Other meetings were held to consider the details of building 
the house, and the work seems to have progressed as rapidly as 
could have been expected. The winter season was at hand, when 
the farmers have most leisure. First of all the timber had to be 
cut and hauled to the mill, such of it as was to be sawed, some of 
the larger timbers such as sills and posts being hewn by the men 
adept in that kind of work. It is said the first stick of timber 
was hauled to the mill by a pair of steers, owned and driven by 
John Hartwell, a boy of fourteen, accompanied and assisted by 
two of the boys of Rev. Mr. Barnes. Dea. Ephraim Barker of 
Amherst was the "master workman," who superintended the 
framing of its massive oaken timbers, though there is no record 
who his immediate assistants were. It is probable that nearly 
every man in town had a hand in its building, for in those days 
most men were adept in the use of carpenter's tools. 

The Symonds Gift. 

The following are the proposals alluded to in the warrant 
for the meeting on November 4, and upon which generous pro- 
position the town voted to build the meeting house : 

I Joseph Symonds of Hillsborough in the County of Hillsborough 
and State of New Hampshire, Do now give the home farm of Samuel 
Symonds Late of Hillsborough Deceased with all the priviledges and 
appurtenances thereto belonging, as a free gift, agreeable to the 
desire of his Son Deceased, provided that this town Build Board and 
Shingles a Meeting house in Said town in Eighteen 'Months from the 
Date of this Meeting caled to hear and act upon said proposals ; said 
house to be set upon the Land that had been appropriated for that 
use by Col : Hill and Likewise in finishing sd House that they Build 
a Convenient seat in the forepart of the front Gallery and always 
reserveing that the town bind and obligate themselves in case the said 
Samuel Symonds other Lands together with his effects Do not pay his 
Debts and funeral Charges the town shall cause the same to be paid 
— Likewise that the town free me the sd Joseph Symonds My Heirs 
and assigns forever from any suit or suits at Law which may hereafter 
arise by Reason of any Land Titles which the sd Samuel Symonds 
either gave or Received provided sd Suit or suits at Law Do do not 
amount to more than the value of the said home farm, and also that 
I the said Joseph Symonds Do engage for myself my heir and assigns 
to bear an equal proportion according to what I have received out of 


the said Samuel Symond's Estate — furthermore it is always to be 
remembered the improvement of the said farm until the Eighteen 
Months above mentioned are expired, and also reserving the boards 
upon the back side Roof of the barn and also some loose boards and 
plank on sd farm otherwise the town pay the same, These pro- 
posals agreed to and Ratified by said town to remain in full force and 
virtue otherwise to be void and of none effect. 

Given under my hand this fourth Day of November A. D. 1788. 
Attest Isaac Andrews Joseph Symonds 

John Dutton 

A special town meeting was called for Aug. 31, 1789 "to see 
what provision and in what way and Manner they will provide for 
the Raising of the Meeting house proposed to be Built in said 
town" at which it was "Voted there be provision Made on the 
Spot near the Meeting house for spectators as those employed in 
Raising said house." It was also "Voted to Raise sixty pounds 
for the purpose of Raising said Meeting house in said town in 
produce as follows (vis) Beef and Mutton at twenty shillings 
per hundred, Merchantable Rey at four shillings per bushels, 
indian corn three shillings per bushel." (This vote was recon- 
sidered at a later special meeting held Dec. 6 the same year.) 
"Voted the Committee appointed to carry on the work of said 
house be a Committee for the Raising said house." The 
"Raising" was accomplished Sept. 17, 1789. The reason for the 
preceeding votes of the town is accounted for not only by the 
fact that the undertaking required the united assistance of all, 
or nearly all, the able-bodied men in town to accomplish it, but 
the further fact that it being a matter of universal interest it 
would call together the families of those engaged in the labor, as 
well as people from adjourning towns, hence the necessity of 
providing a vantage ground of observation and for their "Crea- 
ture Comforts" as well. Tradition informs us that four bbls. of 
N. E. Rum were provided for the occasion. The following de- 
scription of the inside of the house is taken from "A Memoir, 
Hillsborough Old Meeting House" by L. W. Densmore: "The 
house is sixty-four feet eight inches in length, and forty-eight 
feet, six inches in width. Height to ceiling inside twenty-eight 
feet, height to gallery ten feet and a half, paneled and moulded 
front five feet high, panels showing 24X54 inches. The southern 


entrance with double doors, is four feet ten inches, by nine feet. 
East and west entrances three feet four inches by six feet five 
inches, doors to audience three feet nine inches by six feet seven 
inches. The aisles separating the body pews from those next the 
walls were elevated 71-2 inches above the central aisles a similar 
ascent leading into the wall pews. Pew doors 22 inches wide, 
height of pews 40 1-2 inches of plain paneled work, surmounted 
by a rail. Most of the pews had seats on three sides, some 
having seats on all sides, elevated 17 inches above the floor and 
hinged to allow of being raised while their occupants stood during 
prayer and the singing service. The pulpit was reached by a 
flight of steps with an abrupt ascent to a landing whence a couple 
more of steps lead to the platform. The reading desk was semi- 
octagonal in form. Over it hung the antique board, at an eleva- 
tion of 7 feet above the platform, octagonal in shape 5 ft. 9 in 
across and 13 ft 4 1-2 in below the ceiling. Under the pulpit 
were two receptacles, closed by sash and glass, one of which con- 
tained the vessels used in the communion service, the other filled 
with a small library of religious books including several volumes 
of sermons, from which, on the Sabbath when the society were 
without regular preaching, sermons were read by different per- 
sons appointed by the deacons. Above the pulpit was placed 
a tablet commemorating the generous gift made by Mr. Samuel 
Symonds which bore the following inscription : 

This MONUMENT in memory of 

<Jll e)amuel o)ymonas, 

who departed this life 2 d of October A. D. 1788. in the 
34th year of his age. Who gave £120 towards building this 
House, which was finished July 1794. 

Hte hands while they his Gift This sweet remembrance, it is just 

bestowed Should flourish while he sleeps in 

His glory's future harvest sow'd. dust. 

The east and west porches were 14 feet long and 14 1-2 feet 
wide each having entrances at the end and on the South face and 
a flight of stairs nearly four feet in width with landing and return 


to reach the galleries in the body of the house. The gallery fronts 
were supported on columns, each turned out of a solid piece of 
timber. * * * The Choir occupied the front of the South gallery, 
facing the pulpit. * * * "A detailed account of subsequent action 
on the part of the town for the "Finishing of the Meeting house" 
is not necessary for a full understanding by the general reader. 
A summary will suffice. At a special town meeting April 26, 
1790, "Revd Jona. Barnes and John Dutton" were chosen Agents 
to "Dispose of the Donation or farm" bequeathed the town by 
Mr. Samuel Symonds. (This farm is on the west side of the 
river on the "beard Road." now (1904) owned by heirs of the 
late A. B. Kimball.) At the annual meeting in March 1791 it 
was "Voted the Committe appointed to Build and finish the meet- 
ing house in said town be dismissed and one other Committee be 
Chosen in Lieu of them." This Committee consisted of John 
Dutton, Isaac Andrews, jr., and William Taggart. At the same 
meeting it was "Voted to raise 40 pounds for the use of finishing 
the Meeting house," and at a special meeting June 25, 1792, one 
hundred pounds more was voted for the same purpose, but it was 
not until July, 1794, that the house was finished as attested by 
the Symonds tablet, the only official declaraion of the fact. 

According to the original plan the ground floor contained 
54 pews besides reserving space covering four pews in front of 
the pulpit for aged persons. (These seats were subsequently 
taken out and pews made in their place.) Pew No. 1 was re- 
served for "the parsonage pew." Forty nine of them were sold 
at "public vendue" on Nov. 20, 1788, ranging in price from £13 
for the highest to £8. The remaining pews in the gallery were 
sold June 17, 1794. The combined amount of the sales was 
£656 5 shillings; to which add the Symonds bequest £120 and 
the £140 appropriated by the town and we find that the total cost 
of the house £916 5 shillings. Many of the pews changed owners 
in after years at reduced prices, although some of them brought 
more than the original cost. There is one instance on record 
when the owner mortgaged his pew for thirty five dollars. 

This house was located a few rods in front of the first 
described one, just outside the limits of the graveyard, upon a 
nearly level spot, the foundation being a solid ledge sloping 
slightly towards the east. At the entrance of the east porch was 


a large flat-topped granite boulder raised to a sufficient height to 
serve as an imperishable horse-block upon and from which the 
women folk could conveniently dismount and mount from saddle 
and pillion before the days of carriages. 

An appendage of much importance for the protection and 
comfort of animals in stormy or inclement weather, were horse- 
sheds. At the annual meeting March, 1795, it was "Voted that 
Joseph Symonds, Isaac Andrews John Dutton, William Taggard 
& Thomas Kerr be a committe to Examine the Common and 
report were Horsesheds Shall be Built: 

"The committe reported That Horse Sheds May be set east of 
those on the east of the Meeting House West from the Graveyard gate 
as near The Corner of the wall as can be convenient for the road, and 
also from the Southeast corner of the pound and west of the Meeting 
House by the side of the Hill." 

In the Warrant for March meeting, 1797, was an article to 
see if "in addition to the customary Town officers, the Town 
think proper to choose a man or men whose office it shall be to 
keep the Meeting house Clear from dogs on Sundays the insuing 
year by killing the same if found in the meeting house" — Voted 
to dismiss. 

In the absence of Church records as before stated, we are 
obliged to rely upon other authorities for a period of 25 years. 

In 1803 the Rev. Mr. Barnes, while riding on horse back was 
prostrated by a stroke of lightning which so paralized his 
energies as to disqualify him for the discharge of his pastoral 
duties, consequently he resigned them and he was dismissed. He 
survived two years and died August 3, 1805. Mr. Charles J. 
Smith in "Annals of Hillsborough" says of him: 

"He was a man of very respectable talents, possessed a vigorous 
and discriminating mind and a lively and well cultivated imagination. 
He had a strong, sonorous voice, and an emphatic delivery. His 
manners were eminently dignified, polished and agreeable, a model of 
clerical urbanity. He was a charitable man with the sons and 
daughters of need, he was familiarly acquainted, making it an object 
to seek out the children of sorrow, and administered to their neces- 
sities, and by such he was regarded with the warmest affection. As a 
citizen, he exerted a commanding influence, in maintaining social 
order, preserving unanimity of feeling, and otherwise advancing the 


prosperity of the town. In his religious belief he is supposed to have 
been, what was at that time styled an Arminian, that is a man of 
liberal views. He was not a rigid sectarian, but cherished a truly 
catholic and liberal spirit toward those who differed from him in 

As the inhabitants became more numerous and found greater 
leisure for study and mingle more freely with their fellowmen a 
growing dissatisfaction was manifest among them in regard to 
the jurisdiction of the state over the church. While a majority 
still believed it was eminently proper for the state to maintain its 
guardianship and sustain it, the growing minority, holding 
different religious tenets, chafed under the obligation to help 
support a church not wholly in harmony with their ideas of 
worship. Though they climbed the selfsame hills their fathers 
had trod, singly or together, they began to discover new paths by 
which to ascend the height of Calvary. 

Before the beginning of the 19th century this feeling of 
rebellion began to make itself manifest, and as early as 1790 
several claimed exemption from the minister's tax which had 
hithertofore been assigned by the town and directly for the 
dominating religion. Article 10, in the warrant June 27, read 
as follows: "to see if they (the town) will abate the minister tax 
for the present year of persons hereafter mentioned or any one of 
them (viz) Moses Steel, Robert Patten, John McClary, John 
McClintock, Alexander McClintock, Thomas Murdough, Joseph 
Taggart, John Bibson, James McCalley, Elijah Fiske, John Bix- 
bee, David Goodel, Jedidiah Preston, Ezekiel Little." 

This article was dismissed, but one similar was inserted in 
each succeeding warrant regularly, always meeting with the same 
fate, until some of the parties resisted the payment of such tax, 
to test the validity of this action. A committee was appointed to 
defend these suits and reported a settlement, but carefully with- 
held the methods or extent of settlement. We get an inkling of 
the result obtained from the fact that henceforth an ever-increas- 
ing number of tax payers were exempted from the "minister's 

At the time of the settlement of Rev. Seth Chapin in 1805 
as minister over the Congregational Church a decided opposition 
was shown in the vote at the annual town meeting which stood 


107 in the affirmative and 69 in the negative. The opposition was 
very active too. At this time the Universalist society had become 
quite strong, and was probably the most energetic of those seek- 
ing a share of the town support, declaring with an indisputable 
truth that one division of the church people deserved assistance 
from the public treasury in equal proportion with another. Be- 
sides this society were the Baptist and Christian denominations. 

It will be noticed that the names protesting against paying 
the minister's tax were largely Scotch-Irish, and would have been 
expected to be Presbyterians, yet this society never asserted itself 
distinctly in Hillsborough. The denomination had a strong 
society in Antrim, and probably some of the same belief in Hills- 
borough were affiliated with this organization. 

In speaking of the churches the word Christian is given in 
the calculation of the denominations. As early as 1781 an effort 
was made to abolish the religious test for office, and to substitute 
in the Sixth Article of the Bill of Rights the word "Christian" 
for "Protestant," hence the derivation of the term. It was not 
until 1877 tne religious test was removed, when Roman Catholics 
were allowed for the first time to hold office legally. 

Upon taking a vote the town chose a committee of some of 
its leading citizens, headed by Hon. Benjamin Pierce, to confer 
with the dissatisfied ones and bring about harmony if possible. 
A protest was made signed by a goodly number of townsmen and 
filed with the clerk. This article contained the names of such 
influential citizens as Timothy Wyman, James Alcock, John 
Eaton, Benjamin Bradford, Amos Hartwell, and others. 

Added to this growing sentiment Mr. Chapin's rigid views 
of orthodoxy following Mr. Barnes' more liberal teachings, to 
say nothing of the widely different personal bearing of the two 
men, was like heaping coals of fire upon the slumbering embers 
of the religious altar. It should not have taken a minister with 
more far-seeing gaze than that of this Puritanic disciple to read 
the signs on the church wall. 

During the ministry of Mr. Barnes the "half way covenant," 
as already mentioned, was practiced. This meant that the 
children of those who were not members of the church could be 
admitted to the rite of baptism. Nor did the society stop here, 


for eventually persons were admitted to the church with no 
particular confession of faith. It is easy to see that the discipline 
of the church was endangered, and the doctrines of the Unitarian 
faith promised to supplant the more rigid teachings of the 
Calvinists. Only a man of Mr. Barnes' ability and clerical 
urbanity could have carried this matter so far without disin- 
tegrating the church. A man of good talents, of fine physique, 
a vigorous mind, well-stocked from the best in literature, a 
vivid imagination, a clear voice with emphatic enunciation, and 
a pleasing address he was peculiarly fitted to maintain any line 
of work that interested him. 

Though incapacitated from active work following the attack 
to his physical being, Mr. Barnes continued to hold his position 
nominally during an interval when several clergymen preached 
here as candidates or supplies. Among the former was a Rev. 
Josiah Moulton, and an effort was made to settle him. There 
being 54 members against him to 57 in favor, the attempt was 

In June, 1805, town and church concurring, the Rev. Stephen 
Chapin was accepted and ordained June 18, 1805, at a salary of 
$400.00, and allowed four Sabbaths. The ordination sermon was 
delivered by Rev. Nathaniel Emmons of Medway, Mass. 

Mr. Chapin proved the very opposite of Mr. Barnes in his 
administration of the church affairs. The plan of the half 
covenant was abandoned, and an experimental acquaintance with 
religion demanded as a qualification for admission, while an 
Orthodox confession of faith and covenant was adopted. As 
might be expected this awakened a vigorous opposition from 
those who had been faithful adherents of the policy of the 
previous pastor. The result was that the talented but erratic 
Mr. Chapin had a stormy pastorate until his dismissal July 30, 
1809. The number added to the church during his pastorate was 
38, and though not large was an important acquisition. It was 
generally acknowledged that he was a minister of able qualities 
and good morals. No doubt the troubles engendered during his 
brief pastorate were due as much to the liberal ideas fostered by 
the previous administration as to his more rigid doctrines. 

After leaving Hillsborough he filled half a dozen pastorates 


in different New England towns, and then received the appoint- 
ment of President of the Columbian College, Washington, D. C, 
being inaugurated in that office March n, 1829, filling the im- 
portant position for several years with distinguished ability. 

A committee of compromise was chosen to attempt to unite 
the members of the church which was partially successful, inso- 
far as to patch up the differences and allow the situation to 
remain with little change. Following the dismissal of Mr. Chapin 
in 1809 it was impossible to unite the diverging sentiments enough 
to settle a permanent pastor over any denomination. 

After three years without a regular minister an invitation 
was extended to Rev. Seth Chapin of Mendon, Mass., no relative, 
except in name to his predecessor. He accepted and was or- 
dained January 1, 1812. The exercices upon this occasion con- 
sisted of an introductory prayer by Rev. Moses Sawyer of Hop- 
kinton ; sermon by Rev. Ephraim P. Bradford of New Boston ; 
ordaining prayer and charge by Rev. Reed Paige of Hancock ; 
the Right Hand of Fellowship by Rev. John M. Whiton of 
Antrim; concluding prayer by Rev. Lemuel Bliss of Bradford. 
The church affairs moved in an even tenor until Mr. Chapin was 
dismissed June 26, 1816. 

At the annual Meeting March 8, 1814, the matter of allowing 
the different religious denominations a proportionate share of 
money and privileges in the use of the meeting house was acted 
upon, and a committee chosen to consider the situation. This 
board consisted of Hon. Benjamin Pierce, Calvin Stevens, Esqr., 
Messrs. George Little, James Wilson, Samuel Ellinwood, Dr. 
Paul Cooledge, and Mr. Benjamin Smith. This was an influential 
board of arbitrators, but the volcano was too near the surface to 
allow of suffocating much longer. Two years later, 1816, out of 
373 persons assessed for taxes 153, nearly one-half, were exempt 
from a minister's tax. And this was the last time any reference 
was made to the matter in the town records. At last the church 
and the state had been separated, and the salary of the preacher 
was raised by subscription. Following the dismissal of this 
second Chapin, in the language of Rev. Harry Brickett in writing 
of the situation, "the church lived from hand to mouth ; licentiates 
from seminaries came and went." 



Finally, in 1820, Rev. John Lawton settled here and 
preached regularly here a year, when he was ordained in Novem- 
ber, 1821. He held a very successful pastorate here for fourteen 
years, adding 150 members to the church. Then he incurred the 
enmity of several of his parishioners by his earnest advocacy of 
temperance, a question at that time beginning to agitate the minds 
of men. He was dismissed at his own request in 1834. He had 
married in February 9, 1826, Abigail, only daughter of Rev. and 
Mrs. Jonathan Barnes. He was reluctantly dismissed and his 
wife dying about this time, he left town to become the principal 
of an academy in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., soon after seeking new 
fields of endeavor. 

The summer preceding Mr. Lawton's removal the first 
Sunday School in town was conducted by Frank W. Symonds, 
his sister Sarah and Maria Johnson. 

Rev. Milton Ward was the next settled minister to preach 
in the old meeting house, but his stay was short, as he was 
dismissed at his own desire, he having changed his religious 

Next came the most promising of them all, Rev. Seth Farns- 
worth, ordained in November, 1836, but falling a victim to lung 
fever the following March, " in the full tide of his usefulness, 
abundant in labors, with bright prospects for the future." 

His successor was Rev. Samuel G. Tenney, ordained July 4, 
1838, just as a crisis in the history of the "Old Meeting House" 
was apparent. The time had come when the territory about the 
Centre no longer furnished a majority of the worshippers, and 
the members living in or near the hamlet at the falls demanded a 
division of the church, so they could have a house at Bridge 
Village. All this ultimately obtained, as is described in another 

As if the honest old structure had not received sufficient 
opposition, in 1859 a new and smaller house of worship was built 
a little southeast of the "Mother Church." This was a neat and 
elegant house, constructed of wood, painted white, with green 
Venetian window blinds, the building surmounted by a beautiful 


In this tower was placed a fine-toned bell, which could be 
distinctly heard in any part of the town. One of the donors of 
this bell was Enoch Train of Boston, formerly of Hillsborough, 
who had not lost interest in his native hamlet upon moving away. 

The bell was considered an important adjunct to the country 
meeting house. It will be remembered that Colonel Hill presented 
the first house, the one built by the original settlers of the town 
then "Old Number Seven," with such a useful adornment, but it 
never got any nearer its destination than Groton, Mass., where it 
rendered excellent service for many years. The first house at the 
Centre had a bell, but its successor did not have one. 

Isolated as the early settlers were and time pieces not as 
common as they are to-day when a clock can be bought for a 
small sum, it was perfectly natural the people should desire to 
have a meeting house bell. There is no music sweeter or filled 
with a higher cadence than the notes of a church bell pealing 
forth His morning messages over hill and valley upon a New 
England Sabbath. What more beautiful picture can be imagined 
than the sight of its humble followers coming from every quarter 
with sedate countenance and quiet steps towards the open door 
of the sacred edifice the central magnet of all points of the 

For the following twenty years the "Old Meeting House" 
was simply a town house, where the voters of the town con- 
gregated to settle their political differences wih very little regard 
for any religious obligation. 

Eventually the new house was without a pastor, when a 
struggling Methodist society obtained permission to hold its meet- 
ing there in i860. This served to awaken the lagging interest of 
the Congregationalists, who rallied to the support of a minister. 
Without a house of their own, the Methodists held their meetings 
in the old house. 

Soon it came about that the Methodists had secured a very 
promising young preacher, who demurred at occupying the high, 
old-fashioned pulpit, declaring he felt too much as if he were in 
a box! Immediately the premission of the selectmen was ob- 
tained, and carpenters (spare the term) "with a strange lack of 
appreciation of the fitness of things, proceeded to cut away the 


reading desk, to suit the whim of a stranger to the associations 
connected with the hallowed spot, from which the gospel had 
been proclaimed to hundreds of worshippers in the preceding 
century, scarcely one of whom was then living to rebuke the 
unseemly act." 

This work of despoilation was followed by one equally, if 
not more reprehensible in the course of a few years. The Con- 
gregational Society being about to give an entertainment in the 
old building, some of the young folks thought it would be a great 
improvement to cut away some of the pews, so as to give more 
floor space. That night a party of men entered the sacred 
precinct and demolished the pews north of the east and west 
central aisle. 

The changes in population as the years passed brought pre- 
judices against the building. Perhaps not as much against the 
hallowed structure as against its location, which had once been 
selected with great equanimity. The enterprises at Bridge Vil- 
lage, with ever-increasing number of inhabitants, made the old 
house an undesirable place for them to go even once a year to the 
annual town meetings. At the March meeting in 1872 an attempt 
was made to remove the town meetings to the factory village. 
The persons working for this end failed to get a majority this 
time, but two years later, in 1874, it was voted to abandon the 
"Old Town House," as it was now known, and to hold the town 
meetings at Bridge Village, where certain enterprising individuals 
had agreed to furnish a suitable hall free of expense to the town 
for ten years. 

So after four-score years .the house built with so much of 
sacrifice, generosity and pride was abandoned, a lonely landmark 
of the changes of time. Almost immediately it became the victim 
©f vandals, men, women and children who seemed to have for- 
gotten the dignity and sanctity of the ancient building and im- 
proved every opportunity to cut away and carry off "relics" of 
the time-honored structure. I do not know what the punishment 
will be, but somewhere and sometime, if there is a retributive 
justice, not a few persons will have to answer for the sins com- 
mitted under that innocent term, "Relics !" Save the mark !* 

*L. W. Densmore. 


Seeing there would soon be nothing left of the old building 
but its walls, a movement was started by some of the more 
patriotic citizens to see if something couldn't be done to save the 
structure in a manner "which would be alike creditable and profit- 
able to the town." This was in 1883, and a committee was chosen 
consisting of William H. Manahan, James M. Wilkins, Jacob B. 
Whittemore, Walter P. Straw and Charles W. Conn, to in- 
vestigate and report as to what might be done. 

This committee apparently was not very active, as there is 
nothing to show what they did until a report was rendered at the 
annual meeting in March, 1886, when it was voted to accept the 
return and to raise the sum of eight hundred dollars "to repair 
the town house at the centre, and that the selectmen act as a com- 
mittee to carry out the vote in regard to repairing the same." 

Evidently the Selectmen were not in accord with the vote, or 
public sentiment was too strongly opposed to such action, for 
nothing further was done to save the building, not even to raise 
the money to preserve it. 

In 1889 an article in the warrant "to see if the town will take 
any action on repairing or disposing of the old town house" was 
dismissed. The following year, however, the town voted to raise 
the money to repair the house. 

Just what action would have followed this vote cannot be 
told, for soon after, an unexpected denouement most interesting 
and possibly most important closed the chapter in the history of 
the town. On the morning of June 19, 1892, it was discovered 
to be in flames, and despite the desperate efforts that were made 
to save it, the venerable meeting house perished in the tempest of 
its own flames. So the old structure went out in a halo of its own 
light, the torch of its burning timbers, leaping high towards the 
sky, seen for more than fifty miles. 

This fire was supposed to have been set by an incendiary, 
but, if so, the culprit was never apprehended. And this was the 
fate of the "venerable house to which one hundred years ago our 
ancestors gladly thronged to hear the word of God ; where their 
children were baptised, from whence their young men and 
maidens set out on the journey of life, and through whose doors 
so many have passed to the narrow house appointed to all men. 
Its walls in years gone by echoed to the tread of future chief 


magistrates, senators, jurists, soldiers of distinction, missionaries 
who spent their lives in foreign lands, men of action in the busy 
affairs of life, most of whom have passed away." What a 
centennial ! 

The "Old Meeting House," as it was most commonly 
designated, was a spacious structure without steeple or bell. /The 
exterior of the building, when in a state of good repair, was 
painted white, while the roof was red. Standing upon its lofty 
site, it was seen at a great distance from the surrounding towns, 
and presented a good specimen of the style of church architecture 
prevailing in New England at the time. 

An Oldtime Town Meeting. 

A New England Institution — Immigrants from 1630 to 1650 — Country 
Gentlemen — Contrast of Character as to the Virginians — Original 
Townships— Early Meeting Houses— "Old Centres"— First Town 
Meeting in New England — Selectmen — Freemen — Clerks — Con- 
stables — "Vandue" of Taxes — Other Officials — Meaning of Term 
"Town" — Society Land — Early New Hampshire Government — A 
Town Meeting Held in the Meeting House at the Centre in 1779 — 
The Warrant — Leading Citizens — The Man who Was Always First 
— "Little Dan" Kellom — Captain Symonds — Major Andrews — 
Lieutenant Bradford — Daniel Gibson — Eobert Taggard — Thaddeus 
Monroe— McClintoeks— And Others — Spirit of '76 — Meeting Opened 
with Prayer by Parson Barnes — Town Clerk's Record — Voting 
without a Checklist — Economies in Salaries — ^Committee of Safety 
— Constable — Treasurer — Tithing Man — Hayward — Field Driver or 
Hog Reeve — Cattle Marks — Deer Reeve — When the Meeting Place 
Was Changed to Bridge Village — Fairs and Public Markets — 
Warning Strangers Out of Town. 

The town meeting is peculiarly a New England institution, 
and marks the establishment of a government by the people for 
the people. It is true it had its example to a certain extent ad- 
vanced in the mother land, but the men who came here between 
1630 and 1660 were the fathers of local government in its highest 
degree. The Pilgrims, strictly speaking, and we are relating to 
those who came in 1620 and immediately after, the men and 
women who had fled from Nottinghamshire, Eng., to Holland, 
and those closely associated with them, said nothing of civil 
government, but fled the country to escape religious persecution, 
and in their earnest endeavors to secure church freedom ignored 
personal liberty. 

Thus this accomplishment was left to those who came later 
from Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Dorset, Devonshire, York- 
shire and adjoining sections mainly between 1630 and 1650, their 
paths made easier and clearer by the pioneers in their faith who 



had so far asserted themselves as to be already felt as a power. 
These leaders were mostly country gentlemen of considerable 
means, and with good education and high ambition. They belonged 
largely to the class of Hampden and Cromwell. Their followers, 
the rank and file of the New England colonists, were intelligent 
and ambitious to improve their social and financial condition. 
And, let it be said to their credit, they came with little or no 
bitterness towards the mother-land. There were few, if any, 
dependents or vicious-minded among them ; no idle, nor shiftless, 
nor disorderly persons. With these sturdy, God-fearing men 
came their wives, daughters, sisters and sweethearts to soften the 
rougher elements in their rugged characters. All of this was in 
direct opposition to the colonists of Virginia, made up mainly of 
outcasts, adventurers and prison birds, without a woman to leaven 
the loaf, until she was sent without her wish to be bidden off at 
auction by the lawless seekers for wives as you would buy cattle. 
Let it be said to her credit, she surrendered gracefully, and by 
her influence established good society. 

It is not surprising that we find the New England colonists 
immediately uniting in the formation of religious society and 
asserting the principles of a democratic government. For the 
accommodation of the first a meeting house was erected as soon 
as might be, and for the convenience of the second this same 
house of worship became the hall for these town meetings which 
were at once the wonder and the making of New England. 

Patterning somewhat after the old country the territory was 
first divided into certain dimensions called townships, these being 
usually about six miles square, though many of the earlier 
districts were considerably larger, sometimes being ten miles 
square. Usually about the centre of this territory a meeting 
house — mind you it was not called a "church" in those days — 
was erected, and this attraction generally drew the people here 
until a village of considerable size, in many cases, sprang into 
existence. In the changes of the rolling years few of these "Old 
Centres" are to-day invested with the life they knew and were 
a part of a century ago. The site did not always prove ad- 
vantageous to continued growth, when the town and the church 
were divorced and the husbandman lost his prestige as the 











dominating figure of industry. Some waterfall in a remote 
quarter of the town, which gave an impetus to manufacture, or 
a railroad station became the scene of traffic, either of which was 
a disturbing factor in rural life and created new centres of 

As early as 1635 a warrant for the first town meeting was 
posted and the good people gathered at the meeting house to 
provide suitable rules and regulations to shape the conduct of 
public affairs. It was originally intended to hold these meetings 
monthly, but this soon proved too great a demand upon the time 
of a busy class of citizens, and the meetings were called less and 
less frequently. This could be safely done as a board of officers 
known as "Select Men," usually consisting of five of the most 
prominent men in the community, were chosen to look after 
matters in the intervals. Finally these came to be elected for a 
year, and the meetings were made annual, unless some uncommon 
subject demanded a special meeting, and March, the least busy 
period of all the year for the tillers of the soil, was selected as 
the month in which to hold these gatherings. Soon the Selectmen 
became known as "The Fathers of the Town," a very apt term, 
considering that they were in truth masters of the situation and 
lawmakers as well as lawgivers. 

At first only "Freemen" were allowed to vote at town meet- 
ings, and by this term, we must understand that the person had 
been admitted on account of his influence and standing in the 
community to take part in the affairs of the church, but before 
the end of the 17th century this rule was abolished by the 
Provinces of Massachusetts and Connecticut, while no other 
province ever accepted this rule. 

The next officer of importance to the Selectmen, and we are 
not unmindful of the Moderator, who must have been the oldest 
official, was the person who was intrusted with the keeping of the 
records, the Clerk. He was understood to be a person of more 
than average education and a good penman, though we must 
confess that many of them fell far short of these acquirements. 
There had to be men to keep the peace, and the restrictions were 
very rigid in those days, and these officers were called "Con- 
stables." As soon as the time came when money was needed to 


finance the public business taxes had to be assessed, which called 
for "Assessors," though the Selectmen usually performed this 
duty, and do until this day in most country towns. In order to 
obtain these taxes, men had to go out and collect them, for even 
then money was not paid over until called for, and this duty was 
performed for a time by the Constable. Eventually the collection 
of taxes was bid off by some reliable person at a public "vendue," 
an old term for auction, the lowest bidder carrying off the prize, 
which frequently proved anything than what the name indicates. 
As highways were laid out and bridges built it became necessary 
to look after these, so "Highway Surveyors" were chosen. As 
schools were established men were required to look after these, 
hire the teachers, care for the houses, and see to the general wel- 
fare of these institutions, so "Prudential School Committees" 
were chosen. As the system of education broadened "Super- 
intendents of Schools" were chosen or appointed by the Select- 
men. As eventually the poor came among others, "Overseers of 
the Poor" were elected to look after these. So, one by one, as the 
system of public government widened and the towns became 
more populous, other officials came into existence, while, on the 
other hand, with the change that followed certain offices became 

It is only in New England that we find the town system 
complete. It is true there are copies of it to be found in the 
South and West, but there considerable of the county is mixed 
with the purely local community government. The designation 
"Town" meant originally an inclosure within a hedge, or an area 
that was set apart by some dividing line. The word "Common" 
used to denote a plot of land frequently found in or near the 
centre of a hamlet comes from the custom of cultivating land in 
common ; that is, where a community works together towards its 
support, and the unit is swallowed up in the general management 
of neighborhood affairs. This condition prevailed largely through 
the reign of the Norman kings of Great Britain, and the theory 
became current that in every township the waste or common 
land, that is, the ungranted land, belonged to the lord overruling 
that district, and the landholders were the lord's tenants. Some- 
thing of this right was exemplified in New England where the 


granting power — the Governor — held unto himself and his ad- 
visors certain lots or tracts of land. This may roughly apply to 
the Society-Land of which mention has been made. 

In the preservation of local self-government lies the main- 
tenance of national government. It is true a stage is reached 
when the simpler form of town government must yield to broader 
forms of city control, but there is a danger underlying this, when 
the power of the people becomes vested in the hands of a few ; 
when the individual surrenders his unalienable rights to the 
political baron holding in the hollow of his hand the fortunes of 
the many. There were other barons in the days of old which the 
town meeting sought to overthrow, just as there are political 
barons to-day trying to trample under feet the high ideals of 
the New England town meeting of yesterday. 

Until 1 641 the early settlements of New Hampshire had no 
general government, when at their own request the inhabitants of 
New Hampshire were admitted to the protection and jurisdiction 
of Massachusetts, being made a part of Old Norfolk County. 
This arrangement afforded satisfaction to all concerned inasmuch 
as the welfare of four independence communities consisting of 
Dover, Portsmouth, Hampton, and Exeter comprised the extent 
of the inhabited portions of the province. Finally, as the popula- 
tion increased, and scattered homes were being founded else- 
where, discontent began to appear, and in the hope of quieting 
this New Hampshire was made a separate royal province. 
Richard Waldron was made Deputy President, and the govern- 
ment of this province was intrusted to a deputy or lieutenant 
Governor, until the administration of Governor Belcher, who was 
the last one to hold administration over both provinces, with his 
lieutenants looking after the interests of New Hampshire. It was 
under this government that Col. John Hill secured his grant of 
the territory comprising old Number Seven. 

While a separate province it must not be forgotten that the 
government of New Hampshire in every branch was subject to 
the whim and caprice of the mother country, until July i, 1774. 
Before this time, on May 24, of the same year, it had been voted 
that a committee of seven responsible men, who were among the 
leaders of the day, should investigate and formulate some form 


of government that should make the province into a state that it 
might better control its civil and industrial affairs. The result 
of the action of this committee was a call for an election of 
delegates from the several towns to meet at Exeter on the 21st of 
July. This became known as the Provincial Congress. Hills- 
borough had not reached that stage in which she felt like taking 
an active part, and sent no delegate. This convention, as it was 
more frequently called then, was succeeded by four others, the 
fifth or last convening Dec. 21, 1775, and on the 5th day of the 
following January it resolved itself into a House of Repre- 
sentatives and adopted a constitution. This act marks the begin- 
ning of the government of New Hampshire as an independent 

We cannot better illustrate the workings of an oldtime town 
meeting than by following somewhat closely one held in the "Old 
Meeting House" at Hillsborough Centre on March 25, 1779, with 
occasional glimpses of other meetings held at various times. The 
cloud of the Revolution still hung over the meeting, which was 
very real in its actions as in its intentions. The warrant was 
laboriously drawn by the Chairman of the Board of Selectmen, 
who, according to the custom of those days, was also Town Clerk, 
so that officer was indeed an important dignitary in the com- 
munity. The entire document is reproduced here in its original 
and quaint wording, as nearly as may be in type : 

Warrant for Town Meeting March 25, 1779. 

State of Nuhapshear to nehemiah Wilkins Constabel of the 

Countey of Hillborough Ss town of Hillboroug greatten 

Sel Tn the name of the government and People of this 

State you are Hear by Eequiered forth with to warn 
all the freeholders and outher inHabetence of the 
Town of Hillboroug qualifyde to Vote in town meetens to meet at the 
meetten house in sd town on thursday the Twenty finth Day of March 
next at Ten oclock in the forenone than and thare to act as foloers 

first to Chuse a moderator to Regulate Said meetten. . . 
21y to See if the Town will alow the Seelectmen and Town Clark 

Resenable Pay for thair Sarves this Prastnt year. . . 
31y to Chouse Town Clark Select men Committey of Safety and all 
other Common and ordenary Town offises . . . 


41y to See if the town will make additton to the Beverent mr Barnses 

Salery this Pryear and How much . . . 
5ly to See if the town will agree to Buld a bridg over Contucook 

rever so Called this Prasent year 

if agree to buld a bridge to See if the Town will Chouse a Com- 

mittey to Look out a Plase to buld Said Bridge & to oversee and 

Gary out Sd work — 
61y to See how much money the Town will Base to Clear and Repair 

the Hiwayes this prasint year and How much thay will alow a 

man per Day and How much for a yoke of oxen with ample- 

ments fit to work at the wayes . . . 
71v to See if the town will give the revrnt Mr. barns the Prevlege of 

fancing and improving the Cleared Land South of the meetten 

hous this Prasint year with his leaving Proper roome for the hi- 

way. . . 
8ly to See what the town will Du with the Pue ground in the metten 

91y to See if the town will give mr barns the Pue wast of the 

pulpit which is allredy bult . . . 
lOly to See what the town will Du with the fary this Prasint year. 
Illy to See How much money the town will rase to Defray town 

Charges the Prasint year 
121y to hear the town aCompts 

Hear of fale not and make Du retorn of this warint with your 

Duings to us at or before Sd Day given Timt Bradford 

under our hands and Seall this twenty Daniel mcneall 

Sixth Day of febauary A D 1779 . . . Samuel Bradford Men 

Persuant to orders I have worned the Inhabetence of the town of 

Hillborough to meat at time and Plase 

Nehemiah Wilkins Corstab el 

atest Timothy Bradford Town Clark 

Though the fury of March weather was nearly spent, it 
being then in the last week of the month, we can still imagine 
that the snow had not yet melted away in the shaded places, and 
that there were deep snow drifts on the road leading up to the 
Centre from Concord End, as well as places of deep mud, as 
witness the hale and hearty greeting of Dea. John Hartwell : 
"Zounds, boys ! 'tween the snow and the mud I thought mebbe 
I'd never get here. Couldn't get a hoss through to save your 

Good traveling or bad the steady-going voters of the town, 
to a man, always managed to get there on time, save a few who 


were compelled to tarry at home a little longer than their neigh- 
bors to finish the chores. If the men were busy, so were the 
women, for this was as much their day as that of the men. While 
their liege lords were at town meeting mingling votes with gossip, 
they were visiting friends plying tongues that never seemed to 
tire any more than the knitting needles that kept time to their 
words with an incessant clicking. 

The meeting was warned at ten o'clock, and as early as nine 
the men began to gather in front of the old town house, as it was 
on this day, though only two days since it was "the meeting 
house," when good Parson Barnes preached his double sermons 
that reached into the tenthly, etc. 

The first man on the grounds, and he proudly claimed that he 
had not missed the honor since the earliest town meeting had 
been held in November, 1772, was Daniel Kellom, "Little Dan," 
as he was generally known. Having as far to come as any person 
there, and not known to have any ambition for an office, with 
little to say or do after he had reached the goal, no one really 
ever understood just why Dan possessed this single ambition. 
After all we cannot help having a high regard for Dan Kellom, 
for it is the prompt man who usually wins out. At any rate he 
was on hand early this particular March election, with a cheery 
greeting for those who came after him. 

Capt. Joseph Symonds, tall and erect of carriage, his neck 
decked in the high dickey and cravat of his day, was another 
early comer. He was deacon of the church, and was expecting 
to be re-elected Moderator for this meeting. With his courteous 
address and deep, sonorous voice, that made him a telling speaker 
at a prayer meeting, he presented a commanding figure as a 
presiding officer. In fact, when you come to think of it, Hills- 
borough may be proud of her long list of Moderators, thirty-two 
in her 144 years of political life, and not a weak official among 
them. Where can one find a more illustrious group than the 
following names selected at random: Capt. Joseph Symonds, Maj. 
Isaac Andrews, Gov. Benjamin Pierce, who held the office over 
twenty years, Hon. John Burnam (eight years), Dr. Reuben 
Hatch (three years), Hon. Franklin Pierce (since President of 
the United States), Col. Hiram Monroe, the Wilsons, father and 


son, Hon. Henry D. Pierce, Hon. Cornelius Coolidge, not to 
mention those who are living but whose modesty forbids me 
from calling? 

Another early comer was Maj. Isaac Andrews, tall, slim and 
straight as an arrow, dignified and courteous to a marked degree, 
and whose every step and movement told of his military training 
that made him dignified to the border of austerity. 

Behind him, and almost his opposite in appearance and 
deportment came Lt. Samuel Bradford, shorter, stouter, florid- 
faced, and with a merry twinkle in his blue eyes, and a hearty 
"how'd-ye-do" on his lips. He, too, had been on the firing line, 
and never flinched where duty called him. 

Another of the pioneers was Thaddeus Monroe, tall, broad- 
shouldered, stern and firm as the rock-ribbed hills of Concord 
End, as well he might be coming of a long lineage of warriors 
and defenders of the faith running back to the dark days of the 
Scottish Chiefs and down through the Cromwellian era to New 
England's Lexington and Bennington. A man of few words he 
was always to be counted upon where a good man was needed. 

Ha! here comes James McColley, who has walked up from 
the Contoocook village, an early name for the hamlet since called 
"Bridge Village," and who can truly claim he is the only person 
present who was among the original pioneers of Old Number 
Seven, he having come in the arms of his parents when he was 
three years old, and returned upon the re-establishment of the 
colony in the town in 1763. He was a respected citizen. 

Side by side with the last came Daniel Gibson, son of the 
leader of the men of '39, he himself having come as a child with 
his mother the following autumn. He was not given to an over- 
abundance of speech, but when he diT5 speak men listened. 

Next came Robert Taggard and four others by his name, 
all from Taggard's Farm, a name once covering considerable 
of the territory of Bridge Village. The Taggarts, as the name 
is spelled now, were of Scotch-Irish lineage, a fact borne out 
by their speech and appearance, and the unshakeable manner in 
which they always stood together upon any question that arose 
from a dog fight to the question of personal liberty. 


Another Scotch-Irish family, four strong, were the Mc- 
Clintocks, always eager for an argument, but never ready to give 
up. They were a stalwart race, though not as tall as the Monroes 
or as slim as the Andrews. The Gammells, living near by, found 
it no great task to be promptly on hand, though never seeking an 
office. Another nearby representative was Benjamin Kimball, 
hale and hearty for his years, walking as erect almost as in the 
days of his youth. 

There were James Karr, Thomas and William Murdough, 
and young Thomas, George and William Booth, Lot Jennison ; — 
they are coming too fast to even call them by name 90W. Word 
has been given out that Parson Barnes is about to open the meet- 
ing, after true New England style, with a prayer, and we know 
that his prayer will be broad enough to include all mankind, so 
with the rest we will enter the sacred sanctuary not desecrated a 
bit by this worldly meeting pervaded with the spirit of the Holy 
communion of the Sabbath. Again a spirit of solemnity hangs 
over the scene from the fact that of the eighty persons who could 
claim the night of franchise more than twenty would not be 
present to claim the privilege, for the reason that they were in 
the American army fighting the battles of the country. So slowly 
did the news travel in those days that the sufferings of Valley 
Forge was still a topic of conversation, and for all they knew 
Washington and his troops may have been swallowed up by the 
enemies. Is it a wonder if it was a sober, sedate crowd that filed 
into the town house and took seats on the sides or stood in the 
broad aisle as their inclinations determined, while the Chairman 
of the Selectmen rapped for order, and Rev. Mr. Barnes began 
his prayer, every listener bowing an uncovered head ? 

The following is the Clerk's record of this particular 

Town Meeting. 

Att a legale meeting of the Inhabitants of the town of Hillborough 
held at the meeting house in Said town on thursday the 25th Day 
of march 1779 
lly Capt Joseph iSymonds Moderator of Sd meeting 
21y Voted to aJon the Meeting to the house of the Reverent Mr Barns 
31y Voted Not to a low the Selectmen Pay for their Sarveses this 
Present year 


4ly Samuel Bradford Ju Chose fo town Chirk Votted 

51y Samuel Bradford Ju Leiut Ammi Andrews Capt James McCalley 

Chouse Selectmen Voted 
6Iy Capt Joseph Symonds William Jones Xathaneil Colidge Chose 

Committee of Safety Voted 
71y John McClintoek Chouse Constebel Voted 
81y Capt Joseph Symonds Chouse town treshuer Voted 
91y William Hutchsion Lt Samuel Bradford Lt William Poop thomas 
Murdough Thadas Munrow John Nichols Samuel Symonds Wil- 
liam Booth Chouse Savars Voted 
10. Timothy Bradford William Pope Chouse tything men 
Illy Samuel Jones James Jones Haywards Voted 
121y Lt William Pope Chouse Seler of Lather Voted 
131y Jacob Flint Jadiah Preston Will m Booth Chouse feild Drivers 

14ly Jadiah Preston Chouse iSevare of Lumber Voted 
151y the Selectmen Chouse Prisers of Damages and fance vuers and 

assorses Voted 
161y Capt Joseph Symonds Chouse Clark of the 'Market Voted 
171y Voted to Dismiss the 4th Artickel in the warant 
181y Voted to Buld a Brige over the Rever this Present year 
191y Voted to Chouse a Committe to Look out a place to Buld Sd 
Bridge to over see and Carey on Said wor 

20 LtMcNeill Samuel Bradford Ju Archibald taggart Nathaniel how- 

ard thadeus (Munrow Chouse a Committe to Look out a Place to 
Buld Said Bridge and to over See and Carey on iSaid work Voted 

21 Voted to Rais Six hundred Pounds to Clear and Repair highways 

this Present year. 

22 Voted three Pounds pr Day for aman and the Same for a yoke 

of oxen with Emplements fit to work 

23 Voted to Dismis the 7th artickel in the warrant 

24 Voted to Seet the Pue ground in the meeting house 

25 Voted that the Selectmen take Care of the ferrey the Present year 
2|9 Voted to Rais one hundred and Eighty Pounds to Defray towns 

Charges the Present year 
27 Heard the town a Counts & So the Meeting Dissolved 

atst Samuel Bradford T Clark 

It must be remembered that this meeting was held in the 
original meeting house at the Centre, and second house of worship 
in the town. This was somewhat smaller than that other building, 
which was standing within the memory of many now living, and 
which was somewhat wrongfully designated as "The Old Meet- 
ing House." It will be noticed that Captain Symonds was chosen 


Moderator for a second term, and as far as we know without a 
dissenting vote. By the way, it is interesting to know that in 
those elections the check list was not in use, every man voting on 
his honor. There is no record of any complaint of the abuse of 
this privilege. There was very little, if any, political intrigue; 
in truth, politics was not then a known quantity. 

June 23, 1813, the legislature passed an act requiring towns 
to prepare a checklist for voting purposes, and the names made 
up from this afforded the foundation for the tax list. Previous 
to this every man voted "upon his honor" his name recorded as 
he voted, and this making the foundation for the tax list. 

There was an adjournment to the house of Mr. Barnes for 
the reason there was no stove in the meeting house, and no doubt 
it was chilly standing round. It is very likely the balance of the 
meeting took place in this house. While noted as a hardy race no 
people enjoyed to a greater extent the comforts of the chimney 
corner than our ancestors, and seated in the great armed chair 
with a mug of cider flip handy many an evening, when Old 
Boreas reigned without with a furious whip, was whiled away in 
peaceful contentment. 

In Art. 3 it was "Voted not to alow the Selectmen Pay for 
their Sarveses this Present year." This action was not uncom- 
mon, and it was the rule rather than the exception that these 
important officials serve without remuneration. In the early days 
of town government strictest economy was — in some instances 
had to be — practiced. We can imagine the protest that was 
raised by a few, and how Timothy Bradford, the chairman and 
Clerk of the town, arose in his brusque manner and few words 
entered a dissent against serving for nothing again. The records 
are silent in regard to his salary as Clerk, and probably he 
received a blank sum for this also. At any rate, he was not re- 
elected to either office. A few years later, when the towns came 
to elect Representatives to the General Court each man had to 
bear his own expense, and hence only men of means could afford 
the honor. In some instances the town paid the bill, and when 
the little commonwealth felt too poor to do so, it "voted not to 
send." To remedy this the state finally came to rescue, though it 
was not until 1800 the cost of the legislation was borne in a 
moderate way by the state. 


The records do not say how many ballots were required to 
secure a board of Selectmen, but finally three of the strongest 
men in town were chosen, and with or without" salary it was safe 
to suppose that the affairs would be conducted in a satisfactory 

The Committee of Safety, an important office in those trying 
days, was filled by three strong men of undoubted patriotism. 

John McClintock was chosen Constable, the most important 
office in town. It was not only his duty to maintain peace, but 
he performed the functions of sheriff and collector of taxes. No 
town meeting could be called without his signature to the warrant, 
and altogether it was the most difficult office to fill. Not infre- 
quently persons chosen to the positions refused to serve, and the 
Selectmen had to find some one willing to fill the vacancy. Some- 
times the man elected was compelled to find a substitute. The 
reward for filling the round of arduous duties was slight. 

Captain Symonds was the first Town Treasurer, and he 
served for a long time in that capacity, though not in consecutive 
order. Eight surveyors of roads were chosen, but their duties 
could not have been onerous according to the records, for not 
much activity was displayed in opening new highways, or even 
in keeping the old ones in repair. There was neither time nor 
money, nor a great amount of travel to call for this. 

The office of Tithing Man was created early in the conduct 
of religious affairs in New England, and the duties of the office 
were decidedly of a religious character. For this reason generally 
the best men in the community were chosen to the position. 
Their duty was to maintain order and decorum in the meetings, 
to see that the Sabbath, which began at six o'clock Saturday 
evening and ended at the same hour Sunday, was strictly observed 
not only in the matter of attending divine worship by the people 
of the locality but to see that no stranger infringed upon the 
sacredness of the "Lord's Day." It is related that a certain man 
living not far from this town house was discovered to be riding 
on the Sabbath, and he was quickly stopped by the nearest 
Tithing Man, who demanded why he was abroad on this holy day 
and what his errand might be. He declared that he was out of 


grain, and having nothing upon which to feed his family, he had 
set out for the nearest mill hoping to get a supply. The Tithing 
Man, with a spark of humanity as well as the authority of his 
office, pointed out to him the sinfulness of his action and bade 
the other to tarry with him until sundown. Then he let the man 
have some of his own corn, gave him a generous swig of New 
England rum to keep up his spirits while riding homeward, and 
saw him started on his return trip. Another man, living in Hop- 
kinton, thought to visit a friend living in Hillsborough, but he 
failed to escape the watchful eye of one of Henniker's Tithing 
Men, so he was haled on the road and compelled to remain there 
until dark, when it was too late to make his journey and went 
back to his home a disappointed if not a wiser man. In the 
course of time the power of the office was somewhat abused, and 
a special act of the legislature in 1814, when party spirit ran 
high, caused many over-zealous officers to overstep the bounds of 
their good intentions. The law remained upon the statues until 
1834, but was a dead letter for many years. In fact, with the 
separation of church from public affairs, the office ceased to be 
filled. The badge of the official was a stick a yard long tipped 
with brass or pewter. 

The next officer chosen was "Hayward." This term, some- 
times given as "Haywarden," is found among the old English 
records in association with "Hedge-ward," "Fence-ward," and 
similar terms. It was there, as it became among the New Eng- 
land colonists, the official title of a town officer whose duty it was 
to impound stray cattle and field them until they were redeemed 
by their owners. In a few years these officers came to be known 
as "pound-keepers," and the old stone inclosure at the Centre is 
still standing as a reminder of the days when cattle, horses, sheep 
and hogs wandering at will were seized and imprisoned here. 
See list of pound-keepers for further particulars. 

Art. 13 records the election of three good citizens as "field- 
drivers," a title which soon was substituted by that of hog-reeves. 
These officials were in close touch with the haywardens or pound- 
keepers, as it was their duty to see that no animals were found 
loitering or feeding by the roadside or in any inclosure not 
belonging to the owner. At this day it seems preposterous that 


the duty could have been very irksome, but this was often the 
case. There is not a record of a town meeting down to a com- 
paratively recent date where this subject did not vex the action 
of the voters. About the time this office began to fall into disuse, 
through some suggestion never explained, as far as the writer 
knows, it became the custom to bestow this office upon the newly 
married men of the town, as if they did not have sufficient to 
harass them without it, as witness the vote taken in Antrim under 
date of March 9, 1813: "Voted Alexander Witherspoon, James 
Jameson, James Campbell, and all other newly married men be 
hog reeves." There is no record of a vote of this kind in Hills- 
borough, but there is no doubt of its intent being carried out. 
This idea generally prevailed in the different towns until the office 
was abolished some twenty-five years ago, more or less.* 

In addition to the pound, which was sometimes known as 
"cow pen," or "wolf pen," was an inclosed tract of larger size 
known as "the night pasture," where stray animals could be 
turned loose without allowing them to wander. 

Occupied as the farmers were in those days in tilling the few 
acres under cultivation, increasing these and improving their 
habitations, they found little time to build fences, even had there 
been inviting grazing plots to inclose, which there were not. The 
places affording the sweetest grasses for the cattle were about 
the buildings and along the roads, so it was the rule to make the 
most of these localities. Prone as these creatures are to wander, 
knowing no bounds, it became a matter of little wonder if the 
trespass of a neighbor's neat stock did not become an affair to 
be voted upon at town meeting, and steps were frequently taken 
to mitigate the evil. The writer has in the mind a town that 
received its name from the fact that it had become the pasture 
for cattle whose owners lived five or six — yes, ten miles — away 
in another township. 

In order for each owner to recognize and prove his property it 
became the custom for him to place his peculiar mark upon such 
sheep, cattle and horses he possessed, and to publish the character 

*Reeve comes from an old English syllable reve, and affixed to shire-reve be- 
comes in modern English "sheriff." Hence hog-reeve becomes "hog-riff" and 
meant "one to look after hogs." 


of these distinguishing marks in the Town's Book. The follow- 
ing are some of these entries : 

"A Record of the artificial mak of Cattle and sheep of this town: 

"Isaac Andrews mark a slant of the under side of Left ear 

"William Uitchson mark a Swallow taill in the right ear. 

"Abraham Andrews' Sheep mark a crop off from the left ear & a 
swallow tail in the right ear. 

"Eliphalet Bradford's Sheep & cattle marked with a half crop 
from the right ear. 

"March 3<i 1799. 

"True Coppy as directed 

"Calvin Stevens T. C 

"William Parker's Sheep marked with a slit in the off ear and a 
half penny from the Near ear. 

"As directed Calvin Stevens T C" 

Though the records of Hillsborough do not show any action 
of the kind, most of the towns chose annually a "deer reeve," 
whose duty it was to see that those animals were not wantonly 
slaughtered "out of season." This was not done purely out of any 
humane feeling, but venison was looked upon with favor by the 
early settlers, and very often it came in handy when domestic 
meat was not abundant. So to kill deer in the warm months 
was looked upon as a waste of provision that might be needed in 
the future. 

Lt. William Pope was chosen sealer of leather, and as con- 
siderable tanning was done here in those days this was a position 
of considerable importance. In fact, there was not an office in 
the entire list that did not require good business tact and a con- 
stant attendance to its duty, as useless as most of them seem 
to-day. At this meeting the first consideration was given the 
matter of bridging the Contoocook River, which is treated fully 
elsewhere. Hitherto the river was forded or crossed by ferry, 
which was located just below the rapids, and this ferry was of 
sufficient importance to demand the watchful attention of the 
Selectmen. It is only fair to say that in estimating the amount 
of money raised for town charges, that the currency of the day 
had greatly depreciated, so that sums of good size in reality 
proved very small when considered in their true value. 



Town meetings were held at the Centre for over a hundred 
years — a long period — and then the gravity of population had so 
changed that it was no longer a convenient meeting place for the 
citizens of the town. After three or four years of agitation, at 
the annual election held March 9, 1874, it was recorded. . . 

Art. 10th. Voted that the elections be held hereafter at the 
Bridge Village in accordance with the following agreement : 


If the town of Hillsborough will vote to hold hereafter their town 
meeting and elections at the Bridge Village in said town we the under- 
signed hereby jointly and severally agree that we will see that a 
suitable place for holding such meeting and elections is provided and 
furnished at said Bridge Village free of expense to said town for the 
term of ten years next following said vote. 

Hillsborough, N. H., March 9, 1874. 

James S. Butler 
George W. Cook 
George D. Peaslee 
H. Marcy 

Edward S. Kendall 
R. F. Lovering 
J. F. Grimes 
S. Dow Wyman 
Orlando Sargent 
R. E. Lovering 
Eli L. Smith 
George A. Nichols 
B. F. Upton 
Norman Bobbins 
S. O. Bowers 
J. H. Lovering 
James H. Forsaith 

W. B. Prichard 
Charles Kimball 
James Newman 
Edward Grace 
S. McNiel 
Ephraim Dutton 
W. H. Bean 
J. C. Campbell 
Albert 0. Cutter 
Levi W. Bixby 
Dr. Israel B. Chase 
Baxter Codman 
George H. Stewart 
G. F. Sleeper 
S. A. Brown 
Edward Kellom 
Charles F. McClary 
O. P. Greenleaf 

I. S. Wilkins 
Brooks K. Webber 
O. Abbott 
D. W. C. Newman 
Edwin B. Morse 
D. D. Bailey 
Francis Grimes 
C. F. Greenleaf 
Charles Wyman 
J. B. Whittemore 
Walter P. Straw 
Cyrus P. McAdams 
B. F. Burtt 
L. S. Eaton 

William B. Whittemore 
Warren W. Hill 
John F. Glawson 

The conditions of this agreement were satisfactorily filled, 
and without any bitterness of feeling on the part of those who 
had lost in the part taken, the town meetings began to be held at 
the Bridge Village, and so continue to this day. 

24o history of hillsborough. 

Clerk of the Market. 

Among the ideas and customs that the early settlers of New 
England brought with them from the old country was the provi- 
sion made in most of the original charters for a fair to be held 
once or twice a year, as soon as "fifty families resident and 
settled in town." In England and Ireland this practice had ob- 
tained a firm hold, which the years since have not entirely 
obliterated. These fairs were intended as a season for trade, 
traffic, the exchange of commodities by the inhabitants, and in a 
measure occupied the place more recently filled by the local 
merchant. There is no record to show that these fairs were held 
in Hillsborough, though many of its pioneers had come from 
Londonderry, which was the "mother of fairs" in this state. 

Another feature in close association with this was the provi- 
sion for a weekly market day, and of course had its origin in the 
same source as the other. This action made it necessary to have 
an official whose duty it should be to regulate affairs connected 
with it, and to see that proper order was maintained ; hence there 
was elected annually a "Clerk of Market." Hillsborough carried 
out this part of the schedule until about 1800, but I have not seen 
any record to show that market day was ever observed in Hills- 
borough, though it may have been. In considering these civil and 
social functions and their performance it must always be borne 
in mind that with the New England colonists there was ever a 
disturbing factor — the Indians, wars, and minor difficulties that 
always arise in the settlement of a new country — to pervert, if 
not change, the policy of a people. 

Warning Out of Town. 

Early in the history of colonization of New England the in- 
habitants showed their utter contempt for a lazy or indigent 
person. Owing either to personal shiftlessness or an overruling 
destiny that they could not apparently combat, the numbers of 
indigent persons had increased so far that a law was enacted in 
1692-3, by which towns were ordered to warn by public proclama- 
tion all strangers to leave the town within three months. It will 
be noticed a certain degree of respect was shown to those against 







whom this was directed. Not only in Massachusetts but in New 
Hampshire this law was enforced, and many towns in the latter 
province have on their records notices where sundry persons were 
asked to "move on" lest they become a burden to the community. 

I have not found such a vote on Hillsborough record books. 

Not always did the persons thus warned out of town really 
leave, nor was it expected of them, but the measure was a means 
of legal safety to escape the support of any strangers that might 
come into town unable to provide for themselves, and the town 
from which they had come were held responsible for their 


Military History, 1781 to i860. 

The Military Spirit That Follows War — Military Leaders in Hills- 
borough — Organization of the Militia — Previous Code Had Been 
Indian Tactics — First Cavalry Troops — The Twenty-Sixth — Roll 
of First Artillery Company — War of 1812 — Scenes at the Front — 
Dark Days of '14 — Victories on the Sea — The Alarm at Ports- 
mouth — 'Chippewa and Niagara — "I Will Try, Sir" — Close of the 
War — Roll of Hillsborough Men — Florida War — Colonel Pierce in 
the Florida Campaign — Death of Lieut. J. W. S. MeNiel — ■ 
Letter Lieutenant McNiel — Reorganization of Militia in 1840 — • 
Hillsborough's Officers — The Mexican War — General Pierce and 
'Major Steele — iA Trying Campaign — The Gallant Ninth — Cork 
Musters — 'Carter Guards — Smith Rifles. 

During the French and Indian War the colonists of New 
England had met the allied forces in tactics based upon Indian 
warfare. This system while seeming to lack all form of military 
training, according to Old World ideas, yet required a rigid 
discipline peculiarly its own, and succeeded where the best 
soldiers of England failed miserably. Out of this strategic 
system evolved the crude form of militia law which existed before 
the Revolution. Not finding this sufficiently strong the Provincial 
Congress, in 1774, enacted a statue providing that no able-bodied 
man should be exempted from military duty. It was ordered that 
troops should be organized in each locality under competent 
officials and to be called out at least four times a year for training 
and exercise. Any attempt to evade the law meant serious con- 
sequence to the delinquent. 

The Revolutionary War was fought by the men and the sons 
of the men who had fought the Indian wars without special or 
organized training, and vanquished the best soldiery of Europe! 
Though victorious the survivors of that struggle at the close of 
the war felt that the time had come when it was necessary to train 
men in the militia, and this became an important element in every- 
day life. The militia laws of the state, passed in 1792 and 
remodeled in 1808, remained without essential alteration for 



nearly forty years. Colonel Potter, in his work upon Military 
History of the State says very aptly: "Our militia was never 
better organized or in a more flourishing condition." 

With such military leaders in the field, from time to time, as 
the Andrews, Baldwins, Bradfords, McNiels and others of not 
less prestige, it would seem strange if Hillsborough did not stand 
among the foremost in military tactics. Here, men were at its 
head who had had experience in former wars, and carried out the 
maxim of "in time of peace prepare for war." 

The militia was arranged into companies, battalions, regi- 
ments, brigades and divisions. In 1796 the militia was organized 
and twenty-seven regiments formed, and Benjamin Pierce of 
Hillsborough was made Lieutenant-Colonel and commandant of 
the twenty-sixth. This regiment, which became quite noted 
among the militia of the state included men from the towns of 
Henniker, Hillsborough, Antrim, Deering and Campbell's Gore 
(now Windsor), as First Battalion; with Hancock, Lyneborough, 
Francestown, Greenfield, and Society Land (now Bennington), 
Second Battalion, the combined battalions making the regiment 

In the military organization of the State of 1812, Lieut- 
Colonel David McClure of this town was made commandant. 
Not satisfied with the good name already won, in the summer of 
1806 a movement was started to organize a company of cavalry 
to augment this regiment, and the following action taken : 

Henniker, July 8, 1806 

We the subscribers Voluntarily enlist in the Company of Cavalry 
annexed to the twenty-sixth regiment of the State of New Hampshire 
commanded by Sam 1 Wilson of said Henniker promising to equip 
ourselves according to Law with Arms and Accoutourments, also to 
Uneform ourselves with a scarlet Red Coat faced with yellow buff, 
gilt Buttons, other trimmings and fustion the same as the former 
coats we have worn, also to have a white Feather about nine inches 
long with about two inches of red on top and a Red sash round our 
caps instead of Green — the other uniforms the same as we in the 
Company have lately worn, to have this new Uniform by the first day 
of September next. 

And we Also promise to obey the orders of the above named 
commanding officer and all the Officers in subordination to him in said 



Company To have Bridles with ornaments, with Yellow Saddle Cloth 
Leather Valance Please to take notice the above mentioned uniform is 
appointed by the Governor himself. 

Samuel Barnes 
David Goodale, Jr. 
John Mead 
Joseph Chapman 
Stephen Chapman 
Benjamin Farrar 
Silas Marsshall 
Benjamin Alcock 
Jonathan Sargent 
Abraham Andrews 
Joseph Dickey 
Sutherick Weston 
John Caldwell 

David McC alley 
Solomon Hopkinson 
Zacheus Dustin 
William Booth 
Ebeneser Goodhul 
Jonathan Car 
Eli Wheeler 
Samuel Sargent 
Luther Fuller 
Josiah Cunningham 
William Jones 
Justin Houston 
Thomas Wilson 

Lieut. Joseph Curt Barnes — Hillsborough 

The cavalry or "troop" of the 26th Regiment was usually 
mustered at Cork Plain, West Deering, and became known as one 
of the finest drilled body of men in the state. It was at its zenith 
during the command of Capt. John C. Proctor of Henniker, a 
superior drill officer. 

Not only was Hillsborough interested in the infantry and 
cavalry of the 26th, but the town had also active supporters of 
the artillery as witness the following action taken by some of the 
leading citizens. 

Boll Book 
Of the First Artillery Company in Hillsborough : 
Sergeants : 

John Goodale, 1st 

B. F. Leanard, 2nd 

C. A. Priest, 3rd 
B. P. Moor, 4th 

Officers : 

C. A. Priest 
G. Clement 
H. Bigelow 
C. Eaton 
H. Hartwell 
M. Cooledge 
A. Heath 
H. Killom 

S. Murdough 
John Johnson 
Harvey Jones 
Eben Jones 
E. Baxter 
George Taylor 
J. Murdough 
J. Breed 

F. B. Dutton, Capt. 

S. C. Barnes, Lieut. 

A. iSargent 
F. Bobbins 

W. Cooledge 
H. Murdough 
T. Murdough 
J. Powers 
F. Means 

MEN IN WAR OF l8l2. 245 

So the breaking out of the War of 1812 found the militia 
of the state in a flourishing condition. Men were at its head who 
had had experience in the Revolution. 

The questions leading up to this war were a bone of conten- 
tion at home as well as abroad, and many in this country con- 
sidered its beginning unnecessary. At this late day — and long 
ago for that matter — it has been clearly shown that the war was 
inevitable. While England was fairly whipped upon land in the 
Revolution, she had not been conquered at sea, and it was still 
her boast that she was "mistress of the ocean," and the world. 
Believing she was now capable of subduing the poorly united 
colonies, she seemed to improve every opportunity to injure and 
insult the American government. Finally her manner had be- 
come so insolent that an extra session of Congress was called in 
November, 181 1, by President Madison, who recommended in his 
message that preparations for war be commenced at once. It was 
six months later, June 18, 1812, however, when war against Great 
Britain was declared. 

As has been shown elsewhere New Hampshire, as far as her 
militia was concerned, was well prepared for action, and no town 
in the state better equipped than Hillsborough. So, while her 
record in the War for Independence is an exceedingly bright one, 
that for the Second War with Great Britain shines with equal 
brillancy, while on the field of mars glistens the stars of two 
distinguished officers.* Unfortunately the records of this war 
are not found complete, and beyond doubt the following roll for 
Hillsborough is lacking several names: 

Men in Wab of 1812. 

Baldwin, Isaac, Jr., Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., Sept. 27, 1814 for 60 days. 
Bixby, Sergt. Kansom. Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., Sept. 13, 1814 for 

3 mos. 
Bradford, Capt. Benjamin. Service at Portsmouth, Apr. 1, 1813, 

60 days ; also in the Northern Army. 

While the records are not available this officer saw con- 
siderable service during the war, as witness an excerpt from a 
letter written to his wife then living at Hillsborough. 

*See Chapter on Political History for a more comprehensive meaning. — Au- 


Burlington, Vt. 
Mrs. Mary Bradford, 

Hillsborough, N. H. 

I reed your letter as I came to Plattsburg I was very glad to get 
it you mentioned something- respect hardships at the time I wrote you 
before I knew nothing about hardships but if I could see you now I 
could tell you something about them the latter part of our Campain 
has been very fautigueing we were so situated when twenty five miles 
advanced in the enemy's Country in the Low province of Canada we 
was obliged to go eight days on four days ration in the hardest 
fatigue no sleep to our eyes nor slumber to our eyelids was alowed us 
for seventy two hours continual alarms and some hand fiting the 
tommy hawk Company beating about our camps especially in the nite 
at the experation of this time there was a Council of war held with 
the general and field officers and was promulgated to us a retrograde 
movement into the U S in consequence of Gen Wilkinsons not coming 
down the river St. Lawrence as was expected since that we have 
returned to Chataugee from thence to Shasey from thence to Platts- 
burg to winter quarters for my part I have been at Burlington three 
weeks on account of being out of health I left the mane army at 
Plattsburg I have had a severe turn of the jaundice but am getting 
better. Gen Wilks army winters at the franch Mills sixty miles west 
of Hampton's at Plattsburg. Gen Harrison's at Sacket's Harbour. I 
think I rote you that I should not be at holme untill my time was 
expired you must not think strange if I dont for no furlow is alowed 
here nor leaves of absence dont think strange however if you see me 
in ten days for I some expect to be at holm on the recruiting service 

I will further state in respects to our hardships we only count 
ourselves eating the pleasant end of the cucumber that our fathers 
bit the bitter end off in the year seventy five thank God as we have 
not eat it all I dont know but I shall feast upon it another year tell 
my friends that have relations with me that I have not a man sick 
in the hospital neither have I lost a man since I left new hampshire 
my health was very good through the campain except a little tutch 
of the rumitism our loss at Armstown Battle was from seventy to 
eighty men something of a number of officers was wounded and men 
the British loss not asertained we have about one hundred British 
prisoners here which are the greatest society for the peace party but 
in consequence of the bad treatment towards our prisoners in Canada 
the former is this day ordered into Close Confinement Gen Hampton 
is very unpopular here Gen Wilkin verry much to the reverce. 
nothing more at present. 

Verry respectfully your 
Dec 11, 1813. Benj. Bradford 

U S Infantry at Burlington 


Carter, James, Jr. Capt. William Gregg's Co., Sept. 27, 1814, 60 days. 
Carter, Nathan. Capt. William Gregg's Co., Sept. 27, 1814, 60 days at 

Portsmouth. Soon after removed to Henniker. 
Dascomb, George. Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., .Sept. 13, 1814 for 3 mos. 

Ellinwood, Daniel— Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., Sept. 13, 1814, 60 days. 
Enlisted as Allenwood — was legal voter in 1814. Previously in 
iCapt. Ben. Bradford's Co., Apr. 1, 1813—60 days. 

Farrar, Isaac — 'Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., iSept. 13, 1814 for 3 mon. Pre- 
viously in Capt. Ben. Bradford's Co., Apr. 1, 1813 for 60 days. 
Farrar, Noah — Capt. Ben. Bradford's Co., Apr. 1, 1813 for 60 days. 
Flint, Ebenezer — Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., Sept. 13, 1814 for 3 months. 

Green David, Name not on check list ; but he is credited with service. 
Hatch, Martin (?)— Lieut. V. R. Goodrich's Co., Feb. 18, 1813 for 3 

Heartley, Samuel (?)— Lieut. V. R. Goodrich's Co., Feb. 18, 1813— 
5 years. 

Huntley, Elisha— Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., Sept. 27, 1814 for 60 days. 

Hutchinson, Cyrus — Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., Sept. 27, 1814 for 60 days. 

Jones, Simeon (?) Lieut. V. R. Goodrich's Co. Feb. 18, 1813 for 5 years, 

McClintock, Moses,— Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., Sept. 13, 1814 for 3 
months, died Nov. 4, 1814. 

Merrill Samuel, Lieut.— Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., iSept. 27, 1814 for 
60 days. 

McNiel, Daniel, Sergt.— Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., Sept. 27, 1814 for 
60 days. 

McNiel, John, Capt. — Among her military heroes Gen. John McNiel 
holds an honored and distinguished position. Entering the service 
as Captain in the Eleventh Regiment of infantry March 12, 1812, 
he was promoted to the rank of Major, August 15, 1813, breveted 
a Lieut. Colonel July 5, 1814 "for his intrepid behavior on the 5th 
day of July in the battle of Chippewa," receiving a second brevet 
as Colonel, July 25, 1814 "for his distinguished valor as com- 
mander of the Eleventh regiment of infantry on the 25th of July 
in the battle of Niagara," was rapid rising in the ranks. Retained 
in the Peaee establishment as Major of the 5th infantry to rank 
15th of August, 1813, he was promoted to the rank of Lieut. 
Colonel 1st regiment of infantry February 24, 1818, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of Colonel April 28, 1824, and breveted Brigadier 
General July 25th, 1824, for ten years faithful service in the 
grade of bret Colonel. He was appointed Surveyor of the Port of 
Boston in April, 1830, and resigned and retired from service. 


Pierce, Benjamin K. — Major Benjamin Kendrick Pierce was the eldest 
son of 'Gov. Benjamin Pierce, and was born at H., Aug. 29', 1790. 
He pursued his preparatory studies at Philip's Exeter Academy, 
and entered Dartmouth College in the fall of 1807, and continued 
in that institution for three years, when he commenced the study 
of the law with David Starrett, Esq., of H. He continued in 
Starrett's office until the commencement of the war with Great 
Britain, when he entered the regular army as lieutenant of ar- 
tillery. In August, 1813, he was appointed to a captaincy; in June 
1836, he was promoted to Major of the First Regiment of Artillery, 
and ordered to Florida. Oct. 15, 1836, he was made "Lieutenant- 
Colonel by brevet, for distinguished services in the affair of Fort 
Drane ;" and, the same month, was appointed by Gov. Call, of 
Florida, Quartermaster-General, and Colonel of the regiment of 
Creeks attached to his army. In consequence of his arduous 
duties and the sickly climate, Col. Pierce's health became greatly 
impaired, and he was ordered North for duty. He was stationed 
at Plattsburg with his regiment, and subsequently at Houlton, and 
New York City. Subsequent to his return North in 1838, he was 
appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eight Regiment of the In- 
fantry, and his appointment confirmed by the Senate ; but he 
declined the appointment, preferring the arm of service in which 
he had served so long. Change of climate, however, did not im- 
prove his health ; and he died of disease of the brain, at New York, 
in 1849, aged fifty-nine years. — Potter's Military History of New 

Pierce, Merrill — Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., Sept. 13, 1814 for 3 months. 

Richardson, Stephen — Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., Sept. 27 1814 for 60 days. 

Rabbins, Caleb — Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., Sept. 27, 1814 for 60 days. 

Robbins, Curtis — Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., Sept. 13, 1814 for 3 months. 

Robbins, John — 'Capt. Ben. Bradford's Co., April 1, 1813 for 60 days. 

Robbins, Lyman — Capt. Ben. Bradford, April 1, 1813 for 60 days. Also 
Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., Sept. 13, 1814 for 3 months. 

Rumrill, Wm. — Capt. Ben. Bradford's Co., April 21, 1814 for 1 year or 
during the war. 

Smith, David. Served under Capt. Benjamin Bradford until the close 
of the war. 

Straw, James — 'Capt. Wm. Gregg's Co., Sept. 27, 1814 for 60 days. 

Taggart, James(?) — 'Capt. Ben. Bradford's Co., April 1, 1813 for 
60 days. 

Templeton, David (?) 

Templeton, Daniel, Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., Sept. 13, 1814 for 3 months. 

Templeton, Matthew(?) 

Wheeler, Reuben, Corp. — Capt. Hugh Moore's Co., Sept. 13, 1814 for 
3 months. 

Wilkins, Ira. In Capt. Hugh Moore's Co. He also served on transport 
from Tampico to New Orleans during Mexican war. 






i — 
. z 



Owing to the lack of defense along the sea coast, Ports- 
mouth was early fortified and garrisoned by troops under Major 
Bassett and later by very large levies from the militia of the 
state. So anxious was the situation here that an alarm at one 
time of the landing of the enemy at Rye, threw the staid old town 
into consternation. 

The campaign of 1814 opened with disastrous results to the 
American army, due to the repulse of General Wilkinson's 
division at the stone mill on the La Colle River, in Canada, this 
was the part of the national forces. So the campaign waned 
until into July. On the first of that month General Brown crossed 
the Niagara and took possession of Fort Erie without any deter- 
mined resistance from the British army which was entrenched 
only a few miles away at Chippewa, where they had resolved to 
make a stand. The site of this place, destined to be an important 
battlefield was upon a peninsular formed by the Chippewa and 
Niagara Rivers and a smaller stream called Sweet's Creek. 
General Scott in command of the brigade consisting of the Ninth, 
Eleventh, and Twenty-fifth Regiments was ordered by Brown to 
advance from Fort Erie to the Chippewa where he would join 
him later with further forces. After a considerable maneuvering 
on the part of the rival forces, the entire British forces finally 
formed a battle line on the south bank of the river. 

In the midst of a furious fire from the enemy, Scott was 
ordered to advance with his brigade and Towson artillery to meet 
the foe. Colonel Potter in his description of the fight says : 

"Major Leavenworth, at the head of the Ninth and Twenty- 
second, led the column ; Colonel Campbell, in command of the 
Eleventh, occupied the centre; and the Twenty-fifth, under com- 
mand of Major Jessup, brought up the rear of the column. Upon 
crossing, Major Leavenworth took position in front of the 
enemy's left by an advance down the river; Colonel Campbell, 
with the Eleventh, advanced to form at his left and nearly op- 
posite the enemy's centre ; and Major Jessup, with the Twenty- 
fifth, advanced by an oblique movement through the wood, to 
form upon the left of the line and attack the enemy's right. 

"Soon after crossing the bridge, Colonel Campbell, in com- 
mand of the Eleventh, fell, and the command of the regiment 
devolved upon Major McNiel, who took the head of his regiment 


with alacrity. The Ninth formed with precision, and, advancing, 
received and returned the fire of the enemy with spirit. The 
Eleventh formed on their left under the command of Major 
McNiel, and advanced at Shoulder arms and with quick step, 
leaving the Ninth to the right and in the rear, until it was within 
fifteen rods of the enemy's line, receiving a heavy fire from the 
foe, during the entire advance, without wavering or breaking. 
The Eleventh then opened a most destructive fire upon the 
British line, and at the same time were supported by a deadly fire 
from the Twenty-fifth, under Major Jessup, who had obtained 
an advanced position. 

"The enemy stood this fire for a moment, when they rushed 
on to charge the Ninth, which was in their front, and not yet up 
to the line with the Eleventh Regiment. This movement of the 
enemy would have carried them directly past the Eleventh, but, 
as they were executing it, Major McNiel, seizing his advantage, 
gave the command : 

" 'Eleventh form line to the front on the right platoon.' 

"The order was executed immediately, and the regiment 
poured a deadly flank fire into the ranks of the charging enemy. 
Thus hotly pressed in flank and front, the British column 
wavered, broke, and fled, and the utmost efforts of their officers 
could not rally them. The rout became general ; and the enemy 
did not stop in their precipitous flight until they had gained the 
protection of their fortifications, and their batteries had checked 
the ardent pursuit of the American troops. 

"In this important battle there cannot be a doubt of the fact 
that the flank movement of the Eleventh Regiment, under the 
command of the gallant McNiel, turned the fortune of the day, 
and gave the victory to the Americans. This decisive victory 
greatly revived the spirits of the American people ; and another 
that soon followed convinced them that all our soldiers wanted 
was leaders, to make us as successful upon land as upon ocean." 

While victorious at Chippewa, the situation of the American 
troops was anything but favorable. The American fleet upon the 
lake was expected to lend assistance, but the Commodore was ill 
with fever, and the promised re-inforcement failed to materialize. 
In this dilemma General Brown, the American commander, fell 


back upon the Chippewa River. At this critical period the enemy 
appeared in considerable numbers at Queenstown, while the 
British fleet of four vessels had come to anchor near Fort 
Niagara. General Scott was immediately ordered to hasten with 
the First Brigade, Towson's Artillery and all the dragoons and 
mounted men to the relief of Queenstown. Upon reaching the 
Falls the Americans found the enemy under General Riall 
drawn up in line of battle upon a ridge of land about a mile 
below known as Lundy's Lane. General Scott decided upon an 
immediate and furious attack. 

Major McNiel, at the head of the gallant Eleventh, had the 
honor of leading the brigade into action. The British outnumbered 
the Americans, and were thus enabled to extend their lines farther 
and to make flank attacks. To meet this advantage our troops 
fought in detachments and charged in column. For a consider- 
able time, until General Brown was able to come up with the 
remainder of the forces, the commanding officers each fought 
upon his own responsibility, striking wherever he could and with 
all the force at his command. Throughout the battle the strife 
was bitter and dearly paid for with the loss of life. The British 
were driven at every point by the impetuous Americans, and yet 
their batteries were working with deadly effects. In the midst of 
the fighting, while covered with smoke and wild with excitement 
of the awful scene, the Americans were greeted with a 
tremendous cheer, which was answered and reiterated with glad 
acclaim. Ripley's Brigade had formed for evening parade beyond 
the Niagara, three miles away, when the booming of cannon 
warned them that Scott had found the enemy. General Brown 
at once ordered the brigade to hasten to the front, and followed 
himself with Porter's Brigade. Ripley's Brigade started at quick 
step, but the ardor and enthusiasm of the troops was such that 
the quick step quickened into a rush and they actually ran the 
three miles between the camp and the battlefield. It was this 
brigade that answered cheer for cheer and raised the drooping 
spirits of the men in the death grapple. Thus re-inforced the 
Americans renewed the battle, but the battery upon the hill made 
tremendous havoc among them. 

In the midst of this terrific scene the horse of Major McNiel 
was killed under him by a cannon ball, while he was wounded in 


the leg by a cannister shot, a six-ounce ball passing through his 
right knee, shattering the bone and nearly carrying away the 
entire limb. But even this wound, causing him intense pain, 
could not drive the hero of Chippewa from the field, and he led 
his men on to "distinguished valor,'" until weak from loss of 
blood his condition was discovered by others and he was borne 
from the field, having added fresh honor to his name. 

In the meantime General Brown had taken command in 
person, and he saw that the British battery must be carried in 
order to secure success. Wheeling about, he shouted to Colonel 

"Colonel Miller, take your regiment and storm that work 
and take it !" 

Probably the general was unaware of the fact that the 
doughty officer had under him at that moment less than three 
hundred, but the reply was to his liking, brief and laconic : 

"I will try, sir." 

Colonel James Miller was born in Temple, and he owed his 
advancement in the army to Gen. Benjamin Pierce of Hillsbor- 
ough, who had foreseen in the courtly Captain Miller the making 
of an officer of high rank and did not rest until he had seen the 
gallant young officer started on his way to future glory. On this 
day, at Lundy's Lane, Colonel Miller was to prove the adeptness 
of his superior's judgment. 

At the head of his handful of men Miller advanced against 
the open mouths of those deadly pieces of cannon, to what seemed 
certain death. Good fortune seemed to abide with this small 
body of New Hampshire troops, and as a rail fence had done 
good service for Stark and his men at Bunker Hill, so Miller and 
his men approached the enemy under cover of the shrubbery over- 
growing an old fence, undiscovered by the British gunners until 
they had got within two rods of the cannon's mouth. Halting his 
men, and ordering them to rest their firearms upon the fence, and 
take certain aim, he gave the signal to fire. Not a man was left 
at the British guns, and before others could rally to turn the 
cannon upon them Miller led his little band over the fence into 
the centre of their park. Reaching this position a line of British 


soldiery opened a furious flank fire, but despite the fact that many 
of the Americans, in proportion to their number, were killed the 
works were finally carried, and the battle won. 

These battles, with some sharp fighting that followed, in 
which New Hampshire men played so prominent a part, crushed 
the hopes of the British in this vicinity. It is to be regretted the 
names of Hillsborough men who figured in this campaign, with 
two leaders from this section, cannot be given. 

The Dark Days of '14. 

There follows in the wake of every war its dark days, and 
these came in the War of 1812 during the year 1814. The cul- 
minating crisis centered about the latter half of this period, send- 
ing desperation bordering upon despair to the stout heart of 
Jefferson, more than any other man the hope and guide of the 
dominant party responsible to a considerable extent for the 
struggle then rending the country and threatening the very exist- 
ence of our national liberties ! In every direction lay darkness 
and apparent futility of hope. The towns along the New Eng- 
land coast had been ravaged and despoiled, exposed to hostile 
invasions by the British naval forces. From the south came news 
of British victories, and the west trembled beneath the iron heel 
of the invader. The national capital lay in ashes. Everywhere 
the country was groaning under the burden of excessive taxation, 
and the depreciation of values to a vanishing point. 

In its dilemma the national government had been forced to 
withdraw all support to the protection of individual states, so 
each was obliged to raise bodies of troops to protect itself, guard 
the imperilled towns and prepare for the defense when the great 
crisis should come. Besides obliging the states to support their 
own militia, they were forced to support their own men in the 
national service. All this was done at a sacrifice never paralleled 
in the darkest days of the Revolution. Small wonder if even 
those towns where the liberties for which one war had been 
waged to preserve, should begin to hesitate and to talk openly of 
state's rights. During that period were laid the seeds of secession 
which sprang into life and fomented the great civil war half a 
century later. 


To add to the uncertainties and gloom of the situation, Great 
Britain, with the same arrogance that had thrust the war upon 
the country, believing that she held her young rival by the neck, 
would. not give satisfactory terms in the peace negotiations then 
being promulgated. And it truly seemed that the war, which in 
the course of two years and a half had cost the United States 
nearly fifty thousand lives and more than a hundred million 
dollars — large sums for those days — had been fought in vain. 

Hillsborough, in sympathy with the national government, 
and with two of her sons occupying prominent and responsible 
positions at the front remained loyal to her views. Among the 
leading spirits in town were Andrew Sargent, James Wilson, 
Samuel Gibson, George Dascomb, Nehemiah Jones, David Steele, 
Thaddeus Monroe, Benjamin Pierce, Elijah Beard and Calvin 

November 9, 1814, the town voted to pay the soldiers twelve 
dollar a month for their service in addition to what the govern- 
ment paid. 

This period proved to be the darkness that preceded the 
dawn. If the warfare on land had proved, on the whole, dis- 
couraging to the Americans, that on the sea had been corres- 
pondingly bright. Everywhere American ships, privates as well 
as government war ships, had been successful and Great Britain 
awoke to the fact that she was no longer "mistress of the sea."* 

A treaty of peace pending at Ghent was brought to a rather 
sudden conclusion through this result and was signed before the 
war was really won on the continent. But the end was in sight, 
for while the important document was on its way General 
Jackson met the enemy at New Orleans and won the most 
splendid victory of the war. The rejoicing over this triumph was 
doubled by the glad news of the signing of the peace treaty at 
Ghent in December, and everywhere joy reigned triumphant. 

New Hampshire's sea history has never been fittingly told but 

*In the war with Tripoli a few years previous. United States ships had 
shown their superiority over the English warships, very much to the surprise of 
the lordly Briton, who had for more than a hundred years considered himself 
master of the high seas. Encouraged by their success in the prior struggle, upon 
the breaking out of this second war the soldiers of the sea entered the contest 
with a vim and not only did the government vessels by their brilliant maneuvers 
sustain the national character for skill and courage, but the numerous privateers 
mostly putting out from New England ports hovering over every sea, added vastly 
to the nautical fame of the country. And so her victories won by her naval 
forces, crowned with Jackson's victory at New Orleans, won the respect and fear 
of Europe, if these were not gained by the treaty. 



when it is we shall find a brilliant chapter of heroic service. On 
the sea it was equally as bright as the records of the days of '76. 
Hillsborough furnished her share of men in this service. 

'Thus ended," says Ramsay, "the first considerable war in 
which the nation had been engaged since the adoption of that 
constitution which secured to them the blessing of a mild and 
comparatively efficient form of government, and promised by its 
impartial influence to render them a united and happy people." 

List of veterans of the War of 1812 who lie buried in the 
cemeteries in town: 

Simon Robbins, Eli Wheeler, Jonathan Danforth, David 
Livermore, Luke G. Hosley, Capt. Ransom Bigsbee, Captain 
Dickey, Stephen Richardson, William Pope, Benjamin Putney, 
John Adkins, David Roach, William Burrill, George Dascomb, 
William H. Heath, Richard Gould, Harvey Hubbard, Isaac 

A military spirit pervaded the country following the close 
of the war and everywhere drills and musters were of common 
occurrence. According to the organization of the state militia in 
1820, there were thirty-eight regiments, and Solomon McNiel of 
Hillsborough was made Lieutenant-Colonel of the 26th. A re- 
organization in 1830 resulted in a promotion for Col. McNiel, 
when he was appointed Brigadier-General of the Third Division, 
Fourth Brigade. (For sketch see Volume II.) 

Little of general interest, as far as the history of the town 
was concerned occurred until the breaking out of what was 
denominated in the North as the Florida War, but which was 
known in the South as the Seminole War, for reasons that will 
be obvious. That was a period when Indian troubles came thick 
and fast, and one of the worst Indian wars in the country raged 
for thirteen years, 1835 to 1848, costing many lives and the 
destruction of considerable property. It was against the Sem- 
inole Indians, and the darkest feature of the whole affair was the 
fact that the government was the more or less to blame for the 
causes which led to it. 

Hillsborough is especially interested in the long-drawn out 
affair for the reason she had two sons belonging to prominent 
families in town connected with it. 


One of these was the oldest son of Governor Pierce, Major 
Benjamin Kendrick Pierce, of the artillery who was connected 
with the regular army. At the beginning of the war he had been 
ordered from Fort Mitchell to the command of Fort Micanopy, 
in the interior of Florida, in the summer of 1836. 

For a year or more the army had been waging an unequal 
fight where military science and skill were of little account 
against a foe upon their own soil, and that soil producing spon- 
taneously for their subsistance, while every bush was covert, 
every hummock a natural earth work and every everglade a 
natural fortification. "In such a war," says one of its historians, 
"few laurels were to be won, yet its hardships, its labors, its risks 
and responsibilities, were far greater than those of the legitimate 
wars of civilized life." 

When the tide of war was at low ebb Major Pierce arrived 
upon the scene, and soon after, learning that the dusky enemy 
was growing bolder and more numerous ordered an attack upon 
Fort Drane, about ten miles from his station. So adroitly was 
this campaign planned the redmen were taken by surprise, and 
though commanded by their astute leader, the noted Osceola, and 
outnumbering the whites, they were put to rout. This victory, 
won with small loss of life gave renewed hopes to our troops in 
Florida, and was received with joy throughout the country. It 
proved over again that an energetic and skilled commander could 
succeed where weaker leaders would inevitably fail. The receipt 
of the news of this battle brought from the commander in chief 
the following letter of appreciation: 

"Tallahasse, Sept. 6, 1836. 
"Sir, — I have received through Col. Crane a copy of your official 
report of the battle of Fort Drane. Your conduct and that of the 
officers and men in under your command, on that occasion, reflects on 
3 r ou and upon them the highest credit. To have beaten Powell 
(Osceola) with one third of his force was a proud achievement; and 
I take this occasion to tender my acknowledgements to you and to 
your command for this gallant service. 
"I am, sir, very respectfully, 

"Your obedient servant, 
R. K. Call, 
"Maj. B. K. Pierce, United States Army." 

Photograph by Manahan. 


Photograph by Maxahax. 





The head-quarters of the army at Washington made this 
action a general order of congratulation in the following terms: 

"Headquarters of the Army, Adjt.-General's Office, 

"Washington, Sept. 16, 1836. 
"General Order No. 61. 

"I. The Major General Commanding-in-Chief has received the 
official account of the attack made on the 21st of August, by Maj. 
Pierce, of the First Regiment of Artillery, on a large body of Indians 
collected on the site of the old Fort Drane, in which, with the force 
of only 110 men, he completely surprised and routed about 300 war- 
riors, and killed and wounded a considerable number of them. 

"II. The conduct of officers and men engaged in this enterprise, 
like those who attacked a superior force at Micanopy under the gallant 
and much-lamented Lieut.-Col. Heileman, is deserving of the highest 

(III. "It is with much satisfaction that the Major-General recurs 
to the conduct on all occasions of the troops of the regular army who 
have been serving in Florida against the iSeminoles. Wherever they 
have had an opportunity of meeting the enemy, they have acted with 
a spirit of gallantry worthy of a nobler field; and the Major-General 
cannot, without deep sensibility, contemplate the sacrifices and suffer- 
ings which they have experienced in the arduous duties imposed on 
them; all which they have borne with a fortitude and submission to 
discipline which reflect honor on the character of the American army, 
and entitle them to the approbation and regard of their government 
and country. 

"By order of 

"Maj.-<Gen. Macomb, 
"Major-General Commanding-in-chief. 
" S. Cooper, Acting Adjutant-'General." 

Following the advantage gained at Fort Drane General Call 
ordered an expedition into the Indian country from the Suwanee 
River, and Major Pierce was appointed Quartermaster-General, 
with 1,400 mounted men from Tennessee and Florida. In order 
to undertake this expedition it was necessary certain provisions 
then at Battle Creek, sixty-five miles away should be brought to 
Fort Drane as soon as possible. This was on the fourth of 
October, and starting at midnight with his train of provision the 
task was accomplished before the eve of the sixth. 

In order to make the surprise of the Indians complete a new 
route was taken, Major Pierce at the hea'd of two hundred men, 
cutting a road through the Florida forest for fifty miles, and, 


despite the fatigue of the men, surprised the Indians on the 
morning of the 12th and routed them. Major Pierce was made 
Colonel of the regiment for this feat of war. 

This victory was followed by the campaign of Wahoo 
Swamp, where Colonel Pierce was also successful, and received 
great praise for his skill and bravery. 

The Florida War cost Hillsborough the life of one of her 
most promising sons, Lieut. John W. S. McNiel, the oldest son of 
Gen. John McNiel, who was mortally wounded while leading an 
attack upon an Indian camp in Florida on the morning of 
September 10, 1837. He was an officer of great promise, and had 
he been spared would undoubtedly have risen high in military 
honors. With a nature susceptible to every noble and generous 
impulse he was a universal favorite with all who knew him. 

He died September 11, 1837, from the effects of a wound 
received the preceding day in a skirmish with the Indians under 
the noted Seminole chief Euchee Billy. As Lieut. McNiel ad- 
vanced at the head of his men to charge the Indians, Euchee Billy 
levelled his rifle at him and before young McNiel could discharge 
his pistol, the bullet of his enemy passed through his right hand, 
lodging in his abdomen. But he remained upon the field during 
the battle and was then removed to camp on a litter. 

The following day the command started for St. Augustine, 
but McNiel died on the way at 10 o'clock on Monday night. The 
body was taken to St. Augustine, and buried with the honor of 

The following letter written a short time before his untimely 
death possesses a pathetic interest : 

Garreys ferry Florida 
January 16th 10 oclock at night 
Dear Father 

We arrived here this morning & found orders to proceed to 
Volusice to join the Army. We start to-morrow. I saw William, 
Uncle Benjamin's boy, when we landed. Col. Pierce has gone to 
Savannah for the benefit of his health, it is expected he will return 
in the course of 2 or 3 weeks. I have packed everything that I shall 
carry with me into a pair of saddle bags. I shall leave my trunk here 
or send it to Charlestown. I am in fine health. If you do not hear 
from me again in a month, do not feel at all alarmed for it is im- 
possible for us to carry any writing material with us, but I shall 


write every opportunity & if anything happens I shall get somebody 
to write immediately. As for Florida it is the last place on the face 
of the Globe. I had not the least conception of its being - such a place 
as it is, & from the accounts of others, I have not seen any of it yet. 
You can write if you choose & direct your letters to Whitesville, but 
it is doubtful whether I get them. As soon as we join Gen. Jessup we 
shall be on the tramp all over Florida. It is thought here that the 
War will not be closed in less than a year if it is then. In haste. 
Love to all. Your aff. son 

J. W. S. McNiel 
Genl. John McNiel 

Lieut. John W. S. McNiel was the son of Gen. John McNiel 
and was born on the Island of Macinaw February 17, 1817. He 
was educated at West Point and commenced the study of law at 
Hillsborough in the office of his uncle fton. Franklin Pierce, 
June 8, 1836. At the breaking out of the Indian disturbances in 
the South that year he was appointed second lieutenant in the 
Second Regiment United States Dragoons, and was stationed at 
Carbondale, Penn., on recruiting service through the summer. In 
the winter he was ordered to join his regiment in Florida. 

He was in several skirmishes during the summer of 1837, in 
command of his company. 

Commendation of Lieutenant McNiel. 

The following letter announcing the death and commending 
the service of Lieutenant McNiel was received by his parents at 


Gen. John McNiel : 
My dear Sir, 

It has become my duty to communicate the painful intelligence of 
the death of your brave and gallant son Lieut. John W. S. McNiel. 

He expired on the evening of the 11th Instant, between the hours 
of nine and ten. Early on the morning of the previous day, while 
leading a charge at the head of his company against a body of hostile 
Indians, he received a mortal wound from the rifle of their chief the 
celebrated Euchee Billy. 

Lieut. McNiel with his company of Dragoons constituted a part of 
an attachment of about 170 men composed of regular troops and 
militia — the whole under the immediate command of Brig. Gen. 
Hernandez. This force marched from the vicinity of St. Augustine on 
the 7th Instant — and on the morning of the 9th succeeded without loss 
in capturing a body of Indians and negroes near Dun Lawton Sixty 


miles from this city. From the captured party information was ob- 
tained of another body of Indians with Euchee Billy and the well 
known chief Philip at their head. This party was distant about ten 
miles, and sheltered within the covert of swamps and of a scrub almost 
impenetrable — These obstacles however, by the guidance of one of 
the captured party were passed in the course of the night, through 
narrow cut ways which had previously been made by the Indians for 
their own ingress and egress — and at the dawn of the next morning, 
being the 10th Instant, the attack was made in two columns, one of 
which was led by your son, with great success, and this whole party, 
with the exception of a single Indian, was also captured without loss 
or injury, save alone the unfortunate and fatal wound of your son — 
As he was advancing, he saw Euchee Billy levelling his rifle against 
him, and at the moment of raising his own pistol was struck by the 
ball of the savage, which passing through his right hand lodged in 
his right breast. 

The wound was not supposed to be dangerous, and your son 
returned with the detachment to within 20 miles of this place, where 
all encamped for the night. At the time of encamping no one I am 
told anticipated danger, or at least not immediate danger from the 
wound — and he himself appeared to entertain no fears on account 
of it. His mind seemed to be occupied with care for the welfare and 
safety of his men, and he expressed himself anxiously in regard to 
them, but a very short time he ceased to breathe. It was on Sunday 
morning that he received the wound — and on Monday evening, the 
11th Instant, at about half past nine he expired. 

His remains were brought to this city, and at 5 o'clock this after- 
noon interred with military honours in the Protestant Church yard. 
The funeral escort composed of the returned detachment and of Capt. 
Webster's company of U. S. Artillery formed in front of the dwelling 
house of Gen. Hernandez where the body was received for the purpose 
of yielding to it the last sad tribute of military honour. 

What more, my dear friend, can I say, I have this moment re- 
turned from the funeral of your son and I find your letter of the 
30th Ultimo upon my table filled with affectionate paternal inquiries 
concerning him ... I may indeed add that which should soothe 
your feelings, and cause both you and Mrs. McNiel, while grieving for 
him, to be proud of, and to exult in his memory. All concur in hear- 
ing testimony in his favor — all say that he was brave and intrepid — 
faithful in the discharge of his military duties, and moral and correct 
in his conduct and deportment. He was beloved by his men, and 
esteemed by his fellow officers. 

To lose such a son, in the very morning of his life I know must 
be grievous to his parents — but that he was such a son should be to 
them, while memory lasts, a most heartfelt consolation. 


Mrs. Smith unites with me, in tending both to you and to Mrs. 
McNiel expressions of sincere sympathy and condolence for your loss, 
and I need not add, that in anything in respect to the remains of your 
son or of his memory you may at all times command me. 
I remain Dear Sir 

Truly yours, 

Joseph L. Smith. 

In 1840 there was another revision of the statutes and Hills- 
borough was classed with Antrim, Deering, Hancock, Frances- 
town, Greenfield, Bennington, and Windsor in making up the 
26th regiment. Hillsborough was very much interested in this 
re-organization, as the town was well represented. Among the 
Aides to the Commander-in-Chief His Excellency Henry 
Hubbard was Henry Dearborn Pierce, a son of Governor Ben- 
jamin Pierce, ranking Colonel. He had been appointed Lieutenant 
of a company of cavalry in the 26th regiment January 27, 1836, 
and promoted to Captain December 8, 1838, Colonel Pierce rep- 
resented the town in legislature in 1841 and 1842, and was an- 
nually elected Moderator of the town for nineteen years. 

Samuel Andrews was Brigadier-General of the Fourth 
Brigade; Benjamin Tuttle, Jr., Brigadier Inspector; and Benja- 
min P. McNiel was Brigade Charter Master, all of Hillsborough. 

General Andrews was born in Hillsborough October 9, 1813. 
He was appointed Ensign of the First Company of Infantry in 
the 26th Regiment, January 23, i836; Lieutenant, January 11, 
1837; and Captain, March 2, 1838. He was promoted to Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel of the 26th Regiment June 2J, 1839; Colonel, July 2, 
1840. He was appointed Brigadier-General of the Fourth 
Brigade July 18, 1842; and Major-General June 30, 1845. 

General Tuttle was born in Hillsborough April 27, 181 1, and 
for several years he was Deputy Sheriff for Hillsborough and 
adjacent counties. He was Brigade Inspector on General 
Andrew's staff in 1842 and 1843. He represented the town in the 
legislature in 1856 and 1857. 

Maj. Benjamin Pierce McNiel was a son of Gen. John 
McNiel of the United States Army, and was born at Hillsbor- 
ough, Jan. 20, 1825. He was appointed as Brigade Quartermaster 
upon General Andrew's staff, Aug. 11, 1842; Major of the 
Twenty-Sixth Regiment, Dec. 15, 1843; an ^ Division-Inspector 


of Third Division, Aug. 26, 1845. He read law with George 
Barstow, Esq., at Hillsborough, and Hon. Ira Perley, of Concord. 
He was appointed Second Lieutenant of the Third United States 
Artillery, March 8, 1847 5 an d First Lieutenant in same, Decem- 
ber 4, 1847. He died at Boston, June 19, 1853, in the twenty- 
ninth year of his age. 

The Mexican War. 

Difficulties which had existed for several years between the 
American and Mexican governments reached a crisis in 1846, and 
war was declared between the countries in the spring of the year. 
Like all wars this was not popular with the people. New Hamp- 
shire, situated so far from the scene of strife, furnished but few 
troops. These belonged mainly to two companies, "C" and 
"H," recruited mostly from this state, and were joined to the 
Ninth regiment. 

While Hillsborough did not furnish a man in the ranks as 
enlisted from this town, she was represented by one of the fore- 
most commanding officers. February 16, 1847, Franklin Pierce, 
son of Ex-governor Benjamin Pierce, was appointed Colonel of 
the Ninth United States Infantry, and when ten regiments had 
been raised he was made Brigadier-General, March 3, 1847. 

General Pierce and his troops saw some arduous marches 
and trying experiences, while bravely fighting the enemy in their 
guerilla warfare, this being no more hazardous or deadly than 
the combats fought out individually with the grim fiend disease 
that infests a tropical clime. 

The campaign of the early fall in 1847 was deeply over- 
shadowed with gloom. It is true General Scott had won recent 
victories, but they had cost two thousand lives, and the enemy 
still retained possession of one of the keys to the situation, the 
city and heights of Chepultepec. In the seige of this important 
position the men from New Hampshire and her commander 
played a conspicuous part. 

The bombardment began on September 12, and continued 
through the day with but little result to show for the action. 
General Pierce during this bombardment was at the head of the 
First and Third Brigades of the division, and gallantly held in 


check a large body of lancers on the left. In the afternoon 
General Pillow rode up to where the Ninth regiment was resting 
from a furious attack it had met a few minutes before. Raising 
his right arm and pointing with his sword towards the heights 
they were storming, he exclaimed : 

"To-morrow, if you say it, the star spangled banner floats 
up yonder. If New England would place her name on the bright 
page of history, now is the time. You of the Ninth, if you will, 
shall lead the charge, but none need volunteer who will not enter 
that castle yonder, or die in the attempt." 

Few there were in the gallant Ninth who did not instantly 
volunteer. The order for the charge came, and in half an hour 
the starry flag floated in triumph over the castle walls. As soon 
as the castle had surrendered, finding that the enemy was making 
a desperate stand at the city gate, the triumphant Americans 
pushed forward, to carry the day after a stubborn fight. In the 
midst of the firing night settled upon the scene, the sentinel stars 
looking down upon the closing scene of one of the bloodiest 
battles fought in the war. The gallant Ninth had paid for the 
part it had done in this victory with the lives of one hundred and 
twenty of her men, numbering among them its commanding 
officer, Col. Trueman Ransom, who fell about half way up the 
heights shot through the head with a musket ball. On the 14th 
the stars and stripes floated in triumph over the national Palace. 
Colonel Potter in closing his account of the war says : 

"And after this wise was it that the American army gained 
possession of the 'Venice of Mexico,' and dictated terms of peace 
in the 'halls of Montezuma." 

If this town had no enlisted man at the front, a former 
citizen of hers was fighting manfully up from the ranks to become 
a Major in his regiment. And the record of these two officers, 
Gen. Franklin Pierce and Major David Steele comprises the part 
Hillsborough furnished in the Mexican War. Besides this 
couple, while not in active fighting, Ira Wilkins of Hillsborough 
was doing duty on a transport running between Tampico and 
New Orleans during the war. 


No military history of the town would be complete without 
mention of the oldtime musters, and especially a particular ac- 
count of one of those musters held on Cork Plain, West Deering. 

Cork Muster. 

And then the musters in the fall, 

When all the shows assembled, 
When bugles blowed, when fiddles squeaked, 
And air with frolic trembled. 

— Old Song. 

The musters were an event in the local affairs of a com- 
munity. If a heritage of war, coming at a period when holidays 
were far less frequent than in these days, it readily and naturally 
became the one great pastime of the year. 

For days, ay, for weeks before the day set for the demon- 
stration preparations were made to attend from far and near. 
Every able-bodied man between 18 and 45 years was supposed to 
be enrolled and liable to be called upon to do duty, unless 
exempted by law. Each company was required to "train" on the 
third Tuesday of May each year, and again for inspection and 
drill upon order of the Captain, "armed and equipped as the law 
directs." The annual regimental muster occurred in the fall, 
usually in September. "The call or order for these affairs declared 
that "each enrolled man should be armed with a flint lock, two 
spare flints, with steel or iron ramrod, a bayonet, scabbard and 
belt, a priming wire and brush, a knapsack and canteen, and a 
cartridge box that contains twenty-four cartridges. " 

The muster about to be described, the last I think ever held 
on Cork Plain, had awakened uncommon interest, which was 
shown at a preliminary meeting held at the tavern of J. M. 
Appleton, Esq., West Deering. Over forty persons were present, 
every one of them noted for their military spirit in past years. 
Among them were found Gen. Samuel Andrews, General 
Michael McCoy, Col. J. R. Dane, Col. Samuel Densmore, Col. 
Henry D. Pierce, Col. H. Gove, Maj. James M. Appleton, Capt. 
John P. Richardson, Capt. H. Chase, Francis N. Blood, and 













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Colonel Pierce was called to the chair and Francis N. Blood 
was appointed secretary. Reports were made through delegates 
from more than twenty towns, which were so favorable that it 
was voted unanimously to hold an "old-fashioned Cork Muster" 
on Tuesday, October 12, 1858. 

The day dawned auspiciously and the crowd began to gather 
early in the morning. In fact many had appeared on the spot 
the day before. Hillsborough had sent one hundred men dressed 
as Indians and mounted on horses. Antrim sent a company of 
seventy men in citizen's dress, under Captain Mclllvin. Benning- 
ton sent a company of fifty men; Francestown a company of 
"Indians," and Stoddard the same number in citizen's clothes. 
Artillery companies came from New Boston, Hancock and 
Lyndeborough. Bradford, Henniker, Goffstown, Washington and 
Windsor were well represented, while a fire company and a 
cornet band came from Manchester. 

The troops were reviewed by General Andrews. In the 
afternoon an "old-fashioned sham fight" took place between the 
Indians of Hillsborough and other towns led by their Chief, 
Colonel Pierce, and "white" troops under Col. Lewis Richardson 
of Greenfield. Before the battle was over it threatened to be 
anything but a "sham" fight, and it is certain not a little blood 
was shed. However, each side took it good-naturedly, as far as 
might be, and when the smoke of battle had cleared, the Indians 
having proved the winner, a reconciliation took place between 
the "enemies." All then partook of a hearty spread of food, 
following which speeches were made, Francis N. Blood speaking 
for the Indians, and Doctor Richards of Greenfield and William 
H. White offering mingled praise and consolation for the van- 
quished warriors. Other forms of festivities followed each other 
in rapid succession, until the westering sun brought the day's 
semi-military proceedings to a close. No doubt many went home 
happy that night, even if their token was a blackened eye. That 
was beyond doubt the most famous, as well as the last muster, 
ever held on Cork Plain, the county's famous muster ground. 

The heyday of the muster had already passed. From 1820 
to 1850 the militia of the state was at its best, numbering annually 
upwards of thirty thousand well organized and disciplined 
soldiers, but from the latter date its deterioration was rapid, so 


upon the breaking out of the Civil War it could muster only one 
regiment, the First, and twelve independent companies ! A 
deplorable condition at the opening of the greatest struggle the 
country had ever known. 

Hillsborough, which has ever seemed the natural parade 
ground of military bodies, has had several military and semi- 
military organizations, among these the most ambitious was the 
Carter Guards formed in 1879. At a meeting of the company 
September 12, 1883, it was voted to change its name to that of 
Smith Rifles. This was done out of deference to the assistance 
given by Gov. John B. Smith. On June 19, 1884, he presented 
the organization with fifty very fine fatigue coats. The officers 
commanding the company at this time were Orlando S. Burt, 
Emmons C. Newman, and James F. Adams. In more recent 
years it became known as Co. K, 2nd Reg., N. H. N. G. 



Hillsborough's Kecord in Previous Wars — Actions of the Town — 
Opening of the War — First Regiment Volunteer Infantry — Roll — 
Second Regiment — Roll — Third Regiment — Roll — Fourth Regiment 
—Roll— Fifth Regiment— Roll— Sixth Regiment— Roll— Seventh 
Regiment — Roll — Eighth Regiment — Roll — Ninth Regiment — Roll 
— Tenth Regiment — Roll — Eleventh Regiment — Roll — Thirteenth 
Regiment — Roll — Fourteenth Regiment — Roll — Sixteenth Regiment 
— Roll — Seventeenth Regiment — Roll — Eighteenth Regiment — Roll 
— Other Branches of the Army — Veteran Reserve Corps — United 
States Colored Troops — Dartmouth Cavalry — United States Navy 
— Men Who Served in Other States — Summary of Service — Moral 
Results of War. 

As she had in preceding wars Hillsborough did fully her 
share in the Civil War, 1861 to 1865, and her soldiers, sent 
promptly to the front, fought bravely on all of the principal 
battle-fields of the sanguinary struggle. None were more loyal ; 
none were more brave than her sons who offered freely their lives 
on many a hard-fought field. Rev. Harry Brickett, in an excellent 
article on this town, well said: "In all the wars in which the 
nation has been involved Hillsborough has had a full part ; her 
men have fought in the field, their blood has been shed and lives 
have been sacrified. Hillsborough has furnished a full share of 
brave officers who led "to victory or death." 

The resume of this valor and the part Hillsborough acted in 
the Civil War has been so well expressed by one of her sons, 
Col. James F. Grimes, that I shall include his eloquent words as 
most appropriate: "In the lapse of years there came, and has 
gone, a greater war than the Revolution — that for the Union. In 
the latter struggle Hillsborough did not, through remissness, blur 
her fair record of achievement in the former. The spirit of the 
Fathers still moved the sons nobly to do and dare as in the older 
days. Her men were in nearly every regiment of volunteers sent 
from New Hampshire to the 'ensanguined field/ as well as in 
other branches of the service, including the regular. They fought 




as well in this war as had an Andrews, a Bradford, or a McNiel 
in the other, and Merrill, Reed, Templeton, and Wilson died as 
nobly as had Baldwin." 

While filling her quotas of men promptly, as they were called 
for the citizens, men and women, at home were equally loyal to 
each and every duty. 

November 15, 1861, town voted to adopt the act to aid the 
parents and families of volunteers or members of the enrolled 
militia of the state. 

August 12, 1862, town voted to pay each volunteer $150 until 
quota from town was filled. 

March 10, 1863, it was voted to raise $1000 in addition to 
that already raised to benefit families of volunteers. 

In 1864 the town voted unanimously to give the Selectmen 
unlimited power to help "cary on the war to a successful ter- 
mination at whatever cost." 

Opening of the War. 

The beginning of hostilities was sudden and to the people 
quite unexpected. On the morning of April 12, 1861, Confederate 
forces under General Beauregard, numbering several thousand 
men, opened fire upon Fort Sumter, defending Charleston harbor, 
S. C, at the time commanded by Major Robert Anderson with 
about seventy United States soldiers under him. Major Anderson 
could do no better than to capitulate the next day, and the im- 
pending crisis had developed into a civil war the magnitude of 
which, few, North or South, realized in its stern reality. 

President Lincoln acted promptly, and April 15, he issued 
his memorable proclamation which called for seventy-five 
thousand volunteers for the short service of three months, as it 
was hopefully believed that within that brief period peace could 
be established. New Hampshire's assignment was one regiment. 
The names of the men who enlisted for this service, as well as 
those who joined the succeeding regiments are given in the fol- 
lowing lists, together with a brief record of each soldier. 

first and second regiments. 269 

First Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

New Hampshire responded to the call of President Lincoln 
with a readiness unsurpassed by any other state, and between 
April 17 and 30th 2,004 men were enlisted. The balance, after 
filling the First Regiment, were given their choice to enlist in the 
prospective Second Regiment or serve three months at Fort Con- 
stitution at Portsmouth harbor. Four hundred and ninety-six 
chose the first alternative, while the remainder went to Ports- 

The First Regiment rendezvoused on the Fair Grounds at 
Concord, the place being christened "Camp Union." So rapidly 
was the equipment effected that on May 28th, at 1.30 o'clock a. m., 
the regiment arrived in Washington and immediately marched to 
Camp Cameron. Reviewed from the porch of the White House 
by President Lincoln, he was so pleased at its appearance he sent 
a messenger to the colonel informing him that his was the best 
appointed regiment which had so far come into Washington. 

While the First Regiment was not called upon to do any 
fighting, except the exchange of shots at Conrad's Ferry, it did 
its duty as faithfully as any, and possibly as much good. Not less 
than five hundred of these soldiers re-enlisted in succeeding 


Mustered into service at Concord May 1 to 7, 1861 ; mustered out 
August 9, 1861, every man a volunteer for three months. 
Andrews, Chables J., priv. Co. C. ; b. H., age 19; res. Manchester; enL 

Apr. 20, must, in May 2,'61 ; must, out Aug. 9, '61. See 3 N. H. V. 
Green, Gilman. priv. Co. D. ; b. in H. ; age 28; res. Wilmot; enl. Apr 

22, '61 ; must. May 2 ; must, out Aug. 9, '61. See 5 and 10 N. H. V. 
Putney, John L. priv. Co. D. ; b. H. ; age 44; res. Greenfield; enl. May 

22, '61 ; must, in May 23, '61 ; app. sergt. May 23 ; must, out Aug. 

9, '61. See 8 N. H. V. 

Second Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

A considerable number of this regiment was made up of the 
recruits who enlisted in the First Regiment of three months' men. 
The order had come to stop taking men for the short period, so 
those who re-enlisted, as well as the new volunteers, were mustered 
in for three years or during the war. Early in May the regiment 
went into camp at Portsmouth, but left here the first of June and 


arrived in Washington on the 23d of June. It was immediately 
attached to Second Brigade of Hunter's division, its commander 
being Col. Ambrose E. Burnside. This regiment saw active ser- 
vice almost at once, for on July 21st it was engaged in the furious 
battle of Bull Run, where 7 were killed, 56 wounded, 46 missing. 
A.mong the second class was Col. Gilman Marston, who was 
severely injured. With this energetic beginning the Second saw 
its share of fighting being in 22 battles including Bull Run, 
Malvern Hill, Second Bull Run, Chantilly, Fredericksburg, 
Gettysburg, Dreury's Bluff, Cold Harbor and Petersburg, except- 
ing Gettysburg, all in Virginia. The organization was completed 
June 10th, 1861, and the recruits and re-enlisted men were 
mustered out December 19th, 1865, at City Point, Va. 


Abcheb, William. Priv. Co. A.; b. in England; age 28; cred. to H. ; 
enl. Nov. 16, '63 ; must, in Dec. 2, '63 ; des. Apr. 7, 1864, Pt Look- 
out, Md. 

Andrews, James H. Priv. Co. H. ; b- in H. ; age 18; res. H. ; enl. May 
16, '61 ; must, in June 5, '61 ; app. Corp. Nov. 1, '&2 ; reenl. and 
must, in Jan. 1, '64 ; cred. to Portsmouth ; app. Sergt. Jan. 1, '64 ; 
1st Sergt. July 1, '64 ; 2d Lieut. Co. E, June 1, '65 ; res. Oct. 26, '65. 

Bauer, Albert. Priv. Co. A ; b. in New York ; age 19 ; cred. to II. ; enl. 
and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; disch. June 29, '65, Norfolk, Va. 

Brown, John. Priv. Co. D; b. in Germany; age 29; cred. to H. ; enl. 
and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; tr. to U. iS. navy Apr. 30, '64 as an Ord. 
Seaman; served on U. 'S. S. "State of Georgia," "A. D. Vance," 
"Potomac," and "Arthur" ; disch. Oct. 13, '65, N. Y. 

Brown, James Priv. Co. C ; b. in North Caroline; age 26; cred. to H. ; 
enl. and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; des. at Williamsburg, Va., Apr. 24, 

Brown, John. Priv. Co. A; b. England; age 21; cred. to H. ; enl. and 
must, in Nov. 16, '63 ; tr. to U. S. Navy Apr. 28, '64, as a Seaman ; 
served on the U. S. S. "Florida," "Quaker City," and "0. H. 
Lee" ; disch. on reduction of naval force Aug. 18, '65, from receiv- 
ing ship Philidelphia, Pa. 

Clark, William. Priv. Co. D; b. : New York; age 22; cred. to H. ; enl. 
and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; des. near Petersburg, Va., July 9, '64. 

Clinton, Charles. Priv. Co. B; b. England; age 20; sub. for William 
Merrill ; enl. and must, in Dec. 3, '64 ; des. upon reaching Boston, 
Dec. 10, '63. 

Cooledge, William P. Band; b. in H. ; age 23; res. in Peterborough; 
enl. July 22, '61; must, in Aug. 7, '61; as 2d class Muse; must, out 
as 1st class Muse. Aug. 8, '62, near Harrison's Landing, Va. 


Danforth, Charles H. Priv. Co. B; b. Weare; age 26; res. in H; enl. 

and must, in Aug 1 . 9, '62 ; disch. at Fort Monroe, Va., June 6, '65. 
Dascomb, Edmund. Corp. Co. G; b. in H. ; age 23; res. in Greenfield; 

enl. May 15, '61 ; must, in June 5, '61 ; app. 2d Lieut. Sept. 1, '62 ; 

wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 ; d. of wds. July 13, '63. 
Day, Freeman. Priv. Co. D; cred. to H. ; must, in Nov. 14, '©3 ; des. 

from hospital Sept. 6, '64. 
Grandley, John. Priv. Co. D; b. in Halifax; age 22; cred. to H. ; sub- 

for Horace J. Clark ; enl. and must, in Dec. 2, '64 ; des. at Boston, 

Mass., Dec. 10, '64. 
Graper, Frederick. Priv. Co. D; b. in Germany; age 20; cred. to H. ; 

enl. and must, in Nov. 16, 163 ; tr. to U. S. Navy Apr. 30, '64 ; as an 

Ord. Seaman; des. from U. S. S. "Calypso" Nov. 11, '64. 
Hall, Frederick. Priv. Co. E ; b. in England ; age 21 ; cred. to H. ; des. 

at New York July 20, '64. 
Harpell, John. Priv. Co. R; b. in Nova Scotia; age 19; cred. to H. ; 

enl. and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; des. while on a furlough Mar. 1, '65. 
Hoyt, Hugh. Priv. Co. H. ; b. and res. in H. ; age 22 ; enl. May 7, '61, 

for 3 mos- ; not must, in ; re-enl. for 3 yrs. May 9, '61 ; must, in 

June 5, '61 ; disch. at Blandensburg, Md., disab., Sept. 20; '61. 
Justice, Robert. Enl. but not assigned. See 3 N. H. V. 
Kelley, John. Priv. Co. A ; cred. to H. ; must. Sept. 8, '64. See 10th N. 

H. V. 
Lantos, Dalfis. Priv. Co. F; b. in Canada; age 18; res. in Canada; 

cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; must, out Dec. 19, '65. 

I/ast known was living in Attleborough, Mass. 
Long, Charles. Priv. Co. D; b. New Jersey; age 31; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; des. at Lookout Point, Md. ; Dec. 4, '63. 
McDonald, John. Priv. Co. K; b. in Ireland; age 24; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; no further record. 
McEvoy, John. Priv. Co. F; b. in Ireland; age 21; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; killed at Petersburg May 14, '64. 
McMillan, Thomas. Priv. Co. F ; b. in Ireland ; age 33 ; cred. to H ; 

enl. and must, in Nov. 16, '68 ; tr. to U. (S. Navy Apr. 30, '64, as 

Ord. Seaman served on U. S. »S. ""Calypso" ; des. Dec. 23, '64. 
McPherson, John. Priv. Co. F; b. in Nova Scotia; age 33; cred. to 

H. ; enl. and must, in Nov 16, '6>3 ; captured by enemy Oct. 28, '64 ; 

released ; d. at Annapolis, Md., Mar. 4, '65. 
Miller, John. Priv. Co. F; b. in England; age 21; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; must, out Dec. 5, 1865. 
Morierty, Cornelius. Priv. Co. G ; complete record see 10th regiment. 
Parker, Geobge. Priv. Co. A ; b. in England ; age 38 ; cred. to H ; enl. 

and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; tr. to U. S. Navy Apr. 28, '64, as a Sea- 
man ; served on U S. S. "State of Georgia" and "A. D. Vance"; 

disch. for disab. at Norfolk, Va., Apr. 24, '65. 


Riley, John. Priv. Co. H; b. in Ireland; age 29; cred. to H. ; sub. for 

Edgar Hazen ; enl. and must, in Dec. 5, '64 ; disch. at Concord Dec. 

19, '65. 
Sanford, John F. Priv. Co. I ; b. in Canada ; age 29 ; cred. to H. ; sub S. 

G. Elanchard ; enl. and must, in Dec. 6, '64 ; must, out Dec 19, '65. 
Smith, William G. Priv. Co. G; b. in H. ; age 44; cred. to'H. ; enl. 

Aug. 25, '62 ; must, in Sept. 3, '63 ; disch. for disab. Dec. 25, '64. 
Wendell, Henby. Priv. Co. G. See record 10th Reg. 
Wilson, Stephen D. Priv. Co. G; b. Lyndeborough ; age 18; res. in H. ; 

enl. May 18 '61; for 3 mos. ; not must, in; re-enlisted May 15 for 

3 yrs. ; must, in June 5, '61 ; disch. disb. Aug. 3, '61, at Washington, 

D. C. Supposed to be the soldier by same name in Co. I, 5th 

Peg. N. H. V. 
Wylie, Edward. Priv. Co. H; b. New York; age 21; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Nov. 16, '63 ; app. Corp. Jan. 1, '65 ; sergt. Sept. 1, '65 ; 

must, out Dec. 19, '65. 

Third Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

This regiment was organized and mustered in August, 1861, 
at Concord, and was made up largely of men from other parts of 
the state rather than from the vicinity of Hillsborough, hence 
very few of its citizens were enrolled in its ranks. In 1864 this 
regiment was mounted and designated as "Third New Hampshire 
Mounted Infantry." Sent to Florida in April, later a portion was 
ordered to Virginia in May. Counting the recruits and additions, 
1,769 men belonged some time during the war to this regiment. 
It served throughout the Fort Wagner assaults, the siege of Fort 
Sumter in 1863 and 1864, was at Dreury's Bluff, Bermuda 
Hundred, siege of Petersburg, and several other battles and cam- 


Andrews, Charles J. Priv. Co. K; b. H.; age 19 1 ; res. in Manchester; 

enl. Aug. 12, '61; must, in Aug. 24, '61; app. Corp. Oct. 17, '61; 

resigned Dec. 1, '61 ; tr. to Co. B., 1st Art., U. S. A., Nov. 15, '62 ; 

re-enl. Feb., '64; des. Aug. 18, '65, Richmond, Va. See 1 N. H. V. 
Brown, Thomas H. Priv. Co., sub. for J Danforth; b. in 

Ireland ; age 23 ; cred. to H. ; enl. Dec. 17, '64 ; must, in Dec. 17, 

'64 ; des. Mar. 20, '65, Wilmington, N. C. 
Campbell, Nathaniel J. Priv. Co. K ; b. in H. ; age 34 ; Res. Strafford ; 

enl. Aug. 5, '61 ; must, in Aug. 24, '61, as Sergt. ; reduced to ranks 

May 3, '63 ; re-enl. and must, in Feb. 13, '64; killed May 13, '64, at 

Dreury's Bluff, Va. 


Cabb, Thomas M. Priv. Co. H ; b. in H. ; age 20 ; res. in H. ; enl. Aug. 

14, '61; must, in Aug. 23, '61; wounded June 16, '62, Seeessionville, 
S. C ; app. Corp. Nov. 1, '63 ; Sergt. Dec. 3, '63 ; re-enl. and must, in 
Mar. 17, '64 ; killed Oct. 27, '64, near Richmond, Va. 

Bebnasconi, Robebt. Priv. Co. F ; sub. for W. B. Gould ; b. in 
Switzerland; age 21; cred. to H.; enl. Dec. 15, '64; must, in Dec. 

15, '64 ; app. must. Mar. 1, '65 ; must, out July 20, '65. 
Febbagallino, Castbunion. Priv. Co. F ; sub. for George W. Burnbam ; 

b. in Italy; age 25; cred. to H. ; enl. Dec. 17, '64; must, in Dec. 17, 

'64 ; must, out July 20, '65. 
Habity Rodman. Priv. Co. C ; sub. for David Kimball ; must, in Dec. 

17, '64; des. at Wilmington, N. C, or killed May 17, '65. (Ayling's 

Register does not contain his name.) 
Kelley, Patbick. Priv. Co. H ; sub. for ; b in Ireland ; 

age 24 ; cred. to H. ; enl. Dec. 14, '64 ; must, in Dec. 14 '64 ; wounded 

at Sugar Loaf Mountain, N. C, Feb. 11, '65 ; disch. at York, Pa., 

May 25, '65. 
Monahan, Babney. Priv. Co. K; sub. for Edward Kimball; b. in Ire- 
land ; age 25 ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Dec. 24, '64 ; des. at 

Wilmington, N. C, Mar. 8, '65. 
Putney, Jacob A. Priv. Co. B ; b. in H. ; age 43 ; res. H. ; enl. July 27, 

'61 ; must, in Aug. 22, '61 ; tr. to Co. G, 11th V. R. C, May 31, '64; 

disch. Aug. 23, '64, Washington, D. C, tm. ex. 
Watson Fbank. Priv.; sub. for J. H. Fisher, cert, signed by Provost 

Marshall ; must- in Dec. 19, '64. (Name not in Ayling's Register of 

New Hampshire Soldiers in the Rebellion.) 

Fourth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

Two hundred men were left over from the organization of 
the Third Regiment, and these were accepted to form the nucleus 
of another — the Fourth Regiment. This regiment was mustered 
into service at Manchester Sept. 18th, just two weeks after the 
Third had started for Washington. Nine days later this regi- 
ment was ordered to the national capital, and then to Hilton 
Head, thence on an expedition to the southern coast. This regi- 
ment was commanded by the gallant Col. Louis Bell, mortally 
wounded at Fort Fisher, where he died Jan. 16, 1865, and by 
Lieut.-Col. Francis W. Parker, since the war a noted educator. 
The men were mustered out at Concord August 23, 1865. 

Among the battles were James Island, S. C, June 10, 1862 ; 
siege of Fort Wagner and Morris Island July 10 to September 6, 
i863; Dreury's Bluff, Va., May 14-16, 20th, 1864; Bermuda 


Hundred, Va., May 17-19, 21-28, 1864; siege of Petersburg, Va., 
June 23 to July 29, 1864; Fort Fisher, N. C, June 15, 1865. 

Beabd, 'George F. Priv. Co. F; b. in H. ; age 20; cred. to Goffstown; 

enl. Mar. 16, '65, for 1 year ; must, in Mar. 16, '65 ; must, out Aug. 

23, '65. 
Bumfobd, Solomon C. Priv. Co. H ; age 36 ; b. in Alexandria ; cred. to 

H., where he lived ; enl. Sept. 5, '61 ; must, in Sept. 18, '61 ; taken 

by the enemy at Jacksonville, Fla., Mar. 24, '62 ; par. Oct. 19>, '62 ; 

exchanged, re-enl. and must, in Jan. 1, 64 ; app. Corp. Mar. 1, '65 ; 

must, out Aug. 23 '65 ; died June 26, '71, Bradford. 
Downey, Mubphy. Priv. Co. (unas'd) ; b. Ireland; age 24; sub. for J. 

C. Campbell; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Jan. 7, '65; no further 

Downing, Henry J. Priv. Co. H; b. in Boston; cred. to H. ; age 18; 

res. in H. ; enl. Sept. 12 and must, in Sept. 18, '61 ; tr. to Co. B., 

1 Art. U. S. A., Nov. 1, '62 ; disch. Pt. of Rocks, Md., Sept. 5, '65. 
Boyden, George W. Priv. Co. H; b. Grafton, Mass.; age 20; res. H. ; 

enl. Sept. 8, and must, in 'Sept. 18, '61 ; trs. to 69th Co., 2 Batt'l, 

I. C, Dec. 10, '63 ; disch. Sept. 20, '64, Washington, D. C- 
Flood, Fbancis. Priv. Co. D ; sub. for S. Dow Wyman ; b. in Ireland ; 

age 26 ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Jan. 6, '65 ; des. at Wilming- 
ton, N. C, Feb. 15, '05 ; apph. ; des. again at Raleigh, N. C, Apr. 

18, ''66. 
Fbazeb, Charles. Priv. Co. D ; sub. ; cred. to H. ; enl. and 

must, in Jan. 6, '65 ; must out Aug. 23, '65. 
Geobge, Edwin M. Priv. Co. C ; b. in H. ; age 20 ; res. in Bennington ; 

enl. and must, in .Sept. 18, '61 ; disch. for disab. Hilton Head, S. C, 

Jan. 12, '62 ; d. in Bennington Mar. 3, '62. 
Lee, Patbick. (See Patrick Mclntre.) 
McAllister, Joshua H. Priv. Co. H ; b. in H. ; res. in H. ; age 41 ; enl. 

Aug. 28, '61 ; must, in Sept. 18, '61 ; disch. for disab. at Beaufort, 

S. C, Mar. 12, '63. See 1 N. H. Cavalry. 
McIntre, Patrick, alias Patrick Lee. Priv. Co. F; sub. for Judson W. 

Gould; b. in Ireland; age 21; enl. and must, in Jan. 2, '65; must 

out, Aug. 23, '65. Died at North Bridgewater, Mass., Mar. 7, '67. 
McQueston, Charles A. Priv. Co. H. ; b. in Washington ; age 23 ; res. 

in H. ; enl. Aug 28, '61 ; must, in Sept. 18, '61 ; tr. to Co. H., 24, I. 

C, Dec. 10, '63 ; re-enl. ; disch. Jan. 19, '66, at Washington, D. C. 
Muller, August. Priv. Co. F ; sub. for George A. Gibson ; b. in Ger- 
many; age 20; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Dec. 29, '04; disch. 

disab. July 20, '65. 
Richardson, Milton. Priv. Co. C ; b. in H. ; age 38 ; res. in and cred. to 

Nashua ; enl. Sept. 16, '61 ; must, in Sept. 18, '61 ; disch. for disab. 

at Beaufort, S. C, Oct. 2<6, '62. Died Feb. 11, '81, at Nashua. 


Sanders, Andbew. Priv. Co. E ; b. Liverpool, Eng. ; cred. to H., sub. 
for D. Davis; enl. and must- in Dec. 21, '64; must, out Aug. 23, '65. 

Fifth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 
The Fifth Regiment was organized at Concord, with men 
enlisted for three years. The regiment received its colors Octo- 
ber 28, 1 86 1, and the next day left for the front, arriving at 
Bladensburg, Md., the 31st. The regiment was assigned to the 
First Brigade, Sumner's Division, Army of the Potomac, Novem- 
ber 27, 1861. Edward E. Cross was appointed colonel, and an 
experienced Indian fighter, having seen service in Mexico, was 
of great assistance. "The Fighting Fifth" experienced more than 
its share of active campaigning, and was in about twenty-five 
bitter encounters, among them Fair Oaks, Va., June 1, 1862; 
Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862; Antietam, Md., September 15, 
1862; Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862; Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 1-5, 1863 ; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 3, 1863. 


Atwood, Samuel H. Priv. Co. K ; b. in H. ; res. in Antrim ; age 18 ; enl. 
Sept. 16, '6H; must, in Oct. 12, '61; wd. at Fair Oaks, Va., June 1, 
'62 ; wd. at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 ; re-enl. and must, in Jan. 
1, '64 ; tr. to Co. I ; wd. again at Dinwiddie Court House, Va., Mar. 
31, '65 ; disch. for disab. at Washington, D. C, July 18, '65 ; res. in 
Henniker after the war. 

Bailey, Charles H. Priv. Co. K ; b. Andover, Mass. ; res. in H. ; age 19 ; 
enl.. Sept. 2, '61 ; must, in Oct. 12, ^61 ; died Nov. 14, '62. 

Cabpenteb, William K, Priv. Co. K; b. in Lempster; res. in H. ; age 
20 ; enl. Sept. 16, '61 ; must, in Oct. 12, '61 wd. at Fredericksburg, 
Va., Dec. 13, '62 ; d. of wounds at Washington, D. C, Jan. 13, '63. 

Geeen, Oilman. Sergt. Co. H ; b. in H. ; age 28 ; res. in Wilmot ; enl. 
Sept. 10, '61 ; must, in Oct. 19, '61 ; app. Sergt. ; wd at Antietam, 
Md., Sept. 17, '62; disch. disab. Dec. 20, '62, Philadelphia. See 1 
and 10 N. H. V. 

Wilson, Stephen D. Priv. Co. I ; b. Lyndeborough ; age 19 ; cred. to H. ; 
enl- Sept. 25, '61 ; must, in Oct. 15, '61 ; des. at Washington, D. C, 
Aug. 30, '63. Supposed to be identical with Stephen D. Wilson Co. 
G., 2d Peg. N. H. V., and who had previously enl. in 1st. Reg. for 
3 mos. 

Wilson, Benjamin S- Priv. Co. K; b. Pepperell, Mass.; age 19; res. 
H. ; enl. Sept. 19, '61 ; must, in Oct. 12, '61 ; app. Sergt. Maj. Oct. 27, 
'63 ; disch. Apr. 20, '64, to accept promotion. See Miscl. Organiza- 

276 history of hillsborough. 

Sixth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

This regiment was organized at Keene in November, 1861, 
and camped on Cheshire Fair Grounds, "Camp Brooks." Left 
Keene December 25, to reach Washington, D. C, January 6, 1862. 
The Sixth had a severe experience throughout its campaigning. 
At Bull Run on the afternoon of July 29 the First Brigade, to 
which it belonged, was ordered to attack the enemy posted in the 
woods. The Sixth with the Second Maryland on its right, made 
a gallant attack. But the Forty-Eighth Pennsylvania, on its right, 
failed to hold its position, which left the Sixth exposed to a 
murderous fire on its flank. The regiment was then compelled 
to fall back, but not until it had lost in killed, wounded or missing 
almost every second man of the 450 who went into the battle. 
During its term of service the Sixth served in seventeen different 
states, and its record added a brilliant chapter to the history of 
New Hampshire in the Civil War. 

Its widely scattered battlefields of over a score in number, in- 
cluded Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29, 30, 1862 ; Antietam, Md., Septem- 
ber 17, 1862; Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; Siege of 
Vicksburg, Miss., June 14 to July 4, 1863 ; Wilderness, Va., May 
6, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 8 to 20, 1864; Siege of Peters- 
burg, Va., June 16, 1864, to April 3, 1865. 


Beckwith, Bybon A. Priv. Co. A; b. in Lempster; res. in H. ; age 30; 

enl. Oct 12, '61 ; must, in Dec. 6, '61 ; wd. at Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29, 

'62 ; app. Sergt. ; wd. and capt'd Sept. 30, '64, Poplar Springs, Va. ; 

d. Salisbury, N. C, Feb. 26, '65. 
Bright, John. Priv. Co. G. ; enl. June 21, '61; tr. to 9th Reg., which 

Hebebt, Joseph. Priv. Co. K ; sub. for C. Gibson ; b. Canada ; age 28 ; 

cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in May 24, '64 ; taken pris. at Poplar 

Springs, Va., Sept. 30, '64 ; no further record. 
Jones, Thomas. Priv. Co. A ; sub. ; b. Canada ; age 34 ; cred. to H. ; 

enl. and must, in May 24, '64 ; must, out July 14, '65. Rem. to St. 

Johnsbury, Vt. 
Robbins, Augustus. Priv. Co. A; b- Mason; age 34; res. in H. ; enl. 

Oct. 16, '61 ; must, in Dec. 6, '61 ; wd. at Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29, '62 ; 

des. Apr. 7, '63, Lexington, Ky. ; Apprh., and last reported July 17, 

'63, as absent in arrest. 


Sebalts, August. Priv. Co. K ; sub. ; b. in France ; age 33 ; cred. to H. ; 

enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63; wd. at Battle of Wilderness, Va., 

May 6, '64 ; no further record. 
Tenney, Henby A. Priv. Co. E; b. in Lempster; age 18; res. in H.; 

enl. Nov. 13, '61 ; must, in Nov. 28, '63 ; d. of dis. at Newport, Va., 

Sept. 8, '62. 

Seventh Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

The Seventh Regiment was raised and organized under con- 
ditions different from that of any other regiment. Credited to 
New Hampshire, and filled with New Hampshire men, all of the 
appointments were by order of the War Department at Washing- 
ton, D. C, under date of September 2, 1861. The command was 
given to Joseph C. Abbott, who was and had been for some time 
Adj. General of the State. The state authorities were merely 
asked to pay the ten dollars bounty it had been paying other 
regiments, which it did. General Abbott waived his claim to 
the colonelcy on the condition that a West Point man be ap- 
pointed, and Haldiman S. Putnam, considered to be the most ac- 
complished soldier commissioned from New Hampshire, was 
given the command. The regiment camped for a month in Man- 
chester, on the Fair Grounds, which is said to have inspired 
Walter Kittredge to write his immortal "Tenting on the Old 
Camp-Ground." Leaving Manchester on January 14, 1862, the 
regiment proceeded to New York, where it stayed a month, and 
then went on to the front. In some respects this regiment was 
favored, but on the whole performed its share. Three hundred 
and twenty men and twenty-two officers returned, but of these 
less than a hundred were among those who had left the state in 
'61. Of the original field and staff only one remained. 

The regiment is indelibly associated with the sieges and 
assaults at Morris Island and Fort Wagner. It was at Dreury's 
Bluff, Va., May 13-16, 1864; fought at Bermuda Hundred May 
18, 20, 21, June 2-4, 18, 1864; at the Siege of Petersburg, Va., 
August 24 to September 28, 1864, and in many other engagements. 


Adsit, John W. Priv. Co. K; b. Saratoga, N. Y. ; age 4*; res. H. ; enl. 
Sept. 14, '61; must, in Dec. 11, '61 ; d. of dis. at St. Augustine Fla., 
Oct. 8, '62. 


Baekee, David G. Priv. C. A; b. in H. ; and res. in H. ; age 22; enl. 

Oct. 11, '61; must, in Oct. 29, '61; disch. for disab. at Ft. Jefferson, 

Fla., July 20, '62 ; d. at H. Sept. 8, '88. 
Bubtt, Harmon. Priv. Co. A; b. in H. ; age 35; res. in Hopkinton; 

enl. and must, in Nov 12, '61 ; disch. for disab. Ft. Jefferson, Fla., 

July 17, '62 ; res. in Henniker. 
Bubtt, Orlando G. Priv. Co. D ; b. and res. in H. ; age 20 ; enl. Sept. 

24, '61 ; must, in Nov. 6, '61 ; app. Corp. Nov. 14, '62 ; wd. at Morris 

Island, S- C, .Sept. 27, '63 ; must out Dec. 27 '64. 
Care, Edwin L. Priv. Co. D ; b. and res. in H. ; age 18 ; enl. Sept. 24, 

'61; must, in Nov. 6, '61; captd. at Olustee, Fla., Feb. 20, '64; 

released Mar. 1, '65, in Andersonville, Ga. ; disch. May 8, '65, Con- 
cord, ex. of term. 
Dunfield, Welliam. Priv. Co. A; b. New Brunswick, N. S. ; age 44; 

res. in H. ; enl. Oct. 16, '61 ; must, in Oct. 29, '61 ; disch. disab. New 

York City, Jan. 13, '63. 
Fausett, John. .Priv. Co. I; sub.; b. in Ireland; age 3®; res. in Graf- 
ton, Mass. ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63 ; capt. at 

Olustee, Fla., Feb. 20, '64; d. of dis. at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 

10, '64. 
Emery, Leander. Priv. Co. D ; b. in H. ; res. H. ; enl. Oct. 10, '61 ; must. 

in Nov. 6, "©I ; app. Corp. Mar. 28, '62 ; wd. at Ft. Wagner, S. C, 

July 18, '63 ; disch. disab. Jan. 27, '65, at Pt. of Rocks, Va. tm. 

ex. ; rem. to Antrim. 
Gammell, Pliny F. Priv. Co. A. ; b. and res. in H. ; age 19 ; enl. Oct. 25, 

'61 ; must, in Oct. 29, "61 ; wd. at Ft. Wagner, S. C, July 18, '63 ; 

re-enl. and must, in Feb. 29, '64; app. Corp. Dec. 17, '64; must, out 

July 20, '65. 
Green, David. Priv. Co. A ; b- and res. in H. ; age 24 ; enl. Oct. 14, '61 ; 

must, in Oct. 29 ; disch for disab. at Beaufort, S. C, July 28, '62. 
Hoyt, Alonzo C. Priv. Co. D; b. and res. in H. ; age 18 ; enl. Oct. 9, '61 ; 

must, in Nov. 6, '61 ; wd. at Lempster Hill, Va., May 10, '64 ; must. 

out Dec. 27, '64. 
Love, Charles. Priv. Co. I ; sub. ; b. in Switzerland ; age 22 ; sub. ; enl. 

res. Boston, Mass. ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63 ; des. 

Gloucester Point, Va., Apr. 28, '64 ; ret. Apr. 4, '65, and must, out 

July 20, '65. 
Martin, Charles. Priv. Co. A. ; sub. ; b. in England ; age 29 ; cred. to 

H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63 app. Corp.; killed June 18, '64, 

near Bermuda Hundred, Va. 
Murphy, Patrick. Priv. Co. A; sub.; b. Ireland; age 19; cred. to H. ; 

enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63; disch. for disab. at Pt. Lookout, Md., 

Nov. 22, '<54. 
Patten, James G. Priv. unas'd ; cred. to Concord by mistake ; b. in 

Nashua ; res. in H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 11, '62 ; disch. for disab. 

at St. Augustine, Fla., Nov. 25, '62. 


Keed, John. Pri. C. D; b. in Nova Scotia; age 23; res. in H.; enl. 
Sept. 21, '61; must, in Nov. 6, '61; app. Sergt. ; died of dis. at 
Beaufort, S. C, Oct. 21, '62. 

Eighth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

The Eighth as well as the Seventh Regiment seemed to have 
been a favorite organization for the boys of Hillsborough, though 
if they had anticipated at the outset that almost the whole of its 
term of service was to be passed in an extreme southern state, 
making it exceedingly trying to a northern man, it might have 
been different. Enlistments began early in the month of Septem- 
ber, 1861, and on the 9th of December its quota was full. It went 
into "Camp Currier," Manchester, and on January 25, 1862, it was 
transferred to Fort Independence, Boston Harbor. This 
regiment destined for the "Butler Expedition," was sent south, 
and on March 18, 1862, after a very stormy voyage, the last of 
the regiment reached Ship Island in Mississipi Sound. On April 
9 the regiment, with fourteen thousand troops was passing in 
review before General B. F. Butler commanding. Its action 
throughout the war was important, and it was not mustered out 
of service until at the expiration of three years, ten months, and 
nineteen days. 

The most noteworthy of its battles and engagements were at 
Port Hudson, La., March 14, 1863; Siege of Port Hudson March 
23 to July 9, 1863; Sabine Cross Roads, La., April 8, 1864; 
Monett's Ferry, La., April 23, 1863; Alexandria, La., April 26, 
i863 ; and last at Yellow Bayou, La., May 18, 1864. 

Alexander, Charles. Priv. Co. E ; sub. ; b. in New Jersey ; res. in 

New York ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '61 ; app. Corp. ; 

des. at Carrollton, La., June 26, '64. 
Anderson, Edwin P. Priv. Co. H; sub.; b. in Ohio; age 20, res. in 

Michigan ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '61 ; tr. to Co. C, 

Vet. Battl., 8 N. H. V., Jan. 1, '65; des. Apr. 6, '65, while on a 

Avery, Gideon H. Priv. Co. H. ; sub. ; b. in Strafford ; age 24 ; res. in 

Strafford ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '61 ; des. at New 

Orleans, La., Aug. 3, '64. 
Barry, William. Priv. Co. B; b. in Ireland; age 21; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Sept. 5, '61 ; tr. to Co. B, Vet. Battl., 8 N. H. V., Jan. 

1, '65 ; must, out Oct. 28, '65. 


Blum, Max. Priv. Co. B; b. in Prussia ; age 24 ; cred. to Hillsborough ; 

enl. and must, in Nov. 14, '63 ; des. at Franklin, La., Jan. 1, '64. 
Beown, Hugh P. Priv. Co. E; b. in Canada; age 21; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Aug. 5, '64 ; no further record. 
Casper, Kobebt T. Priv. Co. L>; b. in New Castle; age 21; cred. to H-; 

enl. and must, in Aug. 5, '64 ; no further record. 
Cavanaugh, William. Unas'd; b. Canada; age 21; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Aug. 5, '64 ; no further record. 
Debinney, William. Priv. Co. E; sub.; b. in Ireland; age 20' ; cred. to 

H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63 ; killed accidentally by being run 

over by a team at Cane River, La., Mar. 24, '64. 

Gbeenlow, Fbedebick. Priv. Co. H ; sub. ; b. in New Hampshire ; age 
22 ; res. Somersworth ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63 ; 
des. at New Orleans, Mar. 1, '64. 

Jones, Henry. Priv. Co. F ; b. New Castle, Del. ; age 21 ; cred. to H. ; 
enl. and must, in Aug. 5, '64 ; del. to regimental headquarters 
Concord Aug. 29, '64, but no further record of him. 

Lincoln, Daniel A. Sergt. Co. A; b. in H.; age 23; res. in H. ; enl. 
Oct. 3, '61; must, in Aug. 25, '61, as Sergt.; died of dis. at Carroll- 
ton, La., Nov. 29', '62. 

Rine, or Bines, John. Priv. Co. K; sub.; b. in Italy; res. in New 
York ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63 ; des. while on way 
to New Orleans. 

Scott, William. Priv. Co. I sub.; b. in New York; age 20; res. in 
Willsborough, N. Y. ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Nov. 7, '63 ; tr. 
to Co. C, Vet. Battl., 8 N. H. V., Jan. 1, '65; must, out with a 
creditable record Oct. 8, '65. 

Story, William H. Corp. Co. A ; b. Croydon ; age 22 ; res. at H. ; enl. 
Sept. 17, '61 ; must, in Oct. 25, '61; disch. for disab. at Algiers, La., 
Mar. 6, '63. After receiving discharge he remained with the army 
before Port Hudson for several months as Citizen Clerk in the 
Dept. of Commissary of Subsistence in General Neal Dow's 

Sanders, Charles. Priv. Co. F ; b. in New Castle, Del. ; age 24 ; cred. 

to H. ; enl. and must, in Aug. 5, '64; delivered at regimental 

recruiting depot Concord Aug. 29, '63, where all records end. 
Milliken, Nathan. Priv. Co. H; sub.; b. in Waterford, Me.; age 22; 

res. Reading, Mass.; cred. to H.; enl. and must, in Sept. 1, '63; 

drowned by foundering of transport North America Dec 22, '64. 
Putney, John L. Corp. Co. D; b. in H. ; res. and cred. to Greenfield; 

age 45; enl. Oct. 2, '61; must, in Dec. 20, '61; as Corp.; killed at 

Labadieville, La., Oct. 27, '62. See 1 N. H. V. 

ninth and tenth regiments. 28l 

Ninth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 
"The record of the Ninth New Hampshire," says its his- 
torian, Sergt. George L. Wakefield, "is one of arduous campaigns, 
followed by comparative rest. It suffered in battle at Antietam 
and Fredericksburg, and in the mud at Falmouth ; was cheered 
by the comforts of Newport News, and feasted in Kentucky ; had 
its ranks depleted by disease in Mississipi, and returning to the 
Blue Grass region, recuperated for the hazardous march over 
the mountains of East Tennessee. At Annapolis it welcomed 
recruits and convalescents, in preparation for the bloody ordeals 
of Spottsylvania. the Mine and Poplar Springs Church, and for 
the wearisome waiting before Petersburg." Only four volunteers 
and one substitute joined this regiment from Hillsborough. 


Ford, George A. Priv. Co. G ; b. in H. ; res. in H.; age 18 ; enl. Aug. 11, 
'62 ; must, in Aug. 14, '62 must, out June 10, '65 

Posteb, Thatcheb B. Priv. Co. G ; b. in H. ; age 18; res. H. ; enl. Aug. 
18, '62; must, in Aug. 18, '62; Captd. July 30, '©4, at Mine Ex- 
plosion, Petersburg, Va. ; released ; died of dis. at Annapolis, Md. 
Nov. 1, '64. 

Habnden, Charles A. Priv. Co. G ; b. in Stoddard ; age 23 ; res. in H.; 
app. 2d Lieut. Aug. 10, '62 ; must, in Aug. 19, '62 ; wd. Fredericks- 
Iburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 ; app. 1st Lieut. Co. E, Jan. 1, '63 ; disch. 
disab. July 29, '63 ; d. in H. Apr. 14, '73. 

Johnson, William. Priv. Co. I; sub. for George Jones; b. in Ohio; 
age 18; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in June 22, '64; des. Feb. 10, 
'65, at City Point, Va., while on way to regiment. 

Wilkins, Isaac P. Priv. Co. G ; b. in H. ; age 31; res. in and cred. to 
H. ; enl. Aug. 8, '62; must, in Aug. 18, '62; wd. at Fredericksburg, 
Va., Dec. 13, '62 ; must, out June 10, '65. He was Captain in N. H. 
Militia, 1851-52. 

Tenth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

Hillsborough has the credit of five men in this regiment. 

Green, Gllman. Priv. Co. E ; b. in H. ; age 30; cred. to Wilmot ; enl. 
Dec. 7, '63 ; must, in Aug. 14, '63 ; captd. Oct. 27, '64, Fair Oaks, Va. ; 
confined at Richmond, Va. ; sent Nov. 4, '64, to Salisbury, N. C. N. 
f. r. A. G. O. See 1 and 5 N. H. V. 
Kf.t.t.ey, John. Priv. Co. H; b. St. John, N. B.; age 22; cred. to H. ; 
enl. and must, in Sept. 8, '64 ; tr. to Co. A., 2 N. H. V., June 21, '65 ; 
must, out Dec. 19, '65. 


Mobiety, Cobnelius. Priv. Co. F ; b. in Ireland ; age 27 ; cred. to H. ; 

enl. Aug-. 6, '62 ; must, in Sept. 1, '62 ; tr. to Co. G., 2 N. H. V. ; must. 

out Dec. 19, '65. 
Stein, William. Priv. Co. H; b. Charleston, Vt. ; age 21; cred. to H. ; 
enl. and must, in Sept. 7, 64 ; des. at Chaffin's Farm, Va., Nov. 9, '64. 
Wendell, Heney. Priv. Co. E ; sub. ; b. Hingham, Mass. ; age 44 ; cred. 

to H. ; enl. and must, in Aug. 19, ''63 ; wd. sev. June 3, '64, Cold 

Harbor, Va. ; tr. to Co. <G, 2 N. H. V., June 21, '65 ; must, out Dec. 

19, '65 ; died May 13, '86, Woburn, Mass. 

Eleventh Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 

The Eleventh Regiment was recruited in August, 1862. and 
consisted of 1,000 officers and men. In this regiment Hillsbor- 
ough was well represented. Upon reaching Baltimore, Md., 
on Sunday, September 14, 1862, it was assigned to the Second 
Brigade of the Second Division of the Ninth Army Corps. Its 
first participation in actual warfare was in the battle of 
Fredericksburg on the 13th of December, 1862. It was also 
active in the Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., June 15, to July 4, 1863 ; 
Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va., May 9-18. 
1864; Cold Harbor, Va., June 5-12, 1864; and the sieges of 
Petersburg, Va., June 16, 1864, to April 3, 1865, besides half a 
score other engagements. 

Bbiggs, James F. F. and S. ; b. Bury, Eng. ; age 34; res. and cred. H. ; 

app. Q. M. Aug. 22, '6>2'; must, in Aug. 22, '62; res. Dec. 29, '62; 

reapp. Jan. 28, '63 ; must, in Feb. 4, 03 ; disch. Aug. 1, '3. Eem. to 

Manchester, where he died. 
Cabteb, Alonzo E. Priv. Co. D; b. H. ; age 18; cred. to Mason; enl. 

and must, in Dec. 12, '63; wd. at Petersburg, Va., July 27, '64; 

disch. disab. June 7, '65. 
Clapp, William N. Priv. Co. D; b. Taunton, Mass.; age 34; res. and 

cred. H. ; enl. Aug. 14, '62 ; must, in Aug. 29 ; disch. disab. Wash- 
ington, D. C, Jan. 16, '63 ; d. in H. Nov. 8, '76. 
Cbookeb, Andeew J. Priv Co. D; b. Bath, Me.; age 29; res. and cred. 

H. ; enl. Aug. 14, '62 ; must in Aug. 29 ; wd. at Fredericksburg, Va., 

Dec. 13, '62 ; again wd. near Petersburg, Va., Aug. 7, '64 ; disch. 

May 20, '65. 
Dutton, Fbank. Priv. Co. I ; b. Nashua ; age 18 ; res. and cred. H. ; enl. 

Sept. 4, and must, in Sept. 6, '62; tr. to Co. E, 2 Art., U. S. A.; 

retr May 26, '65; disch. June 12, '65; rem. to Whitefield. 
Faebah, Alden P. Priv. Co. D; b., res. cred. H. ; age 24; enl. Aug. 15, 

and must, in Aug 29, '62 ; must, out June 4, '65. 


Gibson, Samuel O. Priv. Co. D ; tx, res. cred., H. ; age 21 ; enl. Aug. 14, 
'62; must, in Aug 29; wd. at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; 
app. Corp. ; wd. Bethesda Church, Va., June 2, '64 ; severely wd. 
near Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64; disch. June 3, '65. 

Hall, Charles G. Priv. Co. D. ; b. H. ; age 30; res. and cred. to H. ; 
enl. Aug. 14 and must, in Aug. 29, '62 ; disch. disab. Hamp- 
ton, Va., May 6, '63; d. in Hillsborough Aug 24, 1869. 

Hoyt, Charles D. Priv. Co. D; b., res. cred. H.; age 21; enl. Aug. 14, 
and must, in Aug. 29, '62 ; app. Corp. ; disch. disab. June 2, '65 ; 
rem. to St. Albans, Vt. 

Leslie, W. Priv. Co. D ; b Henniker ; age 43 ; res. and cred. 
to H. ; enl. Aug. 14, and must, in Aug. 29, '62; disch. disab. at 
Hampton, Va., May 5, '63 ; d. at Chelsea, Mass., July 9, '84. 

Merrill, Geoege F. Priv. Co. D ; b., res., cred. H. ; age 20 ; enl. Aug. 
16, and must, in Sept 2, '62 ; app. Corp. ; killed in Mine Explosion, 
Petersburg, Va., July 30, '64. 

Miller, Alfred A. Priv. Co. D ; b., res-, cred. H. ; enl. Aug 15, and 
must, in Aug. 29, '62 ; must, out June 4, '65 ; rem. to Antrim. 

Pritchard, George H. Priv. Co. D ; b. New Ipswich ; res- and cred. to 
H. ; enl. Aug. 12, and must, in Aug. 29, '62 ; wd. at battle of the Wil- 
derness, Va., May 6, '64; wd. sev. near Petersburg, Va., June 16, 
'64; disch. disab. at Washington, D. C, Oct. 25, '64; d. Aug. 19, '84, 
in Hillsborough. 

Reed, George F. Priv. Co. D ; b. Washington ; res. and cred. to H. ; enl. 
Aug. 20, and must, in Aug. 29, '62; tr. to 12 I. C. Jan. 15, '64; disch. 
at Washington, D. C, June 28, '65 ; d. May 24, '71. 

Smith, John W. Priv. Co. D; b. Henniker; res. and cred. to H. ; enl. 
Aug. 14, and must, in Aug. 29, '62 ; killed at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13, '62. 

Templeton, Madison. Priv. Co. D; b., res., cred. to H. ; age 32; enl. 
Aug. 16, and must, in Aug. 29, '62 ; app. Corp. ; disch. disab. Fal- 
mouth, Va., Dec. 3, '62 ; died Apr. 20, '64, Worcester, Mass. 

Templeton, Whxard J. Priv. Co. D ; b., res-, cred. to H. ; age 20 ; enl. 
Aug. 14, and must, in Aug. 29, '62 ; wd. iSpottsylvania, Va., May 12, 
'64; killed Mine Explosion, Petersburg, Va., July 30, '64. 

Wood, Ziba S. Priv. Co. D ; b. Deering ; age 19 ; res. and cred. to H. ; 
enl. Aug. 15, and must, in Aug. 29, '62 ; disch. June 1, '65 ; rem. to 

Note. — 'Hillsborough furnished 17 men in the Eleventh Regiment, 
and not one a substitute. The seriousness of the campaigning of this 
regiment is shown by the fact that only five men came through with- 
out wounds or disease. Eight were discharged for disability ; one died 
of disease, and three were killed. 

284 history of hillsborough. 

Thirteenth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 
Hillsborough had no men in the Twelfth Regiment and only 
three in the Thirteenth, and all of these substitutes. In the 
summer of 1862 the war was on in earnest, and everywhere the 
recruiting officers were busy. Between September 11 and 15, 
of that year the men comprising this sturdy body of troops went 
into camp just out of Concord at "Camp Colby." These were 
three years' men, and saw their share of hardship and fighting. 
They were at Fredericksburg, Dreury's Bluff, Bermuda Hundred, 
Cold Harbor, siege of Petersburg, at Fair Oaks, and its colors 
were the first to enter Richmond. 


Holland, Peteb. Priv. Co. H ; sub. for J. P. Gibson ; b. in Ireland ; 

age 22 ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 2, '63 ; tr. to U. &. Navy 

Apr. 30, '64, as an Ord. Seaman ; served on U. S. S. "Tecumseh," 

and "Antona" ; diseh. on reduction of naval force Aug. 5, '65, as 

1st Class Fireman. 
Schneidee, John. Priv. Co. I; sub. for H. J. Burnham; b. Germany; 

age 23 ; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 2, '63 ; des. Mar. 23, 

'65, while on furlough. 
Scott, James. Priv. Co. I ; sub. for Joel Temple ; b. Scotland ; age 2<5 ; 

cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 2, '63 ; des. Nov. 8, '64, while on 

a furlough. 

Fourteenth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 
Hillsborough sent only one man to the front in the Fourteenth 
Regiment, and he was a substitute for Frank J. Smith. This was 
the last regiment enlisted for three years or more. 

Hines, Andrew J. Priv. Co. F. ; sub. ; b. in Iowa ; age 25 ; cred. to H. ; 
enl. and must, in Aug. 5, '64; reported on roll dated, Galloup's 
Island, B. H., Mass., as sent to regiment, and there the record 

Sixteenth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 
(Nine Months.) 

The historian of this regiment says : "Many of its members 
were young — sons of those already at the front. More were of 
middle age, and quite a large number of mature years. Nearly 
all were sons and citizens of New Hampshire. If only a few men 


from Hillsborough had gone to the front since the mustering of 
the Eleventh, the town was well represented in the Sixteenth. 


Bubnham, Obamus W. Lieut. Co. B. ; b. Antrim ; age 35 ; res. and cred. 

to H. ; enl. Aug. 30, '62, as Priv. ; app. 1st. Lieut. Nov. 4, '62 ; must. 

in to date Oct. 29, '64; resigned Feb. 4, '63. Rem. to Nashua. 
Caldwell, Levi. Priv. Co. G; b. New Boston; age 28; res. in New 

Boston ; cred. to H. ; enl. Oct. 22, '62 ; must, in Nov. 5 ; disch. disab. 

New York city, Dec. 26, '62. 
Cabpenteb, Luke O. Priv. Co. G ; b. Alexandria ; age 26 ; res. and cred. 

to H. ; enl. Sept. 13 and must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must, out Oct. 20, '63. 
Colby, Chables G. Priv. Co. B ; b. Deering ; age 39 ; res. and cred. to 

H. ; enl. Sept. 13, '62; must, in Nov. 24; died of disease at Marine 

Hospital, New Orleans, La., June 20, '63. 
Cooledge, Cybus. Priv. Co. B ; b., res., cred. H. ; age 20 ; enl. Sept. 13, 

and must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must, out Oct. 20, ,| 6'3. 
Dunfield, Geobge T. Priv. Co. B; b. Washington; age 22; res. and 

cred. to H. ; enl. Sept. 2, must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must, out Aug. 20, 

Eaton, Leandeb H. Priv. Co. B ; b., res., cred., H. ; age 18 ; enl. Sept. 

19, must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must, out Aug. 20, '63. 
Foley, Bartholomew. Priv. Co. B ; b. Ireland ; age 25 ; res. and cred. 

to H. ; enl. Sept. 19, and must, in Oct. 27, '62 ; died dis. in New 

Orleans marine hospital, June 7, '63. 
Fobsaith, Squiebs. Priv. Co. B ; b. Deering ; age 23 ; res. and cred. H. ; 

enl. Sept. 19, and must, in Oct. 27, '62 ; must, out Aug. 20, '63 ; 

rem. to Antrim. 
Gould, Enoch I. Priv. Co. B. ; b. Greenfield; age 42; res. and cred. H. ; 

enl. Oct. 2, and must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must, out Aug. 20, '63. 
Hoyt, Chables C. Priv. Co. B; b., res. cred. H. ; age 29; enl. Sept. 19, 

and must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must out Aug. 20, '63. 
Mabtin, Henby R. Priv. Co. B; b. Boscawen; age 22; res. and cred» 

H.; enl. Sept. 15, and must, in Oct. 23, '62.; must, out Aug. 20, '63. 
McAdams, Sumneb C. Priv. Co. B; age 28; b., res., cred. H. ; enl. 

Sept. 13, and must, in Oct. 23, '62; must, out Aug. 20, '63. 
MoClintock, Chables. Corp. Co. B; b., res., cred. H. ; age 20; enl. 

Sept. 16, and must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; dis. July 16>, '63, at New Orleans, 

Mubdough, James J. Priv. Co. B ; b., tr. cred. to H. ; age 33 ; enl. Sept. 

6, and must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must- out Aug. 20, '63. 
Newman, Fbancis H. Priv. Co. B; b. Brighton, Mass.; age 18; res. and 

cred. H. ; enl. Sept. 19, and must, in Oct. 23, '62; must, out Aug. 20, 

'63. Supposed identical with Frank H. Newman Co. F., 18th N. H. 



Noyes, Cyrus F. Priv. Co. B ; b. Plaistow ; age 18 ; res. and cred. to H. ; 

enl. Sept. 18, and must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must, out Aug. 20, '63. 
Noyes, Edward F. Priv. Co. B. ; b. Plaistow; age 20; res., and cred. 

to H. ; enl. Sept. 25, and must, in Oct. 23, '62; must, out Aug. 

20, '63. 
Bobbins, Francis W. Priv. Co. B ; b., res., cred. to H. ; age 27 ; enl. 

Sept. 19, and must, in Oct. 23, '62; died Aug. 9, '63, Cairo, 111. 
Robertson, George H. Priv. Co. B ; b. Boston, Mass. ; age 20 ; res. and 

credit to H. ; enl. Aug. 30, and must, in Oct. 23, '63 ; died Aug. 22, 

'63, Mound City, 111. 
Rumrill, Obadiah F. Priv. Co. B ; b., res., cred. to H. ; age 24 ; enl. 

Sept. 3, and must, in Oct. 23, '62, as Sergt. ; dis. to date Aug. '63 ; 

died at Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 10, '63. 
Sanborn, Russell. Priv. Co. E; res. and cred. to H. ; enl. and must. 

in Nov. 10, '62 ; des. Nov. 10, '62. 
Sargent, Frank B. Priv. Co. B ; b. New London ; age 18 ; res. New 

London ; cred. to H. ; 'enl. and must, in Nov. 10, '62 ; app. Corp. 

June 19, '63; must, out Aug. 20, '63. See Ninth N. H. V. 
Straw, Walter P. Priv. Co. B. ; b., res., cred. to H. ; age 44 ; enl. Sept. 

20', and must, in Oct. 23 ; must, out Aug. 20>, '63. 
Watson, Henry W. Priv. Co. B ; b., res., cred. H. ; age 32 ; enl. Sept. 

4 and must, in Oct. 23, '62, as Corp. ; app. Sergt. Apr. 16, '63 ; must. 

out Aug. 20, '63. 
Whey, Edward J. Priv. Co. B ; b. Francestown ; age 44 ; res. and cred. 

to H. ; enl. Sept. 13, and must, in Oct. 23, '62 ; must, out Aug. 20, 

'63 Volunteered for storming party at Port Hudson, La., under 

G. O. No. 49, Headquarters Dept., of the Gulf June 15, '63. See 

Seven and Twelve of N. H. V. 

Seventeenth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 
(Nine Months.) 
Mustered into the service of the United States November 13, 
1862, to January 10, 1863, by Charles Holmes, Captain 17 Inf. 
U. S. A. Organization not completed on April 16, 1863, the 
officers and non-com. officers were mustered out, and the re- 
mainder of the men were transferred to the Second Regiment, 
N. H. V. Inf. 

Casey, Richard. Priv. Co. A; b. Ireland; age 31; res. Concord; cred. 
to H. ; enl. Nov. 17, and must, in Nov. 22, '62 ; tr. to Co. H 2d N. H. 
V., Apr. 16, ^63 ; wd. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; must, out Oct. 9, 
Lewis, Cornelius. Priv. Co. A ; b. Cork, Ireland ; age 40 ; res. Concord ; 
cred. to H. ; enl. Nov. 21, and must in Nov. 29, '62 ; tr. to Co. I ; 2 
N. H. V., Apr. 16, '63 ; disch. disab. May 16, '63. 

other branches of the army. 287 

Eighteenth Regiment Volunteer Infantry. 
(One and Three Years.) 
The Eighteenth Regiment was mustered into service Septem- 
ber 16, 1864, to April 6, 1865, and mustered out during the 
summer of 1865. Hillsborough had only four men in this 
regiment, and one of these a substitute. 

Arling, Charles. Corp. Co. A; b. Barrington ; age 18; cred. to H. ; 

enl. Sept. 5, and must, in Sept. 13, 18>64, as Corp. ; disch. June 16, 

Foster, Silas E. Priv. Co. H ; b. in H. ; age 37 ; cred. to Bradford ; enl. 

and must, in Feb. 15, '65, for 3 years ; must, out July 29, '65. 
Jones, Thomas. Priv.; must, in Nov. 11, '64! ; sub. for C. E. Gould. As 

there is no further record of this man, it is doubtful if he per- 
formed service. 
Wallace, John. Priv. Co. A.; b. Henniker; age 23; cred. to H. ; enl. 

Sept. 2, and must, in Sept. 13, '64; must, out June 10, '66. Rem. to 


Other Branches of the Army. 
Hillsborough was represented by men in the following 
branches and division of the U. S. Army other than the Infantry : 

New Hampshire Battalion. 

In 1862 was organized the First Regiment New England 
Volunteer Cavalry, composed of three battalions. The First and 
Third were enlisted in Rhode Island ; the Second in New Hamp- 


Robbins, Geobge A. Corp. Co. I; b. and res. in H. ; age 21; enl. Oct. 11, 
'61 ; must, in Dec. 17, '61, as priv.; app. Corp. July, '62; app. Sergt. 
Aug. 8, '62 ; reported missing June 18, '63, near Middleburgh, Va. ; 
regained from missing; app. 1st Lieut. Co. C Oct. 1, '63; 1st Lieut. 
Co. L (IN. H. Cav.) July 15, '64 ; disch. Dec. 17, '64, time expired. 
See 1 N. H. Cav. 

First Regiment N. H. Volunteer Cavalry. 

In February, 1864, the four companies of cavalry from New 
Hampshire which had been attached to the First Rhode Island 
Cavalry, returned to Concord to recruit a regiment, and as soon 
as the old battalion and Companies A, B, and C were mustered, 


the seven companies were ordered to Washington, reaching there 
April 25, 1864, going into camp at Camp Stoneham, Giesboro 
Point. This regiment experienced a lively career, and during the 
year or more of its existence it took part in thirty engagements. 

Hillsborough Men. 
Ambrose, George. Priv. Co. H. ; b. Allenstown, Pa. ; age 25 ; cred. to 

H. ; enl. and must, in Aug. 1, '64 ; des. at Camp Stoneham, D. C, 

Sept. 1, '64 ; appreh. Sept. 5, '64, and reported in muster roll as 

under arrest, where all records stop. 
Bates, George. Priv. Co. A ; b. Derby, Vt. ; age 19 ; cred. to H. ; enl. and 

must, in Mar. 11, '64 ; killed while on picket at Cox's Hill, Va., July 

18, '64. 
Bell, John. Priv. unas'd ; b. Ireland; age 21; cred. H. ; enl. and must. 

in Aug. 2, '64 ; des. while en route to regiment. 
Clark, Andrew J. Priv. Co. D; b. Nottingham; age 19; res. Notting- 
ham; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Aug. 3, '64; must out July 15, 

'65 ; ret. to Nottingham. 
Howard, Aramel A. Priv. Co. A ; b. in Massachusetts ; age 21 ; cred. to 

H. ; enl. and must, in Mar. 11, '64; died at Readville, Mass., of dis. 

Oct. 19, '64. 
Howard, William. Priv. Co. D ; b. St. John, N. B. ; age 24 ; cred. to H. ; 

enl. and must, in Aug. 1, '64 ; des. at Camp Stoneham, D. C, Sept. 

7, '64. 
Landabbush, Akin. Priv. Co. D ; b- Canada ; age 39 ; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in for 1 year Feb. 21, '65 ; must, out July 15, '65. 
Lyons, John. Priv. unas'd; b. Ireland; age 34; cred. to H ; enl. and 

must, in Nov. 16, '63 ; no further record, supposed to have des. 
McAllister, Joshua H. Priv. CO. I ; b. in H ; age 43 ; cred. to Rumney ; 

enl. and must, in Feb. 29, '64 ; must, out July 15, '65 ; died Oct. 18, 

'74, Nat. Home, Togus, Me. See 4th N. H. V. 
Robbins, George A. Corp. Co. L; b. and res. in H. ; age 25; enl. and 

must, in Mar. 27, '65 ; app. Capt. Co. K, Mar. 28, '65 ; must, out 

July 15, '65. See 1 N. E. Cav. 
Rogers, James. Priv. unas'd; b. Camden, N. J.; age 21; cred. to H. ; 

enl. and must, in Nov. 16, '<33 ; no further record. 
Smit, John. Priv. unas'd; b. Holland; age 21; cred. to H. ; enl. and 

must, in Nov. 16, '63; sent to regiment but no further record. 

Wood, Henry. Priv. unag'd ; b. England ; age 30 ; cred. to H. ; enl. and 
must, in Aug. 2, '64 ; des. at Camp Stoneham, D. C, Aug. 27, '64. 

Wood, Sylvester. Priv. Co. D; cred. to H ; 8nl. and must, in Jan. 18, 
'63; disch. for disab. Dec. 2, '63; Ayling did not include him in 
Register of N. H. Soldiers, and the record is vague. 











t" 1 















battery and artillery. 289 

First New Hampshire Volunteer Light Battery. 

New Hampshire furnished only one light battery during the 
war which was recruited wholly in Manchester by Frederick M. 
Edgell and Edwin H. Hobbs in the autumn of 1861. It was 
mustered into the service of the United States September 26, 
1 861, by Lieut. Ingham, U. S. A., for three years. It served its 
full term of enlistment, and fought in 28 engagements, including 
Rappahannock Station, Va., Aug. 22, '62 ; Bull Run, August 30, 
1862; Antietam, Md., September 17, 1862; Fredericksburg, Va., 
December 12-15, 1862, May 2, 1863; Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 4, 1863 1 Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 3, 1863 ; Wilderness, Va., 
May 6, 1864; siege Petersburg, Va., 1st, 2d and 3d, 1864-1865. 

Hillsborough Men. 
Griffin, Michael. Priv. ; b. in Ireland; age 19; cred. to H. ; enl. and 

and must, in Sept. 6, '64 ; must, out June 9, '65. 
Richards, Henry. Priv. ; b. Coffstown ; age 21 ; cred. to H. ; enl. and 

must, in Sept. 5, '64 ; must, out June 9, '65. 
Williams, James. Priv.; b. Liverpool, Eng. ; age 37; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in Sept. 5, '64 ; must, out June 9, '65. 

Second Company New Hampshire Volunteer Heavy 


(Three Years.) 

This division was mustered into service August 18, to 

September 17, 1863, for three years. It became known as Co. B. 

Hillsborough had no men in the first company and only two in 


Hillsborough Men. 
Bacon, Levi. Priv. Co. B ; b. Canada ; age 37 ; cred. to H. ; enl. and 

must, in Sept. 6, '64; must, out Sept. 11, '65. Died in Bumney, 

Jan. 23, '91. 
Fubnham, John S. Priv. Co. B; b. Boston; age 20; cred. to H. ; enl. 

and must, in 'Sept. 6, '64; must, out Sept. 11, '65. 

First Regiment New Hampshire Volunteer Heavy 

The organization of this regiment was completed October 17, 
1864. For a full detail of the changes made in effecting this 
regiment the reader is referred to Ayling's "Register of New 
Hampshire in the Rebellion." 



Bacon, Levi. Priv. Co. H. See 2 Co. N. H. H. Art. 
Fubnham, John S. Priv. Co. B. See 3 Co. N. H. H. Art. 
Spaulding, Wabben F. Priv. Co. F ; b. H. ; age 23 ; cred. to Nashua ; 
enl. Aug. 29, '64 for 1 year ; must, in Sept. 6, '64 ; disch. May 26, '65. 

First Regiment United States Volunteer Sharpshooters. 
(Company E. Three Years.) 

Mustered into the service of the United States September 9, 
1861, at Concord, by George T. Ingham, 1st Lieut. 11 Inf. U. S. 
A. The original members who had not re-enlisted were mustered 
out Sept. 9, 1864. Hillsborough had one man in this division. 

Hhxsbobough Men. 

Bubtt, Edwin A. Priv. Co. E ; b. Bennington ; age 27 ; res. H. ; enl. 
Sept. 4, and must, in Sept 9, '61 ; disch. for disab. Feb. 9, '62 ; Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; died at Hinsdale, 111., Dec. 28, '83. 

! - Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Under the provisions of General Orders an Invalid Corps 
was organized to consist of such officers and enlisted men of 
commands then in the field as were unfit for active field service 
by reasons of wounds or disease contracted in the line of duty, 
and such officers and men as had been honorably discharged 
by reason of wounds or disease contracted in the line of duty 
who desired to re-enter the service, they being physically qualified 
and able to do garrison or other light duty, the term of enlistment 
being for three years or during the war. These men served until 
the close of the war. 


Austin, William H. H. Priv. Co. B, 24th Reg. ; b. Exeter, Me. ; age 22 ; 

cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Aug. 17, '64 ; disch. Nov. 13, '65 ; died 

May 10, '87, Suncook. See 4 N. H. Vol. 
Fosteb, Robert E. Priv. Co. D, 24th Reg. ; b. Newmarket ; age "27" ; 

cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Aug. 2, '64 ; disch. Dec 2, '65. See 

3 N. H. Vol. 
Fox, John F. Priv. Co. F, 13 Regt. ; b. Milton, Pa.; age 21 ; cred. to H. ; 

enl. and must, in Sept. 3, '64 ; disch. Nov. 14, '65. Prior service 

in Co D, 150 Pa. Inf. 


Mubphy, John. Priv. Co. E, 24 Regt.; b. Ireland; age 34; cred. to H.; 

enl. and must, in Aug. 1, '64 ; disch. Nov. 14, '65. Prior service in 

Co. A. 16 Mass. Inf. 
Poob, Geobge M. Priv. Co. G, 24 Regt. ; b. Hooksett ; age 22 ; cred. to 

H. ; enl. and must, in Aug. 17, '64 ; disch. Nov. 15, '65. See 5 N. HI 

V.; killed by accident Sept. 25, '89, at West Henniker. 
Rowe, James C. Priv. Co. G, 24 Regt. ; b. Boscawen ; age 22 ; cred. to 

H. ; enl. and must, in Aug. 1, '64 ; disch. Nov. 15, '65 ; rem. to Hop- 

kinton. See 16 N. H. V. 
Tdckeb, Edwabd M. Priv. Co. I, 44 Regt. ; b. Springvale, Me. ; age 25 ; 

cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 8, '64 ; tr. to 1 Independant 

Company, V. R. C. ; disch. Dec. 18, '65, to re-enlist as Hospital 

Steward, U. S. A. Prior service in Mass. Battery. 
Winston, James. Priv. Co. I, 24 Regt.; b. Ireland; age 42; cred. to 

H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 2^ '64 ; disch. Sept. 5, '65. 
Woodbubt, Chables F. H. Priv. Co. I, 24 Regt.; b. Haverhill, Mass.; 

age 31; cred. to H. ; enl. and must, in Sept. 2, '64; disch. disab- 

Jan. 1, '66. See 7 N. H. V. Rem. to Warner. 

United States Colored Troops. 
New Hampshire had no regiment of colored troops, but 
nearly three hundred men were enlisted, credited to the quota of 
the state, and sent to the proper recruiting rendezvous. In addi- 
tion to these more than one hundred officers and enlisted men ofi, 
New Hampshire regiments received commissions in the United 
States Colored Troops. The records of these troops are very 
incomplete, but Hillsborough furnished at least one man in the 
last-named class : 

Robbins, John G. Co. H, 14 Inf., Corps d'Afrique (became 86 U. S. C. 
Inf.) ; b. in H., and res. in H. ; age 3il ; must, in Sept. 28, '63, as 
1 Lieut. ; must, as Capt. Co. C, Nov. 9, '64 ; disch. Apr. 12, '66. Died 
at H., Sept. 8, '67. Served in other branches of the army. 

Watson, Fbank. Unas'd, 21 Inf.; sub.; b. Halifax; age 22; cred. to 
H. ; enl. Dec. 19, '64 ; must, in as Priv. Dec. 19, '64 ; name on muster 
roll Dec. 20, '64, but no further record. 

Dartmouth Cavalry. 
Dartmouth was the only college that furnished a body of 
troops from among its students during the Civil War. This 
company was united with the Rhode Island Volunteer Cavalry 
as Company B, Seventh Squadron. 

292 history of hillsborough. 

United States Navy. 
The records of New Hampshire men in the navy is very 
incomplete, and it is not only likely but quite probable that others 
than those recorded here served to the credit of the town. 

Gardner, William. Sub. for J. M. Wilkins; b. Germany; age 21; cred. 

to H. ; enl. Nov. 22, '64, for 3 years, as a Seaman ; served on U. S. 

S "Vandalia," "Ohio," "Potomac," and "Kickapoo," des. from last 

May 23, '65. 
Wall, Martin. B. Ireland ; age 24 ; sub. for J. M. Curtis ; cred. to H. ; 

enl. June 22, '64, for 3 years, as an Ord. Seaman ; served on U. S. S. 

"Vandalia," and "Shawmut"; des. Mar. 28, '65, from "Shawmut." 
Oaedena, Juan J. Sub. for C. W. Conn ; b. Ecuador, S. A. ; age 22 ; 

credited to H. ; enl. Dec. 6, '64, for 3 years, as an Ord. Seaman ; 

serv. on U. S. S. "Vandalia" ; des. Sept. 20, '65. 
Watson, James. Sub. for Henry C. Morrill; b. Canada; age 36; cred. 

to H. ; enl. Dec. 9, '64, for 3 years; as 2d class Fireman; serv. on 

U. S. S. "Vandalia," "De Soto," "Wyandotte," "Vermont," and "New 

Hampshire" ; disch. Jan. 19, '67, from receiving ship, Boston, Mass. ; 

furnished a substitute. 

Hillsborough Men Who Served in Other States. 
The compiler is aware that this list is far from complete, 
owing to the difficulty in securing the records from the scattered 
rolls, and it is offered with this understanding. 


Andrews, Christopher C, having recruited part of a company, was 
mustered into service Oct. 11, 1861, at Fort Snelling, Minn. On 
the filling up of his company, he was commissioned as Captain of 
Company I, Third Beg. Minn. Vol. Inf., Nov. 4, 1861. He saw much 
active service and rose by promotions to Brig.-General and brevit 
Major-General U. S. Vols. Mustered out Jan. 15, 1S6'6, and during 
his nearly four years of service was not off duty over ten days, 
except during the period when he was a prisoner. See sketch, 
Vol. II. 

Brodeur, Joseph. Priv. Co. M., 3 Mgss. Cavalry ; age 20 ; res. in H. ; enl. 
and must, in Nov. 30, '61 ; disch. disab. Sept. 2, '63. 

Clement, John H. Priv. Co- L, Mass. Cav. ; b. in H. ; age 22; res. in H. ; 
cred. to Roxbury, Mass. ; enl. and must, in Mar. 14, '64 ; died at 
New Orleans, July 14, '64. 

Cooledge, Walter Scott. Served as Captain of 7th Californian Inf. 

Fletcher, Lester. Priv. Co. M, 2 Mass. Cav. ; b. in Roxbury, Vt. ; age 
21; res. in H. ; cred. to Lynn, Mass.; enl. for 3 years, and must, in 
Feb. 20, ^5 ; must, out July 20, '65. 


Grimes, James F. Major 17th Inf., U. S. A. ; b. in H. ; age 26 ; res. H. ; 

app. Captain Aug. 5, '61 ; tr. to 26th Inf. Sept. 21, '66; to 10th Inf. 

May 19, '69 ; unas'd June 2, '70 ; disch. Dec. 31, '70. Bvt. Major to 

date Aug. 1, '64, for gallant service at Spottsylvania and during 

the campaign before Richmond, Va. Bvt. Lt- Col. Mar. 13, '65, 

for gallant and meritorious conduct during the war. 
Bobbins Charles T., 13th Mass. Reg. 
Bobbins, John G. .Sergt. Co. D, 26 Mass. Inf ; b. H.; age 29 ; resTin H.; 

enl. and must, in as Priv., Sept. 17, '61 ; app. Corp. Aug. 25, '62 ; 

Sergt. June 5, '68 ; app. 1st Sergt. disch. to accept promotion. See 

U. S. C. T. 
RoYLEiGH, Hiram B. Priv. Co. E ; b. Pittsburgh ; age 21 ; res. in H. ; enl. 

Mar. 12, '62, for 3 years; disch. Mar. 11, '65. Bern to Antrim. 
Ward, John C. Priv. Co. F, 1st Mass. Cav. ; b. Bangor, Me.; age 18; 

res. in H. ; cred. to Boxbury, Mass. ; enl. for 3 years and must, in 

Mar. 24, '64 ; disch. to date Nov. 16, '64. 
Young, Thomas. Priv. Co. F, 1st Batt'l, 17th Inf., U. S. A.; b. in 

Maine ; age 30 ; res. in H. ; enl. Mar. 25, '62 ; tr. to Co. A, 1st Batt'l, 

17 Inf., U. ,S. A.; disch. for disab. Feb. 14, '63, Baltimore, Md. 

In summing up the part Hillsborough acted in the Civil War 
we find that at the breaking out of the conflict the town had 272 
men capable of bearing arms. From these there entered the ser- 
vice during the struggle, terms running from three months to 
three years or during the war, 43 who were natives of the town 
and lived here at the time ; 94 who were born elsewhere but were 
residents of the town or served to its credit ; 31 soldiers who were 
born here but served to the credit of other places. This makes 
168 men who performed war duty on sea or land, who were 
directly connected with the town. Besides this number certain 
individuals furnished substitutes to the number of 41 men. This 
makes a total of 209 persons. Of this number 1 1 were killed ; 
17 died of wounds or disease; 27 were discharged for disability. 
At least 25, most if not all of them substitutes, deserted. 

The Rev. Frederic W. Burrows, in a memorial sermon, said 
those who sacrificed their lives for the cause "lie in graves 
scattered all the way along the line from New Orleans and Jack- 
sonville to Petersburg and Richmond. Nine of them came home 
to die." There are living in town to-day eight veterans and the 
year is not far away when the last will have answered the final 
roll call and the tap of the drum shall be silenced. 


Quoting from Mr. Burrows again: "Every great movement 
in its last analysis is a list of names, so is every great duty at the 
sacrifice of lesser and apparent duties. The cause sanctifies the 
individual and neither a nation or an individual can be devoted 
to a great cause without undergoing a profound moral and spir- 
itual change." 

So every great war brings its changes in the lives and habits 
of a people. Not only does it leave memories of sorrow in its 
path, but it leaves new ideas and different methods of living 
among its survivors. Hillsborough experienced her part. The 
closing of the great Civil War witnessed the beginning of the 
decline of rural life in New England. Drawing largely from the 
country, the young and the strong, and returning but a remnant 
of them grown prematurely aged in the service it could not be 
otherwise. From that day, for good or ill, a new element came 
into the life of the Republic, an element which had an influence 
that was felt in every town and every hamlet in the country. 

Highways, Byways and Bridges. 

Wncn Roads Were Bridle Paths — Cost of Early Road — "Society Land" 
Roads — Petitions in Relation to Roads in Society Lands — First 
Bridge Built, 1779 — Other Bridges — Establishment of Post Offices 
— Methods of Distribution of Mail — 'First Building of Post Roads 
— Rapid Growth of Highways — Hillsborough's Two Post Roads — 
Petition for a Turnpike Road — "The Turnpike Craze" — Stimula- 
tion of Trade As Result of Two Turnpikes — Accomodation of 
Stage Coaches — Building of Taverns — Roads Benefit to Public; — 
Not Profitable to Builders — Routes Surrendered to Towns, 1837 — 
"New Road to Keene," 1831 — Noted Stage Road — Gradual Increase 
of Roads — The Ox Team and Stage Coach Things of the Past — 
Oldtime Bustle Replaced by Automobiles — "Old Roads and Trails 
of Hillsborough." 

The roads in town before the Revolution were little better 
than cart paths and none of them had been built with anything 
approaching the modern idea of road construction. There was 
very little teaming to be done between towns and comparatively 
nothing to market. So far the inhabitants had been busy felling 
the trees and breaking the new land so it could afford the 
sustenance of life. There were no carriages, the nearest approach 
being an ox cart, so why should roads be leveled and graded? 
The more ambitious rode on horseback, the rest went on "shank's 
mare." There was a beaten path to Litchfield and Merrimack, 
and another to Amherst. New Boston and Henniker were 
reached by bridle paths. Over these primitive roads the pioneer 
settlers of old Number Seven, and the earlier comers in the 
Second Settlement during the long, bitter winters dragged on 
sleds the provisions or whatever was needed, while at other times 
and seasons the horse or the slower moving oxen were made to 
accomplish this task. With the river frozen over this became 
a highway of travel, so on the whole men came and went perhaps 
as well satisfied with their simple ways and means as we of 
to-day who ride behind the iron horse or the automobile. 



Previous to the incorporation of the town, the inhabitants 
improved such unfinished roads as they had opened up by travel 
without any apparent disagreement among themselves, but out- 
side elements gave them cause for complaints. So before any 
records were made by the clerk in the Town's Book the proceed- 
ings of the legislature and the courts contained petitions and 
claims that showed the grievances of the people. These troubles* 
came mostly from the scattered settlers of a considerable tract 
of country lying to the west and southwest and denominated 
"Society Land." This territory consisted of sections that had 
not been included in the township grants and were held by a 
certain company of gentlemen, with one exception, living in 
Portsmouth. These holdings were considerable at one time, 
which is shown by the fact that the town of Bennington, and a 
portion of Hancock were taken from this territory. It was 
known at one time as Cumberland. Prior to the early stages of 
the Revolution it was dignified with the term of Royal Society 
Land. So burdensome had the expense become in the matter 
of roads leading into or through this district, that five years 
before the Revolution we find the inhabitants of Hillsborough 
making the following appeal to the Governor and Council for 
relief : 

Petition in Relation to boads in Society Lands. 

Province of 
New Hampshire. 

To His Excellency John Wentworth Esq. 

Captain General, Governor & Commander 

in chief and over said Province The Hon ble 

his Majestys Council and the Honb'e the House of Representatives for 

said Province in General Assembly to be convened at Portsmouth in 

said Province on the 20 Day of march next. 

The Petition of Divers of the Inhabitants of Hillsborough in said 
Province Humbly sheweth that the Inhabitants of said Hillsborough 
were obliged to cut and clear a road through a Tract of Land call'd 
the .Societys Land near eight miles in length which road has cost us 
a great sum of money and for two years past we have been obliged 
to pay province Taxes — Wherefore we Humbly pray your Excelency 
and Honours would please to make an act to oblige the proprietors & 
owners of said Societys Land to maintain and keep said Road in 
repair for the benefit of themselves the Inhabitants of said Hills- 


borough & Inhabitants of the country around us, your petitioners in 
duty Bound will ever pray. 

Hillsborough Feby, 15th 1770. 
Samuel Bradford Samuel Bradford, Jr 

Timothy Bradford William Williams 

Henry Codd Isaac Andrews 

Anthony Morin John Mead 

Samuel Bradford Abijah Lovejoy 

Peter Codd Benjamin Lovejoy 

John McCalley Benjamin Lovejoy, Jr. 

James Gibson Isaac Baldwin 

John Gibson Nathan Taylor 

Josiah Colledge James Taggart 

William Pope Archibald Taggart 

Moses Steel Joshua Estey 

Jonathan Durent William Taggart Jr 

Daniel McMurphy Robert Taggart 

Timothy Wilkins John Taggart 

Nehemyer Wilkins 
In Council March 28 th 1770 

The within Petition was read & ordered to be sent down to the 
HonWe Assembly. 

Geo : King, D. Secry 
Province of In the House of Representatives March 28 th 1770. 

New Hamps r 

Voted, That the Petitioners be heard on their Petition on the 
third day of the siting of the General Assembly after the first day of 
May next and that they cause the Substance of their Petition and this 
Order of Court to be Published two weeks successively in the New 
Hampshire Gazett that any person may shew cause why the Prayer 
thereof should not be granted. 

M. Weare, Clr. 

Accompanying this petition were depositions signed by John 
McCalley and others showing that the town of Hillsborough 
built the bridge mentioned, but I have not found any record to 
show that the inhabitants were reimbursed though the considerate 
reception given the petition would indicate favorable action. 

If not fully successful, the petitioners obtained the authority 
of the legislature to demand that the settlers of Society Land 
maintain a road granted April 16, 1770. Still the parties in 
question evidently were indifferent to their duty, for January 1, 
1771, another petition to the General Court was made asking for 
power to compel them to maintain roads. 


These settlers were mainly squatters and given somewhat 
to lawlessness as witness to a letter from Col. John Goffe to 
Gov. Wentworth relative to Trespasses made by settlers (?) on 
the Society Land. 

Derryfield, September 1st, 1766. 
May it please your Excellency 

I went at the Request of Masons Proprietors to the Society Land 
between Petterborah & Hillsborah to see where the Trespassers had 
been at work & whose Lots they had Improved upon & found thy had 
cleared, at least cut a grate deal of timber down, had built a camp 
upon Solly & Marches & on Meservey & Blanchards and your Ex- 
cellencys Lots on the west side of Contucook River they have done a 
grate deal of work fenced it all in with a Considerable Good Runing 
fence have built a camp on it & and altho' no body was their when we 
were their yet we are prity sure that Doct Perry is the man that has 
Trespassed upon your lot and petty it is that he should not b|e 
prosecuted as he is the Ringleader of all the Rest, the (re), and as 
soon as they Git to to work again I have 2 men Ingaged to see them 
at work & acquaint me with their names- — The Land is Exceeding 
Good but I think your Excellencys is superior to any at that part of 
the Society Land and that maid them fellows Covet it it is certainly 
worth money — I intended to have wated upon your Excellency when 
the Infer 1 Cort set but I myself when up their with heat and laying 
out in the Wet so that I have not ben well sence I came from their 

I am your Excellencys most Humble 
& Devoted Servant 

John Goffe 

His Excellency Governor Wintworth 

At the same meeting it was "voted sixty pounds to repair 
highways. Five pounds to defray town charges this year. Voted 
to lay the roads two rods wide. 

"Voted to send a petition to sessions for a 'Rode through 
Francis town'." Isaac Andrews was chosen to present the 

At an adjourned meeting on April 27, 1774, it was voted 
that the wages for a man on the highways be fixed at three 
shillings a day, and the same for a yoke of oxen. 

March 30, 1775, on the eve of the Revolution, the matter of 
bridging the Contoocook at the Taggart hamlet since developed 
into Bridge Village, it was — 


"Voted to reserve one third part of the Highway Rate 
towards getting or procuring timber to build a bridge over the 
Contoocook River if Col Hill will give one hundred acres of land 
or one hundred dollars towards building Said Bridge." At this 
time there seems to have been considerable opposition to paying 
the town officials any salary, but it was voted to allow the accounts 
of the selectmen for the time they had spent in laying out roads, 
and for whatever money they had paid out. 

Nothing came of the vote for building the much-needed 
bridge, but on April 22, 1776, "Saml Bradford, Archibald 
Taggart Asa Draser were chosen to Prepare a Bote and to a 
Gree with a man to Tend the farrey over Hillsborough River 
this year." 

At the annual meeting March 27, 1777, William Jones, Lt. 
Samuel Bradford and Isaac Andrews were chosen a committee 
to take care of the ferry for that year. The following year Ben- 
jamin Kimball, Archibald Taggart and Joshua Estey were chosen 
to care for the ferry, but nothing was done officially in regard 
to highways, the war being now the absorbing topic. But the 
bridge had to come and it was built in 1779, in accordance to a 
vote made at the annual meeting on March 25th. Lieutenant 
McNeil, Samuel Bradford, Jr., Archibald Taggart, Nathaniel 
Howard and Thaddeus Monroe were chosen a committee "to 
Look out a Place to Buld Said Bridge and over See Carey on 
Said work." Voted to build bridge across Contoocook river 
Sept. 23, 1779. Com. Isaac Andrews, Esq., Lieut. Daniel Mc- 
Neal, Lieut. Samuel Bradford, Ens. Archibald Taggart, 
Nathaniel Coolidge. 

This was a wooden structure spanning the stream at about 
the same place as the present bridge, but proving unsafe it was 
reconstructed in 1796. A committee was appointed to remove the 
old bridge and build a new one to be completed by "Sept. 20, at 
Bridge Village this year." Bridge to be was set up at auction in 
two parts and struck off to the lowest bidders. First section was 
bid off by a man named Ashby for $19.50; second half to James 
Miller for $19.00, to be finished in 25 days. Thirteen years later, 
in 1809, it was again rebuilt, Daniel McNeil being the architect 
at that time. 


This not meeting the wants of the people, it was voted to 
have a stone bridge, which was built of split stone by the town 
in 1824, with the exception of forty feet in the middle which was 
constructed of wood. Mr. Squires F. Clement was the builder. 
In 1839, tne bridge was again reconstructed, raised 5 feet and a 
granite arch thrown over the centre of the river in place of the 
wooden section. This at the time was a highly satisfactory piece 
of work, and it was considered that the work was done for all 
time. The contractors were Messrs. Reed and Thomson of 

Preparations were made at the time of the opening of the 
new bridge to make it a gala occasion. A band was present to 
furnish music, and the exercises were varied and suitable to the 
event. Among the other attractions a speaker, a young lawyer 
from an up-country town, was present to give an address. 
Finally, after a somewhat lengthy introduction by the chairman, 
in which his eloquence was pictured in somewhat glowing terms, 
the young lawyer rose to deliver his speech over which he had 
labored several days, and he started off bravely with — 

"Fellow Citizens: Two hundred years ago this valley was 
a howling wilderness . . . " 

Here he paused. The sight of so many people seemed to 
daze him. Memory, ever a fickle goddess, deserted him. The 
words which had come to him so readily at home fled from him! 
Not willing to give up without another trial, he cleared his throat 
and began again : 

"Fellow Citizens: Two hundred years ago this valley was 
a howling wilderness ..." Unable to add another word, he 
leaped from the platform, crying, "I wish it was now!" and 
disappeared in the crowd. 

Bridges more than roads occupied the minds of the people, 
for while they could move by blazing paths it was not so easy 
a matter to ford streams, so at the meeting April 20, 1779, a 
bridge was proposed at the north branch of Hillsborough River, 
but it was finally voted not to build one across the river here. 
However, it was voted to build a bridge over Contention Pond 
Brook this year. But this vote was rescinded at a meeting 
August 5, same year. Work, however, was done on the bridge, 


for on September 4, 1780, the selectmen were refused power to 
complete the bridge, but December 8, though no money was 
voted for the benefit of the schools, it was decided to finish the 
bridge which had been a subject of contention, expense and 
effort for over ten years, due of course to the war. Joseph 
Symonds and Timotny Bradford were made a committee to see 
the work was properly done. 

At the annual meeting in 1781, interest in the roads began 
to come to the front again and it was voted to allow a man or 
yoke of oxen twelve pounds a day for work on the roads. 

March 31, 1785, at last the town voted to build a bridge over 
the North Branch near the house of Daniel McNeil, the town to 
pay one half of the cost and Mr. McNeil to pay the balance and 
keep the structure in repair. October 3, he bonded himself to 
keep the bridge in repair for six years. The following year thisi 
vote was rescinded and it is doubtful just what was done at the 
time, though the bridge was eventually built. 

There are current fashions in bridge building just as there 
is in the cutting of a coat, or the style of the bonnet, and each 
successive period of time has left behind its specimen to mark 
that particular era. Seventy-five years or more ago the larger 
streams in northern New England were spanned by wooden 
bridges with roofs to protect the traveler from storms, with no 
doubt the expectation that such protection would prolong the 
life of the structure itself. Few of these are left to-day, pic- 
turesque relics of years and customs strange to us. Hillsborough 
had but one of these bridges, and this was across the Contoocook 
on the road to Henniker, where the steel bridge now spans the 
stream. The wooden structure was built by Whitney and Childs 
of Henniker at a cost of $1,097.66, and the stone work done by 
Daniel Reed of the town for $420.00. This was in 1844, and the 
old bridge did faithful work until Sunday, July 2, 1899, ^ was 
burned, the cause of the fire being unknown. 

That year, 1899, a new bridge, with one span, of 134 feet, 
a steel truss 23 feet in height on centres, a roadway of eighteen 
feet, was built. The builders were the Berlin Bridge Company, 
while C. A. Bailey of Suncook put in the stone work. The total 


cost was $7,147.48 and it was formally opened to the public 
October 28, 1899. 

Early in the 19th century a bridge of an entirely different 
construction was a favorite here, and nearly all of the crossings 
in town were of this pattern, made of stone and earth with one 
or two archways in the centre. The town has built at different 
intervals eleven of these bridges with graceful arches curving the 
larger streams. Hiram Monroe, during that period active in 
the affairs of the town, was an earnest advocate of this style of 
bridges, and did more than any other man towards their con- 
struction, claiming they were cheaper in the end than the wooden 
structure, and the wisdom of his judgment is shown by the fact 
that they have withstood the wear and tear of years with com- 
paratively little expense in repairs, while their contemporaries of 
wooden construction have been replaced by new ones several 

In 1917, 1918, and 1919 the town built eight miles of asphalt 
and gravel highway, in connection with state aid, constituting a 
link in the Contoocook Valley highway from Concord to Rindge, 
connecting the Merrimack Valley. Another section is on the 
Cheshire highway trunk line from Keene to Concord. The town 
owns the entire outfit for building these roads, and the work was 
done under the supervision of Fred B. Monroe, chairman of the 
board of selectmen. 

During the years of reconstruction following the Revolution, 
with an ever increasing number of schools the people began to 
care more for the dissemination of news of the day. Con- 
sequently newspapers multiplied and letter writing became more 
common. Post-offices were established at greater frequency, and 
the transmission of mail received more and more attention. To 
distribute this mail matter regular couriers or post riders, as they 
were called, were given regular employment. These carriers 
usually rode on horseback, but even in that case improved roads 

*The first stone arch bridge in this country stands today, strong and pictur- 
esque, in the town of Ipswich. Mass., a monument to its builder. It was planned 
by Col. John Choate of that town, and he was looked upon as crazy in his idea. 
He succeeded after a somewhat stormy discussion in having the bridge built, and 
it was inscribed in the quaint letters of that time as "Choate Bridge. Built by 
Town and County, 1704." . ... . v .„ 

It spans the river in two arches, after the style of the twin bridges on 
the Flats near Lower Village, Hillsborough, and the old stone work and masonry 
looks well today, after over 150 years of traffic. — Author. 


were needed and the streams spanned by better bridges. If that 
seems like a slow-going age when compared to this, then it must 
be taken into account that thrift and speed were just as much 
determining factors as they are to-day. Post-riders vied with 
each other in their efforts to deliver to the proper persons the 
goods delivered into their care, and many a merry race was made 
by these doughty riders. 

The matter of suitable roads for these gallant horsemen was 
carried into general court, and in the House of Representatives, 
Saturday, February 5, 1791, a bill which had been introduced 
relative to mail routes was reported upon favorably, and it was 
voted there should be four post roads in New Hampshire. These 
were to be loop lines, to start from Concord and return. The 
first, which interests us, was as follows : Beginning at Concord 
from thence through Weare to New Boston, Amherst, Wilton, 
Temple, Peterborough, Dublin, Marlborough, to Keene, and 
then returning by way of Westmoreland, Walpole, Langdon, 
Acworth, Charlestown, Claremont, Newport, Lempster, Wash- 
ington, Hillsborough, Henniker, Hopkinton to Concord, its 
starting point. 

Four days were allowed in which to make this route, and it 
may be said, and easily imagined that there was no loitering by 
the way. Relief horses were in readiness every twenty miles, 
and changing mail sacks in a twinkling the rider would swing 
from one saddle into the other, and with a merry crack of the 
whip and a good-natured raillery to the bystanders he was off 
and away. This route, it is needless to say, went over the hills 
to the Centre, where the coming of the post rider once a week 
was hailed as an important event in the quiet lives of the public. 

Scarcely a year passed which did not witness the laying out 
of a new highway or mending some broken link, all of which 
makes interesting reading but not of sufficient importance to be 
given space here. The general trend of the roads was westward 
towards Washington or eastward towards Henniker, and New 
Boston. What were known as cross roads intersected with these, 
one of the most conspicuous of these being the road which 
crossed the Washington route about a mile above Bridge Village 
and wound over Bible Hill past fertile farms, then well cul- 


tivated, and into the valley to make another ascent which ter- 
minates at the Centre. This place was the common magnet for 
all the highways and byways, and over them, when the town had 
but one house of worship, all of the inhabitants wended their 
way on foot or by horse on each succeeding Sabbath, rain or 
shine, to listen to the word of God as spoken by Parson Barnes 
or his successors. 

Eventually Hillsborough had two post routes. Besides the 
one mentioned running from Concord to Keene, the second ran 
from Nashua to Claremont, thus connecting the North Country 
with Boston. Both of the roads went through Lower Village. 

In the warrant for a special meeting to be held in Hills- 
borough November 18, 1799, was the following article: 

Article 3d To see what order the Town will Take Respecting a 
petition which will be laid before sd Town — praying for the privilege 
of a Turnpike road from the Easterly bank of the Connecticut river 
in Cornish through this Town to Amherst Courthouse. 

The subject of building this new road had been the common 
theme of conversation for several months. Besides being con- 
sidered an important highway, promising as it did a renovation 
or radical change in the manner of road building. Hithertofore 
the roads had been built flat, or nearly so ; that is the centre had 
not been raised above the shoulders. The new style, from which 
it derived its name, was "piked" or rounded, so it could shed the 
water after the manner of a roof. There was a better bed made 
by filling in with rocks or gravel. The turnpike was really the 
beginning of modern methods of road building. The public 
speakers of the town, both those who were the "watchdogs" of 
the treasury and those who were always eager to take a step 
forward in progress, were on their feet arguing pro and con for 
the new enterprise. Finally it was voted : 

That the Turnpike road might be of public utility and not burden- 
some to the Inhabitants of any Town through which the same may 
pass — provided the following guard was annexed. To the laws com- 
monly made on such occasions — viz — that the proprietors shall not 
cover the old road now occupied. 

2d — That in case the owner of the land through which the Road 
may pass and the proprietor of sd Turnpike cannot agree on Damages, 
it shall be determined by a committee chosen by the parties. 


3d In case the proprietors shall erect a gate in the interior part 
of said town the citizens of the same town shall not be holden to pay 
a Tole for passing sd gate provided they do not go out of Town. 

— Town Eecords, Vol 2, pp. 162, 163. 

The building of this new style of highway was looked upon 
at the time by many as an expensive experiment and was de- 
risively termed "The Turnpike Craze." Within not a very long 
period New Hampshire came in for four of these lines of roads, 
which were as much talked about as is said today in regard to the 
great trunk lines and auto boulevards that are being built now. 
Their accomplishment also proved that corporate enterprise is 
not peculiar to the present hustling age, for the undertakings of 
such enterprises in the closing years of the 17th century was 
quite as much to the credit of their promoters as anything in that 
direction of to-day. All credit then to the old turnpike, the 
pioneer of good roads. 

The object of these roads was to develop the resources of 
the State and to open a better way of travel to Boston and other 
big cities. This of course was expected to improve the con- 
ditions of the towns through which the turnpike passed. Hence 
the towns were expected to lend a financial hand to the under- 
taking. The construction of the Second Turnpike was pushed 
with such vigor that it was built during the year 1800 and 
opened to the public in 1801. The road entered Hillsborough 
near the Albert Gray place above the Upper Village, and passed 
in nearly a direct line to Antrim boundary at the Colby place. 
Here was another feature in road building introduced by the 
turnpike. While previously roads had been built largely without 
regard to directness, winding over long and tedious hills to 
accomodate some isolated farmer or making wide detours to 
avoid some swampy district, the new highway took very nearly 
a bee line, hills, which were frequently leveled and swamps that 
were corduroyed with logs covered with a layer of earth, had no 
terrors for these builders. In the end the public were greatly 
benefited by this innovation. Dr. Goodell, in his notes, says 
truthfully : "What an undertaking to build 70 miles of such road 
with the primitive implements of those days, through a rough, 
rocky and wooded country ! Hand drills and gun powder to blast 


the numerous bowlders, oxen for stump lifters, plow and shovel 
to make the roadbed. Selections were let out to individuals to 
build. A strip of land four rods wide was purchased and there 
is no record or tradition that there was any controversy over the 
settlement of damages." 

Its construction, as was intended, stimulated trade. Teams 
of six and eight horses made regular trips to Boston, carrying 
lumber and farm products and returning with groceries and 
general merchandise for the towns along the line, and scores of 
small teams particularly in the winter. Stage coaches were soon 
put on to accomodate the public and ran with as much punctuality 
as the cars of the present day. 

Taverns were built to entertain the regular and transient 
travel, on an average of about two miles apart. A gate was first 
erected at the tavern of Dea. James Eayrs, called the Heart and 
Hand, and his swinging sign was in the shape of a heart with a 
hand painted on it holding a decanter. 

As much of the lighter travel continued over the old road to 
save toll, the gate was moved to Upper Village near the junction 
of that road. Benjamin Wilkins was gatekeeper for many years, 
and after its discontinuance in 1837, when the road passed to the 
town, the gate house was moved back and was for many years 
the residence of Wirt K. Fuller, one of the noted tanners of 

Notwithstanding its high promise of usefulness the road did 
not prove profitable as a financial investment to its builders, 
though a great public benefit, so it was surrendered to the towns 
through which it passed in 1837. 

The court in 1831 laid out what was called for a long time 
the "New Road to Keene," which ran from Hillsborough Bridge 
by Branch Village to Stoddard line, and thence by Box tavern 
and North Nelson to Keene. This was a noted stage road and 
at one time considerable travel followed this route. Three years 
later, in 1834, the court laid out a road from Bridge Village by 
South Village, running to Hancock factory. This was built 
immediately after. The same year the famous stage route the 
Forest Road was built, connecting Charlestown with Nashua, 
passing through Stoddard, Hancock and Greenfield. This was 


laid out without particular regard for the convenience of the 
people living along the route, and ran for miles at a stretch 
through woods hence its name. 

At the annual meeting March 7, 1796, William Taggart, 
William Symonds, Otis Stowe were chosen a committee to build 
the "Great Bridge," and the carrying out of the undertaking was 
decided at auction, when Daniel McNeil was the lowest bidder 
for the contract, his price being $95, the work to be done so the 
structure would be passable by September 20, or twenty-five days 
after the removal of the last of the old timbers. 

According to the changes in population and business, like 
people, other roads have come and gone, while some of the old 
ones are still with us, as they were with our ancestors. The roads 
of Hillsborough for the most part are hilly and require constant 
watchfulness and endeavor to keep in repair. The exception is 
the valley road leading from Henniker to Peterborough and 
cutting across a corner of this town at the lower part of Bridge 
Village. The hilliest, as well as the oldest in town, is the road 
leading from Bridge village to the Center. On the whole a 
noted change has come and where erstwhile the ox-team and 
the stage coach wound their way, an automobile is to be more 
frequently seen in the summer days, but when winter folds her 
white mantle over the hills and valleys there is little of the old- 
time bustle to speak of the liveliness of country life. I cannot 
better close this rather rambling chapter, constructed after the 
style of the old roads, than by quoting the following excellent 
article prepared December 11, 191 5, by Mrs. William H. Story: 

Old Roads and Trails of Hillsborough. 

There is an old road scarcely more than a trail and upon this 
you enter upon the Beard or East Washington highway, a short 
distance beyond the Thomas Goodale place — turning to the left 
you come to a point where there are two roads, again take the 
left of these; and still follow in that direction, at length you 
arrive at what you feel assured is indeed a veritable trail. Re- 
cently parties undertook to make this trip — found the path or 
road in places nearly impassable — as the branches of the trees 
and rank bushes were grown nearly even with the horse's back ; 


the road altogether unworked. This district was formerly a 
prosperous community of thrifty farmers, there being four or 
five large farms under good cultivation ; one owned and occupied 
by Mr. Smith — hence the name of the pretty little pond snuggled 
between her surrounding hills — and also the name of the road 
through the terminal connecting with the main road leading to 
Washington Centre coming out near Dole Hill. Another seldom 
used road, which may be very properly termed a trail, is the 
Sulphur Hill road. This you enter just east of the Cook place at 
the Lower Village, past cellar holes and a few old buildings. 
This was a farming district of many of Hillsborough's most 
worthy citizens. Part way up the hill there is a "parting of the 
ways." Now take the left hand division and after a short drive 
over a still deserted region, you come to the Antrim North 
Branch road ; follow till you come to the Bowling farm, on the 
left hand side of the road a few rods beyond, pass through an 
inclosure and you will discover the site of the old Governor 
Pierce homestead. Return to the place on Sulphur Hill, where 
the road divided, then take the right trail; ascend the hill, and 
while passing you will discover on the left hand the decaying 
sills of an old schoolhouse; then you will soon come to the 
homestead of Enoch Sawyer, at the crest of the hill ; follow the 
trail and you will find yourself at the Upper Village, just west of 
the Carter place. This old road is called the Hall road. 

A short and wild trail may be found leading into Stow 
Mountain, by taking the right hand road at the Wall place, on 
the Washington road; after passing a number of cultivated 
farms, you come to the old Huntley place ; then following an 
indistinct path up the hill, you find yourself literally upon Stow 
Mountain. The trail is only marked by cellar holes and broken 
stone walls. We were informed by one of our oldest inhabitants 
that when a boy, he with some of his companions followed that 
road blackberrying, and found that the end of the road was at 
the summit of the hill, where there were farm buildings owned 
by Mr. Pike. Younger generations inform us that at the present 
time there is a trail — perhaps a wood road — passing quite over 
the mountain. 

BOG ROAD. 309 

An old road which particularly interested your committee is 
at the present time used only for reaching fields and pastures. 
The entrance is a short distance north and beyond the site of the 
old Stephen Farrar homestead. One lovely October day a few 
years ago your writer, in company with Mr. Story, took a carriage 
ride over this deserted trail, determined to explore to the very 
end of the path, not knowing where we might find ourselves at 
last. The traveling proved to be very rough and hilly ; the track 
overgrown with stubby grass much of the way; in other places 
pebbles and sizable rocks ; but we were not to be discouraged. 
The forest views far and near were dazzling, in the gorgeous 
autumnal colorings of scarlet, yellow, and rich shading of brown ; 
as usual we passed deserted homes, neglected orchards, broken 
walls and the inevitable cellar holes, indeed a shadow of sadness 
came to us, thinking of what had been, knowing that noble and 
brave people had gone from their mountain homes. 

Presently we came to a delightful shade near a babbling 
brook; in this place we chose to partake of our lunch, feed our 
faithful horse, and enjoy a rest in one of Nature's beauty spots. 
After which we continued our tour of investigation always 
wondering where we were at. After a number of miles farther 
we were greatly surprised in finding ourselves at West Henniker. 
This is the oldest road from the north part of Hillsborough to 

From the old John Dane place, in the north part of the town, 
there was a short road, and at that time very convenient and 
necessary for the public good called the "Bog road." This term 
does not apply correctly to the road now called by that name. 
From the Dane farm, this old road or trail passed through 
pastures and fields towards the northeast, until it came to a 
swamp that could not be crossed in safety, consequently our good 
old ancestors considered ways and means and finally decided 
to overcome the difficulty by building a corduroy road to reach 
from shore to shore, which for the time being fully answered 
the purpose of a more permanent bridge. This road led to the 
top of the hill, where lived and thrived Amos Kimball. All 
traces of this road are now lost. Now a wooden bridge spans 
the bog or swamp in place of the corduroy. (This item was 


contributed by Isaac Wilkins.) Another trail starting from the 
ruins of the farm buildings of Clark Kimball is an old road now 
seldom used, leading towards the east, crosses the road which 
passes the old Fanny Batchelder house; leads down the hill 
towards Campbell Pond sometimes called Gould Pond ; then 
taking the first left-handed trail, which follows the crest of the 
hill for some distance, passing through two or three old farms, 
one owned by a Mr. Patten, another by a Mr. Campbell, pre- 
sumably Mr. C. gave his name to the pond as it was first 
known by that name. Following this almost mythical trail you 
come to the site of the Amos Kimball farm buildings now in 
ruins. The last portion of this trail is nearly lost and can only 
be traced with uncertainty, as we were informed by one who was 
familiar with the route in boyhood days. 

The Dane Hill! What is now a mere cow-path leading to 
valuable pasturage, was in the days of long ago an important 
thoroughfare for influential and worthy people; namely, Zacha- 
riah Robbins, Eben Griffin, Timothy Dane, William Stow, Daniel 
Griffin, and Parker Kimball, all of whom have long since passed 
to their reward. This trail is found by taking the Hillsborough 
Centre road, past the historical Bond homestead also the James 
Wilkin's farm ; follow the first left hand road you come to which 
leads you up hill and down vale for quite a long distance, passing 
old orchards, cellar holes and ruinous walls and fences, until you 
descend a long hill at the foot of which there is an abrupt turn to 
the right ; pause right there and look straight ahead before taking 
the right hand road, for on the hill before you, you can see un- 
mistakable signs of an old road, the broken chain of walls each 
side of the grass and weed grown trail plainly showing you 
where once the first surveyed road from Hillsborough to Brad- 
ford was made and much traveled in those far-away days. Now 
turn at the sharp bend of the road eastward, previously spoken 
of, which will take you onto a strip of road, connecting Dane 
hill with the Elmwood district; on this road once lived several 
families one of whom was David Kimball, an ancester of Vernor 
Kimball ; another place marked by a cellar hole, once the home 


of Phineas Holden, whose son Horace Holden suffered so ter- 
ribly at the hands of the cannibals, following a disastrous ship- 

Continue to follow this trail, turn directly to the first left 
hand path, follow the brook road and you come to the termination 
of the old trail, where once lived the Elmwoods. 

A trail more interesting than any other to the D. A. R. 
Chapter is that of the old Moore road. In the earlier times of 
this town, Bible Hill was a central location for the few pioneers 
who had ventured thus far into the wilderness. It was the 
meeting place for their religious gatherings, and for important 
business. Accordingly a road was surveyed starting from the 
Lower Village at a point between the John Dickey place and 
where lives Ira Jackman, the route passed back of those homes 
towards the east, by the Augustus Kimball place, across the 
Beard road, then followed up the Bible Hill road to the Samuel 
Bradford tavern which was the halting place for the stage coach 
carrying the mail and travelers if by chance any wished to visit 
so lonely and bleak a country place. Only a few families were 
there at that retreat in the wilderness ; one of prominence was 
Samuel Symonds, who brought the bible with him, the first in 
the settlement. The Bradford tavern is yet standing; the house 
lately occupied by George Tuttle and family. One of the original 
floors remain, the boards of which are held down by wooden 
pegs, the heads of which are an inch square . . . (Authority, 
Mrs. George Tuttle.) 

Now to follow the trail from the tavern, continue on the 
way by entering where are now the bars of George Tuttle's cattle 
pasture, cross intervening pastures and woodland, finally the 
trail connects with the Centre road a few rods below the old 
Samuel Baker place. At this junction was a dwelling house, 
owned and occupied by Mr. Nichols. The location is distinctly 
marked by the cellar hole. There were families along this road 
between the Bradford tavern and the Nichols place, among whom 
were Jonathan Durant and Isaac Baldwin, our martyr patriot, 
also William Pope, who owned much land — a large section of 
which is called the "Pope Lot." It is with difficulty that this trail 


can be accurately marked, because of the displacement of walls 
and the growth of shrubs and trees. November 2, 1896, Mrs. 
James Butler, Mrs. Clinton Newman, and Mrs. William H. Story 
made a trip over a portion of this trail, from the Beard road 
to the present road which now passes over Bible Hill. This 
Moore road was surveyed and worked long before the present 
road was laid out. 

Stage Coach Days. 

Development of Travel — First Mail Traveler — Jacob Smith — Three 
Papers Published Prior to 1812 — Method of Circulation— The 
Mounted Post Eider — A Picturesque Character — Post Rider Suc- 
ceeded by Stage Driver — Passengers Carried as Well as Mail — 
First Stage Driven by Horace Hubbard — Famous Concord Stage — 
Manufactured by Lewis Downing — Rapid -Growth — Five Stage 
Lines in Hillsborough — The Runaway Coach — Stage Drivers — How 
Hatch Burnham Earned Two Gold-mounted Whips — Spirit of the 
Days of the Stage Coach. 

While the inhabitants of the different towns throughout the 
state acted slowly in co-operating so as to extend the roads 
beyond the bounds of their bailiwick, outside influence was 
brought to bear upon the development of travel. This was the 
government and the object behind this move was the carrying 
of the post, as scarce as letters were in those days and as few as 
were the papers. Yet the people were awaking to the fact that 
they had friends beyond their narrow orbit of association. Thus 
the social question called for wider action. More important than 
this was the matter of business, hence one and all grasped easily 
at, what seemed to them, the most wonderful undertaking of the 
post rider. No man in the entire country did more towards 
establishing post routes and post offices than Benjamin Franklin. 

As has been stated government established a post route 
from Concord through Hillsborough to Charlestown on the Con- 
necticut, with the provision that the people should pay for carry- 
ing the mail. The first mail carrier on this line was Jacob Smith, 
who made the round trip weekly. With what pleasure and 
interest this rider was received along his route may be imagined. 
His salary the first year was fifty dollars but the second year he 
received a hundred dollars and he was paid by the government. 
Some time in the second year Mr. Smith was succeeded by John 
Philbrick, who continued on the route for twelve years, and he 



was as punctual as the railroads of today. His course through 
Hillsborough was by the way of the Centre, and the clarion note 
of his horn could be heard on clear mornings when he was half 
a mile away. This warning note was given that the postmasters 
might have their mail ready for him so as to allow of the shortest 
stop possible with good service. It is needless to say that every- 
body knew him along his route and that he was very popular. 

Prior to 1812 there were three papers taken in town, and 
these were Farmer's Cabinet, published at Amherst ; Hill's Patriot 
and Tuttle's Concord Gazette, both at Concord. These publica- 
tions were not entered as mail matter, but were circulated by 
their subscribers. The publishers notified these post carriers by 
writing upon their papers when the time came, "Your turn next." 
The person receiving this notice rode the following week on 
horseback to the office and brought back the papers directed to 
each subscriber. 

A more sightly or picturesque character than the mounted 
post rider could not well be imagined, as he swept over some 
elevated section of the highway where the wintry wind laughed 
with cutting scorn at his reckless riding. With the graceful poise 
of an old cavalryman he bestrode his gallant steed, its nostrils 
and flanks white with the morning frost, while his tight-fitting 
jacket was buttoned closely about his stalwart form, his fur cap 
pulled down over his ears, half concealing his clear-cut, good- 
natured countenance, and the flowing ends of his crimson scarf 
streaming in the air like the pennons of a ship stemming the gale. 

Add to his picture the blare of his bugle horn, the clouds of 
snow-dust that ever and anon enveloped himself and steed, with 
the expectant looks upon the faces of the watchers peering out of 
the windows along his course as he sped by, flinging to one a 
letter and another a paper, calling back cheerily as he disappeared 
like a spectre of the road : 

"A piping morning ! Snow to-morrow ! Bill Robbins has 
heard from his brother in South America. The bridge has gone 
down across the Contoocook in Hopkinton!" 

Early in the 18th century the post rider was succeeded by 
the stage driver. By this time it was seen that as well as carrying 
the mail passengers might be transported and thus add to the 


profit. The first stage to pass through Hillsborough followed 
almost identically the route of the post rider, and came front 
Concord through to Charlestown. The wagon was two seated 
and had a canvas cover to protect the passengers from the 
weather. It was drawn by two horses driven by Horace Hub- 
bard, who owned an interest in the outfit. 

With the improvements made in the roads travel by stage 
increased rapidly, until the country was crossed and cris-crossed 
by a network of coach routes. Taverns to accomodate the travel- 
ing public sprang up at almost every corner. In truth they did 
stand at every two mile distance and did a thriving business. 

Not only were there many local lines but so extensive had 
the undertaking become that there was a line of stages established 
from New Hampshire to Georgia, which plied regularly and 
besides the traffic in passengers carried several mails by order 
and permission of Congress. Piping days for the stage coach 
developed, though this cannot be said to have actually arrived 
until the introduction of the Concord wagon, with its body hung 
on thoroughbraces, this invention eliminating the hardship of 
riding in wagons whose bodies were placed directly upon the 
axles. Travel in one of these vehicles has been described as a 

The manufacture of the famous Concord stage coach was 
begun by Lewis Downing of Concord in 1813, and within a few 
years these carriages, known and used the country over, helped 
carry civilization from the Atlantic shores to the Pacific. They 
were seen moving merrily across the western plains or thread- 
ing as the needle's eye the passes of the Rocky mountains. So 
rapidly did the enterprise flourish that within fifteen years 
twenty-five stage coaches, loaded with passengers and carrying 
the news of the day, departed every morning from Concord and 
as many arrived there every evening. 

The oldtime stage made its trips with clock-like regularity, 
and could be counted upon to make them with safety and cer- 
tainty. A great number of people were transported in these 
vehicles, and if these journeys were attended with more or less 
discomfort, there was withal a generous amount of pleasure in 
the old-fashioned way of traveling. 


In stage coach days a large amount of heavy teaming was 
done, this traffic moved mostly by ox teams, though not infre- 
quently great wagons drawn by four, six, or eight horses pulled 
the ponderous loads over the hills and through the valleys en 
route to Boston or some other market near the sea coast. These 
teams usually loaded both ways, on the downward trip bearing 
produce of the farm, or manufactured articles, and bringing back 
provisions as were needed in household life. The horse team 
averaged about twenty-five miles a day; the oxen a little less, 
but there was not as much difference as might at first be 

In all this bustle and activity Hillsborough knew and did her 
part. At one period or another there were at least five stage lines 
running through the town, two of these starting from the Lower 
Village which was then the industrial centre of the town. One 
of these routes led to Lempster, then a thriving travel point, and 
the other made a direct route to Keene. One route came from 
Washington, one from Deering and the last ran through the 
Centre to East Washington. The Concord line to Keene had 
then been discontinued. Yet another line came from Amherst 
through Mont Vernon, a corner of New Boston and Lyndebor- 
ough, through Francestown, Antrim to Hillsborough Lower 
Village. This coach was driven for a considerable time by an 
old favorite, Edwin Foster. It is related that when on one of 
these trips the stage stopped as usual at the post-office at Frances- 
town. It took longer than common to change the mail, or the 
driver had an extra story to tell, for the three spirited spans of 
horses became uneasy, and started off at the top of their speed 
with eight or ten passengers aboard. Upon hearing the thunder- 
ing of the wheels the driver rushed out of the post-office to see 
the coach just disappearing behind a cloud of dust in the distance. 
Without hesitation Foster commandeered the nearest team from 
among the dozen or more hitched in the yard, and gave furious 
pursuit. It proved he had taken a fleet horse, but do the best 
he could it was impossible for him to get near enough to stop the 
runaways until Gibson's tavern had been reached, fully three 
miles on the route. According to custom the well trained stage 
horses turned into the yard and swung as accurately along side 


of the stone steps as if they had been guided by their master. 
There they stopped with their usual abruptness, and not one of 
the passengers knew of the runaway until told. 

It would be difficult if not impossible to obtain a complete 
list of the stage drivers who drove the stages of Hillsborough. 
Among the scattered records and traditions handed down from 
those days have been preserved the names of the following 
drivers around whose service cling distinctive memories: Horace 
Hubbard, Matthew Parker, John Dane, Robert Moore, Silas 
Gibson, Samuel Keith (father of B. F. Keith of theatre fame), 
Solomon Gee, George Way, Billy Ordway, Milo Smith and Hatch 
Burnham. Not all of these were natives of Hillsborough, while 
it is very doubtful if they are given in chronological order. 

In the 50s the stage out of Lower Village was driven by 
Billy Ordway, who hailed from somewhere in the vicinity. Billy 
was one of the best reinsmen who ever pulled the "ribbons" over 
the backs of a spanking team of six sleek horses. When the 
railroad came, like hundreds of others, Billy found himself out 
of a job but took up with Horace Greeley's advice, anticipating 
it before it was given, by going west and becoming a famous 
driver on one of the Overland stages. His route took him out 
of Denver into the mountain region, dangerous at many places. 
Noted for his clear head it was his boast that during that fifteen 
years he never missed a trip nor lost a life, let the storm rage 
however bitter or the winding road be ever so coated with a 
treacherous mail of ice. Neither did the strong box intrusted 
to his care ever fall into the hands of some daring and desperate 

Billy's favorite team was composed of five splendid bay 
mares, known as the "Mountain Maids," and an equally trusty 
horse called "Old Joe." Six nobler animals, as fleet as the wind, 
as sure footed as the mountain cat, as spirited as a well-fed 
equine, never drew stage over the mountains of Colorado. They 
knew their master's voice on the instant, and were certain to 
obey him with a promptness somewhat marvelous. 

Billy was driving this team in 1868, when he made a trip that 
became memorable, taking as his passengers Generals Grant, 
Sheridan and Deat from the summit of Guy Hill to Golden City, 


a distance of nine miles in thirty-six minutes by Sheridan's 
watch. Grant never forgot that ride, nor ceased to praise the 
beauty of the horses, or Billy's skill in managing them. To the! 
grizzled stager it was the proudest day of his life, when the great 
commander sat beside him on the box and extolled the virtues 
of his "Mountain Maids." Like his comrades in the East, Billy 
finally lost his line and was driven from his calling by the ap- 
pearance of the iron horse, but to his dying day, nothing suited! 
him better than to> relate some of his adventures in the period 
when he ranked high among the overland stage drivers. 

One of the last of the Hillsborough stage drivers and the 
best remembered by those living to-day was Hatch Burnham, a 
brother of Dr. Abel C. Burnham, who drove the stage for several 
years between Hillsborough and Keene. He lacked the peculiar 
dignity that belonged to the typical stage driver of the old school, 
was brusque in his manner and a man of few, crusty words yet 
withal he had a kind heart. A pet dog usually met him on his 
return from these trips and springing to the seat would sit bolt 
upright on the seat beside him whatever the weather. When the 
dog became too feeble to mount to his accustumed place his 
master would stop his team, clamber down to the ground and lift] 
him up as carefully as one might a child. The old stager staid 
over each alternate night in Keene and over Sunday, and so 
keenly did this intelligent dog keep the passage of time that he 
never missed the day nor hour on which his master was due, noi* 
did he ever go to meet him on Sunday. 

Hatch was the fortunate possessor of two gold-mounted 
whips, which he ordered to be buried with him. These prized 
instruments, which he owned with a great deal of pride, were both 
given him for acts of humane benevolence that gave him the ear- 
marks of a hero. At one time he made a wintry drive when the 
snow lay deep and drifted along the way, so that finally he was 
obliged to unhitch his horses and plunge ahead on foot. He had 
one passenger on this trip, an oldish man, who soon was unable 
to follow in the footsteps of the horses, though Hatch had 
trampled down the snow ahead of the animals. The old stager 
then helped the man onto the back of one of the horses, but 
obliged to hold him there Hatch was unable to make a path for 


the horses, which came to a standstill after going some rods. It 
was a bitter winter day, the wind blowing a gale and filling the 
air with the blinding particles of the storm. Unable to proceed 
further as he was, Hatch had the man slip from his seat into his* 
arms, and leaving the horses to follow at will the doughty old 
driver resolutely plunged through the deep snow on towards a 
farmhouse a quarter of a mile ahead. How nearly exhausted he 
was when he staggered up to the door of the farmer to be 
received with his burden with wide-opened arms, Hatch Burnham 
never told. But he had saved the life of his passenger, and later 
the latter presented him with one of the beautiful whips, and 
along with it the tidy sum of five hundred dollars. The other 
whip was won by an equally humane and difficult deed. So, if 
brusque and taciturn to uncivility even to his friends, a kind 
heart beat under the jacket of Hatch Burnham. 

Ah, those knights of the ribbon belonged to a distinct class of 
men. The steam horse may get us there in shorter time, or the 
automobile swifter yet, but still both lack the keen interest, the 
good-natured enthusiasm, the attraction that drew a crowd equal 
to the good old Concord coach drawn by six spirited horses, 
managed by some grizzled sun-tanned veteran of the whip and 
filled to over flowing with a merry party of travelers. Everyone 
knew when to expect the stage, and before the hour for its arrival 
drew near a crowd wouid begin to assemble at the store where 
the post office was kept. Suddenly the conversation upon the 
every-day topics of the weather, crops, etc., and all arguments, 
political or otherwise, would be hushed as one of the number 
would exclaim: 

"There she comes! Milo is on time to-night," as if every 
one did not expect he would be. The rumble of heavy wheels 
would then be heard, and a little later the old Concord coach, 
rocking on its thorough-braces under its score of passengers, 
drawn by six well-groomed horses would loom into view against 
the evening sky, above the din of rolling wheels and the ring of 
steel-shod heels the loud crack of the long blacksnake whip would 
hiss and snap. The intelligent horses seemed to understand 
what was expected of them, and they would settle into a smart 
canter on this their last lap, the coach swaying to and fro as if 


keeping time to the merry music of the wheels. The passen- 
gers, those inside the vehicle and the half-dozen or more perched' 
upon the top, all seemed to have caught the spirit of the home- 
coming and they waved their hats or gave expression to their 
exuberance of spirits by other manifestations of delight, swinging 
gracefully around the curve leading into the yard at a spanking 
gait which seemed to threaten a further flight before they could 
be brought to a halt. But the loud "whoa !" from their master 
would be scarcely uttered before the intelligent creatures would 
come to a stop at exactly the usual point. Then calmly winding 
the reins about the whipstock, the driver would step down from 
his lofty perch as quietly as if ft were an every-day occurrence. 
In truth it was, but not of an ordinary order. 

"These old stage drivers they have gone their ways, 
The old stage drivers with their dash and trust ! 
These old stage drivers they have gone their ways, 
But their deeds live on, though their bones are dust." 

The Farms and Farmers of Yesterday. 

From Trail to Highway — When Hillsborough Was Strictly a Farming 
Town — The Effect of the Civil War upon Country Communities— 
The Farmer a "Jack at all Trades" — The Industrious House- 
Wife Equally as Thrifty— A Pen Picture of the "Good Old Days"— 
Going to Church on the Sabbath — Suppressed Excitement Which 
Threatened the Equilibrium of Our Religion — A Parson's Peculiar 
Predicament — "The Devil is in my Breeches !" — A Sunday Dinner 
Salting the Cattle — Home Manufactures — "Tapping" the Maples — 
Soap Making — 'Gathering Herbs — Destruction of the Forest — 
"Modern Conveniences" — Linen Manufacture — The Well — The 
Prospect Today. 

The road from Bridge Village to the Centre is a pleasant 
walk for a strong-limbed pedestrian, and as we slowly follow the 
well-oiled, hard-crusted way over which the modern car rolls 
with surprising rapidity — we would fain go slowly, for the scene 
is too attractive to move otherwise — we pity the man hurrying 
past in his lightning vehicle, as if the Old Harry was after him, 
which he may be ! It was over this same route, guided by blazed 
trees and the footsteps of wild beasts, that the McColleys, Gib- 
sons, Lyons and their comrades, the rugged masculineness of 
their presence softened by the companionship of a single woman, 
marched on the day before yesterday. 

Vanished are the trees they blazed ; gone are the cabins they 
built ; long-since snuffed out in smoke the house of worship they 
erected as a temple in the wilderness. But their clearings remain, 
and the example of their industry and heroism live as a guiding 
star to those who travel the self-same route, the self-same round 
of life, enlarged with the increasing horizon of an expanding 
civilization. Perhaps no man in his calling has been more mis- 
judged and cared so little about it as the farmer. Until only a 
few years since he was not only a feller of trees and tiller of the- 
soil, but he was of necessity a mechanic, a smith, his own lawyer, 



when one was needed, thanks to the good mother of the house- 
hold, his own doctor, and his own manufacturer. 

The agricultural history of a country town is really its most 
interesting and important phase. Other industries, such as 
manufacturing of various kinds, inventions of improved pro- 
ducts, have succeeded the more labored efforts of the tillers of the 
soil, yet after all he made these possible — was the pioneer of all 
achievements. While Hillsborough did not prove an Eden of 
fertility (what town ever did?) there was much good land in the 
territory originally covered by Colonel Hill's deed. We have 
become familiar enough with its history to know that these were 
developed with marked certainty if not with a great degree of 

The largest numbers of acres under cultivation existed at the 
time of the breaking out of the Civil War, when Hillsborough 
had fewer acres overshadowed with wild growth than the 
majority of towns. 

Farms of Yesterday. 

Mr. Frank French, the artist, in an article upon life in th^ 
days when a certain room, usually unfinished, was set apart as 
the weave-room, says very aptly: "The Widow Bussiel's weave- 
room was an enchanting place. There was a mystery about the 
ponderous machine that excited our boyish imagination, and 
responsive sympathy in the face of the weaver that appealed to 
our hearts. As she sat upon her rude bench her head was sil- 
houetted against the light of a cob-webbed window and framed 
in by the shadowy posts, beams and braces. The cords of the 
harness and the threads of the warp were illuminated, and the 
light glinted upon the reed as it jerked sharply forward, driving 
the thread of filling home with a thud; and upon the polished 
shuttle as it was deftly thrown back and forth by the weaver's 
hands between the crossed ranks of the warp, whose positions 
were reversed by squeaky pedals after receiving the weft from 
the shuttle. The widow wove an occasional web of cloth, a rag 
carpet or a bed tick for home use or for a neighbor. 

"Nothing was thrown away in those days. Every wornout 
dress or apron was cut in strips, which were sewed together at 
the ends and wound in balls for rag carpet. Scraps too small for 


carpet rags were put in the rag-bag to be exchanged with the 
peddler for tinware. . . All the sewing was done at home, except 
an occasional Sunday suit made by the traveling tailor. Stock- 
ings, mittens and tippets were knitted from yarn spun at home. 
Apples were cut, strung and dried and boiled cider apple sauce', 
made. Milk had to be cared for daily, and butter and cheese 
called for attention. The tallow dip, which was the staple light 
of the household, was manufactured at home. Chickens and 
turkeys were killed and picked, and the feathers carefully sorted 
for beds and pillows. Very little was bought from the butcher 
and nothing from the baker. Saturday was baking day. What 
an appalling task it must have been to prepare for those savage 
appetites, in the heat of summer a host of apple, pumpkin and 
custard pies, a pot of pork and beans, a great loaf of brown bread 
and many loaves of wheat, a large Indian or apple pudding, 
gingerbread, cookies, cup custards, etc. ! Moreover the great 
oven had to be heated and cleaned to receive them. Need one 
wonder that the Sabbath was eagerly looked forward to in those- 
days of toil? 

"It can be hardly said that the boys, brimming over with fun 
and spirits, shared with their elders this longing for the quiet 
peace of Sunday. All forms of play were sternly repressed, but 
we enjoyed the respite from work. In a long closet off the spare 
room hung the Sunday clothes and hats, while the Sunday shoes 
were in orderly row upon the floor. These articles of apparel 
were seldom put on except upon the Sabbath, and some of them 
had descended from the eldest to the youngest. Father always 
maintained an air of extreme gravity as we rode over the three 
miles of hill road to the Centre meeting house, but I have no 
doubt it was a matter of secret pride to him to drive up to the 
meeting house with two wagon loads behind such likely looking 
horses. As we walked up the uncarpeted aisle our stiff Sunday 
shoes embarassingly announced our presence and their infrequent 
use. There was a long morning service, followed by a half-houf 
intermission during which we went over to the horse-shed and 
ate our luncheon. Then we walked over to the grave yard, back 
of the meeting house, holding silent communion with those sleep- 
ing there. Returning to Sunday School, we stopped at Blake 


Martin's well-sweep for a drink of water, and my mother and 
sister gathered sprigs of spearmint and heads of caraway for the 
sleepy boys to brouse upon during the long afternoon service 
which immediately followed Sunday School. 

"Any little incident which might relieve the tediousness of 
the service was anxiously looked for, and a very slight occurrence 
was sufficient to excite our sense of the ridiculous to the point 
of explosion from which we were saved by a glance at father's 
stern face at the end of the pew. Perhaps at a solemn moment 
the neighs of two horses which had been tied close together 
would pierce the Sabbath stillness ; or a wasp would come through 
the window, trailing his long black legs just above the flower- 
decked hat of a girl and cause her to cower in fright ; or weary 
old Deacon Stephens would nod lower and lower till the strain 
upon his neck would awaken him with a start." 

A ludicruous affair that occurred some years before Mr. 
French's time, seems worthy of place here. A certain divine, who 
shall be nameless here, out of respect to his memory, one balmy 
June morning came to perform his part in the worship decked 
out in his buckskin suit for the first time that season. According 
to custom this suit during the interval since cast aside the previous 
summer had been hanging in the attic chamber. Here a colony of 
hornets had found a way, and finding no likelier receptacle for 
their abiding place, had taken possession of the parson's unmen- 
tionables. Unaware of these unsolicited tenants the good man 
had hastily donned the garments on this particular Sabbath 
morning, and his mind engrossed with clerical duties he entered 
the pulpit, feeling no doubt a pardonable pride in his summer 
raiment. But, as he warmed with the subject matter of his dis- 
course, the merry little occupants of his nether garments began 
also to feel the thrill of new life, and so began to move about 
very much to the Parson's surprise and wonder. Surreptitiously 
placing his hand somewhat heavily over the scene of action he 
was horrified to feel a sharp prick as if a needle had been thrust 
into his limb. Nor did the disturbance stop here, but immediately 
a complete storm of attacks made him fairly writhe. Still in the 
dark as to the meaning of this warfare waged at this most un- 
propitious moment, he turned an agonizing look towards his 


parishioners, crying out: "Bretheren and Sisterens, there will 
have to be a halt in our services ! While the word of the good 
Lord is in my mouth, the devil is in my breeches!" 

Resuming Mr. French's narrative : "The long sermon would 
end at last, and amid the rustle of silk brocade and bombazine 
the congregation would arise and face about to the choir with a 
flutter of relief. On our return home the Sunday dinner of pork 
and beans and brown bread, which had gained richness and 
ripeness of flavor from twenty-four hours's exposure to the heat 
of the old brick oven, was served. 

"After dinner, during the rush of haying, we were allowed to 
go to a distant pasture on Sunday to salt the cattle. This pleasant 
duty belonged by custom to Saturday afternoon, but was doubly 
enjoyed on the Sabbath, as it filled most pleasurably a portion of 
the day which otherwise would have been given up to the house 
and religious reading. With what a sense of joyous freedom we 
walked down the shady hillside, where the green and red berries 
of spikenard glistened like glass beads ; then up and down the 
steep ledgy pitches of the blackberry and raspberry bordered 
road, where yarrow, daisies, Queen Ann's lace and jewel weed 
mingled their many hued blossoms with the tangled vines and 
the rich red pompon of sumach held their smouldering torches 

"These visits to the cattle were to us like intercourse with 
friends. We had cultivated close relationship with them during 
the long winter and knew their habits, their characters and dis- 
positions, even their voices, as well as those of our playmates. 
There was always a pleasant leave-taking at the bars, where the 
calves rasped our bare feet with their tongues, and the cossett 
sheep nibbled at our jackets, and the colts put their noses over our 
shoulders to be caressed. We might have chosen to go with them 
to the dark cool woods rather than to prayer-meeting at the 
schoolhouse in Deacon Dascomb's district in the evening. 

"As I observe the success of many of the sons of New Eng- 
land who have gone into larger fields of endeavor, which has 
depended on sterling character, tenacity of purpose and self-help, 
I feel they owe much to the New England Sabbath ; to encouraged 


habits of industry and thrift, and much, very much, to the early 
discipline that was so rigidly enforced." 

In this day of general manufacture, when the implements 
used upon the farm are bought ready made, and the farmer pays 
little heed to the construction of the tools and machinery that 
assist him in his labors, it was only yesterday he was making 
these, or those of more simple design which answered a place in 
his unending round of duties. His carts, his wheel-barrows, his 
ax-helves, ox-yokes, goad sticks, sleds, etc., practically every tool 
and machine needed on the farm were made by him upon stormy 
days, evenings, and during the long winters when he was not 
obliged to be in the wood lot. One of the stints for the boys, 
when not employed at more steady occupation, was to pound 
green ash logs with heavy mallets until the annual growths of 
wood were separated so as to form long, thin strips of the pliant 
wood, and these slender bands were woven into the baskets used 
on the farm. Even the shingles covering the roof over his head 
were riven from blocks of pine logs and shaved thin by the draw- 
ing knife. The iron work of all of these tools were fashioned, if 
rudely, well tempered, at the farm smithy. 

Early in the spring, usually in March, the rock maples on 
the farm were "tapped" by boring a half inch hole in the trunk 
to the depth of about an inch, and "spouts" made of the sumach, 
the pith carefully scraped out so as to form a channel nearly the 
length, and one end rounded to the proper size to fit the augur 
hole. From the sap thus obtained a supply of syrup and sugar 
of finest quality was secured by boiling the liquid in great iron 
kettles attached to cross beams over a hot fire. This method of 
obtaining sweets, sometimes enough to last the family a year, was 
a legacy of the red man, who boiled the sap he had secured by 
heating stones and dropping them in the earthen vessel that he 
had made but which would not stand the elements of the fire. 

Another oldtime custom, not abandoned so very long since, 
was the task of making the soap for the family use during the 
coming year. This was usually done in the spring. All of the 
refuse fat during the year was saved and the wood ashes kept 
until the good housewife was expected to perform one of the 
hardest tasks of her life, soap-making. Two posts, with notches 


or branches at the top to receive the cross-bar, were driven firmly 
into the ground, and an old iron kettle, holding perhaps four 
gallons, was suspended from this beam by a section of some 
broken chain. Into this vessel was placed the soap grease and a 
fire kindled under it. Nearby a half molasses hogshead was 
placed upon a raised platform and filled with the ashes, which 
were saturated with pails of water brought from the spring. 
When the water had had time to permeate the ashes the strong 
liquid called lye was drawn out by a spiggot at the bottom, and 
pouring this upon the boiling matter in the kettle made the old- 
fashioned soft soap, strong enough to remove the most obstinate 
coating of dirt if it did not obliterate the material itself or remove 
the skin from the hands of the user. Until within comparatively 
a few years this was the only kind of soap used among the 
country people of New England. 

Not only were the spare moments utilized in making the 
implements needed in the farm and house work, but the young 
were taught lessons of frugality and providence for the future 
in laying by stores for winter of almost everything that grew. 
Herbs of all kinds from spearmint to the swamp onion were 
gathered before dog days had set in and were carefully hung over 
the cross beams of the unfinished kitchen or chamber, ready for 
use in times of sickness ; hazelnuts, beechnuts, butternuts, chest- 
nuts, walnuts, etc., were stored away for winter evenings, when 
with pop corn and a mug of cider for the older ones, made a 
feast of pleasure. The enumeration might be continued almost 
indefinitely to show there were really no "spare moments" in 
farm life as conducted a generation or so ago, when the manly 
art of self-reliance and development of resources were uncon- 
sciously taught in every act of daily life. 

Farm work during that period required strong limbs and 
muscular arms. All of the work on the farm was done by hand, 
except breaking the greensward which was done by a wooden 
plow as late as 1830. Think of tearing up the rock-bound sod of 
Hillsborough with a clumsy wooden plow ! 

Linen was the favorite material for clothes, and flax was 
grown in quantities sufficient to supply the family, which usually 1 
consisted of six or eight members. This added greatly to the 


work performed in the house as well as in the fields. When 
grown, the flax was pulled by hand a slow and tedious operation. 
It then had to be exposed to the weather, until it had been 
properly cured, after which it was moved into the barn or some 
other building, where it was left until it was convenient for the 
farmer and his boys to break and dress the flax, which called for 
the removal of the outside or woody part of the stalks and the 
preparation of the fibre for spinning. By working hard and 
making a long day at his task, a man could dress about twenty 
pounds of flax a day. It then went to the women of the family 
to be spun on foot-wheels and to be woven on the old hand looms. 
The flax industry, due to the increase in the factories, in the out- 
put of woolen and cotton goods, practically ceased about 1825. 
The hand spinning of wool and the knitting of stockings con- 
tinued for half a century later. 

The Well. 

Originally of course the settlers sought the springs and 
streams for their supply of water, often being obliged to carry 
the much-desired fluid in the heavy pails of the times for a con- 
siderable distance. This proving no slight task on many home- 
steads, especially in winter time, wells were dug nearer thq 
houses. To facilitate the lifting of this precious water from its 
prison in the ground, and some of these wells were from twenty 
to thirty feet in depth, a stout post was set not far from the rim 
or opening where usually a curbing had been built, and from this 
upright a long cross arm was fastened about midway and so 
balanced that when the bucket was filled with water it could be 
easily raised to the top of the frame work. 

Sometimes the digging and stoning of one of these wells 
was no slight task, as it has been described by an old resident and 
published fifty years ago: "He bores, he digs, he digs and he 
bores! through strata after strata of various depths and forma- 
tion. But he makes slow progress ; he finds no water as yet, nor 
does he make any miraculous discovery, for he has not reached 
any of the antedeluvian formation though at the close of each day 
he is a little farther from home and a little nearer the antipodes. 
His labor is irksome, tiresome, a cloud of melancholly over- 


shadows him and he gets a fit of the blues, and desponding until 
nearly despairing of success, he thinks that some strange fate holds 
the undertaking in its luckless grasp. He is so nearly discouraged 
he is about to abandon the job, when a neighbor, Nathaniel 
Cooledge, approached the spot and engaged in conversation ap- 
propriate to the day and occasion, thus cheering the heart and 
encouraging the hand of the laborer. At the same, time he was 
talking the new-comer watched with eagle eye the progress of 
the work as though inspired with the thought that something un- 
usual was about to come forth at the stroke of the pick. Nor was 
this expectation, if such he had, long deferred in its realization for 
very soon in response to a well directed blow of the pick, a large 
mass of earth and debris was broken from the irregular wall and 
fell at the workman's feet. As it tumbled from its place the leg 
of an iron pot was disclosed. The watchful eye of Cooledge saw 
this object before the laborer, and his imagination quickly fired 
with stories of hidden treasures, he shouted in stentorian tone, 
just as the other was about to deal the thing a smashing blow : 
"Hold on! save the pot for yourself, but the money is mine." 

Half frightened by this unexpected command the laborer 
suddenly stopped in his work, while, with that strange telegraphy 
by which such news is sent broadcast, a crowd, wondering and 
curious, began to collect at the brink of the embankment, looking 
down with strained eyes upon the mysterious vessel, which pos- 
sibly had been buried there by some Captain Kid. Pushing the 
point of his pick under one side the man carefully turned the 
precious object over, prepared to meet with any sight that might 
be revealed to him, the while Cooledge was oblivious of every- 
thing else. Alas ! for human hopes, all the ancient vessel con- 
tained was some rather darkly colored earth and a little iron rust 
— nothing more — an old, broken, discarded pot belonging to an 
early settler — just that. Water of excellent quality and in 
abundance was found the next day, a fountain which has not 
failed to this day. 

There were no close-cropped "lawns" about these old- 
fashioned farm-houses, but the spacious grounds bore the more 
plebeian name of "door yard." One of these was large enough 
to contain the year's supply of fire-wood, which was no small 


quantity, as witness one of the huge, conical-shaped piles reaching 
above the eaves of the ell, besides the full catalogue of farm tools 
and vehicles, some of which had long outlived their usefulness. 
Left promiscuously here and there the effect was not altogether 1 
pleasing nor profitable. 

Every great war leaves in its wake certain changes in popula- 
tion, in business efforts and in society. So it was with America's 
great Civil War. Drawing its forces largely from the country 
towns, as it did, these reservoirs of population and industry 
naturally felt the effects first and most. The war marked the 
beginning of the decline of rural live as a factor in the progress 
of the nation. 

In common with her sister commonwealths, Hillsborough 
sent every other of her able-bodied men into the field of action, 
and suffered accordingly. A considerable percentage of these 
never came back. Those were spared to return came with 
wounds, broken in health, or if not physically disabled prema- 
turely aged, unable to take up the burden of working for an 
existence where they had laid it down. So from that period dates 
the decadence of country life of the old regime. 

To offset this in a measure the public meetings and open 
discussions of the farmer-politicians during the war had proved 
beneficial in the manner that hitherto prone to reason within him- 
self and leave his neighbor alone, now began to broaden his ideas 
and progressive action followed. One by one improvements in 
farm work began; one machine after another came. If the num- 
ber of those willing to follow the arduous round of farm work 
became less, fewer hands were required to accomplish the end. 

Over this steady-moving, hand-to-hand way of living came 
a swift change. No more does the farm boy follow his round of 
drudgery from sunrise to sunset; The lowing herds upon the 
hillsides have vanished, and where the farmers yoked up twenty 
pairs of oxen and steers to break out the roads, horses draw the 
big roller. It is true some farmers keep good-sized herds of cows 
to furnish milk for the creamery or to ship to some distant city 
to be peddled out by the milkman. He buys the grain with which 
to feed these animals, and the oldtime field of ripening corn is 
almost unknown, for if he does plant any of the useful crop it is 


harvested while the milk is in the stock and the silo, standing at 
right angles with the barn like the tower of some olden castle, 
receives the crop as the winter feed for the cows. The pastures, 
alas! are grown over with junipers and thriftless bushes, where 
once the succulent grass grew to the ruminating animal's knees, 
and here and there great patches of luscious strawberries tempted 
the palate of the husbandman. The great tracts of lofty pines 
have fallen victims of the circular saw that cut them in twain 
with as little compunction as a man was beheaded in the days of 
King Charles. A sadder phase than this is the frequent cellar 
holes — tombs of abandoned farms — that greet the gaze of the 
traveler along the highways and even upon the byways, now over- 
grown that erstwhile echoed to the hoof of the stage horse. 
Homesteads once enlivened by throngs of merry life now lie 
deserted, and silence broods by day and night in a lonely watch 
over the dead and missing. 

If this picture is not pleasant to look upon turn it to the wall. 
If fewer in numbers the farmers of to-day have twenty opportu- 
nities to turn an honest dollar where their forebears had one, 
and his day of labor is not timed by the sun but the factory 
whistle or his gold repeater reminds him when the modern 
schedule of a day's work has been measured off as the store- 
keeper would run off so many yards of calico. He rides in his 
sulky plow to turn the sod of his fertile hill side ; he opens, drops 
and covers the seed by machine; he stirs the soil, adjusts the 
tender shoots and gently lays the cool earth about them by 
machine ; he cuts the grass, rakes the newly-mown hay and places 
it away on the high scaffold by machine; he even milks his cows 
by machine, digs his potatoes; ay, at the pace he has taken it 
won't be long before a neat little contrivance will grace his dining 
table to save him the effort of lifting the food to his mouth. 
Water is brought to his kitchen sink from the spring on the side 
of the hill ; an electric light dispels the darkness of night from 
the road that he travels, so it is always day with him. Does he 
wish to go to the town or some further destination he no longer 
waits for the lumbering stage coach to bear him on his way, but 
he steps lightly into his well-cushioned gasoline car, presses a 
button, and lo ! he is speeding like the wind upon his way. Does 


he want anything at the village store — the country store is almost 
an institution of the past, he steps to the telephone and orders it 
as a king might. The rural delivery brings his mail to the door ; 
the baker his bread, the butcher his meat ; and while he scans the 
morning daily with keen avidity over the news he seldom stops 
to compare the present with the past. 

Still, with all these advantages and in such close touch with 
the great round world, he finds his neighbors farther and farther 
removed ; sees the farm of a brother taken by some rich New York 
nabob to be transformed for a brief summer month into a castle of 
delights, awakened by the rhapsodies of city people going in 
ecstacies over the rocks that abuse his machinery ; the white weeds 
that will spring spontaneously where he has tried to coax the 
green grass to cover the rocks ; the shattered hemlock that grimly 
reminds him of last year's thunder storm ; the mountains that 
block the west and the sunsets that at best to him portend the 
possibility of another fair day. And then the long white silence 
of winter, when this merriment and liveliness has been trans- 
planted to the bustling city ; when his automobile is housed and 
himself sits in the chimney corner chewing the cud of reflection 
and wondering if farming can be made to pay upon these old, 
wornout homesteads. So the picture fits the time, and farmers 
as well as others are carried on the wave of continual change) 
never knowing where the end will be. 

The Baptist Church. 

■Formation "First Baptist Society" — Institution of First Baptist 
Church — Opposition of Lower Village to Locate Meeting House at 
Upper Village — Pierce Offers Land for Site of Meeting House — 
Terms and Location — Non-Acceptance — Other Plans — Land Pur- 
chased of Lieutenant MeNiel — Rivalry Between Lower and Upper 
Villages — House Built — Opening of Services — First Sabbath School 
— Difference of Views — Certain Opposition to the Pastor — Mr. 
Atwood — Division of Church — "Independent Baptist Church" — Mr. 
Atwood Becomes Pastor — Known as "New Church" — Other Styled 
"Old Church" — Elder Atwood Leaves Town — Mr. Chamberlain, 
Pastor of "Old" Church Resigns— Both Churches Without Pastors 
— Millerite Doctrine Interferes With Church Effort— "Old" House 
Re-opened — The Two Churches Re-united — "New" House Neglected 
— Bell Removed— Ringers of Bell — Disposal of Old Bell — New Bell 
— Women Repair Meeting House — Money Raised for New Bell — 
New Bell Raising — Organ Installed — Regular Services — Church 
Again Abandoned — Last Meeting Held 1891 — Old Meeting House 
Left to the "Society of Bats and Owls." 

Considerable of the material in this chapter was prepared 
by Dr. John H. Goodell in his work upon a history of the churcht 
for a town history. 

The early settlers of Hillsborough, in common with those of; 
other towns, were eminently a religious people and the prevailing 
theological views held by them, were those of the Congregation- 
alists, the then most common belief throughout New England. 
Occasional new comers entertained other views, although for 
many years too few to maintain separate organizations, conse- 
quently they attended and helped to support (by taxation) the 
regular organized church of the town. The most numerous of 
these were Baptists. As their numbers increased they began to 
hope to be able to hold religious services conducted after their 
own faith. This sentiment grew, and on the 21st day of May 
1813 a few Baptists in the west part of the town established the 



"First Baptist Society" in Hillsborough. They had preaching 
"occasionally" for seven years by such ministers as they could 

Under the services of Elder Charles Cummings of Sullivan 
quite an extensive revival resulted. In August, 1820, the society 
adopted a "Declaration of Faith and Covenant," and on the 31st 
day of that month the "first Baptist Church of Hillsborough" was 
instituted at the house of David Goodell. Elder Elijah Willard 
of Dublin gave the right hand of Fellowship and preached a 
sermon. Elder Cummings delivered an address to the newly con- 
stituted church. The other members of the Council who assisted 
and advised to this action were Elder Forces Moore, Bros. ; 
Elias Hemmingway and Jonathan Metcalf of Keene; Stephen 
Foster and Luther Hemmingway of Sullivan, and Bro. Samuel 
Gage of Dublin. There were sixteen charter members, seven 
males and nine females. The candidates were baptised on the 
day of organization, who subsequently became members. At the 
first church meeting held September 16, James Howe was chosen 
Church Clerk, and October 26 following James Eayrs was chosen 
First Deacon and Fisher Gay Second Deacon. Deacon Eayrs 
died December 23, 1839, and though there is no record of the 
fact, it is probable that Sandy Smith was made his successor. By 
the death of Deacon Eayrs the church lost a man of great execu- 
tive ability and influence, which was always exercised for peace 
in all the "tryals" of the church, which were not few. 

The society enjoyed a good degree of prosperity for several 
years, with almost constant preaching by Elders Charles Cum- 
mings, Thomas Paul, and others. These services were held in 
private houses, barns and school houses, many members being 
added to the church by baptism and by letter, an attempt was 
made as early as 1818 to build a meeting house, according to the) 
following report : 

"We the undersigned being a Committee chosen at the annual 
meeting at the First Baptist Society of Hillsborough for the 
purpose of finding a spot of ground to erect a Meeting House on, 
and forming a plan of Constitution for building the same, Report 
that they have attended to said business and that they have drafted 
a plan or Constitution which is herewith submitted, and that they 


can obtain a spot of ground nearly opposite to Nathaniel John- 
son's Esqr. store, occupied by Mr. Isaac Jones to contain forty 
six Poles for thirty dollars. 

/ Benjamin Smith 
Hillsborough I 

] Charles Pool 
April 20th / Committee 

J David Goodell, Jr. 
1818. / 

\ James Howe 

There is no recorded action upon this report, so it would be 
useless to give the "Plan and Constitution" submitted. The loca- 
tion indicated was between the houses now owned and occupied 
by Mr. Judson Senter and Mrs. Dr. Emerson at the Upper 
Village. Four years later, in 1822, another effort was made to 
"build on this spot, enlarged to one and one-half acres for a 
"Meeting House and Graveyard and convenient Sheads." The 
plan provided for a "house the size to be forty four feet square 
on the ground, twenty one feet High in the Body with lower and 
upper storys containing forty one Pews in the Lower Story and 
twenty one in the Gallery with Singers and Public seats, the 
House to be known as the Baptist Meeting House of Hillsborough 
to be considered for the use and privelege of Said Church and 
Society." It was further provided that the "whole cost of the 
House is to be Leved on the Pews and the sale of the Pews to be 
made Previous to the Purchase of any of the materials to build 
sd House." 

The attempt to locate the house at the Upper Village awoke 
a strong opposition from those living at the Lower Village, and 
the following year, 1823, General Pierce (afterwards governor) 
offered to give the society sufficient land for the site of a meeting 
house and a burying ground in a convenient locality on the follow- 
ing terms: "I give to the First Baptist Church of Hillsborough, 
the society and owners of the Meeting House "The burying yard 
to be lotted out ^ is to be for the use of the proprietors and 
owners of the house & %. to be Left or lotted for the use of those 
that do not belong to or have an interest in the house and the 
said Peirce Reserves to himself a family plot and also the write 


of Mowing and taking of the hay from said ground and that 
same ground is to be kept always by the proprietors well and 
decently fenced so as to prevent Cattle Horses or Sheep from 
going into it and that the land before mentioned to be property 
of the owners of said Meeting house Forever and the Land where 
the Meeting house stands while said house is occupied for the 
use of preaching and public and Religious worship that the Meet- 
inghouse Common is to be hansomely set out with trees &c. and 
that the wall on the Road way be used by the society for the 
fence the east side of the Common & Burial yard." 

The piece of land offered by General Pierce was situated 
about fifty rods north of his dwelling house on the opposite side 
of the road. A plan was submitted which called for a house 
44 X 54 feet, "a good Brick Building finished in good stile with a 
Bellfree, the Pews to be arranged and Numbered agreeable to the 
plan each to contain 8 feet in length and three feet in wedth all 
to be seated facing the Desk . . . the Pews to be all sold at 
auction to the Highest Bidder . . . This effort like those preced- 
ing failed, and another intervale of three years elapsed before 
any further effort was made toward this desired object. A call 
signed by seventeen citizens was issued "to meet at Thomas 
Wilson's in Hillsboro on Thursday the 21st of Dec, 1826, at 
one o'clock p. m. precisely and to proceed to act on the subject 
of Building a Meeting house." 

At this meeting the following articles were considered and 
adopted : 

Art. 1st. The house shall be known by the name of the First 
Baptist meeting house in Hillsborough and shall be for the use and 
privilege of the first Baptist Church & Society in this town at all 
times when ever they wish to improve or occupy said House for 
Preaching or for Church or Society meetings provided the Baptist 
society shall not improve it more than one half the time in equal 
proportion of the season of the year, if any of the proprietors in said 
House of diferent sentiments wish to improve the house for the other 
half of the time, with preaching, and all the time when the proprietors 
do not suply the house with Preaching the Baptist Society shall injoy 
the privilege of using the House, and the dores of the house shall not 
be closed by any of the proprietors when they are alowed to ocupy 


Photograph by Manahan. 



the house if they do not suply the time designated by the Church and 
Society at the annual meeting of the sd Baptist Society to be holdin 
at said Meeting house. 

Art. 2nd The meeting house shall be erected on the ground which 
shall be located by a committee to be chosen by the proprietors and to 
be on the turnpike road between the two villages in Hillsboro and the 
house shall be built as the proprietors shall chuse, either by an 
equality on the proprietor or by a subscription, and the proprietors 
shall each be considered to own the amount of his proportion as such 
a share in said House and when the house is completed to receive the 
amount which he has paid in either in pews in said house at their 
appraisal or in the proceeds from the sale of pews in ratio according 
as he has paid in, and all other articles necessary to be adopted to 
Build and govern sd house shall be drawn agreeable to the minds of 
the proprietors when mett to proceed on the subject of Building. 

Art. 3. When ever there shall be subscribers obtained to the 
amount of forty shares the proprietors shall proceed to chuse their 
officers and committees in any way the proprietors may think most 
practicable, not inconsistent with the articles of the Constitution. 

Art. 4. This consideration shall be considered to be binding and 
mforce whenever there shall be a Building committee chosen. 

Art. 5. The vote by a majority of the proprietors may alter or 
amend any articles of this consitution except the second article which 
may be altered by a unanimity of the whole of the proprietors. 

The first article was subsequently enlarged and provided that the 
house should be — 

A good wooden Building finished in good stile the size to be 54 
feet in length and 40 feet in wedth, a one story Building with a 
singers gallery and a Belfry to be built by proprietors upon shares at 
twenty five dollars each, and proprietor shall be liable to assassment 
according to their proportion of shares and each share shall be con- 
sidered and entitled to one vote. 

To the second article it was added that : 

The care of the House shall be vested in the hands of a committee 
of three men chosen by the proprietors annually at the annual meeting 
of the Baptist Society, two of which are to be members of the Baptist 
Church in Hillsboro. 

If further records were kept of the building of the house 
and the committees chosen the writer has not been able to find 
them. But with the usual delays connected with such enterprises, 
the house was built in the course of a year, "a monument to the 


zeal and public spirit of its builder." The original plan was con- 
siderably altered, modified so the house was built sixty feet long 
and forty feet wide, with a twenty-foot portico, a projection of 
three feet from the body of the house on the south end for two- 
thirds of its width, which helped to form the ten-foot vestibule. 
The house stood due north and south ; a belfry rising about fifteen 
feet above the ridge pole, which was originally surmounted by a 
tall and graceful spire, with weather vane and lightning rod. It 
could be seen for miles in many directions, and was a landmark 
to the travellers for three quarters of a century. In the belfry 
was placed a deep, clear-toned bell of about 1500 pounds in 
weight, which could be heard for miles as it summoned the people 
to worship, or sounded its curfew peals. 

The house was built and finished with the best of white pine 
lumber then plenty in this vicinity. The underpinning was of 
hewn granite with the stone steps in front, taken from a ledge 
in Windsor six miles away. The building had two entrance 
doors to the vestibule, and two from that into the audience room, 
two aisles running the length of the house, with pews on each 
side. There were sixty-four pews, each nine feet by two feet 
eight inches in width, with doors opening from the aisles. These 
pews would seat five persons comfortably, making the seating 
capacity of the house 320. The singers' gallery was in the south 
end and raised some fourteen feet from the ground floor, and was 
entered by stairs from the vestibules. The gallery would seat 
forty persons. The pulpit was in front of this gallery, raised 
about eight feet, both facing the congregation. The house was 
warmed in winter by two large box stoves in the vestibule and 
funnels running the length of the house to a chimney in the 
north end. This arrangement proving inadequate, the stoves 
were moved inside the room to the open space in front of the pul- 
pit. It was lighted by three large windows on each side, two on 
the north end and two in the gallery, all protected by blinds. 
After completion the pews were appraised at $2,154.00, varying 
from $20.00 to $3500 according to location. Premiums were 
paid for choice of seats which amounted to $164.10, the cheapest 
pews bringing the highest premiums. There were eight pews 


which appear to have been sold for much less than their appraised 

The land upon which the house was built was purchased of 
Lieut. John McNiel, and deeded by him to "James Eayrs, his 
associates, his and their heirs, or owners of the House of Public 
Worship, which is to be built on the land . . . forever . . . which 
land is to be occupied for a House of Public Worship and its 
necessary appendages and for no other purpose." This location 
was the result of a compromise between the interest of the Upper 
and the Lower villages, and was said to have been brought about 
in consequence of a dream or vision by one of the Baptist sisters, 
and it was probably the best one of the several suggested to ac- 
comodate all the people who attended worship here, and even then 
some of them had to come five or six miles. The average attend- 
ance was probably larger than that of any church in town to-day. 

In its quaint language the church records describes one of 
the most important events in its history: 

Thursday Nov. 6th (1821) this day this Little Church are alowed 
to witness a wonderfull token of God's mercy, manifest towards his 
people in this place, the House which has ben erected for a place of 
worship, to be ocupyed by this Church and people is this day opened 
for divine worship for the first time and dedicated to the service and 
worship of God. Elder Joseph Eliot preached on the occasion from 
Isa 66 Chap and 1 verse, it was truly a solemn and Interesting dis- 
course to a crowded and listening assembly may the Blessing of God 
attend the transactions of this day. 

James Howe Church Clerk. 

No record has been found of the financial standing of the 
society or the number of the members of the church. In a church 
letter to the Milford Baptist Association, October 4, 183 1, asking 
for admission to membership in that association, it is stated that 
"we are still some in debt," and that the church has 81 members, 
31 males and fifty females. This shows quite an increase in the 
eleven years since its formation. Elder Charles Cummings had 
continued as the most frequent preacher until 1834, when Elder 
John Peacock became Pastor. During this year a "Protracted 
meeting' , was held and numerous accessions made to the church. 
His pastorate was closed in less than one year, however, and 
Elder Moses Cheney succeeded him as acting Pastor, but he 


remained less than two years. A study of the records kept at 
that period shows that the church experienced "Many tryals and 
want of union among the Brethren." On invitation Elder John 
Atwood assumed the pastorate February 5, 1837. 

About this time the first record of a "Sabbath School" was 
made on "May Lord's day 27, 1838 . . . commenced for the 
Season." This school was held during the noon hour between 
the services and was discontinued during the winter months. 

After a three years' pastorate Elder Atwood, in January, 
1840, requested and received a letter of dismissal from the 
church, but two months later he withdrew it. In this interval he 
had held a series of meetings assisted by Elder B. F. Remington. 
A division of sentiment had arisen in regard to continuing Mr. 
Atwood here., He had proved a useful man in the community, 
and was generally liked, but he was not a brilliant speaker. The 
difference in opinion in regard to keeping him, with other dis- 
sensions of more or less account, awakened the old animosities 
of feeling. The result was the formation of a new organization 
November 5, 1840, to be known as the "Independent Baptist 
Church," and comprising twenty members, of which Elder At- 
wood became pastor. Soon this division became popularly known 
as the "New Church," while the other faction was styled the "Old 
Church." Elder Philip Chamberlain was settled as Pastor of this 
division in February, 1841. He continued here until August, 
1843, or over two years. The two church organizations occupied 
the meeting house by turns, the New Church three-fourths of the 
time, and the Old Church one-fourth of the Sabbaths. At the 
other times each held its meetings in school houses. 

In August, 1843, Elder Atwood removed to Concord, having 
been appointed State Treasurer and Chaplain to the State Prison. 
The close of Mr. Chamberlain's pastorate was no doubt hastened 
by the fact that a considerable number of his parishioners had 
embraced the doctrine of William Miller, who had predicted the 
final destruction of the world that year. Mr. Chamberlain disap- 
proved of this belief which gained a remarkable hold upon the 
people, and he was forced to relinquish his pastorate. 

Tradition says that Franklin Pierce read sermons to frequent 
audiences in the old meeting house. 


Thus, both churches without pastors, and both too few in 
numbers and influence to support an organization, the "New 
Church" ceased to exist without action. In 1846, the "Old 
Church" by advice of the Milford Association, to which it be- 
longed, voted unanimously to dissolve. All of which goes to 
prove the truth of the saying: "United we stand ; divided we fall." 

If without an organized church the religious spirit had 
not departed, and the Rev. Levi M. Powers removing here from 
Boston, Mass., in 1844, the old meeting house was re-opened to 
him, who preached here as a missionary, rather than as a pastor. 
Those came to hear him who wished — members of the Old and 
New Church, and those who had strayed to follow a false 
prophet. Mr. Powers by his genial manner and good work won 
the hearts of the community and reunited the people. He was 
followed by Elder Bond, whose stay was shorter, but equally as 
effective. In the autumn of 1857, by advice of a council called 
for that purpose, it was decided to reorganize a new Baptist 
society. Elder E\ H. Smith, under whose guidance the scattered 
Baptists of this vicinity were brought together, was made Pastor. 
George E. Hoit was chosen clerk. This reorganized church had 
twenty-two members, and seven others were united later. Isaac 
Coolidge and David Smith, Jr., were chosen deacons. 

Elder Smith's stay was short, his pastorate closing the fol- 
lowing April. He was succeeded by temporary supplies, largely 
from the Methodist Seminary at Concord, more or less constantly 
for ten years, when this church, like its predecessors, went out 
of existence without action. 

During this period of something more than thirty years the 
society in whose charge the meeting house was vested had not 
kept up any organization. The bell which had become cracked 
during the early 40s, was replaced by a smaller one, but equally 
good except in size. The accident by which the first bell was 
cracked is said to have been caused by the sexton tolling the bell to 
announce the death of a citizen, as was customary at that time. 
This person had repeatedly said that when he died he wanted the 
bell to be tolled loud enough so folks could hear it. With this 
thought in mind the sexton used a much heavier hammer than 
usual, and thereby ruined the bell. 


Among Doctor Goodell's papers the writer finds an account 
which refutes this tradition, and indicates with apparent certainty 
that the old bell was broken before 1835, and that the new bell 
was procured soon after. Apropos of the first bell Mr. James 
Chase, who was one of the committee to purchase a bell for the 
meeting house, related many years after that this particular bell 
was selected on account of its sweet mellow tone. But the makers 
warned the committee that the bell was not heavy enough to stand 
a larger tongue. "If complaint is made in regard to its volume, 
please remember the tongue is as heavy as the bell can withstand. 
A heavier tongue will crack this bell at once." Despite the warn- 
ing, so charmed were they with the tone of this bell, the committee 
decided to purchase it and take the chances. 

As foretold by the manufacturers, the bell failed to satisfy 
all of the parishioners, and the first thing proposed was a heavier 
tongue. The purchasers stoutly justified themselves by the fact 
that the bell could be heard throughout the westerly half of the 
town, and to the very limits of the society. In truth, the tone 
was so pure and clear it could be heard a great distance. They 
also repeated the warning of the makers against using a heavier 
tongue. Still, the dissatisfaction was not allayed, and finally 
several of the moving spirits of the village made a night raid on 
the belfry, and removing the tongue temporarily gave it a gener- 
ous coating of lead or solder, and then returned it to its positionj 
The result was just as had been foretold : the bell was broken at 
the very next ringing. There is nothing to show that the vandals 
were punished, except through a guilty conscience. 

The new bell was said to have been as harsh and disagreeable 
as its predecessor had been sweet and pleasant. Perhaps the 
contrast made the distinction more pronounced. At any rate the 
bell did not do service very long, for it was removed in 1848, 
cracked and useless as a bell. 

Among the ringers of the two older bells were Mr. Gray and 
Mr. Parmenter, who was blind for several years and was guided 
to the church door by a wire stretched from his own premises ita 
the church door. 

The old meeting house was beginning to show its neglect 
and need of repairs. But factional difference still existed. There 


were those who had no sympathy in the movement to improve the 
old building. The old bell had been pitched from the belfry, 
which was believed not to be strong enough to support it longer, 
and was left in the porch for five years. 

During the ministry of Rev. Mr. Bond, in the fall of 1852, 
the ladies of the society formed a social circle for the purpose of 
making repairs on the meeting house. The leaders in the enter- 
prise were the Misses Lucy Chase and Emily Hatch. The circle 
had the following of officers: Mrs. Bond, President; Miss Eliza 
Brown, Vice-President; Miss Lucy H. Chase, Secretary; Miss 
Emily P. Hatch, Treasurer. 

Having no regular meeting place the circle gathered at the 
homes of the members, and began the work of raising the money/ 
wholly by subscription. A box was passed by Miss Hatch at 
every meeting, and during the season of i852-'53 a sum sufficient^ 
to begin the work of repair was realized. The plastering, which! 
had fallen off in large patches, was restored and whitewashed, 
the inside work was painted, and other improvements made. The 
remainder of the fund, in conjunction from the sale of the old 
bell, was expected to purchase a new one. But this balance 
proved all too small, while a somewhat unexpected difficulty was 
raised when the subject of buying a new bell was broached in the 
spring of 1853. The faction opposed to repairs and a new bell 
claimed that the old one could not be sold to help buy a new one^ 
as they owned a share in it. Furthermore they declared they 
would resist any attempt to convert it into a new one of irre- 
sponsible ownership. Violent measures were threatened if any 
person or persons should attempt to remove the old bell from thd 

In this dilemma the two young women already mentioned as 
the most active, proved themselves equal to the situation. One 
evening in May Lucy Chase and Emily Hatch, accompanied by 
Solomon McNiel, Jr., and John Gibson, loaded the old bell into 
Mr. Chase's farm wagon and conveyed it to the railroad station 
at the Bridge, no one having had the moral courage to interfere 
with the young ladies. But the sum realized from the sale com- 
bined with the balance of the subscriptions was not sufficient to 
buy a new bell of the size desired, so one weighing 536 pounds 


was purchased. With what pleasure the new bell was finally 
brought up from the railroad station and deposited in Mr. Chase's 
dooryard one Saturday about noon may be imagined. As late as 
it was in the week plans were quickly laid to have it in position 
so it could be rung the next day. The men who responded to the 1 
call for assistance soon saw that it would be impossible to ac- 
complish the raising in so short a time. Accordingly the bell was 
rung where it stood in Mr. Chase's dooryard and suspended from 
the frame in which it had been shipped. 

The raising took place the following Wednesday, which was 
transformed into a gala day for the community. The bell was 
swung into place without mishap, but there was trouble in ad- 
justing the rope to the wheel so it was not rung to advantage for* 
two or three weeks, or until some one had been found who 
could adjust the line properly. Mr. Daniel Smith had supervision 
of the raising, as being a seaman he understood manipulating the 
necessary tackle. 

The first one to ring the new bell was Mr. John Gibson of 
the Lower Village. The first person for whom the bell was tolled 
was George Moore, the third son of Jotham Moore, who died a 
few weeks after the bel) was raised. It was tolled by Mr. 
Solomon McNiel, Jr. This bell was tolled for John Brown on 
the day of his execution, December 2, 1859, by Mr. John G. 
Fuller of the Lower Village. 

As the years rolled on the ravages of time upon the old 
meeting house became more and more apparent, arfd left without} 
proper care, to say nothing of repairs, it eventually began to 
demand attention if its walls would be saved at all. Again the 
women came to the rescue. This time the organization known 
during the Civil War as the "Soldiers' Aid Society" was re- 
established as the "Ladies' Circle" in 1872-73, which comprised 
nearly all of the ladies in that vicinity. This society turned its 
efforts toward the repair of the meeting house. A series of 
"fairs" were held, and the proceeds of these, increased by the 
generous subscriptions of both residents and non-residents the 
money needed for the renovation was obtained. Upon examina- 
tion it was found that the timbers supporting the spire were so 
far decayed as to render that part of the structure unsafe, and so 


the graceful appendage which had added so much to the beauty 
and symmetry was necessarily removed. The roof was shingled, 
the blinds repaired, the shattered glass removed, the outside re- 
painted, the plastering, which had fallen owing to the result of a 
leaky roof, was relaid, the open space between the singing gallery 
and the audience room was closed by a partition, and many 
smaller changes made. To accomodate the choir a platform was' 
built over six of the "body pews" at the north end of the house, 
and the pulpit was lowered about four feet. To crown all of 
these and other minor improvements, a church reed organ was 

Once more the old house awoke to the music of regular ser- 
vices during the summer months, though it had no settled minis- 
ter for about ten years. The preaching was without denomina- 
tional distinction, and among those who preached here were the 
Revs. Bragdon, Chandler, Chapman, Paul, Adams and Coolidge, 
with several others. 

This laxity of the care of the house and the factional differ- 
ences of the members of the church had its effects. Some of the 
parishioners affiliated themselves with other societies ; deaths and 
removals diminished the number of its attendants, until it became 
evident it was useless to try and keep up an unoccupied and un- 
cared for building. So an effort was made to sell the structure 
and have it meet a respectable fate. Once more opposition, or at 
least a lack of interest, prevented the accomplishment of this 
purpose, and so the last meeting was held within its sacred walls 
August 26, 1 89 1. This was very appropriately a memorial ser- 
vice, promoted by a few whose earliest childhoods recollections 
hovered around the spot. In the quarter of a century that has 
intervened since, all of this little band have joined the "silent 
majority." The old meeting house was left to "the society of 

bats and owls." * 


Finally, in 1893 the house was torn down, so only a memory 
remained of the sacred structure which had cost so much of time, 
money and care, which outlay had been recompensed by the faith, 
hope and hallowed associations it had brought to those who 
worshipped at its shrine. 


The worth of an object is seldom realized until it has been 
lost. So, the old meeting house gone; the need of a church build- 
ing was found more apparent than had been realized when differ- 
ences of opinion and petty oppositions had doomed the old struc^ 
ture. Efforts were accordingly made to build a new and smaller 
house, which was accomplished in 1895. J°bn W. Jackman was 
the master builder, and it was dedicated with appropriate exer- 
cises in 1896. 

It proved that the bell of the old meeting house, before the 
demolition of the building, had been purchased by Wirt X. Fuller 
of Boston. This sacred object Mr. Fuller generously presented 
for use in the new church building, given in memory of his 
parents, John Gibson Fuller and Ann Jones Fuller his wife. 

This bell, it is claimed, has rung the notes of victory at the 
close of three wars : In April, 1865, when the glad news of Lee's 
surrender came up from the Southland ; again when the Spanish- 
American war ended; for the third time, in November, 1918^ 
when it was known that the World War, mightiest of them all, 
had been followed by an armistice of peace. 

Photograph by Man ah an. 


The Congregational Church at Bridge Village. 

When the Church at Centre Village Lost Its Prestige — Rev. Seth Farns- 
worth Minister — His Proposal of a Church at Bridge Village — 
Completion of New Church Edifice 1836 — Gradual Decline of 
Mother Church — Growth of New Church — Millerism of 1843 — 
Agitation of Social Life — A New Organization at Bridge Village 
— Ministers of the Church — From Rev. Mr. Farnsworth to Rev. Mr. 
Beal — Removal of the Meeting House from its Early Site to Main 
Street — The Old Building Made New — Financial Aid by Hon. John 
B. Smith — The Smith Fund to the Society — Other Bequests to the 
Society — Memorial Windows — Change of the name of the Society 
to Smith Memorial Church — Two Names from Its long List of 
Members — Present Prosperity. 

The sightliness of its prominent position and the beauties of 
its immediate surroundings, which have been so eloquently pic- 
tured by its admirers elsewhere in this volume, could not in the 
end save it from the dangers of its isolation. The Rev. Mr, 
Wallace, already quoted, says aptly : "Geography seemed to have 
been against the likelihood of maintaining a dominant church at 
the Centre of the town. The earlier settlers were farmers, and 
for reasons clearer to them than to us they located on the hill 
slopes far back from the river. Some have thought it was for 
reasonable safety from the Indians, whose canoes followed the 
river as they crossed the state." 

The possibilities in such a stream as the Contoocook did not 
seem to come within the range of the earlier settlers' vision. But 
in time, other men saw these possibilities, and their dreams led, 
them rather to the river than to the hillside. Manufacturing, in 
which New England was going to have so conspicuous a place, 
brought men to the stream who saw that it would be the potent 
coadjutator of their schemes. 

So, here on the river's margin, men began to make their 
residences where they found their work. Then still more came, 



until by 1835 there was a considerable village, when the town had 
a population of only 1800. 

"The Rev. Seth Farnsworth was minister at the Centre, and 
he seems to have been as judicious as he was good. Under his 
guidance the plan was proposed to arrange for an out station of 
the Mother church in Bridge Village. And it was proposed to 
build a meeting house here. This proposition met with favor 
from the villagers, and the year 1836 saw the new church edificej 
completed on the Church Street site, with a good bell and all at 
the cost of some $3,300. Nov. 23, 1836, the day of Mr. Farns-I 
worth's installation at the Centre, the new building at the Bridget 
was dedicated." 

During the pastorate of the Rev. Seth Farnsworth, a man 
known far and wide for his eloquence, separate meetings were 
held for the accomodations of the parishioners living at the 
Bridge, and after the dedication of the house in the village he 
preached alternate Sundays at the Centre. 

Unfortunately in a few months he was stricken with pneu- 
monia and died, leaving the legacy of a life well and lovingly 
spent to his wide circle of friends. The D. A. R. placed a 
memorial tablet to his memory in the window of the church at 
the village. 

In 1837 the Rev. Samuel G. Tenney supplied here, but it was* 
not until 1839 tnat an active movement was made to establish a 
resident minister. The Rev. R. W. Wallace in his address upon 
the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the Village Church 
says most fittingly : "With sincere reluctance, and yet in the faith 
that they were acting wisely, application was made to the Mother 
church, to dismiss 28 of its members to form a new church at the 
Bridge. Knowing fully what it meant to itself, and reading to 
some extent the horoscope of its own future, the Mother church 
complied with the request. This was but the beginning of her 
losses, for soon she was called upon to transfer ten other mem- 
bers. On May 29, 1839, the new church was duly organized by 
council, and in its findings the council voiced its deep sympathy 
with the church at the Centre, while at the same time it bespoke 
its blessings on the new church at Bridge Village." 


The sacrifices of the old church at the Centre were not at an 
end, for following closely upon the other demands the Mother 
church was called to give her minister to the new institution at 
the Bridge. The records, considering the importance of this move, 
seem uncommonly brief merely mentioning the fact that the Rev. 
Samuel G. Tenney had given up his pastorate here as a resident 
preacher and become the head of the new church. So for the 
time at least the door of the old church which had been reared 
under such trying conditions and with such tremulous hopes and 
fears was closed. Let it be said to the credit of all in the society 
that this change and removal of religious headquarters had been 
accomplished with no friction that appears upon the accounts at) 
this day. (See Political History.) 

The Rev. Mr. Tenney resigned in 1843 to the regret of the 
majority of his parishioners, and in the resolution of the day he 
is referred to as "irreproachable and exemplary in his morals, 
sound in doctrine, a faithful and able minister of the New Testa- 

He was succeeded in the autumn of that year, 1843, by Rev. 
Jacob Cummings, who remained fourteen years as the head of 
the church here, which is sufficient proof of his ability and fitness. 

As all churches have, this one at the Bridge Village has had 
its trials and ordeals, times when the unanimity of its society was 
threatened. One of these was the days of Millerism, when that 
doctrine swept over New England a wave of religious excitement 
stirring the people to uncommon anxiety. Fortunately this feel- 
ing of uncertainty and unrest did not strike Hillsborough very 
perceptibly and our church escaped any serious disturbance by it. 

This church was among others in the country to meet at 
Francestown in 1844 to deliberate upon the subject of slavery, 
which was then beginning to agitate social life in New England, 
and was one of the first public movements made in that direction. 

In 1846 a revival of interest in the church was undertaken, 
when a committee was chosen to call upon all of the families in 
regard to religious matters. An elaborate report shows that 
much good resulted from this undertaking and that the committee 
was met with kindly receptions everywhere. 


Two interesting events to people in these parts were partici- 
pated in by this church in 1847; one of these was the ordination 
of Rev. William Woods at Henniker as a foreign missionary; 
while a similar honor was conferred upon Rev. Seneca Cummings 
at Antrim as a missionary to China. In 1853 this church lent a 
helping hand to the organization of a new church at Peterbor- 

The new organization at the Bridge Village, if small in num- 
bers, contained men of representative and sterling qualities. 
Among these were George Dascomb, Sen. and Jr., both of strong 
character and of great good in the community who wrought their 
lives into the foundation of the church. Another was Samuel 
Morrison of whom it was said "For 42 years this godly man 
traversed the three miles that separated his home from the meet- 
ing house as often as the church was gathered together." He 
was a deacon of the church, and others occupying this honored 
station were Tristam Sawyer, Dawson Russell, and Frank W. 
Symonds. Hon. David Steele is not forgotten among these 
founders, while his good wife Catherine Steele, was a woman of 
great ability, force of character and refinement as a social leader. 
Among the first to join the new society at Bridge Village was 
Clarissa Stowe, a school teacher of bright mind and strong 
religious convictions, who lived to an extreme age. 

Under the pastorate of Mr. Cummings the Hon. John B. 
Smith was united with the church, and from that time he was 
ever a zealous worker in the cause, doing much in upbuilding the 
society, eventually, as his own success in business enlarged giving 1 
freely to the church. 

Rev. Jacob Cummings was succeeded by Rev. Harry Brickett 
who became popular both in the pulpit and as a worker among 
the people. A man of scholarly attainments, having entered the 
ministry in middle life, after a successful experience as a teacher, 
he won a large place in the affections of the community outside 
of the church. Under his pastorate it has been well said, the 
church now strong in numbers and influence entered upon what 
might be called the second period of its existence. It was no 
longer a problem of existence but rather the amount of good it 
could do as an evangelizing agent. Mr. Brickett served the church 


from 1857 to 1865, an anxious period, and from 1876 to 1881, in 
all over twelve years. 

Rev. Stephen Morrill succeeded Mr. Brickett at the close of 
his first pastorate. Twenty-four members were added to the 
church roll, among them Charles W. Conn, who became a deacon, 
and Benjamin Dutton, who also became a deacon. Prof. Samuel 
T. Dutton, who has been designated as an "educator of edu- 
cators," was another worthy person to join the church during this 

In 1866 a movement was started to move the church building 
from its site on Church Street to one on Main Street, where it is: 
at present located. This change was received with general con- 
sent, and in 1867, under the pastorate of Mr. Morrill, the work 
was carried out, the structure thoroughly repaired and a vestry 

The Ladies' Benevolent Society was organized during Mr. 
Morrill's administration. This society has the credit of doing a 
good and lasting work in the cause of the church. 

Rev. Henry B. Underwood was pastor for 1871-1872, and 
though his stay was short his work was most acceptable. Ammi 
Smith, father of Ex-Governor Smith, was affiliated with the 
church during this pastorate, bringing to it, as another has said : 
"the weight of a ripe experience and careful life." With the 
assistance of his father, a noted evangelist, Mr. Underwood 
aroused a revival which resulted in an addition to the church roll 
of twenty members. 

Mr. Underwood was followed by Rev. John Bragdon, who 
remained only two years, but with evident satisfaction, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. Harry Brickett, who had already served 
one pastorate here, 1857-1865, and was received with great satis- 
faction. During Mr. Brickett's second pastorate, 1876-1881, 
several notable persons became members, among them Miss Ellen 
Marcy, who was taken home early in the promise of a brilliant 

Rev. Abram Quick answered the next call to remain only 
two years when Rev. Roderick J. Mooney, of foreign birth, put 
on the mantle. Possessing a good command of language, with a 
high degree of enthusiasm, he was an energetic worker. During 1 


Mr. Mooney's term several prominent people joined the church 
among them Mrs. Sarah A. Grimes and her son Hon. James W. 
Grimes and Charles Wyman. 

Rev. David W. Goodale, A. M., A. B., Ph. D., held a 
pastorate over the Congregational church at Bridge Village from 
1887-1895. He was educated at Monson Academy, Amherst 
College and Andover Theological Seminary, all in Mass., and held 
pastorates at Troy, N. H., from 1878 to 1883 ; Sudbury, Mass., 
1884 to 1886, and after leaving Hillsborough, in Suffield, Conn., 
1895 to 1907. He was an energetic preacher and a public spirited 
citizen, always taking a great interest in educational matters. He 
was twice chosen to represent the State Conference in the 
National Council, once from New Hampshire and once from 
Massachusetts (See Vol. II for family history.) During Mr. 
Goodale's pastorate the parsonage on Myrtle "Street was pur- 
chased, and earnest activity marked the three years he was in 

The Senior Christian Endeavor Society was organized in 
1889, and has ever done a good and continuous work in behalf 
of the cause it represents. This society presented the church with 
a chaste and beautiful communion set. 

While Mr. Goodale was pastor the Jackman brothers united 
with the church, the musical ability of John W. Jackman adding 
much to that branch of the service. James A. McNight as 
pastor's assistant and Sunday School Superintendent did a most 
effectual work. 

From 1895 t0 I 90 I > R ev - Frederick W. Burrows occupied 
the pulpit, and a man of excellent literary ability coupled with hi9 
eloquence as a speaker, he secured a strong hold on the hearts of 
his parishioners, so the church flourished under his administra- 

Mr. Burrows resigned his charge in 1901, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Charles L. Storrs, a young man of marked ability. 

A Junior Christian Endeavor Society was organized during 
the pastorate of Rev. C. L. Storrs, and the branch Sunday School' 
was established at the Lower Village in 1897. During his term of 
service here a Men's Club was organized. Mr. Storrs resigned 
in 1904 with the purpose of going to China as a missionary, carry- 


ing with him the unanimous commendation of the church for his 
good work done here. This church has always paid one-fifth of 
his salary. He is on his Sabbatical year. 

Mr. Storrs was succeeded (by Rev. Charles R. Hamlin, a 
nephew of the missionary by that name, who was installed 
December 10, 1904. Mr. Hamlin was an able speaker, who re- 
mained three years. 

This seems to have been a period of church benefits. Albe 
Stevenson, a native of the town, made a bequest of five hundred 
dollars, the sum being invested in a clock in 1907, which was to 
be known as the "Stevenson clock." 

Mrs. Catherine (Dascomb) Burnham gave the society five 
hundred dollars, to be divided equally between the church at the 
Centre and that at Bridge Village. 

In June, 1907, Hon. John B. Smith offered to meet the 
expense of repairing and remodelling the church, which was done 
at the cost of thirty thousand dollars. Mr. Smith also gave a 
fund of ten thousand dollars, the income of which was to be used 
towards the support of the church. 

Sarah C. Fuller made a bequest of five hundred dollars for 
the equal benefit of the church at the Centre and the one at 
Bridge Village. Charles A. Jones was appointed trustee of the 

April 20, 1908, the society voted to sell the parsonage lot on 
Myrtle Street. 

December 9, 1908, the alterations and improvement upon the 
meeting house having been completed in a satisfactory manner, 
making the old structure into a new one, it was proposed to re- 
dedicate the church to renewed usefulness in its wider field of 
religious work. It was a day long remembered by those who 
participated in the movement. 

June 24, 1909, Hon. John B. Smith presented the society 
with the deed for the lot of land on the east side of the church, 
thus enlarging the grounds about the house and improving the 
whole situation. 

Rev. Mr. Hamlin was followed by Rev. Robert W. Wallace, 
who was installed January 20, 1908. Mr. Wallace and Mrs. 
Wallace both left excellent records for work in the church. He 


was educated at McGill College, Montreal, and had preached in 
Detroit, Mich., and Newport, R. I. Before his settlement here he 
supplied the pulpit upon several occasions. He remained in 
service here until his death in 191 5, after a long illness. Mrs. 
Wallace died within a week of her husband, the town feeling the 
loss keenly. Few of the many ministers who have occupied the 
pulpits in Hillsborough left a more lasting or happy record than 
Mr. Wallace whose career was cut short in the midst of his mostf 
useful years. 

For several years a change in the name of the society had 
been considered pro and con, and on February 17, 1915, it was 
voted to substitute in place of the old designation "Hillsborough 
Bridge Congregational Society" the term "Smith Memorial Con- 
gregational Church," by which name it is now known. 

Memorial windows have been presented to the church, from 
time to time, as follows : 

In the Memory of John Wesley Jackman, by his family. In 
the Memory of Alice Barnard, a remarkably attractive child, the 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Watson. In the Memory of 
Deacon Charles Conn, by his widow. Another by Benjamin F. 
and Harry Dutton in the memory of the Dutton and Hatch 
families. In 1919 the Smith Memorial window in memory of 
Archibald Lavender Smith, who lost his life in the world war, 
given by his widow. 

Rev. Mr. Wallace was succeeded by Rev. Frank Peer Beal, 
who came to town a young man full of promise. He immediately 
became a favorite with the young people of the society, which 
respect he has maintained. He served two years in the world 
war, and then settled down to earnest work in the church. He 
severed his connection with the church in 1921. 

In its long and successful career the Congregational Church 
of Hillsborough has been faithful to the high ideals of religious 
living, and many of its members have not only been honored and 
respected at home but have received notable recognition abroad. 
To mention any particular number of these would not be practic- 
able here, but they have been spoken of elsewhere in this work. 
It does seem permissible to mention at least two whose memories' 
are revered in the town to-day. Mrs. Catherine Steele, who 


passed away in January, 1904, at the age of 102 years, the oldest 
person in the state, was associated with this church for over sixty 
years, and was noted for her tender grace and Christian virtues. 

Another member ripe with years of good work well done 
was Deacon Jeremiah Dutton, for a long period its clerk, winning 
happy distinction from his excellent penmanship and accuracy 
and carefully worded records, as well as for the nobility of his 

The successful church can never be idle, and among its 
virtues Smith Memorial Church numbers that of activity, which 
neither age nor change of shepherds has ever checked, and to-day 
its field of usefulness was never better tilled, nor its promise 

The Methodist Church. 

When Methodism Obtained its Independence in Hillbsorough — The 
Church at Bridge Village — Promoters of the Society — Meeting 
House on School Street — Removal to Henniker Street — Enlarge- 
ment and Improvement of this House — New House Formally 
Opened — Description — Memorial Windows — List of Pastors — 
Church at the Centre — Leading Members — When Politics Held the 
Whip Hand — Methodism Gains a Foothold at the Centre — Meeting 
House Built — Pastors — Donors — The House — Tribute by Rev. Harry 

Though younger than the societies that have been mentioned, 
it has been nearly a century since Methodism has been able to 
stand alone among the churches in Hillsborough County, it has 
been over eighty years since it gained its independence in this 
town. The records are not as complete as we could wish relative 
to the struggles of the early exponents of the coming faith. 

As far back as the days when there were dissenters among 
those who paid their minister's tax and worshipped in a church 
of another denomination, there were believers in Methodism 
serving another master under protest. Accordingly, contempo- 
rary with the division of the old Congregational church at the 
Centre, and the building of a new meeting house by that society 
at Bridge Village to accomodate the increasing members in that 
vicinity, it was felt those of the Methodist faith should establish 
a church of their own in town. The most desirable location 
seemed to be at the "new village," which already gave indications 
of rapid growth in the coming years. 

The site selected for the building was near that of the Con- 
gregational house, and was on the westerly side of School Street 
nearly opposite the George H. Stewart place, since occupied by 
Harvey Stacey. 



William Kimball, one of the foremost workers in the new 
cause, gave the land for the building, so long as it should be oc- 
cupied as a place for worship. Others who were active in the 
propagation of the society were Levi Goodale, James Currier and 
Thomas Howlett. This was in 1839, and the following year a 
modest structure was erected at a cost of $2,400. It was without 
spire or any attempt at display ; was painted white and presented 
a plain, unostentatious appearance. 

If the new church was modest in its appearance, it served its 
purpose well, and for nearly a quarter of a century the families 
of some of the best citizens of the town worshipped within its 
walls. There does not seem to have been any friction in the con- 
duct of church affairs, and the society grew in numbers as well 
as in usefulness. 

Meanwhile Bridge Village grew in the number of its in- 
habitants, so the membership of this church outgrew the capacity 
of the house, when discussions arose as to what could be done 
to meet the requirements of the changed condition. The outcome 
was a vote to move the old building to a site on Henniker Street, 
add twelve feet to its length, and build a spire with a belfry for 
a bell. 

The committee chosen to carry out this plan consisted of 
Daniel Wyman, William H. Simonson, Jason H. T. Newell, 
James W. Thorpe, George Smart, J. Currier, D. F. Brown, J. L. 
Eaton, R. T. Noyes, Lyman Dow, John M. Gage, James F. 

Completely remodeled and furnished the new church edifice 
standing on Henniker Street presented a very pleasing appearance 
to the promoters of the good work. Here renewed life and in- 
terest entered into the work and the society flourished. 

So well did it progress that within another quarter of a 
century it again became evident that a larger building was needed 
to accomodate the worshippers at this shrine. This was all within 
the line of the growth of the village, and in order that the ever- 
increasing membership of the Methodist church might keep pace 
with its situation it was decided to enlarge the structure and 
make other improvements. The committee selected to accomplish 
this undertaking was Herman G. Brown, Samuel D. Hastings 


and Peter H. Rumrill. Again the architect and the carpenter 
were called into activity, and such improvements and enlarge- 
ments made as to quite efface the original house. The building 
was raised sufficiently to allow of a heating apparatus to be 
placed in the basement. The old spire was torn down and a new 
and handsome front was constructed, with a tower at each corner 
ornamented with finials. In the larger of these towers a bell was 
suspended. The exterior of the building reflected credit upon the 
workmen, and was a source of gratification to the society. 

The enlarged and improved meeting house was formally 
opened on March 2, 1894. The Messenger, in giving an account 
of the affair, described the house in the following words : 

"The audience room is a most beautiful apartment. The 
floor as also that of the vestry is covered with a Lowell carpet of 
beautiful design. Around the walls to a height of three feet 
above the floor is carried a sheathing of beaded ash and the same 
material is used in a similar manner in the vestry, vestibule and 
stairways. The ceiling of the sides and overhead is frescoed in 
harmonious tints that give it a most beautiful appearance. 

"From the centre of the ceiling overhead is suspended a 
magnificent chandelier that sheds abundant light for the whole 
apartment. The windows are of stained glass of beautiful 
pattern. Opposite the main entrance is the platform upon which 
is placed the elegant pulpit set. On the right is the choir gallery, 
also well furnished, while to the left is the pastor's study. The 
auditorium, as well as all the other apartments, is heated by two 
furnaces located in the basement. The pews are of ash and of 
pretty design, so arranged that the occupant faces squarely to the 
pulpit, upholstered with cardinal cushions and altogether forming 
very comfortable if not luxurious seats. The pews and wood 
work of the room are finished in the natural wood and varnished, 
giving the whole a pleasing effect. 

"The seating capacity of this room is about 225 and when 
the vestry is thrown open with it about 100 more. 

"Many of the furnishings of the church were donations. 
The Ladies' Friendly League gave the carpets ; Miss Lizzie 
Grimes and mother, the chandelier; Henry C. Morrill, the lamp 
for the choir gallery ; William H. Law, the vestibule lamp ; Maria 



Butler, the pulpit set ; the chancel chairs and communion table ; 
Mrs. Martha Lovering and Mrs. David Whittle, the altar lamps ; 
Mrs. Mary Morrill and Mrs. Belle E. Merrill, the Bible; Mrs. 
George C. Noyes, the communion service; William Merrill, the 
collection bags." 

Four memorial windows were presented as follows : One by 
Herman G. Brown, in memory of his son, Arthur L. Brown ; two 
by Mary Frank Butler, in memory of her mother, Jane O. Butler 
and sister, Sarah Ann Butler ; and the fourth by Russell T. 
Noyes, a former resident of this town, in memory of his wife, 
Mary N. Noyes. 

The history of the church since that day five and twenty 
years ago has been uneventful, except insofar as the history of a 
progressive and prosperous church can be written. It has been 
fortunate in its selection of pastors and harmonious in its con- 
duct of affairs so far as it has come under its jurisdiction. The 
following ministers have been made shepherds of this flock, to 
prove good and faithful servants of Methodism : 

Pastors of Bridge Village Methodist Church. 

Reverends. Reverends. 

Lewis Howard, appointed, 1839. Abel Heath, appointed, 1845. 

1846. Daniel Lee, 1847. 

1850. Benjamin C. Eastman, 1852. 

1855. Sandford Van Benscothen, 1857. 

1858. William H. Simonson, 1862. 

1863. John A. Lansing, 1864. 

1865. George W. Anderson, 1866. 

1867. Benjamin W. Chase, 1868. 

1871. D. W. Downs, 1874. 

1876. W. H. Stuart, 1878. 

1879. J. H. Hillman, 1880. 

1881. Fred H. Corson, 1884. 

1887. Noble Fisk, 1888. 

1891. Thomas F. Cramer, 1894. 

1808. Irving C. Brown, 1901. 

1905. Water F. Whitney, 1909. 

1912. Nathaniel B. Cook, 1914. 
1916 and still filling the position. 

The Church at the Centre. 
The story of Methodism in Hillsborough has been only half 
told by the foregoing narrative. Contemporary with the division 

Henry Nutter, 
John English, 
Albert P. Dobbs, 
C. Miller, 
Henry D. Kimball, 
C. C. Morehouse, 
Henry Dorr, 
Lucian W. Prescott, 
George N. Bryant, 
Joseph W. Presby, 
J. A. Bowler, 
George C. Noyes, 
Joseph Manuel, 
Joseph Simpson, 
John L. Cairns, 
James Nelson Seaver, 
Claude L. Buehler, 


of the Congregational society at the Centre was the beginning 
and the upbuilding of the Methodist church there. Hitherto, 
knowing it would be a hardship to support two churches where 
one might meet the wishes of the people opposite factions had 
manfully striven to unite their efforts and their means. Among 
the influential workers with Methodist inclinations were Hiram 
Monroe, Benjamin Gay, Elijah Blanchard, Benjamin Danforth, 
James Jones, who gave the society five hundred dollars ; the Rays, 
Hartwells and others living at or near the Centre. In 1858 these 
and their associates were joined by two new-comers, the Dens- 
mores, father and son, Lyman and Lyman W. 

Those were trying days, when political differences entered 
largely into everyday affairs, penetrating deeply into religious dis- 
cussions. As early as 1844, as nas Deen noted elsewhere, delegates 
were sent from Hillsborough church to attend a conference at 
Francestown where the subject of slavery was the one theme to 
be discussed. Even then this action was construed by some to be 
a political movement. In speaking of this it must be borne in 
mind that party spirit was very much stronger in those days, and 
political prejudice, with either or any party, was of a decidedly 
aggressive nature. 

The news of the attack of Preston S. Brooks upon Charles 
Sumner at his desk in the Senate chamber on the morning of 
May 22, 1856, following a heated discussion, was taken by the 
pastor at the Centre church, the Rev. Mr. Dobbs, as an ap- 
propriate text for a sermon, the minister expressing his opinion 
very freely. His ideas did not meet with the approval of many 
of the attendants in the house, all of whom left in a body, every 
one of these refused to pay further minister's tax, until there 
was a change of pastors. 

Of course the speaker had his supporters, but the disturb- 
ance resulted in closing the doors of the church for some time. 

While this affair had little if anything to do with the trend 
of some of the church people towards the village at the Falls, it 
did serve to awaken a stronger religious spirit among many, and 
this brought out more pronounced views relative to the different 
denominations. All this aroused a determination among those 
living at the Centre to maintain a church of their own. 

Photograph by Manahan. 


Photograph by Manahan. 



Finally an appeal was made to the head of the Theological 
School at Concord, Mass., to send some of the students up there 
to preach. This call met with a hearty response, and during the 
winter of i860- 1 861 Messrs. Hatfield, Porter and King came here 
and started revival meetings. The result was a hundred converts' 
— a large number for the size of the place, showing a very sub- 
stantial religious effort. 

While these meetings were held in the old Congregational 
meeting house, most of the revivalists were of the Methodist 
church. Hiram Monroe joined the society at this time, while the 
Danforths, Gays, Hartwells, Rays, Blanchards and others having 
large families wanted their children to listen to Methodist preach- 
ing, and above all attend a Methodist Sunday School. 

Accordingly, those of this belief, began to talk earnestly of 
having a Methodist meeting house at the Centre. The discus- 
sions to this end and the plans to accomplish this purpose were 
all made at meetings held in the old town house. 

In 1861 the society was organized, with a Sunday School of 
one hundred pupils, coming under the teachings of William 
Fletcher Hatfield. Mr. Hatfield was succeeded by E. A. Smith, 
and he by A. C. Coult. 

This was in the summer of 1862, during the time of the 
Civil War, but the resolute brotherhood drew their plans for the 
new house and began to raise the money. In this respect they 
were so successful that the following spring work was begun on 
the house, and went forward so that on September 10, 1863, the 
meeting house was dedicated under most auspicious circum- 
stances. The minister in charge at this time was Rev. Henry W. 
Ackerly. Services were held regularly after this, the preachers, 
in addition to those already mentioned being Revs. William E. 
Tomkinson, 1864; H. B. Elkins, 1865; A. J. Hall, 1866; W. H. 
Williams, 1868; I. Taggart, 1868; Samuel Beadle, 1870; L. S. 
Dudley, 1871 ; J. Parker, 1874; H. Chandler, 1875; Joseph W. 
Presby, 1878. From this time to the present the same minister 
preached at both Village and the Centre. For the names see list 
already given. 

Among the beneficiaries have been Abigail Hartwell, who 
left a bequest of two hundred dollars ; Mary Ann Danforth, two 


hundred dollars; Albe Stevenson, two hundred and fifty dollars; 
Abbie Murdo, one hundred dollars. The gift of the last-named 
person possesses an unusual interest from the fact that the giver 
was blind from birth, but had earned the money from her own 
work. In fact, she was noted as one of the most industrious and 
accomplished persons in town. 

At the end of nearly three-score years the modest edifice, 
with its white walls, its shapely tower, its spacious grounds and 
inviting hospitality still stands as a gentle reminder of its builders 
and their devout purpose. 

Rev. Harry Brickett, in his excellent sketch of the town 
written for the county history, says very aptly of the situation: 
"As a rule the two churches on the hill have worshipped side by 
side in peace, if not always with brotherly love. It is sometimes, 
difficult to forget the causes of separation, or of the attempt to 
secure, by a majority of votes, the church building of the old 
church for the occupancy of the new. The generation that were 
the actors in the matter (this was written thirty-five years ago) 
are most of them with the departed, and the newer generation 
are coming up with the most kindly feelings of the former. 
About a quarter of a century ago the Methodist Biblical Institute 
of Concord was in full operation, and the students ably supplied 
the desks. Among these Mr. Hatfield, at the Centre, was the 
most noted there, and William Van Benschoten at the Bridge. 
Others ranked high as men of talent. Rev. John A. Bowler, who 
remained three years at the Centre and at the Bridge proved him- 
self to be a man adapted to the place. The town showed its ap- 
preciation of his abilities and worth by giving him the super- 
intendency of the schools, a work for which he was prepared and 
adapted, as he stood himself at the head of the profession as a 
teacher before he began to preach." 

The Catholic Church and Other Denominations. 

First Mass Celebrated in Hillsborough — Building of the Church — 
Christened for Mrs. Mary Pierce — Names of the Pastors — Success 
of the Church — The Universalists — Never an Organized Body — 
Favorite Meeting Place Child's Opera Block — The Spiritualists — 
An Organized Society— A Long and Successful Becord. 

The changes in population caused by one reason and another 
saw people of religious belief differing from those already 
established in town. Foremost among these were those firm in 
the faith of Catholicism, this class increasing in numbers until it 
was necessary to have a house of worship. 

The first Mass was celebrated in Hillsborough by the Rev. E. 
E. Buckle, in 1881. This mission was subsequently visited by 
pastors of Peterborough and East Jaffrey, until the settlement of 
the first resident priest, the Rev. David W. Fitzgerald, in 1889. 

Directly after assuming pastoral charge Father Fitzgerald 
secured a plot of land on Church Street the site of a proposed 
new church building. Work was begun upon the structure within 
a short time, Messrs. Jackman Brothers being engaged as 
builders. The house is of modern designs; has Gothic windows; 
is 75 feet by 32 feet in dimension ; 32 feet in height, with a tower 
of 75 feet, surmounted by a gilded cross. It can seat 350 persons. 
Messrs. Chickering and O'Cornell were the architects. 

Named Saint Mary's Church in honor of Mrs. Mary A. 
Pierce, wife of Hon. Kirk D. Pierce, the new house of worship 
was dedicated by Bishop Bradley October 29, 1893. A rectory 
was built the following year. 

In 1901 Father Fitzgerald was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph 
Corcoran, who was followed in 1905 by the Rev. Thomas N. 

The Rev. J. G. Leclerc succeeded Father Coakley in 1910 as 
pastor of St. Mary's. Father Leclerc was instrumental in the 



purchase of two lots of land for cemeteries, St. Mary's Cemetery, 
Hillsborough, and Mount Calvary Cemetery, Bennington, both of 
which were blessed by Bishop Guertin in June, 1918. 

The Rev. James H. Queenan became pastor of St. Mary's in 
August, 1917, but he was called into higher service a little over a 
year later. He died in November, 1918. 

The present pastor is the Rev. Charles J. Leddy. Father 
Leddy was born in Epping and educated at Phillips Exeter 
Academy. He came to Hillsborough from St. Joseph Cathedral, 
Manchester, and under his care the church has prospered and 
promises to yield yet greater good in the future. 

Besides the fully organized churches already mentioned, 
other classes of worshippers have held services in town and per- 
formed their religious duties according to their beliefs. Child's 
Opera Block has been the favorite meeting place for these un- 
organized denominations. At different times the Universalists 
have held meetings here, but have never had sufficient numbers 
to form a regular church. Among the preachers who have 
presided here has been Rev. Mr. Morrison of Laconia. 

The Spiritualists have been numerous enough to hold regular 
meetings, their favorite hall being in Colby Block. This society 
has flourished for a considerable time, and some of the best 
advocates of its doctrines have addressed its meetings upon 
special occasions. 

In conclusion it may not be amiss to say that those of various 
religious beliefs dwell side by side in harmony, many having but 
little choice, a few not any, though even they do not decline to 
accept the truth of the golden rule. 

Story of the Schools. 

Early Action in Regard to Education — Character of Early Schools in 
New England — Teachers— First School Districts — First Super- 
intendents 1827 — Prudential Committee — First School in Hillsbor- 
ough — George Bemaine, Pioneer Teacher — First Woman Teacher — 
First Money for Schools — Town Divided into School Classes. 

"I sat an hour to-day, John, 

Beside the old brook stream, 
Where we were school-boys in old time, 
When manhood was a dream. 

The school house is no more, John, 

Beneath our locust trees, 
The wild rose by the window's side 

No more waves in the breeze." 

The beginning of an educational system in New England was 
mainly due to the character and mental training of the founders 
of each locality. The establishment of a school in a certain town 
was governed therefore by the opinions and purposes of its in- 
habitants. Elsewhere it has been shown in this work that the 
early comers to Hillsborough were somewhat different in their 
personal attributes from the Puritans and the Pilgrims on the 
one hand, and that on the other a portion of the inhabitants was 
composed of citizens distinct from these. It can be said to their 
credit that the matter of education received early attention from 
them, and before the incorporation of the town schools, supported 
by private subscriptions, were maintained in Hillsborough. 

During the hundred years of the 18th century little was ac- 
complished anywhere in New Hampshire relative to education. 
In considering this apparent apathy towards schools it must not 
be forgotten that for more than half of the time the colonists were 
kept busy in their almost constant warfare with the Indians, and, 
following the close of this exciting drama, the ominous fore- 



bodings of the Revolution, the war itself, and the construction of 
a new form of government employed the attention of the people 
to the exclusion of everything else. 

In 1789 the legislature repealed all former acts relating to 
schools and definitely fixed the amount of money to be raised by 
towns for schooling at "five pounds for one pound of public 
taxes to the individual town." This was to be expended for> 
maintaining an "English grammar school," meaning schools for 
teaching "reading, writing and arithmetic." The Selectmen were 
made responsible for assessing and collecting this money. Two 
years later the assessment was raised, making the proportion on 
every twenty shillings to be seven pounds and ten shillings. By 
the first provisions, which were not changed in this respect in 
1791, teachers were required to furnish certificates of examina- 
tion, and to be of good character and qualification. 

In 1804 towns were empowered to tax non-residents towards 
the support of the schools. In 1805 towns were empowered to 
divide into school districts. Previous to this, having no fixed 
place for them, schools were "moveable" ; that is, they were kept 
wherever thought best by a majority of the inhabitants in that 
section of the town, or it might include the whole township, while 
the rest of the citizens did not complain of unfairness. The 
school room was sometimes in a barn, in an old deserted building 
or a private house. The law of 1805 gave the town power to 
assess the inhabitants of a certain district with which to build a 
house. The section of the law relating to school districts was 
repealed in 1885, leaving it optional with the town. From time 
to time the rates have been raised, and many modifications have 
been made in order to keep pace with the changing conditions. 
In 1827 the office of superintendent of schools was created, and 
two years later that of prudential committee with power to hire 
the teacher in the district in which said officer lived. The revision 
of the laws at this time made many improvements in the conduct 
of the schools. 

The legislature of 191 7 made radical changes in the school 
system establishing a state board of education and compelled the 
towns that had not already accepted this method to enter a classi- 


fication with adjoining towns and come under the jurisdiction of 
a superintendent for said district. 

In respect to her schools Hillsborough does not rank inferior 
to any of her sister towns. Within eight years of the beginning 
of the second settlement, from which the history of the town 
really begins, and two years before its incorporation, a school 
was opened in a log house standing a few rods west of the dwell- 
ing of Daniel Templeton and on the land more recently owned by 
Henry Adams. This was on the north side of the main road 
leading from Bridge to Lower Village. George Bemaine was the 
teacher. He was an Englishman by birth, and had received a 
good education. The famous Dilworth, author of the spelling 
book so common in those days, was a classmate of his. He had 
come to New England with his parents before he was twenty- 

Mr. Bemaine proved to be an excellent teacher, and was 
noted for his good penmanship. As well as being a scholar he 
was a gentleman of fine appearance and liked by all. But his stay 
in Hillsborough was not of long duration. Upon the breaking 
out of the Revolution he showed his love for his adopted country 
by enlisting in the Continental Army, where he made a long and 
honorable record, which is given in the chapter on the Revo- 
lutionary War. 

In addition to attending to his church duties and farming, 
the Rev. Mr. Barnes gave private instructions to several young 
men, and probably taught terms of private schools. It was not 
unusual in those days for some of the men and women — many of 
whom even in common walks of life — had fairly good educations 
to tutor privately the children of their neighbors. 

*Mr. J. M. Whiton, in his history of Antrim, has this to say of the school master, 
and it will be seen that his account does not agTee with the above statement. 
In fact, it should be said that the history of Mr. Bemaine is not very complete 
from such records as can be obtained today. Mr. Whiton says: ''A prolonged 
storm raged in January, 1770, and the Contoocook was impassable. Scarcely had 
the storm passed than a stranger knocked at the door of a pioneer's home near 
the river in Antrim. He was a middle-aged man, who gave his name as George 
Bemaine, born upon the seas, and he acknowledged he was a refugee, having de- 
serted an English warship in the port of Boston and penetrated thus far into the 
wilderness by following spotted trees. The storm had treated him harshly and 
he was glad to find shelter and food. He had found the home of Deacon James 
Aiken, the pioneer of Antrim. Taking a Bible from the devout settler's table 
he remarked he had seldom seen a good book for forty years. He proved an ex- 
cellent reader and soon showed that he was an educated man. He soon after 
came to Hillsborough, and taught the first school in town." Deacon Aiken lived 
alone in South Antrim for four years before a neighbor came. 


The first woman to teach a regular school of which there is 
any record was a Mrs. Sarah Muzzey, a widow lady from Sud- 
bury, Massachusetts, who kept the school at the Centre with 
great satisfaction. 

All scholars prior to 1785 were supported by private con- 
tributions, though the matter of town support had been agitated 
for several years before. The first vote upon the records relative 
to the support of schools was at a special meeting held September 
4, 1780, when it was voted not to raise any money for school 
purposes. On December 8 this action was ratified by another 
vote against raising money for that purpose. There was a slight 
gain in its favor and the adherents continued to advocate the 
movement. In 1784 there was an article in the warrant to see 
if the town would employ a "wrighting master." This, notwith- 
standing its spelling, was voted down. 

It was not until the annual meeting March 31, 1785, the town 
voted the first money for schools, twenty pounds or about one 
hundred dollars. Already an organized system of public schools 
had been acomplished and from that day the town has been liberal 
in her support of the cause of education. As another has aptly 
stated it : "As the result of all her efforts, her sons and daughters, 
strenghtened and panoplied for victory in the varied battles of 
life by the educational advantages she has generously supplied, 
arise to call her blessed. In fine, with her churches and her 
schools, her library and her newspapers, Hillsborough has ever 
done her best to enforce and practice the great principle that 
knowledge and virtue are the only safety of a free people." 

Nothing further appears on the records in regard to schools 
until March, 3, 1788, when it was voted that the town be divided 
into five "classes" for school purposes, and "Voted that one half 
of the money raised for school purposes be for a Man school, and 
that said money be divided by families, and that there be a com- 
mittee of five men to class said town, which are as follows (viz) 
— John Dutton, Joseph Symonds, Paul Coolidge, John Bradford, 
William Taggart." 

The committee attended to its duties, but changes in the 
population, and many persons not satisfied with the classification, 

THE SCHOOLS IN 1803. 369 

caused the warrant for the annual meeting in March, 1796, to 
contain the following: 

Article 11th. To see if the Town will choose a committee to Class 
the town anew ; for the better regulating- and if voted to reclass the 
town then see how many classes the town shall be divided into and 
when the first Class shall be made — Also to see if the Town will build 
a school house in each class at the expense of the Town in each class 
— and if voted to build said school houses then see when the Houses 
shall be finished. Also see if the Town will vote to confine each within 
the limits of the class. Also see if the town will vo'te that all or any 
part of the money which may in future be assessed for the support of 
a school be divided by pole and estate. 

12th To see if the Town w ? ill raise any money for the support of 
a school exclusive of what the law requires also how much, and how 
the same shall be disposed of . . ." 

The Town voted to confine each class within the limits of the 
class for the better Regulating of the schools — 

Voted to divide the school money by family as heretofore. 

Voted not to raise any Money for the support of a school exclusive 
of what the law requires. 

"The schools and school houses occupy considerable space 
in the town records from this time on, much discussion arising in 
the classification of the school districts, new ones being added 
now and then. April 22, 1803, the following committees were 
chosen "to superintend the business in each class, which are to be 
denominated the school committee :" 

Class No. 1, William Taggard, George Dascomb and Jedidiah 
Preston, Bridge. 

Class No. 2, Calvin Stevens, William Symonds and Europe Hamlin, 

Class No. 3, Benjamin Pierce, Samuel Gibson, and William Hut- 
chinson, Lower Village. 

Class No. 4, Joel Stowe, David Livermore and David Goodell, Jr_ 
Hazen Neighborhood. 

Class No. 5, John Dutton, Elijah Beard and Alexander Parker. 

Class No. 6, Daniel Flint, Nathaniel Symonds and Samuel Ellen- 

Class No. 7, Abraham Kimball, Isaac Farrah and Peter Clement, 
Farrah Neighborhood. 

Class No. 9, Kobert Carr, Paul Cooledge and Thomas Killom. 

For some reason no committee was chosen for Class No. 8, 
and the selectmen were empowered to act in that capacity. These 
excerpts are pointers of what followed, year by year, until the 


pupils, decreasing slowly in numbers, the district school lost 
somewhat that quality for good to the largest percentage of 
children that was its pride and honor. 

Affording a strong contrast to the conduct of our schools 
over a hundred years later is the record of the schools in town at 
the beginning of the 19th century. A folio record book made 
from eight losse sheets of paper sewn together, and labeled "A 
Record of School Money," covers the situation briefly for the 
years, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808. Opening at random we quote trofn 
the pages devoted to the year 1807. There were nine classes or 
districts, 227 families in the town, and $340.50 raised, the propor- 
tion being $1.50 a family. The number of pupils is not given, nor 
are there any records to show just where the boundaries of these 
districts were. The name of the agent or committee to whom the 
money was paid gives a slight clue in some cases. 
Proportion of School Money for 1807 
$1.50 per Family 

Class Xo. 1, 45 familys is $67.50 

Paid Andrew Sargent. 

Class No. 2, 16 families $24.00 

Name of agent not given. Dr Goodell thought this was on Bible Hill. 

Class No. 3, 29 families $43.50 

Paid to David Starrett, so was probably at Lower Village. 

Class 2 in 3, 9 families $13.50 

Paid to John Gibson, who lived on Bible Hill, where there is not a 
single resident to-day. 

Class No. 4, South part, 22 families $33.00 

Paid David Goodell, Jr. This is now Division No. 9. 

Class No. 4, North part, 16 families $24.00 

Paid to Archleas Town, now Division 8. 

Class No. 5, 30 families $45.00 

Paid to Elijah Beard, who lived where the sanitarium is now_ 

Class No. 6, 27 families $40.50 

Paid to Abial Shattuck. 

Class No. 7, 10 families $15.00 

Paid to J. Carter and Jonathan Clement, "Concord End" and Farrab 

Class No. 8, 4 families $6.00 

Paid to committee. 

Class No. 9, 19 families $28.50 

Cash paid to committee. 

None of this money seems to have been paid until the next 


year, and that of Class No. 8 not until 1809. The record for 
1808 shows that there were eleven more families in town and the 
rate was $2.20 to each family, the sum total being $511.00. In 
four of the districts there were two terms during the year, and 
in the other five only one term. 

Doctor Goodell, in commenting upon this situation says : 
''The branches taught were the three R's, spelling, good manners, 
and obedience. A few years since geography was added, and 
later still grammar and history, fundamentals only, 'no frills'. Is 
it not up to our schools of today, with their modern time 
increases in educational advantages, to develop men and women 
who shall at least equal our forebears in morals, patriotism, 
industry, perseverance, business capacity and all else that pertains 
to good citizenship?" 

In describing the schools of that day it has been said: "Dil- 
worth's spelling book was then the fountain of learning. The 
Psalter and a simple treatise on arithmetic were used in some of 
the schools. 

"Choosing sides and spelling once a week was the food, 
dinner and dessert of ambition, and the schoolmaster's ferule the 
stimulant. Saturday noons the little square blue primer, containing 
the catechism and commandments, Watt's cradle hymns, 
furnished scholars with their quantum of religious instruction, and 
with their facilities and materials, the young mind was to be ad- 
vanced and furnished for the business of the world." 

Society established on a broader basis, education received a 
creditable attention. Especially was this true of the improved 
grade of text books used in the schools. The old Historical 
Reader was introduced about 1820. Webster's spelling book had 
come into popular use before this and Pike's Arithmetic was used 
to advantage over the former method of having the teacher place 
some original example on the board for the pupil to work out. 
This book was destined to'be replaced by an improved work from 
Dr. Daniel Adams, which bore his name. This book remained 
the leading arithmetic until about the time of the Civil War when 
it was succeeded by Greenleaf's Arithmetic about the time of the 
death of the author at Keene in 1864. It is interesting to know 


that Dr. Adams brought out his arithmetic while living in a near- 
by town, Mont Vernon. 

In 1828 the name Prudential Committee was applied to the 
men overseeing the schools in the respective districts, of which 
there were nine at this time. 

Did space permit it would be a pleasant task to trace the 
Story of the Schools through the succeeding years to the present 
time, and it would afford a valuable lesson to the student of 
history. No corner in the field of human progress is as essential 
to the development of public affairs as the niche filled by our 
rural schools. Upon the record of these little isolated seats of 
knowledge depends the intellectual strength of the people and 
upon the intelligence of the people rests the very pillars of govern- 
ment. Yet we review the work briefly. The best and brightest 
things in life are those of which we say the least. So it is with 
the historyof our schools. Fortunately, or unfortunately as the 
case may be, their results are written in indelible ink upon the 
tablets of memory. If seldom mentioned are imperishable. 

The story of Hillsborough's schools is not different from any 
other. It will average with her sister towns. Her rural districts 
have naturally fewer pupils in schools than before the Civil War, 
over half a century ago, which is impressively explained in the 
mute language of the abandoned farms, and emphasised by the 
fact of decreased numbers of children in the homes that remain. 
More is expected in the education of a child than in the days of 
greater rural activity. If more is being obtained the future, not 
the present, must show. 

When the state, hoping to improve the rural school situation, 
took a firmer hand in the management in 191 7, and established 
the State Board of Education, Hillsborough had very little to do 
to fall into line. No new school houses have been built for a 
considerable period, for the reason the need had not been 
manifest. In fact, when one comes to think of it, Hillsborough 
has never been advance in the construction of public buildings, 
and her sons and daughters who have prospered abroad have 
seemed to forget her in this respect. Let us hope not for always. 

According to the Report for 1920, we find that schools have 
been maintained in six rural districts, as follows : 


Hillsborough Lower Village, Mrs. Deborah Brown, teacher, 
31 pupils; Merrill School, Ida P. Phelps, teacher, 18 pupils; 
Hillsborough Upper Village, Edythe W. Crooker, teacher, 16 
pupils ; Flat School, Elizabeth Thompson, teacher, 1 1 pupils ; 
Centre School, Frances E. Barnes, teacher, 13 pupils; Goodale 
School, Mrs. Nellie R. Mellen, teacher, 12 pupils. This record 
shows a complete list of 101 pupils. 

The report for the previous year shows that, in addition to 
the above list, schools were taught in the Howard and Bear Hill 
districts and that there were in town a total of 112 pupils. 

The members of the Town School Board for 1920 were Mrs. 
Lottie Harvey, Henry W. Adams and Leonard T. Martin. 

Hillsborough Academy and High School. 

With the district schools flourishing it soon became evident 
that the town could well afford to support a higher grade of 
education, and as the Lower Village was at that time the centre 
of business enterprises with considerable promise for the future, 
it was decided to erect a suitable building at this hamlet and 
establish an academical course. A brick building was raised in 
1820, and in 1821 the Hillsborough Academy was incorporated. 

March 11, 1822, the following notice of the new school ap- 
peared: "Recently incorporated, new brick building near General 
Pierce's, instruction of Simon Ingersol Bard. Tuition, $3 per 
quarter. Highest price for board, $1.25 per week." 

Dr. Bard, the first principal, was a native of Francestown 
and a graduate of Dartmouth College. He was very bright in- 
tellectually, but of small stature. The following anecdote told of 
him illustrates this fact : While on his way to the academy one 
morning with his books under his arm, a stranger meeting him 
asked good-naturedly, "Hilloa, sonny, how do you like your 

After a very successful career here Dr. Bard was succeeded 
by a fellow graduate of Dartmouth and Andover Theological 
Seminary Rev. William Clark, in 1827. He was succeeded by his 
brother, Rev. Samuel Wallace Clark, while he removed to Cin- 
cinnatti, Ohio. Rev. Samuel W. Clark was born in Greenland, 
a graduate of Dartmouth College in 1823, and of Andover in 


1827. He was followed by Rev. Josiah Peabody, a graduate of 
Dartmouth in 1825; Robert Reed Heath, of Dartmouth, 1825; 
Solomon Heath, a brother and graduate of Dartmouth in 1826; 
Benjamin F. Wallace, Esq. ; Rev. Ephraim Taylor, Albert Baker, 
Esq., and Francis Brown Mussey of Amherst. 

In 1840 it was thought advisable to move the academy to the 
Centre, where it was opened in the old first meeting house build- 
ing, with Rev. Elisha Thayer Rowe as Principal, which position 
he retained until 1864. 

In the meantime a change had taken place in the school situa- 
tion at Bridge Village. Until 1861 this growing hamlet had been 
divided into two districts, the river being the boundary line 
between them. In the fall of i860 the South School House, as 
it was called in District No. 2, was burned, and it was then 
decided it would be better to remove the old house and build a 
new one large enough to accomodate the entire village. At the 
annual meeting in March, 1861, a committee of four, James F. 
Briggs and Theron B. Newman representing the North side, and 
S. Dow Wyman and Reuben E. Loveren of the South side, was 
appointed to secure plans for a school house not to exceed $2,500 
in cost fully equipped. Joshua Marcy, S. Dow Wyman and 
Daniel Wyman were chosen a committee to receive bids, but all 
of the bids received were above the proposed cost, and a building 
committee consisting of Joshua Marcy, Daniel Wyman and 
Horace Eaton was selected to build the house at as reasonable 
price as possible. This committee discharged the duty assigned 
it and completed a new building at a cost of $4,626.36. The old 
house was sold for $175. This bill included the cost of a bell, 
which is still in use. 

Until then no school in town had been graded, but it was now 
thought to do this at this school in November. James F. Briggs, 
Harry Brickett and Abel C. Burnham were chosen to undertake 
this task and formulate rules for its government. This com- 
mittee placed the pupils of twelve years of age and upward in the 
higher grade, and assigned the second floor as their school room. 

The first term of school in the new building was opened in 
the winter of 1861-1862, the teacher of the higher grade being 
Warren McClintock, while Ellen Fisher taught the primary grade. 


At this time Dr. Abel C. Burnham was chairman of the super- 
intending school committee. 

In 1864 the Aacademy at the Centre was removed to Bridge 
Village and made a part of the higher grade in the school at this 
hamlet, under the name of the "Valley Academy," a tuition 
school. Rev. Harry Brickett, acting pastor of the Congregational 
church at Bridge Village, with his wife as assistant, became its 
principal, and there were 120 pupils attending. 

After sixteen very successful years, in 1876, the name was 
changed to "Union School," and it became in reality a high school. 
Harry L. Brickett, son of the former principal, was placed at 
its head. He was a graduate of Oberlin College, Ohio, and under 
his instruction the school continued to prosper. 

In 1879 the need of a still larger building was apparent, 
when provision for the Primary department had to be made out- 
side of the building. In 1880 the first Board of Education was 
elected, its members being John C. Campbell, Brooks K. Webber, 
S. Dow Wyman, Marcellus H. Felt, James F. Grimes and Wil- 
liam H. Story. The membership of this committee has since been 
reduced to three, the members for 1920 being George W. Haslet, 
Charles S. Perry and Delmont E. Gordon. 

The list of teachers and numbers of pupils for 1919-1920 
were: Mrs. Cora Scruton, 1-2 grades, 67 pupils; Miss Eva W. 
Brown, 3-4 grades, 40 pupils ; Miss Flora E. Atwood, 4-5 grades, 
42 pupils ; Miss Eva B. Ash, 6-7 grades, 48 pupils ; Mrs. Lottie 
Harvey, Mrs. Josephine Gordon, Miss Esther Crosby, 7-8 grades, 
42 pupils. In the High School, with 60 students, Robert J. An- 
derson was head master, with Laura L. Newell, Blanche Totman 
and Dorothy Cambridge, assistants ; Miss Sarah L. Baker, draw- 
ing ; Miss Florence Lee and Mrs. Doris Watkins, music. 

In conclusion it can be truthfully said that the Hillsborough 
High School has maintained a creditable standing among the 
schools of its grade in the state. 

Industrial Pursuits. 

Keyes Saw Mill — Mills on Beard Brook — Beginning- of Woolen and 
Cotton Manufacturing — First Complete Mill — Spinning Jenny — 
"Father of Cotton Manufacture in America" — First Mill in New 
Hampshire — Carding Mill in Deering — First Cotton Mill in Hills- 
borough— "The Red Factory"— Third Factory in the State— Cook 
and Waterman Factory — Marcy Mill — Contoocook Mills — Hillsbor- 
ough Woolen Mills — Other Industries — Tanneries — Water Power 
of the Contoocook. 

The beginning of industry in any locality is usually the saw 
mill and Hillsborough is no exception to the rule. Hence industry 
here may be said to have been begun in the little old frame of a 
mill which must have stood on the north bank of the Contoocook 
above the main falls and near where the saw and grist mills of 
Grimes and Walker stood in later years. This saw mill, as we 
have seen, was built by Gershom Keyes and his associates in 
1739, and was really the first mill upon the entire length of the 
Contoocook River. Other saw mills followed, and these were 
built along the same river or upon some of its tributaries, Beard 
Brook having been the favorite stream. Charles Hartwell owned 
and operated a saw mill at the foot of Loon Pond. The first 
saw mill and grist mill at the upper privilege at Bridge Village 
was built by William Rumrill. Before water power was 
harnessed to the. machinery of man Hillsborough had her share 
of hand manufacture with other towns, description of which has 
been given in farm life. 

The story of woolen and cotton manufacturing in Hillsbor- 
ough starts from a very small beginning, as in truth it does in all 
localities. The first machine for carding, roving and spinning 
in the United States was made by two brothers from Scotland, 
Alexander and Robert Barr, for Hon. Hush Orr at Brid^ewater. 
Mass., in 1786. The following year a company in Beverly began 
manufacturing with very imperfect machinery and unsatisfactory 



Photograph by Manahan. 




results. The combined operations of spinning and weaving were 
not put into successful operation until 1813, in Waltham, Mass., 
by Francis C. Lowell and Patrick T. Jackson, the latter the in- 
ventor of the power loom. This factory is believed to be the first 
in the world to have combined all the processes necessary for 
converting raw cotton and finished cloth. 

Until 1786 England had monopolized the rude attempts at 
cotton manufacture and guarded zealously what she believed to 
be her exclusive right. Cotton was first spun at Birmingham by 
mules in 1742, and from that date no one was allowed to leave 
the country who was supposed to have mastered the secret of 
building necessary machinery for the work. But the Barr 
brothers seemed to have escaped the vigilant watch of these 
master manufacturers. In 1788 spinning jennies were put into 
operation in Philadelphia and Providence. Still it was left for 
the ambitious youth, Samuel Slater, who stole his passage over 
to this country, after having mastered the trade at home, to 
begin practical manufacture at Pawtucket, R. I., in 1790. For 
that achievement he has rightfully been styled "The Father of 
cotton manufacture in America," and from that date the enter- 
prise expanded and improved. 

Samuel Slater's interests were not confined to the locality 
of his beginning, and it was only a few years before he was 
sending skilled workmen to other places as pioneers in the work. 
Through his assistance the erection of a cotton mill was under- 
taken at New Ipswich, in this state, Benjamin Prichard being the 
master builder. No sooner was the machinery installed here 
than Mr. Prichard hastened to Amoskeag Falls, on the Merrimack 
River, and built a mill so he was enabled to place such machinery 
as he could obtain at that time in motion in 1805, this being the 
second mill in New Hampshire. 

Contemporary with these efforts, and reflecting credit upon 
the indomitable will of the man, Rev. William Sleigh smuggled 
from England machinery for carding wool, which he set up in 
the town of Deering, operating it by horse power for about a 
year. Then, about 1806, it was purchased by George Little of 
Hillsborough, who set it up in a small building nearly on the spot 
where a grist mill was later built. The machinery was run by a 


small breast wheel, the water being brought from the canal in 
a plank spout. Two or three years later the machinery was 
moved across the river and established in "the red factory," 
which stood on the site of the silk mill raised July 4, 1812. The 
canal on the south side of the stream, already mentioned, was 
dug in June, 1805. Finally Mr. Little sold his machinery to 
Imri Wood, who removed it to West Henniker, where it was 
burned a few years later. 

By this it is seen that Hillsborough has a most respectable 
record as a pioneer in manufacture, and with the excellent water 
privileges found here it was prophesied that it was destined to 
become a manufacturing town of importance. 

Perhaps it is of sufficient interest to mention in passing that 
the first cotton mill in Maine was built at Brunswick in 1809. 
Power looms were first set in operation in this country at Wal- 
tham, Mass.,, in 1814. The first cotton factory in Lowell, Mass., 
was built in 1822 and it was not until 1849 that Lawrence began 

Mr. Little was followed in the manufacture of cotton goods 
within six years by two men from out of town, Messrs. Cook 
and Waterman, who began work upon a cotton factory July 3, 
181 1, on the north bank of the river above the bridge falls near 
where the original saw mill had been built. This was the third 
cotton factory in the state, and is therefore worthy of special 
mention. This mill, like others, did a thriving business near the 
outbreak of the War of 1812, but its wheels became nearly idle 
before its close, and it was not until 1822 that it resumed normal 
activities. It then continued to prosper and within a few years 
it had 1800 spindles and 40 looms. The number of operatives 
employed in 1840 was sixty. 

Unfortunately this factory was burned at 10 o'clock on the 
night of July 8, 1842, and was never rebuilt. The Cook and 
Waterman factory stood nearly opposite the present plant of the 
Hillsborough Woolen Mill Company. 

*A cotton factory was built at New Ipswich in 1803, and aiother at Amoskeag 
Falls in 1804-5. — Author. 

a pioneer manufacturer. 379 

The Marcy Mill. 

In the meantime another pioneer in the manufacturing in- 
dustries had established a mill on the south bank of the Con- 
toocook River below the rapids at the bridge. This new-comer, 
who ranks high among the early cotton manufacturers in Hills- 
borough was Joshua Marcy. 

Mr. Marcy was a native of Woodstock, Conn., but he had 
lived in Pepperell, Mass., and Peterborough, N. H., coming to 
Hillsborough from Peterborough. At the time he came to this 
town the manufacture of cotton goods in this country was 
rapidly awakening a keen interest. Understanding this, and with 
an ambition equal to the opportunity, Joshua Marcy saw the 
almost unlimited possibilities that lay in the water power of the 
Contoocook tumbling with headlong velocity along its rocky 

Immediately he purchased of James P. Barker the site for 
a mill on the south bank of the stream, and began at once to build 
the original factory in that vicinity. This building was com- 
pleted so the machinery was set in motion in the fall of 1828, 
when he began the spinning of cotton yarn, and the manufacture 
of cotton wadding and batting. Eventually he added the manu- 
facture of the first twine ever made, while he also made candle 
wicking. It is interesting to note that this was accomplished 
contemporary with the beginning of successful manufacture on 
the Merrimack River, at Amoskeag Falls and Lowell. In 1840 
Mr. Marcy's mill contained 512 spindles and employed sixteen 

In 1845 Mr. Marcy built on the north side of the street the 
brick grist mill noted at the time as the best mill of its kind in the 
state. A saw mill connected with the same water privilege also 
came into his possession at this time. 

Mr. Marcy continued active in his business and owned his 
mill to the time of his death May 5, 1848, when his property 
passed into the hands of his children, three sons and three 
daughters. These formed a company and carried on the business 
for seventeen years with success. 

380 history of hillsborough. 

The Contoocook Mills Corporation. 

In 1865 a new impetus was given manufacture in Hills- 
borough by the appearance upon the scene of John B. Smith, 
then a young man filled with the ambition of a young man and 
with the experience of similar enterprises elsewhere. With a 
predilection for that industrial pursuit, Mr. Smith had begun his 
career as a manufacturer in Washington, but finding the field too 
small for his satisfaction, he removed to Weare. Still he was 
not satisfied and he bought out the Marcy heirs, resolved to 
enlarge and improve the opportunity here. He built a new mill, 
repaired those standing, and from the first was very successful. 
Devoting his time and energies to the manufacture of woolen 
goods, and eminently fitted for this work, it was here Mr. Smith 
laid not only the foundation of his financial success but of his 
civil and political prestige. He was assisted for several years in 
his manufacturing interests by his nephew George Edward 

Originally known as the Marcy Mills, and then as the Smith 
Mills, in 1882 the business was incorporated under the title of 
Contoocook Mills Corporation, by which name it is still known. 


The success of the mills already built on the banks of the 
Contoocook encouraged others to undertake the building of other 
mills for manufacture, and in 1880 the anticipations, plans and 
efforts culminated in the establishment of a company styled the 
Hillsborough Woolen Mills, Rufus F. Frost & Co., proprietors. 
John Kimball became the first agent. Known for a long time as 
"The New Mill," and even to this day designated by many as 
such, this factory was a success from the start. 

Under date of September 26, 1885, the following resolution 
was adopted and signed by the men whose names are given : 

We the undersigned do hereby associate ourselves together for 
the purpose of purchasing the necessary land, power, buildings, tene- 
ments, works for manufacturing purposes, and for the manufacture 
and sale of such goods, and fabrics, as shall be determined by the 
majority in the amount of the subscribers hereto ; and we hereby 
agree to constitute ourselves a corporation under the provision of 
Chapter 152 of the general laws of New Hampshire, under the style 
nnd the name of the Hillsboro Woolen Mill Company and take the 



number of shares set out against our respective names, and the prin- 
cipal place of business of said corporation shall be at Hillsboro 
Bridge Village in the Town of Hillsborough, in said State, and the 
capital stock shall be one hundred thousand dollars divided into 
shares of the par value of one hundred dollars each and that the 
officers of said corporation shall consist of a board of Directors, 
not exceeding five nor less than three, a Clerk and Treasurer, and 
that said capital stock shall be paid at such a time in such amounts 
as said board of Directors shall from time to time order, and upon the 
amount of such capital stock being subscribed, the first meeting of the 
association shall be called by the first subscriber, he going in hand to 
each subscriber, or leaving at his last and usual place of abode, or 
sending to him by mail a written notice of the time, place and object 
of such meeting, three days at least prior thereto. 
Signed by 

Date. Name 

Sept. 36, 1885 Eufus S. Frost 

Sept. 28, 1885 Edward P. Tenney 

Sept. 26, 1885 C. H. Frost 

Sept. 26, 1885 Eufus F. Greeley 

Sept. 26, 1885 Kufus H. Frost 

Sept. 29, 1885 Albert P. Frost 

A true copy 

Chelsea, [Mass. 
Roselle, N. J. 
Chelsea, Mass. 
Chelsea, Mass. 
Chelsea, Mass. 
Orange, N. J. 

No. Shares 

Frank E. Merrill, Town Clerk. 

This mill manufactures woolen goods, suitings, overcoatings 
and cloakings ; has fifteen sets of cards, and sixty looms. N. F. 
Greeley, Boston, Mass., is treasurer, and George W. Haslet, 

Other Industries. 

Besides the cotton and woolen mills in Hillsborough, there 
have been many minor industries which taken collectively have 
done much towards the prosperity and the progress of the town. 
The Lower Village has been the scene of several enterprises, 
some of which promised well. 

Foremost among these was the foundry and machine shop 
started as a starch factory by a man named Emerson in i860. 
In 1861 this property was brought by L. S. Morse & Son, who 
sold out to Benjamin P. Moore and Erickson Burnham in 1865, 
the former being connected with the enterprise until his death 
September 13, 1870. Air. Burnham continued alone until 1878, 
when he sold to McClintock and Son, and in 1886 Henry Martin 


became associated with the company. Soon after Mr. Martin 
became sole owner, and he continued the business until he was 
burned out in 1889, meeting a loss of three thousand dollars. 

At one time Peter Rumrill had a machine shop, getting water 
through a penstock from the Contoocook. 


At one time there were several tanneries in town in a 
flourishing condition. The largest of these were at Lower Vil- 
lage, and operated very successfully for several years after the 
close of the Civil War. 

Early in the '30s Samuel Kimball started a tannery at this 
village, which he carried on until he sold out to Elijah Reid, who 
came here from Hancock, and continued the business until his 
death April 4, 1864, when Stephen Tuttle became his successor. 
Mr. Tuttle conducted the enterprise until he was burned out on 
the night of December 6, 1872, and this place has not been 

Stephen Brown operated a tannery at this village several 
years very successfully, but early in the ! 8os its business declined 
and it was sold at auction by Manahan & Baker for $2230. The 
plant and two houses, stables, driveway, scales, water-power, 
etc., was bought by Harvey Jones for $1338, while the outlands 
were purchased by Samuel Gibson, E. C. Pendleton, Andrew J. 
Crooker and William H. Manahan for $892. 

Jackman Brothers operated a saw mill plant for wooden 
manufacturing for several years, and did a flourishing business. 
Lowell White made chair legs at this mill in 1885, and H. M. 
Bartlett manufactured his racquets here as late as 1894. Other 
manufacturing was carried on here. 

Joshua Fuller came to this town from Connecticut and 
started a tannery at Upper Village, meeting with marked success. 
He was succeeded in this business by his son Mark W. and his 
grandson, John G., and this tannery became noted as the producer 
of what was known to the trade as "Wescott Calf." 

At one time this village was doing considerable manufacture 
in the line of furniture, shovel handles, etc. The Fullers and 
others had prosperous saw mills here. 


A tannery stood just below the Contoocook crossing at 
Bridge Village for several years. William G. Fess, from Wells 
River, Vt., manufactured shovel handles at this village from 
1872 to 1877, when he returned to Vermont. Samuel A. Dodge 
manufactured needles here for some years. Other enterprises 
equally as worthy of mention have been carried on from time to 
time, but regarding which the data is not at hand. 

Business Interests. 

The business enterprises of the town have been many and 
varied, so numerous, in fact, that it would be practically im- 
possible to name them with complete satisfaction. An idea of the 
growth and extension of the different lines of trade may be 
obtained from the history of the hamlets of the town in Chapter 

The water power of the Contoocook and tributaries in and 
about Hillsborough is not nearly taken up. W r hile situated at the 
head of a section of six and one-half miles rapids, capable of 
being made to produce two thousand horse power at a com- 
paratively small cost, above the plant of the Henniker-Hillsbor- 
ough Electric Light Company, the river is capable of being 
developed to the extent of ten thousand horse power. Saying 
nothing of the "great falls" whose waters are already made to 
run the machinery of the mills that are the industrial life of the 
town and which hold yet greater possibilities above these just 
west of the Lower Village is a basin that can be made the re- 
servoir to produce upwards of five thousand horse power. Beard 
Brook, rising in East Washington and receiving the drainage 
from a watershed of five hundred acres, offers yet further pro- 
mise of increased usefulness. So Hillsborough is well favored 
with natural resources to produce either water power or electrical 

It is mete that the mills of Hillsborough should flourish and 
gain in power and number of operatives employed, for it was 
these same water privileges that called the people from the hills 
to join together here in building up those enterprises which should 
be the life of the town. Not only were these manufacturing 
interests the magnet to assemble a considerable percentage of the 


town folk, but they attracted hither others from abroad, until to- 
day many races and many lands are represented by those who toil 
and prosper here. Manufacture calls people together, to give us 
our centres of population ; agriculture scatters people over the 
hillsides that would be otherwise a wilderness. Both classes have 
their respective places in the affairs of men, and in Hillsborough 
the two walk hand in hand. 

Fortunately for the town the water powers of Hillsborough, 
as far as improved, have been developed judiciously by men well 
fitted for the task. Among them all there has not been one unable 
or unfitted to fulfill his purpose. Hence the high degree of 
prosperity and progress. 

Miscellaneous Enterprises. 

Post Offices — Postmasters — Change in Spelling of the Name of Post 
Offices in Town — Offices at Lower Village, Centre, Upper Village 
and Bridge Village — Three Discontinued — Telephone — First News- 
paper — The Messenger — Frequent Changes in Ownership- -Old 
Social Library — Fuller Public Library — Fuller Bequest — Water 
Works — Fire Department — Electric Light and Power Company — 
Board of Trade — The Railroad — Banks — Business Interests — Public 
Houses — List of Oldtime Inn Keepers. 

Post Offices. 

Though a post office was established at Portsmouth May 18, 
1775, this benefited only a small section of New Hampshire, and 
it was not until several years after the Revolution that postal 
facilities were given serious consideration. As has been de- 
scribed in the chapter on post riders, the legislature in 1791 
arranged four post routes, one of which included Hillsborough in 
its circuit, these riders being the original rural mail carriers. 
Amherst established a post office that year, but this town, as well 
as most of those along the route, had no general place of leaving 
the mail, but this was delivered at convenient places on the way. 

The opening of the turnpike through the town and the in- 
creasing business brought by the stage coach were the reasons 
for establishing post offices in one town after another. Hills- 
borough had her turn in 1803, when the first post office in town! 
was opened in Lower Village, and David Starrett was appointed 
the first postmaster. This act was a source of great satisfaction 
to the town's people. 

A petition signed by some of the citizens of the town was 
sent into the Post Office Department to have the last three letters 
in the name Hillsborough dropped so the spelling would be 
Hillsboro, and this request was granted by the government April 



24, 1894. The spelling of the name of the town, however has 
never been officially changed so that remains in the original form. 
When the railroad station was established the abbreviated form 
of spelling of Hillsborough was adopted by the company, so that) 
corresponds to the name in the postal directory. 

The following is the complete list of the post offices in town 
in the order in which they were established, with the names of 
the postmasters and the dates of their appointment, each man 
serving until his successor was installed in the office. 

Hillsboro Lower Village. 
This office was established April 1, 1803, as Hillsborough; 
spelling of name changed to Hillsboro, June 12, 1894; changed to 
Hillsboro Lower Village, February 19, 1908. 

Post Master Appointment 

David Starrett, April 1, 1803 Braverter Gray, April 5, 1834 

John Burnham, June 9, 1812 Benjamin Tuttle, Jr. Ap. 28, 1847 

John Harris, June 22, 1818 Jotham Moore, May 10, 1856 

Benjamin Pierce, July 8, 1818 Benjamin Tuttle, April 26, 1858 

Silas Marshall, June 2, 1827 John P. Dickey, April 13, 1861 

Luther Cole, November 3, 1828 John P. Gibson, Nov. 11, 1885 

Samuel Kimball, May 7, 1829 Fred J. Gibson, June 12, 1894 
Leonard M. Kimball, July 13, 1830 

Office discontinued January 1, 1907. 


A post office under the name of Hillsborough Bridge was 

established March 6, 1827; spelling of name changed to Hillsboro 

Bridge, January 8, 1894; changed to Hillsboro, February 19, 1908. 

Postmasters Appointment 

Simeon E. Bard, March 6, 1827 Martha A. Lovering, Aug- 3, 1874 

Jonathan Sargent, May 21, 1829 De Witt C. Newman, Jan. 30, 1885 

Daniel Brown, May 27, 1834 Charles Kimball, Nov. 12, 1885 

William B. Whittemore, DeWitt C. Newman, Aug. 2, 1889 

December 30, 1847 Frank M. Parker, January 8, 1894 

Ephraim Dutton, March 30, 1855 James S. Butler, January 14. 1898 

Jason H. T. Newell, Joseph F. Nichols, Jan. 16, 1902 

March 20, 1861 Jesse C. Parker, Feb. 28, 1906 

William H. Story, July 10, 1867 Frank E. Merrill, April 1, 1916 

Beuben F. Lovering, April 13, 1874 Jesse C. Parker. Jan. 15, 1919 

telephone. 387 

Hillsboro Centre. 
This office was established February 21, 1833; as Hillsbor- 
ough Centre; name changed by dropping the last three letters 
from the name, April 24, 1894. 

Postmasters Appointment 

Samuel G. Barnes, Feb. 23, 1833 Mrs. Alonzo Bobbins, 
Benjamin Priest, May 2, 1836 November 12, 1895 

Oramel Danforth, July 20, 1861 Lizzie A. Bobbins, Dec. 10, 1895 
Mrs. Elizabeth Nelson, Ruth B. Gammell, Nov. 15, 1902 

July 13, 1863 
Office discontinued January 1, 1917. 

Hillsboro Upper Village. 

Established January 28, 1873; name changed by dropping 
last three letters, April 24, 1894. 

Postmasters Appointment 

Charles W. Conn, Jan. 28, 1873 Henry H. Bailey, May 12, 1898 
Hiel McClintock, Aug. 27, 1885 Albert J. Burnham, Nov. 17, 1899 
Charles W. Conn, Dec. 9, 1890 Herbert F. Dresser, Dec. 12, 1903 
Sillman McClintock, Apr. 24, 1894 

Office discontinued, R. F. D. to East Washington. 


The electric telephone was introduced into Hillsborough in 
1891 by George W. Lincoln then having a grocery store in the 
block where the Atlantic and Pacific Tea Co. is now located. 
Mr. Lincoln began by running a line from his store to Jackman 
Brothers' mill at Lower Village. This venture proving success- 
ful, in company with Messrs. Jackman and Sillman M. Mc- 
Clintock the line was extended to Upper Village and Washington 

In 1894 Dr. Marcellus H. Felt and Stillman H. Baker be- 
coming interested in the enterprise, the Contoocook Valley Tele- 
phone Company was chartered. At this time very few suburban 
towns had telephone lines, and the undertaking was looked upon 
with some doubt as to its outcome by many. Confident of ulti- 
mate success the new company planned to extend a line to Con-* 
cord, and had built it as far as Hopkinton, when the New England 
Tel. and Tel. Company purchased the plant, making Mr. Lincoln 
local manager. 


Under the new management the telephone lines were ex- 
tended in every direction, and became an important adjunct to 
the extension of business in town and elsewhere. Finally, April 
1, 1908, Mr. Lincoln obtained possession of all the wires owned 
and operated by the company in Hopkinton, Contoocook, Henni- 
ker, a part of Deering, Antrim, Bennington, Webster and Hills- 
borough, the central office being in the home town. This division 
is known by the name given it by its founders, The Contoocook 
Valley Telephone Company, and continues very successfully. 

At the time Mr. Lincoln established his first line there were 
few if any towns in the state of the size of Hillsborough that had 
telephone connection. At the time he became sole owner there 
were 167 telephones in the territory. On January 1, 1921, there 
were 996 telephone subscribers. 


The first newspaper in Hillsborough was called The Hills- 
borough Weekly News, and the initial number was printed 
December 7, 1859, Warren Hagar, Editor and Proprietor. Among 
the items of local news it contained was a roll of the officers of 
the Boys' Artillery Company, which seems to have been recently 
organized : 

Captain, Benjamin F. Dutton ; Lieutenant, Samuel C. Barnes ; 
Sergeants, John Goodell, 1st; Benjamin F. Livermore, 2nd; C. 
A. Priest, 3rd ; B. F. Moore, 4th. 

The News was a four-page, quarto sheet, of six columns to 
a page. It was well printed for a country paper, and seems to 
have flourished fairly well, but was discontinued after four years. 
During its second volume it printed Mr. Charles J. Smith's 
Annals of Hillsborough by installments. 

Following the discontinuance of the News, The Hillsborough 
Messenger came into existence, 1868, under the supervision and 
ownership of Mr. William M. Sargent, with an office on Main 
Street, "near the Drug Store." This was also a four-page sheet 
of four columns, devoted to the news and interest of the town. 
Yet, as a contrast to the newsy matter of the present day, the only 
news item in the issue for November 24, 1870, was a two-line 
notice of the beginning of the winter term of the district school. 
There was, however, an excellent article concluded from previous 


numbers "Recollections of the First 40 Years of the 19th Centu- 
ry," by a former resident of the town. Among the business cards 
we are informed that Briggs & Harden were Attorneys at Law 
in the Bridge Village; John H. Locke was landlord of the Valley 
Hotel; Charles Gillis, proprietor of the St. Charles Hotel at the 
Lower Village; G. F. Crowell & Co. were the druggists; Solon 
Newman, Photographer ; Brooks K. Webber, Attorney at Law ; 
Bell and Lovering, Licensed Auctioneers and Appraisers. 

Mr. Sargent continued to publish the Messenger for about 
eight years, and early in 1877 he sold to Harrison Perry, who 
published the paper until January 1, 1883. Charles W. Hutchins 
became his successor, who published the paper until October, 
1886, when he sold to Mark Hadley. 

Mr. Hadley was its publisher for ten years, when he trans- 
ferred the "paper, subscription list, good-will, etc." to Messrs. 
Brehaut & McPhail of Boston. This couple apparently tired of 
the care and burden after a brief experience, for at the end o£ 
eleven months they sold to Louis Lincoln in 1897. 

May 13, 1899, another change in ownership, which proved 
more permanent than any before occurred, when Charles S. 
Flanders and Joseph W. Chadwick became its owners and pub- 
lishers. Mr. Chadwick at once became the manager of the enter- 
prise, while Mr. Flanders continued to hold his position as teacher 
in Dean Academy, Franklin, Mass., for about four years, when 
he came to Hillsborough to make his home. 

The Messenger was then a four-page, eight-column sheet, 
but May 10, 1900, it was changed to eight pages, six columns 
each. When purchased by this firm the plant was located in the 
basement of Odd Fellows block, but in July, 1901, it was moved 
to the building on Henniker Street where it is now published and 
known as Messenger Block, which the firm bought at the time. 

May 13, 1916, Mr. Chadwick purchased his partner's halfi 
interest in the concern, and remains owner of the plant. At the 
present time Mr. Chadwick has been managing editor and owner 
for 21 years, and still active in the service. Mark M. Hadley had 
the longest ownership before him, having published the paper 
nearly ten years. 


In 1882 Hiram Smart came here from Concord and started 
the Hillsborough Enterprise, but abandoned the project after 
about a year. 



State of New Hampshire in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 

hundred and ninety seven 

An Act to Incorporate Certain persons by the name of the pro- 
prietor of the social Library in Hillsborough in this State — 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Eepresentatives in 
General Court covened, that Jonathan Barnes, James Eaton, William 
Taggart, and Benjamin Pierce and their associates proprietors of said 
Library and all such as may hereafter become proprietors of same, be, 
and they hereby are incorporated into a body Politic, by the name of 
the Proprietor of the social Library in Hillsborough, with continuation 
and succession forever, and in that name may sue and be sued in all 
personal actions, and may prosecute and defend the same to final 
Judgment and Execution ; and they are hereby vested with all the 
powers and privileges Incident to Corporation of a similar nature, and 
may enjoin Penalties of disfranchisement, or fine not exceeding three 
Dollars for each offence, to be received by said proprietors in an Action 
of debt to their uses in any court in this state proper to try the same, 
and they may make, purchase and receive subscriptions grants and 
donation of personal Estate, not exceeding the sum of one thousand 
Dollars, Exclusive of the Books belonging to said Library, for the 
purpose of their Association. 

And be it further enacted, that said proprietors be and they here- 
by are Authorised to Assemble in Hillsborough aforesaid on Tuesday 
following the first monday in March annually to Choose all such 
Officers as may be found necessary for the orderly conducting the 
affairs of said Corporation, who shall continue in Office until others 
are chosen in their room, and that said Corporation may assemble as 
often as may be found necessary for filling up any Vacancies which 
may happen in said Offices, and for transacting all other business 
except the raising of Monies, which shall not be done except at an 
annual Meeting, at which Annual Meeting, they are impowered to Vote 
all such Sums as shall be found necessary for defraying the annual 
expence of preserving said Library and for enlarging the same, and 
shall make an enact such rules and by Laws, for the Government of 
aid Corporation as may from time to time by them be found neces- 
sary, providing the same be not repugnant to the Constitution and 
Laws of this State or of the United States, and be it further enacted 
that Jonathan Barnes and Joseph Symonds or either of them are 



hereby authorised and enpowered to call the first meeting of said 
proprietors at such time and place as they may appoint by posting up 
a notification expressing the time, place and design of said meeting, 
at the public Meeting House in said Hillsborough at least fifteen days 
before the time of said meeting, and the said proprietors at said 
Meeting may agree on the manner of calling Meetings in future and 
shall have all powers to enact such by Laws and choose all such 
Officeirs as they may or can do, at their Annual Meeting 
State of New Hampshire In the House of Kepresentatives Dec. 14, 1797. 

The foregoing bill having had their several reading passed to be 

Sent up for concurrence 

William Plumer Speaker 

In Senate Dec. 15, 1797 this bill having been read a third time 
voted that the same be enacted 

Amos Shepard President 

Approved Dec. 16, 1797 

J. T. Gilman Governor 

A true copy Attest 

Joseph Pearson Secry. 

These social libraries became quite numerous during the 

•missaDons XjpsiauaS aj3A\. pus 'oogi pun 06Z1 uaaAvpq apnoap 
They show the spirit of the day, the anxiety to obtain reading 
matter, which could not be furnished in any other way. That 
founded by the good citizens of Hillsborough was no exception 
to the rule. This library flourished for ten or twelve years, and 
did not cease to exist for as many years more. Great credit for 
their enterprise belongs to these pioneers of library work. 

In contrast to the reading matter afforded by the towni 
library to-day, the titles of a few of the books listed in Hills- 
borough Social Library is appended : 

The Spectator, 6 vols., Fool Quality, 3 vols., Newton on 
Prophecies, 2 vols., Christian & Farmers Magazine, 2 vols., View 
of Religion, Watts on the Mind, Franklin's Works, Female Jockey 
Club, Looking Glass for the Mind, Bold Stroke for a Wife, 
Arabian Nights Entertainment, Religious Courtship, Morses 
Geography, Doddridge Rise and Progress, Doddridge Sermons, 
Doddridge on Regeneration, Rassalas & Dirabus, etc., etc. 

The old "social" library, the original of the public library, 
having done good work for several years, the need of a library 
founded on broader principals was felt, and finally, one of its 


native citizens upon his decease left funds to establish what is 
known as the Fuller Public Library, as witness the action of the 
town at its annual meeting on the second Tuesday of March, 
1877, Article 10: 

Voted to accept and adopt the following Resolution 

Whereas Mark W. Fuller late a citizen of the town of Hillsborough 
and state of New Hampshire, who died September 23, 1876, did by 
his last will and testament bequeath to the Said Town of Hillsborough, 
the Sum of two Thousand dolars upon two conditions. 

First that Said Town Shall yearly expend for the benefit of Said 
Town and its inhabitants an amount of Money equal to income of 
Said Bequest. 

Second. That the Said Town shall forever Keep in good and Suit- 
able repair and condition the "Fuller Plot" in the cemetery between 
the Upper and Lower Villages in Said Town. 

Therefore. Resolved by the people of the town of Hillsborough 
as represented by the legal voters thereof in annual Town Meeting 
assembled, this thirteenth day of March 1877, that said bequest be 
and hereby is accepted upon the conditions set forth in the will of 
Said deceased. 

Resolved that in order to provide for the conditions upon which 
said bequest is made and accepted, the Selectmen of said Town be and 
hereby are instructed and empowered to invest Said Sum for the 
benefit of Said Town, in the purchase of the Bonds of Said Town to 
the amount of Said Two Thousand Dollars Said Bonds to be marked 
and Certified by the Town Treasurer as belonging to the Mark W. 
Fuller Fund of the Town of Hillsborough Said purchase and transfer 
to be recorded by the Town Clerk, and that said Bonds shall be held 
by Said Selectmen as Trustees of second fund. 

Resolved that said Selectmen be and hereby are authorized, Em- 
powered and instructed, annually and in the month of November of 
each year, to draw their warrant upon the Treasurer of Said Town 
for the Sum of one hundred and twenty dollars, as the income of Said 
fund the same to be yearly expended for the benefit of the inhabitants 
of Said Town in the Maintenance of a Public Library in Said Town 

Resolved that the Public Library hereby established Should be 
forever known as the Fuller Public Library of Hillsborough. 

Resolved that the selectmen of Said Town shall forever be Trustees 
of Said Library, and that two other Trustees shall be chosen by Said 
Town by ballot as follows ; at the first Election of Trustees the first 
person so chosen shall serve two years and the Second person chosen 
shall serve one year, and thereafter one trustee shall be chosen an- 
nually who shall serve two years. 


Vacancies in said board of Trustees to be filled be appointment 
of Selectmen and that said Trustees Shall have authority to appoint 
Librarian and establish rules and regulations for the management of 
said Library subject always to the approval, in struction and control 
of the Town by vote at any legal meeting. 

Resolved, that the rules and regulations so established shall be 
printed and inserted in every Book belonging to said Library together 
with the following statement, viz.; The Fuller Public Library of 
Library of Hillsborough, was established in the year 1877, by request 
of Mark Fuller a respected citizen of Said Town who died September 
23d, 1876. 

Resolved, that, in order to further provide for the faithful fulfill- 
ment of the second condition is made and accepted, the Selectmen of 
Said Town be and hereby are instructed and directed annually and in 
the month of May of each year to Visit the Fuller Plat in the Cemetery 
heretofore named, to carefully examine the Same and to see that said 
Plat is and forever shall be kept in good and Suitable condition, and 
that Said Selectmen be and hereby are authorized and empowered to 
draw their warrant upon the Treasurer of Said Town for such sum of 
money as may be necessary to defray the expense thereof 

Resolved that the substance of the last foregoing resolution shall 
be printed with the rules and regulations of said Library as here- 
inafter provided 

Resolved that, in order to attest the good faith of the Town in 
accepting this bequest upon the stated conditions ; in grateful 
acknowledgment of the same, and as a mark of respect to the Memory 
of our deceased fellow townsman, the Town Clerk is directed to record 
these resolutions in the Town records and to deliver an attested Copy 
of the same to Sarah C. Fuller, widow of said deceased, and also to 
his nephew Wirt X. Fuller of Boston, Massachusetts. 

Immediate action was taken to complete the organization, 
and in the fall of 1877 the library was opened with Willis G. 
Buxton, Librarian. From that day the library has been well 
patronized, this patronage steadily increasing year by year. 
February 1, 1920, there were 6,601 volumes in the library, with a 
circulation for the preceding year of 8,432 books. The financial 
statement made by the trustees showed that the income from the 
Fuller Fund for the year was $105 ; from fines, $35 ; town ap- 
propriation, $395 ; cash on hand at the beginning of the year, 
$97.85, making the total receipts $632.85. 

The management of the library has been with a Board of 
Trustees, consisting of two members acting in conjunction with 


the Selectmen. One Trustee is elected biennially for a term of 
two years. The membership has been : 

1877-78, Eev. Harry Brickett. 1887-94, Marcellus H. Felt. 

1877-98, Charles W. Conn. 1895 to date, George W. Haslet. 

1879-80, Cornelius Cooledge. 1897-1902, John Goodell. 

1881-86, Brooks K Webber. 1905 to date, Leon S. Hill. 

Four persons have acted as Librarians during the 43 years 
since its incorporation, as follows : 

Willis G. Buxton, from the opening to the fall of 1881. 

Mrs. Brooks K. Webber, 1881 to 1890. 

Mary Bixby, succeeding Mrs. Webber and continuing until 
the fall of 1903. 

Mrs. Ada H. Brown, 1903, to the present time. 

Water Supply. 

Hillsborough has an abundant supply of excellent water, the 
source being Loon Pond. October 18, 1886, Messrs. Goodhue 
and Birnie of Sprinfield, Mass., gave a bond to the town for the 
purpose of laying the pipes and constructing a system of water 
works for the town. The work was undertaken and carried out, 
the company putting in an iron pipe cement lined. This system 
was in operation for ten years, when it was purchased January 
11, 1897, by the Hillsborough Bridge Village Fire prec'nct at a 
cost of $45,000. The Water Commissioners at this time were 
Stephen Dennison, Brooks K. Webber and John B. Smith. 

Soon after its purchase by the town a reconstruction of the 
whole system was begun, and this work has been continued until, 
a greater part has been relaid. The main line of pipe was reladd 
in 1910 at an approximate cost of $26,000. The original cement- 
lined pipe has been replaced by cast iron. The pipe starts at 
sixteen inches, reduced to fourteen inches, fire protection con- 
sidered, twelve lines of hose giving satisfaction. The average 
pressure is seventy pounds to the square inch. 

According to the commissioners' report for 1920 the total 
cost of water works has been to January 13, 1920, $76,347.69, 
divided as follows: 


Construction Account. 

Original cost, 




Excess renewals, 


Service connections, 


Building account (g 


house ) , 


Meter account, 


Total, $76,347.69 

The number of hydrants is 44 ; number of service connec- 
tions, 427. 

William Oscar Story, Superintendent, Clerk and Manager of 
the works for twenty-two years, recently resigned from the office, 
deserves a large share of the credit for the success of the water 
works among the best in the state for its size. 

The Board of Water Commissioners at the present time com- 
prises Victor Mosley, Stillman H. Baker, Alfred L. Mansfield, 
Jesse C. Parker and Charles A. Jones. 

Hillsborough Bridge Village Fire Precinct. 

The growth of Bridge Village in the number of its in- 
habitants and increase in valuation of property made it apparent 
that precautionary measures should be taken towards fire protec- 
tion. Accordingly a petition was circulated and signed by some 
of the leading citizens for the formation of a fire department, 
and the following action taken by the town : 

March 23, 1870, upon a petition of twenty-four legal voters 
of Bridge Village, it was 

Voted "Pursuant to the foregoing application of ten or more of 
the legal voters of Hillsborough Bridge in the town of Hillsborough, 
we here by fix by suitable boundaries a village fire district including 
said village to be known as the "Hillsborough Bridge fire district, and 
to be bounded as follows, 

Beginning at the town line between Hillsborough and Deering, at 
the corner of John Codman farm, and southwest corner of Hiram 
Grimes running northerly on said Codman's line to land owned by 
Warren W. Hill (known as the Smith farm), thence northerly on said 
Hill's east line to the river crossing the river to the northeast corner 
of the Preston land thence northerly and westerly on said Preston 
east and north line to the Henniker road, crossing the said road to the 
northeast corner of William T. Whittle land thence westerly on said 


Whittle's north line to the old road running by said Whittle's house. 
Thence northerly on said road to the northeast corner of Abel C. 
Burnham's meadow. Thence westerly on said Burnham's north line to 
J. S. Burtt's land to James Newman's land. Thence westerly on said 
Newman's north line to Herbert Kimball's land. Thence westerly, on 
said Kimball's north line to northeast corner of Samuel M. Baker's 
land. Thence westerly on said Baker's north line crossing the road 
leading from Bridge Village to Hillsborough Centre to Luke Mc- 
Clintock land. Thence southerly on said McClintocks east line to land 
of Erickson Burnham. Thence easterly and southerly on said Burn- 
hams and east line to northeast corner of Silas N. Sawyers farm. 
Thence westerly on said Sawyers north line to the Bible Hill road. 
Thence northerly on said road to the northeast corner of Charles D. 
Bobbins land, thence westerly on said Bobbins north line crossing 
the Beard road and river to the northwest corner of said Bobbins land. 
Thence southerly on said Bobbins west line to Antrim line. Thence 
easterly on Antrim and Deering lines to the bounds first mentioned 
Witness our hands first day of July 1870. 

George Brockway, 
Erastus Wilson 
George E. Hoyt 
A true copy attest 

Wm B Whittemore Town Clerk 
Above report of the Selectmen was adopted by the town at a 
special meeting called in Newman's Hall August 6, 1870. 

Plan of Fire Precinct. 

In June, 1886, Mr. George C. Patten prepared a plan or map 
of the proposed territory covering the fire precinct, the following 
being a copy of his Field Notes submitted to the town : 

Field Notes and Description of a Survey of the Fire Precinct Hills- 
borough Bridge, N. H., Surveyed by George C. Patten, June, 1886. 

Beginning on Deering line being the north line of said Deering 
and the south line of Hillsborough at the corner of land owned by 
George Burnham; thence s. 87 W. following the line of said towns until 
said lines intersects the westerly boundary of land owned by F. C. 
Grimes; thence north 45 rods; S. 83 W. 16 rods; N. 6 W. 37 rods by 
said Grime's land, to the highway leading from Hillsborough Bridge 
to Lower Village ; thence N. 70 W. 58 rods by said highway to corner 
of Bower's land ; thence N. 4 E. 17 rods by said Bower's Land ; S. 83 
W. 5 rods ; N. 4 E. 46 rods to N. E. corner of said Bower's land and 
land of heirs of Ammi Smith ; thence S. 83 W. 56 rods ; N. 4 E'. 62 rods 
to Dascomb lot by land of said Smith heirs ; thence S. 85 W. 18 rods ; 


N. 4 E. 40 rods; N. 83 E. 58 rods by said Dascomb lot to land of Dr. 
Burnham; thence N. 9 E. 54 rods; N. 83 E. 18 rods by said Burnham's. 
land to land of A. J. Barney ; thence S. 9 W. 8 rods ; N. 83 E. 68 rods ; 
N. 3 E. 8 rods by Burnham lot to corner of Marcy lot; thence by the 
Marcy lot N. 83 E. 54 rods to the Centre Boad ; thence N. 41 W. 92 
rods by said road; thence N. v20 E. 18 rods; thence N. 88 E. 110 rods 
by land of Herbert Flanders to the corner of the Lacy Lot ; thence 
same course by land of Alvah Merrill 38 rods to land of Ed Gould ; 
thence N. 10 rods ; S. 86 1-2 E. 30 rods and also 52 rods by land of said 
Gould and Levi Bixby to corner of land of said Bixby and Seth Millen ; 
thence S. 24 E. 60 rods by said Bixby land to old Henniker road ; thence 
by said road S. 14 W. 44 rods to land of William Whittle ; thence E. 38 
rods ; S. 6 W. 32 rods ; thence S. 75 E. 4 rods by land of said Whittle to 
the New Henniker road ; thence N. 15 E. 42 rods to corner of land of 
Mrs. William E. Gould; thence S. 60 E. 37 rods by said Gould land to 
the railroad thence by the railroad N. 38 E. 91 rods to the river bend ; 
thence by the river S. 16 E. 70 rods; thence S. 65 1-2 W. 50 rods; S. 14 
W. 138 rods ; S. 77 E. 80 rods ; S. 12 W. 87 ; S. 87 W. 52 rods by the river 
left bank; thence S. 14 1-2 E. across the river and highway 60 rods 
to the corner of said George Burnham land, the place of beginning 
and bounds first mentioned — The whole of the above description being 
conformity to a plan or map of said precinct drawn by George C. 
Patten dated June, 1886, to which reference may be had for more 
particular description. 

Geobge C. Patten, Surveyor. 

Marcellus H. Felt was President of the first meeting and 
Frank E. Merrill was made Clerk, a position the latter held for 
a considerable period. Three fire wards, a term which has since 
been changed to "commissioners" were chosen as follows: Ed- 
win B. Morse, Ruthven Childs and Lewis W. Gallond. 

The present Commissioners are John B. Tasker, John H. 
Grimes and Daniel W. Cole. 

The judicious manner in which this department has been 
managed during the 34 years of its existence is shown by the 
figures which place its total indebtedness at $26,650.00, while 
there was a balance in the treasury January 31, 1920, of $530.63, 
leaving the net debt $26,119.37. To over-balance this are the 

unavailable assets of the department, viz : 

Water system, valued at $76,347.69 

Precinct building and lot 5,000.00 

Fire apparatus 2,000.00 

Total, $83,347.69 


While Bridge Village has, no doubt, had its share of small 
fires it has not been visited by a serious conflagration, due largely 
per adventure to the effeciency of its fire department. 

Electric Light and Power Company. 

In January, 1894, the Hillsborough Light and Power Com- 
pany was organized and incorporated under the laws of New 
Hampshire with sufficient capital to carry on an extensive} 
business. The stockholders were Col. James F. Grimes, Henry 
Emerson, Dr. John Goodell, David H. Goodell, Wilson D. For- 
saith, Harvey Jones, James S. Butler, Henry C. Colby, George 
W. Lincoln. Land and water power on the Contoocook River 
below the covered bridge in Henniker were purchased of John 
C. Campbell, George B. Codman, Baxter Codman and William 
Merrill. A power house and dam were built just over the line 
between Hillsborough and Henniker, and about half way between 
the villages. The power at the falls here is sufficient to produce 
double the energy that is now required. 

March 4, 1895, the town contracted with the company to 
illumine the streets of the village with sixty-four electric lights of 
twenty-five candle power and one of fifty. 

The town paid the company for lighting the streets during 
the year 1919, $2,235.57. 

Board of Trade. 
Not many years since civic bodies formed to improve the 
business conditions of a town or hamlet were unknown and un- 
thought of, and affairs of public interest were generally left to be 
looked after by some public spirited individual or ignored. This 
did very well until public affairs became more complicated by the 
entrance of manufacturing interests, which in turn created many 
other lines of industries. Then the Board of Trade, or an organ- 
ization composed of leading citizens, was formed to promote the 
growth and prosperity of the place. Hillsborough saw the ad- 
vantage likely to result from such an association, and about 
twenty years ago formed its Board of Trade, William H. Mana- 
han, Jr., as its first President. The history of this body of active 
citizens does not read very differently from that of another com- 
munity off its size and character. 


In many, many ways not only has Bridge Village but the 
whole town been benefited by its steady upbuilding. Among the 
things it has accomplished or been largely instrumental in ac- 
complishing has been "Merchant's Week," "Clean-Up Week," 
doing publicity work, encouraging and organizing the Contoocook 
Valley Highway Association, bringing into town new enterprises, 
until to-day the Board of Trade represents the greatest factor for 
public good in town. The President at the present time is Charles 
F. Butler, who is also Town Clerk, and Daniel W. Cole is 

The popular slogan of this popular body of public spirited 
citizens ever is : 

Come to Hillsborough. 


Nestled 'mong New Hampshire's foothills, 

Rarest jewel in her crown, 

Clothed in colors like the morning, 

Proud of all this wide renown, 



The Railroad. 

The roads of a country are the arteries of business, and 
according to the facilities by which a district may be reached by 
the traveling public or commodities moved, depends very largely 
the success or failure of such a place. 

Hillsborough is no exception to this rule, and by the ever- 
changing means of transport is the progress of the town definitely 
marked on the highway of time. If the coming of the post rider 1 
was hailed with delight, the appearance of the stage driver was 
doubly so. The building of the turnpike denoted a still greater 
stride. Then a mightier step was taken when the whistle of the 
iron horse rang up and down the Contoocook valley. The Con- 
toocook Valley Railroad was incorporated June 24, 1848, from 
"any point on Concord or Northern Railroad, in Concord, to any 
point in Peterborough." Its terminal, however, was at Bridge 
Village for nearly twenty years, or until June 7, 1869, when the 
Hillsborough and Peterborough Railroad was incorporated July 
7, 1869. "From any point in Center Village in Peterborough to 


present terminus of Contoocook Railroad in village of Hillsbor- 
ough Bridge." The track from Concord to Bridge Village was 
completed in December, 1849; tne balance to Peterborough in 
June, 1870. 


Valley (State) Bank was chartered July, i860. The Pre- 
sident was John G. Fuller ; cashier, John C. Campbell ; directors, 
John G. Fuller, Ammi Smith, John G. Dickey, James F. Briggs, 
Joshua Marcy, Stephen Dow Wyman, Francis N. Blood. Pre- 
sident John G. Fuller died within a year, and Stephen Kendrick 
was chosen to succeed him. This bank was succeeded by the 
National Bank. 

The First National Bank of Hillsborough was chartered in 
December, 1868, and organized with a capital stock of $50,000. 
Stephen Kendrick was President until his decease in 1884, when 
he was succeeded by James F. Briggs, in August. John C. Camp- 
bell was cashier from 1868 until his death. The first board of 
directors consisted of Stephen Kendrick, Stephen D. Wyman, 
James F. Briggs, George Noyes, Jonas Wallace, James Chase and 
Edward P. Howard. 

Officers at the present time : President, Ruthven Childs ; 
Vice-President, Alba Childs ; Cashier, Alfred L. Mansfield. Di- 
rectors: Ruthven Childs, Alba Childs, Alfred L. Mansfield, An- 
toinette Childs, John S. Childs. 

Hillsborough Savings Bank was organized in 1889. Hon. 
John B. Smith was its first President. Directors were : Samuel 
W. Holman, W. D. Forsaith, Alba Stephenson, James F. Grimes, 
Ruthven Childs. The officers to-day are : President, Ruthven 
Childs ; Vice-President, William P. Childs ; Second Vice-Pre- 
sident, Alfred L. Mansfield ; Treasurer, John S. Childs. Directors, 
in addition to the above named officials, William D. Forsaith, John 
H. Grimes, William H. Roach. 


The most prominent resort in a town in the days of auld 
lang syne, with the exception of the meeting house, was the public 
hostelry, then known as "The Tavern." Here the towns people 
were wont to gather to discuss the topics of the day, and here 


gathered the strangers for entertainment. Many of the latter 
class were travelers from afar, bringing with them the news from 
the outside world, which constituted almost entirely the intelli- 
gence the country people obtained. 

Situated as Hillsborough has been, first on the main lines of 
the stage coaches, and then on the railroad, the town has been 
fairly well represented by its public houses, three of which stand 
out conspicuous above the many that have come and gone with 
the current of the rolling years. 

The first tavern in town was opened on Bible Hill by Capt. 
Samuel Bradford at the very beginning of the second settlement 
in the early sixties of the 18th century. Here were held nearly 
if not all of the public meetings or gatherings of the members of 
the embryonic town. Was it some matter concerning the 
establishment of the church in that little corner of the universe, 
the good people came hither. Was it something of moment relat- 
ing to the incorporation of a new township, the stalwart inhabi- 
tants met here ancT propounded those questions which arise upon 
such occasions. Here, perhaps more than at any other place in 
town were discussed the trials and tribulations incident to the 
carrying on of a war that cast its gloom over the land. In fact, 
few indeed must have been the matters that concerned the affairs 
of the little commonwealth that did not have their origin here. 
Captain Bradford must have been an ideal landlord. 

No doubt the Bradford Tavern brought in a substantial 
income to its genial owner. It was not, however, until ten years 
after the close of the War for Independence that taverns began 
to be numerous in town, and the keeper invariably had a license 
to dispense the beverage which has since been removed by 
national legislation. The following list has been compiled from 
the town records : 

Innkeepers of Hillsborough. 

1792 James McColley, Moses Steel. 

1793 John Dutton, John Curtice, William Taggard, Enos Towne, 

George Descomb, Jonathan Herrick, James McColley. 

1794 Moses Steel, Nehemiah Jones, (last kept at Dr. Joseph Monroe's 

house), John Dutton, Wiliam Taggard, George Descomb, 
Jonathan Harrick. 


1795 Moses Steel, John McClintock, Nehemiah Jones, (at Dr. Monroe's 

house), John Dutton, Benjamin Pierce, George Descomb, 
William. Taggard. 

1796 Moses Steel, Nehemiah Jones, John Dutton, William Taggard, 

Asahe Gowing, Benjamin Pierce. 

1797 George Descomb, William Tolbert, John Dutton, Moses Steel, 

Nehemiah Jones, William Taggard, Going and Bichardson. 

1798 John Dutton, George Dascomb, Nehemiah Jones, William Tolbert, 

Benjamin Pierce, William Tag-gard, Moses Steel. 

1799 Moses Steel, John Dutton, William Taggard, Benjamin Pierce. 

1800 James Willson, John Dutton, Benjamin Pierce, George Descomb, 

William Taggard. 

1801 William Whiting, John Dutton, Benjamin Pierce, George Des- 

comb, William Tolbert, William Taggard, Jonathan Easty, 
Thomas Nichols, James Willson, Lt. John McNiel. 

1802 Benjamin Pierce, John Dutton, Darius Abbott, William Taggard, 

George Descomb, James Wilson, William Tolbert, Jonathan 
Bailey, Timothy Wyman (in house lately occupied by James 
Willson, John Towne, Lt. John McNiel. 

1803 George Little, (near ''Great Bridge," so called), Benjamin Pierce, 

James Willson (at his store), John Dutton, Benjamin Pierce, 
George Descomb, William Tagg'ard, John Shed, Otis How (in 
house lately occupied by John McClintock), John Towne, 
James Ayers, (in house lately occupied by William Whiting), 
Timothy Wyman (in his store), James Ayers (in a house 
near the turnpike gate.) 

1804 George Little, Benjamin Pierce, John Dutton, William Taggard, 

George Descomb, John Shed, Joseph Chapman (sell liquor in 
his store.) 

1805 John Dutton, Timothy Wyman (sell liquor in his^store.) Ben- 

jamin Pierce, George Descomb, William Taggard (sell liquor 
in his store), John McNiel, William Tolbert, John Gilbert 
(sell liquor in his house), Dutton & Barnes, Josiah Coolidge 
(at the store of George Little at the "Great Bridge," so 

1806 Lt. John McNiel, John Shed, James Eayrs, Timothy Wyman (to 

sell liquor in his store) ; Josiah Coolidge (to sell liquor in his 

1807 Samuel Barnes; also to Dutton and Barnes (to sell liquor at 

their store), William Taggard, Lt. John McNiel, James Eayers, 
Timothy Wyman (to sell liquor at his store), Benjamin Wilkin 
(at the toll house). 

1808 Dutton and Barnes, (to sell liquor at their store), John McNiel, 

James Ayers, Timothy Wyman (sell at his store), Samuel 


Barnes, Mrs. Lucy Coolidge (to sell for one month at the 
house lately occupied by Josiah Coolidge), John Dutton. 
1809 James Ayers. 

Special Act of Town. 

That there was no prejudice against the use of liquor in 
those days, even upon religious occasions or at least those as- 
sociated with religious endeavor, is shown by the following 
privilege extended to two of the townsmen at the ordination of 
the minister at the Centre church ; while similar favors were 
shown to Messrs. Daniel Chase and Ezekiel Little at the same 
time and place : 

June 17th, 1805. This may certify that we do allow John Taggard 
and Jonathan Sargent, Jr., to sell spirituous liquors at and about the 
time of Ordination on the Common Southeasterly of the Meeting 

Elijah Beard, 
Andrew Sargent, 
Jacob Spaulding, 


In stage coach days, when country travel was at its zenith 
and the merry crack of the old stager's whip rang cheerfully over 
scenes that are now deserted, at least half a dozen inns stood at 
about equal distances apart on the old turnpike to care for the 
wayfarers and enliven travel along the broad highway of life. If 
I have been correctly informed the following hostelries, either 
contemporanously or otherwise catered to the comfort of man 
and beast : Beginning in order at the lower end of the route, 
Colby Tavern, St. Charles at Lower Village, Carr House, Wilson 
House, Wall Tavern, and McCoy Inn. 

Nathan Howe kept a tavern on the Second New Hampshire 
turnpike at about equal distance between the Governor Pierce 
residence and Washington Centre for several years prior to his 
decease in 1807. 

Two of the most noted public houses during the days of the 
stage coach were the Pierce Mansion and Wilson House. These 
were both kept by leading citizens of their day and both received 
a liberal patronage. 

404 history of hillsborough. 

The American House. 

The American House was opened about 1810 by Cyrus and 
Jonathan Sargent, who seemed to have prospered here for a little 
over five years, when they sold out to another. The house had 
several owners the succeeding years, until 1832 it was purchased 
by Daniel Brown, who had previously been living on a farm. Mr. 
Brown immediately became a very popular landlord, so that his 
patronage steadily increased. The American House became noted 
for its public gatherings, balls, suppers and public meetings. In 
1834, July 21, he was appointed postmaster, which office he held 
until his death November 24, 1847. 

Upon the decease of her husband Mrs. Brown assumed 
management of the hotel, a duty she performed very creditably 
until her marriage to James Forsaith, who then became its land- 
lord. He continued its management until Freeman Dow of Deer- 
ing bought the property March 14, 1861. 

Mr. Dow rented the house to John Ellinwood, who kept 
public house here for perhaps three or four years. James S. 
Butler succeeded Mr. Dow as owner. A man by the name of 
Perley kept the hotel at one time. At another it was kept by 
George Stewart. 

This building stood on the site of the present Post Office 
block, and was owned by Eli Sargent, when the house was 
destroyed by fire on the night of March 10, 1869, which closed a 
very successful career. 

The fire which burned the American House, with most of its 
contents, caught in a stable just below the tavern on Depot Street, 
and it made a clean sweep of the corner, destroying as well as the 
building mentioned, the millinery store adjoining the hotel stand, 
a barber shop run by Horatio Whittier, and the tailoring establish- 
ment owned by Luther Eaton. 

Reuben Lovering built the block which now stands on the 
site of the American House, and Mrs. Lovering the building 
where the stable stood and where the pool room is now located. 

St. Charles Hotel. 

Another public house that stands conspicuously among the 
hotels of the town is the St. Charles built in 1855 by Samuel 
Kimball, and occupied as a public hostelry by his brother, Charles 


Kimball in 1856. Nathan Carr soon succeeded Mr. Kimball as 
landlord of the St. Charles, while he in turn was followed in the 
early sixties by Charles Gillis. 

The next owners were Hugh Daley and Willard Rice ; then 
the Hurd Brothers kept the inn for awhile, when it was sold to 
Daniel Butterfield, and by him to George Butterfield, under 
whose ownership it was burned in 1889, the fire starting from the 
explosion of a kerosine lamp. John Gibson purchased the site 
and built a dwelling house on the lot. 

The St. Charles was well kept and enjoyed an excellent 
reputation as a public house during its third of a century of 
catering to the welfare of the traveling public. 

The Valley Hotel. 

The Valley Hotel, for a time known as the Railroad House, 
was opened soon after the coming of the railroad early in 1850, 
the laying of the track being completed in December, 1849. This 
house has received an almost unbroken business ever since, so to- 
day it can boast of being the oldest tavern in town, as well as the 
only one! 

To give a list of its many owners and landlords would be a 
difficult task. "Dr." Oliver P. Greenleaf, a character of whom 
many curious and (some of them) amusing stories are told to 
this day, seems to have been the pioneer at this stand. "Doctor" 
Greenleaf was succeeded by a man named Locke, and then fol- 
lowed a Mr. Fales and Mr. Course, though the latter never lived 
here. John Nichols of Manchester was owner for awhile, and 
then James Pearson. 

In 1872 Ruthven Childs became the owner and manager, 
having a very successful business for eight years, when he sold 
out. Jackman had an interest in the house for a time, and then 
John Foster became its owner. 

In 1891 Jacob Whittemore became its proprietor, but the 
following year he sold out to his brother-in-law, James H. Brown, 
who remained here five years. 

Since then several owners have held their titles and sold out, 
among them O. W. Proctor, succeeded by his son Leon O. 
Proctor, who at present has a garage close by. George 


Gould is the present proprietor. Located in the heart of the 
thriving hamlet of Bridge Village, near the railroad station, 
Valley Hotel deserves a liberal patronage, but like other public 
houses it has suffered a change if not a loss in business through 
the coming of the automobile, which has revolutionized the ways 
and means of travel. 

Professional, Fraternal and Social History. 

Not All the Glory Belongs to the Military — The Physicians — Dentists 
— Lawyers — Authors — Educators — Musicians and Artists — Secret 
Societies — First in Town in 1840 1 — Neighborly Bees the Orders of 
Early Days — Society of Cincinnati — Hillsborough Had One Mem- 
ber — Masonic Fraternity — Auxiliaries — Odd Fellows and Auxili- 
aries — Temperance Society — Daughters of the Kevolution — Grand 
Army of the Eepublic — Women's Belief Corps — American Legion 
— Military Bands — Hillsborough's Brass Band 1 — Highland Band — 
Merrill's Orchestra— Wahneta Orchestra — Music Club — Patrons of 
Husbandry — Womens Club — THE club — Lyceums and Debating 
Societies — Gold Seekers of '49 — Men Who Went to Klondike. 

While the military history of Hillsiborough fills many pages, 
somewhat to the exclusion of the citizens of civil callings, yet notj 
all of the glory belongs to the men who bore arms or those who 
led their victorious troops into battle. We need touch but briefly 
upon the long list of names belonging to the leaders of the peace- 
ful pursuits, as the majority of these will be described in the 
succeeding volume of this work devoted to the biography and 
genealogy of the town. 

The religious history of the town has been exceptionally 
bright, due no doubt to the high and self-sacrificing character of 
the men and women who upheld the welfare of the church fronl 
Parson Barnes and his faithful co-workers to the present time. 
The steady growth and progress of the different societies |has 
been marked with uniform harmony that is very much to their 

There are to-day five church societies in town, the Congre- 
gationalism Methodist, Community, Spiritualist and Catholic, the 
first two having branch houses at the Centre. 

As the history of these churches has been carefully traced in 
preceding chapters, and names and good works of their supporters 



have been so fully given there does not seem to be much that need 
be said here. It is good to be able to say that the churches of thd 
town were never in a more fit condition than to-day. 

The Medical Profession. 

Hillsborough has been especially fortunate in the number 
and ability of its physicians, who have not only administered to 
the ills of its inhabitants but have had wide practice in adjoining) 
towns. The physicians who have lived here have been able, up- 
right and trustworthy men, while being well qualified to perform 
the duties of their profession both as regards a general education 
and a knowledge of the science of medicine, always considering 
the period in which each lived. 

The first physician to settle here was Dr. William Little, who 
was born in Peterborough in 1752, during a temporary residence 
of his parents there, and coming to Hillsborough in 1782. He. 
studied medicine with Dr. Young of Peterborough, and practiced 
for a short time in Washington, going from there to Dracut, 
Mass., from which town he soon after came to Hillsborough. He 
located on the road leading from the Lower Village to Bible Hill. 
A more extended notice of him is given in the genealogy of his 

In 1784 Dr. Joseph Monroe, a native of Carlisle, Mass., who 
had fitted himself for the profession under Dr. Francis Kittredge, 
of Tewksbury, Mass., came to this town taking up his abode near 1 
the Centre. He was an estimable man and skillful physician, but 
he was spared only four years, dying quite suddenly. 

The third doctor to settle in the town was Dr. Benjamin, 
Stearns, who took up his residence here in 1797, and began the 
practice of medicine. He came here from Walpole, having re- 
ceived his medical education under Dr. Johnson of that town. 
He did not stay in town many years, but long enough to win the 
heart and hand of one of Hillsborough's most estimable 
daughters, Mehitable, youngest daughter of Dea. Joseph Sy- 
monds. After their marriage the couple removed to Truro, Nova 
Scotia, in 1804, where he became a very successful physician. 
(See Vol. II.) 

Dr. Joshua Crain, also spellel Crane by some members of the 


family, practiced medicine in town from 1802 to 181 1. He was 
born in Alstead, and studied medicine with Dr. Kittredge of Wal- 
pole. During his residence in Hillsborough he acquired the 
reputation of being an able doctor and a worthy citizen. 

Dr. Luther Smith came from Mont Vernon in 1809, to settle 
at Bridge Village, where he lived until his death in 1824. 

Following the death of Dr. Smith one of his students and the 
first native of the town to enter upon the practice here of 
medicine, Dr. Thomas Preston, became his successor. Dr. Smith 
had previously practiced in Deering, and while making no claim 
to being a surgeon, he was eminently successful as a practitioner 
and built up a large practice, which he retained until obliged to 
give up on account of the infirmities of age. 

The Hatch family of doctors was largely represented here 
the first half of the 19th century. The first of these was Dr. 
Reuben Hatch, a native of Alstead, but coming here from New- 
port, located at the Lower Village, but after a few years he built 
a house about half way between the Lower and Upper Villages, 
which spot has been the residence of a physician for more than 
a hundred years. In 1835 he removed to Griggsville, 111. 

Dr. Mason Hatch, a kinsman of the above, after having 
studied with Dr. Brooks of Alstead settled at the Centre Village 
in 1817. He built the only brick house in that village. 

Dr. Simon I. Bard was another skillful physician, but seems- 
to have been of a roving disposition. He remained in town less 
than five years. 

Dr. Elisha Hatch was another of a family of doctors, a native 
of Alstead and a graduate of Dartmouth Medical College, but 
whose successful career was cut short by a fall from the high 
beams of his barn in 1863, aged sixty-six. 

A student of Dr. Elisha Hatch, and a graduate of Dartmouth 
Medical College, Dr. Abel Conant Burnham opened an office at 
the Centre in 1841, the only physicians in town being Drs. Hatchj 
and Preston, the last an old man. Dr. Burnham came to the 
Centre in February and in October of the same year, 1841, hd 
removed to Bridge Village, and soon came into a good practice. 
He was married in 1849 t0 Caroline M. Dascomb, and that same 
year he bought the William Taggart homestead on Main Street 


corner of Church Street, where he resided until his death May 
21, 1896. 

The next physician to begin practice in town was Dr. John 
H. Goodell, who bought the beautiful home of Dr. Hatch situated 
between the Upper and Lower Villages, and entered upon his 
extensive practice with success. Dr. Goodell held the respect and 
esteem of the town's people, and was engaged several years in 
getting data for a history, some of the material which has been 
used to advantage by the writer. (See sketch, Vol. II.) 

Dr. John Q. A. French came into town soon after Dr. 
Goodell and settled at Upper Village. He soon secured a wide 
patronage, his practice extending into Washington. Dr. B. H. 
Phillips opened an office at the Centre in December, 1841, but left 
in October, 1842. These years were witnesses of several changes 
in the personnel of physicians, most of whom settled at the 
Centre, and all of whom died after a short service. These 
practitioners included a Dr. Swett and a Dr. Wilkins ; Dr. Ben- 
jamin Lyford, who came in 1848, remained a few years and went 
away to die. Doctor Skinner was another who made a short stay 
and died. Dr. Charles Hartwell, a native of the town, practiced 
a few years and died. 

Dr. George Priest, son of Benjamin Priest, a resident of the 
Centre, graduated from the academy, fitted himself for practice 
of medicine and settled in Manchester, Mass. Another native to 
practice a few years in town at the Centre and Bridge Village was 
Dr. Charles Gould. 

Dr. Harvey Monroe who graduated from Dartmouth College 
in 1858, and from the Medical Department in i860, practiced first 
in town, but eventually settled in East Washington, where he| 
died after two years, aged thirty-one. He bade fair to be a 
successful physician. After his death his widow, Mrs. Monroe, 
studied the science of medicine, attended medical lectures and 
became a successful practitioner, the first woman to take up the 
practice of medicine in this vicinity, but like her husband she was 
not spared for the work. 

Dr. Joseph Parsons opened an office at Bridge Village in 
1856, and secured a good practice, which was ended by his death 
in i860. He was succeeded by Dr. Constantine C. Badger, who 


practiced a few years and died, all of which seems to go to prove 
that the climate of Hillsborough has not been conducive to thej 
longevity of physicians. 

Dr. Edward P. Cummings, son of Rev. Jacob Cummings, at 
one time pastor of the Congregational church at Bridge Village, 
began the practice of medicine at the Bridge in 1855, but in 1858' 
removed to Francestown. Soon after the breaking out of the 
Civil War, he enlisted as a surgeon in the navy. Here his service 
was cut short by his untimely death. 

Dr. James P. Whittle, son of John and Susan (Chase) 
Whittle of Weare, came here in i860, remained three years, 
married Hattie A. Hayward, Akron, Ohio ; removed to Manches- 
ter, where he practiced two years, and then returned to his native 
town, where he enjoyed a large practice until his decease a few 
years since. 

Dr. Israel P. Chase began a practice covering over thirty 
years in the early sixties. He was at one time editor and pub J 
lisher of the Hillsborough Messenger, the product of his work 
showing him to have been a man of fine literary attainment. He 
had been editor of a paper in Manchester, went to California iri 
the early days ; returning to New Hampshire he studied medicine 
with Dr. James Peterson of Weare ; he was a graduate of Hahne- 
mann College, Cleveland, Ohio ; practiced medicine for several 
years in Virginia, when he returned to New England to open an 
office in Henniker. From this town he came to Hillsborough, 
where he soon acquired an extensive practice. He resided here 
until his death in 1890. 

Dr. George W. Cook began a practice here in 1873, to be 
succeeded by Dr. Marcellus H. Felt, so the medical force in Hills- 
borough now became Drs. Burnham, Chase, Goodell, French and 
Felt, skillful physicians all, a power in town that was respected 
for many years. These genial representatives of the "old! 
School" of physicians all continued active in their profession, 
until finally the day came they were compelled to lay aside their 
burdens as the destiny of humanity demands. 

It was several years before a break came and new candidates 
for public favor appeared upon the scene, one by one, and to-day 
the ills to which the human is heir is faithfully administered to 


by Drs. William P. Grimes, William L. Kelso, Charles B. Abbott, 
George S. Bailey, each enjoying a medical parish of his own and 
without envy or rivalry for his professional brothers goes his 
round of duty in harmony. (See Vol. II, for family sketches.) 

Native Born Doctors. 

Among the natives of the town who have acquired com- 
mendable practice in their profession was Dr. Thomas Preston. 

Dr. Silas McClary, son of John McClary, born July 29, 1792, 
acquired his medical education at New Haven, Conn., and after 
practicing several years in Canada, removed to Ohio, where he 
was very successful. 

Dr. John Herbert Foster, second son of Aaron Foster, born 
March 8, 1796, studied his profession with Dr. Reuben Muzzey at 
Hanover, graduated at the medical school connected with Dart- 
mouth College, in 1821, began practice in New London; after a 
few years he removed to Pittsburgh, Penn., from thence to Mo- 
bile, Ala., and in 1832 to Michigan, where he seems to have spent 
the rest of his days. 

Dr. Samuel Sargent, son of Jonathan Sargent, born March 
13, 1790, practiced elsewhere with marked success. 

Dr. Horace G. Pike, born at Bridge Village January 24, 
1825, son of Justus and Charlotte (Blodgett) Pike, went to Cali- 
fornia in 1859, removed to Hopeland, California, where he en- 
joyed a lucrative practice in his chosen profession until his death 
November 4, 1888. (See Pike family, Vol. II.) 


The history of dental surgery in town contains the names of 
several skillful dentists. The pioneer in this particular field wasi 
Dr. Samuel Ball, a gentleman and skilled in his profession. He 
came here about i860, and remained ten years, to be followed 
by Dr. Frank P. Carey, who built up an extensive practice, and 
then moved out of town. Dr. Frank P. Newman had an office 
at Bridge Village for several years with a wide circle of patrons. 

The dean of the profession, however, is Dr. Samuel O. 
Bowers, who opened an office at Bridge Village, where he has 
practiced his profession ever since, over fifty-five years, a long 
period in which to carry on any particular line or vocation. Dur- 
ing the long period Dr. Bowers has seen radical changes and great 


improvement in dental surgery as an art. One of the advances 
in the profession is the now general use of anaesthetics in the 
extraction of teeth and so avoiding the suffering which was in- 
evitable under the old regime. Dr. Bowers has had a branch 
office in Henniker for fifteen years, and another in Antrim for 
about half that time. 

His son, Dr. Elgen Bowers, after several years of practice in 
Peterborough and Antrim, has an office at Bridge Village, where 
he is gaining a patronage that extends into adjoining towns. 

Rapid improvements have been made in the methods of den- 
tistry, so that to-day it is far easier for the patient than the times' 
when the regular doctor performed this part of his duties with 
evident relish, using the old- fashioned "cant-hook" and after it 
had slipped off half a dozen times more or less, and he had pulled 
and twisted the head of his victim until he was about ready to give 
up, the tooth came — perhaps all of it, but more likely the exposed 
part, leaving a root to be dug out or endured, as the patient 


David Starrett was the pioneer of the lawyers to establish 
himself in this town. Born in Francestown April 21, 1774; grad- 
uated at Dartmouth in 1798, he' studied law with the Hon. 
Samuel Bell, then at Francestown, and was admitted to the Hills- 
borough County bar at Hopkinton in September, 1802. He com- 
menced practice at the Lower Village the same year, and con- 
tinued his practice here until in March, 1812, when he left his 
home without declaring his purpose and never returned. (See 
sketch in Vol. II.) While he was not a forcible speaker, he was* 
one of the best read lawyers of his day and possessed a host of 

The second lawyer and successor of the unfortunate Starrett 
was John Burnam, a native of Dunbarton, who graduated from 
Dartmouth in 1807, to begin the study of law with the Hon. 
Samuel Bell, of Francestown, but completed his course with David 
Starrett, Esq., at Hillsborough Bridge. He was admitted to the 
bar at Amherst in February, 181 1, and came to Hillsborough the 
following year. He married Sarah W., daughter of the Rev. 
Joseph Appleton, of North Brookfield, Mass. and sister of the 


wife of David Starrett, Esq. Mr. Burnam,who taught school at 
the old academy for a time, possessed a keen intellect, 
which had been broadened and refined by his studies of ancient 
and modern literature. He died April 3, 1826, at the age of 46 
years, leaving five children. 

David Steele, Esq. was another descendant of the Scotch- 
Irish colonists at Londonderry, and his ancestor by the same 
name was among the early comers. He was the son of Deacon 
David Steele, of Peterborough, and was born in that town 
September 30, 1787. He graduated from Williams College in 
1810, and began the study of law in the office of James Walker, 
Esq., Francestown, but finished under the auspices of the Hon. 
Charles G. Atherton, at Amherst. Admitted to the practice of 
law at Amherst in September, 1813, he began practice in Hills- 
borough the following October of the same year. He was a 
lawyer of good standing and active in church work. He finally 
removed to Peterborough, where he died about 1866. He married 
in middle life Catherine Kendall, of Amherst, (See) who sur- 
vived him. They had no children. 

Timothy, the eldest son of Hon. Joshua Darling of Hen- 
niker, prepared for college in 1822. He studied law with Artemas 
Rogers, Esq. at Henniker, and commenced the practice of law 
at Hillsborough, as successor to John Burnam, Esq., in 1826. 
He remained in town only a year, as he had another object than 
the law already in his mind. A little later he began a course of 
Theological study, and eventually settled as a Presbyterian minis- 
ter in western New York, where the balance of his biography {is 

The next and foremost among Hillsborough's lawyers stands 
Hon. Franklin Pierce, the Fourteenth President of the United 
States, and one of the most brilliant pleaders at the bar the coun- 
try has ever known. (See sketch in Vol. II.) 

Albert Baker was born in Bow, N. H., Feb. 5, 1810. He 
graduated from Dartmouth College in 1834 with the reputation 
of being one of the finest students who had ever attended that in- 
stitution. He immediately came to Hillsborough and commenced 
the study of law in the office of Franklin Pierce, with whom he 
continued for two years, and for one year was in the office of 


Hon. Richard Fletcher of Boston, Mass. In 1837 he began 
practice of his profession in Hillsborough, in the office where 
he commenced his study, Mr. Pierce having removed to Concord. 
In 1839 ne was chosen Representative to the Legislature and re- 
elected in 1840 and 1841. He died Oct. 17, 1841. In an ap- 
preciative review of his brilliant career Gov. Isaac Hill in the 
N. H. Patriot, said of him among other things : "Mr. Baker was 
a man of uncommon promise, gifted with the higher order of 
intellectual powers, he had trained and schooled them by an 
intense and almost incessant study during his short life. Had life 
and health been spared him, he would have made himself one of 
the most distinguished men in the country." 

Col. Benamin Kendrick Pierce was the eldest son of Gov. 
Benjamin Pierce, b. August 29, 1790. He received his education 
preparatory for college at Phillips Academy, Exeter, and entered 
Dartmouth College in 1807, remaining there three years when he 
began the study of law in the office of David Starrett, Esq. At 
the breaking out of the War of 1812, he entered the army wuth 
the rank of Lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Artillery. 
Though he had intended at the outset to continue his study of the 
law as soon as the term of service in the army should expire, he 
abandoned this purpose and advanced from the rank of Lieu- 
tenant to that of Colonel, proving an able and distinguished 
officer, receiving especial notice in the Florida War. 

Samuel H. Ayer was born at Eastport, Me. in 1819, and was 
educated at Bowdoin College ; read law with Messrs. Pierce and 
Fowler, at Concord ; was admitted to the Hillsborough County 
bar in 1841, and immediately settled in Hillsborough, becoming a 
very successful lawyer. He represented the town in the state 
legislature 1845-1848, being Speaker of the House the last two 
years. He was Judge Advocate Fourth Brigade, N. H. Militia 
under Gen. Samuel Andrews, and was appointed Solicitor for the 
County in 1847. In 1850 he removed to Manchester, and he was 
one of the commission for revising the Statutes of the State. H£ 
died suddenly in Manchester, October 10, 1858. 

John McFarland was the next lawyer to come to town, 
opening an office in the Upper Village, where he continued his 
practice until he died of consumption July 19, 1819, aged 


31 years. He was a native of Antrim, studied with David Starrett 
and John Burnam, and was admitted to the bar at Amherst. He 
never married. 

Rev. Harry Brickett, in an excellent article on the town says 
very aptly, "There have followed these advocates, men of brilliant 
talents, George Barstow, a native of Haverhill, a man of good 
mind and scholar-ship, a member of Dartmouth College, but who 
left before graduating. He succeeded as a man of letters rather 
than as a lawyer. He remained but a short time in town. (He 
was the author of a History of New Hampshire.) Francis B. 
Peabody was also in Hillsborough for a short time. Of him but 
little is known. Francis N. Blood, a Hillsborough boy, had an 
office and dwelling house at the Lower Village. He was regarded 
as a good lawyer, and an upright and honorable man. He died of 
consumption, leaving a good property, which he had gained in his 

Hon. James F. Briggs, of English parentage, — a distinguished 
counselor at law, later a member of Congress — practiced at the 
Bridge several years, until his removal to Manchester, where he 
died a few years ago. Charles A. Harnden succeeded Esquire 
Blood. He remained in Hillsborough but a short time after he 
was admitted to the bar. Brooks K. Webber opened an office at 
Bridge Village, following the removal of Esquire Briggs. He 
had a good practice. Andrew B. Spalding, of Lyndeborough, 
began the practice of law the latter part of 1876, but remained a 
little less than two years. He left under a cloud, but has since 
died. Willis G. Buxton studied law with Brooks K. Webber, and 
in the Boston Law School. After continuing in practice in Hills- 
borough for several years, he removed to Penacook, where he is 
still located and enjoys a good clientage. 

Chandler E., son of Joseph and Ann (Drake) Potter, was 
born at East Concord, March 7, 1807, and he was educated in the 
common schools and at Pembroke Academy, graduating from 
Dartmouth College in the class of 1827. He taught high school 
at Concord and Portsmouth, while studying law. He practiced 
his profession at Concord, but in 1843 removed to Manchester, 
where he became editor of the "Manchester Democrat", and in 
1852 and 1853 was editor of "The Family Monthly Visitor," 




during which period he contributed for each number an historical 
article of great interest and which attracted wide attention. He 
was a writer of marked power and wide research, becoming noted 
for his Indian knowledge, contributing an article for School- 
craft's work upon the Indians. In 1856 he wrote and published a 
History of Manchester, which was a little storehouse of historical 
information relating not only to his adopted city but to the state. 
Upon completing that he wrote "The Military History of New 
Hampshire." which was published by the state. 

For several years he was Judge of the Police Court, and 
acquired a reputation for the ability and impartiality in which he 
discharged the duties of that office. 

He became commander of the Amoskeag Veterans, which 
gave him his official standing, and added much to his reputation 
by the efficient manner in which he conducted himself in connec- 
tion with this body. 

The Pierce brothers, Colonel Frank H. and Kirk D., nephews 
of President Pierce, enjoyed a lucrative practice at the Lower 
Village for several years, until the former received the appoint- 
ment of United States consul to Matanzas, Cuba, by President 
Cleveland. Kirk D. removed to an office in Post Office, where 
he is still located and enjoys a good patronage, the oldest lawyer 
now in town. 

Judge Samuel W. Holman opened an office in Opera Block 
in 1878 and has remained here ever since, enjoying a lucrative 
practice. Upon the establishment of a probate court herein, he 
was made Judge, which office he is still holding. 

The latest comer of the legal fraternity is Ralph G. Smith, 
who formed a partnership with Judge Holman under the firm 
name of Holman & Smith. Mr. Smith has rapidly acquired the 
confidence and respect of the public, so he ranks to-day among 
the leading lawyers of the county. 

Among those who have spent a shorter period in town prac- 
ticing his profession was Jay Calwyn Browne, a young lawyer of 
great promise and eloquence as a public speaker. He had an 
office with Kirk L>. Pierce at Bridge Village, while he had a branch 
office at Henniker. He removed to Lebanon, after two years 


J. Willard Newman, son of James Newman, studied law 
under the direction of Brooks K. Webber, was admitted to the 
bar, and established an office in Chicago, where he was successful 
in his chosen profession. 

It will be seen that Hillsborough's long list of attorneys is a 
very respectable one, which may account for the fact that the 
town has suffered very few lawsuits of any magnitude. This 
may be explained by the truth that her lawyers have been safe 
advisers, and usually counseled a client to avoid the expense of a 
lawsuit if it could be accomplished by an amicable settlement. 
And this is the highest ethics of law. 

Hillsborough's educational record is very creditable to the 
town and has reflected honor and the good name of the town far 
and wide. Few towns of its size can furnish a longer or more 
distinguished list of men and women who have sought higher 
advantages than could be secured at home. 

College Graduates. 

Only brief mention will be made of those who are noticed 
elsewhere in this History, while others come in for a more ex- 
tended description. First on the roll of collegiates was Abraham 
Andrews, who graduated from Dartmouth College in 1811, and 
became an eminent teacher. 

Col. Benjamin Kendrick Pierce, entered Dartmouth as a 
classmate of Abraham Andrews, but at the end of his third year 
he left college to take up the study of law, which he abandoned 
at the breaking out of the War of 1812, and won distinguished 
military honors. 

Francis Danforth was the son of Jonathan Danforth, born 
February 28, 1793. He fitted for college at Phillips Academy, 
Andover, Mass., and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1819, 
to begin his studies at the Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass., 
graduating in 1822. The following year he was ordained pastor 
of the first Congregational Church in Greenfield, July II, 1823, 
remaining here until 1831. After a pastorate here of eight years, 
he was installed at Hadley, Mass., December 11, 1839, and was 
there in 1841. 


Amasa Symonds was born September 9, 1799, the son of 
Eliphalet Symonds, and prepared for college at North Andover, 
and Phillips Academy, South Andover, Mass. He entered Dart- 
mouth College in 1821. He had barely entered upon his second 
year, when he was obliged to come home on account of illness, to 
which he succumbed November 8, 1822, a young man of excellent 

Rev. Aaron Foster, born July 15, 1804, graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1822; entered Andover Theological Seminary 
in 1825 ; became a home missionary, and died at thirty-seven. 

Lieutenant Amos B. Foster, born July 15, 1804, was educated 
at West-Point, from which he graduated in 1827. He joined the 
regular army, and while performing his duty at Fort Howard, 
Green Bay, he was shot by a private whom he had reprimanded 
for disorderly conduct. This tragedy is described elsewhere. 

Hon. Franklin Pierce was the next collegiate, who graduated 
from Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me., in 1824. Rev. Harry 
Brickett, in speaking of this says : "He obtained from the college 
not only a good liberal education and the president's name to his 
diploma, but something which he regarded of vastly greater 
value, the heart and hand of the president's youngest daughter, 
Miss Jane M. Appleton, who proved to be both the ornament and 
the honor of his home, whether in his unostentatious one at Hills- 
borough or in the more conspicuous one at the White House at 

Rev. Henry Jones, son of Benjamin Jones, was born Sep- 
tember 29, 1804, prepared for college at Union Academy, Plain- 
field ; graduated at Dartmouth in 1835 ; married Betsy, daughter 
of Eliphalet Symonds in April 1836, and became preceptor of an 
academy at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Williard Jones, a brother of Henry, was born July .17, 1809. 
He was fitted for college at Union Academy, Plainfield, grad- 
uated from Dartmouth in 1835. He acquired a Theological 
education at the Lanes Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, and at the 
Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass. He was ordained as a 
missionary at North Weymouth, Mass., and on the same day was 
united in marriage to Miss Meriam Pratt, of that town. The 


Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Jones went to the missionary station m 
Oeroomiah, Persia. 

Abraham Andrews, son of Solomon and Sarah Andrews, 
born December 14, 1786, prepared for college under the direction 
of his uncle, the Rev. Ephraim P. Bradford, graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 181 1, and was for many years an eminent in- 
structor at Charlestown and Boston, Mass. 

John Appleton Burnham graduated at Amherst College in 
1833, gave up a profession for the manufacturing business and 
became the Agent of Stark Mills, Manchester, which position he 
filled with signal success for many years. 

Jeremiah Stowe was the oldest son of Dea. Joel Stowe, an 
enterprising citizen of Hillsborough, born February 15, 1795. He 
followed the course taken by his fellow-students of his day, 
prepared for admission to college at Union Academy, Plainfield, 
graduated from Dartmouth College in 1822 ; and from Andover 
Theological Seminary in 1825. He was employed as a home 
missionary for several years, but finally settled in the ministry at 
Livonia, N. Y., where he was much loved and respected. He fell 
a victim to consumption November 15, 1832, in his 37th year. He 
married July 26, 1826, Miss Austress, daughter of David Stewart 
of Amherst, who survived him. 

Joel Buchanan Stowe, the son of Dea. Joel Stowe, was born 
June 30, 1813. He graduated from the Teacher's Seminary, An4 
dover, Mass., to become an instructor at Plymouth, N. H. 
Eventually he went to a higher position in Cincinnattl, Ohio, 
where he became a noted teacher. 

Clark Cooledge, son of Lemuel Cooledge, entered Wesleyan 
University, Middletown, Conn., but died in July, 1840, a promis- 
ing young man. 

George Harvey Monroe, already mentioned among the phy- 
sicians, son of Col. Hiram Monroe, graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1858, possessing rare scholarship and the promise of un- 
usual success, which was overthrown by an early death. 

Alfred B. Dascomb, son of George and Mary Dascomb, 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1858. He became a teacher, 
which profession he finally gave up to enter theology, to become a 


Congregational minister, having pastorates in Vermont and 
Massachusetts, highly successful in his calling. 

Gov. John B. Smith fitted for college at Francestown, 
Academy, intending to follow a collegiate course but chose instead 
to devote his mind and energies to industrial pursuits, with a 
success that warranted him in his choice. 

Warren McClintock and his brothers Charles, James H., and 
John C, sons of Luke McClintock, afford a sad case of a family 
inheritance of that dread scourge consumption. The first namecj 
graduated from Dartmouth College in 1864, and entered at once 
upon the work of teaching as his life calling. Of great promise, he 
died in 1871, aged thirty-one. His brother Charles was fitted fop 
college, but stopped there and enlisted to serve three years in the 
Civil War. Suffering with malaria at the time he was mustered 
out, he died on his way home and his body was given burial in a 
Southern field where he sleeps to-day in the land he helped to 
save. The younger brother mentioned thought to avert the fate 
that overhung his family, by choosing an open air life, only to 
fall a victim to the fatal disease in early manhood. 

Abby Sawyer McClintock, a sister to the above brothers, 
graduated at Appleton Academy, New Ipswich, but she fell early 
by the wayside, as did three of her sisters. 

Frank H. Pierce was a graduate at Princeton College, and 
was admitted to the bar at twenty-three. 

Harry L. Brickett, son of Rev. Harry and Eliza C. Brickett, 
fitted for college and graduated at Oberlin College, Ohio, in 
1875, an d entered at once upon teaching and taught two years, 
1875 and 1876, at Schroon Lake, N. Y. In 1876 he came to 
Hillsborough as principal of the Valley Academy and Union 
School at Bridge Village. He remained here three years when in 
1879, he entered Andover Theological Seminary, to graduate in 
1882. While in his senior year he was called to preach at Lynn- 
field Centre, Mass., where he remained several years. He is now 
settled at Southboro, Mass. 

Ellen J., daughter of Rev. Harry and Eliza C. Brickett, 
graduated from the Ladies Literary Department of Oberlin Col- 
lege in 1875. That year she began to teach with her brother, 
Harry, at the Valley Academy and Union School at Bridge Vil- 


lage, finishing here in 1879, wnen she taught at Deering Academy 
1879-1880. Miss Brickett next taught in the grammar school at 
Hooksett. She resides in Manchester. 

Julia E., second daughter of Rev. Harry and Eliza C. 
Brickett, graduated at East Lake George Academy, N. Y., in 
1875, but died at Hillsborough the next year aged seventeen. 

Mary I., youngest in the family, graduated at Abbott Aca- 
demy, Andover, Mass., in 1884. 

Several in the Dutton family have won distinction as teachers 
and educators. Samuel T., son of Deacon and Mrs. Jeremiah 
Dutton was a graduate at Yale College, became a successful 
teacher ; was superintendent of schools in New Haven, Conn., 
and accomplished much in educational work. 

Silas Dutton, brother of Samuel T., was a student at Yale 
College, standing high in scholarly accomplishments, but fell a 
victim to disease early in his career. 

Jacob B. Whittemore, son of William B. Whittemore, fitted 
at Phillips Exeter Academy, and was for a time a student at Yale 

Sarah Ellen Whittemore, sister of above, graduated at Brad- 
ford Academy, Bradford, Mass., to follow teaching for several 
years with marked success. She taught at Bradford, N. H., and 
at Hillsborough Bridge. She married James H. Brown, and 
their daughter, Eva, is an accomplished teacher in the Union 
school at Bridge Village. 

Ellen Eliza Marcy graduated from Mount Holyoke College 
in 1862; taught at Washington Heights, N. Y. ; Irvington-on-the 
Hudson, N. Y. ; and Jersey City Heights, where she was Principal 
of No. 14 Primary school for ten years, and until her death in 
1879 a * tne a b e °f 39 years. Miss Marcy was a proficient and 
faithful teacher, loved and respected by a wide circle of friends. 
She was a singer in the Dutch Reform church and Sunday school 

Sarah Fuller (Bickford) Hafey, teacher and author, the 
only daughter of James D. and Elizabeth (Conn) Bickford, was 
doubly esteemed in her chosen professions. She was educated in 
the district schools and the academies of Washington and Fran- 
cestown, both of which institutions were regarded with great 



favor in their day, and while not aspiring, perhaps, to such lofty 
ideals as the high schools of to-day, nevertheless graduated pupils 
fully as well fitted for the practical duties of their lives as is 
bestowed by the modern diplomas. She taught in such institu- 
tions as Perkins Institution for the Blind and Laselle Seminary. 

As a writer of prose and verse, she attained a wide recognii 
tion as an author, contributing to many of the leading magazines 
and periodicals. She married Charles M. Hafey, a lawyer in 
New York city, but broken in health returned to her early home, 
where she passed away January 31, 1920. She sleeps as this is 
written in Maplewood churchyard, the silent city under the hill 
where rest so many of the town's departed sons and daughters. 

Adah Buxton, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Buxton, 
graduated at Tilton Seminary, in 1884. She became a successful 
teacher for several years and has since been librarian of the town 
library. She married Herman G. Brown. 

Reuben W. Lovering, son of Reuben and Martha A. Lover- 
ing, was another young man with a most promising future, stand- 
ing foremost in scholarship and manly exercises at school, but 
succumbing to disease almost immediately upon his graduation 
at Harvard University in 1880. 


Hillsborough has been noted for its industrial and military 
rather than its literary activity. Among those who have written 
for the press with success have been Mary Adelaide Farrar, 
daughter of Dr. Isaac Farrar. She contributed regularly to the 
contemporary papers, among them the Boston Traveler. 

Archibald Robbins, was the author of a volume of 275 pages 
published in 1818, entitled "A Journal of an Account of the 
Slavery and Sufferings of the Author and the Rest of the Crew 
of the Brig Commerce upon the Desert of Zahara in the Years 
1815-1817." This is a highly interesting work upon the customs 
of the Arabs and other peoples. 

J. Stanley Grimes, counsellor at law and president of the 
Western Phrenological Society and Professor of Medical Juris- 
prudence in the Castleton, Mass., Medical College, wrote a 
treatise on Phreno-Philosophy and another on "Mesmerism and 


Magic Eloquence," in 1849. This work was well received and he 
was popular as a lecturer on those and kindred subjects. These 
volumes of nearly 400 pages were reprinted in London. 

Adeline Dutton Train Whitney, granddaughter of Silas and 
Nancy (Tobey) Dutton, contributed with marked success and 
became a well-known author of articles for the magazines and 
books of high literary merit. She died a few years since. 

Among the authors of local repute is Mrs. Florence Kimball 
Favor, who has written many poems for the local papers and 
recently published a volume of poetical selections entitled, "Songs 
of the Field." 

Emma Burnham Warne has contributed considerable to 
periodicals and magazines, and has written a work upon the Con- 
toocook River, entitled "The River of a Hundred Waterfalls," 
which is in the publisher's hands. 

Mrs. Alice D. O. Greenwood, at the present time a resident 
of Hillsborough, though not a native, has written numerous 
poems of high merit for papers and magazines, and has had two 
volumes of poems published, "Husks and Nubbins," "Cawn 
Dodgahs," while she has a third volume that is to be published 
soon, entitled "Along the Byways." 

As if one poet in the family was not sufficient Mr. Albert O. 
Greenwood, has written some very acceptable poems and ballads, 
which have the ring of Will Carleton in their rhyme and rhythm. 
He has written what is probably the best Life of Tecumseh that 
has been told. 

Dana Smith Temple is another native of Hillsborough who 
has written considerable for the periodical press, mostly verse. 

Mrs. Agnes Barden Dustin came to Hillsborough from 
Lebanon nine years ago, and has a beautiful home on Pleasant 
Heights. She has written for periodicals and magazine for a 
period of twenty years, among them being The Youth's Com- 
panion, American Boy, Woman's Home Companion, Farm and 
Fireside, Wellspring, the David Cook publications and nearly 
all of the Sunday School publications. Her writings carry very 
much of the outdoor spirit. 

fraternal notes. 425 


Edward Robbins Johnson, born July 28, 1810, prepared for 
college at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., and at Boscawen 
Academy. He entered Dartmouth College in 1830, but abandoned 
the course after two years to begin the study of law. This he 
also gave up and became an instructor of music, winning a high 
standing in this profession. He removed to Hartford, Conn. 

Miss Josie Burtt, daughter of Kneeland Burtt, showed an 
early talent for music and became a noted cornetist. 

Among the noted musical composers of the country Mrs. 
H. H. A. Beach (Amy Marcy Cheney), a resident of Hillsbor- 
ough, takes high rank. From earliest childhood Mrs. Beach 
displayed her unusual musical gifts, and at the age of sixteen 
made her first public appearance in Boston. Many honors have 
fallen to the share of this gifted woman, both abroad and at 
home, and she has cordially been recognized as a musical authority 
by eminent musicians and musical organizations. (For a more 
extended sketch see Vol. II.) 

Secret Societies. 

While secret societies and fraternal orders have existed in 
one form or another in limited numbers from time immemorial, 
it has been only within comparatively recent years that they have 
flourished so abundantly that frequently a person belongs to so 
many he cannot remember their passwords so he could get into 
one of their meetings without help. Before the Revolution men 
and women were kept too busy building their homes in the 
wilderness and in caring for their large families to find time to 
have many "evenings out." It was enough that they were on 
friendly terms with their neighbors, and neighborly meetings 
came next to going to church with them. 

Following the close of the Revolution a few of General 
Washington's officers, himself at the head, formed the Order of 
Cincinnati, and one of Hillsborough's Revolutionary veterans, 
Col. Benjamin Pierce, was an honored member, a Vice-President 
at the time of this death. No one could belong to this select 
society who was not an officer or the son of an officer in thd 
struggle for Independence. 

4 2 6 history of hillsborough. 

Finally a few of the leading citizens of the town decided to 
organize a body of the Masonic fraternity, and accordingly Har- 
mony Lodge, No. 38, Free and Accepted Masons was constituted 
by virtue of the following Dispensation: 

By the authority vested in me as Grand Master of Masons in and 
throughout the State of New Hampshire. — Be it known that I, Joshua 
Darling, on application and recommendation of George Dascomb, David 
Fuller, John Burnam, and others, all Master Masons, for a new Lodge 
to be holden at Hillsborough, in this State, do hereby empower said 
Brethren and others to assemble at Hillsborough as a Lodge of Masons 
to perfect themselves in the several duties of Masonry, to make choice 
of officers, to make regulations and By-laws and to admit candidates 
in the first degree of Masonry, all according to the ancient customs of 
Masonry and to be called Harmony Lodge. 

This warrant of Dispensation is to continue in full force for one 
year, un]ess sooner installed. 

Given under my hand and the Seal of the Grand Lodge this 14th 
day of June, A. L. 5821. 

Josuah Darling, Grand Master. 
Thomas Beede, Grand Secy. 

A true copy examined by 

Reuben Hatch. 
The first regular meeting of the Lodge was held July 16, 
A. L. 5821 (1821), with George Dascomb as W. M., David 
Fuller, S. W., and John Burnam, J. W., and they chose as officers 
at that meeting, Bros. Samuel Barnes, Treas., Reuben Hatch, 
Secy., Silas Marshall, Sr. Dea., Hugh Jameson, Jr. Dea., William 
Sargent and Daniel Priest, Stewards, Moses Woods, Tyler, John 
Lawton, Chaplain, Ezra Woods, Marshal, Thomas Wilson, 
Mason Hatch and Jacob Gibsen, Select Committee. This meeting 
was held at Brother Samuel Kimball's at the Lower Village. 
There is no record to show who were the Charter Members of 
the Lodge, or who were present at this meeting, except as their 
names appear as Officers or members of Committees, of which no 
less than fifteen were chosen mostly to make the necessary 
preparations and arrangements for Installment, and the 13th of 
the following September was fixed upon, as the time for that 
ceremony. The following is the list of the names of the Brethren 
whose names thus appear. George Dascomb, David Fuller, John 


Burnam, Samuel Barnes, Reuben Hatch, Silas Marshall, Hugh 
Jameson, William Sargent, Daniel Priest, Moses Woods, John 
Lawton, Ezra Woods, Thomas Wilson, Mason Hatch, Jacob 
Gibson, John Lewis, Samuel Kimball, Joseph Bickford, Alexan- 
der Parker, Stephen Rolf, Stephen Wyman, John Foster, John 
G. Flint, "Tim" Wyman, John Towns, Thomas Cheney, Timothy 
Kendall, Nathaniel Johnson, Abraham Andrews, and Joseph 
Minot. Benjamin Wilkin's name also appears upon the record 
of the first meeting, but as he is admitted to member December 
3rd A. D., 1821, he could not have been a Charter Member and 
the names of Foster, Johnson and Minot are not appended to 
the first Code of Bylaws. All these Brethren except seven, Bros. 
Foster, Wyman, Johnson, Minot, Burnam, Gibson, and Kendall 
were members of Mount Vernon Lodge then located at Wash- 
ington, and received their degrees in whole or part in that Lodge. 
The oldest (masonically) was Brother John Towns who was 
initiated March 8th, 1803, and the youngest Bro. John G. Flint 
who was raised to the third degree April 16, 1821. 

At this first meeting the application of John Sargent to be 
made a mason was received, they also voted to accept the report 
of the Committee on Bylaws to purchase jewels, badges, and 
the necessary "wood furniture." 

A Fellow Craft's Lodge was opened for the first time, Octo- 
ber 8, A. L. 5821, and that degree conferred upon Alpheus 
Crosby, but it was not until November 5, 1821, that a "Master's 
Lodge was opened in Due and Ancient Form" and Brother Crosby 
was raised to Sublime Degree of Master Mason therein. Masonic 
custom, as practised in Harmony Lodge at that time, was that 
proposals for initiation, balloting for the same was done in an 
entered Apprentice Lodge. Proposals for Fellow Craft degree 
and the ballot upon the same in a Fellow Craft's Lodge and only 
proposals for the Masters degree and for membership, were 
made or acted upon in a Master's Lodge. The first Code of 
Bylaws contained the following section : 

The regular fee for the three degrees was fifteen dollars, 
divided as follows : 

Accompanying the application, $3.00; for conferring the? 
Apprentices Degree, $9.00; for conferring the Fellow Craft's 


Degree, $1.00; for conferring the Master's Degree, $2.00. 

The year 1822 was one of prosperity, seven being initiated, 
seven passed to the degree of Fellow Craft, six raised to th|e> 
sublime degree of Master Mason, and seven admitted to the 

Brother Barnes died that year and was probably buried with 
Masonic honors as a Committee was chosen "to express the 
thanks of this Lodge to the wife of our late Brother Samuel 
Barnes for her particular attentions at the funeral of her late 

Another meeting was now held and Major John Lewis was 
chosen Master at the annual meeting. The Bylaws were 
amended so that one blackball should not only exclude from the 
degrees and form membership, but the Brother casting it should 
not be questioned as to his reasons for so doing. They also 
changed the time of meeting from Monday on or preceding, to 
Wednesday, on or preceding, each full moon at 2 o'clock, p. m. 
Nothing further worthy of note occurred during this year, the 
average attendance was 23^2. 

At the Regular Communication of Jan. A. L. 5824 the Select 
Committee reported the Lodge out of debt and a balance of $94.04 
in the treasury, although some of the claims were not actually 
paid till some time afterwards. 

In the year 1825 six were admitted to membership and ac- 
cording to the records peace pervaded the Hall. 

In April it was voted to approbate the formation of Aurora 
Lodge in Henniker. Twelve members were admitted at the first 
meeting of the year 1826 which is probably the largest number 
at any one time in the history of the Lodge. 

In May it was voted to approbate the formation of Pacific 
Lodge at Francestown. 

At the annual meeting holden May 28, 1828, a new Code of 
Bylaws was adopted under an act of incorporation from the 
Legislature of New Hampshire, and the names of forty-eight 
members are appended to it, in their own handwriting. This was 
the last full Code adopted until January 5853 (1853), but there 
were several Brethren who were not admitted to membership 


until long after the adoption of this new Code, who signed the old 

The following year, 1829, there was practically no work 
done, the attendance was much smaller, averaging only eleven, 
and the tide of public opinion was very strongly Anti-Masonic, in 
consequence of the excitement which followed the disappearance 
of William Morgan, said to have been abducted and drowned in 
Lake Ontario by Free Masons for exposing the secrets of the 
Maeons. Brother Robert Morris wrote a book in which he 
claimed those accusations false, but whether true or false, it had 
the effect to nearly or quite prostrate the Fraternity throughout 
the country for a series of years. Still Harmony Lodge passed, 
raised and admitted to Membership, one candidate, Brother 
Nathaniel George in 1830, the last work of which there is any 
record until Sept. 22, 1852, a period of twenty-two years when 
Brother Edward C. Cooledge was initiated. But regular meetings 
were continued for a year longer. Communications were held 
from one to three months apart with an attendance of from five 
to nine members although at one meeting June 15, 1832, the 
record shows that Brother Silas Dinsmore then W. M. was the 
only one present. 

From 1839 for the next five years, meetings were held more 
frequently, sometimes monthly, but a record of one is a record 
of all. From May 21, 1845, to May 2, 1849, another period of 
four years, there is no record and the meeting of this last date, 
is the only one until Aug. 25, 1852, when an application was 
received and the three degrees were conferred upon Brother 
Edward C. Cooledge in due form and order, the first time in 
twenty-two years as before stated. 

Another two years of inactivity followed, with irregular 
meetings and a small attendance, but upon October 4, 1854, the 
sons of Free-Masonry again arose and cast some rays of light 
upon Harmony Lodge. 

On December 30th, 1857, it was voted to appoint a committee 
to see about moving the Lodge to the Bridge Village, and at the 
next meeting held January 27th, 1858, it was voted to move to 
Joshua Marcy & Co's Hall which was located on the south side 


of the river, the building now used as a dwelling house on the 
hill above the Mosley Store. 

For some reason or other this place of meeting did not meet 
the needs of the Fraternity for during '60 and '61 several different 
committees were appointed to procure another place of meeting 
and on Februray 12th, 1862, James Newman proposed to the 
Lodge that he would build a Hall that the Masons could have 
for their own. 

On May yth l 1862, it was voted to do no more work in their 
present quarters and the next record shows that about thirty-five 
brethren together with five candidates went to Henniker and 
used the hall of Aurora Lodge to confer the degrees. 

During this period of unrest and warfare although meetings 
were held quite regularly the attendance was very small. 

On December 3, 1862, it was voted to move to the hall of O. 
P. Greenleaf & Co which was in what is now the Valley Hotel. 
Here they met until May, 1864, when they moved to the building 
James Newman had promised to build, which we now know as 
the Colby Block. 

Immediately following the close of the Civil War Masonry 
in Harmony Lodge enjoyed a period of growth and prosperity, 
and almost yearly we find that Festivals were voted to be held 
but the records do not reveal in what manner they were con- 

In 1878 the brethren then residing in Antrim petitioned the 
Grand Lodge for a charter but this petition failed. 

The membership for the next twenty years continued to 
increase and in 1889 it seemed necessary that more commodious 
quarters be secured and it was proposed that the new hall over 
James S. Butler's store be hired but this was not done and they 
continued to meet in the Colby Block until in 1892 when Peter 
H. Rumrill started to build his brick block he agreed to finish off 
the upper story in conformity with the wants of the Masons and 
consequently they now enjoy one of the prettiest and most con- 
venient places of meeting possible. 

The new Hall was fitted up with new furniture throughout 
and at a special meeting held May 7th, 1894, it was dedicated 


with appropriate ceremony attended by over ioo Masons and 200 
invited guests including the Grand Master of New Hampshire 
and his official Suite. 

George W. Haslet was the Worshipful Master at this time. 

From that time on to the present day the Lodge has been a 
continued strength in the community honoring and honored by 
those who were admitted to its membership and as it now ap- 
proaches its 100th anniversary the members review with pride 
the historical and fraternal part that Harmony Lodge has linked 
so plainly to the civil and social developement of the town and 
one hundred fifty strong stand on the brink of another hundred 
years ready to uphold the high standard of the Fraternity. 
Portia Chapter, No. 14, O. E. S. 

In Masonic Hall on the evening of October 19, 1892, Portia 
Chapter, No. 14, Order Eastern Star, was instituted. The ritual- 
istic work was exemplified by the officers of Martha Washington 
Chapter, No. 6, of Goffstown, and the following officers were 
installed : 

Ada H. Buxton, Worthy Matron; Marcellus H. Felt, Worthy 
Patron; Mollie C. Grimes, Associate Matron; Fred S. Piper, 
Secretary; Sillman McClintock, Treasurer; Emma J. Burnham, 
Conductress; Angie I. Marcy, Associate Conductress; Hiram J. 
Gage, Marshal ; Abbie R. Wyman, Organist ; Cora L. Peaslee, 
Ada; Elsie C. Woodhead, Ruth; Mabel S. Piper, Esther; Clara 
Webber, Martha; Mary H. Newman, Electa; Ella L. Danforth, 
Warden ; Charles H. Danforth, Sentinel. 

The charter members are as follows : Elsie Woodhead 
Aldrich, Ada Buxton Brown, Ella L. Danforth, Charles H. Dan- 
forth, Marcellus H. Felt, Alice C. Farley, Susan A. Freeman, 
Charles M. Freeman, Mina S. Gage, Hiram J. Gage, Minnie 
Gage, Angie I. Marcy, Nellie McClintock, Sillman McClintock, 
Mary H. Newman, Mabel I. Piper, Fred S. Piper, William H. 
Roach, Cora L. Peaslee Scruton, Mollie Grimes Thornton, Abbie 
R. Wyman, Emma J. Burnham, Clara S. Webber. 

Portia Chapter has been honored by the selection by officials 
from its ranks by the Grand Lodge. Its Past Matrons are Ada 
H. Brown, Angie I. Marcy, Susan A. Freeman, Mary G. Thorn- 


ton, Clara F. Harris, Mary W. Van Dommele, E. Estella Shedd, 
Mary H. Newman, Alma C. Wellman, Alzira F. Gove, E. Lena 
Brown, Bartha M. Brown, Helen J. Buzzell, Sarah A. Grove, 
Frances L. Tierney, Maude B. Proctor. 

The Past Patrons are Marcellus H. Felt, Josiah W. Elery, 
Hiram J. Gage, Andrew J. Van Dommele, Charles M. Freeman, 
William H. Roach, William P. Prescott, Leon B. Proctor. 

For many years Portia Chapter enjoyed prosperity, but the 
time came when, like most country chapters, it suffered from loss 
in membership. In 191 7 the Chapter had lost so many members 
through removal and death it seemed so it must surrender its 
charter, but owing to the efforts of the faithful survivors in 1919 
the Chapter began to take on new life, and the membership was 
doubled during that year. The Reviving Chapter was recognized 
by the appointment of Mrs. Maude B. Proctor as Grand 
Representative of Tennessee. 

On October 19, 1920, Portia Chapter observed its 29th 
anniversary by inviting Themis Chapter of Peterboro, Martha 
Washington of Goffstown and Atlantic of Francestown to be its 
guests. At the same time Grand Matron Mrs. Florence T. Davis 
and her suite made an official visit. There were nearly two 
hundred present. 

January, 1921, Mrs. Maude B. Proctor Grand Martha, Mrs. 
Edith Perham of Atlantic Chapter and Mrs. Helen Bunnell in- 
stalled the following officers: Miss Isabel Bowers, Worthy 
Matron ; Leon B. Proctor, Worthy Patron ; Mrs. Emma Whelply, 
Associate Matron ; Mrs. Mary MacGregor, Secretary ; Mrs. Ada 
H. Brown, Treasurer ; Mrs. Emily Flanders, Conductress ; Mrs. 
Lottie Harvey, Assistant Conductress ; Mrs. Emma Locke, Chap- 
lain ; Miss Angie Marcy, Marshal ; Mrs. Grace Perry, Organist ; 
Miss Eva Brown, Ada ; Mrs. Dorris Beane, Ruth ; Mrs. Belle 
Bennett, Esther; Miss Etta Gile, Martha; Mrs. Inez Cole, Electa; 
Miss Marie Fisher, Warden; William H. Roach, Sentinel. 

During the two previous years Portia Chapter had been 
increased from 43 members to 127. Two were dimited and two 
lost by death, John C. Coggswell and Harold C. Tucker. The 
Chapter promises now many years of prosperity. 


BUILT 18716. 


Valley Lodge No. 43, I. O. O. F. 

Valley Lodge No. 43, I. O. O. F. was instituted in Hills- 
borough, April 9, 1858, by Grand Master William R. Tapley of 
Dover. Seven resident members of the fraternity connected with 
lodges in Manchester and elsewhere became its charter members. 
They are as follows : Henry W. Watson, E. P. Cummings, 
Charles H. Greenleaf, E. W. Codman, W. H. Hubbard, E. B. 
Carter, John M. Codman. 

Nine residents of the town were initiated that night, giving 
the lodge a membership of 16. The initiates were: R. D. Bruce, 
M. P. Perley, William B. Pritchard, Luke Thompson, J. H. T. 
Newell, Samuel C. Barnes, Edward Kellom, J. W. Thorpe, 
Theron B. Newman. 

At that meeting the first officers were elected and installed 
as follows : John M. Codman, Noble Grand ; Henry W. Watson, 
Vice-Grand ; E. P. Cummings, Secretary ; Charles H. Greenleaf, 
Treasurer; E. W. Codman, W. H. Hubbard, C. B. Carter, 

The lodge was instituted in a small hall at the junction of 
Depot and Henniker Streets, where its meetings were held for 
about fourteen years. Then it removed to more commodious 
quarters in the Whittemore Block. What is known as Child's 
Opera House was built in 1877. The Order encouraged the 
building of this block and in the fall of the next year removed 
to its present quarters which were better suited to accomodate its 
growing membership. 

It was incorporated according to the Laws of the State of 
New Hampshire, December 21, 1872, as Valley Lodge, No. 43, 
I. O. O. F. 

Several members have withdrawn to become charter mem- 
bers of Massasecum Lodge, No. 34, Bradford ; Waverly Lodge, 
No. 59, Antrim ; Crescent Lodge, No. 60, Henniker, and Forest 
Lodge, No. 69, Marlow. 

During the Civil War a great many of its members went into 
the army and the lodge suffered so severely that for a time its 
existence was threatened but afterwards it quickly recovered. 

In the World War its members did all they could to assist 



their country. Fifteen saw actual service and one, Brother 
Everett M. Heath, gave his life that the world might be safe for 
democracy and to uphold the principles of Friendship, Love and 

At no time in the history of the lodge has it been as prosper- 
ous and done as much good as at present. 

With a bright record in the past, it looks into the future with 
every promise of a long continued usefulness and successful 
maintenance of those noble principles upon which it has been 

Hope Rebekah Lodge, No. 20. 
Hope Rebekah Lodge, No. 20, was instituted December 18, 
1883, by Horace A. Brown, Grand Master and Joseph Kidder, 
Grand Secretary. It has the distinction of having forty-four 
charter members. They are: 

John W. Craine (Deceased) 

Lottie A. Craine (Deceased) 

H. Etta Abbott (Deceased) 

Fred Abbott (Deceased) 

Etta E. Hoyt 

C. H. Quinn (Deceased) 

Helen M. Quinn (Deceased) 

Henry C. Morrill (Deceased) 

Mary M. Morrill (Deceased) 

Frank Bennett 

Edward Kellom (Deceased) 

Francis G. Smith (Deceased) 

Albert L. Pillsbury 

Estella E. Pillsbury 

Gardner Towne (Deceased) 

Cynthia Towne 

Samuel D. Hastings (Deceased) 

Pebeeca S. Hastings (Deceased) 

William B. Pritchard (Deceased) 

Nathan B. Peaslee 

Fannie S. Peaslee (Deceased) 

Herbert D. Millett (Deceased) 

Charles Wilkins 

Wealtha Wilkins (Deceased) 

George H. Travis 

Lettie J. Travis 

John Jackman (Deceased) 

Ida E. Jackman 

Orlando Sargent 

Julia E. Sargent (Deceased) 

L. Frances White (Deceased) 

Baxter Codman (Deceased) 

May Codman 

Flora Allen (Deceased) 

Sarah M. Story 

Mary A. Smith 

Henry P. Whitaker (Deceased) 

Eliza A. Whitaker (Deceased) 

M. Lizzie Holman (Deceased) 

Scott Hoyt 

Maria D. Hoyt 

Levi Pike 

Augusta A. Millett (Deceased) 

Alice G. Millett (Deceased) 

Henry P. Whittaker had the honor of being first Noble 
Grand ; Sarah M. Story was first Treasurer and Lottie M. Craine 
was first Chaplain. 


Hope Lodge has grown steadily and now has a membership 
of two hundred and forty-eight. 

North Star Encampment No. ii, I. O. O. F. 

The North Star Encampement No. n, I. O. O. F. was in- 
stituted July 15, 1868, by Grand Patriarch Jonathan D. Stratton. 
The following Brothers were the founders : Horace Eaton, Daniel 
Herrick, Alvah Merrill, William B. Pritchard, Charles Upton, 
Luther S. Eaton, Luke Thompson, Edward Watson, E. M. Cod- 
man, John H. Locke, C. E. Hill, R. F. Noyes, H. W. Watson. 

Since its institution 224 members have been admitted. Its 
present membership is 124. Ten withdrew to become charter 
members of Mt. Crotchet Encampment of Antrim. Seventy 
have died and the other twenty have left the order for various 

For the first twenty-five years its growth was slow but since 
then it has progressed rapidly and especially so since 1916. 

Two important dates in the history of the Encampment were 
May 8, 1907 and May 8, 1912 when the Grand Encampment of 
New Hampshire held its Annual Sessions in Hillsborough. 

At the session of 1912 one of the members of North Star 
Encampment, Bert L. Craine, was elected and installed Grand 
Patriarch. He was also elected Grand Representative to the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge in the year 1913 and attended the sessions 
of that body at Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 191 3 and at Atlantic 
City, N. J., in 1914. 

At the present time it is considered one of the best Encamp- 
ments in the state and is noted for its excellent degree work. It 
has conferred the degrees in several other Encampments in the 


Improvement Club. 

The Improvement Club is composed of the ladies of Hope 
Rebekah Lodge. It was formed about twenty-five years ago with 
the aim to improve the town or any of its activities. 

No record was preserved prior to 1900. 

Ella A. Gove had the honor of being the first President and 
served in this office faithfully for three years. 

The Club is now flourishing with Lottie Harvey as president. 

436 history of hillsborough. 

Daughters of American Revolution. 

The Eunice Baldwin Chapter, D. A. R., was organized 
January 8, 1898, and named January 22, 1898. The Charter 
members were : 

■Miss Mary C. Grimes, Mrs. Eliza J. C. Kimball, 

Miss Clara F. Grimes, Miss Emma W. Mitchell, 

Mrs. Josephine M. Brown, Miss Cora I. McKellips, 

Miss Flora B. Eastman, Mrs. Eliza H. Haslet — A real 
Miss Minnie C. Eastman, daughter, 

Miss Lenora B. Gould, Miss Mary J. Haslet, 

Mrs. Ella G. Foster, Miss Emily Z. Kendall, 

Mrs. Mary E. Holman, Mrs. Sarah A. Grimes. 
Mrs. Mary E. (Andrews) Kimball, 

The officers elected for the first year were : 

Regent, Miss Mary C. Grimes, appointed by the National Society 
at Washington ; Vice-Regent, Miss Mary J. Haslet ; Secretary, Miss 
Flora B. Eastman ; Treasurer, Miss Cora I. McKellips ; Registrar, Mrs. 
Mary E. Holman ; Historian, Mrs. Josephine M. Brown. 

Board of Managers: 

Miss Emima W. Mitchell, Miss Emily Z. Kendall, Mrs. Mary E. Kim- 
ball, Mrs. Eliza J. C. Kimball, Miss Leonora Gould. 

A Loan Exhibit of curious and old articles was held August 
29 and 30, 1900, and a good sum of money realized. Some in- 
teresting things belonging to Ex-President Pierce were among 
the many articles exhibited. The same year, 1900, work on Bible 
Hill Cemetery was done — 41 headstones reset, bushes and trees 
cut, lots graded ; 18 days put into the labor, and the society is still 
trying to keep the yard in order. June 11, 1904, tablets were 
placed in Smith Memorial Church to first minister, Rev. Seth 
Farnsworth, and at Centre Cong, church, — to Rev. Jonathan 
Barnes and wife. A tablet was placed on Town House boulder, 
and one for Pierce Homestead in July, 1905. Also tablet to 
"Unknown Dead Soldiers" on boulder in wall of Centre Cem- 
etery, one on "Old Oven" of Pierce fame. The Pound at Centre 
was marked and cleared of trees and bushes. 

In May, 1906, markers for the graves of the Revolutionary 
soldiers, 33 in number, and for the soldiers of 1812, 22, were pur- 
chased and erected. These graves are decorated each year. 


The officers for the year 192 1 are: 

Regent, Miss Mary K. Pierce; Vice-Regent, Miss Emma W. 
Mitchell ; Secretary, Mrs. Mary B. Holden ; Treasurer, Mrs. Lucy A. 
Macalister ; Registrar, Mrs. May G. MacGregor ; Historian, Mrs. Mabel 
A. Crosby ; Chaplain, Mrs. Almira C. Watson. 

Managers : 

Miss Cora I. McKellips, Mrs. Ethel A. Peaslee, Mrs. Bertha M. 
Chadvvick, Miss Leslie M. Allen, Mrs. Katie V. Gregg. 

Grand Army of the Republic. 

With the number of men furnished in the Civil War by this 
town, the list exceeding two hundred soldiers, it was to be ex- 
pected that it would establish a strong post. During the summer 
of 1876 a dozen stalwart veterans signed the charter, and on 
October 5, 1876, Reynolds Post No. 29, was organized. 

In the spring of the following year, 1877, special efforts were 
made to locate all of the graves of deceased soldiers who had 
been buried in the town, and also in the cemetery which lies just 
over the line in Deering. Thirty-two graves were found at this 
time, and these, with the graves of the veterans of other wars, 
were decorated with flags and wreaths of flowers, which pretty 
custom has been continued ever since. 

The names of the soldiers buried here previous to 1877 are 
Hazen B. Monroe,* Francis W.Robbins, Charles P. Baldwin, John 
H. Clement, Capt. Benjamin S. Wilson, Capt. Samuel O. Gibson, 
William N. Clapp, William Smith, Charles G. Hall, Capt. George 
Robbins. Solomon Bufford, John B. Raleigh, A. H. Wood, Edwin 
Lewis, Leonard Lewis, David Lewis, Charles T. Robbins, John 
Adsit, William Burrill, Jr., Sergt. John Reed, Ingalls Gould, 
Leonard S. Burtt, Obadiah Rumrill, George Vose, Leander 
Eaton, Summer C. McAdams, Thomas M. Carr, John Morrill, 
William P. Cooledge, A. Fairbanks, Richard D. Gould. 

On June 12, 1878, the name of Pierce was substituted for 

*Since writing the record of Hillsborough men in the Civil War the author has 
been able to secure the return of Hazen B., son of Hiram Monroe, who enlisted at 
Springfield, Vt., June 1, 1861, as a private in Co. "A," Third Regiment, Vermont 
Volunteers, for three years or during the war. Mustered in July 16, at St. Johns- 
bury, Vt. ; age, 20 years. Died of disease January 10, 1862. — Author. 


that of Reynolds, so it became "Pierce Post, No. 25," in honor of 
Governor Pierce. 

Again it was thought advisable to change the name of the 
Post, and this time it was done in honor of a son of Hillsborough 
who won special recognition for meritorious conduct during the 
war, and since August 24, 1881, it has been known as "Senator 
Grimes Post, No. 25/' 

Senator Grimes Post has been active in the years along the 
line of duty which it accepted at the time of its organization, but 
the Lord of Host in the days of peace has been more destructive 
to human lives than even the leaden hail of its enemy in the times 
of war, so that today only nine members survive to represent this 
little branch of the Army of the Republic. The names of these 

Lieut. Pliny Gammell, Isaac F. Wilkins, 

Orlando Sargent, Edwin Carr, 

Amos Wyman, William H. Story, 

Alonzo Carter, Orlando G. Burtt, 

Charles C. Hoyt, in Manchester. 

Women's Relief Corps. 
A Women's Relief Corps was organized October 5, 1894, 
under the name of "Senator Grimes Relief Corps, No. 80." The 
membership of this body of loyal women at one time reached 
nearly one hundred. 

Sons of Veterans. 

There is an active Camp of Sons of Veterans organized. 

Thomas M. Carr, Camp No. 15, Sons of Veterans, was 
mustered on February 17, 1902, by Division Commander Lin- 
wood B. Emery of Troy, N. H., with thirty-two charter mem- 
bers. Wilfred M. Watson was made the first commander of the 

The Camp was named for Thomas M. Carr, Sergeant Co. 
H., Third N. H. Vol. Regiment, who was killed in action near 
Richmond, Va., October 27, 1864. At the present time the Camp 
has thirty-one members. Fred B. Ives is the present commander. 
The Camp has been represented in the Division a number of 
different times, and the present year a member of the Camp is 
Junior Vice Division Commander. 


Thomas M. Carr Auxiliary No. 7 of Camp No. 15 was 
organized June 11, 1914, by Division President Anna Cummings 
of Nashua, with twenty charter members. Mrs. Almira Watson 
was chosen first president. The Auxiliary has been represented 
in the Division every year, and this year it has a Division Vice- 
President, Second Division Council, Chief of Staff and Sons of 
Veterans Aid. Mrs. Lizzie M. Crooker is President, and the 
Auxiliary has twenty-eight members at the present time. 

American Legion. 
A branch of the American Legion was organized in Hills- 
borough October 17, 1919, under the name of Gleason Young 
Post in honor of the first soldier from this town to fall in the 
great conflict overseas. Its first Commander was John S. Childs, 
and Wilbur H. Heath was chosen Secretary. The Post has 65 

Hillsborough Brass Bands. 

Hillsborough probably has a larger percentage of musicians 
and musical organizations than any other town in the state in 
proportion to its population. As far back as 1825 a special act of 
the legislature was passed to incorporate the Hillsborough In- 
strumental Band. The charter members of the original band 
were Ephraim Codman, leader; Jonathan Beard, Charles Bald- 
win, Daniel Priest, Charles Campbell, Ephraim Dutton, Elnathan 
Codman, Nicholas Hoyt, Thomas P. Wilson, Daniel Hoyt, Enos 
Baxter, Jonathan Baxter, James D. Bickford, Nathan Kendall, 
Abraham Francis and Charles Flint. 

This was the first band and for a long time the only one in 
the state, and probably the only one ever chartered by a special 
act of the legislature, therefore it was associated with much of 
the early history of New Hampshire. 

Its laws required that it should meet at least once a month, 
and the early records, which are now in existence show how 
faithfully the laws were obeyed. Some of the original instru- 
ments remain. 

One of the band's early engagements was to take part in the 
celebration when Lafayette visited Concord in 1828. It did duty 
for nearly all of the military gatherings in its section. 


When Benjamin Pierce was governor he had many distin- 
guished callers at his home in Hillsborough and the band was 
always brought out for a serenade. 

When President Jackson visited Concord in 1833, the musi- 
cians did escort duty. Benjamin Pierce was chairman, 
and Franklin Pierce chief marshal. As the President was to 
arrive by coach, the band went to Concord two or three days in 
advance and spent its time, night especially, in serenading folks, 
Governor Densmore among the rest. 

After escorting the President into Concord, and playing a 
few pieces, among them "Jackson's Quickstep," ex-Governor 
Pierce introduced the band to the President as belonging to "my 
band." Jackson shook hands with each member. 

At one of the trainings Messrs Baldwin, Beard, Bickford 
and Flint were selected by thirteen companies, a special mark of 
honor, to march them on to the grounds before breakfast and 
were treated by each company. 

The uniform was a gray coat, white trousers and a leather 
cap. The cap was bell shaped, very high, made of heavy cowhide 
leather and had a big plume in front. 

Mr. L. F. Gay compiled the names of those who played in 
the Old Incorporated Band of Hillsborough founded by Ephraim 
Codman and Joel Stow in 1819, as follows: 
Charles Flint, bugle ; Nathan Kendall, bassoon ; 

James Ellenwood, bassoon ; George Nelson, clarinet ; 

Kneeland Burtt, trombone ; Josuah Marcy, clarinet ; 

Reuben Loveren, trombone ; Gilman Barnes, serpent ; 

Isaac Marcy, bugle ; Peter Codman ; 

George Woods, clarinet ; Thomas Burtt, trombone ; 

John Codman, E flat bugle ; James Bennett, cymbals and 

Stephen Baldwin, clarinet ; bassoon ; 

William Merrill, bugle ; Abraham Francis, drum ; 

Frank Burtt, drum ; Enos Baxter, clarinet ; 

Joel Stow, clarinet ; Mark Wilson, E flat clarinet ; 

Nathan Baldwin, drum ; Ephraim Codman, clarinet ; 

Ephraim Dutton, French horn ; Jonathan Beard, clarinet ; 

Alonzo Codman, bugle ; Charles Baldwin, French horn ; 

Daniel Campbell, bugle ; Edward Johnson, bugle ; 

James Bickford, clarinet ; Amasa Symonds, clarinet ; 

Nicholas Hoyt, French horn ; Henry N. Gay, E flat clarinet ; 

t-< n 

3 ~ 

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K - 
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2 » 

"the band that bijah led." 441 

Clark Wright, bugle ; Daniel Hoyt, clarinet ; 

Moses Nelson, clarinet and drum ; L. F. Gay, trombone and bugle ; 

Elhandon Codman, clarinet; Lorenzo Whitcomb, E flat horn. 

Music changed from C to B and E flat in 1834. Organization 
disbanded in 1849. 

The loss of the old band was felt keenly in town, and it was 
not long before there was an effort made to start a new band, 
which was rewarded with success early in the 50s. One of the 
most active movers in the enterprise was Squiers Forsaith, and 
he was made its leader, a position for which he was well fitted. 
This band was very successful, but at the breaking out of the 
war in '61 several of the members joined the army, among them 
leader Forsaith. 

Upon the return of Comrade Forsaith from the military 
ranks, he was restored as leader of the band, and held the position 
until his removal to Antrim in 1872, when Frank E. Merrill was 
made its leader, which leadership he held for 28 years, or until 

While it may not have been as famous in certain ways as 
the original Hillsborough Brass Band, this successor became 
well-known out of town as well as in, and played before many 
historic gatherings. Something of the spirit of the organization 
is shown in the following poem written by one of its oldest mem- 
bers. The "Bijah" referred was the nick name of the band's 

The Band that Bijah Led. 
By W. H. Patten. 

One afternoon in August, in eighteen seventy-five, 

When I, a youth of twenty-one, o'er Deering hills did drive ; 

Down to the Bridge I made my way, to early be on hand, 
For then I was to have a place in Bijah's famous Band. 

Next to the meeting place I went about the hour of eight ; 

The members then were coming in, T didn't have long to wait; 
We played awhile, they took the vote, and then to our homes we sped, 

For now I was a member of the Band that Bijah led. 


Bundy and Bingo were in their prime, Joe Potter at his best, 

While Codman, Abbott, Dutton, Clark, helped to make the rest. 

When Bundy on occasion rose, his little speech to make, 
His famous turkey gobbler was sure to take the cake. 

Joe Potter with his solemn face, with now and then a smile, 
And Bingo with his funny talk a going all the while ; 
But now 'tis hushed forever for all of them are dead, 

These were some of the gay old boys in the Band that Bijah led. 

Bijah no longer the baton wields ; he's dropped out of the race, 

But Hillsboro's band still marches on and Hill now sets the pace. 

Thirty and two years have come and gone, my head is tinged with gray 
But I've kept the faith still in the band, down to the present day. 

My old cornet I've laid aside, a horn of great renown ; 

No more you hear it's shrill high C, when marching through the 
A monster bass, Conn's double B, I carry now instead, 

But I'm the last old boy now in the ranks of the Band that Bijah 

Bands are not apt to live much beyond the active days of the 
players who founded them, and so it has proved with the musical 
functions of Hillsborough. "Bijah's Band" gave its last concert 
and played its farewell, honorably and gracefully. Many of its 
members are living to enjoy the remembrance of its halcyon days, 
when it earned well the applause of the crowd. 

Mechanic's Band, Scott J. Appleton Leader, came to succeed 
it, as that was followed by Hillsborough's Military Band, Frank 
G. Rumrill, Manager. The headquarters of all of these bands 
was at Bridge Village. 

In March, 1888, a brass band of sixteen pieces called the 
Highland Band was organized at the Lower Village, under the 
leadership of John W. Jackman. The officers and members were 
John W. Jackman, President; George Morse, Secretary and 
Treasurer ; Fred J. Gibson, Leader ; Messrs. Kneeland Mc- 
Clintock, Wilbur Proctor and Stillman McClintock, Executive 
Committee. After playing a little over a year this band dis- 
banded in the fall of 1889, owing to the removal from the town 
of so many of its original members. 

orchestra and music club. 443 

The Wahneta Orchestra. 

The Wahneta Orchestra succeeded the Orpheus, which was 
organized by J. J. Gillispee of Boston having the following mem- 
bers : J. J. Gillispee, first violin ; F. G. Rumrill, second violin ; G. 
B. Codman, cornet; George H. Putney, trombone; Kneeland Mc- 
Clintock, clarinet ; Frank Chase, bass. 

The Wahneta was organized in September, 18S9, with the 
following members : F. G. Rumrill, first violin ; C. A. McAllister, 
second violin and viola; P. D. Gould, clarinet; G. B. Codman, 
cornet ; W. E. Newman, trombone ; F. W. Hardy, bass. 

The orchestra has played for every graduating class of Hills- 
borough High School since 1890 to the present time and in about 
every town in the southern part of the state, also at Sunapee 
Lake on the steamer Winona in the seasons of 1897 and 1898. 

Members who have belonged at different times include the 
following: Ervin McAdams, F. E. Merrill, E. C. Gage, B. E. 
Newman, B. T. Pike, L. W. Dennisson, H. S. Appleton, J. 

The members at present time include the following : F. G. 
Rumrill, first violin and leader ; Bell Spaulding, first violin ; L. S. 
Hill, flute and piccolo; Hamilton Rumrill, clarinet; W. P. 
Grunler, cornet; E. C. Rumrill, cornet; H. C. Bailey, trombone; 
W. H. Roach, bass ; Ruth Rumrill, piano ; George Abbott, drums 
and taps. 

The Hillsborough Music Club. 

The Hillsborough Music Club, with the object to keep up the 
standard and cultivate the taste for music, was organized in 1905, 
by Mrs. Mary Lathe, with Mrs. Emma Thompson one of its lead- 
ing members, as President. This little band of lovers of good 
music performed a creditable part and did much good. Its 
Presidents from its formation to the present time have been : 

1905, Mrs. Emma F. Thompson; 1906, Mrs. Mary Lathe; 
1907, Mrs. Mary Lee ; 1908, Mrs. Grace Perry ; 1909, Miss Mary 
Powell; 1910, Mrs. Ethel Manahan ; 191 1, Mrs. Mary Van Horn; 
1912, Mrs. Josephine Fuller; 1913, Miss Florence Lee; 1914, 
Miss Leolyn Annis ; 191 5, Miss Ruth Wallace; 1916, Mrs. Maude 


Proctor; 1917, Miss Ruth Rumrill ; 1918, Mrs. Cornelia Currier; 
1919, Miss Elizabeth Thompson; 1920, Mrs. Lillian McNally. 

Temperance Society. 
July 5, 1830, the Hillsborough Temperance Society was 
formed with Deacon George Dascomb as President. This as- 
sociation proved a live issue and it grew in the number of its 
members so that ten years later it had over 400 members in all. 

Historical Lyceum. 

The earliest literary and educational society of which I have 
found any record was The Historical Lyceum, which appears 
to have been organized sometime prior to the centennial of the 
town in 1841, if not at that time, for the observation of the 
centennial of the town was due to the efforts of this association, 
and its President, Mr. Charles J. Smith, gave the oration, which 
is the most valuable contribution to the early history of the town 
that has been published. 

This society had its home at Bridge Village, and was com- 
posed of about twenty members. It is to be regretted their names 
have not been preserved. 

As the town has been particularly in favor with a representa- 
tion of public speakers, lyceums and dramatic clubs have found 
here cordial support. In 1870 a lyceum was organized at Lower 
Village worthy of mention. Meetings were held at the old brick 
school-house, the St. Charles house and elsewhere. The enter- 
tainments consisted of exercises of a general nature, though dis- 
cussions of the questions of the day and other subjects of interest 
were a marked feature of those occasions. Prominent among the 
disputants were Henry D. Pierce, William H. Manahan, Brooks 
K. Webber, Charles Gillis, Enoch Sawyer, Andrew Crooker, 
Edgar Whipple and others. George Barnard was the leading 
dramatist, while John W. Jackman figured foremost in the mu- 
sical programs. 

Another lyceum known as the Bridge Village Lyceum was 
well patronized. The leading speakers here were James F. 
Briggs, Esq., afterwards member of Congress, Reuben Lovering, 
Frank Hatch, and a Mr. Cheney of Deering. 

Other Clubs and Societies. 
The Woman's Club was organized in 1897; federated, 1898. 

the gold seekers of 49. 445 

Fortnightly Club. 
The Fortnightly Club was formed in April, 1899; federated 
in April 1906. 

The Club. 

Having for its object the social uplift of its members, The 
Club was organized in 1904, with 25 charter members, of whom 
only eight are now living. The first President was Raymond C. 
Marshall; Secretary, Leon B. Proctor; Treasurer, John L. 
Mosely. The club met for a time in Whittemore block, but now 
holds its meetings in Butler Block, corner Main and School 
streets, and has very pleasant quarters. The club has now a 
membership of one hundred members, numbering among them 
some of the best citizens in town. The present President is 
Harry Hoyt ; Secretary, Robert Connor ; Treasurer, George Van 

Twenty members of the Club were in the service during the 
World War, and one, Christopher Dougherty, gave his life for 
the cause. The Club was the first organization in the Country 
after war was declared to offer its services, and the club has a 
personal letter from President Wilson in acknowledgment and 
thanks for same. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

Valley Grange, P. of H., Number 63, was organized at Hills- 
borough Bridge Village June 26, 1875, with 25 charter members. 
Edgar Hazen was chosen first master. This branch of the order 
flourished for over a quarter of a century, but changes in popula- 
tion and a waning interest in agricultural affairs caused a gradual 
lessening of the membership, until in 1918 its charter was re- 

Hillsborough, P. of H., Number 274, located at the Upper 
Village, was organized in March, 1899, with Sillman McClintock 
for master. The field here proved too small to support a grange 
successfully, so after a few years it was abandoned. 

The Gold Seekers of '49. 
In the fall of 1848 reports began to circulate of the discovery 
of gold in the newly acquired territory of California. No word 


in the English language will awaken a deeper interest than this 
short monosyllable, and almost instantly even the isolated town 
of Hillsborough was aroused to a pitch of excitement, many 
resolving to leave home and some established occupation to hazard 
the hardships of a life in the New Eldorado in the hope of better- 
ing their fortunes. From among these the following actually 
undertook the conquest, some going by sea and others overland : 

Coolidge, Walter Scott. He went by the overland trail, and settled at 
Sutters Creek. Was quite successful in the mines, and in 1861, 
1862 was Sheriff of the County; afterwards became a cotton 

Coolidge, Cornelius., Arrived in California, San Francisco, Aug. 17, 
1849, in the Barque Oxford from Boston via Cape Horn after a 
passage of 222 days. 

Coolidge, Lemuel. Brother of Cornelius. A trader in California ; suc- 
ceeded and became rich. 

Dane, John. Went to California in 1849, was taken sick and died 

Jones, George. Went in 1850, and entered the mines. 

Lovering, Joseph. Came back and finally lived here. 

Marcy, Chester. Went by the Overland Trail, but cholera breaking 
out in the train, he remained behind at Fort Independence to care 
for others, and took the fever himself and died. 

Merrill, Luke. Went around the Cape and returned by the Isthmus. 
Became a farmer. 


Murdough, Dutton 

Savory, Samuel C. and brother. Were active in the mines and 
acquired considerable of the precious metal. It is related that he 
and another miner, as a joke, cut off a Chinaman's pigtail, and the 
poor fellow was so grieved that he committed suicide. 

Wilkins, B. Frank. Sailed on the vessel Capital by way of Cape 
Horn, starting December 25, 1849. He returned in two years. 

Wilkins, James. Accompanied his brother, B. Frank, going by Cape 
Horn, and returning after two years. 

The Klondike Gold Seekers. 
The gold fever of '49, while not equaled in its fervor by thfet 
of '98, had yet a worthy rival in those days within the memory of 
most of us. This time the talismanic word was sent across the 
continent from the far-distant Northland, more than 8,000 miles 
away. Nothing daunted, however, by the distance or the biting 


blasts of that frozen zone, a party of twelve persons organized 
themselves into a body under the designation of " The Concord 
Alaska Mining Company," and the start was made June 6, 1898. 
Of this little band of hardy fortune-seekers Hillsborough 
furnished two, Henry C. Morrill, now dead, and William H. 
Harmon. Mr. Morrill though in his 66th year, undertook the ex- 
pedition and carried it through with the enthusiastic endurance 
that a younger man might have envied. While the expedition did 
not "pan out" as well as had been hoped the experience was worth 
quite an undertaking, and none of the party lost their lives. 
Messrs. Morrill and Harmon returned to Hillsborough in the 
summer of 1899. 

Political History. 

Before the Days of Party Spirit — Then Federalists and Republicans — 
Vote in Town 1788 — War of 1812, a Party Issue — Political Contro- 
versies^ — Second War of Independence — First Political Rallies — 
When the Federalists Lost — JacksonMen — AdamsMen — Vote in 1824 
— Leading Politicians, 1828 — Benjamin Pierce, Governor — Franklin 
Pierce Comes to the Front — Elected to Congress — Whigs — Free 
Soilers — John McNiel, Presidential Elector — Franklin Pierce for 
President — The Great Barbecue — Campaign Song — American Party 
— Political Leaders, 1856 — Civil War — Town During the Conflict 
— First Break in the Democratic Ranks — Republicans Win Out in 
1886 — In Power Ever Since — John B. Smith Comes to tne Front — 
Presidential Elector in 1884 — Governor in 1892 — The Great Smith 
Demonstration Rivals the Pierce Barbecue — Vote in Town, 1892 — 
General Notes — Warrants for Town Meetings — Dates of Holding 
Election — Legislature. 

With the number of active and prominent men among its 
citizens it was natural that the town should have, from time to 
time, political figures whose influence should be felt outside of the 
local circle. At home these were naturally men of unflinching 
fidelity to the principles they espoused and were often aggressive 
in their work, generally without the petty weaknesses of many 

Until near the close of the 18th century party spirit had not 
crystalized and whatever opposition was manifested in the elec- 
tion was purely of a personal nature. In 1788 party designations 
came into existence, and the terms Federalist and Republican 
were recognized as watchwords for the opposing elements. One, 
inheriting the imperial ideas of Hamilton, believed in a stronger 
government, while others, the Republicans, professed to be the 
party of the people. The men of the former represented to a 
greater extent the wealth of the country, and what was of equal 
potency it wore the mantle of the illustrious Washington. Un- 





fortunately for the party no one had arisen to wear this with a 
degree of permanent success. It is true the elder Adams had 
succeeded the Father of his Country, but even he was not able to 
hold it against Jefferson, the idol of his party. And Jefferson 
was succeeded by Madison and the War of 1812. 

The successful presidential electors from New Hampshire 
were chosen by the Federalists in 1788, 1792, and 1796. Four 
years later, 1800, the term Republican Democrat came into being 
and Thomas Jefferson, strongest supporter, was elected Presi- 
dent of the United States. .— --'~! 

In this state John Sullivan was the leading Federalist and 
John Langdon the standard bearer of the Democrats or Repub- 
licans, as they were then known. So closely were these two 
parties matched that at the state election in 1788 Langdon was 
elected Governor over Sullivan by the small majority of two 
votes. The first named had already served one term in that office 
and the latter two terms. 

At this election held on March 3, 1788, the vote in Hillsbor- 1 
ough stood: 

John Langdon, thirty votes ; John Sullivan, six votes. 

Immediately the financial situation in the country had become 
ironed out, to a certain extent, politics began to shape, and in- 
fluence public affairs. Before the breaking out of the War of 
1812 the Federalists and Republicans had become strongly en- 
trenched against each other. Madison, a Republican, was Presi- 
dent of the country, while in New Hampshire a Federalist, John 
T. Gilman, was Governor. This last fact blunted the enthusiasm 
in this state for the war which might have been manifested had 
Governor Plumer remained as chief executive here. All in all, 
elsewhere as well as in this state, the war was not a popular one: 
Still it reflected great efficiency and heroism on the part of her 
men, both leaders and privates. 

The Federalists took the ground that war was unwarranted 
and unnecessary, and forthwith withheld to a considerable extent 
its support. The opening campaign was in the north — an intended 
invasion of Canada which failed lamentablv. 


The Federalist papers immediately seized upon this as due to 
woeful lack of intelligent action at Washington, which was in a 
measure true. An example of this inefficiency was the sending 
of the declaration of war with Great Britain to General Hull in 
command at Detroit. In the backwoods as he was, he did not 
get the message, until several days after similar information had 
reached the British commander. The disastrous results of Hull's 
campaign was due partly to this. Other reasons might be cited. 
On the other hand the Federalists, wherever they were in the 
majority, voted against enlistments and did all they could to keep 
men out of the service, and never contributed a cent toward the 
expense of the war. 

The spirit of the opposition to the government is shown in 
the following article which appeared in the strong Federal organ, 
"The Boston Gazette," during the dark hours of the war : 

"Every hour is fraught with doleful tidings ; humanity 
groans from the frontiers ; Hampton's army is reduced to about 
2,000; Wilkinson's beat up and famished; crimination and re- 
crimination the order of the day ; Democracy has rolled herself 
up in the weeds and laid down for its last wallowing in the slough 
of disgrace ; Armstrong, the most cold-blooded of all of this, is 

In answer to this and other sweeping charges made by the 
Federalists, Isaac Hill, editor of the "Patriot" says in his paper: 

"Is it our government — is it the Republicans (Democrats), 
who have done everything to provide means for prosecuting the 
war with energy — or is it the Federalists, who possessing all the 
property, as well as all the religion, have never prayed for the 
success of our arms — never contributed one cent towards procur- 
ing the means for asserting our rights, but have discouraged en- 
listments, discouraged everything?" 

"The political controversies, bitter and unreasonable as they 
were," says Edward J. Burnham, in " New Hampshire in the 
War of 1812," "had been great educators of the people, and 
while the embargo and the growing estrangement with Great 
Britain had already led to the establishment of many new in- 
dustries, the Americans were beginning to rely upon themselves. 
This was one reason why it had been called the second war of 


Fortunately the reverses in the northern campaign served 
to arouse the people to their duty as citzens of the republic. 

Hillsborough, with a good working Democratic-Republican 
majority, always stood squarely behind the government, both in 
finances and men. She furnished two of the most dashing, 
courageous and efficient officers in the service, while a neighboring 
town, Peterborough, gave another, General Miller, three officers 
who lent glory to the records of their native towns. 

A line of action that was encouraged during this war was the 
holding of rallies or mass meetings, something unknown during 
the Revolution, when speakers would be invited to address the 
meetings and often great excitement would prevail, names would 
be offered for enlistments and petitions sent to congress. This 
was really the beginning of public campaigning which has been 
kept up ever since. 

Hillsborough had at least two of these gatherings, one held 
on September 12, 1812, being highly successful judged by the 
glowing accounts given. Speakers were present who boldly 
declared their confidence in the administration, their expression 
of the unavoidable necessity of the war, and their denunciations 
against the attitude of the Federalists. Women were present and 
men and women from adjoining towns, so the meeting numbered 
over five hundred persons. 

The Federalists held few public meetings, but they did paste 
the state with placards announcing their men and principles. 

Now under the leadership of Plumer, an ardent Republican, 
and under Gilman, as unrelenting a Federalist, New Hampshire 
vacillated between the two great dominating political powers, 
neither of which had fairly formed their future policy. Hills- 
borough, in sympathy with the national government, and with two 
of her sons occupying prominent responsible positions at the 
front, did not waver. 

At the close of the war the prestige of the Federal party 
began to wane, and in 1816 it was so completely overthrown thajt 
it never recovered its lost power. With the exception of the tem- 
porary triumph of the Whigs in 1846, electing Anthony Colby, 
Governor, the Jeffersonian Republicans (Democrats) elected 


every governor until the sudden rise of the American party in 
1855 ended their reign. 

In 1809, three -years before the war, the vote in Hillsborough 
was 189 votes for John Langdon, Republican; 35 votes for 
Jeremiah Smith, Federalist, candidates for Governor. For Coun- 
cilor, Samuel Bell had 163 votes, and John Orr had 23 votes. At 
the election in 1812 Hillsborough gave William Plumer, Repub- 
lican, 196 votes, and John Taylor Gilman, Federalist, 40 votes. 
The latter was elected Governor by the narrow margin of two 
votes. In 1814 these same candidates received 260 and 60 votes 
respectively, in Hillsborough. 

The leading politicians in town during this period were Ben-J 
jamin Pierce, Andrew Sargent, James Wilson (Representative), 
Thaddeus Monroe, Elijah Beard, Lemuel Coolidge, William Tag- 
gart, John Gilbert, John Town, James McCalley and Isaac 

The writer regrets that he has been unable to obtain the 
names of the leaders of the minority. There is no doubt there 
were just as substantial citizens in the ranks as the others. 

In 1824 the Federal party lost its identity and the rival 
political factions at this time became arrayed under the respective 
leaders, Jackson and Adams, and were known as "Jackson men/' 
or "Adams men." The partisan contests that followed grew more 
bitter than ever before. It is perhaps needles to say that Hills- 
borough stood stubbornly for Jackson, as witness the following 
vote at the National election in November, 1824: 
For President, Andrew Jackson, 66 votes. 
For President, John Quincy Adams, 1 vote. 

There had been a slight change in the leadership of the 
dominant party since the last record. Andrew Sargent was now 
Representative. Among those nearest him were James and 
Thomas Wilson, Reuben Hatch, John Grimes, James Butler and 
George Dascomb. 

In 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829 Benjamin Pierce of Hillsborough 
was a candidate for Governor, and elected in 1827 and 1828, in 
the former year by the phenominal vote of 23,695 out of 27,411. 
He ranked as a "Jackson man." 


The vote for Governor in 1828 stood: Benjamin Pierce, 227; 
John Bell, Whig, 90 votes. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1832 Andrew Jackson was a 
candidate for re-election to the Presidency, while Henry Clay was 
the opposing candidate. The term Democrat had now come into 
common use, and the man who voted for the first-named can- 
didate was a "Jackson Democrat," a designation which has out- 
lived the political successes and reverses of several generations 
of voters. The supporters of Clay were denominated "Whigs." 
The ballot of Hillsborough at this election stood : 

For President, Andrew Jackson, 295 votes. 

For President, Henry Clay, JJ votes. 

The political lights of the town at this time were, among the 
Democrats, Hiram Monroe, Benjamin Pierce, Isaac Andrews, 
Jonathan Beard, Ransom Bixby, and Franklin Pierce, who was 
that year elected Representative to the State Legislature. The 
future President had come rapidly to the front with the past six 

Hillsborough's first appearance upon the national political 
map was in 1833, when Franklin Pierce was elected to the 23rd 
Congress, his native town voting 226 to one in his favor. 

In 1835 Franklin Pierce was re-elected to Congress, and in 
March 4, 1837, ne was elected by the State Legislature to succeed 
John Page in the United States Senate, which office he held until 
he resigned in 1842. 

The Presidential campaign of 1840 brought into opposition 
to the Democrats and Whigs a new party, the Free Soilers or 
Abolitionists. At this election the vote of Hillsborough showed 
that the town still represented the political spirit of its early 

At the annual election this year the vote for Governor was 
John Page, Democrat, 289; Enos Stevens, Whig, JJ. At the 
National election in November Hillsborough voted 336 for 
Martin Van Buren, Democrat; 96 for William H. Harrison, 
W r hig, with two voting the Free Soil ticket. 


In 1844 John McNiel of Hillsborough, Democrat, was 
chosen Presidential Elector by the largest vote of any one on the 

In 1852, the campaign of Franklin Pierce, found him op- 
posed by Whigs and Free Soilers. Democratic Electors were 
chosen in the State over the divided opposition, while his native 
town stood loyally by her son. 

The Pierce Barbecue. 

The Pierce campaign was an exciting one, as were all of 
those during the period verging upon the great Civil War. Hills- 
borough, the home town of the Democratic candidate for the 
high office, felt in duty bound to do her honored son fitting re- 
cognition. Accordingly there was planned and carried out with- 
out a discordant note what proved to be the greatest demonstra- 
tion, considered in respect to the number present and the 
enthusiasm of the crowd, ever held in the town, and possibly in 
the state. Some of the most noted men in the country were 
among the invited guests, several coming from California, which 
was a far-away place in those days. The orator of the day was 
from Georgia, while there were speakers from New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, Kentucky, California, not to mention New 
England representatives. As singular as it may seem, the 
nominee was not present. 

A huge oven, which has been repaired through the efforts 
of the D. A. R. society in town, remains to-day as a reminder of 
that gala day, when an ox was roasted whole to help feed the 
crowd. The speakers' stand was under an oak tree near the 
River Road, and the entire side of the hill and valley where the 
railroad now runs was completely filled by the mob. At that time 
only three houses stood within the territory, two at the upper end 
and one at the lower end. It was estimated that twenty-five 
thousand people were present, which, considering that it was 
before the day of railroad conveniences, was truly remarkable. 
Very many came the day before and camped out that night. 

S. Dow Wyman was President of the day, while among those 
active with him were Samuel H. Ayers, Esq., Levi Goodale, 
Edgar Hazen, Benjamin Tuttle, James Bickford, Ransom Bixby, 
Charles Gibson, and William Merrill. 








the pierce campaign. 455 

Campaign Song. 
The spirit of the occasion is shown by the following extracts 

from a campaign song entitled — 

The Old Granite State. 
Come, let's put the ball in motion, 
Let us raise a great commotion, 
For the Democratic notion 

From the old Granite State. 
Oh, come forth from hill and valley, 
From the mountains let us sally, 
Round our candidate we'll rally, 
From the old Granite State. 
We're a band of locos, we're a band of locos, 

We're a band of locos, and we'll shout for Pierce and King. 

* * * * 

Franklin Pierce's nomination 
Meets the people's approbation. 
'Twas the nicest calculation 

Of the old Virginia State. 
Oh, the Whigs are getting weary, 
For their prospects are but dreary, 
There is nothing for them cheery 

From the old Granite State. 

We're a band of locos, (fee. 

* * * # 

Franklin Pierce's elevation 
Will do honor to the nation, 
For he bears that reputation 

In the old Granite State. 
While this story we are telling, 
Oh, we know with rage you're swelling, 
But the Empire keeps propelling 

For the old Granite State. 

We're a band of locos, &c. 

* # * * 

For the Union we're united, 

And to that our faith is plighted, 

For they've sworn to see it righted 

In the old Granite State. 
So you may as well retire, 
For into your rear we'll fire, 
Old Virginia never tires 

With the old Granite State. 
We're a band of locos, &c. 


This was a period of political unrest, and in 1854 another 
spoke in the partisan wheel was added when the Knownothing 
or American party sprang suddenly into existence. The origin of 
this name so common at the time came from the fact that the 
new child of political aspiration was conceived and nurtured 
behind the closed doors of secret organization, and its members 
were pledged to silence and service. 

Ralph Metcalf, one of its exponents, was elected Governor 
of New Hampshire, over all opposition. Hillsborough was hit- 
hard by this doctrine, as witness the vote for 1855 : 
For Governor, James Bell, Whig, had 5 votes. 
For Governor, Ralph Metcalf, American, had 155 votes. 
For Governor, Nathaniel B. Baker, Democrat, had 221 votes. 
The following year, 1856, Metcalf failed of an election by 
the people, but he was seated by the State Senate. Hillsborough 
voted at the annual election about as she had done at the previous 
election, John S. Wells, Democrat, got 238 votes ; Ralph Metcalf, 
American, 153 votes, while the Whig candiadte, Icabod Goodwin 
got only four votes. 

The Knownothing party was abandoned in 1856 as suddenly 
as it had come into existence, taking with it the Whig and Free 
Soil political factions, and from the re-organized principles of this 
trio was formed the Republican party. At the Presidential elec- 
tion in November this town voted for Electors, Democratic, 247 ; 
Republican, 181 votes. 

The Democratic party was supported by such men as Henry 
D. Pierce, Edgar Hazen, John Coolidge, Charles C. Smith, Elisha 
Hatch, Benjamin Tuttle, Jr., and William B. Whittemore. The 
new party was championed by Samuel M. Baker, John C. Briggs, 
John G. Dickey, Joshua Marcy. 

James Buchanan, Democrat, was elected President of the 
United States, but at the following March election William Haile, 
Republican, was chosen Governor of the State. This party 
elected its candidates for Governors regularly until 1871, when a 
Democrat, James A. Weston, was chosen, and he was re-elected 
in 1875. Hillsborough was still Democratic, John C. Campbell 
and Luke McClintock were elected Representatives by 228 and 
221 respectively, with an opposition of 179 and 178 votes. 


During the trying years of the Civil War political spirit was 
strong, as it was in other towns. There were those who did not 
helieve in the conflict being waged, and there was at least one 
meeting held when it was voted by those present condemning 
the action. But this course of action was checked, and there is 
a vote recorded upon the town records wherein it is stated that 
"we unanimously pledge our support to carry on the war to 
victory." One half of the able-bodied men in town, and some 
who were not obliged to do it, were in active service. The Select- 
men during that period, 1861 to 1865, were Cornelius Cooledge, 
Horace Eaton, Edgar Hazen, David B. Gould and David Starrett. 

The perturbed state of the public mind at the time was very 
easily aroused into real or fancied grievance, as is shown by the 
following veracious incident : 

The news of the attack of Preston S. Brooks upon Charles 
Sumner at his desk in the Senate chamber on the morning of May 
22, 1856, following a heated discussion, was taken by a pastor at 
a Centre church as an appropriate text for a sermon, the minister 
expressing his opinion very freely. His ideas did not meet with 
the approval of many of the attendants of the house, all of whom, 
left in a body. Every one of these refused to pay further 
minister's tax, until there was a change of pastors. 

Of course the speaker had his supporters, but the disturbance 
resulted in closing the doors of the church for some time. 

In 1877 the vote for Representative stood: Frank H. Pierce, 
Democrat, 265; David F. Whittle, Republican, 182 votes. For 
second Representative, Henry J. Clark, Democrat, had 263 votes ; 
John Goodell, Republican, had 181 votes. 

At the State and National election November 4, 1884, the 
first break in the Democratic ranks since the beginning of political 
power under Jefferson was made when William H. Manahan was 
elected Representative on the second ballot, which stood : 

Whole number of ballots, 494. 

Necessary for a choice, 248. 

George F. Saltmarsh, Independent, 18. 

John Q. A. French, Democrat, 227. 

William H. Manahan, 249. 


And Mr. Manahan, Republican, was declared elected by a 
majority of two votes. The balance of the ticket was elected 

In 1884 John B. Smith of Hillsborough was chosen Presi- 
dential Elector, and with his associates voted for Hon. James G. 
Blaine, though Cleveland and Hendricks were elected. 

Two years since, however, in 1886, the leaders of the Repub- 
lican party organized with the purpose of winning, and aided by 
a disaffection in the opposing party succeeded in electing their 
candidates, the vote for Moderator being: 

Mark M. Hadley, 1 vote. 

Cornelius Coolidge, Dem., 225 votes. 

William H. Manahan, Rep., 251 votes. 

Stephen A. Brown, Republican, was elected Representative, 
with the balance of the ticket. The Democrats have never been 
able to recover their lost prestige in town. 

The leaders of the Democratic party at this period were 
Cornelius Coolidge, Dr. John Q. A. French, Edgar Hazen, John 
Gibson, Jacob Whittemore, George H. Clark, Frank E. Merrill, 
John L. Shedd, and James Bickford. Among the foremost Re- 
publicans were Hon. John B. Smith, William H. Manahan, Esq., 
Dr. John H. Goodell and Charles Conn. 

Since that day while other leaders have come to the front 
in both parties, the town has remained steadfastly Republican. 

In 1892 the name of Hillsborough again appeared pro- 
minently upon the political map, when one of her citizens, Hon. 
John B. Smith, was placed in nomination for the office of 

During this campaign the town inaugurated and carried a 
second political demonstration that rivaled the first in the days 
of Pierce and Democracy. Some of the ablest speakers in the 
state and country were present, and the town was thronged with 
the visitors who had gathered to voice their support of her 
favorite son. 

Mr. Smith won out handsomely in the state, and wa£ 
eminently successful through his administration. The election 
took place November 8, 1892, and the vote in Hillsborough stood: 


For Governor : 
Whole number of tickets given in 641 

John B. Smith had 372 

Luther F. McKinney had 258 

Edgar L. Carr had 10 

William O. Noyes had 1 

For Senator : 
Whole number of tickets cast 621 

George C. Preston of Henniker had 359 

Jay C. Browne of Henniker and Hillsborough 250 

Charles W. Coolidge 12 

For Representatives : 
Stillrnan H. Baker, Republican, had 346 

Harvey Jones, Democrat, had 265 

Marcellus H. Felt, Republican, had 332 

Jacob B. Whittemore, Democrat, had 274 

Since the election when the change in political power in the 
town was effected, Hillsborough has remained steadfastly Repub- 
lican, with one exception when Isaac Wilkins, Democrat, was 
chosen. Much of the oldtime partisan feeling, however, has 
passed with the rolling years, and the number of independent 
votes is on the increase. 

General Notes. 

The warrant for the first town meeting in Hillsborough, 
called November 19, 1772, was headed "Provence of New Hamp- 
shire, County of Hillborough, To Samuel Bradford the 3d Col- 
lector of the town of Hillborough Greeting." The warrant for 
the election of town officers and conduct of business called March 
8, 1773, was addressed to the Constable, and following meetings 
were warned by the constables. 

The annual meeting called in March, 1776, was headed 
"Colony of New Hampshire, Hillsborough SS." February 1, 
1777, the warrant was headed "State of New Hampshire, County 
of Hillsborough, ss," which has been the style ever since. 

New Hampshire was called a Province in the legal papers 
until after the battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775, when it was 
designated as a Colony. It retained this title until September 10, 
1776, when it was distinguished as the State of New Hampshire. 

460 history of hillsborough. 

Dates of Holding Elections. 

Originally the date of holding the annual elections in Hills- 
borough was on the last Thursday in March, but on October 20, 
1785, the town petitioned to the General Court to change the day 
of election to the first Monday in the month, and the request was 
granted. Tihe reason claimed was that it was a busier season at 
the former time. The following year, the meeting was called 
the first Monday in March, which came that year on the 6th inst. 
This date did not suit all, and another change was made in 1788, 
when the second Tuesday in March was selected, and this day 
has been in effect ever since. 

The election of national officials has always been the first 
Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and those for the 
state officers were changed under the revised constitution in 1878 
from the second Tuesday in March to the first Tuesday after the 
first Monday in November. 

The elections for state officials were held annually until 1879, 
when they were changed to biennial, as they are at the present 

The Provincial legislature or General Court convened at 
Portsmouth and Exeter until the close of 1775. What were known 
as sessions of the House of Representatives for the Colony were 
held at Exeter, until September 20, of that year. This body 
designated as the State Legislature convened from time to time 
at Exeter, with occasional sessions at Portsmouth, until March 
13, 1782, when the first session was held at Concord. This city 
became its permanent meeting place June 3, 1807, and the first 
Wednesday in June the date for the regular sessions. The re- 
vision in the Constitution in 1878, made the elections biennial to 
take effect in 1879. The date of opening the Legislature was 
changed from the first Wednesday in June to the first Wednes- 
day in January following the election in November in 1892. 

Photograph by Max uian. 



The Hamlets of Hillsborough. 

The Centre — Its Characteristics and Memoriams — Families — The Far- 
rar Neighborhood — A Deserted Hamlet — Concord End — Lower Vil- 
lage — Upper Village — Bridge Village — Sulphur Hill — Growth and 
Activity — Colonial Settlers — Contoocook River — First Mill Built on 
the Con